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Full text of "History of the town of Durham, N. C., embracing biographical sketches and engravings of leading business men, and a carefully compiled business directory of Durham, to which is annexed a compilation of useful information in relation to the cultivation, curing and manufacture of tobacco in North Carolina and Virginia, by Hiram V. Paul"

ALEX.H.S'lPHENS. 

Alkxakdcb H. SriPHms, E<-Oovernar 
of (ieorgia, writes: 

I have been for over twenty 
years a constant smoker. 1 fiM' n 
Blaokwcll's Durham that trui: v- 
cellence founU in no other brainl — 
uniformity ; every package being 
the same. I can sm«ku it at all 
times, day and night, with im- 
punity' ; it aci-; as a mild and pleas- 
ant stiraultmt. always quiets my 
nerves, and in no m-.t;,' disagrees 
with mc. It is a great comforter, 
rpurc, sweet andjnild smo^:n. 



y* 



L*. 



PRICE, IN CLOTH. »4.00: IN BOARD, •3.00. 



JOHN L. MARKHAM, 

Main Street, Durham, N. C. 

Gleneral Merchandise ! 

Guarantees to mriii>h anyarticle of the best goody 

at the h)\vest cash pric(% kept in the 

following (le|iartm(MitH: 

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC'DRY GOODS 

AND FANCY NOTIONS, 

Ladies' Cloaks. Ulsters, Hosiery, Gloves and Underwear. 

FINE BOOTS AND SHOES, 

For men, boys, ynutJis, hidies, misses and chihiren. 



Hats, and Gents' Furnishing Goods. 

TXT'ood. a^nd. "V\7"illo-\?s7- "^^TT'a.re, 

BASKETS, CROCKERY AND GLASS WARE. 

HARDWARE, TINWARE, 

Looking Glasses and Clocks. 

Heavy and Fancy Groceries. 

BUILDING AND PAINTING MATERIAL, NISSEN 

WAGONS, AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, 

ENGINES AND SAW MILLS. 

Sta.n.c^Q.rd. ZE^ertilizers- " 

Any article not kept in my stock will l)e furnished on 
short notice at lowest cash [)rice. Special attention given 
to buying and selling Coiton. 

Respertluily, JOHN L. MARKHAM. 



'9i 



Brick Warehouse, 



DURHAM, N. G. 



Hsadquartsrs for ths Sals of Lsaf Tobacco. 



Sells more Tobacco than any other Warehouse in North 
CaroHna or Virginia, and makes the biggest averages. 

THE OLDEST YZAREH0U3E FIRM IN DURHAM. 



Sold nearly eight million pounds of Tobacco last year 
for about one million dollars. 



Always Sell at Parrish's Warehouse, 

And you will be sure to get Full Market Prices. 



Mark your name on each package and give full instruc- 
tions by mail. 

■ Prompt Returns and Highest Prices Guaranteed. 



f ' 



J. Southgate & Son, 

LIFE, FIEE A^D ACCIDENT 

Rooms in the Rigsbee Building, corner Main and 

Mangum Streets, 

DURHAM, N. C. 



Thirty of the largest and best Life and Fire 
Companies represented, having combined Capi- 
tal and Assets of more than 

^soo,oo.o,ooo. 



JNSURASCE EFFECTED AT SHORT NOTICE 

— AND— 

First-class Indemnity Guaranteed. 



W. T. BLACKWELL, President. 



P. A. WILEY, Cashier. 



ANK OF Durham, 



Durham, N. C, 



The undersigned has opened, in the Town of Durham, 
N. C, a Banking House, under the name and title of " The 
Bank of Durham," with ample means for the transaction of 
a Geiieral Banking Business. 

The business of the Bank is conducted by P. A. WiLEY 
Esq., for thirteen years Cashier of the Citizens National 
Bank, of Raleigh, N. C 



Ws Buy and Sail Stocks and Bonds, 

MAKE COLLECTIONS ON ALL ACCESSIBLE 
POINTS, AT THE LOWEST RATES. 

Negotiate Loans, Discount Paper, 

Buy and Sell Exchange, Receive Deposits, 

Payable on demand or otherwise as may be agreed upon, 
>and do such other legitimate business as may be offered in 
the line of Banking. 

W. T. BLACKWELL, President. 
P. A. WILEY, Cashier. 



S. T. MORGAN, ETJG. MOREHEAD, 

President. Yice-Pres. and Treas. 

W. M. MORGAN, Secretary. 




^E^iAi^K 




'4'k^'\^. ill ^s- z^ y^y 



A FEW REASONS FOR USING 

Durham Bull Fertilizer: 

1. It is composed of the very best recognized materials for Fertilizer with the 
addition of Tobacco Stems, which is of itself one of the best Fertilizers. 

2. We guarantee the purity of all our goods. 

3. They are as free from water and dirt as is possible for us to make them. 

4. It is- a home industry and merits the patronage of home people. 

5. It is as cheap as any first-class goods on the market. 

6. Our goods prove equal to any on the market, as is evidenced by the lead- 
ing Tobacco planters in the fine Tobacco section of North Carolina who have 
fully tested our goods. 






CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS OF 
By LEDOUX k RICKETTS. 

X)a.te5., XTe-wr "^orlr, ^©"cx-uLary ©, l.SS-5;- 
Moisture, ...---- 

Potash, - - - - - 

Nitrogen, 2.25, equivalent to Ammonia, ... 

Total Phosphoric Acid, 8.34, equivalent to Bone Phosphate, 
Soluble Phosphoric Acid, 4.4S, equivalent to Bone Phosphate, 
Insoluble Phosphoric i\cid, 0.50, equivalent to Bone Phosphate, - 
Reverted Phosplioric Acid, 3.36, equivalent to Bone Phosphate, 
Available Phosphoric Acid, 7.S4, equivalent to Bone Phosphate, - 

LEDOUX & RiCKETTS, 
To Durham Fertilizer Co,, Durham, N. C. 



m.^ 



II. 66 
2.45. 
3.0^ 

18.2a 
9-78 
1.09 

7-33 
17.11 

[Seal] 



Fire Insurance Company, 

$4,126,000. 

Represented by J. J. Mackay. 



Insurance Company 

Of North Aiiiorioa. 

^3,000,000. 

KEl'UK.SKNTEl) BY J. J. 7.IACKAY. 



Crescent Insurance Co. 

Of Xcw Oilcans. 

^eoo,ooo- 

KF.PKES?:NTE7-) hv .i. j. mackay. 




GENERAL 






fl 



Office next to Tafum's, Main Sirset, 



ZD"crss:E3:.-^iv£, int. o. 



LiYerpocl and London 

AND GLOBE, 

^33,000,000 

REPRESENTED BY 

J. J. MACKAY, 

DURHAM, N. C. 



FIRE 

imum ASSOCIATION 

OF LONDON. 
^337,^07.35. 

REPRESENTED BY J. J. MACKAY. 



BcanSB. 




list Mm Siiiiar 



A SCHOOL OF HIGH GRADE, 

Durham, N. C. 



Mrs. JULIA R. WILLIAMS, 
Principal. 

Miss LESSIE SOUTHGATE, 
Musical Director and Calisthenics. 



Tuition, Primar};- Department, ^lO-OC 

Intermediate Department, 12.50 

Collegiate Department, 1 5.00 

Extra branches at usual rates. 
Vocal Music and Calesthenies free. 



Good Board in nice respectable families, with home comforts, at 
Reasonable Rates. 

H^^^ For particulars, address 

The Principal, 

Or J. S. CASE, Chairman Board of Trustees. 



Fall Session begins the first Monday in September, 1884, 
and continues twenty weeks. Spring Session begins Jan- 
uary 5th, 1885 ; ends on the last Tuesday in May. 

It is desirable that all pupils be present at the opening of 
the session. 



H. M. SMITH & CO., 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Iron-Back Shapes 




Tobacco Factory Fixtures. 

We make a specialty of Iron-Back Shapes, and have had larger experience in 
their manufacture than any other establishment in the world. We have new 
machinery specially adapted for this branch of manufacture, much of which is 
the invention of our senior partner. By the use of this machinery we aie 
enabled to turn out Shapes that cannot be excelled in accuracy, ease of work- 
inland durability. We can safely promise that those who favor us with their 
orders will get the best work that can be made. The prices we quote include 
for each set of Shapes a Top Block, Bottom Board, and full set of Russia Sheets. 

Wc deliver free on board of cars, and make no charge for packing or boxing. 

N. B. — Letters of inquiry promptly answered. 

Complete Outfits for the manufacture of Smoking Tobacco always on hand. 

ELEVATORS FOR STEAM OR HAND TOWER MADE IN THE 
BEST MANNER. 

Manufacturers are invited to send for Tobacco Catalogue. 

1532 Main Street, Richmond, Va. 

(P. 0. BOX 8.) 



JOHN S. LOOKHART, 



PROPRIETOR. 



Banner Warehouse, 



FOR THE 



mlilll 



K R. Ipiv fill iTi %m mm 






Pej'sonal Attention given to all Shipments. 

Quick Sales and Prompt Returns. 

C. C. T^YLC 

Main Street, Durham, N. C. 




StoYGS, Tin and Sheet -Iron Ware. 

TOBACCO FLUES A SPECIALTY. 
Roofing and Guttering promptly attended to. 



Richmond StraieM Cut Ho. 1 




Cigarette Smokers who are willing to pay a little more for Cigarettes than 
the price charged for the ordinary trade Cigarettes will find the 

RICHMOND STRAIGHT CUT No. I 

SrrERIOll TO ALL OTHERS. 

They are made from the brightest, most delicately flavored and 
HIGHEST cost GOLD LEAK GROWN in Virginia, and are absolutely wiTHofT 

ADfLTERATION Or drUgS. 

We use the Genuine French Rice Paper, of our own direct importation, 
which is made especially for us, water-makkkd with the name of the brand — 

RICHMOND STRAIGHT CUT No. I, 

on each Cigarette, without which none are genuine. Base imitations of this 
brand have been put on sale, and Cigarette Smokers are cautioned that this is 
the Old and Original brand, and to observe that each package or box of 

Richmond Straight Cut Cigarettes 

bears the signature of 

ALLEN & GINTER, Manufacturers, 

RICHMOND, VA. 



ALSO 

3IAXUFACTUIIEBS OF THE FOLLOWING BliAXDS 



OPERA PUFFS, 

OUR LITTLE BEAUTIES, 

(Flat and Round), 
RICHMOXD STRAIGHT CUT, Xo. 1. 

RICHMOND GEM. 

PERFECTION, etc., &c. 



OLD RIP LONG CUT. RICHMOND GEM CURLY CUT, 

RICHMOND GEM MILD. RICHMOND STRAIGHT CUT, No. J. 
RICHMOND CAVENDISH, Nos. 1 and 2, 

RICHMOND GEM MIXTURE, 

HAVANA MIXTURE, 

TURKISH MIXTURE, 

PERIQUE MIXTURE, 
IMPERIAL BIRDS EYE, 

BUDS AND BLOSSOMS, 

KILLICKINICK, &c., &C. 



u 



u 



xirham, M^ C» 



9 ««B 



LEA k WARREH, Proprietors. 



The Highest Market Prices 



ALWAYS OBTAINED 



FOR ALL GRADES OF TOBACCO, 



Our facilities for the accommodation of Farmers 

are ample and unsurpassed for comfort and 

convenience. 



TJie extensively knoivn and i^opular A^ictioneer, 

Sells exclusively for this House, 



Hstablislie^L 1878. 

EUGENE MOREFIEAD, GARRARD S. WATTS 

Durham, N. C. Baltimore Co., Md. 

iEugene Moreliead & Co., 



Durham^ M. Cr. 



TRANSACT A BANKING BUSINESS IN ITS FULL 
SCOPE AND IMPORT. 

Ample Money. Ample Facilities. Correspondence Soliciied. 



Cashier, 

Assistant Cashier, W. M. MORGAN. 

Teller, VV. W. AvERY. 

Book-keeper, ... W. W. PATTERSON. 

Book-keeper, R. H. J. Blount. 

Corresponding Clerk, ..H. I. DURHAM. 



CORRESPONDENTS : 
New York,... DONNELL, Lawson & SiMPSON. 

Philadelphia, The Central National Bank. 

Richmond, The First National Bank. 



Special auJ ProDiDt Attention liyeu to all Collections, 

ESPECIALLY ON 

All points in Caswell, Person, Orange, Durham, Alamance and 
Chatham Counties. 



ESTABLISHED 18G5. 



STANDARD GUAuANTEED. 




"STAH BSAND" SPEOIAL CCMPL3TE MANURES 

For each of the following Crops : 

Toiiaccs, Wiieat, Caitoii, Cora, Oats, Yeptalite aM drass. 

OFFICE: 1322 Cary Street; FACTOEY: Opposite Eocketts, 

RICHMOND, VA. 



Esta!Dlislhed 1865. 





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MANUFACTURED BY 

The R« F. Morris i Son Maniifaoturing Company, 

DURHABVI, N. C. 

Also Manufacturers of the celebrated •' Gold Leaf," and Bear, Durham and 
Scotch Snuffs. 



H, P. EDMOND, 

(Successor to EWnger and EdmoncJ.) 



MANUFACIURER OF 



Improved Tobacco E^achinery, 




Steam Licorice Kettles, Power Elevators, 

Hogshead Screws, Wringers, 
Spice Grinders, Lump Machines, &c. 

Send for Cataloiiuc. 




W* WU SONS ^ 00. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Smoking Tobacco and CigaretteSj 



AH goods containing the name of this firm are fully guaranteed to be equal 
to any in the world. Their Cigarettes have been before the public for three 
years, and are now the most popular on the market, because they are manufac- 
tured from the best and purest material and reliable in every respect. 




H I ST p 

TOWN OFDUR 




EMBRACING 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES AND ENGRAVINGS 

OF 

Leading Business Men, 

AND A CAREFULLY COMPILED 

BUSINESS DIRECTORY OF DURHAM, 



TO WHICH IS ANNEXED A COMPILATION OF USEFUL INFORMATION 
IN RELATION TO 



THE CULTIVATION, CURING AND MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO 

IN NORTH CAROLINA AND VIRGINIA. 



By HIRAM V. PAUL. 



RALEIGH : 

EDWARDS, EROUOnTON & CO., STEAM PRINTERS AND BINDERS. 
1884. 



Entered actordliig to Act of Congfess In the J'ear 1884, by 

HIRAM V. PAUL, 
111 the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington; 




suitROK Giles uth.cs mv 



List of Engravings. 



fc: 
R(St9, 



Frontispiece.— Col. D. C. PARPJSH, . . . o 

BLACKWELL, Willi.^m T. .... 50 

CAER, JuLUN S. - - - - - - 1.33 

DUKE, Washington - - - . . 150 

GREEX, Caleb B. - - - - - - 139 

MOREHEAD, Eugene - - - - - 137 

PARRISH, Edward J. - - - - - - 144 

SOUTHGATE, James 139 



PREFATORY. 



As a factor in the development of one of the leading in- 
dustries of North Carolina and our beloved Southland, the 
faithful historian will cheerfully accord to the city of Dur- 
ham a conspicuous position in the annals of the " Old 
North State." While on the one hand thousands of our 
farmers are to-day standing upon the brink of bankruptcy 
through the inordinate mortgage excise demanded by King 
Cotton, on the other hand equally as many have come up 
from theSahara of adversity unto the translucent fountain of 
prosperity and contentment through the beneficent influ- 
ence of the " weed." As a principal concomitant in event- 
uating this happy era in the New South, and especially the 
industrial interests of this State, and because she has done 
immeasurably more, through her lavish and judicious sys- 
tem of advertising, to attract the notice of capitalists and in- 
duce immigration from the nations of the earth, Durham is 
eminentlj^ entitled to honorable historic mention, and the 
following pages are but a feeble attempt to accord plenary 
justice to her great leading spirits and enterprises. Her 
Carrs, Blackwells, Dukes and Parrishes, actuated by a lofty 
State pride, and a sincere desire to advance the best inter- 
ests of all classes, have freely and unstintingly utilized their 
energies, brains and money, elevating Durham to the front 
rank of the Tobacco Marts of the world. 

Our tobacco interests are so intimately entwined about 
those of our sister State, Virginia, that the undersigned 
did not feel justified in quitting the subject without accord- 
ing to her appropriate notice. The facts set forth in the 
following pages have been collected at considerable expense 
and research, and the highest authorities only, both in this 
State and Virginia, have been consulted. 



Prefatory. 



Great pains have been taken to collect such information 
as shall render this volume not only interesting but usfful 
alike to the manufacturer, dealer and planter. The atten- 
tion of the planter is invited especially to Part III — the 
History and Culture of Tobacco — and more particularly to 
the article on "Soils," page 169, as the judicious selection 
of soil is a vital element of success. The information con- 
tained in this entire Department is the very cream of the 
best authority, treated under the various sub-heads, from 
the selection and j)reparation of soil until the planter shall 
have deposited his tobacco with the warehousemen of Dur- 
ham, where the very highest prices are always guaranteed. 
As the success of this great, leading industry is predicated 
upon judicious cultivation, the author would respectfully 
and earnestly urge the planter to familiarize himself with 
the instructions and suggestions offered in this Department, 
which is divided into two chapters, and sub divided and 
classified under appropriate sub-heads. 

To the critic, and especially the hypercritic, the author 
desires to acknowledge frankly that there are mistakes and 
deficiencies. But " to err is human." This is no attempt at 
a literary cowp de maitre,hut simply a collection of facts and 
figures which are matters of pertinent record, the whole 
being permeated and dictated by a sincere desire to promote 
tile interests of Durham as a city, and his fellow-citizens of 
North Carolina as a State. 

To his friends, who will cheerfully cast the. mantle of 
charity over all short-comings, and who have not only en- 
couraged him by good wishes, but substantial assistance, he 
would tender his most unfeigned and heartfelt thanks. The 
remembrance of their kind offices will ever occup}'' one of 
the brightest pages in life's little ephemeris. 

Very truly, &c., H. V. PAUL. 

Durham, N. C, May 24th, 1884. 



Table of Contents, 



PAGE. 

List of Engravings ni 

Prefatory IV 

Table of Contents vi 

Memoir of the Author viil 

Proemial Historic Facts xiil 



Advertisements. 

Allen, Jones & Co 253 

Allison & Addison 12 

Allen & Ginter 9 

Argo, T. M 245 

Atwater & Wyatt 24 

Bank of Durham 3 

Blackwell's Durham Tob. Co 2i 

Baucom, J. M 245 

Briggs & Sons, T. H 228 

Christian, Wilkerson & Co 157 

Dike, James 242, 251 

Duke Sons & Co., W 14 

Duke, B. L 252 

Durham Fertilizer Co 4 

Edmonds, H. P 13 

Farmer & Mechanic, Raleigh . . . 241 

Green, Lucius 248 

Herndon, W. R 255 

HoUoway, Charles 252 

Howerton cS: Bro., R. T 253 

Dottier, Lawrence 251 

Lewellin Charles H 245 

Lyon, A. M 250 

Mackay, J. J 5 

^1 angum, P. J 254 

Markham, John L cover 

Morehead & Co., Eugene 11 

Morris & Sons, R. F 12 

Mayo, P. H 248 

Mallery, J. T 245 

Manning & Manning 246 

News & Observer, Raleigh ...... 246 

Ober & Sons, G 255 

O'Brien & Co., C. J 254 

Ott, John 22 

Pace & Sizer 22 

Parrish, E. J 2 

Perry, R. S 250 

Pinnix, J. T 250 

Pogue, E. H 247 

Rochelle, C. W 246 

Reams, H. A 250 



PAGE. 

Reid, Morton V/. 247 

Roberts, Loyd & Co 24 

School, Durham Graded 23 

Sears, A. A 252 

Seminary, Methodist Female. ... 6 

Siegel Bros 250 

Smith, H. M 7 

Southgate & Son, Jas 2, 82, gS 

Styron & Co., W. R 253 

Taylor, C. C 8 

Tobacco Plant, Durham. ...... 249 

Utley, M. D., E. B 252 

Warehouse, E. J. Parrish's 2 

Warehouse, Banner 8 

Warehouse, Reams 10 

Whitted, James Y 243. 256 

Williams & Co., Alfred 249 

Younger, C. G 252 



PART FIRST. 

PAGE. 

Chapter I. 

Gleanings from Early Settlers — 
Origin of Durham and Durham 
Smoking Tobacco — Incorpora- 
tion and Organization of the 
Town and County of Durham 
— The Graded School — Asses- 
sed Ante-Bellum Valuations — 
The Colored Race 25-49 

Chapter II. 

The Blackwell Litigation — The 
Origin of and Title to the use 
of the word Durham, and the 
Durham Bull, as Trade-Marks 
for Smoking Tobacco 50-77 

Chapter III. 

Durham Fires — The Methodist 
Female Seminary — The Lyce- 
um — The Post Office-The Rev- 
enue Office — Newspapers. . . .78-88 

Chapter IV. 

Religious Denominations 88-92 

Chapter V. 

Tobacco Board of Trade — Ware- 
houses 93-98 

Chapter VI. 

Tobacco Factories-Opening Sales 
New Banner Warehouse — The 
Durham and Franklinton Rail- 
road 99-123 



Table of Contents. 



vir 



PART SECOND. 
Biographical Sketclies. 

PAGE 

Carr, Julian S 133 

Blackwcll, William T 130 

Duke, Washington 150 

Green, John R 139 

Green, Caleb B 142 

Fuller, Bartholomew 154 

Jones, Thomas D 141 

Lockhart, J. S 155 

Mangum, William 128 

Morehead, Eugene 137 

Panish, D. C 124 

Parrish, E. J 144 

Soulhgate, James 138 

Webb & Kramer 156 

Whitakcr, Jr.. J. B 14S 



PART THIRD. 

Tlie Tobacco Interests of >\ C. 

Chapter I. 

Early History— Modern Progress- 
Tobacco Area — Mode of Con- 
ducting Trade — Culture and 
Curing — Grades, Prices, Soil 
Analyses, etc 158-189 

Chapter II. 

Important Information Seed 

Beds — Insect Enemies of the 
Tobacco Plant — The Diseases 
of the Plant — The Bonsack 
Cigarette Machine 189-209 



PART FOURTH. 

The Tobacco Interests of Virginia. 

Chapter I. Page. 

Richmond — Sketches of Leading 
Tobacco Manufacturers — Leaf 
Dealers — Cigar and Cigarette 
Manufacturers — Manufacturers 
of Plug and Smoking Tobac- 
co 209-217 

Chapter II. 

Brief History of Types of To- 
bacco Produced in Virginia and 
Maryland — Quality of Tobac- 
co — Soils 217-223 



ADDENDA ET ERRATA. 

The Durham Light Infantry .... 224 
The Durham Female Seminary. . 227 
Errata 227 



PART FIFTH. 
Business Directory of Durham. 

PAGE. 

Attorneys at Law 235 

Banking Houses 231 

Benevolent Organizations 233 

Books and Stationery 239 

Blacksmith Shops 241 

Builders and Contractors 240 

City Government 229 

County Government 229 

Carriage and Wagon Factories. . . 240 

Commission Merchants 238 

Candy Factory 251 

Cigar and Plug Tobacco Factories 231 

Colored Churches 234 

Colored Schools 235 

Dentists 240 

Dry Goods 237 

Drug Stores 233 

Durham Cotton Manufact'g Co. . 232 

Durham Water W'orks 231 

Educational Institutions 234 

Fertilizer Companies 23S 

Foundry and Machine Shop 241 

Furniture Dealers 238 

General Merchandise 235 

Hotels and Boarding Houses. . . . 237 

Harness and Saddleiy 239 

Herbalists 240 

Hucksters and Meat Venders. . .. 241 

Hardware Dealers 239 

Insurance Companies 236 

Insurance Agencies 238 

Job Printing Offices 240 

Livery and Exchange Stables. . . . 240 

Liquor Dealers 241 

Merchant Tailors 240 

Milliner^' 237 

Newspapers 232 

Photographers 240 

Post Office 232 

Physicians 233 

Revenue Office 232 

Religious Denominations 234 

Restaurants 237 

Steam and Gas Fitters 240 

Sash, Door and Blind Factories. . 239 

Southern Express Co 238 

Stone and ^Iarble Works 238 

The Durham Woolen and Wooden 

Mills Co 232 

Tonsorial Artists 241 

Tobacco Board of Trade 229 

Tobacco P'actories 230 

Tobacco Warehouses 230 

Undertakers and Cabinet-Makers 239 

Watchmakers and Jewelers 239 



Memoir of the Author. 



BY JAMES DIKE, A. M. 

Since the "History and Directory of Durham" contains 
far more literary matter than is usually found in a book of 
this character, and consequently requires a high order of 
ability in the author, its wide circle of patrons and readers 
will very properly desire a sketch of his life, and to be made 
acquainted with his special training and fitness for the 
labor he has chosen. 

Hiram Voss Paul is the youngest son of Rev. Hiram 
Gooding Paul, for thirty years pastor of the Baptist church 
of New Berne, N. C, He was born February 8th, 1848, and 
is of Scotch-Irish descent, his forefathers, McCotter and 
Paul, in 1663, being among the first settlers of what was 
then known as the "Albemarle C'olony," so named in honor 
of the Duke of Albemarle, during the reign of Charles II, 
King of England. 

Mr. Paul received his early instruction from Professor 
Daugherty, at the New Berne Academy, and was fitted for 
college at Lenoir Institute. But a sad event occured at this 
time which interfered with his collegiate course. On the 
8th of July, 1865 — just one year after the death of his 
mother — his affectionate and doting father was called to his 
reward in the Upper and Better Sanctuary, One of the 
greatest desires of this able and faithful Ambassador of 
Christ, was that his son should follow him in the sacred 
office of the ministry. He had made ample provision with 
the late beloved Dr. Craven for his son to enter Trinity 
when the blessed Master called him home. This was a 
dreadful blow, as his guardian took little or no interest in 
his educational advancement. The arrangements which 



Memoir of the Author. ix 



were made with Dr. Craven were revoked, and young Ki- 
RAM placed in a printing office, under John Spellman, Esq., 
then editor and proprietor of the New Berne Commercial. 
This action was vehemently opposed by his relatives and 
friends, but without avail. And surely there was no sound 
reason for such extraordinary conduct on the part of his 
guardian, as by will his father had mnde ample provision 
for his maintenance and schooling. It was a mean disre- 
gard of the expreised and well-known wishes of his father 
Nevertheless, although he was obliged to forego a collegiate 
course, he never lost his love of knowledge and availed him- 
self of every opportunity to gratify and improve it. He 
was a close reader, and manifested decided taste and ability 
for literary pursuits. At the age of 19 he wrote a poem, 
entitled "The Sea of Life," which was extensively published 
both north and south; from which we make the following 
extract: 

"Oh, sea of life, what complex billows rise 
Upon thy bosom, ever frauglit with songs and sighs, 
How oft bright, fickle sunbeams tremble on the wave 
Which murmur's o'er Hope's early melancholy grave ! 

How oft the sweetest warbler, thro' springtime's subtle charms 
And over- venturous wing, is caught amid the storms 
That sweep life's little sea. Ah, evermore 
Its tender bones lie bleeching on the shore. 

Just as the beams of Hope in rapture kiss the wave 
The requiem of Despair floats o'er a coral grave ! 
Where'er the tender buds in richest beauty ope' 
We find the drooping, wither'd leaves of dying hope ! 

To love — oh spell divine — youth's halcyon dream; 
Could we but always "wake and find things what they seem 
'Twould extract from each wave its poignant, bitter spray. 
As o'er the sea of life our spirits glide away. 

A dear, impassioned look, and tender words and tears 

Well up within the soul thro' long and weary years; 

These, treasured up in memory's casket fair, 

Through dreamy spirit-eyes, are smiling on us there ! 

And teach us that when we have passed thro' Death's cold gloom 

The drooping buds of love and hope shall wear eternal bloom. " 

The spirit-wail over the one great misfortune of his life ! 



re. 



History of Durham. 



It seems to have been dictated by his sad disappointment. 
There is a melancholy sweetness about this little poetic 
gem which will doubtless vibrate upon some tender, sym- 
pathetic cord in every reader's heart. That the develop- 
ment of such manifest abilities should have been thus rudely 
impeded was not only a great misfortune but a positive 
crime, and displayed a littleness of soul in the guardian 
truly deplorable. 

In 1869 Mr. Paul commenced the study of theology 
under the Rev. Edward M.Forbks, D. D., Rector of Christ 
Church, New Berne. In 1871 he visited a paternal uncle 
in New York City, and being well pleased with this great 
city, from the many and rare opportunities it afforded for 
the prosecution of his studies, he remained nearly three 
years. During his stay he established a very interesting 
and ably edited journal — " TAe Evolutionist" — devoted to 
the Evangelical Temperance Alliance, published at No. 
22, Barclay street. In the latter part of 1872, his office 
'was entirely destroyed by fire. In the meantime he had 
resumed his theological studies under the Rev. Dr. Chas. 
F. Deems. From 1872 to 1877 he traveled considerably. 
While in New York, one of his poems, entitled "Alone," 
by chance fell into the hands of the well-known authoress, 
Mrs. Hale, who was so well pleased with it as to insert it 
in the columns of the Waverly Magazine, one of the most 
chaste and high-toned literary magazines of the country. 
This was the first channel of note opened to his poetic ge- 
nius. His poems, sketches and stories soon gained welcome 
reception by some of the best magazines and periodicals of 
the day. Besides this wide field of usefulness, Mr. Paul 
was employed by the Harper Brothers, Moses Dow and 
other large firms, thus gaining important business knowl- 
edge. 

Mr. Paul has acted in the capacity of Editor of the 
following Democratic and literarys journals : The New York 



Memoir of the Author. xi 



^Evolutionist, 22 Barclay street, N. Y. ; The Oak City Item^ 
The Evening Dispatch, Tlie Evening Post, and The North Car- 
olina Prohibitionist, Raleigh, N. C. 

The mission of the Daily Evening Dispatch was the 
vindication of the interests of the people of North Car- 
olina against foreign grasping railroad syndicates — an in- 
veterate opponent of the sale of the State's interest in the 
Western North Carolina Railroad, In this contest he secured 
the following able correspondents: Hon. VV. T. Dortch. 
Judge McRae, and Maj. Wm. A. Hearne. Mr. Paul is a 
bold, logical and exceedingly entertaining writer, and as 
an evidence of the strong influence his paper was wielding 
against the interests of the B^^st syndicate, means were emr 
ployed which culminated in the suspension of his paper. 
Upon the expiration of the lease of material with which 
the paper was printed, the News Publishing. Company, which 
started out in opposition to the sale, but soon went over 
body and soul to the Syndicate, refused to grant a further 
lease ; and thus a commendable enterprise, with as fair 
prospects as any newspaper ever started in Raleigh, was 
choked down in its very infancy by a foreign soulless cor- 
poration ; and thus the people lost an able, staunch and 
fearless exponent of their rights and interests. The firm 
was composed of three worthy but poor young men : Messrs. 
Paul, Collins and Harper. 

The next enterprise upon which Mr. Paul embarked was 
the Evening Post, with Major Wm. A. Hearne, one of the 
ablest writers in the State. The Post was Democratic in 
politics ; but its special mission was the advocacy of Hon. 
Daniel G Fowle and Julian S. Carr, for Governor and 
Lieutenant Governor; gentlemen whom the writer believes 
could have polled more votes than any other two men in the 
State. 

And last, but not least, Mr. Paul engaged in the publi- 
cation of the North Carolina Prohibitionist, which had an 



XII History of Durhi.m:. 



extensive circulation throughout the State, and is acknowl- 
edged to have accomplished much good in the Temperance 
cause. 

In 1869 Mr. Paul published a volume of his poems at 
New Berne, N. C. These poems have been much admired 
and added largely to his reputation as a writer and thinker 
of fine literary taste. 

Many positions of prominence have been acceptably filled 
by the subject of this sketch. His association with promi- 
nent writers and speakers of many States has given him a 
varied and valuable experience, and he has brought to his 
work of writing a history of the wonderfully enterprising 
town of Durham, rare qualities of mind and ripe training. 

While many other towns have been vegetating merely, 
Durham has been making history, not only for herself, but 
for the entire State. She has virtually, through her judi- 
cious and lavish system of advertising, introduced North 
Carolina to the world. As Mr. J. S. Carr once very perti- 
nently remarked: " When it has come to such a pass, that 
from an insignificant railroad station we can within fifteen 
years cause a man in London or San Francisco to put on 
his hat and walk out of his office, saying, * I am going to Dur- 
ham, N. C, on important business; ' when firms that a few 
years ago were comparatively young, have Cable addresses, 
I assert with emphasis, that we have the matter of a great 
and grand future in our own hands." Durham deserved a 
worthy historian, and is sigularly fortunate in securing one 
so able and accomplished as the subject of this imperfect 
sketch. 



Proemial Historic Facts. 



THE OLD BENNETT HOUSE— CLOSING SCENE OF THE 
LATE CIVIL WAR— AN HISTORIC BOTTLE. 

The following historic facts were collated for the *' His- 
tory of Durham " by our courteous and talented townsman, 
Garland E. Webb, Esq.: 

Nineteen years ago, the 26th of April, there occured 
about 3| miles from Durham, one of the closing scenes 
of that great drama known in American history as the 
" War Between the States." Sherman's army was encamped 
here, the place being known then as " Durham's Sta- 
tion," and was a small place of perhaps not more than 
200 inhabitants. Johnston with his army was encamped 
near Hillsboro. The war was fast coming to a close. Lee 
had surrendered, and what remained of the brave Southern 
army were disheartened and ready to surrender at the first 
opportunity, and on the 2Gth of April, 1865, General John- 
ston surrendered his army to General Sherman at Greens- 
boro, N. C, but the capitulation was arranged at what was 
known as the Bennett House, about 3^ miles from Dur- 
ham. It was here that the two great Generals met and ne- 
gotiated the terms of peace, and it was here at this plain 
old farm house the curtain fell upon the last act of that 
terrible drama, and the dark clouds, that had so long hung 
gloomily over the heads of our people, began to clear away, 
and a new era commenced to dawn upon the South. 

THE PLACE OF CAPITULATION. 

Our chronicler being anxious to visit this historic spot, 
accepted an invitation from Mr. Thomas D. Jones, a wealthy 



XIV History of Durham. 



tobacco dealer of Durham, and who is the proud owner of 
the identical bottle from which the two Generals drank to 
each other's health upon the memorable occasion of which 
we now write. Mr. C. B. Green, editor of the Durham 
plant, and who is also a Justice of the Peace, accompanied 
us, for the purpose of taking the affidavit of a daughter of 
old man Bennett, as to the genuineness of the above men- 
tioned bottle. An hour's drive through an improved and 
prosperous country, brought us to the spot. As we glanced 
around, there was little to indicate the historic associations 
ccrnnected with the place. The house is a plain, old-fash- 
ioned, unpretending structure, devoid of paint without and 
within, but neatness and a certain degree of rustic taste was 
manifest in all directions. The same old fence stands in 
front of the green yard, and the broad boards are covered 
with advertisements. As we stepped into the little yard 
a musical voice, coming from the old kitchen window, said, 
" Walk into the house, gentlemen, I will see you in a 
minute." Accepting her polite invitation, we were soon 
seated in the room in which the Generals conferred together 
and drew up and signed those important documents that 
ended the war. Soon the possessor of the musical voice 
made her appearance, looking as fresh and beautiful as one 
of the roses that grew in her little flower garden. We found 
her to bo the granddaughter of old man Bennett, (who 
by the way has long since been gathered to his fathers) and 
lived at the old place with her mother and brother. She 
knew but little of the facts we were seekitig, but directed 
us to the house of her aunt who lived near by, and who 
was the only surviving member of the Bennett family who 
was an eye-witness to the important circumstances that 
form the subject of our sketch. This was the same party 
who, quite a while ago, sold Mr. Jones the "little black bot- 
tle," and after thanking our rustic friend for her kindness 
we were soon on our way toward the house of the aunt. 



Proemial Historic Facts. xv 



AN EYE-WITNESS. 

We arrived in a few minutes at a small bouse, and were 
informed that Mrs. Eliza Christopher lived there, and 
entering the house we were cordially received by her, and 
stating the object of our visit, she at once signified her wil- 
lingness to give us all the information in her power. We 
remarked to her that it had been denied by some pretend- 
ing knowing ones that Johnston and Sherman ever met at 
the house of her father. She then, in her own plain way, 
told us how she stood and saw the two officers, Sherman 
and Johnston, meet at the gate, shake hands and walk side 
by side into the house, talking earnestly all the while, and 
how strange it looked to her to see these two men, who had 
been fighting each other for four years, meet so friendly 
and act so gentlemanly toward each other. She said they 
would frequently come out of the house and take short 
walks together, and she also said she saw them take a drink 
from the very bottle, in company with her father, that Mr. 
T. D. Jones now has in his possession. Continuing, she 
said: "I still own the little table that was used by the 
Generals in drawing up their papers, etc. I have had nu- 
merous offers for it, but none sufficient to induce me to part 
with it ; but I will sell it for money enough." We remarked 
to her that possibly there might be some doubt as to the 
table she so greatly valued being the one that was used on 
the occasion mentioned. She said she thought she could 
prove it; and arising she brought from above a small, old- 
fashioned table, and then going to a book-casein the corner 
she took from between the leaves of an old book a dilapi- 
dated page from Harper's Weekly, dated May 27th, 1865, that 
contained a perfect representation of the exterior of the 
Bennett House, as well as the interior of the room that 
was occupied by the two officers, these gentlemen being 
seated at a table surrounded with papers, writing materials, 



XVI History of Durham. 



&c. — the &c. consisting mainly of the " little black bottle." 
The table owned by the widow was compared to Harper^s 
representation, and was pronounced one and the same by 
all present. Mrs. Christopher said it was quite amusing 
to her to hear the soldiers on both sides, who were lounging 
under the spreading branches of the trees, laugh and talk 
over their war exploits, narrow escapes, etc. The lady was 
then asked if she objected to swearing that the bottle she 
sold Mr. Jones was the one from which Generals Johnston 
and Sherman drank on the occasion of the surrender. She 
readily answered no, and holding up her right hand, sol- 
emnly swore to the following affidavit: 

North Carolina, Durham County: 
Mrs. Eliza A. Christopher, being duly sworn, deposes 
and says : " That she is a daughter of James Bennett, 
who resided during his life-time on the Hillsboro road, 
three and a half miles west of Durham. That she was 
present at her father's house on the 26th day of April, 1865, 
when Generals W. T. Sherman and Joseph E. Johnston 
met there and arranged all the stipulations of the surren- 
der of Johnston to Sherman. That while the arrangements 
were being made they drank from a bottle of whiskey, and 
that the bottle she sold Mr. Thomas D. Jones is the identi- 
cal one from which they drank on that occasion. 

Eliza A. Christopher. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this the 15th day of 
May, 1884. 

C. B. Green, J. P. 

We thanked our good old friend for her kindness and 
valuable information, and returned to town through the 
same beautiful and now highly cultivated country. 

Our chronicler was soon standing upon one of the streets 
of this busy little city — a town that in sixteen years or 
less has grown from nothing to be a busy and prosperous 
city of over 5,000 inhabitants. In every direction could 
be heard the hum and buzz of machinery, mingled with 



Proemial Historic Facts. xvii 



the song of the saw, and the sound of the hammer. Heavily 
loaded wagons and drays rattled over the newly-made, rock- 
paved streets. Magnificent buildings lined each side of the 
way, elegant dwellings could be seen in the distance, churches 
with their tall spires almost kissing the clouds stood here 
and there, factory bells and steam whistles sent forth their 
evening signals. Everything is hurry and bustle. Pro- 
gress and enterprise is evident on every side, and to think 
that where this proud and famous little city now stands 
was, a few years ago, almost a wilderness. Is it not a grand 
illustration of what enterprise and energ}' can do? We, at 
this point of our observation, came to the conclusion that 
Durham could date its birth and the beginning of its pros- 
perity to the time when those two Generals, about whom we 
have been writing, came together at the old Bennett House, 
shook hands as it were over the "bloody chasm," and ar- 
ranged all those stipulations that ended the war. 



A DVERTISEMENT. 



21 




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22 



History of Durham. 



The Best Fertilizer ever made specially for Fine Tobacco. 
remains at tlie head of everything' offered for that Crop. 



Still 




Tobacco Fertilizer. 

You all know what Major Ragland thinks of this article. The demand for it 
is universal among growers of fine tobacco. They urge that nothing gives 6od2/ 
and t< xture like it. 

Kead for example, the following from Mes-srs. Matthews & Williamson, ot 
Reidsville: 

"From our own personal experience, and it covers a long time, in watching 
the results from the use of the various brands of commercial fertilizers handled 
in this section, it is our mature judgment that the ANCHOR BRAND stands at 
the head of all for tlie production oi' fine, siUcij, yellow tobacco. The. plant seems 
to receive more fitting nourishment from the use of this article than from any 
other, and we are of the opinion that if our farmers made it tlieir standby, we 
would hear less of light, chaffy tobacco, having some color but no body, and 
that the farmer would realize the result he ought to enjoy from his labor; for 
low-grade tobacco will not bring big money." 

Agents at all points of importance throughout the Tobacco Region. 

PACE &; SIZER; 

(Successors to R. W. Oliver,) 

MANUFACTURERS OF THE CELEBRATED BRANDS 

PURITY, FAVORITE I RALEIGI^, 

Smoking, Cut, Plug, and Cigarettes. 

ALSO ALL STYLES AND GRADES OF 

SmokingTobacco i Cigarettes, 



Advertisement. 23 



DURHAM GRADED 



-A^isriD- 



HIGH SCHOOL 



This institution of learning is composed of a regular 
Graded School and a High School. The Graded School 
serves as a preparatory department to the High School, or 
Collegiate department. The High School course of study- 
embraces all that is ordinarily taught in similar institutions, 
giving special prominence to the Sciences and Literature. 

The School affords extraordinary facilities for the intel- 
lectual development of both sexes. It employs a corps of 
teachers who make teaching their business, and Avho use 
the most improved methods of instruction. 



GRADED SCHOOL: 
Primary Department, per year, $I0 oo 

Intermediate Department, per year, 15 oo 

High School Department, per year, ._ 20 00 



Each annual session commences the first Monday in Sep. 
tember and ends the last Friday in May. 
For further information, apply to 

E. W. KENNEDY, 

Superintendent. 



24 



History of Durham. 



R. H. ATWATER, 
Chatham County. 



WALTER J. WYATT, 
Wake County. 



ATWATER $t WYATT, 

few? 1^ fi'lWf ©TOiiSS 



AND 



General Commission Merchants, 

(Richmond, Cooper & Co.'s Old Stand,) 

ZD XT ::ES lEZ ..^ 3S/£ , 1ST. O. 



We keep the most complete stock of Heavy and Fancy 
Groceries in Durham. Goods promptly delivered free of 
charge in the city. 

Prices Marked Down to Rock Bottom 5 

We are offering our stock of GUNS at greatly reduced 
prices, to close them out. 



a^ 



p=; 



-==3 

P-4 






p^ 







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C-2 Z 






C<2 



ST77"ZlNrC3-Z3>TO- X-. .^ 3^ IP 3 _ 
Hardware Cheaper than Ever. 

Cheapest House in Tinware in Town. Fine stock of Farm Bells from 
250 li)s. Down. 

ROBERTSON, LLOYD & CO., 

Mangum Street, DURHAM, N. C. 



History of Durham. 



:e= .^f^ us T I . 



CHAPTER I. 

GLEANINGS FROM EARLY SETTLERS — ORIGIN OF DURHAM AND 
DURHAM bMOKING TOBACCO — INCORPORATION AND ORGANI- 
ZATION OF THE TOWN AND COUNTY OF DURHAMi — THE GRA- 
DED SCHOOL — THE COLORED RACE, ETC. 

The last act in the tragic drama of the late civil war 
transpired in the vicinity of Durham. It was here that 
"grimvissaged war smoothed its wrinkled front." Gen. R. 
E. Lee, the great southern soldier and christian, having 
capitulated at Appomattox, Gen. Sherman, on his famous 
"march to the sea," had demonstrated to Gen. Jos. E. John- 
ston, l)y greatly superior numerical strength and facilities, 
tliat further resistance was useless. In April, 1SG5, Sher- 
man encamped at Raleigh, while Johnson, with his remnant 
of heroic troops, rested at Greensboro. From Raleigh to 
Greensboro, a distance of about seventy-five miles, both 
armies roamed indiscriminately. Gen. Johnston intima- 
ted to Gen. Sherman his desire for a conference, and an 
armistice of ten days was declared. These two great chief- 
tains met in consultation, in a little house near Durham, 
which was then an insignificant railroad station, with 
only about 200 inhabitants. This station was declared neu- 
tral ground. Here "the boys in blue and gray" met in 
friendly intercourse — swapped horses, ran foot races, shot at 
targets, and, around the same camp-fires, told hairbreadth 
escapes, spun camp yarns, and had a "good time" generally. 
About one hundred yards from the railway station stood a 
two-story frame tobacco factory, owned by the late John R. 
Green. During the war xMr. Green had manufactured smok- 
ing tobacco for the " boys in gray," but now Otliello had 
seemingly lost his occu[)ation. Stored in this factory were 
large quantities of smoking tobacco, ready for shipment, 
and during the armistice the building was completely sacked, 



26 History of Durham. 



and around the camp-fires, in Durham, the "blue and the 
gray" literally smoked the pipe of peace. When tlie hon- 
orable terms of surrender were consummated — which term- 
were most dishonorablj' ignored by radical pot-house polls 
ticians of the national government at Wa?l)ington — the 
soldiers of each army provided themselves with a plentiful 
supply of this tobacco and marched homeward. Thus 
Green's tobacco was distributed from Maine to Texas, and 
what he regarded as a great calamity sojn proved a great 
blessing. When tiie soldiers, on reaching home, had ex- 
hausted their supply of tobacco, orders, directed to the R. 
E.. A^ent, Postmaster, etc., at Durham, began to pour in rap- 
idly for more of that tobacco. Mr. Green was quick to see 
his advantage, and immediately christened his tobacco 
" Durham," and selected the Durham Bull as liis trade-mark. 
And this was the first tobacco manufactured in Durham 
l>randed with the words " Durham Smoking Tobacco," and 
the first to use as a trade-mark the " Durham Bull." (See 
litigation.) Nowhere on tlie globe is tobacco of such fine 
quality raised — so peculiarly adapted to smoking purposes — 
as is grown in the vicinity of Durham. It is almost entirely 
free from nitrates and nicotine, and it has become so popular 
that to day, all over the United States, the Canadas, South 
America, Japan, Australia, China, etc., it is the acknowl- 
edged standard of excellence and purit3\ 

Mr. Green died in iS69, and Messrs. \V. ,T. Biackvvell & 
Co. purchased the business. This firm put fresh capital, 
together with keen business sagacity, into the enter- 
prise, and soon made it a wonderful success, and to-day 
they are the largest and most flourishing manufacturers of 
smoking tobacco in the country. At the time of the j)ur- 
chase from Green, the total force employed in the factory 
numbered less tlian twelve, and the population of the town 
less than 300. To-day the firm pay annually to the govern- 
ment a revenue t<ix of more than 8600,000.00; manufacture 
over 5,000,000 pounds of tobacco annually, and employ 
about 900 hands. The embryo village of 1865 had a popu- 
lation in 1881 of nearly 4,000. The population now exceeds 
5,000. 

Durham is situated twenty-six miles west of Raleigh, the 
capital of the State, and is the outlet to what is known as 
the Golden Tobacco Belt of North Carolina, and, as all the 
tobacco raised in this section finds its v/ay to Durham, our 



Origin of Durham Smoking Tobacco. 27 



factories and warehouses are so situated as to comraand the 
pick of all offerings. Tliirteen years ago there was nothing 
here but a fevv small shanties, while now there are palatial 
buildings devoted to mercantile purposes, huge tobocco 
warehouses and numerous manulactories of that article that 
are unexcelled. The largest factor}' in the world for the 
manufacture of smoking tobacco is located here, with a name 
famous in all parts of the globe. Durham is really the 
tobacco mart of the State, and from the nature and value 
of the crop grown in the immediate neighborhood, has 
strided on and attained the very enviat)le position slie now 
holds. She draws to her market probably the greater part 
of all the tobacco that is grown in the counties of Durham, 
Orange, Person,Caswell, Ahimanceand Granville,and known 
as "bright smokers," only adapted for smoking tobaccos, 
and from these come ihe wonderful reputation of all such 
emanating from this place. 

Emjiloyment is offered all who desire, and the capacity of 
production is only limited by the ditiiculty of procuring 
labor. Opi)ortunities present themselves on all sides, and 
the amount of money disbursed by the factories is something 
to startle the uninformed. Trade is flourishing and the 
stores are filled with fine goods, all of which find a readv 
sale. The city has a mayor, board of aldermen, police, 
lighted streets and is paved. Durham has more paved 
streets than any other place in North Carolina. Fires h.ave 
occurred, but they were a blessing in disguise, as what was 
once low shanties are now brick blocks of two and three 
stories. ' 

The receipts of cotton last season were 3,500 bales, which 
will be largel}' increased in the future. This represents con- 
siderable money in that comuaodity. Durham can be made 
a good market for such, as numerous cotton mills abound 
along the line of the North Carolina railroad, and one soon 
to be erected in Durham. There are 3 sash an.l door facto- 
ries and numerous tobacco works. No water-power ; every- 
thing is run by steam, with cheap fuel. The greater part of 
the citizens are full of energy, ambition and kindness, and 
are fully alive to the importance of the place. To Messrs. W. 
T.'Blackwell and Julian S. Carr the place owes much of its 
importance, as tliey were pioneers in building it up. These 
gentlemen have erected nearly 200 buildings in the town. 
The former was long identified with the celebrated Bull 



28 History of Durham. 



Durham Tobacco Works, but sold out his interest a short 
time since, and is now in the banking business with Mr. P. 
A. Wiley, a well-known financier, as cashier. The Bank of 
Durham has discounted, in four months, about $400,000 in 
paper — mostly tobacco acceptances; and Eugene Morehead 
& Co., bankers, probably as much more. 

This is quite a remarkable showing, and gives a faint idea 
of the growth of Durham in this one instance. 

Railroad facilities are hardly adequate, only one train a 
day each way being allowed by the liberal policy of the 
Richmond & Danville system. The depot is a reproach, 
there being no reception room for either ladies or gentlemen, 
and the apartment used as such, and adjoining the ticket- 
office, being so filthy an offensive that ladies never apply 
for tickets, except in cases of absolute necessity. It is about 
12x14 feet, and is used almost continuously by negro section 
hands as a kitchen and sleeping quarters. The walls are 
black with soot and grease, and the floor is caked with 
grease and dirt. It is just to add, that the managers are 
perhaps not aware of the real condition of things. It is to 
be hoped, however, that the importance of the city will 
arouse this mammoth monopoly from its complacent leth- 
argy, and that decent facilities at least, will soon be aff'orded. 

Real estate in the corporate limits is very high , ranging 
from §1 per foot up, a further evidence of its prosperity. 
To show how wonderfully this section has advanced, we 
give a few ante-bellum prices for lands which now sell for 
from $1 per foot upward: 

In 1845, the land now covered by the town of' Durham, 
sold at from $1.50 to $4.00 per acre. The Durham site, 130 
acres, sold for the sum of $90.00. 

In 1859 this land was re-assessed and sold for about $25 
per acre. 

The old Strayhorn Tract — now the Rigsbee property — 
sold for $15 per acre. This tract extends from Mangum 
street to Redmond Grove — formerly known as Prattsburg. 
The same land cannot be bought to-day for $1,000 per acre. 

The Dillard land sold, for $10 per acre, the old Andrew 
Turner tract — now known as the Green land — sold for $8 
per acre, and the Proctor land — now owned by Messrs. W. 
T. Vickers and B. W. Mathews— for $8 to SIO per acre. 

Taxes on real and personal property are thirty-five cents 
on the $100, and $1.05 on the poll. Graded school tax 
twenty cents on the $100, and sixty cents on the poll. 



Establishment of Durham County. 29 



Tobacco brings better prices here, perhaps, than at any 
other point in the State. A few weeks ago a farmer, for 
two two-horse wagon loaJs of tobacco — barn 'round — re- 
ceived $2,600, and it is a common thing for negro farmers 
to come in with a load and carry away from five to eight 
hundred dollars. This shows the value of the land for this 
great staple. These lands, of the Central Golden Belt, lie 
principally in Durham, Orange, Person, Caswell, Chatham. 
Alamance, Granville and Wake counties, andean be pur- 
chased for from $10 to $25 per acre, improved. 

This country has superb pastorage for stock and is adapted 
to all kinds of grain, as well as cotton, tobacco, fruits and 
grapes. The latter flourishes, and the wine sells readily for 
$1.50 per gallon. To all parties who are looking for a place 
to locate, to till the soil, this, in the immediate vicinity of 
Durham, possesses vast advantages. If capital is looking 
for investment, it can be judiciously used here, certain to be 
returned tenfold, and more than likely twenty. The city 
has a world-wide rejiutation and no doubt is the best adver- 
tised section of the State; and when one views the immpnse 
tobacco factories, warehouses, press-rooms, etc., he cannot 
but say she has earned her position. 

The depot of the N. C. R. R., in this town, was establislied 
in 1S32, with Dr. B L. Durham as agent. Pratt«^burg was 
originally intended for the depot site, but Mr. Pratt, the 
owner, refused to grant the land, and the present site was 
donated by our venerable townsman, Dr. Durham, in honor 
of whom the station was called Durham. 

The first store opened for business was by Messrs. B. L. 
Duiham, John W. Carr (father of Julian S. Carr, President 
B. D. Tobacco Co.) and James Mathews, with our venerable 
and popu.ar townsman, M. A. Angier, as clerk. This store 
was situated at the Rigsbee corner — then known as the An- 
gier corner — now corner Main and Mangum streets. 

Establishment of Durham County. 

The bill for the establishment of the County of Durham 
was introduced in the General Assembly, in the early part 
of the session of 1881, by Hon. Caleb B. Green, then a rep- 
resentative from the County of Orange. The bill was sub- 
mitted to and ratified by the people April 10. 1881. The fol- 
low! ng is a copy of thelaw(seechap. 1 38, pp. 272, Laws of 1881); 



30 History of Durham. 



The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact : 

Section 1. That a couuty by the name of Darharn be and 
the same is hereby created and established out of and em- 
bracing parts of the counties of Orange and Wake, the whole 
to lie within and iiave the following specified bounds, that 
is to say : Beginning at the north-east corner of Orange coun- 
ty, tlunce with the Orange and Person line north eighty- 
seven degrees, west, eight miles, to the corner of Mangum 
and Little River townships of Orange county; thence south 
ten degrees west, twenty five and one quarter miles to the 
Chatham county line, at the corner of Patterson and Chapel 
Hill townships; thence with the Chatham county line south 
eight3^-seven degrees east, seven miles, to the Wake county 
line ; thence the same course four miles, to a point in Wake 
County; Cedar Fork township; thence a line parallel to the 
Wake and Oiange line north fifteen degreese ast, thirteen and 
one half miles, to the corner of New Light and Oak Grove 
townships ; thence continuing the satne course two and one- 
quarter miles, and following tlie dividing line between said 
townships to the Granville county line, at the corner of the 
aforesaid townships ; thence with the Wake and Granville 
line to their corner on Neuse river, in the Orange county 
line; thence with the Granville line about north nine and 
three-quarter miles to the beginning. 

Skc. 2. That the said county of Durham, hereby created, be 
and the same is hereby invested with all the rights, powers, 
privileges, advantages and immunities that belong and ap- 
[lertain to other counties in this state. 

Sec. o. That Isaac N. Linke, of said county of Durham, 
be and is hereby a[)pointed a commissioner to survey and 
mark the line between the said couuty of Durham and the 
said counties of Orange, Chatham, Wake, Granville and 
Person, as designated and specified in the first section of this 
act, and he shall within thirty days next after the ratifica- 
tion of this act, make a report of such survey under his hand 
and seal to the commissioners respectively of said counties, 
which report shall form and be a part of the record of the 
proceedings of said commissioners of said counties ; and said 
commissionersshall furnish the commissioners of said county 
of Durham with a ma[) thereof. Said commissioner to sur- 
vey said line shall have power to employ such persons as 
ma}' be necessary for making such survey, and he and such 
other persons shall be allowed a reasonable compensation 



Establishment of Durham County. 31 



for such service, to be allowed by the commissioners of said 
county of Durham. And if, for any cause, the said Isaac N. 
Link cannot make such surve3',then and in such case, David 
G. McDuflie is hereby appointed to make the same, and he 
shall be |)aid for his services as herein provided. 

Sec. 4. That if said boundary line shall divide any town- 
ship of any of said counties of Orange and Wake, any 
officer of any such township, who shall reside within said 
county of Durham, shall continue to hold and exercise his 
said office in the said count}' of Durham until his successor 
shall be elected or appointed, and qualified according to law. 

Sec. 5. That the sheriffs and other county officers of Oi- 
ange and Wake counties respectively, shall continue to 
exercise the functions of their respective offices in the detached 
portions of said last mentioned counties, until the county 
officers of said county of Durham shall be elected or appointed 
and qualified according to law. 

Sec. G. That justices of the peace shall bo appointed 

as now provided by law for said county of Durham ; and said 
justices of the peace shall, on the first Monday in May, Anno 
Domini one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one, assem- 
ble at the town of Durham and elect five commissioners for 
said county, who shall thereupon be forthwith qualified by 
any one of the said justices of the peace, and he shall certify 
sucli qualification and deliver his certificate in such respect 
to the clerk of said commissioners, and he shall file thesauie 
among the records and papers of his offica ; and said com- 
missioners so elected shall hold their offices respectively 
until their successors shall be elected and qualified according: 
to existing laws. 

Sec, T. That it shall be the dut}' of said county commis- 
sioners, forthwith after their qualification, to divide the said 
county into convenient districts; to determine and fix the 
boundaries of the same, and prescribe names therefor, and 
designate voting places in said districts according to law, at 
which all elections by the qualified electors of s^id county 
of Durham shall be held. 

Sec 8. That the said county commissioners, as soon as 
they shall establish said districts and voting places, shall 
provide, according to law, for the registration of electors and 
the election of county officers for said county, except as in 
this act otherwise provided, and an election for such officers 
shall be held on the first Thursday of August, Auuo Domiui 
one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one. 



32 History of Durham. 



Sec. 9. That said commissioners, at their first meeting 
shall appoint a sheriff, a coroner and constables for said 
county, who shall give bond and qualify as such officers ac- 
cording to existing laws, and said last named officers and all 
county officers so to be elected shall liold and exercise their- 
offices respectively until theii' successors sliall be elected or 
ajipointed according to existing laws, regulating the elec- 
tions of sheriffs, coroners, constables, and other county 
officers. 

Sec. 10. That the town of Durham shall be the county 
town of said county of Durham, and the court house and 
jail thereof shall be located in said town on a site or sites 
to be selected by the county commissioners, and the site for 
the court house shall eml)race at lea-;t one acre and a half 
of land, and the site for the jail at least one-half acre of 
land; and said county commi-sioners shall purchase or 
receive by donation lots or i)aicels of land sufficient for 
the last mentioned [imposes; and shall proceed according to 
existing laws to have a court house and jail for said last men- 
tioned county construc'ed; and until the same shall be com- 
pleted or may be used, said commissioners shall select and 
provide a temporary f)lace and suitable building for hold- 
ing the court and preserving the records and transacting 
the business of said county of Durham, as in other counties. 

Sec. 11. That the superior courts of this State shall have 
jurisdiction in and over said county of Durham, as such 
count}', on and after the second Thursday of August, Anno 
Domini one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one, to 
the same extent and in the same manner as the said courts 
have ill and over the several counties of this State ; and the 
said courts shall be within the fifth (5th) judicial district and 
a superior court therefor sliall be held on the first Monday 
in Februar}' and the first Monda}'' in August of each suc- 
ceeding year, and all actions, both civil and criminal, of 
which the said last mentioned court would have had juris- 
diction, had the same existed at the time of the beginning 
of said actions shall be removed into and tried or disposed 
of according to law in said last mentioned court: Provided, 
nevertheless, both civil and criminal, to which citizens of said 
county of Durham are parties, pending in the superior 
courts of said counties of Orange and Wake, may be con- 
tinued in the courts of said counties respectively, at the 
option of the party- residing in said county of Durham; 



Establishment of Durham County, 33 



ham ; but, when such actions shall be so transferred to the 
court of said county of Duriiara, it shall be without preju- 
dice by reason of such transfer; and all persons who shall 
be adjudged to be inijirisoned in said county of Durham, 
before the completion of a jail for said last named county, 
shall be committed to the jail of Orange county. But, 
until the second Thursday of August, Anno Domini one 
thousand eight hundred and eighty-one, all actions, both 
civil and criminal, shall be begun and prosecuted as now 
provided by law. 

Skc. l*i. That the cou'Uy commissioners of Durham 
county shall be, and are hereby empowered to appoint three 
or more commissioners to confer with the commissioners 
of Orange and Wake counties, for the purpose of ascertain- 
ing the proportionate part of the public debt of Orange and 
Wake counties to be assumed by the county of Durham, 
and such settlement shall be based upon the amount of 
taxable property and polls according to the valuation of 
property in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
eighty; and said county commissioners shall i)roceed ac- 
cording to law to levy and collect a tax sutiicient to pay 
such })roportionate part of the debt of the counties of Orange 
and Wake, when it shall have been so ascertained. 

Sec. 13. That nevertheless, an election shall be hold in 
said county of Durham, on second Thursday in April, 
Anno Domini one thousand eight hundred and eight3'-one, 
for tlie purpose of ascertaining whether or not a majority 
of the electors of said count}' shall be in favor of the estab- 
lishment thereof; that at such last mentioned election every 
male person born in the United States, and every such per- 
son who has been iiaturalized, twenty-one years old and up- 
wards, and who shall have resided in the boundary line of 
said county for thirty days next before the said last specified 
day of election, except such persons as by the constitution 
and laws of this State are not deemed electors, shall be en- 
titled to vote at said election in, and only in, the township 
or precinct where he shall reside, and be dul}^ registered on 
the day of such election, except as hereinafter otherwise 
provided; and every elector voting at said election, who 
shall be in favor of the establishment of the said county of 
Durham, shall have printed or written on his ballot the 
words, " For the county (>f Durham," and every elector who 
shall be opposed to the establishment of said county of 



34 History of DuRnAM. 



Durham shall have printed or wrilten on liis ballot the 
words, " Against the county of Durham," and the judges or 
inspectors of election, appointed by this act to hold said 
election in the several precincts respectively, shall carefully 
count the votes cast at such election, and designate the 
number so cast "For the county of Durham," and likewise 
the number so cast "Against the county of Durham," and 
respectively certify the result under their hands to the com- 
missioners herein provided to canvass the votes cast at the 
several voting [)lace3 in said county. 

Sec. 14. That said election shall be held in that part of 
Durham township in said count}'- of Orange, embraced in 
said county of Durham, in the town of Durham, by and 
under the superintendence of John C. Angier, registrar, S. 
W. Chamberlain and B. L Duke; that said election shall 
be held in that part of Patterson township in said county 
of Orange, embraced in said county of Durham, at Patter- 
son's jMills, by and under the superintendence of A. B. 
Couch, registrar, C. H. Carlton and A. P. Stroud ; and like- 
wise at Asa Gunter's in said lost mentioned township, by 
and under the superintendence of G. A. Barbee, registrar, 
Rufus Massey and Simon Barbee; that said election shall 
be held in Mangum's township as now constituted in said 
county of Orange embraced within said county of Durhamj 
and likewise that part of Little River township in said 
count}' of Orange embraced in said county of Durham, the 
whole making one township for the purpose of the said 
election at Mangum's store, by and under the superinten- 
dence of S. G. Scruggs, registrar, W. D. Lunsford and Wm. 
Bass; that said election shall beheld in Lebanon township, 
as now constituted in said county of Orange embraced in 
said county of Durham, at Bladen Springs, by and under 
the superintendence of J. G. Latta, registrar, S. H. Johnson 
and Thomas Lipscomb; and such electors as may reside in 
that part of said Little River township embraced in said 
county of Drham, shall register and vote at either of the 
last mentioned voting places in their discretion ; that the 
said election within that part of Cedar Fork township, as 
now established in Wake county embraced in said county 
of Durham, shall be held at Cedar Fork church, by and 
under the superintendence of Ransom O'Brien, registrar, 
Hiram Weatherspoon and Asa Green ; that the said election 
within that part of Oak Grove township, as now consti- 



Establishment of Durham County. 85 



tuted in said county of Wake embraced in snid county of 
.Durham, shall be iield at Sandy Level churchy by and under 
the superintendence of John Hall, registrar, John Pollard 
and William Evans. 

Skc. 15. Tlie electors residing witliin the said county of 
Durham, whether they have heretofore been registered in 
the counties of Orange and Wake or not, shall each be reg- 
istered in the township or precinct where lie sliali reside, 
before he shall be entitled to vote at said election, and to 
this end (he several registrars, in section sixteen of this act 
appointed, shall, each in the township or precinct for which 
he is appointed, open a registration book ior the registration 
of such electois as nniy reside in said last referred to town- 
ship or precinct and be entitled to vote; he shall open such 
registration book for the registrat^ion of such electors on 
Thursday next before the day of said election, and keep the 
same open for the registration of such electors from day to 
day, Sunday excepted, until and including Wednesday next 
before the day of said election ; electors shall take the oath, 
which said registrars are hereb}' authorized to administer, 
now prescribed by law for electors, and registration shall 
be conducted as now prescribed by law, except as otherwise 
provided by this act; electors residing in that part of said 
Little River tovvnsliiji in said county of Durham may, in 
their discretion be registered either in said jMangum town- 
ship in said county of Durham, or in that part of said Leb- 
anon township in said county of Durham, but they sliall 
vote only in the township where they shall so register. 

Sec. 16. That John C. Angier be and he is hereby ap- 
pointed such registrar for that part of the said tovvnship of 
Durham in said county of Durham, and the registration 
book for this township shall be so kept open for the regis- 
tration of electors at Angler's store in Durham ; A. B Couch , 
registrar for the precinct in that part of Patterson's town- 
ship in said county of Durham, embracing Patterson's mills, 
and the registration book for the precinct shall be so kept 
open at Patterson's store; G. A. Barbee, registrar for the 
precinct in said part of Patterson tovrnship embracing Asa 
Gunter's, and the registration book for this precinct shall be 
so kept open at G. A. Barbee's house; Ransom O'Brien, reg- 
istrar for that part of said Cedar Fork township in said 
county of Durham, and the registration book for that town- 
ship shall be so kept open at Ransom O'Brien's residence; 



36 History of Durham. 



John Hall, registrar for that part of said Oak Grove towii- 
shi[) embraced in said coiiaty of Darhi'Ji, and the registra- 
tion book f >r that township shall be so ijept open at F. M. 
Barbee's store; S. G. Scruggs, registrar for said township of 
M;uignn:i in said county of Durham, and the registration 
[book] f.)r that township shall be so kept open at Mangum's 
store; J. G. Latta, registrar for that part of L-^banon town- 
ship in said county of Durham, and the registration book 
for that township shall be so kept open at J. G. Latta's resi- 
dence. 

Sec. 17. Each of said registrars shall be as herein pro- 
vided one of the judges or inspectors of election in the town- 
ship or precinct for which he is such registrar; he shall have 
the regintration hook containing the names of the electors 
so registered by him at .the proper voting place on the said 
day of election as now required by law; and he shall pre- 
serve such registration book and deposit the same in the 
office of the county commissioners of said county of Dur- 
ham, as soon as they shall be organized. 

Sec. is. That, the said judges or inspectors, so appointed 
to hold and superintend such election, shall each be sworn 
by an acting justice of the peace to well, truly and fairly 
hold such election, and certify the result thereof, as in this 
act provided ; no elector after registration shall be chal- 
lenged, except when he offers to vote, and if the right of any 
person offering to vote shall be challenged, any one of the 
said judges or inspectors at the voting place where such 
person so offers to vote, may administer an oath to such 
person and examine him touching his right to vote, and the 
said judges or inspectors holding said election at such last 
named voting place shall determine whether or not such 
])erson has the right to vote, and to allow or disallow his 
vote according to law, and the said judges or inspectors so 
holding said election shall respectively keep a written list 
of the names of the electors voting, and return the same 
with their certificate of the result of the election so held by 
them, and said judges or inspectors of election designated 
and charged to hold the said election at each voting place 
shall repectively, as soon as the result of the election shall 
be so ascertained, designate one of their number to convey 
the certificate of tlie result of the election so held by them 
to the town of Durham by twelve o'clock meridian of Fri- 
day next after the day of said election ; and the judges or 



Establishment of Durham County. 37 



inspectors so conveying such certificate of the result of said 
election at the voting places represented by them respec- 
tively, shall compose and constitute a board of canvassers 
to compare and count and ascertain the result of the vote so 
cast and certified in said county of Durham, and this shall 
be done on the said last mentioned day ; and the canvassers 
so comprising said board shall be sworn by any justice of 
the peace to well and faiihfully so ascertain the result of the 
said vote so cast in said county ; and as soon as the said 
board shall so ascertain the result of said vote in said county 
of Durham, they shall certify the said result under their 
hands to the Governor, and he shall forthwith make known 
such result by proclamation, and if it shall turn out that a 
majority of the votes so cast in the said count}' of Durham 
,were " For the county of Durham," then in that case the 
said county of Durham shall thenceforth continue to be 
such county, as by this act established ; but if, on the con- 
trarj'-, it shall turn out that a majority of the votes so cast 
in the said county of Durham were " Against the county of 
Durham," then in that case the said county of Durham 
shall cease to be such county, and this act shall be inopersK 
tive and of no further effect, and the counties of Orange and, 
Wake shall remain respectively as they now are. 

Sec. 19. If for any cause any one of the judges or insi>ec- 
tors,so appointed to hold said election, shall fail to discharge 
the duty with which he is by this act char^ged, then the 
acting judges or inspectors or judge or inspector may ap- 
point a judge or inspector to supply his place. 

Sec. 20. The polls at the said voting places as to time, 
shall be opened and closed as now provided by law for the 
election of members of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 21. If any person shall disturb, prevent or in any 
way interfere with said election, any person so offending 
shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, on convic- 
tion in the superior court, shall be fined and imprisoned in 
the discretion of the court. 

Sec. 22. If any person shall vote at such election, who is 
not entitled to vote, however said judges or inspectors may 
decide every person so voting, shall be deemed guilty of a 
misdemeanor, and, on conviction in the superior court, 
shall be fined and imprisoned in the discretion of the court. 

Sec. 23. Said registrars shall be sworn to faithfully dis- 
charge their duty as such by any acting justice of the peace, 

o 



38 History of Durham. 



and such registrar shall respectively register such persona 
as shall become qualified in respect of age and residence or 
otherwise on the day of election, and such person so regis- 
tered shall be allowed to vote. 

Sec. 24. If at the election provided by this act a majority 
of those who vote in the township[s] of Cedar Fork and 
Oak Grove, in the county of Wake, shall vote "Against the 
county of Durham," then those po-rtions of said townships 
comprehended within the line of the county of Durham 
shall not be part of said county of Durham, but shall be and 
remain portions of the county of Wake, notwithstanding 
the townships in Orange may vote for said county of Dur- 
ham, and in that event said county of Durham shall consist 
of the territory mentioned in this act exclusive of said por- 
tions of Cedar Fork and Oak Grove townships. 

Sec. 25. This act shall be in force from and after its rati- 
fication. 

Read three times in the General Assembly, and ratified 
this the 28th day of February, A. D. 1881. 

Pursuant to the provisions of the bill, the Justices of the 
Peace for the new county met in the town of Durham on 
the 1st of May, 1881, and proceeded to ballot for County 
Commissioners. The following gentlemen having received 
a majorit}' of votes cast, v/ere declared duly elected : Messrs. 
A. K. Umstead, Washington Duke, G. A. Barbee, John T, 
Nichols and S. W. Holman. 

The new board met on May 2d, 1881, over John L. Mark- 
ham's store, corner Main and Mangum streets, and, after 
qualifying, organized and elected Mr. A. K. Umstead chair- 
man, and W. T. Patterson, clerk, who also acted as Superior 
Court Clerk until the election of Mr. J. S. Ferrell in Au- 
gust of the same year. The board also appointed Mr. Jas. 
R. Blacknall as sheriff, D. L. Belvin constable and Dr. A, 
G. Carr as coroner. Mr. Wm. Lipscomb was also appointed 
tax assessor for Durham township. 

At the election, which occurred first Tuesday in August, 
1881, Mr. J. J. Ferrell was elected Superior Court Clerk, and 
Dr. W. M. Laws, Register of Deeds. Among the proceed- 
ings of the second meeting of the Board of County Commis- 
sioners, Ma}^ 10th, 1881, we find the following wise and 
.commendable order : 

" The question of granting license to retail spirituous 



Incorporation of Durham. 



39 



liquors in the count}' of Durham to several parties petition- 
ing^ was taken up, and after a fair and full discussion, it was 
ordered that no license should be issued to sell spirituous 
liquors in the county of Durham. By request, A. K. Um- 
stead's vote was recorded in favor of not granting them." 

If this noble example had been strictly followed after- 
ward, much suffering, pauperism, crime and death would 
have been averted. It may be said to the honor of this 
board that among their very first acts they manifested a 
desire to promote not only the material but the moral inter- 
ests of society. 

In June, 1SS3, the Justice? of the Peace for Durham 
count}' convened in the court-house in the city of Durham, 
and elected the following commissioners: Messrs. Duncan 
Cameron, W. A. Jenkins, D. P. Paschall, G. A. Barbee and 
J. G. Latta. The new board met and organized December 
4th, 1882. 

In June, 1883, the real and personal property of Durham 
Township was assessed at $2,000,200. The assessed value of 
real and personal property at the present writing is about 
$3,000,000— or a market value of about $5,000,00. The as- 
sessed value of the same territory in 1S65 was about $150,000. 

The assessed valuation of real and personal property 
within the corporate limits of the city of Durham is $1,850,- 
000. The assessed value in 1865 was about $120,000. 

ASSESSED ANTE-BELLUM VALUATIONS. 

The land now environed by the corporate limits of the 
City of Durham contains 640 square acres, or one square 
mile. The following table shows the assessed valuation per 
acre and per tract for 1850 and 1860. The assessment for 
1860 was made by Messrs. M. A. Angier, J. P., Z. I. Lyon 
and C. G. Markham. The names of tracts and the number 
of acres each are given for convenient future reference. This 
land will readily sell to-day for from $5,000 to $15,000 per 
acre, according to locality : 



Name of Tract. 



Proctor Tract 

Strayhorn Tract 

Green Tract 

Pratt Tract 

Dr. Durham Tract. 
May Tract 



No. 
Acres. 



no 

90 

95 

150 

135 

60 



Total ...I 640 



1850. 
Per Acre. Per Tract. 



$3 00 



Av.$2.923\ 



i860. 
Per Acre. Per Tract. 



330 OOj 
450 00 
190 00 
450 00 
270 00 
I So 00 



$ 8 00 
15 00 
8 00 
10 00 
30 00 
10 00 



$ 1,870 00 Av.$i4.28J 



^ 8S0 00 

1,350 00 

760 00 

1,500 00 

'4,050 00 

600 00 



,140 00 



40 History of Durham. 



AN ACT TO INCORPORATE THK TOWN OF DURHAM. 

The bill to incorporate the town of Durham was intro- 
duced in the General Assembly of 1868-'G9, by Hon. T. M. 
Argo. The bill passed and was ratified the 10th day of 
April, 1869. The following is a copy of the act : 

Section 1. The General Assembly of North Carolina do en- 
act: That the Town of Durham, in the county of Orange, 
be, and the same is hereby incorporated, by the name and 
style of " The Town of Durham," and shall be subject to all 
the provisions contained in the one hundred and eleventh 
chapter of the Revised Code : Provided, That any male citi- 
zen residing within the proposed corporation shall be enti- 
tled^to all the privileges contained in an act to provide for 
the holding of municipal elections in North Carolina, rati- 
fied 16th day of December, 1868. 

Sec. 2. That the corporate limits of said Town shall ex- 
tend one-half mile in all directions from the warehouse of 
the North Carolina Railroad in said town. 

Sec. 3, That this act shall be in force from and after its 
ratification. 

Ratified the 10th day of April, 1869. 

JO. W. HOLDEN, 
Speaker of the House. 
TOD. R. CALDWELL, 
President of the Senate. 

I, Henry J. Meuninger, Secretary of State, hereby certify 
that the foregoing is a true copy of the original Act on file 
in this ofiicr. 

H. J. MENNINGER, 
Secretary of State. 

At the first election under the provisions of this act, the 
following municipal officers were elected : 

Maijor—R. F. Morris. 

Commissioners — William Mangum, W. K. Styron, Wil- 
liam Clark, J. W. Cheek and John A. McManning, Sr. 

DURHAM GRADED SCHOOL. 

The bill establishing the Durham Graded School was in- 
troduced in the General Assembly of 1881, by Hon. Caleb 



Graded School. 41 



B. Green; submitted to and ratified by the people in May, 
1882. The following is a copy of the law (Laws 1881, chap. 
231, page 433): 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact : 

Section 1. The commissioners for the town of Durham are 
hereby authorized to submit to the qualified voters of said 
town, at such time and under such rules and regulations as 
the said commissioners may prescribe, whether an annual 
tax shall be levied therein for the support of a graded school 
in said town. That such qualified voters at such election 
are authorized to vote on written or printed ballots the words 
" for school " and " against school," and the penalties for 
illegal and fraudulent voting in this election shall be the 
same as in the annual elections for mayor and commission- 
ers of the town of Durham. 

Sec. 2. In case a majority of the qualified voters at such 
election shall be in favor of such tax, the same shall be 
levied and collected by the town authorities under the same 
rules and regulations by which other iown taxes are levied 
and collected, and the tax collector shall be subject to the 
same liabilities for the collection and disbursement of said 
tax as he is or may be for other town taxes : Provided, The 
special taxes so levied and collected shall not exceed one- 
fifth of one per centum on the value of property and seventy- 
five cents on the poll, and that the taxes thus levied and 
collected shall be applied exclusively for the support of a 
"graded public school," and shall not be appropriated or 
expended for any other purpose. 

Sec. 3. The special taxes thus levied and collected from 
the taxable property and polls of white persons shall be ex- 
pended in keeping up a graded public school for white persons 
of both sexes, between the ages of six and twent-one years ; 
and the special taxes thus levied and collected from the 
taxable property and polls of colored persons shall be 
expended for the benefit of the public schools of the colored 
children of both sexes, between the ages of six and twenty- 
one years, in said town. 

Sec. 4. If a majority of the qualified voters of the town of 
Durham shall vote "for school," the commissioners for said 
town, at their next regular meeting, and their successors in 
ofiice at their first regular meeting, in the month of June 



42 History of Durhaji. 



annually thereafter, shall elect three gentlemen of integrit}' 
and ability, qualified voters of said town, to constitute "the 
Durham Board of Education and Learning," and the said 
"Durham Board of Education and Learning," the school 
committee for the school district in Orange county com- 
posed of the town of Durham, and the mayor of the town of 
Durham, who shall be cx-ojjicio chairman, but have no vote 
except in case of a tie, shall be and are hereby created a 
bod}' corporate by the name of the " Durham Graded School 
Committee," which shall have full control and management 
of the " Durham Graded School," and each member of said 
"Graded School Committee" shall continue in office until 
his successor shall be elected or appointed and qualified. 

Sec. 5. The Durham Graded School Committee may sue 
and be sued, have a common seal, purchase and hold' real 
and personal property not exceeding fifty thousand dollars 
in value, and may adopt any rules and regulations for its 
government not inconsistent with the laws of North Carolina. 

Sec. 6. The principal and teachers of such graded public 
school shall not be subject to the restrictions and limitations 
as to salary, prescribed by section fifty-one of chapter sixty- 
eight of Battle's Revisal ; but may be paid such compensa- 
tion as the "Durham Graded School Committee" may deem 
just and proper. 

Sec. 7. This act shall be in force from and after its ratifi- 
cation. 

In the General Assembly read three times, and ratified this 
the 9th day of March, A. D. 1881. 

This school is now one of the most important and at the 
same time one of the most flourishing institutions of the 
town, and experience has demonstrated the fact that Dur- 
ham with its great energy and enterprise, has never taken 
a more positive step towards material, as well as intellectual 
advancement, than in the establishment of its Graded 
School. It is now past the domain of experiment and is 
one of the fixtures which is pointed to with genuine pride 
and admiration. 

ITS ORIGIN. 

In the Legislature of 1881, Hon. Caleb B. Green intro- 
duced and secured the passage of a bill providing that when 



Graded School. 



so requested the Town Commissioners should submit to the 
people for their ratiiScation or rejection the proposition to 
levy annually a special tax of 20 cents upon the |100 worth 
of real and personal projierty, and 75 cents upon the poll, for 
the maintenance of a Graded School for the white race. 
The bill provided for the election, by the Commissioners, 
for a term of one year of a Board of Education and Learn- 
ing, to be composed of three citizens of integrity and learn- 
ing, and that this Board in conjunction with the Public 
School Committee of the District, with the Mayor as chair- 
man ex officio^ should compose the Durham Graded School 
Committee. 

After the passage of the bill but little was said of the 
matter for some months, and many thought the Duriiam 
Graded School was a thing of the distant future. However, 
now and tlien, through the year 18S1, the importance of 
the subject was urged through Mr. Green's paper, the lohacco 
Plant. In February or March, 1882, the Commissioners 
were petitioned to submit the proposition to the voters of 
the town at the municipal election to be held the first Mon- 
daj' in the following May. Accordingly, the election was 
ordered and a vigorous campaign was instituted, which 
grew more and more intense until it culminated in a most 
decisive victory for the advocates of the School — the vote 
being a little more than three to one in favor of the estab- 
lishment of this institution. 

As the duty of electing the Board of Education would 
devolve upon the incoming Board of Commissioners, active 
and successful efibrts weie made to elect citizens favorable 
to the measure. By very large majorities, the following 
gentlemen were elected Commissioners, viz: R.W.Thomas, 
W. A. Lea, W. H. Rogers, R. D. Blacknall, and \V. H. 
Rowland. 

LEADERS OF THE MOVEMENT. 

Where so man}' did such effective work in establishing 
this school, it might appear invidious to discriminate in 
ascribing leadership; but it is generally conceded that spe- 
cial credit is due the following gentlemen for extraordinary 
exertions in behalf of the movement, viz: C. B. Green, J. 
B. Whitaker, Jr., John M. Moring, W. T. Blackwell, James 
W. Jones, Js F. Freeland, D. C. Mangum, R. W. Thomas, 
N. A. Ramsey and T. C. Oakley. 



44 History of Durham. 



The Hon. Wm. A. Guthrie, of Fayetteville, N. C.,is held 
in grateful remembrance for valuable aid rendered during 
this memorable campaign. 

ORGANIZATION. 

On June 5th, 1882, the Town Commissioners elected the 
following gentlemen as the Durham Board of Education 
and Learning, for a term of one year, viz : Messrs. Eugene 
Morehead, J. B. Whitaker, Jr., and J. S. Carr. The School 
Committee for the District, embracing the town, was com- 
posed of Messrs. D. C. Gunter, William Maynor and T. C. 
Oakley. The Board of Education and the School Commit- 
tee, with the Mayor as chairman ex officio, constituted the 
first Graded School Committee. Mr. J. S. Carr, being Presi- 
dent of the Methodist Female Seminary, declined the posi- 
tion tendered him on the Board, and on June 8th, 1882, the 
Commissioners elected Mr. Bartholomew Fuller to fill the 
vacancy. 

The first meeting of the Committee was held June 10th, 
1882. Mr. J. B. Whitaker, Jr., was elected Secretary and 
Treasurer. Subsequently, it was determined to open the 
School September 4th, 1882. Prof. E. W. Kennedy, a native 
of Tennessee, but at this time occupying a position in the 
Goldsboro Graded School, was elected Superintendent, with 
the following corps of teachers : Prof. C. D. Mclver, Assis- 
tant Superintendent, Mrs. M. E. Mahoney, Misses Lula 
Freeland and Bessie Fanning. Later it was found neces- 
sary to engage another male teacher, and Professor Price 
Thomas, of Tennessee, was selected for the position. 

THE SUPERINTENDfeXT. 

As the success of a school depends very largely upon the 
capability of the Superintendent, the committee was very 
fortunate in securing tlie services of Prof. E. W. Kennedy 
for this most important position. A fine scholar, experi- 
enced in the graded system of instruction, with superior 
executive ability, and without an equal in the State as a 
disciplinarian, he has given abundant evidence by his con- 
duct of the school that he is the "right man in the right 
place." Devoted to his work, with a determination to suc- 
ceed, and moreover, a close student, the increasing brilliancy 



Graded School. 45 



of his reputation attests that the highest success awaits him. 
Prof. Kennedy has endeared liimself to the pupils, and is 
regarded hy the citizens generally as a valuable member of 
the community. During the vacation of 1SS4, he proposes 
to visit Germany, Italy and other European countries, and 
while absent will apply himself to special studies. 

LOCATION. 

Wright's Factory, on Main street, was leased, and during 
the Summer of 1882 it was re-modeled and adapted in some 
degree to the necessities of the school. It was supplied with 
patent desks and seats and such other furniture and fixtures 
as the means at command would warrant. 

OPENING OF THE SCHOOL. 

At the time previously designated, September 4th, 1882, 
the doors of the school were opened for the reception of 
pupils, and an important and memorable day it was in the 
history of our thriving little city. Three hundred and eight 
pupils were enrolled the first month. 

In November, 1SS2, the school and the community sus- 
tained a great loss in the death of Mr. B. Fuller, a member 
of the Board of Education. A committee was appointed to 
draft resolutions expressive of the loss of such a true friend 
and wise counselor, and the school was adjourned as a mark 
of respect. 

Mr. S. F. Tomlinson was elected to fill the vacancy occa- 
sioned b}' the death of Mr. Fuller. 

Soon after the school was opened Mr. Eugene Morehead 
donated $100 lor the purpose of supplying books to poor 
children. He also loaned the committee a sum of money 
for several months, without interest. 

In December, 1882, the term of office of the Public School 
Committeemen expired and the County Commissioners 
elected the following gentlemen : Messis. C. B. Green, John 
L. Markham and John V. Riggsbee. 

The Graded School Act was amended b.y the Legislature 
of 1883, as follows: Changed the word " Orange " to " Dur- 
ham ;" provided that the Board of Education should be 
composed of four members to serve for two years, and struck 
out the clause creating the Mayor chairman ex officio of the 



46 History of Durham. 



Board. It also placed the general school fund of the Dis- 
trict (for the white race) at the disposal of the committee. 

THE LIBRARY. 

Recognizing the importance of a Library in connection 
with the school, on the 10th of May, 18S3, Profs. Kennedy 
and Mclver started the ball in motion by the contribution 
of a few volumes. These were followed by other dona- 
tions, and at the meeting of the committee, May loth, 1883, 
it was ordered that an admission fee be charged at the Ex- 
hibition to be given by the school at the close of the first 
year, and that the net proceeds be applied to the Library. 
About $125.00 were realized from the Exhibition and the 
Library has continued to grow from that time to the 
present. 

The Exhibition was a most creditable affair, and was 
witnessed by one of the largest audiences ever assembled 
in Stokes Hall. The order and regularity of movement of 
so large a number of children were wonderful and elicited 
general admiration. 

NEW ADMINISTRATION. 

On June 5th, 1883, the Town Commissioners elected as the 
Board of Education for the ensuing term of two years, 
Messrs. Eugene Morehead, J. B. Whitaker, .Jr., S. F. Tom- 
linson, and Geo. W. Watts. Mr. Watts declined to serve, 
and on June 18th, the Board of Education elected Mr. John 
C. Angier in his place. 

On June 6th, J 883, the Committee re-organized by electing 
Mr. Eugene Morehead, President ; Mr. J. B. V/hitaker, .Jr., 
Secretary, and Mr. John L. Markham, Treasurer. At this 
meeting, all the teachers of the past year were re-elected, 
viz.: Prof. E. W. Kennedy, Superintendent; Profs. C. D. Mc- 
lver and Price Thomas, Mrs. M. E. Mahoney, Misses Lula 
Freeland and Bessie Fanning. All of these accepted, with 
the exception of Mrs. Mahone3^ On June 25th, the following 
additional teachers were elected : Mrs. S. T. Morgan, Misses 
Dora Fanning, Ida Christmas and Eva Cox. August 9th, 
1883, Prof. Price Thomas resigned to accept the Superinten- 
dency of the New Berne Graded School. September 1st, 
1883, Miss Ida Christmas resigned to accept a position in the 



Graded School. 47 



New Berne school. September Sth, notice was given that 
Mr. John V. Rigsbee had resigned as a member of the Com- 
mittee, and that in his place the Count}' Commissioners had 
elected Mr. Wm. H. Rogers. On the same day, Prof. C. L. 
Dowell, of Raleigh, was elected a teacher, vice Prof. Tliomas, 
resigned. 

Prof. C. D. Mclver, having been elected Assistant Super- 
intendent of the Winston Graded School, tendered his resig- 
nation, to take effect in January, 18S4, which was accepted 
Prof. Thomas J, Simmons, of Fayetteville, was chosen to 
fill the vacancy. 

A NEW BUILDING PROPOSED. 

The first official step towards the erection of a Graded 
School Building was taken January IGth, 1884, when a com- 
mittee was appointed to recommend a .site, ascertain price, 
&c. The committee still have the matter under considera- 
tion, and we venture the opinion that before the opening of 
a new year there will be erected a handsome edifice for the 
permanent use of the school. 

FIRST GRADUATING CLASS. 

The graduating class of 1884 will be composed of Misses 
Katie Cox, Etta Fanning, Marion Fuller, .Jessie Lewellin, 
Annie McGary, and Mr. Chas. A. W. Barham, Jr. Graduates 
of the school are permitted to return and pursue any study 
at pleasure. 

ADVANTAGES TO NON-RESIDENTS. 

The superior advantages afforded by our Graded School 
are not confined to the citizens of the town. Pupils from 
the^Clntry and from other towns will be received upon 
payment of fees amounting to onl}' about one-half the regu- 
lar charges of other schools. Many are availing themselves 
of these extraordinary facilities, and this number will con- 
tinue to increase. The school stands in the foremost ranks 
of the educational institutions of the State, and when a good 
thing can be procured at half-price people are not slow to 
tivail themselves of it. 



48 History of Durham. 



FROM THE pupil's STANDPOINT. 

The school is not only popular with the parents and guar- 
dians, and older people generally, but it is held in still 
higher regard, if possible, bj'' the pupils. So attached to it 
are they that it requires strong persuasion or the interposi- 
tion of parental authority to cause them to absent them- 
selves even in extreme weather. To please the children, 
parents often hire conve3'ances to take them to the building. 
Such universal fondness for school was unknown before the 
establishment of the Graded School. The attendance record 
of this school stands without parallel in the State. 

ITS FUTURE. 

With age the school has grown stronger and its future 
is bright with promises of great usefulness. The proba- 
bilities are that generations yet unborn will rise up to bless 
the founders and all who have contributed to the establish- 
ment and perpetuity of so noble an institution. 

LOCATION OF SITE FOR BUILDING. 

Since the above was written, Mr. J. S. Carr has very gen- 
erously donated a lot valued at $3,000, located on Railroad 
street, near his residence. The Committee have accepted 
the gift and also decided to purchase the lot adjoining, (the 
property of Mr. W. W. Fuller,) for $2,500, making the value 
of entire grounds, containing about one and a quarter acres, 
$5,500. Efforts are now being made to raise funds for the 
erection of a $12,500 or $15,000 building for the use of the 
school. It is the purpose of the Committee to erect the 
building this year. 



THE STATUS OF THE COLORED RACE. 

In passing it seems appropriate in this place to refer 
briefly to the condition and position of the colored people 
of North Carolina — and especially of this section of the 
State. The impression prevails to some extent in the North- 
ern States that though by the act of emancipation made 
legally free, the negroes of the South are practically in as 
complete subordination to the white people as ever they 



The Colored Race. 49 



were, and that the gift of freedom, instead of contributing 
to their advancennent, has tended to repress them by reason 
of the prejudice and opposition of the whites. Whatever 
may be the case in other portions of the South — and we do 
not believe it warranted in any portion — that impression is 
entirely without foundation, except in conjecture or mis- 
representation, so far as North Carolina is concerned. If 
any people anywhere possess a full measure of liberty to do 
for themselves as to themselves seems best, without let or 
hindrance, it is the colored people — men, women and chil- 
dren — of this State. In all public places they are cheerfully 
allowed not only to assume but to assert their rights; and, 
as a consequence, they are as " happy as the day is long," 
as the old saying goes. They sing at their work and at 
their play without objection from their employers; and to 
listen to their melodious strains on the raihvay cars, in 
which some of them are always moving; in the great to- 
bacco manufactories, or on the cotton or other plantations, 
is a pleasure that is worth a long journey to enjoy. They 
are contented and they are prospering. They are a class 
still distinct from the whites, and for many years they must 
remain so; but the kind consideration with which they are 
every where treated in the State, and the many opportuni- 
ties the State affords — educationally and industrially — for 
their advancement to a higher plane of existence are cir- 
cumstances that are helping them to push upward and on- 
ward rapidly in the scale of being. Schools and churches 
for them abound in all the towns and many of the villages, 
and in all the avocations of life they have an equal chance 
with their former masters and their descendants. Com- 
mencing with nothing but their ability to labor, many of 
them are now the owners of farms and farm stock, stores 
and other business establishments, and in the possession of 
what they have acquired they are as fairly protected as are 
the whites. With all the primary branches of the tobacco 
interest they are prominently identified, and it is for the 
reason that they are so that we have devoted so much space 
here to the subject of their welfare. 

A large majority of all the hands employed in the facto- 
ries and warehouses here, are colored, are well treated and 
receive good wages. Blackwell's Durham Tobacco Co. em- 
ploy about 500 men, women and children. They have large 
and flourishing churches and schools, and so far as the 
writer can ascertain, are contented and prosperous. 



50 History op Duraam. 



CHAPTER II. 



THE BLACKWELL LITIGATION. 

The Origin of and Title to the use of the Word " Dur- 
ham," AND THE " Durham Bull," as Trade-Marks for 
Smoking Tobacco, Being a Brief Review of the Liti- 
gations BETWEEN W. T. BlACKWELL, L. L. ArMISTEAD 

and W. E. Dibrell, with the Decisions of the Courts 
IN Each Case. 

The litigations of W. T. Blackwell & Co. are matters of 
pertinent liistoric interest, so intimately connected with the 
establishment, prosperity and fame of the town of Durham, 
that the writer esteems a brief review of them due, not only 
to the parties directly concerned financially, but also, as an 
important industrial item in the annals of North Carolina. 
The history of Durham, and indeed the history of the 
State, would be incomplete without giving them appropri- 
ate mention. Al'ter the unequivocal and thorough estab- 
lishment by the U. S. Circuit Courts and the Patent Office, 
of W. T. Black well's claims, it is fair to presume, after ex- 
amination, that no honest and intelligent person can for a 
moment doubt their validity, or attempt any further in- 
fringement of the same. The first case we notice is that of 
Armistead vs. Blackwell. 

The history of this desperate attempt to defeat Blackwell 
will be fully set forth in the following pages. The belief 
has been entertained by many that one Wesley A. Wright 
was the originator of the word " Durham " as a mark, and 
so positive was he of his ability to sustain this claim that 
L. L. Armistead was induced to espouse his caus^. But, 
that the reader may have a clear and perfect understanding 
of the matter at issue, it is necessary to state the material 
difference in the issues joined before Judge Rives and Com- 
missioner Leggett. Before Judge Rives Blackwell was 
plaintiff and Armistead defendant; vice versa before the 
Commissioner. In the early part of 1871, Mr. Blackwell, 
having ascertained that one Louis L. Armistead, of Lynch- 
burg, Va., not only claimed the right to use the celebrated 
Bull Brand of Durham Tobacco, but also claimed its 
actual ownership, and, anxious to test the matter in the 



The BlacivWell Litigation. 51 



courts, he applied for and obtained an order restraining 
Armistead from the use of the brand. In due course of time 
the matter came on to be heard, and attention is invited to 
the opinion of one of Virginia's most worthy sous and tal- 
ented jurists, the most casual digest of which will show how 
unconditionally the court surrendered the brand to Blackwell, 
and ordered Armistead to reimburse him. Armistead, 
smarting under the blow, hoped by dropping the Bull, to 
register the words "Durham Smoking Tobacco" as a trade- 
mark. He appears before the patent office, and under the 
solemnity of an oath, claims the exclusive use to the word " Dur- 
ham " as a brand. Here again Blackwell meets him. It is 
found that Blackwell has not only protected his brand by a 
trade-mark on the words with the Bull, but has actually ob- 
tained a trade-mark on the words independent of the Bull. 
The last trade-mark Armistead swears is spurious, and asks 
an interference. The Commissioner says, that while the 
office erred in granting Blackwell his last trade-mark, it 
cannot repeat the error in order that Armistead may be 
placed upon the same footing. He therefore dismisses the 
interference, refuses Armistead the right to register, and 
thus leaves Blackwell with two trademarks. 

The following is the opinion of the Court: 

KiVES, J. — Tlie preliminary injunction in this case was 
founded on the statements of the bill. In pursuance of the 
notice required by statute, the defendant appeared and con- 
tested its emanation upon ex parte affidavits assailing the 
title of the plaintiffs. But in that incipient state of the pro- 
ceedings it would not have been proper, if at all practicable, 
to pass upon the merits of this defense; and the only ques- 
tion then was, whether the case, as presented by the bill 
and affected by this adverse testimony, was still such as to 
require this day till the merits of the controversy could be 
developed by further pleading and testimony. The pro- 
priety of this interposition by the court will scarcely be now 
questioned, as these further proceedings have shown the 
case to be one of perplexity and doubt. 

The pleadings have now been perfected. The defendant's 
answer was duly filed, issue taken upon it, and the cause 
set down for final hearing. A vast volume of testimony has 
also been taken, some of it contradictory, and a vast deal 
of it irrelevant and impertinent. It is to be regretted that 
the zeal of counsel or the anxiety of parties should have so 



52 History of Durham. 



augmeiited the bulk of this testimony as to make a need- 
lessly expensive record of it, and to devolve upon alien- 
gaged in its examination a wearisome amount of unprofita- 
ble reading. Still it is a subject of congratulation that the 
cause is now fully developed in all its aspects and bearings, 
and has been argued with a discriminating force and full- 
ness of research alike masterly and instructive, and calcu- 
lated to produce settled convictions one way or the other. 

Our first task is to acquire accurate and precise ideas of 
the issues made by the pleadings. If this be done, and then 
the law be properly applied, it seems to me we can reach a 
safe conclusion almost without resorting to the voluminous 
testimony. The plaintiffs claim a trade-mark, designed in 
1865 or 1866, and continuously used ever since. It is exem- 
plified and made a part of their bill. The descriptive terms 
are: "Genuine Durham Smoking Tobacco," and the sym- 
bol or device is the side view of a Durham bull. They as- 
sert that this trade-mark has been, violated by the defendant 
in using, under date of January, 1871, tliis term: "The 
Durham Smoking Tobacco," and the symbol or device of 
"a bull's head," with a note of the defendant of Wright's 
patent for the manufacture of " Genuine Durham Smoking 
Tobacco." This latter trade-mark of the defendant is also 
exemplified in the bill and placed in juxtaposition and con- 
trast with plaintiffs' trade-mark. 

The answer, while calling for full proof of the allegations 
of the bill, does not directly deny this statement, but rests 
the defence upon three chief grounds : 1. The prior use of 
this trade-mark by VV^right, (under whom the defendant 
claims,) as far back as 1860 ; 2. That the defendant's trade- 
mark is not an infringement of the plaintiffs', but is wholly 
dissimilar; and, 3, That the plaintiffs by fraudulent repre- 
sentations in the premises, have deprived themselves of all 
equitable assistance. 

The main contest is considered by all parties and the 
counsel in this case to rest upon the irriority in the use of 
this disputed trade-mark. The defendant does not pretend 
that AVright, under whom he claims, ever used the identi- 
cal trade-mark set up by the plaintiffs. On the contrary, 
he takes especial pains to show that he placed no particular 
value on the term ^^ Durham, ^^ which he now asserts belonged 
in common to his and plaintiff's brands. The discovery 
which he had made, and for which he seeks protection^ was 



The Blackwell Litigation. 53 



his preparation for or mode of treating smoking tobacco, 
so as to mitigate its noxious qualities and impart to it an 
agreeable flavor. This is the merit he claims; this the pro- 
cess he has patented. The testimony and the ansvrer con- 
cur in proving that the whole merit of this smoking to- 
bacco, and its celebrity, were due to the use of the flavoring 
he gave his tobacco. He was confessedly the first to com- 
mence its manufacture at Durham station. There was noth- 
ing in the locality he could have reasonably counted upon 
to commend^ his manufacture to the public. But, if we are 
to credit the defendant's answer and his testimony in this 
cause, it was his discovery .of the flavoring compound on 
which he plumed himself. Accordingly it was this which 
he emblazoned on his stencil-plate. Take his own state- 
ment for the present, and what was his brand? "Best 
Spanish Flavored Durham Smoking Tobacco." What, in 
view of the pleadings and evidence in this cause, is the 
characteristic — the vital element — of this trade-mark. Man- 
ifestl}', "Best Spanish Flavored." That was the only con- 
spicuous and discriminating element of this trade-mark. 
" Durham," if indeed a part of it, was, upon the defendant's 
own showing, subordinate and insignificant. Now, the 
plaintiffs concede in the fullest manner Wright's superior 
title to the use and brand of his flavoring compound, and 
disclaim in their process any infringement of it; nor does 
it appear there has been any, nor indeed any formal com- 
plaint of it. 

The pretension of the defendant, then, amounts to this: 
that because, in 18G0, he branded his smoking tobacco 
" Best Spanish Flavored Durham," wholly because of the 
mode in which he flavored it, no subsequent manufacturer 
of the article at Durham, without the use of his process, 
shall brand his as "Genuine Durham Smoking Tobacco," 
with a symbol which he never used. My reply is that, un- 
der the circumstances of his use of the name "Durham," 
there was nothing in it so descriptive as to restrain succeed- 
ing manufacturers at the same place from engrafting it on 
their brand, so long as they laid no claim to nor made any 
use of his " best flavored Spanish " compound, which he in- 
deed appropriated by this first and original use of this only 
conspicuous term on his stencil-plate in 1860-'61. It must 
be remembered that Wright was only in the infanc}' of this 
manufacture at Durham ; and that others followed and de- 
4 



54 History of Durham. 



veloped it till the plaintiffs instituted their brand in 1865 
and 1866. 

Conceding, then, all the defendant claims by virtue of his 
purchase from Wright, he fails, in my opinion, to rebut the 
plaintiffs' title by proving a brand as used by Wright pre- 
viously, wherein " Best Flavored Spanish " was the distin- 
guishing attribute and " Durham,'' under the circumstan- 
ces at that time, a mere unmeaning incident. Thus stands 
this point in the light of the pleadings alone, the allega- 
tions of the plaintiffs. on the one hand, and the denials aad 
defenses of the defendant on the other. 

The testimony as to the fact whether the term "Durham " 
was ever upon the stencil-plate of Morris & Wright is con- 
tradictory. But in my mind it preponderates against the 
existence of that name in that brand. Counsel have adroitly 
insisted that the testimony against it is negative, and cannot 
from its nature, however commanding, overcome clear 
affirmative proofs. The proposition of law involved in the 
statement is correct; but the whole inquiry is into a fact, 
namely: What was the stencil used by Morris & Wright? 
Some, on the one hand, who had used it, declare with em- 
phasis it was: "Morris & Wright's Best Spanish Flavored 
Smoking Tobacco ;" others, but mainly Wright and his two 
sons — the latter at the time but boys — stated it as " Morris 
& Wright's Best Spanish Flavored Durham Smoking To- 
bacco." The proofs, therefore, on both sides, are equally 
affirmative. If, then, it be left in doubt, we must look to 
the probabilities of the case to turn the scales. What mo- 
tive could have existed with Wright, all whose reliance was 
upon the merits of his flavoring compound, to invoke the 
name of a small, thriftless station on a railroad, settled by 
only two or three families, with a store and this factor}^, to 
invoke its name to give celebrity to the preparation to which 
he solely looked for his reward? It seems to me extremely 
improbable, upon ordinary grounds of reason and human 
action, to suppose that he used " Durham " on his stencil at 
all. On comparing and weighing the testimony on both 
sides, I am constrained to adopt the conclusion that he did 
not. Neither he nor his vendee, therefore, have any claim 
to contest, under this state of the evidence, the validity of 
the plaintiff's trade-mark and his original and paramount 
•title thereto. 

It cannot be denied that it is abundantly proven in this 



J 



The Blackwell Litigation. 55 



cause, that the manufacture of Morris & Wright, and of 
those who succeeded them at Durham, was known, called, 
and distinguished in the market as " Durham " smoking 
tobacco. It is on this notorious fact in the cause that the 
able and ingenious argument has been raised that the pub- 
lic, by its voice, may appropriate and consecrate to an indi- 
vidual property in a designation by which he may choose 
to denote any product of his industr}'. But I can find no 
warrant for such proposition in law on this subject. On the 
contrary, it is distinctly laid down by the authorities, that 
it is only the actual use of the mark, device, or symbol b}^ the 
dealer which entitles him to it, and gives him the right to 
be protected in the enjoyment of it. 

The doctrine on this Subject has grown with commerce, 
and has assumed the form and title of a distinct body of law 
under the moulding hand of able judges, who have sought 
in their decisions to establish its guiding principles, and of 
acute commentaiors and essayists, who have exerted the pow- 
ers of a superior analysis and discrimination to extricate from 
doubt the true maxims of this beneficent code of business 
ethics. 

So much of it as is necessary or material for our present 
inquiry is comprehended in a single proposition. It is the 
5e?7M«a^ principle of the wholedoctrine. The simple statement 
of it is, that the dealer has property in his trade-mark. This 
is allowed him because of the right which every man has to 
the rewards of his industry and the fruits of his discover}', 
and because of the wrong of permitting one man to use as his 
own that which belongs to another. In regard to the latter, 
it may be well said, that any imitation of a trade-mark, calcu- 
lated todeceive the unwary customer, differs from an absolute 
forgery, not in the nature, but rather in the extent of the 
injury. The dissimilarity to the expert wholesale dealer may 
be such as to save him from the imposition, but too slight, and 
that perhaps by design, to diminish sales to the incautious 
purcliaser. But, uponthe success of fraud depends, ultimately, 
the extent of the injury. Let the spurious fabrication meet 
with the same sale, among private and individual consumers, 
as the genuine article, and the wholesale dealer loses all motive 
for the exercise of his skill in detection when he, perhaps, can 
reap better profits from the spurious, and therefore cheaper, 
than from the genuine article. In this way a simulated trade- 
mark may work the same mischief, and to the same extent, 
as a forgery, defying detection at the hands of the exvert. 



56 History of Durham. 



With this brief vieu' of the law. I proceed to examine the 
second ground of defense : that the defendant has not infringed 
the trade-mark of the plaintiffs. This is scarcely the subject 
of argument. It must be referred to ocular examination and 
decision. Place the respective trade- marks side b}' side, con- 
trast the labels, the words, and the devices, and each one's 
vision must determine for himself whether the imitation is 
such as to deceive the unpractised and unwary customer. It 
matters not uovv', in the critical inspection of them, and aided 
b}' ingenious counsel, we can clearly discern differences 
between the two. The true question is, whether taking the 
" tout ensemble,''' Armistead's trade-mark might not pass with 
the unwary for that of Wm. T. Blackwell & Co.; and, if that 
be so, the wrong is done, and Ihe title of the latter to be 
protected by this court is consummated. For m}'- part I do 
not see how trade-marks so similar could escape being con- 
founded in the market. One reads, " Genuine Durham Smo- 
king Tobacco"; the other, ''The Durham Smohing Tobacco" 
This use of the definite article makes these phrases equivalent. 
To remove all doubt, and aid the deception, in the note of 
sale of the patent to Armistead, it reads, for " Genuine Dur- 
ham Smoking Tobacco." Thus the language, to this extent, of 
the labels is identical. Now, as to the symbols or devices, 
one is the side view of the Durham bull ; the other, that of 
his head, on a medallion. The one symbolizes, by a part, the 
name " Durham " as effectually as the other does by the whole. 
The color of the paper is also the same. Whether this simu- 
lation be the product of accident or design, does not matter. 
It is the province of this court to suppress it in either case. 
It is a little curious, however, to note that Wright's first 
label, at Liberty or in Bedford, was wholly different, and that, 
after his son had seen plaintiff's trade-mark in Kentucky, and 
after his return to his father, the present trade-mark, as 
transferred to the defendant, w'as adopted by Wright. 

The third and.last ground of defense is that the plaintiffs 
have forfeited their right to relief in this court by reason of 
their false and fraudulent pretensions. This is upon the 
ancient and familiar principle that those v\ho do iniquity 
must not ask ncr expect equity. It is worthy of all acceptaton. 
It is a hoary maxim, hallowed by its age, and, unlike some 
other equally sacred antiquities, it is as yet unassailed by 
the spirit of change or reckless progress. I adhere to it. But 
the charges are serious and demand investigation. 



The Blackwell Litigation. 57 



The first is, that the plaintiffs sent out business envelopes 
and business cards, giving the year ISGO as the date of the 
establishment of their enterprise. In the absence of explana- 
tion, this might well impugn the bona fides of the plaintiffs, 
as in their bill they fix it no earlier than 1865. But was this 
statement by mistake or design ? Have the plaiuliffs failed 
to account for it? A junior member of the firm was examined 
and showed how it all occurred innocevthj, and without intent 
to deceive. He ordered the ]irinting and gave the date ; soon 
after the packages were received and opened in the presence 
of Dr. Blackwell : the latter saw the error of the date and 
corrected it; and the witness stated that he proceeded to cor- 
rect the misdate by writing the figure (5) over the cipher in 
1860, so as to make the date 1865, as corrected by Dr. Black- 
well, but that some might have gone out before the correc- 
tion. The exhibits made by the defendant of these envelopes 
and cards corroborate, rather than conflict, with the witness. 
That should not be taken for fraud which is proved b}' an 
unimpeached witness to have been a mistake on his part. 
Besides, there was no reasonable motive for such misrepre- 
sentation ; the plaintiffs had nothing to gain by it, but much 
to lose on the hypothesis of the counsel for the defendant. 
The next is a charge of falsehood in representing that the 
label was secured by copyright. There is not a particle of 
proof to that effect. Argument and ridicule alone are relied 
on to show the inapplicability and absurdity of a copyright 
for snch a print. The language of the statute is certainly 
comprehensive enough to embrace a label of this kind. (Act 
of July 8, 1870, § 86, U. S. Stats, at Large, vol. 16, p. 212.) 
The object of sucli copyright is to secure to " the author, 
inventor or designer" of any such " print" the sole liberty of 
printing and vending the same. It forbids the surreptitious 
use and the illegal sale of his labels. This is a perfectly legit- 
imate resort to copyright in such a case and for such a pur- 
pose. It would, indeed, hj absurd and ridiculous if the 
object were, as sarcastically portrayed b}-- counsel, to protect 
the designer against the unlawful multiplication of such 
ycleped works of art. The dealer seeks merely by his copy- 
right to keep the printing and vending of his labels in his own 
hands and under his control. It has been resorted to in other 
cases, as for instance, in the case of Wolfe v. Goulard, Cox's 
Am. Trade-Mark Cases, page 227, for the label of "Schiedam 
Schnapps." There is nothing unreasonable or incredible iu 



58 History of Durham. 



this claim of the plaintiffs to a copyright for their label ; 
nor is there anj'thing in the testimony or the law to lead us 
to discredit it and brand it as a falsehood. 

It seems to me, therefore, that both these charges are un- 
founded. They spring from the heat of forensic contests. 
They pertain to the polemics of the bar. Their effect is to 
provoke recrimination. Hence, the plaintiffs' counsel re- 
taliate by imputing falsehood to the defendant in dating his 
purchase of Wright 1st of January, when he had stated 
in his answer he would not bu^^ till he had ascertained his 
title by certificates ; and those very certificates bore the 
subsequent date of the 6th of that month. The imputa- 
tion seems plausible; but the transaction is susceptible of a 
more charitable construction, v\'hich I deem it my duty to 
put upon it. Dates are commonly immaterial, and often 
misapplied in business transactions. The main fact is 
doubtless correctly stated by the defendant, though he is 
made himself to confront it by a mistaken date. 

I am glad, therefore, to have it in my power to state that 
there is nothing in this cause to affect the fair fame of the 
parties, plaintiffs or defendant. They are, doubtless, respect- 
able men, and enterprising manufacturers of tobacco in 
their respective communities. They are engaged, as I be- 
lieve, in the honest pursuit of their rights as they respect- 
ively understand them. The defendant has acted on the 
information of another, under whom he claims. He has 
obeyed the order of this court. The only thing I have to 
regret is, that the same deference was not paid by another 
manufacturer, who, though no party to this suit, could not 
have been ignorant of it from his near relation to the de- 
fendant. But the plaintiffs have not chosen to bring him 
before this court, save by proving his acts in the use of the 
simulated mark, notwithstanding the injunction upon his 
brother. 

I am sure the plaintiffs and the defendant, as enterprising 
dealers, will find their ultimate interests subserved by the 
doctrine I have sought to expound and maintain as to their 
trade-marks. Whoever may now be the loser by it may 
soon have occasion to invoke it for his own protection ; and 
they, whose rights are now sustained, must learn thereby 
to respect those of other competitors in their business, at 
the same time that they may take encouragement to them- 
selves from their present success. All intelligent men, en- 



The Blackwell Litigation. 59 



gaged in manufactures or other enterprises, must sooner or 
later become reconciled to losses, in whatever favored quar- 
ter they ma}'' fall, that may be fairly viewed as penalties for 
the infraction, however unintentional, of laws, well settled, 
designed and calculated to vindicate tho honor, advance 
the morals, and promote the interests of trade. 

For these reasons I decree the perpetuation of the injunc- 
tion, and ord^r an account to be taken by a master of the 
profits made b}^ the defendant from his sales under the 
simulated trade-mark aforesaid. 

ALEX. RIVES, 
JJ. S. DisL Judge fo?' West. Dist. of Virginia. 



Clerk's Office U. S. Circuit Court, 
West. Dist. of Virginia, at Lynchburg. _ 

I hereby certify, that the foregoing document of 17 pages 
is in the handwriting of Hon. Alex. Rives, Judge of this 
District. 

Witness my hand and seal this 1st day of May, A. D. 
1872. 

E. W. EARLY, 

[seal.] Clerk. 



IN THE UNITED STATES CIRCUIT COURT, 

For the Western District of Virginia, 

March Term, 1872. 

W. T. Blackwell & J. S. Carr, partners,'^ 
under the style of Wm. T. Blackwell, I j p„.^p 

L. L. Armistead. J 

BILL TO ENJOIN VIOLATION OF TRADE-MARK. 

The case of Blackwell v. Armistead came on to be heard 
at the March terra, A. D. 1872! 

The case had been prepared with great care and was de- 
fended with marked ability. Connected directly or indi- 
rectly therewith were the following counsel : 



60 History of Durham. 



For Mr. BlackweU,^ the 'plaintiff— Messrs. W. & J. W. Daniel, 
of Lyncliburg ; Phillips & Meriimon, of Raleigli; Bouldin, 
Marshall & Bouldin, of Richmond, and Cox & Cox, of 
AVashingtou, D. C. 

For defendant, Mr. Armistead — Messrs. Bocock & Davis and 
B. G. H. Kean, of Lynchburg; Jones & Jones, of Raleigh; 
A. H. & R. K. Evans, of Washington, D. 0. 

After about three da3's spent in able and exhaustive ar- 
gunaent on both sides, the case vras submitted to the court, 
and upon consideration decided in Mr. Blackwell's favor, 
the decree being for an account of all the profits made by 
Mr. Armistead from sales of tobacco under the brand of 
" Duriiam Smoking Tobacco," with a cut representing the 
head of a Durham Bull. 



In the Interference between 1 In the U. S. Pat- 

L. L. Armistead and W. T. Blackwell. J ent Office. 

This case was first heard before Commissioner Brown, 
who decided that the applicant, Mr. Armistead, was entitled 
to the use of the word " Durham," as a trade-mark. From 
this decision Mr. Blackwell took an appeal to the Commis- 
sioner, the final authority in .the case. The interference 
was elaborately and ably argued on both sides. Mr. Arm- 
istead was represented by the following counsel : Messrs. 

A. H. & R. K. Evans; and Mr. Blackwell by Messrs. Cox & 
Cox, and W. W. Leggett, Esq. After a very careful and criti- 
cal examination — a decision having been postponed nearly 
a month — the Commissioner reversed the decision of the 
Examiner and gave judgment in favor of W. T. Blackwell, 
thus substantially acquiescing in the opinion of Judge 

■Rives. The following is an extract from the brief filed by 
Cox & Cox, counsel for Blackw^ell, and fully sets forth the 
merits of the case : 

"The substance ol the applicant's (Armistead) preliminary 
statement is as follows : That Wesley A. Wright, a citizen 
of Virginia, having removed to Durham, N. C, commenced 
the manufacture of smoking tobacco in association with T. 

B. Morris, under the firm of Morris & Wright, using in the 
manufacture of said smoking tobacco his (Wright's) flavor- 
ing compound, subsequently patented. 



The Blaczwell Litigation. 61 



111 the following year, 1861, said Wright Continued the 
manufacture of smoking tobacco, individually, at a point 
about two miles from Durham ; that the tobacco so manu- 
factured by said Wright in 1860 and 1861 was sometimes 
branded with a stencil and sometimes otherwise marked, and 
very soon became widely known as "Durham Smoking To- 
bacco," the precise brand as first used being " Best Spanish 
Flavored Durham Smoking Tobacco." 

That said Wright was the first person who ever manu- 
factured smoking tobacco at Durham; was the originator 
of the use of the word " Durham " as descriptive of smoking 
tobacco; that this tobacco was much sought after in the 
markets, a special value attaching to it in consequence of 
the flavoring compound used in its preparation, which 
value was designated by the word " Durliam ; " that said 
Wright, being in service, ins operations were suspended 
during the war. After the war his circumstances were such 
that he did not carry on business until 1869, when he again 
manufactured tobacco. 

Respondent's (Blackwell) statement is, in substance, that 
the word " Durham " was first used as a trade-mark for 
smoking tobacco by J. R. Green, his assignor, who ap{)]ied 
it in the year 1865. 

The inception of this controversy is described by Mr. 
Armistead in his answer (p. 37) substantially as follows : 
Sometime in 1870, W. A. Wright came to him and informed 
him that he (Wright) was the owner of " the Durham 
brand." Knowing the said brand to be popular, Mr. Arm- 
istead entered into a provisional contract, the condition of 
which was, that if Mr. Wright could produce satisfactory 
and sufficient evidence that he was the owner of the said 
brand, he (Armistead) would purchase it. Accordingly Mr. 
Wright proceeded to the town of Durham, and returned with 
a certificate setting out that no person other than W. A. 
Wright was entitled to use said brand. This certificate is 
sworn by Mr. Armistead to have been sufficient, and was 
printed and circulated as conclusive of the facts set forth. 
More than this, the signers are described as "gentlemen of 
high standing and character." (p. 55.) It was i^uhesita- 
tingly accepted by Mr. Armistead as a full performance of 
the condition of the provisional contract, and at once acted 
upon. (p. 37.) 

Now, if the testimony of these "gentlemen of high stand- 



62 History of Durham. 



ing and chara<iter" was sufficient, to establish one fact, in 
equity Mr. Armistead is estopped to deny tliat it is sufficient 
to establisli another. But whether he is estopped or not, 
he is committed to the fact that ho accepted their evidence 
as conclusive of Mr. Wright's title. 

The signers of the said certificate were W. Y. Clark, Wm. 
Mangum, R. Vickers,?. J. Mangum, S. Shepherd and Nash 
Booth, all of whom are witnesses in this case, the first for 
applicant, and the others for Mr. Blackwell. 

W. Y. Clark, applicant's witness, says, on cross-examina- 
tion, in respect to said certificate : 

" I can't say I understood the paper at the time Mr. 
Wright read it to me. As I knew he was the first man that 
put up plug and smoking tobacco at Durham, I signed it. 
Can't say that I did mean to convey the idea that he was 
the originator of the Durham brand, as I never saw the 
brand." (p. 148.) 

Wm. Mangum (p. 93) says : 

" I signed a paper Mr. Wright had concerning smoking 
tobacco, * * stating that he was manufacturing smoking 
tobacco. * * I dij not read the paper; signed it on his 
representation ; did not understand him to mean that he 
was the first to use the word Durham. I simply meant to 
say that he and Morris were the first to make smoking to- 
bacco here. I can't read writing unless it is very good; I 
am a very poor scholar." 

Riley Vickers (p. 88) says : 

" Mr. W. A. Wright and Mr. Clark came to my house 
with an instrument of writing, and stated that he was put- 
ting up tobacco. * * I had the paper in my hand, but 
did not examine it much. 1 thought that was the purport 
of it; that is, that he was the first to put up tobacco. I did 
not know what the smoking tobacco first put up at Durham 
was called." 

P. J. Mangum (p. 124) says: 

" Mr. Wright brought the paper to me ; I was then run- 
ning an engine, and hesaid he wanted to get some signers 
* " to show * * that he could work the Durham to- 
bacco. -^ * I never read it; onlj^read a few lines on the 
top ; was too busy to read ; did not propose to say or do 
anything to establish the fact that Mr. W. A. Wright was 
the originator of Durham brand smoking tobacco." 



The Blackwell Litigation. 63 



Solomon Shepherd (p. 70) says : 

" The first of this year I think Mr. W. A. Wright came 
to my house and told me he had a paper writing, and asked 
me if I would sign it; he told * * he was manufac- 
turing tobacco; * * said he could not sell his tobacco 
within ten cents of what Durham tobacco brought. * * 
I was verj' feeble ; had had a long spell of sickness ; read 
part of his paper; was very badly written. * * I certi- 
fied that Mr. Wright was the first to manufiicture smoking 
tobacco at Durham. * * j did [not] read all of Mr. 
Wright's letter, and do not know whether the printed cer- 
tificate is an exact copy of the paper I signed or not." 

Nash Booth (p. 126) says : 

" I did not read it; signed it on Mr. Wright's representa- 
tion. My understanding was that he wanted to show that 
he was the first man who worked smoking tobacco at this 
place." 

That all these witnesses should have signed the certificate 
under a misapprehension of Mr. Wright's representations is 
significant. And that all of them should declare that he 
attempted to perpetrate a fraud upon them, and through 
them upon the public, is a fact that affords an appropriate 
introduction to this and its kindred proceedings. By means 
of misre])resentation Mr. Wright was enabled to complete 
his contract with Mr. Armistead, and by virtue of those 
misrepresentations Mr. Armistead is here to-day. 

THE QUESTION OF PRIORITY. 

The first finding of the Examiner is as follows: 

First. That the firm of Wesley A. Wright, [Morris & 
Wright,] the assignor of Louis L. Armistead, the applicant, 
was the first to adopt and use a trade-mark, the essential 
element of which was the word " Durham," for smoking 
tobacco. 

And the first question arising thereunder is: What was 
the Brand used by the firm of Morris & Wright ? 

It is claimed by Mr. Armistead that the word " Durham " 
vTas used by the firm of Morris & Wright in 18G0. Their 
.brand was, according to his allegations, " Morris & Wright's 
Best Spanish Flavored Durham Smoking Tobacco ;" and 
according to Mr. Blackwell, " Morris & Wright's Best Span- 
ish Flavored Smoking Tobacco." Upon this point issue is 



64 History of Durham. 



joined. There is no earlier use set up, tlie only question 
being on the words embraced in the brand used by said 
firm. 

Let us turn to the evidence. The following witnesses de- 
pose that the brand of Morris & Wright contained the word 
" Durham :" W. A. Wright, J. E. M, Wright, W. P. Wright, 
Pompey Gordon. 

These four are the onh^ ones who sustain Mr. Armistead 
upon this point. Not another of his witnesses pretends to 
have any knowledge of the mark of said firm. We consider 
their testimony in turn. 

W. A. Wright's statement is distinct and positive. 

The next two, however, both sons of W. A. Wright, one 
of whom, at the time the alleged brand is said to have been 
used, was but eleven, and the other but fifteen years of age, 
(pp. 195, 224,) differ materially in their statements, thus con- 
firming the natural inference that they would not be likely 
to retain a very clear impression of any brand used so long 
ago. But in this connection we waive any critical objection 
to them, as well as to their father, suggesting only their 
very great interest in the premises, and the probable, nay 
inevitable, consultations, v\'hich increased their (perhaps) 
very proper bias, and resulted in a reasonable agreement as 
to facts. 

Pompey Gordon, however, we must protest against, as too 
brazen an attempt to impose upon judicial credulit}'. 

Pompey says (p. 146): 

" While in the service of Messrs. Morris & Wright, which 
was in the year ISGO, I rolled plug tobacco and helped to 
put up smoking tobacco. Their smoking tobacco was put 
up, * * and branded with a plate. * * ' Morris & Wright's 
Best Spanish Flavored Durham Smoking Tobacco, Durham, 
N. C I did not know what the letters 'N. C meant at that 
time, as I was not then educated; but have since found that 
' N. C meant North Carolina, and this is why I recollect so 
well the brand of Morris & Wright." 

On cross-examination (p. 147), Pompey says he could 
neither read nor write. How he could swear to the words 
that were " branded " on the tobacco, it is not necessary to 
inquire. Clearly his evidence can have no weight. 

The above is the sum total of Mr. Armistead's testimony 
on this point. 

The evidence presented by Mr. Blackwell is, we submit, 



The Blackvvell Litigation. 65 



in every respect satisfactory, and entirely overcomes the 
depositions of the three Wrights. 

The following witnesses swear positively that they lived 
at Durham at the time Morris & Wright made tobacco, and 
that the brand used by said Morris & Wright was that 
alleged by Mr. Blackwell, and did not contain the word 
"Durham": 

Thomas B. Morris, Mr. Wright's partner, who appears to 
have conducted the business of the firm. (p. 94.) 

J. R. Blacknall, a farmer, who says he was frequently in 
the factory of Morris & Wright, (p. 85.) 

A. J. Carroll, a carf»cnter, who sold smoking tobacco for 
the firm of Morris & Wright, (p. 77.) 

J. M. Hern don, a farmer, who also sold tobacco for said 
firm. (p. 89.) 

B. C. Hopkins, a school teacher, who taught at Durham, 
(p. 83.) 

J. H. Watson, a mail contractor, and a resident of Chapel 
Hill. (p. 280.) 

W. G. Guess, a farmer, who saw said firm put up and 
brand their tobacco, (p. 131.) 

R. F. Morris, a tobacconist, who saw the stencil plate of 
said firm, and often helped to use it. (p. 74.) 

W. H. Bowles, tobacconist, and a resident of Tally Ho. 
(p. 66.) 

E. W. Morris, a tobacconist, (p. 283.) 

The testimoney of these witnesses is corroborated by S. 
Shepherd, (p. 70,) a farmer ; J. W. Cheek, (p. 120,) a mer- 
chant; W. Mangum, (p. 93,) a carpenter; M. H. Turner, (p. 
130,) a farmer, and others. 

The great preponderance in favor of Mr. Blackwell must 
be held to overcome the testimony of the three Wrights, and 
compels the conclusion that the brand used by said firm of 
Morris & Wright was " Morris & Wright's Best Spanish Fla- 
vored Smoking Tobacco," without the word Durham. 

It cannot be claimed that any of this evidence is negative. 
As is said by Judge Rives, the question is, What brand was 
used by the firm of Morris & Wright? Mr. Armistead pro- 
duces the three Wrights, who, perhaps, swear that it was 
one thing, while Mr. Blackwell produces a dozen or more 
competent witnesses who swear tiiat it was something else. 
Nor can it be claimed that the latter arc interested, for at 
least three-fourths of them are not tobacconists, or in any 



66 History of Durham. 



manner connected with Durham tobacco. Upon any fair 
hypothesis, it must be decided that, according to the evi- 
dence, the word "Durham" was not a part of the brand em- 
ployed by the said firm of Morris & Wright. 

When to the great preponderance in respondent's favor is 
added the weighty consideration that a United States Court 
has found, as a matter of fact, (see Opinion of Rives, J.,) that 
the word was not used in the brand in question, we cannot 
but feel that any impartial mind will be forced to accept the 
respondent's story as that which must be believed. 

MR. Wright's, OPERATIONS at barbee's. 

The above carries us down to the first of the year 1861, 
when Mr. Wright removed to Barbee's, three miles from 
Durham, where he put up tobacco until the close of 1861. 

Let us see what is advanced, if anything, showing the use 
of the word "Durham " there. 

We commence with Mr. Wright. The examiner says : 
« Wright * * swears that he * * continued to use it 
(the word Durham) after he had removed his factory from 
Durham's." With all respect, Wright swears no such thing. 
On the contrary, he cannot be made to swear it. His evi- 
dence on this point is as follows: 

"Q. State how the tobacco put up at Barbee's was packed 
or sold, and whether it was branded or marked, and how? 

" A. Some of it was sold in barrels and some in bulk. That 
sold in bulk was sold by sample, and afterwards put up in 
boxes to be delivered. A portion of that was marked with 
a pencil brush, to be delivered in Raleigh. I don't recollect 
distinctly. My impression is, that it was marked with a 
pencil brush Durham Smoking Tobacco. I know I sold it 
as such. I also put the weights on the barrels. The bal- 
ance of it was sold by sample, and after that put up in boxes. 
I remember one large box sold to Cheek. The balance was 
in barrels. A remnant of that lot didn't have the entire 
flavoring. The lot I sold to Cheek was not branded." 
(p. 237.) 

Nov/, may it please your honor, we submit that an anal- 
vsis of this answer must end in two results. It must compel 
the conclusion that Mr. Wright's testimony is Vv^holly unre- 
liable, and that he did not mark the tobacco made at 
Barbee's. 



The Blackwell Litigation. 67 



If, as he sa3's, he carried the word Durham in his head, 
and knew it to be a brand of very great value and repute, is 
it fair to suppose that he could not remember the fact, had 
he used it? Is it not contrary to reason to fancy for a mo- 
ment that he could recollect every detail in the history of 
the brand of Morris & Wright ; that he could recall the phra- 
seology of letters ; that no circumstance afiecting the coveted 
word escaped his memory while at Durham ; and yet that 
he cannot remember whether or not he used, while at Bar- 
bee's, what he claims as substantiall}' the same brand used 
by Morris & Wright? He cannot remember a single in- 
stance in which he used it, altliough the alleged period of 
use covers an entire year. Again, your honor, he remem- 
bers putting the weights upon the boxes and barrels; re- 
members how he packed and sold it, nay, he remembers he 
did not brand a certain lot sold to Cheek. Could he remem- 
ber, we ask in all candor, that a particular box was not 
branded, and fail to remember some box that was? How 
did he happen to recollect this box he sold to Cheek, and 
the fact of its being without a brand? Did it impress his 
mind as being an exception ? If it did, he convicts himself, 
for a recollection of an exception compels a recollection of 
the rule. It is simply child's play to contend that a man 
may recall something different from what he was accus- 
tomed to do, without recalling that from which he had de- 
parted. 

May it please your honor, the conviction is irresistible. 
Mr. Wright did not use the word Durham upon the tobacco 
put up at Barbee's. He could not have done so and for- 
gotten it. 

But, in any event, he swears only as to his " impression " 
in the premises, which, interested as he is, must go for 
nothing. 

J. E. M. Wright cannot be made to say that the tobacco 
put up at Barbee's was branded or marked, and yet he, like 
his father, remembers every part and feature of the pre- 
tended brand of Morris & Wright, as well as other matters 
equally liable to escape the mind. 

W. P. Wright, (p. 226,) deposes as follows: 

" Q. State whether the tobacco made at Durham station 
in 18G0, and in the vicinity in 1861, was called or known 
by any name or designation, and if so, what was it? 

" A. It was called by the name of ' Durham Smoking To- 
bacco.'" 



68 HisTOKY OF Durham. 



The same witness, on cross-examination, (p. 234,) deposes 
as follows: 

" Q. Did he, or did he not, whilst at the place near Dur- 
ham, put up tobacco for his neiglibors, and did tliey not re- 
ceive it from him, either loose or in barrels, boxes, or bags, 
which they sent for the purpose of taking the tobacco away, 
and did or did not other boxes, barrels, or bags go from the 
factory without any mark on it? 

A. While near Durham he put it up for himself and sold 
it, and in whatever he put it up in, he marked it Durham 
Smoking Tobacco, and directed it to Vvdioever it was to go 
to; there wan't any bags at all. That was the only mark I 
recollect its having on it. 

Q. Did he not sell some of this tobacco loose or in bulk? 

A. Xot that I know of; I think it was all boxed up or 
barrelled up that he sent from the factory." 

It vv'ill be observed that this witness fiatlv contradicts his 
father, (p. 237 ;) Mr. Cheek, (p. 120 ;) Mr: Geer, (p. 142 ;) 
and others, who depose that Mr. W. A. Wright put up to- 
bacco for his neighbors; that all the tobacco made at Bar- 
bee's v.-as not branded ; and that a considerable part of it 
was sold in bulk. This same witness makes other state- 
ments that are equally conclusive of his unreliability. He 
saj's his father " never told any one" of his pretended secret ; 
that the brand of Morris and Wright was applied to all the 
tobacco put up in packages at Durham; that Robt. Morris 
was in partnership with his father, at Durham, whereas it 
was Thomas B. Morris. 

Again, he says positively there " wan't any bags at all ; " 
whereas Barbee says he hauled a load of the tobacco to 
Raleigh put up in bags. (pp. 127, 128.) 

It is clear that the interest of this witness is so great that 
his discretion is overbalanced, and he goes so far that he can- 
not be believed. He is not only too ready and v/illing to 
swear to vvdiat he could by no possibility know, but he con- 
tradicts facts that are established and admitted to be beyond 
doubt. 

One other witness only is offered by the applicant to prove 
the use by Mr. Wright at Barbee's who swears that he first 
knew Durham Smoking tobacco in the fall of 1862, and 
that he bought a lot of W. A. Wright. Now, as Mr. Wright 
was in the army in the fall of 1862, this witness' deposition 
does not materially help the applicant's case. It is, of course, 



The Blackwell Litigation. 69 



to be excluded, as not entitled to credence. But, good or 
bad, he says the tobacco was called Durham, and that it was 
not branded. (L. W. Pejk, p. 146 ) 

And here we rest. Substantially not another line to sus- 
tain a claim that is to result in the overthrow of the indus- 
try of a whole community. The " impression " of one man 
and the memor}- of an illiterate boy of sixteen, whose evi- 
dence bears all the ear-marks of unreliability, are the only 
evidences of title to the name of a town and all that its 
people are worth. There is rebutting testimony, however, 
that, although in a degree negative in its character, is amply 
sufficient to overcome that above cited, even if it were en- 
titled to full credence. The people living about Durham 
evidently knew little or nothing of Mr. Wright's tobacco. 
It appears to have had no reputation, and probably to have 
been made at hap-hazzard, or for other parties. 

Dr. Blacknall (pp. 62, 63,) thinks it was called Wright's 
tobacco, and says it had no repute. 

E. W. Morris thinks Mr. Wright used no brand at all 
while at Barbee's. (p. 2S3.) 

Solomon Shepherd says he sold smoking tobacco for Mr. 
Wright, and that J. R. Green was the first person to uso the 
word Durham as a mark. (p. 70.) 

T. B. Morris says he does not remember to have seen an}' 
tobacco manufactured by Mr. Wright at Barbee's branded 
in any manner, (p. 97.) 

R. F. Morris saw some that was not marked, (p. 77.) 

Other witnesses' touch the point in more general terms. 

From the following, however, we gather perhaps a clearer 
idea of the facts*: 

F. 0. Geer, applicant's witness, (p. 142,) deposes that — 
"He (W. A. Wright) manufactured some smoking to- 
bacco for me in 1861, and I hauled it home in sack-bags. 
He came to my house himself and flavored it with what 
they called tonka bean. Mr. Cheek sold this tobacco for 
me at the depot ; it was not branded that I know of." * * 

The same witness, on cross-examination, says: 
"I think Mr. Green was the first I ever saw or knew to 
use the word Durham." 

It would seem that Mr. Geer must have known of Mr. 

Wright's use of the word Durham, if u was actual!}'- used 

as stated. He was at Mr. Wright's place at Barbee's. He 

must have conversed freely with him, and yet has no idea 

5 



70 History of Durham. 



of his using the word Durham, although testifj'ing in his 
(Mr. Wright's) interest. 

It will be seen that he mentions a party by the name of 
Cheek, who also had a transaction with Mr. Wright. 

Mr. Cheek says in substance that he purchased five hun- 
dred and seventy pounds of smoking tobacco of Mr. Wright 
which was not marked or branded, and which was the en- 
tire stock Mr. Wright had on hand when he left the coun- 
try. (p. 120.) 

John Barbee, the owner of the farm where Mr. Wright 
did business, testifies as follows : 

" I know Wesley A. Wright ; he put up tobacco at this 
place; he moved from here and put up tobacco on my farm 
there. * * j j^^ow he manufactured smoking tobacco, 
and continued to manufacture plug and smoking tobacco; 
this tobacco was baled up. I do not know that he used any- 
thing but a great long bean ; it had a good smell. I don't 
think he branded or marked much of it no how. I hauled 
a load of Mr. Wright's tobacco to Raleigh, some in little 
bags and some in large bags; some in the little bags were 
marked, and think it was marked ' Wright's Best Spanish 
Flavored Smoking Tobacco; ' this was marked on the bags 
with a little paint brush." (pp. 127, 128.) 

Mr. Barbee's homely expression, " I don't think he branded 
or marked much of it no how," tells the whole story. Clearly 
this witness ought to know, if any one. 

The evidence submitted in rebuttal, although necessarily 
imperfect, is more than sufficient to overcome that presented 
by applicant. We insist that the fact that Mr. Wright de- 
clines to make oath to a statement upon which he is forced 
to rely must be held to be sufficient evidence that he could 
not swear to it. And, if he could not fail to know of the 
alleged fact, had it been true, not to swear to it is tantamount 
to admitting the contrary. But he has substantially sworn 
that he used no brand at all ; and whatever may be shown 
in another direction, there is nothing except the young 
Wright, who, we submit, is not a reliable witness, to show a 
use of the word Durham. 

Here, too, we insist the evidence preponderates in respon- 
dent's favor. Upon any fair hypothesis it must be held that 
Mr. Wright has failed. Not a witness to whom he sold, not 
a person with whom he did business, not one of his neigh- 
bors, not his landlord, in whose house he lived, ever saw the 



I 



The Black well Litigation. 71 



word Durham on liis tobacco, or heard of his usiug it as a 
brand. Certainly it cannot be insisted, under sucli facts, 
that he has established any definite user, much less such as 
identified the brand as his. 

With the onus upon him, the applicant should have been 
able to produce at least one disinierested witness to substan- 
tiate Q fact which is of such vital consequence to him. That 
he attempted a great deal more, we cannot doubt. And yet, 
why should he fail ? Here was his landlord, whom he saw 
every day ; here were his neighbors, whom he met almost as 
often; here were the parties who bought and sold his tobacco ; 
here were those who must know the fact, if any one could 
know it, and yet not one of them to prove an allegation, to 
which even he himself will not swear. 

Can he hope that any impartial mind will be convinced 
by so palpable an inconsistency? It is worse, if possible, 
than the fraudulent certificate, signed by the gentleman of 
high standing, which was the cause of this interference. It 
is too gross, your honor, to admit of explanation; and, if it 
is not the grandest ignoiauce, it is the most brazen fraud. 

From Barbee's, as stated, Mr. Wright went into the army, 
so that in the above we have the full history of his alleged 
manufacture of Durham Smoking Tobacco. 

We think it is shown beyond any reasonable doubt, that 
during this entire period he never used the word Durham 
at all. We think the evidence proves conclusively that the 
word " Durham " was not used as a mark either by the firm 
of Morris & Wright or by Mr. Wright individually. 

If it was not, Mr. Armistead's case falls of its own weight. 

commissioner's decision. 

The decision of the Commissioner was as follows: 

U. S. PATENT OFFICE, 
Washington, D. C, June 5th, 1872. 

Sir : — In the matter of the interference of Armistead vs. 
Blackwell, for improvement in " Trade-Marks," on whicli 
an appeal was taken to tne Commissioner of Patents from 
the Primary Examiner by W. T. Blackwell, you are informed 
that the decision of the Pritnary Examiner is reversed by 
the Commissioner. Very Respectfully, 

M. D. Leggett, Commissioner. 
W. T, Blackwell, care W. W. Leggett, Present. 



72 History op Durham. 



The Commissioner's opinion is as follows, obiter dicta alone 
being omitted : 

Leggett, Commissioner : — Blackwell obtained, October 3, 
1871, the registry of the following as a trade-mark: "Dur- 
ham Smoking Tobacco, manufactured by W. T. Blackwell, 
Durham, North Carolina." December G, 1871, Armistead 
applied for tlje registry of the following as a trade-mark : 
" Durham Smoking Tobacco;" and as he claimed the exclu- 
sive right to the use of these words, his application was 
placed in interference with the registered trade-mark of 
Blackwell for the purpose of determining who first adopted 
and used on packages of smoking tobacco the words " Dur- 
ham Smoking Tobacco." 

Blackwell manufactures his tobacco at Durham, North 
Carolina; Armistead at Lynchburg, Virginia. Armistead 
claims the right to use the label mark under an assignment 
from one Wesley A. Wright, who formerly manufactured 
smoking tobacco at Durham, North Carolina. The evidence 
shows that Wright invented a flavoring compound for smok- 
ing tobacco as early as 1860, for which he has since ob- 
tained a patent, and, in company with one T. B. Morris, 
under the firm name of Morris & Wright, manufactured 
smoking tobacco at Durham, and that the tobacco obtained 
some reputation under tlie name " Best Spanish Flavored 
Durham Smoking Tobacco." It is by no means clear, how- 
ever, whether this name was first given use by the manu- 
facturers, or by the merchants who retailed it, or by the 
consumers who bought and used it. This tobacco, on ac- 
count of its flavor, has become a favorite, and the distinc- 
tive words in the name adopted must have been " Best Span- 
ish Flavored," and not " Durham." In 1861 Morris & 
Wright seem to have dissolved partnership, and Wright 
moved about two miles from Durham, where he continued 
to manufacture smoking tobacco for a few months, and then 
gave up his business and Vv'ent into the rebel army. There 
is no pretense that he resumed this business before 1869, 
when he again commenced the manufacture of smoking to- 
bacco at Libert}^ Virginia, using the following brand: 
" Original Durham, W. A. Wright, Originator," the label 
also embracing the representation of a bull's head looking 
to the left. In 1870 said Wright, in company with J. R. 
Stewart, manufactured smoking tobacco at Stewartville, 
Virginia, and branded it " Durham Smoking Tobacco." 



The Blackwell Litigation. 



I 



After this he assigned the right to raanufacture under his 
patent, and also the right to use the brand " Durham Smok- 
ing Tobacco," to Armistead, the applicant. If Wright had 
an exclusive right to this brand, then Armistead is entitled 
to have it registered ; otlierwise not. 

Armistead attempts to fix the origin of this label ba^k as 
far as 1860, when it was used in connection with the words 
" Best Spanish Flavored ;" but in doing so he shows that it 
was first used by Morris & Wright, and by proving this he 
proves that Wright did not have the exclusive title to the 
label. If this is the origin of the mark claimed, then, to 
make Armistead's title to the same good, he should be able 
to show that he holds under Morris as well as under Wright. 
Wright could not convey to Armistead the exclusive right 
to use what belonged to Morris & Wright. But there is 
nothing of record to show that Armistead holds or claims 
to hold anything, directl}^ or indirectly, from Morris. An 
exclusive right to use is necessary, under the statute, to se- 
cure registration. 

Wright used the word "Durham" upon a small portion 
of the smoking tobacco he manufactured during the year 
18G1 near Durham, North Carolina. This is the utmost that 
can be claimed, from the testimony, as to any use of the 
word by him alone before 1869. That such use of the name 
of a town where he did business should give him the right 
to carry such name into another State, and to use it to the 
exclusion of all other people in the United States, even the 
citizens of the town of Durham, is too preposterous to re- 
quire more than a simple statement for its refutation. 

Blackwell claims under an assignment from one J. R. 
Green, and proves that Green first used the word "Durham" 
upon smoking tobacco in ISGo. ***** 
The words "Durham Smoking Tobacco" cannot constitute 
a legal trade-mark, and therefore cannot be registered. 
Neither would adding the name and place of business of the 
manufacturer help the matter. There is nothing registera- 
ble in either Blackwell's or Armistead's labels, and the 
Ofiice blundered when it gave a certificate of registration to 
Blackwell. It should not repeat that blunder by giving a 
like certificate to Armistead. 

The Examiner, it seems, refused to register for Blackwell 
the words " Durham Smoking Tobacco;" but, when the 
words " Manufactured by W. T. Blackwell, Durham, N. C.," 



74 History of Durham. 



were added b}" ameiidraent, registry was admitted. Tliere 
is Dothiug in this label except the name " W. T. Blackwell" 
to which Blackwell had any exclusive right, and this name 
cannot be regarded as any part of the trade-mark. The 
parties have evidently been misled as to their rights by mis- 
reading some court decisions. Courts of equity have often 
grantedinjunctionsagainstthefraudulent use of words which 
the same courts would not for a moment sustain as trade- 
marks. An example of this is found in what is known as 
" the Akron Cement Case," or Newman v. Alvord,Cox, 417. 
Newman lived at Akron and manufactured from the quar- 
ries of that neighborhood water cement, which he put up in 
barrels and labeled " Akron Water Lime," and added his 
own name as manufacturer. Many of his neighbors were 
engaged in the same business, all using the words " Akron 
Water-Lime," or "Akron Cement," but each attaching his 
own name. This lime, under the brand "Akron Cement," 
became popular, and one Alvbrd, living and doing busi- 
ness in Cleveland, commenced branding his water-lime 
"Akron Cement," adding his name and proper place of 
manufacture. Newman, one of the manufacturers at Akron, 
applied for and obtained an injunction enjoining Alvord 
against using the word "Akron " as any portion of his label. 
The court granted the injunction solely on the ground that 
Alvord used the word "Akron" for the purpose of making 
the public believe that it was the genuine Akron cement, 
and thereby obtaining by fraud trade that rightfully be- 
longed to Newman and others in Akron. The learned 
Judge was careful to say, however, that Newman had no 
exclusive right to the use of the words " Akron Cement," 
but that the same might be used by any citizen of Akron, 
thereby holding that while "Akron Cement" was not a 
legal trade-mark, yet it was within the province of a court 
of equity to grant an injunction against its fraudulent use. 
The same doctrine was held in the case of The Brooklyn 
White Lead Company v. Masury. In this case Masury 
adopted as a label for his paint " Brooklyn White Lead and 
Zinc Company." As both did their manufacturing in Brook- 
lyn, the court held that the respondent had a right to use 
the words " Brooklyn White Lead;" but as the word "Com- 
pany " was added for the purposes of fraud, a decree was 
entered enjoining Masury from using the word "Company." 
No one, however, would hold from this that the word " Com- 



The Blackwell Litigation. 75 



paiiy," as attached to a firm or corporation name, could be 
regarded as a trade-mark. The court enjoined against 
fraud, but with no intention of defining a trade-mark. 
Many otlier cases to the same effect might be referred to, 
but these are enough. 

The words "Durham Smoking Tobacco " may be used 
with imi)unity by any person engaged in manufacturing 
smoking tobacco at Durham, and for that reason no one 
person has any exclusive riglit to their use. By the statute 
an exclusive right to use the proposed trade-mark must be 
established before registry can be allowed. 

Bv application of the doctrine held in the " Akron Ce- 
ment " case, any. person living at Durham, and engaged in 
manufacturing tobacco, might enjoin any person not living 
there who should fraudulently use the word "Durham" 
on tobacco labels for the purpose of obtaining trade that 
otherwise would go to Durham. This may be true, and yet 
the words "Durham Smoking Tobacco" not be a legal 
trade-mark. These parties have already had adjudicated 
between them a question involving nearly all of the points 
here discussed. In the case of Blackwell v. Armistead, 
lately decided in the United States Circuit Court for the 
Western District of Virginia, Justice Rives very fully and 
ably discusses the whole matter on substantially the same 
testimony submitted in this case. The trade-marks, as dis- 
cussed by him, differed from the marks under consideration 
here in this: One of them had, in addition to the words 
"Durham Smoking Tobacco," the representation of a bull's 
head, and the other of the full size view of a bull. So far 
as the questions are the same, I believe the holdings in this 
are substantially the same as held by the learned Judge in 
that case. 

As neither party is entitled to registration, the interfer- 
ence must be dissolved and registration refused to Armi- 
stead. 

THE DIBRELL CASE. 

The following is the decision of the court in the case of 
\\\ T. Blackwell vs. W. E. Dibrell, heard before t,he U. S. 
Circuit Court, for the Eastern District of Virginia, held in 
Richmond, Va., Jan. 18th, 1878, the decision being rendered 
by His Honor R. \V. Hughes, Judge presiding; 



76 History of Durham. 



W. T. Blackwell & Co., ^ Circuit Court United States, 

vs. y Eastern District of Virginia. 

W. E. DiBRELL & Co. j —In Equity. 

This cause came on this day to be heard upon the bill and 
answered with the exhibits and depositions, and was argued 
by counsel, and thereupon the Court doth consider that the 
said complainants, Wm. T, Blackwell, Jas. R. Day and Ju- 
lian S. Carr, trading under the name and style of W. T. 
Blackwell & Co., have the sole and exclusive right to use 
and employ the word Durham to designate and distinguish 
the smoking tobacco manufactured by them, and also to 
use and employ in conjunction with the said word Durham, 
the side view representation of a Durham Ball as and for 
their trade-mark, and that the said respondents, W. E. Dib- 
rell and W. W. Phillips, trading under the name and style 
of W. E. Dibrell & Co., have wrongfully infringed and in- 
vaded the said right and trade-mark of the said complain- 
ants, by designating and distinguishing Smoking Tobacco 
sold by them as Durham Smoking Tobacco, and by using in 
conjunction with the said words the representation of the 
head of a Durham Bull. 

Wherefore, the Court doth order, adjudge and decree that 
the said W. E. Dibrell and the said W. W. Phillips, and 
their, and each of their, servants and agents, be and they 
and each of them are and is hereby enjoined and restrained 
from using and employing the word Durham to mark and 
distinguish Smoking Tobacco, and from using and employ- 
ing for the said purpose the representation of the head of a 
Durham Bull,orany other\^ord, symbol, representation or de- 
vice, of acharacter to deceive thepublic by inducingthe belief 
that the Smoking Tobacco sold by them, the said respondents, 
is the same as the Smoking Tobacco manufactured and sold 
by the said complainants ; and it is farther ordered, adjudged 
and decreed that this cause be and the same is hereby refer- 
red to Thomas S. Atkins, as Master, to take an account of 
all and singular the earnings, gains and profits made and 
acquired by the said respondents, by and from the sale of 
Smoking Tobacco marked and designated Durham Smoking 
Tobacco, and marked and designated by tlie representation 
of the head of a Durham Bull, and to make a report to the 
Court here of all and singular he shall do in the premises, 
and that the said respondents do and shall pay to the said 



The Blackwell Litigation. 



77 



complainants all and singular their costs by them laid out 
and expended in and about the prosecution of their suit, 

Richmond, ISth January, 1878. Ro. W. Hughes, Judge. 

A true copy. Teste : M. F. Pleasants, Clerk. 



THE result. 

The foregoing will show the fact that Mr. Blackwell has 
an irrefragable right to this trade-mark. He has proved it 
so conclusively that no one will longer doubt it. 

It will be observed that the contest between Arraistead 
and Blackwell in the Patent Office arose from an attempt by 
Armistead to register the words "Durham Smoking Tobac- 
co." To prevent this registration was BlackwelTs object. 
He succeeded not only in this, but in eliciting an opinion 
so positive that under it there is no possibility of doubt. 
Ko one not a resident of the town of Durham can call his 
tobacco Durham tobacco, and no one but W. T. Blackwell 
has a shadow of claim to the renowned brand of the 



r?= 



=^^ 



G-EKTrriD^E 



ID "cr :i^ 21 -^ 2j: 



(trade mark.) 



(I 




M 



jSmoking TobaccoJi 



f I 



MANUFACTURED BY 

W. T. BLACKWELL, 
DURHAM, n. G 



78 History of Durham. 



CHAPTER III. 

Durham Fires — The Methodist Female Seminary — 
The Lyceum — The Post Office — The Revenue Of- 
fice — Newspapers. 

It is an ill wind that blows no one good. Five or six 
years ago, the people of North Carolina thought Durham an 
unhealthy place, attributing the fact to surface wells, char- 
acter of soil, tobacco dust and absence of shade trees. 

While we admit that Durham was not healtiiy then, we 
do not admit the causes assigned, for the following reasons : 

A few of the first wells dug were shallow and surface wa- 
ter was the result, but the great mass of water used by pri- 
vate families comes from streams struck below the lime stone 
formations which characterize the soil, and the water is, 
therefore, mineral, free from the dangers of surface and rot- 
ten lime stone waters. It is conceded, however, that Dur- 
ham has some bad wells, and if this were not the case, it 
would be different in this respect from any other town. 

tobacco dust. 

Could its unhealthfulness be attributed to tobacco dust? 
Certainly not. A stranger entering the town can smell to- 
bacco because the air is tainted with it, from the immense 
volume of dust that quits the windows of the factories, but 
so far from being an injury to the town it is a blessing, en- 
joyed b}' few of the places in North Carolina which boast of 
their healthfulness compared with that of Durham. These 
minute particles of dust diffused through the atmosphere 
are not calculated to be deleterious to any individual ; on the 
other hand, it is well known that they tend to destroy to a 
great extent germs of fever and miasma generally. The fact 
may be partly demonstrated by the comparatively few cases 
of fever known among those who use tobacco. 

shade trees. 

HoW' often have we heard it remarked that Durham is 
the hottest place this side his Satanic Majestie's dominion ! 
an opinion largely imaginative. 



Shade Trees. 79 



Old towns such as Raleigh, Fayetteville, Hillsboro and 
Chapel Hill are made beautiful in Spring and Summer by 
the spreading branches and dense foliage of oaks and elms. 
These afford abundant shade, but they prevent a free circu- 
lation' of air, the Southern zephyrs being literally stopped 
on the outskirts of the town. Beauty is thus enjoyed at the 
expense of comfort, for the overage citizen fairly melts in 
the shade. How is it with Durham? 

The time was when scarcely' a tree could be seen within 
its corporate limits, unless it were a stra\' pine or male per- 
simmon. To-day— May 1st, 18S4— nearly every street in town 
is marked on either side by green lines of aspens and elms, 
and fifty years will have elapsed before our people will be 
called upon to suffer from excessive shade. 

'Further, if any one will take time to look at an accurate 
map of North Carolina, they can readily note that Durham 
is peculiarly situated to enjoy the breezes which sweep up 
the interior from Onslow Bay. A range of high hills en- 
compass it on the North and West, extending from Townes- 
ville, near the Virginia line, in a South-westerly direction, 
touching Knapp of Reeds, in Granville county. Orange Fac- 
tory, in Durham county, and Chapel Hill. Another range 
on the South and East extends from Wake Forest College 
to Morrisville and on until intercepted by the first men- 
tioned range, in Chatham county, and there they both ap- 
pear to unite in forming Tyrrell's Mountains. 

Durham is the only place of note located in the basin or 
valley between these hilly ranges, and the months of .June, 
July and August are rendered truly enjoyable by the South- 
easterly winds from the sea playing up and down this 
valley, having been cooled by the elevation in their path- 
way. 

We say, then, that the former unheallhfulnessof Durham 
could not be attributed to the causes assigned by out.^iders 
and casual observers, but it was almost solely due to uu- 
cleanliness, resulting from rotten shanties and back-lot ex- 
cavations, which causes have since been effectually removed. 

We would not undertake to describe the suffering, and 
oftimes death, caused by the inability of our local govern- 
ment, a few years since, to remedy this evil. The town was 
so constructed that all sanitary measures, however faithfully 
they might be executed, were in vain. A better state of af- 
fairs was soon to follow. 



80 History of Durham. 



FIRES. 

On the night of December 1st, 1880, a fire started in a 
bar-room situated on Ch»3\ near Willard street, occupied by 
W. R. Vickers — cause of fire unknown. Owing to the fear- 
ful condition of the streets, caused b}' incessant rains and 
freezes, the Fire Company could not move its engine and 
the town was left helpless. The flames, as if recognizing 
their power, crossed Chiy street and entered Block 10, 
(Southgate's Map of Durham,) and, as all the buildings of 
the block were frame, were all soon consumed, save one — 
Angler's old store on the north-west corner of Main and 
Mangum streets. 

Thurber's Tobacco Factory, Planters' \A^arehouse and M. 
A. Angler & Son's large store were the principal buildings 
destroyed. $60,000 worth of property consumed in an 
hour ! 

January 1st, 1881, the furniture store of B. L. Duke & 
Co., situated on south side of Main, between Mangum and 
Church streets, took fire and burned to the ground, together 
with the large four story brick store adjoining it. Another 
loss of $12,500. . ^ ■ 

January 15th, 2881, the alarm v>'as sounded, and the fire 
was discovered to be in the centre of the range of framed 
stores on north side of Main, between Mangum and Church 
streets. In a short time the flames had made such progress 
that all efforts to check them were useless. With a stiff 
north wind blowing, the fire crossed and burnt all the 
wooden buildings on south side of the street. In two hours 
nearly two blocks of buildings were in ashes. A $50,000 
fire ! 

Fortunately, with but few exceptions, all the sufferers 
were partly protected b}'' insurance. At least $75,000 was 
distributed among policy holders by the Companies repre- 
sented in Mr. James Southgate's Agency. It gives us pleas- 
ure to state that every claim was satisfactorily adjusted and 
paid. 

With $75,000 to start with, Durham, Phoenix like, rose 
proudly from her ashes and within a few months substan- 
tial brick buildings appeared where once stood a mushroom 
growth of frames. Since the fiies the streets have been 
graded and paved, tiie sanitary condition of the town is 
excellent, the rate of mortality is as low as that of any town 



The Methodist Female Seminary. 81 



in the Slate with the same population in point of numbers, 
and we know of no reason why Durham should now be 
considered unhealthy. 

THE METHODIST FEMALE SEMINARY. 

This institution of learning is one of the most substan- 
tial and attractive features of Durham. It was founded 
September 4th, 18S1, by prominent members of Trinity M. 
E. Church. The following gentlemen composed the first 
Board of Trustees apjiointed for the school: 

Julian S. Carr, President; Edward J. Parrish, Treasurer; 
J. B. Whitaker, Jr., Secretary; W. Duke and J. E. Lvon. 

On January 12th, 1882, Mr. W. Duke resigned, and Mr. 
B. L. Duke was elected in his place. In June of the same 
year, Mr. J. B. Whitaker, Jr., having been appointed a mem- 
ber of the Durham Board of Education, also resigned, and 
Mr. J. S. Lockhart was chosen to fill the vacancy. 

Mrs. Julia R. Williams, an accomplished lady, late of 
the AVesleyan Female Institute, Staunton, Va., was elected 
Principal, under whose efficient management the school has 
steadily increased in popularit}- and educational standing. 
Miss Addie E. Hoi man was chosen Director of Music and 
Calisthenics, a thoroughly competent and faithful teacher. 

Thus equipped, the school entered upon a career of use- 
fulness, far surpassing the expectations of its most sanguine 
supporters; and, notwithstanding much opposition with 
which its advocates had to encounter in its incipiency, it is 
accom[)lishing a work whose influences and effects of moral 
as well as intellectual training are achieving for it a high 
standard among the educational institutions of the age. 
Such has been its rapid progress that it became necessary 
to enlarge its already spacious building, and increase its 
able, untiring but over-worked Faculty. The Board, ever 
mindful of the best interests of the school, and anxious for 
the untrammeled dissemination of sound knowledge and 
ethics, were prompt to meet and adequately satisfy this de- 
mand. Hence, Miss Addie Dean, late efficient Assistant of 
the Graded School of Mystic, Conn., was placed on the Fac- 
ulty, and assigned control of the Primary Department. 
But, unfortunately, before the close of the term, her health 
failed, and she was compelled to retire, carrying with her 
the unfeigned sympathy and esteem of the whole school. 



82 History of Durham. 



Mrs. S. C. Anderson, a thoroughly competent teacher, was 
appointed to fill the vacancy. 

Daring the scholastic term, from 18S2 to 1883, Mrs. Wm. 
Lipscomb, an accomplished and experienced educator, liad 
charge of the Musical Department, and Miss Minnie Moore 
the Calisthenics. Miss Moore was a graduate of the Wes- 
leyan Female Institute, of Virginia. She possessed, to an 
eminent degree, the essential qualifications of a good 
teacher — amiabilit}', fidelity and firmness. But the charms 
of Minerva were not adequate to retain her sweet, gentle 
spirit in its tenement of clay, when the precious lips of Je- 
sus beckoned her away. How sad, that hopes, just budding 
and filling the soul with ineff^ible sweetness, should be rudely 
blighted by the dread fiat of inexorable destiny ; but oh how 
comforting to feel that 

" Angels guarded the immortal 

Through the wonder-teeming space 
To the everlasting portal, 
To the spirit's resting place!" 

For the scholastic year 1883-84, Miss Lessie Southgate, 
one of the most gifted daughters of Durham, has been chosen 
as Director of Music and Calisthenics. This young lady, 
being the soul of music and possessing other rare accom- 
plishments, is pursuing her responsible duties with an effi- 
ciency and fidelity which is eliciting the admiration and 
engendering high expectations in the hearts of all who are 
directly or indirectly interested in the school. 

The system of teaching observed here — and we esteem it 
a very commendable one — is a plenary explanation of the 
text, with a required analysis of the same. The teacher who 
fails to impart thoughts beyond the dull routine of text 
books, loses golden opportunities, and fails to discharge the 
duties of her high calling. In connection with the subject, 
oral and written instructions are given. In this way the 
mind is elevated, its faculties enlarged and the recitation 
becomes both pleasing and profitable. 

The Primary Department is taught according to the im- 
proved plans of the Normal system, the ample experience 
of the Principal, especially in the State Normal School, 
crowning her services in this Department with the most 
beneficial and gratifying effects. The Collegiate Depart- 
ment is conducted on the plan of first-class institutions. 



The Methodist Female Seminary. 83 



The text books used in this institution are such as are 
used by our most prominent higli schools and colleges. 
The discipline of the school is firm, yet high-toned and gen- 
erous. Pupils are taught to emulate all that is lovely and 
beautiful in female character, and to act always from a high 
sense of honor and duty. The duties of each day begin with 
divine worship, — reading the Scriptures, singing and prayer. 
Without the taint of sectarian bias, religious instruction 
constitutes the basis ot all sound, faithful teaching. It is 
religion, without regard to sect or creed, which imparts lo 
learning its intrinsic value and character, its crowning 
glory for time and for eternity. 

Having all the modern im{)rovements and appliances for 
systematic and efficient teaching, the Seminary is now on 
the highway of prosperity and usefulness. The pupils are 
studious, healthy and happ3\ The school is receiving a 
liberal patronage from the surrounding country. The fol- 
lowing ladies and gentlemen compose the present 

FACULTY : 

Mrs. Julia R. Williams, Principal — Drawing, Painting, 
French and Latin. 

Miss Addie Holman and Miss Minnie MoorD — Music and 
Calisthenics. 

Mrs. L. C. Lipscomb— Vocal and Instrumental Music. 

Miss Lessie Southgate — Vocal and Instrumental Music. 

Trustees: — Julian S. Carr, President; Edward J. Parrisb, 
J. Ed. Lyon, John S. Lockhart and B. L. Duke. 

TERMS — session OF TWENTY WEEKS. 

Primary Department, §10.00 

English Course, 12.50 to 15.00 

Drawing, 10 00 

Painting, , 15.00 

Latin and French, each, 5.00 

Music, Free. 

Tuition payable one-half at the middle of the session, re- 
mainder at the close. 

Positively no deduction made for loss of time, after the 
pupil enters, except in case of protracted illness. 



84 History of Durham. 



THE LYCEUM. 

A mong other interesting institutions ofoiir town, remarked 
with pride and pleasure, is the Lyceum. Early in the win- 
ter of 1880, a few kindred spirits, feeling the necessity for 
some organization where professional and literary men 
might interchange thought and opinion, met together and 
formed themselves into an association, the main ohject being 
their own mutual improvement in the discussion of histori- 
cal, literary and scientific subjects, with the ultimate pur- 
pose of establishing a Public Library and Reading Roona. 

For the past three and a half years they have held their 
meetings weekly, in a spacious and very tastefully arranged 
Hall, in Robinson Block. Their membership now numbers 
about fifty persons. Both ladies and gentlemen are admit- 
ted, and the bod}' comprises some of the most cultivated 
literary talent of our city. The highest order of etiquette 
and refinement characterizes all their deliberations, and it is 
quite an intellectual treat to attend one of their meetings 
and listen to the debates, essays, poems, etc., making its 
sessions both interesting and instructive to all who attend. 

Soon after the organization of this literar}^ brotherhood, 
the Hon. Ba.rtholomev.' Fuller was unanimously chosen 
as its presiding ofiicer, under whose trained and skillful 
hand it began at once to attain a high literary standard. 
Mr. Fuller was so eminently fitted for the position that he 
was continuously re-elected to the Presidency of the body un- 
til his deeply lamented death, which occurred Nov. 28, 1882. 
His loss was very keenly felt, not only by the Lyceum, but 
bj'- the entire community. All felt that not only a wise 
counsellor, but that a christian gentleman, a faithful friend 
and a most affable companion, had passed o'er the chilly 
waters to bask amid the spiritual fragrance and elixir of the 
Tree of Life, leaving behind beautiful footprints upon the 
shores of time that the storms and complex ado of life's 
little day will be utterl}^ unable to efface. As a faint token 
of the profound admiration and love entertained for him 
bj' his literary brethren, a life-size portrait of him was 
secured and placed in the Hall of the Lyceum. 

After the death of Mr. Fuller, the Chair was filled by 
Mr. J AS. H. SouTHGAXE, who, though comparatively young, 
filled the requirements of the position with great accepta- 
bility. The ofiice has since been ably filled by Mr. Eu- 



The Post Office. 85 



GENE MoREHEAD, a leading banker of this city ; Rev. H. T. 
Darnall, a most accomplished christian gentleman and 
pastor of the Presbyterian church, and by Mr. Geo. W. 
Watts, one of our most worthy and enterprising business 
men. 

The exercises of theLx^ceum consist in Readings, Recita- 
tions, Essays and Debates of important questions, and have 
been a source of very great entertainment and profit. A 
small library has been purchased, to which additions are 
constantly being made. A deep interest in literary pursuits 
has been engendered, and is rapidly pervading the whole 
town, and the Lyceum is now considered one of the fixed 
institutions of Durham. 

The Post Office — Origin and Present Status. 

The first postal facilities of Durham were established at 
Prattsburg, about the year 1845, with William Pratt as 
Postmaster, who was succeeded by Mr. Solomon Shepherd\ 
in the year 1852 soon after the erection of the N. C. R. 
R. Depot, \vhen the office was moved to Durham Station, 
and located at the " Old Angler corner," now corner of Main 
and Mangum streets. Mr. Shepherd held the office until 
the beginning of the late civil war, and was succeeded b}' 
Mr. J. P. Mangum, who served until 1873. The present 
incumbent, Mr. D. C. Mangum, was appointed September, 
1873, and assumed control of the office in the following 
November, At that time Durham rated as fourth class, 
and the Postmaster was allowed a salary of only $480 per 
annum. The business of the office so rapidly increased 
that, on Julv 1st, 1875, it was constituted a Money Order 
office. In 1877, the office was raised to the third class, and 
Mr. D. C. Mangum re-appointed by President Hayes, his 
commission dating from May 1st, 1877, and his salary in- 
creased to $1,300. All third class Postmasters are appointed 
for a term of four 3'ears. Mr. Mangum was re-appointed' 
by President Arthur, his commission dating from May 1st, 
1887. Since Mr. Mangum assumed control the average 
increase of postal receipts per annum is about 20 per cent. 
Receipts from the sale of stamps, &c., for the year ending 
September 31st, 18S3, were $4,850. Taking the first three 
months of 1884, as a basis, it is estimated that the receipts 
during the present year will considerably exceed $5,000, 
6 



86 History of Durham. 



notwithstanding the reduction in letter postage. The money 
order business shows a healthy increase, although not so 
great as compared with the postal receipts, owing to the 
late establishing of superior banking facilities in our midst. 
If the present rate of increase is maintained, it will only 
require about two years to bring the Durham Postoffice up 
to the second class, when it will rank with Raleigh, Wil- 
mington and Charlotte, the only second class postotfices in 
North Carolina at present. Mr. Mangum makes a faithful 
and efficient officer and is very popular among our citizens. 

The Revenue Office. 

The Internal Revenue Stamp Office, situated in the Post- 
office building, Main street, was established October 1st, 
1878, through the influence and indefatigable efforts of 
the manufacturers of Durham and Eugene Morehead, Esq., 
who was appointed Stamp Clerk. The grateful thanks of 
the citizens of Durham, and especiall}'' our tobacco men, 
are due this enterprising, cultivated and affable gentleman, 
jnot only for the existence of this great convenience, but 
■also for the establishment of the first banking facilities at 
"this place. Prior to the establishtnent of these important 
facilities, our business men were compelled to transact all 
itheir revenue and banking business in Raleigh — a distance 
of 21 miles — a great inconvenience and hardship. Mr. 
Morehead held the position of Collector, to the entire satis- 
faction of all, until June, 1879, when he resigned in order 
to devote his undivided attention to the banking house of 
which he is President. The receipts for the past five years, 
kindly furnished us by Mr. George L. Tinker, the present 
courteoiss and efficient Deputy, are as follows : 

For the months of October, November and December, 
1878, $142,053.64. 

May 1st, 1879, the tax on manufactured tobacco was re- 
. duced to 16 cents per pound. 

Receipts for 1880— $627,118.21. 

" 1881— 827,269.54. 

« " 1882— 733,817.80. 

" 1883— 618,444.34. 

The tax was , again reduced, May 1st, 1883, to 8 cts. per 



Newpapers. 87 



pound on manufactured tobacco, and to 50 cts. per thousand 
on cigarettes. 

The following is a comparative statement of the number 
of pounds of mauufiictured tobacco sold during the years 
1882 and 1883 : 



Date. 


Xo. lbs. Tobacco. 


Xo. lbs. Snuflf. 


Xo. Cigarettes. 


1882 
1883 


4,401,468 
6,281,443 


47,200 
51,205 


12,590,000 
39,213,000 



An increase of Tobacco 1,879,975 lbs., SnufF 4,005 lbs., 
and 26,023,000 Cigarettes. 

Total amount of revenue paid by the manufacturers of 
Durham from Oct. 1st, 1S78 to Jan. 1st, 1884— §3,545,589.08. 

NEWSPAPERS. 

The Church Messenger. — This is an ably edited relig- 
ous journal, published in the interest of the Protestant 
Episcopal church in North Carolina. It was established at 
Winston, N. C, in 1879, by the Rev. Wm. S. Bynum, and 
subsequently purchased by Rev. Chas. J. Curtis and moved 
to Durham in January, 1882. In February, 1883, it was 
purchased by Rev. E. N. Joyxer, who placed Mr. C. B. 
Denson on the Editorial Staff. The paper is now in a flour- 
ishing condition, and accomplishing great good in the 
Master's cause. Weakly, containing 32 columns. Subscrip- 
tion price $1.50 per annum. 

The Durham Recorder. — This is one of the oldest news- 
papers in the State, having been established in the town of 
Hillsboro in 1820 by Mr. Dennis Hart. In 1881, the present 
editor and proprietor, Mr. E. C. Hackney, purchased Col. 
Cameron's interest, and, together with Mr. G. E. Webb, con- 
ducted the paper for one year, during which time it was 
enlarged from 2§ to 32 columns. In 1882 Mr. Webb sold 
his interest to Mr. Hackney, who is now sole proprietor. 
Democratic in politics, and published weekly at §1.50 per 
annum. A live, aggressive and interesting journal. 

The Durham Tobacco Plant. — Established in 1872, by 
C. B. Green, the present editor and proprietor. At that time 
the number of inhabitants of Durham did not exceed 200. 
Older heads looked upon the enterprise as premature, and 



I 



88 History of Durham. 



thought young Green, then but a mere boy, could never 
make it a success. But he had strong faitli in a brighter 
future for Durham; that it would be one da}'', not far dis- 
tant, one of the leading tobacco marts of the State; and thus 
animated he toiled manfull}^ at the case to build up his pa- 
per. The Plant has surmounted many storms of adversit}'', 
and is to-day one of the leading newspapers of the State. 
Mr. Green is still quite a young man, but he wields great 
influence in the formation of public sentiment. A bold, 
aggressive and able exponent of the people's interests. His 
paper is and has always been thoroughly Democratic, and 
has added largely to the success of the Democratic party in 
Central North Carolina. It has a wide and increasing cir- 
culation. Contains 32 columns of choice reading matter, 
at the very moderate sum of 81.50 per annum. 

The Daily Evening Reporter. — Established in Janu- 
ary, 1884, b}'' Mr. D. W. Whitaker, a gentleman of large ex- 
perience both as an editor and printer — non-political. De- 
voted to the material and educational interests of Durham. 
Neat, newsy and ably edited, it is rapidly becoming an ob- 
ject of interest among our business men. Imbibing the 
spirit of the town, it is full of push, pith and brain, and is 
destined to rank among the first newspapers of the State. 
Friend V\''hitaker is an old " typo" of sterling qualities and 
deserves success. Subscription, $4.00 per annum. 

The Truth — A monthly historical and literary paper, 
established February 25th, 1884, its mission being, mainly, 
to exhume important historical matters in reference to Or- 
ange county. Hon. Josiah Turner, editor. Subscription 
price $1.50 per annum. 



CHAPTER IV. . 
Religious Denominations. 

TRINITY M: E. church. 

In the early part of 1830, a little school was estab- 
lished, about one mile east of Durham, on the line of the 
N. C. Railroad, at a place known as Orange Grove. The 



Trinity M. E. Chukch. 89 



only surviving student of that school the writer has been 
able to find, is our esteemed and venerable townsman, M, 
A. Angier, Esq., who was then about ten years of age. In 
1832 or '33, a protracted meeting was conducted at this lit- 
tle school house, under the able and eloquent ministrations 
of the Rev. Willis Haynes, the first Methodist Circuit rider 
known in th^s vicinity, assisted by the Rev. David Nichol- 
son, Presiding Elder. Many souls were happily converted, 
and a church was established, numbering about 80 mem- 
bers, with brother Haynes as pastor. The school house and 
its site was donated to the church by one of its members, 
Mr. William Herndon. The writer has been unable to 
gather data for a consecutive historj'. About the year 1834, 
the church was burned by one Jefferson Dillard, who enter- 
tained great antij)athy toward the church and the school. 
It is said that he used the books and papers about the school 
to start the conflagration. After the perpetration of this 
diabolical deed, and finding his life placed in jeopard}'^ l>y 
an outraged and incensed community, he ran away, and 
has not since been heard of. But the little church was re- 
built, and prospered. In 1858, Orange Grove church was 
moved to Durham, and a church built on the site now oc- 
cupied by Trinity M. E. Church. This building was erected 
by Mr. AVilliam Mangum, who, for ?>650, furnished both 
material and labor, besides contributing 825, although not 
a member. 

This church remained in connection with Orange Circuit 
until 1874, when it was made a Station, Rev. J. J. Renn 
being pastor, having served the church from 1872 in con- 
nection with the Orange Circuit. The trustees of the prop- 
erty were J. T. Driver, James Stagg, William Halliburton, 
Julian S. Carr, William Watts, William Guess, Washington 
Duke, Alexander Walker, W. B. Proctor, and Archibald 
Nichols. From 1858 to J8G8, there is a serious hiatus in the 
history of the church. Rev. R. S. Webb was pastor in 'GS 
and 'G9. Rev. Jno. Tillett pastor in '70 and '71, and followed 
b}' Rev. J. J. Renn in '72, who remained in charge of the 
church four years, laying broad and deep the foundations of 
truth as held by Methodists — redemption for all men who 
will believe — christian perfection — and a life without sin. 

In 1873, on the 28th of August, the Hillsboro District 
Conference held its annual session in Trinity church, Col. 
D. C. Parrish being the lay delegate, Rev. J. P. Moore, Pres- 



90 History of Durham. 



ident, and J. S. Harris, Secretary. Rev. W. H. Moore held 
the pastorate for 75 and '7G. Rev. William Call succeeded 
him, and remained during the year '77. Rev. F. H. Wood 
was appointed to the pastorate in '7S. He remained three 
years. During his ministry was originated the enterprise 
which culminated in the completion, under the ministry of 
Rev. J. A. Cunninggim. the present elegant church build- 
ing, which is an imposing ornament to our town and a 
credit to the Methodist congregation. 

Mrs. Mary Moon held a series of meetings in Trinity 
Church in 1879, continuing about four weeks, resulting in a 
great awakening and many conversions, and about seventy 
additions to the churches of Durham. Two prayer meet- 
ings were organized to meet every Sunday evening, one in 
the church and the other in the Female Seminary, one for 
young men and the other for females. These meetings are 
still kept up with interest and profit to the church. Tiiis 
church paid the pastor and Presiding Elder for last year 
$1,250. 

Rev. Jesse A. Cunninggim succeeded Rev. Mr. Wood in 
1881, who did a good work for the cause of truth during a 
ministry of two years. He raised several thousand dollars 
for the work on the church and carried it througjh to its 
completion. He left the impress of his character engraved 
upon the community, and, as it were, engraved in the or- 
ganic life of the church. He gave system to the work of 
the church, and thus gave it strength and permanency. 
The ladies of this church did a large and important work 
in aiding the pastors to bring up the church out of the 
wilderness and to settle it on its present firm foundation. 

Rev. T. A. Boone came to the pastoral care of this 
church as the successor of Rev. Mr. Cunninggim. This is 
his second year. Since Mr. Boone's connection with this 
church, great advancement has been made in all her de- 
partments. He is an eloquent, able and assiduous worker, 
and is loved devotedl}^ not only by his flock, but by the 
citizens of Durham generally. • 

DURHAM BAPTIST CHURCH. 

This Church was organized August 12th, 1845, in Piny 
Grove School House, about one mile west of this place. 
Rev. Jesse Howell was assisting the pastor of Eno Baptist 



Durham Baptist Church. 91 



church ill a revival meeting, and, when some of the mem- 
bers objected to his preachiuf^ in their house of worshif), he 
left, and soon began to preach monthl}' at the above named 
School House, and the result was the organization of this 
church. He was pastor of the church for more than twenty- 
five years. 

The first house of worship built by this church was the 
buiUling now used by Mr. A. D. Markliam as a residence. 

The railroad was built and the depot was located so near 
them that they thought it wise to sell out and re-build. 

The second house of worship was built on what is now 
Roxboro Street, and it stood over the same spot of ground 
now covered by the residence of John L. Markham. 

The third and present house of worship was begun in 
1877, and was finished, and entered free of debt, and dedi- 
cated by the pastor and congregation on Tiiursday night 
before the 1st Sabbath in November, 1878. A simple hour 
of thanksgiving and joy was the only service of dedication. 
This house cost 812,400. Five persons gave $1,000 each for 
this purpose ; viz : \V. T. Blackwell, Jas. R. Day, F. C. Green, 
A. M. Rigsbee and Mrs. A. D. Markham. 

The church owns a parsonage. It cost, besides ihe lot of 
about one acre upon whirh it is located, about $2,100. This 
was begun in 1879, and finished free of debt and occupied 
April 1st, 1880. 

The present membership of the church is about three 
hundred, and their Sunday School numbers over three hun- 
dred. 

Rev. C. Durham, the pastor of this church, was a soldier 
in the late war from April, '01, to the surrender. He grad- 
uated from Wake Forest College in '71, and was pastor in 
Goldsboro four and a half years. He has been pastor of 
this church since Jan., '7G, and hence is now in the ninth 
year of his pastorate. 

The contributions of this congregation to all religious 
objects during his pastorate is about 1$34,000. 

There have been two churches organized out of this one 
in the past eight years — Yates Baptist church, and Rose of 
Sharon, six miles north of Durham, both churches being 
built from contributions raised by the Durham Baptist 
Church. 

]\Ir. Durham, pastor of the church in this city, is an able, 
pious and hard-working laborer in the vine3'ard of the 



92 History of Durham. 



blessed Master, and is doing much good in promoting the 
cause of Christ in this city. 

THE PRESBYTEKIAN CHURCH. 

This church was organized on theSlstof December, 1871, 
by a committee of the Orange Presbytery, consisting of Revs. 
A. G. Hughes, Thomas W. Faucett and Calvin H. Morrow, 
and embraced eleven members in its organization. It was 
ministered to for a while by Mr. Faucett, but on the 31st of 
March following called, as its Srst pastor, Rev. Drury Lacy, 
D. D., who served the church for two years. Rev. Pleasant 
H. Dalton was then called and officiated as pastor for two 
years. The Rev. Jas. H. Fitzgerald succeeded Mr. Dalton 
in the fall of 1876, and continued with the church until the 
spring of 1880, when he resigned, and the present pastor, 
Rev. H. T. Darnall, was called to the pastorate in the fall of 
1880. At present the register contains seventy-five names 
of members, with a steady increase. In 1882 the congre- 
gation erected a neat and comfortable mause on the lot next 
the church, which was occupied in October of that 3'ear. 
The church and mause are located on Main street, below 
Church street. 

In April, 1884, the Presbyterian Synod of North Carolina 
convened in this church, whose sessions proved pleasant and 
instructive, not onl}' to the members of that church, but also 
to our citizens generally, whose hospitable doors were thrown 
wide open to the members of the Synod. The pastor is an 
able and earnest worker, watching faithfully over his pious 
and devoted fiock. 



v " i nBh:L* ' rr B f ■fr^^^n^^'vrJ^^ '?j^^"-''^™?'yj«-' "I "^'^^''■''''^'"■^ *■'■-'■ "'a^w.^^i'-.T^TC* '^ 



ASSETS, - - - $769, J 47, 

J. SOUTHGATE & SON, Agts., Durham, N. C. 

FliLerLi^s Zris-L:Lra..32Lce Oioicn-peiiciy, 

Of Brooklyn, N. Y. 
ASSETS, ^3»749»036. 

J. SOUTHGATE & SON, Agents, Durham, N. C. 



Tobacco Board of Trade. 93 

CHAPTER V. 
Tobacco Board of Trade— Warehouses. 

. THE TOBACCO BOARD OF TRADE. 

The Durham Tobacco Board of Trade was organized in 
the year 1872, by the election of the follow officers : 

Capt. Alexander Walker, President, 

Robert F. Morris, Vice-President, 

R. C. Barksdale, Secretary and Treasurer. 

Since that time there have been many additions, and 
much good has been accomplished, mutuall}' between its 
members, and towards establishing the tobacco market of 
Durham. Its meetings are held once a month. There are 
now 40 names upon the roll. The following is a list of the 
present officers and members: 

Capt. Alex. "Walker, President, 

R. F. Webb, Vice-President, 

Albert Kramer, Secretary and Treasurer. 

W. T. Black well, J. S. Carr, A. B. Cox, John Walker, W. 
Duke, Sons & Co., Edward Dal by, W. A. Day, A H. Stokes, 
R. T. Faucett, Lucius Green, W. A. Gattis, \V. H. Osborn, 
R. li. Jones, Thos. D. Jones, Lea & Warren, T. B. Lyon. J. 
S. Lockhiirt, Z I. Lyon & Co , R. T. Morris & Sons Mfg. Co., 
J. T. Pinnix, Blackwell & Goodson, T. L Peav, E. H. Pogue 
& Son, E J. Parrish, L M. Reams, W. H. Rowland, M. A. 
Walker, L T. Smith, Jno. W. Smith. R. K. Smith, A. K. 
Umstead & Co., Webb & Kramer, Robt. Burton, 11. A. 
Reams, R. E. Lyon, E. E. Seay, Dr. J. L. Watkins, T. B. 
Mosely, W. R. Cooper, and J. B. Hazel. 

WAREHOUSES. 

Previous to the war, the medium of Warehouses to facili- 
tate the business of the planter and buyer was so little 
known as to be exceptional. Danville in Virginia and Mil- 
ton in North Carolina had each made some progress in this 
direction. But the common practice was to sell to mer- 
chants, manufacturers, or buyers, of any class, in modes 
most convenient to all parties. Much was shipped to factors 
in Richmond and Pete-^sburg. A great deal was bought by 



94 HisTOKY OF Durham. 



merchants, who were in the habit of keeping annual ac- 
counts with the phinters, furnishing them with plantation 
supplies, and making settlements at the end of the year. 
The war effectually destroyed this system. Neither mer- 
chant nor farmer could wait a whole year. The capital of 
the first could not endure it; the credit of the.other was de- 
stroyed by the loss of his slave property. He was compelled 
to live, as it were, from hand to' mouth. He had to make 
frequent small sales to meet family necessities, to pay his 
laborers or to pay his taxes. He liad to find a market often. 
This demand was met by the opening of sales houses at 
points on railroads principally, because on railroads could 
more readily be met the requisitions of the revenue service, 
the ready and convenient supply of stamps being essential 
to manufacturers, and these becoming the great patrons of 
the warehouses. Tlie two have become indispensable com- 
plements of each other, as illustrated by Danville, Durham, 
Reidsville, Winston, Henderson, Oxford, and other points, 
the centres of the tobacco industry. 

The warehouses are invariably large buildings with great 
floor capacity, and perfectly lighted by ample skylights, so 
that thu color and quality of the tobacco are faithfully ex- 
posed. The tobacco, taken from the wagons, where it had 
been packed down while in " good order," is carefully placed 
in piles, after having been weighed, each pile of uniform 
grade. A tag fixed upon a cleft stick is placed upon each 
pile, on which is the name of the owner of the tobacco, and 
also the weight. At the hour of sale, outcry is made at each 
pile, the price bid attached to the tag, and also entered upon 
a book, and so until the whole is sold. A planter, dissatisfied 
with a bid, is entitled to "take in " his tobacco. The com- 
pensation of the warehousemen is a commission of from 2^ 
to 3 per cent, on sales. Where there are several warehouses 
in a market, by arrangement each one is entitled to the first 
sale in turn. In most of the markets the sales are held 
daily except in the duller months of the season. 

The six warehouses formerly occupied here have been 
converged into three of the largest and best arranged houses 
of the kind in North Carolina, which annually sell from 
twelve to fifteen million pounds of tobacco, which is distrib- 
uted in well nigh every hamlet, town and city on the globe, 
and the factories here manufacture from eight to twelve 
million pounds of the fragrant weed annually. 



Tobacco Warehouses. 95 



The da}' is not far distant when the magnitude of the to- 
bacco interests of North Carolina will be fully acknowl- 
edged and appreciated, and she will take her rightful posi- 
tion as one of the most important tobacco States in the Union, 
not only as to quantity but quality of tobacco produced. 
Aye, even now, the silver}^ streaks of dawn are becoming 
brighter and brighter — inspiring new hope, and zeal, and 
energy, and infallibly prognosticating a future greatness 
and prosperity second to no section on the habitable globe. 
To-day there is more assiduous push and enterprise in Dur- 
ham than in any other town or city in the State. The in- 
flux of labor and capital is continually on the increase. 
Kew dwellings, stores, warehouses, prize-houses, and facto- 
ries, are s])ontancously springing into existence in every di- 
rection. Wherever the eye turns, some new building in 
process of erection is visible. I will relate one amusing oc- 
currence, which tends to show the great demand for house- 
room here. It was Saturday evening ; one load of lumber 
had been emptied upon a vacant lot by one of Mr. Black- 
well's teams. Earl}' Sunday morning a gentleman called 
upon Mr. Harding, Mr. Blackwcll's agent, and, after apol- 
ogizing for calling on the Sabbath, said that he wished to 
engage the house for which tJtat lumber was inlcnded, stating that 
he feared to delay until Monday lest he might be too late I 
Mr. Blackwell and other gentlemen are erecting dwelling 
houses with all possible speed, but they are utterly unable 
to finish them fast enough to supply the constantly aug- 
menting stream of immigration. The picture is bj* no means 
over-wrought. The writer lias met with many instances 
where several families are cramped and packed up in houses 
intended only for one family. 

In noting in detail the wonderful improvements and 
growth of the city, the writer will begin with the Ware- 
houses: 

THE REAMS WAREHOUSE. 

This house takes its natne and extensive popularity from 
its founder, Mr. H. A. Reams, the pioneer warehouseman of 
Durham. The first sale of leaf that ever occurred in Dur- 
ham was C'inducted by this gentleman in a small fictory 
building, on the ISi.h of May, 1871. He continued in the 
small building until the autumn of 1872, when, his busi- 
ness having so rapidly increased, much greater floorage 



i 



96 History of Durham. 



capacity was required. Accordingly, in that year, be moved 
to a wareliouse building erected by W. T. Blackwell & Co., 
in which he remained until the latter part of 1877. During 
that year he erected the present Reams Warehouse. This 
building is on one of the most eligible lots in the cit}', being 
near its centre, on Main street and within speaking dis- 
tance of the depot and the mammoth Bull factory. It is 
80 by 175 feet. But his trade continued to increase so 
rapidly, that in 1879 he was compelled to enlarge his 
building, giving it a flooraga area of 14,000 feet for sales- 
room with a basement of the same size. This house has 32 
skylights, with 64 10x20 glass to each skylight, thus mak- 
ing 2,048 square feet of light. There are 435 feet of wagon 
shelter, making the whole wareliouse one of the largest and 
most conveniently arrajjged houses of the kind in the State. 
Mr. Reams was succeeded in 1880 by Messrs. W. A. Lea & 
T, JJ. Jones, who conducted the business until 1882, when 
Mr. Jones withdrew, in order to pay especial attention to 
leaf brokerage. Mr. J. S. Lockhart v»'as next admitted as 
a partner under the firm name of Lea & Lockhart. Mr. 
Lockhart remained a member of the firm until January, 
1884, when he also withdrew to take charge of the Banner 
Warehouse, which has been moved from its old site and 
located next to At water & Wyatt's large brick grocery, 
v;here it has been thoroughly renovated and extensively 
enlarged. About the 1st of April, 1884, Mr. J. B. Warren, 
of Caswell county, was admitted as a partner, and the firm 
is now known as Lea & Warren, who are doing a very ex- 
tensive business. 

PARRISH WAREHOUSE. 

This is one of the largest and best equipped ware- 
houses in the State, formerly owned by the firm of Parrish 
& Blackwell, but now the property of Mr. E. J. Parrish. 
Mr. Parrish commenced the tobacco business in 1871 as 
auctioneer, in the fir.~t tobacco warehouse established in 
Durham, and continued as such until 1873, when he became 
proprietor of the new warehouse known as "The Farmer's." 
In 1876, he was the successful bidder for the " Durham 
Warehouse," which he occupied at an annual rental of 
$2,000 for three years, and his business increased rapidly ; 
in 1879 he erected his present fine building, at a cost of 



Tobacco Warehouses. 97 



$32,000, and which is confessedly the best structure of its 
kind in Nortli Carolina. It is of brick, 56x225 feet, with a 
deep and commodious basement used for storage, and with 
apartments for farmers. The roof is a suspension structure, 
pierced along its whole length by four rows of solid glass 
sk} h'ghts. Along the sides run covered sheds the whole 
length of the building, on one side 225x16, and on the 
otiier 225x10, with a park-shed 41x150, with two rows of 
skylights, large enough to hold one hundred wagons. Ele- 
gantly appointed offices give pleasant places of business to 
the eight or ten young men necessary for the duties of the 
house; these offices, like all other parts of the building, 
being lighted with gas. The opening day, September 29th, 
1879, was a prominent one in the annals of Durham, many 
hundred farmers with their wagons loaded with the tobacco 
of the adjoining counties congregating to take advantage 
of the animation of the auspicious day. Upwards of 80,- 
000 pounds were sold at this warehouse on that day, for an 
aggregate sum of $15,000; and the happy fortune of go 
favorable a beginning has never deserted the house. Mr. 
J. W. Blackwell was admitted as a partner in the business 
in April, 1880 ; and under the firm name of Parrish.cfe 
Blackwell, the house has continued to enlarge in its opera- 
tions, and claims, and with reason, to transact a larger 
amount of business than any similar house in North Car- 
olina, and has established a national reputation among the 
leaf-tobacco markets of the country for the uniformity of 
its classification and the honesty of its prizing. Mr. Par- 
rish does not buy on order, but solely on his own account. 
He is probably the largest tobacco buyer iu the State. 
During the month of February, 1884, he paid out to farm- 
ers for tobacco sold on his warehouse floor the enormous 
sum of $96,000. His auction and prizing houses are, per- 
haps, the best equipped in the State. During the year 
1881, he sold 8,388,660 pounds of leaf tobacco, realizing 
$940,063.98. In 1882, his sales amounted to 5,370,488 lbs., 
and in 1883 his sales reached 6.797,542 lbs., amounting to 
$851,958.25. His principal prize house is constructed of 
brick, three stories high and about 56x125 feet. The front 
is used for the banking and reception rooms of " The Bank 
of Durham," of which W. T. Blackwell, Esq., is President. 
The other portion of the building is filled with all grades of 
North Carolina leaf tobacco in process of prizing or prepar- 



98 History of Durham. 



ation for shipment. Two other large buildings for prizing 
and storing, together with an establishment where his hogs- 
heads and tierces are made, are included in his extensive 
warehouse business. His exhibits at the Cincinnati Expo- 
sitions have uniformly drawn first prizes, one lot shown 
there having afterwards sold for $126 per 100 pounds. Mr. 
Blackwell's interest in this warehouse was purchased in 
January, 1884, by Mr. Parrish for $80,000. It has only 
been a few years since Capt. Parrish engaged in business 
hereon a very small capital, but through indomitable energy 
and superior business abilities, he has amassed a handsome 
fortune. There are but few men in the State more success- 
ful or more deserving of success, than Captain Edward J. 
Parrish. 

THE BANNER WAREHOUSE. 

This handsome and commodious house was opened April 
9th, 1879, by Messrs. Lea, Corbett & Co. In 1880 Mr. Cor- 
bett withdrew and Mr. J. T. Lea was admitted as a partner, 
and the business conducted under the name and style of 
Lea Brothers. The old building, before its removal, (in 
1§84) renovation and enlargement, contained a floorage 
area of 40x150, with extensive grounds and conveniences 
for wagons and horses. The principal supplies of the house 
are from the counties of Durham, Orange, Alamance, Cas- 
well, Person and Granville, and comprise bright wrappers, 
smokers and fillers of the highest grades. Mr. J. Q. A. Bar- 
ham, auctioneer, who is one of the best we have ever met. 
Sales occur daily. In 1881, Mr. Thomas D. Jones became 
a partner and continued as one of the firm for one year, 
when the management passed into the hands of Messrs. 
Cooper, Hutchings & Co., who conducted the business until 
the early part of 1884, when the house was moved, as above 
noted, and Mr. J. S. Lockhart became proprietor. The 
house now has an area of 50x273 feet, is fully equipped and 
is doing a lucrative business. 



CONNECTICUT FIRE 

OF 

HARTFORD, CONN. 
ASSETS - - - - $1,837,729. 

J. SOUTHGATE & SON, Agents, 
Durham, N. C. 



Blackwell's Factory. 99 

CHAPTER VI. 
Tobacco Factories. 

THK BLACKWELL TOBACCO FACTORY. 

Tobacco has made Durham famous the world over. Her 
celebrated smoking tobacco, because of the superiority iu 
both quality and texture of the article from which it is 
manufactured, is unequalled anywhere on the habitable 
<2;lobe. By critical chemical analysis, by the most celebrated 
chemist in the world,* it has been clearl}' demonstrated 
that this tobacco contains less nitrates and nicotine than 
any other tobacco <;rovi'n in the world. Durham is the bee- 
hive of North Carolina, and may be pertinently termed the 
Chicago of the South. Manufacturiiig and mercantile en- 
terprises are springing into existence like magic on every 
hand. Here the song of human industiy and progress floats 
upon the balmy bosom of every zephvr, gladdening and 
inspiring the hearts of the rich and the poor — inspiring 
new ho[)e and energy in the dreary soul of the humble 
laborer, wearily plodding his way in search of a comfortable 
home. Here all classes of honest and industrious mechan- 
ics and laborers find profitable employment, kind friends, 
and are surrounded by the most refined, educational, moral 
and religious influences and advantages. Durham, to day, 
is an asylum for the poor, a place where the " wandering 

* ItK. VOKLCKKKS EXAMINATION OF TH K FI.NE YELLOW TOBACCO OF NORTH 

CAKOLINA. 

Analytical Laboratoky, 11 Salisbury Square, Fleet Street. E. C, 

London, December?, 1876. 
Mr. .Tohn Ott, Sec etary Southern Fertilizing Company, Richmond, Va.: 

Mil Dear ffir :—\on will remember liavinir sent me, some lime ago, a packet 
of Tol>acco loaf, l:ibelle<l " Fancy Brijrbt Tobacco, from Granville county. North 
rarolina," which you desired mc to analyse. I have now completed the exami- 
nation, and have much pleasure in handinjr you the result.s obtained, botli in 
the analysis of th? organic and the inorganic parts of this magnificent Tobacco. 
The dried leaf, wlieu analyzed, had the following general composition : 

Moisture H.68 

Organic matter 72.07 

Mineral mutter (ash), 13.25 

100.00 
In comparing this general statement with the result-s which Pro. Johnson, of 
Yale colli'ge.t obtained some years ago, in the examination of a specimen of 
Fancy Krighi T<il)acci). from Granville county. X. C.,you will notice that whilst 
the Frof(>ss(>r found only S..V? per cent, of a.-h."the sample you sent mecontained 
18.2.") percent. Now, whilst 1 do not doubt, for a moment, the correctness of 
I'rof. .Iohns<iii"s determination, I may be allowed to say that.S'4 per cent, is an 

tAnalysis of sample from crop 1872, of E. E. Lyon, Granville county, S. 
C: Sillcia. 0.12 (per cent.); Chlorine, 0.20; Sulphuric .\cid,0.86; Phosphoric Acid, 
0.7;{; Lime, 2.1); Magnesia. I 05; Potash, 3..54 ; Soda, 0.09; Ash, S.Si; Organic mat- 
ter, sand and nitric acid, 01.47; Nitrogen, 2.S3. Sample furnished by the South- 
ern Kcrl ili/iiii.' ('(impany, Richmond, Va. 



100 History of Durham. 



Jew" — the illustrious cosmopolite, whose ancient prestige 
and glory, richly embellishing the ethical and aesthetic 
pages of history, though buried beneath the hoary locks of 
time, yet wield a salutary influence upon the morals of the 
world, — finds a peaceful and profitable retreat. And the 
extraneous fame of the town, as well as its internal pros- 
perity and wonderful progress, are mainly due to the inde- 
fatigable zeal and sagacious business abilities of those emi- 
nently worthy gentlemen — W. T. Blackwell aod Julian S. 
Carr — the founders of the great manufacturing enterprise 
which is the subject of this sketch. These gentlemen not 
only laid the foundation of Durham's greatness, but are 
still the leading builders, polishing and fitting stone after 
stone in her rapidly towering temple of fame. Their en- 
ergies, wisdom and money have been freely and lavishly 
used to preserve unsullied her illustrious name, which, as 
the very synon3'm of success, has been used by foreign en- 
terprises, detracting from her enviable reputation and pros- 
perity, and enhancing the value of the spurious products 
of meaner marts. (See Blackwell Litigation cases, chap, ii.) 
With these introductory observations, we proceed to give 
the reader a brief delineation of Blackwell's Durham To- 
bacco Co.'s Factory, which is the shrine of all pilgrims to 
Durham, and which, like Niagara Falls, the Yosmite Valley 
and other extraordinary objects of interest to be seen in 
this country, amply fills the measure of its world-wide 
fame. 



exceptionally low percentage of mineral matter in Tobacco leaves, for, in all of the 
recorded analyses of tobacco which I could lay hold of,— analyses made in your 
country as well as in others mado on the Continent, I do not findaiiy other specl- 
nienwliich yielded as little as &]4 percent, of asli, and the per ceiitase which I ob- 
tiiined in the sample you sent "me agrees better with the average amount of 
mineral matter in Tobacco. The proportion of ash constituents in fobacco, 
however, I find varies considerably, and usually amouuts to over 12 per cent., 
and in some instances reaches to 20 per cent in round numbers. 

I have made a complete analysis of the ash of the sample you sent me, and 
embody the results in the lollowing tabulated statement showing the composi- 
tion of the Mineral portion (ash) of a sample Fancy Bright Tobacco, grown in 
Granville county, N. ('., and sent to Dr. Voelclcer, by Mr. ,lohr. Ott, Secretary, 
&c., of Richmond : 

Lime 2^M 

Magnesia, 4 05 

Oxide of Iron, wi 

Potash, ; 18.55 

Chloride of Potassium, 5.82 

(!^hloride of Sodium, 7.17 

Phosphoric Acid, S.'W 

Sulphuric Acid, 3.37 

Soluble Silica, 1':.80 

Fine Sand 5.72 

Carbonic Acid and Loss, I3.9> 

100.00 



Blackwell's Factory. 101 



The factory and its adjuncts cover fifteen acres of ground, 
and is the largest and most attractive smoking tobacco fac- 
tory in the world. It is composed of brick and granite 
stone equally combined and hnrmoniousl}' blended. The 
windows, which are almost innumerable, are set in frames 
of granite, and throughout the whole' exterior this substan- 
tial material is seen ornamenting and supporting the struc- 
ture. 

The factor}^ has a frontage of 200 feet — to which another 
100 feet will soon be added, as a consequence of increasing 
business — a height of four stories, and two connecting 
wings, each four stories high and IGO feet in length. Within 
the grounds are all kinds of supplementary structures, such 
as storage houses for leaf tobacco and other things, print- 
ing establishments, box-making factories, machine shops, 
lire apparatus, etc. In addition to the buildings in the en- 
closure, the Company have several other large warehouses 
used for storing leaf. They constantly carry from three to 
five million pounds of leaf tobacco adapted to their require- 
ments. 

The factory is located in the immediate country known 
as "The Golden Belt," or bright tobacco region, which pro- 
duces a grade of tobacco that in texture, flavor and quality 
is not equaled elsewhere. The popularity of their goods is 
limited only by the quantity produced, and they are in a 
position to command the choice of all offerings upon our 



Deducting Sand and Carbonic Acid, and the composition of the pure Tobacco 
Is as follows ; 

Lime, 29.12 

aiagnesia 5.04 

Oxide of Iron, 1.01 

Potiish, „ 23.09 

Chloride of Potassium, „ 7.2.5 

Chloride Sodium, 8.93 

Phosplioric Acid, 4.18 

Sulphuric Acid, '. 4.bJ 

Soluble Silicia,...-. 17.19 

100.00 

I find merely traces of nitrates in the Fancy Bright Tobacco, -which, perhaps, 
is one of the reasons why this Tobacco has a very mild taste; for, in all biting, 
strong Tobaccos, I find invariably nitrates are present in considerable propor- 
tions. 

Another, and still more Important fact, which an investigation has brought to 
light, is tliat the Granville county Tobacco you sent me contains little nicotine, 
which I am inclined tu regard as a good feature of this kind of Tobacco. In 
coarse, strong Tobaccos, notably the inferior Tobaccos grown in the Palatinate 
(Bavaria), and some of the coarse (liighlj- manured) Virgina Tobaccos, tliey are 
found to contain much more nicotine, some as liigh as three or four times as 
much as I find in the " Fancy Bright." 



102 History of Durham. 



market, thus securing to the trade the very best. Millions 
have used and still use this celebrated smoking tobacco, who 
give little thought to its manner of preparation, or the vast 
dmountof capital, skill and energy requisite to successfully 
manufacture wliat is now known, ifrom the unique and orig- 
inal way of advertising in all parts of the habitable globe. 
Who has not seen the trade mark of the bull? — the right to 
use which has been awarded solely to this establishment by 
the United States Courts, thereby protecting the firm in 
what they originated, and under which brand their fame 
has become absolute. All attempts at imitation have failed. 
Tl;e goods put on the market possess a charming flavor that 
no one can even imitate; and the smoker at once recognizes 
the genuine article. 

This factory has been one of the most potent instrumen- 
talities in the building up of Durham. The vast amount of 
money it distributes finds lodgment in the hands of all 
classes, and is an ever unfailing source of revenue to the 
town. So much for its home benefits, and now as to the 
world : The old brands of smoking tobacco have disap- 
peared from the marts of commerce, and in their stead is 
the celebrated granulated tobacco manufactured by this 
firm, and possessing a superiority born of the result of pa- 

The following table shows the detailed composition of the sample of Fancy 
Bright Granville county Tobacco, sent by Mr. John Ott, Secretary, &c., and ana- 
lysed by Dr. Voelcker : 

Moisture, 14.68 

*Gum, extractive matters, and other substances, soluble in water, 36.17 

Mineral matters, soluble in water, 8.92 

Nicotine 1.30 

' Resinous compounds. Oil and other constituents, solublein ether 

and alcohol, „ 6.68 

( Digestible woody fibre, 14.43 

jf\ Indigestible woody fibre (pure cellulose) 12.42 

( Mineral matter, insoluble in water, 4.33= 32.18 

100.00 

♦Containing Nitrogen .47 

fNitrogen in portion insoluble in water, .44 

Total per centage of Nitrogen, .91 

In other recorded Tobacco analyses, I find the proportion of nitrogen is given 
much higher; and for this reason I was particularly anxious to verify my re- 
sults by repeated determinations, which closely agreed in the second decimals, 
and leave no doubt in my mind that the Fancy Bright Granville Tobacco con- 
tains a comparatively very small amount of nitrogenous (albuminous) com- 
pounds. Perhaps tliis explains the delicate flavor of the Tobacco smoke of this 
kind of Tobacco; for it is well known that albuminous and other nitrogenous 
compounds, when largely present in materials submitted to dry distillation 
(and smoking is a familiar illustration of destructive dry distillation) give off 
disagreeable-smelling ammoniacal vapours, reminding one moreor less of singed 
feathers or burnt horn. Be this as it may, the Fancy Bright Granville county 



Blackwell's Factory. 103 



tient investigation^ experience and vast outlays of capital. 
It is now recognized throughout the world, and most de- 
servedly so. 

We have visited many huge concerns in our time, but 
this stands pre-eminently first as the most complete in all its 
appointments we have ever seen, and we question if its 
equal — no matter to what purpose devoted — can be found 
in this country or any other. There is not a detail con- 
nected with the business but what is covered, and the entire 
establishment is a vast hive of industry. The history of this 
establishment at its conception is patent to multitudes; 
hence we only say that in 18G5, Mr. J. R. Green was manu- 
facturing tobacco at Durham station. He was joined by 
Mr. W. T. Blackwell and J. R. Day in 1868, but soon there- 
after his death occurred and his interest was purchased by 
the gentlemen named above. In 1870 Mr. Julian S. Carp, 
of Chapel Hill, N. C, was admitted to the firm, and from 
that time the business and the town began to thrive. A few 
years after Mr. Day retired, and in January, 1883, Mr. 
Blackwell sold out his interest, thus leaving Mr. Carr alone. 

Tobacco certainly Is one of the finest flavoured, mild Tobaccos I ever smoked 
and It is certainly a fact that it is poor both in nicotine and albuminous com 
pounds, which I am inclined to regard as a good and distinguished characteris- 
tic of delicate flavoured mild Tobaccos. 

How variable the proportions of nitrogen and ash are in Tobacco, you ■will 
notice in the following determinations which I made of three other samples of 
(prepared) Tobacco which you liiudly sent me: 

Percentage of Nitrogen and Ash in three apecimens of Tobacco, dried at 212° 
Fahrenheit. 

Percentage of Nitrogen. Percentage of Ash. 

"Lone Jack" Tobacco 1.65 li.% 

"Perfection Straight Cut Matcli- 

less Cavendish," prepared by 

J. F. Allen & Co., Richmond, 1.68 16.48 

Louisiana " Perique " Tobacco, 

grown in St. James Parish 

(crop of 1872), 3.(M 20.55 

You will observe that the strong Perique Tobacco is much richer In nitrogen 
and ash than the milder kinds. 

Of course, I merely throw oui, byway of suggestion, that delicate flavoured 
mild Tobacco is likely to be found always poor in nitrogen. An extended series 
of analyses alone would be required to establish this point. If my engagements 
permitted it, I should feel much interested in following up this line of investi- 
gation, but I have my hands so full of work, and the subject of Tobacco-growth 
is of no Immediate interest to British agriculturists, that I am obliged to leave 
so important and interesting a work as that of a thorough Tobacco investigation., 
to others more favorably situated than I am. 

Believe me, my dear sir, yours faithfully, 
(Signed) AUGUSTUS VOELCKER. 



104 History op Durham. 



On the 24tb of January, 1883, Blackwell's Durham Tobacco 
Company was chartered, with an authorized capital of $1,- 
000,000 and a paid up capital of $500,000. Mr. Julian S. 
Carr is the President; M. E McDowell, Vice-President, and 
J, A. McDowell, Secretary and Treasurer. All the rights 
belonging to the business are now the property of the pres- 
ent company; and dealers will be protected every way as 
heretofore. This house does business with wholesale dealers 
only, and have their representatives everywhere, both in 
this and foreign countries. 

On the Main Front are two pictures of a magnificent Dur- 
ham bull, well executed, which engrosses the attention of 
all. An interesting feature, also, of this establishment is a 
steam whistle, so constructed that it imitates the bellow of 
a bull. The imitation is so perfect that a stranger would 
be slow to detect the deception. It is said that it costs $6 
each time tins bull whistle bellows. It can be heard a dis- 
tance of thirteen miles. 

A short time since it became necessary to enlarge, and 
two L's were built, 160x40, five stories high. The only way 
to realize the stupendous magnitude of these buildings is to 
view them from the rear. There are two engines, one of 75 
horse-power and one of 40, supplied by a battery of four 
boilers of 21G horse-power. The boilers are fed with wood 
now, but soon only coal will be used. A switch runs from 
the main track of the railroad, on which stands the cars to 
be loaded, directly in front of the salesroom. The company 
is shipping about 25,000 pounds a day, running to the full 
capacity of the stamping room ; and this year they intend 
to ship 5,000,000 pounds, being two and a half million more 
than ever heretofore, thus exemplifying the wonderful rep- 
utation of the tobacco and the immense increasing demand. 
Some idea of their great business for the past four years can 
be gathered from the fact that in that time they paid to the 
government $2,076,665.81 for stamps on their genuine bull 
Durham tobacco, and this does not include the amount paid 
on cigarettes. This is about $44,000 per month on the 
average. Truly a most remarkable showing, and one that 
cannot be denied, as it is taken from the books of the gov- 
ernment officer. In 1881 this firm paid $645,591.33 of a 
total of $727,269.54. This shows most plainly the verdict 
of the public ; and if their goods are not popular, reliable 
and standard, why should an unprejudiced public use eight 



Blackwell's Factory. 



105 



times as much of them as all the rest combined ? Facts are 
stubborn things, and herein are they exemplified. About 
1,000 cases of 25 pounds each are shipped daily, with 20,000 
pounds allowed to a car load, and these shipments are des- 
tined to all parts of the world. They employ altogether 
nearly 1,000 hands, GS5 of whom are in the factory and 250 
outside, engaged in manufacturing the various sizes of bags 
in which the tobacco is packed. 

Those emplo3'ed in the factory are systematically classi- 
fied and distributed as follows: 



DEPATME>*TS. 



A — Mixing and Shipping, 
B — Handling Leaf, 
D— Cutting Leaf, 
E — Stamping, Labeling, etc., 
F — Flavoring and Packing, 
G — Cigarette Factory, 
H — Cutting, etc., of Long Cut, 
I — Engines, Machinery, etc., 
J — Wooden Box Factory, 
K — Paper Box Factory, 
L— Printing Office, 
N— Stables, Mills, Watch- 
men, etc., 
Outside Work, 



NAMES OF MANAGERS. 


HANDS. 


G. W. Burch, 


25 


J. M. Blackwood, 


15 


J. U. Goodwin, 


50 


Z. M. Pearman, 


150 


Geo. C. Scruggs, 
W. T. Speed, 
C. J. O'Brien, 


100 

150 

50 


W. H. Hanks, 


25 


R. W. Denny, 
J. C. Rogers, 


40 
25 


C. D. Whitaker, 


15 


M. C. McCown. 


40 


Tobacco Sack Makers, etc., 


250 



Total number of hands employed, 



935 



The company use over 110,000 yards of cloth a month for 
this purpose, or a total, probably, of 1,400,000 yards per 
annum, representing about one-fourth of the annual pro- 
duction of the celebrated Augusta Factory of Georgia. 

On the first floor are the offices, and they are elaborately 
furnished with all modeVn appliances to simplify and save 
time. The walls are hung with the various diplomas, med- 
als, etc., awarded the bull brand of tobacco, embracing such 
from all parts of the world, even including New Zealand, 
while the numerous chromos, paintings and lithographs that 
are conversant to the public at large, are also displayed. 
Adjoining is the salesroom, filled with goods ready to ship. 
A most complete vault is attached to the chashier's depart- 
ment, having an outer wall four feet thick, with two stone 
walls and one of brick twelve inches each, and two double 



106 History of Durham. 



six-inch air chambers. It is fifteen feet high and 12x15, 
with double doors. The arrangements throughout the build- 
ings for protection against fire are very perfect. Two 
chemical engines outside, and fort3'-five tanks holding 1,000 
gallons each, are located at the top of the edifice inside, with 
pipe and hose leading to every floor. In the rear grounds 
another very large tank has been erected, which contains 
many thousand gallons, accessible by pipes to all parts of 
the premises. Also barrels of water, all headed up, but 
with mallets ready, buckets, axes and iron doors on each 
floor, form quite valuable assistants. There are elevators at 
each end of the building, which are in constant use. 

The second floor is the stamping department, and here 
can be seen the numerous bags receiving their labels, stamps, 
cautionary notices, etc , put on in the most rapid manner by 
negro boj^s. This room is a curiosity, the work being so 
deftly executed. In other rooms is put up their celebrated 
" Durham Long Cut," in silver paper and tin-foil packages, 
and elaborately embellished. For cigarette and pipesmoking, 
it is superior to any tobacco made in the world, and is manu- 
factured from pure leaf, free from nitrates and narcotics. 
The cigars that the late Emperor of France,* Louis Napoleon, 
smoked, and which cost one dollar each in Havana, were 
made from the same leaf that is now used in Blackwell's 
Durham Long Cut and Blackwell's Durham cigarettes. It 
is identical. Prof. Horsford, when in Cuba, procured some 
of the same cigars, and there learned that thej' were made 
from leaf grown in North Carolina, and in the section where 
this factory is situated. The manufacturer of the Napoleon 
cigars' remarked that it was impossible to make any better 
goods, and no other leaf would equal that used for the 
purpose. 

The machinery used is of the latest and most perfect con- 
struction. There are two pasting machines, the invention 
of one of the superintendents, that do the work as fast as 
the speed of the hand allows. They are small machines 
run by steaim, as is all the machinery employed. There 
is also a machine for printing labels on bags and on wood. 



«XoTE.— In reply to a direct question as to the trsth of this claim, put by a rep- 
resentative of the U. S. Tobacco Journal, :Mr. Carr said: 

" Well, that's a leading question; I don't suppose I am capable of judging In 
the matter. Professor Horsford is an authority on the subject, and I have his 
word for it that the cigars he procured in Havana were made of North Carolina 
bright tobacco." 



Black well's Factory. 107 



A nailing machine, by the aid of which a man will nail 
1,000 boxes a da}', is employed. There are two Pease To- 
bacco Cutters that make 1,400 revolutions a minute, with 
twenty Granulating Tobacco Cutters, all of the best. There 
are also Separators and Bolters used, similar to flour mills, 
with drying rooms on each floor, one of which is 85x40 feet, 
in which hundreds of trays are used. It will be seen that 
everything that enters into the manufacture of tobacco is 
of the very best and bought solely with the idea of enhan- 
cing the value of the bull brand of tobacco. The room 
devoted to the packing department contains seventeen 
presses, worked by five hands to a machine, which produce 
7,200 bags each a day. They are run by steam, and are the 
invention of a Durhamite, and considered the most complete 
ever invented. They certainly do the work most expedi- 
tiously. Every package of tobacco or cigarettes is carefully 
inspected, and nothing leaves the factory of a poor quality 
or condition, hence its wonderful reputation. 

An interesting feature of the business is the great artesian 
well, which is 1,750 feet deep. The object in view in boring 
out this subterraneous passage is to strike sea level, in order 
to secure a more bountiful suppl}'' of water, the ordinary 
wells being inadequate to furnish the necessary supply du- 
ring the summer months. The company are often compelled 
to haul water, at considerable expense, from other localities. 
The engines and boilers are first-class and of large size. 
There are two elevators in the factory. The heating, lighting 
and ventilating provisions of the premises are, as may 
readily be imagined, as perfect as it is possible to make them. 

The company uses two barrels of the best New England 
rum, or eighty gallons a day, together with the tonka bean 
and other aromatics, the secret of their preparation being 
known only to the firm. The aroma known as the bull 
Durham flavor is thus preserved, that probably other manu- 
facturers would give thousands of dollars to learn. The 
cigarette department is unable to keep up with orders, owing 
to the difficulty of procuring the right kind of labor. Ail 
such now employed in this department were educated by 
the firm ; and they produce what is known as the Durham 
cigarette, nicely put up and in great demand. 

At the rear end of the left wine:, on the fourth floor, is a 
drying room with a capacity of 40,000 pounds. In this 
compartment this large quantity may be dried iu a few 



I 



108 History of Durham. 



hours. On the same floor, at the front, the " Genuine Dur- 
ham Smokii^g Tobacco" is seen unpacked. With the ex- 
ception of the drying department just referred to, this entire 
floor, front and both wings, is filled with granulated tobacco 
ready for packing processes. In this vast space almost a 
million pounds are distributed, and in looking at the tow- 
ering heaps an observer is reminded of mountains of shining 
gold. The sight is a beautiful and unequalled one. After 
viewing it one no longer wonders how it is that the "Genu- 
ine Durham Smoking Tobacco" has sellers and buyers in 
every little and big tobacco establishment throughout the 
world. The factory has the facilities for supplying the uni- 
versal demand, and the tobacco is distributed with as much 
skill as it is manufactured. 

The cutting room is on the first floor of the left wing, 
where twelve and sometimes fourteen cutting machines are 
in continual daily operation. In the basement of the same 
floor is a compartment where the iron hoops used to bind 
cases of goods are punched. Next to it is a machine shop, 
where the machinery of the factory is repaired. A grist 
mill adjoins; and beyond is a paper box factory, in which 
all the pasteboard boxes used in the factory are made. Over 
this is the printing establishment, in which every variet}^ 
of printing, plain, gilt and in colors, seen on the goods 
emanating from this factory, including bands and labels, 
large and small, is effected. Adjacent is a planing and box- 
making shop. 

In conclusion, to give some idea of the immensity of this 
establishment, we subjoin a few facts and figures from the 
President, Julian S. Carr, Esq., in the form of an interview : 

" I want to know something about the methods which has 
made Bull Durham the popular brand of smoking tobacco." 

'• Having a good thing, we have extensively advertised it." 

"You believe in extensive advertising." 

" Yes, sir; as long as I have a dollar to spare, I will in- 
vest it in advertising." 

" How much do you spend annually in that way?" 

" You can see for yourself. Here is a contract for adver- 
tising in country newspapers." 

The contract dated September 27, was made with N. W. 
Ayer & Son, advertising agents of Philadelphia, and the 
amount was $100,000. 

" With the large dailies," continued Mr. Carr, " we make 



Blackwell's Factory. 109 



special contracts, amounting this year to about 850,000. 
That will make ^150,000. Our clocks wliich have made a 
hit cost us W.OOO. That is §210,000. Now, in addition to 
this, we have four gangs of painters working through (lie 
country. One gang is following the railroads through the 
South to New Orleans and Texas, and later on to Mexico, 
One gang is painting from New York to Washington, and 
later on will go to New England. Another gang is at work 
between New York and Philadelphia, on the Pennsylvania 
and Bound Brook railroads. The fourth gang has started 
from Chicago, and will paint all through the West and over 
the Northern Pacific Railroad clear to Seattle, Washington 
Territory. This work is partly done by contract and partly 
by hiring men by the day. We have one man who has 
made a great reputation as a painter. His real name is .J. 
Gilmer Kerner, of Kernersville, this State. His artist vjom 
dc 7)^a7ne is Reuben Rink. Reuben Rink's bulls are noted 
for their fire and spirit. You see ordinary signs are played 
out. We have to have something striking. Every sign that 
Reuben Rink paints creates a sensation. They are generally 
80x150 feet in size, and the papers in the small town do not 
fail to criticise their artistic merits. We receive a record 
every day from the painters in our direct employ, showing' 
what they have daily performed. We have covered every 
State in the Union, Manitoba and part of Canada, but we 
have to go over the work every two years. We lose money 
unless we keep the signs fresh. You can make your own 
estimate of what this all costs." 

During the year 1883 the Company manufactured into 
smoking tobacco and cigarettes about 5,000,000 pounds of 
tobacco, as follows: 

Genuine Bull Durham, 4,371,032 pounds. 

Banner Durham, 296,905 " 

Blackwell's Long Cut Durham, 25,207 " 

Durham Long Cut, 43,400 



Total, 4,737,250 

Number of Cigarettes, 14,407,200. 

Having served as manager of one of the departments in 
this factory for several months, and having on all occasions 
received such marked courtesy and kind consideration irom 
its President and his corps of efficient lieutenants, the writer 



110 History of Durham. 



cannot justify himself in taking leave of the subject without 
tendering his most grateful acknowledgments. While he 
does not intend any invidious discrimination, he would 
acknowledge the kind offices of Mr. H. N. Snow% especially, 
in valuable assistance cheerfully rendered him in the col- 
lection of statistics and other important data. This gentle- 
man is Mr. Carr's private secretary', and is one of the most 
industriou.^, sapient and affable business men connected 
with the factory. 

M. E. m'dOWELL & CO. — PHILADELPHIA. 

This firm, although not residents of Durham, are so inti- 
mately connec-ted with its tobacco interests as to deserve 
mention, forming as they do quite a financial desideratum 
in the prosperity of our people. They are the sole agents, in 
Philadelphia, of Bhtckwell's Durham Tobacco Company, 
and, as is well known, have ample and unequalled facilities 
for the distribution of their goods throughout the country 
and the world. They have large capital, and have business 
connections in all the principal cities and towns in the 
United States and Europe. Their export trade is constantly 
augmenting, and their domestic business embraces all the 
United States and Territories. Tiiey have purchased, altered 
and superbly embellished a large brown-stone warehouse in 
Chesnut street, Philadelphia, in which a large portion of 
their rapidly increasing business is transacted. This acqui- 
sition, together with their other warehouse in the same city 
and their large branch-houses in New York, Chicago and 
other places, enable them to place the goods they handle as 
fast as they can be manufactured. 

W. DUKE SONS & CO. 

This is one of the largest smoking tobacco and cigarette 
factories in America, and the goods produced are of a supe- 
rior quality and elicit ready reception wherever introduced. 
This manufacturing enterprise has grown up into gigantic 
proportions in a remarkably short space of time and from 
very unpretentious beginnings. Mr. W. Duke came out of 
the late civil war, like thousands of others, an almost bank- 
rupt, the only property surviving the devastation of" grim- 
visaged war" being a wagon and pair of mules. With these 



Duke's Factory. Ill 



he began an itinerant tobacco traffic. By dint of. indefati- 
gable energy and keen business sagacity he wrung success 
from the very jaws of adversity, and was enabled in the fall 
of 1865 to engage in the manufacture of smoking tobacco in 
the vicinity of Durham, and soon moved his business into 
the town. Since this transfer of localit}' his business has so 
rapidly expanded as to require increased facilities, from time 
to time, until now, when his new four-story brick factory — 
which will front 184 feet on R. R. street, running 84 feet 
back, containing 40,000 square feet of floorage — shall have 
been completed, it will be one of the largest smoking to- 
bacco and cigarette enterprises in the United States. In 
1878 he took into copartnership three enterprising and ex- 
perienced members of his family, and now occupy two large 
wood buildings for manufacturing purposes, — one for smok- 
ing tobacco, shipping rooms, offices, etc., three stories high, 
70 feet long, with a frontage of 80 feet, the other being used 
principally for the manufacture of their deservedly popular 
cigarettes, known as " The Duke of Durham." This building 
also contains a superbly equipped job printing office, where 
the company's printing is most artistically and expedi- 
ciouly executed, under the supervision of an experienced 
printer, Mr. John T. Britt, assisted by a corps of gentle- 
manly and thoroughly competent compositors. On the 
premises are several other buildings — box shops, engine 
house, and (recently erected) a very large four story storage 
house. The trade of this house extends throuahout the 
United States, and large shipments are made to sixteen for- 
eign countries. The stock used is bought on the Durham 
market, and is the finest tobacco for the purpose grown in 
any country. 

This firm commenced the manufacture of cigarettes in 
1881. There being several brands of very excellent ciga- 
rettes on the market, popular prejudice, to a large extent, 
had to be combatted and supplanted. Keenly alive to the 
importance of these as well as other difficulties which inevi- 
tably and formidably confront the introduction of "anew 
thing," these gentlemen wisely determined that the only 
medium of successful competition consisted in the use only 
of the very best material on the market, and hence the to- 
bacco used is selected with the most scru[)ulous care. Their 
" Duke of Durham " cigarettes have elicited such grjat pop- 
ularity and increasing demand in this and foreign coun- 



112 History of Durham. 



tries, as to necessitate greatl}' enhanced manufacturing fa-, 
cilities; hence the pending erection of their new brick fac- 
tory. It now requires the manufacture of 250,000 cigarettes 
per day :o supply tlie constantly augmenting demand. The 
new building will be amply furnished with all the modern 
and most approved appurtenances and conveniences em- 
ployed in the manufacture of smoking tobacco and ciga- 
rettes. The enviable reputation of this enterprising firm, 
achieved through assiduous application to business, in all 
its ramifications, permeated by a sincere desire not only to 
please their customers, but by a pertinacious determination 
to produce goods that will bear the most hypercritical anal- 
ysis and stand upon their intrinsic merits alone, is a suffi- 
cient guaranty to the smoking public that W. Duke, Sons 
& Co. do not intend in future to be excelled in any of the 
details constituting a pleasant, healthful and uniform quality 
of goods. 

While Mr. Duke was nominated for State Treasurer by 
the present political amalgamation, known as the Anti- 
Prohibition-Republican Party, he is nevertheless an in- 
veterate opponent of the Whiskey Traffic. He is a true and 
tried Republican upon republican principles — the principles 
which have endeared that party to the hearts of the people 
for twenty years, and is one of those pure patriots who have 
worked earnestly to preserve ils escutcheon undefiled. Tiie 
Chronicle in speaking of his nomination, says : " Mr. Duke 
is the father of the famous and enterprising tobacco and cig- 
arette manufacturing firm which bears his name — W. 
Duke Sons & Co., of Durham. He is between fifty and sixty 
years of age, a vigorous, well preserved man, a man wlio 
has led an industrious and successful life, and been highly 
esteemed by all who have known him. He has trained his 
sons 10 be business men of uncommon ability and enter- 
prise, as their gigantic success demonstrates. A man that 
has such a record in private life is, of course, worthy of the 
confidence of the public, and the Republicans could not 
have nominated a man in their party in whose integrity the 
people would have greater confidence. Mr. Duke has had 
no political experience and no experience of any kind in 
public affairs. He has never been a politician, and though 
he is a staunch Republican, it is well understood that he 
preferred to be left off the ticket and will take no active in- 
terest in the campaign." 



Morris & Son Manufacturing Co. 11; 



THE R. F. morris & SON MANUFACTURING CO. 

Robert F. Morris, the founder of this enteprise, was one of 
the earliest settlers at Durham, removing here from Gran- 
ville county in 1858. Ho was the pioneer in the tobacco 
business at Durham, and did much towards building up 
the town and making it a tobacco market. 

Prior to the late war, he set his son (G. B. Morris) up in 
the smoking tobacco business, in company with a Mr. 
Wright; and during the war Mr. Morris manufactured to- 
bacco himself, but before the close of it he and Morris &, 
Wright sold out to Mr. J. R. Green. Early in 1865 he put 
up another factory and began the manufacture of the cele- 
brated "Spanish Flavored Eureka Smoking Tobacco," which 
gave notoriety and popularity to the Durham tobacco, and 
up to within two or three years of his death, which occurred 
in 1872, this was one of the leading brands of tubacco manu- 
factured at Durham. 

Mr. Morris entertained the idea that Durham was one da}' 
to be a large and flourishing town ; and, incited by this idea, 
he invested largely in real estate in the future Chicago of 
the South. In consequence of his real estate investuients, 
he cramped his tobacco business, which was rapidly growintr. 
There was nothing selfish in his nature, but he felt a great 
pride in seeing Durham grow and prosper. He was gener- 
ous to all. 

Mr. Morris did not live long enough to see his pre-con- 
ceived ideas of Durham's greatness fulfilled, as it has been 
within the past seven or eight years that she has made her 
greatest progress and developed into a young city and a 
great tobacco mart. 

The R. F. Morris & Son Manufacturing Co., of which W. 
H. Willard is president, and S. F. Touilinson, Secretary and 
Treasurer, are the successors of R. F. Morris & Son, and 
under their supervision the "Eureka Durham" has sus- 
tained its high reputation as a smoker, helping to give the 
smoking tobaccos of Durham a world-wide reputation. 

Their brands continue to grow in favor and their busi- 
ness is annually on the increase. Besides the celebrated 
"Eureka Durham" they manufacture the "Bear" and 
" Gold Leaf Durham ;" the latter being of a beautiful golden 
color and made from the very finest tobacco grown in North 
Carolina, and only in a certain locality of the State. This 



114 History of Durham. 



tobacco, like the "Vuelta Abass," is of extra fine quality 
and has a flavor peculiar to itself, which no other tobacco 
has 

This firm manufactures also a superior article of Scotch 
Snulf, equal to any brand on the market. The name of their 
brand is " Ladies' Clioice Scotch Snuff." It is made from 
the very best North Carolina sun cured tobacco, being 
entirely free from adulterations and injurious drugs or 
chemicals. This is a comparatively new enterprise, but a 
growing one. This firm is one of the leading manufactures 
of the town. 

E. T. FAUCETT. 

If perfect system, superior goods, the best and most im- 
proved modern aj>pliances in the manufacture of cigarettes 
and smoking tobacco, are the prerequisites of a first class 
manufacturing establishment, then this factory is justly 
entitled to prominence among the leading institutions of 
the kind in North Carolina. Mr. Faucett is a gentleman of 
large and varied experience in the business, and spares no 
pains nor expense to produce a quality of goods which will 
stand upon their merits and compete favorably with the 
best brands manufactured. He engaged in business herein 
1871. In 1877 his factory was destroyed by fire, but he 
immediately re-built in another locality. He now occupies 
a wood building 80x40 feet, two and a half stories high. 
His products are granulated and long-cut smoking tobaccos 
and cigarettes, his special brands being "Little Oronoka," 
" Favorite Durham " and " Ten Cent Durham," and his trade 
covers the entire Union, and is still rapidly increasing. In 
October, 1883, he entered as a partner in and was chosen 
president of " The Durham Cigarette Company." The ex- 
cellent quality of their goods created so great a demand that 
enlarged facilities became indispensable. Their new quar- 
ters are now completed, giving employment to a greatly 
increased number of skilled operatives. "Little Oronoka" 
is undoubtedly one of the finest cigarettes manufactured in 
this or any other State. It is manufactured only from the 
quality of tobacco from which it derives its name. It pro- 
duces a sweet, mild smoke, and does not bite the tongue, 
being almost entirely free from nicotine. Smokers of long- 
cut and cigarettes are of that class, mostly young, who like 



Z. I. Lyon & Co. 115 



to smoke often and long, and who are ever on the lookout 
for goods that will not liite the tongue or nauseate. The 
tobacco known as the *' Little Oronoka " is grown only in a 
few counties in Middle North Carolina, and consequently 
cannot be obtained by all manufacturers. Mr. Faucett is 
rapidly extending his sales, which could be greatly acceler- 
ated, but for the difficulty in securing workmen. He has 
for two years been manufacturing some of the most popular 
brands of smoking tobacco, and his reputation for producing 
none but goods of solid merit is too well understood and 
appreciated to need iurther comment, here, and we simply 
add that a trial package of his cigarettes or smoking tobacco, 
will be sufficient to convince the most incredulous. Mr. 
Faucett, socially is one of the most entertaining courteous 
and high-toned citizens of Durham. In business, he is en- 
ergetic, sapient and honorable in all his dealings, and richly 
deserves the great success he is receiving. 

Z. I. LYON & CO. 

This firm is composed of Messrs. Z. L Lyon, J. W. Cheek, 
F. C. Geer and J. Ed. Lyon, and was formed in 1SG8. Mr. 
J. Ed. Lyon is the oldest surviving manufacturer of tobacco 
in Durham, having owned an. interest in the celebrated 
Bull brand of smoking tobacco, in copartnership with Mr. 
J. R. Green, in 1865. In 1867 he sold his interest in the 
Bull brand, and commenced the manufacture of " The Pride 
of Durham," in copartnership with Z. I. Lyon, under the 
name and style of J. Ed. Lyon & Co. In the early part of 
1868 he again purchased an interest in J. R. Green's factory 
and continued with him until the latter part of the same 
year, when he was offered and again secured an interest in 
the "Pride of Durham " brand of granulated smoking to- 
bacco. During the year 1868 Messrs. J. W. Cheek and F. 
C. Geer were admitted as partners, and the firm name was 
changed to Z. I. Lyon & Co. They occupy a 32x70 two and 
a half story wood building, where they are doing a prosper- 
ous business, their excellent productions increasing in pop- 
ularity and demand. Their sales now cover the entire Union. 
They use steam power and give employment to a large 
number of skilled operatives. The factory is well furnished 
witli the most approved manufacturing appliances. Their 
product is exclusively granulated and their annual out-put 



116 History of Durham. 



is over two hundred thousand pounds, their brand being 
" The Pride of Darham," of whicli they may well be proud, 
for it is certainly a very excellent quality of smoking to- 
bacco, and is fast becoming one of the leading brands of the 
country. If indomitable energy coupled with rare business 
qualifications can be relied on as essential concomitants of 
success, then these gentlemen richly deserve, and will un- 
questionably receive their full meed. Amid all the ramifi- 
cations of their business a commendable feature is every- 
where manifested, even to the most casual observer — a fixed 
determination to please their customers, not only in the 
quality of their goods, but in all their business transactions, 
and this is one of the most important pre-requisites of suc- 
cess. 

ROULHAC & CO. 

Mr. W. S. Roulhac moved to Durham in 1875, and man- 
ufactured the "Tiger" brand of granulated smoking tobacco, 
which brand he had been operating, in copartnership with 
Mr. Webb, in Hillsboro, since 1871. In 1876 the firm name 
was changed to Roulhac & Co., after which several changes 
were made and the firm was finally dissolved, and the busi- 
ness discontinued. 

J. R. DAY & BRO. 

This firm began the manufacture of the "Standard of tlie 
World" brand of granulated smoking tobacco in November, 
1878, the firm having been composed of J. R. and W. P. 
Day. The former was one of the copartners of W. T. Black- 
well & Co., and acquired large experience as a manufacturer. 
They occupied a two and a half story wood building, located in 
the rear of Stokes Building. In January, 1880, the business 
was sold to H. K. and F. B. Thurber, of New York. The 
factory was burned in December, 1880, and has not since 
been rebuilt or the business resumed. 

ISSAC N. LINK. 

Tliis gentleman engaged in the manufacture of tobacco in 
Durham in 1876, succeeding W. R. Hughes & Co. His 
product was exclusively granulated tobacco, his sole brand 
being the " Dime Durham." The factory had a capacity of 
about one thousand pounds per day. Its principal markets 



SiEGEL Brothers. 117 



were New York, Philadelphia, Cincinnati and Chicago. In 
the latter part of 18S1 Mr. Link sold out his business — in- 
cluding his brand — to Messrs. W. Duke Sons & Co., by 
whom, ever since, he has been employed as book-keeper. 

SIEGEL BROTHERS. 

These courteous and enterprising gentlemen were born in 
Kovno, Russia, which town has large cigarette factories, and 
in one of these J. M. Siegel served his apprenticeship, and 
also worked in St. Petersburg. He says that every fac- 
tory was in charge of a government officer, who remained 
in it all the time, having entire control of it. Every 
night the officer superintended the closing of the factory, 
and put the government seal upon the door; and in the 
morning he broke the seal, and opened it. At night the 
operatives were regularly searched, and as many as left the 
factory to go to their dinner were also searched at noon. 
Turkish tobacco was used entirely, the cheapest being worth 
a dollar, and the dearest nine dollars a pound. These Rus- 
sian cigarettes are famous the world over. From Russia, 
J. M. Siegel went to London, and worked there in the largest 
factories about four years. On coming to the United States, 
he worked with Goodwin & Co. several years, and was Su- 
perintendent of W. Duke Sons & Co.'s cigarette department 
about three years, when he went into his present firm. 

David Siegel's knowledge and skill in cigarette making 
were obtained under more trying circumstances than in 
his brother's case, but he reaped the reward of indefatigable 
perseverance. He learned the trade in England, where he 
served several years in one of the largest factories in the 
city. At that time the way of acquiring proficiency was by 
serving a tedious apprenticeship of years, at very low wages. 
At the expiration of his apprenticeship he came to the 
United States, where he earned from $45 to $55 per week. 
He worked for Kenny Bros, three 3'ears, and was superin- 
tendent for M. H. Ryders eighteen months. He was then 
offered a situation b}'- the two largest firms in the country, 
one of which was W. T. Blackwell & Co., and with them he 
held a position as superintendent for three years. While 
abroad in their interest he was notified in London of a 
change in the partnership, and not wishing to travel further 
gave up his situation with them. It was on this trip to Eng- 
8 



118 History of Durham. 



land, that he narrowly escaped with his life, being ship- 
wrecked on the ill-fated " City of Brussels." January 7th, 
1883. Mr. Siegel then made arrangements to go into busi- 
ness for himself, which arrangement went into efiect May 
.1st, 1883 ; a few months later he was joined by his brother, 
Mr. J. M. Siegel. They began with a capacity of 5,000 
cigarettes per day, and made their first shipment July 19th, 
placing their goods first in Raleigh and Goldsboro. In 
October last Mr. David Siegel made a trip, placing a quan- 
tity of his goods on consignment in a number of places. 
This put them on trial onl}^ but w^hen these very dealers 
ordered the goods, and re-ordered them again and again, in 
increasing quantities, it proved conclusively that their cig- 
arettes were becoming appreciated. 

The Siegel Bros, claim to be pioneers in the cigarette bus- 
iness in the United States, for very good reasons. Mr. J. M. 
Siegel was the 15th cigarette maker in London, and Mr. 
David Siegel was the 60th in London and the 4th in the 
United States, while there are now in this country from 15,- 
000 to 17,000. For eighteen years, they have studied this 
trade, and have worked in the largest manufactories in the 
world ; hence they are thoroughly conversant with every 
method of preparing tobacco, and know how to meet the 
requirements of every climate. 

The selection of a trade-mark w^as a subject of much 
thought, and in deciding upon "Cablegram" they made a 
very happy hit. As the fact that there can be such a thing 
as a cablegram denotes a triumph in modern science, so in 
putting the results of their nearly twenty years' experience 
into the manufacture of their "Cablegram Cigarettes," they 
claim to offer to the public something exceptionally fine in 
qualit3^ 

Their sales extend over the United States, and espe- 
cially in Columbia, Spartanburg and Greenville, S. C; 
Augusta, Atlanta, Macon, Columbus and Eufaula, Ga.; Mont- 
gomery and Selma, Ala.; Meridian, Miss.; New Orleans, La.; 
Galveston, Houston, Austin, Dallas and otherpoints in Texas; 
Little Rock, Ark.; Nashville and Knoxville, Tenn., and in 
numerous other places. This is a very handsome showing, 
and when it is added that within six months from the plac- 
ing of their products upon the market, their sales in a single 
month exceeded 570.000 cigarettes, their superior qualit3% 
and the success of their enterprise are established beyond 
controversy. 



Durham and Franklinton Railroad. 119 



The Durham and Franklinton Railroad. 



We hail with profound gratification the project in vogne 
for the speed}' construction of a railroad from FrankliiUon 
to our city. On the 1st of April, 1884, a large and enthusi- 
nstic meeting was held in Franklinton in order to ascertain 
the sentiment of the people along the proposed line in re- 
gard to the movement, and to take initiatory steps in rela- 
tion thereto. The meeting, as we learn from an eye witness, 
was largely attended by influential citizens who live on the 
route between the two points. 

Col. W. F. Green, in an able and exhaustive speech, 
pointed out tlie advantages of tapping the R. & G. Road at 
Franklinton. After liiss[ieech, Hon. C. B. Green, editor of 
the Tobacco Plant, who had been elected chairman ofi 
the Durham delegation, spoke at length proving that great 
beneficial results would accrue to Franklinton, Durham and 
the entire country through which it would pass. This was 
followed by speeches from representatives of Franklinton 
and Louisburg. Rev. A. Walker, Capt. T. B. Lyon, IJ. A. 
Reams and Jno. C. Angier, President of the Durham Woolen 
Mills, all spoke. Under a resolution a committee was ap- 
pointed to raise funds to make a survey of the route, which 
will be done at an early day. The people who have the 
money at Franklinton and on the line of the road are thor- 
oughly enthused, and everybody knows that when Durham- 
itcs put a project on foot they never stop short of success. 

The key note has been struck and soon Durham will have 
a competing line. From reports received from gentlemen 
who visited Franklinton, and from what we know of the 
enterprise and liberality of the Durham people, we have no 
hesitancy in saying that ^100,000 can be raised in a week's 
time. 

The delegates who attended the meeting, report a deter- 
mination on the part of the citizens of Franklinton, and 
those along the line between here and that place, that means 
nothing less than success. There was also present a delega- 
tion from Louisburg who were looking after the extension 
of the road to that point. The impression made upon the 
minds of the Durham delegation was that the road to Frank- 
linton would be built. We trust that before these lines are 



120 History of Durham. 



perused by the reader the company will have been organ- 
ized, a survey made, and the work of construction com- 
menced. Franklinton is as good a point of connection as can 
be made. It undoubtedly gives us a competing line and a 
decidedly more direct outlet to the northern markets. There 
is no necessity for Durham remaining a mere railroad sta- 
tion, at the mercy of a monopoly, made to pay the most 
extravagant freight rates, when there is an opportunity for 
better things. 



The New Banner Warehouse. 



'Opening Sales — Speeches by His Excellency, Governok 
Jarvis, Capt. S. a. Ashe, Hon. C. B. Green and others 
— A Gala Day. 

As we could not possibly be present at the '''Opening 
Sales" of ihis mammoth establishment, being detained at 
Raleigh superintending the publication of our book, we 
insert the following description of the same, gleaned from 
the columns of the News Sc Observer, an ably edited and 
leading Democratic paper, published at Raleigh. We regret 
that our limited space will not permit us to give a more 
•extended notice, but the following will give a tolerably 
accurate idea of the auspicious occasion : 

On the 8th of May, 1884, Gov. Jarvis, by invitation, 
attended the formal opening of the new Banner Tobacco 
Warehouse at Durham, of which J. S. Lockhart, Esq., is pro- 
prietor. The evening previous he had been the recipient of 
a serenade, and in response to calls had made a pleasant 
speech to the Durham Light Infantry and a large assemblage. 
On Thursday morning a procession formed in front of the ho- 
tel and under escort of the Mayor, the Board of Trade and 
a large number of citizens, the Governor was conducted to 
the Banner Warehouse, where a galaxy of Durham's lovely 
ladies had gathered. After delightful music by the Dur- 
•ham brass band, Mr. C. B. Green, editor of the Tobacco Plant, 



Neu' Banner Warehouse, 121 



introduced his Excellency in appropriate terms, alluding 
particularly to the interest which Governor Jarvis had ever 
exhibited in developing the material resources of the State 
and fostering our educational institutions. 

Gov. Jarvis acknowledged his obligations for the kind 
words of commendation that had been expressed relative to 
his action in developing the resources of the State. He had 
always felt a pride in doing his duty, and if, as in this in- 
stance, good had resulted from his labors, it was still more 
gratifying to him. As he looked over the State and saw 
the people in every section happy, living in peace and con- 
tentment and showing a large measure of prosperity, he 
felt grateful that he had been in some degree an instrument 
iu accomplishing the result. It was a peculiar pleasure to 
see the people of the State enjoying these blessings to such 
an unusual extent as the}' do to-day. Casting his eye over 
the five hundred miles from the sea to the mountains, sur- 
veying her towns and communities, he found nowhere any 
people more prosperous, more happy, more to be envied than 
the people of the marvellous town of Durham. He spoke 
of Durham's growth and expanded business and declared 
it to be one of the marked features of development and 
progress of our State. He remarked that there were so 
many elements combining to make up prosperity that he 
would not undertake to discuss them all, but would merely 
say that like the system of the healthy man, they must 
work in harmony to secure perfect action. Each element 
performs its own function. Tliere were two main elements 
in societ}' however — labor and capital — each necessary to 
the other, each dependent on the other. Separated they 
were without avail, together they were irresistible for the 
accomplishment of great works. He would never under- 
rate those who made the brick or drove the saw or pushed 
the plane, the men who had put together those structures 
which adorn and ornament this beautiful and prosperous 
town. It is the labor of the country that makes its wealth. 
It is the business of capital to see that labor is employed 
and that it is cared for. And he said " if I was called on to 
write in letters of gold any one act that would mark the 
prosperity of your town, that has laid deep the founda- 
tions of a just connection between labor and capital, to 
which your citizens can point with pride, as exhibiting en- 
lightenment and prosperity, and calculated to make your 



122 History of Durham. 



population harmonious and happy, I would write of your 
' Graded School,' that noble institution where the children 
of the men of Durham can become enlightened, intelligent 
and cultivated men and women of North Carolina." He 
spoke at considerable length about capital and referred to 
its tendency to withdraw and hide itself during a period of 
bad laws, or a bad administration of government. jNIoney 
is a great coward, he said, and continued : " I am not say- 
ing too much when I appeal to you to see that our State, 
North Carolina, shall live in the future, as in the past, un- 
der good and wholesome laws, well and wisely administered 
by good and true men." 

He then dwelt upon the relations between the farming 
and the mercantile elements of society. Others work, but 
they create nothing, merely converting old material into 
new forms : but the farmer plants his seed and produces that 
which did not before exist. Without this all other employ- 
ment would cease. Every interest depended on the agri- 
cultural, and though in some communities there was irrita- 
tion between the farmers and the merchants, he was sure 
that there was none at Durham; that the gentlemen com- 
posing the Board of Trade at Durham so well understood the 
laws of trade that they would never permit anything to 
occur that would afford just ground for complaint. He de- 
picted the great progress that has in recent years been made 
throughout the >State, and the pride that our citizens now 
take in saying that they are North Carolinians. We had 
much to be proud of in our history, and still more in the 
character of our people and in the greatness of our resources. 
In conclusion he referred to the fine exhibits at Atlanta and 
at Boston, and he urged the desirability of our making a 
splendid display of our State's progress and resources at 
Raleigh tliis fall and at the World's Exposition at New Or- 
leans. He begged the people of Durham county not to be 
behind their sister counties in this matter, but to make a 
noble exhibit worthy of their tovrn, worthy of Durham 
county and of the State. 

The speech was admirably conceived, forcibly delivered 
and was received with warm applause and much satisfac- 
tion on all sides. 

Mr. J. S. Lockhart, the proprietor of the Warehouse 
then, in response to repeated calls, made a few pleasant re- 
marks, and after music the crowd poured into the capacious 
warehouse to witness the sales of tobacco. 



New Banner Warehouse. 123 



The first lots sold were the samples exhibited at Boston. 
Those from Durham county, which cost the Board of Agri- 
culture $1.00, were knocked down at $1.30; the samples 
from Winston brought $1.26; from Vance county $1.25, and 
those from Asheville were knocked down to Gov. Jarvis at 
$1.02. The break was large, the tobacco very fine, and the 
prices realized were high. 

Gov. .Jarvis then visited the splendid Warehouse of Capt. 
E. J. Parrish, who has on hand a vast amount of the 
weed, much of it of the finest quality. The next point 
of interest was tlie Graded School, and, immediately oppo- 
site, Duke's cigarette factory, where some 300 operatives are 
employed in making the little cigarettes. The Graded School, 
under the efticient management of Prof. Kennedy and his 
accomplished assistants, is certainly a credit to Durham and 
North Carolina. It is a very admirable institution. Short 
addresses were made to the pupils by Gov. Jarvis and Capt. 
Ashe, and then the party repaired to the Hotel Claiborn for 
further treatment under the skilful hands of that most ex- 
cellent caterer and hotel manager, Mr. Rutjes. Across the 
way towered up Mr. Carr's great factory, the tobacco works 
of " Blackwell Durham Tubacco Company," whose huge 
proportions exemplify what native ability can do in the 
way of accomplishing success, and on the right was the fac- 
tory of the Morris & Son Company, where snufTas well as 
smoking tobacco is made. But turn where one might, he 
would see evidences of thrift, industry and enterprise, and, 
as the product of these, he would find evidences of large 
fortunes made and of an accumulation of wealth, the like of 
which but few other Southern communities of equal size 
can boast. 

Virginia Home Insurance Company, 
' richmoitd, va. 

ASSETS, - - - $350,000. 

J. SOUTHGATE & SON, Agts., Durham, N. C. 

Georgia Home Insurance Company; 

^^SSiJTS, - - - $750,000. 

J. SOUTHGATE & SON, Agents, Durham, N. C. 



I 



124 History of Durham. 



jp..^:E^rr xx. 



mmmnmRh smmms. 



COLONEL D. C. PARKISH. 

The subject of this sketch was boru in the couiitj' of Or- 
ange, N. C, ]\Iay 28th, A. D. 1807. Died in the city of 
Durham July 11th, 1883. 

Colonel Parrish was a member of the M. E. Church South, 
having been converted and received into that church dur- 
ing a revival of religion at Moore's Chapel, Granville county, 
in the year 1841. In 1842 he was happily united in mar- 
riage to Miss Ruth A. Ward, a most estimable lady, richly 
endowed with rare personal and christian graces. To them 
were born seven children, six of whom are still living, one 
having died in childhood. Perhaps no union was ever 
blessed by more refined, exemplary children, who to-day 
are among the most cultivated, esteemed and religious fam- 
ilies of this community. Among these the sainted father 
and grandfather spent his latter years, honored and loved 
by all who knew him. 

Colonel Parrish was in the highest sense a' type of the 
old school of Southern chivalry and hospitality. He was 
the soul of honor, of courtly and unobtrusive dignity, of 
lofty bearing, suave manners, tender, refined sympathies 
and sublime humility; discreet and prudent, yet always 
candid. For thirty- four years he was a consistent, zealous 
and brave " soldier of the cross, a follower of the Lamb." 
For twenty-five or thirty years he faithfully discharged the 



Biographical Sketches. 125 



responsible and sacred duties of Class-Leader and Steward 
in the church, and ma}' truly be called the father of Meth- 
odism in Durham. His usefulness was not confined to the 
church, although the christian graces which so beautifully 
adorned his life, and cast about him an irresistible, indefi- 
nable charm, permeated all his dealings with men, both 
private and public. He was often placed by his country- 
men in positions of public trust and honor. For more than 
forty years he was a Justice of the Peace. He was also a 
member of the County Court of Orange for many years, 
always discharging his public duties in such a manner as to 
elicit the admiration and confidence of his fellow-citizens. 
Seven times he was elected Mayor of Durham, dying in that 
office. The citizens of Durham would have no other when- 
ever he could be prevailed upon to serve. This of itself was 
a high testimony to his sterling merits. In 1850 he was 
nominated for the General Assembl}'', and defeated only, 
through a preponderance of anti-temperance feeling, by a 
very small majority. He was an ardent, indefatigable worker 
in the temperance, as well as every other good cause which 
contemplated the moral, material and spiritual welfare of 
mankind. He was elected Colonel of .the Militia, before the 
war, against influential opposition, which position he held 
many years. 

Colonel Parrish's public, as well as private character, occu- 
pies a bright page in the ephemeris of life, and will be 
pointed to with consummate pride and pleasure, as a guid- 
ing light in the formation and development of a patriotic, 
chivalrous, phiIanthroj->ic and christian character. With 
him there was none of the haughtiness so often born of 
affluent circumstances. The high and the low, the rich and 
the poor, had equal access to considerate and courteous au- 
dience. No one in trouble, however humble and obscure, 
ever appealed to him in vain. His temporal benefits were 
always coupled with spiritual benedictions, and no one ever 



126 History op Durham. 



lingered in his presence without feeling the elevating influ- 
ence of that divine love which burned ablaze in the deepest 
precincts of his soul and shone out effulgeatly in all his 
words and deeds. Ah how gloriously such a character shines 
in these degenerate days of simpering cant and disgusting 
hypocrisy ! He left beautiful, imperishable footprints upon 
the shores of time. He left not only a noble, lofty character, 
for our admiration and emulation, but living evidences and 
monuments of his great life's work in the refined characters 
and extensive elevating influence of his bereaved widow and 
children. In them he still liveth. In them all the noble 
traits of his truly amiable character are being exemplified. 
In these latter times of skeptici3,m and infidelity, how such 
living epistles lift the cause of the Blessed Master toweringly 
above the insipid vagaries and puny, stultified cant of such 
self-deluded sycophants as Darwin and Ingersoll. How 
such lives prove that religion is a vital principle — moral 
elixir — in the world to-day. Lot the weak and wavering 
consider such lives, bless God and take courage. 

In conclusion we cannot refrain quoting the following 
from the pen of one of our most gifted divines, the present 
pastor of Trinity M. E. Church, so replete and euphonious 
with lofty thought and diction. Brother Boone says : 

" God gave him tiie desire of his heart even in the matter 
of his death. In relating his experience in the social meet- 
ings of the church, he vvould often say that if it were God's 
will, he would prefer to cease to live when he ceased to 
work — and it was so, for his life and his labors ended to- 
gether. Like Moses, whose strength was not abated, and 
whose eye was not dimmed, when he ascended Mount Nebo's 
summit to meet the angelic charioteers and ascend with 
them to the mount of God : so with this servant of God, 
who had measured more than three score years and ten in 
serving his generation b}' the will of God. He sat at the 
gate to administer justice and give counsel until the setting 



Biographical Sketches. 127 



sun threw its mellow light across the bending sky, while 
the soft and fleecy clouds, in ample folds of purple and of 
gold, bade a sweet good-bye to the departing day, and 
threw Uieir lengthening shadows, tinted with the glory of 
eventide, as a mantle of royalty upon the shoulders of this 
servant of God, as he withdrew from the active duties of 
the da}', to the peace and quiet of his home. A fitting 
scene for the close of such a life." 

On the sad, memorable evening prior to his death, he 
remained with his family, the cheer and comfort of all, 
until 9 o'clock, when he bade them good night, remarking 
that he would retire early, as he was suffering with pains 
in his body. After midnight he awoke his wife, complain- 
ing of severe pains in his shoulder and body. Dr. A. G. 
Carr, his son-in-law, was called and was soon at his bed- 
side. All the remedial agencies that could be suggested by 
eminent skill and prom{)led by the most sublime devotion 
were employed, but his " mansion " had been " prepared " 
in the Upper and Better Sanctuary, and the heavenly car- 
avan was hovering about his bedside. Jesus was waiting 
to fold him to his arms, and neither earthly skill nor affec- 
tion could detain the anxious spirit. 

The funeral was held from Trinity- M. E. Church, con- 
ducted b}' Revs. T. A. Boone and J. J. Renn. Long before 
the hour for services the church was filled to. its utmost 
capacity. At fifteen minutes to 4 o'clock p. ra., the funeral 
procession moved off from the residence of Capt. E. J. Par- 
rish, the following gentlemen acting as pall-bearers : Jas. 
Southgate, W. Duke, Wm: Lipscomb, T. L. Peay, ^^^ W. 
Fuller, Rev. A. Walker, H. A. Reams, C. B. Green, AV. L. 
Wall, W. H. Rogers, S. F. Tomlinson and R. F. Webb. The 
fujieral sermon was preached by Rev. T. A. Boone, preceded 
by Rev. J. J. Renn in a few appropriate and feeling remarks. 
After the sermon, which was feelingly delivered and appro- 
priate in thought, portraying lucidly the character of that 



12S History of Durham. 



jTOod and noble man, all that was mortal of our beloved 
Ma3''or, christian citizen and true friend was borne to the 
cemetery and deposited in a vault to await the resurrection 
of the saints. During the funeral services ever}-- business 
house in town was closed, and the procession of carriages 
was three-quarters of a mile long. No man has ever lived 
among us who so entwined the affections of the people 
around him as did Col. Parrish. He was a friend to every 
body and everybody was his friend. During Wednesday 
and Thursday hundreds visited the residence to take a last 
look at him. Strong men stood by and, as they looked 
upon that noble face, tears trickled down their cheeks, at- 
testing an undying affection for him who had been so sud- 
denly taken from our midst. 

WILLIAM MANGUM. 

Messrs. Durham, Angier and Mangum brothers, are the 
only surviving original settlers of Durham — the venerable 
Pratts, Redmonds and Vickers having passed away. Mr. 
William Mangum, the subject of this sketch, was born four 
miles from Durham, on the Fish Dam Road, then in the 
county of Orange, on the 22d of September, A. D. 1824. 
Received only ten months' schooling, but, being richly en- 
dowed by nature with a high order of intellectual faculties, 
aided by an indomitable and pertinacious energy, soon ac- 
quired a fair business education. , In those ten months was 
laid in a naturally perspicacious mind, the solid foundation, 
of future success. He is of that class of sterling worth, 
usually styled self-made men — light-houses along the shores 
of life — whose lives and characters never shine with an 
uncertain lustre, but are eminently worthy of emulation. 
As an evidence of his sterling qualities, he assumed, when 
only fifteen years of age, having had the sad misfortune 



1 



BlOGRAHlCAL SkETCHTS. 129 



to lose his father by death, the responsibility of bri;ig the 
chief support and dependence of his affectionate and doting 
mother and six brothers and sisters. Though so young 
and inexperienced in the care of so weighty a charge, yet 
he faithfully and handsomely supported the family until 
he was 24 years of age, when other members of the family 
became old enough to share his work of love and devotion. 
He was married in 1849 to Miss Elizabeth Proctor, of Orange 
county, IMoved to Durham in 1857, and erected a work- 
shop at the intersection of Maugum street and the N. G. 
Railroad. This shop has since been moved to the north 
side of the railroad and is now occupied by Mr. Seaman. 
This was the first workshop ever erected in Durham, and 
is, consequently, one of the oldest buildings in the town. In 
1867, he erected another workshop near the Trinity Methodist 
church, on the ground now occupied by the new Parrish 
Prize House, the land being a portion of the old Pratt es- 
tate. Was burned out, for the third time, in 1876, but im- 
mediately rebuilt a Blind and Sash Factory, grist and saw 
mills and a cotton gin on Green street, in rear of Banner 
Warehouse. From these works he is constantly turning 
out the very best qualities of work. Has been elected town 
commissioner for several terms, and while acting in that 
capacity was ever mindful of the best interest of the people. 
Furnished material from his own mill and built the first 
Methodist Church ever erected in Durham. The cost of 
building this church was §650, of which he donated §25, 
although not a member. He also built the first Baptist 
Church erected after Durham became a Station, taking as 
compensation the old Baptist structure, situated at the in- 
tersection of Mangum street and the railroad, afterwards 
converting said structure into a store and then a residence. 
Mr. Maugum is one of those affable and enterprising busi- 
ness men who, like such men as Blackwell, Carr, Angier and 
Duke, form the bone and sinew of Durham's greatness, and 



130 History op Durham. 



is loved and venerated by all, as one of the good old fathers 
of Durham. 

THE FATHER OF DUE HAM. 

To undertake a faithful history of Durham, dissevered 
from the world-famed name of Blackwell, would be as 
unjust and incomplete as to attempt to write a history of 
the American Union, the heroic struggles, sacrifices, and 
glorious trophies of our forefathers, and exclude that name 
of all other names, crowned and embalmed with imperish- 
able glor}^ — Washington; a name that fills every true 
patriot's heart with sacred pride, love and veneration. 

This deservedly popular gentleman was born January 
12th, 1S39, near Woodsdale, Person county, N. C, and is 
the son of Mr. James L. Blackwell, now a resident of this 
city. In his youth he received a common school education. 
In the years 1862 and 1863 he taught school in his native 
village, He began life as a broker and trader in every de- 
scription of merchandise. He early began to devote espe- 
cial attention to speculating in plug tobacco, and, purchas- 
ing a wagon and team, traveled through the country, in 
conjunction with James R. Day, peddling tobacco until the 
close of the war. He then, in copartnership with Mr. Day, 
opened a jobbing tobacco house in Kinston, continuing his 
itinerant trafHc. The principal part of their traffic was in 
the tobacco manufactured by J. R. Green, at Durham, then 
an obscure water station, whose brand had gained consid- 
erable local reputation. It soon became apparent that there 
was a greater demand for this tobacco than Mr. Green could 
supply, and arrangements were consummated in 1868, 
whereby the capacity of the factory was enlarged and 
Messrs. Blackwell & Day became partners with Mr. Green. 
The business thus received a new impetus and began to 
thrive; but Mr. Green, who for some time had been in fail- 



Biographical Sketches. 131 



ing health, died in 1869, and his interest was purchased 
from his heirs by the remaining partners. In 1870, Mr. 
Julian S. Carr joined the firm, and since that time Mr. 
Blackwell has been senior partner of the celebrated firm of 
W. T. Blackwell & Co. He remained, however, sole pro- 
prietor of the trade-mark, until his interest was bought by 
M. E. McDowell & Co., of Philadelphia. Mr. Blackwell, 
as a judge of tobacco, has few equals. While a member of 
the firm, he gave exclusive attention to selecting and pur- 
chasing the tobacco manufactured by the firm,ever3'' pound 
of which passed under his inspection, and his intelligence 
and experience as a buyer was an important factor in the 
extensive popularity of the Bull Durham Smoking Tobacco. 
He was married December 27th, 1877, to Miss Emma Exum, 
daughter of W. J. Exum, an extensive planter of Hillsboro 
and formerly of Wayne county, N. C. 

To W. T. Blackwell mainly belongs the honor of found- 
ing the town of Durham through the establishment and 
successful conduct of his Tobacco manufacture, and to him 
equally belongs the credit and renown of having fostered 
and sustained a communitj^ which has grown from a strag- 
gling village of 273 persons to a busy town of 5,000 or more 
inhabitants. As a benefactor of his kind, as the promoter 
of the best and truest interests of the people of Durham 
county, W. T. Blackwell deserves even more than has been 
conferred by a partiall}' appreciative public. And the uni- 
versal popularity of the brand of tobacco established by 
him, is a just tribute of homage to one of the most illustrious 
representatives of American industries. By assiduous 
energy and judiciously applied business sagacity, he has 
worked his way up from poverty and obscurity to great 
affluence and wealth. He has wrought out for himself a 
name and fame which will be handed down with pride 
from generation to generation so long as Durham occupies 
a place in the annals of history. His philanthropic acts and 



132 History of Durham. 



aims in protecting the cause of labor, in administering to 
and alleviating the wants of the poor has enshrined his 
name deep in the hearts of the people. Truly may be ap- 
plied to him the famous encomium, " he went about doing 
good." An example, potent with the results of enterprising 
devotion to business, has been afforded by this worthy cus- 
todian of the natural industries of North Carolina, where is 
to be obtained adequate supplies of the material, which has 
become so indispensable to manufacturers of tobacco, and 
which should be the foundation of the wealth and prosperity 
of the people. " Honor to whom honor is due " must be 
remembered by the good people of the " Old North State," 
and the full meed of praise be rendered to W. T. Blackwell, 
the Father of Durham and the friend of the people. A man 
who has attained the high and honorable distinction of be- 
ing foremost in resuscitating the spirits and hopes of his 
race, which were well nigh paralyzed by the late great civil 
conflict; who has taught us to extract precious beams of 
hope from the darkest clouds of despair; who has demon- 
strated to the world the efficacy of close, assiduous vigilance 
to all the minutest ramifications of business; who has 
strengthened and fortified the foundations of a future posi- 
tion in manufactures pregnant with vital interest and im- 
portance, should and will receive honorable mention by the 
honest historian of the future, and the hearty thanks of the 
world. Each great manipulator of material resources, as 
pandering to the general cause of industry, should be ac- 
credited with a place in the category of the distinguished 
and the noble. Within the unchecked flow of the genial 
current that animates the heart of W. T. Blackwell is to be 
found kindly impulses and that devotion to the cause of 
right and truth and justice, which invest with honor and 
embellish with distinction. Through him Durham has thus 
been given a forward move in the tobacco industry, and the 
example has been productive of the inauguration of other 








BURROW-GILES LITH CO M> 



Biographical Sketches. 133 



and prominent establishments. Nowhere on the American 
continent is better tobacco [»roduced than in the vicinity of 
Durham, and nowhere can its manufacture be more success- 
fully conducted, as has been proven by W. T. Black well & 
Co., whose reward is written on every building in the town, 
and whose namis wiil l)e honored in grateful remembrance 
as long as time holds on ilf> tireless flight. 



HENRY SEEM AN. 



Mr. Henry Seeman moved to Durham in 1874, and en- 
gaged in the Coach, Buggy, Carriage and Wagon manufac- 
ture. He now occupies the old Baptist Church building, 
the oldest house in Durham, having been erected long be- 
fore the railroad reached Durham. Messrs. Seeman & Son are 
thoroughly competent and skilled workmen, and are turn- 
ing out some of the fine.'sL work of the kind we have seen 
in the State. In connection with their factory they have a 
first-class Blacksmith Shop, where work of unsurpassed 
excellence is being executed. By close application to busi- 
ness — exercising the most scrupulous care in all its details — 
they have earned an enviable reputation in our community 
as honorable, industrious and competent workmen. They 
well deserve this reputation. 



JULIAN SHAKESPEARE CARR. 

This gentleman was born on the 12th day of October, A. 
D. 1845, at Chapel Hill, Orange county, N. C, and is the 
son of John W.Carr, merchant, of that place. He received 
his early education at a school in the vicinity of Chapel 
Hill, and entered the University of this State in June, 1862, 
9 



134 History of Durham. 



but after nearly two years' study, enlisted in the 3rd N. C. 
Cavalry in the early part of 1864. He never lost a single 
day's ^uty during the entire period of his service, was a 
general favorite among his comrades, and preferred to be 
simply a private, in order to be among " the boys," although 
he carried in his pocket a detail as an officer on the staff of 
General Barringer. 

After the war Mr. Carr returned to Chapel Hill and at- 
tended the University one session, and in June, 1867, en- 
gaged in a general mercantile busine.^s. In 1868 he moved 
to Little Rock, Ark,, where he again engaged in business, 
but on a larger scale, with his uncle and another gentleman, 
under the firm name of Carr & Kingsburg. After residing 
eighteen months at Little Rock, his father saw an oppor- 
tunity of purchasing a third interest in W. T. Black well's 
Tobacco Factory, and being anxious that his son should 
settle nearer home, insisted and prevailed upon him to re- 
turn. Accordingly in Septemher, 1870, he joined that firm 
and has ever since had the entire control of its mercantile 
and financial department. He is unquestionably one of 
the best financiers and thorough businessmen in this State; 
and to his far-sighted and liberal policy may justly be at 
tributed the secret of the v/onderful success of his firm. His 
bold, lavish but judicious system of advertising has made 
the Blackwell's Durham Smoking Tobacco a household 
word from Maine to the Gulf and from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific slope, and in many foreign countries. Enterprising 
and public-spirited, Mr. Carr has encouraged and fostered 
everything tending to enhance the prosperity of our city, 
and the comfort and best interesis of its citizens. 

Mr. Carr is emphatically a man of the people and for the peo- 
ple. The humblest and most illiterate man has equal access 
to his presence with the wealthiest and most learned, and 
he is courteous arnd attentive to all. He is constantly be- 
sieged by scores of visitors on all sorts of business — all 



Biographical Sketches. • 135 



leaving his presence with their various wishes and petitions, 
when laudable, favorably considered. The writer has wit- 
nessed this incessant stream of visitors for many months, 
and has never in all his life seen any one man who had less 
time to devote to his own personal or public affairs than 
Mr. Carr. And yet, despite of this great burden of daily 
care, he keeps fully abreast of all issues and enterprises which 
contemplates the manufacturing, agricultural and gen- 
eral advancement of the people as a State — aiding and abet- 
ting the development and enhancement of her varied and 
multifarious industrial, intellectual and ethical resources. 
As an evidence of his interest and cooperation in various 
public affairs, we meutioil a few of the many honorable 
positions he now occupies: 

President of Blackwell's Durham Tobacco Company, Dur- 
ham, N. C. ; President of the Board of Trustees of the 
Methodist Female Seminary, Durham, N. C. ; Vice Presi- 
dent of the Cotton Manufacturing Company, Durham, N. 
C. ; Vice President of the Durham Woollen and Wooden 
Mills, Durham, N. C. ; Vice President of the N. C. State 
Exposition Co., Raleigh, N. C. ; member of the Executive 
Committee of Board of Trustees of the Slate University; 
Chapel Hill, N. C; Trustee of Trinity College, Trinity Col- 
lege, N. C; member of the Executive Committee of the Na- 
tional Tobacco Association of the United States ; President 
Greensboro Female College Association, and a Director of 
the Oxford Orphan Asylum. 

There are few minds of adequate calibre to grapple with 
and do plenary justice by so many and varied enterprises. 
As an attestation of the value of his co-operation the list 
continues to increase. Generous, considerate and afiFable 
to all, no worthy object ever fails to enlist his sympathies, 
and no one in misfortune has ever appealed to him in vain. 
He is a constant friend, a faithful and devoted husband, an 
affectionate father, a zealous, consistant christian, and a 



136 History op Durham. 



patriotic, exemplary citizen. We know of no man in North 
Carolina held in higher esteem, or whom the people would 
be more delighted to entrust with any position within their 
gift. He was married February 19th, 1873, to one of the 
most amiable and accomplished young ladies of Durham, 
Nannie Graham, daughter of our late lamented Mayor, 
Colonel D. C. Parrish. The writer always finds it a de- 
lightful task to delineate the virtues of the truly good and 
great. We esteem the proposition that no man is truly 
great who is not truly good, a safe foundation upon which 
to predicate a just estimate of the intrinsic virtues of any 
given character, whether intellectually, morally or politi- 
cally considered. A true, manly heart, ever actuated by 
refined and elevating sensibilities, ennobling the intellect, 
aierving and inspiring the energies of the soul for the con- 
.-summation of deeds of love and kindness, constitute the in- 
dispensable prerequisite of genuine greatness. Such a char- 
acter is "the light of the world," "the salt of the earth," and 
"a city that cannot be hid." In the subject of this sketch 
-we find these qualities of head and heart pre-eminently 
manifested, which, combined with wealth and influence, 
renders his life a great blessing in many ways, to the church, 
society and the world. His pocket-book as well as his heart 
is ever open to worthy objects. His donations to religious 
and educational institutions amount to thousands of dollars 
annually. The writer has seen something of the inner life 
of this gentleman where his virtues as a husband, father and 
friend are the crowning glory of his domestic and social 
circles. In him are combined — beautifully blended — wealth 
of soul with wealth of estate. About " the rich man," as a 
rule there is an atmosphere of proud austerity, a lack of 
sympathy and the " milk of human kindness " towards the 
less favored sons of our common humanity. The " almighty 
dollar" is too often the shrine of human worship and pre- 
; ferment, while the real treasures of this world are trampled 





BURR0K/-G1LES LITH CO. MY 



Biographical Sketches. 137 



beneath the sacrilegious feet of the " god of mammon." 
The writer does not wish to be understood as making an 
invidious distinction because of riclies. Nay, veril}' ! There 
are many rich men who cheerfully use their wealth for the 
glory of God and the promotion of His cause in the world. 
But wealth of estate dissevered from wealth of soul is a 
great curse. The treasures of earth abused and misapplied 
breeds moral upas which poisons and blights the soul. But 
here wo find a rich man who recognizes and adequately ap- 
preciates the immutable truth that " the earth is the Lord's 
and the fulness thereof," and that he is simply His agent. 
Our soul delights in the contemplation of such a character 
and in holding it up to the youth of our land as eminently 
worthy of faithful emulation. 

• EUGENE MOREHEAD 

Is the son of Governor Morehead, one of North Carolina's 
most illustrious Chief Executives. He was born in Greens- 
boro, N. C, September 12th, 1845. He was educated at 
Chapel Hill, where, in 1868, he graduated with first honors. 
In 1874 he was united in marriage to Miss Lothrop, one of 
the fairest and most accomplished daughters of Savannah, 
Ga., where he remained four years. In October, 1878, he 
moved to Durham, taking charge of the United States 
Stamp Department. The establishment of this Revenue 
branch is due to the efforts of this gentleman, and it has 
proved a great convenience and saving to our manufactur- 
ers. In December, 1878, Mr. Morehead began the first bank- 
ing operations in Durham, as the financial agent of the six 
warehouses then in operation. He continued the banking 
business alone until Januar}' 1st, 1884, when Gerrard S. 
Watts, of Baltimore, Md., was admitted as a partner. Mr. 
Morehead is one of the most influential members of the 
Presbyterian church in this city, being an elder in said 



138 History of Durham. 



church. He is one of nature's noblemen, of dignified, courtly 
bearing and suave manners — a gentleman, christian and 
scholar. As a financier he has no superior and few equals 
in the State. As a christian he is a devout and assiduous 
worker in the Master's cause, with refined, tender sympa- 
thies for, with ever ready hand to help, all worthy objects of 
charity. His industry, influence and abilities have consti- 
tuted no small concomitants, in the moral, educational and 
material advancement of Durham. The many positions of 
trust and honor which he holds attest his intrinsic worth. 
He is Chairman of the Board of Education and Learning, 
Director of the Durham Woolen Mill ; also one of the Direc- 
tors of the A. & N. C. and the C. F. & Y. V. Railroads, Vice- 
President of the Durham Fertilizer Co., President of the 
Watts Coal, Coke and Iron Company of Alabama, and Chair- 
man of the Board of the County Commissioners of Durham. 

JAMES SOUTHGATE, 

A prominent citizen of Durham, and well known Southern 
Underwriter, was born in Gloucester county, Virginia, of 
English parentage, 1832. Entering the University of Vir- 
ginia in 1850, he took a classical and mathematical course 
of study in view of becoming a teacher. Having acquitted 
himself with honor, in 1853 he opened a military school in 
the city of Norfolk, styled the "Norfolk Male Institute." 
Under his able management the institution enjoyed an 
abundant prosperity, which increased with the years. War 
was the signal of its downfall. 

For nearly twenty years the subject of this sketch was 
identified with the educational interests of Virginia and 
North Carolina. As an instructor, he was dignified and 
firm, always commanding the highest respect of his pupils. 
His profession proving unprofitable after the war, in 1872 
he began the Insurance business, a profession which is fast 
growing in the estimation of capitalists and the people. The 




:^^f«- %'a-. 



t/ 




9URRQW-SILES LITH CO MV 



Biographical Sketches. 139 



once prevalent objectiftns to it, based upon religious prin- 
ciples, have been almost totally obliterated b}' facts, figures 
and results; so that, to-day, the science of Underwriters 
stands high among the vast enterprises of our country, af- 
fording a wide field for the employment of capital and brain. 
At that time Durham was young, yet the eye of the obser- 
vant could see that where such energy as characterized her 
people existed, prosperity would follow in its wake. 

Mr. Soutbgate did not become a citizen of Durham until 
1876, although many of her people were numbered among 
his best friends and patrons. He was soon recognized as 
the Insurance man of the town, and the business of his 
agency has increased until in point of premium receipts it 
occupies a position second to none in the State. He repre- 
sents twenty-five of the thirty Fire Insurance Companies 
located in North Carolina, and his business extends over 
several counties. Having mastered the principles of Un- 
derwriting, he industriously applies them, and we do not 
know a community which is better educated to the impor- 
tance of Insurance in all its phases than Durham and vi- 
cinity. He maintains the confidence of his companies and 
patrons by his recognized ability, strict integrity and uni- 
form courtesy. 

JOHN R. GREEN. 

This gentleman is the originator and founder of the brands 
" Genuine Durham " and "Genuine Bull Durham " Smok- 
ing Tobacco. Mr. Green moved to Durham Station in 1860, 
where he continued to reside until his death, which occurred 
in 1869. Daring the late war he purchased of Morris & 
Wright a small tobacco factory located south of the railroad 
on the site now occupied by the mammoth Tobacco Works 
of Blackwell's Durham Tobacco Compan}', and commenced 
the manufacture of the celebrated brand of " Genuine Dur- 



140 History of Durham. 



ham Smoking Tobacco," and selected as a trade-mark the 
world-famed " Durham Bull." Morris & Wright had been 
manuiacturing, in a small way, an article which they stj^led 
" Best Spanish Flavored Smoking Tobacco." But the word 
" Durham " as a distinctive feature, or brand, in connection 
with smoking tobacco, was first used by Mr. Green, and 
subsequently, by right of purchase, passed into the hands 
of W. T. Blackwell & Co., together with the sole and exclu- 
sive right to the trade-mark — " Durham Bull." This tobacco 
was made famous through the advent of Sherman's army, 
a detailed account of which is given in Chapter I. In 1865 
very little leaf came to Durham, and Mr. Green was com- 
pelled to seek the principal portion of his supplies from 
other markets. Being a man of indomitable energy, rare 
intellectual endowments and business tact, his manufacture 
and sales soon assumed huge proportions and continued to 
increase until 1868, when, his health failing, and being un- 
able to give the business his personal supervision, Col. W. 
T. Blackwell and Mr. J. R. Day, were admitted as partners 
But a broad and deep foundation had been laid for Durham's 
future greatness. In the selection of Mr. Blackwell he dis- 
played, as has since been demonstrated in a remarkable 
degree, sound business sagacity and forethought. The bur- 
den of management soon devolved almost entirely upon 
Mr. Blackwell, who proved himself eminently capable and 
worthy in every sense of conducting the then infant enterprise 
to a success surpassing anything in the annals of the history 
of Tobacco in this or any other country. The little one- 
story wood factory of '65 has grown and expanded until 
to-day it is the largest and best equipped Smoking Tobacco 
Factory in the world, and the excellencies of its products 
have rendered the names of Green, Blackwell and Carr 
household words in every nich and corner of the earth where 
the weed is used. [As a tribute to the merits of these men, 
we would respectfully suggest the following design : A 



Biographical Sketches. 141 



mounted Car(r), painted Green, with the picture of a Black- 
well, and a bull in a drinking posture, in the centre, encircled 
by the words : " The Genuine BlackwelTs (the word ' Black ' 
on one side of the well and the word ' Well's ' on the other) 
Durham Smoking Tobacco."] Soon the hectic flush upon 
Mr. Green's cheek grew sadly deeper, his elastic step became 
weaker and weaker, and his many friends saw with sorrow 
that the fell-destroyer — consumption — had marked him for 
an early victim. Resuscitation was sought at the most cele- 
brated watering places, but in vain, and in the summer of 
1869 he quietly passed away. Mr. Green always maintained 
an abiding faith that Durham would one day be a great and 
prosperous city, but he did not live long enough to see his 
cherished convictions and wishes verified. But the effect 
of his labors and wisdom are to day permeating all the rami- 
fications of business. The influence of the enterprise started 
by him is a concomitant element of success in all the varied 
industrial pursuits of the city. He sleeps in peace, but his 
works live after him. 

THOMAS D. JONES. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Pittsylvania county, 
about ten miles west of Danville, Va., on the 19th day of 
October, 1852. Educated in Virginia. His father, Decatur 
Jones, was a manufacturer of tobacco at Danville, hence he 
has been directly and indirectly connected with the tobacco 
business all of his life, and has acquired an experience and 
knowledge in the various aspects of the tobacco trade, rarely 
equalled and perhaps unsurpassed. Worked in his father's 
factory a considerable portion of his youth, and manufac- 
tured plug tobacco for himself in Danville from 1867 to 
1S77, speculating at the same time in fine leaf tobacco. 
Moved to Durham in the year 1S81, and engaged in the fine 
wrapper trade. At that time the wrapper trade of Durham 



142 History of Durham, 



was quite meagre. In the latter part of 1881 be entered 
into copartnership with W. A. Lea in the warehouse busi- 
ness. Mr. Jones has unquestionably done more towards 
building up the fine tobacco trade of Durham than any 
other man engaged in the business. Through his sapient 
manipulations and influence, much of the leaf trade of the 
border counties of the State, which had for years centred at 
Danville, was diverted to the Durham market, and much of 
this came from his old friends and customers, who, perhaps, 
might never have sought this market if Mr. Jones had con- 
tinued his business at Danville. Of course these brought 
their friends, and all receiving such hospitable treatment 
and good prices, continued to cling to this market. Mr. 
Jones continued one year in the warehouse business, mak- 
ing friends everywhere b}' his courteous and honorable 
dealing. He is one of those well-bred, polished gentlemen 
of the old scliool of proverbial Southern hospitality and 
chivalry. Warm-hearted and generous to a fault, in him 
the poor and unfortunate of this world always find a sym- 
pathetic friend, adviser and helper. No worthy object of 
charity turns empty-handed from his door. Investing largely 
in real estate here, and being one of the most important 
factors in the building up of our cit}'', it is generally hoped 
that Mr. Jones will make Durham his permanent home. In 
IMay, 1884, Mr. Jones was elected one of the Town Commis- 
sioners of Durham by a very flattering vote. 

C. B. GREEN. 

The name of this gentleman will be handed down to 
future generations as one who has contributed largely to 
the material and intellectual advancement of Durham. He 
moved to Durham in 1867, then a boy only 11 years of 
age. In 1870 he established a job printing ofiice and was 
the first person to " stick " a type in Durham. In January, 
1882, he established Tlie Durham lobacco Plant, and since 
that time its columns have been earnestly and honestly de- 



Biographical Sketches. 143 



voted to the political, material, moral and educational inter- 
ests of the people of Durham and surrounding country. 
Great good has been accomplished through the medium of 
this abl}- edited journal. In 1874 he was elected a County 
Commissioner by the people of Orange, and acquitted him- 
self in this position with great credit. In 18S0 he was 
almost unanimously nominated by the Orange County Dem- 
ocratic Convention as a candidate for a seat in the House of 
Representatives. He was opposed by Hon. Josiah Turner, 
one of the shrewdest canvassers in the State, and who, two 
years previous, had defeated one of tiie best men in the 
county by SOO majorit}'. The contest was a very stirring 
and interesting one, but young Green proved himself a 
match for Mr. Turner, and came out with a handsome ma- 
jority. He took his seat in the General Assembly at the 
session of 188], and from that time on worked faithfully 
for Durham and his county. The bill introduced by hin) 
providing for the formation of the county of Durham was 
confronted by a most determined and vehement opposition, 
every inch of ground being hotly contested, but Mr. Green 
fought manfully and successfully for the new count}', and 
the bill became a law. While his time was largely devoted 
to the material, he did not forget the educational interests 
of Durham. In the latter part of the session, he intro- 
duced a bill providing for the establishment of a graded 
school in Durham, whicii also became a law. Under the 
provisions of this bill the school was soon established, and 
is now one of the permanent institutions of Durham, which 
is pointed out with pride and pleasure. Mr. Julian S. Carr 
has made the school a present of a $3,000 site, and a fine 
building will soon be erected, and adequately furnished with 
all necessary appliances. Mr. Green not only advocated in 
the Legislature the establishment of this school, but his 
paper did faithful and eflBcient service in moulding popular 
sentiment in favor of it. But his w^ork for the people is not 



\ 



144 History of Durham. 



yet accomplished. He is still young and there is a bright 
field of usefulness before him. In ]SS3-'S4:,he was a member 
of the Board of County Commissioners and of the Durham 
Board of Education and Learning. His paper is Democratic 
to the core, and an useful organ in that party. 

EDWARD J. PARRISH. 

This gentleman, the leading warehouseman of North 
Carolina, was born in the county of Orange, fourteen miles 
from Durham, on the 20th of October, A. D. 1846. Is a 
son of the late lamented Mayor of Durham, Col. D. C. Par- 
rish, whose death a few months ago cast a profound gloom 
and sadness throughout the entire community. Attended 
school at Round Hill, Knap of Reeds, South Lowell and 
Cedar Grove, and when prepared for college, entered the 
Sophomore Class at Trinity, under the late Dr. B. Craven, 
but owing to the enforcement of the " Reserve Act," 
passed by the Confederate Congress, was not permitted 
to remain. Leaving college, he went to Raleigh and ac- 
cepted the position of Mailing Clerk on the Spirit ofiheAge^ 
(newspaper) which was subsequently merged into The Con- 
servative, the organ of the State Administration, when he 
was tendered and accepted the position of book-keeper. In 
this position it was thought he would be exempt from mili- 
tary duty. This position failing to secure the desired relief, 
through the influence of the many friends he had won 
while in Raleigh, he was offered, and accepted, a position in 
the Roll of Honor Office, under Major James H. Foote. He 
entertained strong aversion to taking up arms against the 
old flag, under which his father, as Colonel, had so often 
drilled. Having arrived at the age of 18, however, he was 
placed in the dilemma of either entering the service or de- 
serting his people. He did not hesitate long, his State pride 
and love of home and the " boys in gray " — the cherished 





0^/yr^ t/yz^c^ 




/ik^co^2^ 



B'JKKOft-OlLES UTH CO NV 



Biographical Sketches. 145 



playmates of yore, counterbalanced if not entirely obliter- 
ated bis prejudices, and be enlisted, being assigned lo ibe 
4tb N. C. Calvary, where, as in all other positions, he dis- 
charged his duty with strict fidelity, as many old comrades 
cheerfully testify. At the close of the war, he came home, 
finding all his father's property devastated. Accepting the 
situation iCf good faith, he immediately took hold of the 
plow handles, and, as it were, began life anew. After tilling 
the soil for some time, he concluded to embark in some other 
enterprise. Accordingly he sought and obtained a situation 
in Raleigh as salesman in one of the leading dry goods 
stores. Possessing keen business sagacity, coupled with 
indomitable will and energy, he was soon recognized as one 
of the best salesmen in the city. His native courtesy and 
gentlemanly bearing soon enlisted around him man}' warm 
friends who, feeling interested in his advancement, secured 
for him a position under the government, and he at once 
entered upon the discharge of the duties pertaining thereto, 
proving himself faithful and eminently worthy of all trusts 
imposed upon him. He early manifested extraordinary 
talents as a business man and financier. While in the ser- 
vice of the government, he married, October 5th, 1870, Miss 
Rosa, youngest daughter of Capt. E. Bryan Haywood, of 
Chatham county. In January, 1871, he resigned his posi- 
tion under the government and moved to Durham, and 
opened a grocery and confectionery store. Durham at that 
time being but a small railroad station, he did very little 
business. In May, 1871, he accepted the position of auc- 
tioneer in the first tobacco warehouse opened in Durham, 
under Mr. Henry A. Reams, proprietor. The sales, occur- 
ring then only about twice a week, did not interfere much 
with his store. He continued with Mr. Reams until 1873 , 
when the Farmer's Warehouse was completed and opened 
by himself and Mr. J. E. Lyon, under the name and style 
of Parrish & Lyon. He continued business with Mr. Lyon 



I 



146 History of Durham. 



until the panic of 1873, when the warehouse was closed, 
the firm losing about all they had made since the opening 
of the house. When operations were again resumed, Mr. 
Lyon concluded to withdraw, and Mr. Parrish became sole 
proprietor, and despite of all opposition soon built up a 
lucrative trade and a name which commands respect and 
confidence in ever}' important tobacco market i-n America. 
In 1876 the Old Durham Warehouse — the first warehouse 
built — was rented at auction for a term of three years, and 
was bid off by Mr. Parrish at the enormous sum of S2,000 
per annum. During these years he pushed onward with 
great vigor and deserved success, and with the continued 
growth of the town, esteemed it prudent to select a more 
suitable location for his business; hence the establishment 
of the imposing and'commodious brick Warehouse where 
he is at present doing business as the recognized leading 
warehouseman of North Carolina. The building was com- 
pleted, and the opening sale occurred August 29th, 1879. 
This was one of the most important occasions in the history 
of the town — giving Durham a new and powerful impetus 
on the highway of prosperity and commercial importance 
as a tobacco market. About 80,000 pounds of tobacco were 
sold by this warehouse on that auspicious day, Mr. Parrish 
paying out to planters the aggregate sum of $15,000, and 
the happpy fortune and favorable impressions then engen- 
dered have never deserted the house. On April 1st, 1880, 
Mr. J. W. Blackwell was admitted as a partner in the busi- 
ness, which was conducted under the name and style of 
Parrish & Blackwell until the 1st of January, 1884, when 
Mr. Parrish bought out Mr. Blackwell's interest, paying for 
the same the sum of eighty thousand dollars cash. In 1881 
the firm built a large three-story brick Prize House, 44x120 
feet, and since the purchase of Mr. Blackwell's interest Mr. 
Parrish has found it necessary to erect another large Prize 
House 50x120 feet, thus giving him a combined Prize House 
area of 39,840 feet, which, with his warehouse 56x225 and 



Biographical Sketches. 147 



basement same size, gives bim larger and better facilities 
for operating bis immense tobacco trade than is possessed 
by any other warehouseman in the State, and the many 
advantages which he possesses are all utilized, not only for 
the advancement of Durham, as a tobacco mart, but also to 
promote the bfst interests of the planters who seek this mar- 
ket from all directions — many coming even from within a 
few miles of other markets. Superior prices and accommo- 
dations are certainly augmenting the tobacco trade of the 
tcAv'n, building up other M'arehouses and other interests. 

Mr. Parrish is, and has ever been considered, one of our 
most enterprising and reliable business men, and is very 
popular among all classes. Courteous, affable and enter- 
taining, — unassuming, yet possessing a native and prepos- 
sessing dignity and grace of bearing and manner, which 
draws about him — for advice, encouragement and assis- 
tance — all classes of our citizens from the most learned and 
affluent to the most illiterate and humble. Full of the love 
of the blessed Master, and seeking to emulate His example, 
he is ever "going abuut doing good," mingling with ivords 
of kindness, deeds of charity and philanthropy. No worthv 
object of charity is ever turned empty-handed from his door. 
The young man, struggling to rise in the world ever finds 
in him a warm friend and^helping hand. Of strong, tena- 
cious attachments, nothing can shake bis friendship for a 
man or cause, which is straightforward and honorable. 
Wherever he can discover a yearning and a purpose to do 
right, he is ever ready to throw the mantle of charity over 
the faults and mistakes of his neighbor — never deserting a 
ship as long as there is the least glimmer of hope, and until 
after every means has been exhausted for her safe moorage. 
Such a man is a great blessing to any community. He is 
a chip of the old block — a worthy son of a noble sire. 

He has acted in many public positions, as Trustee, Com- 
missioner, Mayor, &c., and has been tendered the senatorial 



148 History of Durham. 



nomination of this district by the Democratic party, of which 
he is a faithful and useful member. He is now Captain of 
the Durham Light Infantry, having been elected to that 
position before he became a member. Having always served, 
in the various public positions he has filled, with great effi- 
cienc}^ and acceptability, there is no position within the gift 
of the people to which he might not attain if he choose. 
But he is devoted to his warehouse business and pleasantly 
rejects all overtures. 

J. B. WHITAKER, JR. 

Born in Goldsboro, N. C, September 3d, 1851. The war 
occurring when he was but ten years of age, interfered with 
his education. Entered the printing office of his father, J. 
B, Whitaker, Sr., and early manifested fitness for this avo- 
cation. Soon became a swift compositor, and was acknowl- 
edged one of the fastest composers of type in the State. 
Indeed, when about 15 years of age he publicly issued a 
challenge for a contest with any printer in the State, not 
over 18 3^ears of age, and this challenge was never accepted. 
At 19 years of age he was employed as a journeyman on 
the Wilmington Daily Journal, published by Engelhard & 
Price, and soon won the distinction of being the swiftest 
compositor in that office. When a youth he published a 
humorous paper, which had quite a run. Has occupied the 
positions of local reporter of Goldsboro News and local editor 
of the Goldsboro Messenger. At one time he was owner and 
editor of an advertising sheet, called the Weekly Advertiser. 
Was married April 25th, 1871, to Miss Sallie A. Jones, of 
Goldsboro. Mr. Whitaker held in Goldsboro the positions 
of Assistant-Postmaster and Town Clerk, although a Demo- 
crat. A very high compliment, attesting his merits, as in 
this case politics were ignored, and Republicans voted for 
him from higher motives than those which usually actuate 



Biographical Sketches. 149 



the average voter. In these positions he acquitted himself 
with credit to himself and acceptability to his constituents. 
Moved to Durham in Februar}-, 1877, to take charge of the 
job printing ofiice of Blackwell's Durham Tobacco Co. 
Held that position until June, 1879, when he purchased the 
job printing office of D. W. Whitaker, and built up a suc- 
cessful business. His oflSce was almost entirely destroyed 
by the great fire of 1880. But he immediately purchased 
a new outfit, and now has a well equipped job office, and is 
doing a good business. It is generall}' conceded that his 
bronze printing stands in the front rank of excellence. His 
work generally far surpasses that of any other printing 
done in Durham. Was a delegate to the only two Demo- 
cratic County Conventions held since the formation of Dur- 
ham county. Was also a delegate to the last Congressional 
Convention. He took an active part, (as he does in all 
other high and commendable movements) in the late pro- 
hibition campaign, which cause was defeated only by an 
amalgamated combination of Republicans, Liberals and 
anti-prohibitionists. This cause, though snowed under for the 
time being, must — because it is just, humane and holy — 
sooner or later triumph. The education of public senti- 
ment may seem slow and tedious, but we thank God that 
it is sure. Ever}' convert is a convert for time and eternity — 
because each conversion is superinduced by, and predicated 
upon, pure and lofty principles of humanity, morality and 
religion. But we are somewhat diverging. Mr. Whitaker, 
be it said to his everlasting honor, was an enthusiastic coad- 
jutor in the temperance movement, and if he should have 
no other, it will be a noble heritage to leave his children. 
But he will leave them a life whose acts and aims bear the 
impress of lofty motives — unselfishness and unswerving 
devotion to the best interests of his fellowmen. In what- 
ever position he has been called to act, whether social, polit- 
ical or religious, he has kept an eye single to the glory of 
10 



150 History of Durham. 



God and the elevation of man. His is a character the 
writer delights to contemplate and hold up for emulation. 
He was among the foremost leaders in the Graded School 
movement in its darkest daj^s, when it seemed an almost 
forlorn hope. And as an cxpresssion of the appreciation 
entertained for his untiring zeal in this cause, he was elected 
a member of the Durham Board of Education and Learn- 
ing in 1882 for one year, and re-elected in 1883 for two 
years, and he has been Secretary of the Board ever since its 
organization — the only member who has been present at 
every meeting. Was a Trustee of the Methodist Female 
Seminary, which position he resigned and accepted his 
present position on the Board of Education and Learning. 

WASHINGTON DUKE. 

The subject of this sketch is one of the representative 
men of the New South, commencing business in a small 
16x16 log house, located in the vicinity of Durham, he has, 
by honest industry and sapient management, established 
one of the largest manufacturing industries of the South, 
and his name has become a household word wherever the 
silvery smoke of the fragrant weed floats upon the breezes 
of commerce. 

Mr. Duke was born in that part of Orange now forming 
the western portion of Durham county, on the 20th day of 
December, A. D. 1820. Received only eight months' school- 
ing, graduating with high distinction at the — Plow Han- 
dles, an institution which is the bone and sinew of our 
great republican nationality ; an institution upon which 
the perpetuity of our greatness as a people is based, and 
from which our greatest men have come to bless the world 
and leave behind them a halo of imperishable glory. Pos- 
sessing fine mental qualities, coupled with a pertinacious 
energy, Mr. Duke soon acquired a fair business education 




^P-r^ 



gj^pc-.-s .£S •. •- :; <v 



Biographical Sketches. 151 



and a vast amount of general information. He followed 
farming pursuits until 1863, when he entered the Confed- 
erate Navy and was stationed at Charleston, S. C. Left 
Charleston in September, 1864, and took charge of the bat- 
teries at Battery Brook, two miles below Drury's Bluff, in 
Virginia, and is said to have been one of the most expert 
managers of artillery in the Confederate service. Distin- 
guished himself in the heavy bombardments at James 
Island, Charleston, S. C, and frequently at Battery Brook, 
where he was promoted to the rank of Orderly Sergeant. 
Captured at Appomattox in 1865, and lodged in Castle Thun- 
der, where he remained two weeks, when he was removed 
to New Berne, N. C, and paroled. From New Berne he 
walked home — a distance of 134 miles, and, accepting the 
situation in good faith, applied himself once more to tilling 
the soil. 

Prior to his enlistment in the Confederate service, Mr. 
Duke wisely converted all the means he had earned by 
years of honest industry into tobacco, rented out his farm, 
receiving his rent in tobacco, his object being to have a 
large supply of tobacco on hand when the war closed. He 
anticipated that after the war tobacco would be the great 
leading staple of commerce in this section. The large 
quantity he had stored away, however, was pressed into ser- 
vice by the armies of Johnson and Sherman, and thus dis- 
tributed all over the Union, and what was then considered 
a great calamity by Mr. Duke and others who lost tobacco, 
proved ultimately to be a great blessing. So when he ar- 
rived at home from the war he found his accumulations 
" scattered to the four winds " — everything swept away ex- 
cept his little farm. But with an undaunted spirit and in- 
defatigable energy, he applied himself to the building up 
of his devastated fortune. His great success is due mainly 
to economy — living always within his means — industrj% 
and wise, prudential management. He commenced the 



152 HistORY OF Durham, 



manufacture of and traffic in tobacco in the latter part of 
1865, on his farm near Durham, alternately manufacturing 
and peddling his own goods, working upon a strictly cash 
basis. The only cash he had to begin with was a silver fifty 
-cent piece, given to him by a Yankee in exchange for a 
Confederate -$5 note. This was the nucleus of W. Duke 
Sons & Co.'s gigantic tobacco manufacturing enterprise at 
Durham. Never employing extraneous capital, he always 
■conducted his business within the limits of the revenue 
accruing therefrom — a wise, prudential, business principle. 

The little 16x16 log factory on the farm soon became too 
small. His business increased so rapidly that in 1872 he 
moved to Durham and erected a three-story wood factory, 
40x70 feet, on the north side of the N. C. Railroad. This he 
supposed would be amply sufficient to meet all the future 
demands of his business. But the demand for his goods 
continued to increase with such great rapidity that enlarged 
facilities became indispensable. Several other buildings 
were soon erected, giving him a combined floorage area of 
65,240 feet. And yet this immense floorage capacity is in- 
adequate, and he proposes, and is making arrangements for 
the erection of a four-story brick factory, which will be 
completed by the 1st of July. This new building will have 
a floorage capacity of 40,000 feet — making a grand total 
floorage area of 105,240 feet. 

Mr. Duke was a Justice of the Peace for several years 
during the reconstruction era, discharging the duties of 
that position with marked ability and impartiality. Was 
a member of the first Board of Commissioners for Durham 
county, and always discharged his duties with strict adher- 
ence to the best interests of the people. He is one of the 
most liberal and charitable men among us. His contribu- 
tions to benevolent purposes run up into the thousands an- 
nually, and he is one of our most highly esteemed citizens. 
jHe was nominated for the office of State Treasurer at the 



Biographical Sketches. 153 



Republican Convention held at Raleigh in May, 1884. Mr. 
Duke has always been a quiet man in politics, but always 
voted with the Republican party. Should he be elected, he 
would be a safe man to handle the State funds. 

HENRY A. REAMS. 

The subject of this sketch is so intimately connected with 
the rise, progress and development of Durham as a great 
tobacco market, that any history of the town, failing to give 
him honorable mention, would be grossly unjust, incom- 
plete and utterly unworthy of public favor. To him justly 
belongs the distinction of being the pioneer warehouseman 
of Durham. He was born in Granville county on the 13th 
da}' of March, 1842 — a son of John P. Reams, Esq., a man- 
ufacturer of tobacco for thirty-seven years. Mr. H. A. Reams, 
therefore, was trained from infancy to manhood in the to- 
bacco business, and what he does not know about tobacco is 
hardly w^orth learning. His father gave him a fair English 
education. He commenced the manufacture of tobacco for 
himself when only eighteen years of age. Was married 
January 14th, 1863, to Miss Bettie Allen, daughter of 
Nicholas W. Allen, Esq., of Person county. He continued 
in the manufacturing business until 1869, during which 
year his factory was barned. 

On the 18th of May, 1871, he opened a warehouse in Dur- 
ham for the sale of leaf tobacco, and sold on that day the 
first leaf tobacco ever sold at auction in Durham. During 
the year 1871 he sold about 700,000 pounds of tobacco, and 
with untiring energy and self-sacrifice, he continued to en- 
large his business until his sales amounted to between four 
and five million pounds per annum. No one worked more 
assiduously, or deserves more credit, than Mr. Reams, for 
the establishment of the tobacco market of Durham. It was 
in its infancy, and therefore a time when hard work and 



154 History of Durham. 



not a little sacrifice were necessary, and it may be truly said 
to his honor that Mr. Reams manfully bore the " heat and 
burden of the day." In many instances when buyers had 
purchased all the tobacco they wished, and yet a large sur- 
plus remained unsold, he would urge them to bid on at full 
market price — often even more than other markets were 
paying, in order to build up our market, and encourage 
planters to bring their tobacco to Durham — having said 
surplus, when the sales were closed, charged to himself. In 
this way he lost a great deal of money, as he would often be 
compelled to sell the same tobacco for less than he paid. 
And all this sacrifice he cheerfully bore for no other purpose 
than to establish this great Central Belt Market which 
stands to-day, second t(^ none in the State, and one of the 
leading tobacco marts of the United States. Truly this is a 
most striking manifestation of self-abnegation, and worthy 
of unfeigned praise and emulation. For eight years from 
the time he opened his warehouse, there were no banking 
facilities in Durham, and he had to transact his banking 
business in Raleigh, a distance of twenty-seven miles. 

He is now engaged in the leaf trade, dealing only in the 
best of N. C. Brights, is doing a very large business, and 
assuredly has earned and justly deserves an abundant suc- 
cess. 

BARTHOLOMEW FULLER. 

This noble son of North Carolina was born in the town of 
Fayetteville. He graduated at the State University at 
Chapel Hill about the year 1850 or 1851, with the highest 
honors, and was a classmate of Judge Manning, now Pro- 
fessor of Law at that institution, and also of Judge Samuel 
Holmes, of California. 

After his return from the University he commenced the 
study of law, under the direction of Hon. Warren Winslow, 
of Fayetteville, who for some time represented that district 



Biographical Sketches. 155 



in Congress, and was for a short time Governor of the State. 
After practicing law for some years in Fayetteville, Mr. 
Fuller accepted a position tendered him, through Mr. Wins- 
low's influence, in Washington City, as Fifth Auditor in the 
Treasury Department, which position he filled until the 
breaking out of the war in 18G1, when he resigned and cast 
his lot with his native State. After the close of the war he 
resumed the practice of law in connection with his brother 
Col. Thomas C. Fuller, now of Raleigh, and continued with 
him for some years, but subsequently removed to Durham, 
where he spent the remainder of his days. Mr. Fuller was 
an eminently good and true man ; for many years an active 
Ruling Elder in the Presbyterian church; a man of calm, quiet 
and rather retiriug disposition ; exceedingly amiable and 
genial in his nature; of striking personal appearance, and 
possessing a large amount of native dignity — a man to whom 
everyone felt drawn, whom every one honored and respected. 
One of the best of scholars, a man of broad reading and 
rich culture, with a clear and sound judgment, he seemed 
capable of filling any position, and his death was a sad 
loss to the city and indeed to the State. He died at his resi- 
dence in Durham, on the 2Sth of November, 1882, after a 
a sickness of several months. 

J. S. LOCKHART. 

This is one of the most energetic, affable and deservedly 
popular warehousemen known in Tobacco circles, as well as 
one of the leading business men of Durham, and one of its 
first settlers. He came to this city just after the close of the 
late civil war, with limited means, and commenced the 
manufacture of smoking tobacco. But finding that he 
could not successfully compete with the Bull and other es-- 
tablished brands, which had acquired universal popularity, 
he judiciously identified himself with the Leaf and Fertil- 



156 History of Durham. 



izer business. He also opened a warehouse. His success 
in this branch of the trade has been truly remarkable. He 
has just completed one of the largest warehouses in the 
State, and judging from his past success, if he is not soon, 
the leading warehouseman, he will at least have no superior. 
By his unimpeachable business integrity and sagacity, to- 
gether with his high-toned, moral and religious life, he has 
succeeded in winning for himself a handsome estate and 
the respect and esteem of all who know him. He is thor- 
oughly identified with our bright tobaccos, and has done 
much toward introducing them to the notice of tobacco 
dealers generally. His building is erected with special ref- 
erence to the preservation of the different qualities of the 
special tobaccos he handles. On the daj' of the opening 
sale of the new Banner Warehouse, Mr. Lockhart sold 63,- 
276 pounds of tobacco for $16,115.23, making an average of 
$25.46 for everything in the house. It was by far the biggest 
sale that ever took place in Durham at any one house. 

WEBB & KRAMER 

Are among the largest buyers on the Durham market. 
For strict business integrity and honest dealings, they have 
secured the confidence of a large number of manufacturers 
and buy largely on order. 

Col. Webb, the senior member of the firm, was born in 
Baltimore. Moved to North Carolina in 1875. When quite 
a youth, he volunteered in the Mexican war as a private ; 
was promoted to a Lieutenancy, and honorably discharged 
at the close of the war. At the breaking out of the war be- 
tween the States, he organized a company and joined the 
celebrated Fisher Regiment. He was rapidly promoted 
until he became its Colonel. He commanded his Regiment 
in fourteen severe battles. He was severely wounded at An- 
tietam, and was finally captured at Rappahannock Bridge. 



Biographical Sketches. 157 

« 

He lingered the balance of the war in prison. In 1865 he 
was elected to the Legislature from Orange, and introduced 
the first bill in that body to incorporate the then little vil- 
lage of Durham Mr. Webb is iji the prime of life, and as a 
buyer of the leaf is still a bo}' among the bo3's. 

Mr. Albert Kramer, the junior member of the firm, was 
born in Raleigh. He is a young man of fine business train- 
ing. He has traveled extensively in Europe, where he 
completed his business studies. He has acquired a thor- 
ough knowledge of the tobacco business, and as a dealer 
has few superiors 

New Machinery, Skillful Workmen. 

Wilkerson, Christian & Co., 

DURHAM, N. C, 

HAVE FITTED OUT A FIRST CLASS 

SASH, DOOR AND BLIITD FACTORY, 

And are prepared to execute, on short notice, every style 
of work in their line, such as 

Sash, Doors and Blinds, 

FOR INSIDP: AND OUT. 

MIOUL.DING^S, 

AND 

All Kinds of Scroll Work. 

Also LUMBER— Dried and Dressed on Short Notice. 



158 History of Durham. 



iF'-^izeT III 



The TebacGQ Interests ef Rorth Gareliria. 



CHAPTER I. 

Map OF Yellow Tobacco Belt — Early History — Modern 
Progress — Area of Tobacco — Mode of Conducting 
Trade — Culture and Curing— Grades, Prices, Soil, 
Analyses, Etc 

Prior to the discovery of America, liistoiy nowhere inti- 
mates the use or existence of such a weed as Tobacco. It is 
therefore fair to conclude tljat it is purely an American 
plant. Its almost universal adoption by mankind, as soon 
as its merits were ascertained, is a conclusive evidence that 
it had not been known — as tobacco — anywhere in the civil- 
ized world. It was first discovered by the followers of 
Columbus about the year 1492 or '93. The Aborigines 
were found smoking and chewing the fragrant weed Tlie 
name of this plant, according to the best authority, is de- 
rived from the Island of Tobago, one of the West Indies, 
where it was cultivated. It was first discovered in use 
among the natives of Cuba, and was first cultivated by the 
colonists in Virginia about the year 1614. King James 
wrote and published a book violently opposing its use; but 
notwithstanding this high and royal opposition, it soon 
became, and still continues, an important factor in the com- 
merce of the world. It was first introduced in England in 
1573, through samples brought by Sir Francis Drake. It 
is claimed that Sir Walter Raleigh not only practiced but 
encouraged its use. It soon became very popular, insomuch 
that not even the opposition of the English potentate could 
impede its rapid introduction and use. 



THB YEIil®W TOBACC© 



tTIi ICAMI 



Prepared by the Editor of the State Chronicle, with great care, and may be relied upon as accurate 




This map shows the Yellow Tobacco-Belt of North Carolina. The counties that have the heaviest black lines lor their boundaries, sueli as ( iranville, Vance, Runcombe, etc., are those which produce the most tobacco; the less 
heavy parallel light lines, are those which produce less, and so on. The connlies with dotted lines about them, such as Kdgeoombe, Moore, Montgomery, etc., are those which contain good tobacco lands on which, however, 
tobacco has not yet been made a leading crop. The acreage is extending with unprecedented rapidity. The map shows also the position of the Tobacco-Towns. 

The Chronicle has received estimates from well informed tobacco dealers and farmers in all the principal tooacco counties of this year s crop, if the season be favorable (of which there Is now every promise.) The estimates 
are as follows: Granville, 5,250,000; Per.son, 5,000,000; Caswell, 5,000,000; Rockingham, 5,000,000; Iredell, 4,000,000; .Stokes, 3,500,000; Vance, .JiOOO.OOO; Durliam. .•J,000,000; Forsyth, 3,000,000; Surry, 3,000,000; 
Buncombe, a,500, 000; Madison, 2,000,000; Orange, 2,000,000; .\lamance, 1,500,000; Warren, 1,500,000; Hay wood, 1,000,000; other counties, 15,000,000- Xotal, 65,250,000 pouncI»i. 

The figures from the census now fall far short ol the mark. They were used because no others could serve as a basis for compari-iOB. .North Carolina now produces more than (If, {MIVXK) pounds per year, and has about 2WJ 
factories. 

It is the duty and the pleasure of the State Bureau of .Agrieultuie (at Raleigh) to give defluite inlormation about the resources of the state anil otiicr kindred sut)jects: Mr. M McGkhek, Commissioner; Mr P. M. Wilson, 
Secretary; Dr. Cha.s. W. Dabney, Jr., State i hemist; Mr. John T. P.^thiok, .state Immigration Agent ; Governor T. J. Iakvis, ( liairman of the Hoard. 



9mm ^mm ©PRfyifieLE 



(RALEIGH, N, C,) 

Covers the State in its circulation, and has the largest home advertising pat- 
ronage enjoyed by any newspaper in the State. The following 
were among its advertising patrons between 
Jan. 1st and June 1st, 1881. 



Artist— E. L. Harris, Raleigh. 

Banks— Bank of Durham- 
Citizens' National Bank, Raleigh. 
Bank of Henderson. 
Eugene Morehead & Co., Durham. 



Book-Binding— Edwards, Broughioti & Co.. 

Raleigh. 
Bbick Machine— Allen & Cram, Raleigh. 
Buggies, HHiETONs, &c.~Tyson & Jones, Car- 

Ihage. 
CAMGRAPH (Writing Machine)- Page and 

Arendell, Raleigh. 
Cigars— V. o. Thompson & Co.. Wlnstoh. 

J. S. Toraiinson & Co., Hickory. 
Cigarettes— Allen & Ginier, Richmond. 

BUickwell Tobacco Co., Durham. 

W. Duke, 80DS A Co.. Durhnro. 

Kinney Tobacco Co., New York. 
CLOTHIERS— R. B Andrews & Co., Raleigh. 

E. D Latta & Bro., t harlolle. 
(.Coffin House— H. J. Brown. Raleigh 
i,'OTTON PRESS—Allen & Cram. Raleigh. 
C0TT0N-.SEED Planter, 1 " Eclipse" )—D. C. 

I>ytch, Laurinburg, 
Candy Manufacturers- A D. Royster & 

Bro., Raleigl). 
I IGAKS— S. Kramer & Co., Durliam. 

S. M. Richardson, Ualeigli. 
Clothiers — Berwanger Bros , Raleigh. 



Litt. Ral 
Commission M 
York. 
J.J. Tbomus. Iviileigh 
Dentisi ' " ■- -- 
Drug.; 1 
Pes.- 



NTS— C. E. 



Dry 



W. H. 



, Ual 



. Kaleigh. 
nod, Raleigh. 
■Ii. Kali'igli. 
igli. 



Pool & Morlng, Raleigh. 
W. C. & A. B. Stronach, Raleigh. 
L. R. Wyatt. Raleigh. 
WyattA Taylor. Raleigh. 



: MEKCHANTS—Lynn 



E. .1. 


lialdiu. 1. 


aeigli. 






Latta & Myatt, 


Raleigh. 






M T 


Leach & 


.■0., Raielsh. 






M '1' 


Non-ls & Bio.. Kalelsh 






Part 


u * 1 row 


er, lialel^li. 






Ran. 


,v l;,,,h, , 


■■■'■'y.'' .: ,■ 


„ Ralel 


'h 


.1 c 


^ I ii;;,~.i 


. 1 : , . 






T. 11 


1 .1 1 .\ 


-1 ;i - i: i;i i"ti 






h:c|w 


hK ,\ 1;. 


.'i^ i/.vl.'id. 






.hihi 


- I.rn 1^ ,V 


. ...Ualeish. 






Rdl" 




wl ,v Co.. Du 


ham. 






-■A I)> 


II..1..-1. .Morehead i it 


y- 



BrisL's 11.. I,. I. « ilsoii 
Central Hotel, Italelgh, 
Hotel Brunswick. Smlthville. 
Haywood White iSulphiir Spi-i 



Hoc^s 



s-Fred. A Watsoi 



I.NSUii.4NfK~N. c. Home fo., Rale: 
J. J. Mackay. Durham. 
J. soutliKale & Son. Durhain. 
/allp> Mutual, Geo ('. .lordan,: 
Raleigh. 



W. H. 



-^tn 



r. T. Hay, Raleigh. 



-Raleigh. 



Tucker & Co., Raleigh. 
win. M.toiicntt. Raleigh. 
Norris & ..arter. Raleigh. 
Dkv Goodsand . i.oTHiNG— J. D.Creech & Co., 
Raleigh. 
L. Ro.scuthal & Co., Raleigh. 
W. T. Woodward, Raleigh. 
EDUCATio.NAL— Bingham f,chool, blugham 



Charlou 

Fray & - ^ 

Horner School, Oxfoi-d. 

T. J & W. U. Horner s School, Henderson 

Misses Nash & MlssKollock, Hlllsb.iro. 

Peace Institute, Raleigh. 

Trinity College, Trinity College, N C. 

ihapelHill. 

.Win- 



Durham Fertilizer Co., Durham. 

Lister Bros., Newark, N. J. 

Pine Island Guano, New London, conn. 

l.^pshnr Guano Company, Norfolk, Va. 

Wando .-Veld Phosphate. 

Wan.lo Fertilizer Company. 
Foundry and Machine shops— Allen 
Crum, Raleigh. 

Wuinwright & Royall, Wilson. 
PliRNiTUBE— E. M. Andrews, Charlotte. 
Grocer.s— 

Leu. H. Adams, Raleigh. 



Ikon WoitKS— Saleiii Ii-on Works, salem. 
Lawyers— Peele& Maynard. Raleigh. 

, NoriCK-C. D. Hpchurch, C. S. >'. V 



Rittenhouse, Phlla 



STABLES— 



W. E. V. Jackson, Raleigh. 
Georae W Wynne, Raleigl.. 
IVIACIIINEKV— .-Mien <acram, Raleigh. 
David .\nderson. Raleigh. 
Md.lell & Co., Charlotte. 
Tappey & steel, Petersburg. 

.MANUFACTURERS— 

Gary Shuttle Block Company, Cary. 

North Carolina Plow Company, Cary. 

Pioneer .Manufacturing Company, Raleigh. 

North Carolina Car ^.'ompHny, Raleigh. 
.MEDICAL- Ayer's .Sarsaparllla, Lowell Mass. 

Ayer's cherry Pectoral, Lowell, MasK. 

Boshamer's Cornicide, Raleigh. 

Polk's Diphtheria Cure, Boston. 
Newspapers— Western Tobacco .lournal. Cin- 



ciu 



atl. 



Church Messenger, Charlotte. 
Gazette, Washington, N. c. 
Palladium, New Haven, Conn. 
Register, Raleigh. 
Visitor, Raleigh 

PER MANUFACTURERS— W. F. AskCW&Son, 

Raleigh. 
Pictures— P. Sinclair, Rockingham. 
Plows— Wainwright & Royall, Wilson. 
Plumbing— T. S. Stevenson. Raleigh. 
Printing, Binding, &c.— Edwards, Brough- 

ton &Co., Raleigh. 



Pa 



Uzzcll & Galling, Raleigh. 

P. W. Wiley & CO., Raleigh. 
Real Estate — "A," Raleigh, Residence. 

George Allen »& Co., New Berne, Lands 
Eastern North Carolina. 

Natt. Atkinson, Asheville, Lauds in Wei 
eru North Carolina. 

G. W. Blacknall, Raleigh, Broker. 

T. M. Holt. Haw River, Farms. 

R. H. .lones, Cary, Factory Building. 

E. P. Penick, Mooresville, Farm. 

C. .■^. r.)w.'ll.Siiulhfleld, Farms. 

-Wai. 1-1'.. «. I, r.iileigh. Water-power. 

John .\. w illi.iiiis, Oxford, Farms. 

Th.jii.:.- 11. n.illle, Tarboro. 

A. i \V. H.Ciiiikley. Warrenton. 

J. P. Gibson. .Mebane. 

Gray & Stainps, Raleigh. 

Haywood tfe Haywood, Raleigh. 
i T. 1). Love, Jr.. Willis Creek. 

J. R. McCorkle, ooresville. 

Partin & Crowder, Raleigh. 

J. F. Trolliuger, Mebane. 

A. T. Sate., Raleigh. 

J. D. Shaw, Rockingham. 

Tale & Trolliuger, Mebane. 

J. J, Wicker, Manly. 
RestaurantandConfections— iM..I.Mosel. 

Raleigh. 
Saw .MiLLS-Liddcll & Co., Chai'lotte. 



W. 



rks. Sale 
-J. L. 



' Mail-F. G. Morris 



Tobacco- chewing— P. H. Hanes Jl Co.. Win- 
P Loi-'illard & Co., Jersey City. .\. .1. 



Blackwell Durham Tobacco Co., Durham. 

W. Duke, sons dtCc, Durham. 

Keech, Davis & Co. Hickory. 

Kinney Tobacco Co., New "lorlc. 

1'. Loi-illard & Co., Jersey City, -V. J. 

R. F. Morris & Son Manufacturing Co.. 
Durham. 

J. S. Tomllnsou & Co., Hickory. 
Tobacco (Leaf) Brokers— W. A. Bohbitt. ok- 
ford. 

John B. Booth, Oxford. 

B. T. Crump & Co., Richmond. 

Dibrell Bros. & Co., Durham and Danville. 

Richard A. Evans, Statesville. 

W. E. Gary, Henderson. 
Tobacco Presses and Machinery— The Jno. 
H. McGowan Co., Cincinnati. 

Tappey & Steel, Petei-sbui-g. 
' Tobacco seed— R. L. Ragland, Hyco, Va. 
Tobacco Warehouses— Burwell Bros. & Co., 
Henderson. 

Cooper's. Henderson. 

Davis & Wyche, Henderson. 

Harrlll & Hampton, Statesville. 

J. S. Lockhart. Durham. 

Parrisli's, Durliam. 

Frank Stronach & Co., Raleigh. 
Town— Lenoir, Caldwell county. 
Wagons— C. F. Nisseu & Co.. Salem. 
Wants— situation as Book-Keeper. 

(Cotton Seed) Cotton seed Oil .Mills, Char- 
lotte. 

Teacher's Position. 

Teacher. 



Tobacco Interests of North Carolina. 159 



Mr. Cameron,* in his interesting and able "Sketch of the 
Tobacco Interests of North Carolina," says that when the 
sanguine colonists of Jamestown heard the result of their 
first shipment of the golden sands of James river, and learned 
that it was nothing more than worthless mica spangles, they 
may have consoled themselves under their bitter chagrin in 
the oblivious cloud of smoke from the soothing pii^e, and 
learned at length that in the tobacco fields they bad really, 
if unwittingly, found a true El Dorado. For, despairing of 
the discovery of the metalic gold, they sought it in the oul- 
ture and sale of the weed which a new habit had made in- 
dispensable to human luxury and comfort, and which made 
returns that filled the coffers of the planters as effectively 
and substantiall}^ as the metallic representative. Gold was 
found above the soil, not under it; and henceforward the 
southern colonies went on to grow and to prosper, to become 
populous, wealthy and refined, and to reach that social and 
political height which gave them preeminent influence with 
the other colonies, and which has never been lost through 
the lapse of time, the shocks of war or the reverses of for- 
tune. And this is all directly traceable to tobacco. 

Tobacco was soon made to perform also the functions of 
gold in another form. Its culture once firmly established, 
and markets opened for its disposal, it became the common 
medium of exchange, the standard of value, and almost the 
sole currency of Virginia at least. It paid the taxes of the 
farmer, it liquidated his debts to the merchant, it satisfied 
the parson for his ministrations, and it measured the dowry 
of the bride. It was made in its earliest colonial daj's, as it 
has been made to do in the maturit}^ of modern common- 
wealths, to bear a most important relation to the subject of 
revenue. King James, and his successor, King Charles, 
both strove to obtain a monopoly of the sale of tobacco raised 
in Virginia, which the Governor and Council compromised, 
by agieeing to contract with their sovereign for at least 
500,000 pounds, at 3s. and Gd. per pound, to be inspected 
and guaranteed to be of uniform good quality, which is the 
origin of the present system of inspection. But this con- 
tract carried with it another burden opposed to the liberties 
of agriculture. That the sovereign might be freed from 
competition, and obtain full prices for the amount of tobacco 

*We here desire to make our acknowledgments to this geutlemau for much 
important iuformatiou in the preparation of these pages. 



160 History of Durham. 



delivered to him, the planter was required to gather only 
twelve leaves from each plant. In its early histor}'-, as 
in its modern experience, tobacco has been the sport of 
legislation, the subject of vexatious laws and tyrannical ex- 
actions, as if law-makers had conspired to punish mankind 
for the facility with which they had yielded to its seductive 
dominion. 

North Carolina lagged many years behind Virginia in the 
extent of the culture of tobacco; for whereas all the tide- 
water region of the latter State became almost exclusively 
devoted to this staple, long before the Revolutionar}' War, 
but comparatively a small portion of the former was given 
up to it. The counties of Warren and Granville, and the 
counties along the Dan, with portions of Orange and Chat- 
ham, under their former limits, were probably the only 
counties in which tobacco was extensively cultivated for 
market. 

In North Carolina is produced tobacco unequalled even 
in Virginia; and yet she is deprived of her due credit 
both for quantity and quality. Virginia has absorbed her 
fame as well as her products. Statistical tables put North 
Carolina as the fourth State in extent of crop, yet foreign 
commercial tables take no note of this, and the fifty or 
more millions of leaf tobacco that go out of North Carolina, 
go upon the world as Virginia tobacco. It is no reproach 
to Virginia that this is so. She has systematized her busi- 
ness by the experience of two centuries, and shipments from 
Richmond and Petersburg had a guarantee for their excel- 
lence in the fidelity, knowledge and skill of those who con- 
trolled the market. And Virginia had given North Carolina 
the only market within reach of her producing regions un- 
til the change in the system of sales, established since the 
war, has given her markets of her ov/n. It is our duty to 
show to the world what we are doing, and vindicate our 
fame and the magnitude of our resources. 

But she must part with her title in the fame of her 
" bright yellow tobacco," a fame based upon its North Caro- 
lina origin and almost exclusive North Carolina production. 

Tobacco is our crowning glory to-day, and it behooves us, 
as patriotic citizens, to see to it that our State shall have 
credit not only for the quantity but quality of this product. 
Affluent in everything that contributes to the wealth and 
prosperity of a State, in our tobacco, crude and manufact- 



Tobacco Interests of North Caroijna. 



IGl 



ured, which is without a superior, if it has an equal, in all 
the world, we have an unfailing source of revenue that alone 
is capable in time of raising her to the first rank in the 
galaxy of progressive States in this Union. It is but a few 
years, twenty-seven, as a matter of fact, since the first bright 
North Carolina leaf, as now known in trade and commerce, 
was timidly placed upon the market, and in the compara- 
tively short interval that has elapsed since its advent, it has 
become known and esteemed in each of the four quarters 
of the globe. 

To Capt. Abishai Slade, of Caswell county, alone belongs 
the honor of discovering the process by which the dark 
brown leaf was converted into the superb " Golden Yellow," 
or " Bright Leaf," a most extraordinary and valuable pro- 
cess ; one which has lifted many an humble hard-struggler 
with poverty into positions of competency and comfort ; for 
it fascinates and excites the buyer as if he could not pay 
too much for this beautiful semblance of the product of the 
mine. And all this treasure is almost exclusively in pos- 
session of our State. Until recently it was confined to the 
narrow belt running from south-east to north-west — embra- 
cing portions of the counties of Warren, Granville, Orange, 
Durham, Person, Caswell, Alamance and Rockingham, and 
reaching a little way over into Virginia. Now that area 
has been extended by the addition of some of the extreme 
eastern counties, and of the middle counties of Stokes and 
Forsyth, of the western counties of Catawba, Iredell and 
McDowell, and the trans-montane counties of Buncombe, 
Madison, Haywood, Henderson, Yancey and Transylvania. 

AREA of tobacco. 

The U. S. Census of 1880 places the product of leaf tobacco 
in this State for the year 1879 at 26,986,213 pounds. There 
has been considerable increase since, both in area and 
pounds, but the following are the latest collective figures 
the writer has been able to obtain : 





Acres. 


Pounds. 




Acres. 


Alamance. . . 


.. 1,688 


695,013 


Beaufort. . a. 


17 


Alexander. . 


28 


11,799 


Bertie 


2 


Alleghany. . . 


S 


2,049 


Bladen 


6 


Anson 


II 


4,880 


Brunswick . . . 


7 


Ashe 


60 


11,064 


Buncombe. . . 


.. 947 



Pounds. 
5,263 

554 

1,040 

2,502 

475,428 



162 



History of Durham. 



Acres. Pounds. 

Burke 58 20,079 

Cabarrus 12 3.239 

Caldwell 75 25,334 

Carteret . I 303 

Caswell 10,174 4.336,664 

Catawba 49 26,380 

Chatham 141 4Q.837 

Cherokee 42 8,411 

Chowan I 398 

Clay 25 5,771 

Cleveland 23 5.122 

Columbus 15 3.866 

Craven 6 2.732 

Davidson 484 260,538 

Davie 1,205 633,339 

Duplin 16 4,655 

Edgecombe .... 3 55° 

Forsyth 1,693 822,788 

Franklin 118 58,932 

Gaston. 7 2,180 

Gates 3 620 

Graham 4 1,095 

Granville 8,941 4,606,358 

Greene 8 1,955 

Guilford 910 422,716 

Halifax 21 8,487 

Harnett 32 9.5IO 

Haywood '. 100 39.5i6 

Henderson 29 4.087 

Hertford 7 2, 160 

Hyde 4 517 

Iredell 465 242,714 

Jackson 21 4.801 

Johnston , 36 I2,88r 

Jones I 250 

Lenoir 45 13.500 

Lincoln 15 6,085 

McDowell 100 30,541 

Macon 46 9.154 

Madison 1,626 807,911 



Acres. Pounds. 

Martin i 2II 

Mecklenburg.. 10 2,291 

Mitchell 77 29,647 

Montgomery.. 54 14,370 

Moore 70 15,724 

Nash 27 7,562 

Northampton . 36 20,484 

Onslow 2 730 

*Orange 2,323 1,178,732 

Pamlico 12 1,520 

Pender 3 690 

Perquimans... I 400 

Person 5,768 3,012,387 

Pitt 3 59S 

Polk... 4 931 

Randolph 45 11,101 

Richmond .... 6 i , 305 

Robeson 2 577 

Rockingham.. 9,332 4,341,259 

Rowan 216 115,251 

Rutherford 38 12,908 

Sampson 28 14,352 

Stanly 8 1.735 

Stokes 4.690 2,131,161 

Surry 2,136 905,250 

Swain Ii 1,166 

Transylvania.. 10 3.853 

Union 9 3.467 

*Wake 239 94.354 

Warren 1,759 992,256 

Washington... 4 685 

Watauga 23 7, 210 

Wayne 198 102,970 

Wilkes no 33.211 

Wilson 17 8,745 

Yadkin • 425 177.595 

Yancey 84 33.898 

Total 57,208 26,986,213 



From this exhibit it appears that of the ninety-six coun- 
ties in the State eighty-seven grew tobacco in 1879, though 
some of them respectively but a small quantity. There are no 
statistics showing the quantity actually produced annually 
in the State, but the large warehousemen and other compe- 
tent judges estimate it at about 60,000,000 pounds. The 



*The county of Durham since formed of portions of Orange and Wake. Dur- 
ham and Wake will this year produce over 2,000,000 pounds. Wake hitherto has 
paid very little attention to the production of tobacco, her chief product 
having been cotton. Some of the best tobacco lands in the State lie in this 
county. Efforts are being made to establish a market at Raleigh, the capital 
of the State. 



Tobacco Interests of North Carolina. 163 



finest tobacco in this State, as in others, is grown only in a 
few counties. 

HOW THE TOBACCO TRADE IS CONDUCTED. 

All of the tobacco grown in North Carolina that is not 
conveyed from the northern farms to Danville and other 
nearer Virginia markets for sale, is sold on open break in the 
various markets of the State. The custom of selling in this 
manner prevails, as our readers know, in Maryland, Vir- 
ginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentuck}^ Tennessee and 
Missouri. It is one which commends itself to both sellers 
and buyers, as it yields to the farmers all that their products 
bring, less warehouse charges, and to the latter it gives op- 
portunity for purchasing at first hands and seeing what 
they buy. The vast warehouses where the breaks are es- 
tablished are the tobacco growers' havens. To them they 
go, as they go to their homes, feeling assured that there they 
will receive fair treatment. Most of the warehouses have 
attached to them apartments designed and reserved espe- 
cially for the uses of the farmers and their teams. 

To a person unaccustomed to the sight, it is interesting 
to see the growers in and about the warehouses, as among 
them every variety of the genus homo may be met — the 
lively, the dull, the rich, the poor, the white, the black ; 
men with one acre, men with thousands of acres, and men 
with no acres at all except what they hire. But with the 
warehousemen, the dealers and the manufacturers, these are 
the men who are increasing the wealth of the " Old North 
State " at a rate that is absolutely astonishing. Into wagons 
of various sizes and forms, but mostly those drawn by two 
horses or mules ; wagons that are high at the rear and less 
high at the front ; that have canvas coverings for roofs, oat 
bins at the backs, and tool boxes on the sides — into wagons 
of this description the growers pack their precious crops of 
tobacco when they are ready for sale, assorting them as well 
as they can, and start away for the markets. Five, ten, 
twenty, sixty miles they come to the warehouses, sleeping 
safely in their wagons on the way, so orderly and law-abiding 
are the people of the State as a rule ; and in an hour or two 
after their arrival they are on their way home with the 
money tlieir crops have brought in their pockets. In the 
busy seasons hundreds of them arrive daily in the princi; 



164 HisTOEY OP Durham. 



pal markets. Driving up to the doorways of the ware- 
houses, they unload their crops according to the chissifica- 
tions they have made. The various classes or piles are 
weighed and then placed in order along the long floors of 
the warehouse. Some piles weigh but a few pounds and 
some several hundred pounds, but on each pile a card is 
placed bearing the name of the warehouse, number of the 
pile, the farmer's name, the price the pile brings when sold, 
the number of pounds and the buyer's name, all of which 
are entered in the warehousemen's books. 

The expedition with which sales are effected in the ware- 
houses is remarkable, the auctioneers passing from pile to 
pile followed by the bu3'ers, at the rate of almost two to the 
minute. Thousands of pounds of tobacco thus change 
hands in a few minutes. Farmers can reject bids when the 
prices do not ecjual their expectations without charge, and 
obtain free storage for tobacco withdrawn until it is again 
offered for sale. Immediately at the conclusion of the sales, 
the sellers or farmers receive their pay from the warehouse- 
men, less the charges. The charges are as follows : 10 cents 
per 100 pounds for weighing, and 10 cents for fractional 
parts of 100 pounds. Auction fees are 25 cents per pile for 
piles less than 500 pounds, and 50 cents per pile for piles 
weighing from 500 to 1,000 pounds, and $1 per pile for piles 
weighing 1,000 pounds and over. Commissions 3 per cent. 
Brokerage charges are 75 cents per hundred for buying and 
packing, and 2J per cent, on net amount of bill, which is 
equivalent to about one cent a pound. The cost to a farmer 
to sell his tobacco is estimated at about five cents a pound, 
■which is a small item considering the average range of 
prices he receives. 

Excepting Sundays and the holidays, the warehouses in 
Durham are open for business every day in the year, though 
Mondays and Saturdays are regarded as easy or off-days. 
When the auction sales are concluded, the buyers imme- 
diately convey their purchases to the prizing houses, so as to 
leave the floors of the warehouses free for succeeding daily 
operations, and it is in these establishments that the real 
work of preparing the tobacco for market is done. There 
every leaf and bundle is examined, graded and classified 
according to a precise and uniform formula, and the goods 
are packed in tierces and hogsheads, ready for shipment 
wherever wanted. 



Tobacco Interests of North Carolina. 165 



So rapid has been the development of trade, that one may 
see farmers and tradesmen on the breaks who have risen 
from comparative poverty to comparative opulence in a 
few years. Lands that could have been bought a dozen 
years ago for two or three dollars an acre, cannot now be 
had for less than hundreds of dollars per acre, and some 
cannot be purchased at all, so much has tobacco increased 
the value of everything in the localities where it is grown 
and sold. Tobacco and its influence upon the prosperity of 
the people of the tobacco belt, is the one common topic of 
observation everywhere, just as it has long been in the to- 
bacco districts of Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, 
Pennsylvania and other Northern States. Notwithstanding 
the appreciation in the value of lands under tobacco culti- 
vation, as much as immigration will be likely to demand 
for many years, and as good as the best, can be procured at 
prices within the means of the most ordinary laboring man. 
It is so all through the State. Within the area of territory 
embracing the thriving towns of Durham, Henderson, Ox- 
ford, Winston and Reidsville, all of which are in the cele- 
brated Piedmont District, thousands upon thousands of 
acres of the very best tobacco, cotton, grain, fruit and wood 
lands in the world are still available to all honest and in- 
dustrious immigrants at reasonable prices. 

culture and curing of tobacco. 

The following facts are gleaned mainly from the tobacco 
portion of the 10th Census, advance sheets of which were 
kindly furnished the author by the Commissioner at Wash- 
ington. The very highest authorities have been sought 
both in this State and Virginia, and the facts herewith sub- 
mitted may be relied on as accurate. In this State the de- 
velopment of the fine tobacco interest displays one of the 
most remarkable transitions in the history of agriculture. 
Its growth was first begun in this State by two brothers, Eli 
and Elisha Slade, of Caswell county, upon a ridge between 
two small tributaries of the Dan river. The soil was thin 
and sandy and, in comparison with the river bottoms, was 
of little value. About 1S52 or 1853 the Slades grew, by 
chance, as they supposed, a small crop of yellow tobacco. As 
it grew year after year, its peculiarities were attributed to 
special methods of culture and curing. They communicated 
11 



166 History of DuRHA^f. 



their methods to all inquirers, and it was soon found that 
soil was the chief element, although care in the modes of 
cultivation and curing was also found to be necessary to the 
production of the best qualities. From the plantation of 
the Slades, its growth extended over Caswell count}', and 
along the same ridge into Pittsylvania county, Virginia. 
This covered almost the entire area of yellow-tobacco cul- 
ture before the civil war, when the production of tobacco 
was almost entirely suspended. The war increased the man- 
ufacture of tobacco in the North, where no tobacco suitable 
for plug or wrappers was grown, and at its close attention 
was called to the fitness of the North Carolina yellow leaf 
for this purpose- The price rose with the demand, and the 
production extended to other counties, especially to Person, 
Granville and Rockingham. Granville outstrips all com- 
petitors, although many other counties have entered the 
lists, from Buncombe and Madison, in the west, where it is 
grown on the slope of the Alleghanies, 3,000 feet above sea- 
level, to the coast belt about Goldsboro', 200 feet above the 
sea — a vertical range of 2,800 feet, and a climatic range 
equivalent to about eight and a half degrees of latitude. 
While yellow leaf may have been raised in Virginia in small 
quantities, this may be taken as an accurate sketch of the 
origin and spread of the new product in North Carolina and 
in the contiguous counties of Virginia. 

After the war the cheap and abundant production of 
shipping tobacco in the West and the reduction of the price 
below the cost of production in North Carolina militated, 
with the demand for fine tobacco, to diminish the growth of 
the heavy tobacco and to extend widel}' the production of 
fancy leaf, which reaches its highest perfection in the cen- 
tral belt, of which the city of Durham is the main outlet. 

There are, broadly and generally stated, two varieties of 
soil in North Carolina: a gray, sandy, light soil, with a yel- 
low, sandy-clay subsoil, suited to yellow leaf and the various 
types of fine tobacco, and a dark loam, a rich, unctuous, 
heavy soil, with a red clay subsoil, suited especially to the 
cereals and to a heavy dark or red tobacco. The change in 
the growth of tobacco has been from one of these to the 
other. Shipping leaf is still grown, however, both as an in- 
dustry, upon soil selected for it, and as an incident to at- 
tempts to raise fine tobacco upon lands not suited to its 
iproduction. Sometimes a part of the same field will offer 



i 



Tobacco Interests op North Carolina. 167 



both kinds of soil and grow both fine and heavy tobacco. 
The production of shipping leaf is not regarded as profita- 
ble, and planters generally endeavor to raise the fine leaf, 
so that this is the onl}'' branch of tobacco culture worthy of 
especial notice. 

Alongside the decline in wealth in old areas of prosperity 
there are other instances in the South of the growth of 
thrift and wealth in communities which were poor before 
the war, but no other section presents such wonderful 
changes. Comfortable farm-houses have taken the places of 
rude log-cabins, excellent and convenient barns and out- 
houses exhibit the new thrift, and new life has been infused 
into all classes and into both races. The distinctive feature 
of this phenomenon is that it has brought into requisition, 
as most profitable, the poorest soils in the State, and wrought 
its improvements on the poorest farming classes. It has also 
enhanced the value of such lands until they actually sell 
for more than the most fertile bottom lands, and the spec- 
tacle has actually been witnessed of a contention between 
counties as to which could show the most poor land. The 
effect of this is practicall}' to increase largely the wealth- 
producing power of the State, breaking down the ordinary 
economic distinctions between sterile and fertile lands. The 
amount of this enhancement cannot be given with even ap- 
proximate accuracy, because nothing definite can yet be 
known as to the area of fine tobacco lands, the continued 
value of poor lands depending also on the stability of the 
demand for such tobacco. 

VARIETIES OF TOBACCO. 

Slight differences in nomenclature, local names, and the 
uncertain use of descriptive adjectives make it difficult to 
reach absolute accuracy in treating of the varieties of to- 
bacco cultivated. 

The Orinoco, popularl}'' called in some localities " Iron 
Oak," is a widely grown plant, of which at least three vari- 
eties are reported — the Yellow, the White-stem, and the 
Little or Sweet Orinoco. The Yellow Orinoco is early, ma- 
tures well, becomes bright on the hill, and has a broad, 
heavy leaf of a fine, silky texture. The White-stem Orinoco 
grows brighter and whiter on the hill than most varieties, 
and is more easily cured the desired color. The fiber is 



168 History of Durham. 



also while. Silky Pryor has a long, sharp-pointed leaf, and 
grows thin on the stalk, with a leaf very tough and pliant 
when cured, which can be handled drier than any other 
variety. The Bullock has a broad, smooth leaf, with no 
rufHe on the stem. It stands heat well in curing. The 
leaves are far apart on the stalk, and it bears few suckers, 
often not more than four or five to the plant; nor do suck- 
ers start from below the surface of the hill. On account of 
the space between the leaves, a hand can sucker one-third 
more of this variety than of any other. The Gary makes a 
good sample, has a round leaf, and yellows well on the hill. 
Virginia Seed-Leaf and Tally are also grown to some extent. 
The Yellow Orinoco has largely the preference among plan- 
ters, the Gooch and the Bull-face coming next, and perhaps 
the Yellow Pryor next to them, and the Little or Sweet Ori- 
noco, the Blue Pryor, the Adcock, the Mann, and the Cun- 
ningham, are extensively cultivated. One general truth 
is established: that soil adapted to coarse shipping to- 
bacco will not produce fine tobacco with any variety, and 
vice versa. 

All varieties cure dark brown or red when grown on red- 
clay soils with heavy dark or brown top soil, but incline to 
brighter and lighter hues on sandy, gra}^ soil, with yellowish 
subsoil, and cure from bright red to mahogany and fine yel- 
low. On all fresh lands, except the very best fancy tobacco 
soils, all varieties are somewhat lighter and brighter than 
on old lands. This is especially the case with those lands 
which will only produce shipping leaf after the first or sec- 
ond year. 

Such is the effect of soils, that the purity of any variety 
can only be preserved by procuring seed from the soil which 
produces its original, and most perfect type. This is a rule, 
however, of very little practical value until experiments 
shall have determined the entire subject of adaptability, 
and even then the purity of any given variety can only be 
maintained by great care. The seed-plants must be remote 
from any other variety to avoid the intermixture of pollen 
by insects, and the seed is to be selected from the crown, 
that alone reproducing the same plant. Seeds from the 
lower and side shoots grow plants resembling those coming 
from seeds of suckers ; indeed, the side shoots are but 
suckers. 



Tobacco Interests of North Carolina. 169 



TOBACCO soils. 

In determining the question as to what constitutes fine 
tobacco lands, or what element is fatal to the growth of 
yellow leaf, the inquiry must embrace the important matter 
of drainage. Tobacco is a plant which delights in a dry, 
warm soil, requiring comparatively little moisture, and in 
no respect do these lands differ more widely from others 
than in thorough drainage. While such lands are very 
miry in wet weather, so that it is difHcult to drive a wagon 
or even to ride over them, the top soil is always dry and 
warm. 

There is a difference of opinion as to new lands. In the 
western counties, v/here the growth of tobacco is quite re- 
cent, new land is almost altogether planted, but in the older 
tobacco counties planters have learned to conserve their old 
lands and to raise upon them tobacco of the best quality 
by the judicious use of fertilizers, and no longer depend 
upon clearing. All agree, however, that a very fine quality 
of leaf is grown on new lands. Some lands will produce a 
fair fancy wrapper one or two seasons, and never after. It 
is also generally agreed that the first crop is very fine and 
most easily cured, hut lacks the body and uniformity of 
texlure and color of the .second year's growth on the best 
tobacco lands. 

Fertilizers are applied upon new as well as upon old 
lands. In the older tobacco counties cases are given where 
tobacco has been grown upon land for twenty years in suc- 
cession without decrease in yield or deterioration in quality, 
but always with the aid of manure. Such lands appear to 
possess permanent qualities, which need only the addition 
of fertilizers and manures, and it is believed that with proper 
care and rotation most of them can be kept up indefi- 
nitely.* 

Old fields of the proper soil, which have been worn out 
and abandoned make, when cleared of their new growth. 
the best tobacco lands. They are generally overgrown with 

* It is unquestionably true tliat the mechanical condition of llie soil and tlic 
absence ol" certain inorganic elements liave more to do with the production of 
flnc tobacco than a supply of plant food. This soil is, indeed, a sponjce, which 
receives and retains just fertilizers enough to bring the plant to the proper size, 
wlien thoy become cxhausled, and the plant goes into a gradual decline, growing 
more and more yellow and more and more delicate in tissue, until it is out. Too 
much manure will destroy the flue qualities of the leaf, impairing its color and 
iucreasing its coarseness. 



170 History of Durham. 



pines, with an undergrowth of whortleberry, chincapins, 
and other bushes, the pines growing to two feet in diameter in 
about twentj'-five years. About fifteen or twenty years are 
required for the resuscitation of old worn-out lands. One 
field was planted in corn in 1850, and the yield was so poor 
that the fence was removed. In 1876 it was cleared of its 
pine growth and planted in tobacco, which brought 50 cents 
a pound for the whole crop. This field has been cultivated 
in tobacco for five successive years, and the last crop was 
better than the first. The land was treated the first year 
with 200 pounds of a commercial fertilizer, and has since 
received yearly applications of stable manure and fertilizer 
in the drill. A great many farmers are of opinion, liowever, 
that the lands are exhaustible and require years of rest, and 
assert that, although the first crops on old fields reclaimed 
are better than when first cleared, a great falling off occurs 
after the second crop, the soil wearing out much more rap- 
idly than in the first instance. 

These old pine fields, when they have a gray, sand}'^ soil 
and a yellow subsoil, are the best of tobacco lands. A man 
selected a few acres vrhieh had grown up in " bald-faced 
Spanish oaks," scrub hickor}', chiucapin, and sourwood, all 
indicative of very poor lands, and the crop raised sold for 
50 cents a pound at the barn door. When the soil is of the 
right kind, old fields which have lain for years in " broom- 
sedge" or broom-grass {AvAropogon scopariu?) grow the very 
finest tobacco, while they are almost worthless for other 
crops. This " sedge " is turned under in the fall before frost, 
and tobacco is planted the next s|)ring. 

A southern exposure is generally sought for fine tobacco. 
This soil is drier and warmer, and the plant matures earlier. 
The rich, black soils of northern slopes will not produce 
fine tobacco, while a few yards off, on the other slope, the 
finest may be grown. 

Reports show a general average of 33 per cent, of preferred 
tobacco soils cultivated, and the proportion of new lands 
is reported at 45 per cent. In Buncombe and Madison 
counties, in the west, where tobacco culture has been re- 
cently introduced, the proportion of new lands is 80 per 
cent., and the general average proportion of uncleared lands 
adapted to the plant is given as 58 per cent. Since fine to- 
bacco lands are precisely those which farmers would avoid 



Tobacco Interests of North Carolina. 171 



clearing for other crops, this is probably too low rather than 
too high an estimate. 

PREPARATION OF THE SOIL. 

In the preparation of tobacco lands, methods vary with 
the character of the soils, old "sedge" lands, clover tallows 
and stubble lands requiring more plowing than land last 
cultivated in corn or tobacco. 

New ground is cohered twice or oftener, and is cleared of 
roots and trash ; lot lands are plowed in autumn or in early 
winter, to obtain the help of the winter frosts in reducing 
the soil to fine tilth, are again plowed early in the spring, 
and a third time before planting. Turning plows are used 
to a depth of from 2 to 5 inches, the object being to invert 
the upper soil as deeply as possible without exposing the 
subsoil. 

If the land is trashy, or not in thorough tilth, it is dragged 
with a heavy harrow after the last plowing. It is then 
bedded up by throwing from two to four furrows together 
with a turning-plow, and the hills are laid off from 2| to 3 
feet, 3 inches apart and patted on the top, so as to compact the 
soil where the plant is to be set. Hilling is strongl}' recom- 
mended by the best planters, especially in wet seasons, 
affording better drainage and protection against all the wet- 
weather diseases of tobacco. Hills present a flat surface of 
from 10 to 15 inches in diameter, and are made when the 
ground is in good order for working. If too dry, it will 
require too much rain to moisten them sufficiently ; if too 
wet, they will bake. In new ground tiie hills may be 
made in March or April", in old ground they are to be 
made late enough to avoid danger of growing up in weeds 
or grass before planting, not earlier than the first of May. 
Listing or bedding up by 3 or 4 furrows of a turning-plow 
saves labor in making hills. 

There is a wide difference of opinion and of practice as 
to the proper distance between plants, varying from 2h by 
2 ft. 3 ins. to 3 ft. 3 ins. by 3 ft. 3 ins. Many hold that noth- 
ing is gained in aggregate weight, v»'hile something is lost in 
length, breadth, and body by crowding closer than 3 feet 3 
inclies apart each way. Hills are generally made by meas- 
uring or stepping off one row and placing the hills of the 



172 History of Durham. 



next opposite the center of the space between those in the 
first, and so on, in quincunx order. 

TOBACCO FERTILIZERS. 

Both commercial fertilizers and home-made manures are 
used : of the former, special tobacco fertilizers and Peruvian 
guano; of the latter, chiefly stable manure. Stable manure 
is used in connection with numerous commercial fertilizers; 
guano, superphosphates, and special compounds prepared 
for tobacco. 

In the eastern tobacco counties no attempt is made to 
raise tobacco without fertilizers and manures; in the west- 
ern counties planters are farming a virgin soil and using 
very little manure; and the policy of clearing new to re- 
place old lands promises to go on until it has wrought the 
ruin it has elsewhere. It is generally agreed that upon most 
lands in the west two crops can be raised without manure, 
and this is generally the limit. 

The use of fertilizers is said to yellow the crop in the hill 
as well as to increase the yield, and they are applied broad- 
cast in the hill and in drills. The practice of placing them 
in the drills possesses advantages every way. The most 
approved method is to apply stable manure in the winter. 
A furrow is opened, in which it is placed, according to the 
character of the soil, and a furrow is thrown over it. In 
the spring the center of this is divided with a bull-tongue 
or shovel-plow, and the commercial fertilizer is placed in 
the new furrow with the stable manure, a bed being thrown 
over this by three or four furrows with a turning-plow. 
In this way the soil of the bed becomes thoroughly per- 
meated by the fertilizer and manure, and upon this bed the 
hills are made at the proper time, the object being to place 
both the manure and the fertilizer so that the plant will 
receive the stimulus from the very start. Both commercial 
fertilizers and barn-yard manures are applied according to 
the soil, and this must be done, after long experience, with 
great care and judgment. Too much will injure the qual- 
ity and the texture or may cause firing ; too little may leave 
the plant small, lean, and poor; the object being to use 
enough to make eight or ten plants yield a pound of fine 
tobacco when cured. Quantities applied are variously re- 
ported, as from 50 to 500 pounds per acre, and when no 



Tobacco Interests of North Carolina. 173 



home-made manure is used, the amount of commercial fer- 
tilizer is very nearly doubled. Peruvian guano has been 
generally abandoned in raising fine tobacco. Most of the 
fertilizers used are manufactured especially for fine tobacco 
under various names and brands, and most of them are 
said to be rich in ammonia, soluble phosphates and potash. 
Much attention has been paid to home-made manures, 
stable manure being generally used and preferred to all 
others, and giving best results when used in combination 
with commercial fertilizers — the latter starting the plant 
and giving quick growth ; the former finishing the growth, 
giving body and maturity. Size may be attained without 
manure by the use of fertilizers alone, but not body. Some 
planters make their own fertilizers by treating bone dust 
with sulphuric acid, and composts are also made of muck 
and stable manure. Ashes are also used, and by some 
guano is considered especially applicable to new land'. 

SEED-BEDS. 

The soil selected for the seed bed is as fine as flour, \^ith 
the least possible admixture of coarse sand and gravel, in- 
clined to be moist, but not wet, and thoroughly drained. 
The sowing is done sometimes as early as December 1, 
and again as late as the 15th of April, but January and 
February are preferred. 

Usually the plants appear about the first of March if the 
sowing has been timel}', and arc sufficiently well grown for 
transplanting by the first week in May. 

Plants are read}^ for setting out when the leaves are about 
3 inches long and the width of three fingers, but for old 
ground the plants should be larger, and leaves 5 or 6 inches 
long. 

transplanting tobacco. 

Planters generally agree that the lOlh of May is soon 
enough to begin transplanting, and that successive plant- 
ings are desirable, in order that the crop may not all mature 
at once. Later than the 10th of June is not looked upon 
with favor by the best planters. Planting is sometimes 
done as late as the first of August, but never with expecta- 
tion of more than very moderate returns. If set out too 
early, the plants are likely to be damaged by cold, and to 



174 History of Durham. 



be deprived of the dews of August and September; if too 
late, they may not mature properly before frost. 

In general, planters wait for rain in order to transplant, 
though crops of seventy acres have been successfully planted 
b}' making artificial seasons. 

CULTIVATION OF TOBACCO. 

As soon as the plant has rooted and begun to grow, which 
is shown by the color, and is usuall}'' within five or six 
days, the turn-plow is run, with the bar next the plant, 
thus barring off the soil. The hill is then cleared of weeds 
with a hoe, and a little fresh earth is drawn to the plant. 
An excellent authority opposes the use of the plow unless 
the rows have become very foul, and recommends breaking 
the crust of the hill with the hoe and drawing loose earth 
around the plant until it has covered the hill to a breadth 
of 12 inches. This is probabl}'- the better way, but it is too 
tedious and costly for general practice. 

About a week after the first plowing the earth is thrown 
to the plant by the plow, and a broad, flat hill is made with 
the hoe. A third plowing is given before topping, and the 
hoe hands follow, hilling up well with a high hill. Unless 
grass and w^eeds are very prolific, this will be cultivation 
enough. Both the turning-plow and the bull-tongue are 
used, the former being preferred when the rows are foul. 
The cultivation is shallow, and the subsoil is but little 
stirred, and cultivation is avoided after topping unless the 
weeds and grass require the hoe. 

The plowing is often done with a cotton sweep, which is 
growing in favor, and cultivation is pushed rapidly by the 
best planters. In shipping leaf cultivation is continued 
until August, but in fine tobacco, beginning with plow or 
hoe when the plant has commenced growing, it is continued 
about once in ten days until the 10th or 15th of July. 

PRIMING, TOPPING, AND SUCKERING OF TOBACCO. 

At the last hoeing, as a general rule, the bottom leaves 
are primed off. When it is possible, all plants for fine 
tobacco are topped by the last of J\i]j, or at latest by the 
10th of August. There is, however, the greatest diversity 
of opinion as to both priming and topping. The general 



Tobacco Interests of North Carolina. 175 



rule as to priming, however, is from 4 to 6 inches, while the 
range in topping up to the hist of July is usualh^ from ten 
to fourteen leaves. Ten may be taken, however, as the 
number approved most widely, as measuring that which can 
be easilj' matured with the greatest weight and desired 
texture and color. Planters who adopt a standard of ten, 
top as Jiigh as twelve leaves when the plant is gross, or go 
below that if it appear that ten cannot be properly matured. 
Topping is usually done at intervals of a week, find at each 
successive topping fewer leaves are left, so as to make all 
plants set out at the same time ripen together. The sea?on 
and the character of the plant have much to do with the 
tojiping, but the best authorities assert that those who are 
tempted to go beyond ten leaves, except with very gross 
plants, lose in body, oil, and toughness, and gain nothing 
in weight, texture, or color. Some planters top even as 
high as twenty leaves on strong land, holding that low top- 
ping makes the plant coarse and the fibers large. 

One planter advises topping high in dry weather and 
low in wet weather, on the ground that if the plant be 
topped low in dry weather and rains follow, it will be sur- 
feited with moisture, and the top leaves will grow large and 
the bottom leaves fall off. If dr}'^ weather succeeds wet, the 
plant having been topped high and the supply of moisture 
ceasing, the growth is checked, the plant is not filled out, 
and the leaf grows thin and ])apery. Perhaps the best lule 
given as to priming is to allow the tips of the bottom leaves 
at maturity to hang well clear of the ground. 

Suckers are pulled off when too or three inches long, and 
every week, as they appear, until the plant is cut, usually 
from three to four times. There are two weeks between suc- 
cessive crops of suckers. 

The usual time between planting and topping is about 
six weeks, but this is so dependent on the season that the 
time may be from forty to sixty days. The time between 
topping and cutting is from six to ten weeks, varying ac- 
cording to season and according to soil, gray lands matu- 
ring the plant earlier than red lands. The variation on 
account of soil is given at as much as four weeks, and the 
plant will stand longer on strong land than on thin land. 
The method of cultivation also has an influence on the time, 
shallow culture ripening the plant earlier than deep cul- 
ture. The time of maturing is also affected by the quality 



176 History of Durham. 



and the quantity of fertilizer used, and the variation in time 
of cutting, from the last of August to the 15th of October. 

RIPENING TOBACCO. 

Eipening is indicated by the leaf becoming sleek, the fuzz 
disappearing, and the appearance of dappled yellow spots, 
called "graining." Dappled leaves make a mahogany leaf 
when cured ; uniform grayish-green color (luellon-apple 
green), when cut, indicates the finest leaf. Poor tobacco, 
without body, has a smooth, lifeless yellow, improper ripen- 
ing, due to wet seasons, rendering it almost impossible to 
attain the desired color. The plant will not ripen well in 
wet seasons, rendering it almost impossible to attain the 
desired color. The plant will not ri[)en well in wet seasons, 
especially when rain follows drought, but it is not injured 
by rain after it is ripe. It may begin a new growth, but 
will ripen again in a few days. Cool nights and heavy 
dev/s thicken the plant, and cause it to mature rapidly, with 
good body. 

CUTTING OF TOBACCO. 

Tobacco is always cut thoroughly ripe, unless it is neces- 
sary to sacrifice quality to escape total loss from frost. There 
is a difference of opinion as to the effect of rain or dew, 
almost all asserting that it does no harm to cut even when 
w^et with rain or dew ; yet one of the best authorities on the 
subject declares that the least water on the leaf spoils the 
color in drying. 

When the plants are fully ripe, each cutter takes two rows, 
a stick-carrier walking between two cutters, holding a stick. 
The plants are split down the center of the stalk and cut, 
and six to eight plants are placed astride the stick; another 
hand takes two sticks at a time to the wagon ; and a third 
hand keeps the stick-carrier supplied. The plants are as- 
sorted in the field, so that those only of a uniform color and 
ripeness shall be cut and cured together, and the tobacco is 
placed at once in the wagon, if possible, without exposure 
to the sun, and without allowing it to wilt or to lie upon 
the ground. It is desirable that the plants shall be stiff and 
open, so that the hot air can circulate freely among the 
leaves, and is never scaffolded before housing. 

Cutting is done on Monday and Tuesday, so as to cure 



Tobacco Interests of North Carolina. 177 



by Saturday, or it is cut on Friday and Saturday, postpon- 
ing the curing till Monday, from the rigid regard for the Sab- 
bath and its universal observance by all classes, although 
the planters suffer serious inconvenience and expense in the 
cutting season when the weather on Monday is unfavorable 
for outdoor work. 

Twelve hands will fill a barn of 600 pounds' capacity in 
two days ; but this is excellent work, and the last loads will 
not be gotten in until after nightfall. 

The sticks are Ah feet long, and are placed at a distance 
of from 8 to 10 inches apart on the tier poles, but never less 
than 8 inches, for fear of sweating or " house-burn." 

tobacco-barns. 

For fine tobacco, curing-barns are built of logs, small and 
tight, from 16 to 22 feet square. The larger size has the 
merit of economy, while 16-foot barns have the approval of 
the larger number of planters. The comparative housing 
capacity is about as 4 to 7, the smaller holding 352 sticks, 
the larger 650, one foot apart. If 16 feet, the barn is di- 
vided by five sets of tier poles into four equal compart- 
ments; if 20 feet square, six sets of tier poles divide the 
barn, including, in both cases, the joists, and exclusive of 
the collar-beams. A slope to the east is used, if possible, 
that the furnace may open on thnt side, prevailing winds 
being from the west in the curing season. 

When, as is generalh' the case, more than one barn is 
needed, the barns are grouped' together for convenience, 
but not nearer than 100 feet, on account of danger from 
fire. An inclination of 2 feet in 20 will be found advan- 
tageous in arranging the furnaces. The reason assigned 
for the use of log instead of frame barns is, that the latter, 
even though they be ceiled, cannot be heated sufficiently. 
The ground sills are of oak, well underpinned, and on these 
the pen, 20 feet square, is built of logs about 6 inches in di- 
ameter, notched down closely. At-the height of 5 feet a set 
of six tier poles, generally of pine, and 4 inches in diame- 
ter, is laid horizontally, resting upon the northern and 
southern walls, the two outside pells lying against the east 
and west walls. The first tier is only used in hanging and 
hoisting; the next is laid on in the same way, three logs 
above; and so on to the top, when the sixth is laid, serving 



178 History op Durham. 



also as joists, and resting upon tlie plates. If the roof is 
framed, the rafters are raised directly above and in line with 
the joists or last tier, and the collar-beams are nailed to the 
rafters, giving one and a half more tiers in the roof. Cabin 
roofs are usually built — that is, each gable is built up with 
logs of decreasing length, with their ends beveled, the long 
side down, to the last and shortest, which is notched in the 
centre for the ridge pole of the roof. Each end of the gable 
log is laid upon a roof pole, which extends the full length 
of the barn, and by the shortening of these logs the roof 
poles form on both sides the slant of the roof, which is 
crowned by the ridge pole. Into these roof poles the collar- 
beams are let in the cabin roof. The walls for a barn 20 
feet square, when completed, contain about twenty logs 
each, j)]ates included, and are about 16 feet high. The 
cracks are then closely chincked and daubed with mud, to 
which lime enough has been added to make it adhere well, 
and doors 4 feet square are cut in the north or south side 
and are provided with very closely-fitting shutters. 

THE FLUES. 

The Smith patent is the one most commonly used. Fur- 
naces are built, if the barn is properly located, on the east 
side; and, if the ground is rightly inclined, only one log 
need be sawed out, which is done 4 inches from the corner 
next to both the north and the south w^alls. The arch is 
of brick or fire-proof stone, 5 feet long, projecting externally 
18 inches. The walls are built of brick, two bricks thick, 
and 2 feet apart, 18 inches high, 4 inches from the walls of 
the barn, the space being filled with dry earth, and the 
space between the two carefully filled up to the first log. A 
covering is then made over the external arch, running the 
length of the barn, and an ashbed is dug out in front of 
the opening of each arch. The iron flue pipes are let in 
about 6 inches from the floors of the arches, and the cracks 
are stopped with clay. In order to give the greatest heat- 
ing capacity, the flues are built one foot from the north, the 
west, and the south walls, and, as a protection against lire, 
when this is done a thin wall is built between the pipes and 
the ground sills, running from where the pipe joins the fur- 
nace 6 feet along the flue, the distance to which the pipes 
are heated red. The pipes are made of No. 24 iron, except 



Tobacco Interests of North Carolina. 179 



the two joints that enter the furnaces, which are of IS-inch 
iron, and are from 12 to 15 inches in diameter. The pipe 
is elevated gradually about 1 inch in 2 feet, and runs con- 
tinuously from both liues along the north and south walls 
and the west wall. In the centre of the pipe, along the 
west wall, which lies horizontal, and 1 foot from the wall, 
the return pipe makes a f, and conducts the draught 
through the center of the barn back to the east wall, rising 
gradually, so as to make the perpendicular distance between 
the points where the pipes leave the furnaces and that where 
the return pipe comes out through the wall about 18 inches. 
A short elbow joint in a small chimney receives the return 
pipe on the outside. 

From two to three cords of dr}- wood sufiices for one cur- 
ing. Barns thus coristructed, with flues complete, cosi from 
$50 to $75 each ; packing-houses, about $200 each. With 
barn and flues properly constructed, fires are always the re- 
sult of carelessness, and yet about one barn in twenty is re- 
ported as lost by fire. 

CURING of tobacco. 

The process of curing tobacco by fire is the most difBcult 
and delicate in the whole course. Experience alone will 
make a curer of fine tobacco, and that only of one who 
possesses nice judgment, excellent powers of observation 
and care. A trifling inattention may, at a critical moment, 
reduce a barn of the finest yellow tobacco to the lower 
grades. If the fires are allowed to die out or decline after 
the leaf is cured, sap remaining in the stalks or stems will 
diffuse itself through the leaf and mar the color irremediably 
in twenty-four hours; and, on the other hand, too much 
heat will cause sweating, which will, unless checked by 
speedy ventilation, both injure the color and impair the 
body and texture. In order to prevent this, it is necessary 
to use a thermometer, hung level with the tails of the plants 
on the lowest tier, and, to guard the degree of heat b}' con- 
stant care, to watch day and night, with frequent inspection 
of the plants, generally selecting some one plant as a guide, 
but not by any means omitting general inspection. 

CURING TOBACCO BY CHARCOAL. 

In curing by charcoal, as soon as the crop is housed in a 



180 History op Durham. 



barn 20 by 20 feet square four rows of fires are built, four 
fires in a row, 1^ bushels to the sixteen fires. Tlie entire 
process requires from three to four entire clays. About 100 
bushels of charcoal, at 4 cents per. bushel, are allowed to 800 
pounds of tobacco. 

FLUE- CURING. 

Since curing by flues promises very soon to supersede all 
other methods, this process is more particularly described. 
The only difference between that and charcoal-curing is in 
the manner of applying heat. Two distinct stages are re- 
cognized in curing: yellowing with a damp heat at a low 
temperature, which is generally 90°, or, when the tobacco is 
very light and yellow, 100°; but if the weather is very cool, 
80°. The second is the drying, which may be divided into 
curing the leaf and curing the stalk. 

Yellowing. — This is done at 90°, or at 80° if the weather 
be cool, in from eighteen to thirty-six hours, until the desired 
color is attained. 

Drying or curing is then effected by the following man- 
agement of temperature : 95° for two hours, 100° for two 
hours, 105° for two hours, 110° for two hours, 115° for two 
hours, 120° for six hours, 130° for two hours, 140° for two 
hours, 150° for two hours, and 160° for twenty-four hours, 
the last temperature being kept up until the stalks and 
stems are dried. This table is for tobacco not gross and 
very yellow when cut, and to be modified with judgment. 
If the tobacco is gross and of a gray color, four hours in- 
stead of two should be taken to each stage from 100° to 
120°. 

The Ragland Method. — This method is for medium to- 
bacco. Ripe tobacco only is to be cut, and is then placed five 
to seven plants on a stick 4 feet long and from 10 to 12 inches 
apart on the tier poles. Steaming or yellowing is done at 
90° from eighteen to forty-eight hours, according to char- 
acter of tobacco. When yellowed, the heat is raised from ' 
90° to 95° in from one to tw^o hours, from 95° to 100° in 
two hours, from 100° to 105° in two hours, from 105° to 
110° in from one to three hours, from 110° to 115° in two 
hours, and from 115° to 120° in two hours, at which the 
leaf is cured in from four to eight hours. The stalk is cured 
by a temperature advancing from 120° to 175°, at about 5° 



Tobacco Interests op North Carolina. 181 



an hour, keeping the temperature at 175° until the stalk is 
thoroughly cured. 

TREATMENT OF TOBACCO AFTER CURING. 

When the stalk is cured thoroughly dry the fires are 
allowed to die out. There is a wide difference of opinion as 
to the after treatment. It is agreed that the plants cannot 
be safely stripped in the moist, warm weather which fol- 
lows the curing season, because of the danger of loss of color. 
The plant comes from the drying barn always with a little 
greenish tinge. In the after treatment this fades away, and 
it takes on a solid bright yellow, uniform throughout. The 
crop is allowed to remain with fires out and doors open for 
thirty-six hours, until it can be handled. Some, however, 
recommend throwing wet straw on the flues, which is kept 
moist, and the tobacco thus is steamed at a safe tempera- 
ture, to bring it at once into "order" for removal. It is 
then "bulked down" in the packing-house on the sticks, 
butts out, in square piles. This improves the color and 
straightens out the leaves, rendering them smooth and neat 
in appearance. Many farmers allow it to lie in bulk for- 
only three or four days and then rehang it, crowding very- 
closely, to prevent injury to the color from atmospheric 
changes. On the other hand, the best opinion favors more 
permanent bulking down, in such order that it can be 
handled without breaking, the leaf soft and stem hard. 
Those who thus bulk down rehang, to come in order for 
stripping. After it is stripped, it is tied in hands of si« to 
twelve leaves: bright wrappers, six ; fillers, eight ,-■ smokers, 
ten to twelve, when it is by some rehung and orowded 
closely, but, according to the best practice, it is bulked down 
on sticks, heads out, each grade by itself, and carefully cov- 
ered with carpets, to exclude light, the colors being very 
sensitive to light as well as to air. In this condition the 
color is fixed, and after two months in balk it is no longer 
subject to change. 

Fine tobacco is packed in tierces of from 350 to 800 
pounds, each grade by itself, or it is sold loose at the barn 
or carried loose to market, where it is placed in piles and 
sold at auction. Dealers buy enough of each grade to fill a 
cask, when they prize lightly and ship to the various mar- 
kets. 

12 



182 History of Durham. 



It is sometimes necessary in very small crops to sell loose, 
because the quantity of each j^rade is not sufficient to fill a 
cask ; but to [)ack in casks or boxes before taking to market 
avoids risks in handling. Sometimes, though rarely, it is 
put up by farmers in casks or boxes, being usually packed 
by mere hand pressure. 

The period for stripping, assorting, packing, and market- 
ing is generally from October to August, and the unstripped 
crop of one year may be on hand until the next. May is 
probably the season most favored. The spring sweat comes 
in May if bulked or packed ; if not, it will come later, after 
which it is bulked down and packed. This sweat sweetens 
the tobacco, if its condition is dry ; if too moist, it is injured 
in flavor and in color, and has the effect to redden a bright 
tobacco and brighten a dark leaf. If the tobacco is very 
moist and the sweat excessive, "funking" to some extent 
occurs, the injury being estimated at about 5 per cent., 
which can only be avoided by bulking in good order. Nat- 
ural seasons are used for stripping and packing. Some ex- 
periments have been made with steam or warm air, but not 
enough as yet to determine their value. 

ASSORTING TOBACCO. 

When the tobacco is kept bulked down on the stalk until 
the stripping season it is necessary to hang up as much as 
can be stripped in a day to " order " for stripping, that is, to 
absorb humidity enough to handle without breakage; but, 
to avoid the danger of a possible change of color, it is not 
allowed to become too soft. An assorter then strips off from 
each plant one or two leaves, to be tied by a boy as lugs or 
common smokers, and from one to three of the next leaves 
for smooth lugs or fancy smokers. These are tied into hands 
of eight or ten leaves by the assorter. The remainder of 
the leaves is then cast together in a pile, to be assorted into 
the various higher grades of leaf and tips. All the leaves of 
each grade must be uniform, and every bruised, worm-eaten, 
' or injured leaf excluded from the best grades. So particu- 
lar are the best planters, that the assorting-houses are con- 
structed with a window to the north, that a uniform light 
may fall upon the leaf all day, increase or decrease in the 
intensity of the light making it very difficult to keep up the 
narrow line between the finer grades. 



Tobacco Interests of North Carolina. 183 



GRADES of tobacco. 

Fine tobacco is variously orraded by different planters and 
in different counties in from four to ten grades. The best 
average prices round are obtained by those who exercise 
most fully a delicate discrimination, which results, when 
the crop presents a great variety, in a large number of 
grades. The attempt to make the fine carry coarse and in- 
ferior leaves results in loss to the planter and benefits only 
the rehandler. It is to be understood, however, that the 
grading is to be determined by the character of the crop. 
When assorted into six grades the proportion of the various 
grades in each crop is about as follows ; 1st, one thirteenth ; 
2d, one-tenth ; 3d, two-sevenths bright mahogany; 4th, two- 
tenths dark mahogany ; 5th, one-fifteenth bright lugs ; 6th, 
rest of the crop. 

Bright wrappers are sometimes classed in grades 1, 2, 3, 
and 4, beside tips, which are sometimes suitable for wrap- 
pers. Lugs are generally divided into two grades: sand 
lugs and smooth, clean lugs. Sometimes a third grade is 
made, called wrapping lugs, composed of larger and better 
leaves than the other two, and made of inferior wrapping 
leaf and the best lugs. First-grade wrappers are used on 
the best brands of chewing tobacco, and the rest on lower 
brands, and are bought by all the best manufacturers in the 
United States and Canada. Tips are thicker, have more 
body, and make first-class fillers. Tobacco commanding the 
highest price has a very large leaf, bright yellow and ma- 
hogany or a clear, whitish yellow, of good body, with fine 
texture, toughness, and elasticity, an oily appearance, small 
stems and fibers, and no holes or spots. Body, size and 
color are indispensable for the very best. Thin, papery 
tobacco, easily torn, brittle, inelastic, and lifeless, will not 
bring the best prices, no matter how fine the color. 

VALUE OF DIFFERENT GRADES. 

Estimates from a number of counties are given — in some 
cases two from one county — as the best way to illustrate the 
wide range in the prices. These are for 100 pounds, except 
where otherwise stated : • 

Madison. — Average around $8 to $20. 



184 History op Durham. 



Buncombe. — Common lugs, $6 to $8; medium lugs, $S 
to §10; good fillers, §8 to $10; common wrappers, $10 to 
Slo; medium wrappers, $15 to $25; fine wrappers, $25 to 
$50; extra wrappers, $50 to $80; small lots, exceedingly 
fine, $2 50 per pound. 

nm-c's.— Common lugs, $2 to $4 ; good lugs, $4 to $6; 
Lright wrappers, $15 to $40. 

Yadkin. — Fillers, $3; smokers, $6 ; dark wrappers, $10 ; 
bright wrappers, $1G; nondescript, $2. 

ForsytJi.— Sixth grade, lug fillers, $2 to $7 ; fifth grade, 
bright smoking lugs, 88 to $20; fourth grade, lower grade 
fillers, $5 to $7 ; third grade, best fillers, $10 to $15; second 
grade, wrappers, $25 to $40; first grade, best bright wrap- 
pers, $40 to ^$80. 

Wa7ren. — Shipping lugs, $2 to $4; dark nondescript, $4 ; 
shipping leaf, $5 to $G; dark wrappers, $10; bright fillers, 
$8 ; sweet sun-cured fillers, $10 ; bright smokers, $12 ; bright 
wrappers, 830; fancy wrappers, $80 to $100. 

Alamance. — Dark lugs, $4 to $6; dark fillers, $4 to $7; 
good fillers, $7 to $18; good red wrappers, $18 to $30; com- 
mon smokers, $6 to $8; good smokers, $8 to $12; fancy 
smokers, $12 to $25; common yellow, $15 to $25 ; good yel- 
low, $25 to $50 ; fai.cy yellow, $50 to $75 ; extra yellow, $80 
to $90; extra fine, 890 to 8150; small choice lots, $3 per 
pound. 

Hayivood.— First grade, $100 to $200 ; second, $50 ; third, 
$30 ; fourth, $20; fifth, $10 ; sixth, $5; seventh, $4; eighth, $3. 

BocJdngJiam. — Common grades, 83 to $6; good fillers, $6 
to $12; bright leaf, $15 to $30 ; fine wrappers, $30 to $80. 
From the same county : First grade, 850 to $70 ; second, 
$30 to $40 ; third, $12 to $20 ; fourth, $8 to $10; fifth, $6 to 
$8 ; sixth, $4 to $6. 

Granville.— Trash, $3 to $10; good lugs, $10 to $16; 
green tips, $8 to $15 ; dark mahogany, $10 to $15 ; bright 
mahogany, $25 to $50 ; bright tips, $25 to $5.0 ; fourth grade, 
$30 to $75 ; third grade, $60 to $75 ; second grade, $60 to 
$80 ; first grade, 890 to $100. 

Durham.— Trash, $4 to 810 ; lugs, $10 to $18 ; dark ma- 
hogany, $12 to $22; bright mahogany, $25 to $50; bright 
leaf. $30 to 60; fine wrappers, $40 to $80; extra fine fanev 
wrappers, $1.50 to $3.00 ; fillers, $10 to $25. 



Tobacco Interests of North Carolina. 185 



VALUE of lands— cost OF PRODUCTION, ETC. 

Granville and Rockingham counties may be taken as 
fairly typical as to the character of the product, value of 
lands, cost of production, etc. Want of transportation fa- 
cilities, nearness or remoteness of markets, and the cost of 
fertilizers as affected by freights, would alter some of th^ 
figures given if applied to other counties. 

Granville county. ~1:\\q price of the best lands is about 
an average of $42 per acre; yield, 000 pounds. Inferior 
lands are worth §5 to $7 ; yield, oOO pounds of inferior 
tobacco. The rental value is one-fourth of the crop, or for 
best lands, $25 in money per acre. Wages, by the day,' for 
field hands, 50 cents and board ; by the year, $100 to $150 
without board, or $80 with board. Estimated cost on the 
best soils, $10 to $12.50 per hundred pounds. In the northern 
part of this county a considerable amount of red, coarse 
shipping tobacco is raised, which greatly reduces the average 
price for the county. 
Estimate of crop of fine tobacco for one man : 

Rent, 2 acres § 10 00 

Labor,six months 50 qo 

Board of laborer, six months 42 00 

Horse and feed 10 00 

Use of wagon and plow 3 5q 

Use of barn and packing-house 3 00 

Firing-wood, 9 loads, at $1 9 00 

Fertilizers 15 00 

Hauling to market 2 00 

Total cost for 2 acres %V^^ 50 

Product, 1,200 pounds, at 35 cents 420 00 

Profit $265 50 

Cost per hundred pounds $12~87^ 

Profit per hundred pounds 22 I2I 

Inspection and selling cost 81 to $1.50 per 100 pounds 
Wlien sold loose, the crop is placed in piles of separate <rrades 
upon the floor of the warehouse and sold by auction and 



1S6 History of Durham. 



2J per ceDt. commission and 25 cents a pile, auctioneer's fee, 
are charged. The piles in weight range from 8 or 10 
pounds to 300 or more. The following accounts of sales 
show the cost of marketing in Granville, as well as the pro- 
portions of grades and range of prices in a good crop : 

SALES OF 1,127 POUNDS. 

54 pounds, at 88 cents $ 47 52 

149 pounds, at 67* cents 100 57 

97 pounds, at 80 cents 77 00 

228pounds,at67* cents 153 90 

■ 90 pounds, at 60 cents 54 00 

34 pounds, at 51 1 cents 17 51 

167 pounds, at 34| cents 57 61 

308 pounds, at 40" cents 123 20 

$631 91 
Charges 22 31 

Netproceeds 1609 60 

Tlie usual average in Granville does not exceed $150 to 
the hand, but there are frequent instances of profits of §500 
or more. From two to two and a half acres are planted to 
the hand, and the cost of production is diminished by such 
increase of crop as will employ a full set of tools and keep 
the team busy. 

Rockingham county. — Price of good tobacco lands, $10 
to $25 per acre; yield of such lands with manure, 500 
pounds. Inferior lands are worth $5 to $7, and yield with 
manure 500 pounds of inferior tobacco. The rental is one- 
fourth of the crop. Wages by the day: Men, 40 cents; 
women 25 cents with board. Skillful tobacco liands- com- 
mand from $15 to $24 per annum more than ordinary farm 
laborers, and double what they could get in the shipping- 
tobacco regions. • 

The cost of production decreases going west, and this 
may be regarded as about the averRge cost of growing to- 
bacco in North Carolina. An account of sales of a small 
crop is given, which shows the proportion of grades, range 
of prices, and cost of marketing fine tobacco in this county: 



Tobacco Interests of North Carolina. 



18- 



152 pounds, at io>^ cents $ 15 96 

224 pounds, at 12 cents 26 8S 

286 pounds, at 30 cents 85 80 

37 pounds, at 53 19 61 

699 pounds. $148 25 

CHARGES. 

Warehouse $0 70 

Auction fees 85 

Commission, 2 j^ per cent 3 70 

$ 5 25 

Net proceeds S143 00 

The following statement shows the proJ action, acreage, 
yield per acre, value of the crop in famers' hand or in pri- 
mary markets, value per pound, and value per acre of the 
tobacco cro[)S of North Carolina for the years 1876 to 1879, 
inclusive, only the figures for 1879 being fiom the census 
returns: 











c/ 


-0 












'O 




i-< 




c 




u 






u 




n 




L- rt 




*-• ^ 














a. 


.£ "~ 


OJ 









rt 


_ 


r 


OJ 


a 
















a 






""sj 


« rt 


^ 


..-^ 






u 


... 


rt '~' 


rt 




> 


Ch 


< 


>- 


K-» 


r* 


> 




Pounds. 




Pounds. 




Cents. 




T876 


20,351,152 


43,672 


466 


$2,849,161 


14.00 


$65 24 


1877 


22,819,790 


46,571 


490 


2,567,226 


11.25 


55 12 


1878 


21,801,525 


46,885 


465 


3.270,229 


15.00 


69 75 


1879 


26,986,213 


57.208 


472 


3,805,056 


14.10 


66 61 



It will be observed that the quantity produced each year 
varies less than in most of the States producing tobacco. 
This is due, iu part, to the practice auiong farmers of 
making artificial "seasons " by watering the hills when the 
weather continues at planting time. In this way they never 
fail to get a crop planted. 

It will also be observed that the value per acre is very 
low. This arises from the fact that fully three fifths of the 
product is of a very inferior brown nondescript leaf, bring- 
ing very low prices. No idea can be gained from tliis tab- 
ular statement of the 'profits of grown yellow tobacco on 
soils well adapted to its production. The value of the pro- 
duct upon suitable soils often reaches $250 to $400 per acre. 

It is possible that the average price returned in the sched- 



188 



History of Durham. 



ules is too high ; but the average of all grades in the mar- 
ket at Danville for the year ending September 30, 18S0, was 
$11.38 per hundred pounds, and it is generally conceded 
that the finest tobacco, and that which brings the highest 
prices in that market, is grown in North Carolina. It is 
therefore believed that the prices given in the schedules are 
very nearly correct. 

It seems best to make a distinction between the bright- 
yellow tobacco region proper and that section of the Pied- 
mont district, which, while entitled to be placed within the 
area of "bright-yellow" production, is especially charac- 
terized by its "mahogany tobacco." 

SOIL ANALYSES. 



Silica, soluble . 
Silica, insoluble 

Alumina 

Oxide of iron. . 

Lime 

Magnesia 

Potash 

Soda 

Phosphoric acid 
Sulphuric acid. 

Chlorine 

Organic matter 
Water 



1. 



2.67 
Sg.oo 
2.40 
0.24 
0.23 
o. 10 
0.04 
0.00 
0.04 
o.oi 
0.02 
4.90 
0.40 



2. 



1.24 
91.96 
1.24 
0.52 
0.08 
0.09 
0.08 
0.00 
0.04 
0.03 
0.01 

4-15 
0.80 



3. 



4-35 
90.35 
1.22 
0.42 
0.20 
0.76 
0.06 
0.00 
trace, 
trace. 
0.02 
2.50 
0.30 



4r. 



I. 10 

96. [O 
0.71 
0.65 
0.13 
0.14 
0.07 
0.00 

trace. 

trace. 
0.01 
2.40 
0.20 



5. 



0.67 
76.88 
12.46 
3-57 
0.51 
0.33 
0.16 

0.45 
0.09 
0.02 
trace. 
4.60 
1.07 



6*. 



3.84 
77.06 
6.97 
4.07 
o.io 
0.29 

O.II 

0.00 
0.05 

trace. 
0.06 
6.65 
1. 10 



The first three of these repersent the bright- tobacco soils 
of the first district, the first from Sampson county, the 
second from Wilson, and the third from Columbus. They 
are just such soils as produce the bright yellow tobacco, and 
represent a large proportion of the lands of the district. 
No. 4 is from one of the most famous of the bright-yellow 
tobacco localities in the southeast corner of Person county. 
The sample was taken from a farm, part of whose product 
was sold at $2 per pound. It was taken one foot deep (as 
all the others) in the forest adjoining the field where the 
fine " fancy bright " had been raised. The growth is post 
oak and white oak of moderate size, hickory, dogwood, sour- 
wood, and a few pines. The soil is sandy and gravelly, of 
a light-gray color, and the subsoil is of the same texture, 
but yellowish in color. The rock is quartzose, feldspathic, 
slaty gnesis. 



Tobacco Interests of North Carolina. 189 



No. 5 is from the bright tobacco section of Catawba county, 
in tlie Piedmont district, in the town of Hickory. The 
. growth is medium to small-sized oak. blackjack, sourwood 
and pine: the soil yellowish gra}', a little sand}^ : the sub- 
soil yellowish brown, sandy. 

No. G is from Mitchell county. It does not represent the 
precise variety of soils on which the fine tobacco of that 
county is produced. It is very much like the last in color and 
texture, but is much poorer. The growth is chestnut, Span- 
ish oak, post oak, sourwood, and laurel [kaltnia). These last 
two soils resemble more the mahogany tobacco soils of 
Henry and Franklin counties, in Virginia, 

These are all virgin soils, and therefore contain a much 
higher percentage of humus than ordinary cultivated bright 
tobacco soils, this element being subject to very rapid 
diminution on account of the sandy and porus texture of 
the soil, and of course but a small percentage of it is in an 
available condition. 

All of these soils would be classed as poor from the anal- 
ysis. The low i^ercentage of clay and of iron is also nota- 
ble, except the last two, which arc not bright-tobacco soils. 



CHAPTER II. 



Extra Important Information. 

Seed Beds — Insect Enemies of the Tobacco Plant — 
Diseases of the Plant — The Bonsack Cigarette 
Machine. 

The following facts have been gleaned from the very high- 
est authority, at considerable expense, and may be relied 
upon as accurate. They will be found of great benefit to plant- 
ers and others interested in the " weed." We are indebted 
mainly to ]\Iajor Ragland and John Ott, Esq., of Virginia, 
and the Commissioner of Census, at Washington, D. C., for 



190 History of Durham, 



i-mportant information, and we desire here to tender our 
thanks lor the same. 

Seed Beds. 

Tiic methods of preparing: seed beds are substantially the 
same in North Carolina, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee 
and other Southein tobacco-growing States, such variations 
as exist depending altogetlier on local conditions. 

The site for a plant-bed most usually preferred is that 
having a southern or southeastern exposure, that it raaj' 
have the genial and fructifying warmth of the sun in early 
spring, so that the plants may be set out before the hot 
weather of summer. If the bed can be located near a 
stream, fogs will quicken the germination of the seed and 
the growth of the plants. Probably the best possible loca- 
tion is on a gently-sloping hill, on the north side of a run- 
ning stream, but sufficiently elevated to be above any dajii- 
ger from overflows. In such situations plants are often 
two weeks in advance of those in beds prepared on level 
land. The timber growth may be of any kind that denotes 
fertility of soil. 

In Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee a dark-colored, 
almost a black, soil is preferred, because it is more readily 
warmed b^' the ra3'S of the sun, and retains the heat much 
longer than lighL-colored soils. For the same* reason a 
sligiit intermixture of gravel will be of advantage. In 
North Carolina, although many planters prefer a black 
soil, free from sand or gravel, the majority of fine tobacco- 
growers choose a sandy soil, such as that in which the plant 
is to be grown to maturity. . 

In Virginia, exce()t where wood for the purpose is scarce, 
in North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, and in 
many tobacco districts in other States, the practice of burn- 
ing over the seed-beds is general. The burning is not 
slight, as in the Connecticut valley, where this appears to 
be done simply to destroy the seeds of weeds and gravs, but 
the soil is burnt until it shows a reddish tinge. Several 
methods of burning are practiced. In all cases the wild 
growth is first cut off with an axe and not dug up. Leaves 
and trash are carefully raked off from the bed space. If the 
intention is to burn with logs, skids or poles are laid down 
four feet apart, and a layer of logs and smaller wood, four 
or five feet wide, is built upon the skids, the object being to 



Tobacco Interests of North Carolina. 191 



keep the wood from resting on the ground, so that the heat 
may have full play upon tlie surface of the soil. The fires 
being set, they are kept burning for two hours or more, 
when the whole layer is moved forward by hooks, so as to 
cover another space of the intended seed-bed; and this is 
ke{)t up until a plat is burned as large as desired. Another 
method is to la}' down brush and bits of wood atone end of 
the bed space until the pile is five or six feet high. Apjiiust 
this pile brush from tree tops is placed in a position nearlv 
vertical, inclining against the foundation sufiiciently to 
prevent its falling back on the bed ; and this is continued 
until the full space intended for the plant bed is covered. 
A platform of wood is then put on top of the brush, and the 
fire set on the windward side. Still another plan is some- 
times adopted, which saves ihe hard labor of covering the 
brush with heavy wood. After a width of 8 feet of the bed 
space has been covered with brush placed in a nearly ver- 
tical position, logs or sticks of wood 8 feet long are set on 
end, leaning against the brush. Eight feet more of brush 
is followed by another layer of wood, and so on until the 
whole space is covered. When fired, the brush burns out 
quickly, but not before it has set the wood on fire, which, 
falling all in one direction, covers the whole surface with 
hotly-burning wood. Old broken rails, thrown aside in 
resetting fences, and old logs from dilapidated buildings are 
preferred, because they are thoroughly seasoned and burn 
freely. 

When the bed has cooled off it is generally dug up with 
grub hoes or worked lightly and closely with a colter plow. 
The ashes should be left on the bed, and in working the 
soil it should be reversed as little as possible. All grubs, 
roots, and large stones should be removed, and the surface 
soil should be worked thoroughly and carefully several 
times with hoes or rakes until it is perfectly light and mel- 
low. When in proper condition marks are made four feet 
apart to regulate the sowing of the seed. About one large 
heaping tablcspoonful is enough to sow one hundred square 
yards. The seed is mixed with ashes oi* plaster, one half 
of the mixture being sown as evenly as possible over the 
entire bed, when the other half is sown in the same way. 
This is in order to secure a more equal distribution of 
the seed. The bed is then tramped or rolled, and finally 
covered with light brush — the smaller branches of dogwood, 



192 History op Durham. 



oak, gum, or sassafras — not thick enough to exclude the 
sunlight, but sufficient to protect the plants from frosts and 
the chilling and drying effects of the March v.'inds. The 
brush also serves to keep the bed moist. Some care is re- 
quired to put the brush upon the bed properly. The butt 
ends of the first layer should be laid on the ground outside 
the bed, the soft brush resting upo)i the bed, tiiose of the 
second layer resting upon the bushy part of the first, and 
so on until the bed is covered by successive layers. In this 
way the thick, heavy ends, which would interfere seriously 
with the growth of the young plants, are kept above the 
surface of the bed. A covering of this kind will protect the 
plants against very hard freezing. In Wisconsin and in 
northern Illinois marsh or prairie hay is used, just enough 
to mitigate the severity of the rays of the sun and prevent 
the drying of the surface by winds until the plants start to 
grow, which requires a period of two or three weeks, 
when the hay is removed. 

The covering of brush is generally allowed to remain upon 
the bed until the plants are nearly large enough to set out, 
but it may be necessary to remove it temporarily, in order 
to pick off any leaves or other trash which the winds are 
apt to drive u[)on the beds. To prevent the accumulation 
of leaves upon a bed prepared in or near a forest wicker 
fences, built of brush interwoven between sticks driven into 
the ground, have been found ver}^ efficient. 

Trenches dug across the upper end of the bed and along 
the sides prevent flood-water from sweeping over the sur- 
face. Heavy rains are sometimes very injurious, washing 
the seeds from a portion of the surface and depositing them 
in depressions. 

It is the usual custom to defer manurial applications un- 
til the plants are up and well started. Liquid manures are 
frequently used at this stage. A tight barrel, half filled 
with cow dung, is placed near the bed, water is added to fill 
the barrel, the mixture is stirred until it is a semi-liquid 
mass, and this is sprinkled on the bed with an old broom. 
Some prefer a solution of guano, a gallon of this fertilizer 
being mixed with a barrel of water and sprinkled upon the 
plants. These applications may be repeated one or more 
times with decidedly good results. Land plaster has proven 
to be a good application, giving a deep green color to the 
plants, indicating vigorous and healthy growth. 



Tobacco Interests of North Carolina. 193 



A hundred methods are practiced or suggested to prevent 
the ravages of the flea-beetle, but only one plan lias proven 
really effective — to cover the bed closely wiih canvas or 
unbleached cotton cloth. A frame is first made around the 
bed of planks 8 or 10 inches high, care being taken to close 
every crevice between the planks and the ground. A few 
wires may be stretched across, the better to hold up the 
cloth, which is stretched over the frame and closelj' tacked 
upon the edges. In place of the wires, a small quantit}' of 
light brush thrown upon the bed will help sustain the 
weight of the cloth. A better plan would be to construct 
a number of smaller frames, of proper width and not more 
than 6 or 8 feet in length, upon which the cloth may be 
stretched and neatly fastened, a sufficient number of these 
frames being provided to cover the intended plant-bed. 
yuch frames, with their covering, could be removed when 
no longer needed and stored for future use. If the cloth is 
treated with a single coat of white lead and oil, such as is 
used for the first coat of outside work on wood, it will last 
several seasons with ordinary care. Still another plan may 
be found more economical. The frames may be made and 
properly braced by cross-pieces let in flush with the upper 
edges of the planks. The cloth or canvas may be some 
three inches longer and wider than the frames, and hemmed 
upon the edges, and eyelet holes may be worked along the 
edges, two feet or less apart, in which cords may be fastened 
by which to stretch the cloth and tie it down closely over 
the frames to nails, hooks, or wooden pegs driven into the 
outer faces of the frame planks, three or four inches below 
the upper edges. Other devices will suggest themselves to 
the intelligent farmer, by which he can make the cloth cov- 
ering effective, easily handled, and economical. 

When the plants are nearly large enough to be set out 
this protecting cover should be taken off in the morning 
for two or three days and replaced in the afternoon, that the 
plants may be gradually hardened by exposure to the direct 
rays of the sun and better fitted for transplanting. 

It often happens that a dry season occurs after the first 
drawing of plants, and those that remain on the bed cease 
to grow, turn yellow, and perhaps die. One or two planks 
and a lew blocks of wood should be provided. A block on 
each side of the bed will support a plank, upon which the 
person drawing the plants should stand. Nothing injures 



194 History of Durham. 



a plant-bed so much as compacting it when wet, and as 
plants are almost always drawn when the soil is wet no 
pains should be spared to prevent treading upon or other- 
wise compressing the bed. If from any cause the plants 
begin to turn yellow and wither away shade must be {)ro- 
vided by buikling over the bed a low arbor of green boughs 
and watering the surface copiously. This will almost al- 
ways give new vitality to the enfeebled plants. 

A practice of many good planters is to re?ow the beds 
with about half the quantity of seed originally used as 
soon as the first plants appear, so that if the first plants are 
destroyed in any manner the seed last sown will be under- 
going the process of germination and a second crop of 
plants will be assured. 

In Tennessee and in North Carolina plant-beds may be 
prepared and sown at any time from the first of November 
until the first of April. Prepared while wet or frozen, a 
plant-bed rarely does well. Beds are usually burned in 
February or March ; but if the burning is done in the fall, 
when the soil is dry, less fuel is needed, and the prepared 
bed may be left, to the meliorating influences of the winter 
freezing, to be sown in the early spring. Many good farm- 
'ers sow the fall burned beds as soon as prepared, but there 
is some risk in so doing. Heavy rains and melting snows 
are apt to wash or drift the seeds, and so disturb their uni- 
form distribution. One of the best tobacco growers in the 
South says that a rod of land well burned in the fall will 
furnish as many good plants as twice the area burned in 
February or March. 

In some parts of Virginia and Maryland, and in districts 
where wood and brush are scarce, farmers have succeeded 
in growing good plants upon plats of clean soil without 
burning by the use of guano, raked into the surface, or as 
a top dressing, applied at the time of sowing the seed, about 
40 pounds per hundred square yards. Others select a 
standing bed, one that has produced plants well, in a warm 
location, neither too wet nor too dry; colter over the bed 
after the planting season is past and before any grass or 
weeds have gone to seed upon the plat; cover with straw, 
leaves, or brush with the leaves on, or with all of them, so 
thick as to completely hide the surface and prevent vege- 
table growth. A bed is thus made ready for burning at 
some dry time from November to January, or later, which 



Tobacco Interests of North Carolina. 195 



is done by simply applying a torch. By this method a 
standing plant-bed can be annually prepared wliich. if 
heavily manured, will become better each succeeding 3'ear. 

In Pennsylvania, New York, the New England stales, and 
in Ohio, burning is rarely practiced, and then only so far 
as may be thought necessary to destroy weed and gruss seeds 
in the upper surface soil. The same seed-bed is used for 
successive years, kept clear of grass and weeds throughout 
the year and heavily enriched by an addition of fresii loam 
from the woodlands, composts of stable manures thoroughly 
rotted, and so .handled that no foreign seeds capable of ger- 
mination are left therein, and frequently top-dressings of 
good commercial fertilizers are used. The most successful 
growers in Ohio and in New York use manures from the 
hog-pen, as not only the richest, but as most likely to be 
free from noxious seeds. In the New England states seed- 
beds are enriched with guano, castor pomace, well-rotted 
stable manure, the refuse of the fish oil factories, or some 
one of the numerous manufactured fertilizers. In most of 
the northern stales it is a very common practice to sprout 
the tobacco seed i,efore sowing. The seeds are mixed with 
dark, rich loam, or, what is better, as in Wisconsin, with 
fineh'-pulverized rotten wood from the hollow of an old 
stump or log, and i)laced in a pan or a dish in a warm place 
and kept moderately damp by frequent sprinkling with 
tepid water. The seeds germinate under such conditions 
in about two weeks, and are sown as soon as danger of frost 
is passed. Another plan is to spread the seeds very thinly 
upon a piece of dampened cotton cloth and cover them with 
another cloth, but of wool ; the two are made into a loose 
roll, the woolen cloth outside. This roll is kept ia a warm 
place, dipped in tepid water every day, and the white germs 
appear in from four to six days. In northern Illinois simi- 
lar cloths are kept moist and warm in a pan of earth, of 
which there is a layer above as well as below the cloths. 
Great care is necessary in all these forcing processes. Some- 
times the soil of the plant-bed is too wet, or otherwise not 
in proper condition when the seeds are ready, and when a 
delay of a day or two may render the sprouted seeds useless. 
The prudent man provides against such danger by prepar- 
ing several lots of seed at intervals of several days. 

The most common error in sowing tobacco seed, both 
north and south, is in using too much seed. Tobacco seeds 



196 History of Durham. 



are exceeding!}' small, an ounce containing about 340,000 
seeds. One large, well-developed tobacco plant will produce 
seed enough to grow plants to set 10 acres certain!}'-, and, 
should all of them germinate and grow, enough to set out 
100 acres. Crowded plants must struggle for existence, are 
never strong and vigorous, and bear transplanting badly; 
those that have room enough to grow thriftily will have a 
thick tuft of roots, a low, stocky top, and a vigorous consti- 
tution, growing off quickly when transplanted. It is far 
better economy to increase the size of the bed than to at- 
tempt to produce a large number of plants by .thick seeding. 
A btd of 100 square yards will usually furnish plants 
enough to set 6 or 7 acress; sometimes a bed of this size 
will produce enough to set 10 acres. No tobacco-grower 
ever regrets having a surplus of plants, for in that case he 
can select the best and set out his whole crop early. On 
new land very small plants may be set, and at any time 
immediately after the late frosts without risk. For old 
lands j)lants should be a little more advanced than such as 
can be safely planted upon new lands, but as the season 
advances larger plants are required for both old and new 
lands. 

INSECT ENEMIES OF THE TOBACCO PLANT. 

From the first appearance of the minute seed-leaves in 
the plant-bed until the tobacco is cut and hung in the barn 
the patience and watchfulness of the farmer are taxed to 
guard against the depredations of insects. 

Among the earliest to appear, often attacking the plants 
and destroying them so early as to make the planter doubt 
w^iether the seed had even germinated, are the " garden 
fleas," sometimes called "snow fleas" and "spring-tails" 
{SmyniJLU7ms hortensis). When viewed from the upper side 
(dorsal view), the most conspicuous divisions are a large 
head and an abdomen perfectly smooth and plump, without 
any segmental cross lines. The thorax seems confluent 
with the abdomen. Beneath are some transverse wrinkles, 
indicating segmental divisions. The antennee are three- 
fourths as long as the body, elbowed about the middle, and 
are composed of nine joints, six very short and three very 
long. Projecting from the posterior of the abdomen is a 
cone-shaped process, composed of three distinctly marked 



Tobacco Interests op North Carolina. 197 



segmental lines, that appear to be a caudal termination of 
the body. On the lower side of the abdomen, and near its 
end, is a forked member (a spring-tail), which lies folded up 
against the under side and reaches as far forward as the 
head, in which lies its leaping power. Its feet, six in num- 
ber,are united apparently to the frontof the abdomen, which, 
from a ventral xiew, exhibits a rudimental sternum, com- 
pensating for the absence of the thorax usual in insects. 
This insect has neither wings nor wing covers, and from a 
top view might be mistaken for a small, black spider by a 
novice if he did not know that a spider has eight feet, and 
that the head and thorax are confluent, instead of the tho- 
rax and abdomen. These insects are capable of bearing a 
low temperature, and are frequently found upon the surface 
of the snow, from whence comes the name of " snow flea." 
Tobacco-growers complain of these pests under the name 
of " black fly," " black spider," etc. Their larval and pupal 
histories seem to be unknown. They are found in all the 
states of the Atlantic coast, but have not been observed in 
the interior. They appear as far north as Lancaster county,. 
Pennsylvania, during the months of May and June, but by 
the first of July they have disappeared, and nothing more 
is seen of them until the following spring. As a remedy 
flour of sulphur has been highly recommended. These 
insects are very delicate in their structure, and cannot be 
taken between the fingers without crushing them. As it is 
evident that the first stages of their development must be 
passed underground and not far below the surface, it is 
suggested that where tobacco-beds are not burned the soil 
be prepared early, thoroughly pulverized, and copiously 
drenched with scalding water three or four times in as 
many days before the seed is sown. 

From all parts of the United States come reports that the 
flea-beetle is the most persistent and most dreaded enemy of 
the young tobacco plants. Several species of these insects 
are well known to every farmer and gardener from the Gulf 
of Mexico to Canada. The cabbage flea {Hallica striolata) is 
found in North Carolina and Tennessee in the latter part of 
March or early in April, sometimes in immense numbers, 
in the newly-planted cotton fields, feeding upon the seed- 
leaves of the young plants. Dr. Rathoon, of Pennsylvania, 
describes two species of the genus Epiirix, family Halticice, 
as follows : The Epitrix aucumeris is black all over, except 
13 



198 History of Durham. 



the antenn£e and the feet. The thorax is thickly punctured, 
and the wing covers conspicuously striated and punctured 
between the striae. The Epitrix pubescenes is slightly more 
oblong, and not quite so convexed as the former, but other- 
wise is about the same size. 1'he whole of the body beneath 
is of a dull-black color, including also the posterior thighs. 
The feet, the antennse (which are slightly serrated along the 
anterior margin), and the whole of the dorsal or upper part 
of the body, are of a honey-yellow color, except about a 
third of the middle portion of the wing covers, which is a 
dusky black. The thorax is of a much brighter color than 
the other upper portions of the body, and the eyes are very 
black, their composite character being more distinct than 
in the first-named species ; and except the thorax, the upper 
and lower part of the whole body is pubescent. This pu- 
bescence is conspicuous in rows between the striae of the wing 
covers and along the margins of the abdominal segments. 
This species is the most troublesome to the young cotton 
and cabbage plants of the middle Southern States. They 
also attack the seed-leaves of beans and other leguminous 
plants, but appear to have an especial fondness for tobacco. 
These insects are about one- sixteenth to one tenth of an inch 
in length. 

The above-named and other species of the Halticans feed 
on a variety of plants. The sweet potato, cabbage, beet, 
turnip, radish, horseradish, common nettle, and the James- 
town weed are all infested by one or the other and often by 
the same species of this omnivorous family. When dis- 
turbed, the fiea-beetles leap off the plants and hide them- 
selves quickly in the dry soil or under small clods. Various 
solutions, poisonous or simply distasteful to these insects, 
have been used with successful results. Ashes, slaked lime, 
and soot, dusted upon melon, cucumber, potato, and turnip 
plants, and applied in the morning, when the dew is on the 
plants and while the beetles are sluggish, are effectual in 
most instances. Of various plans to keep them from tobac- 
co-beds probably the only certain protection is to cover the 
seed-bed with cfoth, as suggested heretofore. 

Transplanted into the field, the tobacco plant is exposed 
to the attacks of other insects. The greasy cut-worm usually 
cuts off the plant just beneath the surface of the soil without 
cutting the top at all. When these worms are disturbed, 
they immediately coil themselves into a ring. They do not 



Tobacco Interests of North Carolina. 199 



like the sunlight, and during the day bury themselves in 
the lower soil in the vicinity of the plant. When grown, 
they are from 1^ to H inches long. They bur}' themselves 
beneath the soil to pupate. The pupa is three-fourths of an 
inch in length, of a shining or glossy light-brown color, and 
the anterior margin of the segments is dark brown. The 
anal segment is armed with two very small spines or points, 
by the assistance of which it pushes itself toward the sur- 
face about the time the moth is evolved. This moth is com- 
monly called the Lance Rustic, from the dark-brown, lance- 
shaped spots on the anterior wings, which are a light brown 
in color. The hind wings are lustrous and whitish in color, 
with a grayish margin. The antennae of the females are 
filamental or threadlike; but in the male, along the inner 
margin near the base, they are more or less pectinated. The 
body of the largest specimens is three-fourths of an inch in 
length, and the wings expand If inches from tip to tip. 
Cut-worms are largely preyed upon by hyraenopterous and 
other parasites, and there is no better or safer remedy than 
hand-picking while they are yet in the larval state, dis- 
criminating in favor of the parasites when seen and known. 
Toads, lizards, snakes, and moles are all very useful in keep- 
ing these worms in check, and should be protected, except- 
ing, of course, poisonous snakes. The cut-worms, in vari- 
ous stages of development, may be found in the earth dur- 
ing the entire w^inter, too torpid to feed until the return of 
warm weather. This accounts for their appearance and 
their advanced physical condition so early in the season. 
When cut-worms exist in large numbers, as in grass or 
clover sod or in fields not cleanly cultivated, fall or winter 
plowings, to expose as much as possible the upper soil to 
the severe freezings of midwinter, are absolutely necessary 
to secure a good stand of tobacco; but no matter how hard 
the frosts, nor how often the ground is plowed, some of the 
worms will survive, making daily inspection of the newly- 
planted iield indispensable for an even stand of plants. 

Wire-worms do not attack the leaf, but bore into the 
stems of the plants at the surface of the ground and work 
their way upward. After the tobacco gets a fair start in 
growth, nothing is seen of these worms for the remainder of 
the season. They are the larvte of " click-beetles," or " ham- 
mer-bugs" {Elateridce). These worms are sometimes very 
numerous. In April and early in May, sometimes as late 



200 History of Durham. 



as the first of June, some of these species are very destructive 
in the corn-fields, especially upon lands which have been 
lying out for some years; but they are rarely troublesome 
in well-cultivated fields. 

In Ohio, Pennsylvania, and perhaps farther northward, 
the HeliotJm armigera (the southern boll-worm, or corn- 
worm) is sometimes found feeding upon the seed-leaves of 
young tobacco plants, but south of 35° these worms are 
rarely known to attack tobacco plants, since the}' find more 
appropriate food in abundance. 

Some reliable authorities state that in the earlier 
stages of growth in the field, tobacco plants have been at- 
tacked by the Epilachim borealis (northern lady bird). This 
insect is shaped like the common " box turtle," is of a lemon- 
yellow color, spotted all over with black, and when caught 
in the hand emits a few drops of a clear yellow fluid of un- 
pleasant odor. It is nearly as large as the Colorado potato 
beetle, but rather more hemispherical, and the larva, pupa, 
and imago are often found together on the same plant. They 
are usually found upon pumpkin, melon, and cucumber 
vines. The larva is a short, convexed slug, of a uniform 
bright yellow color, covered all over with short, bristly 
hairs, and has a pair of very black eyes. It undergoes all 
its transformations on the plants it infests, and the pupa is 
suspended by the adhesion of the caudal extremity. This 
species and several others of the same family hibernate be- 
neath the rough outer bark of the wild cherry, and some- 
times upon the apple trees in neglected orchards. These 
insects, as well as some others hereafter mentioned, are 
rarely found upon tobacco plants except near trees of shrub- 
bery or close to fences. 

Tree crickets {CEcanihiis niveus) are often found upon to- 
bacco plants in Tennessee, North Carolina and other south- 
ern tobacco regions in July and August, and in Pennsylva- 
nia and farther north in August. Though usually found 
on trees, these crickets show a decided partiality for tobacco^ 
perforating the tender top leaves about the time they are 
expanding. It does not kill the leaf nor arrest its growth^ 
but the holes increase in size. Although these holes are 
circular when first made, they become oblong as the leaves 
lengthen, and always in the longitudinal direction of the 
leaf. These crickets, when young, either leap away or hide 
among the leaves when approached, but after their wings 



Tobacco Interests of North Carolina. 201 



are fully developed they can both leap and fly to a consid- 
erable distance. The male tree cricket is nearl}' white, 
sometimes tinged with green; the wings lie flat on the back, 
one lapped over on the other; the legs are all long and slen- 
der, the posterior pair much the longest, and formed for 
leaping; the antenna3 are very long and thread-like, and 
are generally thrown backward when the animal is at rest. 
The female is more robust and shorter in the body; the 
wings are short and deflexed, and her color is various 
shades of green and brown. Her legs and antennre are also 
shorter than those of the male, and at the end of the abdo- 
man she is provided with a sword-like ovipositor. She per- 
forates the raspberry and blackberry canes, as well as the 
tender branches of other shrubbery, with this instrument, 
and deposits her eggs therein, where they remain all winter 
and hatch in the spring. Tobacco cultivators have noticed 
that these insects are most abundant on tobacco growing 
under or near trees. Clean culture, and the clearing up of 
fence corners and neglected spots about the tobacco fields, 
will do much to prevent injury by crickets. 

Various species of grasshoppers, especially the meadow 
grasshopper {OrchUcmum vulgare), sometimes feed upon the 
tobacco plant, eating the leaves of the newly-set plants while 
in a wilted condition, but the injury from this source is 
slight, and rarely occurs with any but late plantings. 

Several species of hemipterous insects puncture tobacco 
plants. These insects are true bugs, and are not provided 
with mandibular organs. They do not eat the plant nor 
cut holes in it, but are provided with a sharp proboscis, 
with which they pierce the plant and suck out its juices. 
One of these, the Phytocoris linearis, is a small gray insect 
about a quarter of an inch long, having generally a con- 
spicuous yellowish V-shaped mark on the back, occupying 
that part called the scutellum. This bug is found upon the 
potato, and has been observed in Tennessee upon parsnip, 
tomato, and late cabbage plants. The Euschistus j)ii-^icticeps 
is a much larger insect than that last described, and is ca- 
pable of greater injury. It belongs to the family SciUellari- 
dos, distinguished by a triangular lobe that extends from the 
base of the thorax downward on the wing covers. This in- 
sect is half an inch long and three-eighths of an inch across 
at the broadest part. Above, it is of a yellowish color, and 
closely punctured darkly, giving it a grayish hue; below, 



202 History of Durham. 



it is a light greenish yellow. It has a longer and more slen- 
der proboscis than the species that prey upon other insects; 
otherwise it might easily be confounded with them, and no 
doubt frequently is. It also lacks the thoracic spines; but 
tiiese are very variable in their development, and not always 
a safe distinguishing characteristic. These bugs are found 
on mulleins, thistles, and other weeds, and have also been 
found upon tobacco plants in several localities, feeding upon 
the sap of the leaves, but it is doubtful whether any great 
injury can be charged to their account. The ordinary ob- 
server is apt to mistake the purpose for which many insects 
visit various plants. The spined tree-bug {Podisus spinosus), 
the large tree-bug {Podisus cynicus), the Stiretrus diana (a 
plant bug of a purple-black color, with red or orange marks 
on the thorax and scutellum), and the Stiretrus fimbriatus, 
the ground colors of which are orange or yellow, with black 
markings, are sometimes found upon or in the immediate 
neighborhood of tobacco plants. These bugs should not be 
destroyed, unless upon careful examination they are found 
actually feeding upon the juices of the leaves, as it is more 
than probable that their presence is beneficial, rather than 
injurious. 

From the early part of June until the sharp frosts destroy 
their food in the fall, the larvae of the sphinx moths infest 
the tobacco. In Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
and Missouri both the SpJtinx Carolina and the Sphinx quin- 
quemaculata are found, and they are both reported as found 
in the tobacco fields as far north as latitude 41° 30'. South 
of latitude 35° only the Sphijix ca7^o^ma has been observed. The 
larvae of these two Sphingidoe are so well known to all tobacco 
growers as to need no description here. They have always 
been regarded as the most inveterate enemies ol the to- 
bacco plant, and, despite plans adopted for their destruc- 
tion, the horn-worms seem to be as numerous as ever. 
In some seasons there are comparatively few in certain 
localities, but it has been noticed that the fields of such 
districts are often visited late in July or August of the 
next year by a "heavy shower" of horn-worms. Com- 
parative immunity for one season too often causes the 
farmer to neglect the destruction of the late brood of 
worms left upon the suckers which spring up after the crop 
is harvested, large numbers punating'and hibernating, pro- 
tected by the forgotten and neglected trash of the tobacco 



Tobacco Interests of North Carolina. 20c 



field. Catching the moths with ingeniously-contrived traps, 
poisoning them with sweetened cobalt dropped into the 
bloom of the Jamestown weed, or killing them with pad- 
dles as they hover about the tobacco plants after sunset, are 
all practiced. Recently, as in Tennessee, porcelain imita- 
tions of the blossom of the Jamestown weed have been in- 
troduced. These are fastened upon sticks, set up at short 
distances apart throughout the tobacco field, and are supplied 
wath a few drops of poisoned sirup. They are cheap, will 
last with ordinary care a lifetime, and are highly recom- 
mended by planters who have used them. A knowledge of 
the transformations of these insects will enable the obser- 
vant farmer to do much to reduce their numbers, and if it 
were possible to secure prompt measures throughout a con- 
siderable section of country, or even by the growers of a 
large neighborhood, much disagreeable labor might be 
saved. 

The moth deposits an egg of a sea-green color, not larger 
than a mustard seed, upon the surface of the leaf. This 
egg gradually assumes a cream color, and from it, in due 
time, a tiny worm issues, not larger than a horse hair, and 
about one-eighth of an inch in length. The process of 
hatching embraces from twenty-four to thirty-six hours, de- 
pending upon tiie condition of the weather. The worm 
begins to eat immediately, making first a small hole in the 
leaf, through which it passes in iiot weather to the under 
side, and occasionally the eggs are there deposited by the 
moth. This worm, though voracious, does little damage for 
four or five days. Its power of destruction increases ex- 
ceedingly with each day, and this makes it highly ipipor- 
tant to go over the field often in search of them. 

When the horn-worm has attained full size it stops eating, 
comes down from the plant, and usually burrows into the 
ground close to its last feeding place, but not unfrequently 
crawls away some distance to find soil suQiciently soft to 
enable it to get some inches below the surface. Here it 
becomes quiescent, casts ofi" its larva skin, and asuimes its 
pupal form. It is now oval in shape, four times as long as 
it is thick, about 1^ inches in length, and the iiard, glossy 
envelope is of a bright chestnut color. The forward end is 
prolonged into a long, tube-like appendage, bent backward 
and firmly attached to the chest, forming a loop like a 
pitcher-handle, this tube ensheathing the tongue, which is 



204 History of Durham. 



so remarkably developed in the perfect moth. Onlj' under 
peculiar circumstances are these pupae found at a greater 
depth than may be reached by deep plowing. A further 
means of reducing the number of these insects is therefore 
by fall or winter plowing the tobacco fields. It must be 
said, however, that even if every egg, worm, moth, and 
chrysalid in a given neighborhood were destroyed, high 
winds, or even the lighter breezes of the summer evenings, 
bring other moths many miles. The tobacco grower should 
instruct those in his employ not to destroy any horn-worm 
found with the cocoons of the parasite Microgaster congre- 
gata attached to its body. These cocoons are white, of a 
regular oval form, a little more than an eighth of an inch 
long and about one-sixteenth of an inch broad, and resem- 
bles small grains of rice. From ten to a hundred of these 
cocoons are found upon a single horn-worm. The worm so 
infested may be removed from the tobacco plant, but should 
be handled carefully and placed where the cocoons may not 
be injured, so that the parasites may hatch undisturbed. 
The flies which issue from the cocoons are black, with clear, 
transparent wings and legs of a bright tawny color, the hue 
of beeswax, with the hind feet and the tips of the hind 
shanks dusky. 

The testimony of all tobacco growers points to the one 
conclusion about insect enemies. No methods of preven- 
tion or destruction can justify a single's day's neglect to 
search for and destroy cut-worms about newly-set plants 
and the eggs and larva? of the sphinx moth upon the ex- 
panded leaves throughout the season. 

DISEASES OF THE TOBACCO PLANT. 

The tobacco plant is subject to certain diseases, few in 
number, however, and rarely resulting in very serious dam- 
age. Unfavorable seasons, too wet or too dry, often reduce 
the yield and impair the value of the product; but dis- 
eases, properly so called, seldom affect more than a few 
plants, or perhaps a smaller portion of a field. Reports 
from widely separated districts mention the same diseases, 
all of which result from deficiencies in the soil or its prep- 
aration, or from peculiarities of the seasons during growth. 

A disease known in New England as " brown rust," and 
in the South as "firing" and "field-fire," prevails to some ex- 
tent every year. It appears in very wet or very dry weather, 



Tobacco Interests op North Carolina. 205 



and reports concur in the opinion that it is caused b}' violent 
changes from one extreme to the other. A plethoric plant 
with the supph' of moisture suddenly cut off, and a lean 
plant forced by excessive moisture to rank growth — a leaf 
perishing in spots for lack of sustenance, and another from 
the opposite cause — present variable conditions, developing 
" rast" or "fire." This disease is not so prevalent in some 
districts as formerly, which is attributed by some planters 
to the substitution of new for old varieties ; but it is more 
probably due to planting upon a different character of soil, 
or to more thorough drainage and improved culture. Some- 
times, though rarely, the entire plant is involved, drooping 
and witlicring through excessive humidity. Tliis is the 
" black fire," a strictly wet-weather disease. In dry weather 
the plant sometime parches up, as if scorched. In uniform, 
ordinary seasons it does not appear. Injudicious use of 
heating manures is assigned as sometimes tiie cause of 
firing, and undoubtedly does occasionall}' produce ''red" 
or dry-weather firing. Thorough drainage is regarded as 
the best preventive of this and its kindred diseases. 

"Frenching," derived from the French friser (to curl), oc- 
cursalmostexclusivelyuponcoldjStiff uplands.havingaclose 
and stiff clay subsoil. During a wet season it is very prev- 
alent upon clayey lands, and is sometimes found upon sandy 
soils in small basins during excessivel}' rainy weather. 
This disease renders the plant worthless when it has pro- 
gressed to any considerable extent. The effects are first 
seen in the buds of the plant, which become of a yellow 
color. The leaves afterward become thick and flesh}', have a 
semi-transj)arent or honey-colored appearance, and often 
curl around the edges downward, sometimes growing in 
long, narrow strips, with ragged outlines. When cured, 
the leaves are dull and lifeless in color, and very brittle. 
No remedy for the disease has been found. It is sometimes 
arrested b}^ close plowing, or by giving the plant a vigor- 
ous pull, so as to break the tap root, but the only preven- 
tive measure is to avoid planting upon a soil not properly 
underdrained, either naturally or artificially. 

"Walloon," or " water-loon," is of very common occur- 
rence, and is closely akin to "frenching." The leaves, in- 
stead of curving over in graceful outlines, stick up like a 
fox's ears, whence the disease is known in some sections of 
the country as " fox-ears." When tobacco is thus attacked, 



206 History of Durham. 



it becomes rough and thick, and is unfitted for any but the 
most inferior purposes. Excessive tenacity of the soil or 
defective drainage are causes of the disease. 

''Hollow-stalk" and "sore shin" rarely occur, except 
when the plants have been overflowed, and then mostly 
upon old lands. Some planters attribute " hollow stalk " to 
an insect feeding upon the pith of the lower stalk, or to the 
after effects of an attack by the wire-worm upon the young 
plant; others think it the effect of a bruise or a wound 
upon the stem of the young plant. The two names above 
given are descriptive of different appearances of tlie same 
disease. It is most probably produced b}' excessive absorp- 
tion of water by the pith of the stalk while partially sub- 
merged and subsequent exposure to high a degree of temper- 
ature. It is not reported as occurring upon such lands as 
are never flooded by rain water, nor has it been observed 
upon soils well underdrained or overlying a porous subsoil. 
There is no remedy for it, and unless the plants are cut as 
soon as it appears they become worthless. The affected 
plant presents very much the same appearance as if nearly 
severed from the stalk, witliering slowly without ripening, 

" Frog-eye," or " white speck," sometime occurs in tobacco 
thoroughly ripe. This disease, if it is such, is of rare oc- 
currence, and is little understood. In Florida white specks 
are a sure indication of fine texture in the leaf, and this 
" frog-eye" appearance was at one time much esteemed. 
This particular marking seems to result from conditions of 
soil or climate, or from both, and some varieties are more 
frequently affected than others. 

"White veins "occur in the cured product. By some 
they are believed to be caused by long-continued dry weather 
before and after cutting; by others they are ascribed to any 
check in the growth of the plant, whether for lack of 
manures, from deficient cultivation, drought, bad seed, or 
too much water. Some think they are caused by the ab- 
sence of some soil constituent. All that can be said is th'at 
they do occur, very much to the injury of the leaf for 
wrapping purposes. As a general rule the product from a 
field well prepared, well fertilized, and well cultivated, 
planted in good season, properly topped and kept free of 
suckers, will show when cured very few white veins. 

" Leprosy" is a name given to a fungoid mold which is 
occasionally found -upon cured tobacco hanging in the barn 



Tobacco Interests of North Carolina. 207 



during warm, moist winters. This mold affected a large por- 
tion of the crop of 1880 in the Ohio River valley, especially 
in southern Illinois, and in the lower Ohio River districts of 
Kentucky'. This fungous plant increases with amazing 
rapidity wherever the spores find congenial lodgment, and 
even sound, dry tobacco is sometimes infected and seriously 
damaged. This disease, although not a new one, is imper- 
fectly understood. Appearing to a serious extent onh' in 
weather congenial to its development, and propagated from 
spores which have escaped detection in badly kept barns or 
tobacco-sheds, too many planters look upon it as of obscure 
or doubtful origin, or as an inevitable concomitant of un- 
favorable atmospheric conditions. The remedy is j)reven- 
tion. Thorough cleansing of the tobacco barns, stripping, 
assorting and packing rooms, and the careful destruction, 
by burning, of all trash and dirt which accumulate about 
the premises, will secure well handled tobacco against 
"leprosy," and perhaps other diseases of fungous origin. 

THE BONSACK CIGARETTE MACHINE. 

As this remarkably ingenious invention marks a new era 
in this branch of tobacco manufacture, its introduction in 
our midst is worthy of notice here, as an important item in 
the manufacturing industries of Durham. That it will 
prove of vast benefit to the manufacturer has already been 
demonstrated beyond peradventure. But its effect upon 
another class of our fellow-citizens will be anything but 
gratifying to the true philanthropist. Thousands of girls, 
boys, men and women, and among them worthy orphans, 
widows, and decrepit old age, will be thrown out of employ- 
ment, many of whom are, to a large extent, disqualified for 
the prosecution of other industrial pursuits. There are 
scores of widows \yholly dependent upon the pittance earned 
by their children in the cigarette factories. The shock may 
be temporary, but it will nevertheless be a severe one. 

This machine was set at work in Durham, for the first 
time, April 30, 1884. It is unquestionabl}' the most mar- 
velous piece of machinery in North Carolina, and one of 
ihe most remarkable in the whole world. A description is 
impossible without a diagram, but the story of its inven- 
tion is interesting. The inventor is now only 22 years of age, 
and is a son of Mr. Bonsack, of Bonsack Station, in Vir- 
ginia. Six or seven years ago some one remarked in his 



208 History of Durham. 



hearing that all cigarettes were made b}^ hand, and that 
the inventor of a successful machine would make a fortune. 
He went to work, and after man\' experiments and im- 
provements he completed the comj)licated machine about 
a year ago. One was put to work in Allen & Ginter's 
factory at Richmond. It worked successfully, and Mr. 
Bonsack had others built. He has had the latest and best 
ones made in Paris. The machines at work here were man- 
ufactured in Paris. 

The tobacco is fed in on a slowly-moving belt, which 
draws it between rollers. A system of rollers and belts pre- 
pares it for a long hopper, which becomes nearly as narrow 
at the bottom as a cigarette is thick. From the bottom of 
this hopper or funnel steel belts take the tobacco and carry 
it along. At a proper place the paper, an endless line of 
it, comes up under the tobacco and goes through a tube 
which shapes it round. JusL before ii enters the tube the 
edge runs by a paste-applying instrument. Then the tube 
forces it into a perfect roll, and the paste secures it. It goes 
on then to a circular knife, which clips the endless cigar- 
ette into pieces just the proper length, and the pieces fall 
out down a tube at the rate of from 200 to 212 per minute. 
The paper unrolls from an endless coil under the machine. 
Before it reaches the tobacco a name or brand can be printed 
along the slip at the proper intervals to mark every ci- 
garette. 

Messrs. W. Diike Sons & Co. vvere the first to put the ma- 
chine in operation in this State, and the Blackwell Tobacco 
Co. were the next. Mr. Bonsack does not sell the machines, 
but puts them up, has hii own men to run them, and 
charges about two-thirds the cost of making by hand for 
ihe work they do. At this rate of charges, the profit, it is 
said, on every day it runs, is about $36. 

A rapid cigarette-maker, by hand, can make 2,500 a day. 
One of these machines makes (running only ten hours) 
120,000 a da}', or as man\" as forty-eight hands. 

At last, therefore, a mechanical problem of long stand- 
ing has been solved ; and it will cause a revolution in cigar- 
ette manufacture. Mr. Bonsack has fourteen machines 
now — seven in America and seven in Europe. The in- 
ventor is an interesting and unassuming young man, yet 
without a beard. He looks even younger than twenty-two, 



Tobacco Interests of Virginia. 209 



but has a nervous, quick and business manner. Not often 
in the history of the invention or machinery has a greater 
or more sudden stroke of good fortune been hit. And there 
are not many machines in the world that are more compli- 
cated or wx)rk more beautifully. 



lE^-^f^-IKT I"\7". 



The Tobacco Interests of Virginia. 

CHAPTER I. 

Richmond — Sketches of Leading Tobacco Manufac- 
turers — Leaf Dealers — Cigar and Cigarette Man- 
ufacturers — Manufacturers of Plug and Smoking 
Tobacco. 

As this chief city of the Southern States is largely repre- 
sented in the advertising department of this volume, spe- 
cial and detailed notice is esteemed appropriate and just. 
And, en passcnt, vre desire to tender our thanks to Messrs. 
John Ott, the efficient and courteous secretary of the South- 
ern Fertilizer Company; Addison & Allison, extensive fer- 
tilizer manufacturers and dealers ; Chas. Watkins, agent 
for G. Ober Sons Fertilizer Co. ; and the officers and mem- 
bers of the Tobacco Exchange for courteous treatment and 
useful information ; also to Mr. W. D. Chesterman, from 
whose pamphlet, entitled " Guide to Richmond and the 
Battle Fields," we have obtained important information. 

The population of the city in 1870 was 51,038 ; in 1880, 
64,670, or, in round numbers, 65,000, of which the whites 
numbered 38,000 and the colored people 27,000. Manches- 
ter, separated from Richmond by the James river, has a 
population of 6,500. In 1880 there were in operation 702 
manufacturing establishments, emi)loying 16,932 hands, 
and their sales amounted to $24,70 1,892, an excess over the 



210 History of Durham. 



j'ear previous of $1,218,243. The value of real property was 
$29,000,000; personal property, $10,000,000. Tobacco was 
the leading item entering into manufactures, and iron and 
grain next. Exports, 82.328,742; imports, $45,457. Num- 
ber of arrivals of steamers, 590; of sailing vessels, 1,060. 
The river is navigable from Richmond to the sea (124 miles') 
for vessels drawing 16 feet of water. 

The chief trade organizations are the Tobacco Exchange, 
the Corn, Flour and Cotton Exchange, the Chamber of 
Commerce, the Stock Exchange and the Commercial Club, 
the last a great institution for the entertainment of visiting 
merchants and business men. 

LEAF DEALERS. 

Austin & Booe, 14th, between Main and Carey streets. 

Allen & Shafer, Carey, between 12th and 13th streets. 

John Booker, 310, E Carey street. 

F M Boykin, 13 S 10th street. 

Jas. Byrd, 6tb and Carey streets. 

C R Barksdale, Tobacco Exchange. 

W A Braggs, Columbus Block. 

E D Christian, Tobacco Exchange. 

E T Crump & Co., Columbus Block. 

Cockran & Co., 1210 E Carey street. 

Carter & Ryland, Columbus Block. 

J C Carpenter, 1452 E Franklin street. 

Carr & Dickinson, Crenshaw Warehouse. 

J M Conrad, 1211 E Carey street. 

Wm E Dibrel & Co., 1410 E Carey street. 

R H Dibrel, 1204 E Carey street. 

F H Dean, 1015 Basin Bank. 

A B Eddins. 

John Enders, 1321 E Carey street. 

Eggerston & Co., Tobacco Exchange. 

Ellison & Bro., 28th and Main streets. 

Fisher & Wise, Carey, between 13th and 14th streets. 

W D Gibson, 113 S 6th street. 

L M Griffin, Crenshaw's Warehouse. 

J P George & Co., 13 S 10th street. 

Thos H. Gunn, Crenshaw's Warehouse. 

B C Gray, Tobacco Exchange. 

J J Gregory, 102 Shockhoe Slip. 



Tobacco Interests of Virginia. 211 



J T Gray, 1321 E Carey street. 

Grant & Gilliam, 1115 Basin Bank. 

Wm Hatcher, Shockhoe Slip. 

Geo A Ilaynes, 13 S 13th street. 

D Hill, 1412 E Carev street. 

Wm H Jones, 109 S 12th street. 

L Lew, 1319 E Carey street. 

C D Langhorn, 107 S 12th street. 

F Libermuth, 1106 E Carey street. 

C Millhiser, 3 S r2th street. 

W K Martin & Co., Shockhoe Slip. 

W R Mallory, Columbus Block. 

R C Morton, Shockhoe Slip. 

H Martin, Agent, Shocklioe Slip. 

P H Moore, 1309 E Carey street. 

E M Moore, 1209 E Carey street. 

T D Neal, Tobacco Exchange. 

E Notting, 1310 E Carey street. 

Norvell Leak & Co., 1015 Basin Bank. 

A Osterloh, Shockhoe Slip. 

Palmer & Hartshooke, 1321 E Carey street. 

Thos M Rutherford, 7th and Arch streets. 

Skinke & Archer, Crenshaw's Warehouse. 

M T Smith & Co., Columbus Block. 

Strause & Bernard, 107 S 12th street. 

Thos J Spencer, 102 S 13th street. 

Silas Shelburn, 1209 E Carey street. 

Sublit & Carey, 113 S 12th street. 

R B Sommerville, 1105 Basin Bank. 

Staples & Blair, Basin Bank. 

Scott & Clark, 7 21st street. 

Sublit B Fitzgerald, 1017 Basin Bank. 

Strause & Raab, 107 S 12th street. 

W D Tiderman, 1301 E Main street. 

W D Tompkins ct Bro., Basin Bank. 

Tyler & Jones, 105 S 12th street. 

G. N Thompson, 2600 E Main street. 

F P Thornton, 9th and Arch streets. 

Thornton & Victor, 2201 E Carey street. 

H B Tollervan tt Co. 

J N Vaughn, 320 S lOih street. 

T C Williams, 7th and Arch streets. 

P S Wormley, 21 and Carey streets. 



212 History of Durham. 



Garrett F. Watson, 15 S 21st street. 

C & E Wortham, 18 S 13th street. 

H M Wortham, 21 loth street. 

J J Wilson & Co., 1301 E Carey street. 

Geo N Wooldrige, 121 N 17th street. 

Chas Walkins & Co., 1412 E Carey street. 

J M Wise, Crenshaw's Warehouse. 

CIGARS AND CIGARETTE MANUFACTURERS. 

Allen & Ginter, 7th and Carey streets; C M Angel, J N 
Atkinson, Horace Blaekman & Co.. Mrs M E Boydeu, C H 
Brown, S Britton, Boucher Bros., Branch & Bugg, .John 
Boucher, Jacob Bier, Mrs Fred Bosher, D H Brotherton, 
Wm E Cree, C Carreras, J C Donnella& Co.,Grissett & Bro., 
J W Hollerand, J R Gill, J • Hernandeze, W J Hennings, 
Gerrard Haske, Hewitt & Son, John Krouse, T C Krup, F 
F Langus, C C Leftwich, Libermuth & Millhizer, Little 
& Mclndo, Otto Moella, Louis F Myers, Geo Myers, G W 
Meaglf & Bro., Geo Neaglesraan, G Onorato, Pace & Sizer, 
Win H Perkins, Henry Pie, Geo Prelock, E T Pinkleton & 
Co., F J Riley, Wm L Roberts, H Rosenburg, Rowe & Bro., 
Mrs Caroline Slante, Jos Steindecker, Thos Shea, Thos Street, 
W H Sutton, C C Salaraone, Jacob Simon & Co., Wm J Ty- 
ler, Thomas & Bro., Virginia Trading tfc Manufacturing Co., 
Solomon Wise, John Wickhut, P Whitlock, E B Wyatt, R 
Waggoner, Wm A Walker, C R Wilhelm. 

MANUFACTURERS OF PLUG AND SMOKING TOBACCOS. 

Pace & Sizer, R N Vaughn, P Gregory & Co., Dibrell 
& Co., William C Thomas, E T Pinkleton, Allen & Ginter, 
T W Pemberton & Co., Talbott's Manufacturing Company, 
Myers Bros. & Co., P Whitlock, Whren & Fluk, Lawrence 
LoTTiER, L H Frayson & Co., A B Wells, Agent; J G Dill, 
Pace's Tobacco Company, James Lee Jones, Virginia Manu- 
facturing and Trading Company, Yarborough & Son, Butler 
& Wilson, Sullivan & Earley, Cullingsworth & Ellison, Sal- 
mon & Hancock, Hargrove & Co., T C Williams & Co., J A 
L Moore, C W Spicer, P H Mayo & Bro., S A Ellison &Co., 
Laras & Bro., J N Boyd & Co., Horace Blackmer & Co., 
Hicks, Brumhild & Co., Charles Early & Co., T T Mayo, J 
Wright & Co., Alexander Cameron & Co., Charles Watkins 



Tobacco Interests of Virginia. 213 



& Co., R A Patterson, P Whitlock, W A Blankinship, Lamp- 
ken, Whitlock & Co. 



Factories. 



LAWRENCE LOTTIER. 

The " Banner Tobacco Works " were founded in 1835, by 
Mr. Lawrence Lottier, Sr., father of the present proprietor, 
and are not only one of the five largest tobacco factories of 
Richmond, but also of the tobacco world. Upon the death 
of the founder, in 1849, he was succeeded by his son, who 
was scarcely more than a boy in years. But he proved more 
than equal to the weighty responsibilities thus prematurely 
devolving upon him, for he not only maintained the high 
position which the works had even at that early day 
achieved, but built the business up to its present great mog- 
nitude. The works occupy a massive and handsome brick 
building, 120x133 feet in dimensions, and four stories high, 
with a basement the full size, and is equipped with all the 
most improved machinery and appliances used in the manu- 
facture of tobacco, which is operated by a fifty-horse power 
steam engine. An average force of four hundred hands is 
kept employed and the daily product is about fifteen thou- 
sand pounds of manufactured tobacco. This includes all 
kinds of navy and spun roll, the navy being the leading 
article of manufacture. It is a favorite article with lovers- 
t>f the " weed " everywhere, and the brand is standard in 
every part of the United States. 

No sketch of this great enterprise would be complete 
without a word concerning its proprietor, whose name is so 
widely known. By birth he is a descendant of an old family 
who emigrated from France to Virginia during the last 
century. Mr. Lottier has always been identified with the 
interests of his State, and occupies an honorable place in 
its history. He is still fresh and vigorous, scarcely appear- 
ing to have passed the meridian of life. No one who meets 
him would suppose he had conducted a great industry for 
over thirty years. But business cares seem to rest lightly 
upon him, Ke is broad and liberal in his ideaSj courteous, 
generous and kind to all. He is, in a word, a fair type of 
a true Virginia gentleman. 
14 



214 History op Durham. 



PACE & SIZER. 

The business was established in 1865, by Mr. R. "W. Oli- 
ver. Was purchased by the present proprietors in 1883, and 
is now one of the largest and best equipped smoking tobacco 
and cigarette factories in Richmond. Manufacture the fol- 
lowing well established brands of cigarettes and smoking 
tobacco : " Purity," "Raleigh," " Favorite" and "Powhatan," 
among others, but these are their favorite brands of smoking 
tobacco, cigarettes and cut plug. The brands of this firm 
are rapidly eliciting public favor, and the business of the 
factory has already been more than doubled under the effi- 
cient management and industry of the present proprietors. 
The " Favorite " cigarette, especially — which bears a fine 
picture of our great southern chieftain, Gen. Robert E. Lee 
— which is as yet in its infancy, is so rapidly winning favor- 
able receptions that the firm find themselves taxed to their 
utmost capacity to supply the demand. The "Raleigh" 
brand — cut plug — is also commanding large sales. It not 
only affords a very pleasant smoke, but lasts longer in the 
pipe than the granulated smoking, leaving no nauseating 
sediments in the bottom of tlie pipe. In fact, all their 
brands are manufactured from the best qualities of Virginia 
tobacco. 

ALLEN & GINTER. 

At the southeast corner of Gary and Seventh streets may 
be found the celebrated Cigarette Works of Allen & Ginter. 
The labor here is performed by whites exclusively, includ- 
ing several hundred girls, who handle the cigarettes with a 
deftness and dispatch truly remarkable. This firm are the 
pioneers and leaders in this rapidly growing branch of the 
tobacco business here, and on the fragrance of their " Rich- 
mond Gem" has been wafted the fame of Richmond to all 
parts of this continent, to most parts of Europe, and beyond 
to far distant lands. Tiiis house has no merely local fame, 
its goods are known and appreciated wherever the fragrance 
of the weed in silvery clouds floats upon the breeze. The 
bright and sweet Virginia leaf is unexcelled for cigarettes, 
and this firm have spared no pains or expense in securing 
the best the market affords, and employ only the best skill 
and most approved appliances. Although the firm is so 
widely known as cigarette manufacturers, they do not con- 
fine themselves to that branch alone, but extensively man- 
ufacture smoking tobacco of the choicest brands. 



Tobacco Interests of Virginia. 215 



A. M. LYON & CO. 

This enterprise was established in 1830 by Mr. William 
Barrett, who was succeeded by Mr. John K. Childrey, who 
in turn was succeeded by the present proprietors. In 1883 
the old factory was destroyed by fire, and immediately re- 
built. The new building is four stories above ground, is 
steam heated and provided with every appliance for the 
manufacture of tobacco on the largest scale and in the most 
economical manner. In the basement are located the en- 
gine, boiler, etc. Upon the ground floor is the office, and 
in the rear of this is the press room, with a long row of the 
powerful hydraulic presses which convert the yielding leaf 
into a mass almost as compact as stone. In the second story 
is the twist room, where a large force are busily engaged in 
making lumps, twist, etc., and here, too, is the lump drying 
room, where the manufactured tobacco is placed preparatory 
to packing, especially when it is to be exported, as the least 
particle of moisture is ruinous to goods intended for ocean 
transit. Upon the third floor is the smoking tobacco de- 
partment with its great cutters for transforming the golden 
leaf into beautiful granulated for pipe and cigarettes; and 
here, too, is the leaf room, where skillful hands are busy 
assorting and manipulating the weed. In the upper story 
the leaf is shaken out, dried (in a large steam room), dipped 
an(i otherwise manipulated, and on the top of the building 
(which commands a magnificent view of the city and sur- 
roundings) the fine sun-cured tobaccos are exposed in fine 
weather. AH grades and styles of bright and dark chewing 
are turned out here, the capacity being about 2,000 pounds 
per day, while of fine smoking about one-half this amount 
is produced. This house has long enjoyed a high reputa- 
tion for the excellence of its goods as well as for the cour- 
tesy and integrity of its members, audits wares find a ready 
sale, not only in the United States, but even in far Australia, 
where Barrett's Crown and Barrett's Anchor are standard 
brands. The firm use for export good fine Virginia and 
Carolina leaf, and for the fine navies, which are a specialty, 
white Burley is principally used. 

Of the members of this old firm it is scarcely necessary 
for us to speak. Wherever American tobacco is used their 
brands are favorably known, and to the trade the firm are 
not less favorably known as experienced tobacconists and 



216 History of Durham. 



courteous, enterprising and reliable gentlemen — gentlemen 
who have hosts of friends and well-wishers, who will rejoice 
to hear that the house is driven to its fullest capacity to 
keep pace with the orders which are pouring in from all 
quarters. They were awarded the highest prizes for two 
successive years by the Virginia Fair. 

p. H. MAYO & BROTHER. 

This large tobacco factory was established in 1830 by the 
late Robert A. Mayo, and soon attained, and has since main- 
tained, a leading position in the domestic and foreign to- 
bacco trade. The Mayo family, of which the present senior 
proprietor is a worthy offspring, have occupied for more 
than 150 years the old Powhatan House, the home of the 
famous Indian chief, Powhatan, the father of Pocahontas, 
The present firm are in every respect worthy successors of 
their eminent predecessor. Their brands of tobacco stand 
unsurpassed for excellence of quality, as their wide popu- 
larity and immense sales attest. The factory has an impos- 
ing and handsome front of 200 feet on Seventh street, be- 
tween Gary and Main, four to five stories high, forming a 
hollow square, and is constructed of brick. The offices of 
the company — which are handsomely furnished — occupy a 
central front position in the building. They use none but 
the most approved machinery and appliances. 

The principal brands are the " Navys." They were the 
origiuators of the world-renowned " Navy Tobacco," put up 
for the U. S. Government, and have almost indisputable 
supremacy among the trade and all lovers of a fine article 
of chewing tobacco. 

The firm is now composed of P. H. Mayo and Thomas 
Atkinson, both of whom are thoroughly trained and edu- 
cated in all the ramifications of the business. They em- 
ploy several hundred of the most skillful operatives — not 
only those educated in the manufacture of tobacco, but me- 
chanics of every kind necessary to make and keep in per- 
fect order their vast and magnificent machinery. 

The public display made by this firm of their manufac- 
tured goods in all styles of their bright, dark and sweet Na- 
vies attracte(^ marked attention and admiration from the 
many thousand visitors to the Exhibition Hall in Philadel- 
phia in 1876, Richmond in 1881 and Boston in 1882. At 



Tobacco Interests of Virginia. 217 



the latter place their exhibit was gotten up at an enormous 
cost, being 50 feet long and 12 high, and was a remarkable 
representation of skill and workmanship in the multifari- 
ous varieties and manipulations of tobacco, from the grow- 
ing plant to rich panels and other devices of spun and plug 
tobacco, requiring a thread of spun tobacco thirteen miles 
in length. The conception of the design of a fort and fleet, 
all made by them of tobacco of all kinds, shades and shapes, 
was a fitting and novel association with the firm and their 
origin of navy tobacco; and so artistic was the execution of 
the work in all of its minutest details of handsome signs, 
columns, guns, ship monitors, &c., that the whole justly de- 
served and received most favorable delineations and com- 
ments from the leading journals of Boston and other cities. 
It is almost impossible to give an adequate idea of this won- 
derful piece of workmanship, so intricate in its variegating 
parts, the beautiful and harmonious blending of colors and 
kinds, all worked into marvelous shapes and designs — the 
whole must be seen and critically examined to be understood 
and properly appreciated. 



CHAPTER II. 



Brief History of the Types of Tobacco Produced in 
Virginia and Maryland — Quality of Tobacco — 
Soils. 

" Dark Shipping " was the original and prevalent type of 
tobacco among the planters of Virginia and Maryland. For 
many years the laws regulating production, especially those 
passed by the Colonial Assembly, requiring all products 
failing in quality and soundnes« to be burned, were rigidly 
enforced. All tobacco was raised for export, the only market, 
and the price being uniform, whether for sale or as a cir- 
culating medium, inspection was necessary to insure uni- 
formity of grade. 

INSURE YOUR DWELLINGS WITH J. SOUTHGATE Sc SON. 



218 History of Durham. 



With a virgin soil of great fertility, the planter who did 
bis work well was amply repaid, lis cultivation was com- 
menced by tbe colonists in tbe historic town of Jamestown, 
in James City county, and John Rolfe produced the first to- 
bacco exported from the colon3\ 

Captain John Smith describes the soil of tidewater Vir- 
ginia as he saw it in 1607: "The vesture of the earth in 
most places doth manifestly prove tbe nature of thesoyle to 
be lusty and very rich." 

The culture of tobacco rapidly spread as the colonists 
built houses and cleared lands, the tobacco-patch often tak- 
ing precedence of the corn-field, and its production being 
carried to such an excess as seriously to threaten subsis- 
tence of the colonists, the colonial legislatures of Virginia 
and Maryland passed sumptuary laws that " every person 
planting one acre of tobacco shall plant and tend two acres 
of corn." As tobacco grows better on new soil than corn or 
other crops, it was the first to utilize the fresh cleared land. 
New soil produces a finer and better flavored article than 
old land ; therefore thousands of acres of forest were annually 
cleared. Thus extensive areas in Virginia and Maryland 
were early denuded of forest growth, and the continued cuL 
tivation of tobacco for many years on the same lands without 
manure greatly impoverished the soil ; for a Virginian 
never thinks of reinstating or manuring his land with econ- 
omy until he can find no more new land to exhaust or wear 
out" (William Tatham, Historical Essay on the Culture of To- 
bacco: London, 1800). 

Tobacco raised on cow-penned land was considered of only 
second quality, and was sold accordingly. Tatham states 
that tobacco at first was cultivated continuously for twenty 
years on the same land, and describes the spots selected for 
seed-beds as those preferred at the present da}^ — " rich, moist, 
fine soils, with sunny exposure." The " fly" was a trouble 
then, as now ; and the remedy then practiced was " to sow 
mustard around the border of the plant-bed, and as the fly 
prefers the mustard to the tobacco plants the latter will es- 
cape injury." But of late years this irrepressible insect 
takes more kindly to the tender tobacco plants, and plan- 
ters find it hard work to coax or to drive them off. 

The primitive mode of harvesting tobacco in Virginia 



INSURE YOUR LIFE WITH J. SOUTHGATE & SON. 



i 



Tobacco Interests of Virginia. 219 



was "tci pull the leaves from the stalks as they-ripen and 
haug them on cords, to be dried in the sun and air" (Rev. 
Hugh Jones, Present Slate of Virriiniq,, 1724). In after time 
they s[)lit the stalks and hung the plants astraddle of sticks, 
as is now generally practiced in Virginia. 

The early planters cured their crops mostly in the sun 
and air. " In March or April the tobacco was conveyed to 
the storehouse and dried with fire. * * * Salt was used 
in passing tobacco through the s-^^-eat." In time "smoke 
was considered a prime agent in keeping tobacco sound. 
* * * Small, smothered fires were used, made of bark 
and rotten wood." The fires were increased from year to 
year until log fires were built in three rows upon the barn 
floors, which dried out the green tobacco in from three to 
five days. The firing process prevailed generally in both 
Virginia and Maryland, and was kept up for a long series 
of years. Maryland finally abandoned it; but in the dark 
shipping district of Virginia it is still the mode practiced, 
except that less fire is now used than formerly. 

After the close of the war of 1812-14 the demand for col- 
ored tobacco for export caused a change in the process of 
curing in both Virginia and Maryland. After being cut 
and hung upon sticks, the tobacco was either placed upon 
scaffolds in the sun to yellow and then housed, or it re- 
mained several days in the house, without fire, until it had 
yellowed sufficiently to receive the heat without curing 
dark. Many planters in the two states learned to cure a 
beautiful piebald or spangled leaf, which commanded high 
prices in Richmond and in Baltimore. In the former cit}' 
it was called " piebald ;" in the latter, " spangled." 

Open wood fires constituted the only mode of curing by 
artificial heat until about the year 1828 or 1829, when flues 
w^ere first used in Virginia, Dr. Davis G. Tuck, of Halifax 
county, being the originator of the flue constructed inside 
the barn, for which he obtained a patent. This plan, 
however, was adopted by but few planters, and soon fell into 
disuse. 

About this time began the use of charcoal as fuel for cur- 
ing tobacco, enterprising planters in Halifax and Pittsylva- 
nia counties, Virginia, and in Caswell county, North Caro 
lina, being among the first to substitute it for wood. The 
results were such as to induce others to adopt the new pro- 
cess, and thus it spread from farm to farm throughout 



220 History of Durham. 



neighborhoods, and afterward from State to State, until it 
has extended over a wide area of the tobacco belt. 

Meanwhile improvements were made upon flues, mainly 
since 1865, which justified their substitution for charcoal 
open fires in the yellow tobacco belt of Virginia and North 
Carolina. Charcoal is now but little used. Flues are con- 
structed either of brick, stone, or mud walls, or by digging 
ditches in the floor of the barn, and some are wholly of iron, 
furnaces and pipes, and these are generally patented. 

A number of patent flues are used, some of which greatly 
economize fuel and perform admirably, and where the sav- 
ing of fuel is an object they are to be preferred. 

A cheap flue is constructed by cutting ditches in the floor 
of the barn from 15 to 18 inches wide and as deep as nec- 
essary and covering them with sheet-iron, as recommended 
for the stone or brick flue. A better one is made of mud 
walls, covered with sheet iron. The mud walls are built by 
placing two wide boards from 12 to 14 inches apart and 
packing moist clay between them, beating it down hard, in 
position and arrangement similar to the walls of stone, and 
covering with sheet-iron. Upon firing the flues the boards 
are burned away and the dirt walls are hardened. If the 
clay is of proper quality, such as is fit for making tolerably 
good bricks, these walls will last a long time. It is necessary 
with the ditch or mud-wall flue to attach furnaces of stone, 
brick, or iron. 

QUALITY OP TOBACCO IN VIRGINIA. 

There are five distinct qualities of tobacco produced in 
Virginia, viz: Dark Shipping, Red and Colored Shipping, 
Sun and Air-cured Fillers, Bright Yellow Wrappers, 
Smokers and Fillers, and Orange and Mahogany Flue-cured 
Manufacturing. These are severally characterized by pecu- 
liarities of color, quality, body, and flavor, the result of soil 
influence and variety, modified by curing and management. 

Dark Shipping. — Of this there are four grades of leaf and 
two of lugs, classed as follows: 1. Dark, rich waxy leaf, 
English ; 2. Nutmeg and mahogany leaf, English and Con- 
tinental : 3. Dark red leaf, English and Continental; 4. 
Dull red leaf; 5. Long lugs; 6. Short lugs. 

Dark Shipping tobacco is generally raised on rich lots, 
and is cured with open wood fires. The English, French, 



Tobacco Interests of Virginia. 221 



Germans, Spanish and Italians take the bulk of this to- 
bacco, with a growing preference for that cured without 
smoke. It is produced more or less all over the tobacco 
belt of Virginia, but the bulk of it is raised south of the 
James river and east of the Blue Ridge. 

Med and Colored Shipping. — Like the foregoing, this to- 
bacco is produced more or less all over the tobacco region 
of the State. The region producing most of this tobacco 
consists of the following : Northeast of the region just de- 
scribed, Dinwiddle, Chesterfield, Goochland, and Fluvanna, 
with Rockbridge and all the counties west of the Blue 
Ridge down to the Kentucky and Tennessee lines, except 
Montgomery, whiclp is classed in the yellow district. 

This tobacco is divided into three grades: 1. Bright 
spangled, 2. Mahogany; 3. Cherry red; and is generally 
cured with open wood fires, a method which greatly detracts 
from its worth. The red and mahogany wrappers of this 
and the dark tobacco, if fine, sell well, notwithstanding the 
smell of smoke. 

SiL7i and Air-Cured Fillers. — These include all that is cured 
without artificial heat, whether by the sun or by air, or by 
both. The counties raising this tobacco mainly are Caro- 
line, Hanover, Louisa, and Spotsylvania. Their product is 
eagerl}' sought after by manufacturers, is never in oversup- 
ply, and those long accustomed to its use prefer it to all 
others, even to the White Burley. 

Brigld Yellow has many grades, the finest, smoothest, and 
brightest leaves being rated as wrappers: 1. P\incy; 2. 
Fine; 3. Medium, running 0, 00, 000, etc., according to 
quality and color; 4. Fillers, several grades. Lugs are 
graded as follows: Fancy Smokers, Fine Smokers, Medium 
Smokers, Common Smokers, Bright Lug Fillers, and Com- 
mon Lug Fillers. 

Instances are on record of its first grades having been 
sold for §3 and $4 per pound, and to sell at the highest 
average, or to obtain the highest price, is an honor sought 
by the best planters of the yellow belt. 

Flue cured Fillers. — These are known as Henry county 
fillers, being produced mainly in Henry county and in por- 
tions of Franklin and Patrick counties. This tobacco is 
divided into fillers and wrappers, according to size, color, 
and quality, and is mostly manufactured into plug chewing. 



222 History of Durham. 



It is characterized by its tough, rich, silky leaf, and sweet 
flavor, due to the soil, the varieties cultivated (Sweet Ori- 
noco and Flannagan), and (he peculiar mode of curing by 
flues, both walls and tops of stone, and slow firing until the 
leaf is dried. 

VIRGINIA SOILS. 

The soils of Virginia are as varied as the rocks they over- 
lie. A geological survey of the State was made by Professor 
William B. Rogers in the 3'ears from 1835 to 1840. It is 
necessary to notice carefully only the soils of the tobacco 
area. 

The Tidewater Region. — This is Tertiary, and its soils are 
principally alluvials — sand and clay. Tobacco was once 
cultivated over the greater part of this district, but it has 
long ago given place to crops more suited to its soils or to 
the choice of their owners. 

The Middle Country. — This is the great tobacco-producing 
area of the State, bounded on the north by the Rappahan- 
nock, on the east by Tidewater, on the south by North 
Carolina, and on the west by Piedmont. It is an extended 
rolling plain, greatly diversified by hills and vales, forests 
and streams. Its geology is primary ; its rocks azoic, many 
containing mineral elements that by decomposing greatly 
enrich the soil, such as granite, gneiss, syenite, hornblende, 
mica schist, micaceous, talcose, and argillaceous slates and 
shales, and the sedimentary rocks of the Jurassic and Tri- 
assic formations. The soil varies in depth on the hills and 
plains from 2 to 8 inches, while along the rivers and creeks 
they are much deeper, in some places practically inexhaus- 
tible. The usual depth of forest soils is from 4 to 5 inches, 
with a subsoil rich in mineral elements. The tobacco soils 
proper are the rich bottoms and clay-loam lots for shipping, 
and thin, gray, light soils, fertilized, for manufacturing. 
This district produces about seven-eighths of the tobacco of 
the State, and of ever}-- grade heretofore described, except 
the flue-cured manufacturing grown in Henry and adjoin- 
ing counties. 

Piedmont. — Like the Middle division, this is in the primary 
region ; but here the metamorphic rocks differ considerably 
from those of middle Virginia. The gneiss is coarser and 
darker in color. The hornblende and iron pyrites form 



Tobacco Interests of Virginia. 223 



largo belts of red soil, called the "red-land district." Here 
is found more greenstone (epidote), and where this abounds 
the soil is richer, but is not better adapted to the manufact- 
uring grades of tobacco. The belts of limestone which 
traverse portions of this district are overlaid by soils rich 
and admirabl}' suited to grasses and the cereals, but they 
produce a coarse staple of tobacco, not much in demand, 
even at low prices. The tobacco soils of this division are 
the low grounds and rod-elay lots for shipping, and the gray 
uplands, sandy and slaty, for manufacturing. The chief 
tobacco-producing counties of this district form a line along 
the eastern slope of the Blue Ridge southward from Madi- 
son, and in elude Henry county. 

Blue Ridge. — This district forms the border between the 
Transition and Fossil iferous, and partakes somewhat of the 
character of both. Gneissoid sandstones, epidote, granite, 
syenite, slates, and shales abound in the east, while the 
western flank of the Blue Ridge is composed of the rocks 
of the Cambrian, Potsdam, Sandstone, and Primal. The 
abundance of epidote accounts for the great fertility of the 
soils of this division. 

The gray sandy slopes and ridges are the best tobacco 
lauds. The tobacco counties of this district are Floyd, Car- 
roll, and Grayson. 

The Valley and Appalachia. — In this district are included 
all the remaining counties of the State west of the Blue 
Ridge, southwest from Rockbridge, and in the northeast, 
some of these counties producing but little, but all capable of 
growing, to more or less extent, a good type of tobacco. The 
lighter soils are the better, but the arenaceous soils of the 
mountain slopes and foothills are preferred. The limestone 
belt is an extensive one, rich and well adapted to general 
farming. The poorer siliceous soils, notably in Poor Valley, 
in Washington and Lee counties, are growing a fine article 
of brights, but the south and southeastern slopes of the 
mountains also produce desirable manufacturing grades. 

While the above are classed in the red and yellow ship- 
ping district, there are extensive areas in most of these coun- 
ties well adapted to produce the bright yellow type, as is 
being demonstrated by individual planters every year. 



TAKE AN ACCIDENT POLICY WITH J. SOUTHGATE AND SON- 



224 History of Durham. 



ADDENDA ET ERRATA. 



The Durham Light Infantry — The Durham Female 

Seminary. 

The adage, '■ Old men for counsel, 3'oung men for war," 
finds illustration in the large number of military organizii- 
lions throughout this Repuhlic of ours. 

The Southern youth is a soldier born. His ancestors have 
set the example, their brave deeds have had a tendency to 
inflame the mind, and, climatic influences being favor- 
able, there is no reason why he should not be what he is. 
North Carolina, tliough proud of her citizen soldiery, has 
not, so far, done what she could to foster this manly, noble 
spirit in her sons. We believe her failure in this respect is 
inexcusable and damaging. Give us a laudable State pride 
and our sister States will regard us in a very different light 
from what they do now. We are glad to know the military 
officers are at work on this point. Within the past two 
years their labors have brouglit forth good results, and if 
they do not weary in well doing, the many volunteer com- 
panies of North Carolina, which have heretofore barely sub- 
sisted by personal sacrifice of time and money, will bask in 
the sunshine of the so much deserved, long looked for pros- 
perity. For one, the Durham Light Infantry would shout, 
" Roll on the glorious epoch." 

, This company was organized August 6, 187S, with a mem- 
bership of forty, rank and file. J. F, Freeland was elected 
Captain, J. H. Southgate, First Lieutenant, and J. C. Angier, 
Second Lieutenant. In October following, J. H. Southgate re- 
signed, and W. L. Wall v/as elected to fill the vacancy. It 
was fully uniformed and equipped soon after its organiza- 
tion. The uniform was of gray cloth, swallow-tail coats, 
W'ith three rows of N. C. State buttons in front, and no trim- 
ming except on the tail of the coat ; the stripes on the pants 
were black. Black felt hats, with black plumes, were worn. 

Six years have made many changes in the organization, 
as might have been expected. Several of the first "forty" 



Addenda et Errata. 225 



have long since left Durham, others have resigned, and a 
few have " ordered arms " for the last time on earth. - 

A short reference to some of the mile-stones in the com- 
pany's history cannot fail to be interesting to, at least, the 
former and present members of the body, wherever these 
lines may reach them. " The boys'' will remember the 4th 
of July, 1879, in Winston. Indeed, how could they forget 
the glad scenes of that day — the marching, the music, the 
concourse of people; Salem Square at night, with its thou- 
sand colored lights; its velvet carpet of green grass; its 
stately poplars and elms, with their soft luxuriant foliage — 
a fairy land, in fact, and chivalrous youth and maidenly 
beauty were its occupants that night. But, should memory 
fail tlu-m as to these, the remembrance of the warm recep- 
tion and gracious hospitality of the Winston Light Infantry 
would ever remain green — a joy, a lasting charm. 

PRESENTATION OF FLAG. 

In the fall of 1S70 the sincere interest felt by the ladies 
of Durham prompted them to donate to the company a 
hands(nnely embroidered silk flag, which could not have cost 
less than one hundred and seventy-five dollars — in every 
sense an appropriate gift — and so long as the love of home 
and the innocent ones there remain, so long will this beauti- 
ful ensign be honored even at the cost of the last ruddy drop. 
The j»resentation ceremonies took place at the Grand Cen- 
tral Hotel. Mrs. J. B. Whitaker, in a graceful and appro- 
priate .speech, tendered the flag, responded to by Lieutenant 
G. E. Webb. 

The *20th May, ISSO, was truly a celebration day in the 
history of the Durham Light Infantry. The Orange Guards 
of Hillsboro, Winston Light Infantry and Danville Greys 
were the guests of the Company, and everything that could 
be done was done to make their stay pleasant. The troops 
were quartered in the west wing of the then W. T. Black- 
well cV Co.'s large brick factory. The programme was such 
as is usual on similar occasions — marching, parading, ora- 
tions, and the like. At night the large brick warehouse, 
now owned and occupied by Capt. E. J. Parrish, presented 
a scene which has never before nor since been duplicated in 
Durham. A table groaning under all the delicacies and 
substaiitials which the barbecuer, the grocer and the skilled 



226 History of Durham. 



housewife could furnish, extended from one end of the 
building to the other, a distance of two hundred and twenty- 
five feet. Around this table were seated the visiting mili- 
tary, a large number of prominent men from different parts 
of the State and a host of Durhamites. If this was not a 
feast, we never saw one ; if people were not happy that night, 
we do not know what it is to manifest happiness. In an 
hour's time the feast was over and then followed music and 
eloquence, each in its turn. Among the speakers were Gen. 
Cox, Hon. John Manning and Judge Fowle. Fair women, 
brave men, soft music, thrilling eloquence and a rich feast 
were features of an evening, which closed a day long to be 
remembered by the boys. 

YORKTOWN. 

More than a year elapsed before the Company engaged in 
another celebration. In October, 1881, with forty-two men 
in full dress uniform, it went to the Yorktown Centennial 
Celebration of American liberty. A long description of 
this notable trip, with its pleasures and delights, can be 
made short by quoting one clause which is the property of 
the men in common: "Grandest event in the Company's 
history." 

It may be well to note a iew changes which have taken 
place in"the Company's management within the past two 
years. In May, 1882, Capt. Freeland resigned. J. C. Angier, 
First Lieutenant, took command, and in August following 
was elected Captain. He served one year acceptably. In 
August, 1883, E. J. Parrish, a prominent citizen of the 
town, was elected Captain ; John C. Angier, First Lieuten- 
ant; VV. A. Gattis, Jr., Second Lieutenant; G. E. Webb, 
Second Junior Lieutenant. In February, 1884, Lieutenant 
Angier resigned, and W. A. Gattis was elected First Lieu- 
tenant in his place, and James H. Southgate, Second Lieu- 
tenant. So that the commissioned officers at present are: 
E. J. Parrish, Captain ; W. A. Gattis, Jr., First Lieutenant; 
J. H. Southgate, Second Lieutenant; G. E. Webb, Second 
Junior Lieutenant. 

The uniforms are gotten up in handsome style, and of 
best material. The personnel of the Company comprise some 
of our most cultivated and influential citizens. 



INSURF IN THE EQUITABLE LIFE ASSURANCE SOCIETY. 



Addenda et Errata. 227 



THE DURHAM FEMALE SEMINARY. 

This valuable addition to the educational facilities of 
Durham was established in Januan^, 1SS2, and Mrs. M. E. 
Mahoney, an accomplished educator, chosen Principal. The 
building, located on Mangum street, was erected by Mr. A. 
M. Rigsbee. The school is one of high standing, and is in 
a flourishing condition. It is(>ne of the attractive and fixed 
institutions of Durham, which is remarked with unfeigned 
pride and pleasure. 

The charges per term of twenty weeks are as follows : 



Primar}' English, ^ 



Preparatory English, ( 



Collegiate English, 



} $10.00 



Latit., J 

Musicon Piano 20.00 

"Organ 20.00 

" " Guitar 15.00 

Use of Instrument 5.00 

Vocalization (Voice Training) 10.00 

Incidentals 1.00 

Board per Month, including Fuel and Lights... 12.00 

Vocal Music, Calisthenics and Free Hand Writing, Free. 

The next session begins Monday, September 3d. Parents 
are advised to board their daughters in the Seminary. 
Regular hours of stud}'', recreation, retiring and risini^, are 
observed. Oversight and direciion of the studies in prep- 
aration are given. Special care is taken to guard the morals 
and improve the manners of those who board in the 
Seminary. 



ERRATA. 



BLACK well's DURHAM TOBACCO FACTORY. 

On page 110, under head " M. E. McDowell & Co.," in 
lines 4 and 5, strike out "Agents in Philadelphia," and 
insert in lieu thereof, "Agents in the United States." In 
lines IS and 19, strike out the words "and other places," 
and insert "Atlanta and New Orleans." 



228 History of Durham. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

On page 138, sketch of James Southgate, third line, in- 
stead of "English parentage," read "English descent." 
Same sketch, page 139, in line 14, strike out "second to none 
in the State," and insert in lieu thereof, " among the fore- 
most agencies of the State." 

TOBACCO FACTORIES. 

On page 115, sketch of Z, I. Lyon & Co , in first line in- 
stead of " firm is," read "firm ivas." In line 4, strike out all, 
from the word " Durham " down to and including " 1867," 
and insert in lieu thereof the following: "Mr. Lyon did 
business for Mr. J. R. Green in 1865-'66. In 1868 he pur- 
chased an interest in the celebrated Bull brand. During 
the same year — " On page 184, bottom line, in the Dur- 
ham quotations for fancv wrappers, instead of " $1.50 to 
$3.00," read "$150 to $300." 

T. H. Briggs 6£ Sons, 

Briggs Building, Raleigh, H. C, 

—DEALERS IN— 

HARDWARE. 

4" g ft^" ?r -^ .j^ ^ 

^ S S «■ *" c s S ^ »f S S ,^ 

§2 § S ^ S ? .. S ^ rf ^ S § ^ ^ a D 






i ^fi^^ou&^NP^ftsl^h^g 



BREECH-LOADIHB m MATERIALS, FISBINB TACKIE, &C. 

TAKE A SEMI-TONTINE POLICY IN THE EQUITABLE. 



Durham Business Directory. 229 



:E=».^f^:EST "V". 



Durham Business Directory. 



AbbreTiations. 



Q ,. east 

s south 

w ■west 

n north 

ne w northeast 



Be southeast 

ss - south side 

ns north side 

opp opposite 

es >...ea8t side 



THE CITY GOVERNMENT FOR 1884. 

Mayor. — J. F. Freeland. 
Clerk.— ^y. E. Foster. 
Treasurer. — G. C. Farthing. 
Ciiy Weigher. — S. T. Morgan. 
Chief of Police. — Paul A. Brownv 
Assistant Police. — A. J. Faucett. 

Commissioners. — Eugene Morebead, Thonaas D. Jones, R. 
W. Thomas, W. H. Rowland and T. S. Christian. 
Street Commissioner — William Maynor. 

COUNTY OFFICERS FOR 1884. 

Sheriff.— J. R. Blacknall. 
Superior Court Clerk. — W. J. Christian. 
Register of Deeds. — J. C. Wilkerson. 
Treasurer. — J. R. Blacknall. 
County Attorney. — R. C. Strudwick. 
County Surveyor. — A. M. Leathers. 

Commissioners. — W. A. Jenkins, chairman, G. A. Barbae, 
W. K. Parrish, C. B. Green and J. G. Latta. 



INSURE YOUR PROPERTY WITH J. SOUTHGATE & SON. 
15 



230 



History of Durham. 



TOBACCO BOARD OF TRADE. 



Officers. — Alexander Walker, President. 
R. F. Webb, Vice-President. 
Albert Kramer, Secretary and Treasurer. 



Blackwell, W. T. 
Blackwell & Goodson, 
Burton, Robert 
Carr, Julian S. 
Cooper, W. R. 
Cox, A. B. 
Dalbv, Edward 
Day,%V. A. 
Duke Sons & Co., W. 
Faucett, R. T. 
Gattis, W. A. 
Green, Lucius 
Hazel, J. B. 
Jones, Thomas D. 
Jones, R. H. 
Kramer, Albert 
Lockhart, J. S. 
Xyon, T. B. 
Lyon, Z. I. 
Lyon, R. E. 



Mosely, T. B. 
Morris & Sons' M'f g Co. 
Osborn, W. H. 
Parrish, E. J. 
Peay, T. L. 
Pinnix, J. T. 
Pogue & Son, E. H. 
Reams, H. A. 
Reams, I. M. 
Rowland, M. A, 
Seay, E. E. 
Smith, L. T. 
Smith, John W, 
Smith, R. K. 
Stokes, A. H. 
Umstead & Co., A. 
Walker, John W. 
Walker, M. A. 
Watkins, Dr. J. L. 
Webb, R. F. 



H. 



TOBACCO FACTORIES. 

Blackwell's Durham Tobacco Co — Depot street, southwest 
of N. C. R. R. depot. 

W. Duke Sons & Co. — Railroad, above Hillsboro street. 

R. F. Morris & Sons' Manufacturing Co. — Railroad street, 
near depot. 

R. T. Faucett— southeast of " Old Sitting Bull " Factory. 

James Y. Whitted, South street. v 

Z. I. Lyon—'' Old Sitting Bull " Factory. 

Seigel Brothers — South of Railroad, near Lyon's factory. 

E. H. Pogue & Son — S. Depot street, below the Blackwell 
Factory. 

TOBACCO WAREHOUSES. 

The Reams Warehouse — Corner of Depot and Main streets. 



"THE "TRAVELERS,"' OF HARTFORD, insures against accidents. 



Durham Business Directory. 231 



' The Parrish Warehouse — Corner of Parrish and Mangum 
streets. 

The Banner Warehouse — Main, between Green and Man- 
gum streets. 

CIGAR AND PLUG TOBACCO FACTORIES. 

Since the greater portion of this book has passed through 
the press, two new manufacturing enterprises have been es- 
tablished in Durham — one Cigar, and one Plug Tobacco 
Factory — the former by Messrs. E. J. Clark & Co., the latter 
by Mr. Jas. Y. Whitted, formerly of Hillsboro. These gen- 
tlemen are experienced manufacturers in their line, and 
have wisely selected Durham, the El Dorado of the South, 
as a basis for future operations and success. Success? With 
proper business sagacity and push, no enterprise ever fails 
in Durham, and these gentlemen possess an ample amount 
of both. We have known Mr. Clark for many years, and 
we take pleasure in bespeaking for him that abundant suc- 
cess which he richly deserves. The Cigar Factory is lo- 
cated on Main street and the Plug Factory on Factory 
street. 

DURHAM WATER WORKS. 

A survey has been made, and at a distance of four miles 
from Durham an abundance of good spring water can be 
had with an elevation of sixty-five feet. The gentlemen 
engaged in this project have ample means and the energy 
and business tact to make a success of it. Durham has long 
felt the need of more water power and the supply from these 
springs, we learn, will be ample to supply a town of ten 
thousand inhabitants. 

BANKING HOUSES. 

The Bank of Durham— William T. Blackwell, President ; 
P. A. Wiley, Cashier ; W. S. Haliburton, Teller. Parrish, 
between Church and Mangum streets. 

Morehead Bank — Eugene Morehead, President ; W. M. 
Morgan, Cashier; W. W. Avery, Teller. Main, between 
Mangum and Depot streets. 

J. SOUTHGATE&SON ISSUE TORNADO and CYCLONE POLICIES. 



232 History op Durham. 



POST OFFICE. 

D. C. Maugum, Postmaster; salary, $1,300. The oflfice 
now ranks third class. Main, between Mangum and Church 

streets. 

DURHAM COTTON MANUFACTURING CO. 

This company was organized in the spring of 1884, by 
the election of J. A. O'Dell, President ; W. H. Branson, Sec- 
retary and Treasurer. Stockholders — Julian S. Carr, W. B. 
O'Dell, and J. M. O'Dell. The factory will be completed 
about October 1st, 1884, one and a half miles east of the N. 
C. R. R. depot, on the southside of the railroad, on what is 
known as the Barbee land. The work of laying bricks was 
commenced in the latter part of May, 1884. Size of build- 
ing, 148 feet 4 inches by 74 feet 4 inches. Smoke stack of 
brick and stone, 17 feet 19 inches at base and 13^ feet high, 

THE DURHAM WOOLEN AND WOODEN MILLS CO. 

This company was also organized in the spring of 1884. 
Officers — John C. Angler, President; Samuel T. Morgan, 
Secretary and Treasurer. Julian S. Carr, M. A. Angier, Eu- 
gene Morehead, A. H. Stokes and Jas, R. Blacknall, Stock- 
holders. The factory will be completed the latter part of 
September, 1884, and will be located about one mile east of 
the N. C. R. R. depot, on ns. railroad, also on the Barbee land. 

REVENUE OFFICE. 

George L. Tinker, Deputy ; Post Office Building. Re- 
ceipts for 1883 were $618,444.34. 

NEWSPAPERS. 

" The Durham Tobacco Plant," (weekly)— C. B. Green, 
Editor. Democratic in politics. Subscription price, $1.50 
per annum. Main, between Depot and Mangum streets. 

" The Church Messenger," (weekly)— E. N. Joyner, Editor. 
Episcopal. Subscription price, $1.50 per annum. Main, 
between Mangum and Church streets. 

" The Durham Recorder," (weekly)— E. C. Hackney, Ed- 
itor. Democratic. Subscription price, $1.50 per annum. 
Main, between Church and Mangum streets. 

" The Daily Reporter "— D. W. Whitaker, Editor. Neu- 

The Largest Companies are Represented by J. Southgate & Son. 



Durham Business Directory. 233 



tral in politics. Subscription price, $4.00 per annum. 
"Plant" Building. 

" The Truth," (monthly)— Josiah Turner, Editor. His- 
torical and literary. Subscription price, $1.50 per annum. 

DRUGGISTS. 

E,. W. Thomas & Co., ne. cor. of Main and Depot streets. 

R. Blacknall & Son, se. cor. of Main and Depot streets. 

A. G. Carr & Co., ss. Main, between Church and Mangum 
streets. 

G. B. Montague, ss. Main, between Church and Mangum 
streets. 

N. M. Johnson, Mangum street, opp. Parrish Warehouse. 

PHYSICIANS. 

Doctors R. W. Thomas, A. G. Carr, W. J. H. Durham, T. S. 
Vickers, J. H. Cook, A. F. Cain, N. M. Johnson, L. W. Bat- 
tle, E. B. Utley and J. B. Gunter. 

BENEVOLENT ORGANIZATIONS. 

Durham Commandery, No. 3, KnightsTemplars. — Jas. South- 
gate. Eminent Commander ; L. W. Battle, Generalissimo; 
Ed. J. Parrish, Captain General ; John L. Markham, Excel- 
lent Prelate ; J. F. Freeland, Senior Warden ; W. L. Wall, 
Junior Warden ; J. S. Carr, Treasurer ; J. W. Blackwell, Re- 
corder ; C. C. Taylor, Standard Bearer; Geo. S. Scruggs, 
Sword Bearer ; L. T. Smith, Warden, proiem. ; J. D. Wilbon, 
Sentinel. 

Royal Arch Chapter, No. 48. — James Southgate, High 
Priest; J. C. Wilkerson, King ; E. Dalby, Scribe; W. L. 
Wall, Capt. Host; Robert HoUoway, Royal Arch Captain ; 
John L. Markham, Principal Sojourner; J. R. Gattis, 
Treasurer ; C. C. Taylor, Secretary ; Geo. S. Scruggs, Master 
3d Vail ; J. W. Blackwell, Master 2d Vail • John D. Wil- 
bon, Master 1st Vail ; T. B. Smith, Guard.' 

Durham Lodge, F. A. M., No. 352.— W. L. Wall, Worship- 
ful Master ; C. C. Taylor, Senior Warden ; J. W. Black- 
well, Junior Warden ; William H. Rogers, Treasurer ; James 

Cotton Mill Insurance a Specialty with J. Southgate & Son. 



234 History of Durham. 



Southgate, Secretary ; H. N. Snow, Senior Deacon ; J. F. 
Freeland, Junior Deacon ; A. Mohsberg and Wm. Maynor, 
Stewards; T. B. Smith, Tyler. 

RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS. 

Trinity (Methodist)— Head of Church street. Rev. T. A. 
Boone, pastor. Preaching every Sunday at 11 o'clock a. m. 
and 7 o'clock p. m. Sunday School at 9J o'clock. Young 
men's prayer- meeting at 3 o'clock p. m. 

Baptist (Missionary) — Rev. C. Durham, pastor. Preach- 
ing every Sunday at 11 o'clock a. m. and 7 o'clock p. m. 
Sunday School at 9J o'clock. Young men's prayer meeting 
at 3 o'clock p. m. Mangum street. 

Presbyterian — Rev. H. T. Darnall, pastor. Preaching every 
Sunday at 11 o'clock a. m. and 7 o'clock p. m. Sunday 
School at 9^ o'clock. Main street. 

St. Philip's (Episcopal) — Services every Sunday at 11 a. m. 
and 7 p. m. Sunday School at 10 a. m. Rev. John Husk, 
Rector. Main street. 

Primitive Baptists — Liberty street. Preaching once a 
month. No pastor. 

COLORED CHURCHES. 

Baptist Church. — S. Railroad street, opp. Redmond's Grove. 
Rev. F. H. Wilkerson, pastor. 

Methodist Church. — Fayetteville street, Hayti.* Rev. W. 
Cook, pastor. 

Primitive Baptist. — South Railroad street. Rev. Luke 
Webb, pastor. 

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 

Methodist Female Seminary, next to Trinity M. E. 
church. Mrs. Julia R. Williams, Principal. Teachers— Misses 
Lessie Southgate, Addie Holman and Mrs. L. C. Lipscomb. 

Durham Female Seminary, Mangum street. Mrs. M. E. 
Mahoney, Principal. (See sketch in Addenda.) 

Durham Graded School — Main street, opposite the Duke 
Factory. Prof. E. W. Kennedy, Superintendent. Teach- 
ers — Profs. Thomas J. Simmons and C. L. Dowell, Misses 
Lula Freeland, Bessie Fanning, Dora Fanning, Eva Cox 
and Mrs. S. T. Morgan. 

*A large portion of the city settled almost entirely by the colored people. 



Durham Business Directory. 235 



ATTORNEYS AT LAW. 

Messrs. Manning & Manning, E. C. Hackney, C. B. Green, 
W. W. Fuller, T. M. Argo, R. C. Strudwick and Jolm M. 
Moring. 

COLORED SCHOOLS. 

Ledger Public School, Hayti. Miss — Ledger, Super- 
intendent. 

Hack Road Public School— James Whitted, Superin- 
tendent. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

G. C. Farthing, Main and Depot streets. Assistants. — J. R. 
Patterson, Bookkeeper; Thos. B. Farthing, W. S. Farthing 
and J. R. Proctor, Clerks. 

W. Halliburton, ss. Main, between Manguni and Church 
streets. 

W. K. Styron & Son, Main street, opposite Post Office. 

A. M. Rigsbee, ne. corner Main and Mangum streets. As- 
sistants.— W. H. Proctor, Bookkeeper ; S. A. Dickson and 
S. J. Lewter, Clerks. 

W. G. Gates, Main street. J. H. Berry and A. H. Woods, 
Clerks. 

JOHN L. MARKHAM, dealer in heavy and fancy gro- 
ceries, dry goods, notions. Also agent for the most popular 
fertilizers, se. cor. Main and Mangum streets. Assistants — 
W.E.Foster, Bookkeeper; H. H. Markham, J.W.Jones, 
J. J. Thaxton, G. W. Barnes, R. R. Puryear, A. G. Elliot, 
Freeland Markham and H. P. Markham, Clerks; R. S. 
Ross, Storage House Manager ; Richard Daniel, Porter. 

Rogers & Co— Plant Building, Main street. W. D. Hen- 
don, Clerk. 

J. W. Tatum, ss. Main street. W. H. Moore and C. H. 
Umstead, Clerks. 

S. E. Watts, ss. Main street. R. R. Moore, Clerk. 

0. B. Foushee, Stokes Building. T. J. Winston, Clerk. 

C. J. & W. M. Rogers, cor. Parrish and Mangum streets. 
Assistants.— J . J. Bernard, Bookkeeper ; S. M. D. Parrish, W. 
M. Clayton, C. R. Cross and A. L. Wiggins, Clerks; Alex. 
Morgan, Porter. 

Dwellings and Farm Property Insured by J. Southgate & Son. 



236 History of Durham. 



T. Y. Monk & Co., Rigsbee Block, ss. Main street. W. L. 
Cooper, Bookkeeper; W. G. W. Terry and J. B. Bernard, 
Clerks. 

W. Mangum & Son, Mangum, between Railroad and 
Main streets. 

Rawl's N. Y. Cash Store, Main street. 

S. R. PERRY, dealer in heavy and fancy groceries, and 
general merchandise. John C. Bailey, Bookkeeper; Frank 
M. Carlton, Clerk. 

W. M. O'Daniel & Son, corner Church and Main streets. 

INSURANCE COMPANIES. 

The following companies are represented by J. Southgate 
& Son, Durham, N. C: 

(Connecticut, of Hartford, Connecticut. 

City of London, of London. 

Equitable Life Assurance Society, of New York. 

Fire Association, of Philadelphia. 

Germania, of New York. 

German American, New York. 

Georgia Home, of Columbus, Georgia. 

Hartford, of Hartford. 

London Insurance Company, of London. 

London & Lancashire, Liverpool. 

Niagara, of New York. 

North Carolina Home, Raleigh, North Carolina, 

North British & Mercantile, of London. 

Northern Association Co., of Aberdeen and London. 

New York Home. 

Phoenix Association Company, of London. 

Phoenix Association Company, of Hartford, Connecticut. 

Phenix Insurance Company, of Brooklyn, New York. 

Royal Insurance Company, of England. 

Rochester German, of Rochester, New York. 

Scottish Union and National, of London. 

Underwriters, of New York. 

Travelers' Accident, of Hartford, Connecticut. 

Virginia Home, of Richmond. 

Virginia Fire and Marine, of Richmond. 

The following companies are represented by J. J. Mackay, 
Durham, N. C: 

Liverpool Life Insurance Company. 

A POLICY IN THE EQUITABLE GIVES THE BEST INDEMNITY. 



Durham Business Directory. 237 



Insurance Company of North Carolina. 
Mutual Reserve Company of North Carolina. 
Liverpool, London and Globe. 
Lyon Insurance Company. 
North Western, of Mihvaukie. 
The Penu Mutual. 

HOTEL AND BOARDING HOUSES. 

Hotel Claiborn, corner Railroad and Depot streets, A. J. 
Rutjes, proprietor. 

Mrs. P. J. Anglea, Main street. 
J. W. Watts, Main street. 
C. G. Younger, Main street. 
J. M. Baucom. 
J. P. Bradshaw, s. of Depot. 

RESTAURANTS. 

J. G. Vickers, old post office corner. 

Majigie Bush, Railroad street, near depot. 

F. P. Clapps, es. Mangum, near Railroad street. 

Alice Crenshaw & Co., Mangum, near Railroad street. 

DRY GOODS. 

A. Mohsberg, n. Main street. 

E. Goldstein, ss. Main ; D. Kaufman, Bookkeeper. 

H. Mohsberg, ss. Main ; Simeon Fleishman, Bookkeeper. 

C. Summerfield & Co., Duke Building, ss. Main. Em- 
ployees— W. W. Kivett, F. Freeland, L. Marks and T. H. 
Lyon. 

Jacob Levy, ss. Main. Employees — J. C. Bowers, Frank 
Hunter and Julius Michael. 

R. M. Mclutire, ns. Main. Employees — W. B. McGary 
and Charles Styron. 

0. E. Rawls, ns. Main ; W. L. Franklin and Edgar Rawls, 
Clerks. 

MILLINERY. 

Mrs. A. M. Smith, Robinson Block, ns. Main. Assistants — 
Misses Mamie Smith, Julia Albright and Bettie Albright. 
Mrs. John S. Meslej' — formerly Lougee & Mesley— us. Main. 
Misses McCarty & Tyler, Stokes Building, ns. Main. 

NO CO-OPERATIVE Insurance can be had of J. SOUTHGATE& SON, 



238 History of Durham. 



COMMISSION MERCHANTS. 

S. T. MORGAN, Mangyin street, dealer in Farmer's Sup- 
plies and Fertilizers ; Fred. D. Fanning, Bookkeeper, and 
W. C. Thaxton, Clerk. 

Webb & Parker, Manguni street. General Commission 
Merchants. 

INSURANCE AGENCIES. 

JAMES SOUTHGATE & SON, cor. Main building, 
Rigsbee and Mangum ; Wm. H. McKabe, Policy Clerk and 
Bookkeeper, and W. J. Holloway, Assistant Clerk. 

J. J. MACKAY, Tatum Building, N. Main; Charles Mc- 
Gary, Assistant. 

STONE AND MARBLE WORKS, 

R. J. Rogers, Proprietor, ss. Main, between Depot and 
Green streets. Employees — J. B. Whitaker, J. C. Smith, C. 
H. Huliu, George Evans and Frank Dave. 

SOUTHERN EXPRESS COMPANY. 

John L. Markham, Agent. OflSce — corner Main and Man- 
gum streets. 

FURNITURE DEALERS. 

B. L. DUKE & CO., SS. Main street. D. M. Carlton, Book- 
keeper, and John Laws, Jr., Clerk. 
M. C. Herndon & Co., ns. Main street. 

FERTILIZER COMPANIES. 

DURHAM BULL FERTILIZER COMPANY. S. T. 
Morgan, President; Eugene Morehead, Vice-President and 
Treasurer; E. E. Thompson, Superintendent Factory, and 
Fred. D. Fanning, Bookkeeper. 

Home Fertilizer, Upshur Guano,'Peruvian Guano, ALLI- 
SON & ADDISON STAR BRAND, Southern Fertilizer Co., 
Anchor Brand. 

ONLY GENUINE INSURANCE CAN BE HAD OF J. Southgate & Son. 



Durham Business Directory. 239 



G. OBER & SONS CO , Patapsco, Pacific, Zills and Grap- 
lin, Piedmont, Norfolis: Fertilizer and Insecticide. 



HARDWARE DEALERS. 



C. C. TAYLOR, ns. Main. A choice and complete hard- 
ware line — stoves, &c. 

ROBERTSON, LLOYD & CO. Mangum, between Rail- 
road and Main streets. A full line of best goods. 

G. E. Lougee, Main street. 



HARNESS AND SADDLERY. 



Richard Dowdy, Mangum street. Work executed with 
promptness and unexcelled efficiency. 
Levi Houston, ss. Main street. 
J. D. Wilbon, bet. Main and Depot streets. 

BOOKSTORE AND STATIONERY. 

DIKE BOOKSTORE— James Dike, proprietor, nw. cor. of 
Main and Mangum streets. Assistants— Wm. M. Mahoney, 
H. J. Darnall, Misses Alice K. Rawls and E M. Harden. 

SASH, DOOR AND BLIND FACTORIES. 

WILLIAM MANGUM, Green street, in rear of Banner 
Warehouse. 

P. J. MANGUM, Railroad street, below Pine. 

WILKERSON, CHRISTIAN & CO., junction of Railroad 
and Green streets. 

WATCHMAKERS AND JEWELERS. 

S. F. Gardner, ns. Main, between Church and Mangum 
streets. 

C. F. Postley, ss. Main, between Church and Mangum 

streets. 

UNDERTAKERS AND CABINET MAKERS. 

Willis Mangum, Church, one door below Main and De- 
pot streets. 

W. R Howerton & Bro., Mangum street. 
P. J. Mangum, Railroad street, below Pine. 

NO SHODDY INSURANCE ISSUED BY SOUTHGATE & SON. 



240 History of Durham. 



JOB PRINTING OFFICES. 

J. B. Whitaker, .Jr., nw. cor. of Main and Mangum streets. 
Bronze work a specialty. 

H. E. Seeman, Post Office Building, Main, between Church 
and Mangum streets. 

LIVERY AND EXCHANGE STABLES. 

A. A. SEARS, Main, between Depot and Green streets. 
ALLEN JONES & CO. Located just in the rear of 
Lyon's Tobacco Factory. 

W R. HERNDON, rear of Howerton's Carriage Shop. 

CARRIAGE AND WAGON FACTORIES. 

R. T. Howerton & Bro., n. Mangum street. 
Henry Seeman & Son, us. Railroad street. 

BUILDERS AND CONTRACTORS. 

T. S. CHRISTIAN, T. C. Oakley and John A. Bivins. 

STEAM AND GAS FITTERS. 

C. J. O'Brien & Co., the old Kemper corner. 

MERCHANT TAYLOR. 

CHAS. H. LEWELLIN, corner Main and Church sts. 

DENTIST. 

Dr. L. B. Henderson, Rooms over Dr. Carr's Drug Store, 
Main street. 

HERBALIST. 

Dr. Chas. Grayson, Railroad street, near N. C. Depot. 

PHOTOGRAPHERS. 

C. W. RocHELLE, ss. Main, between Church and Mangum 
streets. All work neatly and handsomely executed. 

H. Murphey, ss. Main, between Depot and Mangum street. 

TAKE NO INSURANCE BUT THE VERY BEST. 



Durham Business Directory. 241 



FOUNDRY AND MACHINE SHOP. 

Blount & Hanks, Railroad street, above Depot. 
McMannen & Carriugtou, Cora Street Smut and Screen- 
ing Machine Works. 

TONSORIAL ARTISTS. 

Wright & Merritt, ss. Main, one door from Mangum. street. 
Assistants.— R. Terrell, Jas. Y. Allen and W. Wright. 

H. W. Brown, Mangum street. 

Jas. W. Murchison, corner Main and Mangum streets. 
Assistants. — Virgil Reid and Spot Sanford. 

CANDY FACTORY. 

J. H. Gresham, Barbee Building, ss. Main, near Church 
street. 

BLACKSMITH SHOPS. 

HENRY SEEMAN & SON, Railroad, near Church 

CHARLES HOLLOWAY, Railroad street, adjacent 
Messrs. Seeman & Son. 

HUCKSTERS AND MEAT VENDERS. 

J. T. Watts, Mangum street. 
B. J. Odens, 
John Paschall, " 

BRICKYARDS. 

No. 1— South of Baptist church. W. A.Watson, Mana- 
ger and Contract Agent. Manufacturing at present writing 
for Durham Woollen Mills and Court House. 

No. 2— Southeast of Durham. Wm. H. Smith, Manager. 
Manufacturing at this writing 1,500,000 for W. Duke Sons 
& Co.'s new Tobacco Works. 

No. 3 — Three and a quarter miles west of Durham on 
the N. C. Railroad. R. G. Fitzgerald, Manager. 

ASSESSMENT INSURANCE IS A WASTE OF MONEY. 



242 History of Durham. 



No. 4 — East of Darham, on N. C. Railroad. G. W. Long, 
Manager. Making brick for the Cotton M'f'g. Co., main 
building and tenement houses. 

No. 5 — West of Durham, on the Chapel Hill road. R. B. 
Fitzgerald, Manager. Orders in hand for 2,000,000 bricks. 

No. 6 — East of Durham, on the Oxford road. D. Z. 
O'Brien, Proprietor. 

No. 7— Southeast of city. W. H. & C. E. J. Goodwin, 
Proprietors. 

No. 8— South street, at city limits. B. W. Matthew, Pro- 
prietor. 

LIQUOR DEALERS. 

D. A. Barnwell, dealer in Wines, Whiskeys, Cigars, etc. 
Keeps also a Billiard Table. 

S. R. Carrington, corner Depot and Mangum streets. 

J. T. Mallery— "Old Chunk"— Parrish, near Depot street. 

J. B. Gooch, Mangum street, near Railroad. 

JAMES DIKE, A. M. 

On the banks of the Kennebec, in the City of Bath, 
Maine, the subject of our sketch was born, on the 27th day 
of June, 1848. His father, the Rev. Samuel F. Dike, D. D., 
gave him the advantages of the best educational training, 
from the time he was old enough to attend school, till he 
graduated at Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Me., at the age 
of twenty-one. On leaving college, he engaged in teaching, 
and had every grade of experience from the rustic district 
school to an important position in the Boston Latin School, 
the oldest institution of learning in the United States, being 
founded in 1635. In 1876, Mr. Dike married Miss E. J. 
Loring, daughter of Mr. B. T. Loring, a merchant of Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

While teaching, Mr. Dike's health became impaired 
through overwork, and he was obliged to give up his duties 
temporarily. The School Committee of Boston, in appre- 
ciation of his services, presented him with one thousand 
dollars and six months' vacation, that he might regain his 
strength. At the close of this period, Mr. Dike undertook 
his duties, but again breaking down he resigned hi-s posi- 

PROVIDE AGAINST ACCIDENTS BY Insuring WITH J. SOUTHGATE & SON 



DuEHAM Business Directory. 243 



tion. Desiring to avoid the harshness of a northern win- 
ter, Mr. Dike, with his wife, came South to spend a few 
weeks. Under the influences of the change of climate, he 
improved in health so rapjidly, that he shortly looked about 
for some occupation that would enable him to remain for a 
length of time and reap the full benefit of the climate. 
Having lived among books all his life, it naturally occurred 
to him to open a bookstore, as most congenial to his tastes. 
He opened a store in Greensboro, N. C , whither he had first 
gone, and placed upon the shelves 890 wcrth of goods, ob- 
tained on credit from two ol the town merchants. One not 
to be forgotten day, his sales reached a total of 25 cents, 
and this was after standing in the store more than ten hours, 
without making one sale. Nevertheless his business grew, 
and at the end of the year, he rt-moved with his family to 
Durham, N. C, as a wider field seemed to be opened. The 
only store he could find for rent was a large wooden build- 
ing, not favorably located for business. At various times 
Mr. Dike moved his store, bettering his position as far as 
possible. Last December a store-room was prepared for 
him in the new brick building on the corner of Main and 
Mangum streets. This location is unsurpassed in Durham, 
and it has been said by travellers that his bookstore is one 
of the handsomest and best arranged in the State. 

Mr. Dike has been in Durham about seven years, and in 
all that time has striven hard to place before the people a 
selection of books of the highest literary merit, and has 
sternly set his face against corrupting literature. It has 
not been possible to keep as full an assortment of books as 
might be done in a larger community, but every facility 
has been offered to the people to obtain promptly any book 
published in any city. A varied line of stationery and 
artistic goods form a part of his stock. 

It is no small advantage that the town has had these 
privileges from its early growth, and it is to he hoped that 
only good results may f jUow from the earnest efforts that 
have been made. 

THE WHITTED TOBACCO WORKS. 

Mr. Whitted is a gentleman of extensive experience in^ 



Provide against Accidents by insuring with J. SOUTHGATE & SON. 



244 History of Durham. 



the manufacture of plug, twist and granulated smoking 
tobaccos. Engaged in the manufacture of tobacco at Hills- 
boro in the year of 1859, and is a pioneer of this great in- 
dustry of the State. To the industry and wisdom of such 
men as Mr. Whitted may justly be attributed the gratifying 
position North Carolina is assuming in the tobacco interests 
of America. As a tobacco producing and manufacturing 
State, in point of quantity, North Carolina has few superiors, 
and in point of quality, she is second to none. 

Mr. Whitted continued the manufacture of plug, twist 
and granulated smoking tobaccos until April, 1861, when 
he enlisted in the Confederate service, being assigned to the 
27ih N. C. S. Troops. Participated in nearly all the hard 
ficrhting in Virginia. Accompanied General Lee on his 
fa^mous raid into Maryland, and was severely wounded in 
September, 1863, during the terrific engagement at Sharps- 
burg. Although disabled for active field duty he remained 
with his command, performing light du.ies, until the close 
of hostilities, when he returned home, and once more en- 
gaged, in 1867, in his manufacturing enterpise. His various 
brands have gained much celebrity and are used through- 
out the Union. His principal brands of plug and twist 
are— "Ambrosia," "Old North State," "Walter Raleigh," 
"Nat. Macon," "Favorite," and "Ain't it Nice," and of 
granulated smoking tobaccos— " Harry Lee" and "Rising 
Star." These goods are made of the very best material, 
and are guaranteed to be free of drugs and all injurious 
concomitants, hence their great reputation and increasing 
patronage. 

In May, 1884, Mr. Whitted moved his factory to Durham, 
where he is now prosecuting his business with great vigor 
and success. His factory is located on Factory street, about 
fewo hundred yards from the railroad depot, and is amply 
furnished with all the necessary modern appliances, which 
are of the best quality. Mr. Whitted is an enterprising, in- 
dustrious and affable gentleman, and we bespeak for him 
an abundant success. 



iNQUIRK ABOUT CTCLONE INSURANCE BY WRITING TO J. SOUTHGATB & SON. 



Advertisemefts. 



245 



CHAS. H. LEWELLIN, 
MERCHANT TAILOR ! 



Keeps ill stock the finest 
line of goods for 

Gentlemen's Wear 

ever exhibited in this section, 
and is prepared to make them 
up in the most satisfactory 
and elef^ant styles, equal to 
any Tailor North or iSouth. 

Cheap as the Cheapest. 

Will continue business in 
despite of oiiposition, and 
will do all he can to please 
his patrons. 

Roherson Block Corner, 
Durham, X. ('. 

ROYAL INS. COMPANY 

(Of Liverpool.) 
Assets, - - - $4,187,679. 

J. SOUTHGATE & SON, 
Agents. 

Durham, N. C. 



T. M. ARGO, 

ATTORNEY- AT-I^AW, 

RALEIGH, N. C. 



Practices in the State and 
Federal Courts, and specially 
in Durham, Wake, Orange 
and Alamane counties. 

16 



OLD CHUNK! 

Clay Street, Durham, N. C, dealer in 

Pure Whiskies and Brandies ! 

Copper Distilled, from one 
to thirteen years old. 

MANUFACTURED AND SOLD 

exclusively by himself. 

He is shipping it by Ex- 
press all over the different 
States for Medical purposes. 
All who buy once buy again. 
J. T. MALLERY, 

Proprietor. 

J. M. BAUGOM, 

DURHAM, >. C, 

Hasjnst fitted up and am- 
ply furnished a 

Firsl-Class Boarding Honsc, 

on South Street. His table 
will always be furnished with 
Tlie Best Hie Market Affords. 
U^" He also has for sale 
on reasonable terms, a very 

Desirable Farm, 

in the Southern part of Dur- 
ham county, nine miles from 
the city of Durham. 

NORTH BRITISH AND 

MERCANTILE 

(of LONDON.) 

ASSETS, - - $3,264,426. 

J.Southgate & Son,Agts., 
Durham, N. C. 



246 History of Durham. 

The Old Travelers' Accident Ins. Co., 

OF HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT: 

ASSETS, $7,435,987, 

J. SOUTHGATE & SON, Agents. 
Durham, N. C. 



C. V/. ROCHELLE, 
PHQJTQGRAPHK RM gRMm ARTIST, 

opposite Post-Office, Main St., DurJiani, N. C, 
Copying and enlarging a Speciality. Bear in miiu] 



that ROCHELLE'6 is leading Gallery, and that he intends 
to make it First Class in every respect °^^ 

MANNING & MANNING, 
attorneys at Lav^, 

DURHAM, N. C. 
I^^^AU business promptly attended to. ^.^5 | 

5ews and Observer^ 

DAILY AND WEEKLY, RALEIGH, N. C. 

The Leading Oemocratic Journal 

OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Important Market Reports, Statistics and General In- 
telligence from all parts of the World. S. A. ASHE, Ed- 
itor." Subscription : Daily $7.00 per annum; Weekly 
$2.00 per annum. 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY AT RALEIGH, N. C. 

Democratic in Politics. 

Devoted to the Material, Moral and Educational Interests 

of North Carolina. 

R A. SHOTW ELL, Editor AND Proprietor. 

Subscription, - - - - ^2.00 per annum. 



Ada ertisements. 



247 




Sitting Bull. 

THE (iRlGINAL 

Durham Loug Cut, 

AND 

POGUE'S 

jURHAM ci&arette;^. 

Mamifactured by 

E. H. Po^ue & Sou, 

Durham, N. C. 



UaFtf OFd l^lp© IttSt e&^B 

HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT, 
ASSETS, $4,541,239. 

J. SOUTHGATE & SON, Agents, 
Durham, N. C. 



wkUii.^ 






Remington Standard 

TYPE- WRITERS. 




S^REMII^GTONyK; 



yfff^^ 



Every Merchant, Lawyer, Book- 
Keeperand Minister shouKl have one. 
Send for V/ircular, 

MORTON W. REED, Agent. 
Durham, N. C. 



Equitable Life Assurance Society 



OF 



NEW YORK: 
ASSETS, $53,030,581. 

Wrote more than Eighty one Millions of New Business 
during year 18S3. 

J. SOUTHGATE & SON, Agents, 

l5urham,N. C. 



248 History of Durham. 

P. H. MAYO & BRO., 

Tobacco Manufacturers, 

RICHMOND, VIRGINIA. 



[Established iu 1830 by Robt. A. Mayo.] 

ORIGINATORS OF 

NAVY TOBACCO, 

OF WHICH THEY MAKE A 

ggr SPECIALITY IN ALL SIZES AND C0L0RS.=@3i 

mMWEwm ©mai^M^ 

DURHAM, N. C, 

Dealer in Leaf Tobacco. 

[Estalished in 1875.] 

^^^ Prompt attention given to all orders and satisfaction 

guaranteed. =^^ 

NEW YORK UNDERWRITERS' AGENCY, 

HANOVER AND CITIZENS,' 

Assets, $3,699,794. 

J. SOUTHGATE & SON, Agents, 

Durham, N. C 



Advertisements. 



249 



LONDON 

AND 

LANCASHIRE 

(Of Liverpool.) 

Assets, - - - $1,398,546. 

J. SOUTHGATE & SONS, 
Agents, 

Durham, N. C. 



PHGENIX INS. COMPANY 

OF 

Hartford, Conn., 
Assets, - - - $4,435,000. 

T. SOUTHGATE & SON, 
Agents, 

Durham, N. C. 



The Tobacco Plant, 

DURHAM, N, C. 

[ESTA)!LISHEn IN 1S72.] 

A Sterling Democratic and Trade Weekly Newspaper, devoted to the best 
interests of North Carolina. Largest circulation of any pajier in middle Caro- 
lina. Subscription $1.50 per year. Advertising terms lilieral. 

C. B, GBEEX, Editor and Broprietor, 

Fire Association of Philadelphia, 

ASSETS, $4,279,676. 

REniESENTED BY 

J. SOUTHGATE & SON, 
Durham, N. C. 

BOOKS ! BOOKS! 
North Carolina Headquarters 



AT 



:» 



,l®^» 



® WW 

Book ©tore, 

RALEIGH, N. C. 

We can supply all your wants at 

Lowest Prices. 



2o0 



History of Dcrham, 



T. K. CHILDREY. 



A. M. LYON. 



Nos. 1434 and 1436, cor. Caiy and 15th Streets, 



RICHMOND, VA., 



TOBACCO MAjYUFACTURIA'G COMPAJVY 



ALL GRADES 



Pkg, Twist and Smoking Tobaccos. 



CLOTH OF GOLD, 
PEACH BLOSSOM. 
BEST OF ALL, 



A^"CHOR, SUNNY SOUTH, 

SULTANA, GLEANER, 

BIRD IN HAND, FLORA BELL, &c. 



# 






^mi 



§ 



DURHAM, N. C. 



Leaf Tobacco Broker 



All orders, of whatever grade, promptly filled and 



Sa^tisfa^ction (3-Tj.a.ra.nteed.. 



Deals Exclusively in the Celebrated Tobacco grown in 
the "Golden Belt of North Carolina." 



Advertisements. 251 



LAW. LOTTIER, Manufacturer. I 



CO 
PI 

d 

in 

•rH 
O 

o 



Durham, Silver Coin 



AND 



GOLD ROLL 

Brands of Plug Tobacco, also of the latest 
success 

OLICE 

two 




^ jy lyi lif ® 



Richmond, Virginia. 



*< 

o 



P 

o 



o 

2. 
p 



DIKE'S 



School Books of every kind on hand, or promptly supplied to order. 

Stor)'^Books, Magazines and Newspapers, Hymn Books and Pocket Bibles, 
Children's Toy Books, Family Bibles, Dictionaries, Encyclopedias. 

Writing Paper in various styles, such as Legal Cap, Bill Cap, Foolscap, Let- 
ter and Ladies' Note Paper. 

Albums, Scrap Books, Papeteries, Ink, Pencils, Pens, &c., &c, 

Pnpcr Bags at wholesale. 

In our Music Department 

We can furnish any article from a Violin String to a Piano or a Church 
Organ. Violins, Guitars, Accordeons, Banjos. 

Z^A superior lot of Violin, Guitar and Banjo Strings just received at low 
Prices. 



252 



History of Durham. 



THE SEARS' 
LIVERY 

EXCHANGE STABLES. 

MR. A. A. SEARS, 

The popular and courteous Proprietor, 
settled in Durham in the year 1838, 
and attended school two years. In 
1870 he engaged in the manufacture of 

Smoking' Tobacco, 

In co-partnership witli Mr. T. B. Mor- 
ris, their only brand being 

" The Star." 

He continued in this business until 
1872, when he opened his 

Livery and Exchange 
Stables, 

■which are certainly tlie 

MOST COMPLETE 
in all their departments of any Estab- 
lishment of the kind in the State. 
jKff=-The Stables are situated on Main, 
between Depot and Green streets, 

Daiiiam, 3f. C. 

YOUNG ER'S 

Boarding and Lodging House, 

Main Street, bet. Church 
and Mangum, Durham, N. 
C, on tlie 

European Plan. 

p^^ Tables always supplied 
with the Best the Market 
affords. =^^ 

Transient board 

$1.00 per day, 

including lodging. 

C. G. YOUNGER, 

Proprietor. 



B. L. DUKE & CO.'S 

IS 

HEADQUARTERS 

For all kinds of 

FURNITURE 

and 

Undertaker's Supplies. 

g^^ Call and examine qual- 
ity and prices. 

Durham, N. C. 
NORTHERN ASSURANCE C'O., 

OF 

ABERDEEN AND LONDON, 

ASSETS, $1,296,426. 

J. SOUTHGATE & SON, 

Agents, 

Durham, N. C. 

SUPERIOR WORK ! 



CHARLES HOLLA\YAY 



OPENED A 



First-Class Blacksmith Shop 

On Railroad St., Durham, in 
1878, and ever since has been 
turning out First-Class work 

At Reasonable Prices. 

Best Temperer in Durham. 



Advertisements. 253 



R. T. HOTTgEERTOH d^ BRO.^ 

Keep constantly on hand a choice stock of 

UNDERT AKER'S CO OPS. 

The Carriage TIpTIQIitlllpllt is complete in all its details and only f/»e 
and Bu^gy UOPul lUlulll Very Best Material Used. 

RKPAIRI>iG A SI>ECIAI,TY. 

Prompt attention paid to all orders. aII work executed with dispatch and in 
the most skillful manner. 

ALLEN, JONES & CO., 

COKNEK 

PINE AND CORA STREETS, 
DURHAM, N. C, 

HAVE FITTED UP FIRST CLASS 

LIVERY AND EXCHANGE STABLES» 

F'or the accommodation of the puhlic, at very nioflerate prices. Then 
Livery is unexcelled In all its details. All orders tilled with promptness and 
dispatch. Orders respectfully solicited and entire satisfaction guaranteed. 

03L.ID I^ELI-^BLE, 




MAIN STREET, DURHAM, X. C, 

r»EALERS IX 

Heavy and Fancy Groceries, Dry Goods, Boots and 
Shoes, and General Merchandise. 

ALSO A CHOICE STOCK OF 

Crockery, Cutlery, Etc. 
The Oldest Merchant in Durham. 

E. IB. xjTL:Er5r, is/l. id.. 

Offers liis Professional Services to the citizens of Durham 
and surrounding country. 

SUi[GE[[Y i DISEASES OF CH1LDI[EN A SPECIALTY, 

Prompt attention given to all calls ivlietlier in or out of the city. 

Office at G. B. Montague's Drug Store. Main between Church and Mangum 
Streets. 

17 



254 



Advertisements. 



S. 



PERRY, 



DEALER IX 



DRY GOOBS, STAPLE MD FANCY GROCERIES, 

I have a large and varied assortment of 

Canned Goods, Bacon, Lard, Meal, Flour, Pickles, Cof- 
fee and Su^ar. 

In fact you -will find at my store everything usually kept in a first class Dry 
Goods and Grocery Store. In matter of price we cannot be undersold. Al! 
goods promptly delivered free, and jiuaranteed as to quality and price. 

S. R. PERRY, Durham, N. C. 

Established iu 1874. 




P. J. MANGUM, 

RAILROAD STREET BELOW PINE, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

Sasl, Boors, BliMs ai Mollis 



OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS. 
All work executed witli promptness and in the most workmanlike manner. 
REPAIRING A SPECIALTY. 

Also all kinds of work usually executed by ^Lrst Class O-^^iaertafeers 
Also all ^i°'^^^^M>^=_'t^'-4l ica32:ers- Satisfaction guaranteed. 

Robert Dymott. 



C. J. O'Brien. 

C.J. O'BRIEN &C0,, 

Old Kemper Corner, Durham, N. C, 

PLUMBERS i STEM I GAS FITTEBS. 

Eirst Class Workmen and laterial 

ALL ORDERS FILLED WITH 

Promptness, Neatness and Dispatch. 

ORDERS RESPECTFUEI^r SOEICMTEn. 

SatisfactioH in Every Respect Guaranteed. 



Advertisements. 



255 



EST A B L I S H E I) I X 1 S :i 7 . 

FOR FINE BRIGHT TOBACCO and ALL CROPS USE 

sr & Sois Gompiiy's lw\i\ Coipifl, 

MA.XUF VCTl EEI) AT BALTI310KE, Ml)., BY 

C. Ober $t Sons Company. 



G. 



ILVr/riMOUE, >rp., February 1st, lS8J.-We desire to exleinl onr most hearty 
congratulations to tlie ^rrowcrs t)f bright Tol)nceo— not only im account ol the 
present high prices uf tlioir st;iplo, hut lor the hriglit proniise of fuluie rewar I 
to thoi?e who grow GOOD, FIN'i-;. and FANCY Tol).icco. The Iiternal Hcveimc 
Department of the United Slates shows that for the past fl%-e years the pniduc- 
tion of Tobacco in tlic United .states has not equalled consumption in tlie Slatefe; 
and exports; as a coii!?e(iuence the Tohacco markets of the world are gr-'Qtly re- 
duced in stocks; particnhuly is this the casewitli HUKillT TOHAC\ < >. wl'.icli 
has grown in favor vear hv vear the worM ov<t 'Tis even said that nne ^vh() 
has once used the FLl'E-CUKED MRIGHT TOBACCO of Virginia and Xoith 
Carolina becomes so attached to its delicate flavor tiiai lie can neve*- be induced 
to use any other when that is obt^iinalile. Indeed, there is no ot I ler staple crop 
grown that now holds out such proniise of profit. With these flattering jiros- 
pecls for the future, it behooves every grower rif YKLl.OW TOI5Al'CO loniake 
every pound he can, and to bo sure to secur.^ an OLD, KELIAHLK, and TRIEU 
Fertilizer. The almost unparalelled success that has attended tlieuseofour 
Fertilizer in the past, shows tlint it is just the food required for growing GOOD. 
FINE, and FANCY HKIGIIT TOBACCO. It is made only from the best mate- 
rial, and is rich iu Soluble i'hosphate, Ammonia, and Totash, beautifully and 
unifornily combined; fine, dry, and in prime condition for drilling, and HAS 
NO SUPERIOR, if an ci)Ual, lor the i>rrduction of Bright Yellow Tobacco, and 
equals any Fertilizer lor the various other crops grown in Virginia and North 
Carolina. 





In rear of Howerton's Carriage Shop, 




r)UR,H:A.:M:, isr, o„ 

A First Class and Complete Livery Line. 

An experience of many years in handling and managino 
liorses, has given iiim a practical knowledge in his 

line nnsurpappcd hy any man in the State. 
.Vll Orders are Atlciulod to ^vith rroinplncss and DisputoJi. 

Employs only such Assistants as are th roushly 
versed in the business. 



250 



A DVERTISEMENTS. 



d 



I 



Factory Street, Durhafn, N, C, 



MANUFACrrREJiS OF ALL GRADES OF 



FlM aiii fwlst 




cos 



AND FINE GRADES OF 



amilatei Ssukb Tobacoo. 



ALL GOODS GUARANTEED 



First Class in Every Respect 



FINE GOODS A SPECIALTY. 



SMOKE 



Jl b i^ h # b a 




Cigtirettes and Long Cnt, 



Manufactured by 



SIEGEL BROTHERS, 



H. A. REAMS, 

DURHAM, N. C. 

Bright Tobaccos a specially and deals extensively in bright scrap. 
Has sold more than 40,000,000 ponnds of Leaf Tobacco in twelve years. 
Refers to Eugene Morehead & Co., Bankers, and W. T. Blackwell, Banker, 
Durham, N. C. 

Home Insurance Company 

OF 

ASSETS, $7,492,751 

J. 80UTIK4ATE & SON, Agknt.s, 
Durlumi, N. (I 



JP' 





Rev. W. H. MILBURN 

&ty. W. H. MiiBua.N, D.O., the famous 
l>Und preacher, write. 
New York, April 3d, 1884 
For ten or twelve years 1 have 
used Bl; ckwell's Durham Smok- 
ing Tobacco, and founu it the 
most satisfactory of all I have 
tried. I gave Thomas Carlyle a 
pound of it, as we often smoked 
together, and he warmly praiseJ 
it. I have found no tobacco on 
c:u..r continent that compares 
wiiu ' Vou'^ truly.