(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "History of the town of Elma, Erie County, N.Y. : 1620 to 1901"

«4 



LANCASTER, 




ELMA 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



TOWN OF ELMA 



ERIE COUNTY, N. Y. 



1620 TO I go I 



By warren J a C K M a N 



BUFFALO : 

Printed by G. M. Hausauer & Son 

1902 



THE t!SRAi^Y «F 
Two Copies Heceiveo 

J APR. f@ 1902 

SsO^'XXa ^3o.l 
/ X -I J" S 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1901, by 

WARREN JACKMAN, 

ia the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington, D. C. 






TO THE PEOPLE OF ELMA 

When I commenced to write the History of the Town of Ehna, 
there was no thought of financial compensation, or that it would 
ever be printed; but to please friends and to secure some records 
and items that might be helpful to some future writer of histor3^ 

I now make to the people of the town of Elma a free gift of the 
time, thought, study, and labor, which in the last four years have 
been devoted to gathering the information, arranging the items, 
and writing this history; trusting that a generous public will not 
be too severe in criticising the errors and omissions. 

Warren Jackman. 

Elma, N. Y., Feb., 1902. 



DEDICATION 

This book is dedicated to James T. Hurd, James A. Woodard, 
Myron H. Clark and Louis P. Reuther, a Committee on Printing 
and Finance, who assumed the obhgation to pay all bills for print- 
ing and expenses ; without this generous act on their part the proba- 
bilities are the History of the Town of Elma would never have 

been printed. 

The Author. 



INTRODUCTION 

Histories of nations and states, and even of some counties and 
cities are at hand in most of our public and private libraries ; but a 
history of a town is not often to be found. Why is this? Is it be- 
cause such a history is not necessary ; because of the small area of 
territory ; of the small and scattered population ; of the ignorance, 
poverty, want of enterprise among the people ; of the small impor- 
tance attached to the growth and development of the town, and 
the events to be mentioned ; or is it because no person or persons 
have been able or willing to devote the necessary time to gather 
the facts and so arrange them as to make a history? This, last, is 
most likely the true reason. 

Many times within the last twelve or fifteen years I have been 
entreated by several of my neighbors to write a history of the 
town of Elma. My reply "that I was not a historian,'' was met 
with the statement, ''that being one of the early settlers in the 
town (coming in the spring of 1851), and having surveyed every 
road and almost every lot in the town, having been the first Town 
Clerk, after the formation of the town, and continuing as such 
Clerk for three years, thus becoming acquainted with every man 
then residing in the town, and having in my possession and within 
my reach books and papers that no other person in the town had, 
or could have, that I ought to give this information to the people, 
in the form of a history of the town of Elma." 

After much thought and with many doubts and fears, at seventy- 
five years of age, being too old to be engaged at continuous hard 
labor, and thinking this might give employment for a few leisure 
hours I consented to write one chapter as an experiment ; with the 
agreement that I should read that chapter at a meeting of the 
"Young People's Association of Elma Villag'e." I thought when 
that chapter was read they would be satisfied that writing history 
was not in my line and that would close up the matter. 

According to agreement I wrote what is here given as Chapter 
One, and read it before the Association on the evening of March 
18th, 1897; but instead of saying that was enough, I was urged to 
go on and write a complete history of the town. 

So I commenced on Chapter two, thinking that it would take 
but a few pages to mention all that would be of interest, as the 
town had been organized but a few years; but I found that the 
recording of one incident introduced another that required men- 

11 



tioning, and that another, and so there grew to be a wider and 
more extended range of subjects, and so the work has been con- 
tinued until some of the incidents of the year 1901 are mentioned. 

I have consulted, as helps in obtaining facts for this work, his- 
tories and encyclopedias as to the earlj^ settlement of the country, 
the histories of the Civil War by J. T. Headley and Horace Greeley; 
and for other parts of the work, I have used the records in the 
Erie County Clerk's Office, the Records in the office of the Clerk 
of the Board of Supervisors of Erie Count}'-, N. Y., and of the 
Town Clerk's office of the town of Elma. 

In addition to the above, from my own personal knowledge, (hav- 
ing kept a diary for many A^ears) and from information obtained 
b}^ correspondence and from persons who were on the ground and 
who knew whereof they spoke I have gathered and arranged the 
facts here presented. 

Among the persons who have been consulted and from whom 
very much valuable information lias been obtained, they being, or 
having been, most of them, residents of the town of Elma, and 
many of them having been among the first or early settlers of the 
town, and to whom I am under man}^ obligations, and to whom I 
hereby tender especial thanks for the help they have rendered, are 
the following, viz. : 



Mr. Chester Adams, 

Mr. John Quinc}" Adams, 

Mr. Harry Dingman, 

Mr. Edwin H. Dingman, 

Mr. William H. Davis, 

Mr. John Estabrook, 

Mr. Willard Fairbanks, 

Mr. Wallace W. Fones, 

Mr. Joseph Grace, 

Mr. James J. Grace, 

Mr. George W. Hatch, 

Mr. Niles^Hatch, 

Mr. Conrad P. Hensel, 

Mr. Cyrus Hurd, 

Mr. Harry Jones, 

Mr. Jacob Kock, 

Mr. George Leger, 

Mrs. Erastus J. Markham, 

Mr. Eli B. Northrup, 

Mr. Stephen Northrup, ' 

Mr. Harvey C. Palmer, 

Mr. Christopher Peek, 

Mr. John Scott, 



Mr. W. Wesley Standart, 

Mr. Benjamin F. Stetson, 

Mr. Julius P. Wilder, 

Mr. Thomas D. Williams, 

Rev. William Waith, 

Mrs. Wm. Baker (nee Lucia A. 

Morris) daughter of David J. 

Morris, 
j\Irs. Daniel Ronian (nee Betsey 

Hatch) daughter of Leonard 

Hatch, 
Mr. and ]\Irs. Jos. 
Mr. and Mrs. Alonzo C. Bancroft, 
Mr. and Mrs. John Carman, 
Mr. and Mrs. Scott Fairbanks, 
Mr. and Mrs. Wm, W. Grace, 
Mr. and Mrs. Clark AV. Hurd, 
Mr. and Mrs. Fowler Munger, 
Mr. and Mrs. Harrison Tillou, 
Mr. and Mrs. James H. Ward, 
Mr. and Mrs. Dennis L. AVilson, 
Mr. and Mrs. Eron Woodard, 
Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Young. 



B. Briggs, 



12 



While I have been able to obtain much information from the 
above mentioned sources, there have been many incidents and 
conditions in the town of Elma within the last 70 years which would 
be of much interest to particular individuals and communities, and 
which would make large additions to this history could they have 
been obtained ; but it was practically impossible for me to personally 
see and interview every person or famil}^ in the town and to thus 
obtain these items, so I have been obliged to omit that part which, 
however, may be written by some historian in later years. 

Some ma}" say that there is much that is no part of, and has 
nothing to do with the town of Elma; while admitting that these 
parts may not be absolutely necessary, there is such a strong con- 
necting link, that I thought it would make the whole chain more 
complete. It may be said that to some parts of the town more 
space is given, more items and incidents are mentioned than to 
other portions. To a certain extent this may be true, as in some 
parts of the town information was more readily given ; and as great 
changes have been made in the resident population of the town, 
it was, in some places impossible to obtain the desired items, or to 
obtain correct and reliable information on the points desired. 

In the History more than 8,000 times are individuals, places, sub- 
jects, and incidents mentioned, each having required from ten 
minutes to five or six hours of time. 

When I first consented to commence this work had I realized 
the amount of time, labor and thought that would be required to 
obtain and arrange the items, and write the History, it is very likely 
that the Lion in the way would have appeared so large and terrible 
that I would have never begun the work ; but I have alwaj^s found 
the Lion securely chained, and the way open for my escape. 

I have learned that the hardest thing to find in this world is 
exact truth; especiall}^ is this the case when the investigation has 
reference to incidents of past time; to the time whose actors are 
dead, and whose direct testimony cannot be obtained. To deal 
with these questions, and to get the truth when the opinions of the 
living conflict, becomes to the writer of history a matter of no 
small moment, and requires much thought and labor. 

Perfection in the works of man being so exceedingly rare, and 
because of the inability to obtain at times the desired information, 
I cannot claim that this History in all its parts, is entirely perfect. 
That there may be found slight inaccuracies, and what some will 
say are errors or mistakes, is more than probable; but with the 
light, knowledge and help that has been within my reach, I have 
tried to reduce these to the lowest possible limit. 

13 



PLAN OF THE HISTORICAL PART 

The first settlement in the town having been made on the Mile 
Strip (see Map), followed by settlements at East Elma and vicinity, 
at Elma Village and vicinity, and at Spring Brook and vicinit}^, a 
chapter has been devoted to each of these places from the date of 
settlement to the time the town was formed, December 4th, 1856; 
from that date the whole town is carried along together, year by 
year, to the close of the 3^ear 1900: my thought being to close the 
historical part with that date, but later I decided to add some of the 
incidents of the year 1901 in the town as an Appendix. 

See table of contents for the subject matter and page of each 
Chapter. 

Mention of any person, place or event can be readily found by 
the Index in the last part of the book. 

Warren Jackman. ' 



14 



CONTENTS 

CHAP. PAGE . 

1 Geography of the Town of Elma 17 

2 North American Indians. Five Nations 22 

3 Rights and Jurisdiction of Nations 37 

4 State Jurisdiction — Counties of New York 56 

5 Looking Backwards 65 

6 Western New York in 1797 and 1900— 

Settlement of Mile Strip in Elma 75 

7 Estabrook Mill and Vicinity 87 

8 East Elma 1837 to 1856 96 

9 Elma Village and Vicinity 1845 to 1856 104 

10 Spring Brook and Vicinity 1834 to 1856 122 

11 Town of Elma 1857—1858 ^ 133 

12 Town of Elma 1859—1865. ' 143 

13 Presidential Election 1860 157 

14 Cause of the Civil War 170 

15 Town of Elma 1866—1884 197 

16 Town of Elma 1885—1900 217 

17 Names and Description of Roads 250 

18 Names of 560 Persons, with Date of Marriage 257 

19 Names of 400 Persons, with Age and Date of Death .... 269 

20 Names of 420 Resident Owners of Real Estate in 1900 . . 282 
Names of 660 Registered Voters in Elma in 1900 289 

21 United States and State Census of Elma 296 

Table of Town Officers 1857 to 1901 298 

Table of Assessments and Taxes 1857—1900 300 

Post Offices in the Town of Elma 301 

Churches in the Town of Elma 302 

Schools in the Town of Elma 307 

Appendix for 1901 310 



15 



ERRATA 

On page 122 the 14th hne from the top track should be tract. 
On page 152 the 18th hne from iha bottom 1836 should be 1863. 
On page 177 the 13th line from the top Smith should be Scott. 



16 




CHAPTER I. 



GECXiRAPHY OF THE TOWN OF ELMA. 

HAT is History? 

History is the record of important 'events 
so arranged as to show the changes that have 
taken place, and to consider the causes that have 
operated to produce these results. 

In the town of Elma, State of New York, and 
the United States, its territory, matters of government, political 
influence, agriculture, arts, manufactures, commerce, wealth, etc., 
etc. — have these always been as we see them today? If not, then 
there have been changes, and these have been produced by certain 
causes. A record of these general and local incidents is our history. 

The town of Elma is in the centre of the county of Erie, in the 
State of New York, in the United States of North America. A 
history of the town of Elma is therefore a history of a part of the 
Count}^ of Erie, and of a part of the State of New York, and also 
a history of a part of the United States. 

As a corollary — the history of the United States is, in part, a 
history of the town of Elma. 

The history of any region, nation, or locality, properly begins with 
its original inhabitants, with mention of the earliest events and 
incidents, which later on work out results which bring that par- 
ticular region into prominence. Then follows the life work in detail. 
So the history of the United States usually begins with an account 
of the earliest discoveries of the American Continent, and the 
claims to territory by Spain, France, England and Holland, with 
their efforts to plant colonies ; and thus by possession, to hold the 
territory they each claimed. 

More than four hundred years have passed since Christopher 
Columbus made his first voyage of discovery. 

It took the nations of Europe one hundred and thirty years to 
plant four colonies as permanent settlements in what is now the 
United States. 



17 



INFANT PERIOD OF THE COLONIES. 

The infant period of this country was begun by these early set- 
tlements; and the Pilgrims, on November 11th, 1620, before leav- 
ing the May Flower gave in their Constitution the kej^ note or 
outbreathing of a spirit that was to grow and increase, until all the 
colonies should be permeated with its principles. 

No magic wand was at that time passed over this land to sud- 
denly transform the wilderness into the rich and prosperous country 
as we now see it. Instead, these changes came through years of 
toil, hardship, privations, suffering, massacres, oppression, wars 
and long waiting. The difficulties with which the colonies had to 
contend — wars with the French and Indians; troubles with 
Great Britain which culminated in the Revolutionary war; the 
trials, dangers and doubts which attended the Confederacy; and 
later, the formation of a government by the adoption of the Con- 
stitution of United States in 1787, required all the wisdom and 
sagacity of the best statesmen the world ever knew to save the 
country from total wreck. This constituted the infant period 
of one hundred and seventy years of this nation. Then Brother 
Jonathan, or Uncle Sam, had reached the stature of a full grown 
man, ready to do business, and the United States became, in fact, 
one of the nations of the earth. The young man has been doing 
a prosperous business for more than one hundred 3'ears. 

As patriotic citizens, we all love our country and have admira- 
tion and respect almost to reverence for all those persons who 
took such active parts in the early period of our history; and we 
take a great interest in all the events that have, to this date, 
worked together during these two hundred and eight}' 3'ears, 
which has brought us from a wilderness inhabited b}^ roving tribes 
of savages, into the possession of a continent extending from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the great lakes and Canada to the 
Gulf of Mexico, with more than seventy-six millions of people, and 
with all the vast resources and possibilities which have made us a 
great and prosperous and influential nation; the wonder and ad- 
miration of statesmen everywhere, and the leader among the nations 
of the earth. 

We have in the well written histories of our country a full nar- 
rative of all these events and incidents with causes and results in 
minute detail ; and as the history of the United States in general, 
is, in part, a history of the town of Elma, it is not necessary in 
writing a history of this town to mention these separate incidents 
only so far as they have a direct relation to this particular locality. 

The name, Elma, was given to this town in December, 1856, when 
the town was formed from Lancaster and Aurora. The early his- 



tory commenced many years before that date, and it may be well 
to here state that the name, "Town of Elma," and the local names 
as now known will be applied to any event affecting this locality, 
whether it has reference to a time before or after the actual organ- 
ization of the town. 

BOUNDARY. 

The town of Elma lies a little northeast of the centre of the 
County of Erie, in the State of New York and is bounded on the 
north by Lancaster, east by Marilla, south by Aurora, and west by 
East Hamburg and West Seneca, and is six miles in extent, east 
and west, about five and two-thirds miles north and south and 
contains twenty-one thousand three hundred and ninety acres 
of land for assessment of taxes, and is known on deeds and legal 
papers as a part of the Buffalo Creek Reservation, and also as 
Town 10, Range 6 of the Holland Land Company Surveys. 

TOPCXJRAPHY. 

No causes are known, or are supposed to have existed since the 
Glacial Period, that would produce any general or local changes 
in the face of the country in this locality. We may therefore con- 
clude that the hills, the plains and the valleys are today practically 
as they have been for hundreds, and possibly thousands of years. 

STREAMS. 

The principal streams in the town are the Little Buffalo, the Big 
Buffalo, the Cazenove Creeks and Pond Brook. 

The Little Buffalo Creek enters the town from Marilla about one 
and one-half miles south from the northeast corner of Elma, in a 
channel about twenty feet wide and three to five feet deep in a 
valley sixty to eighty rods wide; has a general northwest course 
and passes into Lancaster about seven-eights of a mile west from 
the northeast corner of Elma. The valley through which this 
stream flows is sixty to eighty feet below the general level of the 
country, with steep bluffy sides or banks. 

The Big Buffalo Creek crosses the town line from Marilla about 
three-fourths of a mile north from the southeast corner of Elma in 
a channel eighty to one hundred and twenty feet wide and six to 
ten feet deep. This is a A-ery crooked stream, its general, tortuous 
course being northwest for about one mile, thence northerly through 
East Elma, and on for about three and one-half miles, thence west- 
erly four and one-half miles passing through Elma village, thence 
north-westerly one and one-fourth miles through Blossom, into 

19 



West Seneca about one-third of a mile south from the northwest 
corner of the town of Elma. The valley of this stream is sixty to 
one hundred rods wide with steep banks, generally perpendicular 
walls of shale on one or the other side. The bed of the stream is 
thirty to eighty feet below the surrounding country. 

The Cazenove Creek, named for Theophilus Cazenove, agent for 
the Holland Land Company, crosses the Aurora town line about 
one mile east from the southwest corner of Elma, in a channel 
eighty to one hundred feet wide, and six to ten feet deep, takes a 
general north course for two and one-half miles to Spring Brook, 
thence westerly one mile crossing into West Seneca about two and 
one-half miles north from the southwest corner of Elma. The 
valley of this stream is sixty to one hundred rods wide, with gen- 
erally steep banks sixty to one hundred feet high and perpendic- 
ular walls of shale on one or the other side. 

Pond Brook has its name from large ponds at its head, which are 
in the town of Aurora just across the Elma town line and about 
one and one-half miles west from the northeast corner of Aurora. 
The general course of this brook is west of north for five miles, when 
it enters the Big Buffalo Creek at Elma village. Its channel is 
eight to twenty feet wide and two to four feet deep in a valley six 
to twenty rods wide, with banks eight to forty feet high. 

GEOLOGY. 

The lowest rocks are the Hamilton Shales succeeded by Tully 
limestone and Genesee slate. 

The Hamilton Shales form the bed and banks of the Big Buffalo 
Creek from the west line of the toAvn to where the Bullis Mills were 
located; the bed of Pond Brook, from the Big Buffalo Creek to 
where the W^illiam Standart saw mill was built, just north from 
the Bullis Road, and the bed and walls of the Cazenove Creek from 
the west line of the town to the Northrup Mills at Spring Brook. 

The Tully limestone, so called because it is found near the top of 
the hills in the town of Tully m the south part of Onondaga County, 
is also called encrinal limestone because of the great number of 
fossil remains of Encrinites, the joints and stems of which are 
small calcareous disks, sometimes called fossil button moulds. This 
Limestone crobs out in the Cazenove Creek at the Northrup mills, 
and in Pond Brook just north of the Bullis Road, and again in the 
Big Buffalo Creek just north or below the Bullis Bridge. 

The Genesee slate, lying immediately aboA^e the Tully limestone, 
forms the bed and walls of the Big Buffalo and Cazenove Creeks 
above the points named to the south and east parts of the town 
and frequently crops out on the hillsides in those places. 

20 



A ridge or elevation ten to twenty feet high extends in a north- 
east and southwest direction across the town a Httle north of the 
centre. That portion of the town lying north of this ridge is the 
same nearly level portion of the county that extends east and 
north from Buffalo, and in Elma is broken only bj^ the valley of the 
Big Buffalo Creek and the gullies caused by its small branches. 
The soil is a clayey loam, resting on the Hamilton shales. South 
of this ridge the surface becomes more rolling; the highest hills 
in the southeast part of the town being one hundred to one hundred 
and fifty feet above the beds of the streams. The soil in this hilly 
part of the town is a drift formation of gravel and loose boulders. 
The soil in the valleys of the stream is alluvium. 

FOREST. 

This town was probably for many centuries, and to a time within 
the remembrance of many persons now living, a dense forest or 
wilderness with a very heavy growth of timber and was the home 
of wild animals and the wilder tribes of savages called Indians. 

TIMBER. 

The principal varieties of timber may be given as white and 
yellow pine, hemlock, white, red and black oak, white and black 
ash, sugar, rock, and white or soft maple, black walnut, butternut, 
shell bark hickory, basswood, whitewood, cucumber, bitternut, 
black cherry, iron wood and birch. 

Pine and oak were found principally in the eastern, southern 
and central parts of the town. The other varieties were common 
everywhere. 

It is only within the last few years that a white man has lived 
within the limits of the town. 

INDIANS. 

About thirty families of Indians were the only residents. These 
had their homes on the flats of the Big Buffalo and Cazenove Creeks 
or on the high banks near these streams. It was on these flats that 
they had small clearings of three or four acres on which they 
raised corn, beans, and gourds. The balance of their living they 
obtained by hunting and fishing and from the whites in the adjoin- 
ing towns. 

These Indians have a history; and as they were the original 
owners and occupants of the lands, it is proper that we take them 
in review and in the next chapter give them a little notice as to 
their traditions, their history as we know it, their living here and 
finally, their selling out and moving away, giving place to the 
present residents of the town of Elma. 

21 



CHAPTER II. 



NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. 




'hen the American Continent was first discovered, the 
voj^agers everywhere, north, south, and east, on the 
coast, and in the interior, found the country occupied 
by a people they called Indians. 

These Indians were generally roving tribes, chang- 
ing their places of residence as wars or hunting made the change 
necessary, A few of the tribes were permanently located, had 
villages, cleared fields and orchards, and some of the villages were 
enclosed with palisades as a protection against any attacking 
enemy. 

The State of New York, except what is now Erie and Chautauqua 
counties and the southeast corner of the State was claimed and 
occupied by five tribes, viz: Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, 
Cayugas and Senecas; known the world over as the Iroquois or 
Five Nations. 

The Mohawks had their principal villages on the Mohawk River; 
their territory embracing the northern and eastern part of the State. 

The Oneidas lived on and near Oneida Lake. The Onondagas 
occupied the territory around Onondaga Lake. The Cayugas had 
their villages around Cayuga Lake. The Senecas before 1780 had 
their chief village, Kan-a-de-sa-ga, just west of the present site of 
Geneva, at the foot of Seneca Lake. They were the most numerous, 
powerful and warlike of the Five Nations. 

The question has often been asked: ''When did these five tribes 
obtain possession of so much territory?" 



ONONDAGA AND SENECA TRIBES. 

History tells us that when Champlain, the French explorer, came 
from Montreal into Lake Ontario and up the Oswego River in 
July, 1609, he found the Onondagas in full possession of all that 
country, and when the French first came to the Niagara River they 
found the Senecas there; but when they reached Lake Erie they 
found a small tribe at the foot of the Lake to which they gave 

22 



the name of Neuters; and on the south shore of the Lake were the 
Erie or Cat Indians, 

The Neuters and Eries were overpowered by the Senecas in a 
war between them about 1645, and the result was that the Senecas 
came into possession of all the land and villages of the defeated tribes. 

Some nations which have had no written language by which to 
keep a record of important events, have used pictures or characters 
as emblems carved on stone or metals. Other nations have made 
characters or figures of some sort on blocks of soft clay which when 
baked, become indestructible. These are now being found in exca- 
vations and ruins of long lost and buried cities in the east. 

Other nations not so far advanced in civilization [the American 
Indians belonging to this class] have kept in remembrance some of 
their most important events by tradition ; parents telling the story 
to their children and friends, and so on through many generations. 

It is not at all strange that these stories from being told and 
retold many times may, in some respects, become changed and 
so tradition, as a rule, must be taken as rather uncertain and unsat- 
isfactory evidence; but the main or leading thought can always be 
found. 



TRADITIONS. 

The Onondagas and the Senecas were the only tribes of the Iro- 
quois Confederacy that had any tradition of anything prior to the 
settlements made by the whites. 

The traditions of the Iroquois nation since Champlain came into 
their country in 1609, accord exactly with the history that we have 
of them; and as there is this agreement between our history and 
their traditions so long as we have known them, it is fair to infer 
that their earlier traditions are nearly correct; and as they furnish 
the only, and therefore the best evidence we can obtain, we are 
obliged to accept these traditions as approximately correct. 

The Onondaga tradition is that they were the oldest if not the 
mother tribe of the Five Nations. 

That several hundred years before they ever saw a white man, 
they lived in Canada; and being defeated in wars with a superior 
tribe, they fled in boats across Lake Ontario and up the Oswego 
River to Onondaga Lake where they stopped. Here they lived 
and as they increased in numbers and extended their settlements, 
they found fortified villages of inhabitants who were acquainted 
with agriculture and had cultivated fields and orchards whom they 
overpowered and took possession of their lands. 

They called them Mound Builders. The Onondagas have no 
tradition as to the time they overpowered this people, or as to the 

23 



time when they organized their system of clans, or when they 
formed their confederacy of the Five Nations, all of which may 
have been 600 or 1000 years ago. We learn by this tradition that 
these Mound Builders were here before the Onondagas came from 
Canada. It is not necessary to follow their tradition since 1609, as 
we have a written history since that time. The Onondagas being 
the central tribe and probably the original stock of the Iroquois, 
to them was entrusted the care of the sacred council fires, and upon 
their territory were held the great councils of the Nation to decide 
all questions of great importance, wars, peace and all matters of 
general policy and interest. 

The Seneca traditions make no mention of their coming from 
another country but that they broke out of the earth from a large 
mountain at the head of Canandaigua Lake. Thence they derive 
their name, "Ge-nun-de-wah, " or Great Hill, and are called the 
Great Hill People. 

They have a trachtion that before and for some time after their 
origin at Ge-nun-de-wah, the country about the lakes and far away 
was thickly inhabited by a race of civil, enterprising and indus- 
trious people who had cultivated fields and large villages, and that 
they were totally destroyed by a great serpent, which also destroyed 
nearly all of the Senecas, only enough of whom were spared to 
replenish their tribe. 

Mary Jemison, also called the White Woman, of whom we shall 
have more to say later on, thus gives the Seneca tradition of a 
people who were here before they came and, no doubt, they were 
the same people referred to in the Onondaga tradition, and the 
same race that have left mounds and forts all through the country 
from the Mississippi River to central New York. The tradition 
that they, the Senecas, broke out of the earth from a large mountain, 
probably refers to the fact that they settled there and built a fort on 
the top of the mountain, thus making it their home village. 

We can hardly imagine what the serpent was that, they say, 
destroyed all the people who were there before they came, and 
which came so near destroying them also; producing such wide- 
spread desolation, unless it might have been some plague or con- 
tagious disease. 

MOUND BUILDERS. 

These Mound Builders left nothing whereby their history can be 
learned, and only by the traditions of these two tribes of the Iro- 
quois, have we any intimation so as to enable us to even guess 
when they lived there — whether six hundred or two thousand years 
ago. 

24 



Two of these mounds or forts are on the tops of two hihs near 
the northeast corner of the town of Aurora, and two were on Lot 2 
in this town of Elma on land now owned by Mr. Wilham V. Lougee, 
where several years ago in leveling the banks which comprised the 
fort, parts of several skeletons were found, the bones being of more 
than ordinary size, showing that they belonged to a race of people 
of large statue. These forts were east of the Big Buffalo Creek 
and about a fourth of a mile west from the east line of Elma. 

One other fort was on the west side of the Big Buffalo Creek on 
lots 29 and 30, land formerh^ owned by Lewis M. Bullis. This fort 
like all the others was circular in form and enclosed about eight 
or ten acres of land ; crossing the Bullis Road and extending to the 
south side of a dense thicket and swamp, taking in a large spring 
at the edge of the swamp. The embankment in 1852, before 
the land was cleared, was three to four feet high and eight to 
twelve feet wide at the base; large pine and other trees two to 
three and one-half feet in diameter were at that time growing on 
the top and sides of the embankment and in the ditch, of the 
same size and age as the surrounding forest. The only account the 
Indians could give of these forts or mounds is what is mentioned 
in the traditions of the Onondaga and Seneca tribes of the Iro- 
quois. 

INDIAN VILLAGES. 

The Tuscarora Indians, ha^-ing been badly beaten in North 
Carolina in 1711, came north and the next year joined the Five 
Nations of the Iroquois, which was after that time known as the 
"Six Nations." 

All through the Revolutionary War, the Six Nations 
were with the English, except about one hundred and 
fifty of the Oneidas and about two hundred of the 
Tuscaroras, who remained neutral. The English and their Indian 
allies wrought great havoc and destruction among the frontier 
settlements. To check these invasions, Gen Sullivan, in the 
summer of 1779, invaded the country of the Onondagas, Oneidas 
and Senecas, as far west as into Livingston County, burned their 
villages, laid waste and destroyed their cornfields and orchards 
and made such destruction that they never completely recovered. 

In the spring of 1780, a considerable body of the Senecas with 
three of their principal chiefs, Farmer Brother, Cornplanter, and 
Red Jacket, with a few of the Cayugas and Onondagas made 
their first 'permanent settlement in Erie County. The principal 
village of the Senecas was on the Big Buffalo Creek about three 
miles above its mouth, with smaller villages at several places 

25 



along the Creek; one at Jack Berry Town, now Gardenville ; an 
other, a small settlement about half a mile above Blossom; an- 
other at Big Flats, now Elma village; another on the flats on 
Lots 14 and 15, for many years owned by Frank Metcalf,and on 
Lots 4, 11 and 12, south and east of East Elma, and a small settle- 
ment about one and one-half miles southwest from Marilla village. 
The Onondagas had their village on the Cazenove Creek, south 
and west of Ebenezer village, with scattering residents for six to 
ten miles further up on that creek. 

The Cayugas were located on the Cayuga Creek, about five miles 
north from the Onondaga village. 

At the close of the Revolutionary war, the United States 
government confiscated the lands previously claimed and occu- 
pied by the Iroquois nation, to punish them for the part they had 
taken during the war. Man}' of the Indians went to Canada with 
their English friends where they were given lands and bounties by 
the British Government, wdiile the United States Government 
gave small reservations to those who chose to remain here. In 
September, 1794, at Canandaigua, the United States by treaty 
with the Senecas, secured to them all the lands west of the Phelps 
and Gorham purchase ; being nearl}?- all the lands in the State of New 
York west of the Genesee River, except the New York State 
Reservation of one mile in width from Lake Ontario to Lake Erie, 
along the east side of the Niagara River. 

Three years later, in September, 1797, Robert Morris bought 
the Indian title to all the lands in western New York except eleven 
reservations, containing in all, three hundred and thirty- 
eight square miles. The Buffalo Creek Reservation, containing 
one hundred and thirty square miles lying on both sides of the 
Big Buffalo Creek, was one of the eleven, and was about seven 
and one-half miles, north and south, and about 
eighteen miles east and west, taking in all of the towns 
of West Seneca, Elma and Marilla, the south part of 
Cheektowaga, Lancaster and Alden, and the north part 
of East Hamburg, Hamburg, Aurora and Wales. This 
Buffalo Creek Reservation was to be the home of the Seneca 
Indians, and it did so remain for more than sixty years after they 
first came here for a permanent home and until they sold their 
Reservation to the Ogden Company in 1842. That is how and why 
the Seneca Indians were here so long after the countr}^ north and 
south of this Reservation had been settled by the whites. 

Since the Indians settled here in 1780 to the commencement of 
the year 1812 they had remained quiet and peaceable. Rumors, 
of trouble between the United States and Great Britain caused 
much apprehension as to what the Seneca Indians would_^ do in 

26 



case war should actually break out, and the remembrance of the 
Indian massacres during the Revolutionary war was anything but 
pleasant. 

INDIAN RESERVATIONS. 

The British had given lands to the Mohawks, and to some of the 
other tribes of the Six Nations who had gone to Canada after the 
Revolutionary war, and it was feared that those Indians would 
be ready to go on the war path as English allies. 

The United States government had given lands to those Indians 
who chose to remain here and every effort was made by the gov- 
ernment to have these Indians remain neutral. 

VAR IN I8I2. 

On May 26th, 1812, just before the war broke out, Supt. Granger 
held a council with the chiefs of the Six Nations who were in 
the United States, to induce them to remain neutral during the 
war. They partly agreed and said they would send a delegation 
to consult with their brethren in Canada. 

The Canadian Indians at the same time sent a delegation to the 
Senecas to induce them to join the British during the war. 

On July 6th, 1812, Supt. Granger called another council of the 
Indian Chiefs to be held in their council-house on the Buffalo 
Creek Reservation. He explained to them the cause of the war 
and urged them to take no part in the quarrel between the whites. 
He knew that many of the young braves were being influenced by 
the delegates from "Canada and that they were desirous to engage 
in the war. He said to them, if they were really determined to 
fight, perhaps the United States government would accept the 
services of one hundred or one hundred and fifty of 
the warriors. Red Jacket did not want any of the 
Indians here to enlist as that would array brother 
against brother; and he hoped no warrior would enlist without 
permission from the great council. He asked of Supt. Granger 
leave to make another effort to persuade the Mohawks to abandon 
the warpath. The request was granted and a deputation of five 
chiefs left for Canada. Nothing favorable resulted from this visit 
as the Mohawks were pledged and determined to help the British. 
Under Red Jacket's advice, none of the Senecas joined the Amer- 
ican army during 1812. 

WAR OF I8I3. 

Early in July, 1813, the General in command of the American 
forces at Buffalo enrolled between four hundred and five 

27 



hundred Senecas under Farmer Brother who Uved on 
the Buffalo Creek Reservation and was recognized, both 
by the whites and the Indians, as the greatest of the 
war chiefs. Red Jacket was as strongly opposed as 
ever to any of the Indians entering the American army. 

On July 10th, 1813, General Porter having heard that the 
British were preparing to capture Black Rock, speedily sent 
word to all the inhabitants, and Farmer Brother gathered his 
warriors telling them that now they must fight, that their 
country was invaded; and that they must show their friendship 
to the Americans by actual help and work. 

The British regulars, without Indians, landed early in the morn- 
ing of July 11th below Black Rock, but were repulsed by the 
Americans and their Indian allies, and many prisoners were taken. 
The Expedition was a failure, so far as the British were concerned, 
but was a brilliant success for the Americans, as the Senecas 
entered heartily into the whole affair. 

The British attack upon Buffalo, December 30, 1813, with 
1,000 regulars and 200 Canadian Indians, resulted in the capture 
and burning of Buffalo. The American volunteers, being raw 
militia and poorly officered, fled in every direction. The Senecas 
took up the cry of defeat and sent runners to the Cattaraugus 
and Allegany Reservations carrying the news that Buffalo was 
burned and that the British and Indians were coming. 



WAR IN I8J4. 

Stone 's life of Red Jacket gives the account of a battle which was 
fought July 5th, 1814, on the Canadian side of Niagara River just 
above Chippewa, between the American army composed of one 
thousand three hundred militia and five hundred Senecas on one 
side, and the British army and their Indians on the other side. 

Red Jacket had from the first, done and said all he could to 
hold the Senecas from entering the American Army, and he had of 
late deen charged with cowardice, but now that it was certain 
that there was to be actual fighting, he joined the other Chiefs 
and the five hundred Senecas and took an active part in the battle. 
The Americans claimed the victory, taking many prisoners and 
drove the British and Indians from the field. 

This was the first time since the Iroquois Confederacy was 
formed several hundred years ago, that the Senecas and Mohawks 
appeared as enemies, or that one tribe was in battle arrayed 
against another tribe, or that clan against clan fought a fierce hand- 
to-hand battle. 

28 



After the battle, Red Jacket arranged to have messengers go 
to the Mohawks to get their consent to a withdrawal of the Indians 
on both sides. No agreement was reached by this conference, but 
the Mohawks had suffered so much in the Chippewa battle that 
they did not again take the field. Red Jacket obtained permission 
for the Senecas to go home, promising that they would return if 
the British Indians should again join the British army. This 
virtually ended the Indian part of the war. The Confederation 
was again weakened, but not destroyed. 



IROQUOIS CONFEDERACY. 

Many have been the guesses, surmises and speculations as to 
what was the strong bond that caused the tribes that composed 
the Iroquois Nation to be always at peace among themselves, and 
that united them so firmly, that in war or in peace they were one 
nation. 

Was it the league, offensive and defensive, that bound them 
so closely as confederates, or was it the system of clans, the prin- 
ciples of which were adopted, accepted and lived up to with most 
religious exactness, that was the binding force? 

It is not now known, and probably never will be, whether the 
clan system or the articles of the Confederacy were first adopted 
or whether they were both accepted at the same time; nor is it 
known when the whole system was made complete and put into 
practice. 

Judging, with the lights of history and experience to help us, 
we may say that it is almost a certainty that either one, the clan 
system or the confederate league by itself would have proved a 
failure ; and that it required both — the clan part undoubtedly the 
stronger — to make the most perfect and successful confederation 
that had ever been formed, and a government that has existed 
for hundreds of years ; the clan part continuing to this day and the 
confederation, although by force of other governing powers 
having been partly broken up, has not been entirely destroyed. 

Their tradition names Ta-do-dah-oh, an Onondaga Chief, as 
the founder of the league ; but they have no tradition of their Clan 
system. Whoever was the originator of the scheme showed such 
great skill and statesmanship that no nation on earth need be 
ashamed to follow example. 

The Confederation was in many respects very similar to our 
Union of States. A congress or Grand Council of Chiefs and 
Sachems decided all questions of National importance, as of war 
and peace and gave direction to the affairs of the Confederacy. 

29 



Each tribe was independent by itself in its own tribal affairs, 
acts and privileges; had its own council and could call on the 
other tribes to join them in wars of defense or of conquest. 

CLANS. 

Each tribe of the Iroquois Nation was divided into eight clans 
or families, viz: Wolf, Bear, Beaver, Turtle, Deer, Snipe, Heron, 
and Hawk. 

By Indian law, all members of a clan were brothers and sisters 
whether of their own tribe or of any other, and anyone of any clan 
was always welcome in any family of the same clan, in his own or 
in any other tribe. As a brother could not marry a sister, so a 
member of a wolf clan could not marry a wolf of his own or of 
another tribe, but a wolf could marry a member of any other clan, 
of his own or of any other tribe. This law of clan relation and 
marriage has been lived up to and enforced for several hundred 
years and is still strictly observed. 

As this clan relationship extended through all the tribes, they 
were bound together by the strongest of family ties. No tribe of 
the Iroquois confederacy would go to war against any other of 
their tribes; as by that act, brother would be taking brother's 
blood, which by their law would be murder, even in war. 

This explains why, during the French and Indian war, it was so im- 
possible for the French to secure help from the Senecas after the 
English had enlisted the Mohawks; and also why all the tribes of 
the confederacy, if they took any part in the Revolutionary War, 
were on the side of the English, as the English at first, through the 
influence of Sir John Johnson had secured the Mohawks, and also 
why the Indians who resided in this state would not agree to enlist 
on the side of the United States in the 1812 war until they had 
heard from some of the tribes which had moved to Canada. 

The rights of heirship was in the female line. A man's heirs 
were his mother's son, and his sister's son; never his own son. The 
child followed in the clan and tribe of the mother. 



SALE OF INDIAN LANDS. 

By the treaty of August 31st, 1826, the Seneca Nation of In- 
dians sold to Robert Troup, Thomas L. Ogden and Benjamin W. 
Rogers, known as the Ogden Co., eighty thousand nine hundred 
and sixty acres of land for $48,216 ; [about sixty cents per acre], being 
the whole of some of the reservations and a part of the others. The 
part of the Buffalo Creek Reservation so sold conveyed thirty 
three thousand six hundred and thirty seven acres, being a strip 

;^o 



from the north side of the Reservation one and one half miles in 
width, one mile wide on the south side, and about three miles in 
width across the east end,being all of the Reservation, excepting 
and reserving seventy-eight square miles or forty nine thousand 
nine hundred and twenty acres. By this treaty, what is known as 
the Mile Strip in the south part of the town of Elma passed out of 
the control of the Indians, and on this strip the first permanent 
settlement by the whites in this town was made. 

By treaty of January 15th, 1838, the Seneca Nations of Indians 
sold to Thomas L. Ogden and Joseph Fellows for the Ogden Com- 
pany, all the balance of their Reservations in this state,being 
one hundred and fourteen thousand eight hundred and seventy 
acres which the Indians had excepted in the treatv and sale of 
August 31st, 1826. 

By the terms of this treaty, the United States government was 
to donate to the Seneca Nation of Indians a reservation of 
1,820,000 acres of land in the Indian territory, now Kansas, and 
build mills, shops, churches, schools, etc., on the lands; and the 
Indians were to cede to the Ogden Company all their reserved 
lands and improvements for $202,000, being $100,000 for the land, 
and $102,000 for the improvements. The treaty was signed by 
forty- four chiefs, either actual or pretended, and head men and was 
certified by Mr. Gillett, Commissioner of the United States and by 
Gen. Dearborn, Superintendent for Massachusetts, and was 
sent to the United States Senate where it was declared to be 
defective. After the Senate had amended it by striking out the 
building of mills, shops, schools, etc., and in place thereof insert- 
ing a sum of $400,000, it was sent back to be signed again and 
ratified by the Indians in Council. Mr. Gillett, the United States 
Commissioner, called the chiefs together on the Buffalo Creek 
Reservation on August 7th, 1838, to have them sign the amended 
treaty. By this time, an intense feeling of opposition to the treaty 
and to the deed had grown up among the Indians as they 
objected to being sent west. The treaty received the names 
of but sixteen chiefs, and at the same time sixty-three had signed a re- 
monstrance. After much work and persuasion, twenty-six additional 
names were placed on the treaty, being forty-two out of the ninety- 
seven claimed by all parties to be chiefs; but as some of the 
chiefs kept away, the commissioners decided that a majority of 
those present had signed, and the treaty thus signed was ratified 
by the United States Senate. 

A majority of the Indians said neither they nor their chiefs had 
agreed to the terms of the treaty, and they refused to allow the 
Ogden Company to take possession. The Company knew that if 
they commenced an action in the courts, it would be a long and 

31 



bitter contest, and there were doubts whether the courts would 
not decide in favor of the Indians. Each party seemed afraid of 
the other, and the company did not attempt to take possession, 
but they had the Reservation east of the Transit Line surveyed 
in July and August, 1840. 

TREATY CONFIRMED. 

On May 20th, 1842, a treaty confirmatory and amendatory of 
the treaty of January 15 and August 7, 1838, was signed by fifty- 
three chiefs and head men of the Seneca Nation. By this treaty the 
Indians sold to the Ogden Company all the balance of the Buffalo 
Creek Reservation, viz.: forty-nine thousand nine hundred and 
twenty acres, with the whole of some of their reservations and 
parts of others, they retaining the Tuscarora and most of the 
Tonawanda, Cattaraguus and Allegany Reservations. 

The Indians of the Buffalo Creek Reservation received their 
money and the title to the balance of that Reservation was passed 
to the Ogden Company after the Indians had lived here sixty-five 
years. In 1844 most of them left; a few remained until 1848 
when they joined their friends, most of them going to the Catta- 
raugus Reservation and a few to the Allegany Reservation. 
The following will explain as to the treaty of January 15th and 
August 7th, 1838, and the Kansas lands. 

^ [By Associated Press.] 

Washington, Nov. 18, 1898 — "The court of claims rendered a 
judgment of $1,961,400 in favor of the New York Indians who 
entered suit against the United States to recover the value of cer- 
tain lands donated to them in Kansas and subsequently disposed 
of by the United States. The award is in pursuance of a mandate 
from the United States Supreme Court. The case has been pend- 
ing in the courts about five years. These lands had been set apart 
as a reservation for them by the treaty of 1838, but the lands were 
never occupied by them, and were sold by the government and the 
proceeds placed in the United States treasury. 

The court of claims originally decided against the Indians, but 
the supreme court reversed that judgment and directed the award 
in their favor of the net amount actually received by the govern- 
ment for the Kansas lands, less the amount to which the Tona- 
wandas and Senecas would have been entitled and less other just 
deductions." 

INDIAN VILLAGES IN ELMA. 

At this time, 1842, there were three Indian villages or settle- 
ments in the town of Elma; also many scattering residents. 

32 



One village was about half a mile east of Blossom on the north 
side of the Creek where thej^ had a church or small council house. 

At Elma Village there were 12 or 15 families who had their 
residences on the flats and on the high banks on both sides of the 
Creek. The Indians called this "The Big Flats." Here they had 
a burying ground, located a little west of Mr. Joseph B. Brigg's 
house. 

Another village was at the bend of the Creek on Lots 14 and 15 
which were for many years owned by Mr. Frank Metcalf, 
and there were scattering residences east into the town of Marilla 
and south on both sides of the Creek for a mile or more. Here 
resided Chiefs Big Kettle, Sundown, and Jack Johnny John. East 
of this village and near the line between Elma and Marilla was the 
home of a son of Mar}^ Jemison [so reported by the early settlers], 
and it was here he died, and he was probably buried in the Indian 
Cemetery about one-third of a mile southeast from East Elma on 
the north bank of the creek, just west of a clump of pine trees on a 
high bank. Names of other Indian families will be given later. 

In 1846, just before leaving the town for the Cattaraugus Res- 
ervation, the Indians of the ''Big Flats" held a war dance in Mr. 
Clark W. Hurd 's barn, Messrs. Hurd & Briggs furnishing the pro- 
visions for the feast. Some sixteen to twenty warriors took part 
in the dance, dressed and painted in strict war style, viz : entirety 
naked, except mocassins and breech-cloth, the chiefs with feathers 
to form a head gear. This was late in the fall and the next spring 
they left for their new homes. This was the last gathering the 
Senecas held in the town of Elma. 

PROMINENT INDIANS. 

In the Seneca tribe of the Iroquois Nation were four persons 
who by the position they occupied and their influence in the Nation 
deserve especial notice here. They were Farmer Brother, Corn- 
planter, Red Jacket and Mary Jemison. 

FARMER BROTHER, the oldest of the four, a chief loved, 
honored and respected by all who knew him, had his home on the 
Buffalo Creek Reservation. Notwithstanding the force and power 
of Iroquois law and the opposition of Red Jacket, he succeeded in 
having five hundred or six hundred of the Senecas enlist in the 
American army in 1813. This had the effect of uniting all the 
Seneca tribe, including Red Jacket, on the American side, and 
was the means of driving the Mohawk and other Canadian Indians 
from the British army in Canada after the battle at Chippewa. 
The old Chief was at that time over eighty years old and he was 
over ninety j^ears old at the time of his death. 

33 



CORNPLANTER, a Seneca Chief residing on the Allegany Reser- 
vation, was with the British during the Revolutionary War. He 
was one of the great leaders of the Senecas and became very 
friendly with the Americans after General Sullivan had invaded 
their territory, and he took an active part with Farmer Brother in 
the 1813 war. He was strongly opposed to the use of hquor and 
was one of the most eloquent temperance lecturers of the Country. 

He died in 1836, aged one hundred years. 

We have all heard and read about RED JACKET and his his- 
tory has been written in full. 

By his oratorical powers he was able to exert a great influence 
in his tribe. Always true to Confederate and Clan law, he opposed 
to the last, any of the Senecas joining the American army in the 
1812 war after the Mohawks hacl joined the British; but not being 
able to overcome the influence of Farmer Brother and Corn- 
planter and the general sentiment and determination of the other 
Seneca chiefs and warriors, he finally entered the army and did 
good and faithful service at the battle of Chippewa and was in- 
fluential in causing the Mohawks to withdraw from the British 
army. He died near the Mission Church on the Buffalo Creek 
Reservation January 20th, 1830, at the age of sevent3^-five years. 
His remains now rest in Forest Lawn Cemetery, Buffalo. 

MARY JEMISON, called also ''THE WHITE WOMAN." 
By reason of many extraordinary circumstances and strange ex- 
periences, Mary Jemison, .by marriage and by choice a member of 
the Seneca tribe, and that one of her sons lived and died in this 
town, a brief sketch of her life is here given. She first saw the light 
of day in mid-ocean, her parents having left the land of their birth, 
Ireland, to better their fortunes in the new world. They settled 
in Pennsylvania where they lived until the breaking out of the 
French War in 1754. In 1755 the family, with neighbors, were 
taken prisoners by the Indians and all but Mary were killed. She 
was carried captive to the Ohio River and at 12 j^ears of age was 
adopted by two Indian sisters who treated her with great kindness 
and gave to her the name, Deh-he-wa-mis. She married a brave 
of the Delawares, and after several years she decided to take her 
children and go on foot hundreds of miles from the Ohio River and 
take up her residencee with the Senecas in this state, her husband 
agreeing to join her. He died before he met her,. 

She was twice married and had three sons and five daughters. 
Her crops and cabin were destroyed by Sullivan's army in 1779. 
She then had five children. 

In 1797, when Robert Morris bought the Indian title to all the 
Indian lands in Western New York, except eleven reservations, 
she managed to have one of these, the Gardeau Reservation con- 

34 



taining twenty-eight square miles, or seventeen thousand 
nine hundred and twenty-seven acres, lying on both sides of the 
Genesee River, set off to her. Upon this tract she and her des- 
cendants resided until 1816, when she sold all but two square miles 
on the west side of the river. In 1831, at the age of 88 3^ears, she 
sold the two square miles and came to make her home on the 
Buffalo Creek Reservation near Buffalo, where she died September 
19th, 1833, aged ninety years. She was buried with Christian 
rites in the Indian Cemetery, near the Seneca Mission Church or 
Council House, and over her grave was placed a marble slab with 
appropriate inscription. In March, 1874, her remains were dis- 
interred by Hon. Wm. P. Letchworth, under the immediate super- 
vision of her descendants, and with other articles found in her 
grave were placed in a black walnut coffin and deposited in a 
marble sarcophagus on Glen Iris, at Portage Falls, Livingston 
County, N. Y., six miles from her former home at Gardeau Reser- 
vation. Through all her Indian life and travels she retained her 
knowledge of the English language. She was greatly beloved by 
by the Indians, and highly respected by the whites who became 
acquainted with her. 

Having been with the Indians all but 12 years of her life and 
for more than sixty years with the Seneca tribe, she had time and 
opportunity to learn all that could be learned of their traditions 
and early life. The traditions of the Senecas as herein given, are 
from her statements, so we take them as being as nearly correct 
as anything we will be likely to get from any source. 

INDIAN CHARACTER. 

The character of the Indian has been given by different writers, 
as cruel, vindictive, jealous, full of bitter hatred, revengeful and 
murderous; bitter enemies, never forgetting any injury or insult: 
on the other hand as true friends, never forgetting a kindness or 
favor. 

The men were lazy, never performing any labor if they could find 
any way to avoid it, but they would help to build the house, and 
were always ready to hunt and fish, and ready for a wrestle, foot 
race, game of ball in summer and drive the snake in winter. 

The women cleared the land and raised corn, beans, and other 
crops for family food. All labor and drudgery was hers to per- 
form and endure; in fact, she was little, if any better than a slave. 

CONFEDERACY NOT DESTROYED. 

Mention of some of the events of the war of 1812 has been 
made because a part of the Buffalo Creek Reservationw as in this 

35 



town, and the Reservation was the home of the Seneca Nation 
and three of their villages were in the town ; that probably some of 
the Elma Indians were in the Chippewa battle ; and to show the 
strong hold Iroquois law had on all the Indians. This unwritten 
law has held the members of the different tribes to- 
gether through all the trying changes of probably 
more than eight hundred years; and was the strong 
bond from which they were so slow to break away. In 
fact, the Senecas would not enter into any treaty or transact any 
important business without calling a general council of the Great 
Chiefs of the Iroquois Confederacy. While the results of the Revo- 
lutionary war had the effect to scatter the tribes which have 
since been broken into pieces and the parts widely separated ; yet 
the Confederacy is not destroyed, and the clan system exists in all 
the tribes to this day. In the summer of 1896, a Grand Council was 
called at Tuscarora Village to elect and install into office a new 
Tuscarora Chief. 

As the Seneca Nation had possession here for nearl}^ two hun- 
dred years and had three or four villages in this town for sixty-five 
years, and for more than fifty years were the actual owners of the 
soil, the history of the town of Elma should have this record of its 
early inhabitants. 



36 



CHAPTER III. 



RIGHTS AND JURISDICTIONS OF NATIONS. INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS 
BY PURCHASE. ABSTRACT OF TITLE. 

^ ' T is a question of first and greatest importance to a person 
•7 ) intending to purchase a piece of land to know that the 
TT party with whom he negotiates has the right to sell and con- 
vey. Can he give a perfect title? 

Individuals obtain these rights to lands by gifts, by in- 
heritance and by purchase; and the question of title goes back to 
first purchaser or owner, and then comes the question, "Of whom 
did he purchase?" So a thorough search of the records of transfer 
and a certified statement or abstract showing that the claim of 
title is perfect, is required. This search often reaches back to 
state, and even to national rights. 

Nations claim rights of sovereignty and jurisdiction over ter- 
ritories by discovery, by conquest and by purchase; and we nmst 
know by what means and when, the nation became possessed of the 
rights as claimed. 

It is proposed in this chapter of the history of the town of Elma, 
to make a search of the records of claims and rights of sovereignty, 
jurisdiction and ownership, and thus, to make out such an abstract 
that the question whether there is, in fact, such a town as Elma; 
and to show how, Avhen and why, and the authority, if any there 
shall be, by which the town was originated. 

For hundreds of years before this country was discovered it 
had been the rule and practice among the rulers in the old world 
for one king to make war against a neighboring or weaker king 
for the purpose of executing punishment for an actual or pre- 
tended insult or injury, or to compel the payment of tribute, or for 
conquest. The right to thus make war was claimed by the con- 
queror because he had the power to enforce his demand; and it 
was conceded by the conquered, simply because he had to. It was 
the old rule : that might makes right. 

A new system of extending control over territories was started 
in 1492, when Columbus upon landing on the western hemisphere, 
took possession in the name of and for the use of his sovereigns, 
the King and Queen of Spain. 

37 



France, Holland and England each acknowledged, accepted 
and adopted this new way of acquiring territor}^ 

Spain in this way, by her navigators, took possession of Florida, 
Mexico and South America, and claimed the territor}^ extending 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, but they never, by settlements, 
tried to hold on the Atlantic coast north of Georgia. 

French explorers by the same rule claimed from Florida to 
Labrador and from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The French soon 
relinquished the Atlantic coast south of Nova Scotia and occupied 
the region of the St. Lawrence, extending their forts and trading 
posts along the lakes and along the Mississippi River, and claiming 
all the territory drained by the great lakes and the Mississippi and its 
branches. These branches embraced western, central and north- 
ern New York and all west of the Allegany mountains. 

HOLLAND. 

Henry Hudson, of the Holland service, sailed along the Atlantic 
coast in 1609, from Virginia to New York Ba}^ and up the Hudson 
River as far as Albany, claiming east to the Connecticut River and 
west and north indefinitely. 

England, by John Cabot, navigator, in 1498, claimed from 
Florida to Nova Scotia and from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 

All these powers recognized the rights of the resident Indians, 
and by all grants and charters issued to individuals, companies 
or corporations, they were compelled to negotiate with the Indians 
for the privilege to occupy and use the soil. 

England tried for many years to establish colonies on her claimed 
territory and thus to hold possession against the other 
claimants. To do this, charters were granted to individuals and 
companies, giving to them the right to settle and occupy the 
described territory. These charters were given to several colonies 
along the Atlantic coast, but we shall now generally refer only to 
those that covered and included western New York, as these 
grants and charters are a part of the claim of title to our lands. By 
the foregoing, it will be seen that the Indians, the Dutch, English 
and French claimed western New York at the same time and we 
will trace the claim of each. 

On September 9th, 1609, Henry Hudson, a Dutch navigator, 
sailed into New York Bay and thence up the Hudson River as far 
as Albany and claimed the country for Holland. In 1613 they 
built a fort on Manhattan Island. In 1621, the Dutch West India 
Company, having received a charter from the Holland Govern- 
ment ,took possession and colonized New Amsterdam, [now New 
York] and also Fort Orange, [now Albany] and claimed all of 

38 



what is the State of New York and east to the Connecticut River. 

It is here not necessary to enumerate the troubles that 
sprung up by other settlements being started on this territory 
that had not received permission from the Dutch Company, nor 
to mention their system of grants to owners of lands, as these are 
fully stated in the histories of the United States. 

The Dutch continued in possession and occupancy until August 
27, 1664, when an English man of war entered New York Bay, 
which was followed the first and second day after by three more 
all under command of Col. Richard Nichols. 

On August 30, Col. Nichols demanded of Peter Stuyvesant, 
Gov. of the colony, the surrender of ''all forts, towns or places 
of strength which are now possessed by the Dutch and also the 
town on the Island of Manhattan, with all the forts thereunto 
belonging, "offering to secure to every man, his estate, hfe and 
liberty who shall readily submit to this demand. 

On September 5th, 1664, Gov. Stuyvesant made the surrender 
and the State of New York passed from the Dutch. The treaty 
of Breda, July 31st, 1667, between England, France and Holland, 
ceded New York and New Jersey to England, and effectually 
wiped out the Dutch claim to all of New York; 

FRANCE. 

In 1609, the French entered the State of New York via Lake On- 
tario and by that act claimed the country. They moved on west 
even to the Mississippi River and down that river, establishing 
forts and trading posts; they claimed all the country drained by 
the Mississippi and its branches and by the Great Lakes which 
includes western New York. So now we have as claimants here, 
the French, English and the Indians. 

This condition continued for more than one hundred and forty 
years and war between England and France was declared May 18, 
18, 1756. Then followed in this country what is known as the 
French and Indian war. Result : All the French strongholds, here 
and in Canada, are captured, and at the treat}^ of peace at Paris, 
February 10, 1763, between England, France and Spain ; France 
cedes all her claimed territory east of the Mississippi River to 
England. This clears western New York of France as a claimant 
and gives to England all the Atlantic coast north of 31° north 
latitude and west to the Mississippi River. 

ENGLAND. 

England based her claim to territory in North America on the 
discovery by John Cabot in 1498, and by that, claimed the coun- 

39 



try from Florida to Nova Scotia and from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific; and grants were made by the king to individuals and 
companies. These grants carried with them certain privileges as 
to the laws that the colonists were permitted to make. 

These grants were often made to overlap or interfere with 
grants previously made, and so, many times troubles arose be- 
tween the colonies as to certain rights and jurisdictions. 

The first charter granted by King James I. that covered the 
town of Elma was in 1620, to the Plymouth Company, to embrace 
all the territory between latitude forty degrees and forty-eight de- 
grees, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific. At that time. Western 
New York was claimed by the Dutch and the French, but the Dutch 
claim was wiped out by the treaty of Breda July 31st, 1667, and the 
French claim was removed by the treaty at Paris February 10th, 
1763. Thus, after one hundred and forty- three years of counter- 
claims, the charter of 1620 is the authority that will remain. 

Another charter, covering most of the territor}^ conveyed in 
the charter of 1620, was granted to the Duke of York by Charles 
II in March, 1664. The territory covered by this grant at that 
time, was in the possession of the Dutch, but the surrender by the 
Dutch, September 5th, 1664, which was confirmed b}^ the treaty 
of Breda, July 31st, 1667, made it all right for the Duke of York 
as to the Dutch. So the contest was between this charter and 
the charter by James I to the Plymouth Company in 1620. Eng- 
land's right as a nation to sovereignty and jurisdiction is now 
undisputed to territory east of the Mississippi river, only so far 
as the charters would conflict. 

In 1683, the Duke of York sends Thomas Dungan as Governor 
of the New York Colony, with instructions to call an assembly 
which passed the act entitled, "Charter of Liberties and Privi- 
leges granted by his Royal Highness to the inhabitants of New 
York and its dependencies, ' ' by which legislative powers were 
granted to the colony. 

The troubles between the Colonies and England from this time 
to September 5th, 1774, when fifty-three delegates from the twelve 
colonies — Georgia not present — met in Philadelphia, as the First 
Continental Congress, are fully set forth in our histories and need not 
be repeated here. The Convention adjourned October 20th, agree- 
ing to meet again on May 10th, 1775, if the grievances continued. 

The battle of Lexington, April 19th, 1775, was the beginning of 
the Revolutionary War. The Second Continental Congress met 
in Philadelphia, May 10th, 1775, John Hancock, president. The 
delegates resolved to resist further tyranny. June 15th, they 
voted to raise an army of 20,000 men and elected George Wash- 
ington as Commander in Chief of all colonial forces. 

40 



DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE— REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 

June 7th, 1776, Richard Henry Lee introduced a resolution into 
Congress declaring that " the United Colonies are of right and ought 
to be free and independent states." June 10th a committee, con- 
sisting of Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, John Adams of Massa- 
chusetts, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Roger Sherman 
of Connecticut and Robert Livingston of New York, was chosen 
to draw up a declaration in harmony with the Lee resolution. 
The Declaration of Independence was the result and received 
unanimous support, and on July 4th, 1776, it was signed. 

The Revolutionary War followed for nearly eight years and on 
November 30th, 1782, preliminary articles of peace were signed at 
Paris by Richard Oswald on the part of Great Britain, and John 
Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay and Henry Laurons on the 
part of the United States. April 11th, 1783, Congress proclaimed 
cessation of hostilities, and on April 15th ratified the preliminary 
treaty. 

On September 23d, 1783, a definite treaty was signed by David 
Hartley on the part of Great Britain, and Benjamin Franklin 
John Adams and John Jay on the part of the United States. England 
conceded the independence of the American States, with bound- 
ary north by Canada, west by the Mississippi river, south by 
thirty- one degrees of latitude. This passed all rights claimed 
by Great Britain to the United States and leaves the thirteen 
states with their rights and powers. 

May 14th, 1787, the Constitutional Convention assembled at 
Philadelphia. On September 17th, thirty-nine of the fifty-five 
delegates signed the new Constitution, and it was sent by Congress 
to the States for their sanction ; in 1787 and 1788, it was 
adopted by the thirteen states, and became the supreme law of 
the land. 

This Constitution binds the states together and forms and puts 
before the world a nation with full authority and power of sover- 
eignty and jurisdiction over all its territory. 



ABSTRACT OF TITLE. 

Having gone through with the claims of England, France and 
Holland to rights of sovereignty and jurisdiction, until in 1787, these 
rights are vested in the United States, being the thirteen states which 
comprised the Federal Union. An abstract showing how and 
when each colony, state, company and corporation obtained their 
rights , and to have this abstract continued until 1842, will present 
a continuous chain of title and show on what right the claim of 

41 



ownership is now based, and to what transfer of title each person can 
turn as his authority for present ownership. This, with explan- 
atory notes, will rr^^ke up that part of the history of Elma known 
as Abstract of Title. 

England — Claim by discoveries in 1497 and 1498, by John and Se- 
bastian Cabot. The Atlantic coast from Florida 
to Nova Scotia, and west to the Pacific Ocean. 

France — Claim by discovery in 1504, of New Foundland and the 

Gulf of St. Lawrence, and later occupancy of 

all territory drained by the Great Lakes, and 

' Mississippi river, and its branches, including 

western, central and northern New York. 

Holland — Claim by discovery 1609, Delaware Bay and Atlantic 
coast. New York Bay, Hudson River to Albany , 
east to the Connecticut River, including Long 
Island, west and north indefinitely. 

Grant in 1621, from straits of Magellan to 
farthest north, and to take possession of New 
Netherlands in 1622. 



Holland by 
State's General 

to 

The Dutch West 

India Co. 

England 

to 

The Plymouth Co. 

The Plymouth Co. 

To 
JohnEndicottetal. 



England 
by James I 

to 
Endicott Co. 



N.. 



Endicott Co. 

to 

Massachusetts 

Bay Colony. 



England by 

Charles II. 

To 

Massachusetts 

Bay Company. 



Grant, in 1620, all between 40° and 48° 
north latitude, and east and west from sea to 
sea. 

Grant, March 19, 1628. Territory from three 
miles south of the river Charles, to three miles 
north from the norther-most part of the river 
Merrimac, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 

Charter, March 4, 1629, to the Endicott Com- 
pany as the Governor and Company of Massa- 
chusetts Bay, in New England; above territory 
and to constitute a body politic with Governor. 
Deputy and eighteen assistants to be elected 
by the people annually and a General Assembly 
of Freemen with legislative powers to meet 
as often as necessary. 

Assign above August, 1629, to the Colonists, 
thus forming an independent provincial govern- 
ment, and in October John Winthrop was 
elected Governor. 

Above charter confirmed, February, 1662, giv- 
ing liberty of conscience. 



42 



England by 

Charles II. 

To 

James, Duke of 

York. 

Dutch W.India Co. 

To 

Duke of York by 

Rich. Nickols Gov. 

Holland 

To 
England. 

Duke of York 

To 
Colony of N. Y. 



France 

To 

England. 



Charter, in March, 1664, territory to include 
New Jersey, Long Island, east to the Connecticut 
river, north and west indefinitely. 

Surrender, September 5th, 1664, of all forts, 
towns, and occupancy of all territory claimed 
by the Compan}^ in New York and Connecticut. 

Treaty of Breda, July 31st, 1667, cedes all ter- 
ritory in New York et al. 

In 1683, the Duke of York sent Thomas Dungan 
as Royal Governor of New York, with instruc- 
tion to call an assembly, which, on October 
17th, 1683, passed the act entitled "Charte- 
of Liberties, granted by his Royal Highness 
to the inhabitants of New York and its de- 
pendencies," by which act, legislative powers 
were granted to the Colony with a charter of 
liberties and toleration to all Christians. 

Treaty of Peace at Paris, February 10th, 1763, 
between England, France and Spain. France 
cedes Canada and all claims and territory 
east of the Mississippi river and north of 31° 
of latitude to England. This gives England 
sovereignty over Canada and the thirteen 
colonies. 

New York General Committee — April 20th, 1774, call a Pro- 
vincial Convention, which asks Massachusetts 
to issue a call for a Colonial Convention, and 
name a time and place for the Congress to 
meet. 

Massachusetts, General Court, May 24th, 1774, resolves that a 
Colonial Congress is necessary, and suggests 
that it be held in Philadelphia on September 
1st, 1774. 

Other Colonies were notified. 

First Colonial or Continental Congress of fifty three delegates meets 
in Philadelphia, September 5th, 1774. Adopt a 
Declaration of Colonial rights; claim right 
of self government; specify the wrongs that Eng- 
land puts upon the colonies; agree to resist 
what they consider unconstitutional assumption 
of governmental power by England; and on 

43 



October 20th adjourn to meet in Philadelphia 
May 10th, 1775, if a redress of grievances is not 
made by England. 

Battle of Lexington, April 19, 1775, begins the Revolutionary 
war. 

Second Constitutional Congress meets in Philadelphia May 10th 
1775; the delegates resolve to resist further 
tyranny. June 15th, vote to raise an army 
of 20,000 men, and elect George Washington 
Commander in Chief of all colonial forces. 

The Revolutionary War continues. 

I'he State of New York adopts a State Constitution, April 20th, 
1777; amended in 1801, 1821, 1846, 1867, 1894. 

The United States. Qn November 15th, 1777, the Continental Con- 
gress adopts articles of Confederation. 

State of New York, February 5th, 1778, ratifies the articles of 
Confederation. 

State of Massachusetts, in 1779, adopts a State Constitution. 

England Treaty of Paris, September 23d, 1783, Eng- 

The United States. ^SiU^^l concedes the independence of the thir- 
teen American States, with boundary north 
by Canada, west by the Mississippi River, 
south by 31° north latitude, with all rights of 
sovereignty, jurisdiction and territory. 



SETTLEMENT BETWEEN MASSACHUSETTS AND NEW YORK. 

Massachusetts. Note — Massachusetts claimed all of New York 
north of 42° of latitude, by her charter of 
1620 and 1628. New York, by her charter of 
1664, claimed all of New York and east to 
the Connecticut river, including Vermont. This 
crossing of claims was a continual source of 
trouble between the states, and with the in- 
dividual settlers. Soon after the Revolution- 
ary war closed, Massachusetts made several 
attempts to have the difference settled; and, 
to have a boundary line established, and to 
settle her claims to jurisdiction. Committees 
appointed by both states in 1783 failed to come 
to an agreement and Massachusetts applied 

44 



to Congress to have her rights under the charter 
of 1628 recognized. 

New York, also, went to Congress with her claim under the charter 
of 1664. 

Congress December 2d, 1785, appointed Thomas Hutchins of New 
Jersey, David Ritterhouse of Pennsylvania, 
and John Ewing to run the line between Massa- 
chusetts and New York, which they did. But 
this did not settle the claim of Massachusetts to 
the lands west of the line. So Congress ap- 
pointed James Duane, Robert R. Livingston, 
Robert Yates, John Haring, Melancthon Smith 
and Egbert Benson, Commissioners, on the 
part of New York; and John Lowell, James Sul- 
livan, Rufus King, and Theophilus Parsons, 
Commissioners, on the part of Massachusetts, 
to meet at Hartford, Conn., and settle the con- 
troversy. 



DEED BETWEEN MASSACHUSETTS AND NEW YORK. 



State of New York 

to 
State of Massa- 
chusetts 
and 
State of Massa- 
chusetts 
to 
State of New York. 



Mutual deed, dated December 16, 1786, re- 
corded in Erie County Clerk 's office, in Liber 26, 
Page 469. [Note— This deed being a settlement 
of title to all lands in Western New York, the 
part especially referring to those lands is here 
given.] 

1st. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
doth hereby cede, grant, release and confirm to 
the State of New York, all the claim, right, and 
title which the Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
hath to the government, sovereignty, and juris- 
diction of the land and territories so claimed by 
the State of New York as hereinbefore stated 
to wit: 

Whereas, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
claiming among other things all the territory de- 
scribed as all that part of New England in 
America which lieth and extendeth between the 
great river called Merrimac and a certain other 
called the Charles river, being the bottom of a 
Bay called Massachusetts Bay, and also all the 
lands lying within three English miles to the 
southward of the southernmost part of the 

45 



said Bay, and extending thence northward in 
latitude to the northward of every part of the 
said river Merrimac, and in breadth of latitude 
aforesaid extending throughout all the main-land 
in longitude westward to the Southern Ocean, as 
the just and proper right of the said Common- 
wealth; and as the State of New York has 
set up a claim to a part of the land above men- 
tioned, to wit : bounded on the north by above 
line of northwest part of Merrimac, and south by 
the southmost part of Massachusetts Bay, and on 
the west by the limits between the United 
States and the King of Great Britain, and the 
cession from the State of New York to the 
United States and east by the line agreed on 
and established between the late colony of New 
York and the Massachusetts Bay in the year 1773, 
and from the northern termination of the said 
line, then bounded on the east b}^ the west 
bank of the Connecticut River. 
2. That the State of New York doth hereby 
cede, grant, release and confirm to the said Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts, and to the use of the 
Commonwealth, their grantees, and the heirs and 
assigns of such grantees, forever, the right of 
pre-emption of the soil from the Native Indians, 
and all other, the estate right, title and proper- 
ty (the right and title of government, sovereign- 
ty and jurisdiction excepted), which the state 
of New York hath of, in and to 230,400 acres 
to be located by the Commonwealth of Mas- 
sachusetts to be situated to the northward 
of and adjoining to land granted by the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts to Daniel Cox 
and Robert Litten Hooper and their associates 
and between the Rivers Oswego and Chenango, 
and also the lands and territories within' 
the following limits and bounds, that is to say: 
Beginning in the north bounds, the State of 
Pennsylvania in the parallel of 42° north lati- 
tude, at a point distant eighty-two miles from 
the northeast corner of the state of 
Pennsylvania, on the Delaware River, 
thence, on a due meridian north, to the 
boundary line between the United States and 

46 



the King of Great Britain, thence, westerly 
and southerly along said boundar}^ line to 
a meridian which will pass one mile east 
from the northern terminus of the strait 
or waters between Lake Ontario and Lake 
Erie, thence east along said meridian to the 
south shore of Lake Ontario, thence on the 
eastern side of the said strait, by a line always 
one mile distant and parallel to the said strait 
to Lake Erie, thence west to the boundary 
line between the United States and the 
King of Great Britain, thence along the said 
boundary line until it joins with the line of 
cession from the State of New York to the 
United States, thence, southerly along the said 
line of cession to the north-west corner of the 
State of Pennsjdvania, thence east along the 
north bound ar}^ line of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania to the place of beginning, and which 
said lands are a part of the territor}^ claimed 
by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 
3. The State of Massachusetts doth hereby 
cede, grant, release and confirm to the state of 
New York, and to the use of the state of New 
York, their grantees, and the heir and assigns 
of such grantees, forever, the right of pre- 
emption of the soil from the native Indians, 
and all and other estate, right, title and prop- 
erty which the Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
hath in, or to the residue of the lands and terri- 
tories so claimed by thQ state of New York 
herein before stated and particularly specified. 
[Then follow several sections not necessary to 
mention here.] 

10th. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
may grant the right of pre-emption of the 
whole, or any part of the said lands and 
territories to an}^ person or persons, who, 
by virtue of such grant shall have good right 
to extinguish, by purchase of the claims of the 
native Indians, by any such grantee or grantees, 
unless the same shall be in the presence of, 
and approved by a superintendent to be 
appointed for such purpose by the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts, and having no interest 

47 



in such purchase and unless such purchase shall 
be confirmed by the commonwealth of Mas- 
sachusetts. 

Signed by John Lowell, 

James Sullivan, 
Theophilus Persons, 
Rufus King, 
Commissioners for and in behalf of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

James Duane, 
Robert R. Livingston, 
Robert Yates, 
John Harring, 
Melancton Smith, 
Egberf Benson, 
For and in behalf of the State of New 
York. 
Done at the City of Hartford, Conn., the 16th 
day of December, 1786. 

The State of Massachusetts, February 7th, 1788, ratifies the Con- 
stitution of the United States, by a vote of 187 to 168. 

The State of New York, July 26th, 1788, ratifies the Constitution of 
the United States, by a vote of 31 to 29. 

State of Massa- By authority of deed, December 16th, 1786, 

chusetts g^^^g Qf ^g^^ York to Massachusetts.— 

Oliver Phelps Sold right of soil and pre-emption from the In- 

^°<^ dians, of the whole Massachusetts tract of 6,000,- 

Nathaniel Gorham ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ pj^^^p^ ^ Gorham failing to make 

payment; by settlement made November 21st, 
1788, they, Phelps & Gorham, retain 2,600,000 
acres from the east side of the tract. 
Phelps & Gorham November 21st, 1788, the balance of the tract, 
State o?Massa- by settlement, reverts back to the State of 
chusetts. Massachusetts. The east line of the Phelps & 

3,400,000 acres. Gorham tract by this settlement begins in the 
north line of the State of Pennsylvania, 82 miles 
west from the north-east corner of Pennsylvania. 
The west line of the Phelps & Gorham tract, 
begins in the north line of Pennsylvania, 126 and 
78-100 miles west from the northeast line of Penn- 
sylvania, thence due north to the forks of the 
Genesee River and Conawango Creek — ^thence 
west 12 miles, thence north 24° east to Lake 

48 



State of M?issa- 

chusetts 

to 

Samuel Ogden. 



Samuel Ogden 

to 
State of Massa- 
chusetts. 

State of Massa- 
chusetts 
to 
Robert Morris. 



Robert Morris 

to 

Agents of Holland 

Land Co. 

Names of members 

Wilhem Willink. 

Jan Willink. 

Nicholas VanStop- 

horst. 
Jacob Van Stop- 

horst. 

Nicholas Hubbard. 

Peter Van Eeghen. 

Isaac Ten Cate. 

Hendrick Vollen- 

hoven. 

Christina Koster, 

(widow.) 

Tan Stadnitski. 

Rutger J. Schim- 

melpennick. 



United States to 

Seneca Nation of 

Indians. 



Ontario. This line has since been known as the 
west Hne of the Phelps & Gorham purchase. 

In the fall of 1788, a council of the Seneca 
Nation was held on Buffalo Creek, at which Mr. 
Phelps bought of the Indians their right and 
title to the 2,600,000 acres that Phelps & Gor- 
ham had bought of the State of Massachusetts. 
The price as agreed upon -at that council was 
$5,000 cash in hand and an agreement to pay 
$500 annually forever. This was about half a 
cent per acre. 

Agreement, May 11th, 1791, Recorded in 
Erie County Clerk's Office in Liber 24, Page 408, 
to convey all of the Massachusetts lands west of 
Phelps & Gorham 's tract. 

Release May 11th, 1791— Recorded in Liber 
24, Page 413, release from above agreement. 

Deed May 11th, 1791. Liber 24, Page 415, 
conveys the soil and pre-emption right to all the 
balance of Massachusett's lands in the State of 
New York, 3,400,000 acres west of Phelps & 
Gorham 's tract. 

July 20th, 1793.— Robert Morris reserves 
from the east side of his purchase from Massa- 
chusetts of May nth, 1791,about 1-7 of the whole 
tract, so that the west line of his reserve, and 
east line of Holland Land Company's lands, 
begin at a point in north line of Pennsylvania, 
12 miles west from south-west corner of Phelps & 
Gorham tract and 138 78-100 miles west from 
the north-east corner of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania at the Delaware River, thence, due north 
to near the center of the town of Stafford in 
Genesee County, thence due west 2.07875 miles 
being 2 miles, 6 chains and 30 links, thence due 
north to Lake Ontario. Morris agreed to ex- 
tinguish the Indian title to all, except the New 
York Reservation of one mile wide on the east 
side of Niagara River. Conveys about 2,625,- 
000 acres. 

Treaty, September 1794, at Canandaigua, 
secures to the Indians, their right in all the 

49 



lands in the State of New York west of Phelps & 
Gorham purchase except New York State Reser- 
vation. 



Seneca Nation of 

Indians to 

Robert Morris. 



INDIAN RESERVATIONS. 

Treaty, September 15th, 1797, at Big Tree, 
now Geneseo, conveys pre-emption right to all 
above lands, except 11 Reservations, containing 
338 square miles, conveys 2,625,000 acres. Price 
paid, -1100,000. The Buffalo Creek Reservation 
is one of the eleven reserved. 



These eleven Reservations are as follows: 



ACRES. 

Big Tree or Little Beard Reservation, in Livingston Co., 4 square miles, 2,560 

1,280 

1,280 

17,920 

10,240 

6+0 

26 880 

640 

26,880 

44,800 

83,200 



Conawangus 

Squawky Hill 

Gardeau (Mary Jamison) 

Canadea 

Oil Spring 

Cattaraugus 

Tuscarora 

Allegany 

Tonawanda 

Buffalo Creek 



" ' 


' 2 


" ' 


' 2 


" ' 


' 28 


Allegany 
Cattaraugus ' 


' 16 
" 1 
' 42 


Niagara ' 
Cattaraugus ' 


' 1 

' 42 


Genesee 


" 70 


Erie 


"130 



Robert Morris, by 

Sheriff to 
Thomas L. Ogden. 



Thomas L. Ogden 

to 

Wilhem Willink, 

et. al. 



338 216.320 

Deed, May 12th, 1800. Liber 24, Page 406, 
conveys all W. of Morris reserve except the 
New York State Reservation. 

Deed, February 18th, 1801 (in Erie Co. not 
recorded). Conveys same as Robert Morris to 
Agents of Holland Land Co., July 20th, 1793, 
2,625,000 acres, and carries right of pre-emp- 
tion to the eleven reservations. 

Wilhem Willink, Deed, September 10th, 1810. Liber 1, Page 

^^ ' 68, conveys right of pre-emption to the reser- 

David A. Ogden. vations containing 197,835 acres. 

Note. — This carries the title of lands in Western New York, 
except the New York State Reservation one mile wide, from Lake 
Ontario to Lake Erie, to the Holland Land Co.; also, except to 
the eleven Indian Reservations of which David A. Ogden has the 
pre-emption right or right to purchase the Indian title. 

The Holland Land Company, soon after its purchase in 1801, 
surveyed its lands into Ranges six miles wide, numbering from 
the east line of their purchase toward the west, and then surveyed 
these Ranges into towns six miles north and south, numbering 
from the Pennsylvania State line toward the north. 

50 



The line between the 4th and 5th Ranges is the present east hne 
of Erie County, and this town of Ehna comes in the Holland Sur- 
vey as Town 10, Range 6, and is also known as a part of the Buffalo 
Creek Reservation. 



SALE BY SENECA INDIANS TO THE OGDEN COMPANY. 



David A. Ogden 

to 

Robert Troup, 

Thomas L. Ogden 

and Benjamin 

W. Rogers. 

The Seneca Nation 

of Indians 

to 

Robert Troup, 

Thomas L. Ogden 

and 

Benj. W. Rogers. 



Trust deed, February ISth, 1821. Liber 6, 
Page 396. Forms copartnership with 20 shares, 
to enable the members to buy of the Indians 
their title to the eleven reservations. 

Treaty August 31st, 1826, Liber 10, Page 138. 
As this purchase includes a part of Elma, the 
treaty is given in full. At a treaty held under 
the authority of the United States at Buffalo 
Creek in the County of Erie, State of New 
York, between the Sachems, Chiefs and War- 
riors of the Seneca Nation of Indians on behalf 
of said Nation, and Robert Troup, Thomas L. Og- 
den and Benjamin W. Rogers of the City of New 
York, in the presence of Oliver Forward, Esq., 
Commissioner appointed by the United States 
for holding said treaty and Nathaniel Gorham 
Superintendent, in behalf of the State of Massa- 
chusetts, know all men by these presents that we, 
the said Sachems, Chiefs and Warriors, for and in 
consideration of the sum of $48,216, lawful money 
of the United States to us in hand paid by the said 
Robert Troup, Thomas L. Ogden and Benjamin 
W. Rogers at or immediately before the ensealing 
and delivery of these presents, the receipt 
whereof is hereby acknowledged, have granted 
bargained, sold, aliened, released, quit-claimed 
and confirmed and by these presents do grant, 
bargain, sell, aUen, release, quit-claim and 
confirm unto the said Pvobert Troup, Thomas 
L. Ogden and Benjamin W. Rogers and their 
assigns forever, all that tract of land commonly 
called the Canadea Reservation in Allegany 
County, containing sixteen square miles, also — 
then follows other reservations and exceptions — 
the exceptions making a sale of 80,960 acres of 
land, being about two-fifths of all the land in 

51 



the eleven Reservations for $48,216, about 60 
cents per acre. 

By this sale all the eleven Reservations were sold except : 
49,920 acres of the Buffalo Creek Reservation. 
12,800 " " Tonawancla 
21,760 '' '' Cattaraugus 

1,920 '' " Tuscarora 
30,469 " " Allegany 



116,869 

SENECA INDIANS TREATY WITH THE OGDEN COMPANY. 

(Note— This sale conveys 33,637 acres of the 83,557 of the Buf- 
falo Creek Reservation.) — That part of this sale which is within 
the bounds of the Town of Elma is a strip one mile in width on the 
south side of the town, and is known as the Mile Strip ; and on this 
strip, in Elma, the first settlement of white people in the town of 
Elma was made. The part of this Reservation not sold by the 
terms of this treaty was to contain seventy-eight square miles or 
49,920 acres, and this reserved part is described as follows: 

Beginning on the north line of said Reservation at a point one 
and one-half miles east of the Cayuga Creek, running thence south 
one and one-half miles, thence east parallel with the north line so 
far that a line to be drawn from the termination thereof south, to a 
point one mile distant from the south line of the said Reservation, 
and thence west parallel with the said south line to the west line of 
the Reservation, and thence along the west and north lines of the 
same to the place of beginning will contain the said quantity of 
sevent3''-eight square miles or 49,920 ares. 

Note. — This treaty conveys a strip of land one and one-half 
miles wide on the north side of the Reservation, about three miles 
wide across the east end, and one mile wide the length of the 
south side. This takes all of the town of Marilla east of the two- 
rod road, passing north and south through Marilla village. All 
of the town of Elma is in the reserved part of the sale, except the 
Mile Strip on the south side of the town. 

TREATY SIGNED. 

The treaty was signed as follows: 

Young King, Young Chief, Charles 0'Bea.l, Capt. Shingo, 
PoLLARE, Barefoot, Tunis Wolfaoun, Geo. Red Eye, Little 
Billy, Capt. Crow, Lohn John, Jimie Thudson, Cornplan- 
52 



TER, Jones Cousin, Blue Eyes, Stiff Knee, Strong, Big 
Kettle, Little Johnson, Red Jacket, Chikf Warrior, Jack 
Snow, Doestada, John Fopp, Seneca White, Joseph Leg- 
NANY, Green Blanket, John Snow, Little Beard, Wm. 
Blacksnake, White Boy, Thompson, Tall Chief, Tall 
Peter, Isaac, James Stevenson, Jr., Capt. Snow, James 
RoBisoN, Henry Two Guns, John Snow, Twenty Canoes, 
White Seneca, Stevenson, Silver Heels, Destroy Town, 
John Pierce; 46 in all. 

Robert Troup, bA- his Attorney John Greig. 
Thomas L. Ogden, "'' " ^ '' 

Benj. W. Rogers, " 

Signed and Sealed in the presence of 

Jasper Parish, Indian Agent. 
Horatio Jones, Interpreter. 
Levi Hub bell, " 

Jacob Jim son, '' 

Certificate of Nathaniel Gorhaai, Sup 't for Massachusetts. 

" '' Oliver Forward, Com. for United States. 
Treaty ratified by United States Senate. 



Abram Ogden and 

Wife, 

et. al. 1st part, 

Wm. Short, 
et. al. 2d part, 
Robert Troup, 
et. al. 3d part. 



Deed of Partition, January 10th, 1828. Liber 
11, Page 56, to divide above premises to indi- 
vidual stockholders as per Trust Deed of Feb- 
ruary 18th, 1821. 



TREATY OF 1838 AND 1842, 



The Seneca Nation 

of Indians 

to 

Thomas L. Ogden 

and 
Joseph Fellows. 



Treaty January 15th, 1838, Lib. 82, Page 1. 
Sale of all the Indian lands which were excepted 
from the treatv and sale of August 31st, 1826, 
conveys 114,869 acres for $202';000, signed by 
forty-four chiefs and head men of the nation, 
certified by Mr. Gillett, Commissioner for the 
United States; certified by ■ Gen. Dearborn, 
Superintendent for Massachusetts. Treaty 
amended by United States Senate and sent 
back. So much dissatisfaction and opposition 
was made by many of the Chiefs and Indians 
that another Treaty was made August 7th, 1838, 
and was signed by forty-two who claimed to be 
chiefs. This last treaty was ratified by the 
United States Senate. 



53 



Josh. Waddington, Deed of trust July 16th, 1840, liber 67, page 

Abraham o^den 198. To purchase such of the Indian Reserva- 

Duncan P. Camp- tion as they can by treaty and then to convey 

^^}}' J and make partition of Indian lands. 

Isaac Ogden, '■ 

Robert Tillotson, 

Gabriel Shaw 

(bv Attornev) 

to 

Thomas L. Ogden 

and 

Joseph Fellows, 

Trustees. 

The Seneca Nation Treaty, May 20th, 1842. Liber 106, Page 

n jans -^^^ Treaty confirmator}^ and amendatory of the 

Thomas L. Ogden treaty of January 15th, 1838, and of August 

,^^\, 7th, 1838, conveys several tracts, among them 

loscph ir"CllOWS } ? <j / o 

Trustees. ' the balance of the Buffalo Creek Reservation as 
reserved by the treaty of August 31st, 1826, con- 
tains 49,920 acres. 



Signed by 



GEO. BLACK SNAKE, JOHN SENECA, IRA HURBACK, JOHN DICKEY, 
JAMES STEVE}JSON, JACOB BENNETT, GEORGE FOX, GEORGE 
BIG DEER, JOHN PIERCE, GEIRGE TURKEY, PETER JOHNSON- 
WM. PATTERSON, DANIEL TWO GUNS, JACOB STRONG, SAMUEL GOR- 
DON, BULLY SHANKS, JOHN KENNEDY, TONE HALF TOWN, JAMES 
PIERCE, ABRAM JOHN, WHITE SENECA, ROBERT WATT, JOB PIERCE. 
YOUNG CHIEF, THOMPSON S. HARRIS, GEORv^E BIG DEER, THOMAS 
JIMESON, MORRIS HALF TOWN, GANA WAN, TALL PETER, SIMON 
WHITE, ISAAC HALF TOWN, JOHN KENEDY, Jr., JAMES SHON. Jr., 
MORRIS STEVENSON, WM. JONES, JAMES SPORING, JONAH ARM- 
STRONG, SAMUEL LOGAN, MORRIS H. PIERCE^ GEORGE DEER, GUY 
JAMESON, JOHN TALL CHIEF, DANIEL SNOW', N. T. STRONG, BLUE 
EYES, JOHN BARK, JABEZ STEVENSON, SAMUEL WILSON, GEO. KILL 
BRUSH, LITTLE JOHNSON, WM. KROUSE, GEO, DENNIS, 53 CHIEFS 
AND HEADMEN. 

Witnesses : 

BENJ. FINNEY, O. H. MARSHALL, ORLANDO ALLEN, ELAM R. 
JEWETT, ASHER WRIGHT, CORTLAND B. STEBBINS, JOSEPH S. WAT- 
SON. 

Thomas L. Ogden. 

Joseph Fellows. 

Ambrose Spencer, Com. on behalf of U. S. 

Samuel Hoar, Supt. on behalf of Mass. 

A. Dixon, Com. on behalf of N. Y. 

This treaty was not ratified by the U. S. Senate. 



54 



PARTITION DEED OF OGDEN COMPANY. 

Wm. L.^Wadding- Deed of Partition December 29th, 1852. 
Jeremiah Van Liber 147, Page 279, in which principals et at., 

Renssaeler, were Set off. 

Executors of 
Josh. Waddington, 
Rich.H. Ogden,Ex. 
of Thos. L. Ogden, 
Louisa Troup, et al 

to 
Gabriel Shaw and 
Melville Wilson. 

Other deeds of Partition, Liber 77, Page 231; 
Liber 51, Page 279; Liber 118, Page 323. 

This brings the chain of title to 1852, and partitions the lots to 
the various members of the Company, giving to them individually 
the right to convey. 

It will be seen by the foregoing that the town of Elma was wholly 
included in the Buffalo Creek Reservation; that by the treaty of 
August 31st, 1826, the Ogden Company bought a strip one mile 
wide in the south part of Elma, the south line of this Mile Strip 
being the south line of the town. 

That by the treaty of May 20th, 1842, the Ogden Company 
bought the remainder of the Buffalo Creek Reservation, of which 
the remaining portion of the town of Elma was a part. 
The north line of this last purchase forms the north line of the 
town. 

That, by the deeds of partition, the stockholders of the Ogden 
Company became individual owners of the several lots as surveyed 
and numbered, and from these individual owners, purchases were 
made and the settlement of the town was begun, first, on the Mile 
Strip in 1828 and in 1844, and later throughout the remaining 
portion of the town. 



55 



CHAPTER IV. 

STATE JURISDICTION.— NEW YORK STATE DIVIDED INTO 

COUNTIES. 

Massachusetts claimed jurisdiction, as well as sovereignty over all 
of Western New York under the Charters of 
1620 and 1628. 

New York claimed the same under the Charter of 1664. Naturally, 
trouble betAveen the governing authorities of the 
two colonies, as well as with the inhabitants, 
grew out of these conflicting claims; and these 
troubles grew to be more and more bitter, as 
settlements were extended by each colony 
until actual hostilities were threatened on both 
sides. 

The settlement was finally made on December 
16th, 1786, by a commission appointed by 
Congress, which gave to New York jurisdiction 
over all the disputed territory in this State. 
The acts of New York will now be considered 
in this matter of State jurisdiction. 

The New York Assembly, having been called together by Gov. 
Dongan, then the Colonial governor of New 
York, among other acts, on October 17th, 1683, 
passed the act entitled "Charter of Liberties, &c., '' 
and on November 1st, 1683, the governor signed 
the act dividing the territory of New York into 
nine counties. 

Kings, Queens and Suffolk on Long Island were organized with 
practically the same boundaries as at present. 

The southeast part of the State, east of the 
Delaware River, was divided into Westchester, 
Richmond, Duchess, Ulster, Orange and Albany 
Counties. 

The first post-ofhce in New York City was 
established in 1775. 

COl'NTIES ORGANIZED. 

Albany County, as organized at that time, extending south from 
Albany about fifty miles, then west and south- 

56 



west to the Delaware River, then south to the 
Pennsylvania State line, and embraced all of 
the west and north part of New York and the 
whole of Vermont — quite a fair sized county, 
containing over 40,000 square miles. Elma 
was then and for nearly ninety years in Albany 
County. 

Try on Couty, formed from Albany County, March 12th, 1772, 
embraced all the State west of the Dela- 
ware river and a line extending from the 
head of that river, northeast through what 
is now Scoharie Count}^, and along the 
east line of Montgomer}^, Fulton, and Hamilton 
Counties, then north on a straight line to Canada. 
This placed Elma in Tryon County. 

Montgomery County. — The name of Tryon County was changed 

to Montgomery, April 2d, 1784, the people at 

that time having a greater love and respect for a 

noble general than for the old British governor. 

This placed Elma in Montgomery County. 

Ontario County was formed from Montgomery County, January 
27th, 1789, to embrace all of the Massachusetts 
tract and the New York State reservation on the 
east side of the Niagara River, being all west of a 
meridian line passing due north from the eighty- 
second mile post in the north line of the State 
of Pennsylvania, through Seneca Lake to Sodus 
Bay on Lake Ontario. Contain 6,000,000 acres 
of land. County seat at Canandaigua. 
This placed Elma in Ontario County. 

TOWNS AND COUNTIES. 

Genesee County, formed from Ontario, by act of legislature, 
March 30th, 1802, the east line of the County 
being the Genesee River and a line from the 
junction of Caneseraga Creek, with the Genesee, 
south to the Pennsylvania State line. All west 
of this line is the new County of Genesee. By 
the same act the County was divided into four 
towns ; Northampton (later the name changed to 
Gates), Southampton, Leister and Batavia, the 
county seat to be at Batavia. By this act, the 
town of Batavia consisted of the whole of what 
is now Chautauqua, Cattaraugus, Erie and 

57 



Niagara Counties, and nearly all of Orleans, 
Genesee, Wyoming and Alleghany Counties — 
about 4,000,000 acres. 

This act placed Elma in the town of Batavia, 
Genesee County. The surveys of the Holland 
Company's land being complete, settlers came, 
and the Holland Purchase was talked about 
everywhere. 

April 11th, 1804, by act of the Legislature, 
Batavia was divided into four towns. Batavia 
was to consist of the 1st, 2d and 3d Ranges of 
towns of the Holland Company's surveys; the 
west line of Batavia being the east line of 
Darien, and that line north and south from the 
Pennsylvania State line to Lake Ontario; 
Willink to consist of the 4th, 5th and 6th 
Ranges, making the west Transit line the west 
line, and extending from the Pennsylvania line 
to Lake Ontario; Erie to consist of the 7th, 
8th ,9th and 10th Ranges and New York Reser- 
vation; Chautauqua to contain all of w^hat is 
now Chatauqua County. 

This placed Elma in the town of Willink, 
Genesee County. 
In the early part of 1808, settlements had been made in every 
part of the large county of Genesee, and the inhabitants found it 
very inconvenient to attend the town meetings and elections; thus 
a reorganization of the county and of the towns seemed to have 
become a necessity. Towns eighteen miles wide and one hundred 
miles long were well enough when the inhabitants were few, and 
all at or near one end ; but now all this was changed, for the people 
living at Olean to go to Vandeventers in the new town of Clarence — 
eighty miles — to attend town meetings and elections was a little too 
much. 

The same conditions existed in the towns of Batavia and Erie. 
Genesee County. — March 11th 1808, by act of the Legislature, the 
line between the 4th and 5th Ranges was to be 
as it is now, the West line of Genesee County. 
Niagara County was formed by the same act to embrace all the 
territory west of Genesee County to Niagara 
River and between the Cattaraugus Creek and 
Lake Ontario; being the present counties of 
Niagara and Erie. 
Cattaraugus County by same act was formed with present bounda- 
ries. 

58 



Chautauqua County by same act was formed with present bounda- 
ries. 

Cambria, a new town, by same act was formed from Willink and 
Erie, to comprise ah of Niagara County north 
of the center of Tonawanda Creek. 

Clarence, a new town, all of Niagara County, between the centre of 
Tonawanda Creek and the centre of the Indian 
Reservation, including the village of Buffalo and 
Grand Island. 

Willink, to include all of Niagara County, between the centre of the 
Reservation and the Cattaraugus Creek. This 
wipes out the town of Erie, and places the town 
of Elma partly in Willink and partly in Clarence, 
in Niagara County; the line between Willink 
and Clarence, is the lot line about sixty rods north 
of Elma railroad station. 

Buffalo as a town was formed by act of Legislature February 8th, 
1810, from the town of Clarence, taking all west 
of the Transit line, viz : — what is now the city of 
Buffalo, also Grand Island, Tonawanda, Amherst, 
Cheektowaga and north part of West Seneca. 
Willink changed Name changed bv act of Legislature, April 

to Aurora. ^^^j^^ -^g-^g^ 

Erie County, formed April 2d, 1821, from Niagara County ; the 
Tonawanda Creek being the dividing line, giving 
to both Erie and Niagara their present limits. 
Erie County is twenty-three miles from the 
centre of Niagara River at the foot of Lake Erie 
to the Range line between the 4th and 5th 
Ranges of the Holland Company's survey; this 
Range line is one and a quarter miles east of the 
east line of Marilla. Erie County, is forty-three- 
and a half miles north and south. 

This places Elma partly in Aurora and partly 
in Clarence, Erie County. 
Lancaster, formed March 20th, 1833, from Clarence, the new town 
comprising Township eleven. Range six of the 
Holland Company's surveys and south to the 
centre of the Reservation. 

This places Elma partly in Aurora and partly 
in Lancaster, Erie County. 
The Legislature of the State of New York, from the first organi- 
zation of the Colonial Assembly on October 17th, 1683, had 
organized and made all changes in the size and boundaries of the 
towns of the State until 1849, when by Chapter 194 of the laws of 

59 



1849, entitled an Act to vest in the Boards of Supervisors certain 
legislative powers, etc., was passed April 3, 1849, as follows, : 

BOARD OF SUPERVISORS. 

" Chapter 194 of Laws of 1849. " 

The people of the State of New York, represented in Senate and 
Assembly, do enact as follows: 

Section 1 — The Boards of Supervisors of the several counties of 
this State (the county of New York excepted) at their annual meet- 
ing, shall have power within their respective counties by a vote of 
two-thirds of all the members elected, to divide, or alter in its 
bounds any town, or erect a new town, but they shall not make any 
alteration that shall place parts of the same town in more than one 
assembl}^ district. Upon application to the board as hereinafter 
provided (of at least twelve freeholders of each of the towns to be 
affected by the division), and upon being furnished with a map and 
survey of all the towns to be affected, showing the proposed altera- 
tions, and if the application be granted, a copy of said map with a cer- 
'tified statement of the action of said board thereunto annexed, 
shall be filed in the office of the Secretary of State, and it shall be 
the duty of the Secretary to cause the same to be printed with the- 
laws of the next legislature after such division takes place and to 
cause the same to be published in the same manner as other laws are 
published. 

Section 2 — Notice in writing of such intended application, sub- 
scribed by not less than tweh^e freeholders of the town or towns 
to be affected, shall be posted in five of the most public places in 
each of the towns to be affected thereby for four weeks next previ- 
ous to such meeting of the board of Supervisors and a copy of such 
notice shah also be pubhshed for at least six weeks successively 
immediately before the meeting of the board of Supervisors at 
which the application is to be made, in the newspapers printed in 
the county, not exceeding three in number. 

Section 3 — Whenever the board of Supervisors shall erect a new 
town in any county, they shall designate the name thereof, the time 
and place of holding the first annual town meeting therein, and 
three electors of such town whose duty it shall be to preside at such 
meeting, appoint a clerk, open and keep the polls, and exercise the 
same powers as Justices of the Peace when presiding at town meet- 
ings, and in case any of the said electors shall refuse or neglect to 
serve, the electors of the said town present at such meeting shall 
have power to substitute some elector of said town for each one 
so refusing or neglecting to serve. Notice of the time and place 
of such town meeting signed by the Chairman or Clerk of the Board 

60 



of Supervisors shall be posted in four of the most public places in 
said town, by the persons designated to preside at such town 
meeting, at least fourteen daj^s before holding the same. They shall 
also fix the place for holding the first town meeting in the town 
or towns from which such new town shall be taken, but nothing in 
this act shall affect the rights or abridge the term of office of any 
Justice of the Peace or other town officer in any such town whose 
term of office has not expired." 

In accordance with the foregoing act of the Legislature, the fol- 
lowing notice was duly posted and printed : 

NOTICE. 

Is hereby given that an application will be made to the Board of 
Supervisors of the County of Erie, New York, at their next annual 
meeting, to erect a new town in said county from the north part 
of the town of Aurora, and south part of the town of Lancaster to 
be composed of all that part of Township No. 10 in the Sixth 
Range of Townships lying east of a line commencing at the north- 
west corner of the town of Marilla, and running westerly to the 
Transit line, forty-five rods north of the northeast corner of the 
town of West Seneca, containing all the lands in said bounds. 

Lancaster. Aurora. 

William Winspear, • John Barnet, 

Henry F. Pate, David J. Morris, 

Frederick Hinemann, Henry M. Guptill, 

John Wolf, Wilfiam M. Lockwood, 

Daniel Christ, Robert M. Miller, 

Jacob Knab, - Horace Keyser, 

George Standart, Zenas M. Cobb, 

Edward Healev, James Davis, 2nd, 

Frederick Metzel, Lewis Northrup, 

Washington Standart, Noah Wertman, 

Matthias Baker, J. H. Aylesworth, 

Thomas D. Tiffany, John Morris. 

October 29th, 1856, Mr. Harris, Supervisor from the town 
of Aurora, presented to the Board of Supervisors a petition 
of William Lockwood and others of Aurora for the erection of a 
town from parts of Aurora and Lancaster. Referred to Com- 
mittee on Erection and Division of Towns. 

November 24th, 1856, Mr. Harris presented petition of Z. A. 
Hemstreet and others, in reference to erection of a new town, from 
parts of Aurora and Lancaster. 

61 



Mr. Bingham presented petition of Henry T. Jett and others in ref- 
erence to the same matter. Both petitions were referred to Com- 
mittee on Erection and Division of Towns. 

November 27th, 1856, Mr. Carpenter presented a remonstrance 
of Warren Jackman and others against a division of this town of 
Lancaster. Referred to Committee on Erection and Division of 
Towns. 

November 28th, 1856, Mr. Rowley presented the petition of 
D. J. Morris and others to have the new town from Aurora and 
Lancaster named Spring Brook. Referred to Commitee on Erection 
and Division of Towns. Also the petition of Erasmus Briggs 
and others to have a new town erected from Lancaster and Aurora. 
Referred to same committee. 

Mr. Bingham presented a remonstrance of Edward Holmes and 
others against the proposed north line of the new town which peti- 
tioners ask to have erected from Lancaster and Aurora. Referred 
to same committee. 

Thursda}^, December 4th, 1856. Report of the Committee on 
Erection and Division of Towns. 

Mr. Morgan, from the Committee on Division and Erection of 
Towns, made a report as follows : 

''Your Committee, to whom was referred the petitions and re- 
monstrances of different persons of the towns of Lancaster and 
Aurora, have had the same under consideration and, after examin- 
ing all the petitions and remonstrances both for and against the 
erection of a new town from parts of the towns of Lancaster and 
Aurora and, finding that all the notices and affidavits required to 
be given by the act passed by the Legislature of April 3d, 1849, have 
been furnished on the part of the petitioners, are of the opinion 
that the prayers of the petitioners should be granted. 

We therefore offer the following resolutions: 

1st. Resolved, That all that part of the towns of Lancaster 
and Aurora in the County of Erie described as follows : Beginning 
at the northeast corner of the town of West Seneca, running thence 
east on the line of lots to the west line of the town of Marilla and to 
the, northeast corner of Lot No. 1 ; thence south on the said west 
line of the town of Marilla to the southwest corner of said town; 
thence westerly along the Reservation line to the Transit line; 
thence northerly along the said Transit line to the place of beginning, 
is hereby erected into a separate town to be hereafter known and 
distinguished b}" the name of Elma. 

2nd. Resolved, That all the remaining part of Lancaster, shall be 
and remain a separate town by the name of Lancaster, and all the re- 
maining part of Aurora shall be and remain a separate town by the 
name of Aurora. 

62 



3rd. Resolved, The first annual town meeting in the town hereby 
erected shall be held at the house of Clark W. Hurd, in said town, 
on the first Tuesday of March, 1857, and thereafter the same shall 
be held on the same day that other towns hold their annual town 
meetings in said county of Erie. 

4th. Resolved, That Joseph B. Briggs, Deforest Standart and 
Lewis Northrup are hereby appointed to preside at the first town 
meeting to be held in said town of Elma; to appoint a clerk; open 
and keep the polls and shall exercise the same powers as Justices 
of the Peace when presiding at town meetings. All of which is 
respectfully submitted. 

Daniel Morgan, 
NiLEs Carpenter, 
0. G. Rowley, 
Martin Keller, 
Thomas O'DwYER. 

Comjnittee.^' 
Mr. O'Dwyer moved to lay the report on the table and make it 
the special order for Monday afternoon, immediately after the 
reading of the minutes. 

Mr. Taylor moved to amend, by making it the special order for 
this P. M. at 3 o'clock. 

The question taken by ayes and noes, resulted as follows : Ayes, — 
Z. C. Allen, Barnard, Bingham, Ballou, Buffum, Covey, Clark, 
Carpenter, Cunningham, Dayton, Grove, Morgan, Patterson, Row- 
ley, Sherman, Smith, Taylor, Winslow — 19. 

Noes — 0. Allen, Brooks, Bellinger, O'Dwyer, Diebold, Edmunds, 
Fish, Harris, Hecox, Hall, Keher, Loveland, Marvin, Richmond, 
Sterns, Welch — 16. The motion as amended was put and carried. 

Thursday, December 4th, 1856 — Afternoon session. 

The report of the Committee on Division and Erection of Towns 
having been the special order it was taken up. 

Mr. Taylor moved that the report be adopted. The question 
being taken by ayes and noes resulted as follows : 

Ayes — Z. G. Allen, Barnard, Bingham, Ballou, Buffum, Covey, 
Clark, Carpenter, Cunningham, O'Dwyer, Diebold, Dayton, Ed- 
munds, Fish, Grove, Harris, Hall, Keller, Morgan, Patterson, Row- 
ley, Richmond, Stevens, Sherman, Smith, Taylor, Welch, Winslow 
—28. 

Noes — Brooks, Loveland, Marvin — 3. Report adopted. 

December 9th, 1856 — Mr. Brooks moved that the town of Elma 
be made a part of School Commissioner District No. 2. 

Mr. Allen moved that the said motion be referred to a committee 
of three to be appointed by the chairman. Carried. The chair- 

63 



man appointed as said commitee, Messrs. Covev, Cunningham and 
Welch. 

Mr. Bingham presented the petition of John Wright and others 
to have the new town, now called Elma, called Clyde or London. 
Referred to a committee on Erection and Division of Towns. 

December 10th, 1856— Mr. Morgan from the Committee on 
Erection and Diidsion of Towns made the following report : 

ELMA THE NEW TOWN. 

''Your Committee, to whom was referred the petition of the in- 
habitants of the town of Lancaster for an alteration in the name 
of the new town of Elma, have had the same under considera- 
tion and beg leave to make the following report : 

That in the opinion of j^our Committee, we have no right to alter 
the name and should not be disposed to do so if we had such 
right. All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Daniel Morgan, 
NiLES Carpenter, 
0. G. Rowley, 
Martin Keller, 
Thomas O'Dwyer. 

Committee.' ' 
Report adopted unanimously. 

December 12th, 1856, Mr. Cunningham from the Committee on 
School Committee District No. 2 made the following report: 

"The Committee to whom was referred the subject of altering the 
boundary of the Second School Commissioner District have had 
the same under consideration and offer the following resolution : 

Resolvecl,That the boundaries of the Second School Commissioner 
District in the County of Erie be and is hereby extended so as to in- 
clude the town of Elma within its limits. Adopted. 

L. D. Covey, 
Nelson Welch, 
H. S. Cunningham, 

Committee." 
Thus was the Board of Supervisors authorized to erect the new 
town; and the Town of Elma with full power and authority became 
one of the towns of the Empire State. 



64 



CHAPTER V. 



LOOKING BACKWARD. 



The residents of the town of Ehna in the year 1900, being in the 
full enjo3^ment of their pleasant and comfortable homes, many 
with expensive and luxurious furnishings and surroundings, with 
well cultivated fields and farms and well-filled barns, with villages , 
churches, postoffices and schools near by; with railroad and telegraph 
stations within easy reach ; with good roads everywhere, and having 
been, for many years in the full possession and use of all these 
evidences of prosperity, and in the every-day life passing easily, 
almost imperceptabl}^ from one day or week or month or year to 
another, if asked about these surroundings would be likely to vejAj 
they were that always so, but with a second sober thought they 
would hesitate and say, that great changes had taken place in 
Western New York since the first white settler moved upon the 
Holland Purchase ; and even since this Reservation was vacated by 
the Seneca Indians. 

Some writer has truthfully said, "That a person in a boat floating 
clown a rapid current, by looking at the water at his side can form 
no idea as to how fast he is going; and only when he looks at the 
shore or at some stationary object can he realize the velocity of 
the stream," 

As a people and nation we are on the high tide and moving rapidly 
on. Shall we take a look towards shore and see what rapid strides 
we have made? We all know, or ought to know something of the 
early histor}^ of our country and of the hardships and dangers 
through which the early settlers passed ; of the oppression which was 
forced upon the colonies by the home government ; of the spirit hey 
had with which to oppose the wrongs which they suffered, and which 
were increased until armed resistance became a necessity; of the 
great men of the country whose united patriotism and wisdom 
placed before the world our "Declaration of Independence," fol- 
lowed by the eight years Revolutionary War, and the acknowledg- 
ment by England of our Independence which compelled the gov- 
ernments of Europe to recognize the " United States of America" as 
a nation among nations. 

Then were we, as a nation, like a little child, hardly able to toddle 
along ; but now like a strong, fully developed man we claim to be, 
and are, second to no nation on the face of the earth. 

65 



We have our 4th of July celebrations, when we have the Declara- 
tion of Independence read and appropriate orations delivered, and 
we fill out the day with patriotic songs. Why do we do this? Be- 
cause we are by these exercises, taken back in thought to the time 
of Colonial troubles, the times that tried men's souls; and w^e re- 
ceive great pleasure and profit in reading and reviewing the early 
history and later growth of our country, our spirit of patriotism and 
national pride is thereby strengthened ; and by these celebrations we 
keep the fires of patriotism and love of country burning, so that our 
children and all citizens may learn and remember something of the 
struggles and hardships of the early settlers during the infant days 
of our republic. As national and individual independence and 
prosperity is today the heritage of all the people, so by the review 
we are made to realize when and how the great change and growth 
has come to pass, and love of country is made to take deeper root in 
the hearts of all the people. 

As we turn back the pages of our national historj' and read about 
the great men ; their labors and achievements in the affairs of the 
nation, the boys of today are thereby encouraged to do their best 
that they too, may have their names on their country's roll of honor. 
As we read about the first steamboat, the first railroad locomotive, 
the first cotton loom, the first school, the first sewing machine, the 
first telegraph, and about a thousand other great inventions what 
interesting subjects of thought they are for us. 

How proud were the men who gave them to us, and how we honor 
them, and cherish their memory; for they were the first to open a 
path through what had before been an unbroken wilderness, and 
they have opened the way for the inventive spirit to operate until 
today Ave have all these inventions brought to such great perfection 
that they are marvelous in our eyes. It is the great desire of our 
people to be forever pressing on, and so far as possible , to stand at 
the head of the class in all inventions that tend to make national 
and individual prosperity. 

At the time the Colonists made their efforts to resist the tyranny 
that was forced upon them by the English government, _ had they 
been possessed of only ordinary intelligence and determination or 
in other words, less backbone ; or if such strong outside influence 
had been used aganist them as to crush their efforts for Indepen- 
dence; or if the Colonists had been satisfied to continue under 
British rule, we today, would be a second down-trodden and op- 
pressed Ireland instead of the great United States nation. 

Suppose that inventors had been satisfied with the steamboat 
which John Stevens set afloat in 1804, we would today be going 
around in just such a craft as that, instead of the splendid palaces 

66 



that plow through the waters of our great lakes and the greyhounds 
and merchantmen and warships that traverse all oceans. 

The first railroad engine which was built in the United States 
was placed on the track in 1830 ; a crude kind of engine with four 
wheels, no cab, no cover for engineer or fireman, wood for fuel, and 
able to go only a few miles in a da)''. 

Christian Smith, who is still living, stepped on board as the first 
railroad engineer. Suppose that had satisfied the world as being 
the climax of railroad engines, what would the Avorld be today as 
compared with the present railroads, crossing and recrossing every 
state and almost every civilized country of earth; with Empire 
Express passenger trains with a speed of sixty miles per hour and 
great freight trains, each carrying 600 to 2,000 tons of produce or 
merchandise 20 to 30 miles per hour? And so of each and all of the 
other great inventions of today which have been brought so 
nearly to perfection by American inventive genius. 

As we trace these back to their early days, we can trul}^ say that 
the push and the determination of our people to "get there" have, 
from very small beginnings and manj^ unfavorable surroundings, 
produced marvelous results; and from taking this backward look 
we are prepared to give honor and praise where they are due; 
being better able to realize the changes that have been made, and 
so are encouraged to press forward to complete victory in all possi- 
ble things, our motto being " Excelsior," always upholding the flag 
of our Union, with its Stars and Stripes, singing as we go, "Long 
may it wave, over the land of the free and the home of the brave." 

As a people, we have much of praise and honor for those who have 
been the prime mo^T.rs in all the great events of our national affairs 
and as we receive such inspiration and hope and strength by a review 
of our early and later national histor}^, may we not have these same 
impressions increased toward the first settlers in the town of Elma, 
by a review of their earl}^ labors. A very large proportion of the 
families who resided in the town of Elrha when the town was organ- 
ized in 1856, came from the Holland Purchase, where they or their 
families were among the first settlers on that tract. By taking a 
look back to that time we shall see what Western New York then 
was, how the people labored, with what tools and implements they 
worked, what were their surroundings, and the difficulties, dangers, 
and hardships of their early li^'es. 

This review of the frontier life of the early settlers on the Hol- 
land Purchase may not be a history of the town of Elma in the 
strict meaning of that term; but it is a history of the early life of 
the fathers and mothers, of the bo3^s and girls who were the first or 
earl}^ settlers of this town. Among their number are many who 
now reside here, and who have been and are numbered among 

67 



our best citizens, and to take a brief review of their early lives is 
to place them in the position where we can give to them the respect 
and honor that is their due; for by their early acts and labors they 
laid the foundation for, and made possible the present conditions 
and surroundings. It is but fair that they and their early acts 
should be remembered, and that we by this review may realize the 
changes that ha^-e been made, and the difference there is between 
Western New York in 1808 and in 1900, 

To pass by the purchase on July 20th, 1793, of the lands west of the 
Genesee River by the Holland Land Co. except the eleven Pteser- 
vations, and the settlement of the eastern part of that tract with a 
settler here and there miles part in the western part, we come to 
March 11th, 1808, when Niagara, Cattaraugus, and Chautauqua 
counties were set off from Genesee county, and Niagara County 
embracing what is now Niagara and Erie was made into three 
towns, Cambria now Niagara County and Clarence and Willink, 
now Erie County. 

FIRST SETTLERS ON HOLLAND PURCHASE. 

The dividing line l?etween Clarence and Willink was the centre, 
eas^ and west line of the Buffalo Creek Reservation. This line 
remained when Willink was changed to Aurora and when Lan- 
caster was set off from Clarence as the line between Lancaster and 
Aurora. 

At this time, 1808, there were about twelve families, a store, a 
sawmill, and a grist-mill, in what is now Aurora, with scattering 
families in Wales, Colden and Hamburgh, and in the present town 
of Lancaster there were about twelve or fifteen families, a saw-mill, 
and a store. After 1808, settlers came in more rapidly but they 
were nearly all ^'ery poor. 

As a rule, but few were able to pay more than five, ten or fifteen 
dollars as a part payment on a one hundred acre lot ; and so many 
were not able to make that small payment that finally six shillings 
was the price required by the Holland Land Company for an "article" 
as the contract was called. 

Generally, if the family came in the summer, it was with oxen and 
cart ; if in winter or spring, with oxen and sled, and if not too poor, 
they would ha^'e with them a cow, a few sheep and a supply of 
clothing, a small stock of household furniture with sufficient pro- 
visions to last the family until they could raise some corn, potatoes 
and wheat. 

The first thing after selecting a lot was a shelter. If there 
were no near neighbors, the man would fix up a cabin of 
small logs that he and the other members of the family could handle 

68 



and the boch-^ of tlie house was thus constructed. If there were 
four or more neighbors within two or three miles, they would come 
on a set day, and a log house of suitable size for the family would 
be constructed, having a roof of bark or shakes, a puncheon or 
earth floor, a fireplace built in one end of the house with common 
stones for materials, plastered and laid up in clay mud for mortar, 
with stick chimney laid up cob-house fashion and plastered out- 
side and inside with clay mud when the house was ready. 

POTATOES AND POINT. 

Every man needed to bring with him, as his outfit of tools, an 
axe for himself and one for each of his boys, a hand saw, a drawing 
knife, one inch and two inch auger, a gimlet, one or two iron wedges, 
hoe, sickle, and sap gouge; and for the house, andirons, fire-shovel 
and tongs, trammel and hooks and chain for the fire place, a one pail 
iron kettle or pot, tea-kettle, spider, bake-kettle, skillet, and a two 
or three pail kettle for washing daj^s, one or two wood pails and a 
few keelers. The table furniture was neither extensive nor ex- 
pensive; ver}^ few earthen dishes, the pewter plates, or plates of 
wood called trenchers, pewter platter for the center of the table, a 
few pewter or iron spoons, iron or steel knives and forks, made up 
the list. At meals the meat, if they had any, would be cut into 
small pieces or mouthfuls and put in the platter in the center of the 
table, and each person would reach to the platter with 
his fork for a piece of meat or to sop a piece of bread as they 
would individually want. When the family had no meat they 
would prepare their potatoes and salt on the trencher, and while 
eating, occasionally point with their forks toward the platter, and 
in that way make the motion for meat; they would call the meal 
"potatoes and point." This with the earh- settlers was a common 
dish. 

The principal meat was pork, with an occasional change to bear, 
deer, partridge, pigeon or fish. The steel and flint, with punk ancl 
tinder were a necessity ; for the fire in summer would sometimes go 
out, and there were no matches in those days, and neighbors were 
not near enough so they could go to them to borrow fire. 

, With the few tools brought along the man could make the stools, 
benches, bedsteads, tables, and other necessary things as the time 
and requirement came along. After 1808 and 1810, saw-mills were 
built so that people could have boards for their floors and roofs and 
doors of their houses. None other than log houses were built for 
several years. 

The men and boys were bus}^ chopping, clearing, making fence; 
and raising such crops as they could of potatoes, corn, wheat, rye, 

69 



beans and flax; caring for the oxen, cows, sheep, hogs and horse, 
if they had one, for not more than one family in ten had a horse 
before 1816 in all Western New York, and that was only used for 
horse-back riding, or to take a grist to the mill. The three-cornered 
drag was made from the crotched part of a tree, each prong about 
seven or eight inches in diameter flattened to a proper thickness, 
with two inch auger holes at proper distances apart in which would 
be inserted wooden teeth, made from hard, strong wood ; generally 
hickory, oak, or iron wood. The oxen would drag this over the 
ground among the roots and stumps of the newly cleared field, and 
thus scratch up enough of soil to partly cover the grain that had 
been sown by hand broadcast; or this dragging would prepare 
the ground to be planted to potatoes or corn. The first crop of 
corn on a newly cleared field was generally planted Indian fashion ; 
that is, strike the axe into the ground where the hill was wanted, 
drop in four or five kernels of corn and step on the hill. 

PLOW AND SICKLE. 

The plow, when one was used, was of rude construction and in later 
■years, the share and mould-board were of cast iron with large wood 
beam, known as "Wood's Bull Plow," a heavy clumsy thing to 
handle, but it was strong and, with enough of team strength, would 
break the roots and tear up considerable soil. 

The wheat, rye and oats were always cut with the sickle, and 
where several hands were in the harvest field, the head man would 
cry out, ' ' Band ! " and every man would cut a handful of the 
grain, and tie the knot to make the band, and lay it on the ground; 
then they would cut the grain by handfuls, lay them on the band, 
and when enough was so placed to make a bundle, then the head 
man would sing out, "Bind 0!" and every one would bind his 
bundle ; then " Band ! " and so on across the field. To reap, bind 
and set up one-half acre of common grain was a good day's work. 

SUGAR MAKING.— FLAX DRESSING. 

Of the wheat, rye, and oats stored in the barn, enough would be 
threshed with the flail in the fall for immediate use, if needed; the 
balance would be threshed in the winter. Men and boys learned 
to use the flail, and two or three hands, keeping stroke with flails — 
tap, tap, tap, so as not to hit another flail, made the winter 
music in the barn; the straw and chaff being fed to the cattle. If, 
for any reason, there was not enough straw and hay for the cattle 
in winter or spring, the men would go to the woods and chop down 
elm,birch, beach, or basswood trees, and the cattle would eat the 

70 



small twigs and many times the entire stock would be carried 
through the winter on this browse. 

Making sap troughs, tapping the maple trees, and work in the 
sugar bush was the gala time and to make a 3^ear's supply of sugar 
and molassas for the family was part of the early spring work. 

On pleasant days in March, the men and boys, if the}" had flax 
would use the flax-break, then the swingel to separate the shives 
from the flax, followed by the hatchel to separate the coarse part 
of the fibre or tow from the fine part, which was to be used for 
thread and fine linen cloth; then the flax and tow were ready for 
the mother and girls. They kept the house, did the cooking over 
the fire in the Dutch fireplace that occupied one end of the living 
room, and it was in many of the houses the veritable living room, 
being used for kitchen, pantry, dining-room, reception room, bed- 
room and parlor so far as they had need for a parlor. 
I'' There were no cook stoves in those days and not a piano on the 
Holland Purchase before 1824, and there was no good place in the 
house to put one, and no time nor use for rheap novels, embroidery 
or fancy work. 

WOMEN SPIN AND WEAVE. 

The mother and girls carded the wool and tow into batts with 
hand cards and from these they spun yarn on the big wheel. Every 
girl then learned to spin, not street yarn or on a bicycle, but the 
real yarn from wool and tow, and it was their pride to see how 
evenly they could draw out the thread, and get off their day's 
work of four skeins of fifling or three skeins of warp. The warp was 
spun cross banded, and was hard twisted, and so required more 
work. Each skein contained ten knots of forty threads each, and 
each thread to be two yards in length; so each skein consisted of a 
continuous thread eight hundred 3'ards, or twenty-four hundred 
feet in length. The four skeins made nine thousand six hundred 
feet, nearly two miles in length of thread, for a days work; but a 
smart spinner would get off" her day's work by 3 o'clock p. m. 
From the wool 3'arn thus spun, then colored and woven, would be 
made the best dresses for the women, and the best clothes for the 
men, and from wool spun for that especial purpose were knit the 
stockings for the family. 

From the tow thus carded and spun, they would make cloth for 
the girls' summer dresses, and frocks, pants and shirts for the men 
and boys. 

The flax, after being thoroughly hatcheled and nicely placed on 
the distaff would be spun on the little wheel, and thread be thus 
prepared for sewing, and to be woven into fine linen cloth for fam- 
ily use. The big wheel, the little wheel, and the reel were a part 

71 



of the furniture of nearly every house. Of course, the weaA^er had 
in addition, the loom, the swifts, the quill-wheel, quills and spools, 
the warping bars, and sets of coarse and fine reeds. 



CANDLES. 

The fire in the fireplace would generally give out light enough. 
If, for any ordinary purpose more light was required, a tallow 
candle in an iron candlestick would suppl}'^ the need, but for especial 
occasions, as when they had company and wanted to show that they 
could put on more style, two tallow candles would be brought out. 
The tin lantern, with a piece of tallow candle furnished the light 
for going around on dark nights and to do the chores in the barn. 

The oxen and cart or wagon for summer and the oxen and sled for 
winter were the means of conveyance. 

While the whole country was covered with one dense forest, 
the conditions were not favorable for sudden changes of weather; 
thaws in winter were not common and generally, November 
snows would remain until April. There were no snow-drifts, for 
the windstorms passed over the tops of the trees, as the snow 
remained where it fell, a road once broken through the woods 
would remain good all winter. 



MERCHANTS.— SHOEMAKERS. 

Boots and shoes were for winter and special occasions only. 
Many were the boys and girls who never had a shoe for every day 
wear before they were twelve years old, and very often not then. 

On going to the village or to church they would carry their shoes 
to within half a mile of the village or church, put them on there, wear 
them to where they were going, and back to the same place, then 
take them off and carry them home, thus prolonging the service- 
ability of the shoes. 

The country or village stores did not have boots and shoes as a 
part of their stock in trade. In every village, you would find the 
shoemaker and in almost every neighborhood w^ould be a cobbler 
who would mend shoes and sometimes make a pair. In the fall 
and winter, the traveling shoemaker with his shoe-bench and 
small kit of tools and lasts would go from house to house and as 
they called it, "wdiip the cat," and stay with the family while he 
made or mended their boots and shoes for the winter's supply. 

After 1818, a tannery was started in nearl}^ every village on the 
Holland Purchase, and from these the necessary supply of leather 
was obtained. 

72 



The merchants obtained their goods from New York or Albany ; 
the goods being hauled from Albany with four or six horse teams ; the 
teams taking potash to Albany, and loading back with merchan- 
dise and iron. The iron was necessary for the blacksmith who 
in addition to his regular trade, was a nailmaker, and from the 
nail-rod he made the nails used in his neighborhood. The long dis- 
tance from which the iron was brought, made nails very high even 
at the low price of labor. In 1820, a few merchants in the larger 
villages brought in a few cut nails, coarse and clumsy things as 
compared with the nails of 1900. Eight and ten penny nails were 
then sold for sixteen cents per pound, while wheat at that time 
was worth only thirty cents per bushel at the village mill. A 
bushel of wheat then would not buy two pounds of nails, 
while in 1900 a bushel of wheat at eighty cents will buy 
at retail thirty pounds of very nice steel nails. Farmers in 
1900 complain of hard times; how was it in 1820? , _ 

SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES. 

Schools were started in every neighborhood where a dozen or 
more children could be found. The schoolhouses were generally 
log buildings with a Dutch fireplace in one end. Later, in the 
villages and occasionally in the country you would find a frame 
school house. Education was what every parent wanted his 
children to have; not the high school education of 1900, for that 
was not known on the Holland Purchase for many years; but a 
good, liberal education, consisting of a fair knowledge of the thre« 
Rs, as ''Readin, Ritin, and Rithmetic,'' was called, and to this 
education the children generally attained. 

Churches were built in the villages with forenoon and afternoon 
services summer and winter. No fire was kept in the churches 
until 1824, as there were no box stoves until about that date. 

ERIE CANAL. 

The completion of the Erie Canal from Buffalo to Albany in 
1825, caused a great boom on the Holland Purchase. On October 
26, 1825, at 10 o'clock a. m., the Seneca Chief left Buffalo for Al- 
bany with Governor Clinton and others on board. The departure 
from Buffalo was announced by the disciiarge of a thirty-two 
pound cannon. Other cannon along the canal at convenient dis- 
tances repeated the shot, and in that way the news was telegraphed 
to Albany. That was the best way to telegraph in those days. .f,^. 

The opening of the canal enabled people to come into Western 
New York with less expense and hardship, and the merchant was 

73 



able to get his goods from New York at less cost, and very much 
quicker than the old way of having everything hauled from Al- 
bany by teams. It also opened a better market for the farmer for 
his surplus product. Horses were required to haul the boats and 
they required feed , so horses, hay, and oats found a ready market 
on the canal. After this date most of the houses which were 
built in the older part of the Holland Purchase were frame 
houses, only a few log houses remaining, except in some back or 
newly settled portion. The pewter plates and trenchers give place 
to crockery and all kinds of tin ware, with better buildings, farm 
tools, and better cultivation and better crops and roads. The 
whole face of the country shows that the infant stage has passed. 

FROM POVERTY TO COMPETENCY. 

We can readily see that with the early settlers in Erie County, 
for many years, improvements came very slowly, as only the actual 
necessaries of life were to be had, or were expected, while luxuries 
were not to be thought of. It was only by slow, hard labor, per- 
sistently followed, that change was made from poverty to compe- 
tency, by the people who by their crude surroundings were forced 
to their severe manner of living. Their very existence demanded 
and forced upon them industry and rigid economy — that sharp, 
strict, close economy which in these days of extravagance and 
luxury would be called niggardly meanness. This is a fair state- 
ment of the mode of life of a great majority of the early settlers 
on the Holland Purchase before 1826, in what is now Erie County. 
A goodly number of persons who were born and raised to manhood 
and womanhood under exactly such conditions and surroundings 
as have been here stated, are residing in the town of Elma in the 
year 1900, and they have been and are today among the best and • 
most highly respected citizens of the town and county. There can 
be nothing but honor and praise for those honest, hardj^ toilers, who, 
by their industry and perseverance overcame so many obstacles 
and discouragements, and opened the way so that the piesent 
pleasant and properous conditions of the people in the town of 
Elma were made a probability and possibility and later, aceitainty. 



74 



CHAPTER VI. 

WESTERN NEW YORK IN 1797.— SETTLEMENT OF THE MILE 

STRIP. 

One hundred years ago, viz. : in 1797, there were not a dozen 
famihes of white persons residing on all of the Massachusetts lands 
west of the Phelps and Gorham tract. A few hundred of the 
Seneca, Tuscarora and Cayuga tribes of the Iroquois or Six Nations 
had about a dozen Indian villages several miles apart and a few 
huts or wigwams between and near these villages with one to ten 
acres of cleared land near the wigwam or village, on which the 
squaws raised corn, beans, and gourds. The footpaths or trails 
from wigwam to village, and between the villages were all the 
signs that showed that any part of this territory was occupied by 
human beings. 

The 7,000 square miles of territory bounded by the Genesee 
River on the east, and Niagara River and Lake Erie on the west 
was to be known as Western New York. The mountains, valleys, 
hills, .plains, rivers, creeks and streams were practically the same 
as we find them today but it was all an unbroken forest, except the 
small patches of Indian clearings which were the homes of the 
Indian, the bear, the wolf, the panther, the deer, and other wild 
animals. 

The Seneca tribe of Indians was the undisputed owner of 
all this great tract of country (except the New York Reservation, 
which w^as a strip one mile in width from Lake Ontario to 
Lake Erie along the east bank of Niagara River) the title having 
been confirmed and guaranteed to them by treaty with the United 
States. This whole forest region was covered with a heavy growth 
of oak, pine, hemlock, hickory, ash, black walnut, butternut, 
sycamore, maple, beech, elm, basswood and many other kinds of 
timber, and was an ideal home and hunting-ground for the native 
Indian. 

WESTERN NEW YORK IN 1900. 

One hundred years have passed, and in 1900 we find in this same 
Western New York that these Indians have sold all their lands 
to the white man, except four small reservations, a few thousand 
acres in all, and in the place of a few hundred Pagan Indians there 
are more than 1,000,000 civilized Christians, intelligent and indus- 

75 



trious white people. We find the great cit}^ of Buffalo and several 
smaller cities and hundreds of villages and hamlets dotted here and 
there over the whole territory. It is hardly possible to tell the 
number of miles of paved and asphalt streets and roads in the 
cities and villages and between them; or the number of miles of 
street railroads which are spread across and around these cities 
and villages, and that reaching miles into the surrounding 
county form a great iron and steel net on which the cars run, 
being propelled by that subtle power, electricit)'^, of which we 
see and hear so much, and really know so little. The steam 
railroad, the steel tracks of which cross and recross almost every 
town, with trains coming and leaving the cities almost every minute 
of every day of the year, the steamboats arri^dng and leaving the 
city wharves; the hum and whir of 10,000 machines in the fac- 
tories, the hundreds of palatial residences, the churches, schools, 
public and office buildings, the more than 1,000,000 of busy 
hurrying people are in such marked contrast with everything 100 
3^ears ago that the mind is filled with wonder and amazement. 

In the place of the scattering Indian huts and half acre clearings 
in the great forest, we find everywhere well-cultivated farms with 
fine buildings, the houses finished and furnished with all the 
modern appliances, the homes of a prosperous and happy people. 

Instead of the foot path or Indian trail from and between the 
Indian villages with a tree fallen across the stream for a bridge, 
we have the whole country crossed and recrossed with well 
worked highways, with iron and steel bridges across the streams. 
These are only a few of the many things that come to the mind of 
persons residing in Western New York in the 3"ear 1900. The mind 
wanders when we attempt to take in all the changes of the 100 
years, and we can only say this is truly an age of wonders, if not 
of miracles, and we are ready to ask if some magic wand was 
passed over this region, that produced this change, this transforma- 
tion from Pagan barbarism to Christian civilization. 



HOLLAND LAND CO. OGDEN CO. 

The purchase, July 20th, 1793, and survey of this 7,000 square 
miles of territory, by the HoUand Land Co. was the first step 
to bring about this change. Next came the hardy pioneer as 
magician with axe in hand as the magic rod with which he made 
a few motions and passes towards the trees of the forest which 
caused them to tremble and fall at his feet. The fire and smoke 
from the burning brush and log-heaps were his burnt offering ; the 
thanksgiving for the harvest foUowecl which was the next step. 

76 



These acts of persistent labor and strict economy, continually 
and intelligently applied, changed the forest to the farm and village 
on the Holland Purchase. 

Twenty-five years of such work brought the white man's cleared 
fields to the North, east and south sides of the Buffalo Creek 
Reservation. 

The Ogden Company, a syndicate of capitalists, tried for several 
3^ears to purchase of the Indians all their lands in Western New 
York. Finally, by the treaty of August 31st, 1826, they pur- 
chased the whole of a few of the Reservations, and a part of some 
of the others. That part of the Buffalo Creek Reservation which 
lies in the town of Elma and was a part of this purchase was a strip 
of land one mile wide, and is known as the Mile Strip, and after 
having been surveyed by John Lamberton, was opened for set- 
tlement as an addition to the Holland Purchase. This was the third 
step in the progress of Western New York. 

THE MILE STRIP. 

The south side of this Mile Strip is the south line of the present 
town of Elma, and the Elma part of this Mile Strip was divided by 
survey into thirty-seven lots of about one hundred acres each. 

Lot No. 1 was at the southeast corner of Elma. Lot No. 2 
next north of Lot No. 1, and as each lot was half a mile in length, 
the two lots reached across the Mile Strip in this town. The lots 
were numbered North and South as the ranges extended to the 
west until Lots 35, 36, 37, which form the west range in the town 
lying west of the Cazenove Creek, brings Lot 37 at the southwest 
corner of Elma. 

The first settlements made by white people in this town of Elma 
were on this mile strip in the then town of Aurora, and the settlers 
came mostly from Aurora, Wales, Colden and Hamburgh ; all com- 
ing from the Holland Purchase, where they or their families had 
been among the early settlers of that tract and had there learned 
by experience what it meant to go into the woods to begin for a 
home. 

At that time, 1828, sawmills, gristmills, villages, postoffices, 
churches and schoolhouses had become common on the Holland 
Purchase so that many articles of necessit}^ and convenience were 
within easy reach, and friends and neighbors were near by. To 
leave these and go into the woods meant many privations and much 
hard work for all the members of the family. It meant a repetition 
to a certain extent of the labors, difficulties and dangers through 
which they had passed during the last few j'-ears. They knew and 
realized what was before them. It meant the same hard work, the 

77 



same strict economy, small returns for much hard labor, and the 
result has proven that they were in every way prepared and fully 
competent for the task. 

The old Indian trail from the Allegany Reservation in Cattarau- 
gus County to the Seneca village near Buffalo via Machias, Holland, 
Aurora, Spring Brook, and Ebenezer village crossed this mile strip 
and today the mainly traveled road through these places is very 
nearly on the old trail, and by this trail and road the travel went 
from Wales and Aurora to Buffalo before the Ogden Company 
made any purchase of the Seneca Indians. 

The lots on the Mile Strip in Elma were offered for sale by the 
Ogden Company on January 1st, 1828. 



EARLY SETTLERS ON THE MILE STRIP. 

The following named persons and their families were the first 
settlers on the Mile Strip in the year and as nearly in the order here 
given as can be ascertained : 



Taber Earl, 
Lyman Chandler, 
Isaac Williams, 
Russel Brooks, 

Timothy Treat, " 17, 

Daniel F. Cole. _ " 26, 

Hiram Pattengill, " 2, 

Jacob R. Davis, " 35, 

John Divens, " 21, 

John Fones, " 24-, 

Salathiel Cole, " 32, 

Chester Adams, " 33, 

Jas. & Willard Fairbank " 13, 
'Anasa& Luther Adams, " 11, 
John Adams, " 20, 

James Dfivis, " N. part 35, 

Martin Taber (N. Star) " 29, 
Jacob Pattengill, } " 2 fr 3 

Taber Pattengill, ) ' 

Zina A. Hemstreet, 
Wilder Hatch, 
Joshua & Wm. Mitchell, 
Seth M. Bullis, 
Samuel Harris, 
Thomas Coverdale, 



on Lot 24, bought January 2nd, 1828. 

16, '• February. 1828. 

15, moved on April 10, 1828. 

" 19 & 20, moved on April 10, 182S. 



May, 

May, 

January 1st, 

May 5th, 



(Cousins) 



1828. 
1828. 
1829. 
1829. 
1829. 
1829. 
1829. 
1829. 
1830. 
1830. 
1830. 
1831. 
1S31. 

1831. 

1831. 
1832. 

1832. 
1833. 
1834. 
1834. 



1, 
23 & 25, 
37, March, 
24, Sept., 

18, 

There were probably other families living on the Mile Strip before 
1835, but their names and the year of their moving on could not be 
positively learned. A short biographical sketch of some of the 
above named heads of families is here presented. 



FIRST SETTLERS ON THE MILE STRIP. 

Taber Earl was the first purchaser of lands on the Mile Strip. 
On January 2, 1828, he bought Lot 24 of Josiah Waddington. The 

78 



next year Earl and Blair built a tavern on the north side of the 
trail, and near the northwest corner of the lot where the 
house still stands in 1900. Samuel Harris bought this lot of Taber 
Earl on September 16th, 1834, and kept tavern there for several 
years. December 31st, 1849, Hiram Harris bought the place and 
lived there until he died on July 26th, 1889. He was supervisor of 
the town of Aurora, when the Town of Elma was formed from 
Aurora and Lancaster in 1856. 

Lyman Chandler, in February, 1828, bought of Susan Ogden 
Lot 16. He was unmarried but built a small log house and his 
deed is dated September 8th, 1830. He disposed of seventeen 
acres from the northeast corner of the lot where James Blood has 
resided for many years. The title to the balance of the lot, 
eightyrthree acres, remained in Lyman Chandler to the time of his 
death in October, 1889, at the age of eight3'-nine years. The 
Chandler heirs still hold tlie title. 

Isaac Williams moved with his family on Lot No. 15 April 10, 
1828, built a log shanty on the low ground south of where he was 
to build a house, and lived in the shanty that summer. During 
this time he made a small clearing and erected the upright part of 
a frame house. That frame house is still there, and is the front 
part of the house now and for many years occupied by the son, 
Thomas D. Williams. Thomas, born February 18, 1827, was one 
year and a month old when the family moved on the lot and that 
has been his home all these years. He died December 1, 1900. 

Timothy Treat moved on Lot 17, in May, 1828, where he built a 
log house and lived there several years, when Horace Blood became 
the owner and lived there when the Town of Elma was organized. 
That lot is now owned by William H. Williams, a son of Thomas D. 
Williams, and grandson of Isaac Williams. The north and south road 
from the Aurora town line to the Jamison station on which these 
Williams families have for so many years resided is known as the 
Williams Pvoad. The east and west road from the Girdled Road to 
the Aurora Plank Road on which Horace and James Blood resided 
for so many years is known as the Blood Road. These roads were 
laid out April 21, 1832. 

Russel Brooks moved on the west part of Lot 19 April 10, 1828, 
built a log house in which he lived several years. The place, in a 
few years, passed into the hands of Stickney Billington and remained 
in the Billington family until two or three years ago, when John 
Vrndt, the present owner, came into possession of Lot 19. A part 
of Lot 20 is now owned by C. J. Hamlin as a part of his Aurora Village 
Stock Farm. The east and west road from the Aurora Plank Road 
to the east terminus on Lot 13,and on which road the Billington fam- 

79 



ily lived for so many years is known as the Billington Road and 
was laid out April 21, 1832. 

Daniel F. Cole moved on Lot 26, in 1828 into a log house. Mem- 
bers of that family reside on the old homestead ; the title always re- 
maining in the family. 

Hiram Pattengill moved on Lot 2, January 1, 1829, where he lived 
in a log house. Trouble with a brother and a threatened lawsuit so 
worked on his mind that in March, 1846, he cut his throat with a 
razor, thus being the first suicide on Elma soil. 

Jacob R. Davis moved into a log house on Lot 35, May 5, 1829. 
The son, Wilham R. Davis, who now i^esides about one and one-half 
miles southwest from Spring Brook, was born May 4, 1827, and so 
was two years and one day old when the family moved on the Mile 
Strip. Jacob R. Davis built a sawmill on the Cazenove Creek on 
the end of Lot 35 in Ma}-, 1830. This was the first and only sawmill 
ever built on the Mile Strip in the town of Elma. In 1831, Jacob R. 
sold the north half of Tot 35 to his brother, James, where he and his 
family lived for many years. Albert Davis, the j^oungest son of 
Jacob R., now owns and for all his life has lived on the south half of 
said Lot 35. 

Chester Adams built a log house and moved on Lot 33 in 1829, 
where he lived until a few years ago when he moved into the vil- 
lage of Aurora, where he now resides. 

Salathiel Cole settled on Lot 32 in a log house in 1829. John 
Divens settled in Lot 21 in a log house the same year. James and 
Willard Fairbanks settled on Lot 13 in a log house in 1830. 

Horace Scott Fairbanks, son of Willard Fairbanks, was the first 
white child born on the Mile Strip, May 27, 1831. 

The south part of Lot 13 is still owned and occupied by de- 
scendants of Willard Fairbanks. H. Scott Fairbanks resides on the 
Bowen road, one-fourth mile north from Aurora Plank Road in 
the town of Aurora. 

John Adams, in 1830, bought the east part of Lots 19 and 20, 
where he spent the remainder of his life, and his descendants now 
reside there. 

Amasa and Luther Adams, cousins, settled on Lot 11 in 1830. 
John Q. Adams, son of Luther, is the present owner. The east and 
west road from the Girdled road to the Marilla town line on which 
Luther and John Q. Adams li^^ed is known as the Adams Road and 
was laid out April 21, 1832. 

Martin Taber erected a frame building in 1831 on the northeast 
corner of Lot 29 across the road from the Taber Earle tavern. This 
new building was to be a tavern by which name all places kept for 
the entertainment of travelers was known. Tavern was the name — 
no hotel in those days and both houses did a good business, being on 

80 



the mainly traveled road from Aurora to Buffalo and close to the 
line between the Mile Strip and the Indian lands. 

This Martin Taber tavern was given the name of ''North Star," 
and it has alwaj- s been kept as a tavern and known as the North 
Star. 

. Joshua and Wilham Mitchell built log houses and settled on Lots 
23 and 25 in 1832, where they lived and where William died, Janu- 
ary 26, 1836. Some of their family now live with John P. Cole on 
Lot 26. 

Seth M. Bullis built a frame house on Lot 37 and moved on in 
March, 1833. J\Iarion was born January 16, 1834; later she became 
the wife of John W. Cole. She,in 1900, lives with her son, Bordan J. 
Cole, on the old Cole homestead on Lot 26. 

Thomas Coverdale bought of Joseph Fellows Lot 18 and settled 
on the Mile Strip in 1834; sold the lot to Caleb Foster February 6, 
1849. Caleb Foster and his family resided there all the balance of 
his hfe and his descendants now own and occupy a part of the lot. 

SCHOOLHOUSES ON THE MILE STRIP. 

The first school house on the Mile Strip was made of logs and was 
built on the north side of Lot 15, at the corner of the Williams and 
Billington Roads in 1831. 

The first school kept in that school house was taught by Miss 
Emily Paine in 1831. She married Nathan K. Hall, later a partner 
in the law firm of Hall & Fillmore of Buffalo, and Postmaster-Gen- 
eral in President Fillmore's cabinet. A frame schoolhouse was 
built on the same site about 1848. The schoolhouse is continued 
and that school district is in 1900, known as School District No. 4 in 
the town of Elma. 

The second school house built on the Mile Strip was on Lot 25, a 
plank building 18x22 feet in size. It has been replaced by a larger 
and better building on the northwest corner of Lot 28. The district 
is now known as School District No. 5 in the town of Elma. 

The third schoolhouse was built near the center of Lot No. 36 
in 1833. That schoolhouse, District No. 11 is now gone, and the ter- 
ritory west of the Cazenove Creek in that part of the town is joined 
to school districts in the town of East Hamburgh. 

The early settlers in the town were anxious to give to their chil- 
dren the elements of a good education, and so schools were provided 
at this earl}^ day. 

Settlers continued to come and in 1842 when the Ogden Company 
by treaty, obtained the balance of the Buffalo Creek Reservation, 
forty-two families had found homes on the Mile Strip and about 
three-fourths of the lots had been purchased of the Ogden Company 

81 



and had become farms with what was then called comfortable build- 
ings and surroundings. 



CLEARING THE LAND. 

The work was of the same old kind and carried on in the same 
way as in the past twenty years on the Holland Purchase. It was 
chop, burn, clear, fence, raise wheat, corn, potatoes and flax. The 
same " Wood's BuU plow, '' but they have iron drag teeth. The grain 
cradle, introduced in 1830, slowly took the place of the sickle for 
harvesting grain. Before 1842, more than three-fourths of the 
wheat, rye and oats raised on the farms was threshed with the flail; 
the threshing being done by the farmer and his boys or threshed for 
every tenth bushel, by some man who wanted work and had no 
threshing of his own to do. Eight horse-power, open-cylinder 
threshing machines had been introduced that would thresh one 
hundred and fifty bushels of wheat and two hundred bushels of 
oats in a day if the grain was good, but as there was no separator 
or fanning mill attachment, the straw was separated from the grain 
and chaff by three or four rakings, and when quite a pile of the 
grain and chaff had accumulated in front of the thresher, all 
must stop and get this grain and chaff out of the way. Then they 
threshed another pile and so on — the fanning mill to be used later 
to separate the grain from the chaff. Improvements came later, 
but slowly. 

The flax was prepared for the women, and they worked it into 
cloth, etc., in the same way as was done twenty or forty years be- 
fore. They had better conveniences for cooking over the fire and 
doing the house work; a few cookstoves had come into use after 
1832, but they were not much used in the log houses. Carding 
machines, to convert the wool into nice rolls, were then within easy 
reach of the settler. This saved the hand-carding of the wool, but 
they had plenty of work in hand carding the flax and tow, and in 
spinning and weaving the various kinds of cloth needed by the 
family, and in making their clothes and stockings. 

Most of these earty settlers have passed away ; only a few remaining 
with us in 1900, but they made their mark in the world whfle here. 
We can see the result of their labor; and their industry, economy 
and perseverance is before us, as a lesson for us to learn, if we shall 
finally be successful in our various callings. 

We honor them for the examples they have set before us, and that 
by their labors and their lives they have made the present high 
civilization and pleasant surroundings a possibility and certainty. 



82 



FINANCIAL STORM. 

Every person must be prepared for the trials, difficulties, labors, 
the hopes and fears, that are certain to be encountered through life, 
which as an individual or as a famih^ or communit}", or, in a general 
wa}^, as a nation, are to be met with and overcome if success , be 
gained. 

Whether the individual, family, community or nation shall be 
able to pass safely through and overcome these obstacles, or wheth- 
er he or they shall be OA^ercome by them, depends largely on the 
conditions, surroundings, perseverance, and will-power put into 
operation. 

An obstacle, so great that a feeble person cannot stir it, can be 
readily removed by one of greater strength. A financial load, so 
great as to bankrupt a person of limited means, can be safely and 
with profit taken up by a person financially strong. But when the 
thing to be carried is so great that neither individual or national 
strength is sufficient, then disaster, if not ruin, is for every person 
to face, and only the most careful and persevering will be able to 
outride the storm in safety. 

Signs that such a storm was near were to be seen, clouds were 
gathering and the political sky was gradually growing dark. Oc- 
casionally the mutter of distrust, and the low rumble as of distant 
thunder was heard. This occurred soon after the first settlers 
moved on the Mile Strip, and the prophesy was that "the first few 
5^ears with the early settlers on the Mile Strip were to be years of 
hardship and trial," which proved true. 

The Act of Congress, to re-charter the United States Bank, which 
passed both houses with considerable majority and was the clap of 
thunder that told the people that the storm was here, was vetoed 
by President Jackson in 1830. This bank had, by its charter, been 
made the repository of the public moneys. In 1832, rumors were 
started that the deposits were not safe, and the Secretary of 
the Treasury caused an examination to be made of the condition 
of the bank. The report showed a surplus of $42,297,000, over all 
liabilities, and that the security of the public money was above 
question. 

The tariff did not produce sufficient revenue to meet the exjDenses 
of the government, and the proceeds from the sales of the public 
lands were used to meet the deficienc}'^ ; but these sales were so large 
that the surplus was continually increasing. 

A surplus in the United States Treasur}^ was with President 
Jackson, as later with President Cleveland, a dangerous condition 
and must not be allowed to continue. So on September 18th, 1833, 
he directed the Secretary of the Treasury to withdraw the deposits 

83 



from the United States Bank and place the money with state and 
local banks. The removal occurred October 1st, 1833. The 
United States Bank then began to curtail its loans, and to make 
arrangements to gradually close up its business. 

Soon a severe money pressure pervaded the whole country. To 
overcome this financial embarrassment in every State, a great 
number of State Banks were chartered; many of them with little 
or no real capital, by w^hich to secure the redemption of the great 
amount of paper which they put into circulation. This flood of 
money induced speculation, and wild-cat money and city lots had 
a great run. 

In 1836, the deposit banks were hoarding all the gold and silver 
they could obtain, to enable them to meet the government calls. 
The local banks, being crowded for specie, were all over the country 
thrown into a panic, and most of them suspended specie payment, 
while many failed entirely. Money matters were fast coming to a 
crisis and every speculator and business man tried to get clear be- 
fore he should be buried in the financial ruin which was sure to 
come soon, and might come any day. 

The climax was reached in Erie County in August, 1836, when 
the forgeries of Benjamin Rathbun were exposed, and his failure 
was announced. As banker, capitalist, builder, speculator and 
boomer, he had been the leading business man in Buffalo, having 
had almost unlimited credit. It was found when the crash came 
that he was owing hundreds of men, who by his failure were in 
a day reduced from wealth to poverty; the acting and reacting 
influence extending to almost ever}^ man in western New York. 
This business failure was especially severe upon many of the set- 
tlers on the Mile Strip, as they had trusted Mr. Rathbun to lumber, 
etc. 

The election of Martin Van Buren as President of the United 
States in November, 1836, bought no financial relief, and all through 
1837, prices of real estate as well as of all other property continued 
to go down. Banks continued to fail, counterfeit money and 
broken bank bills were causes of fear and distrust with every busi- 
ness man, and "Thompson's Bank Note Reporter and Detective, " 
a weekly paper published in New York City which described coun- 
terfeit bills (which w^ere legion) and reported broken and suspended 
banks, with the rates of discount at which the bills would be re- 
deemed, was the constant companion of the business man, and 
even then he might go to bed at night with his pocket full of money 
and not be sure that he would have a dollar the next day which 
would help him to pay a debt, or to buy food for his family. These 
hard times continued with greater or less severity, generally greater 
for several years, and many families were forced to sell their homes, 

84 



or have them sold by the Sheriff, when they would take the little 
they had left and go to Michigan, Illinois or Wisconsin, where they 
could find government land at ten shillings per acre, and begin 
again for a home in a new country. 

MILE STRIP IN 1840. 

This caused many changes of ownership in real estate on the 
Mile Strip, and was a great hindrance in making improvements, 
especially on the new farms where the owners were forced to ob- 
serve strict economy in all their expenditures. 

The Patriot War, so called, commencing in December, 1837, was 
no help to the farmer. 

The balance of trade between the United States and foreign 
nations in the eight years, 1832 to 1840, being the excess of im- 
ports over the exports of $111,000,000, an average of about $14,- 
000,000 for each year, had drained the country of gold and silver; 
nearly all the State banks had suspended specie payments, and the 
manufactories had largelj" shut down because of the operations of 
the tariff of 1828, and business generall}'- was about as bad as it could 
well be. 

The financial condition being nearly the same in 1840, the presi- 
dential campaign of that year under the log-cabin, hard cider, 
"Tippecanoe and Tyler too" enthusiasm, served to secure to the 
Whig candidates a victory, and Wm. H. Harrison and John Tyler 
were duly elected as President and Vice-President of the United 
States and were inaugurated March 4th, 1841. 

The population of Buffalo in 1840 was 18,213, and of the balance 
of Erie County 34,252, and of the Mile Strip in Elma about 180 
persons of all ages. 

These persons, with occasionall}^ a family taking a lot, or part of 
a lot, continuing their struggles against all these difficulties made 
progress slowly, but all the time they moved ahead. Their land 
was cleared in the same old way, by chopping and burning. They 
worked up the best of the pine, ash and whitewood trees into lum- 
ber for the Buffalo market and after 1850, other kinds of timber as 
well as some cordwood was taken to the same market. 



PLANK ROAD TO BUFFALO. 

In 1849, a plank road was completed from Aurora to Buffalo. 
This road crossed the Mile Strip, and so furnished a good road 
all the year for the people to haul their heavy loads of lumber, wood 
and surplus farm produce to Buffalo. 

85 



The Davis Cemetery on Lot 36 of Mile Strip was laid out in 1854. 

Notwithstanding that thousands of people were going west, and 
continued to go, the lands of the Mile Strip were, in 1856, practi- 
cally all occupied by the sixty-five actual resident owners, only 
three hundred acres being non-resident land at that date. Im- 
provements in the buildings and on the farms were being made. 
In 1856, the log house had nearlj^ disappeared from the Mile Strip, 
having been generally displaced by the frame building, often 
painted white, and in many cases the windows were protected with 
green blinds, so that a white farm house with green blinds was not 
uncommon. Occasionally a farm house painted red with white 
trimmings would be found on some back road. Frame barns had 
taken the place of the log barn. The farms were gradually being 
cleared of stumps, so that the Mile Strip when the town of Elma was 
formed in December, 1856, had every appearance of being a long 
while settled and prosperous part of the countr}^ 

RESIDENTS ON THE MILE STRIP IN 1856. 

At that time, many of the first settlers who came befoi^e 1842 were 
still residents and in addition, we find the names of Thomas Aldrich, 
John Q. Adams, D. K Adams, Harmon Bullis, Salem Baker, Warren 
Brown, William Bates, John W. Cole, Salathiel Cole, Charles P. 
Cole, Stanlius Chicker, James Davis, William H. Davis, Isaac 
Ellsworth, James Ellis, Edward Fowler, James Head, Paul B. 
Lathrop, William Paine, George Peek, Christopher Peek, John W. 
Peek, Whipple Spooner, Harvey D. Paxon, John Scott, William 
Thompson, Robert Wiley, William D. Wallace, and others. 

Some of these names will appear later as having held important 
offices in the town of Elma, and as having been leaders in public 
improvements, and as true and tried patriots when the country 
was threatened by the tornado of secession, and torn by that great 
cyclone. Civil War, in 1861-1865, when we, at the north had to 
meet friend and foe in our every day business, and the country 
was nearly split in twain and our existence as a nation was in 
jeopardy. Then was needed the public spirit and patriotic ex- 
pression, which was given by most of the residents of the Mile Strip. 
All honor to their names! May their memories ever be held in 
sacred remembrance ! 



86 



CHAPTER VII. 



ESTABROOK MILL.— LANCASTER PART OF ELMA. 

The "Indian Mill," also known as the "Estabrook Mill," and 
later as the Bullis Mill, with the house and barns for the mill hands 
and teams, were the first buildings erected by a white person in 
the town of Elma and as writers of the history of Erie County 
differ as to the year the mill was built ; an effort was made to ascer- 
tain the exact date and according^, correspondence was carried 
on with persons most likely to know. 

The most authentic data was received from Mr. John Esta- 
brook, lumber dealer in Saginaw, Michigan, who, in response to in- 
formation desired, replied by letter dated October 18th, 1897, as 
follows : 

''My father, Seth Estabrook, was born in Bath, N. H., in 1785, 
married in Lebanon, N. H., in 1812, to Hannah Alden Hebard, 
daughter of Deacon Moses Hebard, whose wife was an Alden, a 
lineal descendant of John Alden and Priscilla Moline, of May 
Flower fame. (See Miles Standish's courtship, by Longfellow). 
In 1810, my father came to that part of the Holland Purchase, 
then known as the town of Clarence, in Niagara County, to look 
over the country, and he finally decided to stop in that part of Clar- 
ence, now Alden. 

In 1816, he brought in a cart load of groceries, etc., with which 
he opened the first store in the town of Alden in a log house about 
three-fourths of a mile east from the centre of the present village of 
Alden. He was engaged as merchant and trader about fifteen 
years, and was always active in all that pertained to the welfare 
of the locality, and when a new town was set off from Clarence, 
March 27, 1823, it was at his suggestion and request named ''Alden" 
in honor and memory of the original John Alden. 



MILL BUILT IN 1826. 

The northeast corner of the Buffalo Creek Reservation was about 
half a mile directly south from Alden Village and the Indians who 
resided near there, with Chiefs from other parts of the Reservation 
were frequent visitors at his store. Being always friendly with 
them, in the fall of 1825, by an agreement or contract with Chiefs 

87 



Green Blanket, George Young, Thomas Jimeson, a descendant of 
Mary, the White woman. White Seneca, Big Kittle and others, he 
obtained the privilege to build and run a sawmill on the Big Buffalo 
Creek, and to cut any timber that he should want within certain 
limits, for and during a term of ten years; the mill and buildings 
to revert to the Indians at the end of that term. Under this con- 
tract, in the spring and summer of 1826, he built the house of 
boards for the mill owner and his family, about ten or fifteen rods 
below where the mill was to stand ; the milldam, and the sawmill 
and several board houses for the men and families who worked in 
the woods, cutting and hauling logs and for the hands about the 
mill, with board barns for the teams. After a few j^ears these 
houses and barns were torn down and better ones built. These 
were built on a table-land ten rods east from the mill. These 
buildings were put up and occupied before the Ogden Compan}^ 
made their first purchase and two years before any building was 
put up by a white person on the Mile Strip in the south part of 
Elma; and sixteen years before the Ogden Company bought that 
part of the Reservation where the mill was located, and seventeen 
years before any building was put up, by a white person, in that 

LEWIS M. BULLIS, 

part of the town of Elma, not included in the Mile Strip. This 
saw-mill was for many years known as "The Indian Mill, " and "The 
Estabrook Mill," and later, as the "Bullis Mih." 

I, John Estabrook, was born in Alden, Erie County, N. Y., Jan- 
uary 22d, 1826, and have always been told by my mother and 
older brothers that I was born the same year that the Indian Mill 
was built, and from that, and books and papers of my father that 
I have often seen, and w^hich were for many years in the possession of 
my oldest brother, Experience Estabrook, I am certain that the 
mill was built in 1826. 

My father operated the mill during the term of ten years, when 
in 1836, he made another contract with the Indian Chiefs, to con- 
tinue for another term. He had delivered large quantities of lum- 
ber to Benjamin Rathbun, of Buffalo, whose failure in 1836 greatly 
embarrassed him, and he sold a share of his interest in the contract, 
to Lewis M. Bullis of the town of Hamburg. They operated the 
mill together until my father's death in 1840, after which Mr. 
Bullis had sole charge, but Bullis had Ballou and Trivett as part- 
ners. 

Before the contract for this second term expired, "the Ogden 
Company, by treaty with the Seneca Nation of Indians, secured 
the balance of this Reservation, and b}' some arrangement this 



second contract was cancelled." From the foregoing, it seems 
settled that the mill was built in 1826. 

James Sperry snrve3^ed that part of the Reservation east of the 
Transit Line in July and August, 1840, while the Indians were in 
possession. 

In 1842, the Ogden Company sent agents to appraise the value 
to the Indians of the Estabrook Mill so the}" could sell that property. 

A contract was made with Bullis, Ballon and Tri^'ett who oper- 
ated the mill together until the fall of 1845, when Bullis bought 
out the Ballon and Trivett interest, and then Bullis bought of the 
Ogden Company the mill and lot on which the mill was located, 
also several other lots, the deed being from Joseph Fellows to 
Lewis M. Bullis, dated Jul}^ 18th, 1846; the bargain and contract 
having been made some time before. Mr. Bullis retained the prop- 
erty and operated the mill to the time of his death in 1869. 

ROADS FROM THE MILL. 

The "Indian Mill" being located near the centre of a great pine 
forest, people came to it from Attica, Cowlesville, Leroy, Batavia, 
Alexander, Alden, ^Newstead, and Clarence for their pine lumber 
which made a good market for the products of the mill while the 
remainder of the product was sent down the Creek in rafts 
to Buffalo. Great quantities of pine shingles were made in 
the woods and sent to these markets. Whichever wa}^ the lumber 
went, there were several miles to go through the woods between 
the sawmill and good roads on the Holland Purchase; the way 
being marked and chopped enough to allow teams to go between 
and around the trees. High and dry ground was selected as far as 
possible for these roads and where directness of route required the 
passing over of low places, across brooks and swales or swamps they 
were covered or bridged by placing logs or poles side by side close 
together, across the road, thus affording a fairly firm roadway over 
these low places. This was called causeway or corduroy. These 
roads through the woods were rough, and in ordinary summer 
weather would be muddy, and in rainy seasons would be almost 
impassable. This condition of the roads continued for several 
years, and UAtil the Ogden Company had made the purchase of the 
entire Reservation, and the survey into lots had been completed, 
and the lots sold to actual settlers. During these years most of the 
lumber taken from the mill to all these places was hauled in the 
winter. 

The road from the mill, by which the lumber was hauled to Buf- 
falo for several years, was to cross the creek 60 or 80 rods below 
the mill, then by a westerl}^ and south westerly course reach the 

89 



high ground west of the mill, then by a woods road over nearly the 
same ground as the present highway, to near the Woodard house 
on the Bowen Road, then on through the woods to near where the 
William Rice house is located, then on a general west course to the 
road or trail from Aurora to Buffalo at Springbrook. After a few 
years, a bridge was built just below where the present Bullis bridge 
is located, and a road made up the hill where the road is located in 
1900. From the mill to Marilla, the way was south through the 
mill yard to the foot of the hill at the east end of the present 
bridge, thence southeast, in a dug way up the bank, and along and 
near the bank of the creek for nearly a mile, then a general east 
course to Marilla village, then called Slab City, and Shanty Town, 
to a point just south of the Methodist Church, then east to the Four 
Rod Road, then north and east to Colesville. At the top of the 
high bank south of the mill was a fork in the road, the north road 
taking a general northeast course, crossed the Little Buffalo Creek 
about a mile from the Indian Mill, thence on the same general 
course crossing the Two Rod Road about one and a half miles north 
from Marilla Village, thence on to the Four Rod Road about a mile 
south from Bolt's, formerh^ Peck's, saw mill on the Cayuga Creek, 
then across the flats and up " Mud Hill," very near where road now 
is, to the Main Road about two miles west from Alden Village ; dis- 
tance from the mill to Alden village about eight miles. 

OGDEN COMPANY MAKES SECOND PURCHASE. 

The treaty between the Seneca Nation of Indians and the Ogden 
Compan}^ on January 15th, 1838, for the purchase b}^ the Company 
of all the Indian lands in Western New York, which was signed by 
forty-five reputed chiefs and certified by the Commissioner from 
Massachusetts, and the United States Indian Agent, was rejected by 
the United States Senate on account of serious defects. A strong op- 
position to the treaty was being manifested by many of the In- 
dians. The United States Commissioner called the Chiefs of the 
Senecas together August 7th, 1838, at the Buffalo Reservation to 
have a new and amended treaty signed. At this meeting, only 
sixteen Chiefs would sign, while sixty-three signed a remonstrance. 
It was claimed that a large part, at least forty-eight of these had 
no right to sign. This left the treaty as being favored by sixteen, 
and opposed by fifteen. There were at this time seventy-five actual 
Chiefs in the Seneca Nation, and there were ninety-seven who 
claimed to be Chiefs. Later, twenty-six more of the Indians signed 
the treaty, thus giving forty-two names; but many of the 
Indians claimed that only twenty-nine of this number 
were really Chiefs. This treaty was finally ratified 

90 



by the United States Senate. The Indians showed such a 
determined resistance and hostihty to the terms of the treaty, it 
was clear to the Ogden Compam^, that it would be a long and 
costly process to gain possession through the courts, so they hesi- 
tated; but the prospects of the Company to gain possession of the 
Buffalo Creek Reservation were so good, that they set James 
Sperry to survey that part east of the Transit line, the Lancaster 
and the Aurora parts being surveyed and numbered separately, 
the old centre line of the Reservation being retained as the line be- 
tween Lancaster and Aurora. The surveys were made in July and 
August, 1840. 

The survey beginning at the northeast corner of Aurora, and the 
southeast corner of Lancaster, as the towns then were, the lots, in 
the east range in the Aurora part, were numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, the 
south line of Lot 4 being the north line of Lots 2 and 3 of the Lam- 
berton survey of the Mile Strip. The lots in all the ranges were 
numbered from the north to the south, bringing the last lot. No. 102 
in the southwest corner of the Aurora part of this purchase, and 
joining Lot 35 of the Mile Strip. By this survey, the centre line of 
the Aurora & Buffalo road was made the division line between the 
lots in this town. 

The same plan was followed in surveying and numbering the 
lots of the Lancaster part; Lot No. 1 being at the northeast corner 
of the now town of Elma, the east range along the Marilla town 
line being 1, 2, 3, 4, reaching to No. 1, of the Aurora part, then 
back to the north line of the last purchase, always numbering from 
north to south, brings the last lot, number 106, to the Transit line 
and southwest corner of the then town of Lancaster, joining Lot 96 
of the Aurora part. For sur\^ey of the Mile Strip see Chapter 6. 
So there are in the town of Elma three sets of lots numbered from 
one to thirty-seven : viz : on the Mile Strip and on the Aurora and 
Lancaster parts of the town, and two sets numbered from one to 
one hundred and two; viz., in the Aurora and Lancaster parts, and 
all deeds refer to the particular lot, as being on the Mile Strip, or the 
Aurora or Lancaster part of the town of Elma, or as being in Town 
10, Range 6, of the Holland Land Company's survey. The Indians 
retained possession and the Ogden Company made no move to have 
the Indians leave, so no sales were made under that treaty. 

BOWEN ROAD LAID OUT. 

The Legislature, by act of May 4th, 1841, authorized the Board 
of Supervisors of Erie County to appoint three Commissioners to 
lay out a highway across the Reservation, and under that authority 
the Supervisors appointed T. S. Hopkins, C. B. Parkinson, Leonard 

91 



Wasson as such Commissioners, and on October 23d, 1841, they 
laid out a four rod road, commencing on the north hne of Lot 20 of 
the Mile Strip, at the corner of Lots 51 and 55 of the Reservation; 
thence north on the line of lots to a point five chains north of corner 
of lots 54, 55, 59 and 60 on the Lancaster part, just north of the 
present Bullis road, thence north westerlj- where the present road is 
traveled on lot 59 and 58, and on same course over the high bank 
to and across the Big Buffalo Creek; thence northeast to where 
they took the course to the north to where the present 
road is laid out, being near the centre north and south 
line on lots 57 and 56, to the south line of the first purchase ; and to 
connect with the south end of a road laid out running south from 
James Clark's sawmill, now Bockman's mill. Later in 1843, an 
alteration was made from a point on the top of the hill south of the 
Big Buffalo Creek, to \vhere the road is now worked down the hill, 
and across the creek, and to intersect the line of the first survey, at 
the southeast corner of a lot later sold to Wihiam H. Bancroft, now 
Jerge Brothers, in Elma Village. 

To this road was given the name ^^ Bo wen Road," which is still 
ymtsiined. The Commissioner of Highways of the town of Aurora 
r'On October 29th, 1841, continued this Bowmen Road across the 
Mile Strip and on south to the Aurora and Buffalo road. This 
was the first regularly laid out road across the Reservation in the 
town of Elma, and was to be the mainly traveled road between the 
-,yillages of Lancaster and Aurora. 



GIRDLED ROAD.— GEORGE STANDART, SEN. 

The "Girdled Road," the second road across the Reservation, 
was laid out on line of lots, and as now traveled, by the Commis- 
missioner of Lancaster, on November 10th, 1841 ; and by Commis- 
sioner of Aurora on June 13th, 1843. 

Mr. George Standart, Senior, hired the sawmill at Jack-berry- 
town, now Gardenville, of Chief John Seneca, for a term of four 
years, to commence at the expiration of the lease held by Leonard 
Hatch and Robert McKean, which date was October 22d, 1836. 
Standards four year term would have ended on October 22d, 1840, 
but, through loss of time required to make repairs, he held posses- 
sion until the spring of 1841; when he made a bargain with the 
Chief, to rebuild the mill and have the use of it four years for 
his rebuilding, dating from the time the mill would be completed, 
which would take to August or September, 1845. So Standart was 
running the mill when a council was held May 20, 1842. 

92 



At this meeting of the Indians of the Seneca Nation and the 
representatives of the Ogden Company, and Commissioners to rep- 
resent the United States, Massachusetts and New York, fifty-three 
Chiefs, warriors and headmen of the Seneca Nation signed a com- 
promise treat}^, which was witnessed by seven representative busi- 
ness men of Buffalo. 

By this treaty, dated May 20th, 1842, recorded in Liber 106, 
Page 194, the Ogden Company secured the balance of the Buffalo 
Creek Reservation with other lands, but the Indians, by the terms 
of the treaty, were to have possession of their improvements until 
April 1st, 1846, and were to he paid a price for these improA-^ements, 
to be fixed by appraisers to be named by the Secretary of War of 
the United States. They mostly left in the spring of 1846 to make 
their homes on the Allegany and Cattaraugus Reservations but a 
few remained until the spring of 1847. 

John Carman came to Elma in May, 1842, and worked for Mr. 
Bullis eight or nine years. 

EBENEZER SOCIETY. 

Soon after the Company'- secured the right to cocupy the Reser- 
vation, they had a chance to sell a 5,000 acre tract in one body to 
agents of a society known as Ebenezers ; but calling themselves " The 
Community of True Inspiration." The agents chose their location, 
and this included Jack-berry-town, and they wanted the sawmill 
with the land. The Ogden Company were desirous to make the sale, 
but the lease of the sawmill to Standart was in the way, and to get 
rid of him, so that they could close the bargain with the Ebenezers, 
the Company gave to Standart a nice sum in gold and gave him the 
privilege of having three lots of land anywhere on the ReserA^ation 
that he should choose, either as a present outright, or at a mere 
nominal price. Standart, in February of 1843, gave up the sawmill 
at Jack-berry-town. 

EBENEZER'S PURCHASE. 

The Secretary of War appointed Thomas Love and Ira Cook as 
appraisers, and the Ogden Company settled with, and paid the 
Indians, so they could have possession of the tract they wished to 
sell to the German company, and by agreement made in February, 
1843, and April 11, 1843, the Company sold to the Ebenezers the 
5,000 acre track, consideration S50,000; and a little later other 
lands, in all 7622 acres. The deed is dated August 20th, 1844, re- 
corded in Lib. 77, Page 34. Blossom Village in the town of Elma 
is on this tract. 

Immediately after this sale, the Company had the remaining 
lands west of the Transit line surveyed; and then advertised that 

93 



''on and after August 14th, 1844, the}- would sell certain lots," in- 
cluding nearly all the lots in the town of Elma. 

George Standart in the last part of February, 1843, made his 
selection of lots, viz. : Lots 50, 54, 57 in the Lancaster part and one 
other not now known. In March of that year, he built a log house 
on Lot 54, about twenty rods from the south line of the lot, and 
about fifteen rods from the west line, and near the west bank of 
Pond Brook. This was the first house built by a white man on his 
own land in the town of Elma, on that part of the Reservation 
known as the last purchase. Deed for Lot 54 dated October 19th, 
1844, recorded in Liber 78, Page 14. 

April 10th, 1843, Standart moved with his family into that log 
house; just fifteen j^ears to a day after Isaac Williams and Russel 
Brooks, the first families moved on to the Mile Strip. April 10th 
ought to be called, known, and remembered, as Settlement Day for 
the Town of Elma. 



STANDART BUILDS BARN AND SAWMILL. 

That summer, vStandart cleared off the southwest corner of Lot 
54 and built a 30x40 foot frame barn near the south line of the lot, 
a little west from Pond Brook. Elisha Cotton, carpenter, put up 
the building. The barn is still there in May, 1900, but the log house 
was burned about forty years ago. During the winter and spring 
of 1844, Standart built a sawmill on Pond Brook, a few rods below 
his house. The Estabrook mill on the Big Buffalo Creek, built in 
the summer of 1826, was the first sawmill in the town of Elma, and 
this Standart mill was the second sawmill in the Lancaster part of 
the Reservation, and on the east side of the Bowen Road. Standart 
had employed a carpenter and millwright by the name of Fulford to 
build his sawmill, and to pay him for this work, he gave Fulford 
that part of Lot 57 lying west of the Bowen Road, and to a near 
relative hj the name of Benjamin Plummer, he gave or sold the 
part of Lot 57, l3'ing east of the Bowen Road. 

The Bowen Road, which was laid out October 23d, 1841, was 
unclerbushed by Clement Wakeley, the Lancaster Commissioner of 
Highway's, across the Lancaster part of the Reservation in the 
summer of 1843, and the contract to chop and clear out this part of 
the road four rods wide, put in the necessary sluices across the 
road, make causeAvaj^s through the low and swampy places, and dig 
clown the hill north of the Big Buffalo Creek so that teams could 
go with light loads, was let by Wakeley to Mr. Eleazer Bancroft, in 
the summer of 1843, for four hundred dollars, the work to be done 
in 1843 and 1844. 

94 



One piece of causeway road that was built was about forty rods 
in length, being from near the top of the school house hill, north of 
Elma Village, to near the Clinton street Road, this being over wet, 
swampy ground. 

Eleazer Bancroft built the first bridge in the summer of 1844 

across the Big Buffalo Creek on the Bowen Road, at the place where 

the present bridge is located, contract price $196. It was carried 

away by high water and ice the next spring, and was rebuilt by 

•Bancroft in the summer of 1845. 

People living in the town of Elma in 1900 can hardly realize that 
only a Httle more than fifty years ago, the last purchase made by the 
Ogden Company, of which this town was part, was a vast wilderness ; 
that a section of country five miles in width extended from Marilla 
Village on the east to the City of Buffalo and Lake Erie on the 
west; seventy-eight square miles of forest, with Indians as resi- 
dents, the only road that could be traveled being the Aurora and 
Buffalo road across the southwest corner of the town, and George 
Standart, the only family of white people as resident owner, and 
the Estabrook, Hatch and Standart sawmills, the only mills on this 
last purchase in this town. 

THE RESERVATION IN 8844. 

This was the condition when the Ogden Company advertised 
that on and after August 14th, 1844, they would offer for sale most 
of the lands in the town of Elma. 

After the treaty of May 20th, 1842, the Ogden Company engaged 
Zebina Lee, a resident of Oswego County, to come here and go 
over and examine the different lots as they had been surveyed; 
and to name the value or price per acre of each lot, and the lots, 
at first, were offered at the price he named. 

Very soon after these lands were in the market, people came from 
Lancaster, Alden, Wales, Aurora, Colden, Hamburgh, and from 
places farther away, to secure some of these lands; for reports of 
the heavy growth and great variety of timber, and the wonderful 
fertility of the soil had spread everywhere. 

The first work of these new comers was to prepare for and erect 
log houses and sawmihs. This cahed for many men as laborers to 
build the dams and mills and to supply the logs and to run 
the mills and also to take the lumber to market. These laborers 
must have houses for their families and soon the lots were bought 
near these mills and actual residents built and occupied their 
houses. 



95 



CHAPTER VIII. 



EAST ELMA J837 TO 1856. 

The first sawmill built in the town of Elma and the houses and 
barns for the accommodation and shelter for the men and their 
families and teams as before stated, were erected by Mr. Seth Esta- 
brook on the Big Buffalo Creek in 1826, and were known as "The 
Indian Mill, the ."' Estabrook Mih," and later, as the " Bullis Mill.'' 

The second sawmill built in the town was b}^ Mr. Jacob R. 
Davis on the Cazenovia Creek, about two miles south from Spring 
Brook in May, 1830. 

The third sawmill, with log houses for the mill hands, and the 
first buildings put up in East Elma, were built by Leonard Hatch 
and Joseph Riley, in the spring and summer of 1837, known as the 
Hatch Mill, and later as the Hemstreet Mill. The three houses and 
the barns were about fifteen rods northeast from the sawmill. 

The following statements as to the building and operating the mill, 
to the time the Ogden Company purchased that part of the Reser- 
vation, were obtained from members of the Hatch family, who now 
reside at East Elma, and, from original papers and records in their 
possession, will thus settle beyond a doubt the question as to the 
year in which the mill was built. 

LEONARD HATCH AT JACK-BERRY-TOWN. 

Leonard Hatch of the town of Wales and Robert McKean of 
Aurora, on July 28, 1834, hired the sawmill at Jack-berry-town, 
now Gardenville, of John Seneca, an Indian Chief, and owner of the 
mill for a term of two years, to commence October 22d, 1834, at a 
yearly rent of $140. They operated the mill these two years and 
in that time Mr. Hatch became acquainted with many of the 
Indian Chiefs and Indians of influence in that locality. On De- 
cember 3d, 1836, a few weeks after their lease with John Seneca ex- 
pired, Hatch made an agreement with two Indians, James Young 
and William Crouse, to build a sawmill on Pond Brook. The 
agreement is here given: 

"Memorandum of an agreement made this 3d day of December, 
one thousand eight hundred and thirty-six, between Leonard Hatch 
of the town of Wales, in the County of Erie, of the first part, and 
James Young and Wihiam Crouse of the Buffalo Creek Reservation, 

96 



of the second part, witnesseth, that the said party of the first part, 
for and in consideration of the covenants and agreements of the 
said parties of the second part, hereinafter contained, covenants to, 
and with the said parties of the second part, to build and complete 
on the lands owned by the said parties of the second part, on Pond 
Creek, (so-called) on the Buffalo Creek Reservation, an ordinary 
sawmill ; said mill to be situated on the said Creek a few rods below 
the road leading to Estabrook's Mill on said Reservation, in case 
the parties of the second part 'shall obtain consent of a majority of 
the Chiefs living on said Reservation that said mill be constructed ; 
and the said party of the first part, further covenants to construct 
and complete said mill on or before the first day of September, 1837. 

And the parties of the second part covenants, in consideration, 
that the party of the first part fulfill the covenants above made, to 
execute to the said party of the first part, on the completion of said 
mill, a lease thereof, and the appertenances, for the term of four 
years and six months; said lease to bear date on the day on which 
said mill shall be completed. And the said parties of the second 
part further covenants, to furnish to the said part}^ of the first part, 
the timber standing in the woods necessar}'- for the construction of 
said mill. 

In witness whereof, the parties aforesaid have hereunto set their 
hands and seals the da}^ and year above written. 

Leonard Hatch [Seal.] 
James Young [Seal.] 

his 
William x Crouse [Seal.] 
mark. 

On January 2, 1837, Young and Crouse went before the Chiefs of 
the Seneca Nation with their petition for the privilege to build a 
saw-mill on Pond Brook. The petition with the consent of the 
Chiefs is here given. 

SENECA CHIEFS. 

"To the Chiefs — We wish to know if you will allow us to build 
a sawmill at or on what is called Pond Brook, not far from the road 
that leads from Estabrook's mill to the Aurora and Buffalo road. 
We will go on and do what we can, and if we cannot finish it our- 
selves, we want the privilege of hiring white men to go on and 
finish the mill, and then hire it to them ; white men to pay them, and 
when it is hired to white men, let them tend it. No white man 
shall cut any sawlogs on the Indian lands, but Indians may cut 
sawlogs, and may sell them to the white men if they want to, white 

97 



man to not clear the land for the mill yard, but we will clear it our- 
selves. 

his 
William x Krouse, 

mark 
James Young. 
Buffalo Reservation, Januaiy 2d, 1837. 

We, the Chiefs of the Buffalo Creek Reservation, are all willing 
you should build a mill ; we give our consent, and are pleased that 
you should do so. 

Buffalo Reservation, January 2d, 1837. 

their their 

Seneca x White, Mr. x Doxtalor, 

John x Snow, Jacob x Bennett, 

Fall x Peter, Samuel x Wilson, 

Job X Pierce, William x Jones, 

CaPT. X POLLAND, DaNIEL X TwO GuNS, 

James x Stevens, Z. L. Jimeson, 

John x Seneca, White x Seneca, 

Thomas Jimeson, Tony x Young, 

Little x Johnson, George x Jimeson." 

marks. marks. 

SENECA CHIEFS. 

That sawmill on Pond Brook was never built and from what fol- 
lowed, it is presumed that Hatch preferred to build a mill on the 
Big Buffalo Creek, and that Young and Crouse were willing that the 
change should be made ; as the next day after the Chiefs had given 
their consent to the building of the mill on Pond Brook, the follow- 
ing petition was drawn up and signed : 
" To the Judges of the Court of Common Pleas, in and for the County 

of Erie : 

We, the undersigned Chiefs, Head Men and Warriors of the 
Seneca Tribe of Indians residing on the Buffalo Creek Reservation, 
in behalf of ourselves and the Indians residing on said Reservation 
do hereby request you to grant to Leonard Hatch, of the town of 
Aurora, in said county, a license to build and erect on said Reserva- 
tion a sa'wmill and other machinery, together with a sufficient mill 
yard for the convenience of said mill for a term of four years from 
the 1st day of September, 1837. 

Dated Buffalo Reservation, January 3d, 1837. 
In presence of 
James Young, 

his 
William x Krouse. 
mark. 

98 



Signed, 

their their 

Seneca x White, Jacob x Bennett, 

Fall x Peter, Samuel x Wilson, 

John x Snow, William x Jones, 

Job X Pierce, Daniel x Two Guns, 

Capt. X Pollard, Z. L. Jimeson, 

James x Stevens, White x Seneca, 

John x Seneca, Tony x Young, 

Thomas Jimeson, George x Jimeson." 

marks. marks. 
This petition does not locate the mill, and no doubt the permit 

was granted b}^ the Court. The license cannot be found among 
Mr. Hatch's papers. 

THE HATCH MILL BUILT. 

Mr. Hatch, having by this license the right to build a sawmill, 
entered into a contract or agreement with Seneca White, White 
Seneca, Big Kettle and some other Chiefs to build the mill on the 
Big Buffalo Creek at East Elma, with the privilege to cut and use 
any timber standing in the Avoods for the construction of the mill 
and dam and the necessar}^ houses and barns with the privilege to 
run the mill for four years from September 1st, 1837, when the 
mill was to become the property of the Indians; but they would 
lease it to him for a further term of years at a stipulated price. 

Robert McKean's name does not appear in any of ^ the writings 
or papers, and if he had any interest in the contract, he sold out to 
Joseph Riley of Aurora, for Hatch and Riley formed a co-partner- 
ship. They built the mill and operated it for some months as a 
company mill, after which Hatch bought Riley's interest and op- 
erated the mill, living with his family in the mill house until his 
death on June 21st, 1842. At the end of the first four years, viz., 
on September 1st, 1841, he made a bargain by which he had the 
lease of the mill for several 3^ears. The exact terms of that lease 
cannot be learned, as nothing can be found among the Hatch papers 
on that subject, but there must have been a contract, as he con- 
tinued to run the mill until his death, nearly ten months after the 
first lease expired, and one month after the Ogden Company had 
made their purchase of the remainder of the Reservation. Mr. 
Zina A. Hemstreet, a brother of Mrs. Hatch, as administrator of 
the Hatch estate, carried on the business under this second lease 
and under contracts with the Ogden Compan}^ until he bought the 
property in 1855 ; then, and for many years the locality was known 
as '^ Hemstreet 's Mill," also as " Frog Pond." 

99 

L^fC. 



ROADS FROM THE HATCH MILL. 

The road from the Hatch sawmill to Bartoo's Mill, now Porter- 
ville, was southeast and east from the mill through the woods, very 
near where the road is now located. A log road from the mill led 
down the creek near the bank and west of the " Knob," coming off 
the flats north of Mr. Harvey C. Palmer's barn, then by a general 
east course over hills and through ravines- to "Stave ToAvn," so 
called from the great quantities of staves made from the oak timber 
in that locality. After 1843, lumber and staves went by the 
woods road, east to the "Two Rod Road," thence north through 
"Slab City," now Marilla Village, to Alden to be sent by the rail- 
road to Rochester, where were many flourishing mills, and at that 
time the great wheat market for all Western New York. Roch- 
ester was then known as the "Flour Citv"; now they call it the 
"Flower City." 

The road from the sawmill by which the lumber was hauled to 
Buffalo the first winter after the mill was built, was south on the 
ice, on the millpond, for about 100 rods, then south through the 
woods to the Adams Road, then west to the Indian trail or road 
from Aurora to Buffalo. In the summer of 1838, a bridge was built 
across the millpond about sixty rods south from where the present 
bridge is located; then westerly by a dugway to the high ground, 
and then by a general south course to the Adams road near Luther 
Adams' house, now owned by his son, John Quincy Adams, then to 
Buffalo. This road from the sawmill, took the Indian trail to 
the Adams I^oad, the trail still leading south to near the Rickertson 
place, crossing the town line into Aurora at or near the intersection 
of the road from Porterville, thence on near where the present road 
is located, to East Aurora. By this trail, the Indians living at and 
near East Elma, went to and from Aurora. The low places in this 
woods road between the sawmill and the Adams Road were 
crossed by the corduroj^ or causeway plan and patches of these log 
roads are to be seen in 1900, sixty years after they were built, on 
Col. Ellsworth Persons' farm on Lots 26 and 27. Most of the lumber 
was hauled from the mill in the winter until after the Ogden Com- 
pany had surveyed their last purchase into lots, and' many of the 
lots had been sold, when, on April 19th, 1845 the Jemison road was 
laid out on lot lines and worked as now traveled. 

INDIAN FAMILIES. 

The same year that Mr. Estabrook built the " Indian Mill," viz. : 
1826, the Ogden Company made their first purchase of part of the 
Buffalo Creek Reservation from the Seneca Indians. This pur- 

100 



chase of a strip from the north side of the Reservation one and a 
half miles in width, across the east end three miles wide, and along 
the south side one mile in width, compelled the Indians to leave 
that tract; and as a result, they mostl}^ came on to the lands they 
had not sold; where they lived for sixteen years when, in 1842, by a 
compromise treaty, they sold the remainder of this Reservation to 
the Ogclen Company, and then gradually left, going mostly to the 
Cattaraugus and Allegany Reservations. So it happened that for 
' several years before 1842, there were quite a goodly number of In- 
dian families living in what is now the town of Elma; some of them 
Chiefs, Warriors, Headmen, or men of importance and influence in 
the Seneca Nation. 

Along the shores of the Big Buffalo Creek, from half a mile to a 
mile and a half east from Blossom, was quite an Indian village with 
a Council House, some twelve to twenty-eight famihes, but the 
names of these Indians cannot now be obtained. 

At Elma Village, which place the Indians called ''Big Flats," 
were a dozen or more families. Jillings, John Luke and Peter 
Snow had houses in what was later Hurd and Briggs' milh'ard, John 
Baldwin, John Hudson and Isaac Johnny John had their houses oil 
the hill northeast from the others, Ben Johnny John lived with his 
brother Isaac, Judge Moses lived near the milldam. Fall John 
lived on the high bank just north of the milldam, Thompson hved 
on the high bank north of the Elma Cemetery, Little Joe lived on 
the table land now occupied as the Elma Cemetery, Little Joe's 
Boy lived where Mr. Joseph B. Briggs' house now stands, Joe 
Dudley lived in the sugar bush near the James Clarke house, Sam 
Beaver lived in J. B. Briggs' orchard and Thomas Snow lived on south 
side of the Creek. Their cemetery was a little southwest from Mr. J. 
B. Briggs' house, and for many years after these Indians had 
moved away in the spring of 1847, some members of the families 
would conW every year to visit the graves of their departed friends. 

At East Elma and vicinity was quite an Indian settlement, and 
at the "Indian Openings," one mile north, were several families; 
among them. Chief Big Kittle, and one Jimeson, a relative of Mary 
Jimeson, the White Woman. Sundown lived at the openings with 
about a dozen other families whose names cannot now be learned. 
Tommy Jimmie and another family lived half a mile south of East 
Elma village on the west side of the Creek. Chiefs Elijah Cayuga 
and his son William Cayuga lived near the Indian Cemetery half a 
mile southeast from East Elma. Charley Spruce and Silversmith 
lived near the Cemetery. Silversmith died at East Elma in 1895, 
and was taken to Cattaraugus Reservation for burial. 



101 



INDIAN OPENINGS, 

Chiefs Seneca White, John Seneca and White Seneca, brothers, 
were frequent visitors at East Elma up to the time the Indians 
moved from the Reservation. The ''Indian Openings," so-cahed, 
north from East Elma, as before stated, was the Hving place for 
several families. As it fell to the lot of the Squaws to clear the land 
and raise the corn, beans and other crops, it was but natural that 
they should select as a place for a clearing, some spot where the 
timber was scattering or small, and this locality seemed to suit 
them; for they would select such a place and cut awa}'- and burn the 
small trees and soon have from half an acre, to two or three, or 
more acres, as the needs of their famil}^ required, on which to 
raise their provisions. Another family would select their place, 
it might be a few or several rods away from an}^ other clearing, and 
so these little clearings or openings were scattered over quite a 
territory. In all, these clearings comprised some forty or fifty 
acres, mostly on the west side of the Creek; but one, of some ten 
acres on the east side with a good log house, was on land now 
owned by Mr. Edwin H. Dingman; the clearings on the west side of 
the Creek being mostly on lands lately owned by Mr. Frank Met- 
calf, Mr. Spencer Metcalf and the James Hopper estate. It is said 
by some of the old residents of East Elma that Chief Big Kittle was 
buried on land now owned by Spencer Metcalf, and a butternut tree 
is pointed out as having been planted at his gra^' e at the time of his 
burial. Their Cemetery is one-half mile southeast from East 
Elma, and is preserved by the present owner of the land. 

INDIANS LEAVE THE TOWN OF ELMA. 

Several other families of Indians resided one to two miles north- 
east of East Elma, among them Jack Johnn}^ John, who was lame, 
and always used a crutch, and was known as Old Jack, who lived 
near the "Two Rod Road." He, with his family, remained there 
for man}-^ years after the other Indians had left the Reservation. 
Many of the Indians thought they had been cheated in the last sale 
and treaty, and they hoped to have that treaty set aside, and he 
lived there to show that they still retained and held possession. 

Some eight or ten families had their wigwams for several years 
before 1844, about one mile southwest from the Elma Railroad 
station. 

Chief Daniel Two Guns lived in a log house on the high ground on 
the north side of the Indian trail, later known as the Aurora and 
Buffalo Road, thirty rods easterly from where the Catholic Church 
was later built in Spring Brook Village. This house, with addi- 

102 



tions was for many years kept as a tavern, known far and near as 
the " Mouse Nest. " Two families of Indians lived near the " Devils' 
Hole/' on the west side of the Cazenove Creek, about one mile 
south from Springbrook, and several Indian families were in that 
vicinity. The Indians moved from the Reservation one to five 
years after the sale to the Ogden Company in 1842, after it had 
been the home of the Seneca Nation for sixty-five years. The 
lands in the vicinity of East Elma did not find rapid sale when 
first put upon the market by the Ogden Company, but few fam- 
ilies were living there before 1850. 

Thomas Hanvey built a sawmill, in 1854, on a small stream 
three-fourths of a mile north from East Elma, on land owned b}^ 
Hugh Mullen in 1900. Isaac Gail opened the first store on north- 
west corner in East Elma in 1854. 

A general improvement was noticed in the spring of 1856, as in 
the early part of the summer the first school house was built and 
the first school was kept by Miss Maria Hall after Juh'- 4th of that 
year. 

RESIDENTS OF EAST ELMA, DECEMBER 4th, IS56. 

Nathan Howard had a blacksmith shop on the north side of the 
road at the east end of the bridge. Russel Howard and Albert 
Crane built a steam shinglemill, thus opening up a new industry. 

The locality was known by lumbermen as " Hemstreets Mill" but 
generally, the little settlement was known far and near as "Frog 
Pond" from a large swamp of some twenty acres a little distance 
east from the sawmill. 

On December 4th, 1856, when the town of Elma was formed, 
we find the following persons residing in that locality, viz. : Abel 
N. Button, Albert Crane, John Darcey, Harry Dingman, Edwin 
Fowler, Isaac Gail, John W. Griffin, Thomas Hanvey, James Hatch, 
Niles Hatch, Zina A. Hemstreet, Daniel Hicks, James Hopper, 
Nathan Howard, Russell Howard, Thomas Ostrander, Amos P. 
Rowley, and Joseph G. Thompson. Only three or four of these 
persons are living in Elma in 1900. 



103 



CHAPTER IX. 

ELMA VILLAGE AND VICINITY— 1845 TO 1856. 

We left the Lancaster part of the Reservation after Eleazer 
Bancroft rebuilt the bridge across the Big Buffalo Creek in the 
spring of 1845 as mentioned on page 95. 

The Bancroft sawmill was raised in June of that year, 1845. 
June 2d, 1845, the Clinton street road w^as laid out from Bo wen 
road to the Transit, and on September 21, the Bullis road was laid out 
from Buffalo Creek on the line of lots, west, to Lot 105. August 
1st, 1845, Clark W. Hurd, Joseph B. Briggs, Allen and Hiram 
Clark bought of Fulford and Plummer their interest in Lot 57 
(Deed from Joseph Fellows dated October 1st, 1845.) They then 
bought of Joseph Fellows (Deed elated May 1st, 1856) Lot 52, 
where was a good place to build a dam across the Creek and on 
August 5th, 1845, they commenced on the dam. As they lived in 
the town of Lancaster near the Town Line station on the Attica 
& Buffalo Railroad, they brought a supply of provisions for a few 
days and did their cooking by a fire built by the side of a log, and 
at night had a bed of hemlock boughs with blankets for what cov- 
ering they needed at that time of the year. 

They came by a road through the woods to where Deforest 
Standart built a house the next year, in 1900 owned by Jacob 
Young estate ; then south to the top of the high bank, then clown a 
dug way which still remains, and then southwest and south to the 
Creek, then up the creek to the dam. The Indians had patches of 
cornfields on the flats through which the right of way had to be 
bought before the millrace could be commenced. 



THE AMERICAN— J845-J846. 

A board shanty 14 x 24, with an addition 12 x 24 for 
kitchen and bedroom, both of which were covered by a 
board roof, was built the last of August, 1845, for a 
boarding and lodging house for the men who were to work on the 
dam, race and sawmill. It was located on the west side of the 
Bo wen Road, and the south bank of the millrace. This building 
was named " The American, " and by that name was known until it 
was torn down in 1853. That fall, Mrs. Hurd and Mrs. Briggs took 

104 



turns, one week for each, in coming from their homes at Town Line 
and keeping The American. When winter set in, the mill company 
hired Peter Rolon and wife to occupy The American and board the 
hands. After the dam was completed and while work on the race 
was being pushed, a 30 x 40-foot barn was built about fifteen rorls 
north from where the sawmill was to stand; later, this was known 
.as Kurd's barn. It was in this town that the Indians held their 
war dance (See chap. II, page 33) late in the fall. The Indians left 
the " Big Flats " during the next spring. The sawmill was framed 
and raised before winter weather set in; the work on the race 
being done partly as job and partly by day work was carried into 
the winter. As the mill was to be a double mill, work was hurried 
to get the south saw at work before spring; the north saw was 
ready early in the summer of 1846. 

Eron Woodard came in March, 1846 and worked for Mr. Bullis. 
Mr. Otis A. Hall moved on to the end of Lot 41, March 30tli, 1846. 
Mr. Joseph Peck built the first frame house in what was later to be 
Elma Village, on the west side of the Bowen road, across the race, 
from The American. The house was later known as Osman Lit- 
tle's house, and is still standing in 1900. During the summer of 
1846, J. B. Briggs and wife occupied The American and boarded 
the men ; and a 30 x 40-foot barn was built on the west side of the 
Bowen road, later known as Briggs' barn. 

Wm. H. Bancroft, in the fall of 1846, moved from Town Line, 
into a house built on the west side of the road. He built the 
first blacksmith shop there and carried on that business for several 
years. The place is now owned by Jerge Brothers. 

LEWIS M, BULLIS. 

Lewis M. Bullis, owner of the Estabrook Saw Mill, bought of 
Joseph Fellows Lot 16, 17, 23, 24, 25 and mill yard lot, in 1845, 
the deed being dated July 18th, 1846, and recorded in Liber 81, 
page 84. 

In the fall of 1846, Deforest Standart moved on to Lot 51 on 
the north side of Clinton street road, where Mrs. Jacob Young lives 
in 1900. 

Before the sawmills were in running order, in the summer of 
1846, Hurd & Briggs bought the Clarks' interest in lands and mill; 
and after surveying from Lots 52 and 57, the land necessary for 
the mill, yards and race, was retained as company iproperty. 
They divided the mill, in so far that Hurd was to have the south 
saw and Briggs the north, each to keep his own mill in repair at 
his expense and each to have an ec^ual chance in use of the water; 

1(5 



but all heavy repairs on dam, race or mill were to be at company's 
expense. 

A division of the balance of the real estate of the two lots was 
also agreed upon. Hurd v/as to take the east side of the Bo wen road 
and Briggs to take the west side. This agreement was made in the 
fall of 1846, but the deeds were not passed until January 25th, 
1851, recorded in Liber 113, page 241. 

Immediately after the division was made, each made preparations 
for the erection of d.welling houses, and both houses were raised 
in the spring of 1847. Hurd mo"\'ed into his house in June of that 
year, before it was finished, in fact, as soon as it was enclosed 
and with loose floors. 

The Briggs famil}^ occupied the American until their house was 
completed and mo^^ed into it in November, 1848. 

The first schoolhouse was a rough board structure, 12 x 16, 
built in the early summer of 1847 and with board roof and located 
on ground now occupied by the church. Miss Celina Standart 
taught school that summer and winter and the next spring in 
that schoolhouse. 



BULLIS REBUILDS THE SAWMILL— 1847. 

Lewis M. Bullis, owner of the Estabrook Saw Mill, ha^dng bought 
several lots of land of the Ogden Co., in June, 1847, tore down the 
Estabrook Mill and rebuilt it in that summer, putting in a double 
mill ; and he also built a box factory at the upper, or south end of 
the sawmill. The box factory building was southeast of the south 
end of the saw mill, with road way between the buildings. 

In the spring of 1847, Peter Schane and Broadbeck moved on 
Lot 72, and Augustus Bonnell on the west part of Lot 66, now 
occupied by Benjamin Stetson, and Philip Young moved on the 
the east half of Lot 66, now^ Beidler's, in the summer of 1847; and 
Daniel Price on Lot 54, same year. 

June 10th, 1847, the Clinton Street Road was laid out from Bowen 
Road east to the town line. March 18th, 1847, Mr. Jacob Young 
and Maria Standart were married and on June 12th they moved 
into a plank house, just enclosed, on the northeast corner of 
Clinton Street and Bowen Road. They had no cookstove and 
for three weeks she cooked by a fire built against a large stump. 
They lived during the next winter in the Alonzo C. Bancroft house 
that was built in the summer of 1847 on the east side of Bowen 
Ptoad and on the banks of the Big Buffalo Creek and Pond Brook. 

Cyrus Hurd and Hiram Kinney bought Lot 61 on the north side 
of Clinton Street Road, October 4th, 1847, and on November 25th 

106 



Hurd commenced work on a plank house 16 x 26 and 12 feet high, 
also on a frame barn 16 x 24, 7 feet high. The buildings were 
finished so that on December 25th, 1847 he moved from Town 
Line, with his mother and sister Sarah, into the new home. 

On March 7th, 1848, Cyrus Hurd and Cordelia Hill were married 
and he brought his wife home that clay. 

A few other families were coming into the neighborhood whose 
names cannot now be learned. 



NEW SCHOOLHOUSE IN ELMA VILLAGE. 

In the summer of 1847, Hurd & Briggs put a lathmill into an 
addition built by Zenas Clark, on the southwest part of the saw- 
mill. At a school meeting held in the fall of 1847, it was voted to 
build a new schoolhouse and the site selected was on J. B. Briggs' 
land on the west side of Bowen Road at the top of the high bank, 
about fifty rods south from Clinton Street. 

The building of the schoolhouse, the furnishing of all the 
materials, the building to be painted red, with white trimmings, 
was let to Hurd & Briggs and Eleazor Bancroft, for $400 ; the house 
to be completed by July 1st, 1848. The contract for the labor 
was sublet to Peter Spade for $50 and the house was finished on 
time. Miss Celina Standart moved her school into the new house 
and there finished her summer term. The lumber of the school- 
house on the flats was taken to build a woodhouse on the north 
end of the new schoolhouse. 

On September 10th, 1847, a road was laid out on the south side 
of the Buffalo Creek from the Bowen Road to the Girdled Road, 
later known as Chair Factory Road. 

The Hill Road from the Bullis Road east of the Bullis school- 
house north to Clinton Street Road was laid out December 6th, 
1847, and at the same date, the Woodard Road, from the Girdled 
Road a little south from the Bullis Road to the Bowen Road, at 
what is now Elma Center, was laid out. Most of the other roads 
in the town of Elma were laid out after the town was organized. 



J848. 

Early in the summer of 1848, a Mr. Walker moved into the 
Bancroft house on the south bank of the Big Buffalo Creek and 
opened up a small stock of groceries, being the first store in Elma. 
Bancroft soon put up a building across the road, designed for 
Walker's store. Walker never moved into the building but bought 
a lot on the east side of the road and on the north side of the Big 

107 



Buttalo Creek, built a house there during the sunmier, and in the 
fall moved his family into the south part, while he used the north 
part for the store which he so occupied mitil he sold the house and 
lot to Oliver Clark, in the winter of 1850, at which time he moved 
family and goods to Marilla "\'illage. 

In the sprmg of 1848, George Standart, Sr.. sold to liis sons 
George and Washington twenty-eight and one-haK acres of land 
from the south end of Lot 54 including the sawmill, log house and 
frame liarn. George Standart. Sr.. then moved into a plank house 
he had built on Lot 73 on the north side of the Big Buffalo Creek, 
tliree-Ciuarters of a mile west of the Bowen Road. The boys. 
George and Washmgton. built a plank house at the north side of 
theu' millyard. That house was later occupied by William 
Standart imtil he built his brick house, when it was sold to Frederick 
Heineman, and moved to Lot 84 on the north side of the BuUis 
Road, and is in 1900 OT\-iied by Adam Bommer. 

Osman Little bought the Joseph Peck hotise. on the north bank 
of the millrace and moved there in the spring of 1S4S. and li^-ed 
there se^-eral years, rmming Htird & Briggs' lathmill. havmg a 
share in the enterprise. 

Jacob Jerge came m 1848 and commenced work with William 
H. Bancroft, to learn the blacksmith's trade. 

In 1849, the Ebenezer Society commenced their settlement or 
village which they called L'pper Ebenezer, (now Blossom) where 
they built a sawmill, gristmill, chiu'ch, schoolhouse, and several 
houses for families, with store and L'pper Ebenezer post office 
-^dth some large barns. 

February 26th. of the same year, the Bullis Road was laid out 
from Marilla to^\'n Ime. west to the corner of Lots 11. 12. 17. IS. 
Joint and George Freiberg, and Conrad Mertz moA'ed on to Lot 
46 on the north side of Clinton Street Road in the sprmg of 1849. 

1849. 

The bridge across the Big Buffalo Creek on the Bowen Road was 
carried off by the spring freshet of 1849 and ]\Ir. Eleazer Bancroft 
built another bridge during that sunnner. This bridge was dam- 
aged when the ice went out in the spring of 1851 ; was then repaired 
and remained until the iron bridge was built m 1871. 

George Standard. Sr. and OliA-er Bowen built a sawmill on the 
north side of the Big Buffalo Creek near the southwest corner of 
lot 73. " 

Samantha, daughter of ]\Ir. and ]^Irs. George Standard, died July 
loth, 1849. The fimeral sermon was preached by Rev. George E. 
Havens, Methodist preacher at Lancaster. This was the first 

108 



death of a white person and the first sermon preached on the Lan- 
caster part of the reservation. Samantha was buried on lot 73. 

Soon after this, Rev. Havens and Rev. L. A. Skinner, the Pres- 
byterian minister at Lancaster, commenced holding meetings in 
the school house on the hill at Elma Village, at two o'clock on al- 
ternate Sunda}^ afternoons. 

Rev. C. S. Baker was sent to Lancaster by the M. E. Conference 
in September, 1849. He came to Elma every other Sunda}^ afternoon, 
alternating with Rev. L. A. Skinner through that conference A'ear. 
In October, Rev. Baker organized a class in Elma. The members 
were: Joseph Briggs, George Standart, Jr., Mrs. J. B. Briggs, Fiori- 
na Briggs and Mrs. William Standart. This was the beginning of 
the Elma Village Methodist Church and the preaching of Rev. L. A. 
Skinner was the starting point of the Presbyterian Church of Elma 
Village. Alonzo C. Bancroft and Jane Sleeper were married Sep- 
tember 2d, 1849, and in a few weeks they moved into the house on 
the east side of the Bowen Road on the south bank of the Big Buffalo 
Creek. 

I849-I850. 

In October 1849, the box factor)^ building at the Bullis mills was 
burned, with all the tools, machinery and stock on hand, and the 
fire extended to the saw-mill which was also burned. Mr. Bullis 
immediately rebuilt the double sawmill and also put up a box 
factory building, also a shingle mill for making cut shingles at the 
lower or north end of the sawmill. The boxes made here w^ere 
sold to wholesale dealers in Buffalo. 

Hurd and Briggs built a shop 30x44 feet, at the southwest corner 
of their sawmill and west of the lathmill. This shop was to be 
supplied with power from the wheel of the lathmill. 

Mr. Wm. Standart having sold his farm on the main road, two 
miles east of Lancaster village, in September 1849, moved in with 
his son Deforest on the north side of Clinton Street road on lot 51. 
The two families lived together until February 1850, when Wm. 
Standart, having on January 8th, 1850, bought of George Standart, 
Jr. and Washington Standart, the twenty-eight and one-half acres 
of the south end of lot 54, he then moved into the plank house at 
north side of the mill yard. 

In the fall of 1850, Oliver Clark moved into Elma; himself, wife 
and brother Elon, and their shop hands boarding in J. B. Briggs' 
family through the winter, and late in the winter he bought of 
Walker the house on the east side of the Bowen Road and on the 
north side of the Creek, his brother Elon boarding with him. To- 
gether, as 0. & E. Clark, they put into the Hurd & Briggs shop in 

109 . 



the fall of 1850, a Daniels planer and machines for matching floor- 
ing and making doors, sash and blinds. That fall they had a con- 
tract from Rufus L. Howard and Gibson T. WiUiams of Buffalo, to 
make the woodwork for 50 of the Ketchum Patent Mowing Ma- 
chines. 

In 1850, Theodore Noyes and sons Charles and Simeon, settled 
on lot 32, and George Krouse, the same year on lot 37 on the south 
side of Clinton Street road. Theoron Stowell and brother N. W. 
settled on lots 3 and 4, on the Bullis road; and Robert Simanton 
built a sawmill on the south side of the Buffalo Creek and east side 
of Girdled Road. 



MEETINGS IN ELMA VILLAGE— I85I. 

The Ebenezer Company having bought lot 45, called their " Pine 
Lot," built a house on the Woodard Road now occupied by Fred 
Heitman, for the accommodation of its men when at work cut- 
ting logs, and this house was afterwards used as a ''prison house," 
mention of which will be made later. 

Allen French and Charles Noyes were in the lumber trade in 
Elma from 1850 to 1855. 

The Methodist Episcopal Conference sent Rev. Gustavus Hines 
to the Lancaster, Elma and Bowmanville charge, and services were 
held every Sunday forenoon at Lancaster, and at 2 o'clock P. M., al- 
ternating between Elma and Bowmansville. Mr. and Mrs. Joseph 
F. Clark, a brother of Mrs Clark W. LIurd, came in October 1850; 
lived with the family of Clark W. Hurd that winter and the next 
spring and until he built a house, which was commenced May 6th, 
1851 on the east side of the Bowen Road and near the north line of 
lot 59; the house being later owned by Stephen Markham and 
sold by him to Joseph C. Standart. 

In the early part of the summer of 1851, Rev. L. A. Skinner's 
health failed, so he was obliged to give up the Elma appointment, 
but as Rev. Nehemiah Cobb, a Presbyterian minister as missionary 
from some church in Buffalo was preaching in Springbrook, he 
came and preached every alternate Sunday afternoon in the Elma 
school house during the summer of 1851, and until Rev. William 
Waith, the Presbyterian minister of Lancaster took up regular 
work in the summer of 1852. Mr. Cyrenus Wilbor, Mrs. J. B. 
Briggs' father, came in the spring and moved into the house on the 
west side of the Bowen Road, and north side of the Buffalo Creek. 
He had been elected in the fall of 1837 to the New York State As- 
sembly from the town of Alden. C. W. Hurd and J. B. Briggs 

110 



each built a horsebarn, and a nice dooryard fence in 1851. A 
bridge was built across the Buffalo Creek at the Girdled Road and 
Simanton's mill, but it was carried off by high water in the spring 
of 1854. 

A schoolhouse, 16x20, was built in 1851 on the hill on the east 
bank of the Big Buffalo Creek and north side of the Bullis Road. 
This building was used as a schoolhouse until 1880, when it was 
sold to Philip Stitz for twenty-five dollars, at which time the pres- 
ent schoolhouse was built. 

Warren Jackman came on May 5th, 1851, and on June 3d bought 
lot 55 at the southeast corner of the Bowen and Bullis Roads 
and on Ma}^ 10th moved into the log house built in 1843 by George 
Standart on lot 54. 

August 4th, Jackman leased a half interest in Joseph B. Briggs' 
part of the Hurd and Briggs sawmill for one year and during that 
year he was busily engaged in converting into lumber the timber 
from lot 55. Jacob Young was Jackman 's saw3'^er for the year. 

Elon Clark and Julia Standart were married May 12th, 1851. 
Clark built a house and barn on the west side of the Bowen Road 
across from where the church now stands in Elma Village. He 
occupied the house that fall. 

In August, Oliver and Elon Clark had the contract from Howard 
& Williams for the woodwork for four hundred mowing machines. 
The Ketchum patents had been so perfected that it was proven that 
the meadows could be cut by horse power. The demand for mow- 
ing machines was accordingly becoming greater each year and 
the scythe which had been for so many years the only instrument 
for cutting grass was being gradually displaced by the mowing 
machine. 

MEN KILLED AT BARN RAISING, 

In June, 1851, at the raising of a barn on lot 72 now owned by 
Max Hornung, the first bent was raised all right; but it was left 
without any stays, to stand alone until the next bent and girts were 
in place, in order to fasten all together. While all hands were 
raising the second bent, a light wind blew the first bent over against 
the second and as the men saw it coming and realized their danger, 
a cry was raised to get out of the way, but the cry came too late. 
Three men were caught. Peter Shane had his head cut off by 
being caught between the timbers; one other man, name not now 
known, was so hurt that he died the next morning, and another 
also name not known, died three months later. Too much whiskey 
was the real cause of the accident. 

Ill 



1852. 

Charles A. Duttoii bought the lot next north of William H. 
Bancroft's and built a house on the west side of the Bo wen Road 
and later, he built a wagonshop on the west end of the lot and on 
the east bank of the millrace. 

Eleazer Bancroft and family, in April, 1852, moved into the house 
with Alonzo Bancroft on the bank of the Big Buffalo Creek and he 
made a dam across Pond Brook about twenty rods above his saw- 
mih, and erected a building for shop and for manufactor}^ purposes ; 
using the water as a power for the machinery. This shop was 
first used as a bedstead factory and later, as a chair factory. Later 
in the year he began to gather materials for building a brick house 
on the west side of the Bowen Road at the top of the hill south of 
the Creek. 

A schoolhouse was built in 1852 in what was later known as 
the Cotton District on the south sid.e of the Clinton Street Road 
about twentv rods east of the Girdled Road on the north end of 
Lot 20. 

Peter Schultz in Octol^er moved on Lot 36 on the north side of 
the Clinton Street Road. 

Rev. E. Reasoner, Methodist minister on Lancaster and Elma 
charge, preached ever}^ other Sunday afternoon alternating with 
Rev. Wm. Waith from Lancaster. 

In July, 1852, Warren Jackman sold Lot 55 to James R. Jackman, 
and on August 4th he opened a store in the building on the west 
side of the Bowen road and on the south bank of the Big Buffalo 
Creek. On October 1st he moved his family into an addition that 
had been built on the west end of the store. 

The place now known as Elma Village was called "Big Flats" 
by the Indians when they lived there, and after it begun to be 
settled by the whites, it went by the names of "Milford, " or " Hurd 
or Briggs' Mills," and the place was known ah around by all of 
these names. Letters for persons living there would be directed to 
Lancaster postoffice with any of these names added and the Lancas- 
ter postmaster knew where the letter or paper belonged. All the lum- 
ber, wood, and hemlock bark had to be hauled north to the '' Main 
Road," then west through Lancaster ^^illage to Buffalo or to 
Williamsville, except for a little time in the winter of 1850 and 
1851 when a few loads would be hauled on the Clinton Street Road, 
by "Middle Ebenezer," now Gardenville, but loads could be 
hauled that way only in the winter. The "Main Road" was 
planked from Town Line to Buffalo, and to make the road good 
from the "Big Flats" to the Main Road, the mill owners and the 
wood and lumber haulers joined their forces and planked the 

112 



north and south road from the top of the hih at the schoolhouse 
thence north over all the bad and very muddy parts so that good 
loads could generally be hauled. As the people had then- mail 
come to Lancaster postoffice, and in a new country people are 
generally accomodating, it was the practice for teamsters and 
others to call at the Lancaster postofRce and take any mail that 
■might be for their neighbors. After Jackman's store was opened, 
the mail was generally brought or sent to the store and so the people 
grew in the habit of calling there for their mail. 

ELMA POSTOFFICK-J852. 

One evening in the first part of October, 1852, when several 
persons were in the store, the question was asked, "Wlw not 
have a postoffice and have the mail brought regularly?" ''Then 
we would know where our mail could be found." The reply was, 
" Why j'-^es, " and " Why not?" "But if we have a postofRce, 
we must have a name," and that brought out several names, none 
of them being entirely satisfactory until Mr. Joseph W. Bancroft 
said, "There is a big elm tree at the crossing of the Bowen and 
Clinton Street Roads; why not add the letter "a" to the elm tree 
and call the post office "Elma?" The suggestion was accepted 
and adopted and a committee was there appointed to draft a petition 
and obtain signatures for the Elma postoffice. Their work was 
well done; and on the second day after the evening meeting the 
petition was on its way to Washington and before October closed 
the Postoffice Department had sent a favorable reply with Warren 
Jackman named as Postmaster. As soon as the proper bonds were 
sent to Washington, supplies for the office were received with 
authority to contract for carrying the mail between Elma and 
Lancaster three times a week; the cost not to exceed the receipts 
of the Elma postoffice. Mr. Wm. H. Bancroft took the contract 
and so Elma postoffice received mails every Tuesday, Thursday 
and Saturday. 

CLARK, BRIGGS & CO/S STEAM MILL— 1 852- 1 853. 

Benjamin F. Stetson and Amelia Markham, were married 
September 21st, 1852, and immediately moved on the west half 
of Lot 66 on the north side of the Clinton Street Road. 

In October, Oliver and Elon Clark received an order from Howard 
& Williams for the woodwork for 1,000 mowing machines and fifty 
reaping machines. Their shoproom and power was put to a great 
strain and, as their business was increasing in all departments, 
they began to look around for more room and power and before 
the close of the year a co-partnership had been formed by and 

113 



between Oliver H. Clark, Elon Clark and Joseph B. Briggs. They 
decided to build a shop with steam power the next summer on 
land of J. B. Briggs on the west side of the millrace, and north of 
the Creek; the name of the firm to be Clark, Briggs & Co. During 
the following winter they gathered material for the building. 



ELMA VILLAGE CEMETERY. 

Oliver H. Clark died February 14th, 1853 and at a meeting of 
the neighbors held at the store on that evening, the conversation 
was as to the best place for a cemetery. The first place suggested 
was on William Stand art's land on top of the hill east of Pond 
Brook and on the north side of the Bullis Road. The objections, 
that below the surface soil was a stratum of quicksand and the 
land on the east being wet and swampy would fill the graves with 
water, were considered good and sufficient. 

The next place presented was on the top of the hill east of Pond 
Brook on the south side of the Chair Factory Road. The same 
objections, of quicksand and wet land, served to reject this place. 
Then the table-land on the north bank of the Big Buffalo Creek 
on land owned by J. B. Briggs, was named and after much talk, 
Mr. Briggs agreed to sell one and one-half acres for a cemetery. Mr. 
Oliver H. Clark was the first to be buried there on February 16th, 
1853. The sermon was preached by Rev. Wm. Waith, a Presby- 
terian minister, living in Lancaster but then preaching every other 
Sunday afternoon in the Elma schoolhouse. 

James R. Jackman moved here April 1st of this year. 

At a meeting held at the store on the evening of April 4th, Mr. 
James R. Jackman, who was present at the previous meeting, 
entered into an agreement with Mr. Briggs that he, Jackman, would 
clear the said cemetery ground of stumps and rubbish, grade the 
ground and survey the same into ranges and lots, set out trees on 
the lots and on the west and north lines of the cemetery, and build 
a good fence; that he would keep account of the expense, and from 
the sales of the lots, at forty cents per foot of the length of the lot, 
retain enough to pay the expenses; that Mr. Briggs should execute 
deeds to the purchasers of lots and after Jackman had received his 
pay, Briggs was to receive the pay until he had received seventy- 
five dollars, when he was to deed the balance of the cemetery to the 
cemetery trustees, after which time they would keep up the fences. 
Each purchaser of a lot was to pay the forty cents per foot front 
for the lot, and then take care of his own lot. 

Jackman immediately set to Avork and had the ground cleared 
of stumps, graded, surveyed and set to trees, and retained charge 

114 



until the fall of 1862, he having moved to Marilla in October 1859, 
when the grounds were left in charge of Mr. James Clark. 

Mrs. Cyrus Hurcl died June 30th, 1853. This was the second 
burial in the Elma cemetery. 

Mr. James R. Jackman who came April 1st, bought of J. B. 
Briggs the building lot on the west side of the Bowen Road and 
between what is now the Cemetery Road and the Mill Race, and 
on which the "American" was then standing. He also bought of 
Hurd & Briggs, the right and privilege to erect and to continue a 
building over the mill race on the west side of the Bowen Road. 

ELMA. VILLAGE PARK. 

Jackman also entered into an agreement with Hurd & Briggs 
by which the ground now used as a park on the east side of the 
Bowen Road and south of the millrace which was then used as a 
lumber yard, should be cleared of lumber and be deeded by them 
to Jackman in trust, for park purposes; Jackman to fence the 
ground, set it out to trees, care for the trees and keep up the fence 
so long as the trees should need protection, when it should be held, 
and belong to the public for a park. This agreement was faith- 
fully carried out by all the parties, the deed bearing date May 10th, 
1853 and recorded in liber 747, page 483, and the Elma people have 
had, and will continue to have the park through the liberality and 
public spirit of these parties as their free gift. 

James R. Jackman and Warren Jackman, during that same 
summer built the house on the lot now occupied by Wilbor B. 
Briggs, took down " The American," in which was more than 5,000 
feet of lumber and built the store over the mill race, lately occu- 
pied as a store by Louis P. Reuther. Both house and store were 
occupied b}^ Jackman in October. 

The store has since been occupied by Warren Jackman, 
Riley Ives, J. B. Briggs & Co., James Clark, Erastus J. Markham 
and Louis P. Reuther, each having the care of the postofiice most 
of the time. Rev. Schuyler Parker and Rev. Wihiam AVaith 
hold meetings in the schoolhouse at 2 P. M. on alternate Sundays. 

The material gathered during the last winter by Eleazer Ban- 
croft, for a house on top of the hill south of the creek was, under 
the plans of Mr. Joseph W. Bancroft, arranged, put together and 
made into the brick house in which Mr. Bancroft lived until his 
death which occurred many years later. 

STEAM MILL BUILT— 1853. 

About fifty persons assembled in C.W. Hurd's sugar bush on the 
east side of the Bowen Road and just east of the present site of the 

115 



church on July 4th, 1853, for a basket picnic and by that, inau- 
gurated a system of 4th of July picnics that have been continued 
with but few exceptions to this time. 

On August 23d, Mr. Eleazer Bancroft met with a very severe 
accident. While sawing the shingles for his new house, he had the 
misfortune to have his right hand come in contact with the saw 
which so injured that hand that he was to a great extent, deprived 
of its use. 

Mr. William Standart had his brick house on the east side of the 
Bowen Road up and enclosed before winter set in. 

Clark, Briggs & Co., had their building ready, with a sixty horse- 
power steam engine in place, and lathes, circular saws and a saw- 
mill with sash saw all ready for work in the early fall. They had 
an order from Howard & Williams for the wood work for 2,000 
mowing machines and 500 reaping machines. 

Howard & Williams, by substituting iron for the cutting bar, 
reduced by so much the wood work, but the success of the mowing 
machine called for larger orders and the reaping machines were 
beginning to drive the grain cradles from the fields of grain. The 
reaping machine cut, and with a reel, gathered the grain on a plat- 
form and a strong man was required to watch the platform and 
when enough grain was gathered for a bundle, to rake it from the 
platform. Four or five binders followed the machine to bind and 
set up the grain. 

The Methodist Society of Elma Village was organized December 
23d, 1853. 

MOTHER FREIBURG'S CHURCH. 

There being a Catholic church and a Presbyterian or Union church 
at Springbrook and the Ebenezer church in upper Ebenezer (now 
Blossom), the fourth church in what is now the town of Elma, was 
built on the north side of the Clinton Street Road on lot 46 in the 
summer of 1854 and was to be a Catholic church or chapel. This 
was built mostly for John Freiburg's mother, an old lady known 
among her neighbors as mother Freiburg, who felt very badly on 
leaving her home in Germany as she feared she would be deprived 
of her church privileges. While getting her things together pre- 
paratory to moving to America, she found a five franc piece for 
which she could find no owner and she took it to her priest and 
there told him what were her fears as to America. The priest told 
her to take the piece of money with her and she could find a good 
place to use it when she was there. 

After the family was settled on lot 46 and mother Freiburg found 
it difficult and often impossible for her to go to Lancaster to attend 

116 



church, she made an offering of the five franc piece to the priest 
in Lancaster and he told her to keep it and use it towards building 
a chapel near her home in the woods. So with the five francs and 
the help of her neighbors, the chapel 10x14, side walls 8 feet in 
height, was built. It was a plank building, sided with clapboards, 
cornice and painted white on outside, lathed and plastered inside, 
door in center of south end, with window in centre of each side, and 
the priest came from Lancaster for several years, twice a year, and 
held services in Mother Freiburg's church. 

The building was sold in 1870 to Gardner Cotton and moved on 
his lot, No. 20, where it has since been used as a hen house. 

Frederick Maurer bought lot 27, corner of Chnton Street and 
Girdled Roads, and moved on in the summer of 1854. 

SCHOOLHOUSE HILL,-J854. 

Early in the spring of 1854, Clark W. Hurd and Joseph F. Clark 
commenced to build a sawmill on Pond Brook east of Clark's 
house and near the north line of lot 59. Work was progressing 
favorably, when Clark was taken sick, and after a few clays illness, 
he died August 22d, 1854. 

This was the third burial in the Elma cemetery. Mr Hurd went 
on with building the sawmill and operated it until he sold the 
premises to Mr. Stephen Markham in October 1858. 

Early in the summer of 1854, Eleazer Bancroft built a large 
barn in the bank on the south side of Big Buffalo Creek and west of 
the Bo wen road. 

The school house hill as left by Bancroft in 1844, was so steep 
that it required the united efforts of two or three teams to haul up 
a full load and as nearly every owner of land near the sawmill was 
doing more or less at lumbering, this extra team help to get up the 
hill was no inconsiderable disadvantage. Accordingly, a meeting 
was called and a subscription started to raise money to reduce the 
incline of the hill. Sixty-five dollars was raised and James R. 
Jackman agreed to commence at the center of the hill and make a 
grade from that point so that the deepest part of the cut should be 
four feet and carry that grade to the high ground for the top of the 
hill. The dirt from this cut was used in filling a road bed below 
the center point so as to make as nearly as possible a true grade 
from the bottom to the top of the hill ; and it was specified that the 
work was to be done so as not to impede travel. Jackman 
started the work by taking the east half of the cut, the work being 
mostly done by men using picks, shovels and wheel barrows. 

When the cut was made through on the east side, the travel took 
that cut while the process was being used to take down the west 

117 



half and when the job was finished, the roadbed was very nearh' 
as is it in 1900. 

Howard & Wilhams, having made great improvements in their 
reaping machines and their use being so much increased, they gave 
Clark, Briggs & Co., the contract to make the woodwork for 2,000 
mowing machines and 1,500 reaping machines. This 
required an increase in the number of men to work 
in the shop and they employed during that winter 
fifteen to twenty men, working twelve hours each clay. A few 
of the men were paid according to the amount of work which they 
did, but the greater number were paid by the day. It had been 
the custom for many years, and was then, for carpenters and all 
mechanics who worked b}^ the day to work from sunrise to sunset, 
even in the longest days ; and when the days were shorter, to work 
from daylight to darkness or continue into the evening. Clark, 
Briggs & Co., required twelve hours for a day's work throughout 
the whole year ; and as the engine was started promptly on time 
they expected every man to be in his place, ready to work. 



NO SALOON.— 1855. 

The Simanton bridge was carried off by the spring freshet of 
1854. George Townsend bought the house and lot on east side 
of the Bowen Road in Elma Village of C. W. Hurd, later OAvned by 
Mrs. Maria Long. 

William J. Jackman and Frances Markham were married Sep- 
tember 20th, 1854 and in the spring of 1855 moved into their 
house on Lot 55 on the southeast corner of the Bowen and Bullis 
Roads. 

Early in the spring of 1855, a rumor was circulatetl that a person 
who had just moved into the village intended to open a saloon. 

As each mill owner, lumberman, or company, engaged in manu- 
facturing, as well as almost every owner of land in the neighbor- 
hood employed one or more and often several men as day laborers, 
this rumor causetl considerable excitement, and a general indig- 
nation meeting was held at the store and strong objections were 
made against having a saloon in the place. Finally, a delegation 
was sent to have the person who was reported to be making such 
arrangements, come to the meeting. At first, he refused to come, 
but finally he consented. 

The objections that had been made before he came were repeated 
to him, but he claimed as he had bought the property, he had the 
right to use it as he saw fit. The objection, that if a saloon was 
opened, many of the day laborers would be likeh' to spend their 

lis 



evenings there and by drinking and keeping late hours, could not 
properly perform their work the next day, he said, was nothing 
to him; that he had made up his mind and should open the saloon 
as he had the wing on his house already built and would be ready 
to open up in a few days. 

These remarks aroused the opponents of the saloon, and in 
.language in which there was no chance of being misunderstood, 
the saloon man was informed that there would be no saloon opened 
in the village; that if he made the attempt his belongings would 
be thrown into the street; and if that would not be enough, they 
would tear down his house. He said, then they would pay for the 
house; then they said they would gladly do so or buy him out. 
Of one thing they were sure, that there would be no saloon opened 
in the village. The general tone and feeling was such that the 
saloon was not opened and there has never been intoxicating 
liquors sold in Elma Village, which fact accounts largely for its 
prosperity. There has been , however, for several j^ears a saloon 
at the corner of Bo wen and Clinton Street Roads. During this 
same year, Bradley Moore, built a sawmill on the Little Buffalo 
Creek on Lot 6 on the South side of the Clinton Street Road. 

A bridge was also built across the Big Buffalo Creek on the 
girdled road at Simanton's sawmill to replace the bridge carrietl 
off in the spring freshet of 1854. 

RESERVATION CENTRAL PLANK ROAD. 

The Reservation Central Plank Road Company was organized 
to plank the Bulhs Road; and the road was in 1855 partly planked 
from Bowen Road to the Aurora plank Road in West Seneca. 

J. B. BRIGGS & CO.- 1 855. 

In August, 1855, Warren Jackman sold the goods in his store to 
Riley Ives, and Ives kept the store. 

Jackman then bought Elon Clark's interest in Clark, Briggs 
& Co. property and business, and the firm name was changed to 
J. B. Briggs & Co. 

The manufacture of broom handles was added, and the com- 
pany had an order from Howard & Williams for the woodwork of 
2,000 mowing machines and 2500 reaping machines which required 
a working force of twenty to twenty-five men. 

The M. E. Conference sent Rev. Gordon to the Lancaster 

and Elma charge, but on account of poor health, Gordon left in 
the spring of 1856. 

A Frenchman by the name of LaGore who lived on Lot 69 on 
the north side of the Bullis Road shot himself with a rifle. He was 

119 



sitting in a chair outside of the house when he placed the muzzle of 
the rifle to his neck and with his toe pulled the trigger — result: 
throat torn open causing instant death. 

Jacob Jerge bought of Charles A. Dutton his shop on the east 
bank of the mill race near the steam mill and commenced the busi- 
ness of blacksmith for himself in that shop. 

Sawmills were being put up on every stream where a fair supply 
of water could be had and several steam mills were being started 
in different parts of the town, the lumber finding a market in 
Buffalo. 

1856. 

In 1856 a bridge was built across Big Buffalo Creek at Bowen 
and Standart's sawmill, and a road laid out south to the Bullis 
Road. 

Henry D. Wilbor bought the interest of his sister, Mrs. 
Oliver H. Clark, in the J. B. Briggs & Co.'s business, but the name of 
the firm was not changed. 

Elon Clark died June 7th, 1856, and was buried in the Elma 
cemeter}^ Rev. A. Newton, of Lancaster and Elma charge, 
preached in the schoolhouse, alternating with Rev. Wm. Waith. 

In July, J. B. Briggs & Co. shut down work in the shop for 
repairs. They put in a Mulley saw, rotary planer, turning lathes, 
and other machinery and built an addition for a cheese box factory. 
Mr. R. L. Howard, now sole owner of the Ketchum patents, having 
made changes in the mowing machines, all the woodwork required 
for them was the pole, and J. B. Briggs & Co. had the contract for 
2000 mowing machine poles and the woodwork for 4000 reaping 
machines. 

Cyrenus Wilbor, father of Mrs. J. B. Briggs, died September 12th. 
Riley Ives sold the goods in the store at auction, and the latter part 
of September went to Lancaster. 

J. B. Briggs & Co., in October, put into the store a stock of 
goods in connection with the steam mill business. 

On December 4th, 1856 the Board of Supervisors formed a new 
town from the south part of Lancaster and the north part of Aurora 
and gave the name of Elma to the new town. The account of the 
whole proceedings were noted in chapter IV. In some histories of 
Erie County, it is stated that the town of Elma was formed December 
4th, 1857. 

RESIDENTS ON DECEMBER 4th, 1856. 

It has not been possible to obtain the exact year that many of 
the early settlers came on to the Lancaster part of the Reservation, 
and many who were here before the town was organized, December 

120 



4th, 1856, have moved away or have since died, so the names of all 
the residents at that time cannot now be obtained; but among those 
who were here then, are the following : 

George Ard, Joseph B. Briggs, Erasmus Briggs, Lewis M. Bullis, 
Matthias Baker, Eleazer Bancroft, Wm. H. Bancroft, Alonzo C. 
Bancroft, Albert Bancroft, Henry Beidler, Hiram Bacon, Hiram 
•Cotton, Gardner Cotton, John Carman, Daniel Christ, Peter Cau- 
field, Charles A. Dutton, Heman Dean, Ziba Dewitt, Allen French, 
John Frieberg, Michael Greiss, George Gentsch, Christ Garbv, 
Fred Garby, Zenas Hill, Clark W. Hurd, Cyrus Hurd, Otis A. 
Hall, Frederick Heineman, James R. Jackman, Warren Jackman, 
Wm. J. Jackman, Jacob Jerge, Casper Jerge, Philetus Johnson, 
Hiram W. Kinney, Jacob Knaab, George Krouse, Joseph Klein, 
Carl Keim, Lawrence Krouse, Osman Little, John Luders, John 
Ludemon, Benj. P. Lougee, Jesse Monroe, Bradley Moore, Fred 
Maurer, Fred Mann, Charles Mann, Theodore Noyes, Charles 
Noyes, Amasa Noyes, Eleazer Nouse, John Nouse, Peter Oberly, 
Lewis Ott, Daniel Price, Joseph Peck, John Pomerink, WilHam 
Standart, Deforest Standart, Wesley Standart, George Standart, 
Sr., George Standart, Jr., Washington Standart, Benj. F. Stetson, 
John Schmaltz, Henry W. Stitz, Philip Stitz, Theoron Stowell, 
N. W. Stowell, Thomas Summerfield, Harry Stone, George Shufelt, 
Peter Schultz, Thomas D. Tiffany, Orvil Titus, George Townsend, 
William Winspear, John Wolf, Henry D. Wilbor, Jacob Young, 
Adam Young, and the members of Ebenezer Society at Blossom, 
and some other names not known. 



121 



CHAPTER X. 



SPRING BROOK AND VICINITY.— 1 834 TO 1856. 

An Indian sawmill had been built on the Cazenove Creek at or 
near the Transit line ; but it was gone before any white settler came 
into the town of Elma. It probal^ly was carried away by high 
water, as the only trace left of it was the race, also some large 
stones that had been a part of the foundation for the mill. 
No person now living e^'er saw the mill and it cannot be learned 
by whom or when it was built. 

The early settlers in the towns of Wales, Holland, and Aurora 
had their road to Buffalo by the way of Hamburgh, called the 
Big Tree Road; but they soon learned of the nearer way of the 
Indian trail, and after the Mile Strip had been secured by the 
Ogden Co., the Commissioner of Highways of the town of Aurora, 
April 21st, 1832, laid out a highwa}^ on or near the Indian trail, 
and on the lot lines across the Mile Strip. When that trac~twas 
surveyed, the lot lines were made to conform to this trail as nearly 
as possible; and to continue this road on toward Buffalo, the same 
Commissioner, on March 31st, 1834, following the same trail, 
laid out a highway from the road at North Star Tavern, across the 
Reservation through Spring Brook to the Transit line. By what 
authority the Commissioner acted is not known, but it is pre- 
sumed that the Indians gave the necessary consent as it was entirely 
across their lands. This road was later to be known as the Aurora 
and Buffalo Plank Road. 

J 837. 

For several 3'ears before the Aurora and Buffalo road was laid 
out across the Reservation, on March 31st, 1834, there was a log 
house on the north side of the Indian trail on the hill in the east 
part of the Village of Spring Brook, Avhich was occupied by an 
Indian Chief by the name of Daniel Two Guns. 

A man by the name of Burns had kept the North Star Tavern 
in 1837, and while there he was so strongly suspected of making 
counterfeit half and cjuarter dollars that officers visited the place. 

122 



They found moulds, tools and some material in his cellar but he so 
stoutly maintained that he knew nothing about it, and that the 
things had been left there without his knowledge, that he was not 
arrested, but he soon left the tavern. 

In 1839, this same Burns and Plin Barnum hired of Two Guns, 
his house for a tavern. They started to build a barn and shed 
to accommodate travelers who should call on them. While 
framing timber for the barn in the woods near there (for it was 
woods all around the place), the wind broke a limb off an oak tree, 
under which they were working. The limb striking Burns on the 
head, killed him instantly. This was the first death by accident on 
Elma soil. 

Plin Barnum and his brother, Chauncey, then put up the barn 
and shed and kept tavern in the Two Guns house in 1839 and 1840. 
This was the first house occupied by white people at Spring Brook. 

After the Barnums, H. B. Denio kept the tavern two years, 
from 1841 antl to the spring of 1843. This house was kept as a 
tavern for many vears and was known far and near as the " Mouse 
Nest." 

''MOUSE NEST"— ] 842. 

As stated in a previous chapter, the parts of the Buffalo Creek 
Reservation, in the towns of Aurora and Lancaster were surveyed 
and numbered separately. The Indian trail on and near where the 
Aurora and Buffalo Road had been laid out, was the only road 
across the town of Elma, leading to the city. 

The lumber from the Hatch sawmill, and the people from the 
east end of the Mile Strip, and from Wales, Aurora, Golden, and 
Holland, went by that road and the lumber from the Estabrook 
sawmill came through a woods road on and near where the Wood- 
ard and Rice Roads are now located, reaching the Aurora and 
Buffalo Road at Spring Brook. When the Ogden Co., by the 
treaty of May 20th, 1842, secured title to the balance of the 
Buffalo Creek Reservation from the Seneca Indians, the treaty 
gave to the Indians the privilege of possession and occupancy of 
their improvements until April 1st, 1846, and until the improve- 
ments were paid for by the company. By this arrangement, 
Two Guns and his assignees had the right to keep the Mouse Nest 
Tavern until April 1st, 1846; and the tavern was kept as before 
stated by Plin and Chauncey Barnum in 1839 and 1840, and by 
H. B. Denio in 1841 and to April 1843, by Felstein to April, 1844, 
and by David J. Morris, from April, 1844, to the fall of 1845. 
The Indians residing on the Aurora part of the Reservation nearly 
all left for the Allegany and Cattaraugus Reservations in 1844 and 

123 



1845; a few remaining until 1846. The Davis road from Spring 
Brook south across the Reservation, was laid out June 20th, 1842. 



1844. 

The Ogden Co., after having made a sale of the 5000 acre tract 
to the Ebenezer Company, in April, 1843, settled with the Indians 
for their improvements on this 5000 acre tract and had the balance 
of the Reservation west of the Transit line surveyed; and the com- 
pany advertised ''that on and after August 14th, 1844, they would 
sell certain lots, which were marked on their map of the Reser- 
vation. Those marked comprised a large part of the town of Elma. " 

As the Aurora part of Elma was settled mostly by people coming 
from Wales, Aurora, and Hamburgh, all going to Aurora to elections 
and town meeting; and the Lancaster part settled largely by 
people from Lancaster and Alden, they going to Lancaster for 
election and town meeting, there had been but little communica- 
tion beween the early settlers of these two parts previous to the 
formation of the town of Elma on December 4th, 1856. So it 
has seemed best to treat the early settlement of the Aurora and 
Lancaster parts of the town separately, up to the time the town 
was organized. 

The Hatch Mill (East Elma) part was mentioned in Chapter VIII; 
and the Lancaster part in the previous chapter; and now, we take 
up the settlement of the balance of the Aurora part, or Spring Brook 
and vicinity. 

SPRING BROOK NAMED- 1844. 

Near the Indian trial and now on lot 71 on the north side of the 
Aurora and Buffalo Road and a few rods southeast from Daniel 
Two Guns house, was a large spring. 

At that time all around was a dense forest, allowing but little if 
any evaporation and the melting snows and the rains gradually 
settled into the low places in the woods, the swamps retaining the 
water which was slowly given up b}^ the soil in numerous springs 
(most of them now dry), but then giving a steady and in many 
cases a large supply of water. This Two Guns spring was one of 
the very large springs giving a stream many times larger than in 
1900; the water crossing the road on to lot 82, taking a westerly 
course in a gully, growing gradually deeper, passing on to lot 81, 
where the gulf came near the bend in the Cazenove Creek, only a 
narrow bank thirty feet high separating them; then the brook 
takes a northwest course nearly parallel to the highway, passing 
on to lot 84, where at the Northrup Road it enters a wide ravine 

124 



and makes way along the east side of the Northrup Road to the 
Creek. This spring and brook gives the name to the Village. 

FIRST SAWMILL AT SPRING BROOK.— 1844. 

While David J. Morris was keeping the Mouse Nest tavern, in 
September 1844, Lewis Northrup and George Baker, both of Au- 
rora, made the first purchase of land at Spring Brook, when they 
bought lot 84 in the west part of Spring Brook, the lot lying between 
the Aurora and Buffalo Road and the Cazenove Creek ; the deed from 
Joseph Fellows being dated January 1st, 1845, and recorded in Liber 
79, Page 317. Immediately after they bought the lot in September, 
1844, they l^egan to clear the ground and prepare for building a 
sawmill and to build a millhouse for the family to board the hands. 
While this work of preparation was going on, the men boarded 
with D. J. Morris at his tavern. To furnish room, Morris built a 
frame addition (16 x 24 feet, 12 feet high) to the log tavern for a 
sitting room, and this frame building was enclosed on the outside with 
siding, and lathed and plastered inside, and is used by Charles 
Thayer, owner of the premises in 1900, as a kitchen and woodhouse. 

This Two Guns tavern is the only log tavern ever kept in Spring- 
brook, and this addition is all the tavern, in whole or part, frame 
or log, that David J. Morris ever built. 

In October of 1844, Lewis Northrup moved his family from 
Aurora into the plank mill house; living there and boarding the 
hands while the dam and sawmill was being built, and, until he 
built a frame house on the north end of the lot, and on the south- 
west side of the highway in the spring of 1845. 

Horace Kyser, Asa Palmer and John Morris, came in the fall of 
1844. Kyser bought fifty acres in the centre of lot 75, of Wihiam 
D. Waddington; deed elated September 1st, 1845, recorded in 
Liber 81, Page 80. John Morris built a house on the southeast 
part of lot 82. 

J845. 

On April 19th, 1845, the Aurora Commissioner of Highways 
laid out the Rice Road, from the Girdled Road west on lot lines 
to the Aurora and Buffalo Road, at the northwest corner of lot 75 ; 
the Pound Road, on east line of lot 83 and the Jimeson Road, from 
Marilla town line, west, on lot lines through East Elma, to the 
Aurora and Buffalo Road, at the northwest corner of lot 63. 

The bridge at East Elma across the Millpond, went oft' with the 
spring freshet, and a new bridge, nearer the sawmill was built on 
the lot lines during the summer of 1845. 

125 



Northriip and Baker completed their double sawmill on the 
north bank of the Creek in the early part of 1845 on the site now 
occupied by Eli B. Northrup's sawmill. Northrup and Baker 
operated their mill as a company mill about one 3"ear, when North- 
rup sold his interest to Baker. 

Zenas M. Cobb bought lot 83 and built a house opposite the 
Northrup house and moved into it in the spring of 1845. 

On May 1st, 1845, David J. Morris bought of Northrup and Baker 
sixteen and four one hundredths acres of lot 84, being that part of 
the lot tying east of the road to the sawmills ; and that summer he 
built a house on that lot, into which he moved that fall from the 
ta^-ern, and where he lived many j^ears; and, on September 1st, 
1845, he bought of Joseph Fellows, twenty-five acres of the west 
end of lot 75, being all of lot 75 west of Kyser's fifty acres. Deed 
recorded in Liber 81, Page 77; and, as he owned on both sides of the 
Road he sold off small lots to make the village of Spring Brook. 

In the summer of 1845, Zebina Lee and family came from Oswego 
County and lived with Asa Palmer in an Indian log house on lot 67. 
While there he built a plank house on lot 76 where Mr. 0. J. Wan- 
nemacher now lives and into which he moved in the fall of 1845. 
William M. Rice moved on to Lot 56 in the fall of 1845. 

Thomas Flannigan came in the fall of 1845 and moved into the 
Mouse Nest tavern which he kept two j^ears. He bought of Joseph 
Fellows part of Lot 71, the deed dated November 29, 1847. He 
sold or rented the. Mouse Nest tavern stand to Holmes who moved 
into the tavern in the fall of 1847. 

On November 1st, 1845, Northrup & Baker bought a mill site 
and privilege of Joseph Fellows on the south side of the Creek and 
opposite the sawmill, being six and ninety-five one hundredths 
acres off the north side of Lot 85 where the gristmill now stands. 



1846. 

In February of 1846, Northrup & Baker had a sawmill on the 
south side of the Creek ready for business and in the course of the 
summer, Northrup bought out Baker's entire interest, thus 
becoming owner and operator of both mills. During that summer 
he built a bridge across the Creek below the mill. 

Nathaniel Graves moved with his family from Aurora in the 
spring of 1846, and worked for Northrup at the mills, living in one 
of the mill houses. 

Joseph Grace came in the spring of 1846 and bought of D. J. 
Morris, one and one-half acres of land west of and adjoining Horace 
Kyser on which he built a house and blacksmith shop, the first of 

126 



its kind in Spring Brook and in December he bought of Louis North- 
rup twenty-five acres off the east end of Lot 75. In May 1846, 
Joseph Tillou moved with his family on Lot 66 on the south side 
of the Rice Road. 

The first schoolhouse, 24x 30 feet in Spring Broolc, was built on 
'the present schoolhouse site in the spring of 1846 ; to be ready for 
school on June 1st and to be completed by November 15, contract 
price $254; deed from David J. Morris, dated October 23d, 1850. 
The first school was kept by Miss Calpherina Johnson of Holland 
in the summer of 1846. 

Truman Case built a house and moved on Lot 52, on the west 
side of the Bowen Road in the summer of 1847. 

SPRING BROOK POSTOFFICE.— 18484849. 

Alfred Marvel and James Davis moved on their farms south of 
Spring Brook in the early part of 1848. 

William Jones in 1848 bought the five acre lot on the west side 
of the Davis Road south of Spring Brook, later known as the Tal- 
madge place, and built a house on the lot. The same summer, 
Jones opened a meat market in a building on the southeast corner 
of the Davis and Aurora roads. 

The Spring Brook Postoffice was established in 1848, with David 
J. Morris as first Postmaster. This was under President Polk, and 
Morris had the Postoffice in his house, until after President Taylor 
was inaugurated in 1849. 

The first steam sawmill in Spring Brook was built in 1848, by 
Finley Robinson and William English, on the lot across the road 
from Kyser's house. 

The bridge that Northrup built in the summer of 1846 across the 
Creek below the sawmills, went out with the ice at the spring break- 
up and freshet in 1849. 

James H Ward, Esq., moved into Spring Brook May 11th, 1849, 
and that summer the Aurora and Buffalo Plank Road was built 
through Spring Brook and was completed to Buffalo that year ; so 
that heavy loads of lumber, cordwood and farm produce could be 
hauled to the Buffalo market. 

On June 23d, 1849, the Aurora Commissioner of Highways laid 
out a highway from the Plank Road east of Northrup 's house to 
the Transit line, crossing the Cazenove Creek below the saw mills, 
and let the building of a bridge across the Creek at that point. The 
bridge was built that summer. 

J 850. 

Joseph Grace moved his blacksmith shop and family on to the 
twenty-five acres, on east end of Lot 75, which he bought in 1846. 

127 



Nathaniel Graves built a house and blacksmith shop on the lot 
west of the Pail Factory lot and there worked at his blacksmith 
trade. 

Zenas M. Cobb was appointed Postmaster of the Spring Brook 
Postoffice under President Taylor in 1849; and had the office in 
his house until after President Fillmore was inaugurated in 1850. 

A steam sawmill and pail factory was erected on the lot across 
the road from Horace Kyser's house by William H. Corbin in June 

1849 with J. J. French and Sherman Roscoe as proprietors. Deed 
from John Morris dated February 19th, 1850, recorded in Liber 117, 
Page 482. A fifty horse power engine was put in to drive the saw- 
mill and factory machinery. This gave employment to quite a 
force of men. The pails, tubs, and other articles manufactured, 
found a ready market in Buffalo and the business was carried on by 
this company for two or three years. 

The steam sawmill built by Robinson & English in 1848, burned 
in 1850 and another steam sawmih was immediately built on the 
same grounds l^y George and Edward Good. 

In 1850, E. G. Kent bought of D. J. Morris the lot at the south- 
east corner of the Northrup and Plank Roads, and built a store, 
putting in a good stock of goods for a country store and this was 
the first store in Spring Brook. 

John McFee bought of Hiram Harris, on February 20th, 1850, 
the lot on the southwest side of the Plank Road, on Lot 82, and 
that summer built the house now across the road from the Catholic 
church and opened a saloon, at that time called a "grocery.'' 

James Dunbar mo^^ed into the Mouse Nest April 1st, 1850, and 
kept the ta^^ern one year. 

Eron Woodard and ]\Iartha Bostwick were married April 22d, 

1850 and moved on to Lot 52, on the west side of the Bowen Road, 
on land bought of Truman Case. 

Cyrus S. Spencer mo^^-ed into a house on the north side of the 
Plank Road at west end of Lot 71, and had his shoeshop in the 
building at the corner of the Davis and Plank Roads, known as the 
Meat Market in the early part of 1850, and here he worked for 
about two years. 

D. L. Wilson came on May 7th, 1850 and worked for Lewis North- 
rup. The Spring Brook cemetery was laid out by D. J. Morris in the 
spring of 1850. Two children of Austin J. French had been buried 
there in August and September 1849. 

James H. AVard was appointed Postmaster of the Spring Brook 
Postoffice in 1850, under President Fillmore. He held the office 
four years and until the Postoffice was moved to West Seneca. 

The first church built in Spring Brook was the Catholic church, 
20 X 30 feet on the north side of the Plank Road and east side of the 

128 



Rice Road on Lot 71 ; the deed being from Thomas Flannigan, to 
John Timon, dated February 23d, 1850; recorded in Liber 111, 
Page 43, and another deed, with some difference in the boundary 
lines from the first deed, but each description to contain one acre. 
This deed, from Thomas Flannigan to John Timon, is dated Septem- 
ber 18th, 1850, recorded in Liber 94, Page 229; and here, at the 
junction of the Rice and Plank Roads was the church built. It 
served as a place of worship for the members of that society for 
about twent}' -four years when it was moved on to the east end of the 
acre lot and was for many years used as a barn for their parsonage ; 
the present fine church building having been erected in 1874. A 
part of the east end of the lot was set off as a cemetery. 

James^Wolcott built a blacksmith shop at west end of Lot 75, 
and carried on blacksmithing one and one-half years, then sold to 
John Barnett. 

The bridge which was built across the Creek below the mills in 
1849 was carried off by the ice and freshet in the spring of 1851 and 
was rebuilt that summer. 

James Dunbar moved April 1st, 1851, from the Mouse Nest 
tavern into the building on the south side of the Plank Road, later 
known as the Leger place, where he opened a store of dry goods 
and groceries and a saloon. 

James W. Simons, on April 1st, moved into the Mouse Nest 
tavern and having bought the property, began to change the ap- 
pearance of the place. During the summer he tore down the log 
house thus removing one of the Indian land marks and in its place 
erected the two-story frame building which was for many years 
used as a tavern and is now owned and occupied by Charles Thayer 
as a family residence. 

As soon as Simons new building was sufficiently completed so as 
to admit of occupation, he opened it as a tavern. 

John McFee, having the year before built a house and opened a 
saloon across the Plank Road from the Catholic church, as soon as 
Simons tore down the log tavern, he, McFee, opened up as a tavern. 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH BUILT. 

In 1851 or 1852, Rev. Neheniiah Cobb, who had been sent in 
1849 by some Presbyterian chiirch in Buffalo as a missionary, 
succeeded in getting contributions and donations so that he had 
a church built on the western part of Lot 75, on land purchased 
or donated by David J. Morris, where religious services were held 
for several years. 

129 



1852. 

In May, 1852, Lewis Northrup moved the plank house which he 
had built on the south side of the Plank Road in the spring of 1845, 
and put in its place another much larger and better house which is 
owned and occupied in 1900 by Eli B. Northrup as his residence. 
The old house was later sold to Horatio Winspear, and by him it 
was moved into the town of West Seneca, on the north bank of the 
Cazenove Creek. 

C^^rus S. Spencer, having bought the building lot at the south 
corner of lot 84 on the southwest side of the plank Road and be- 
tween the road and the Spring Brook cemetery, had his house ready 
to raise and it was raised the same day and by the same gang of 
men who had raised the Northrup house. 

Dr. James Gilmore came to Spring Brook in the summer of 1852 
and with his family lived in a house across the Plank Road and 
nearly opposite to the Congregational church; and on October 22d, 
of that year, he bought of Henry G. Stamback, the house and lot 
on Lot 82, on the southwest side of the Plank Road, joining McFee 
on the south. 

William Jones, on April 3d, 1853, bought James Dunbar's store 
of goods in the Leger store and carried on the business for one-year. 

John Barnett came in the spring of 1853, and in the fall bought 
Wolcott's blacksmith shop at the west end of Lot 75, at the junction 
of the Pound and Plank Roads, and opened up for business— the 
fourth blacksmith shop in Spring Brook. This shop is, in 1900, the 
leading shop in the village. Although it has changed hands several 
times since 1853, the shop has been run continuously. 

I853-J854. 

In the summer of 1853, Lewis Northrup built an addition on the 
lower end of the sawmill, on the south side of the Creek, for a 
gristmill, and had it ready for business in the fall of that year. 

George Leger moved into Spring Brook in the fall of 1853, living 
in the millhouse on the south side of the creek, working for Mr. 
Northrup in the gristmill for nearly three years. 

Wm. Jones, in April, 1854, with James Dunbar, left Spring Brook, 
taking their goods to Wales where they carried on the mercantile 
business for one and one-half years, when Dunbar left for California. 

Asa J. W. Palmer was appointed Postmaster of the Springbrook 
Postoffice, in 1854, under President Pierce; but he refused to 
qualify or to take the office. After considerable correspondence, 
the Postoffice Department at Washington, in order to force Palmer 
to take the office, issued orders for the Spring Brook Post- 
office to be removed to West Seneca, and directed 

130 



Henry Hill, the Postmaster of the West Seneca Post- 
office to take charge of the Spring Brook office until 
Palmer should ciualify. This removal of the office, was a great 
inconvenience to the Springbrook people, and after much urging 
Palmer gave in, and qualified, having the office in his house on 
"the north side of the Plank Road east of the school house, on Lot 
75. Palmer held the office only a short time, when James W. Simon 
was appointed, with Mrs. John McFee as assistant; and the office 
was moved from Palmer's house into McFee 's grocery where it 
was kept when the towm of Elma was formed, and until Austin 
Twitchell was appointed in January 1861. 



J855-I856. 

No very important changes w^ere made in 1855; business was 
fairly good with the mills, lurnbermen, farmers, and stores; the 
steam and watermills were very hard at work as the farmers were 
clearing their lands and were taking all the timber that would 
make a sawlog to the mills, and then take the lumber to Buffalo. 

Northrup's gristmill, at the lower end of the sawmill, on the 
south side of the Creek, was taken off by the freshet of January, 
1856, the bridge below the mills going at the same time. 

The bridge was rebuilt during that summer. 

Eli Simmons came from Buffalo in February, 1856. The Pail 
Factory business having been closed out and the property having 
changed hands several times in a few months, Lewis Northrup 
bought it November 6th, 1854, and he then sold the property to 
Henry Meeker and Myrtle Wattles, (the deed dated March 1st, 
1856, recorded in Liber 172, page 34), and they changed the build- 
ing into a tannery, and opened a general store in a building on 
the same spot, occupied by Richard Barnett's brick store in 1900. 

George Leger and Anthony Diebold, in the spring of 1856, bought 
George and Edward Good 's steam sawmill, and that summer they 
put in a gristmill. 

The Erie County Sunday School Association was organized in 
Buffalo in May, 1856. 

Stephen Northrup's store on the south-west corner of Aurora 
and Northrup Roads was finished and trade begun in December, 
1856, with flour, feed and groceries; soon he put in general mer- 
chandise. 

On December 4th, 1856, the Supervisors of Erie County formed 
a new town from parts of Aurora and Lancaster, the proceedings 
of the Board having been fully set forth in Chapter IV, to which 
reference is made. 

131 



RESIDENTS IN SPRING BROOK AND VICINITY, DEC. 4th, J 856. 

When the town of Elma was formed, December 4th, 1856, the 
business at Spring Brook was about as follows : 

Northrup's sawmills on both sides of the creek, Leger & Diebold's 
steam sawmill and gristmill on Lot 81, Meeker & Wattle's tannery 
and store on Lot 81, E. G. Kent's store at Northrup Road on Lot 
84, Stephen Northrup's store at Northrup Road on Lot 84, James 
W. Simon's tavern (the rebuilt Mouse Nest) on Lot 71,, John 
McFee's saloon and grocery on Lot 82, blacksmith shop of John 
Barnett, on west end of Lot 75, Joseph Grace's blacksmith shop 
on east end of Lot 75, postoffice in McFee's place on Lot 82, 
schoolhouse built in 1846 on Lot 75, Presbyterian church built in 
1852 on Lot 75, Catholic church built in 1850 on Lot 71. It is not 
possible in 1900, to give the names of all the residents of Spring 
Brook and vicinit}^, wdien the town was formed, but among them 
we find the following, a few living in 1900: 

John B. Bristol, Luke Baker, John Barnet, Stephen Calkins, 
Zenas M. Cobb, Patrick Conley, Bernard Conley, Anthony Diebold, 
John Davis, James Davis, Wm. H. Davis, Patrick Donohue, 
Milton H. Dunham, Wallace W. Fones, Thomas Flannigan, Joseph 
Grace, James J. Grace, Wm. W. Grace, Dr. James Gilmore, John 
Hannivan, Wm. Hunt, Peter Kihm, E. G. Kent, Stephen Kinsley, 
Horace Kyser, Charles Kennedy, George Leger, Zebina Lee, George 
Lee, Wm. M. Lockwood, John McFee, Henry Meeker, John Morris, 
David J. Morris, Lafayette Morris, Alfred Marvel, Lewis Northrup, 
Eli B. Northrup, Stephen Northrup, Asa Palmer, Asa J. W. Palmer, 
Patrick Phalen, Lyman Parker, Wm. M. Rice, Michael Schnorr, 
James W. Simons, Lewis Sisler, Eli Simmons, Cyrus S. Spencer, 
Joseph Tillou, Isaac Tillou, James Tillou, Harrison Tillou, Erastus 
Tillou, Charles Talmadge, C. J. Talmadge, Wm. Thayer, Myrtle 
Wattles, James H. Ward, D. L. Wilson, Thomas E. Wier, Elias 
Weed, Charles Whitney, Noah Wertman. 



132 



CHAPTER XI. 

TOWN OF ELMA— J856-I858. 

When the town of Elma was formed, December 4th, 1856, 
about one-half of the land of the last purchase of the Ogden Com- 
pany in the new town, consisting of 9,000 acres, was owned by about' 
three hundred actual residents. More than 5000 acres were owned 
by non-residents who had bought for- speculation. The Ogden 
Company had about 3500 acres, and as it advanced the prices, 
it seemed that it was not very anxious to sell, for it was sure of 
still higher prices. This statement does not include the Mile 
Strip part of the new town, as that had been in the market nearly 
thirty years, and in that time had been changed from a wilderness 
to well cultivated forms. 

The method of clearing the land of timber on the last purchase 
was very different from that practiced by the early settlers on the 
Holland Purchase and on the Mile Strip. Instead of cutting 
down the trees and burning the timber so that crops could be 
raised, only the decayed parts of the trees as were not fit for cord- 
wood, were burned in log heaps. The new plan was to utilize 
the timber to turn it into money; so every tree of every kind that 
was suitable for a sawlog was taken to the sawmill and made into 
lumber to be used for buildings or fences on the farm or hauled to 
Buffalo where there was a ready market and where all necessary 
supplies could be obtained. 

The timber not suitable for sawlogs was worked into cordwood, 
the soft wood, viz. : bass, elm, ash, hemlock and pine, had 
a ready market at the railroad station, steamboat docks, brick 
yards, glass factories and at all shops and factories where steam 
power was used. The hard woods, viz.; maple, beech, oak and 
hickory was the fuel for the families and offices. This was 
before coal was very much used as a fuel in Buffalo and every 
manufactory, steamboat, railroad locomotive, as well as every 
family used wood for fuel. 

Hemlock bark found a ready market at the tanneries at Aurora, 
Springbrook, Ebenezer, Buffalo, Lancaster and Williamsville. 

This method of clearing the land was much slower and required 
evry much more labor than the old way of chopping, logging and 
burning; but the object now^ was to have the timber pay for the 

133 



necessary labor, support the family, and pay for the land. Saw- 
mills were built on every stream and in almost every neighborhood 
in Elma to work up the timber, consequently lumber was easily 
obtained. After 1854, very few log houses were built on this last 
purchase, the new houses being made of plank, or of balloon frame 
and clapboards, with shingle roofs. The doors and window sashes 
were made by machinery — a long step in advance of the old way of 
the carpenter hewing and framing timber for the frame of the house 
and from the rough boards to saw and plane and work all the 
lumber for the house by hand and hard work. 

SAWMILLS— 1856. 

Cookstoves and ranges had largely supplanted the fire-place 
and Dutch fire for cooking and heating, and when the town of 
Elma was organized in 1856, in many of the houses rag carpets 
were on the floors of the best rooms. The farmers raised little or 
no wool or flax. The older women did not have to card and spin, 
and the girls were not taught these branches of housekeeping 
in order to furnish the family clothing; these kinds of labor were 
for the days of ''long ago." All the cloth for the family and 
much of the clothing, ready made, was obtained from the village 
or city stores. Before the town was formed in 1856, there had 
been built and operated the following mills for working up the 
timber, viz.: The Estabrook or Indian Mill built in 1826, having 
two saws and later known as the Bullis Mill on the Big Buffalo 
Creek, to which Mr. Bullis had added a lathmill, machinery to 
saw and cut shingles and a box factory. 

The Davis mill was built on the Cazenove Creek in 1830 by Mr. 
Jacob R. Davis, on the Mile Strip. The Hatch mill was built in 1836 
on the Big Buffalo Creek at Frog Pond, now East Elma, later 
known as the Hemstreet mill, with planingmill and lathmill 
attached. Northrup's two sawmills were on the Cazenove Creek at 
Spring Brook. The Shindler mill was a few rods south of the south line 
of the Mile Strip on the Cazenove Creek with lath and shingle mills. 
Howard & Crane's steam shinglemill at East Elma, Hanvey's saw- 
mill on a brook three-quarters of a mile north of East Elma, 
Barto's sawmill on the Big Buffalo Creek, a few rods east of the 
east line of the town of Elma, the Simanton mill on the south side 
of the Big Buffalo Creek ^ few rods east of the Girdled Road, 
Hurd & Briggs' double mill at Elma Village, with machinery for 
sawing shingles and lath, Eleazer Bancroft's sawmill, lath and 
shinglemill on Pond Brook at Elma Village, Clark W. Hurd's 
sawmill on Pond Brook, William Standart's sawmill on Pond 
Brook, north of Bullis Road, George Orr's sawmifl on Crooked 

134 



Brook on Bullis Road, Bowen & Standart's mill on the north side 
of the Big Buffalo Creek, three-quarters of a mile below Elma 
Village, William Winspear's mill on the south side of the Big 
Buffalo Creek on the Winspear Road, the Ebenezer mill at Upper 
Ebenezer, now Blossom, on the Big Buffalo Creek, Orvil Titus' 
•sawmill on the Little Buffalo Creek on Lot 3, and Bradley Moore's 
sawmill on the Little Buffalo Creek and on south side of Clinton 
Street P^oad. Besides these water mills there were several steam 
mills, viz. : A steam sawmill and pail factory at Spring Brook, 
built by Corbin, French & Rossoe; changed to Meeker & Wattles' 
tannery, a steam sawmill, built at Springbrook, by George and 
Edward Good, but owned by George Leger and Anthony Diebold; 
one built on Lot 52 of the Aurora part of Elma, west of Eron 
Woodard's barn; Samuel Pound's mill on the Bullis Road, on Lot 
90, Dimert & Post's mill on the road noi^th of Schmaltz corners; 
and J. B. Briggs & Co. steam mill in Elma Village, built by Clark, 
Briggs & Co., with lath, shingle, planing and factory machinery. 

These nineteen water mills, with twenty-three saws, and five 
steam mills with Mulley saws, and the lath and shinglemills were 
working up the timber before the town of Elma was formed; and 
most of the water mills were run night and day a large part of the 
year, the streams generally furnishing a steady supply of water. 

When by heavy rains or the thawing of the snows there would be 
a freshet, a large part of the water was held back in the swamps 
and low grounds, gradually making its wa}' to the streams, thus 
furnishing a steady and continuous supply. 

After the lands were cleared, the farmer, by means of drains 
would take the water off his lands as soon as he could. The rush 
of water after a heavy rain would cause a flood for a few hours; 
then would follow a season of short supply of water for the mills, 
until we had another rain, but drains were not much in use until 
the timber was pretty well worked up, when there was not so 
much need for a steady supply of water for the mills. 

Several of these mills hacl been built and running only one, two, 
three or five years with the result that in 1856, when the town of 
Elma was organized, about one-fourth of the timber on the last 
purchase had been worked up as here stated, and as the work 
continued, more mills were being built and timber removed, and 
as the years pass we find the old growth of timber is rapidly going. 

Lumber had all the time been cheap, hemlock bringing in the 
Buffalo market five to eight dollars per thousand feet, and for a 
year or two before the town was foimed, there had been signs of an 
approaching financial crisis. Prices for lumber, wood and manu- 
factured articles were gradually going down and the settlers on 
the last purchase were having the same financial experience, that 

135 



had come to the early settlers on the Mile Strip. Very few of those 
who had bought lots of land of the Ogxlen Company had paid in 
full for their lands; many had paid down only a small part of the 
purchase price; expecting that from the timber and their labor 
they could support their families and make the payments as they 
would come due; and as but little land was cleared from which 
to raise crops, most of the family supplies had to be bought, and 
the interest, and payments must be provided for. As lumber and 
cordwood were the only articles they had by which to raise money, 
these were sent to the market regardless of the price. 

HARD TIMES. 

There had been a great increase in the population of Buffalo 
within the last few years, but that increase had been made largely 
by people of moderate means, or of the poorer and labor classes; 
and while every family in the city used wood as their fuel, the hard 
times with scarcity of work, made it hard for the city laborers, 
and so only the wealthy were able to buy a full load of wood, and 
many times the whole or a part of the price would be paid out of 
the store. These were the conchtions in 1856, and continued 
with but little improvement until the commencement of the 
Civil War in 1861. 

The early settlers in the town of Elma will remember to their 
last day the hard times from 1854 to 1861 

I856-I857. 

During this time there was a great disturbance and mix-up 
in the pohtical parties of the country. The Whig and Demo- 
cratic parties were broken to pieces on the slavery question; 
the repeal of the Missouri Compromise; the new Fugitive Slave 
Law, and the complications caused thereby. The Native American 
or Know Nothing organization, but most of all, the slavery ques- 
tion, between 1854 and 1860, kept the country in a very disturbed 
condition. Old party lines were wiped out; new conditions and 
combinations caused such changes in parties that the results of 
an election were all uncertain, and a general breaking up of _ old 
party lines and ties brought about the forming of the RepubUcan 
party in 1854 and 1855. 

The Democratic party elected James Buchanan as President 
at the November election in 1856, but this did not settle the dif- 
ferences which were of a national character, while the local elections 
passed off with but little interest. 

136 



The first town meeting in the town of Elma, held at the house of 
Clark W. Hurd in Elma Village, on the 3d day of March, 1857, 
was, under the circumstances, a matter of great interest, and, by 
many persons at that time thought to be the most important 
town meeting ever to be held in the town. There had been a 
very strong feeling of opposition to the formation of the new 
town, especially among the residents of the Mile Strip; as they 
lived, many of them, within two to three miles of Aurora Village 
where they had always went to elections and for all of their town 
business. They did not like the idea of going four to seven miles 
and among strangers to do their voting. As the time for the town 
meeting drew near, the feeling of opposition grew stronger; and 
when the call for a caucus was called, the "Opposition," or as it 
was. called "The Peoples' Party" met in the Woodard schoolhouse 
at the corner of the Bowen and the Rice Roads at 2 o'clock on 
Saturday afternoon April 30th, and made up a full ticket, called 
the "Peoples' Ticket." Party lines were not thought of. Those 
in favor of the formation of a new town met the same afternoon 
at the hotel in Spring Brook and made up a ticket of those who 
were in their way of thinking. 

On December -4th, 1856, when the Board of Supervisors of Erie 
County, by a vote of twenty-eight to three adopted the resolu- 
tion forming a new town, from parts of Aurora and Lancaster to 
be named Elma, they directed that the first town meeting should 
be held at the house of Clark W. Hurd on the first Tuesday of 
March, 1857; and they appointed James H. Ward, then an acting 
Justice of the Peace in the town of Aurora, Lewis Northrup, 
Joseph B. Briggs and Deforest Standart, to preside at that first 
town meeting. The said Board, in organizing, appointed Warren 
Jackman as clerk. 



THE FIRST TOWN MEETING IN ELMA-I857. 

This was a very spirited meeting, no thought of whether the 
candidates on the tickets were Democrats, Republicans, Know 
Nothings, or Abolitionists, but the issue was joined and the contest 
though the day was in favor of, or in opposition to the formation 
of the new town. The result was that the entire "Peoples' 
Ticket" was elected, viz: 

Supervisor, Paul B. Lathrop; Town Clerk, V\"arren Jackman; 
Justices of the Peace, Addison Armstrong, Thomas Aldrich' 
Nathan W. Stowell; Collector, Asa J. W. Palmer; Assessors, Zenas 
M. Cobb, Horace Blood, Theoron Stowell; Com. of Highways, 
Whipple Spooner, Benj. P. Lougee, Alfred Marvel, (held o\'er from 

137 



town of Aurora); Overseer of the Poor, Wm. Standart; Constables, 
Asa J. W. Palmer, Aaron Hitchcock, Isaac Freeman, Franklin 
Mitchell, Wm. J. Jackman; Inspectors of Election, Wm. H. Ban- 
croft, John W. Cole, John Schmalls, appointed; Town Sealer, 
Elbridge G. Kent. 

It was voted that the next town meeting be held at Kurd's 
tavern which was being built at the corner of the Bowen and the 
Bullis Roads. 

See tables in Chapter XXL, of officers elected at the town meet- 
ings in the years 1857 to 1900. 



PRISON HOUSE OF THE EBENEZER SOCIETY— 1857. 

As stated in a previous chapter, the Ebenezer Society bought 
of the Ogden Company, Lot 45, in the Lancaster part of the town, 
with their other Elma lands, and this was called their pine lot. 
On this lot they built a house on the Woodard Road, now occupied 
by Fred Heitman, for their men when they were cutting logs, 
and that house came later to be called their "Prison house." It 
got the name in this way. The Ebenezer Societ}'' had a branch 
of their compan}^ in Canada, and it was one of the rules with the 
elders or rulers that if a single man or unmarried woman, either 
here or in Canada, had an idea of marriage, that they must be 
separated for a year; the man if living here, being sent to Canada, 
and if living in Canada, being sent here, and for a 3^ear to be without 
correspondence or communication in any way. If at the end of a 
3^ear they were of the same mind, the marriage ceremony would 
be performed. 

It happened about the year 1857, that a couple, members of this 
society, came to an agreement as to marriage, and they decitled 
between themselves, that they would not be separated a year 
before marriage; so they were secretly married, probably in Buffalo. 
The fact of the marriage, and in that showing a disregard of the 
Society, soon came to the ears of the ruling elders ; and the culprits 
were called upon to answer yes or no to the charges in the complaint. 
Their plea of guilty, was accepted ; and as a punishment they were 
banished, and sent to this house, there to remain in solitary con- 
finement, so far as they or any member of the society was concerned 
for one year. They were supplied with clothing and provisions, 
the man to work in the woods, peeling bark, cutting logs or wood, 
but the}^ must not speak to any member of the society who came 
there, nor was any member of the society to speak to them, and 
no written ccmmunication was allowed to be sent either way. 
The only way they could know what was going on, or hear from, 

138 



or send word to their friends, was for some friendly German, not 
a member of their society to act as a go-b'etween. This was kept 
up for the j^ear when the prisoners were released and went among 
their friends. It caused much talk and indignation among the 
people of the town. About this time the Ebenezer Society applied 
to the Legislature, at Albany, for an extension of their charter. 
The Legislature refused and it was reported that this prison incident 
was used against the society, the claim being made that their 
rules and requirements were not in conformity with the spirit of 
our institutions. The managers then sent agents to the west to 
find a suitable location. After obtaining a charter from the Legis- 
lature of Iowa for a long term of years, they bought a large tract 
of land in that state, and then they sold their lands in West Seneca 
and Elma and gradually left for their new home and in 1863 or 
1864, they all removed to Iowa. 

The manners and customs of the people in this country were very 
different from the practices of the Prussians in Europe, and this 
difference was soon noticed by the young people of the Ebenezer 
Society. 

They were near the growing city of Buffalo and were surrounded 
by thousands of people who had come from Germany who were 
.enjoying greater liberty and many privileges which were forbidden 
to them, and this acquaintance and association with these neighbors 
naturally led them to think that some of the rules of their society 
were altogether too arbitrary, especially this rule about marriage, 
and these ideas growing and extending caused much trouble for 
the managers of the society. 

On December 18th, 1856, Meeker & Wattles sold the tannery 
property to Thomas B. Tilden and on March 28th, 1857, Tilden 
sold to Johnn Eighme and Israel P. B.owen, and on June 24th, 
1858, Eighme sold his interest to Henry Meeker. 

In the Spring of 1857, George Leger bought Diebold's interest 
in the steam saw and gristmill in Spring Brook, and operated both 
mills on his own account. 

The first bridge across the Big Buffalo Creek on the Winspear 
Road was built in the summer of 1857, the town board having 
authorized the Commissioner of Highways to build the bridge. 

The Assessor, on completing the first assessment roll of the town 
of Elma for 1857, found as folloAvs: Personal property $9,400, 
real $530,840, total $540,240. The board of Supervisors on 
equahzing, reduced the Assessors' valuation $56,477, made of 
personal property $9,400, real $474,363, total $483,763 on which 
they assessed a tax of $4,290.98; of this amount the town audits 
were $335.94 and for roads and bridges $861.47. 

139 



For assessment of personal and real property, town audits, 
road and bridge expenses and taxes from 1857 to 1900, see chapter 
XXI. 

The first general election in the town of Elma was held November 
3d, 1857, in Wm. Standards house on the north side of his mill- 
yard, the same house that George and Washington Stanclart built 
in 1848. The people in the town did not take a great interest in 
the election, the total vote being 164. James Clark moved from 
Missouri coming to Elma Village December 15th, 1857. 

C. W. Hurd had the hotel on the northeast corner of Lot 60 enclosed 
that fall and was ready for occupancy in the spring of 1858. This 
hotel was named the Elma Centre House and by that name known 
for many years. It is now owned by Mr. Nosbisch. The hotel 
was more than a mile north from the centre of the town, the actual 
centre being about sixteen rods north of the Rice and two rods 
west of the centre of the Bo wen Road. 

1858. 

James Head bought and moved on to Lot 89, on the west side 
of the Davis Road in the Spring of 1858. Peter Grader, Sr., 
moved on to Lot 45 on the south side of the Rice Road, February 
9th, 1858. 

The second town meeting in Elma was held at Hurd's hotel, 
Alonzo Crawford, leesee; at the corner of the Bowen and BulHs 
Roads on March 2d, 1858. Party politics had no place, the same 
issue prevailed as the year before, viz.: "New town or no new 
town," still being the leading question, but the feeling of opposition 
was gradually growing less. Still enough of that sentiment 
remained to make the meeting very interesting, and at times 
exciting, but the day closed without any serious quarrel. 

For town officers who were elected, see Chapter XXI. 

Samuel Pound's steam sawmill on Lot 90 on the Bullis Road 
burned this year. 

The Town Board on March 3d, voted $450 to finish the Winspear 
bridge. The Hemstreet bridge across the Big Buffalo Creek at 
East Elma, built in 1846, broke down in June, 1858, under a load 
of lumber, with Christopher Peek on the load ; team and all going 
into the millpond. Mr. Peek sustained only slight bruises, and 
the horses were released from the wagon without cutting or break- 
ing the harness, when they swam ashore, the water being six feet 
deep. No other injury to man, horses or wagon occured. 

The Hemstreet lattice bridge (standing in 1900) was built in 
the summer of 1858 ; the Town Board directing the Commissioner, 
July 7th, to build the bridge. Little and Bowen had the contract 

140 



to build a bridge across the Big Buffalo Creek at their mill, three- 
quarters of a mile below Elma Village, the contract price of which 
was S220.00. 

. George Leger sold his steam saw and gristmill in Spring Brook 
to Peter Bower in 1858. 

James Clark bought the goods of the J. B. Briggs & Co. store in 
Elma Village in April 1858 renting the store of Warren Jackman; 
Clark's family living in the back part of the building. 

Russel Howard sold his interest in the steam shinglemill at 
East Elma to Fowler Hunger, and Hunger and Crane carried on the 
shingle business there for many years and worked up a great amount 
of timber. 

In the summer of 1858, Clark W. Hurd built a store and dwelling 
house combined on the northwest corner of the Bowen and Bullis 
Roads ; occupied a few years later by W. W. Standart as store and 
saloon. 

Henry W. Stitz bought a building lot next, west of the store on 
the north side of the Bullis Road, and on the lot built a house and 
blacksmith shop and carried on business for several years. 

Theodore No3^es died July 27th, 1858, age sixty-one years, nine 
months and was buried in Elma cemetery. 

Rev. Lucius A. Chapin was sent by the H. E. Conference to sup- 
ply Lancaster, Bowmansville and Elma, he living in Lancaster Vil- 
lage preaching in the schoolhouse in Elma Village every other 
Sunday at 2 p. m., alternating with Rev. William Waith, the 
Presbyterian minister, who also lived in Lancaster. 

Lewis Northrup, in the summer of 1858, tore down the sawmill 
on the south side of the Cazenove Creek at Spring Brook and on the 
same place built a gristmill, owned in 1900 by his son, Eli B. North- 
rup. 

Hr. Jacob Wooster, of Strykersville, then considered one of the 
best millwrights in the country, made and put in the mill machinery. 
Hr. Harvey assisted in putting in the machinery for making flour 
and was the first miller working for Hr. Northrup. He remained 
with Hr. Northrup about four years. 

Hurd & Briggs put an addition on the west end of their sawmill 
for a gristmill and put in a run of stone for grinding feed. 

Stephen Harkham moved from Brewerton, Onondaga County, 
New York to Elma in October 1858, and bought the Hurd sawmill 
and lot on Pond Brook, with eight acres of land on the north part 
of Lot 59 and east side of the Bowen Road, later owned by Joseph 
C. Standart. 

The second general election was held in Hurd's tavern, on the 
Bullis Road, on November 2d, 1858. Greater interest was mani- 

141 



fested at this election as more state and county officers were to be 
elected. There were there hundred and fifty-one votes polled. 

Israel P. Bowen and Henry Meeker sold the Spring Brook tannery 
November 19, 1858 to Walter L. Curtis and Frederick Deming. 
They carried on the store and tannery until the tannery burned in 
186i. 



142 



CHAPTER XII. 



TOWN OF ELMA— I859-I865. 



Mrs. George Standart, Sr. died January 11th, 1859, age sixty-one 
years, nine months — burial in Ehxia cemetery. 

The third town meeting was held at the Elma Centre House, 
March 1st, 1859. The opposition to the forming of the new town 
grows less each year, as the people in the different parts of the 
town become better acquainted with each other, and the leaders 
in the political parties begin to show their hands and work for the 
nomination for town officers. 

Since the town was organized, the candidates on the "Peoples' 
Ticket ' ' had always been part Republican and part Democratic 
while the Republicans claim a majority of the voters in the town. 

Jacob Jerge bought of Adam Michaelis the house and lot in Elma 
Village across the road from Charles A. Button's house and Jerge 
moved into the house on March 16th, 1859 and continued black- 
smithing in the shop which he bought of Button on the east bank 
of the millrace; Louis Becker working in the shop for Jerge as 
wagon maker. 

Conrad P. Hensel moved into Blossom Village this year. Mar- 
cus A. Howard and family moved from Aurora Village into the 
south part of Mrs. Julia F. Clark's house in April 1859, and lived 
there that summer while Howard was building a house on a lot he 
had bought of Clark W. Hurd on the west side of the Bo wen Road, 
nearly opposite Wm. Standart's brick house. Howard had the 
house so far completed that he moved into it in Becember of that 
year. The deed from C. W. Hurd to Marcus A. Howard, dated 
April 16th, 1866, is recorded in Liber 253, Page 370. 

The Bullis Lattice Bridge over the Big Buffalo Creek was built 
in the summer of 1859. The Bullis sawmill and dam were located 
about 25 rods below the bridge and it was supposed that these and 
the millpond would always be there. The water in the pond at 
the bridge was six feet deep and as wood under water would never 
decay, it was thought to be economy in building the abutments to 
use timber below the water line. Accordingly, pine logs were built 
into cribs as a foundation for the stone walls which were to support 
the bridge. This worked all right so long as the pond remained 
but years later when the dam went out and the mill went to decay 

143 



and neither to ever be rebuilt, the timber of the cribs decayed. 
In order to save the bridge, new abutments of stone from the creek 
bottom had to be built. 

Mr. Bullis having bought ten acres of land at the southeast cor- 
ner of lot 29 on the north side of the Bullis Road, in 1859 built a 
house and horsebarn thereon. The house when finished was, by 
far, the finest house in the Town of Elma, and in 1900 there are 
very few houses, if indeed there is one, in the town that exceeds 
this Bullis house in fine interior and exterior finish, decoration and 
ornamentation. When completed, it was said to have cost S12,000, 
and in this house Mr. Bullis spent the closing years of his life. He 
died in 1869. 

John Pomerink's little girl was burned so she died — dress caught 
fire from a burning brush heap. 

Killing frost on morning of June 4th, ice one-third inch thick, 
and on mornings of July 3d and 4th killing frosts ; grass frozen stiff 
July 4th at 7 p. m. These freezes destroyed all fruit, killed the 
grass, wheat, rye, corn and potatoes and farmers were greatly dis- 
couraged; they cut their grass and standing grain to save what 
they could for fodder for their stock. 

John Morris died at Spring Brook in 1859, age seventy-three years; 
burial in Spring Brook cemetery. 

The M. E. Church in Elma Village was built this year. As before 
stated, the business of the country was in a very low condition; 
money was very scarce and it was difficult to make a sale of wood 
or lumber for cash. Pay out of the store or a sale on time and at 
low price was the rule and it seemed to be a bad time in which to 
try to build a church, but the schoolhouse was too small to hold 
the people who wished to attend the meetings. 

At a meeting of those interested in building a church in the Vil- 
lage and on the lot offered by Joseph B. Briggs; George Townsend, 
Henry D. Wilbor, and Warren Jackman were appointed a commit- 
tee to get up a plan for a church to be presented at another meeting. 
At the next meeting, the committee presented their plan which 
was accepted and they were directed to ascertain if sufficient means 
could be raised to complete the building. The plan presented was 
for each person to furnish timber, lumber, stone, labor, teamwork, 
and cord wood, as they had of these materials, and as they could. 
An account was to be kept of the amount each one furnished, at the 
market price, and also, of the actual cost of the labor and materials 
used in the building. The shps were to be appraised by the trustees 
at a price sufficient to cover the entire cost when the building was 
finished and furnished ; and at those prices as a start, the slips were 
to be sold at auction. If the person buying a slip had not fur- 

144 



nished enough to pay for the same he was to give his note for the 
balance. If he had furnished more than the price of his sHp, he 
was to take his balance in these notes. So no money was to be 
called for, nor was there any subscription to be made, only the 
word given to furnish what they could when called on. 

Nearly every person owning land in the vicinity was pleased with 
the plan, and they readily agreed to furnish such material as they 
had. The committee reported the result of their visits and it was 
decided to go on with the building. The committee was directed 
to make out a bill of all materials needed in the structure. Warren 
Jackman was chosen by the trustees to take general charge of the 
building, arrange for the labor and material, and keep the accounts. 
The bill for timber and lumber was taken to each person and he 
selected what and how much he would furnish. The superinten- 
dent then knew on whom and for what material to call. 

Some of the lumber, the hardware, paint, and many other ar- 
ticles and pay for some of the labor could only be obtained in Buf- 
falo, therefore arrangements were made with Pratt & Co, and Par- 
melee & Hadley for hardware and paint, with Howard & Whit- 
comb, and Holbrook & Dee, for dry goods; with H. Hager and Hart 
& Newman, for groceries; with George Marsh for flour and feed; 
with Jewett & Root for stoves; with George A. Prince for a melo- 
deon; with Jeremiah Staats for lumber, chairs and sofa; with the 
Buffalo Stained Glass Co. for the windows: all to be paid for in 
lumber and wood. The labor not to apply on a slip was paid by 
orders drawn on stores in Buffalo or in wood or lumber if wanted. 
The first stick of timber, a long sill, was delivered by Hiram Kinney 
at 10 o'clock a. m., July 7th.. The Elma people who had wood or 
lumber to turn in would take it to one of the stores in Buffalo and 
deliver where directed, taking a receipt for the price of the load. 
And so the whole business was done by exchange of material, and 
when the building was completed and furnished with carpets, 
lamps, seats, chairs, stoves, sofa and melodeon, at a cost of S3, 400, 
it was all paid for and was dedicated February 9th, 1860, by P^ev. 
Gleazen Fillmore. 

Mr Joseph B. Briggs donated the lot on which the church was 
built. 

The M. E. Conference sent Rev. S. H. Baker to preach in Elma 
Village, he to reside in Lancaster. As he could be in Elma only on 
every other Sunday at 2 o'clock, p. m., the M. E. Society, after 
their church was built invited the Presbyterian Society, with Rev. 
William Waith as their pastor, to occupy the church every alter- 
nate Sunday afternoon, which offer was accepted and continued for 
two or three years. 

145 



Erastus J. Markham came from Brewerton, Onondaga County, 
to Elma in October, 1859, and moved into the house on the east 
side of the Bowen Road on Lot 59, being the house owned and oc- 
cupied in 1900, by Mrs. Hannah Price. Markham taught the 
Ehna Village school that winter. 

The third general election was held in the Elma Centre House on 
November 8th, 1859. It being an off year, not much interest was 
taken, there being only two hundred and fifty-seven votes polled. - 

J860. 

At the town meeting held March 6th, 1860, the Republican and 
Democratic parties, for the first time since the town was organized 
had straight party tickets. 

Paul B. Lathrop and Zina A. Hemstreet were candidates for the 
office of Supervisor of the Republican and Democratic parties re- 
spectively. 

While the Republicans claimed the town, a split in the party in 
the south part of the town, caused by what Mr. Lathrop had or had 
not done at the session of the Board of Supervisors in 1859, was the 
cause of his defeat and a large part of the Democratic ticket was 
elected. 

Julius P. Wilder put into the J. B. Briggs & Go's, steam mill 
building the machinery to cut shingles, giving employment to ten 
men and boys. 

Jacob Jerge, on March 24th, 1860, bought of Charles A. Dutton, 
the house and lot on the west side of the Bowen Road in Elma Vil- 
lage, next north of Wm. H. Bancroft's place. 

Erastus I. Markham, on April 10th, 1860, bought of James Clark, 
his interest in the store and that day moved into the back part of 
the building. 

Mr. Clark moved into the house on the east side of the road next 
north of the Creek. 

Dr. Carey W. Howe with his newly married wife moved into the 
south wing of W. Jackman's house about May 1st, 1860. 

Mrs. James Davis died May 17th, 1860, age fifty-one years — 
burial in Davis cemetery on Lot 36 of Mile Strip. 

June 14th, 1860, Erastus J. Markham bought the vacant lot on 
the west side of the road between Elon Clark and Jacob Jerge. 

Wallace Tiffany and Lawrence Dimert this summer operated 
the sawmill which was built by George Standart, Sr. about 1855 
on the south side of the Big Buffalo Creek nesLr the northwest cor- 
ner of Lot 74, and across the Creek from the Bowen & Little saw- 
mill. 

146 



Joseph C. Standart was appointed Postmaster of the Elma Post- 
office in June, 1860, by President James Buchanan, and the ofiice 
was moved to the Elma Centre House with Silas Green who kept 
the tavern, as deputy; Green having charge of the office. The 
moving of the office from Elma Village three quarters of a mile 
to the Bullis Road, caused much dissatisfaction among a very 
large majority of the patrons of the office. 

During the summer, Hurd & Briggs put another run of stones 
and other machinery for making flour, into their gristmill building 
at the west end of their sawmill. George Townsend did the mill- 
wright work and acted as miller until he enlisted into the 116th 
Regiment of N. Y. S. Volunteers in August, 1862. 

The Peter Bower steam saw and gristmill in Spring Brook burned 
in the summer of 1860. 

James M. Simons moA^ed out of the Mouse Nest tavern at Spring 
Brook on August 25th, 1860, having rented the place to W. Wesley 
Standart, who moved in on the same day. 

Thomas D. Tiffany who lived on Lot 64, on the north side of the 
Bullis Road, committed suicide by hanging himself in his barn in 
September 1860. 

Charles Reichert bought the store of the Ebenezer Society in 
Blossom and had the Postoffice. The Village and Postoffice 
while the Ebenezers occupied the place went by the name of Up- 
per Ebenezer. 

The United States census reports gave the population of the 
Town of Elma in 1860 at 2,136, and for the Town of Marilla, same 
year at 1,506. 

As Marilla had been under settlement about thirty years, while 
Elma, except the Mile Strip part, had been under settlement about 
fifteen years, this difference in population shows what a rush was 
made to gain a place on the last purchace of the Buffalo Creek 
Reservation. The great variety and excellent quality of the tim- 
ber and the fertility of the soil, all of which being well watered, 
made it desirable for the farmers. 

The Presidential campaign of 1860 was one of great interest and 
excitement throughout the whole country and the Town of Elma 
had its full share. It was conceded that the election was to be 
the most important in the history of the country to that time. 

The great question was as to the further extension of slavery. 
The Republican party had taken the stand that slavery should not 
go into the new states and territories but should remain undis- 
turbed in the States where it then existed. The Abolition and 
Free Soil parties joined with the Republicans in this campaign. 
Abraham Lincoln was the Republican candidate for President. 

147 



The Democrats were divided; a part declaring for the Squatter 
Sovereignty idea, which was, that in the settlement of the terri- 
tories, the north and the south were to have an equal chance ; each 
to have the privilege to take their property, slave or other, into the 
territory and when the time came to apply for admission as a State, 
the constitution that should be adopted by a majority of the people 
residing there at the time, slave or free, should be the constitution 
under which the state should be admitted. Stephen A. Douglass 
was their candidate. 

The leaders in the slave states declared that they had the right 
under the constitution of the United States to take their slaves 
and hold them as such wherever the United States flag floated and 
that the territories being common property they had the right to 
settle in the territories with their slaves and other property, and, 
when there, that no power could deprive them of the privilege of 
remaining and have their property protected when the territory 
became a state. This would make every territory sure to be ad- 
mitted as a slave state. John C. Breckenridge was their candi- 
date for President. 

The great battle of the campaign in Erie County and generally 
throughout the northern states, was between the Republicans and 
the Douglass Democrats, very few votes being polled for Brecken- 
ridge or Bell. 

In the Town of Elma there were two hundred and fifty-two votes 
polled for Lincoln, and one hundred and eighty-eight for Douglass : 
total four hundred and fort}^, giving Lincoln sixty-four majority. 
In the Electoral College, of three hundred and three votes, Lincoln 
had one hundred and eighty; a majority over all others of fifty- 
seven. The leaders in the South were very much dissatisfied with 
the result and immediately began to carry out their threat of disso- 
lution of the Union and before the close of the year, South Carolina 
had passed an ordinance of secession, and other southern states were 
preparing to follow that example. Their reason was that fourteen 
of the states had failed to observe their constitutional obligations. 
This was the political condition at the close of 1860. 



FEBRUARY 7th, I86I.— THE COLDEST DA.Y. 

In January of this year, Austin Twichell was appointed Post- 
master of the Springbrook Postoffice by President Buchanaan 
and the office was moved from McFees grocery to what is known 
as the Leger place. 

148 



In Elma Village on Thursday morning, February 7th, the ther- 
mometer registered 20° above zero, snowing, high west wind; at 
9 p. m. thermometer 11° below zero. Friday morning at daylight, 
30° below zero, at sunrise 25° below, at 9 a. m. 18° below, clear and 
still, snow badly drifted. This was the coldest day of any record 
of Elma weather. 

March 4th, 1861, Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated as President 
of the United States. Several of the southern states had passed 
ordinances of secession and on February 18th, 1861, they adopted 
a constitution as "The Confederate States of America," and elected 
Jefferson Davis as their President with Alexander Stephens as Vice- 
president. 

The Elma town meeting was held on March 5th at Spring Brook, 
in the Mouse Nest tavern. 

For officers elected see Chapter XXI. 

The Northrup bridge across the Cazenove Creek below the mills 
went out with the spring freshet. 

Washington Standart died March 24th, 1861, aged thirty-seven 
years, three months — burial in the Elma Village cemetery. 

On March 28, the Commissioners of Highways of the town, 
changed the road at Northrup mills from a point on the east of side 
the sawmill 3^ard, on the north side of the creek so as to cross the 
millpond about fifteen rods above the mills and where . the road 
and bridge have been located since that date. A new lattice bridge 
was built there in the summer of 1861. 

Zebina Lee died at Spring Brook April 4th, 1861, — burial in the 
Spring Brook cemetery. 

April 12th, 1861, at 4.30 o'clock a. m., the AVar of the Rebellion 
was commenced by the rebel batteries commanded by General 
Beauregard near Fort Sumter, opening fire on that fort, which was 
held by Major Robert Anderson and the eighty men which com- 
posed the garrison. The fort was surrendered April 14th, the 
United States soldiers marching out with the honors of war. The 
news was a surprise to the people of the North and it meant that civil 
war was a reality. It greatly united the people of the North. 

The next day, April 15th, President Lincoln called an extra ses- 
sion of Congress to meet July 4th, and at the same time issued his 
proclamation calling for 75,000 militia to serve three months to 
protect the capital and to secure the property of the government. 

President Davis met this with a call for 100,000 men. 

May 3d, President Lincoln called for 64,000 volunteers. 

Deforest Standart enlisted in the 21st Regiment, N. Y. Volun- 
teers May 20th, 1861. 

149 



East Elma Postoffice established with Fowler Hunger as Post- 
master in the summer of 1861. He had the office in his house in 
the millyard. 

In June, 1861, James H. Ward was appointed Postmaster for 
Spring Brook and moved the Postoffice from Twichell's grocery 
at Leger place to his (Ward's ) Justice's office. 

Warren Jackman was appointed Postmaster at Elma in June 
and on July 1st moved the office from the tavern at the corner of 
Bowen and Bullis Roads, into E. J. Markham's store with Mark- 
ham as deputy Postmaster. 

Rev. James McClellan Avas sent by the M. E. Conference to preach 
at Lancaster, Bowmansville and Elma, the meeting at Elma to be 
held at 2 p. m. 

George Leger built a steam sawmill on Pond Brook on the north 
side of the Rice Road on Lot 44 in the summer of 1861. 

The tannery at Spring Brook, owned and operated by Curtis & 
Deming, was burned in the fall of 1861; they continued their store 
a few months and closed out. 

GREAT FLOOD IN BIG BUFFALO CREEK. 

E. J. Markham built a barn on his lot on the west side of the 
road in Elma Village in the fall of 1861. He had the foundation 
wall nearly completed when on September 26th, a heavy rain com- 
menced which continued on the 27th and forenoon of 28th. This 
caused high water in all the streams and along the up°per part of 
the Big Buffalo Creek the small dams gave out, and the increase 
of water caused thereby would take out the next, and the next 
and, so, gaining in volume and strength, everything was swept before 
the raging torrent. On the Big Buffalo Creek, thirteen milldams 
were swept away, and several mills were carried off, among them 
the Hemstreet and Bullis sawmills. Part of the Bullis mill drifted 
on to Eleazer Bancroft's flats. At East Elma, the water was one 
to four feet deep from the bank at the schoolhouse to the creek, the 
current taking sawlogs two feet in diameter from the j^arcl of the 
steam shinglemill and taking them into the creek; the whole 
flats forming a lake. Many bridges were carried away; the Siman- 
ton bridge on the Girdled Road, and the Standart bridge three- 
fourths mile below Elma Village being two of the large bridges in 
this town to go. This was on Saturday, September 28th, 1861, 
and that day will long be remembered, as the flats of the Creek for 
many miles in length of the stream, was a broad river with rapid 
current in which could be seen the ruins of buildings and fences, 
with lumber, sawlogs, trees, shocks of corn; every thing in that 

150 



line within the reach of the water was carried away. In Ehna Vil- 
lage, from Hurd & Briggs mills to the creek, the water was three to 
five feet deep. This was the greatest and worst flood causing the 
greatest loss of property of any ever known on the Big Buffalo 
Creek. 

The Bullis and Hemstreet sawmills and dams which were carried 
away by the freshet of September 28th, 1861, were immediately 
rebuilt, the mills being ready for business in the early part of 1862. 

The German Evangelical Society was organized in Blossom in 
1861, they having bought the building which the Ebenezer Society 
had built for a church. 

John Garby enlisted in Wiederick's Battery in October 1861, 
and Fred Michaelis enlisted in same battery in November. 

At the general election held on November 5th, 1861, there were 
two hundred and ninty-one votes polled. 

J 862. 

Jacob Jerge, on January 29th, 1862, sold the house and lot on the 
east side of the street in Elma Village next south of the church lot, 
to his brother Casper, and Jacob and Casper worked together as 
blacksmiths. 

On April 1st, W. Wesley Standart moved from the Mouse Nest 
tavern in Spring Brook and he took his father's farm for one year. 
Nicholas Allender moved into the tavern. 

George Standart, Sr., died April 15th, 1862, age seventy-two 
years — burial in Elma cemetery. 

James H. Ward, on May 1st, 1862, bought of Calvin Rogers, 
one and one-fourth acres of land, part of Lot 84, on the south west 
side of the Plank Road in Spring Brook. 

Hugh Mullen on May 1st, 1862, moved on to the west part of Lot 
2 north from East Elma. In the summer of 1862, Horace Kyser 
built a steam sawmih in Spring Brook on the ground where the 
Peter Bower steam mill was burned in 1860. 

During the summer and fall of 1862, many young and middle- 
aged men enlisted from this town. The dates of their enlistment 
cannot now be learned, but the names so far as could be obtained, 
will be found in Chapter XIII, with the arm of the service into 
which they entered. 

August Brunner, who had worked for the Ebenezer Society, was 
murdered this 3^ear at or near the sawmill in Blossom, and his body 
was thrown into the millpond. No trace of the murderer was ever 
obtained. • 

151 



The 116th Regmient, N. Y. S. Volunteers left Buffalo for the 
front on September 3d, 1862. In that regiment were twenty-six 
men from the town of Elma. 

Twenty-four men enlisted from this town into the 94th Regiment 
and left Buffalo about November 14th. This 94th Regiment was 
in the Fredericksburg battle, December 13th, 1862. A bounty 
fund for the enlisted men of $1,051 was raised by subscriptions. 

Norton B. Lougee, who had enlisted in the 49th Regiment, Au- 
gust 26th, 1861, died November 2, 1862, age twenty-eight years, 
eight months, burial in Elma Village cemetery. 

)863. 

Isaac Gail was appointed Postmaster at East Elma in the fall of 

1862. Cornelius McHugh was murdered near Buffalo, January 5th, 

1863. He was on his way home from the city and when a little 
west of the Plank Road House on the Aurora Plank Road, and near 
the present city line, he was killed. His murderer was not found, 
but a man by the name of Fogleman, who livetl on Lot 70 on the 
Bullis Road in the Town of Elma, in a short time moved into Can- 
ada. It was reported that before he died, he confessed that he 
murdered Brunner at Blossom, McHugh near Buffalo, and that he 
burned the saloon at Smalltz corners on the Clinton Street Road. 
This is only a report. 

Frederick Heim bought the west part of Lot 30 on the north 
side of the Jamison Road and moved on the lot in January 1863. 

The East Elma Postofhce was discontinued in the fall of l8Bm 
James Ard died February 7th, 1863, age seventy-five years, buried 
in Elma cemetery. 

Robert W. Lee of Spring Brook, of 49th Regiment died at Point 
Lookout, Maryland, February 10th, 1863, burial in Spring Brook 
cemetery. 

Erastus J. Markham, on April 25th, 1863, bought of Warren 
Jackman, the store in Elma Village on the west side of the street 
and over the millrace. 

George Leger, in the spring of 1863, bought and moA^ed into the 
saloon in Springbrook, many times referred to as the Leger place. 

Allen J. Hurd, son of Clark ^Y. Hurd, who enlisted into the 44th 
Regiment, N. Y. S. Volunteers, called the "Ellsworth Avengers," 
was wounded at the battle of Gettysburg July 3d, 1863; died in 
the hospital Jul}^ 13th, age twentj^-one years, five months; burial 
in Elma Village cemetery. 

A special town meeting was held in the summer of 1863, when 
the town voted to raise $4,000 by tax, the money to be used as a 

152 



bounty fund, to be paid to volunteers for putting down the rebel- 
lion. 

Stephen Northrup sold the goods in the store at the southwest 
corner of the Northrup and Plank Roads in Spring Brook to John 
p. Warner, in September 1863. Northrup moved on to the Lyman 
Parker farm on the Rice Road. 

Cyrus Hurd, on November 4th, 1863, bought of Tiffany and 
Dimert the sawmill on Lot 74, on the south side of the Big Buffalo 
Creek. He also bought the sawmill which was built by Standart 
and Bo wen on the north side of the Creek in 1849. Hurd operated 
both mills as long as they could be used when they were taken 
down, the dam having been carried off by a freshet. 

Jacob Heim bought and moved on Lot 34 on the north side of 
the Jamison Road, in the fall of 1863. 

J864, 

Abraham Sharick and son rented the Northrup gristmill in 
Spring Brook for the 3'ear 1864. 

0. J. Wannemacher, on February 25th, bought of Lewis North- 
rup, twenty acres from the south side of Lot 71, also one acre from 
the northwest corner of Lot 67 on the northeast side of the Plank 
Road, he moving into the town on May 1st, 1864. 

John Barnett sold to Timothy Clifford his house, blacksmith 
shop, and lots in Spring Brook, being parts of Lots 75 and 84; deed 
dated April 1st, 1864. 

Charles Frobes, on June 24th, bought the west half of Lot 45, 
on south side of Rice Road. Charles and John Raloff, this year, 
bought land near what is later Jamison Station. 

A Catholic schoolhouse was built on the southeast corner of the 
Clinton Street and Girdled Roads in the summer of 1864 under the 
supervision of Rev. A. Feldman, of Lancaster. School has since 
been kept there as a branch of the Lancaster parochial school. 
George Leger, this year, sold his steam sawmill on Pond Brook to 
Christopher Peek. 

Fred Heitman, in the summer of 1864, bought and moved on to 
the centre part of Lot 45, the house on the Woodard Road which 
was known as " Ebenezer Prison House." 

W. Wesley Standart, September 7th, 1864, bought of Clark W. 
Hurd the store and four and one-fourth acres of land at the north- 
west corner of the Bowen and Bullis Roads; moved in and opened 
a store January 1st, 1865. 

Deforest Standart, who enlisted in the 21st Regiment, died of 
vellow fever in Little Washington, North Carolina, October 10th, 
1864. 

153 



George Townsend, color bearer of 116th Regiment, died October 
19th, 1864, in Saturlee Hospital, Philadelphia, from wounds re- 
ceived at Cedar Creek, age thirtj^-seven years ; burial in Elma ceme- 
tery. 

The Presidential campaign of 1864 was a harcl-f ought battle 
among the leaders of both parties. The Republican platform 
declaring for a prosecution of the war and against a dissolution of 
the Union ; the Democratic platform declared the war a failure and 
advised to recognize the Southern Confederacy and withdraw the. 
northern army from the seceded states. 

This town gave a good mojority for the Republican candidates, 
Lincoln and Johnson. The Electoral College gave Lincoln 233 
votes and to George B. McClelland twentj^-one votes. Lincoln's 
popular vote was 2,216,057, McClelland 's 1,811,714. Enlistment 
into the arm}^ continued. 

J 865. 

Mr. James Davis, who moved on to the north part of Lot 35 of 
the Mile Strip, one and one-half miles southwest from Spring Brook in 
1831, died January 29th, 1865; age sixty-five years; burial in Davis 
cemetery on Lot 36 of Mile Strip. 

Abi-aham Lincoln was inaugurated the second term on March 
4th, 1865. — Andrew Johnson Vice-President. 

Sophia, wife of Elisha Cotton, died March 31st, 1865; burial in 
Elma Village cemetery. 

The surrender of the Confederate Northern Army of Virginia 
by General R. E. Lee to General U. S. Grant on April 9th, 1865; 
the shooting of Abraham Lincoln, b}' J. Wilkes Booth on April 14th, 
1865; the attempted assassination of William H. Seward, Secretary 
of State the same night; the death of President Lincoln on April 
15th, 1865; the inauguration of Andrew Johnson as President on 
April 15th, 1865; the surrender of the Confederate Army of North 
Carolina by General Johnston, April, 26th, 1865, which effected the 
collapse of the Southern Confederacy and virtually closed the 
war of the Rebellion, has made the month of April 1865, a most 
important month in the history of our country; the incidents hav- 
ing been written in detail b}^ writers of the history of the Rebellion 
and in the biographies of the great men of the nation of that date. 
Further mention as to the part the town of Elma took will be made 
in Chapter XIII. 

Maple trees were set on the south side and in front of the M. E. 
Church building in Elma Vihage in April, 1865. 

Henry E. Bancroft bought thirty-three acres of Lot 64 on the 
north side of the Bullis Road in the spring of 1865. 

154 



George H. Bristol bought of Curtis & Deming, the tannery, store, 
and lot in Spring Brook, July 31st, 1865 and made extensive repairs 
in the store building. 

Christian Fath committed suicide July, 1865, by lying down 
where a tree had been turned out by the wind, the body of the tree 
had been cut off leaving the stump and turned up root so balanced 
that after lying down he pulled the roots back completely burying 
himself, except one foot stuck x)ut a very little. Family trouble 
was the cause. 

W. Wesley Standart was appointed Postmaster of the Elma 
Postoffice under President Johnson, and September 1st, 1865, he 
moved the office from Elma Village into his store on the northwest 
corner of the Bowen and Bullis Roads, where he kept the office 
until Julylst, 1869. 

After 1860, there was a rush of buyers of land into the Town of 
Elma and the unoccupied timber lands were bought and many 
families moved on to that part of the town, comprising the Aurora 
part of the town, west of the Big Buffalo Creek on the east and the 
Bowen Road on the west, and between the Rice Road on the north 
and the north line of the Mile Strip. The State census taken in 
1865 shows: White males, 1502, white females, 1399; colored 
males, 4, colored females, 2. Total males, 1506; total females, 
1401. Total population, 2907. Increase of population in five 
years 771, being over 36%. There were of single persons 1727, 
married 1098, widows 51, widowers 31; making 575 families, — -415 
owners of land, 123 over 21 could not read nor write, 276 native 
voters, 273 naturalized voters; total of voters 549. There were 333 
aliens residing in the town in 1865. These new-comers were work- 
ers and the changed condition in the general appearance of the 
town in a few years was that of the forest being made into cleared 
farms, with houses, barns, orchards and well fenced fields, showing 
prosperity. 

William Miher, Sr., bought of John W. Hamlin ten acres of Lot 
24 on the east side of the Girdled Road, September 11th, 1865. 

William Morris, wJio lived across the road from the tavern in 
Spring Brook, committed suicide by cutting his throat with a razor, 
November 1st, 1865 ; age 46 years ; burial in the Spring Brook ceme- 
tery. No doubt, it was a case of insanity, as he had been in the 
Utica Asylum for the insane two or three times, but was at his 
home at this time. 

Elisha Cotton died December 6th, 1865; age eight}^ years, eight 
months; burial in Elma Village cemetery. 

The United States Public debt December 31st, 1865 was $2,716,- 
898,152. In 1860, the pubUc debt was a little less than S65,000,000. 

155 



The State of New York furnished under all the calls 464,156 
men who entered the United States army to save the Union from 
being broken up by the Southern Secessionists. 

The Town of Elma put into the field one hundred and twenty- 
six men as a part of the State Volunteers. (See Chapter XIII). 



156 



CHAPTER XIII. 

1860 to 1865. 
PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION I860. 

The Presidential Election in November 1860, generally conceded 
to be the most important election since the formation of the 
government, resulted in the election of Abraham Lincoln for 
President, Hannibal Hamlin for Vice-President, and Elbridge G. 
Spaulding to represent this Congressional District in the House of 
Representatives. While there were four separate political organi- 
zations, each with a full set of candidates on their tickets, in Erie 
County and in the town of Elma especially, the great battle was 
fought between the Republican and Democratic parties, with 
Lincoln and Douglas as the leading candidates. Very few votes 
were cast for Breckenridge and Bell, the other Presidential candi- 
dates. The whole campaign had been carried on by the Republican 
and Democratic parties with great earnestness and with a deter- 
mination to succeed by each party. Stephen A. Douglas had 
addressed large mass-meetings in all the large cities of the north 
and in several southern cities. 

In every town and hamlet, pole -raising mass-meetings, and 
political gatherings, by both parties were held at which Wide 
Awake Clubs with torches, and banners attended, marching from 
town to town and by their cheers and songs made the campaign 
one of great excitement and interest. The Wide Awake clubs 
with torches and banners took well with the young men and 
caused a large accession to the Republican vote. 

At the Presidential Election, November 5th, 1860, the total 
vote in the town of Elma was 440 and a Republican majority 
of 64. 

In the whole United States the vote for Lincoln was 1,857,610 
" " " " " " " " Douglas 1,365,976 

" " " " " " " " Breckenridge 847,951 

" " " " " " " " Bell 590,631 

Total 4,662,168 

In the Electoral College Lincoln had 180 votes. 

" " " " Breckenridge had 72 '' 

157 



In th' Electoral College Bell had 39 votes. 

'' ' " '' Douglass had 12 '' 

Total 

303 

The Douglass and Breckenridge vote combined exceeded Lincoln's 
by 356,317. The Douglas and Bell vote combined exceeded 
Lincoln's b}^ 98,997, and the whole popular vote gave a majority 
against him of 946,948, but in the Electoral College he had three- 
fifths of the votes, having a majority in that college of 57. 

The result of this election was not satisfactory to the South 
and the threats that for years, had been made by southern fanatics, 
of a dissolution of the Union, were now made with such force and 
determination as to carry conviction that this time they really 
meant something more than brag and bluster. The southern 
leaders declared that there would be a dissolution of the Union, 
but that there would be no war, for they said, ''A large part of the 
North was in sympathy with them, and would never allow the Re- 
publican party to hold power by force of arms or to make war and 
upon the South ; that such a move would cause a war in the North, 
the Repubhcans would have all they could attend to at home." 
The southern leaders knew that the excitement attending the 
campaign at the North had not entirely subsided and, without 
doubt, their northern friends had informed them that there were 
thousands at the North, who- were willing and even desirous that 
a party which was coming into power on, what they termed, 
sectional issues and in face of the warnings from the South should 
be hampered and if needs be, destroyed, for in the destruction of 
the Republican party lay the only hope of the Democratic party 
to again get control of the government which they had held most 
of the time for more than thirty years. 

To carry out the threat of the South, the Legislature of south 
Carolina on November 10th, 1860, five days after the election, 
ordered a State Convention, which met on December 17th, and 
on December 20th, the Convention by unanimous vote declared, 
"that the union now existing between South Carolina and other 
states under the name of the United States is hereby dissolved" 
and gave as a reason that fourteen states had for years failed to 
fulfill their constitutional obligations. 

The larger number of the members of President Buchanan's 
cabinet were from the South, and after South Carolina had adopted 
the secession ordinance, Mr. Buchanan declared that if a state 
had withdrawn, or attempted to withdraw from the Union, "that 
there was no power in the Constitution to prevent the act." 

A few days later, Commissioners from South Carolina called on 
the President and demanded the surrender of all public property 

158 



by the President to the seceded state and to negotiate for a con- 
tinuance of peace and amity between that commonwealth and the 
government at Washington. 

Buchanan replied that, ''he had no power and could only 
refer the matter to Congress" and he declined to accede to their 
demand to have the U. S. troops removed from Charleston harbor. 

John B. FIoatI of Virginia, Buchanan's Secretary of War, had 
transferred vast quantities of arms and ammunition from the North 
to southern arsenals and had sent to the South and to distant parts 
of the country the regular army, consisting then of 16,402 officers 
and men; only 5,000 officers and men of the army remaining in 
the north. The ships of the navy being in the South or absent at 
foreign stations, everything had been arranged to give to the South 
every possible advantage at the start. Major Robert Anderson 
in command of Fort Moultrie in Charleston harbor, with a force 
of eighty men, seeing that he could not resist an attack of land 
forces against the fort, withdrew on the night of December 28th 
and took possession of Fort Sumter, a much stronger position on 
a near-by island. 

J86I. 

Secretary of War Floyd, after moAdng the army, arms and 
ammunition from the north; after abstracting $870,000 of Govern- 
ment Bonds, resigned his place in the cabinet because, as he said, 
the President had broken his promise, that no move should be 
made in Charleston harbor while negotiations were pending for 
the adjustment of the difficulties, and because the President 
refused to withdraw the troops from Charleston. 

South Carolina seized the United States Custom House, Post 
Office and Arsenal; took possession of Forts Pinkney and Moultrie 
and declared that the act of Major Anderson had inaugurated 
hostilities. 

General Lewis Cass of Michigan, Buchanan's Secretary of 
State, resigned because the President refused to order reinforce- 
ments to Charleston harbor and Joseph Holt of Kentucky, Post- 
Master General, was appointed Secretary of State. A letter 
written to the Governor of South Carolina, dated January 5th, 
1861, declared by order of the President "that the forts in that 
state, in common with all other forts, arsenals and property of 
the United States, are in charge of the President, and that if 
assaulted, no matter from what quarter, or under what pretext, it 
is his duty to protect them by all the means which the law has 
placed at his disposal ; ' ' adding, ' ' that it was not his present pur- 
pose to garrison the forts, as he considered them entirely safe 

159 



under the protection of the law-abiding sentiment for which the 
people of South Carolina had ever been distinguished, but, should 
they be attacked, or menaced with danger of being seized, or taken 
from the possession of the United States, he could not escape his 
constitutional obligation to defend them." This was the condition 
at the beginning of 1861. 

The Secession Act of South Carolina was followed by other 
Southern States, with acts similarlj^ worded, as follows: By 
Mississippi, January 8th; by Florida, January 10th; by Alabama, 
January 11th; b}^ Georgia, Januar}^ 19th; by Louisana, January 
26th; by Texas, February 1st; by Virginia, April 25th; by Arkan- 
sas, May 6th; by North Carolina, May 20th and by Tennessee, 
June 8th. The avowed reasons for this course on the part of the 
states named, were the refusal of fifteen of the states to fulfill 
their constitutional obligations, and the election of a man to the 
high office of President of the United States whose opinions and 
purposes are hostile to slavery. These declarations show unmis- 
takably that it was the fixed purpose of the political leaders in 
the south to foster and perpetuate the institution of slavery in 
the United States and to make that the leading issue on all questions 
of national interest or importance. 

On February 4th, 1861, delegates from the Northern States 
met as a "Peace Congress" in Philadelphia, to devise ways and 
means to preserve the Union; but the meeting was not a success 
for the same day, February 4th, delegates from the states that 
had at that date seceded met at Montgcmery, Alabama, to form a 
Southern Confederacy. This Congress on the February 18th, 
adopted a Constitution with the title, "Confederate States of 
America;" elected and inaugurated Jefferson Davis of Mississippi 
as President and Alexander H. Stephens of Alabama as Vice-presi- 
dent. 

President-elect Lincoln was then on his way from his home in 
Springfield, Illinois, to Washington. While at Harrisburg, rumors 
were being circulated that he would never reach Washington, for 
bridges were to be burned and tracks torn up. Here he was taken in 
the charge of a few picked friends and the leading railroad officials 
and early in the evening of February 23d, he took a special train 
for Washington. At Philadelphia, he was transferred to the Balti- 
more Railroad, reaching Baltimore at 3.30 o'clock a. m., February 
24th; passed unnoticed and was safe in Washington at 6 o'clock. 
His family followed by another train. 

The closing hours of President Buchanan's administration 
were dark and gloomy enough for all friends of the Union. The 
South had made great preparations for war, having seized forts, 

160 



arsenals, ships, munitions of war, the United States mint at New 
Orleans with $500,000, and every kind of public property they 
could secure to aid the cause of the seceded states. Nearly all of 
the members of Congress from these states had resigned and had 
left Washington and went with their seceding States. The United 
States Treasury was bankrupt, there not being sufficient money 
to pay off the members of Congress and as a last resort, before 
adjourning, congress authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to 
make a loan sufficient to pay the members. The money was ob- 
tained in New York by paying 12% premium for the same. 
This showed that the public doubted the ability of the United 
States to fulfill it pledges ; the exhorbitant rate of interest charged 
clearly demonstrating that the credit of the Government was in a 
very precarious condition. 

President Lincoln took the Executive Chair on Monday, March 
4th, 1861 . In his inaugural address he said that ' 'he should take care 
that the laws of the Union be faithfully executed in all the states," 
adding, "I trust this will not be regarded as a menace. I have 
no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution 
of slavery in the states where it exists. I believe I have no right 
to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. There need be no 
blood-shed nor violence, and there shall be none unless it be forced 
upon the national authorities. In your hands, my dissatisfied 
fellow-countrymen, and not in mine is the momentous issue of 
civil war. You can have no confiict without being yourselves the 
aggressors." 

The Confederates took this as a declaration of war and they 
hastened their preparations; but it greatly united the people of 
the North. 

Major Anderson had been shut up in Fort Sumter fifteen weeks 
by the rebels when, on April 12th, 1861, at 4.30 o'clock a. m., the 
rebel batteries under command of General Beauregard opened fire 
on Fort Sumter. Major Anderson and his eighty men held the 
fort for two days, when on April 14th, he surrendered ; the garrison 
marching out with the honors of war. This was the beginning of 
the Civil War. 

The news filled the North with consternation and convinced the 
world that civil war was really inaugurated in the United States. 
This act united the North and with the exception of a few extreme 
pro-slavery men, the whole people echoed the words of General 
Jackson, "The Union must and shall be preserved." 

On April 15th, President Lincoln called an extra session of 
Congress to meet on July 4th, and at the same time issued his 
proclamation calling for 75,000 militia, "to serve three months, 

161 



to protect the capital, and secure the propert}" of the Government.'^ 
The response to this cah was instantaneous. Massachusetts 

with her Sixth Regiment was the first in the field, and was attacked 

while going through Baltimore on April 19th, two men being 

killed and eight wounded. 

President Davis met Lincoln's call for 75,000 with a call for 

100,000, and made no secret of his design to capture Washington 

and invade the North. At the same time he called for privateers 

to destroy the commerce of the United States. 

On April 19th, Lincoln proclaimed the blockade of all the 

seceded states and declared as pirates all privateers who should 

take commissions from Davis. 

This privateering was a threat against the commerce of the 
North, and New York ' City being the great commercial centre ; 
the question was, ' ' would she consent that all their great business 
should be put in jeopardy?" All other northern commercial 
centres were threatened. History was being rapidly made. On 
April 20th, the largest meeting ever held on this continent was 
hald in New York City in Union Square. Leading men from all parts 
of the North, representatives of every kind of business and of every 
party were there by uncounted thousands and their united cry 
went up ' ' Down with the rebellion. ' ' New York City and the whole 
North had spoken and although financial bankruptcy stared them 
in the face, the decision was 'Ho stand or fall with the government." 

The result of this meeting was a surprise to the leaders in the 
South. They had expected sympathy from the North, and such 
a division among the people as would greatly cripple the North in 
its attempt to raise a volunteer force and that woukl practically 
prevent the North from sending an army to the South. 

On May 3d, Lincoln called for 64,000 more volunteers and 
ordered a large increase in the regular army and navy. 

Congress met on July 4th, and on the 11th authorized the 
Secretary of the Treasury to borrow $250,000,000. The Senate 
passed another bill authorizing the raising of 500,000 volunteers 
and voted $500,000,000. 

The Southern Congress thought this a game of brag and they 
voted a similar call of men and money. 

On July 21st, 1861, the first real battle of the war, the Union 
forces were badly defeated at the battle of Bull Run, and were 
driven in a panic back to Washington. The Union loss in killed, 
wounded and missing, was nearly 2,000 of which 1423 were prisoners. 
This greatly encouraged the South, and their Northern friends 
made a great handle of the result, declaring that the South could 
not be put down but would soon have their armies in every North- 

162 



em State, and the only way for the North to do was to acknowl- 
edge secession as a fact and make the best terms they could with 
the South, for they believed that the South could not be subju- 
gated. 

■During the balance of 1861 and most of 1862, both sides were 
getting their armies ready for business. Battles were fought in 
and near the border states from the Potomac to the Rocky Moun- 
tains and in these engagements, the Southern army was in a major- 
ity of cases victorious. Lee pushed his army into Maryland and 
the cry rang through the length and breadth of the North, "You 
can never conquer the South." 

It was at first determined by Lincoln and his cabinet that the 
work was to put clown the rebellion and thus save the Union, and 
not in any way to interfere with the institution of slaver}-- if it 
could be avoided ; and when the Federal arm}-" marched across the 
Potomac taking possession in Alexandria, of General Lee's place, 
making his house the headquarters of the commanding general, 
strict orders were given that no damage should be done to the 
grounds or buildings, and that the persons and slaves should not 
be molested. 

After a while, where the Northern army had gained an advantage 
in the Slave States, fugutive slaves would come within their lines. 
General Butler called them "contraband of war," and they Avere 
afterwards called ' ' contrabands ; ' ' but it was a question too com- 
plicated and of too much importance to be settled in that way. 

In the latter part of August, 1861, John C. Freemont, who was 
in command in Missouri, issued a proclamation declaring martial 
law in Missouri and that under the decree of confiscation, the 
slaves were free. President Lincoln directed Freemont to modify 
his proclamation so far as it referred to slaves, and this was the 
condition where^^er the Union army had success in the Slave 
States. It soon became known that the Southern Confederacy 
was taking into its army every able bodied white man, of suitable 
age, leaving the families and the army to be supported by the 
slaves. On March 13th, 1862, President Lincoln signed an Act 
of Congress entitled, "An Act to make an additional article of 
war," for the government of the army of the United States, and 
shall be observed and obeyed as such. 

Article I. All officers and persons in the military and naval 
service of the LTnited States are prohibited from employing any 
of the forces under their respective commands, for the purpose of 
returning fugitives from service or labor who may have escaped 
from any person to whom such service or labor is claimed to be due, 
and any officer who shall be found guilt}^, by a courtmartial, of 
violating this article shall be dismissed from the service. 

163 



Article II. This act shall take effect from and after its passage. 

Section 9 made all slaves of persons in rebellion against the 
government of the United States escaping from such persons, 
and taking refuge within the lines of the army, and all slaves found 
on or within any place occupied by the rebel forces, and afterwards 
occupied by the forces of the United States shall be deemed cap- 
tives of war, and shall be forever free of their servitude, and not 
again held as slaves. 

Section 10. No slaves escaping into any state, territory or 
District of Columbia from an}^ other state shall be delivered up, 
unless the person claiming ownership shall make oath that he has 
not been in arms against the United States in the present rebellion ; 
nor in any way given aid and comfort thereto. 

The Executive will in due time recommend that all loyal citizens 
of the United States shall be compensated for all losses, including 
the loss of slaves. 

So it was that during the first year of the war, no word or act of 
the government could be construed as an act against the insti- 
tution of slavery. 

On July 1st, 1862, President Lincoln made a call for 300,000 
nien and again on August 4th, he called for 300,000 volunteers. 

Notwithstanding the frequent reverses of the Union army, and 
the constant efforts of the friends of the South, represented in the 
North by the Knights of the Golden Circle, and their helpers, 
to destroy confidence in the government, and to prevent enlist- 
ments ; in the face of all this opposition, the loyal part of the North 
redoubled their efforts, and the response from the North to the call 
for soldiers was without a parallel in the history of the world. 

On September 22d, 1862, President Lincoln issued his notice 
against slavery and proclaimed, " that all slaves held as such in 
any of the states on January 1st, 1863, should be free." 

On January 1st, 1863, the rebellion being still on. President 
Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation, wherein he " ordered 
and declared that all persons held as slaves wdthin the designated 
territory, (states having taken part in the rebellion,) are, and 
henceforth shall be free; and that the Executive Government of 
the United States with the military and naval authorities thereof, 
will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons." By 
this act, 4,000,000 slaves were to have their freedom when the 
rebellion was put down. 

Thus was consummated the greatest event of the nineteenth 
century, and was a distinguishing feature of the war. From that 
time the Union forces began to be victorious. 

164 



Only a very few incidents and early events of the Civil War are 
here noted, and these are given so as to furnish some idea of the 
condition of the country at that time. 

It is not possible in the space to be allotted to a history of the 
town of Elma, that the whole itemized history should be given. 
It is sufficient to here say that the war continued with victories 
and defeats on both sides until April 9th, 1865, when General Lee 
surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Court House. 

There are se^-eral very complete histories of the War of the 
Rebellion that give in full and detail all matters relating to the war. 

On the evening of April 14th, 1865, President Lincoln was shot 
by J. Wilkes Booth, dying April 15th, term of office four j^ears and 
forty days, and this act cast a gloom over the whole North, greater 
than anything that had transpired during the war. On the same 
evening, Wilham H.Seward, Secretary of State, was assaulted and 
nearly lost his life. Both of these assaults were supposed to have 
been instigated and directed by leading men of the Confederacy. 

On March 1, 1865, the aggregate of the Federal forces was 965,- 
591, which by May 1st had increased to 1,000,576, when orders 
for disbanding were issued and on August 7th, 640,806 had been 
mustered out of the service and on November 15th, the number 
was increased to 800,963. The total loss of LTnion men was given 
as 316,000. 

The Confederates reported their total forces as 549,226, losses 
unknown. They held of our men as prisoners in 1864, over 
40,000, many of whom were starved to death in Salisbury, Libby, 
Dansville, Belle Island and other Southern prisons. 

We held in 1864 over 100,000 Confederate prisoners in Elmira, 
Chicago, and other Northern camps. 

Such a war could not be carried on for four years without using 
vast sums of money and as there was none to commence with in 
the Treasury, Congress called for loans and new issues of bonds, 
and more bonds and new calls were made as the needs of the 
government were presented and the people responded with a 
heartiness that astonished the nations of Europe; but it piled up 
a big debt as is here shown. 

The Public Debt left by President Buchanan as a peace debt, 
in 1860 was $64,769,703. This was increased in 1862 to $511,826,272 
and in 1864 to $1,740,690,489, in 1865 to $2,716,898,152, in 1866 
$2,773,236, 173, when it reached the highest point, in 1868 to $2,- 
611,687,851, in 1870 to $2,480,672,428. 

Some may ask, " What has all this about the War of the Rebellion 
to do in a history of the town of Elma?" The reply is that the 
town of Elma is considered by the inhabitants residing therein 
as no mean pait of the State of New York, or of the United States, 

165 



and as we were a part of the nation and had an interest in all its 
affairs, the history of that war is a part of our history, and while 
such an army, as before noted, was being put into the field and 
while all the states and all parts of every Northern State were 
responding to the President's call for volunteers, the State of 
New York having furnished 464,156 men, we desire here to show 
something of what the people of the town of Elma did in volun- 
teers and in bounties. 

Records are at hand, only from the first call in April, 1861, to 
July, 1st 1863. During that time nearly all, if not all of the follow- 
ing named persons enlisted (several were drafted later and served 
a short time, whose names are not in this list), and the money 
and supplies here mentioned were furnished, and as the war con- 
tinued for one year and nine months longer, there can be 
no doubt but other men enlisted, whose names cannot now be 
learned, and more supplies were forwarded to the Sanitary Com- 
mission and Hospitals. 

Here is an alphabetical list of those whose names can be learned 
who enlisted from the town of Elma, and most of them were in the 
service before July 1st, 1863. 

Charles Anderson, 100th; John Anderson, ; Albert Aykroid, 
94th; Melvin Aykroid, 94th; Andrew Baker, 10th Cav.; John 
Baker, 10th Cav.; Luke Baker, 100th; Obediah Baker, 98th; 
Robert Barnes, 94th; Martin Bender Scott, 900; Daniel Benzil, 
10th Cav.; Philip Benzil, 10th Cav.; John F. Billington, 100th; 
Charles F. Blood, 10th Cav.; James Blood, 21st; Hermon Bohl, 
10th Cav.; James Bowers, 78th; Brewer, 21st; Philander T. Briggs, 
94th; John Brooks, 116th; James Chadderdon, 94th; John F. 
Chadderdon, 94th; Jordan W. Chadderton, 94th; Stanlius Chicker, 
94th; Gilbert Chilcott, 10th Cav.; Lewis Chilcott, 10th Cav.; 
Almerin Clark, 78th ; Thomas E. Clark, 94th ; Samuel Clements, 94th ; 
Thomas Clements, 116th; Timothy Clifford, 98th; Jason Cole, 94th; 
Perry Cole, 116th; George Davis, 98th; John Donner, 116th; 
Agust F. Drankhan, 94th; Michael Durshel, 78th; John Edner, — ; 
William Eggert, 100th ; Benjamin Farnham, 78th ; Anthony Fellows, 
Lewis Fellows; Nicholas Fellows; Sherman Forbes, 49th; Delos 
Fowler, 116th; Theodore Fowler, Barnes Bat.; Isaac Freeman, 
21st; Albert Fulford, 94th; John Garby, Wiederick's Battery; 
Joseph Garvin, 10th Cav. ; James Gilmore, 100th; John Glaire, 94th; 
Wm. W. Grace, 116th; George W. Green, 94th; Henry Hamilton, 
10th Cav.; Jonas Hamilton, 10th Cav.; Michael Hanrahan, 116th; 
James Hanvev; Daniel P. Harris, Barnes' Batt.; Albert Harvey, 
116th; Wm. P. Ha^^len, 100th; Haynes, 78th; Conrad Heagle, 
5th Art.; Joseph Helmer, 116th; Joseph Hesse, 78th; Alexis HiU; 
Marcus Hih; Robert Hill, 116th; Theodore Hitchcock, 10th Cav.; 

166 



Allen J. Hurd, 44th; Joseph Hunt, 100th; Wm. Joslyn; John 
Kilhoffer, 100th; Sylvester W. Kinney, 94th; John L. Kleberg, 
100th; John Krause, 100th; Lawrence Krause, 94th; August 
Konnegeiser; Robert W. Lee, 49th; John Lemburger, 116th; 
John Linburger, 94th; Norton B. Lougee, 49th; Amos Matthews, 
49th ; Frederick Michaelis, Wiedrick 's Battery ;Wilbor Mitchell, 21st ; 
Hiram Munson, Musc^uito Fleet; John Munson; Henry Mutter, 
116th; Jacob Miller, Barnes ' Battery ; Michael McCabe; Eh B. Nor- 
thrup, Barnes ' Battery ; Frank Noyes, 94th; David Palmer, 116th; 
Jesse W. Parker, 94th; Horace A. Paxon, 116th; Orvil Pomeroy, 
116th; Ira J. Pratt, 116th; Salem Pratt, 94th; Charles E. Radean, 
49th; George P. Rowley, 116th; Charles Standart, 116th; Deforest 
Standart, 21st; Joseph C. Standart, 116th; Wm. Wesley Standart, 
94th; Hiram Sawyer, 116th; Peter Scheeler, 116th; John Schneider, 
Joseph Schuridt, 5th Art.; George Shufelt, 94th; Abram W. 
Smedes ; Albert Smith, 116th ; George Smith, Barnes' Batter}^; Godlip 
Strite, 10th Cav. ; George W. Stowell, 116th; George Simmons, 
Battery G., 52ncl; Almon Simmons; Charles Thayer, 116th; Luther 
J. Thurber, 94th; George W. Townsend, 116th; Chauncey P. Van 
Antwerp, 116th; Henry Van Antwerp, 116th; Wm. D. Wallace, 
98th; Robert Watson lOth Cav. ; Albert Wetherwax, 116th; Heman 
Worden, 10th Cav. ; Isaac Wakeley ; Pennock Winspear. Total 126. 

Here are the names of persons who enlisted, and the arm of the 
service in which they entered so far as can now be learned, viz. : 

21sT New York Volunteers. — James Blood, Brewer, Isaac 
Freeman, Wilbor Mitchell, Deforest Standart. 

44th Regiment. — Allen J. Hurd. 

49th Regiment. — Sherman Forbes, Robert W. Lee, Norton B. 
Lougee, Amos Matthews, Charles E. Radeau. 

78th Regiment. — James Bowers, Almerin Clark, Michael 
Durshee, Benjamin Farnham, Haynes, Joseph Hesse. 
94th Regiment. — Melvin Aykroid, Albert Aykroid, Robert 
Barnes, Philander T. Briggs, James Chadderdon, John F. Chadder- 
don, Jordan W. Chadderdon, Stanlius Chicker, Thomas E. Clark, 
Samuel Clements, Jason Cole, August F. Dranken, Albert Fulford, 
John Glaire, George W. Green, Sylvester W. Kinney, Lawrence 
Krouse, John Linburger, Frank Noyes, Jesse W. Parker, Salem 
Pratt, George Shufelt, W. Wesley Standart, Luther Thurber. 

98th Regiment — Obediah Baker, Timothy Clifford, George 
Davis, Wm. D. Wallace. 

100th Regiment. — Charles Anderson, Luke Baker, John L. 
Billington, William Eggert, James Gilmore, Wm. P. Hayden, 
Joseph Hunt, John Kilhoffer, John L. Kleberg, John Kraus. 

Barnes' Rifle Battery.— Theodore Fowler, Daniel P. Harris, 
Jacob Miller, Eli B. Northrup, George Smith. 

167 



Weiderick's Battery. — John Garby, Frederick Michaelis. 

Scott's 900 Cavalry. — Martin Bender. 

116th Regiment. — John Brooks, Thomas Clements, Perry Cole, 
John Donner, Ambrose Fry, Delos Fowler, William W. Grace, 
Michael Hanrahan, Albert Harvey, Joseph Helmer,Robert Hill, John 
Limburger, Henry Mutter, David Palmer, Horace A. Paxton, 
Orvil Pomeroy, Ira J. Pratt, George P. Rowley, Hiram Sawyer, 
Peter Scheeler, Albert Smith, Joseph C. Standart, Charles Standart, 
George W. Stowell, Charles Thayer, George Townsend, Chauncey 
P. Van Antwerpt, Henry Van Antwerpt, Albert Wetherwax. 

10th Cavalry. — Andrew Baker, John Baker, Daniel Benzil, 
Philip Benzil, Charles F. Blood, Hermon Bohl, Gilbert Chilcott, 
Lewis Chilcott, Joseph Gavin, Henry Hamilton, Jonas Hamilton, 
Theodore Hutchinson, Godlip Strite, Robert Watson, Herman 
Worden. 

MusQUiTO Fleet, on Mississippi River. — Hiram Munson. 

5th Artillery. — Conrad Heagle, Joseph Schuridt. 

Regiment or Arm of Service Not Known. — John Anderson, 
John Edner, Anthony Fellows, Lewis Fellows, Nicholas Fellows, 
James Hanvey, Alexis Hill, Marcey Hill, William Joslyn, August 
Konnegeiser, John Munson, George W. Simmons, Almon Simmons, 
John Schneider, Abram W. Smedes, Isaac Wakeley, Pennock Win- 
spear. 

Recapitulation. — In 21st Regiment 5, 44th Regiment 1, 
49th Regiment 5, 78th Regiment 6, 94th Regiment 24, 98th Regi- 
ment 4, 100th Regiment 10, 116th Regiment 29, 10th Cavalry 
15, Scott's 900 Cavalry 1, Barnes' Rifle Battery 5, Wiederick's 
Battery 2, 5th Artillery 2, Regiment not known 17. Total 126. 

Most of these 126 enlisted before July 1st, 1863. Very likely 
some names have been overlooked. 

At that time there were about 450 voters in the town. The 
United States Census for 1860 gave the total population of the 
town as 2136. Before the close of the war, by volunteer and draft, 
fully one-third of the voters were, or had been in the army. 

How much money was paid out in the town of Elma to promote 
enlistments before July 1st, T863? The answer is $4112. 

How much was raised by individual subscriptions? Answer: 
$1051. 

The persons who subscribed $25, or over, were: Christopher 
Peek $124, Clark W. Hurd $124, Lewis Northrup $124, Wm. M. 
Rice $62, Joseph B. Briggs $62, Paul B. Lathrop $60, Horace 
Kyser $57, Zenas M. Cobb $42, Charles Arnold $31, Chester Adams 
$25, and $340 in smaller sums, making a total of $1051. 

168 



At a special town meeting it was voted to raise $4000, by tax 
on the propert}^ of the town, to be used in the payment of bounties 
to volunteers. Of the $1051 which had been raised by subscription, 
$939 was paid back, being a part of the $4000 voted at the town 
meeting. This left the amount actually paid of $4112. Chris- 
topher Peek, supervisor, James Tillou, Clark W. Hurd, Charles 
Arnold and Warren Waters were a committee to take charge 
of and pay out, this $4112. 

While our soldiers were in the field, and the men at home were 
raising money as a bounty to hire more soldiers, the w^omen of 
the town were showing their patriotism by doing what they could 
to furnish supplies for the hospitals and the Sanitary Commission. 

There was no aid by church organizations as such, but many 
persons and families sent to soldiers in the hospitals and in the 
field, boxes and parcels of which there is no record. Ladies' Aid 
Societies were organized in almost every neighborhood where they 
held their weekly meetings, to procure and make such articles 
as were needed by the Sanitary Commission, and these supplies 
were forwarded to their destination. 

Before July 1st, 1863, there had been sent by the ladies of the 
town the following, viz.: 

Cash, $15.00; ch-ied fruit, 314 pounds; groceries, 42 pounds 
honey, 85 pounds; soap, 6 pounds; sage, 1 pound; eggs, 26 dozen 
lint, 26 J pounds; bandages, 343 pounds; compresses, 120 pounds 
pads, 13 ; bundles of old linen, 6 ; bundles of old cotton, 6 ; towels, 30 
bed sacks, 8; bed quilts, 2; bed comforters, 7; bed blankets, 4 
sheets, 48; pillows, 19; pillow cases, 22; feather cushions, 2; hop 
cushions, 4; husk cushions, 2; double gowns, 1; pairs of drawers, 
21; pairs of socks, 45; handkerchiefs, 56. 

This is only a part of what the ladies furnished, for their work 
was continued during the four years of the war, to the very close. 

No doubt, much more than the above was prepared and sent 
forward by individuals of which no account was kept and there- 
fore no mention can be made, but the above shows the patriotic 
spirit of most of the people of the town of Elma in this war of the 
Rebellion. 



169 



CHAPTER XIV. 

CAUSE OF THE CIVIL WAR. 

The Slave Holders' Rebellion, or the Civl War in the United 
States which commenced in 1S61, forms one of the extraordinary 
chapters for the historian to record. States which had, and should 
continue to have a common interest in the government were in 
this war arrayed against each other in deadly strife; families were 
divided, parents against children, brother against brother, min- 
isters and people of the same church faith were divided, each 
praying for the defeat of the other. 

The first gun of the war was fired at 4.30 o'clock, on the morning 
of April 12th, 1861, when the rebel batteries in Charleston Harbor, 
under command of General Beauregard, opened fire on Fort Sumter, 
commanded by Major Anderson; and the war continued until the 
main Confederate army commanded by General Lee, surrendered 
to General Grant at Appomattox Court House, April 9th, 1865. 

During the war more than 1,000,000 men had been enrolled in 
the Federal army, and more than 600,000 men had served in the 
Confederate army. 

The total loss in the Federal army was about 316,000 men 
besides those who died in Southern prisons and from disease 
contracted in the camp. 

The Confederate loss was never reported but they lost about 
4,000,000 slaves and other property the value of which was never 
known. 

The war caused an increase in the United States public debt 
from $64,770,000 dollars in 1860 to 2,773,237,000 dollars in 1866, 
at which time the debt reached its highest point. 

With many who had not given much thought as to the affairs 
of the general government, the question was often asked, "Why 
was there a war between the North and South, or between the Slave 
and Free States? ' ' And since the close of the war the same question 
has often been repeated. The answer, in time of the war, as 
given by those who were well posted in the matter was, ' ' that the 
slave holders were determined to control the affairs of this govern- 
ment; that from the first they had used the institution of slavery 
as a lever to enable them to gain and hold the balance of power; 
that notwithstanding their persistence and threats to protect and 

170 



extend that institution, they had at the election in 1860, been so 
thoroughly defeated that in madness, they had decided to do their 
best to destroy the Union; and after several of the slave holding 
states had by their legislatures adopted ordinances of secession, 
they organized a Confederate government and then attempted and 
did capture the United States forts, thus beginning war." 

The proceedings of Conventions and the debates in Congress are 
matters and record of history to which the reader is referred for 
full particulars. 

A reference to some of the principal events which from the 
formation of the government in 1787 to the commencement of the 
war in 1861, had been the cause of difference between the Slave 
and Free States and were the subjects of debates in Congress and 
of discussion throughout the country and a few extracts from 
speeches made in Congress on these questions will be here given 
for those who have not the time or opportunity for a more extended 
research and which will show the spirit and determination of the 
political leaders in the South for the protection, extension and 
perpetuation of slavery, and in that way to hold the balance of 
political power in the United States ; and also show the spirit and 
determination of the leaders and people of the North to check 
the extension of that institution. 

The questions of extension and non-extension of slavery were 
by the Southern leaders brought to the front on the admission of 
every new state and were the cause of debates in Congress, and 
kept alive the fire of difference between the political parties and 
between the people of the Slave and Free States; the differences 
and the excitement between the two sections growing more and 
more bitter and serious each year until the war was actually 
begun. 

In the convention to frame the Constitution of the United 
States in 1787, on the question of representation in Congress, 
the Southern slave holders demanded that their slaves should be 
enumerated with the whites, but a compromise was made by allow- 
ing five slaves to be counted as three freemen in the apportionment 
for Representatives. The African slave trade was another source 
of trouble in framing the Constitution. Most of the delegates 
wanted the trade abolished but the delegates from South Carolina 
and Georgia having declared that if there was to be no slave trade, 
there would be no Union, a compromise was made that the trade 
should be abolished after twenty years. 

The purchase of the Louisana Territory from France in 1803, 
brought in additional territory, the South claiming the whole 
as slave territory. The question was not settled until after a long 
and bitter debate in Congress, with threats of dissolution of the 

171 



Union from the Southern members, when Missouri was admitted as 
a Slave State, March 6th, 1820, with a compromise resokition that 
in the future no Slave State should be erected north of 36° 30' 
north latitude, that being the north line of Arkansas. It was 
thought at the North that this compromise measure would for- 
ever settle the question of slavery extension. 

On the admission of Arkansas and Michigan in 1836, a most 
heated debate was had in Congress in which the Missouri Compro- 
mise was endangered by the Southern cry of disunion and balance 
of power. In 1842, in the discussion in Congress on the admission 
of Texas, Mr. Wise said, "let one. more northern state be admitted 
and the equilibrium will be gone and gone forever." The South 
demanded Texas to save the balance of power. The leading 
object of the annexation was to strengthen slavery and save to 
the South the control of the government. The southern members 
of Congress and the people all through the Slave States raised the 
cry of "Texas or disunion." 

I845-I850. 

For more than three years the discussion on the question, of 
the admission of Texas into the Union was very heated in Congress 
and by the people North and South; the North generally being 
opposed, and the people of the South in favor of the admission 
as that would give to the South the balance of power, as they 
then thought, for all time. Texas was admitted in 1845 as a 
Slave State with the privilege of being divided into four more 
states when occasion required. 

War with Mexico was the result of annexation, and on May 
11th, 1846, President Polk, in a communication to Congress said, 
"The Mexicans have at last invaded our territory and shed the 
blood of our fellow citizens on our own soil." The result of the 
war was that by the treaty with Mexico in 1848, we acquired 
California and other territory for which we paid $18,000,000 to 
Mexico. 

The debate in Congress on organizing the territory of Oregon 
and the admission of California as a state was long and bitter. 

On January 29th, 1850, Henry Clay of Kentucky, leader of 
the Whig party in the United States Senate, submitted a series 
of resolutions proposing an amicable settlement of the whole 
slavery controversy. This was called an "Oninibus Bill," because 
it carried so many different subjects. The resolutions in part 
were as follows: "California, with suitable boundaries, ought to 
be admitted as a state, without restriction as to slavery. 

172 



t850. 

Appropriate governments ought to be established in all the 
territory acquired from Mexico not assigned to California without 
restriction as to sla\'ery. 

More effectual provision ought to be made for the restitution of 
fugitive slaves." 

These resolutions were warmly opposed by most of the Demo- 
cratic Senators from the Slave States as making no concessions 
at all to the South. That the declaration, that slavery did not 
exist in New Mexico, precludes its admission there, etc., etc. 

Mr. Thomas H. Benton, Democratic Senator from Missouri, 
and a hfe-long slave holder said, "Slavery had been abohshed by 
Mexican law before we acquired the countries ; that African slavery 
had never existed in Mexico in the form in which it existed in 
the States of this Union, and that if Mexican law was now in force 
in New Mexico and California, no slave holder from the Union 
would carry a slave thither except to set him free." 

He affirmed these three points: 1st. "Slavery was abolished 
in California and New Mexico before we got them." 2nd. " Even 
if not abolished, no person would carry a slave to those countries, 
to be held under such law." 3d. "Slavery could not exist there 
except by positive law j^et to be passed." 

On the right of the slave holder to take his property into the 
territories, he said, "The citizens of all the states, free and slave, 
can not carry his property into the territories, neither can he carry 
that which is only property by state law. Every Slave State has a 
servile code of its own. The owner cannot carry his slave State 
Law with him into the territories or into another state; he must 
take the law which he finds there." 

This doctrine was not acceptable to Mr. Calhoun and the ruling 
part of the Democratic party. 

As John C. Calhoun, Senator from South Carohna, and leader 
of that party in the South voiced the sentiments of the slave 
holders generally, to give some of his statements in the debate in 
Congress on the admission of California, will show their position 
and demands on the slavery question at that time. He said, 
"The Union is in clanger. The cause of this danger was the dis- 
content at the South, and this discontent was found in the belief 
that they could not with honor and safety remain in the Union." 

One of the causes was the long continued agitation of the slave 
question at the North. But the primary cause was in the fact 
that the equilibrium between the two sections at the time of the 
adoption of the Constitution had been destroyed. The first of 
the series of acts by which this had been done was the ordinance 

173 



of 1787, by which the South had been excluded from all the norch- 
western region (all north of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi 
Rivers). The next was the Missouri Compromise, excluding them 
from all of the Louisiana Territor}^ north of 36° 30' except the 
State of Missouri; and now, the North was endeavoring to appro- 
priate to herself the territory recently acquired from Mexico; 
from which the South was, if possible, to be excluded. 

He censured Congress for receiving petitions against slavery 
extension. He disapproved of the plan of Mr. Clay as incapable 
of saving the Union. 

Having shown how the Union could not be saved, he proceeded to 
answer the question, how it could be saved. 

"There is but one way certain: justice must be done the South 
by a full and final settlement of all the questions at issue. The 
North must concede to the South an equal right in the acquired 
territory and fulfill the stipulations respecting fugitive slaves; 
must cease the agitation of the slave question and join in an 
amendment of the Constitution restoring to the South the power 
she possessed of protecting herself, before the equilibrium between 
the two sections had been destroyed by the action of the govern- 
ment." (This was spoken in 1850.) 

Mr. Daniel Webster, Whig Senator from Massashusetts, spoke 
at length on the resolutions of Mr. Clay and in reply to Mr. Cal- 
houn. He said: "that a change had taken place since the time of 
the adoption of the Constitution. Both sections then held slavery 
to be equally an evil, moral and political; it was inhuman and cruel; 
it weakened the social fabric and rendered labor less productive. 
The eminent men of the South held it to be an evil, a scourge and 
a curse. The framers of the Constitution in considering how to 
deal with it, concluded that it could not be continued if the impor- 
tation of slaves should cease. The prohibition of the importation 
after twenty years was proposed and finally agreed to; a term 
which some Southern gentlemen, Mr. Madison for one, thought too 
long. 

The ordinance of 1787 received the unanimous support of the 
South; a measure which Mr. Calhoun had said was the first in a 
series of measures which enfeebled that section. Mr. Calhoun had 
said that there had alwaj^s been a majority in favor of the North. 
If that is so, the North has acted very liberally or very weakly; 
for they had seldom exercised their power. The truth was, the 
general lead in politics for three-fourths of the time since 1787 
had been Southern lead. The Southern Senators say we deprive 
them of the right to go into the newly acquired territory with 
their property. We do not prevent them from going into those 
territories with what is in general law, called property. But these 

174 



Salv'e States have by their local laAvs created a property in persons 
and they cannot carry those local laws with them. Slavery is 
created and exists by local law which is limited to a certain section ; 
and now, it is asked that Congress shall establish a local law in 
other territories to enable Southern Senators to carry their partic- 
ular law with them. No man can hold a slave unless the local 
law accompany him." 

Mr. William H. Seward, Whig Senator from New York, in 
addressing the Senate said : "It is now avowed by the Honorable 
Senator from South Carolina, (Mr. Calhoun) that nothing will 
satisfy the Slave States but a compromise that will convince them 
that they can remain in the Union consistently with their honor 
and their safety. And what are the concessions which will have 
that effect?" These are his words: 

''There is but on way certain: Justice must be done the South 
by a full and final settlement of all the cjuestions at issue. The 
North must concede to the South an equal right in the acquired 
territory and fulfill the stipulations respecting fugitive slaves; 
must cease the agitation of the slave question, and join in an 
amendment of the Constitution restoring to the South the power 
she possessed of protecting herself before the equilibrium between 
the two sections had heen destro3'ed by the action of the govern- 
ment." 

"It is said that the Slave States are in danger of losing political 
power by the admission of the new States. Well, sir, is there 
anything new in that? The Slave States have always been losing 
political power and they always will be while the have any to lose. 
At first, twelve of the thirteen states were Slave States; now only 
fifteen of the thirty are Slave States. The South demands the 
guarant}^ against the abolition of slavery in the District of Colum- 
bia or they will hai^e war, secession. When you have declared war 
against us, what shall hinder us from declaring that slavery shall 
cease in the national capitol? You say you will not submit to 
the exclusion of slaves from the new territories. Can you pro- 
pagate slavery by the sword? You sa}^ you cannot submit to 
the freedom with which slavery is discussed in the Free States. 
Will war or war for slavery arrest, or even moderate that discussion? 
No, sir: that discussion will not cease; war will only inflame it 
to a greater height." 

"Slavery has reafly nothing to fear; it has a reliable and accom- 
modating ally in a party in the Free States, which though it claims 
to be, and doubtless is, in many respects a party of progress, 
finds its sole security for political power in the support and aid 
of slavery in the Slave States. Of course, I do not include in that 
party those who are now co-operating in maintaining the cause 

175 



of freedom against slavery. But it is only just and candid that 
I should bear witness to its fidelity to the interests of slavery." 
Being asked by Mr. Lewis Cass, Democratic Senator from 
Michigan, if he believed there is a man in the Senate from the 
North whose course is influenced by his fidelity to slavery, Mr. 
Seward replied: " I think it was Mr. Jefferson who said 'that the 
natural ally of slavery in the South was the Democratic party of 
the North.' " A Senator replied that it was Mr. Buchanan. 
Mr. Seward, said: "I have heard it attributed to Mr. Jefferson. 
However that may be, I believe it. I assail the motives of no 
Senator. I acknowledge the patriotism, the wisdom, the purity 
of every member of this body. I have never assailed the motives 
of honorable Senators in any instance, I never shall. I ask leave 
to say, that such as I described is, in my view, the political organi- 
zation of the parties of this country; that slavery has the support, 
the toleration, (given honestly and from patriotic motives, I 
admit,) of the party to which I referred, and that its alliance with 
slavery constitutes its tower of strength." 

The foregoing shows the feeling that existed between the North 
and the South on the slavery question in 1850. 

The Fugitive Slave Law passed September 18th, 1850 and 
signed by President Millard Fillmore, was especially objectionable 
to the humane instincts of most of the people of the Free States. 
Mr. John Van Buren in a letter dated April 4th, 1851, to a Massa- 
chusetts Convention, declared the act unconstitutional, because 
Congress had no power to legislate on the subject; the duty of 
surrendering slaves devolving on the state, to be executed by 
state laws, tribunals, and functionaries. That view was taken 
by many learned men in the North and by many Southern men of 
the State Rights School. 

Within the first year of its existence, more persons were seized 
in the Free States as fugitive slaves than during the preceecling 
sixty years. Many persons who had lived in the North in un- 
challenged freedom from fifteen to twenty years were seized and 
carried away into life-long slavery; and the numerous cases of 
kidnapping free negroes and taking them to slavery, tended to 
increase the feeling of opposition to the whole scheme of slavery 
by the great mass of the people of the Free States. 

The persistent determination of the slave holding Democrats 
in the debates in Congress on the Oregon question, and on the 
admission of California, and on the territorial government of the 
territory acquired from Mexico, the repeal of the Missouri Com- 
promise act of 1820, the Kansas-Nebraska bih, known as the 
Squatter Sovereignty Bih, passed in May, 1854, and the decision 
of the Dred Scott case by the United States Supreme Court, were 

176 



like fire brands at the North, and served to unite the great mass 
of the Whig party of the North with the Free Soil part of the 
Democratic party in opposition to any further extension of slavery 
or more slave territory. 

■ The decision of the United States Supreme Court, at the 1855 
and 1856 term, in the Dred Scott case, was not made public until 
after the inauguration of Mr. Buchanan in 1857, but enough was 
known so that it was used against the Democratic party in the 
campaign of 1856. 

Judge Taney, in giving the opinion of the Court said, "Dred 
Scott being a negro, and descended from slaves, was not a citizen, 
and no state could make its slaves citizens; and he had no right 
to bring suit for his libei^ty ; that neither Dred Surftt nor his family 
were made free by being carried into St. Louis, that being in 
territor}^ North of 36° 31' north latitude." Dred's freedom was 
claimed on the ground that he had been taken by his master into 
the Free State of Illinois, and there retained seme two or three 
3^ears. 

Judge Taney says: "that the claim was not properly before the 
Court ; that the plaintiff is not a citizen of Missouri, in the sense in 
wiiich that word is used in the Constitution, and that the Circuit 
Court, for that reason, had no jurisdiction, and the suit must be 
dismissed. Several other Judges assented to the views as expressed 
by Judge Taney. 

Judge Daniel went further and said, "that ordinance of 1787 
was only equal in constitutionality and A^alidity, with the Missouri 
Compromise, and was void." This opinion opened the door for 
' slave holders to take their slaves into any of the Free States, and 
caused great consternation throughout the North. Mr. Webster, 
the great constitutional lawyer, had said in 1850, "that no man 
can be held as a slave unless the local law accompany him." 

Justice McLean from Ohio, one of the members of the United 
States Supreme Court, in his opinion dissenting from that of the 
Court in the Dred Scott case says, "Will it be said that the slave 
is taken as property, the same as other property which the master 
may own? To this I answer, that colored persons are made 
property b}^ the law of the state, and no such power has been given 
to Congress. The Constitution in express terms recognizes the 
status of slavery as founded on the municipal law; 'No person 
held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof,' etc. 
Now, unless the fugitive escape from a place where, by the munici- 
pal law he is held to labor, this provision affords no remedy to the 
master. Suppose a slave escape from a territory where slavery 
is not authorized by law, can he be reclaimed?" 

177 



From December 13th, 1852, the attempt to organize the Terri- 
tories of Kansas and Nebraska caused exciting and heated debate 
in Congress and throughout the country. Finally, the bill passed 
both houses and was signed by President Pierce May 24th, 1854. 
In the House, the vote was fifty-seven Democrats and twelve Whigs 
from the Slave States, with fourtj-four Democrats from the Free 
States — total 113. Against the bill, the vote was seven Whigs 
and two Democrats from the Slave States and fourty-four Whigs, 
fourty-four Democrats and three Free Soil, from the Free States — 
total ninety-one. 

A large majority of the slave holding Whigs of the South having 
joined the slave holding Democrats in their slavery extension 
scheme, made nearly a solid pro-slavery party in the South while 
the Whig party was apparently on the point of dissolution, it 
being divided on the slavery question. 

The Democratic party North, and the Native American party 
were about equally divided, the Abolition party, niaking the balance, 
of the Northern voters were all greatly excited over the abomina- 
tions practiced under the Fugiti\'e Slave Law and the determination 
and success of the South in the repeal of the Missouri Compro- 
mise act of 1820, and in the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska act 
which gave to the South the privilege of taking their slaves into 
the territories. 

Before the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska act, nearly all of 
these territories were covered by Indian Reservations on which 
settlemsnt by the whites was strictly forbidden except by govern- 
ment agents and missionaries. The government agents were 
Democrats and violent partisans of slavery extension. Just before 
the final passage of the bill to organize the territories, treaties 
were quietly made with the Delaware, Otoe, Kickapoo, Kaskakia, 
Shawnee, Sacks, Fox, and other tribes of Indians, whereb)'' the 
greater part of the eastern portion of these territories was suddenly 
allowed to be opened to white settlers. This whole arrangement 
was known to the Missourians and to people in the other Slave 
States, who had been organizing ''Blue Lodges," "Social Bands," 
"Sons of the South," and other societies, with the intent of taking 
possession of Kansas in behalf of slavery. 

Kansas was opened to settlement by proclamation of President 
Pierce, Ma}^ 30th, 1854, and hundreds of Missourians were ready 
and crossed into the territory, selecting each his piece of land, in 
that way establishing a kind of pre-emption upon all that region. 

At the North, Emigrant Aid Societies were organized to help 
Free State men to go to Kansas. To the close of President Pierce's 
administration, the slave holders all through the South, backad by 
the Government at Washington, used every means within their 

178 



reach to make Kansas a Slave State; and by intimidation, mm'der, 
" Border EufRan Raids," and illegal voting, tried to force slave laws 
and a SlaA^e Constitution upon the people. 

Governors for the Territories were appointed by the President, 
and it was expected that they would, so far as possible, see to it 
that the interests of slavery were protected. 

Andrew H. Reeder of Pennsylvania, the first Governor for Kan- 
sas took the oath of office, July 7th, 1854, and reached Kansas in 
October. Soon after his arrival he commenced the work of or- 
ganizing the Territory. His proclamation for the election of a 
Territorial Delegate to Congress did not provid.e for the election of 
a Territorial Legislature. This failure was not pleasing to the 
Missourians. No census had been taken previous to the election 
of the Delegate. 

The election, although carried by an invasion of Missourians, 
was not contested. The total vote was 2838 of which 1729 were 
given by Missourians who came across the Missouri River to vote 
and then returned. At one voting place, 604 votes were polled, 
of which only twenty were legal, 584 were from Missouri. John 
W. Whitfield, the slave holder's candidate at this election received 
2268 votes, to 570 for the other candidate. By taking the Mis- 
souri vote, 1729, from the total vote received by AVhit field, 2268, it 
would leave 539 votes for Whitfield by residents of Kansas, and 570 
against him. 

J 855. 

Early in 1855, George Reeder had a census taken, and arrange- 
ments were made for an election of members to form a Territorial 
Legislature. The census showed a total population of 8,501, of 
which 2,905 were voters, and 242 were slaves. At the election for 
members of the Legislature, only 831 legal electors voted, the total 
vote being 6,320. An invasion from Missouri carried the election 
by storm and a majority of the members elected received certifi- 
cates of election from the Governor. 

''The Platte Argus," a Missouri paper, in an editorial on this 
election said: "It is admitted that the Missourians have con- 
quered Kansas ; our advise is to hold it or die in the attempt. " The 
Legislature was calbd by the Governor to meet at Pawnee City on 
the Kansas River, nearly 100 miles from the Missouri border. The 
Legislature was immediately adjourned over the Governor's veto, 
to Shawnee Mission, directly on the line of Missouri. This Legis- 
lature passed one act, whereby the laws of Missouri generally were 
adopted and declared to be the laws of Kansas, and other acts, 
specially upholding and fortifying slavery ; Section twelve of which 

179 



reads as follows : "If any free person, by speaking or writing, shall 
assert or mention, that persons ha^-e not the right to hold slaves in 
this Territory, or shall introduce into this Territory, print, publish, 
write, circulate, or cause to be introduced into the Territory, or 
written, printed, published and circulated in this Territory, any 
book, paper, magazine, pamphlet or circular, containing any de- 
nial of the right of persons to hold slaves in this Territor}^; such 
person shall be deemed guilty of felony, and punished by imprison- 
ment at hard labor, for a term not less than two 3^ears." 

This Legislature, whose acts were systematically vetoed by Gov- 
ernor Reeder, but passed over his head, memoralized the President 
for the removal of Reeder. He went to Washington and placed 
the whole condition before President Pierce, and urged the cause 
of the people against invasion. When the President found that 
the Governor could not be used to further the cause of slavery in 
Kansas, as against the actual settlers in the Territory, he asked 
for Reeder 's resignation, which the Governor refused, and the Pres- 
ident removed him August 16th, 1855. The same day the Presi- 
dent appointed Wilson Shannon of Ohio, as GoA^ernor of Kansas. 

Daniel Woodson, the Secretary of the Territory, acted as Gover- 
nor from August 16th, 1855, to September 7th, 1855, the date on 
which Shannon ariived in Kansas. Shannon on his way to Kansas 
stopped at Westport, Missouri, the headcjuarters of border ruf- 
fians. In a speech at that place he said, " He considered the Legis- 
lature which had recently adjourned to Shawnee Mission, a legal 
assembly; that its laws were binding on the authorities and on 
every citizen of the Territory; that he was for slavery in Kansas." 
He assumed the duties of Governor, September 7th, 1855, and held 
until August 18th, 1856. 

The actual settlers of Kansas were not willing to submit to the 
impudent and hostile usurpation which had elected Whitfield as 
Delegate to Congress and imposed on them a fraudulent legislature. 
They held a mass-convention at Big Springs on September 5th, 
1855, where they repudiated the laws and officers imposed on Kan- 
sas b}^ the Border Ruffian invasion, and refused to submit to them. 
A Delegate Convention was called, to be held at Topeka, September 
19th, where an election for Delegate to Congress was called, to be 
held on the second Tuesday of October. 

Ex-Governor Reeder was nominated for Delegate at this Con- 
vention, while Whitfield was the Candidate of the Pro-slavery 
party. Both were elected by their respective parties. 

On October 23d, 1855, the actual settlers organized a Constitu- 
tional Convention at Topeka, and formed a Free State Constitution, 
under which they asked Congress for admission into the Union as 
a State. 

180 



The 34th Congress assembled at Washington, December 3d, 1855. 
Whitfield was there as Delegate, and Reeder as Contestant. The 
House on March 19th, 1856, resolved to send a special committee 
to Kansas to inquire into the anarchy which prevailed there. The 
committee composed of William A. Howard of Michigan, John 
Sherman of Ohio and Mordecai Oliver of Missouri, immediately 
went to Kansas and spent several weeks in taking testimony. On 
their return they reported: 

First. That each election in the Territory held under the organ- 
ic or alleged Territorial law, had been carried by organized inva- 
sion from the State of Missouri, by which the people of the Territory 
haA-e been prevented from exercising the rights secured to them 
by their oi^ganic law. 

Second. That the alleged Territorial Legislature was an ille- 
gally constituted body, and had no power to pass vahd laws; and 
that their enactments are therefore null and void. 

Third. That these alleged laws have not, as a general thing, 
been used to protect persons and property and to punish wrong, 
but for unlawful purposes. 

Fourth. That the election, under which sitting Delegate John 
W. Whitfield holds his seat, was not held in pursuance of any valid 
law. 

Fifth. That the election, under which Andrew H. Reeder claims 
a seat, was not held in pursuance of any valid law. 

Sixth. That Andrew H; Reeder received a greater number of 
the votes of resident citizens for Delegate than did John W. Whit- 
field. 

Seventh. That in the present condition of the Territory, a fair 
election cannot be held without a new census, a stringent and well 
guarded election law, the selection of impartial judges, and the 
presence of the United States troops at every place of election." 

Whitfield held his seat to the end of that Congress. A bill ad- 
mitting Kansas as a State under her Free State Constitution, 
passed the House by a vote of ninety-nine to ninety-seven. The 
Senate which was strongly pro-slavery, defeated the bill. 

Governor Shannon, it will be seen, came to Kansas in a bad time, 
excitement was running high. His speech at Westport was in the 
line of the spirit of the Missouri border ruffian element, to make 
Kansas a slave state ; but he soon found that he was standing on 
dangerous ground, for the Free State men were a large majority in 
the Territory, and they demanded their rights under the act of 
Congress organizing the Territory. The Slave State party urged 
him to see that the laws passed by the bogus legislature, were en- 
forced. During the winter of 1855 and 1856, that party matured 
their plans for burning Lawrence, which took place May 21st, 1856. 

181 



This was really the beginning of the Kansas war. Their plan also 
included the getting control of the Legislature, which was called 
to meet at Topeka on July 4th. Another move was to completely 
stop all opposition to Kansas becoming a Slave State. 

This was to be effected by enforcing the laws enacted by their 
bogus Legislature, and especially Section 12 — (for this section see 
page 180). This law, if enforced, would send every Free State man 
in the Territory to the penitentiary for not less than two years, and 
with the whole power of the Federal Government to see that these 
laws were enforced, there remained but little hope that Kansas 
could be saved from the slave power. 

Delegations were sent from Kansas to notify the Governors and 
other influential persons in the Free States of the plot. The eastern 
press took up the cry of Free Soil and Free Speech, and the report 
of the committee which had been sent by Congress to look after 
the anarchy which existed in Kansas, which had been, and was 
being printed by every Free Soil paper in .the Northern States, 
created such an excited state of feeling among the masses of people 
as to greatly alarm the leaders of the Democratic part}^ at Wash- 
ington, and the enforcement of Section 12 was dropped. 

The "American" National Convention, for nominating candi- 
dates for President and Vice-president, was held in Philadelphia, 
February 22d, 1856. AU the states were represented except Maine, 
Vermont, South Carolina and Georgia. The platform condemns 
the Democratic party and the Administration for re-opening sec- 
tional agitation by the repeal of the Missouri Compromise Act. 

Millard Fillmore received the nomination for President and An- 
drew J. Donelson for Vice-president. 

The Democratic National Convention for 1856, met at Cincinnati 
Ohio, on June 2d. The platform held "the principles contained 
in the organic laws, establishing the Territories of Kansas and Ne- 
braska, as embodying the only sound and safe solution of the slav- 
ery question." James Buchanan received the nomination for 
President, and John C. Breckenridge for Vice-president. 

The slavery question had completely destroyed the Whig party. 
The First National Convention of the Republican party was held 
at Pittsburg, Penn., February 22d, 1856, but there were no nom- 
inations made. The nominating convention was held at Phila- 
delphia on June 17th. The platform said, "We deny the author- 
ity of Congress, of a Territorial Legislature, or of any individual, 
or association of individuals, to give legal existance to slavery in 
any Territory of the United States while the present Constitution 
shall be maintained." John C. Freemont of California, was nom- 
inated for President and Wihiam L. Dayton of Ohio, for Vice- 
president. 

182 



The Presidential Campaign was open and the cry of 'Tree Soil, 
Free Speech, and Freemont" rang through the Free States in away 
that made the Pro-slavery party fear and tremble. 

Governor Shannon resigned August 18th, 1856, and left the Ter- 
ritory, in the night through fear of assassination by members of his 
own party, and left the work for Secretary Woodson, who at once 
declared the Territory in a state of insurrection and called out the 
militia. Woodson acted as Governor until September 18th, when 
John W. Gearv of Pennsylvania, became Governor, and he served 
until March 12th, 1857. 

Gearj^ was sent to quiet matters in Kansas, if possible, as the 
speeches of members of the Republican part}^ and their press in 
the Free States charging the trouble in Kansas to the Democratic 
part}^ was convincing the leaders of that party that something 
must be done or they would fail at the election. 

The Presidential Campaign all through was one of great interest 
and excitement. 

Buchanan's popular vote was 1,838,169 

Freemont 's '' " '' 1,341,264 

Fillmore's " " '' 874,534 



Total vote 4,053,947 

Freemont carried the State of New York by 80,000 majority and 
with the New England States, Ohio, Michigan, Iowa and Wisconsin, 
he had 114 electoral votes. James Buchanan had 174 electoral 
votes and was elected. Buchanan lacked 377,629 votes of a ma- 
jority over both his competitors. 

The Act of Congress organizing the Territories of Kansas and 
Nebraska, passed May 24th, 1854, repealed the Missouri comprom- 
ise Act of 1820, which excluded slavery north of 36° 30', and de- 
clared that act to be unconstitutional and void. It contained as 
a part of Section 21 of the act as follows: 

"And be it further enacted, that in order to avoid all miscon- 
struction, it is hereby declared to be the true intent and meaning 
of this act, so far as slavery is concerned, to carry into practical 
operation the following propositions and principles established by 
the Compromise measure of 1850. 

FiKST. That all c|uestions, pertaining to slavery in the ter- 
ritories and in the States to be formed therefrom are to be left to 
the people residing therein through their appropriate representa- 
tives. 

183 



This was the so-called Squatter Sovereignty plan and in the 
debate on this proposition in Congress, Mr. Douglass stated 
that the "object was neither to legislate slavery into or out of the 
Territories; neither to introduce it, or exclude it;' but to remove 
whatever obstacle Congress had put there, and applj'- the doctrine 
of Congressional non-intervention and allow the people to do as they 
pleased upon this as on all other matters affecting their interests." 

The repeal of the Missouri Compromise Act, and allowing slaves 
to be held in the Territories was made to satisfy the demands of the 
slave holders, and to give them the right to take their slaves into 
the Territories, expecting in that way to increase the number of 
Slave States. 

Under and through Buchanan's administration the Slave Power 
did its best to make Kansas a Slave State. After Geary left Kan- 
sas in the night, through fear of assassination by members of his 
own party, other Governors were sent, and they followed each, 
other in quick succession, Frederick P. Stanton, Robert J. Walker, 
James W. Denver, Hugh C. Walsh, Samuel Medary and George 
M. Beebe, each had a turn; and Congress sent committee after com- 
mittee to investigate and report. 

The Free State men of Kansas had adopted a Constitution ex- 
cluding Slavery, which had been accepted by the House, but the 
Senate, by one excuse or another, refused to grant admission until 
after the Presidential election of 1860 when, at near the close of 
Buchanan's administration, on January 21st, 1861, the Senate, by 
a vote of thirty-six to sixteen, passed the act of admission; and a 
few days later the House passed the same act by 119 to forty-two, 
and thus Kansas became the thirty-fourth state of the Union. 

So much space has been given to the trouble in Kansas because 
the whole force and power of the slave holders and of the Democra- 
tic party were used to compel her admission as a Slave State, and 
the great battle for or against the further extension of slavery was 
being fought on Kansas soil. 

Governor Robinson, the first Governor of Kansas as a State, 
said : ' ' Kansas was not saved by this man or by that man ; by 
this town or that town ; but it took all the Free State men and all 
the Free State towns in Kansas, aided by all the Free State men 
of all the States as well, to succeed in establishing freedom, where 
the Slavery men and Slave States backed by the Federal Govern- 
ment had determined to establish Slavery." 

The South, with the help of the Government, for six years had 
failed on the Squatter Sovereignty platform to compel Kansas to 
adopt a Slave Constitution and this plan for additional Slave States 
to enable the South to control, the Government having failed, the 
leaders resolved to force the question, "that neither Congress nor 

184 



a Territorial Legislature possess the power to prevent any citizen 
from taking his slave property into the Territory and there hold 
them as slaves." 

The feeling of the people north and south on the slavery question 
is told in the proceedings in Congress and the debates in the Con- 
ventions of the political parties in 1860 and in their platforms and 
nominations. 

The 36th Congress assembled December 5th, 1859. The Senate 
was strongly Democratic, the House being more equally divided. 

On February 2d, 1860, Jefferson Davis submitted a series of 
resolutions in the Senate, all on the slavery question and the rights 
of the slave holders in the territories. 

Section 4 of the series is as follows: 

"Resolved. That neither Congress nor a Territorial Legisla- 
ture, whether by direct legislation, or legislation of an indirect and 
unfriendly character, possess the poAver to annul or impair the 
Constitutional right of any citizen of the United States, to take 
his slave property into the common territories, and there hold and 
enjoy the same while the territorial condition remains." 

This, the deathblow to Popular Sovereignty, was passed in the 
Senate by a vote of thirty-five to twenty-one, every Democratic 
Senator present but Mr. Pugh of Ohio voting for it, and this senti- 
ment answered as a good excuse for the refusal by the Senate to 
allow Kansas to become a state under their Free State Constitution. 

The Alabama Democratic State Convention, to elect delegates to 
the Democratic National Convention, which had been called to 
meet at Charleston, S. C, on April 23d, 1860, adopted the follow- 
ing, to wit: 

"Resolved: That on the subject of slavery, we claim the un- 
qualified right of the people of the slave holding States, to protec- 
tion of their property in the States, in the Territories, and in the 
wilderness in which territorial governments are, as yet, unorganized. 

"Resolved. That it is the duty of the General Government, by 
all proper legislation, to secure an entry into those Territories, to 
all the citizens of the United States, together with their property 
of every description ; and that the same should be protected by the 
United States while the Territories are under its authority. 

" Resolved. That the Territories of the United States, are common 
property, in which all States have equal rights, and to which 
the citizens of every State may rightfully emigrate with their 
slaves or other property, recognized as such, in any of the States of 
the Union or by the Constitution of the United States. 

"Resolved. That the Congress of the United States has no power 
to abolish slavery in the Territories or to prohibit its introduction 
into any of them. 

185 



"Resolved. That the Territorial Legislatures have no power to 
abolish slavery, or to prohibit the introduction of the same, or to 
impair by unfriendly legislation the security and full enjoyment of 
the same within the territories. 

" Resolved. That the principles enunciated by Chief Justice 
Taney in his opinion in the Dred Scott case, deny to the Territorial 
Legislatures the power to destroy or impair l3y an}^ legislation 
whatever, the right of property in slaves, and maintains it to be 
the duty of the Federal Government in all its departments to 
protect the rights of the owner of such propert}^ in the territories; 
and the principles, so declared, are hereb}^ asserted to be the rights 
of the South, and the South should maintain them. 

"Resolved. That we hold all the foregoing propositions to con- 
tain cardinal principles, just and proper, and necessary for the 
safety of all that is dear to us, and that our Delegates to the Charles- 
ton Convention are hereby expressh'- instructed to insist, that said 
Convention shall adopt a platform of principles recognizing distinctly 
the rights of the South, as asserted in the foregoing resolutions; 
and that if said National Convention shall refuse to adopt in 
substance, the propositions embraced in the foregoing resolutions, 
prior to the nominating of Candidates, our delegates to said Con- 
vention, are hereby positively instructed to withdraw there- 
from." 

These resolutions are in the same spirit as the resolutions pre- 
sented to the Senate on Februar}-- 2d, by Jefferson Davis and which 
were adopted by the Senate on May 24th, 1860. 

The Democratic National Convention met at Charleston, S. C, 
on April 23d, 1860. The majority report of the Committee on 
Platform Avas presented by Mr. Avery of North Carolina on the 
slavery question. 

"Resolved. That the National Democrac}^ of the United States 
hold these cardinal principles on the subject of slavery in the 
territories. 

First. That Congress has no power to abolish slavery in the 
territories. 

Second. That the Territorial Legislatures have no power to 
abolish slavery in the Territories, nor to prohibit the introduction 
of slaves therein, nor any power to destroy or impair the right of 
property in slaves by any legislation whatever." (This was con-, 
curred in by the delegates of the Platform Committee of the fifteen 
Slave States, with Oregon and California.) 

The above resolutions were modified by the committee so as to 
Tead as follows: 

First. "That the government of a Territory organized by 
:an Act of Congress is provisional and temporary; and during its 

186 



existence all citizens of the United States have an equal right to 
settle with their property in the Territory, without their rights 
either of person or property being clestroj^ed or impaired by Con- 
gressional or Territorial Legislation. 

Second. "That it is the duty of the Federal Government in all 
its departments to protect, when necessary the rights of persons and 
property in the Territories and wherever else its Constitutional 
authority extends. 

Third. "That when the settlers in a territory having an 
adequate population form a State Constitution, the right of sov- 
ereignty commences, and, being consummated by admission into 
the Union, they stand on an equal footing with the people of other 
States ; and that the State thus organized ought to be admitted 
into the Federal Union whether its Constitution prohibits or recog- 
nizes the institution of slavery." 

Mr. Avery on presenting the resolutions stated the ground of 
difference with the minority as follows: 

"We demand at the hands of our northern brethern upon this 
floor, that the great principles which we cherish should be recog- 
nized, and I speak the common sentiments of our constituents at 
home; and I intend no reflection upon those who entertain a 
different opinion when I say that the result and ultimate conse- 
quences to the Southern States of this Confederacy, if the Popular 
Sovereignty Doctrine be adopted as the doctrine of the Democratic 
party, would be as dangerous and subversive of their rights as 
the adoption of the principles of Congressional intervention or 
prohibition. 

We say that in a contest for the occupation of the territories 
of the United States, the southern man, encumbered with slaves, 
cannot compete with the Emigrant Aid Societj^ of the North. 
That Society can send a voter to one of the Territories of the United 
States to determine a question relating to slavery for the sum 
of $200, while it would cost the southern man the sum of $1500. 

We say that whenever there is competition between the South 
and the North, that the North can and will at less expense and 
difficulty, secure power, control and dominion over the Territories 
of the Federal Government; and if then you establish the doctrine, 
that a Territorial Legislature which may be established by Con- 
gress in any Territory, has the right directly or indirectly to affect 
the institution of Slavery then you can see that the Legislature by 
its action, either directly or indirectly, may finally exclude every 
man from the slave holding States as effectually as if you had 
adopted the Wilmot Proviso out and out." 

187 



Mr. Henry B. Payne of Ohio presented a minority platform 
which after some changes was presented by Mr. Samuels of Iowa. 
On the Slavery question it said : 

' ' Resolved — That the Democratic party will abide by the de- 
cisions of the Supreme Court of the United States on the questions 
of Constitutional law." 

Mr. Butler of Massachusetts disagreed with both reports and 
wanted simply the Cincinnatti Platform of 1856 and there to stop. 

After a long debate the minority report was adopted April 30th. 

Mr. L. P. Walker of Alabama presented a written protest of twen- 
ty of the twenty-eight delegates from Alabama showing that they 
were instructed by the State Convention which elected them not to 
submit to any Squatter Sovereignty platform, but to withdraw 
from the Convention in case such a one was adopted. The Ala- 
bama Delegation concluded with the following statement: — 

"The points of difference between the northern and southern 
Democracy are : 

1st — As regards the status of Slavery as a political institution in 
the Territories, whilst they remain Territories, and the power of the 
people of a Territory to exclude it by unfriendly legislation and 

2nd — As regards the duty of the Federal Government to protect 
the owner of slaves in the enjoyment of his property in the Terri- 
tories so long as they remain such. 

This Convention has refused by the platform adopted to settle 
either of these propositions in favor of the South. We deny to the 
people of a territory any power to legislate against the institu- 
tion of Slavery; and we assert that it is the duty of the Federal 
Government, in all its departments, to protect the owner of slaves 
in the enjoyment of his property in the Territories. These princi- 
ples, as we state them, are embodied in the Alabama Platform. 
Here then, is a plain, explicit, and direct issue between this Con- 
vention and the constituencies which we have the honor to repre- 
sent in this body. 

Instructed, as we are, not to waive this issue, the contingency, 
therefore, has arisen which, in our opinion, it becomes our duty to 
withdraw from this Convention. We beg to communicate this fact 
and to assure this Convention that we do so in no spirit of anger 
but under a sense of imperative obligation, properly appreciating 
its responsibilities and cheerfully submitting to its consequences." 

Mr. Yancey of the southern delegation said: "The last Presi- 
dential election was won by ambiguity, double-dealing, and de- 
ception ; by devising a platform that meant one thing at the North 
and another at the South. 

We are resolved to have no more of this. We shall now succeed 
on a clear exhibition of our principles or not at all." 

188 



Mr. George E. Pugh of Ohio, a Douglass Democrat, said: "Thank 
God that a bold and honest man has at last spoken and told the 
whole truth with regard to the demands of the South. It is now 
plainly before the Convention and the country that the South does 
demand an advanced step from the Democratic party." He pro- 
ceeded then to show that the northern Democrats had sacrificed 
themselves in battling for the rights of the South; and instanced 
one after another of the Delegates there present who had been de- 
feated and thrown out of public life thereby. "And now, the 
very weakness thus produced is urged why the North should have 
no voice in forming the platform." 

The Democracy is willing to stand by the old landmarks; to 
reaffirm the old faith. We deeply regret to part with our southern 
brethren. But if they can only abide with us on the terms they 
have now proposed, they must go. The Northwest must, and will 
be heard and felt. The northern Democrats are not children to be 
told to stand here, to stand there, to be moved by the beck and bid- 
ding of the South. Because we are in a minority on account of our 
fidelity to our Constitutional obligations, we are told in effect, that 
we must put our hands on our mouths and our mouths in the dust. 
Gentlemen, you mistake us; we will not do it." 

The Southern leaders said : ' ' Gentlemen from the North, look well 
to your doing! If you insist on your Squatter Sovereignty plat- 
form, in full view of its condemnation by the Supreme Court in the 
Dred Scott case, you break up the Democratic party — -nay more; 
you break up the Union! The unity of the Democratic party is 
the last bond that holds the Union together; that snapped, there is 
no other that can be trusted for a year." 

The Alabama Delegation then withdrew, being followed by the 
Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Texas, Florida, and a part of the 
Georgia Delegates. 

Mr. W. B. Gaulden of Georgia said : " He would ask his friends of 
the South to come up in a proper spirit and ask our Northern 
friends to give us all our rights and take away the ruthless restric- 
tions which cut off the supply of slaves from foreign lands. As a 
matter of right and justice to the South, I would ask the Democ- 
racy of the North to grant us this thing ; and I believe they have the 
patriotism and honesty to do it, because it is right in itself. I tell 
you, fellow Democrats, that the African Slave-trader is the true 
Union man. The Slave-trader of Virginia is more immoral, more 
unchristian in every point of view, than the African Slave-trader 
who goes to Africa and brings a heathen and worthless man here, 
makes him a useful man, Christianizes him, and sends him and his 
posterity down the stream of time to enjoy the blessings of civiliza- 

189 



tion. Virginia, the great Slave-trading state of Virginia, is op- 
posed to the African Slave trade." 

Dr. Reed of Indiana said — " I am from Indiana and I am in favor 
of it." 

Mr. Gaulden, continued, "Now, Virginia which authorizes the 
buying of Christian men, separating them from their wives and 
children from all the relations and associations amid whom they 
have lived for years, roll up her eyes in holy horror when I would 
go to Africa, buy a savage, and introduce him to the blessings of 
civilization and Christianity." 

Capt. Eynders of New York said — "You can get one or two re- 
cruits from New York to join with you." 

Mr. Gaulden — "It has been my fortune to go into Virginia to 
buy a few -darkies; and I have had to pay $1,000 to $2,000 a head, 
when I could go to Africa and buy better negroes for fifty dollars 
apiece. If any of you northern Democrats will go home with me 
to my plantation in Georgia, I will show a'ou some darkies that I 
bought in Maryland, some I bought in Delaware, some I bought in 
A^irginia, some in Florida, some in North Carolina, and I will also 
show 5'OU the pure African, the noblest Roman of them all. 

I come from the First Congressional District of the State of 
Georgia. I represent the African Slave-trade interest of that sec- 
tion. I say to the northern Democracy, are 5^ou prepared to go 
back to first principles, and take off j^our Constitutional restrictions 
and leave this question to be settled b}^ each state? Now, do this, 
and you will have peace in the country. But so long as your 
Federal Legislature takes jurisdiction of this quesion, so long will 
there be war, so long there will be ill blood and strife until this 
glorious Union of ours shall be disrupted and go out in blood and 
night forever. I advocate the repeal of the laws prohibiting the 
African Slave-trade because I believe it to be the true Union move- 
ment. I do not believe that sections whose interests are so differ- 
ent as the southern and northern states, can ever stand the shocks 
of fanaticism unless they be equally balanced. I believe that, re- 
opening this trade and giving us negroes to populate the terri- 
tories, the equilibrium of the two sections will be maintained." 

The Convention then proceeded to ballot for President. After 
the fifty-seventh ballot, and no candidate chosen, the Convention 
after being in session ten days, on May 3d adjourned, to re-assemble 
at Baltimore on Monday, June 18th, and reccmmended the Demo- 
cratic party of the several States whose delegates had withdrawn 
to fill their places prior to that date. 

The seceding Delegates held a meeting with Senator Bayard of 
Delaware in the chair, and adopted the Avery Platform. After 

190 



four clays deliberation, this Convention adjourned to meet at Rich- 
mond, Va., on the second Monda}^ of June (11th). 

The regular Convention met at Baltimore, pursuant to adjourn- 
ment, on June 18th. Several days were spent on contested seats 
from the Southern States; and when this was concluded, the whole 
or part of the Delegates from Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, 
Tennessee, Missouri and Califorina, Avithdrew from the Convention. 

General Cushing resigned the chair which was immediately taken 
by Governor Todd of Ohio, a Vice-president at the Charleston Con- 
vention. 

General B. F. Butler of Massachusetts, said "that a majority of 
the Delegates from Massachusetts would not participate farther 
in the deliberation of the Convention." General Butler said, 
''there has been a withdrawal, in part, of a majority of the states; 
and further, upon the ground that I will not sit in a Convention 
when the African slave trade, which is piracy by the laws of my 
country, is approvingly advocated." This caused a great sensa- 
tion. 

The Convention then proceeded to ballot for President. On the 
second ballot, Stephen A. Douglas received two-thirds of the votes 
and was declared to be the regular nominee of the Democratic 
party of the United States for the office of President. 

Hon. Benjamin Fitzpatrick of Alabama was elected as Vice- 
president. Two days later he declined the nomination, and the 
National Committee substituted Hershel V. Johnson of Georgia. 

The Secession Convention met at Puchmond, Va. June 11th, and 
adjourned to Baltimore and finally met at St. Mary's Institute, 
June 28th. Twentj^-one States were fully or partly represented. 

Mr. Avery again submitted his Charleston Platform, which was 
adopted without alteration. 

_ The Convention by unanimous vote elected John C. Brecken- 
ridge of Kentucky as their candidate for President and General 
Joseph Lane of Oregon, candidate for Vice-president. 

The "Constitutional Union," (late American partv) held a con- 
vention at Baltimore, on May 19th, and nominated John Bell of 
Tennessee as candidate for President and Edward Everett of Mass- 
achusetts as candidate for Vice-president. Their platform re- 
solved, that it is both the part of patriotism and of duty to recog- 
nize no political principle other than the Constitution of the Coun- - 
try, the Union of the States, and the enforcement of the laws. 
Nothing said on the slavery question. 

The Republican National Convention met in Chicago Bl on 
Wednesday, May 16th, 1860. All the Free States were well repre- 
sented and delegates were there from Delaware, Maryland, ATrginia, 
Kentucky, Missouri, and the Territories of Kansas' and Nebraska' 



191 



A platform ccmmittee of one from each state and territory repre- 
sented was appointed the first day. The ccmmittee submitted a 
report on the evening of the second clay, which was immediately 
and unanimously adopted. The part on the Slavery question was 
as follows. 

Resoll-tion Second. ''That the principle prcmulgated in the 
Declaration of Independence and embodied in the Federal Consti- 
tution, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by 
their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are 
life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness ; that to secure these rights, 
governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers 
from the consent of the governed, is essential to the preservation 
of our Republican institutions; and that the Federal Constitution, 
the rights of the states, and the Union of the states, must and 
shall be preserved. 

Third. That to the Union of the states this nation owes its 
unprecedented increase in population, its surprishig development 
of material resources, its rapid augmentation of Avealth, its happi- 
ness at heme and its honor abroad; and we hold in abhorrence all 
schemes for dis-union, ccme from whatever source they may: we 
denounce those threats of dis-union, in case of a popular overthrow 
of their ascendency, as denying the vital principles of a free govern- 
ment, and as an avowal of contemplated treason, which it is the 
imperative dut}^ of an indignant people sternly to rebuke and for- 
ever silence. 

Fourth. That the maintenance inviolate of the rights of the 
states and especially the right of each state, to order and control 
its own domestic institutions according to its own judgment ex- 
clusively, is essential to that balance of powers on which the per- 
fection and endurance of our political fabric depend; and we de- 
nounce the lawless invasion by aimed force of the soil of any State 
or Territory, no matter under what pretext, as among the gravest 
of crimes. 

Seventh. That the new dogma, that the Constitution of its 
own force, carries slavery into all of the territories of the United 
States, is a dangerous political heresy, at variance with the ex- 
plicit provisions of that instrument itself, with contemporaneous 
exposition, and with legislative and judicial precedent; is revolu- 
tionary in its tendency, and subversive of the peace and harmony 
of the country. 

Eighth. That the normal condition of all the territory of the 
United States, is that of freedcm: That as our Republican fath- 
ers, when they had abolished slavery in all our national territory, 
ordained that ' ' no person should be deprived of life , liberty, or 
property without due possess of law," it becomes our duty by 

192 



legislation, whenever such legislation is necessary to maintain this 
provision of the constitution against all attempts to violate it, 'and 
we deny the authority of Congress, of a Territorial Legislation, or 
of any indi^'iduals, to giA^e legal existence to slavery in any territory 
of the United States. 

Ninth. That we brand the recent reopening of the African 
slave trade under the cover of our national flag, aided by perver- 
sions of judicial power, as a crime against humanity and a burning 
shame to our countr}^ and age ; and we call upon Congress to take 
prompt and efficient measures for the total and final suppression 
of that execrable traffic. 

Tenth. That in the recent vetoes by the Federal Governors, 
of the Acts of the Legislatures of Kansas and Nebraska prohibiting 
slaA'er}' in those territories, we find a practical illustration of the 
boasted Democratic principle of Non-intervention and Popular 
Sovereignty embodied in the Kansas-Nebraska bill, and a demon- 
stration of the deception and fraud involved therein. 

Eleventh. That Kansas, should of right be immediately ad- 
mitted as a state under the Constitution recently formed, and adopt- 
ed by the House of Representatives." 

The convention then proceeded to ballot for President. On the 
third ballot Abraham Lincoln of Illinois, having received a ma- 
jorit}'- of all votes cast; Mr. William M. Evarts of New York, moved 
that the nomination be made unanimous; seconded by Mr. John 
A. Andrews of Massachusetts, and Abraham Lincoln was made the 
choice of the convention. On the second ballot for Vice-president, 
Hannibal Hamlin of Maine, received 367 votes to ninet3'-nine for 
all others and was declared duly nominated. 

The Douglas, Breckenridge and Lincoln parties were planted on 
the following principles. 

DOUGLAS. — Slavery or no slavery in any territorj^ is entirely 
the affair of the white inhabitants of such territorj^ If they 
choose to have it, it is their right; if they choose iiot to have it, 
they have a right to exclude or prohibit it. Neither Congress nor 
the people of the Union or of any part of it outside of said terri- 
tory have any right to meddle with or trouble themselves about 
the matter. 

BRECKENRIDGE —The citizen of any state has the right to 
migrate to any territory, taking with him anything which is prop- 
erty by the law of his own state, and hold, enjoy, and be protected 
in the use of such property in said territory. And Congress is 
bound to render such protection whenever necessary whether with 
or without the co-operation of the Territorial Legislature. 

LINCOLN — Slavery can only exist by virtue of municipal law; 
and there is no law for it in the territories and no power to enact 

193 



one. Congress can establish or legalize slavery nowhere, but is 
bound to prohibit it in, or exclude it from any and every Federal 
Territor}^ whenever and wherever there shall be necessity for such 
exclusion or prohilDition. 

The four political parties were now ready for the business of the 
campaign, and never before this time, had there been a canvass 
carried through with anything like the force and determination 
b}'" the leaders of all the parties. Mass meetings and pole raisings 
were held in every city ,town and village, throughout the whole 
country, where speakers extolled the good things of their own 
party, and explained and derided what they called the bad things 
of the other parties; such great interest and excitement prevailed 
as had never before been reached. 

The election was held November 6th, 1860, with the result as 
follows: Lincoln 1,857,610 votes; Douglas received 1,365,976, 
votes; Breckenridge received 847,951 votes; Bell received 590.631. 
Total 4,662,168. 

In the Electoral College, Lincoln received 180 votes; Brecken- 
ridge received 72 votes; Bell received 39 votes; Douglas received 
12 votes. Total 303., which gaA^e Lincoln a majority of 57 over 
all others. 

While Lincoln did not have a majority of all the votes cast at the 
election, he received a majority of fift3^-seven of the Presidential 
Electors and was elected President. 

In the election of 1856, Buchanan received 1,838,169 votes; 
Fremont received 1,341,264 votes; Fillmore received 874,534 
votes. Total 4,053,967. 

In the Electoral College, Buchanan had 174 votes; Fremont had 
114; Fillmore 0. Totar228. 

While Buchanan in 1856 did not have a majority of all the 
votes cast at the election, he received a majority of sixt}^ of the 
Presidential Electors and was elected President. 

The result of the election of 1860 was not at all pleasing to the 
slave holders, and the southern leaders began at once to carry out 
their often repeated threat to dissolve the LTnion. The Legisla- 
ture of South Carolina on November 10th, 1860, five days after the 
election issued a call for a State Convention to meet on December 
17th, and on December 20th, the Convention by unanimous vote, 
declared that, ' ' the Union now subsisting between South Carolina 
and other States under the name of the United States is herebj- 
dissolved '' and gave as the reason that fourteen states had failed 
to fulfill their Constitutional obligations. 

This act of South Carolina was followed by other Southern 
States which passed Secession Ordinances as follows: Mississippi, 
January 8th, 1861; Florida, January 11th, 1861; Georgia, January 

194 



19th, 1861; Louisana, January 26th, 1861, Texas, February 1st, 
1861; Virginia, April 25th, 1861; Arkansas, May 6th, 1861; North 
Carohna, May 20th, 1861; Tennessee, June 8th, 1861. 

• The reason given by these states was the same as that given 
by South Carohna with the addition that "these fourteen states 
had elected a man to the high office of President of the United 
States whose opinions and purposes were hostile to slavery." 

On February 4th, 1861, delegates from the States that had at 
that date seceded met at Montgomery, Alabama, to form a new 
government. This Congress, on February 18th, adopted a Consti- 
tution with the title ''Confederate States of America, " elected and 
inaugurated Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, and Alexander H. 
Stephens, of Alabama for President and Vice-president. 

The seceded States immediately took action to prepare for the 
coming contest of arms. The Georgia Legislature passed a bill 
appropriating $1,000,000 to arm and equip the state. The South 
had seized forts, arsenals, ships and munitions of war, the United 
States mint at New Orleans, with $500,000 in money, and other 
pubhc property there, said to amount to about $4,000,000; and 
ah public property in the seceded states that they could reach. 

The members of both houses of Congress from these states gener- 
ally left soon after their states passed their secession ordinances. 

John B. Floyd, President Buchanan's Secretary of War, had 
sent all the munitions of war that he could well reach in the North 
to southern forts, most of the regular army being sent to Texas, 
and the ships of the navy being in the South or absent at foreign 
stations, everything being ready to their hand; Flovd resigned 
December 29th, 1860 and left Washington for the South. 

During the night of December 26th, 1860, Major Anderson 
moved his handful of United States troops from Fort Moultrie 
in Charleston harbor to Fort Sumter. 

On January 21st, 1861, most of the Southern members of Con- 
gress having left, Kansas with a population of 107,000, by a vote 
in the Senate of 36 to 16, and in the House a few days later by a 
vote of 119 to 42, was admitted with a Free State Constitution as 
a member of the Union. 

All through the South a secret order known as the ''Knights of 
the Golden Circle," was being organized and the lodges were 
extending through the South and into the Free States. All 
members were sworn to fidelity to southern rights and slavery 
protection. 

Great efforts were made by the leaders of all parties in the 
North by Conventions and petitions to Congress to amend the 
Constitution of the United States so as to satisfy the South on the 



195 



slavery question; but no good resulted as the southern leaders 
absolutely refused to accept an}^ concessions. 

President-elect Lincoln arrived in Washington February 24th, 
1861, at 6 o'clock a. m., by special train from Philadelphia. He 
was inaugurated Monday, March 4th, 1861. In his inaugural 
address he said in part, "That no state upon its own motion can 
lawfully get out of the Union; that resolves and ordinances to 
that effect are legall}'- void; and that acts of violence within any 
state or states against the authorit}" of the United States are 
insurrectionary or revolutionary according to circumstances. 

I therefore consider that in view of the Constitution and laws, 
the Union is unbroken and to the extent of my ability, I shall take 
care, as the Constitution itself expressly enjoins upon me, that the 
laws of the Union shall be faithfully executed in all the States. 

"I trust this will not be regarded as a menace, but only as the 
declared purpose of the Union ; that it will constitutionally defend 
and maintain itself. 

"In doing this there need be no bloodshed nor violence, and 
there shall be none unless it is forced upon the national authority. 
In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen and not in mine, 
is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not 
assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves 
the aggressors." 

The Confederates took this as a declaration of war, and they 
hastened their preparations for the coming contest. 

The address greatly united the people of the North. 

Major Anderson had for fifteen weeks been shut up in Fort 
Sumter, by the rebels, when on April 12th, 1861, at 4.30 o'clock 
in the morning, the rebel batteries under command of General 
Beauregard opened fire on the fort; and this commenced the war 
of the Slave Holders' Rebellion. 

It is an old saying, "that whom the Gods would destroy, they 
first make mad," and it proved true in the slavery issue. The 
pro-slavery leaders were mad because their purpose to gain and 
hold political power was going from them. They were mad in their 
determination for slavery extension and protection; mad in their 
murderous and treasonable course to compel Kansas to become 
a Slave State; mad in their nominating conventions and through 
the campaign of 1860; mad because of the results of the election; 
mad in their secession of States, and in forming a Confederac y to 
destroy the Union; mad in commencmg the war; for, by the war 
which they thus inaugurated, slavery, their pet institution was 
to be destroA-ed; and with slavery gone, their poA^er to control the 
United States Government, by and through that mstitution was 
also gone — lost forever. 

196 



CHAPTER XV. 

TOWN OF ELM A 1866 TO J 884. 

For a statement of officers elected at the town meetings since 
the town was organized, and for the years for which this history 
is to continue, see Chapter XXI. 

For a table of assessments of personal and real property, the 
equilized valuation as fixed by the Board of Supervisors, the town 
expenses for each year as audited by the Town Board, the expense 
for roads and bridges and taxes of the town for each year since the 
town was organized and for the years for which this history is to 
continue, see Chapter XXI. 

For alphabetical lists of Marriages and deaths, of some of the 
residents of the Town of Elma to 1900, see Chapters XVIII and XIX. 

For a statement of the postoffices of the town and the dates of 
then- being established, with the names of the persons appointed 
as postmaster with the year of their appointment, see Chapter 
XXI. 

For a statement of the oi-ganizing of the different churches, the 
erection of their houses of worship, and their Sunday Schools, etc 
see Chapter XXI. ' 

For a table of the United States Census, and the State of New 
York separate statement of the census of the population of the Town 
of Elma, 1860, to 1900, see Chapter XXI. 



1866. 

John Kihm came to East Elma and was blacksmith in the shop 
at the east end of the bridge in 1866. 

On January 1st, 1866, Lewis Northrup made a New Year's 
present to his son, Eli B. Northrup, of the sawmill and millyard 
on the north side of the Cazenove Creek at Spring Brook; and that 
year Eli Northrup overhauled and remodeled the mill and put in a 
large circular saw. 

_ Henry Klehm moved on to the south half of Lot 53, on the west 
side of the Bo wen Road, in the spring of 1866. 

The Schultz Steam Sawmill was buift on Pond Brook, north of 
the Jamison Road, and west of the Schultz Road, on Lot 42, in 
the summer of 1866, and for a few years it was run, was a great 

197 



help to the owners of near-by lands, as it enabled them more 
readily to get the timber into lumber and into the Buffalo market. 

In the summer of this 3"ear, Ellery S. Allen and his brothers, 
David and Anthony, Jr., came to East Elma from Saratoga County, 
and bought of Z. A. Hemstreet the sawmill and gristmill property 
at the west end of Lot 10, about twenty acres, besides other lands 
in the near vicinity. This company, known as "The Allen Brothers 
operated the sawmill and commenced to alter the gristmill building 
into a woolen factory, thus adding a new industr}^ to East Elma. 
The gristmill building had never been finished and the machinery 
never put in and so had never been used as a gristmill. 

Jacob Mohn and Jacob Koch came into the town and with their 
families settled in Blossom. 

Hermon Hesse came from Germany in the spring of 1866, and 
worked for Samuel Green in the Chair factory on Pond Brook 
in Elma Village. 

Albert Morris, the three-year-old son of AVilliam Morris was kill- 
ed while playing with several other boys on the bridge over 
the Creek on the Aurora plank road, south of the Mouse Nest 
tavern, by the team and wagon driven by a Mr. Morey of Holland, 
who was returning from Buffalo, and who did not see the little 

boy. The funeral services were conducted by Rev. Sanford of 

East Aurora, and the burial in the Spring Brook cemetery. 

John Luders bought of Hiram Harris the north half of Lot 40, 
in the Aurora part of the town and on the west side of the Schultz 
Road. Deed dated December 12th, 1866, recorded in Liber 261, 
on page 349. 

John Cook bought of John Luders the east part of Lot 45, of the 
Lancaster part of Elma. Deed dated December 17th, 1866; 
recorded in Liber 273, page 106. 

During the spring and early part of the summer of this year 
there had been several meetings held in different parts of the town 
to talk up the project of a railroad across the town and to ascer- 
tain if the people would subscribe for any of the stock of the 
said railroad. 

Mr. William Wallace, Engineer and Superintendent of the Attica 
and Buffalo Railroad, when completed in 1843, and Avho had been 
the prime mover in the survey and construction of the Buffalo, 
Brantford and Goderich Railway in 1851 to 1858, was in 1866, 
working to get a railroad from Buffalo to the coal fields in Pennsyl- 
vania, the objecti\^e point being Emporium in Pennsylvania. 

On February 4th, 1865, a company was organized as the Buffalo 
and Washington Railroad Company and was soon consolidated 
with the Buffalo and Allegany Valley Railroad Company, and 
other railroad companies, all to be under the name of the Buffalo 

198 



and Washington Compam^, which was in a httle time changed to 
Buffalo, New York and Philadelphia, and still later, to Western 
New York and Pennsylvania Railroad. 

.It was this proposed road that Mr. Wallace was so much inter- 
ested in getting built that he went through on the proposed line, 
holding meetings in all the towns to see what encouragement the 
people would render towards the building of the road, and some 
of these meetings were held in this town as above noted. He met 
with such success in the towns and in Buffalo, that in August 
1866, he had the line surveyed from Buffalo to the Transit, the 
west line of this town. He then engaged Warren Jackman to 
survey the line from the Transit through the town of Elma and to 
connect with the survey as made by Buffalo and Allegany Valley 
Railroad Company on Lot 45, in Aurora part of Elma, where that 
company- had cut down a few trees, indicating the line of their 
survey, and from that point, on the line of this old survey across 
the balance of the town of Elma. The directions given by Mr. 
Wallace to Jackman were "to put in as flat a curve as possible, 
at the crossing of the Bowen Road, and to keep off the lands of 
Eron Woodard," as Woodard had absolutely refused to allow the 
railroad to cross any of his land. 

The line as surveyed across the town of Elma was nearly all 
the way through the unbroken forest, only for a short distance, 
near the west line of the town, and occasionally through a small 
chopping was there any cleared land along the line as surveyed 
b)'' Jackman and his corps of helpers, in October, 1866. 

The levels were taken, and profile maps were made that fall, 
and the road was built on that line the next year from Buffalo to 
East Aurora. 

Isaac Gail's store at East Elma was closed in the fall of 1866. 

1867. 

February, 1867, opened with two to three feet of snow on the 
level, and with cold weather which continued until the weather 
moderated on the 10th, and the thaw continued on 11th and 12th, 
followed on 13th by a heavy rain which took off most of the remain- 
ing snow. This caused a great flood and the breaking up of the 
12-inch ice in the Big Buffalo and Cazenove Creeks and other 
streams. 

An ice dam was formed in the Big Buffalo Creek, three-quarters 
of a mile below Elma Village, which caused the water and running 
ice to set back and form a lake from the ice dam to Hurd & Briggs ' 
milldam, half a mile above Elma Village ; and from Hurd & Briggs ' 
sawmill to the high bank south of the creek, the water being from 

199 



two to six feet deep and all filled with ice. In main Street, in 
Elma Village, the ice was piled four to eight feet high, fences, 
lumber and small buildings being carried away bj^ the flood. 

During the night of the 14th, the ice dam ga^^e away, and in the 
morning of 15th the water had drained off, and before night a track 
had been cleared in the road, so that teams could go across the 
flats between the walls of ice. 

The Winspear bridge was carried off by this freshet, and was 
replaced with a lattice bridge during the summer, at a cost to 
the town of $925,00. 

The Blossom bridge was damaged so that the repairs cost the 
town S450. 

The Northrup bridge was damaged and was repaired at a cost of 
$342. 

Many small bridges, culverts, and sluices, were carried away and 
destroj^ed which, with the loss and damage to the large bridges, 
made a heavy road and bridge account for the town to meet. 

Joseph C. Standart bought of Stephen Markham,the house, lot and 
sawmill, on Lots 58 and 59 in the Lancaster part of Elma, on the 
east side of the Bowen Road, the deed dated February 13th, 1867, 
recorded in Liber 288, page 328. 

AVarren Jackman sold to Wilbor B. Briggs, March 7th, 1867, 
the house and lot in Elma Village on the west side of Main Street 
and south of the millrace and on March 21st, Jackman moved to 
Youngstown, Niagara Co., after residing here sixteen 3^ears. 

In the spring of this year, John Garby bought and moved on to 
fifty acres of central part of Lot 60, on the west side of Bowen Road. 

Harvey C. Palmer and family moved from Saratoga County in 
April, 1867, to East Elma, where he worked for Allen Brothers 
on and in the woolen mill, in altering the gristmill building, and 
putting in the machinery, the whole being completed and in 
successful operation before the close of the year. It was called 
"The Niagara Woolen Mills." 

The steam shinglemill at East Elma, owned by Munger and 
Crane, burned July 4th, 1867, and was immediately rebuilt. 

Hattie E. Davis, eleven year okl, daughter of Wm. H. Davis, 
who resided on the Northrup Road on Lot 101 and Nellie E. Wal- 
lis, the nine year old daughter of Mrs. and Mrs. Wm. D. Wallis, 
who resided on the Northrup Road southwest from Spring Brook, 
on Lot 35 of the Mile Strip, were both drowned on the afternoon 
of July 24th, 1867, in the "Devil's Hole" in the Cazenove Creek. 
This hole was formed in the bed of the creek by the rapid flow of 
the water at the bend of the creek and at that time was about forty 
feet in length, up and down the creek, and about twenty feet wide 
and about seven feet deep. It was supposed that the girls while 

200 



wading in the shallow water along the shore without knowing 
of the hole stepped or fell into it and both were drowned. 

A private cemeter}^ on the Rice Road and north of Lot 66, 
known as the Tillou cemetery, had been used for several years 
when on September 30th, 1867, it was organized under the State 
cemetery laws as the "Union Cemetery of Spring Brook." It is 
generally known as the Tillou Cemetery. 

Stephen Northrup bought of Geo. H. Bristol the store and 
tannery lot in Spring Brook ; deed dated October 22d, 1867, recorded 
in Liber 271, page 440. He put in a stock of new goods; was 
appointed Postmaster of the Spring Brook Postoffice by President 
Johnson. 

The surA^ey of a line for a railroad from Buffalo to East Aurora, 
the levels and maps having been completed in the fall of 1866 and 
the letting of the contract in the spring of 1867, to build the road, 
this being a part of the proposed Buffalo and Washington Rail- 
road from Buffalo to Emporium, made the building of the road to 
the coal fields and lumber region of Pennsylvania a sure thing. 
This section of eighteen miles from Buffalo to Aurora was built and 
accepted by the Company, December 22d, and an excursion train 
between these places, on Wednesday, December 25th, (opening day) 
was the cause of great rejoicing with all the people along the fine 
of the road. 

This part of the road was operated for several years before the 
road was completed to Emporium, and during these years vast 
quantities of lumber and wood were sent by the railroad to Buffalo. 
At this time, 1867, not more than half of the timber had been taken 
from the land in the Town of Elma,and the prospect of the railroad 
being soon built to the Penns^dvania lumber and coal region, 
caused the owners of timber lands in Elma, to rush their wood and 
lumber into the Buffalo market, before lumber and coal should be 
brought from Pennsylvania, as then they thought, prices would 
go down with a crash. So every effort was put forth by the Elma 
people to get their lands cleared before the road should be com- 
pleted. 

The building of the road beyond Aurora was delayed several 
years; but was completed to Olean in July, 1872, and opened to 
Emporium on January 1st, 1873. 



J868. 

Thomas Hines bought and moved on to the southwest part of 
Lot 39, Aurora part of Elma, between the Williams Road and the 
Railroad, April 14th, 1868. 

20i 



James T. Hurcl bought of Charles A. Button eleven and one- 
quarter acres of land, being the northwest part of Lot 59, Lancaster 
part of Elma, on west side of the Bo wen Road, the deed dated 
April 16th, 1868, recorded in Liber 354 page 93. 

John Hicks was the blacksmith at East Elma in 1868. 

Clark W. Hurd and family moved to Batavia this spring, having 
rented their Elma property to their sons, Dennis and Charles. 

Rev. George W. McPherson was sent by the Methodist Episcopal 
Conference to the Elma Village Methodist Episcopal Church. 

George W. Hatch bought the three-quarter acre lot at East 
Elma on the northeast corner of Jamison and Thompson Roads, 
and during the summer of 1868 built a store on the lot. 

At the Presidential Election held November 3d, 1868, 569 votes 
were polled in the town. The total popular vote given to U. S. 
Grant, the Republican candidate was 3,015,071. The Electoral 
College gave 214 votes, and 80 votes to Horatio Seymour, the 
Democratic candidate. 

During this year several more families moved into the town, 
many of them buying parts of lots, some buying only a few acres. 

The railroad having been built and in successful operation, 
greatly increased the facility of getting to Buffalo for the people 
and was convenient for the sending of wood and lumber to market 
by the carload. 

The railroad company planned for three stations in the town, 
one at their crossing of the Pound Road, north from Spring Brook, 
one at their crossing of the Bowen and Wooclard Roads, and one at 
their crossing of the Jamison Road. 

A temporary building was put up for the Spring Brook station ; 
a rough board shanty with board roof was erected as the Elma 
depot, the company refusing to use the comfortable building, 18 x 
30 feet, that the Elma people had built, and the board shanty 
was used for several years, a cold place in winter and wet inside 
when it rained as the roof leaked badh-^, the company refusing to 
put up a better building until complaints from the people reached 
the railroad Commissioners, who, on visiting the place in 1878, 
notified the company that unless they immediately put up a new 
and comfortable building they, the Commissioners, would build 
a depot at the expense of the railroad company. Th^s order ended 
the matter, as the railroad company immediately erected a com- 
fortable depot building on the west side of the railroad and on the 
north side of the Woodard Road. At the Jamison Road, the rail- 
road business was done in Fred. Wilting 's building on the west side 
of the railroad track and on the north side of the Jamison Road, 
E. Bleeck acting as the railroad agent. 

202 



J 869. 

By deed dated April 2d, 1869, in the settlement of the estate of 
Lewis M. Bullis, Phoebe Bullis con\'eyed to Orson S. Bullis the 
Bullis sawmill and about twelve acres of land, and on the same date 
Frank Bullis received deed for Lots 22, 23 and 10 acres of Lot 29. 

The Union Church Society, of Spring Brook, was organized early 
in January, 1869. David J. Morris convej^ed the lot on which the 
the church building stood, on the north side of the Plank Road 
and near the west end of Lot 75 to the societv, the deed being 
dated January 18th, 1869; recorded in Liber 427, page 518. 

William H. Bancroft sold to Jacob Jerge the house and black- 
smith shop lot, in Elma Village on the west side of the Bowen 
Road, April 1st, 1869. After Casper Jerge 's death, March 16th, 
Jacob had the entire business of the brothers. 

On April 5th, Bancroft bought of Clement Peek, the northwest 
part of Lot 15 of the Mile Strip at the southwest corner of the 
Billington and Williams Roads, containing forty-eight acres, 
subject to the right for schoolhouse on the northeast corner so 
long as needed for public school purposes; the deed dated April 5th, 
1869, recorded in Liber 285, page 318. Bancroft in a few days 
moved from Elma Village on to the Mile Strip. 

Timothy Clifford sold to Michael Beck, April 22d, 1869, the 
house and lot on Lot 84, and blacksmith shop and Lot on the west 
end of Lot 75 in Spring Brook; when Clifford bought of John Miller 
twenty-five acres from the south end of Lot 38, on the northeast 
corner of Jamison and Schultz Roads; deed dated March 2d, 1870. 
Clifford built a blacksmith shop near his southAvest corner, which 
he carried on for twenty years. 

James Clark was appointed Postmaster of the Elma Postoffice 
in 1869, and moved the office from Standart's on Bullis Road, to 
Markham's store with Markham as deputy. 
_ William Bell, who lived on Lot 21 of the Mile Strip, on the west 
side of Bowen Road, committed suicide in 1869, hy shooting 
himself with a pistol; cause: financial trouble, he, while insurance 
agent having become considerable short in making his returns. 
I At the General Election, November 2d, 1869, 407 votes were 
polled. 

I870-I87L 

On January 3d, 1870, Mr. and Mrs. William Standard celebrated 
their golden wedding, at their home south of Elma A^illage. The 
many friends present with their gifts, testified their respect for 
the Standart family. 

203 



Alonzo C. Bancroft, in the spring of 1870, sold part of his per- 
sonal property and with his family moved to AVisconsin. 

For the United States Census for 1870, see Chapter XXI. 

Louis Kleberg was appointed Postmaster of Blossom Postoffice 
in 1870. 

The East Elma Postoffice was re-established in 1870, with 
George W. Hatch as Postmaster. 

Williams' store on the southeast corner of the Jamison and 
Hemstreet Roads in East Elma burned in the winter of 1870 and 
1871. 

Horace Kyser's steam mill in Spring Brook, built in 1862, burned 
in the: fah of 1870. 

Lyman K. Bass, November 15th, 1870, bought of Orson S. 
Bullis, the Bullis sawmill with other lands. Bass sold same to 
Henry C. Sargent and later Sargent took down the mill and sold 
the sawmill lot to Henry Cole. 

I87I. 

John Shay was the East Elma blacksmith in 1871. 
f? Mrs. James Dunbar bought the McFee property across the. 
road from the Catholic church in Spring Brook in the spring of 1871. 

The Bridge across the big Buffalo Creek in Elma Village gave 
out and two new stone abutments were required for an iron bridge 
built by the Ohio Bridge Company, at a cost of $3789.89. 

The Northrup bridge across the Cazenove Creek at Spring Brook 
was repaired at a cost of $310. 

The Standart bridge was repaired at a cost of $193.91. 

Christopher Peek sold his steam sawmill on Pond Brook to a 
Mr. Wood, who took down the mill and moved it to Sardinia. 

This year there were many changes and tranfers of real property 
made in the town, the descriptions of which must be passed by. 
The forest is fast disappearing. 

At the General Election November 7th, 1871, 406 votes were 
polled. 

1872. 

Thomas Schneider was the blacksmith at East Elma this jea.r. 

George Helfter and Jacob Jerge form a partnership as black- 
smiths in Elma Village in April. 

A fire company of thirty-six members was organized in Blossom 
this year. 

Clark W. Hurd and family moved to Elma from Batavia, taking 
possession of their old residence and property. 

204 



In the spring of 1872, the Allen Brothers dissolved their partner- 
ship and made a division of their property at East Elma and 
vicinity. EUery S. Allen took the woolen factory and business 
with sixteen and two-thirds acres of land; Anthony Allen, Jr., 
took the sawmill and two acres of land, and David Allen had certain 
other real estate. 

Joseph Wagner bought of Joachin Wagner that part of Lot 39 
west of the railroad and north of Thomas Hines on the east side 
of the Wihiams Road. Deed August 3d, 1872, recorded in Liber 
323, page 44. 

A Lutheran church, 21 x 30 feet was built on Lot 40, on the 
north side of the Woodard Road, in the summer of 1872. Chris- 
tian Stolle was the contractor and builder. The church cemetery is 
on the north part of the church lot. 

Horace K3'ser in the summer of 1872 built a steam sawmill and 
gristmill on the ground occupied b}" his sawmill which burned in 
1870. 

Stephen Northrup's store in Spring Brook burned in August. 
The postofRce matters and most of the goods were sailed and 
moved into Esquire Ward's office. Northrup immediately built 
a brick store which was finished, furnished, and occupied by him in 
November of that year. 

The Buffalo and Washington Railroad was completed to Olean 
in July, 1872. 

At the Presidential Election, November 5th, 1872, 456 votes 
were cast. The popular vote to General U. S. Grant was 3,579,- 
070. At the Electoral College, he received 292 votes and as Horace 
Greely, the Democratic candidate died before the meeting of the 
Presidential Electors, the Democratic Electors were divided as 
follows: For Thomas A. Hendricks, 42; for B. Gratz Brown, 18; 
for Horace Greelv, 3; for Charles A. Jenks, 2; for David Davis, 1. 
Total 66. 

The German Evangelical Societ}^ built a church on west part of 
Lot 75 on the north side of the Plank Road, in Spring Brook, in 
the summer of 1872, dedicated November 24th, 1872. 



1873. 

A Lutheran Society was organized in Blossom Village and a 
church building erected across the street from the German Evan- 
gelical church. 

Alonzo C. Bancroft came back from Wisconsin with his family in 
the early spring of 1873 and moved into Mrs. Clark's house across 
the street from the church in Elma village. 

205 



The Standart bridge, three-quarters of a mile below ElmaVillage; 
went out with the spring freshet, and the voters at the town 
meeting, March 4th, 1873, refused by vote to rebuild the bridge. 
There had for several years been great dissatisfaction as to 
that part of the Stolle Road along the west line of Lot 12, south 
from Bullis Road. The Commissioners of Highways finally made 
a settlement with the owners of land by paying Philip Stitz S125; 
Henry C. Sargent $100; Wm. Reuther SlOO; and John Heitman 
$15. Total $340. 

The milldam built by Northrup & Baker in 1844 was replaced 
by Eli Northrup who built a stone dam in its place in the summer 
of 1873. 

The house that Clark W. Hurd built in 1846 on the east side 
of the Bowen Road, north of Hurd & Briggs sawmill in Elma 
Village, was moved b}^ Hurd in the spring of 1873 to the lot next 
north of the church, and the Hurd family lived in that house while 
Hurd was preparing plans and building a large new house on the 
old site. The new house was raised in September of that year, 
but was not finished and occupied until 1874. 

The Buffalo and Washington Railroad was completed and opened 
for traffic to Emporium on July 1st, 1873. 

For the last five years, the owners of timber lands in the Town 
of Elma had been working hard to get their wood and lumber into 
Buffalo before this railroad should be completed to the coal and 
timiber lands of Pennsylvania, fearing that when the railroad 
should commence to bring coal and lumber, their prices would 
go down, and so the rush was continued. Every sawmill had been 
worked to its full capacity and the greatly diminished amount of 
timber remaining in the town showed that there bad been very 
much hard work done and that a very few more years of such work 
would see the end of hauling wood and lumber to Buffalo. 

Occasionally, a sawmill located on a small stream where the 
timber was nearly gone, would be placed on the retired list or taken 
down; and the residents of the town were gradually changing 
business from lumbermen and wood choppers to farmers. 

To show the interest the first settlers in the new town took in 
school matters, an account will be given here of the building of 
the first schoolhouse in Spring Brook and the efforts made by some 
of the residents for additional room when the first building had 
become too small to accommodate all of the children of that school 
district. The records of the Spring Brook school district have been 
well and continuously kept from the first meeting to organize a 
school district and are, therefore, evidence that must stand. 

In nearly every school district in the town, the records have 
been lost, so that they could not be obta'ned. As a rule, the building 

206 



of the first schoolhouse in a neighborhood or school district would 
meet with little or no opposition, but when a move was made for an 
addition or for a new house, the opposition would be out in full 
force. So the experience of Spring Brook is no exception but proof 
of the rule. 

From the reported proceedings of the Spring Brook school district, 
viz.: 

After one or two preliminary^ meetings to organize a school 
district, at a meeting held on April 24th and April 30th and May 2d, 
1846, it was decided to build a schoolhouse as per the following 
contract: "The building to be 20 x 24 feet with 11 feet hemlock 
plank one and one-half inches thick, lined with one one-half inch 
hemlock plank five or six inches wide. Floor of one and one-quarter 
inch seasoned ash, jointed and lined; eight windows, each fifteen 
lights of 8 x 10 glass ; two one and one-half inch four panel doors, 
one outside six panel two inch door; lathed and plastered inside 
and six double and two single desks ; roof to be covered with good 
pine shingles; outside to be finished with good sound pine and 
bold cornice, to be painted with English Venetian trimmed with 
white, to be built on a good stone wall two feet high and to be 
ready for school by June 1st and to be completed by NoA^ember 
15th next. Contract price, S254." 

Many families were moving into Spring Brook and immediate 
vicinit}^, so the schoolhouse soon proved to be too small to accom- 
modate all the children in the neighborhood who wanted to attend 
the school. 

At the Annual meeting held on October 5th., 1852, a resolution 
was passed and adopted to build an addition to the schoolhouse. 
Meeting adjourned for one week. 

October 12th, 1852, adjourned meeting; Resolved, That we 
build an addition to this schoolhouse, so we can have two school- 
rooms. Carried. Adjourned to October 16th, at 1 o,clock p. m. 

October 16th, 1852. Adjourned meeting; Resolved, that we 
rescind the resolution to build an addition to the schoolhouse. 
Carried. 

October 25th, 1852. Special meeting. Resolved that we raise 
$150.00 by tax, to build an addition to the schoolhouse. Carried 
forty-four to forty- two." 

(As the vote was so nearly equal, the names of the persons voting 
for and against the resolution are here given) . 

Voting for the tax: John B. Bristol, Charles M. Whitney, C. S. 
Mariam, William Jones, C. S. Spencer, Cornelius Van Brocklin, 
David J. Morris, Joseph Stafford, S. Eddy, Amos D. Waters, S. 
Wait, H. Van Antwerpt, John Van Antwerpt, James M. Taylor, 
Jonathan Johnson, James Dunbar, William Hunt, N. W^rtman, 

207 



Joseph Morton, H. S. Larned, Nclumiali Graves, James H. Ward, 
J. J. French, F. S. Baker, J. H. Letson, Steadly Stafford, A. W. 
Palmer, John Morris, Edward Good, Ehas Weed, Benjamin Rich- 
man, Nehcmiah Cobb, Wyvell Todd, John Todd, John Skidmore, 
Wilham Morris, L. F. Morris, Daniel W: Wilkins, Fisher Ames, 
John Van Antwerp, Ferris Palmer, George Good, Alonzo Doolittle, 
Total forty-four. 

Voting against the tax : Isaac Tillou, Joseph Grace, Zebina Lee, 
Israel Morey, John Bohan, James Conle}^, Samuel Dans, Charles 
Rogers, Moses Baker, James Dcman, John McGivern, Alfred Money, 
Thcmas Corrigan, Amos Dodge, Edward Hill, MelvinShaw, Lyman 
Parker, S. Hamlin, Neal McHugh, Zenas M. Cobb, AVilliam J. 
Chadclerdon, Barney Con^.ey, Abraham Morton, James Tillou, Pat- 
rick McCoimick, Wallace Fones, John McFee, R. J. Jackson, J. H. 

Gregory, Thcmas O'Flannigan, Joseph Tillou, Colby, A. 

Morrisson, L. G. Northrup, William White, Patrick Phalan, B. J. 
Smith, John Mitchell, Horace Kyser, T. Fagan, Isaac Hall, Cyrus 
Soddy. Total 42. Majority for the tax, two." 

These eighty-six persons, voters at the school meeting in October 
1852, besides others, probably who were not voters, or who did not 
attend the meeting, and who were residents of the Spring Brook 
school district, will show how rapidly that part of the town had 
become settled in the eight yeras since Northrup and Baker built 
the first sawmill and millhouse in October, 1844. 

The addition to the schoolhouse above mentioned, was never 
built and the question of the addition was freely discussed in the 
school district. No further action was had until a special school 
meeting was called for January 5th, 1863. 

At this special meeting a resolution was passed to build an addi- 
tion twent3'-four feet square. Adjourned for two weeks. 

"January 19th, 1863. — Adjourned meeting. Resolved, that we 
rescind the proceedings of the last meeting so far as related to build- 
ing an addition to the schoolhouse. Carried. 

Resolved, that we build a new schoolhouse in the center of the 
lot. Carried. 

Resolved, that we raise $400.00 to build the new house. Carried." 
Two plans for the new house were presented, called the Morris 
plan and the Grace plan. 

"By a ^'ote, the Morris plan was adopted, fifteen to twelve. March 
2d, 1863, special meeting; adjourned for one week because of non- 
attendance of part of the voters. 

March 9th, 1863. The adjourned meeting voted to rescind the 
proceedings of the meeting of Januar}^ 19th, to raise $400.00 to 
build a new house. Carried. 

208 



Resolved, that we raise $500.00 to build the new schoolhouse- 
Carried." 

There was no new schoolhouse built under these resolutions, and 
as there were more children in the district than the old house could 
accommodate, rooms had to be hired from time to time, in which a 
second school could be kept. Matters continued to run in that 
way until at a special meeting held on January 6th, 1870, a reso- 
lution was presented to lev}- a tax to raise $2,500 or so much as 
may be necessary to build a new schoolhouse 26x40, two stories 
high. 

The question was divided and the vote to build a new school- 
house was lost by twenty-eight to eighteen. 

The building of a new schoolhouse was again taken up at a special 
meeting called for August 7th, 1872, at which a motion was carried 
to build a new schoolhouse. 

A motion to reconsider was carried immediately, and a motion 
was carried to not build a new schoolhouse. A motion was carried 
that we repair the old house. A motion was carried to raise $1,000 
for the repairs. A motion was carried that the $1,000 be raised in 
two installments, $500.00 for the first and as much as may be nec- 
essar}^ to complete the house for the second. 

August 8th, 1872, annual meeting. Motion made and carried 
that we rescind the movements of all special meetings." This ac- 
tion put a stop to any repairs of the old house. 

" January 30th, 1873. Special meeting for building a new school- 
house or to repair the old house. 

Motion made and carried that a committee of seven be appointed 
to prepare a plan for a new schoolhouse and report at a future meet- 
ing. 

Messrs Zenas M. Cobb, 0. J. Wannemacher and Patrick Dona- 
hue, the trustees, with Lewis Northrup, William Lockwood, Mr. 
Walker and Horace Kyser were the committee. 

The meeting was then adjourned to February 5th, 1873. Feb- 
ruar}^ 5th, adjourned meeting. The above committee submitted 
a plan for a new schoolhouse to be 24x30. 

This plan was adopted by a vote of the meeting, and on motion, 
the trustees were appointed a building committee. 

Motion made and carried that the trustees be authorized to levy 
a tax of $1,000, and apply the same in the construction of the new 
house. 

October 6th, 1873. Special meeting to consider the matter of 
furnishing the new house, and vote a tax to pay the indebtedness 
of the district, and to sell the old house. Motion made and carried 
to raise by tax $235.00 to pay balance due to Samuel Hoyt on con- 
tract to build the new schoolhouse. Motion made and carried to 

209 



raise by tax 1280.00 to furnish the new house. Motion made and 
carried to sell the old house." 

The old house was then sold to Michael Beck for $25.00 and was 
moved by Beck to the side of the old blacksmith shop on the west 
end of Lot 75, and has since been used as a blacksmith shop. 

" October 14th, 1873, annual meeting. Motion made and carried 
that the trustees be directed to repair the woodhouse and use the 
money received for the sale of the old house as far as it goes, and 
levy a tax for the balance." 

The long controversy as to building an addition to the old school- 
house, or to build a new house was now settled, and in 1873, the 
Spring Brook district has the best schoolhouse in the town of Elma. 

At the general election, November 4th, 1873, 295 votes were 
polled in the town. 

1874. 

Alonzo C. Bancroft bought of J. B. Briggs in the spring of 1874, 
the house and one and one-fourth acre lot in Elma Village on the 
west side of the Bowen Road and north bank of the Creek. 

The high water in the Big Buffalo Creek having washed away 
the Thompson Road north of the Bodimer house on Lot 9, the Com- 
missioners of Highways of the Town caused a new survey to be 
made and then bought of the Bodimer heirs the land for the new 
road, and at the town meeting held on March 3d, 1874, they ap- 
plied to voters of the town to raise S200.00 to pay for the land so 
taken and this $200.00 was voted to be raised by tax. 

The Eleazer Bancroft sawmill which was built in 1854 near the 
mouth of Pond Brook in Elma Village gave out, and as Bancroft 
had about used up his timber, the mill was not repaired and was 
never used after 1874. C. W. Hurd moved into his new house in 
Elma Village in the fall of 1874. John Collins bought of Samuel 
Hoyt the store in Spring Brook at the southeast corner of the Plank 
and Northrup Roads, in the spring of 1874. 

John Stanclart, who lived in a house on the southwest corner of 
Lot 9, on the north side of the Clinton Street Road, on July 7th, 
1874, shot his wife with a revolver and then cut his own throat 
with a razor. 

The bridge over Pond Brook on the Chair Factory Road having 
broken down, the contract to build a new bridge and two new stone 
abutments was let to Hurd & Briggs for $1,200. The bridge and 
abutments were built in the summer of 1874. 

Andrew Schefferstein bought of C. W. Hurd, twenty-one acres of 
northwest part of Lot 60, on the south side of the Bullis Road. 
Deed dated August 6th, 1874, recorded in Liber 346, Page 340. 

210 



1874. 

The old Catholic church building in Spring Brook had become too 
small to accommodate the society, so that building was moved 
from the corner of the Plank and Rice Roads in Spring Brook, to 
the east end of their lot, to be used later as a barn for their parson- 
age, and a second church was built on the old site in the summer of 
1874. Just after the frame of the building was raised, there came 
a very high wind which leveled the frame to the ground. It was 
immediately raised again and finished and occupied that fall. 

_A German Evangelical church was built on the south side of the 
jlice Road and north end of Lot 53 in the summer of 1874. 

At the general election on November 3d, 1874, 368 votes were 
polled. 

1875. 

February 26th, 1875, George Helfter bought of Clark W. Hurd, 
one-half acre of land on southeast corner of the Bowen and Clinton 
Street Roads, built a shop and commenced blacksmith work there. 

George Kelgus bought of Louis Funke, part of Lot 60, on the 
west side of the Bowen Road, and between the hotel property and 
John Garby. 

The inhabitants had increased so rapidly in the last few years in 
the Rice school district that the schoolhouse on the northwest cor- 
ner of the Bowen and Rice Roads did not accommodate the children 
of the district. At the annual school meeting an eifort was made 
to have a new house built. While the owners of a majority of the 
property in the district wanted a new house, there was the oppo- 
sition generally found and enough of the residents of the district 
voted "no" to kill the project; and the prospect was that the old 
house would continue, but somehow along in the night, the school- 
house took fire and burned down. 

A special meeting was called and the motion to build a new 
house was carried. The new house was to be ready for the opening 
of school the next spring. The trustees hired the German church, 
fifty rods west, for the winter school. 

Three hundred and eighty-nine votes were polled at the election 
held November 2d, 1875. 

J876. 

In April, 1876, Harvey C. Palmer bought the goods in the store 
at East Elma. The Lutheran church at Blossom burned this year. 

The year 1876, being the one hundredth anniversary of the United 
States as a Nation, dating from the signing of the Declaration of 
Independence, a Centennial Exposition was held in Philadelphia 

211 



in honor of that event and many residents of the town of Ehua, as 
well as residents of almost every town, village and city in the United 
States, made the pilgrimage to Philadelphia; and on their return 
to their homes reported the Exposition to be the biggest thing on 
the earth. Every crow thinks her young the whitest of all the 
birds, and every mother thinks her babe the handsomest babe in 
the world, and this being our Exposition, it is, of course, a great 
way ahead of anything of the kind that was ever held an3''where. 

At the Presidential election held November 7th, 1876, 512 votes 
were polled in the town. Rutherford B. Hayes' popular vote was 
4,033,050. 

The Electoral College gave P. B. Hayes 185 votes; to Samuel J- 
Tilden, 184 votes. 

The young People's Association of Elma Village was organized 
by Rev. George P. Harris in the fall of 1876. 

1877. 

Two stone abutments for the Northrup bridge were built in the 
summer of 1877 which cost the town S210.00. The Bullis bridge 
was repaired this j^ear at a cost of $639.00. 

Harvey J. Hurd was elected to the Assembly at the November 
election. At the election held November 6th, 478 votes were cast 
in the town. 

John G. Fisher bought of Stephen Northrup the brick store in 
Spring Brook, deed November 12th, 1877, recorded in Liber 376, 
Page 20. Fisher was appointed postmaster at Spring Brook in 1880. 

1878. 

Thomas Moore was the East Elma blacksmith this year. The 
Lutheran church in Blossom was rebuilt this j^ear. Alois Dusch 
opened a blacksmith shop in Blossom this j^ear. 

The Elma Center postofhce was established with Eron Woodard 
as postmaster, April 1st, 1878. 

Hugh Mullen bought the north half of Lot 2 of the Aurora part 
of the town on the east side of the Thompson Road, in the spring 
of 1862. 

The Hanvey sawmill, built on a small stream on the land bought 
by Mullen, being out of repair, and the timber being well worked 
up in that vicinity, Mullen decided not to repair the mill but took 
it down this j^ear. 

Henrj^ A. Wright opened a store at Elma Center in the building 
near the railroad depot, which the Elma people built and offered 

212 



to the railroad company for a depot in 1868, but which they re- 
fused and instead built a board shanty which is still used in 1878 
while the new depot is being built. 

Harrison Tillou this year bought the John McFee place in Spring 
Brook, across the Plank Road from the Catholic church. • 

Carl Manke, on April 2d, 1878, shot and killed his neighbor, John 
Atloff . As Atloff was returning from Buffalo on the Bullis Road, 
when near the northeast corner of Lot 85, Manke fired at him from 
behind a pile of lumber. There had been a difference between 
them as to a line fence. 

At the election November 5th, 1878, 481 votes were polled in 
the town. 

Harvey J. Hurd of Elma Village was the second time elected to 
represent this district in the Assembly. 

William Edwards' blacksmith shop and residence, on the south- 
east corner at East Elma had been occupied but a short time when 
it burned in 1878. 

1879. 

• May 1st, 1879, Joseph Kratz's grocer)'- on the northwest corner 
at East Elma burned. 

Harvey J. Hurd was for the third time elected to the Assembly 
at the election held November 4th, 1879 ; and at this election there 
were 475 votes polled in the town. 

J880. 

Cyrus S. Spencer opened a small store on the south side of the 
Plank Road in Spring Brook on Lot 81 in the spring of 1880. 

John G. Fisher was appointed postmaster for Spring Brook in 
1880. The BuUis schoolhouse being too small to accommodate the 
children oi the district, and being in need of large repairs, the in- 
habitants of the district decided to build a new house. The old 
house was sold to Philip Stitz for $25.00 and this year, 1880, a new 
house was built in its place. 

The German Evangelical Society this year took down the old 
Ebenezer Society church and built a new church on the same site, 
on the north side of Main Street, in Blossom Village. 

E. J. Markham, this summer built a cidermill and vinegar factory 
on the bank of the millrace on the west end of his lot in Elma Village. 

At the Presidential election November 2d, 1880, 566 votes were 
cast in the town. James A. Garfield's popular vote was 4,442,050. 

The Electoral College gave James A. Garfield 214 votes and W. 
S. Hancock 115 votes. Harve}^ J. Hurd was for the fourth time 
elected to the Assembly. 

213 



The population of the town was 2,555. (See United States 
census, Chapter XXI). George W. Hurd moved on to Lot 85, 
on the south side of Bulhs Road, December 24th, 1880. 

1881. 

The Northrup bridge was repaired this summer at a cost to tlie 
town of $223.46. 435 votes were cast at the election November 
8th, 1881. 

1882. 

At the death of Lewis Northrup in April, 1882, Eli B. Northrup 
by the will came into possession of the gristmill, and the homestead 
on Lot 84, in west part of Spring Brook Village. 

Jacob Miller's house, on Lot 46, on the north side of Clinton Street 
Road, burned in February of this year. Miller and his wife went to 
Blossom to attend a funeral, leaidng three small children at home. 
While the parents were away, the house took fire, the children and 
part of the furniture being saved by the neighbors. 

Adelbert Spencer bought his father's interest in his store in 
Spring Brook in the spring of 1882. 

Cole & Sweet bought of John Collins, the store in Spring Brook 
at the corner of the Plank and Northrup Roads. 

Briggs & Sweet bought of Horace Kyser the steam saw and grist- 
mill in Spring Brook in October, 1882. 463 votes were cast in the 
town at the election November 7th, 1882. 

Ernest Bleeck bought of Fred Wilting on December 12th, 1882, 
the store and saloon which Wilting had run for four or five years, 
on southeast corner of Lot 42, on north side of the Jamison Road. 

During the last few years the owners of land in the town have 
been gradually closing up their wood and lumber business, and have 
put in their time cleaning up their farms ; for on many of the farms 
there was not a tree of the old growth remaining, and as the timber 
was gone, they must engage in regular farming. 

In six to ten years after the trees had been cut, most of the 
stumps would decay so as to be easily removed, except the pine, 
which being the last to decay, had to be removed by stump ma- 
chines. This was quite expensive and on what was called pine 
lands, the cost was forty to eighty dollars per acre; but these pine 
stumps were utilized and put into fences, making a homely but 
durable fence. 

1883. 

On Sunday morning, February 4th, 1883, before daylight, the 
people of Elma Village were called from their houses by the cry of 
"high water coming!" 

214 



This flood in the village was caused by the previous thaw and 
the breaking up of the ice in the creek, and a jam or dam of ice 
forming in the bend of the creek near the Elma cemetery, caused 
the water to set back over the flats and Elma Village, the water 
and ice reaching nearly to Mr. J. B. Briggs' house. Never before 
had there been any water north of the millrace. 

Mr. Erastus J. Markham who with his family occupied the store 
building over the race, fearing that the building would be carried 
away, left the store, thinking to go to C. W. Kurd's house until the 
water subsided. Mrs. Markham, while going north on the side- 
walk, when near J. B. Briggs' south line, sUpped and fell, breaking 
her ankle. While sitting there a few minutes, waiting for help, 
the water came up so as to be two feet deep where she sat. The 
ice in all streams in town went out during this thaw, but no great 
damage was done to any of the bridges in the town. 

Four hundred and four votes were polled at the election Novem- 
ber 6th, 1883. Mrs. Julia A. H. Jackman bought of Mrs. Lovina 
C. Markham, the house and four acre lot, being part of Lot 59 on the 
east side of the Bowen Road, one-fourth mile south from the Big 
Buffalo Creek, and one mile north from railroad station. 

J884. 

, Alexander Rush bought of Helen Ignatz, the hotel property at the 
southwest corner of the Bowen and Bullis Roads, being the north- 
east corner of Lot 60 ; deed April 28th, 1884, recorded in Liber 474, 
Page 79. 

Warren Jackman moved from Youngstown on to Lot 59 on east 
side of Bowen Road near Elma Village April 30th, 1884. 

A. M. Edwards moved from Buffalo into the Standart brick 
house, three-fourths of a mile south from Elma Village, May 1st, 
1884. 

Mrs. Caroline Thayer bought of Julia A. McFee, four and one- 
half acres being the Mouse Nest tavern and Lot in Spring Brook, 
the deed dated May 1st, 1884, recorded in Liber 391, Page 133. 

"The New or Meridian Time" was adopted by the principal 
railroads of the United States at 12 o'clock noon, November 18th, 
1883, and the trains were from that date run on that time instead 
of local time as heretofore. 

The lines of longitude designating the time for the different 
stations were 75th meridian, 90th, 105, and 120th ; these being res- 
spectively 5, 6, 7 and 8 hours west from Greenwich. 

For seven and one-half degrees east and west they indicate the 
new standards of time. 

215 



The time of Philadelphia, on the 75th meridian, is used for all 
places between meridian of New Brunswick and Detroit, Columbus, 
etc. 

From Detroit to central Nebraska, the time is that of St. Louis, 
New Orleans on the 90th meridian. From central Nebraska to 
western Utah, the time is that of Denver, on the 105th meridian. 
From Western Utah to the Pacific Ocean, the time is that of Vir- 
ginia City on the 120th meridian. 

Ernest Bleeck built a new store at Jamison on northeast corner 
of Lot 42. C. W. Hurd built a new barn 110x60 feet and moved 
other barns and out buildings. 

The M. E. Church in Elma Village was painted this year by 
Clayton Standart. At the Presidential election November 4th, 
591 Azotes were polled in the town. 

Grover Cleveland's popular vote was 4,874,986. 

The Electoral College gave Grover Cleveland 219 votes; 'gave 
James G. Blaine 182 votes. 



216 



CHAPTER XVI. 

TOWN OF ELMA, 1885 TO 1900. 

Harvey J. Hiird bought of J. B. Briggs on March 22cl, 1885, his 
interest in the Hurcl & Briggs sawmih propert}'- in Elma Village. 
The same year, Harvej^ J. overhauled and rebuilt the sawmill which 
was built by Hurcl & Briggs in 1845, taking out the north saw. 

After years of trying, and after several efforts had been made to 
have a new schoolhouse at Elma Village, with the same opposition 
and delay as has been given in the Spring Brook schoolhouse matter ; 
and after the old house had become untenable and the school com- 
missioner had threatened to withhold the public money from the 
district unless a new house was built, the inhabitants of the district 
voted to have a new house built and voted to raise $1,600 for build- 
ing and furnishing the same; and the old house w^as sold to Baltz 
Gloss for S25.00, which seems to be the price for all old schoolhouses. 
The new house was built and ready for use in the fall of 1885. 

The following brief statement of efforts made to have a new school- 
house in Elma Village, is given ; but as the district records from the 
organizing of the district to within the last few years are lost, the date 
of the several meetings and the exact vote on the several resolutions, 
for and against the building of a new house cannot be given, but the 
facts are as follows: At the annual meeting held in 1860, the 
motion was made and unanimously carried to build a new school- 
house, and the trustees were directed to raise by tax the money to 
pay for the building. 

The tax was made out, the warrant given to the collector, and 
several persons paid their tax. 

About six weeks after the annual meeting, a special meeting w^as 
called at which a resolution was adopted not to build the new 
schoolhouse and an appeal was started and sent to the State Super- 
intendent for his decision as to the action of . the annual 
meeting; the claim being made that a majority of the taxpayers 
of the district did not vote for the resolution to build the new house 
and that a majority was not present at the annual meeting. 

The decision of the State Superintendent was that the action 
of the annual meeting was legal and correct and the trustees were 
directed to go on with the building. 

On receiving this decision, another special meeting was called 
at which the opposition said if the building of the new house was 
put off for five years they would then take hold and help build the 
house. And the new house was not built. 

217 



In 1865, at the end of the five years, another vote was taken at 
the annual meetmg and the resokition to build a new schoolhouse 
was carried but the attendance being small and, thinking that the 
promise of five years before would be kept, and to give all a chance 
to vote, the meeting was adjourned for one week. 

The attendance at the adjourned meeting was large and the 
motion to rescind the vote of the annual meeting was carried by a 
large majority. 

A vote to build a vestibule to the old house and to repair the old 
house were both carried and there was no further move made to- 
ward a new house until the school commissioner had ordered a 
new house, when in the spring of 1885 at a special meeting, the 
money was voted as before stated. 

Mr. Zina A. Hemstreet died August 5th, 1885. He had operated 
the Indian sawmill after the death of Leonard Hatch in 1842, was 
a large owner of real estate at East Elma, had been in active busi- 
ness there, a leading citizen in all public matters or of anything 
that would be a benefit or help to the people of that locality, and had 
been Supervisor of the town in 1860 and 1861. 

Through mismanagement and hard luck he lost all his property. 

Henry A. Wright was appointed postmaster of Elma Center 
postoffice in 1885, and moved the postoffice from Woodard's house 
to his store, near the railroad. 

The summer of 1885 was very wet; twenty-four inches of rain 
fell in the months of May, June, July and August, making a very 
bad season for haying and harvesting; so that on August 31st, the 
greater part of the oat crop was in the fields, many pieces of grain 
had been spread out to dry, and before dry enough to take to the 
barn, another rain would come and as this weather continued, much 
grain was damaged. 

WilHam J. Cole was appointed postmaster at Spring Brook in the 
fall by President Cleveland, and moved the postoffice into Cole & 
Sweet's store, at the corner of the Plank and Northrup Roads. 
362 votes were polled at the election November 3d, 1885. A good 
crop of fruit, especially apples, this year. 

J886. 

The schoolhouse bell was hung in the belfry of the Elma Village 
.schoolhouse January 14th, 1886. 

E. J. Markham built a dwelling house on his lot on the west side 
of Main Street in Elma Village in the summer and fall of this 
year. 

Frederick Gramm was appointed postmaster at Blossom by 
.President Cleveland in the summer of 1886. 

218 



On September 17th, 1886, Mr. C. W. Hurd had arranged for a 
clambake, to which all his neighbors in Elma Village, and many 
friends from Buffalo and adjoining towns had been invited. This 
was to celebrate his eightieth birthday. 

The guests arrived early in the forenoon; the tables and seats 
were placed in the yard and the tables were set with dishes and 
flowers. The provisions in the pit were being cooked, when about 
11 o'clock it began to rain with every appearance of continuing 
through the day. There was a hustle among all hands to get the 
tables and fixtures into the house. In due time, dinner was an- 
nounced and the guests showed their appreciation of the good 
things that had been provided for the feast. The rain continued all 
the afternoon, but this did not dampen nor hinder the enjoyment of 
all persons there. It was a very pleasant birthday party except 
the rainy part. It was late in the afternoon when the friends began 
to take their departure, wishing their octogenarian host many 
more birthda3^s. 

A "Chautauqua Reading Circle" was organized at the house of 
J. B. Briggs with fifteen members on the evening of September 
22d. 

At the election,November 2d, 495 votes were polled. 

The apple crop was very short this year. 



1887. 

The Jerge Brothers (Phillip and Hermon) bought of George 
Helfter, the house and lot on the east side of the street nearly 
opposite the blacksmith shop in Elma Village, also the blacksmith 
shop and lot on the southeast corner of BoAven and Clinton Street 
Roads. The deed was dated March 14th, 1887, recorded in Liber 
512, page 638. 

Clark W. Hurd and wife, Dulcena, celebrated their golden 
wedding at their home in Elma Village on the evening of April 
4th, 1887. About eighty persons were present, among them four 
other couples whose wedding day was April 4th. 

Mr. R. P. Lee and family came from Buffalo April 23d, moving 
into James T. Hurd's house on the west side of the Bowen Road 
on Lot 59. 

The steam saw and gristmill bought by Briggs & Sweet in 
October, 1882, in Spring Brook burned in the spring of 1887. 

Alonzo C. Bancroft took down the chair factory building on 
Pond Brook, on the south side of the Chair Factory Road in the 
summer of 1887. 

21£ 



The Erie County Farmers' Institute held a meeting of the 
society in the M. E. Church in Elma Village on Saturday, June 
25th of this 3"ear. 

E. J. Markham moved into his new house in Elma Village, 
July 1st, 1887. 

The M. E. Church of Elma Village was re-shingled in the summer 
of this A'ear, and in the fall was re-painted on the inside and re- 
papered above and below; new cushions for the seats and new 
carpets for the audience room, galler}-^, vestibule and stairs Avere 
placed . 

The Elma Cemetery Association was organized June 11th, 1887. 
r Myron H. Clark remodeled and put on additions to the A. C. 
Bancroft house, in the summer of 1887. 

Warren Jackman made a map of the town of Elma this 3''ear, 
on which was shown every original lot and every sub-division or 
piece of land in the town, with the then present owner's name, 
the number of acres of each piece, with courses and distances of 
ever}' lot line and e^^ery road in the town as sur^^eyed. This map 
is in the Town Clerk's office. 

The building erected by the Lutheran Society on the Woodard 
Road in 1872 was now too small to accommodate its large and 
growing congregation, and the society decided to build a new 
church on the same place. The old church was therefore moved 
to the east side of its lot to be used for a Sunday School room 
,and a new building, 32 x 56, was built and finished in the summer 
and fan of 1887. 

At the election on November Sth, 428 votes were polled. 

The gristmill and. sawmill built b}'' the Ebenezer Society in 
Blossom, owned by Lewis Ott, and the bridge across the Big 
Bufi"alo Creek at Blossom, burned on the night of December 28th, 
1887. 

The crops in the town were generally good, especially good were 
the haj' and apple crops. 

Jacob Bodamer's barn on Lot 30 and west side of the Girdled 
Road burned with contents in September, 1887. 



Mrs. Adelpha C. Briggs, in the spring of 1888 bought the Eleazer 
Bancroft brick house and lot on Lot 58 and 63 on the west side of 
the Bowen Road and south side of Big Buffalo Creek. 

James T. Hurd bought of A. C. Bancroft in the spring of 1888, 
28 acres , being that part of Lot 58 on the south side of the Big 
Buffalo Creek and on the east side of the Bowen Road. 

220 



Myron H. Clark during this summer remodeled and added to 
the barn on his lot in Elma Village. 

A new iron bridge was built across the Big Buffalo Creek at 
Blossom with new stone abutment and breakwater at the east end 
of the bridge, in the summer of 1SS8 to take the place of the bridge 
that burned December 28th, 1887. 

William Philips is the blacksmith at East Elma this year. 

Edwin H. Dingman bought of Joseph Wagner on August 9th 
of this year, a building lot at Jamison, near the northwest corner 
of Lot 39 between the Williams Road and the railroad, and built 
a store with residence on the second floor in the summer and fall. 

The Elma Town Sunday School Association was organized at 
East Elma September 21st, by Mr. Lewis Haas, the County S. S. 
Missionary. 

Wm. Kleinfelder was appointed postmaster at Blossom this 
year and had the postoffice in his store. 

Mrs. Maria Long was appointed postmaster at Elma and 
moved the office into her house. 

On October 14th there was a very bright rainbow low in the 
north at noon for three-quarters of an hour. It was short and 
very flat, the centre not more than eight degrees above the horizon. 

580 votes were cast at the Presidential Election of November 6th, 
1888. The Electoral College gave Benjamin Harrison 233 votes. 

At the close of the 3^ear 1888, we find the town of Elma so 
different from what it was forty 3^ears ago, that wonder and 
astonishment comes over us. At that time there were not 200 acres 
of land in the town, except on the Mile Strip, that had been cleared 
by a white man. Now, in 1888, the old growth of timber is prac- 
tically gone and the timber in sight is mostly of second gro"\"\i;h. 

The sawmills that had then been built, with those built in later 
years, and which were then and for many years run day and 
night to work the timber into lumber, have gone into decay, have 
been taken down, or were burned. So that at the close of the year 
1888, there are but two sawmills in the town, viz. : The Northrup 
mill at Spring Brook on the same ground where Northrup & Baker 
built their first mill in October, 1844. and now owned by Eli B. 
Northrup. The other mill now owned by Harvey J. Hurd in 
Elma Village is the same mill that was built by Hurd & Briggs in 
the fall of 1845. 

Listead of footpaths through the woods and wagon and sled 
roads among the trees and stumps, we now have good roads, 
generally on lot lines, nicely graded and worked. 

Instead of fording the streams or using a fallen tree as a foot- 
bridge, or a cheap frame structure for a bridge over the large 
streams, we have permanent iron or lattice bridges on stone abut- 

221 



ments, which furnish a safe and durable means for crossing the 
streams. 

The log house and barn, or the small plank house, with slab 
stable or small frame barn have been removed or torn down, and 
in their places are seen nice frame and brick residences with all 
the modern conveniences for the pleasure and comfort of the 
occupants, with large and commodious barns, man}^ of them with 
stables or basements with stone walls, and carriage houses and 
other out buildings to satisfy- the fancy or the needs of the owner 
of the premises. 

The farms in 1888 are generally cleared of stumps, the rail and 
stump and road fences are almost gone and, where fences are 
necessary, they are of post and wire or post and board, the wire 
being generally preferred. Well cultivated fields with orchards 
and crops that gladden the farmer are everywhere found, where 
only a few years ago was the unbroken forest. It has taken many 
years of hard, persistent labor to make this change ; but the settlers 
were equal to the task and it has been well done. Many of the 
first settlers who, at first, bought 5, 10, or 15, acres, and supported 
their families from the wood and timber sold from their small 
place, found, when the timber was gone, that they could not 
support their families from their small piece and that they needed 
more land ; so they either bought out their neighbor, or sold to him 
and went west. This explains why there are so many small 
empty houses scattered through the town. The original owners 
have moved away and as a result, the population of the town 
has grown less and less for the last few years. 

1889, 

Samuel Schurr opened a blacksmith shop in March on the South 
side of Jamison Road and east of the railroad on land owned by 
Ernest Bleeck. 

Peter Grader bought of Eron Woodard, one-half acre on the west 
side of the Bo wen Road and south side of the railroad, for a grocery 
and saloon which he opened in a board shanty, July 2d, 1889. 

The Town Board on April 27th, ordered a safe for the Town 
Clerk's office, in which to keep the town records. 

On May 3d, (Arbor day) the residents of Elma Village set out 
thirty-one maple trees on the schoolhouse grounds, but many of 
them died that summer. 

Jacob Jerge and wife left Elma in the spring for a visit to their 
native place in Germany, to be gone one year. 

In April, Henry Kihm bought of John G. Fischer, the brick 
store on the southwest side of the Plank Road in Spring Brook. 

222 



A society of "The Farmers' Alliance" was organized in Spring- 
Brook this summer, the reputed object being to enable the mem- 
bers to sell their surplus products for better prices and to make 
purchases for their families and farms through the agency of the 
Alliance at wholesale prices, less the actual cost of transportation, 
rent of building and the necessary clerk hire. In this way they 
expected to save the profits made by the retail dealer, and the 
middle man. 

George D. Briggs, this summer, rebuilt the Bancroft brick 
house on the top of the hill on the south bank of the Big Buffalo 
Creek and changed the large barn near the creek by additions and 
sheds. 

Harrison Tillou was appointed postmaster at Spring Brook in 
the summer of 1889, and moved the postoffice into Henry Kihm's 
brick store, becoming a partner in the business. 

Jacob Koch 's barn in Blossom 47 x 147 feet, which was built 
by the Ebenezers in 1850, burned this summer; Koch immediately 
rebuilt. 

Bower's barn on Clinton Street Road was burned about the 
same time. 

James T. Hurd built a large house on the east side of the Bo wen 
Road on Lot 58 in the summer of 1889 to be finished during the 
winter and next spring. 

Hard frost with ice one-quarter inch thick on the morning of 
May 29th. 

On June 25th, the Erie County Farmers' Institute held a 
meeting in the park in Elma Village. 

Peter Grader was appointed postmaster of the Elma Center 
postoffice in July and moved the postoffice from Wright's store 
to his grocery. 

Twelve sheds were built at the church in Elma Village in the 
summer of 1889. They were raised August 31st. 

388 votes were cast at the election of November 7th, 1889. 

Within the last few years there had been many alterations in 
the roads in the town of Elma, and man}^ of these alterations had 
not been properly recorded in the ''Records of Roads" in the 
Town Clerk's office, so that the records were in such shape that 
a description of many of the roads could not be ascertained. 

The Board of Supervisors, on the petition of Eli B. Northrup, 
Supervisor of the Town of Elma, in October, 1889, ordered a re- 
survey of the roads in the town, and a revision of the "Record of 
Roads" for the Town of Elma. 

The survey of the roads of the town was made under the 
supervision and direction of Mr. Jacob Heim, Commissioner of 
Highways of the town, the surveys were recorded and a revision 

223 



of the Records completed and signed by the Commissioners, 
February 15th, 1890. 

The "Jamison Road" postoffice was estabhshed this year at 
the crossing of the railroad and Jamison Road, with Ernst Bleeck 
as postmaster. 

1890. 

On January 13th, 1890, a great and sudden change of weather 
occured. It had been warm for the season, with rain on three days, 
when on the morning of the thirteenth, the mercury commenced 
going down and fell eighteen degrees in one hour, between nine 
and ten o'clock a. m. and from 65° at 7 a. m. to 30° at 9 p. m., 
with high wind. 

In the months of May and June of this year we had seventeen 
and three-quarter inches of rain, and fifty-seven inches in one 
hundred and twenty-eight days. 

Albert Price bought the central part of Lot 71 on the north side 
of the Clinton Street Road and moved into the house in April 
of this j^ear. 

The Farmers' Alliance of Spring Brook erected a building for a 
hall, etc., on Esquire Ward's lot on the south side of the Plank 
Road where they held their meetings and by and through their 
agent ordered and receiA^ed such articles as the individual members 
required. 

George D. Briggs this year built two new houses on the west 
side of the Bowen Road near the south line of Lot 58 ; also a plank 
sidewalk on the west side of the road from the south line of Lot 
58 to the south end of the bridge across the creek. He built a 
silo at the west end of his stables near the creek, and moved the 
building near the bridge, which was formerly used as a store, 
about fifty feet west to be used as a milkhouse and moved the 
tenant house from south of the brick house on top of the hill, to 
the bank of the creek, where the old store formerly stood. 

Deed from J. B. Briggs to Elma Cemetery Association June 16th, 
1890. 

James T. Hurd moved into his new house on Lot 58, June 1st. 

An Epworth League Society was organized in the M. E. Church 
of Elma village on July 6th. 

The Erie County Farmers' Institute held a meeting in the park 
in Elma Village, July 26th. 

For population of Elma by United States Census for 1890, see 
Chapter XXI. 

The Winspear bridge across the Big Buffalo Creek being unsafe 
and partly fallen, the Town Board on July 28th, directed the 
Commissioner of Highways to take down the old bridge and then 

224 



to build a new iron bridge in the same place. The new bridge 
was finished in the fall. 

On August 5th, the Town Board divided the Town of Elma 
into two election districts ; the dividing line to begin on the Marilla 
town line, at the corner of Lots 1 and 2, of the Aurora part of the 
town, thence west on lot lines to the centre of the Bowen Road, 
thence north in the centre of the road to the old town line at the 
corner of lots 48, 52, 55 and 60; thence west on lot lines to the 
Transit; the south part to be District No. 1, and the north part 
to be District No. 2. 

The east abutment of the BuUis bridge was rebuilt this summer, 
ah of solid limestone. Contract price, $475. 

A plank sidewalk was built this summer from the Spring Brook 
railroad station, south to the north side of the plank road in 
Spring Brook Village, then along the northeast side of the road 
to the east line of the Thayer Place ; total distance about one 
and three-quarter miles. 

Charles H. Sweet and John Conners each built a nice dwelling 
house in Spring Brook at the west end of the village in the summer 
of 1890. 

348 votes were polled in the town at the election of November 4th. 
Harvey J. Hurd bought of C. W. Hurd, November 26th, 1890, 
the south part of Lot 60 and the northeast part of Lot 52. 

In August, 1891, Mr. Charles W. Harrah of Detroit, Michigan, 
came to Buffalo to look over the country near by and surrounding 
Buffalo for the purpose of starting a suburban village on or near 
some railroad, and so near to the city as to be convenient for labor- 
ers and persons doing business in the city. 

After a careful examination of the territory, he decided that 
Spring Brook station, on the Western New York and Pennsylvania 
Railroad in the town of Elma was the right place for his village. 

On August 28th, 1891, Harrah bought of Catharine Hager twenty- 
five acres, being the northeast part of Lot 95, lying on both sides 
of the railroad and on the west side of the Pound Road. 

On August 29th, he secured forty-nine acres of Mrs. Hannah 
Winspear, being the south part of Lot 94, on the north side of the 
Bulhs Road, and on the west side of the Winspear Road. 

On September 4th, he bought of Thomas Summerfield, land lying 
west of the Hager land on Lot 95 between the Bullis Road and the 
railroad, making in all about eighty acres of land. 

This land was surveyed in August and September by Mr. Mason 
L. Brown, Civil Engineer, into blocks, and numbered from one to 
sixteen, each block being surrounded by a street or avenue; and 
the blocks were sub-divided into lots, generally of 25x100 feet, 

225 



except that the lots on both sides of the Bulhs Road were 26 or 27x 
100 feet in size. A pubhc alley, ten feet wide was in the rear of 
every lot. 

The total number of the lots thus surveyed and numbered with 
marked stakes was 923. 

Harrah had the streets and avenues nicely graded and a three 
foot sidewalk on one or both sides of several of these streets and 
avenues. 

A map of the village was made and filed in the County Clerk's 
office in Buffalo, under cover numbered 430. 

This new village was called Spring Brook on the map, but later, 
in some way, it got the name of Crystal City. 

Harrah was now ready to sell the lots and after making the nec- 
essary arrangements with the Western New York & Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company, he advertised in the Buffalo papers, and by 
circulars, and hand-bills, "that on Thursday, September 17th, 
Saturday, September 19th and Tuesday, September 22d, special 
free trains would leave Buffalo for Spring Brook each day at 9.00 a. 
m., 10.30 a. m. and 2.30 p. m., absolutely free going and coming, 
no tickets required." 

One hundred lots were offered at $17.00 each; other lots at $20.00, 
$25.00, $30.00, $35.00 each, that being the highest price. 

Warranty Deeds were to be given when payment was made and 
to the first fifty persons purchasing one or more lots who would 
build, finish and occupy a house as a residence within one year from 
the date of the purchase, the price paid for the lot would be re- 
funded by Harrah. 

The free ride on the cars and the low price of the lots caused a 
great rush of people from Buffalo to visit, if not to purchase lots 
in the new Spring Brook on the three days above named. 

As the lots were not all sold on these three clays, free trains were 
advertised to run on the afternoons of September 28th, October 1st, 
17th and 23d, when 808 of the 923 lots had been sold to 286 differ- 
ent persons. Harrah then made a lump sale of the balance of the 
lots to Cole & Sweet, and Eli B. Northrup of Spring Brook. 

The streets and avenues as laid out and named on the map, were 
as follows: 

Streets: Seneca, Vine, North, and South Railroad. 

Avenues: Beach, Elm, Laurel, Linden, Magnolia, Oak, Spring 
Brook and Winspear. 

A public alley ten feet wide was at the rear of all the lots. 

Cole, Sweet & Northrup sold several lots to different individuals 
after they bought of Harrah. 

Later, Northrop acquired the interest held by Cole & Sweet and 
also the title from several of the first purchasers of lots. 

226 



At the time of the sale of lots, it was thought by many that the 
low price of the lots and Harrah's offer to return the purchase price 
of the lots, where houses were built and occupied within the year, 
together with the cheap fare offered by the railroad company, 
would induce many persons, especially city laborers, to build houses 
and change their residences from Buffalo to Spring Brook ; but only 
two families took advantage of Harrah's offer, and the New Spring 
Brook as a village seems to be a failure. 

Some of the owners of lots pay the taxes and thus hold possession ; 
some are offering to convey their lots to any one who will pay the 
back taxes and pay for the transfer papers, and a few allow their 
lots to be sold for taxes, thus giving up all hope of realizing any- 
thing in the future. 

Harrah, in selling the lots, did not sell or convey any title to the 
streets and avenues, and on April 16th, 1892, Charles W. Harrah 
petitioned the commissioner of Highways of the Town of Elma to 
have the said streets and avenues taken as public highways of the 
town and to have them so described and recorded in the town 
Clerk 's office, and at the same date, he released to the town of Elma 
the streets and avenues as surveyed and laid out on the afore men- 
tioned map. 

On July 1st, 1892, Wilham J. Cole, E. Lawton, Eh B. Northrup, 
Charles H. Sweet, George Leger, William Bridgman, A. W. Smedes 
and Mary E. Hurd, petitioned the Commissioner of Highways of 
the Town of Elma, to have the streets and avenues as surveyed 
and laid out, and as described in the petition of Charles W. Harrah, 
'dated April 16th, 1892, duly laid out as public highwaj^s of the 
Town of Elma, and to be duly described and recorded in the office 
of the Town Clerk of the Town of Elma. 

On February 1st, 1895, Henry E. Bancroft, as Commissioner of 
Highways, ordered that the prayers of the above petitioners be 
and the same are hereby accepted, and he ordered and declared, 
that the said streets and avenues be a part of the highways of the 
said Town of Elma, and that the said streets and ai^enues on Lot 
95, south of the railroad, be joined to and form part of Road Dis- 
trict No. 21; and that the streets and avenues on Lots 94 and 95, 
north of the railroad be j oined to and form a part of Road District 
No. 41 of the Town of Elma. 

J89L 

For the names of officers elected at the town meeting held on 
March 3d and November 3, see Chapter XXI. 

At the March meeting, 264 votes were polled and at the Novem- 
ber town meeting 310 votes were polled; at the general election, 
November 3d, 482 votes were polled. 

227 



The Elma Cemetery Road Avas laid out in July, 1891. 

Jacob Jerge, after his return from Europe, remodeled and made 
extensive alterations in the Button house, (so called) on the west side 
of Main Street in Elma Village. 

Dr. Albert H. Briggs, an Elma boy, but now a resident of Buffalo, 
celebrated his forty-ninth birthday by giving a "Clam Bake" in 
the Elma Village Park on September 9th, 1891, where more than 
100 of his Elma and Buffalo friends met by invitation to partake 
of a bountiful feast of good things provided for the inner man ; and 
while seated at the tables, which had been arranged in a hollow 
square, to enjoy the after dinner speeches and songs were given 
which reminded one of days that had passed, and wdiich were good 
and refreshing to the head and heart. 

On September 17th, the many friends of Mr. Clark W. Hurd met 
at his house in Elma Village to extend happy greetings and good 
wishes to Mr. Hurd, it being his eighty-fifth birthday. A bountiful 
repast was furnished by the family, and was greatly enjoyed by all 
present. 

The golden wedding of Mr. and Mrs. J. B. Briggs, celebrated at 
their home October 28th, was the occasion of another gathering in 
Elma Village, being the third gathering of Elma people within six 
weeks, to celebrate important events in the individual lives of those 
whom the people respect, honor and love. 

Farm crops in the town were generally good this year; apples 
especially, a bountiful crop of fine quality. 

The trustees of the M. E. Church of Elma Village decided to have 
a vestibule 10x14 feet built at the front of the church building. 
Christian StoUe had the contract and the work was commenced 
December 21st, and was finished in the early part of 1892. 

The Young People's Association furnished the money to pay all 
bills. 

We had ten inches of rain on tw^enty-two days in June and July, 
and fifty inches on 101 daj'S during the year, and forty-seven inches 
of snow on fifty days. 

1892. 

Erastus J. Markham on January 1st, gave to his daughter, Mrs. 
Louis P. Reuther, (nee Nellie Markham) the store and the goods 
in the store over the millrace in Elma Village as a New Year's pres- 
ent. 

Eron Woodard's house and the 30x40 foot barn, north of the house 
at Elma Center, burned at one o'clock p. m., Sunday, January 31st. 
As only part of the family were at home when the fire started, and 
there being nothing at hand with which to fight the fire, in a very 

228 



short time the whole interior of the house was in a blaze. The 
winter's supply of coal which had just been put into the wood-house 
and several hundred bushels of potatoes which were in the cellar 
went with the house. 

Only a few things were saved from the house, and with these and a 
few things brought by the neighbors, the family moved into the 
"Armstrong house," so called, about forty rods south of the fire. 

The building and contents were well insured. 

At the town meeting held March 8th, 1892, the only officer to 
be elected was a Justice of the Peace. Mr. Harrison Tillou was 
elected, only 264 votes polled. 

Philip Jerge and Herman Jerge, as the firm of Jerge Brothers, 
on April 2d, 1892, bought of their father, Jacob Jerge, the two 
village lots formerly known as the William H. Bancroft, and the 
Charles A. Dutton lots, on the west side of Main Street in Elma 
Village with the blacksmith shop, tools and stock then on hand; 
also other lands on the Chair Factory Road, and Jacob Jerge moved 
to Lancaster Village ; he had been a resident of Elma Village more 
than forty years, and had built up and carried on the blacksmith 
and wagon making business more than thirty years. 

Mr, R. P. Lee bought the Price place being part of Lots 54 and 59, 
on the east side of the Bo wen Road, and moved into the house May 
13th. 

Thomas Edwards opened a blacksmith shop in East Elma in 
July. Frank Metcalf 's barn was struck by lightning, and with con- 
tents burned June 21st, 1892. 

Mrs. William Kleinf elder was appointed postmaster of Blossom 
postoffice in the summer of 1892. 

Rev. Louis A. Wright was sent to Elma by the M. E. Conference, 
commencing his work October 10th. 

At the general election held on November 8th, 1892, 529 votes 
were polled in both districts of the town. Grover Cleveland was 
elected President. 

1893. 

The Blossom Fire Company put up a building south of the grist- 
mill in which to store its implements and for a meeting place of 
members of the companv. 

Charles S. Briggs, on April 1st, 1893, bought of Wilbor B. Briggs, 
a building lot at the northwest corner of the Bowen and Cemetery 
Roads in Elma Village, and that summer he built a house and 
moved in , in the fall. 

John Edenhoffer, on March 17th, bought of Jerge Brothers, a 
building lot on the east side of Main Street and the second lot 

229 



south of East Street in Elma Village, and that year built a house, 
moving in the fall. 

George W. Hurd rented his farm Lot 85, on the south side of the 
Bullis Road, for five years and on April 1st, Hurd moved to Buffalo. 

Richard Barnett, in April, rented Kihm's store in Spring Brook 
for four years, buying the goods and opened the store on his own 
account. Barnett was appointed postmaster at Spring Brook in 
October; Edwin H. Dingman was appointed postmaster at Jamison 
Road this summer; Conrad P. Hensel was appointed postmaster 
at Blossom postoffice in Herline's store; Henry A. Wright was 
appointed postmaster at Elma Center in July, 1893. 

Frank Slade (Schefferstein) on April 11th bought of EronWood- 
ard a one-sixth acre building lot at Elma Center, adjoining the one- 
half acre lot of Peter Grader on the south. 

The World's Fair was held in Chicago this year, and Elma sent 
many delegates who brought back astonishing reports as to the 
wonderful "White City, " and of the endless variety, perfectness and 
beauty of the exhibits. 

An Odd Fellows Societ}' was organized in Spring Brook this year. 
During the summer a company was organized in Spring Brook to 
put down a gas well. The place selected was on the southwest 
side of the Plank Road, nearly opposite the Kj-ser house, on what 
has for many years been known as the steam mill lot ; then owned 
by Eli B. Northrup. The drill was put down 1240 feet, and it was 
thought a good supply of gas was in sight; but after shooting the 
well and not very much increase of gas resulting, the well was 
plugged and remained so for some years, when, as per contract, 
the whole reverted to Mr. Noithrup. 

A new bridge over the Millrace on the Cemetery Road in Elma 
Village was raised July 28th, and finished in a few days. Then 
followed a "bee," to haul and place stone and gravel for the ap- 
proaches to both ends of the bridge. 

The west abutment to the Bullis bridge as originally built with 
a timber foundation, for that part which would be under water so 
long as the dam across the creek caused a pond; now as the dam 
had gone left the timber foundation exposed and it had become so 
decayed that a new stone abutment was a necessity; the contract 
was let to Monen & Koch for $583.72 with some repairs to the bridge 
to be completed before fall. 

Andrew Slade built a coal and grain house on east side of Bowen 
Road on Lot 48, northeast of the railroad. The M. E. Society of 
Spring Brook bought the German Evangelical building lot in the 
fall of 1893. 

Mrs. Pauline Gloss, on October 24th, bought of Mrs. George 
Kelgus, the house and lot south of the hotel on west side of the 

230 



Bowen Road on Lot 60. 408 votes were polled at the election 
November 7th, 1893. 

J894. 

The store which was built by George W. Hatch at East Elma on 
Lot 10 on the northeast corner of the Jamison and Thompson 
Roads in 1868, and had been since that time successively occupied 
by several persons as merchants, viz: Cxeorge AV. Hatch George 
and Niles Hatch, Isaac Smith, Harvey C. Palmer, Edwm H. Dmg- 
man, George and James Hatch, George and Leonard Hatch and 
George W. Hatch to January 13th, 1894, was then sold by George 
W Hatch to Charles Burman, both store and goods, and Burman 
has since that time and in 1900 is the merchant of the place. Geo 
W Hatch was appointed postmaster at East Elma m 1870, and Had 
been postmaster with the different resident merchants as assistants 
or deputies, until March 2d, 1894, when Charles Burman was ap- 
pointed postmaster. x i • i 
On February 9th, 1894, three men commenced to erect a derrick 
for the purpose of drilling for gas on James T. Hurd's land, on the 
south side of the Big Buffalo Creek just east of the mouth of Pond 
Brook The drill was started at 9 o'clock p. m. February 22d, and 
was put down 1400 feet and the well was shot on March 27th. 1 he 
result was too small a supply of gas to be of any use. ^ . . , 

The Elma villagers had for some time talked about a plank side- 
walk to the railroad crossing and station. Several meetings had 
been held, and a sufficient fund having been raised, the lumber was 
ordered and was delivered about the middle of March. 

Chalres S. Briggs and Cortland C. Briggs had the contract to 
lay the plank on the west side of the Bowen Road.from the south 
line of Lot 58, to the railroad crossing. . . , , i i 

The residents on the Clinton Street Road furnished the lumber 
and built the walk from the Clinton Street Road to J. B. Briggs 
house, and the villagers completed the walk to the bridge across ttie 

^This made a plank walk from Clinton Street to the railroad, a 
distance of about two miles, all finished April 1st 

The' gas well near the Buffalo Creek in Elma Village pro^-mg a 
failure, "The Municipal Gas Co.," was organized, with Harvey 
J. Hurd, James T. Hurd, Geo. D. Briggs, R. P. Lee, J Eddie Briggs 
and Myron H. Clark, of Elma Village, and Eh B. Northrup and 
Charles H. Sweet of Spring Brook, as directors^ The company 
commenced drilling for gas on the east side of the Bowen Rx)ad and 
near the south line of Lot 55, on land owned by Harvey J. Hurd. 
The drill was put down about 1800 feet, with some show ot gas 
and the well was shot, which seemed to increase the supply, lire 

231 



company applied to the Town Board for the right and privilege 
to lay pipe along the streets, highways and alleys of the town of 
Elma, for the purpose of conducting natural gas through the same. 
The petition was acted upon by the Town Board April 16th, 1894, 
and the privileges were granted; R. T. Barnet, supervisor; Henry 
A. Wright, Town Clerk; James A. Woodard, Harrison Tillou and 
W. B. Briggs, Justices of the Peace, signing the grant. The 
company ordered and received 3-inch pipe, which was laid from 
the well to the west side of the Bowen Road, and along the west 
side of the road and across the creek and to the house of J. B. 
Briggs, and connections were made from the main pipe to gas 
meters placed in the houses of James T. Hurd, Geo. D. Briggs, 
M3a'on H. Clark, Erastus J. Markham, J. B. Briggs and Harvey J. 
Hurd. The supply of gas did not increase, and gradually the 
pressure went down, and finally became so small that the pipe was 
taken up, and no use of natural gas has since been made in Elma 
Village, except what flows from the mouths of some of the resi- 
dents; that supply is not limited. 

Mr. F. L. A. Cady, of Buffalo, on May 10th, bought of Mrs. J. 
C. Stand art, one and one-half acres, adjoining Mrs. Price, on the 
east side of the Bowen Road and on Lot 59. 

Henry A. Wright, Town Clerk, on August 31st, resigned his 
office, and the same day the Town Board appointed Warren 
Jackman to fill the vacancy. 

On September 1st, Wright sold the goods in the store at Elma 
Centre to Mrs. Wilkes and her sister, Miss Smith. Mr. Wilkes 
was acting as agent for the W. N. Y. & P. R. R. Co., at the Elma 
station. 

Wright moved to Buffalo, where he opened a store on Seneca 
Street at the city line. 

The Leger saloon and barn in Spring Brook having burned, a 
new barn was immediately built, and used as a saloon, while 
the new hotel was being built, in the summer of 1894. 

The Odd Fellows' Societ}^ of Springbrook bought a piece of land 
west of the Union church lot, and erected and finished a nice, 
large building for a hall and other purposes, all completed in the 
summer of 1894. 

441 votes were polled at the election, November 6th. 

All through the months of January, February and into March 
we had a continuous succession of snow storms, with very high 
wind and temperature in February from 2° to 14° below zero. 
All the roads were badly drifted and were nearly impassable for 
several days; making the worst continuous storm for many years. 

At the town meeting held March 12th, 515 votes were polled; 
for officers elected see Chapter XXL 

232 



The ice went out of the large streams in the Town of Elma 
March 25th; no flood to cause damage, only at East Elma, where 
part of the milldam went out, and Anthony Allen, then owner of 
the old Hatch-Hemstreet sawmill, decided not to repair the dam, 
and he soon took down the sawmill. So the " Indian Mill ", another 
old land mark, is gone. 

Alexander Sutton, on April 1st, bought of Mrs. Wilkes, the 
goods in the store at the railroad station at Elma Centre, and on 
April 5th, 1895, Frank Sutton was appointed postmaster of the 
Elma Centre postoffice. 

The railroad station was on the west side of the tracks, and a 
driveway separated the station and store, the postoffice being in 
the store. 

Before eleven oclock of the evening of June 18th, fire was dis- 
covered in the shed, at the west side of the store, among some 
empty boxes which had been piled in the end of the shed next to 
the store. When the alarm was given, the fire had worked into the 
store and in a very few minutes the whole inside of the store was a 
roaring furnace. Only a few letters and the mail bag were saved; 
nothing saved from the store. 

The fire quickly worked its way to Andrew Slades' coal and 
lumber office on the north end of the store, and to Slades' shingle 
shed at the north of the office. There was but little, if any, in- 
surance. 

The fire soon reached the depot building which was quickly 
consumed. 

The body of an empty freight car was utilized as a station 
until a board shanty was erected, and this served until the rail- 
road company built the present station on the east side of the 
tracks, and 200 feet south from the crossing of the Woodward 
Road. 

A carriage road was soon made from the station along the east 
side of the railroad tracks and east side of Slades' coal and grain 
building to the Bowen Road, which enabled the Elma Villagers to 
drive to the station without crossing the tracks. 

Alexander Sutton, on June 27th, bought of Eron Woodard a 
lot on the west side of the Bowen Road, next south of Frank 
Slades' lot, and put up a building for store and postoffice. 

Frank Slade, on July 8th, bought of E. Woodard a lot south of 
Woodard 's house, and that summer built his house and barn. 

George D. Briggs remodeled his barn and stables near the Big 
Buffalo Creek, arranged the old store building into a milk house, 
and commenced to bottle and send to Buffalo "Certified Milk."' 

320 votes were polled at the election, November 5th, 1895. 

233 



1896. 

February of this year gave us forty-two inches of snow with 
high winds and badly drifted roads. 

On March 29th, we had four separate and distinct thunder 
storms between nine and eleven o'clock a. m. 

At the town meeting, March 10th, 373 votes were polled. 
See Chapter XXI, for officers elected at town meeting. 

Robert C. Board of Buffalo, bought the Clark-Baker place, 
across the street from the church in Elma Village. 

George D. Briggs, this year built two more silos at the west 
end of his cattle stables. 

Alexander Sutton in May sold the goods in his store in Elma 
Centre to Frank Sutton and Charles Sommers and rented the 
store to them for one year. 

Joseph Geyer leased of Alexander Sutton land for a blacksmith 
shop, between Sutton's store and Slade's coal office, in Elma 
Centre, and in the summer he built a shop and went to work, 
thus starting the first blacksmith shop in Elma centre. 

Michael Greiss bought the mill property in Blossom, and in the 
summer rebuilt the gristmill, with cidermill attached. 

Irving Schurr, on May 9th, bought of E. H. Dingman and J. 
Wagner a lot for blacksmith shop and residence at Jamison, 
between the Williams Road and the railroad, on Lot 39, that 
summer he l^uilt the shop and house. 

Louis P. Reuther built a barn on the east side of the Main 
Street in Elma Village next to the creek. 

Edgar L. Murlin, in August, bought the James Clark place in 
Elma Village, and on the east side of Main Street, across from 
Jerge Brothers' blacksmith shop. 

Dr. Albert H. Briggs of Buffalo, celebrated his fifty-fourth birth- 
day on September 9th, 1896, by giving a "Clam Chowder" dinner 
to his many friends on the lawn in front of Wilbor B. Briggs' house 
in Elma Village. The large number (more than 100) of persons 
present greatly enjoyed the dinner and the sociable part, and all 
declared that the doctor was a full team as entertainer. 

Harvey J. Hurd this summer overhauled and rebuilt the sawmill 
and gristmill in Elma Village and put in extensive w^ater works 
machinerj' to supply his house and barns with water. He put a 
400 barrel tank into the barn on the east side of the road, on top 
of the hill across from the schoolhouse, and connected that tank 
by pipes to a large force pump which was placed under the grist- 
mill, the pump to be driven by water power, to force the water into 
the large tank. Then by other pipes, connections were made with 
the house, barns, garden and lawn, so they were all supplied with 

234 



water. The tank being so elevated, he can, with a hose, throw 
water into and over any of his buildings. He also built a large ice 
house on the north bank of the millpond near the sawmill. 

■ Jacob Heim built a steam cidermill on his farm east of Jamison 
Station in the summer of 1896. 

The Farmers' Alliance at Spring Brook collapsed this year. We 
had a large crop of apples this year. 

The M. E. Church building in Spring Brook was this year altered 
and repaired, and was re-dedicated Deceml^er 29th, 1896. 

442 votes were polled at the election November 3d. Votes of 
Electoral College for McKinley, 271; for William J. Bryan, 176. 

1897. 

High wind, seventy-six miles per hour at 2 p. m. March 12th. 

At the town meeting, March 9th, 528 votes were polled. The 
law having been changed as to the time Supervisors should com- 
mence to hold office, from their election at the March town meeting 
as heretofore, to January 1st after they were elected. James A. 
Woodard, although elected March 9th, 1897, could not take the 
office until January 1st, 1898. Consequently a vacancy existed 
in the office of Supervisor after March 9th. To fill this vacancy, 
the Town Board appointed John Luders, ex-Supervisor. 

Charles Sommers sold his interest in the goods of Sutton & Som- 
mers store to Alexander and Frank Sutton in May 1897, and June 
23d he bought the goods in Peter Grader's store and commenced 
on his own account in Grader's store. 

The Catholic Church in Spring Brook was repainted this summer 
The building in Spring Brook known as "The Farmers' Alliance. 
Hall," was sold to Joseph Klass and moved from Esq. Ward's lot, 
on to the lot across the street from the brick store. 

Harrison Tillou was this year appointed postmaster of Spring 
Brook postoffice, and moved the office from Barnett's store in 
October, to his justice's office opposite the Catholic church. 

Ernst Bleeck was appointed postmaster of the Jamison Ptoad 
postoffice and moved the postoffice from Dingman's store to 
Bleeck 's on the north side of Jamison Road. 

Andrew F. Slade on July 14th, bought of Eron Woodard 's heirs 
a building lot on west side of the Bowen Road at Elma Center and 
near the so-called Armstrong house, and built a house that summer 
and moved in the fall. 

Louis P. Reuther built a store and house combined on the east 
side of Main Street in Elma Village, at north end of the bridge 
across the creek and was that year appointed postmaster of the 
Elma postoffice. 

235 



John McMullen's house m East Ehna burned at noon, September 
6th, 1897. 

Warren Jackman was on September 30th appointed Attendance 
Officer for the town. Joseph Geyer on December 17th bought of 
the Woodard heirs a building lot on the west side of the Bowen 
Road at Elma Centre, south of Sutton's store. 

There was a very small crop of apples this year, many of the 
farmers not having a bushel from their whole orchard. 

J898. 

On Januarj^ 12th, 1898 there was a heavy thunder storm from 
6 to 10 o'clock p. m., when one inch of water fell and was followed 
with snow and very high wind. 

James McGiveron rented the Beck blacksmith shop in Spring 
Brook and commenced work in April. 

Charles Thayer in the summer of this year built a barn on his 
lot in Spring Brook. 

Louis P. Levither in March, moved into his new store at the north 
end of the bridge in Elma ViUage. 

George W. Hurcl moved from Buffalo April 1st, on to his farm, 
Lot 85, on the south side of Bullis Road. 

Joseph Geyer built a house and barn on his lot in Elma Centre, 
south of Sutton's store. 

An English Sunday-school was organized at Elma Centre this 
summer, the school being held in the schoolhouse at the corner of 
the Bowen and Rice Roads. 

Baker's saloon across the Street from the Union Church in Spring 
Brook was burned with contents on July 2d, 1898. It was im- 
mediately rebuilt. 

Peter Burn's barn on the Jamison Road was struck by lightning 
and burned in July, 1898. 

Dr. Albert H. Briggs of Buffalo, on September 9th, celebrated 
his fifty-sixth birthday by inviting his many friends to a Chowder 
dinner given on W. B. Briggs' laAvn in Elma Village. As usual, it 
was a gathering which resulted in binding all together in social 
bonds of friendship. 

Jerge Brothers in the fah of 1898 put up a new building in Elma 
Village, on the north side of their blacksmith shop, for a carriage, 
storage and paint shop. 

The railroad company built a new station on the south side 
of Jamison Road in the summer of 1898. 

There was a very light crop of apples in Elma this year. 

James T. Hurd, Harvey J. Hurd and J. E. Briggs, each put up 
a new silo as an attachment to their cattle barns. The silos were 

236 



each sixteen feet in diameter and twenty-four feet in height and 
were enclosed in a frame building, lined, papered and sided, so as 
to be nearly frost proof. 

■ Warren Jackman was on September 29th appointed by the Town 
Board, for a second term as Attendance Officer for the whole Town 
of Elma. 

Mrs. Clara E. Gibson bought the north house built by George D. 
Briggs on the west side of the Bowen Road near the south line of 
Lot 58, with the building lot, and put in a tile drain from the west 
side of her house to the bank of Pond Brook, going across the road 
and through James T. Kurd's orchard and down the bank to the 
brook. 

Burton H. Hurd in October bought the other house and lot next 
south of Mrs. Gibsons', and put in a tile drain to connect with 
Mrs. Gibsons' drain. 

At the general election November Sth, 460 votes were polled in 
this town, and Theodore Roosevelt was elected Governor of the 
State by over 21,000 majority. 

Alexander Rush sold the hotel property at southwest corner of 
Bowen and Bullis Roads to Matthias Nosbisch, November 16th, 
1898, consideration $2,150. 

From December 4th to 12th we had thirty-two inches of snow, 
with very high wind, changing from southeast to east, to northwest 
to west, southwest to north and north east, piling and drifting the 
snow so as to block railroad trains and country roads; and the streets 
in the southeast part of Buffalo were closed for several days, the 
street cars not moving. 

1899. 

Snow and blizzard on Januar}" 6th and 7th; again on January 
21st, and again on Januarj^ 26th and 27th: at 10 o'clock p. m. Jan- 
uary 27th, the wind was a seventy-two mile gale. 

March 1st, Mrs. Emilie Ford bought of Alexander and Frank 
Sutton, the goods in their store in Elma Centre, renting the store 
for three years. 

Total vote at the town meeting March 14th, 559. For officers 
elected see Chapter XXI. 

By the terms of the new law, we, in Erie County are to hold town 
meetings biennially ; on the odd j^ears, and all town officers elected 
will hold office for two years. 

Myron H. Clark in April bought of the heirs of William Standart, 
deceased, the lands and appurtenances of the William Standart 
estate, on the east side of the Bowen Road and on the north side 
of the Bullis Road, being part of Lots 49, 54 and 59, except the east 

237 



half of the south fifty acres of Lot 49. By the terms of the settle- 
ment, William Wesley Standart, one of the said heirs, is to have the 
said excepted twenty-five acres. 

Robert C. Board put a new felt roof on his house across the street 
from the church in Elma Village. 

Mr. and Mrs. R. P. Lee celebrated their silver wedding June 3d. 

Mrs. Emilie Ford was appointed postmaster at Elma Centre 
postoffice July 19th. 

The M. E. Church in Elma Village was re-painted in August. 

Mr. and Mrs. Alonzo C. Bancroft celebrated their golden wedding 
September 12th. 

Dr. Albert H. Briggs, for fiftj^-seventh birthday celebration, 
had a clam chowder party September 9th, on Wilbor B. Briggs' lawn 
in Elma village; 120 persons present and all had a fine time. 

Solon Hines was on September 28th appointed Attendance Of- 
ficer for the whole tow^n. 

The hardest drought ever known in the Town of Elma w^as during 
the summer of 1899. Not a drop of water ran from Pond Brook 
into the Big Buffalo Creek from June 20th to September 26th ; ex- 
cept a very little on July 10th, 11th and 12th. The drought was 
finally broken by a shower on September 18th. The three days 
of gentle, steady rain on September 24th, 25th and 26th, when 
two and one-half inches of water fell, was so gradual, and the ground 
was so dry, that not a drop of the water drained into the streams; 
so they showed no signs of rain, only what fell in the bed of the 
streams, until the morning of September 27th, and then only a 
little. Many farmers had to haul water from the nearest stream 
for their farm stock. Plowing for fall and winter grain was greatly 
delayed as the ground was so dry and hard that it was impossible 
on most farms to do any plowing. 

A new stone abutment for the south end of the bridge across the 
creek in Elma Village was built in October by Philip Jerge, finished 
October 29th. Contract price $500. 

The vote at the election November 6th, 1st district 213; 2d dis- 
trict 173. Total 386. A mad dog scare just before Christmas in 
Elma Village resulted in the kihing of eight dogs; twenty more 
could be disposed of. 

In November and December, Eli B. Northrup, owner of the gas 
well in Spring Brook, had pipe laid from the well to his house, with 
branches and connections to the residence of Joseph Klass, to 
Richard Barnett's store, the Odd Fellows Hall and to Eli B. North- 
rup 's residence. On December 31st, the gas was turned on and 
these places were heated and lighted. These were the first gas- 
lights in Spring Brook. 

238 



J900. 

The mad dog scare , mentioned in the last part of 1899, continued 
through the hohday season and on January 1st, 1900, shows no 
abatement in Elma Village; the demand that other and more dogs 
Avhich were reported to have been bitten, should be killed or kept 
in close confinement, is urged and demanded as security for human 
and animal life ; but some people seem to care more for their worth- 
less curs than they do for the lives and property of their neighbors. 

For three days in January, 1 1th to 14th, all the trees were loaded 
with ice and snow which was removed by the thaw of 14th and 15th. 

The fine sleighing for several days, also the ice and three inches 
of snow of January 11th was spoiled by the thaw of 17th and 18, 
wdiich was followed by one and one-half inches of rain on the 20th, 
all together causing the highest water in the streams in the town 
for many years, but as there w^as no ice, but little damage resulted. 

On January 15th, Burton H. Hurd had a barn raised on his lot on 
the west side of the Bo wen Road, south from Elma Village ; his 
building lot being on the line between Lots 58 and 59; his house is 
on Lot 58 and his barn on Lot 59. 

At a meeting of the members and congregation of the Catholic 
society of Spring Brook, held in its church on Sunday, December 
31,st, 1899, notice was given that on Sunday, January 7th, 1900, 
the parsonage building, and the barn (old church building) on the 
northeast end of its church lot, would be sold to the highest 
bidder. The sale took place according to the said notice. Mr. 
Robert Wiley bought the house for $149; and it will be moved on 
to the lot on the north side of the Plank Road, and next south from 
the Thayer place (old Mouse Nest) . 

The barn, which was the first church building in the Town of 
Elma, and was used by the Catholic society as their church from 
1850 to 1874, when it was moved to the east end of their lot and has 
since been used as a parsonage barn, was sold for $20 ; was taken 
down and moved on to land owned by William Fisher, being part of 
Lot 100, on the east side of the Blossom Road, south of the railroad. 

Within the last few years, farmers have been putting up wind- 
mills for the purpose of pumping water to supply their farm stock. 
No mention has been heretofore made, and now on January 1st, 
1900, we find among the names of the owners of these mills the 
following: Peter Heineman, 2, George Beidler, J. Eddy Briggs, 
Louis P. Reuther, George D. Briggs, James T. Hurd, Mrs. C. E. 
Gibson, Thomas Schneider, George W. Hurd, Llenry E. Stitz, 
William F. Stitz, Henry W. Stitz, Henry Lexo, Col. E. Persons, 
Stephen Curtis, Irving Schurr, D. K. Adams, Borden Cole, Herbert 
Lathrop, William Conley, Henry Kihm, D. L. Wilson, and on the 
William M. Rice place, James Grace, Caleb Brown, Fred Maurer. 

239 



On Februar3^2cl, the ''Old Bear" came out, and as it was a bright 
da}' she saw her shadow and wisel}' went back to remain for six 
weeks. Winter soon set in again with renewed force, so that Febru- 
ar}^ and March , 1900 pass into history as record breakers for heavy 
snow storms, with very high winds, roads made impassable, un- 
pleasant weather. 

An epidemic of measles prevailed in the town from January 1st 
into May, causing several of the schools to close which will account 
for the small attendance of pupils during the school year. 

The mad dog scare, mentioned on January 1st, continued until 
May, and as a result a goodly number of dogs were put out of the 
way, but enough remained to make the dog nuisance in the town so 
great, as at times to severely tax the patience of decent, order- 
loving citizens. 

On March 1st, Charles Clough hired Irving Schurr's shop at 
Jamison Road and commenced work as blacksmith. 

In April, the Patrick Cassady place on the Thompson Road at 
East Elma was sold to Willard F. Hines. 

Sylvester Rush in April bought of Jacob Miller the thirty acre 
lot on northeast corner of Lot 53, being the southwest corner of the 
Bowen and Rice Roads. 

May 4th , Charles Stetson with his family moved from Buffalo 
into Mrs. Standards house, on the east side of the Bowen Road 
south of Elma Village. 

May 14th , the grass has started so that farmers are turning their 
stock out to pasture. A few gardens are made and some early 
potatoes are planted. 

Henry E. Bancroft was appointed to take the United States 
census in the town on the west side of the Bowen Road, and George 
Heim to take the census on the east side of that road. For result 
see Chapter XXI. 

The Republican National Convention met in PhiladeliDhia and on 
June 2Gth adopted a platform, of which the main features are : " That 
American authority is to be maintained in the Philippines, with 
-the largest measure of self-government, consistent with the welfare 
of the inhabitants; the pledge to give Cuba independence will be 
kept; increased shipping favored ; to reduce war taxes: to build, 
own and control the Isthmian Canal; and the extension of our 
foreign trade; pledge to the principles of the gold standard, and 
opposed to the free and unlimited coinage of silver without the sup- 
port of the leading commercial countries of the world; favor co- 
operation of capital to meet new conditions and to extend our 
foreign trade, but condemn combinations to restrict business, to 
erect monopolies, or to control prices ; and favor legislation to pre- 

240 



vent abuses, protect and promote competition and secure^ the 
rights of producers, laborers and all who are engaged in industry 
and commerce. 

•June 21st, the Convention by unanimous vote, named William 
McKinley as its candidate for the Presidency by a vote of 929— 
one delegate not voting; the Convention then named Theodore 
Roosevelt, Governor of New York, as candidate for Vice-President. 
The Prohibition party held its National Convention in Chicago , 
June 27th. The platform presents the hquor traffic, as being so- 
cially, morally, financially and pohtically wrong, and the hcensed 
liquor traffic is and ought to be the overwhelming issue in American 
politics. On June 28th, John G. Woolley of Illinois, was nominated 
as the candidate for President, and Henry B. Metcalf for Vice- 
President. 

The Democratic Party held its National Convention in Kansas 
City on July 4th. On July 5th,the platform was adopted. It de- 
clared against "Imperiahsm" as the leading issue ; against Militarism 
and Trusts; adopted the Chicago platform of 1896 and declared 
for free and unlimited coinage of gold and silver on the ratio of 
16 to 1, by this government without regard to any other nation. 
William J. Bryan was the unanimous choice of the convention as 
its candidate for President; and the next day Adlai Stephenson 
was chosen as candidate for Vice-President. 

The silver Repubhcans in convention in Kansas City, endorsed 
Bryan and Stephenson. 

The Populist Convention decided to accept of Bryan and Stephen- 
son. 

Mr. Bryan in accepting the nomination in Indianapofis, August 
3d, said : '' If I am elected I shall convene Congress in extraordinary 
session, as soon as I am inaugurated and recommend an immediate 
declaration of the nation's purpose on the Phifippine question. 
First, to estabfish a stable government in the Philippines, just as 
we are now establishing a stable government in the island of Cuba. 

Second, to give independence to the Filipinos just as we have 
promised to give independence to the Cubans. 

Third, to protect the Filipinos from outside interference, while 
they work out their destiny, just as we have protected the Repub- 
lics of Central and South America, and are by the Monroe doctrine 
pledged to protect Cuba. 

July 4th, 1900, was observed by the Elma people as has been 
their custom for many years by a gathering in the park. This was 
an old-fashioned basket picnic, and about 150 persons joined m 
the dinner and social part of the program. 

241 



John Miller's barn on the Woodard Road was struck by lightning 
and burned, with all the crops and farm tools, at 5 o'clock p. m. 
July 10th. 

The hay crop is very small, owing to the droughts of last year, 
and of May and June of this year. 

A larger acreage of land is under the plow this year, and more 
acres put into oats, potatoes and corn, especially fodder corn, than 
in any previous year. 

Myron H. Clark, owner of the property at the northeast corner 
of the Bullis and Bowen Roads, on August 3d took down the frame 
of the barn which was built by George Standart in 1843, and as the 
timber was mostly pine and in a good state of preservation, he used 
it in building a barn twenty rods north, and near to the brick house 
which was built by Wihiam Standart in 1853. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad Company, early in the year began to 
look for a way by which that company could gain an entrance into 
Buffalo. The W. N. Y. & P. Railroad seemed to be the most de- 
sirable and negotiations were commenced and carried on between 
the two companies until arrangements were completed and on 
August 1st, 1900, the Pennsylvania Company took possession of 
the road and of all the rolling stock and property of the W. N. Y. & 
P. R. R. Company ; and from that date it will be known as a branch 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

The schoolhouse in Blossom, (District No. 8), having been con- 
demned by the School Commissioner as not suitable for school pur- 
poses, the residents of that school district, at a special meeting held 
in the schoolhouse in July, voted to build a new house, and after 
several meetings, the old house, after the seats were taken out, was 
sold to Alois Dusch for S49, and was by Dusch moved across the . 
street, and at a later meeting the contract to build the new house, 
30x40, with 14 foot posts to have two rooms, was let to Jacob 
Weil & Co., the contract price being $2,175, to be completed by 
November 20th, the building to occupy the old site on the south 
of Main Street in Blossom Village. 

Charles H. Sweet's store at the corner of the Northrup and Aurora 
Roads in the Village of Spring Brook, burned at 6 o'clock p. m., 
August 23d; building and goods destroyed, only some household 
furniture in the wing of the building saved, partially insured. This 
wipes out the first building in Spring Brook built as a store by E. 
G. Kent in 1850. 

Along in July, posters, hand-bills and circulars were put up and 
circulated throughout this and adjoining towns, announcing that 
"on Saturday, July 28th, there would be a grand circus and hippo- 
drome on "Bonny Brook," (Mr. R. Porter Lee's place), with 
music by the band, a grand parade, wild animals, chariot races, 

242 



wild west riding and shooting and otlier attractions that would 
put the ''Traveling Circus" in the shade." 

To prepare for this, the Elma boys, with a little outside help, 
worked and practiced daily and nightly. 

July 28th was an ideal circus day — fair weather, gentle breeze, 
temperature just right and everything was ready on time. At 
2 o'clock p. m. people began to gather at the grounds, and at 3 
o'clock, the time set for the performance to begin, more than 300 
persons were there, most of them having visited the side shows. 
Every part of the program was perfectly rendered — not a slip nor jar; 
and at the evening performance more than 400 persons enjoyed 
the entertainment, which by general assent was declared to be 
better than had been promised. 

This effort proved so satisfactory that it was decided to have 
another " circus " next year. 

On Monday, September 17th, a certificate of the incorporation 
of the "Elma Circus," a club organized for social purposes, was 
filed with the County Clerk in this County. 

The directors are: James T. Hurd, R. Porter Lee, George D. 
Briggs, Robert C. Board, Myron H. Clark, John R. Lee, Burton H. 
Hurd, Ernest C. Crane and Charles S. Gibson. 

The tornado which struck Galveston, Texas, September 8th, 
continuing for thirty hours, with wind eighty-four to ninety-six 
miles per hour, making a wreck of that city, with loss of life, as 
reported from 11,000 to 14,000, and property loss estimated at 
$25,000,000, reached this part of the country Tuesday evening, 
September 11th, the wind increasing until 5 o'clock a. m. September 
12th, at times a seventy-eight mile gale; causing throughout the 
path of the storm great destruction of fruit and buildings. 

The Government breakwater at Buffalo was damaged $20,000; 
the Pan-American buildings damaged $100,000. The Buffalo 
signal ofhce reported it as the worst September storm on record. 
The destruction of fruit was about all the damage in the Town of 
Elma. 

Dr. Albert H. Briggs celebrated his fifty-eighth birthday by in- 
viting his many friends to a clam chowder dinner, to be given on 
the lawn in front of V/ilbor B. Briggs' house in Elma Village. Ta- 
bles were spread for 250, and as the day was pleasant, (September 
8th), the friends enjoyed the repast and the occasion, so that a vote 
of thanks was given with three royal cheers for the doctor, and he 
was invited to repeat the whole thing at his next birthday. 

No water was running from Pond Brook from September 5th to 
September 29th. 

243 



Farmers have through the year had fair to extra prices for their 
produce; crops have generally turned out very good, except hay, 
which was a short crop. 

Milk is produced for the Buffalo market each year in larger 
quantities, and this j^ear the farmers are receiving nine, ten and 
eleven cents per gallon at the railroad stations, which is quite an 
advance above previous years, but the higher price of grain to be 
fed to the cows brings the net receipts to the farmer about as 
in former years. 

Silos are coming into favor as a way to secure the fodder crops 
at less expense and with profit, as reported by those farmers who 
have them. 

In October 1900, the following named persons have silos: On 
the Mile Strip, D. K. Adams, Bordan Cole, Griggs & Ball; on the 
Aurora part, Ellsworth G. Persons and Benjamin J. Eldridge; on 
the Lancaster part, George D. Briggs, 2, J. Eddy Briggs, Harvey 
J. Hurd, James T. Hurd, 2, Morris Hill and Jacob Seeger. 

Michael Greiss in October had his dwelling house raised on the 
mill lot in Blossom, a few rods south from the gristmill. 

October 13th, 1900, at 5 :45 o'clock p. m., as Philip Jerge was cross- 
ing Pond Brook bridge in Elma Village, with a load of about forty 
bushels of potatoes, four boys, viz.: Jacob and Philip Jerge, his 
sons, Charles Jerge, son of Herman Jerge, and Charles Schroeder, 
and two hired men, Michael Morath and George Heidenrath, all on 
the wagon, just as the horses were going off the west end of the 
bridge, the north end of the needle beam that supported that sec- 
tion of the bridge, being rotten, broke down, letting thirty feet of 
the length of the bridge to the rock bottom of the stream, seventeen 
feet below the floor of the bridge, with the wagon, men, boys and 
horses in the wreck. 

The wagon turned bottom up with Morath under the box, with 
plank and joist on the wagon, and the horses on their backs on top 
of the whole. Morath was taken out with two broken ribs which 
had penetrated the lungs, and a dislocated shoulder. George 
Heidenrath had a bruised hip; Jacob Jerge back and hip bruised, 
Charles Jerge a sprained ankle. The horses were not injured. 

The bridge had been rebuilt in April 1896 with oak needle beams 
and oak joist. A traction engine had crossed the bridge three 
times within the last six weeks, and two days before the break-down 
a much heavier load, wagon and horses, than Jerge 's had crossed, 
and no one had a thought but the bridge was perfectly safe. 

In three days, temporary repairs had been made so that teams 
could safely cross. The Town Board directed Fred Luders the Com- 
missioner of Highways to have a steel or iron bridge placed there 
without unnecessary delay. 

244 



The Horse Heads Iron Bridge Co. had the contract, and had the 
bridge with steel joists all ready for the flooring on December 25th, 
1900, and that day the Commissioner had the floor laid so teams 
could cross. Contract price $284. 

First kifling frost on morning of October 17th — temperature 30° 
at 7 a. m. 

The Philippine war is still carried on by guerrilla bands, the Re- 
publicans claiming that Aguinaldo is encouraged by the Demo- 
cratic platform and their speeches, to hold on until after the Presi- 
dential election, with the assurance that if Bryan is elected, he will 
recognize their independence and withdraw the American army, 
thus giving to the Tagalogs the control of all the tribes of the Phil- 
ippine Islands. The Repubhcans claim that if McKinley is elected 
the rebelhon wifl soon cease, and peace and prosperity in the islands 
will be the result. 

The Presidential campaign of 1900 has been carried through with 
great labor and cost by both Republican and Democratic parties. 
William J. Bryan, the Democratic candidate for President has can- 
vassed most of the Western, and several of the Southern and 
Middle States, making four to ten speeches each day for several 
weeks, making Imperialism the paramount issue, with Trusts as 
a second. 

Governor Theodore Roosevelt, the Republican candidate for 
Vice-President, has in the same time, practicafly covered the same 
territory, making the financial condition and the 16 to 1 plank of 
the Democratic platform the principal ground for his speeches. 
Mass meetings in cities and towns, with speeches and pole raising, 
have been largely attended, each party doing their best to out-do 
their opponents, each trying to interest and secure voters for their 
party. 

Greater interest has been manifested by the leaders of both 
parties during this campaign than in any other Presidential election 
since 1860. 

TEN PRESIDENTIAL TICKETS. 

The following are the national tickets : 

Republican — President, Wilham McKinley of Ohio ; Vice-Presi- 
dent, Theodore Roosevelt of New York. 

Democratic — President, William J. Bryan of Nebraska; Vice- 
President, Adlai E. Stevenson of Illinois. 

Populist — President, William J. Bryan of Nebraska; Vice-Presi- 
dent, Adlai E. Stevenson of Iflinois. 

Silver Republicans — President, William J. Bryan of Nebraska; 
Vice-President, Adlai E. Stevenson of Illinois. 

MiDDLE-OF-THE-RoAD PopuLiST — President, Wharton Barker 
of Pennsylvania; Vice-President, Ignatius Donnelly of Minnesota. 

245 



Prohibitionist — President, John G. Wolley of Illinois; Vice- 
President, Henry B. Metcalf of Rhode Island. 

Union Reform — President, Seth Ellis of Ohio; Vice-President, 
Samuel T. Nicholson of Pennsylvania. 

United Christians — President, Dr. S. C. Swallow of Pennsyl- 
vania; Vice-President, John G. Woolley of Illinois. 

Social Democrats — President, Eugene V. Debs of Indiana; 
Vice President, Job Hariman of California. 

De Leon Socialists — President, Joseph F. Maloney of Massa- 
chusetts; Vice-President, Valentine Remmill of Pennsylvania. 

The election held on November 6th resulted in the election of 
the Republican candidates. 



states carried by MCKINLEY : 



California 

Connecticut .... 

Delaware 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Nebraska 

New Hampshire . 
New Jersey .... 

New York 

North Dakota. . 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsjdvania . . 
Rhode Island . . . 
South Dakota. . 

Utah 

Vermont 

Washington . . . . 
West Virginia . .. . 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Total . 



Approxi- 
mate 


Electoral 


Majority. 


Votes. 


20,000 


9 


25,000 


6 


3,000 


3 


100,000 


24 


30,000 


15 


70,000 


13 


20,000 


10 


25,000 


6 


10,000 


8 


83,000 


15 


60,000 


14 


50,000 


9 


7,372 


8 


18,000 


4 


35,000 


10 


160,000 


36 


10,000 


3 


70,000 


23 


10,000 


4 


300,000 


32 


15,000 


4 


15,000 


4 


2,140 


3 


30,000 


4 


8,000 


4 


15,000 


6 


80,000 


12 


3,000 


3 



292 



246 



STATES CARRIED BY BRYAN: 



Approxi- 
raate 

Majority. 



Alabama 60,000 

Arkansas I 60,000 

35,000 

22,000 

40,000 

2,170 

7,957 

35,000 

45,000 

20,000 

18,000 

1,000 

30,000 

30,000 

20,000 

175,000 

25,000 



Colorado 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Kentucky .... 

Louisiana 

Mississippi .... 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nevada 

North Carolina 
South Carolina 
Tennessee . . . . 

Texas 

Virginia 



Total 



McKinley 



Total 

McKinley 's majority 

In 1896 McKinley had . . 
" " W.J. Bryan had. 
McKinley 's majority 



Electoral 
Votes. 

11 

8 

4 

4 
13 

3 
13 

8 

9 
17 

3 

3 
11 

9 
12 
15 
12 



155 

292 



447 
137 
271 
176 
95 



Popular vote at Presidential election November 6th, 1900 : 
McKinley received 7,217,677 votes. 



Bryan 
Barker 

Woolley 
Debs 
Malloney 
Scattering 



6,357,853 

50,188 

207,368 

94,552 

33,450 

6,211 



Total 13,967,299 

McKinley 's plurality 859,824 

" majority over all 468,055 

The Electoral College gave McKinley 292 votes; Bryan 155 votes. 
McKinley 's majority 137. 



247 



BUSINESS DIRECTORY FOR ELMA, J 900. 
Blacksmiths. 
Clough, Charles, Jamison Road; Jerge Brothers, Elma Village; 
Dusch, Alois, Blossom ; Jerge Brothers, Bowen and Clin- 

Edwards, Thomas, East Elma; ton Street; 

GeyePj Joseph, Elma Centre ; McGiveron, James,Spring Brook. 

Butter Factory. 

Cole & Fish, Aurora Plank Road. 

Cider Mills. 

Greiss, Michael, Blossom; Hesse, Herman, Chair Factory 

Heim, Jacob and Sons, Jamison Road ; 

Road; Reuther, Louis P., Elma Village. 

Coal. 
Bleeck, Ernst, Jamison Road; Schifferstein, Andrew, Elma 
Dingman, Edwin H., Jamison Centre. 
Road ; 

Gristmills. 
Greiss, Michael, Blossom; Northrup, Eli B., Spring Brook. 

Hurd, Harvey J., Elma Village; 

Grocers. 
Hesse, ^Adolf F., Bowen and 

Bullis Roads; Sommers, Charles, Elma Centre ; 

Jasel, Christ, Bowen and Clin- Spencer, Adelbert, Spring Brook, 
ton Street; 

Lumber and Feed. 
Schifferstein, Andrew, Elma Centre. 
Meat Markets. 
Hesse, Adolf F., Bowen and Klas, Joseph, Spring Brook. 
Bullis Roads; 

Merchants. 
Barnett, Richard T., Spring Dingman, Edwin H., Jamison 

Brook ; Road ; 

Burman, Charles, East Elma; Ford, Mrs. Asa, Elma Centre; 
Bleeck, Ernst, Jamison Road; Herlan, F. T., Blossom; 

Reuther, Louis P., Elma Village. 
Postmasters. 
Bleeck, Ernst, Jamison Road; Hensel, Conrad P., Blossom; 
Burman, Charles, East Elma; Reuther, Louis P., Elma Village; 
Ford, Mrs. Emilie, Elma Centre ; Tihou, Harrison L., Spring Brook. 

Sawmills. 
Harvey J. Hurd, Elma Village; Northrup, Eli B., Spring Brook. 

248 



Saloons. 
Baker, W. G., Spring Brook; Mary, Jacob, Schmaltz and Clin- 
Bleeck, Ernst, Jamison Road; ton Street; 

Grader, Peter, Elma Centre; Nosbisch, Matthias, Bowen and 

Jasel, Christ, Bowen and Clinton Bullis Roads; 

Street Roads; Sugg, Nicholas, Blossom; 

Leger, Louis and William, Spring Wilhelm, Alex, Blossom. 

Brook ; 

Jerge Brothers in connection with their blacksmith shop in Elma 
Village, have a machine shop with steam power where they manu- 
facture heavy and light wagons of many styles, buggies, carriages, 
sleighs, farm tools, etc., etc., and joining their factory building 
they have a large paint shop and store house. They are also agents 
for all kinds of farm implements and machinery. 

Louis P. Reuther is agent for the Page Wire Fence Co., and for 
farm tools and machinery, with wind mills in addition. 

Charles H. Sweet of Spring Brook has a good assortment of farm 
implements and machinery, fertilizers, etc., etc., to accommodate 
the farmers of that locality. 

Patrick Phelan's barn in Spring Brook, on the lot at the corner 
of the Davis and Aurora Plank Roads burned Friday morning, 
November 30th, 1900, nothing saved. Insurance on building $300, 
contents $204. 

Thomas D. Williams died December 1st, 1900, age 73 years, 9 
months and 13 days. He has lived since April 10th, 1828, on Lot 
15 of Mile Strip, and in the same house that his father, Isaac Wil- 
liams built just after he moved on that lot. That house had been 
his only home for more than 72 years. 

In the latter part of December 1900, Judge Emery, of the Erie 
County Court, ordered the toll gate at the City Line, of the Aurora 
and Buffalo Plank Co. thrown open and no more tolls to be collected; 
as the plank had become so worn, rotten and broken, that it was 
impossible to safely go over the road with heavy loads. The other 
gate one mile southeast from Spring Brook was opened for the same 
cause. This road was completed in the fall of 1849. 

The lattice bridge across the Cazenove Creek at Northrup's mills 
in Spring Brook, known as the Northrup bridge, which was built in 
the summer of 1861, was condemned as being unsafe, by Fred 
Luders, the Commissioner of Highways for the Town of Elma, 
December 1900. 

December 1900 closes with the ground frozen, roads smooth and 
four inches of snow at midnight, December 31st. Temperature 
30°. Buffalo is having a great and noisy celebration. This closes 
the year 1900, the nineteenth century, and this history of the Town 
of Elma as written by Warren Jackman, his age at the time being 
78 years, 9 months, 11 days. 

249 



I CHAPTER XVII. 

ROADS AND HIGHWAYS IN THE TOWN OF ELMA. 

Before the Town of Elma was formed, December 4th, 1856, most 
of the roads were laid out by the Commissioner of Highways of the 
towns of Aurora and Lancaster. 

When the town was fully organized in order to have a proper 
record of the roads of the town, recourse was had to the records of 
roads in the town clerk's office of Aurora and Lancaster. The 
descriptions of many of the Elma roads were found to be very in- 
definite and imperfect. 

The Commissioners of Highways of the Town of Elma ordered a 
re-survey , and re-description of the imperfectly described roads 
and later, several new roads were laid out, and as many alterations 
and discontinuations of roads or parts of roads had in a few years 
been made, the records became so mixed up that in many instances 
it was found to be impossible to locate some of the roads from the 
best that could be learned from the records. 

In October 1889, on the petition of Eli Northrup, Supervisor of 
Elma, the Board of Supervisors ordered the Commissioner of High- 
ways of the Town of Elma to have a survey made of such roads as 
were so imperfect in description and have a revision of the records 
of roads so to as have a correct record. The surveys were made, 
the records revised and the Commissioner completed his work by 
signing the new records February 15th, 1890. 

Most of the roads when laid out had been given the names of some 
prominent old settler or resident on the new road and, in some cases, 
when alterations or additions had been made a new name would be 
given and so it came to pass that some of the roads were called by 
two or more names. 

The Town Board directed that in the revision, so far as possible, 
the roads should be given the name of an old resident on the road 
and in that way help to keep the names of some of the old early 
settlers in remembrance. 

This plan was adopted and the roads were so entered in the 
records and are known by these names. 

250 



NAME OF ROAD. NAME OF RESIDENT. 

Aurora and Buffalo Plank Road 

Adams Road Luther Adams 

Baker Road Salem Baker 

Barto Road Jesse Barto 

Billington Road Stickney Billington 

Blood Road Horace Blood 

Blossom Road Blossom Village 

Bowen Road 

Bullis Road Lewis M. Bullis. 

Central Road 

Chair Factory Road 

Clinton Street Road 

Conley, or Toll Gate Road 

Davis Road James Davis 

Ebenezer Village Road 

Elma Cemetery Road 

Girdled Road 

Griffin Road John Griffin 

Hemstreet Road Z. A. Hemstreet 

Hill Road Zenas Hill 

Jamison Road 

Kinsley Road Stephen Kinsley 

Knaab Road Jacob Knaab 

Lancaster Town Line Road 

Marilla Town Line Road 

North Star Road 

Northrup Road Lewis Northrup 

Ostrander Road John W. Ostrander 

Paxon Road Henry Paxon 

Pound Road Samuel Pound 

Rice Road Wm. M. Rice 

Rickertson Road James B. Rickertson 

Schmaltz Road John Schmaltz 

Schultz Road Philip Schultz 

Seneca Creek Road 

Standart Road George Standart 

Stolle Road Christian Stolle 

Thompson Road Joseph Thompson 

Williams Road Isaac Williams 

Winspear Road Wm. Winspear 

Woodard Road Eron Woodard 



251 



The roads as named and their locations are here given. 

Aurora and Buffalo Plank Road — Four rods wide. Begin- 
ning on the Aurora town hue at the corner of Lots No. 21 and 26 
of the Mile Strip, thence northwesterly on lot lines, through Spring 
Brook to the Transit line at the corner of Lots No. 96 and 97 of the 
Aurora part of Elma. The road across the Mile Strip was laid out 
April 21st, 1832, and from the Mile Strip to the Transit line, March 
31st, 1834, but this survey was changed somewhat when Sperry 
surveyed the lands for the Ogden Company, so that the road should 
be on the lot lines as he surveyed them in 1840. 

Adams Road — Four rods wide. Luther Adams. Begins at the 
Marilla town line, on the east line of Lot 2 of the Mile Strip, near 
the bridge across the Big Buffalo Creek, thence westerly to the 
Girdled Road on the west line of Lot 11, at a point 83 links north 
from the corner of Lots 12 and 13. Road laid out June 15th, 1832; 
re-surveyed July 13th, 1839. 

' Salem Barker Road — Four rods wide. Begins on the Aurora 
town line at the southwest corner of Lot 6 of Mile Strip, thence east 
to the Marilla town line, thence north on the town line to the east 
end of the Adams Road near the bridge. First laid out August 
23d, 1843. 

Barto Road — ^Three rods wide — Jesse Barto. Begins on the 
Marilla town line at the east end of the Adams Road, thence across 
the Big Buffalo Creek and northeast, and north and northwest to 
the east end of the Hemstreet Road, 38 links north from the south- 
east corner of Lot No. 4; also from a few rods easterly from the east 
end of the Hemstreet Road, thence northerly to the northeast 
corner of Lot No. 4. First laid out May 4th, 1853. 

BiLLiNGTON Road — ^Three rods wide — Stickney Billington. 
• Begins at the Aurora and Buffalo Plank Road, at the corner of Lots 
21, 25, 26 and 28 of the Mile Strip, thence east on lot lines to a point 
in the line between Lots 13 and 14, five chains east from the north- 
west corner of Lot 14 and across the railroad lands, and near the 
Matthew Hansenberg house, formerly the residence of Willard 
Fairbanks. First laid out April 21st, 1832. 

Blood Road — Four rods wide — Horace Blood. Begins in the 

center of the Girdled Road at the west end of the Adams Road, 

thence west to the Plank Road at the corner of Lots 24, 25, 28 and 

:29 of the Mile Strip. First laid out January 15th, 1832; re-sur- 

'xveyed July 13th, 1839. 

Blossom Road — Four rods wide — Blossom Village. Begins in 
the Clinton Street Road on the south line of Lot No. 96 of the 
Lancaster part of Elma, thence southwesterly to and across the 
Blossom bridge over the Big Buffalo Creek, and southerly, most of 

252 



the way on Lot lines to the Aurora and Buffalo Plank Road at the 
corner of Lots 90, 91, 96 and 97 of the Aurora part of Elma. First 
laid out as the Dr. Jake Road April 29th, 1848, from Clinton Street 
Road to Upper Ebenezer Vihage, now Blossom, and from Ebenezer 
Village south on April 2d, 1849. 

BowEN Road — Four rodswide. Begins on the Lancaster town 
line near the center of the north line of Lot 56 of the Lancaster part 
of Elma, thence southerly through Elma Village and Elma Centre, 
most of the way on lot lines, to the Aurora town line on the south 
line of Lot 20 of the Mile Strip. First laid out across the Ogden 
Company's last purchase, October 23d, 1841, by Commissioners 
appointed by Act of Legislature, dated May 4th, 1841, and across 
the Mile Strip by the Aurora Commissioners of Highways October 
29th, 1841. 

BuLLis Road — Four rods wide. — Lewis M. Bullis. Begins on 
the Marilla town line at the corner of Lots 3 and 4 of the Lancaster 
part of Elma, and lots 8 and 13, of the Alden part of Marilla, thence 
west on lot lines, except for crossing the Big Buffalo Creek at the 
Bullis bridge to the Transit line at the southwest corner of Lot 380 
of Ebenezer survey. First laid out west of the creek September 
21st, 1845, and east of the creek February 26th, 1849. 

Central Road — Four rods wide. Begins in the center of the 
Blossom Road, at the northeast corner of Lot No. 383, of the 
Ebenezer survey, thence west on the north line of Lot 383 to the 
Transit. First surveyed and laid out April 9th, 1858. 

Chair Factory Road. — Four rods wide. — Begins in the Girdled 
Road at the corner of Lots 21, 22, 28 and 29 of the Lancaster part 
of Elma, thence west to the Bowen Road near the south end of the 
bridge over the Big Buffalo Creek in Elma Village. First laid out 
September 10th, 1847. 

Clinton Street Road — Four rods wide. Begins at the Marilla 
town line at the corner of Lots 1 and 2 in the Town of Elma, and 
1 and 5 in Marilla, thence west to the Transit line. First laid out 
west of the Bowen Road June 2d, 1845, and east of the Bowen 
Road June 10th, 1847. 

CoNLEY, OR Toll Gate Road — Three rods wide. Begins on the 
Aurora and Buffalo Plank Road, a little west of the Toll gate, on 
Lot 77 of the Aurora part of Elma, thence southwest to the south 
line of said lot No. 77, thence west to the Davis Road on said lot. 
Laid out February 16th, 1852. 

Davis Road — Four rods wide. — James Davis. Begins on the 
Aurora town line on south line of Lot 32 of Mile Strip near the 
school house, thence northerly to the Plank Road in Spring Brook 
near the west end of Lot 71. First laid out June 20th, 1842. 

253 



Ebenezer (Blossom) Village Road — Four rods wide. — Begins in 
in Ebenezer (Blossom) Village near the southwest end of the bridge 
across the creek, thence westerly to the Transit line. First laid 
out April 9th, 1858. 

Elm A Cemetery Road — Three Rods wide. Begins in the 
Bowen Road in Elma Village, thence west to the range of the west 
line of the Elma cemetery. First laid out July 11th, 1891. 

Girdled Road — Four rods wide. Begins on the Lancaster town 
line at the corner of Lots 19 and 26, thence south mostly on lot 
lines to Aurora town line at the corner of Lots 10 and 14 of Mile 
Strip. First laid out in the Lancaster part of Elma November 10th, 
1841, and in Aurora part June 13th, 1843. 

Griffin Road — Three rods wide. — John W. Griffin. Begins at 
the corner of Lots 16, 17, 22, 23 of the Aurora part of Elma, thence 
west on lot line to the Girdled Road. 

Hemstreet Road — Three rods wide. — Z. A. Hemstreet. Be- 
gins on the Marilla town line, thirty-eight links north from the 
southeast corner of Lot 4 of the Aurora part of Elma, thence north- 
westerly to the Jamison Road at East Elma. First laid out April 
19th, 1845. 

Hill Road — Four rods wide. — Zenas Hill. Begins in Clinton 
Street Road at the corner of Lots 9, 10 13, 14, thence south on lot 
lines to the Bulhs Road at the corner of Lots 11, 12, 16, 17. First 
laid out December 6th, 1847. 

Jamison Road — Four rods wide — Begins on the Marilla town 
line at the corner of Lots 3 and 4 in the Aurora part of Elma, and 
9 and 13 in the Wales part of Marilla, thence west through East 
Elma and Jamison to the Plank Road at the corner of Lots 63, 68, 
72, 77. First laid out April 19th, 1845. 

Kinsley Road — ^Three rods wide — Stephen Kinsley. Begins 
on the Transit line at the corner of Lots 99 and 100 of the Aurora 
part of Elma, thence east on lots lines to the Northrup Road. 

Knaab Road — Four rods wide — Jacob Knaab. Begins in the 
Standart Road at the corner of Lots 72, 73, 77, 78, thence west on 
lot lines to the Winspear Road at the corner of Lots 82, 83, 87, 88. 

Lancaster Town Line Road — Four rods wide. Begins at the 
northwest corner of Lot No. 5 of the Lancaster part of Elma, thence 
west on the town line to Cyrus Hurd's northeast corner on Lot 61. 

Marilla Town Line Road — Three rods wide. Begins at the 
northeast corner of the town of Elma, thence south mostly along 
the Marilla town line to the Bullis Road. 

North Star Road — Three rods wide. Begins in the Aurora 
and Buffalo Plank Road on the north line of the MileStrip at the 
corner of lots 24 and 29, of the Mile Strip and lots 64 and 73 of the 

254 



Aurora part of the last purchase, thence west on lot lines to the 
Davis Road. 

OsTRANDER RoAD — Three rods wide — John W. Ostrander. — 

Begins at the east end of the Griffin Road, and corner of Lots 16, 
17, 22, 23, thence south to the Adams Road on Lot 8 of the Mile 
Strip. First laid out December 4th, 1857. 

NoRTHRUP Road — Four rods wide — Lewis Northrup. Begins 
in the Aurora and Buffalo Plank Road on the north line of Lot 84 
and a little west of the west end of Lot 75 in Spring Brook Village, 
thence southwesterly across the Cazenove Creek and on to the Tran- 
sit line at the northwest corner of Lot 102, thence south along the 
Transit to the east and west road, thence east across Lot 102, 
thence southerly, on, to, and across the Mile Strip to the Aurora 
town line and south line of Lot 37 of the Mile Strip. First laid out 
February 29th, 1848; altered December 21st, 1848. 

Faxon Road — Four rods wide — Henry Paxon. Begins on 
Transit line near the middle of the west line of Lot 36 of the Mile 
Strip, thence east to the Northrup Road near the middle of said 
Lot No. 36. 

Pound Road — Four rods wide — Samuel Pound. From the 
Bullis Road at the corner of Lots 89, 90, 94, 95, thence south to 
north line of lot 75, thence west to the Plank Road at west corner 
of Lot 75 in Spring Brook Village. First laid out September 19th, 
1845. 

Rice Road — Four rods wide — William M. Rice. From the 
Girdled Road at the corner of Lots 21, 22, 28, 29, thence west to 
the Plank Road at the Catholic church in Spring Brook. First 
laid out April 19th, 1845. 

RiCKERTSON Road — Four rods wide — James B. Rickertson. 
From the Aurora town line at corner of Lots 6, 8, thence north 
about twenty-five chains to James B. Rickertson 's land on Lot 8 
of the Mile Strip. 

Schmaltz Road — Four rods wide — John Schmaltz. From the 
Clinton Street Road near the angle on Lot 86, thence north to the 
Lancaster town line. This is the south part of the road that has 
been known in the town of Lancaster as the New England Road; 
now they call it the Aurora Road. 

ScHULTZ Road — Four rods wide — Philip Schultz. From the 
Jamison Road near the corner of Lots 38, 39, 42, 43, thence north 
to the Woodard Road on the line between Lots 40 and 45 at the 
Lutheran church. First laid out October 1st, 1852. 

Seneca Creek Road — Four rods wide. From the Blossom 
Road at the corner of Lots 388, 390, 391 of Ebenezer survey, thence 
west to the Transit line. First laid out April 9th, 1858. 

255 



Stand ART Road — Three rods wide — George Standart. From 
the Bulhs Road at the corner of Lots 74, 75, 79, 80, thence north 
to the Chnton Street Road at the corner of Lots 71, 72, 76, 77. 
First laid out January 9th, 1858. 

Stolle Road — Three rods wide — Christian StoUe. From a 
point in the Marilla town line one chain north from the southeast 
corner of Lot No. 1, of the Aurora part of Elma, thence northwest- 
erly to the Bullis Road at the corner of Lots 11, 12, 16, 17. First 
laid out November 13th, 1856. 

Thompson Road — Three rods wide^Joseph Thompson. From 
the Jamison Road at East Elma, thence northerly to the Stolle 
Road on Lot 1. 

Williams Road — Four rods wide — Isaac Williams. From the 
Jamison Road at the corner of Lots 38, 39, 42, 43, thence south to 
the Aurora town line on south line of Lot 15 of Mile Strip. First 
laid out April 21st, 1832; altered April 2nd, 1849, and again north 
part October 1st, 1852. 

WiNSPEAR Road — Four rods wide — William Winspear. From 
the Bullis Road at the corner of Lots 89, 90, 94, 95, thence northerly 
across the Big Buffalo Creek and to the Clinton Street Road on line 
between Lots 81 and 86. First laid out February 26th, 1849; al- 
tered October 14th, 1850. 

Woodard Road — Three rods wide — Eron Woodard. From the 
Bowen Road at Elma Centre, thence easterly to the Girdled Road 
at a point ten chains eighty-two links south from the corner of Lots 
23, 24, 29, 30, at the BulHs Road. 



256 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



NAMES OF PERSONS AND DATE OF MARRIAGE. 

Alphabetical list of some persons who have lived in the Town of 
Elma, with date of marriage. 



Adams, John 

" Charles 

Delatiis K. 
Deviller W. 

" Mortimer P. 
Walter E. 
Allen Anthonv, Jr. 

" Ellery S. 

" Harry 0. 

" Henry P. 

" James 

" Silas H. 
Anstett, Bernard M. 
Armburst, Louis 
Arndt, Fred 

" John 

" Joseph 
Awaiild, John 



and May K. Walker 

'' Grace Anderson 

" Harriet Chamberlain 

" Mary Wright 

" Eliza Fairbanks 

" Mary E. Warren 

" MaryCuthbert 

" Emily Lawton 

" Catharine Rowley 

" Alice E. Dingman 

" Edwina Palmer 

'' Josinah Frost 

'' Mary A. Ebert 

'' Mary M. Schultz 

" Mary Smith 

" Augusta Rosendahl 

Sophia Karten 

" Margaret Phalen 



Bacon, Hiram and 

Badger, Albert " 

Baker, Rev. Chauncey S. " 
" Flavins J. 
" Wihiam 
" Wilham N. 
Bancroft Albert C. 
Alonzo C. 
" " (Golden) 
" Eleazer " 

" Henry E. '' 

Joseph W. 
William H. 
Bantle George " 



B. 

Mary Hurd 
Lizzie Marks 
Mrs. Julia F. Clark 
Harriet A. Howard 
Mary Washburn 
Lucia A. Morris 
Jane E. Hare 
Jane Sleeper 

U it 

E. S. A. Bissell 
Emma L. Blackman 
Sarah Kimball 
Eliza Covel 
Estella Munger 

257 



Jan. 
Aug. 
Sept. 

July 

Apr. 

Jan. 

June 

Sept. 

March 

May 

July 
Nov. 
April 
April 

Oct. 

Jan. 
April 



Oct. 

Feb. 

May 

May 
Nov. 

Dec. 
April 
Sept. 



Dec. 

April 
Jan. 



1824 

1883 
1865 
1862 
1851 
1892 
1868 
1848 
1897 
1863 
1881 
1846 
1892 
1874 
1872 
1881 
1865 
1881 



1861 

9, 1893 

25, 1876 

3, 1871 

7, 1882 

24, 1862 

24, 1854 

2, 1849 

2, 1899 

1830 

19, 1867 

1853 

27, 1843 

1, 1891 



Barnard, Hubert J. and Elsie M. Curtis 


Aug. 12, 1896 


Barnett ,John ' 


' Anne Wannemacher 


May 16, 1883 


Richard T. 


' Ella M. Vigueron 


June 10, 1891 


Becker, Adolph ' 


' Mar}^ Hacker 


Nov. 26, 1885 


" Fred 


' Susie Thayer 


March 15, 1899 


" John 


' Martha Davis 


Aug. 2, 1896 


" Louis, Sr, ' 


' Sophia Schroeder 


Dec. 1863 


" Louis Jr. ' 


' Maria Garby 


July 24, 1887 


" Wilham 


' Minnie Hacker 


1886 


Beckman, Joseph ' 


' Eliza Phillips 


July 10, 1857 


Beidler, Henry ' 


' Mrs. Dorothea Young 


July 12, 1855 


Bippert, George W. ' 


' Pauline Kost 


Aug. 17, 1884 


Board, Robert C. ' 


' Minnie Wilbor 


June 25, 1885 


Bodamer, PhiHp ' 


' Mrs. Christina Gipple 


July 4, 1860 


Bogart, Wihiam T. 


' Luella A. Stetson 


June 28, 1878 


Bridgman, Marcus ' 


' Mary Haas 


Jan. 5, 1881 


Briggs, Albert H. ' 


' America Baker 


June 7, 1863 


Carlton C. 


' Alice J. Tillou 


Oct. 4, 1882 


Charles S. 


' Clelly Avery 


Sept. 20, 1886 


Cortland C. 


' Mabel Morgan 


June 15, 1893 


George D. 


' Adelpha Chase 


Nov. 5, 1868 


" J. Eddy 


' Lucv Lee Hurd 


June 10, 1895 


Joseph B. 


' Altha Wilbor 


Oct. 28, 1841 


" " (Golden) 


.11 a 


Oct. 28, 1891 


Wilbor B. 


' Mrs. Angle R. Day 


June 12, 1867 


a cc I 


' Adelia Chase 


Oct. 4, 1900 


Brown, Caleb F. ' 


' Elsie Bancroft 


March 28, 1877 


" Jeremiah W. ' 


' Sophronia A. Foster 


Oct. 11, 1846 


Buffum, Charles J. ' 


' Julia Whittemore 


Oct. 13, 1878 


David 


' Phebe Freeman 


July 1, 1851 


i( a ( 


' Eliza Ard 


Nov. 8, 1863 


an I 


' Mrs. Sarah House 


July 23, 1893 


Bullis Seth M. 


' Mary Scott 


March 13, 1833 


Burman, Fred T. ' 


' Julia Bauder 


April 21, 1885 


Carman, John ai 


C. 
id Mary Elderton 


May 5, 1846 


Carpenter, Frank ■ ' 


' Hattie Becker 


Nov. 16, 1899 


Carroll, Edward ' 


' Elizabeth Kingston 


June 22, 1898 


Centner, Fred ' 


' EllaArndt 


Nov. 27, 1895 


Chesbro George ' 


' EllaSisler 


March 28, 1878 


Church, Horace D. ' 


' NirahV. Hatch 


Dec. 25, 1894 


Clark, Elon 


' Julia F. Standart 


May 12, 1851 


" Joseph F. 


' Rachel E. Jackman 


Nov. 18, 1845 


" Myron H. 


' Eliza Bancroft 


May 24, 1876 



258 



Clark, Oliver C. 
Cobb, Zenas M. 
Cole, Daniel F. 
." John W. 
" Salathiel 
Collins, John 
Conlev, Bernard; Sr. 
Jr. 
" Cornelius 
John 
Patrick 
William 

Cotton, William 
Crane, Charles E. 
Curtis, Albert 
" Frank 
" Stephen 



Darcey, John 

" John C. 
Davis, Albert H. 

" Charles 

'' James 

" James C. 

" Wilham H. 

Dingman, Edwin H. 

" Harry 
Domon, August 
Charles 
Dorris, Fred McBride 
Drosendahl, August 
Dubois, Arthur 
Dulewiler, Frederick 
Dutton, Albert 
Dusch, Alois 



Eckert, Gustav Otto 

" Jacob 
Edenhoffer, John 
Eiss, Cornelius 
Eldridge, Benjamin J. 



and Martha Wilbor 

" Lucinda Rockwood 

" Mary Fones 

" Marion Bullis 

" Elizabeth Fones 

" Jannett Davis 

" Margarett McHugh 

" Matilda Manning 

'' Mary Donohue 

" Maggie E. Conners 

" Mary Ryan 

" Emily Wannemacker 

'' Helena Oshea 

" Esther Cole 

" Josephine L. Briggs 

" Julia- Sutton 

'' Mary Curtis 

" Maria Pierce 

D. 

and Lovina Morris 

'' Mayme Jones 

'' Jane L. Bowie 

'' Lillie E. Chillcott 

" Caroline Chadderdon 

'' Harriet Harvey 

'' Sarah C.Wood 

'' Sarah Hawley 

" Rose Carman 

" Aurelia Clapp 

" Rose Klein 

'' Mrs. Josephine Gey die 

" Ahce J. Markham 

" Nellie Darcey 

'' EmmaC. Stahl 

" Sarah Hensel 

" Esteha Davis 

" Eugenia Irr 

E. 

and Maria L. Ludeman 
" Charlotte C. Winters 
'' Elizabeth Jerge 
'' Mary Mohn 
" Jessie L. Hines 

259 



Aug. 13, 
May 15, 

Nov. 27, 

Jan. 16, 

Jan. 29, 

June 1, 

June 24, 

May 26, 

Dec. 25, 

April 21, 

Oct. 17, 

Nov. 26, 

Oct. 17, 

Dec. 14, 

March 4, 

July 16, 



1846 
1845 
1812 
1851 
1807 
1877 
1853 
1892 
1890 
1886 
1857 
1879 
1888 
1895 
1899 
1882 
1885 
1850 



Feb 

Aug. 

Jan. 

Nov. 

April 

Feb. 

Feb. 

Feb. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Nov. 

June 

Dec. 

Sept. 

Nov. 

June 

Jan. 

May 



23, 1860 
7, 1901 

19, 1860 
30, 1893 
13, 1828 
18, 1871 
11, 1855 

4, 1867 
1, 1867 
7, 1841 

27, 1875 

5, 1888 

20, 1899 
26, 1895 

4, 1897 

7, 1899 

10, 1884 

2 , 1882 



April 24, 1889 

Jan. 19, 1896 

March 4, 1886 

Dec. 20, 1877 

Dec. 31, 1896 



Ellis, George 


and Cora Backus 


July 14, 1881 


'' Herman 


a 


Mary Kilburn 


Aug. 1883 


" James, Sr. 


u 


Mary Peek 


Jan. 1, 1851 


" James Jr. 


a 


Helen Redman 


Oct. 1892 


Fairbanks, Scott 


F. 
and Catharine Perry 


Oct. 10, 1852 


Willarcl 


u 


Mahala Blood 


July 4, 1840 


Fisher, Cornelius 


u 


Minnie Stahl 


Mav 21, 1890 


Flynn, Michael 


a 


Catharine Phalen 


Feb. 25, 1857 


Foster, W. M. 


u 


Bertha M. Lougee 


March 24, 1895 


Fowler, Delos 


a 


Mrs. Naomi Smith 


Feb. 22, 1887 


Garby, Christopher 


and Christine Steinhagn 


Nov. 1856 


John 


a 


Eliza Zimmerman 


Nov. 16, 1865 


Gest, Charles 


ii 


Minnie Christen 


Nov. 23, 1876 


Geyer, Joseph 


u 


Cecelia Ueblhoer 


June 16, 1898 


Gibson, Walter J. 


C( 


Clara E. Ramsdell 


April 4, 1866 


Gloss, Balthazzer 


u 


Pauline Gornflo 


Feb. 15, 1870 


'' William 


ii 


Mrs. Juha L. Armstrong Dec. 17, 1895 


Goddard, Abram S. 


ii 


Stella E. Howard 


Oct. 29, 1874 


Grace, Howard 


u 


Harriet Weatherlow 


April 1899 


" James J. 


u 


Clara E. Adams 


April 5, 1870 


" Joseph 


u 


Jane Kinsey 


1834 


tC (( 


li 


Betsey Davis 


Nov. 27, 1848 


'' Joseph W. 


(I 


Martha Lexo 


April 26, 1900 


'' William W. 


ii 


Ellen Ward 


Dec. 20, 1865 


Grader, Peter 


ii 


Anna D. Luders 


Feb. 24, 1885 


Gramm, Frederick H. 


ii 


Minnie Kleberg 


Aug. 23, 1865 


Green, George W. 


ii 


Mary Markham 


May 2, 1867 


" Samuel 


ii 


Prudence B. Hodgeman 1843 


Greiss, Michael 


ii 


Lena Stafon 


March 11, 1882 


Griffin, J. Leander 


li 


May Ball 

H. 
Mrs. Rose Miller 


Dec. 24, 1890 


Haas, Albert 


ii 


1893 


" Charles 


ii 


Jennie Armstrong 


July 4, 1888 


Hackenheimer, John 


ii 


Catharine Weinheimer July 1876 


Hafner, Joseph 


ii 


Mrs. Catharine Jerge 


Oct. 11, 1873 


Hagmeier, George 


ii 


Jennie Wier 


Feb. 24, 1894 


" Henry 


ii 


Emma Silleman 


April 20, 1892 


" Jacob 


ii 


Catharine Boyer 


June 2, 1854 


" Louis 


ii 


Ethel Cline 


Feb. 22, 1898 



260 



Hall, Charles 


anc 


Mary Martin 


June 7, 


1899 


Hammersmith, Peter 


u 


Nettie V. Kyser 


Dec. 14, 1881 


Handy, Wm. A. 


iC 


Julia Standart 


July 4, 1874 


Hansenberg, Matthew 


li 


Mahala A. Fairbanks 


Dec. 28, 1872 


Hardy, Augustin F. 


u 


Minnie Maurer 


Dec. 8, 1898 


Hatch, Frank 


u 


Bertha Allen 


Dec. 25, 1887 


" James 


a 


Elvira Chesbro 


Sept. 1856 


" Leonard 


(( 


Amy Hemstreet 


Feb. 1831 


" Niles 


u 


Sarah Titus 


July 1, 1868 


Hazel Charles 


cc 


Elizabeth Summerfield Feb. 6 


1890 


Head, Edward 


CI 


Mamey Dorsey 


June 2, 


1891 


" James 


C( 


Catharine Morris 


May 9, 


1853 


" Thomas 


li 


Helen Garvey 


June 5, 


1888 


Helm, Frederick 


CI 


Frederika Dorn 


Feb. 3, 


1859 


" Franklin E. 


cc 


Lizzie H. Boonk 


June 27, 


1894 


" George 


cc 


Catharine Heller 


Feb. 16, 


1887 


" Jacob 


cc 


Christina Dorn 


Jan. 29, 


1861 


Heinemann, Peter 


cc 


Catharine Mitzel 


July 2, 


1868 


Heitman, Charles 


cc 


Anna Kock 


March 29, 


1881 


Fred Jr. 


cc 


Joanna Garby 


Dec. 4, 


1883 


Hensel, Conrad P. 


cc 


Salome Sand 


Feb. 29, 


1861 


" George J. 


cc 


Barbara Kramp 


June 22 


1894 


Herlan, Frank T. 


cc 


Louise L. Bowman 


Dec. 20 


1875 


" Isaac H 


cc 


Matilda Hensel 


March 26 


1885 


" William 


cc 


Elizabeth Meyer 


March 27 


1883 


a li 


cc 


Lucy Heinemann 


Oct. 5 


1899 


Hesse, Adolph F. 


cc 


Louise Jasel 


April 5, 


1888 


" August 


cc 


Lizzie Gemmer 


Sept. 8, 


1892 


" Herman G. 


cc 


Margaret Grobe 


April 7 


1861 


" Hermon 


a 


Maria H. Wanglien 


April 9 


1889 


Heximer, Franklin S. 


a 


Minnie Steck 


June 30 


1898 


Hill, Cyrus 


cc 


Ellen Taber 


Feb. 16 


1868 


% " Morris 


cc 


Isabel Montgomery 


Dec. 21 


1881 


Hines, Solon 


cc 


Fanny Fairbanks 


Jan. 16 


1876 


" Thomas 


IC 


Martha J. Kelly 




1857 


" WillardF. 


cc 


Lizzie Lippert 


March 4 


1901 


Hodgkins, Flerbert J. 


cc 


Amelia Bodamer 


May 5 


1891 


" Jacob 


cc 


Sarah E. Matthews 


Jan. 9 


1853 


Hohmon, Henry 


cc 


Anna Shane 




1860 


Hopkins, Ulyssess 


cc 


Lydia Steck 


June 30 


1898 


Hopper, James, Sr. 


cc 


Amanda Eldridge 


March 13 


1856 


" Jr. 


cc 


Alice Chilcott 


Nov. 25 


1897 


Hornung, Max 


cc 


Amelia Gornflo 


Aug. 


1862 


William 


u 


Mary Kroman 


Nov. 10 


1859 


Hoth, Walter 


cc 


Lizzie Becker 


Feb. 28 


, 1891 



261 



Howard, Albert 


and Clara Little 


April 1873 


" Frederick 


i 


' Harriet E. Mabie 


Oct. 25, 1881 


Gibson 


i 


' Charlotte Briggs 


June 24, 1888 


" Marcus A. 


i 


Maria M. Whitney 


Jan. 8, 1839 


Huebert, Charles T. 


i 


' Julia Walker 


July 4, 1901 


Hunt, Joseph 


c 


Catharine Whitney 


Oct. 19, 1874 


Hurd, Allen J. 


t 


' Minnie Lankier 


Oct. 1893 


" Burton H. 


i 


Fanney M. Willett 


April 15, 1896 


'' Charles A. 


i 


Mary Miller 


April 16, 1867 


" Clark 


I 


Pauline Avery 


April 17, 1901 


" Clark W. 


( 


' Dulcena Clark 


April 4, 1837 


" " Golden 


(I a 11 


April 4, 1887 


" Dennis C. 


and Mary Adams 


Feb. 1, 1861 


" Harvey J. 2d 


I 


' Pearl M.White 


Sept. 5, 1893 


" James T. 


I 


' Fanny Healy 


Aug. 18, 1863 


" Ross 


i 


' Louise Lambkin 


Aug. 9, 1863 


" Cyrus 


I 


' Cordelia Hill 


April 7, 1848 


iC li 


i 


' Alma S. Ashman 


April 13, 1854 


" George W. 


i 


' Mary E. Anderson 


March 10, 1875 


Jackman, James R. 


J. 

and Gracia E. Beardsley 


June 23, 1816 


James R. 2d 




' Rena Burt 


Aug. 12, 1886 


" Warren 




' Malenda Blodgett 


May 6, 1844 


11 li 




' Julia Amanda Harris 


April 4, 1883 


William J. 




' Frances Markham 


April 20, 1854 


Jasel, Christ 




' Rachel Serde 


Dec. 12, 1868 


Jerge, Casper 




' Mrs. Catharine Schaffer Dec. 25, 1865 


" Hermon P. 




' Ellen Sutton 


Feb. 25, 1886 


" Jacob 




' Josephene Hesse 


June 18, 1853 


a a 




' Mrs. Helen Jerge 


April 16, 1888 


" Philip 




' Lena Geyer 

K. 

id Abbia E. Weclemeyer 


Sept. 18, 1884 


Kannengaiser, John H. 


ai 


Sept. 19, 1895 


Kelly, Fred 




' Mary Walker 


Feb. 4, 1899 


Kester, Frank 




' Margaret Sisler 


June 19, 1889 


Kihm, Henry 




' Jane A. Marvel 


Jan. 26, 1876 


Kingston, John 




' Julia Hollern 


July 22, 1863 


Paul 




' Nettie Tackelberry 


May 24, 1893 


William 




' Edith Conley 


April 20, 1899 


Kinney, Jireh 




' Grace Lathrop 


Sept. 9, 1869 


Klas, Joseph 




' May Lines 


July 14, 1887 


Klein, Frank 




' Anna Bodecker 


Feb. 14, 1881 


" Joseph 




' Eva Halter 


1851 



262 



Kleinfelder, Henry 


and Matilda Brandt 


Sept. 18, 1891 


Klehm, Henry 


a 


Mary Haas 


May 11, 1856 


" Adolph T. 


u 


Ella C. Luders 


Dec. 5, 1895 


Kock, Fred 


u 


Maria Mayer 


Jan. 2,1869 


" Gustav ■ 


a 


Augusta Gramm 


Oct. 9, 1884 


" Jacob 


i( 


Margaret Handel 


April 26, 1876 


" John 


u 


Dulthen Young 


Nov. 23, 1869 


Krohn, George 


a 


Esther Heximer 


April 29, 1890 


" John 


Cl 


Hannah Yargo 


1848 


Krouse, George 


li 


Mary Seifert 


May 8, 1845 


Kyser, Horace 


n 


Jane Northrup 

T 


May 8, 1844 


Ladd, Henry Clay 


1j. 

and Ella Clark 


Feb. 16, 1881 


Lathrop, Chase 


ii 


Alberta Emory 


Feb. 21, 1889 


Herbert 


Cl 


Emma Van Vleet 


Dec. 2, 1874 


Paul B. 


tl 


Laura Chase 


Feb. 5, 1841 


Lee, R. Porter 


a 


Jennie F. Blanchard 


June 3, 1874 


Leger, George, Sr. 


ii 


Maria Gerring 


May 1850 


'' Jr. 


li 


Catharine Rollins 


Aug. 19, 1878 


" Walter 


11 


Emma Gould 


Nov. 1, 1891 


Lexo, Henry 


u 


Minnie Stolle 


April 10, 1876 


Lockwood, Charles 


11 


Molly Curtman 


July 22, 1894 


Lougee, Benjamin P. 


11 


Olive Monroe 


1832 


" Dr. L. B. 


11 


Jennie T. Adams 


June 10, 1896 


" Wm. Valorus 


I 


Olive J. Monroe 


May 7, 1867 


Ludemon, George 


u 


Mar}^ Brandt 


Dec. 5, 1884 


Luders, Fred C. 


11 


Minnie E. Stolle 


June 26, 1889 


John 


11 


Sophia Kock 


Jan. 12, 1863 


John Wm. T. 


11 


Julia M. Sandall 


Dec. 12, 1894 


Markham, Charles 


M. 

and Ada M. Lord 


June 16, 1880 


" Erastus J. 


11 


Philura Chapman 


June 16, 1853 


Marks, Andrew 


li 


Susan Griffin 


Nov. 12, 1889 


Marquart, George 


11 


Anna M. Zubrick 


April 30, 1874 


Marshall, Julius 


11 


Georgiana VanAntwerpt Dec. 18 1880 


Marvel, Alfred 


11 


Lana Davis 


April 12, 1846 


Mary, Jacob 


11 


Barbara Shill 


Oct. 30, 1877 


Mason, Rev. George 


li 


Laura E. Phillimore 


June 20, 1883 


Mau, Herman H. 


11 


Ida M. Luders 


June 4, 1891 


Maurer, Frederick 


11 


Mary Eichelberger 


March 20, 1855 


Mayer, Jacob 


u 


Catharine Gula 


Feb. 17, 1844 


" John 


11 


Amanda Herlan 


June 13, 1900 


" Louis 


li 


Charlotte D. C. Gramm Nov. 24, 1887 



263 



Mc Fee, Hugh 
Mc Donald, Albert 
" James C. 

McHugli, Cornelius, Sr. 
McMullen, John 
McPherson, Dr. George 
Metcalf, Frank 

" Spencer 
Miller, John 

" S. Wheaton 
Mitchell, Joshua 
Morath, George 
Michael 
Morgan, Richard 
Mohn, Henry 

'' Jacob 
Morris, Charles 

'' David J. 

'' Lafayette 

" UdelmerF. 
Mullin, Hugh 
Munger, Fowler 

Wilbor 
Murlin, Edgar L. 



Neuendorf, John 
Newber, John 

a it 

Nichols, Joshua D. 
North, Edward 
Northrup, Charles 
EH B. 

" Stephen 

William L. 
Nosbisch, Matthias 
Noyes, Simeon 



Oberly, Peter 
'Conner, John] 



and Abagail Baker 

" Emma Woodard 

" Charlotte A. Foster 

'' Florence A. Waldron 

'' Catharine McNerne 

" Mary Ann Cassiday 

W. Susan M. Wallace 

.'' Nettie Hibbard 

" Eva Pierce 

" Catharine Young 

' Lucelia M. Briggs 

" Susan Ballenger 

•■' TillieGombo 

" Mary Steckman 

" Nellie Bancroft 

" Mary M. Goetz 

" Catharine M. Reichert 

" MayGarlock 

" Lydia M. Knapp 

"' Amanda Graves 

" Julia G. Grace 

" Jennie McCloy 

'' Diana Mattison 

" Laura Rowley 

" Ella Wiser 

" Lucelie Briggs 

N. 

Sophia Nuendorf 
Augusta Klein 
Frances Kissel 
Mrs. Maria M. Howard 
Sarah Baker 
Rebecca E. North 
Emma M. Winspear 
Mary E. Winspear 
Almira Dalby 
Mary E. Davis 
Frederika Koster 
Almira Lougee 
Dolly Blasdell 

0. 

and Catharine Baker 
" Mrs. Hanora Corridon 

264 



April 8, 1874 

Sept. 14, 1877 

May 29, 1875 

Mav 13, 1899 

1857 

June 27, 1867 

Oct. 30, 1867 

1878 

Dec. 18, 1875 

April 17, 1887 

June 18, 1901 

1858 

Feb. 20, 1897 

April 23, 1870 

Sept. 17, 1896 

April 13, 1875 

Feb. 1849 

Feb. 22, 1884 

May 1, 1839 

Aug. 8, 1854 

Aug.'26, 1872 

April 10, 1858 

Feb. 1, 1844 

May 29, 1860 

July 4, 1887 

Nov. 10, 1886 



April 15, 1884 
Tune 9, 1874 
June 11, 1890 
June 7, 1877 
July 26, 1894 
Aug. 31, 1856 
Oct. 24, 1866 
Oct. 7. 1885 
May 1856 
Dec. 18, 1889 
Aug. 10, 1874 
Sept. 8, 1859 
Dec. 1, 1867 



Oct. 



1849 
1868 



'Neal, W. E. and Grace Whaley 


June 9, 


1899 


Orton, Darius W. ' 


' Mrs. Rachel E. Clark 


Feb. 7, 


1860 


Palmer, Harvey C. and Aim Lawton 


Dec. 28, 


1853 


Pattengell, James ' 


' Ellen A. Morris 


Feb. 22, 


1882 


Peek, Clement ' 


' Mary Wilson 


Aug. 


1867 


" Christopher ' 


' Almira Harris 


May 


1849 


" George ' 


' Ann Wliistler 


Oct. 3, 


1811 


" James K ' 


' Carrie Baker 


Oct. 17, 


1888 


" John W. 


' Savilla Thompson 


Jan. 4, 


1840 


" William 


' Sarah McCoy 


Jan. 1, 


1860 


Persons, Ellsworth G. ' 


' Cora E. Vroom 


July 1, 


1886 


" George ' 


' Margaret Kingston 


Oct. 3, 


1889 


Peters, William H. 


' Alice 0. Markham 


Sept. 15, 


1865 


Phalen,James J. ' 


' Lizzie A. Head 


June 7, 


1886 


" John 


'I Lizzie Conley 




1876 


Patrick 


' Ellen Manton 


July 6, 


1851 


PhelpS; Myron A. ' 


' Dulcena L. Stetson 


April 8, 


1874 


Phillips, Anthony ' 


' Mary Schwartz 


July 3, 


1877 


Wilham^ 


' Elizabeth C. Heim 


April 27, 


1886 


Powers, Frank ' 


' Lydia Post 


Sept. 14, 


1865 


Reamer, Charles ai 


R. 

id Eliza Barth 


Jan. 4, 


1883 


Reuther, Louis P. ' 


' Nellie Markham 


Aug. 20, 


1891 


William 


' Mary Cimnier 




1865 


Rice, William M. 


' Dolly Whitney 




1826 


Ronian, Daniel ' 


' Betsey Hatch 


June 1, 


1853 


Rowley, Charles W. ' 


' Harriet D. Hurd 


Jan. 18, 


1888 


Amos P. 


' Carissa Silleman 




1836 


Schifferstein, Andrew ai 


S. 
id Ida Abbel 


July 15, 


1852 


Andrew F. ' 


' Emma Fisher 


Jan. 6, 


1881 


Frank 


' Minnie Bommer 


Oct. 11, 


1888 


Schlum, Charles ' 


' Mary Haunfelder 


Nov. 22, 


1877 


Schmaltz, John ' 


' Mary Hock 


Oct. 2, 


1881 


John B. 


' Mary E. Heintz 


S-pt.l2, 


1847 


Schneider, Thomas ' 


' Anna Garman 


May 7, 


1889 


Schnorr, George H. ' 


' Amelia Cobb 


July 29, 


1879 


Schroeder, Frederick H. ' 


' Sophia Praler 


Dec. 7, 


1882 


Schultz, C. F. W. 


' Louise Schifferstein 


June 22, 


1882 


" Jacob ' 


' Theresa Striegel 


Feb. 13, 


1890 



265 



Schultz, John 


and Mary B. Schmaltz 


May 11, 1880 


Peter 


u 


Mary Ann Rush 


Nov. 22, 1847 


Schurr, Irving T. 


C( 


Alvira C. Fisher 


July 28, 1892 


Karl 


u 


Catharine Kleinfelder 


Sept. 18, 1884 


Samuel E. 


u 


Emma L. Stolle 


June 26, 1889 


Schwab, Frank 


ii 


Carrie Herlan 


Nov. 22, 1888 


Scott, John 


il 


Melissa Cole 


May 1843 


U 11 


cc 


Louise Yeager 


April 12, 1880 


Seeger, Rev. Micah 


li 


Mrs. Charlotte Wilbor 


Feb. 23, 1859 


" Michael G. 


ii 


Emma M. Hensel 


Jan. 31, 1894 


Silleman, Frank 


li 


Delilah Wier 


Feb. 14, 1900 


Simons, Daniel A. 


u 


Mary I. Taylor 


Dec. 5, 1852 


Simmons, Eli 


IC 


Catharine Seamans 


July 3, 1851 


" Eugene 


u 


Catharine A. McCoon 


Nov. 10, 1878 


Sisler, Charles 


li 


Kate Adams 


July 1888 


" Lewis 


il 


Cordelia Wheeler 


Jan. 16, 1856 


Slater, Fred 


11 


Minnie Brandt 


Jan. 18, 1883 


" Joseph 


11 


Mary Phalen 


1878 


Smith, Philip 


11 


Bertha Stolle 


Jan. 10, 1894 


" S. W. 


u 


Ida May Miller 


July 15, 1898 


'' William 


11 


Minnie Washer 


Nov. 16, 1893 


Sommers, August 


11 


Louise Baker 


March 26, 1888 


Spaulding, Adelbert D. 


11 


Margaritte Hawley 


Feb. 1, 1892 


Spencer, Cyrus S. 


11 


Elizabeth Warner 


June 14, 1840 


Stahl, John 


11 


Amelia Mentz 


Nov. 16, 1865 


" John W. 


li 


Harriet Wise 


Oct. 25, 1899 


Standart, Clayton J. 


11 


Mabel Briggs 


Dec. 22, 1891 


Frank W. 


li 


Elizabeth J. Charles 


June 28, 1899 


" Joseph C 


il 


Sarah L. Markham 


Oct. 18, 1860 


William 


il 


Olive Draper 


Jan. 3, 1820 


" Golden 




11 li 


Jan. 3, 1870 


" Wm. Wesley 


11 


Barbara E. Hermann 


Nov. 6, 1856 


Steck, Michael 


11 


Mary Burch 


March 22, 1860 


Steffen, Albert 


11 


Anna Brandt 


June 2, 1886 


Stetson, Allen 


11 


Anna Washington 


Nov. 7, 1889 


Charles E. 


li 


Ida J. Waterman 


May 4, 1880 


" Benjamin F. 


il 


Amelia Markham 


Sept. 21, 1852 


(( U 11 


11 


Mrs. Jemima Dickerson Oct. 27, 1897 


Stitz, Henry E. 


il 


Ida Kock 


Feb. 16, 1898 


" Henry W. 


il 


Lena Gentsch 


Feb. 3, 1861 


" Phihp 


11 


Mary Lohr 


Aug. 27, 1872 


" William Jr. 


11 


Catharine Garby 


Dec. 12, 1883 


" Wilham 


11 


Kate A. Garby 


Dec. 14, 1893 


Stevens, E. C. 


11 


Edith A. Bacon 


March 6, 1901 


Sutton, Alex 


il 


Nettie Miller 


Nov. 15, 1888 



>66 



Sweet, Charles H. 



and Emma K. Chilcott 



Dec. 31, 1862 



Taeufer, Lanhardt Karl 
Tank, Herman F. 
Thayer, Charles 
Thiel, Henry M. 
Tilloii, Albert A. 

" Alpheus H. 

" D. Joseph 

" Erastiis 

" Harrison L. 

" Isaac 

'' James 

" Joseph 

" R. Fred 
Tramps, Charles 
Tremor, John 
Townsend, George 



Vaselar, Christian 



Wagner, William 
Walker, Wallace 
Wallis, William D. 
Walter, John, Sr. 
" John, Jr. 
Walters, Erick 
Wannemacher, 0. J. 

William 
Ward, James H. 
Webster, Russel H. 

Sheldon 
Weil, Jacob C. 
Welton, Lewis 0. 
White, Eugene 
Wier, Edmiston 
" Thomas E. 

" Wilham 
Wilbor, Rev. Albert D. 
" Rev. Carlton C. 



T. 

and Ida Louise Jasel March 25, 1901 

" Bertha W. Mann Feb. 16, 1887 

" Caroline Chadderdon Sept. 28, 1869 

" Emma Arndt April 12, 1893 

" Helen Louise Hurd March 8, 1887 

'' Hattie Grace June 5, 1889 

" Flora E. Baker Sept. 2, 1885 

" Mary Jane Pratt 1856 

'' Julia Bristol Jan. 3, 1861 

" Sarah Meldrum Sept. 4, 1856 

'' Lucy Harris Jan. 1857 

" Hannah Filkins 1816 

" Jennie Thayer- Dec. 4, 1887 

" Scharlon Aug. 12, 1853 

" Lizzie Steck June 27, 1901 

" Sarah A. Hurd 1852 

V. 

and Emma P. Herlan June 30, 1897 

W. 

and Emeline Wanglien Nov. 27, 1889 

'' Mrs. Lovina Darcey May 31, 1874 

" Elizabeth J. Davis Dec. 20, 1857 

" Barbara Schoel Aug. 12, 1854 

" Lucy Schuster April 17, 187& 

" Mary Smith March 28, 1899 

" Clara Gardner April 9, 1859 

'' Catharine Beck April 10, 1893 

" Jane M. Morse July 20, 1835 

" Helen L. Lathrop Sept. 1, 1897 

" A. Kate Smith Feb. 23, 1898 

" Fanny Beidler April 11, 1877 

" Lucy M. Adams June 23, 1901 

" Mary Beidler May 8,1887 

" Hattie A. Lines March 30, 1890 

" Elizabeth Reid 1860 

'' Sarah Reid 1873 
'' Wilhelmina Ludeman April 24, 1884 

" Mary Ann Sleeper Aug. 13, 1846 

" Dorcas Mead Hale June 22, 1864 

267 



Wilbor, Cyrenus 


and Charlotte Button 


Dec. 16, 1819 


" Salmon H. 


u 


Rhoda Kidder 


May 7, 1844 


" Henry D. 


a 


Sarah J. Johnson 


Oct. 12, 1857 


Wiley, Robert 


u 


Harriet Kyser 


Sept. 19, 1868 


Wilhelm, Alexander J. 


u 


Anna Strasser 


Jan. 24, 1898 


Willett, Samuel R. 


n 


Kate F. Smedes 


Nov. 14, 1883 


Williams, Silas W. 


li 


Ad die Griffin 


Dec. 22, 1874 


Thomas D. 


iC 


Adeline E. Price 


Sept. 29, 1855 


William H. 


a 


Ida Williams 


Jan. 29, 1879 


Winkler, William M. 


a 


Kate E. Phalen 


May 26, 1886 


Winspear, Horatio 


a 


Emma A. Cobb 


Dec. 12, 1877 


William 


a 


Hannah Richardson 


Jan. 27, 1837 


Wilson, Amos L. 


u 


Angle Sweet 


Jan. 29, 1871 


" Dennis L. 


u 


Mary Northrup 


Sept. 10, 1863 


Woodard, Eron 


a 


Martha Bostwick 


April 22, 1850 


George H. 


u 


Emma Dick 


Jan. 5, 1876 


" James A. 


11 


Ada Northrup 


March 15, 1883 


Wurtenberg, Francis A. 


ii 


Gertrude Standart 


June 14, 1899 


Young, George W. 


Y. 

and Sylvia Welch 


Nov. 25, 1884 


" Jacob 


a 


Maria Standart 


March 18, 1847 


'' PhiHp 


i( 


Dorothea Gakler 


March 12, 1850 



268 



CHAPTER XIX 

DEATHS. 

Alphabetical list of 400 of the residents of the Town of Elma, 
with the age and date of death. 

NAME. AGE. DATE OF DEATH. 

YRS. MOS. DAYS. 

Adams, John 86 8 25 Sept 25,1887 

Devihe W 64 . . . . April 17, 1891 

John 2d Jan. 20, 1901 

Mary K 86 9 11 March 30, 1893 

Aldrich, Marvel 70 . . . . Dec. 19, 1887 

Allen, Anthony 68 2 28 April 14, 1899 

" Ellery S 56 9 22 Jan. 12, 1883 

" Sallv 85 9 5 April 27, 1891 

Ard, James 75 . . . . Feb. 7, 1863 

" Elizabeth, wife of James 76 11 20 Aug. 1, 1858 

" George 67 3 16 Aug. 16, 1889 

" Eliza, widow of George 78 . . . . Nov. 18, 1893 

Armstrong, Gordon 78 4 5 April 5, 1865 

Addison 79 2 . . Nov. 7, 1892 

Arnold, Oliver H 81 6 2 July 5, 1883 

Atlof, John, murdered by Manke April 2, 1878 

Avolt, Michael, drowned at Northrup 

milldam 1858 

Aykroyd, Rachel 70 . . . . May 24, 1893 

B. 

Badger, Frederick 77 . . . . July 24, 1892 

Baker, Andrew 56 . . 20 Aug. 5, 1892 

" Rev. Chauncey S 78 8 . . Jan. 7, 1892 

" Julia F., widow of Chauncey 

S. and Elon Clark 70 . . 14 April 4, 1898 

'' Luke 82 2 28 March 30, 1895 

" Moses 71 . . . . Aug. 11, 1867 

" Dolly, wife of Moses 61 . . . . Aug. 13, 1864 

" Salem 77 10 5 Dec. 18, 1883 

" Dolly, widow of Salem 80 . . . . Sept. 2, 1888 

Bancroft, Eleazer 86 1 26 Feb. 7, 1888 

269 



NAME. 

YRS. 

Bancroft, E. S. A., wife of Eleazer. . . 83 

William H 68 

Eliza, widow of Wm. H. . . 76 

Barnett, John, Sr 78 

" Mary, widow of John 83 

Mary C 39 

Bass, Hiram Milton 77 

Bauer, George C 70 

'' Magdelena 69 

Beck, Michael 

Becker, Louis 53 

" Matthias 67 

Beidler, Henry 62 

Below, John 77 

" Mary 68 

Billington, John S 68 

Sally, widow of John S. . . 83 

Blake, Candace Bancroft 26 

Blood, Levi 80 

" Laura, wife of Levi 52 

Boedecker, Herman August 63 

Bodamer, Philip, killed by falling tree . . 
" Christina, widow of Philip 75 

Jacob 70 

" Tamison, widow of Jacob. . 73 

Bommer, Mrs 47 

Bove, John 67 

Brandt, Bernhardt 65 

Briggs, Cortland C 25 

" Angle, R., wife of Wilbor B . . 46 

'' Joseph B 86 

Bristol, John B 81 

'' Gazelle Cross, widow of John 

B 75 

Brunner, August, murdered and 

thrown into Blossom millpond 

Buffum, Eliza Ard, wife of David. ... 66 
" Sarah House, wife of David. 73 

Bullis, Ella C, wife of Frank 45 

" Lewis M 65 

" Seth M 75 

" Mary Scott, widow of Seth M. 87 
Elizabeth, daughter of Seth M. 57 



LGE. 




DATE OF DEATH. 


MOS. 


DAYS. 










June 


6, 1885 


1 


7 


July 


30, 1884 


7 


25 


Sept. 


5, 1896 






Feb. 


1, 1894 


, , 




Aug. 


30, 1899 






Jan. 


13, 1890 


8 


11 


Dec. 


20, 1893 






Sept. 


5, 1894 


1 


12 


May 


16, 1896 






Sept. 


14, 1896 






Jan. 


2, 1892 


4 


20 


Nov. 


19, 1892 


2 


22 


Nov. 


4, 1888 






Jan. 


2, 1894 






Dec. 


11, 1890 






Feb. 


23, 1876 






March 20, 1891 


6 




Aug. 


5, 1859 


3 


21 


Jan. 


9, 1890 


8 


16 


Sept. 


21, 1859 


5 


3 


Feb. 


21, 1895 






April 


13, 1881 






Jan. 


17, 1901 


3 


3 


Dec. 


15, 1893 


7 


16 


Feb. 


24, 1899 






Jan. 


14, 1890 


1 


22 


Nov. 


8, 1898 




5 


Oct. 


4, 1894 


6 


4 


June 


7, 1895 


8 


15 


June 


2, 1890 






Oct. 


30, 1898 


6 




March 4, 1869 






June 


6, 1876 
1862 






Dec. 


24, 1890 






July 


16, 1896 






July 


6, 1898 
1868 


8 


9 


Oct. 


1, 1883 






Nov. 


6, 1898 


6 


20 


Oct. 


6, 1899 



270 



NAME. 



AGE. DATE OP DEATH. 

YRS. M08. DAYS. 



Bull, William, (suicide) 30 

Burns, killed by falling limb of tree at 
Spring Brook 

C. 

Carman, John 77 

Cass, Dr. William 77 

Cassady, Marcella Henry 68 

Chandler, Lyman 89 

" Amy, wife of Lyman 70 

Chadderdon, William J 53 

Chilcott, Lyman S 71 

Clark, Elon, Sr 34 

" Elon, Jr 18 

" James 73 

" Almeron, son of James 49 

" Joseph F 31 

" Oliver H 32 

Clements, Samuel 59 

Cobb, Zenas M 71 

" Lucena, widow of Zenas M . . 67 

Cole, Salathiel 77 

" Elizabeth, wife of Salathiel .... 67 

" Mary 90 

" Catharine 74 

" JohnW 56 

'' Mary 78 

" Lucy J 72 

Cotton. Elisha 80 

" Sophia, widow of Elisha .... 78 

Conley, Jamss 60 

John 29 

" Margarett Conners 25 

" Emily, Wannemacher wife of 

William 26 

Cunningham, Mrs. Sarah Townsend . 69 

D. 

Dayis, Samuel 82 

" Catharine, widow of Samuel. . 81 

" James 64 

" Ursula, wife of James 51 

" Jacob R 74 



10 

1 
3 
3 



6 . . March 
. . . . May 

8 29 March 

. . . . Oct. 

4 Sept. 
June 
Jan. 

20 June 

22 Dec. 

25 July 

. . Sept. 

. . . . Aug. 

. . . . Feb. 
June 

7 23 May 
11 . . Jan. 

7 2 July 

2 23 July 

4 . . July 

. . July 

. . . . Dec. 

. . . . Aug. 

6 10 Noy. 



Dec. 
March 

Noy. 
June 
Sept. 



15 

3 

17 
31 
25 
27 
15 

7 
18 
15 
14 
22 
12 
18 
15 
5 

25 
11 

8 
15 
13 
19 
21 

3 
31 
30 
28 
15 



1 4 Oct. 7 
11 16 Aug. 28 



1869 
1839 



1900 
1851 
1896 

1887 
1858 
1867 
1899 
1856 
1874 
1890 
1892 
1854 
1853 
1888 
1886 



1863 

1857 
1885 
1892 
1880 
1894 
1896 
1863 
1865 
1874 
1892 
1894 

1887 
1901 



3 1 Noy. 14, 1856 

5 11 Jan. 1, 1859 

3 3 Jan. 29, 1865 

. . 2 May 17, 1860 

. . . . Jan. 10, 1873 



271 



NAME. AGE. DATE OF DEATH. 

YRS. M08. DAYS. 

Davis, Harriet Henshaw, wife of Ja- 
cob R 48 . . . . Feb. 11, 1855 

" James 85 . . . . Jan. 5, 1892 

" Caroline Chadderdon, wife of 

James 80 .. .. Jul)^ 19,1891 

'' Samuel 32 2 22 Dec. 4, 1863 

" Sarah Clarkson Wood, wife of 

" William H 28 . . . . April 24, 1864 

" Hattie S., daughter of Wil- 
liam H. and Sarah, drowned 

in Devils Hole 11 . . . . July 24, 1867 

Devine, John 86 . . . . Nov. 18, 1876 

Diehl, Peter, killed by bursting of 

millstone in Blossom March, 1876 

Diemert, Joseph 73 9 10 Feb. 15, 1901 

Dingman, Harry 81 3 2 Dec. 17, 1897 

Dodge, Thomas 73 6 9 March 31, 1895 

E. 

Eckert, Caroline 58 . . . . March 28, 1893 

Ehrlick, Ernst 64 11 4 June 28, 1889 

Eldridge, John 75 . . . . Feb. 7, 1896 

Ellis, Nellie R 20 2 28 July 28, 1888 

F. 

Fairbanks, James 71 9 25 Jan. 18, 1851 

Willard 85 7 6 April 13, 1889 

Mary Blood, wife of Wil- 
lard 32 . . . . Feb. 13, 1840 

Mahala Blood, wife of Wil 

lard May 1883 

Fath, Christian, (suicide) July 1865 

Fisher, Frederick 70 5 22 March 23, 1900 

Flannigan, Catharine, wife of Thos. . . 57 . . . . Aug. 30, 1886 

Flynn, Catharine 57 7 7 Oct. 31, 1897 

Fowler, Edwin 80 6 . . Sept. 21, 1885 

Frazier, (suicide) 1866 

Frobes, Charles 77 3 .. June 23,1892 

G. 

Gasnian, Jacob, killed by lightning . . 30 6 . . Aug. 19, 1889 

Gentsch, George .^ 79 . . . . Nov. 22, 1886 

Gibson, Walter J. .(suicide) 48 7 8 Feb. 7, 1889 

272 



NAME. AGE. 

YRS. MOS. 

Gibson, Clara E 57 5 

Gilbert, John G 72 9 

RosaHerley ,. . . 65 1 

Gilmore, Dr. James 

" Emeline, widow of James 

Martha Louise 41 4 

Glass, Mary Ann 60 . . 

Gloss, Julia L. Armstrong, wife of 

William 50 7 

Gorenflo, John P 82 5 

Godfrey, William 69 . . 

Grace, Jane Kinsey, wife of Joseph. .. 34 . . 

Grader, Peter, Sr 67 4 

Gramm, Frederick H 49 6 

Green, Prudence B., wife of Samuel. . 46 . . 

" Samuel 64 . . 

Greiss, George 67 . . 



DAYS. 

2 

1 

14 



H. 

Hacker, Charles 49 

Hagmeyer, Jacob, Jr 37 

Hall, Julia Van Epps, wife of Otis A. . 77 

" Lewis L 85 

Hanavan, John 44 

Hansenberg, Mahala, wife of Matthew 56 

Harris, Charles Edgar (Minor) 84 

'' Hiram ., 77 

Hastings, Percy B 39 

Hatch, Leonard 44 

'' James 59 

" Elvira Chesbro wife of James 51 
Hathorn, Annis, widow of Varenus . . 73 

Hauenfelder, George 73 

Head, Catharine, wife of James 72 

" Kate 26 

Heim, George Frederick 11 

" Jacob F 14 

Heitman, Anna C, wife of Charles. . 27 

" Joanna, wife of Fred, Jr. . . 30 

Maria, wife of Fred, Sr. . . . 73 

" Sophia, wife of John Sr. . . 61 

Fred, Sr 79 

Hemstreet, Zina A 



17 

15 



DATE OF DEATH. 

Sept. 24, 1901 
Sept. 1, 1900 
March 26, 1895 
1890 
Oct. 23, 1897 
June 14, 1886 
Dec. 20, 1891 

Aug. 23, 1901 
May 19, 1895 
March 23, 1896 
July 8, 1847 
Aug. 2, 1889 
Feb. 17, 1888 
Sept. 25, 1870 
1882 
July 17, 1891 



. . . . Oct. 1, 1886 

. . . . Nov. 16, 1894 

8 7 Dec. 14, 1893 
. . 24 March 24, 1900 
. . . . April 8, 1896 
. . 17 June 8, 1897 
. . . . June 20, 1893 

9 . . July 26, 1889 
11 25 March 25, 1891 
. . . . June 20, 1842 
. . 14 March 29, 1895 

5 24 June 10, 1888 

3 10 Aug. 24. 1893 
.-. . . Feb. 26, 1898 

. . Nov. 20, 1897 

. . . . March 15, 1888 

1 6 March 11, 1886 

4 18 Jan. 30, 1886 
4 29 March 8, 1889 

. . . . Feb. 3, 1892 

11 12 Aug. 31, 1891 

. . . . Jan. 27, 1886 

. . . . Nov. 16, 1901 

. . . . Aug. 5, 1885 



273 



NAME. 



YRS. 

70 



AGE. 

MOS. DAYS 



DATE OF DEATH. 



Hemstreet, Polly, wife of Zina A. . 

Herrick, Sophia 76 

Hesse, Ernst 66 

" Herman G 69 

Hines, Thomas 50 

Hitchcock, Hiram 84 

" Rachel, Avife of Hiram ... 39 

Hoffman, John Christopher 66 

Hogul, Theresa 62 

Hohmon, William, son of Henry, 

killed by farm roller 11 

Holden, Alice Jackman, wife of Ab- 

ner 51 

Hopper, James 74 

Hornung, Aurelia C 22 

wife of 56 

Howard, Marcus A 62 

Hunt, Joseph B. B 15 

" William 81 

* ' Sophia, wife of William 75 

Hurd, Cordelia Hill, wife of Cyrus ... 24 
" Alma S. Ashman, wife of Cja'us 63 

" Clark W 87 

" Dulcena E., widow of Clark W. 87 
" Allen J., 44th N. Y. Volun- 
teers 21 

'' Harvey J 52 

" P'anny Amelia, wife of James. . 56 
" Mary, wife of Dennis 

J. 

Jackman, James R 71 

" Gracia E., widow of James 

R 84 

" Malenda Blodgett, wife of 

Warren 60 

Jerge, Casper 

" Georgiana Hesse, wife of Jacob 59 



24 
14 
17 
6 
19 



2 15 



2 5 

11 18 

6 18 
2 

7 2 
7 25 



19 



11 11 



20 

8 



10 28 
9 16 



May 

Nov. 

April 

Feb. 

Jan. 

March 

Dec. 

Oct. 



11 6 April 10 



Aug. 

May 

Aug. 

April 

July 

June 

Aug. 

Sept. 

June 

July 

Jan. 

Aug. 



19 

19 

29 

23 

10 

30 

8 

27 

28 

3 

6 

29 



July 13 

Jan. 25 

April 3 

Dec. 17 



1880 
1892 
1894 
1899 
1874 
1866 
1850 
1889 
1888 

1889 

1899 

1889 
1887 
1895 
1871 
1893 
1889 
1888 
1853 
1892 
1894 
1901 

1863 
1901 
1899 
1897 



1 17 Nov. 24, 1864 

, . . . April 14, 1887 

5 3 Dec. 4, 1881 

, . . . March 6, 1869 

1 10 Dec. 14, 1887 



K. 

Kannangiser, August H. C 81 7 15 Oct, 26, 1896 

Kelgus, George 60 . . . . July 25, 1890 

Kihm, Peter 70 10 . . Feb. 5, 1891 

274 



NAME. 

Kinsley, Stephen 

Kleberg, Dorothy, widow of John L. . 

Klehm, Frank 

" William, drowned in Blossom 

millpond 

Kleinf elder, Henr}^, Sr 

" Salamonia 

L.W.Henry 

Knowlton, Elmira 

Kock, Christopher 

" Mary 

" Sophia 

Kraus, Mar}^ R 

Krohn, John 

Kromroy, Rica 

Kyser, Horace 

" Jane E. Northrup, widow of 
Horace 



AGE. 

TRS. MOS. 



68 
66 
21 



75 
72 



38 10 

89 .. 

69 .. 

87 1 

75 . . 

68 8 

71 .. 

37 .. 

56 .. 



15 



17 



27 
12 



DATE OF DEATH. 

Mav 9, 1896 
Feb. 2, 1889 
Aug. 5, 1892 



Aug. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Aug. 

Oct. 

May 

April 

May 

March 11, 

March 13, 

April 10, 



9, 
20, 

28, 
8, 

9 

5, 

28, 
23, 



1888 
1900 
1896 
1892 
1893 
1891 
1888 
1898 
1889 
1892 
1896 
1880 



64 9 20 Aug. 28, 1889 



Lagore, (suicide) 

Lathrop, Paul B 82 

" Laura Chase, wife of Paul B 58 

Lee, Zebina ■,-, 67 

" Robert W., 49th Regiment, died 

in Maryland 40 

Leger, Anna Maria, wife of George . . 62 

" George, Jr 53 

" Michael 26 

Liebold, Fred M 20 

August 58 

Lines, Joel F 76 

Lougee, Benjamin P 

" Olive Monroe, widow of Ben- 
jamin P 93 

" Norton B., 49th Regiment, 

N. Y. Volunteers 28 

Luders, John, Sr 40 

" Mary, daughter of John, Sr. 

(burned) 3 

" May, daughter of John and 

Sophia 1 

275 



, . . . 1855 

6 27 June 23, 1894 
8 21 April 2, 1872 

, . . . April 4, 1861 

, . . . Feb. 10, 1863 

8 20 Jan. 7, 1891 
. . . . June 5, 1900 

9 7 April 16, 1891 

7 15 April 23, 1892 
5 26 Feb. 24, 1891 

8 10 Aug. 25, 1895 
. . . . Aug. 12, 1874 



10 21 April 15, 1897 

7 22 Nov. 2, 1862 

. . . . April 4, 1856 

. . Summer 1859 

3 5 Sept. 13, 1864 



NAME. 



AGE. DATE OF DEATH. 

YRS. MOS. DAYS, 



M. 



Manke, Charles, murderer of John 

Atloff, (hanged) 

Mann, Charles, (suicide) 

Markham, Stephen 70 

'' Lovina Clark, widow of 

Stephen 78 

Marquart, Harriet Louise, daughter 

of George 21 

Marvel, Alfred 64 

" Lan}'- Davis, widow of Alfred 65 

Mau, John 70 

" Anna, daughter of John 18 

Ma^^er, Jacob 69 

McCormick, Patrick 86 

McDonald, Albert 51 

McFee, Hugh 45 

McGivern, John 49 

McGuire, Patrick 84 

McKinley, William, President of the 

United States 58 

McPherson, Donald 72 

" Harriet Chase, widow of 

Donald 68 

McHugh, Cornelius, (murdered) .... 31 
McHugh, Catharine, widow of Cor- 
nelius 26 

Metcalf, Charies H 29 

Fisher 82 

Meyer, Jacob 39 

Miller, John F 64 

" Ernestine, wife of John F. . . . 41 
" Sarah, wife of Jacob, (suicide) 24 

" Barbara Benz 73 

" Charles, killed by falling tim- 
ber 32 

" Charies 35 

" John 72 

Mitchell, Wihiam 

Polly 23 

Mitzel, Frederick 87 

Mohn, Catharine M. Richert 63 

Monroe, Hiram D 48 



. . . . Mav 14, 1880 

. . . . 1873 

. . . . \pril 1, 1879 

11 24 Oct. 7, 1890 

5 17 June 26, 1900 

11 24 Sept. 27, 1885 

3 25 Oct. 29, 1885 
11 8 Nov. 15, 1900 

9 17 Dec. 12, 1892 

4 . . Jan. 28, 1888 
. . . March 10, 1897 
3 11 June 13, 1901 
3 . . March 15, 1890 

. . . . June 16, 1871 

8 10 Dec. 4, 1888 

7 15 Sept. 14, 1901 

2 7 June 16, 1897 



1 20 Aug. 
Jan. 



3 
5 
4 
10 
5 
4 
1 

11 

7 



5 
10 



25 
4 
9 

24 

18 



27 



Oct. 
Feb. 
Aug. 
Jan. 
May 
Feb. 
Jan. 
Feb. 



23, 1897 
5, 1863 

12, 1864 

13, 1891 
10, 1893 
22, 1896 
12, 1898 

24, 1875 
24, 1865 

1, 1892 



April 3, 1883 
March 26, 1892 
March 30, 1892 
Jan. 26, 1836 
March 20, 1883 
June 23, 1899 
Dec. 15, 1891 
May 3, 1887 



276 



NAME. AGE. 

YRS. MOS. 

Moore, Bradley 90 3 

Morris, John .73 . . 

■" widow of John 87 . . 

" WilUam, (suicide) 46 . . 

" Albert, son of Wiiliam killed 

in road 3 

" Daivd J 62 . . 

'' Lydia, widow of David J. ... 70 . . 

" T.afavette 67 . . 

Mimd, C. J. ^ 86 11 

" Sophia 85 3 

Munger, Diana, wife of Fowler 

" Wallace, shot by accident . . 13 

N. 

Nichols, Maria Howard 84 11 

Northrup, Lewis 81 . . 

" JaneWarner, wife of Lewis 81 10 
" Emma Winspear, wife of 

Eli B 41 10 

" William Lewis 19 . . 

Norton, Abraham 70 . . 

Noyes, Theodore 61 9 

" Almira Loiigee, wife of Sime- 
on 27 5 

Nobisch, Anna Katharine, daughter 

of Matthew 23 2 

0. 

Oberly, Peter 74 11 

Odell, Riley W 74 . . 

Orb, Sophia 84 .^ 

Orton, Darius W 72 7 

Ostrander, Phebe 77 5 

P. 

Packard, Philena S 78 . . 

Paine, William B 81 3 

" Harriet H 77 6 

Pattengell, Hiram, (suicide) 47 . . 

" Ellen A., wife of Jdmes 

Peek, George 83 . . 

Ann wife of George 78 . . 

277 



DATE OF DEATH. 

DAYS. 

15 Dec. 1, 1895 
1859 

1872 
Nov. 1, 1865 

1866 
June 17, 1874 
April 22, 1883 
March 19, 1891 
July 22, 1890 
19 Jan. 23, 1893 
July 6, 1858 
Sept. 5, 1884 



. . Dec. 8, 1901 

. . Dec. 29, 1882 

. . Feb. 8, 1880 

27 Sept. 21, 1883 

8 March 23, 1890 

. . Nov. 15, 1859 

. July 25, 1858 

2 Dec. 4, 1864 

12 Oct. 3, 1900 



14 March 14, 1900 

. . Jan. 5, 1893 

. . Nov. 8, 1887 

5 Feb. 18, 1897 

.. March 31, 1885 



. . Feb. 6, 1894 

. Sept. 12, 1891 

20 July 19, 1892 

. . March 19, 1846 

. . Jan. 19, 1883 

. . June 20, 1869 

. . March 8, 1869 



NAME. 

YES. 

Peek, Christopher 75 

" JohnW 81 

Peters, John 75 

WilhamH 

PhilHps, Geneva 80 

" Simeon, (suicide) 50 

Pierce, Louise Maurer 31 

Price, Daniel 66 



AGE. 

MOS. 



DATE OF DEATH. 



Feb. 
Julv 
Oct. 
Dec. 
Feb. 
Aug 



20, 1900 
5, 1900 

10, 1888 
7, 1892 
24, 1889 
4, 1901 
March 3, 1896 
Feb. 14, 1874 



R. 

Radloff, Mary 51 

Reitz, Barbara 67 

Roll, Henry 95 

Roloff, Henry Charles 40 

William 25 

Rossman, William, (suicide) 

Rowle}^, Amos P 

" Carrissa, Avife of Amos P 

Rupp,. Jacob 28 

Rush, Sarah, wife of John 66 



9 22 



8 28 



Oct.' 20, 1895 
April 23, 1901 
Oct. 19, 1892 
25, 1889 

16, 1899 
1885 

21, 1863 
1842 

17, 1892 
4, 1892 



May 

Aug. 



Dec. 

Nov 
Oct. 
Dec. 



S. 

Sandall, Louis 46 

Schilling, John Jacob 63 

Schmaltz, John J 69 

Schneider, Ann Gemmer, wife of Thos. 33 

Schwartz, Mary Ann 79 

Scott, Melissa Cole, wife of John 58 

Seeger, Charlotte, widow of Cyrenus 
Wilbor; wife of Rev. Schu}^- 

ler 

'' Christopher, (suicide by hang- 
ing) . _ 

Shane, Peter, killed at barn raising . . . . 

'' Mary, daughter of Peter 47 

Sileman, August 66 

Simmons, Eli 80 

Sisler, Lewis 63 

Sleeper, Henry C 51 

Smedes, Belinda, wife of Abram W . . 41 

Smith, Charles 70 

" Magdalena 83 



61 



69 



3 
25 

7 

20 
14 
16 



6 6 
1 .. 

7 .. 

1 16 



Aug. 
July 
Jan. 
Dec. 

Jan. 

May 



29, 1898 

22, 1888 
26, 1888 
24, 1899 

29, 1892 

30, 1877 



Oct. 28, 1863 

May 26, 1888 
1851 
Jan 6, 1884 
March 12, 1894 
Sept. 11, 1891 
Feb 17, 1895 
Feb. 23, 1891 
Sept. 3, 1866 
Sept. 24, 1892 
March 16, 1889 



278 



NAME. AGE. DATE OF DEATH. 

YRS. MOS. DAYS. 

Spencer, Elizabeth Warner, wife of 

^Cyrus S - • 69 7 4 March 18, 1890 

Staley,John 67 .. .. Jan. 4,1899 

Standart, Cxeorge, Sr 72 . . . . Apnl 15, 1862 

Bethier, wife of George Sr. 61 9 .. July 11, 18o9 
" Samantha, daughter of 

George Sr July 15, 1849 

Washington 37 2 23 March 24, 1861 

" John, (suicide, cut his 

. throat) July 7, 1874 

" Mary, wife of John, mur- 
dered bv John July 7, 1874 

Deforest .^ 41 .. .. Oct. 10,1864 

Wilham 85 5 24 Oct. 14, 1882 

" Olive Draper, wife of Wil- 
ham 77 9 15 Aug. 28, 1879 

,pephC 55 10 16 April 26, 1893 

Sterling, Louis H 83 . . . . Jan. 10, 1901 

Stetson, Ameha, wife of Benjamin F . 56 1 4 Nov. 9, 1890 

" Benjamin F 73 10 11 Sept. 23, 1901 

Stilb,Jacob 40 .. . Dec. 3,1890 

Stitz, Henry W 65 July 31,1899 

'' Mary, wife of Philip .48 1 7 Nov. 2, 1897 

Sutton, Mary, widow of 70 . . . . Sept. 5, 1894 

Sweet, Charles A 57 . . . . Dec. 7, 1901 

Switzer, Matthew 62 7 22 Nov. 18, 1891 

T. 

Taber, Martin 46 7 2 June 23, 1846 

TaborSethP 74 6 27 Oct. 27 898 

Tank,John 68 7 21 Oct. 25, 898 

'c Rachel 68 11 11 Sept. 11, 1896 

Tiffany, Thomas D., (suicide by 

hanging) ^®P^'- -^^"0 

TiHou, Joseph ' 79 . . . . Sept. 13, 1875 

" Hannah Filkins, widow of Jo- 
seph 82 .. .. Aug. 27,1878 

'' Erastus E 54 . . . . June 15, 1888 

u Isaac 72 5 17 Nov. 25, 1891 

Albert March 27, 1901 

" Lucy Harris, wife of James... 59 1 22 May 22,1890 

" daughter of Joseph 

Townsend, George, (color bearer of 

116th Regiment) 37 . . . . Oct. 1864 

279 



NAME. 



AGE. DATE OF DEATH. 

TBS. MOS. DAYS. 



Trams, Frederika 80 

" Sophia, wife of Charles 78 



. . Dec. 19, 1883 
10 March 22, 1900 



U. 

Underhill, Henry W 72 10 26 

Unsel, John 72 

" Ehzabeth 60 .. .. 



Sept. 6, 1893 
Nov, 20, 1897 
Dec. 15, 1883 



V. 

Victoria, Queen of England 81 8 3 Jan. 22, 1901 



W. 

Wagner, Wilhelmina E. C 49 

Wallis, Nellie E., daughter of William 

D., drowned in Devils Hole 9 

Walter, Bernhard, killed by railroad . 54 

John ." 94 

Wannemacher, Ottman J 73 

Ward, James H 86 

Weed, Elias 57 

Weiser, Peter 62 

Wellman, Henry 86 

Wendt, Frederika 96 

White, Samuel P 73 

Whittemore, Moses F 79 

Whitney, Charles M ". . . 77 

" Caroline Ranney, wife of 

Charles M 65 

Widemyer, Hermon 43 

Wier, Thomas E 62 

" Elizabeth Reid, wife of Thomas 

E 41 

" Sarah, wife of Thomas E 38 

Wilbor, Cyrenus 62 

" Henry D 

Wiley, James 82 

Williams, Isaac, Jr 40 

" Martha, mother of Isaac,Sr. 53 

" Sarah, widow of Isaac, Jr.. 59 

Thomas D 73 

John W 82 

Wilson, Ezra 78 

" Anna A. Kester 73 



Nov. 1, 1886 







July 


24, 1867 






Aug. 


1, 1900 




20 


April 


9, 1884 


5 


8 


Apnl 


24, 1901 


8 




July 


3, 1898 


6 




June 


24, 1871 


6 


15 


June 


27, 1883 


5 


11 


Jan. 


22, 1900 






June 


27, 1887 


6 


9 


Sept. 


2, 1898 






Aug. 


31, 1897 






April 


14, 1896 






Aug. 


28, 1889 






Sept. 


9, 1883 






Aug. 


21, 1893 

1872 


6 




Aug. 


21, 1893 


7 


6 


Sept. 


21, 1856 






Feb. 


18, 1900 






Aug. 


18, 1891 






Dec. 


24, 1838 






Nov. 


29, 1829 






Jan. 


28, 1859 


9 


10 


Dec. 


1, 1900 


1 




Jan. 


24, 1892 


10 


8 


Feb. 


6, 1898 


, . 




June 


2, 1898 



280 



NAME. AGE. 

YRS. MOS. 

Winspear, William 65 2 

Wright, James 76 . . 

"■ Catharine, widow of James.. 76 . . 

Woodard, Eron 76 7 

Y. 

Young, Jacob 77 5 

" Sylvia, wife of George W. ... 47 4 

Philip 29 10 





DATE OP DEATH. 


DAYS. 






14 


June 


21, 1878 




Feb. 


3, 1888 




July 


5, 1891 


25 


Oct. 


13, 1896 




June 


4, 1899 


8 


April 


15, 1894 


11 


Dec. 


13, 1853 



281 



CHAPTER XX. 



Names of 60 persons who owned lands and resided on 
Mile Strip, in Elma, in 1900, and the number of home lot: 

Adams, D. K 19 

Mary 20 

Arndt, John 19 



B. 

Balow, Albert 8 

Bass, Eugene 10 

Baker, Charles 31 

Benzel, Hermon 37 

Peter 37 

Brown, Caleb F 15 

'' Jeremiah 14 

" Warren .2 

C. 

Carrol, John 31 

" Edward 31 

Cole, Charles P 26 

" BordanP 26 

D. 

Davis, Albert H 36 

" Homer 13 

E. 

Edner John 25 

Ellis, James 19 

F. 

Fowler, Leroy 9 

G. 

Griffin, James L 12 

H. 

Hackenheimer, John 24 

Hansenberg, Matthew 13 

Hatch, John „ 2 

Head, Thomas J 34 

Hermann, Catharine 27 

Horton, Anna 34 

Kock, William 33 

Keem, George 1 

Kyser, Jacob 37 



L. 

Lathrop, Chase 

" Herbert . . . 

Lef ter, Peter 

Lidke, John 

M. 
Maloney, Michael . . . . 
Marquart, George . . . . 

Mitchell, Joshua 

McDonald, James C . . 

N. 
Norman, Charles. . . . 

0. 
Oldenberg, Charles . . 

P. 

Paine, Colton 

Pattengill, Irwin . . . , 

Paxon, Myron 

Pierce, Levant 

Pollock, Winslow. . . , 
Powers, R. F 

R. 

Ralyea, Mrs 

Rickertson, James B. 

S. 

Scott, John 

Smith, A. J 

Spooner, Edward . . . . 
Steckman, John 

T. 
Thayer, Henry 

W. 

Walter, Bernard 

Wiley, Robert 

Williams, Rdey 

" Thomas D. 

William H. 

Wilson, Amos L 



the 



28 
25 
21 
36 

12 
23 
26 
18 

21 

36 



4 

5 

36 

23 

19 



36 

36 

6 

2 

34 

1 
33 
16 
15 
17 
30 



282 



Names of 193 persons who owned lands and resided on the 
Aurora Part of Elma, in 1900, and the number of their home 
lot: 



Adams, Allen 82 

Allen, Anthony 11 

'' Henrv P 10 

'' Silas H 10 

Ambrose, Robert 91 

Arndt, Fred 62 

B. 

Badger, Albert 11 

Balow, William 44 

A. L 22 

Barnett, John 67 

Richard T 81 

Bander, Frank 4 

Benzel, Henry 38 

Beckman, Charles 40 

Becker, Mattie 100 

Bishop, George 64 

Bleeck, Ernst 42 

Bove, Julius 28 

Boonk Barney 42 

Boos, Conrad 99 

Burman, Charles 10 

Buffum, Charles 6 

Burns^ Peter 58 

C. 

Chadderdon, J. W 82 

Chilcott, Gilbert 102 

Mattie 102 

Mrs. G. A 94 

Conley, Bernard 72 

John, Jr 80 

Patrick 67 

William 68 

Curtis, Frank 4 

'' Albert 25 

Stephen 25 

D. 

DaviS; James C ....'! 76 

" William H 101 



Davis, Charles W 102 

Dimert, Joseph 36 

Dingman, E. H. . . 39 

Donahue, Patrick 76 

E. 

Edwards, Thomas 10 

Ehrlick, Charles 38 

Eldridge, Benjamin F 5 

F. 

Fensel, Frank 55 

Fisher, Fred 54 

Fones, W. W 82 

G. 

Geyer, Joseph 52 

Gilbert, John 51 

Grace, James J 75 

'' William W 70 

Grader, Peter 52 

Grifhn, Ida 71 

" Seward 75 

H. 

Hagmeier, Jacob 49 

Hacker, Charles 54 

Hammersmith, Peter 7f~ 

Hatch, Frank 12 

Niles 12 

Head, Edward 78 

Heim. Fred 30 

" Frank 31 

'' George 31 

" Jacob 34 

Heller, Conrad 31 

Helmick, Charles 95 

Hemstreet, Isaac 4 

Hendershott, Richard Mill 

Higgins, Margarett 4 

Hines, Solon 43 

'' Willard F 10 



283 



Hodgkins, Herbert J 9 

Hopper, Mrs. James 18 

Horn, Frank 94 

Holt, Walter 70 

Howe, Maria 10 

Howley, Edward 81 

Hunt, Catharine 71 

" Joseph 71 

K. 

Kannengeiser, John 102 

Kihm, Henry 78 

Kingsley, Stephen 85 

Kingston, John 59 

Klas, Joseph 75 

Klehm, Henry 53 

Kromroy, John 37 

Krohn, John 49 

L. 

Landers, Anna 77 

Lave, Lewis 90 

Leger, George 81 

Liebold, John J 82 

Lexo, Henry 24 

Lines, Fred 80 

Liiders, John 40 

Fred 41 

M. 

Marks, Edward 22 

Markle, Cornelius 67 

Marshall, Julius 75 

Metcalf, Irwin 11 

Reuben 10 

" Spencer 17 

Miller, Anna 29 

" Fred 29 

" Jacob 49 

" William Sr 24 

Morris, Fremont 11 

Mrs. L. F 75 

Morrow, William 38 

Mullen, Hugh 2 

Munger, Wilbor 11 



Mc. 

McFee, Abigail 75 

McGiveron, John 71 

Fred 71 

McHugh, Cornelius 66 

McMullen, John 11 

N. 

Northrup, Charles 85 

EHB 84 

0. 

Oldfield, John 9 

O'Conners, John 84 

O'Neil, William H 30 

P. 

Palmer, Harvey C 10 

Persons, Ellsworth G 26 

Peters, Fred 61 

Phalan, Patrick 81 

Poundlitz, John, Sr 45 

R. 

Radloff , Fred .... 84 

Reamer, Charles 82 

Rebain, Anna 80 

Pteiderman, George 11 

Reimer, Fred 51 

Reitz, Charles 75 

" Marv 82 

Roloff, Charles 37 

John 46 

Ronian, Daniel 11 

Rush, Francis 44 

" Sylvester 53 

S. 

Schefferstein, Andrew Jr. . . 52 

Frank 52 

Schroeder, Sophia 80 

August 80 

Schweikert, Joseph 85 

Schnurr, George 83 

Michael 75 

284 



Schurr, Irving G 39 

Sileman, Frank 33 

John 33 

" William 37 

Simmons, Eugene 4 

Simons, Daniel A 82 

Smith, Ezra B 29 

" John 65 

Spencer, Adelbert 81 

Cyrus S 84 

Stahl, John 73 

Steck, John M 55 

" Michael 50 

Stillinger, Frank 72 

Stutzman, Jacob 46 

Sutton, Alex 52 

" Frank 52 

Sweet, Charles A 84 

T. 

Talmadge, Charles 75 

Thayer, Charles 71 

Tillou, Harrison L 82 

" Mrs. Isaac 66 

" James ^. - 66 

" Mary J... 82 

V. 

Valentine, Fred . ; 85 



W. 

Wagner, Joseph 39 

Whaley, Mrs. Isaac 30 

Walker, Wallace 63 

Frank 97 

Walter, William 35 

Wanglien, Matilda 1 

Wannamacher, 0. J 76 

William . . 71 

Ward, Mrs. James H 81 

Wascher, John 19 

Weber, Hermon 100 

Weil, Michael 25 

AVelch, Mrs 96 

Wescott, Byron H 81 

Wheeler, Frank 93 

Widemeyer, Catharine 101 

Will, Christ 58 

Williams, Silas 22 

Wilson, Dennis L 60 

" Mary 60 

" Fred 61 

Winegar, Fred 67 

Winspear, Horatio. 81 

Woodard, Mrs. Erin 52 

" James A 60 



285 



Names of 170 persons who owned lands and resided on the 
Lancaster Part of Ehna, m 1900, and the number of their 
home lot: 



Aldrich, Jesse 7 

Arndt, Joseph 12 

B. 

Bancroft, Alonzo C 57 

Henry E 64 

Bauer, Michael Blossom 

Beckman, William 20 

Joseph 10 

Becker, Charles 78 

Beidler, Dorothea 66 

" George 66 

Berner, William 77 

Bippert, George W. Blossom 

Blair, David 5 

Board, Robert C 57 

Bodecker, Jane 80 

Bronson, Levi 45 

Brandt, Philip 21 

Briggs, Charles S 57 

" Charles M 58 

Mrs. Joseph B 57 

" J.Eddy 57 

'' Wilbor B 57 

Brass, Jacob 36 

Bridgeman, Marcus 30 

Busse, Henry ... 38 



C. 



Christ, Charles 82 

Clark, Myron H 57 

Conley, Mary 90 

Cole, Henry 16 

'' William F 15 

D. 

Domon, August 10 

" Charles 37 

Drews, Henry 30 

Dusch, Alois Blossom 



E. 

Eberhardt, John 79 

Eckert, Charlotte Blossom 

Edenhoffer, John 57 

Eiss, Cornelius 34 



Fagman, Joseph Blossom 

Fefton, William 91 

G. 

Garbv, Christ 50 

"" John 60 

Gaunflo, Theodore 19 

Gest, Charles 10 

Gibson, Clara E 58 

Gloss, Pauline 60 

" William 55 

Graff, Anna Blossom 

Gulekunest, 0. J 90 

H. 

Hafner, Catharine 57 

Hall, Otis A 46 

" " 3 

Heineman, Peter 82 

Heinteberger, Mrs. Charles . 90 

Heitman, Fred, Sr 45 

John, Sr 11 

Charles 45 

Flensel, Conrad P Blossom 

Herlan, F. D Blossom 

Hesse, Acloh 59 

'' Hermon 43 

Hill, Morris 3 

" Mrs. Cyrus 8 

Hodgkins, Jacob 9 

Hoffman, Wihiam 10 

Hohmon, Henry 76 

Hornung, Max . 72 

William 77 

Hurd, Cyrus 61 



286 



Hurd, George W 85 

" Harvey J 57 

" James T 58 

'/ Burton H 58 

J. 

Jackman, Mrs. Warren .... 59 

Jager, Fred 65 

Jasel, Christ 56 

Jerge, Philip 57 

" Hermon 57 

" Henry 80 

K. 

Kalle, PhiUp Blossom 

'^ William Blossom 

Kdein, Joseph 31 

Kleinf elder, Henry 99 

Kloots, Thomas 31 

Kock, Fred 93 

" Jacob Blossom 

" John Blossom 

" John 45 

" Valentine 100 

Krouse, George . . 37 

Kibbler, Charles . . . .- 61 

Henry 61 

L. 

Lee, R.Porter 59 

Long, Maria 57 

Lougee, Will' am V 2 

M. 

Markham, E.J 57 

Mar}?-, Jacob 86 

Mattis, Andrew 13 

Man, John 11 

Maurer, Fred 21 

Menderlain, Anthony 31 

Miller, John ^. 35 

Mitzel, George 76 

Mohn, Jacob Blossom 

Morath, Michael 57 

'' William 57 

Mm-lin, Edgar L 57 

287 



N. 

Newendorf, John 6 

Charles 5 

Newer, John 32 

Nosbisch, Matthew 60 

Noyes, Simeon 56 

0. 

Oberly, John 77 

P. 

Phillips, Anthony 6 

Julia . ." 6 

" Joseph 6 

Philip 14 

" Simeon 6 

Praler, John 69 

Price, Albert 71 

" Hannah 59 

R. 

Rath, John Blossom 

Reinhardt, Henry 75 

Reuther, John 11 

Louis P 57 

Mrs. Louis P 57 

William 17 

Roll, Charles 1 

S. 

Schefferstein, Andrew Sr. . . 60 

Scherer, Jacob.. .Blossom 

Schihing, Mary . 86 

Jacob 81 

Schlumm, Charles 27 

Schmaltz, .John 86 

Schrimps, Martin ■ . . . 95 

Schriveller, John 100 

Schroeder, Fred Sr 74 

Fred Jr 75 

" John 65 

Schultz, Peter 36 

'' John 41 

" William 74 

Seeger, Fred' 65 

" Jacob 36 



Spaulcling, A. D 31 

Stauser, Anna Blossom 

Standart, Mrs. Joseph 59 

Stetson, Benjamin F 66 

Stitz. Henry E «. . . 29 

Mrs. Henry W 30 

Philip 12 

William 7 

F 40 

H 8 

Stilp, Michael Blossom 

Stork, Peter 90 

Strasley, Catharine. . . .Blossom 

Sugg, Nicholas Blossom 

Summerfiekl, Thomas 95 

T. 

Tank, Hermon 18 

Trams, Charles 72 



U. 

Uebelacker, Joseph 29 

Unverdarben, Henry .... 90 

" WilHam Blossom 

Unsel, Mary 42 

V. 

Velzy, F. E 99 

W. 

Wahenmeyer, William .... 26 

Walter, John 91 

Wanglien, Mary 99 

Webster, Sheldon. . . .' 1 

Winspear, Hannah 89 

Y. 

Young, Mrs. Jacob 51 



288 



Names of 400 persons registered as voters in the First Election 
District of the Town of Elma in 1900 : 



Adams, Allen 
'' D. K. 
" Harry 
" Herbert 
" Walter E. 

Allen, Ellery 
'' Harry 
" Henry D. 
" Leister 
" Silas H. 

Ambrose. Robert 

Arndt, Fred 
" John 

Asmas, Herman 

B. 

Badger, Albert 
Baker, Charles 

Charles 26 

" William G. 

" John 

" Michael 
Balow, Albert 
Barnett, John 

Richard T. 
Bass, Ai^thur 

" Eugene 
Bauder, Frank 
Becker, Fred 

" John 

" Michael 

" Theodore 

" William 
Bensel, George 

'' Henry 0. 

" Henry, Sr. 

" Henry, Jr. 

'' Herman 

" Peter 
Benzhoffer, Charles 
Bleeck. Ernst 
Boeckert, Henry 
Bommer, Adam 



Boonck, Bernard 
Bowen, Otis 
Brandt, Bernard 
Brauner, Eriward 
Brown, Caleb F. 
" Edward 
/' Fay 
" Jeremiah W. 
" Warren 
Brownell, C. A. 
C. F. 
Bryan, Constant 
Burr, Charles 
Burman, Charles 

Fred 
Burns, John 
Butler, F. H. 

Michael 
" William 

C. 

Carroll, John 
Chadderdon, Jas. K. 

J. W. 
Chamberlain, Wm. H 
Chilcott, Gilbert 
Clark, William 
Clay, C. C. 

" Cland 
Clifford, Grattan 
Cole, Bordan J. 
'' Charles P. 
Conklin, John H. 
Conley, Bernard, Sr. 

" Bernard, Jr. 

" Cornelius 

" James 

" John 

" William 
Cooper, Hugh J. 
Cowan, Ralph 
Curtis, Albert 
Frank 



Curtis, Stephen 

D. 
Davis, Albert 
" Charles 

" Edward 

" Homer 

" Howard 

" James C. 

" William H. 
Deder, Henry 
Dellanv, Charles 

'' ■ Frank 
Dietrick, John 
Dingman, Edward H. 
Domas, Michael 
Donner, Charles 
Donnovan, Patrick 
Doran, Robert 
Drosendroll, August 
Geo. 

E. 

Eastner, John 
Ehrlick, Charles 
Fred 
Ellis, James 
Enderschot, Christ 

F. 
Fairbanks, H. W. 
Farquahr, Frank 
Felton, George 

'' Otto 

'' William 
Featherly, David 
Fischer, Jerome 
Fish, Spencer 
Flynn, Michael 
Fones, Wallace W. 
Forbes, Aaron 
Fowler, Delos 

" Leroy 
Frobes, Otto 



289 



G. 
Gatty, John 

" Lawrence 
Geiss, Fred 
Geyer, Joseph 
Gilbert, Henry 
" John, Sr. 
" John, Jr. 
'' Wihiam 
Gold, Charles 
Gould, John 
Grader, Peter 
Grace, Howard 
'' James J. 
" Joseph J. 
" Wihiam W. 

H. 

Haas, Albert 
" Charles 
" William 
Haberer, John 
Hacker, Fred 
Hackenheimer, H. 

" John 

Hagmeier, Jacob 
" Henry 

" Louis 

Hagen, Charles 

" James 
Hammersmith, P. 
Hammond, Frank 
Hansenberg, M. 
Hatch. Frank 
" John 
" Niles 
Head, Edward 
" Thomas 
Heller, Charles 
'' Conrad 
" Henry 
Heim, Charles 
" Frank 
" Fred, Sr. 
" George 



Heim, Jacob 
" Louis 
Helmick, Christ 
Fred 
Heximer, Frank 
Hines, Solon 

" Willard 
Hodgkins, Herbert J. 
Hoefart, Henry 
Hopper, James L. 
Hoth, Bert 
House, Eli 
Hudson, George 
Hunt, Joseph 

K. 

Kanangeiser, Jacob 
John 
Peter 
Keem, George 

" William 
Kehy, Fred 
Kennedy, Jesse 
Kester, Frank 
Kihm, Alfre.l 
" Henr}^ 
Kingston, John, Sr. 

'' John, Jr. 

Wihiam 
Klas, Joseph 
Klehm, Aclolph 

" Henry 
Klein, Lewis 
Kock, William 
Kratt, John 
Krohn, George 
Kromroy, John 

L. 
Landers, Frank 

William 
Lathrop, Chase 

" Herbert 
Lave, Lewis 

" Herman 
Leger, George 

290 



Leger, John 

" Louis 
" William 
" Walter 
Leibold, Frank 

John 
Lesch, George 
Leverance, Charles 
Lexo, Henry 
Lines, Clark 
'' Fred 
" Harry 
Little, Wihiam 
Lockwood, Charles 
Lutz, Charles 

M. 
Markle, Cornelius 
" James D. 
Marks, Andrew 
Marquart, Edward 
" George 
Marshall, Julius 
Mason, Rev. George 
Metcalf, L W. 

" Spencer 
Mitchell, Joshua 
Miller, Fred 
" George 
" Jacob 
" William 
Morris, Fremont 
'' Wilham 
Morrow, William 
Mullen, Hugh 
Munger, Fowler 
Myers, John, Sr. 
'" John, Jr. 
" Thomas 
McDonald, Albert 
" Harry 

" James C. 

McGiveron, John 

J. L. T. 
McHugh, CorneHus 
McMullen, John 



N. 
Nehin, Michael 
North, Frank 
Northrup, Eli B. 

Charles N. 

0. 

Odell, Arthur 
Offons, A. 

'' Otto 
Oldenberg, Charles 

" John 

Oldfield, John 
'Conner, John 
0,Neal, James 
William 



Palmer, Harvey C. 
Parker, Burdette 
Pattengell, Harry 

" Irwin 

Persons, Ellsworth G. 
Peters, P>ed 

Patrick 
Pholman, Fre:l 
Pierce, Levant 
Pollock, Winson, Sr. 
" Winson, Jr. 
Poundlets, John, Sr. 

" John, Jr. 

" Louis 

Wihiam 
Powers, R. F. 

R. 

Radloff, Fred 
Ralyea, Frank 
Reamer, Charles 

Fred 
Reideman, Geo., Sr. 
Reitz, Charles 

" Fred 

" John 
Rice, 'Daniel 
Rickertson, James B. 



Roloff, Charles 

" Christ 

" John 
Ronian, Daniel 
Rosehardt, George 

W. 
Rossman, Leonard 
Rowland, James 

S. 
Scherick, David 
Scherrit, Walter 
Schofield, Edward 
Schroeder, August 
Schnurr, Edward 
" George 
" Michael 
Schuman, John 
Schurr, L'win G. 
Schweikert, Joseph 
Scott, John 
Seibert, Charles 
Seileman, Edward 
" Frank 

John 
William 
Simmons, Eugene G. 
Simons, Daniel A. 
Daniel J. 
Edward 
Sisler, Charles 
Slade, Andrew J. 

" Frank 
Slater, Fred 
Sluter, William 
Smith, Albert 
" August 
" Charles C. 

Edward 
" Henrv, Sr. 
'' John" 
" Lewis 
Martin 
" Wihiam B. 
Sommers, Augustus 
Spencer, Adelbert 

291 



Spencer, Cyrus S. 
Spooner, Clayton 
Edward 
Stackman, George 

John 
Stahl, John 

'' John W. 
Steck, Michael 
Sterling, Alva 
Stewart, Charles 
Still inger, Frank 
Stinke, Willi am 
Sutton, John 

'' Nicholas 
Swain, Francis 
Sweet, Charles H. 
Switzer, Herbert 

T. 

Tolsma, Edward 

Edward J. 
Thaver, Henry 

'' Charles 
Thomas, George F, 
Tillou, Alva H. 

" Edwarl 

" Fred 

'' Harrison L. 

" James 

V. 

Valentine, Fred 
Van Antwerpt H. 

W. 
Wagner, Joseph 

WiUiam 
Wakeley, Everett 

" Isaac 

Wallace, John 

Walker 
Walter, Bernard 
" Eric 
" Frank 
" Philip 
" William 
Wannemacher, 0. J. 



Washer, John 
Weber, Anthony- 
Wells, A. J. 
Welton, Lewis 0. 
Whitne}^, Edward B. 
Widemeyer, Frank 
Wier, Edminster 

" William 
Wigley, Amil 

'' Joseph 
Wilcox, Frank 



Wiley, James 
Robert 
Will, Christ 
" John 
" Louis 
Wilson, Amos L. 
" Dennis L 
Fred L. 
Williams, Riley 

Thomas D. 
WilHam H. 



Wirth, Edward 
Wright, Patrick 
Woodard, James A. 

Y. 

Yargo, Henry 
Yarmikan, Herman 

Z. 

Zarcae, Herman 



292 



Names of 266 persons registered as voters in the Second Elec- 
tion District of the Town of Ehna in 1900; 



Aldrich, Jesse 
Amedon, William 
Anstett, Bernard F. 
Armstrong, Rev. J. E. 
Arndt, Charles 
'' Joseph 

B. 

Balow, William 
Bancroft, Alonzo C. 
Henry E. 
Bauer, Edward 
Michael 
Becker, Charles 2d 

" Charles 
Beckman, August 
Charles 
" Joseph 
William 
Beidler, George 
Berner, William 
Berry, Charles 
Bippert, George W. 
Blair, David 
Bodecher, Frank 
Bove, Frank 
" Julius 
Brass, Jacob 
Brecht, Henry 
Bridgman, Marcus 
Briggs, Charles M. 
" Charles S. 
" George D. 
" J. Eddy 
" Wilbor B. 
Bucher, Conrad 
Buffum, Charles J. 
David B. 

C. 

Christ, Charles 
Christen, Fred 
Clark, Myron H. 



Clark, Russel B. 

Cole, Francis 
" Henry 
" Philetus 

Cotton, Ira 
" Sherman 

D. 

Defenback, Christ 
John 
Deimert, George 
" Joseph 
Devine, Henry 
Domon, August 
Charles 
" Henry 
Drews, Fred 

" Henry 
Dusch, Alois 

E. 

Eckert, August 

" Jacob 
Edenhoffer, John 
Eichinger, Robert 
Eiss, Cornelius 

" Daniel 
Eldridge, Benj. J. 
Ernst, Michael 

F. 

Fitch, William 
Flierl, Rev. John 
Foster, William 

G. 

Garby, Christ 
" Frank 
John 
Gest, Charles 
Getty, Lawrence 
Ginther, August 
Gloss, Balthazzar 

293 



Gloss, William 
Greiss, Michael 

H. 

Hafner, Frank 
" Joseph 
Hall, Charles 
" Otis A. 
Handy, Fred 

" ' WiUiam A. 
Hastings, Albert 
Hauenfelder, John 
Heidenracht, R. 

Geo. 
Heineman, Charles 

Peter 
Heinteberger, F. 

Geo. 
Heitman, Charles 
Fred, Sr. 
Fred, Jr. 
Hensel, Conrad P. 

" Daniel 
Hepfinger, Henry 
Herbold, George 
William 
Herlan, Frank 
" F. D. 
" Wilham 
Hesse, Adolph F. 

" Herman 
Hill, Morris 
Hilbert, George 
Hitzel, Michael 
Hodgkins, Jacob 
Hoffman, William 
Hohmon, Henry 
Hornung, Max, Sr. 
Max, Jr. 
Wilham Sr. 
William Jr. 
Howeh, F. R. 



Hurcl, Burton H. 

" Clark 

" Cyrus 

" Emory 

" George W. 

" Harvey J. 

" James'T. 

" Melville 

J. 

Jackman, Warren 
Jerge, Herman 

" Philip 
Jasel; Charles 

" Christ 
K. 
Kalle, Phihp 

'' WilHam 
Kester, Christian 

" William 
Klein, Andrew 

'' Frank 

" Joseph 

" Lewis 
Heinfelcler, Henry 
Kloff, Samuel 
Knaab, Jacob 
Kock, August 

'' Fred 

" Fred 

" Fred 

" Jacob 

" John 

" John 
Krouse, George 
Kruske, Henry 

L. 

Landahl, August 

Emil 
Lougee, William V. 
Ludemon, George 

John 
Luders, Fred 
" John, Sr. 
" John, Jr. 



M. 

Maiden, Martin 
Markham, E. J. 
Mary, Jacob 
Mattis, Andrew 
Mau, Andrew 

" J. R. 
Maurer, Fred 
" Lewis 
Meyer, Albert 

" James E. 
Miller, Henry 
" John 
" John 
Mitzel, George 
Mohn, Henry 
" Jacob 
Morath, George 
Michael 
William 
Moss, Joseph 
Mund, Christian 
" Fred 

N. 

Nuendorf, John Sr. 

John, Jr. 
Newman, George 
Nosbisch, Matthew 

Michael 
Noyes, Simeon 

0. 
Oberly, John 

P. 

Phillips, Anthony 
'' Edward 
" Joseph, Sr. 
" Joseph, Jr. 

Philip 
" Simeon 

Pickens, Fred 

Pralow, John 

Price, Albert 
' ' Harvey 

294 



R. 

Rath, John 
Ray, George 

" JohnW. 
Reinhardt, Henry 
Reuther, John 

Louis P. 

William 
Roup, John 
Rush, Sylvester 

S. 
Sandel, Louis 
Scherer, Jacob 
Scherwiller, John 
Schilling, Jacob 
Schlumm, Charles, Sr 
Charles, Jr! 
Schmaltz, John 
Schrink, Christ 
Schrimps, Martin 
Schneider, Thomas 
Schroeder, August 
Fred, Sr. 
Fred, Jr. 
John 
Schultz, Anthony 
" Jacob 
" John 
Peter 
Schurr, Charles 
Schuster, Charles 
Seeger, Jacob 
Sider, Jerry 
" Jesse 
Siebert, Charles 
Slade, Andrew, Sr. 
Sloane, W. J. 
Skinner, Almond 
Smith, Joseph 
Spaulding, A. D. 
Stetson, Benjamin F. 

Charles E. 
Stilp, Otto 
Stimson, S. H. 
Stitz, Albert 



Stitz, Arthur 

" Henr}^ E. 

" Louis 

" Plrlip 

" William, Sr. 

" William 2d 

" William 

" William F. 

" William H. 
Stork, John 

" Peter 
Sugg, Nicholas 
Summerfield, Thos. 
Sutton, Alex. 



T. 

Tank, Herman 
Theil, Henry 
Tramps, Charles 
Trameter, Louis 

U. 

Uebelacker, Joseph 
Unsel, John 

V. 

Viergel, Charles 

W. 
Wallenneier, Wm. 



Walter, John, Sr. 
" John, Jr. 
Wanglien, Herman 

John 
Webster, Sheldon 
Williams, Alexander 

Y. 

Young, George W. 

IstD^strct 400 

2d District 353 

Total Registered 
voters ....'.".. 753 



295 



CHAPTER XXI. 

CENSUS OF THE TOWN OF ELMA. 

When the State census was taken in 1855 there were but few 
persona residing in the town of Ehna, except those on the Mile 
kStrip; the Indian Eeservation b(Mns>; part in the town of Aurora 
and part in the town of Lancaster. There is no way to ascertain 
the population at that time, of what was later to be tlie town of 
Elma. 

The same township coiuHtions were continued at the time the 
United States Census was tak(Mi in 1S5(), and at the takini:; of the 
census b}- the State in 1855. 

The town having" been organizcnl l)ec(Mnber 4, 1856, we have our 
first knowledge o( the population of the town, in the Ccmisus as taken 
by the Ihiited States in 18G0. 

This Census of 1860 gave the total population of Elma as 2,136. 

The New York State census of 1865 gave Elma as follows: 

Whit(^ Males 1,502 l\)t;il MaU^s 1,506 

'' l^Vmales 1,300 " IVmales 1,401 



Colored Males 4 Total 2,907 

" Females 2 



Total 2.007 Single persons 1,727 

]\Iarried " 1,008 

Native born ^•oters 276 AVidows 51 

Naturalized " 273 AA" idowers 31 



Total " 540 4\>tal 2,007 

575 families 
333 ali(M)s residing in the town 415 owners of land 

123 persons over 21 3^ears of age who could not read or write. 
United States Census of 1870 : 

Native bcu-n ]-esidents . . 1,980 White 2,823 

Foreign " " .... 847 Colored 4 

New York State Census for 1875: 

Native born . 2,019 AVhite 2,798 Males 1,444 

Foreign " 700 Colored 11 Females 1,365 



Total... 2,800 Total .. .2,800 Total 2,809 

29G 



Native voters 323 Of scliool age, males 501 

Naturalized " 301 " " " females. ... 460 



Total voters 624 Total . . ._ 961 

171 aliens — 69 over 21 who cannot read or write. 
483 of military age — 437 owners of land. 

United States Census of 1880: 

Total population of the town 2,555 

No State (Vnsus for 1885, or 1895. 

United States Census for 1890: 
Total po]nilation of the town 2,163" 

United States Census for 1900: 
Total population of the town 2,202' 



297 



^flg' ;:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::;: ' 

o^gl / 

■t^ O (U 

OH OJ I 

> S ' 



o 



O 

u 

o 



o s 

H g 

DC 

H « 

R ^ 

w ^ 

s 

s § 

U i> 

[t, H 

O m 



Pi. 



^^1^ . S-f g^ g-l &^ 



o x:: 






<^ 



pl;^ ^ 



O 



w 



O O 0^ ^ bC =S ^ 

[s3^WW(^AHc3tsJ<t^PL;wWW 



oj q; o 




fl 'OJ 3 0) »2 tc 

O > O >;=).S 

^ <ii P5 -< w 1^ 



bJD ;=! 

-[3 r^ O ^3 o3 ;h 
C/3 o -^^ 03 ^ o3 






^ ^ S 



Ph 

d 



I o 



d 



o M jH eg cu d^ 



1^ :^ ^^. ^ '-i -L^ 









S^ .Q 



1-5 02 



id^. 



1^1 



CO 1-1 !>• «3 



aj 1-4 aj ►-^ 02 i-i 






^ ^S ;-! 

§ w § 

-ai"^ W^ <^" 



-IS 




"C 




T3 








[a — 1 5r^ 


fe. &3. 


••d >> 


>!- T3- 






^P^H^ 


>-~,t i-is 




-p 




o 








0) a 


arris 

een 

llou 


Palm 
. Ban 
amjQ 
llou 


W^Hp. 


d^^H 


WccWi-: 


W^^M 


73 








o3 




73 


r^ 


O 


bD 








!m Sh . 


^ :: W 


03 03 ^H 


O 


Hri:: i-^W 




O^ ft 




^ 13 



P5. pq. 



lO fO C<J 1-1 I> lO '^ CO (M t> O IQ "* (N 



00 05 o 


,_l 


<M 


CO Ti lo CO 


t^ 00 CftO --H <N 


CO 


'^ lO CO 


1> 00 Ol o 


lO lO o 


o 


o 


CD CO O CO 


CO CO CO t^ I> !>• 


l> 






00 00 00 


00 


00 


00 00 00 00 


00 00 00 00 00 00 


00 


00 00 00 


00 00 00 00 



298 



«3 eg '■'■'■ 

C3 P ■+^ "^ O 

-tiO» (ffl^H 

t2^s ::::::::::::::: :^^ 






3 t- 

'I ^ 

a s 

o o 






a; r-i 



Oh" 

c3 



3 O f-i 



03 03 
^ ^ ff 






ra fc- <B 03 

dH^PL;;z; 



Q 
W 


H 

m 


§ 


H 


H 


-a 


n 


h 


^ 




o 


^ 


,j 


w 




w 


R 


i-= 


^ 


tl 


f^ 


0:^ 


i-s 




M 






U 


W 




£ 


1^ 


+2 


b 


tA 


^ 


O 


O 


tuo 




O 


^ 




H 





o 



p - 



•S : 3:: .3 



O -7^ 






B fl CD f^ S '13 cu 

S S g S 2 b S 

.r;5 03 . ..-^s Gk? . 



•00 • 


1> 


■o CO 


00 


05 • 


• Tfl • • 


• 'T) • 


»o 


rH t^ 


(M 


LO • 


■ (M • • 


• -ti 


CO 


■o CO 


»o 


lO • 


■ lO • • 



fH ;_| 






:: O 



•|x| • 



<' 



i-4ffidd 



8^ 



f^ f^K^KKK<f^Kai< 



b€"5 






o 
d 









03 OJ 



r^ 



P^' 






d^ 



S^ ^ . =3 

dm. M. : m 

HH d : e^ 

CD lO '^ CO CO 00 'ti 



rt 1^ S 

H QJ > 
^ -tJ , 

o fl :^ 
. & o 



d 






^5 


9 S 




a; 


uim^ 


P.^ 



pHpq 



(^ 



o3 03 m 






§ C bC 



<id 



m 



^ 


o fe 


0) . 


^- 


:3 


. f~i 


H-l 


<'^ 


1-3^ 


^ 


(M O 02 00 



fe: 



CD ^ 



1^ 



oa2 



03 T3 

o o 
> o 






CO -# lo CO t^ 
00 00 00 00 00 
00 00 00 00 00 



00 C6 O 

oo 00 Oi 
00 00 00 






lO CO t^ 00 
C5 Ci CI o 

00 00 X 00 



299 



ASSESSMENTS OF THE TOWN OF ELMA, 1857 to J900. 

ASSESSMENT Total Town Roads and Total 

Yeah Personal Real Assessed Equalized Audits Bridges Tax 

1857 9,400 530,840 540,240 483,763 335.94 861.47 4,290.98 

1858 7,600 405,625 413,225 458,578 415.14 1,462.53 4,535.43 

1859 5,600 430,325 435,525 414,520 304.77 475.68 4,982.63 

1860 13,000 406,280 419,280 416.843 593.57 392.67 5,172.59 

1861 8,000 405,246 413,246 395,028 551.20 1,(00.00 6,211.52 

1862 7,-;00 396,8/0 40±,2£0 426,355 559.03 1,000.00 2,178.38 

1863 5,000 398,796 403,796 424,086 542.68 2i0 00 6,897.41 

1864 5,000 396,610 401,610 425,718 741.23 1,2.^0.00 12,190.59 

1865 10,600 399,270 409,870 395,920 4f,0.00 8,047.66 

1866 4,000 398,203 402,203 400,820 1,440.24 250.00 6,876.02 

1867 7,000 393,975 400,975 401,820 589.10 1,672.96 11,960.25 

1868 14,000 420,090 434,090 427,823 852.00 690.00 8,456.10 

1869 15,500 405,515 421,015 450,151 694.78 871.47 6,694.19 

1870 24,200 407,950 432,150 433,857 859.55 698.19 10,963.10 

1871 23,900 401,725 425,625 462,742 641.10 5,417.15 11,960.25 

1872 30,700 401,495 432,195 501,280 677.00 1,487.41 10,489.17 

1873 16,700 401,340 418,040 477,516 804.61 2,304.44 12,111.24 

1874 12,800 392,662 405,462 508,349 811.66 1,148.07 9,384.15 

1875 28,000 1,226,389 1,254,389 1,220,420 806.47 525.32 7,989.68 

1876 64,563 1,345,699 1,410,262 1,419,848 960.00 1,064.61 9,410.91 

1877 27,634 1,283,985 1,311,559 1,266,921 668.75 3,662.49 12,088.02 

1878 27,039 1,267,730 1,294,769 1,146,362 674.05 1,012.39 8,716.81 

1879 21,400 1,198,300 1,219,700 1,125,564 665.06 2,079.16 10,661.13 

1880 24,400 1,135,395 1,159,795 1,139,850 615.64 974.06 8,225.24 

1881 18,100 1,086,370 1,104,470 1,053,129 642.70 814.63 6,535.31 

1882 7,100 1,066,538 1,073,638 1,300,823 857.25 1,503.91 10,007.42 

1883 7,700 1,080,298 1,087,998 1,318,061 1,025.24 714.79 9,733.80 

1884 25,200 1,080,875 1,106,075 1,312,160 836.50 1,503.88 9,054.04 

1885 26,950 1,054,850 1,081,800 1,236,183 775.52 977.39 9,211.60 

1886 26,800 1,045,632 1,072,432 1,290,056 794.70 1,411.77 9,295.15 

1887 29,500 1,071,057 1,100,557 1,238,327 741.18 1,269.03 8,453.76 

1888 20,100 1,065,857 1,085,957 1,222,427 733.44 6,188.38 13,589.04 

1889 16,300 1,063,632 1,079,932 1,264,026 659.06 824.62 7,943.94 

1890 12,000 1,070,057 1,082,057 1,202,956 605.91 1,337.02 7,117.04 

1891 20,500 1,0.55,762 1,076,262 1,167,183 743.21 3,062.22 8,082.57 

1892 20,700 1,183,020 1,203,720 1,195,685 956.65 660.81 6,962.19 

1893 21,000 1,083,942 1,104,942 1,269,067 810.41 1,255.29 9,419.39 

1894 19,900 1,083,372 1,103,272 1,267,967 1,115.48 1,703.48 7,163.90 

1895 23,600 1,084,812 1,108,412 1,238,132 939.13 1,202.59 8,534.43 

1896 26,050 1,079,777 1,105,827 1,522,070 1,139.42 1,508.88 8,800.45 

1897 34,000 1,080,247 1,114,247 1,194,522 847.29 1,375.91 7,712.83 

1898 30,850 1,078,253 1,109,103 1,200,463 664.44 1,204.03 7,086.24 

1899 29,150 1,067,513 1,096,663 1,162,710 931.97 1,983.28 7,939.96 

1900 35,150 1,065,869 1,103,836 1,148,289 1,313.95 1,540.43 7,143.30 
Ho/ . /,^i>.;3 5.hl7.Xi /3.^J-^^ 



300 



POST OFFICES IN THE TOWN OF ELMA. 

In this statement of the post-ofRces of the Town of Ehna, the 
date of estabhshment of the offices, with the names of the persons 
who have been appointed to the charge of the several offices is 
herewith given as nearly in the order of their holding the offices, as 
could be learned from leading residents of the several localities. 

The date of the appointments could be accurately learned in but 
few cases, but the year as given will be found to be correct. 

ELM A POST OFFICE. 

Established with Warren Jackman as postmaster in Oct., 1852. 

Joseph Standart was appointed postmaster in 1860. 

Warren Jackman was appointed postmaster in 1861. 

W. Wesley Standart was appointed postmaster in 1865-. 

James Clark was appointed postmaster in 1869. 

Mrs. Maria Long was appointed postmaster in 1888. 

Louis P. Reuther was appointed postmaster in 1897. 

EAST ELMA POST OFFICE. 

Established with Fowler Munger postmaster in 1861. 
Isaac Gail appointed postmaster in 1862. 
East Elma Postoffice was discontinued in 1863. 
East Elma Postoffice was re-established with Geo. W. Hatch post- 
master in 1870. 

George W. Hatch was postmaster for twenty-four j^ears, but the 
office was under the care of the following resident merchants, viz. : 
George W. and Niles Hatch, Isaac Smith, Harvey C. Palmer, Ed- 
win H. Dingman, George W. and James Hatch, George W. and Leon- 
ard Hatch, and George W. Hatch, when on January 13th, 1894, 
Hatch sold the store and goods to Charles Burman. Burman was 
appointed postmaster March 2, 1894. 

ELMA CENTRE POST OFFICE. 

Established with Erin Woodward as postmaster in 1878. 
Henry A. Wright appointed postmaster in 1885. 
Peter Grader appointed postmaster in July, 1889. 
Henry A. Wright appointed postmaster in 1893. 
Frank Sutton appointed postmaster in April 5, 1895. 
Mrs., Asa Ford appointed postmaster in July 29, 1899. 

BLOSSOM POST OFFICE. 

Established with Lewis Kleberg as postmaster in 1870. 
Charles Reichert appointed postmaster in 1871. 

301 



Conrad P. Hensel appointed postmaster in 1873. 
Frederick Gramm appointed postmaster in 1886. 
William Kleinfelder appointed postmaster in 1888. 
Mrs. Kleinfelder appointed postmaster in 1892. 
Conrad P. Hensel appointed postmaster in 1893. 

JAMISON ROAD POST OFFICE. 

Established with Ernst Bleeck as postmaster in 1889. 
Edwin H. Dingman appointed postmaster in 1893. 
Ernst Bleeck appointed postmaster in 1897. 

SPRING BROOK POST OFFICE. 

Established with David J. Morris as postmaster in 1848. 
Zenas M. Cobb appointed postmaster in 1849. 
James H. Ward appointed postmaster in 1850. 
Asa J. W. Palmer appointed postmaster in 1854. 
James W. Simons appointed postmaster in 1854. 
Austin Twitchell appointed postmaster in January, 1861. 
James H. Ward appointed postmaster in June, 1861. 
Stephen Northrup appointed postmaster in J867. 
John G. Fischer appointed postmaster in 1880. 
William J. Cole appointed postmaster in 1885. 
Harrison Tillou appointed postmaster in 1889. 
Richard T. Barnett appointed postmaster in 1893. 
Harrison Tillou appointed postmaster in 1897. 

CHURCHES AND SUNDAY SCHOOLS. 

The Ebenezer Society built a church for their people who resided 
at Upper Ebenezer, (now Blossom) as near as can be learned about 
1849 or 1850. 

When they sold out and left Erie County in 1863 and 1864, the 
German Evangelical Society of Blossom had the church building. 
A Lutheran society was organized in Blossom in 1873, and that 
year they built a church across the street from the German Evan- 
gelical Church; that building was burned in 1876, and rebuilt in 
1878. All their services are in the German language. 

A Lutheran society was organized in 1872, and that year they 
erected a church building, 20x30 feet, near the south west corner of 
Lot 40, on the north side of the Woodard Road. 

In a few years this house was too small for their congregation. 
The old church was moved to the east line of their lot,' and a new 
church, 32x56 feet, was built on the same grounds in 1887. The 
old building has since been used for Sunday-schools. The church 
services and Sunday-schools are conducted entirely in the German 

302 



language, though all the children and more than ninety per cent 
of the adults understand English as well as than they do the 
German language, or even better. 

All the German churches in the town seem to be imbued with the 
same spirit ; they want the children to learn enough of the German 
language, so that they can be confirmed, and most of the German 
parents, care for no further education of their children, either in 
English or German. 

THE FIRST CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

In Spring Brook, a building, 20x30 feet, was erected in 1850, on 
the southeast corner of the Aurora Plank and Rice Roads, on Lot 
71. In 1874 the society needed a larger house, so the old house 
was moved to the east end of their lot, on the south side of the Rice 
Road, and has since been used as a barn for the parsonage. The 
new building was erected in the summer of 1874, and has since that 
time been used for the services of that society. 

THE FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF SPRING BROOK. 

Rev. Nehemiah Cobb, who had been sent by some Presbyterian 
Church in Buffalo as a missionary to Spring Brook, held meetings 
in the schoolhouse in the summer of 1849. As a result of his labors 
"The First Presbyterian Church" was organized by a committee 
of the Buffalo Presbytery, on February 6th, 1850. Mr. Cobb, by 
contributions and subscriptions, gathered materials for a church 
building, which was erected in 1851 or 1852, on the western part of 
Lot 75, on land conveyed to the Society by David J. Morris^to 
revert to said Morris whenever the Society should cease to occupy 
the premises for church purposes. 

The membership of the Society, in 1858, had become so reduced 
by deaths and removals that regular services were discontinued; 
most of the few remaining members attending the Presbyterian 
meetings which were held in the Elma Village schoolhouse, where 
Rev. William Waith preached every alternate Sunday afternoon. 
The Spring Brook Society was thus gradually absorbed by the 
Elma Society. By an order of the Presbytery the Society was 
disbanded June 5th, 1873. The church property reverted to David 
J. Morris in 1868. 

MOTHER FREIBERG'S CHURCH. 

A Catholic chapel, 10x14 and 8 feet in height, called Mother 
Freiberg's Church was built on the south end of Lot 46, on the 
north side of the Clinton Street Road in 1854. The Catholic priest 
of Lancaster came and held services there twice a year for several 

303 



years. Mother Freiberg having moved away, the building was 
later sold to Gardner Cotton. 

UNION CHURCH SOCIETY OF SPRING BROOK. 

The PresbA'^terian Society of Spring Brook having for several 
years failed to hold meetings in the church built by Rev. Nehemiah 
Cobb in 1851 or 1852, the property" reverted to David J. Morris, in 
1868. 

In January, 1869, ''The Union Church Society of Spring Brook" 
was organized, and Mr. Morris on January 18th, 1869, conveyed 
the property to the Union Society. Different denominations held 
services there but the building was most regularly occupied by the 
Methodist Society, until 1893 when they bought the German Evan- 
gelical Church property. Since 1893 the Union Church building 
has been unoccupied most of the time. 

GERMAN EVANGELICAL SOCIETIES. 

The German Evangelical Society of Blossom, organized in 1862, 
occupied the church built by the Ebenezer Society, on the north 
side of Main street in Blossom Village, until 1880, when they took 
down that building, and in its place, erected their new church. 
They have since that time kept up their church services and 
Sunday-school in the German language. 

The German Evangelical Society of Spring Brook, built their 
church on the north side of the Aurora Plank Road, near the west 
end of Lot 75 in 1872. They held services there for several years, 
but in time the membership became so small that they sold their 
building and lot to the Methodist Society in 1893. 

The German Evangelical Society of Rice Road built their church 
in 1874 on the north end of Lot 53, and on the south side of the Rice 
Road, where they have since regularly held their services in the 
German language. For several years they had a German Sunday- 
school, but the attendance kept growing less and less, and the school 
was given up. 

In 1898 an English Sunday-school was started in the church, 
with the consent of the members of the church, which has proved 
to be very successful. The children of German parents do not like 
the German language, and will not study it unless they are com- 
pelled to do so. 

THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL SOCIETY OF SPRING BROOK. 

It could not be learned from residents of Spring Brook the 
date of the organization of this society, but that they had for many 
years held regular services in the Union Church building, and for 

304 



most of these years they have kept up a Sunday-school, generally 
through the entire year. 

In 1893 the society thought best to have a house of their own, 
over. which they could have perfect control, so that year they bought 
of the German Evangelical Society their building and lot. After 
making extensive repairs and alterations the building was re- 
dedicated December 29th, 1896. 

The society have regular services and are, as well as their Sunday- 
school, in a prosperous condition. During most of these years they 
have had no resident pastor, but have been supplied from Elma and 
Aurora, most of the time from Aurora. The names of the several 
pastors cannot now be given. 

EAST ELMA. 

There has never been a church building in East Elma. 

A schoolhouse was built in 1856, and all religious meetings and 
their Sunday-schools have been held in this schoolhouse. 

The people have been supplied most of the time by MethocUst 
preachers from Elma and Marilla or by Baptist preachers from 
Aurora, or by the United Brethren Society of Williston. Occa- 
sionally an evangelist or some side preacher would hold meetings 
for a few days or nights and pass on. 

A very prosperous undenominational Sunday-school has been 
kept up all the year for several j'-ears, and at times this Sunday- 
school constituted the only religious service held in the school- 
house, or in the place for months together. 

PRESBYTERIAN SOCIETY OF ELMA VILLAGE. 

In the summer of 1849 Rev. L. A. Skinner, pastor of the Pres- 
byterian Church in Lancaster, commenced preaching in the school- 
house in Elma Village at 2 o'clock on Sunday afternoons, alterna- 
ting with Rev. George E. Havens, Methodist minister from Lancas- 
ter, and later with Rev. C. S. Baker, who was sent to Lancaster by 
the Methodist Conference. 

Mr. Skinner was obliged to give up the Elma appointment on ac- 
count of failing health. Rev. Nehemiah Cobb from Spring Brook 
then took up the work in Elma Village, holding meetings there 
occasionally until the spring of 1852. In October, 1851, Rev. Wil- 
liam Waith became the pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Lan- 
caster and he came occasionally to Elma during that winter; in the 
spring of 1852 he took up regular work, and continued meetings 
on alternate Sunday afternoons until 1868. In 1858 most of the 
remaining members of the Presbyterian Church of Spring Brook 
came to Mr. Waith 's meetings in the Elma Village schoolhouse 

305 



and in that way the Spring Brook church gradually became a part 
of the Elma Society. After the Methodist Church was built in 
Elma Village in 1859, by invitation from that society, the Presby- 
terians held their services in the church building ever}^ alternate 
Sunday afternoon. 

There was never a regularly organized Presbyterian Society of 
Elma Village, but the Spring Brook members brought their Society 
with them, and after that time it was generally called the Elma 
Presbyterian Society. 

The Society was disbanded by order of the Presbytery on June 
5, 1873, most of the remaining members joining the Lancaster 
church. 

THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH OF ELMA VILLAGE, 

Rev. George E. Havens, who was minister in charge at Lancaster 
in 1848-1849, was called to Big Flats to preach the funeral sermon 
of Samantha Standart, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. George Standart, 
Senior, who died July 15th, 1849. This was the first death of a 
white person on the Lancaster part of the Reservation, and the first 
sermon preached in that part of Elma. 

Rev. Havens, after that, preached in the schoolhouse to the close 
of that Conference year. 

The M. E. Conference for 1849 sent Rev. C. S. Baker to Lancaster 
and to supph^ Bowmansville and Elma with alternate Sunday 
afternoon services. 

In September, 1849, Rev. C. S. Baker organized a "class," com- 
prised of Joseph Briggs, George Standart, Jr., Mrs. J. B. Briggs, 
Fiorina Briggs, and Mrs. Olive Standart. The preachers who were 
sent by the M. E. Conference to Lancaster came to Elma regularly 
every alternate Sunday afternoon for many years, the meetings 
being held in the schoolhouse until the church was built. 

A Sunday-school was organized in the spring of 1851 b}^ Col. 
Cyrenus Wilbor (father of Mrs. J. B. Briggs). The meetings of the 
Sunday-school being at 1 o'clock p. m. 

The Methodist Episcopal Society of Elma Village was organized 
at a meeting held in the schoolhouse December 23, 1853, Rev. 
Schuyler Parker, pastor, present. The following named persons 
were duly elected as trustees : Cyrenus Wilbor, James R. Jackman, 
Joseph B. Briggs, Elon Clark, Warren Jackman, Joseph F. Clark, 
and Deforest Standart. 

Cyrenus Wilbor died September 21st, 1856, age 62 years, 7 
months, 6 days. 

James R. Jackman died November 24th, 1864, age 71 years, 1 
month, 17 daj^s. 

Joseph B. Briggs died October 30th, 1898, age 86 years. 

306 



Elon Clark died June 7th, 1856, age 34 years, 1 month, 20 days. 
Joseph F. Clark died August 22d, 1854, aged 31 years. 
Deforest Standart died October 10th, 1864, age 41 years. 
The Board of Trustees in the year 1900 consists of Warren Jack- 
man, Cyrus Hurd, Simeon Noyes, Myron H. Clark, George Beidler, 
and Charles S. Briggs. 

The M. E. Church building on the east side of Main Street, in 
Elma Village, was commenced on July 7th, 1859, and Rev. Gleason 
Fillmore preached the dedication sermon February 9th, 1860; 
since which time preaching services and meetings of the Sunday- 
school have been continuous in the building. 

The names of the M. E. preachers who have served with the year 
of their coming are given below : 

Names. Year. Names. Year. 

Rev. George E. Havens . 1849 Rev. George M. Harris .... 1875 

Rev. John B. Wright 1878 

Rev. W. H. Henderson 1880 

Rev. C. S. Baker 1881 

Rev. J. F. Brown 1883 

Rev. R. L. Robinson 1884 

Rev. Wallace 1885 

Rev. C. S. Baker 1885 

Rev. Fred Dark 1888 

Rev. C. Robson 1889 

Rev. E. AV. Shrigiey 1890 

Rev. Louis A. Wright 1892 

Rev. Jabez E. Armstrong. . . 1897 
Rev. S. W. Wyman 1899 



Rev. C. S. Baker 1849 

Rev. Gustavus Hines ..... 1850 
Rev. Nelson Reasoner. . . .1852 

Rev. Schyler Parker 1853 

Rev. Gordon 1855 

Rev. Alonzo Newton 1856 

Rev. Lewis A. Chapin. . . . 1858 
Rev. Sheldon H. Baker. . . 1859 
Rev. James McClelland. . . 1861 

Rev. W.H.Shaw 1862 

Rev. F. W. Conable 1862 

Rev. Hiram May 1864 

Rev. Geo. W. McPherson. .1868 
Rev. P. P. Reese 1874 



Hev. Jabez E. Armstrong. . .1900 



SCHOOL DISTRICTS. 

The Town of Elma, by resolution of the Board of Supervisors at 
the time the town was formed, was joined to and to be a part of 
the Second School Commissioner District of Erie County. 

On July 16th, 1857, Amos Freeman, the Commissioner of the 
said Second District, altered and re-numbered the school distircts 
in the Town of Elma. 

Eleven schoolhouses were in the toAvn at that date, viz.: Three 
on the Mile Strip, three in the Aurora part of the town, and five in 
the Lancaster part. 

School District No. 1 — Schoolhouse on Clinton Street, known as 
the Cotton District. 

School District No. 2 — Schoolhouse on BuUis Road, known as the 
Bullis District. 



307 



School District No. 3 — Schoolhouse on Jamison Road, known as 
the East Ehna District. 

School District No. 4 — Schoolhouse on Billington and Williams 
roads, known as the Hitchcock District. 

School District No. 5 — Schoolhouse on Plank Road, known as 
North Star District. 

School District No. 6 — Schoolhouse on Bowen and Rice roads, 
known as Woodard District. 

School District No. 7 — Schoolhouse on Bowen Road, known as 
the Elma Village District. 

School District No. 8 — Schoolhouse in Blossom Valley, known as 
the Blossom District. 

School District No. 9 — Schoolhouse on Winspear Road, known a,s 
the Winspear District. 

School District No. 10 — Schoolhouse in Spring Brook, known as 
the Spring Brook District. 

School District No. 11 — Schoolhouse on Northrup and Paxon 
roads, known as the Davis District. 

A Catholic schoolhouse was built in 1864 on the southeast corner 
of the Clinton Street and Girdled Roads. 

The schoolhouses in 1900 are on the same old sites, except that 
District No. 11 after a few years was discontinued and the territory 
joined to two school districts in the town of East Hamburgh, and 
that schoolhouse is gone. 

The schoolhouse for District No. 1 is on the south side of the 
Clinton Street Road, about 20 rods east from the Girdled Road, 
on the north end of Lot No. 20. 

The Catholic Schoolhouse is on the northwest corner of Lot 
No. 20, and southeast corner of the Clinton Street and Girdled 
Roads. 

District No. 2 — Schoolhouse is on the north side of the Bullis 
Road, on top of the hill east of the Big Buffalo Creek, and on south 
line of Lot 16. 

District No. 3 — Schoolhouse is on the north side of the Jamison 
Road and south line of Lot 10, about 60 rods east from the East 
Elma store. 

District No. 4 — Schoolhouse is on the north line of Lot 15 of 
Mile Strip and on southwest corner of the Williams and Billington 
Roads. 

District No. 5 — Schoolhouse is on the north line of Lot 28 of 
the Mile Strip, on southwest side of the Plank Road. 

District No. 6 — Schoolhouse is on the southeast corner of Lot 
52, and on northwest corner of the Bowen and Rice Roads. 

308 



DiSTEicT No. 7 — Schoolhouse is on the west side of the Bowen 
Road, on top of the hill about 50 rods south from the Clinton Street 

Road. 

•District No. 8 — Schoolhouse is in Blossom Village on the south 
side of the Main Street. 

District No. 9— Schoolhouse is on the west line of Lot 89, and 
on the north side of the Winspear Road, about 108 rods north from 
the Bullis Road. 

District No. 10— Schoolhouse is in Spring Brook Village, on 
Lot 75, and on northeast side of the Plank Road. 

District No. 11 — Schoolhouse was located near the centre of 
Lot 36 of Mile Strip, and on the southwest corner of the Northrup 
and Faxon roads. This district was united with Districts 8 and 
11 of the town of East Hamburgh. 

The schools in the town are generally what are known as graded 
schools. 

The number of children in the town, on July 1st, 1898, between 
five and eighteen years of age, as given by the trustees of the sev- 
eral school districts was 578. Of these, 476 attended school in the 
town some part of the school year, and 46 attended school out of 
town, making a total of 522 who were in school; the fifty-six who 
were not in school were mostly between 14 and 16 years of age,- 
and by the school law, were not obliged to be in school, if they were 
regularly employed. 
School expenses for the school year ending July 1st, 1899 : 

Amount paid for teachers' wages $2,644.20 

Amount paid for other expenses 948 . 54 

Total $3,592.74 

By the returns of the trustees of the school chstncts there were 
on July 1st, 1899, 558 children in the town between 5 and 18 years 
of age, being 20 less than on July 1st, 1898. 

Number of children in the town between 8 and 16 j^ears of age : 
On July 1st, 1898. On July 1st, 1899. 

Boys 219 Boys 193 

Girls 207 Girls 188 

Total 426 Total 381 

Making a loss in the year of : Boj^s 26 Girls 19 Total 45 



309 



APPENDIX. 
I90t. 

January 1901, introduces the 20th centur}^, with five inches of 
snow, entirely cloudy, terperature 26°, gentle northwest wind. 

Harve}^. J. Hurd died January 25th, burial in the Elma cemetery. 
By his will he gave SI, 000 to the Investment Fund of the Elma 
Cemetery Association; the interest of this fund is to be used, per- 
petually, for the care and improvement of the cemeter}^ grounds. 

By his will, his sister, Mrs Harriet D. Rowley, came into full pos- 
session of the " Hurd Homestead" and mills, being about 180 acres 
of land on lots 48, 52, 53 and 57, on the east side of the Bowen Road 
in Elma Village, and between the Clinton Street and Chair Factory 
Roads. 

Snow or rain fell during a part of every day between December 
24th, 1900 and March 11th, 1901; the seventy-eight consecutive 
days of storm giving seventy-one inches of snow, and with the high 
widns on many days made travel, especially the turning out to 
meet teams, ver}^ difficult and dangerous. 

The town meeting on March 12th was held b}^ election districts; 
306 ^'^otes were polled in the first district and 218 in the second 
district ; total 524. 

Rain and thirty-two inches of snow in April served to continue 
the roads as the worst in many 3^ears. 

Mr. 0. J. Wannemacher diecl April 24th; burial in the Catholic 
cemetery in Spring Brook. 

A special town meeting was held in the school house at the corner 
of the Bowen and Rice Roads on Saturday, April 27th, 1901, to 
vote on the following five propositions, viz. : 

First. — Shall the Town Board be authorized and empowere 1 to 
effect a settlement and compromiss of the claim of Michael Morath 
for $10,000 damages for alleged personal injuries by reason of falling 
through the bridge over Pond Brook on the Chair Factory Road, 
on or about the 13th day of October 1900, for the sum of $1,700, 
together with his necessarj'- and reasonable expenses for ph5'sicians 
and surgeon's attendance from October 13th, 1900, to March 30th, 
1901, and to raise and appropriate the same? 

Second. — The same question to settle the claim of $10,000 of 
George Heidenreich, by reason of falling through the same bridge 

310 



at the same time for $500.00 and expenses of physicians and sur- 
geons attendance, between same dates as above? 

Third. — Shall the Town Board be authorized to raise and appro- 
priate the sum of S3, 500 or so much thereof as may be necessary 
for the purpose of building a new bridge across the Cazenove Creek 
at Northrup mills? 

FouETH. — Same question for authority to raise $1,000 for con- 
struction and maintenance of the highways and bridges of the town? 

Fifth. — Shall the Town of Elma raise and appropriate seven 
and a half per centum toward the amount required for improving 
the Aurora Plank Road and the Clinton Street Road through the 
town, under the proidsion of Chapter 115 of the Laws of 1898, and 
the Acts amendatory thereof and supplementary thereto? 

At this special Town Meeting there were 122 votes polled and all 
the five propositions were voted affirmatively b}'' a majority of 80 
to 100. Bad roads were the cause of the light vote. 

Farm work was much delayed through April and well into May 
on account of the ground being too wet to allow of very much 
plowing and planting. 

Apple trees were very shy of blossoms this year and most of the 
fruit that set dropped early in the season. Pear, plum, cherry, and 
quince trees blossomed full, but most of the crop was destroyed by 
heavy rains and winds while the trees were in blossom, the pear 
being a partial exception. 

May 1st was the time set for opening the Pan-American Expo- 
sition in Buffalo, but bad weather and labor strikes caused such 
delay that May 20th was named as Dedication Day for the" Rain- 
bow City," when 101,687 persons passed through the gates. 

The electrical building and tower, illuminated at night by more 
than 500,000 electric lights, and the plan by which the Exposition 
buildings and grounds were lighted by electricity made a display 
far in advance of anything of the kind ever attempted, and were 
the wonder and admiration of all visitors. 

The Commissioner of Highways of the town in May let the con- 
tract to furnish and put up a steel and iron bridge across the Caze- 
nove Creek at the Northrup mills, to the Canton Bridge Company of 
Canton, Ohio; the bridge to be 130 feet in length and to be com- 
pleted in August. The contract price was $2,800. 

The old lattice bridge was torn down in June, a new abutment 
built at the north end of the bridge ; for some reason the iron work 
was not in place at the close of the year 1901 and people were put to 
great loss and inconvenience, as it was at times dangerous to ford 
the stream, especially in cold weather and on dark nights. 

The Farmers Club of the Town of Elma was organized in June 
1901, with Cornelius McHugh as President, Myron H. Clark as 

311 



Vice-president and Rev. George Mason as Secretary and Treasurer. 

The frequent showers and warm weather of the latter part of 
June and first part of July forced vegetation along very rapidly, 
so that crops on July 10th were as far advanced as in ordinary 
years; but haying, and the harvesting of wheat, rye, and oats, 
have all been crowded together between July 8th and 20th. 

Melville J. Hurd on July 1st bought of Mrs. Sarah L. Standart 
her seven acre lot on the east side of the Bowen Road on Lots 58 
and 59, just south of Elma Village; and on the same day he bought 
of James T. Hurd, Myron H. Clark and Mrs. Harriet D. Rowley, 
executors of the will of Harvey J. Hurd, forty-two acres on the 
west side of the Bowen Road between John Garby's land and the 
railroad. 

The same day, July 1st, James A. Woodard, George H. Woodard 
and Mrs. Emma McDonald, bought of the same executors eight 
and one-half acres, being parts of lots 52 and 60, on the south side 
of the railroad. 

Saturday, July 27th, was ''Elma Circus Day," and large crowds 
of people turned out, afternoon and evening, to attend the second 
yearly entertainment on the "Bomi}^ Brook" grounds of Mr. R. P. 
Lee. Fun on a large scale and a great financial success. The 
Aurora brass band furnished the music. 

Simeon Phillips, who lived on Lot No. 6 on the south side of the 
Clinton Street Road, committed suicide on August 4th by hanging, 
in the woods a short distance from his house. 

As the bridge across Crooked Brook on the Bullis Road had 
broken down, the Commissioner of Highways put in a steel pipe 
six feet in diameter and 32 feet long; then on August 10th he let 
the contract of filling with earth, the space which had been covered 
by the old bridge. 

William Beckman's barn on Lot 20 on the east side of the Girdled 
Road, on the north side of the Big Buffalo Creek, was struck by 
lightning and with the hay and grain was burned during the severe 
thunder storm of Tuesday p. m., August 20th. No insurance. 

Yager's barn on lot 65 on south side of the Bullis Road, and 
Andrew Slade's barn at Elma Centre were struck and slightly in- 
jured, and several cattle in different parts of the town were killed 
by the same storm. 

Otis A. Hall's barn on the Lancaster Town Line Road, filled with 
hay, grain and farm inplements, was burned by lightning on Thurs- 
day p. m., August 22d; no insurance. Nearly six inches of water 
fell during the three days, August 20th-22d. 

Mrs. Sarah A. Cunningham died August 27th; burial in the Elma 
cemetery. By her will she gave $200 to the Elma Cemetery In- 
vestment Fund. 

312 



The Elma Town Farmers' Club, held its first annual picnic on 
Labor Day, September 2d, in Luder's grove on Lot 41, on the west 
side of the Schultz Road. Professor Spencer, representing the 
agricultural department of Cornell University, gave a very inter- 
esting address; subject, ''Cultivating the Farm." 

The Town Board on Tuesday, September 3d, authorized the 
Commissioner of Highwaj^s to sign a franchise which would give to 
the Buffalo, Gardenville and Ebenezer Trolley Company the right 
to build and operate a trolley road in this town along the easterly 
side of the Aurora and Buffalo Plank Road. 

The attendance at the Pan-American Exposition, on September 
5th, "Presidents Day" was 116,660. 

PRESIDENT WILLIAM McKINLEY. 

President William McKinley, while holding a public reception 
on Friday afternoon, in the Temple of Music on the Exposition 
grounds, was shot by Leon F. Czolgosz, (pronounced Sholl-Goss) an 
avowed Anarchist 28 years of age. 

The President was taken to the Exposition hospital, where his 
wounds were dressed, thence to the home of John G. Milburn, at 
the corner of Delaware Avenue and Ferry Street, where he died at 
2,15 o'clock, Saturday morning, September 14th, 1901. Age, 58 
years, 7 months, 15 days. 

Funeral services were held at the Milburn home at 11 o'clock 
a. m., Sunday, September 15th, and at 11.55 the procession left 
Ferry Street for the City Hall, arriving there at 1 o 'clock, where the 
body of the President lay in state until 10.55 p. m., when more than 
100,000 persons had looked upon the face of the dead President 
and the doors of the building were closed, guards were placed and 
the body remained through the night in the City Hall. 

At 7.45 a. m., Monday, September 16th, the funeral procession, 
under military and police escort, proceeded to the New York Cen- 
tral depot on Exchange Street where a train of seven coaches of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad was in waiting. 

The train left Buffalo at 8.34 o'clock, passing Elma station at 
9.03 a. m., arriving in Washington that evening. 

The body lay in state in the Capitol until Wednesday evening, 
September 18th when the funeral train in two sections left Wash- 
ington, arriving in Canton, Ohio, on Thursday forenoon, September 
19th. The final services were held in the Canton cemetery at 
3 o'clock that afternoon. At that hour all business throughout 
the country was generally brought to a halt. 

On nearly every railroad, orders had been issued for every train, 
passenger and freight, to stop wherever they might be for five 
minutes, and these orders were obeyed. 

313 



PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT. 

At the home of Mr. Ansle}^ Wilcox, at the corner of Delaware 
Avenue and North Street in Buffalo, at 3.35 o'clock on Saturday 
afternoon, September 14th, 1901, Vice-president Theodore Roosevelt 
took the oath of office as the 26th President of the United States. 

Before taking the oath of office he said: "I wish to state that it 
shall be my aim to continue, absolutely unbroken, the policy of 
President McKinley for the peace and prosperity and honor of our 
beloved countr}^ 

The oath was administered by Judge John R. Hazel of the United 
States District Court. 

Immediately after taking the oath of office. President Roosevelt 
asked the members of President McKinle3^'s Cabinet who were 
present, to remain as his Cabinet, at least for the present. They 
all decided to comply with his request. 

As the final burial services of President McKinley were to be at 
Canton, Ohio, on Thursday, September 19th, President Roosevelt 
designated that day as a day for humiliation and prayer, and re- 
quested the people to assemble at their places of worship and ap- 
propriately ol3serve the day. 

A great, a noble, an honest Christian has left us. ' The people 
mourn, but the Government at Washington still lives. 

As an over-ruling Providence can order that good shall come out 
of evil, it is hoped by this act of assassination of the President, that 
Anarchy has inflicted a death blow upon itself, at least in these 
United States. 

The Pan-American Exposition closed on November 2d, 1901. 
Paid admissions, 5,306,859; free, 2,813,189. Total, 8,120,048. 

A^oting machines were used in the two election districts in this 
town at the general election held November 5th, 1901 — 168 votes 
in the First District; 149 in the Second District. Total 317. 

Farmers have never had a nicer fall than this year has given 
them in which to secure their large crops of corn and potatoes, and 
to do other fall work. 

The potato crop has been the largest ever raised in the town, and 
farmers have never realized such high prices as in the fall of 1901 ; 
50 cents to 75 cents per bushel at the railroad stations for shipment, 
and 60 cents to $1.00 per bushel in Buffalo. 

The wholesale market price for farm produce on December 18th 
was : Wheat, 80 to 90 cents ; corn, 70 to 72 cents ; oats, 52 cents ; 
beans, S2.60 per bushel; butter 26 cents per pound; eggs, 26 cents 
per doz; hay, $15.00; rye straw, $10,00 per ton; apples, $4.00 to 
$5.75 per barrel. These prices are nice for the farmer but very 
high for the buyer. 

314 



INDEX 



A 

Abolition Party 137, 147 

Abstract of Title 37, 41 to 55 

Accounts of Towai 300 

Adams, Amasa 78, 80 

" Chester 78,80, 168 

D. K 86,244 

Luther 78, 100, 251 

" John, of Massachusetts 41 

John, of Mile Strip 78, 80 

JohnQ 80,86,100 

African Slave Trade 171, 189, 190, 191 

Agreement, Indians with Hatch . . 96, 97 

Alabama State Convention 185, 186 

Albany, City of 38, 73 

" County 56, 57 

Alden, to\¥n of, .26, 28, 87, 88, 89, 90, 95, 

100, 124 

Aldrich, Thomas 86 

Allen, Anthony, Jr 198, 205, 233 

Brothers 198, 200, 205 

David 198, 205 

Ellery 198, 205 

■ " Henry 257 

Allender, Nicholas 151 

Alphabetical list of 

Deaths 269 

" Marriages 257 

" Registered Voters . . 289, 293 

" Residents at East Elma 

in 1856 103 

" Residents on Lancaster 

part in 1856 121 

" Residents oij Mile Strip in 

1856 86 

" Residents in Spring 

Brook in 1856 132 

" Resident owners of real 

estate in 1900 282 

" Volunteers in Civil 

War 166, 168 

American, the 104, 105, 106 

Party 182, 191 

Anderson, Major Robert.. 149, 159, 161, 
170, 195, 196 

Anniversary, 100th of U. S 211 

Appendix 310 

Arbor Day 222 

Ard, George 121 

" James 152 

Arkansas, State of 172, 195 

Arndt, John 79 

Arnold, Charles 168. 169 



Assessments, Table of 300 

Association, County S. S 221 

" To\Aai S. S 131 

Atloff, John 213 

Attendance, Officer 236, 237, 238 

Aurora,part of Elma 91, 123, 124 

To\ra of . . 18, 19, 20, 25, 28, 59, 61 
62, 68, 77, 78, 79, 80, 
85, 95, 96, 100, 122, 
124, 125, 133, 201, 
250 

B 

Bacon, Hiram 121 

Baker, Rev. C. S 109 

George 125, 126 

" Luke 132 

" Matthias 61, 121 

Salem 86, 251 

" William G 236, 248 

Baltimore, City of 162 

Bancroft, Albert 121 

Alonzo C. .106, 109, 112, 121, 
204, 205, 210, 
219, 220. 
" Golden Wedding. . .238 

Eleazer 94, 95, 104, 107, 

108, 112, 115, 
116, 117, 121, 
134, 210, 220. 

Henry E 154, 227, 240 

Joseph W 113, 115 

William H.. .92, 105, 113, 121, 
146, 203, 229 

Barnett, John 61, 130, 132, 153 

Richard T. . .230, 232, 238, 248 

Barnum, Chauncey 123 

Plin 123 

Barto, Jesse 100, 134, 251 

Batavia, Town of 57, 58, 89, 202 

Bates, William 86 

Beck, Michael 202, 210, 236 

Becker, Louis 143 

Beckman, William 312 

Beidler, Henry 106, 121 

Bell, William 203 

Benton. Thomas H 173 

Big Buffalo Creek . . . .19, 20, 21, 25, 28, 29, 
92,95,96,99, 101, 
104, 106, 108, 114, 
134, 135, 140, 143, 
146,150,199,210, 
238 



315 



Big Flats 26, 33, 101, 105, 112 

" Springs 124 

Billington, Road (See Roads), 

Sticknej^ ....80, 251, 252 

Black Rock. 28 

Blacksmiths in 

" Blossom, Alois Dusch 212, 248 

" East Elma, Thos. Edwards 229, 248 
" " " Wm. Edwards. ...213 

" " " John Hicks 202 

" " " Nathan Howard.. 103 

" John Kihm 197 

" Thomas Moore. . .212 
" " "■ Thos. Schneider. .204 

" JohnShav 204 

" ElmaCenter, Jos. Gajex 234,248 

" " Village, Wm. H. Bancroft 105 

" Geo. Helfter .204, 211, 

219 
" Jerge & Helfter. . .204 
" " " Jera;e Brothers. . 105, . 

219, 229, 248 
" Casper & 

Jacob. . .151, 203 
" " " " Jacob 120,203,229 

" Henry W. Stitz. . .141 
Blacksmiths. 

" Jamison Road, 3, T. Clifford . . . .203 

" Charles Clough 240,248 

" " " Samuel Schurr. . .222 

Ir%dng Schurr 234 

" Spring Brook, 

" " " John Barnett 130, 

132 153. 
" Michael Beck 203,236 

" " " T. Clifford 153 

" " " Joseph Grace 126, 

128, 132. 
" " " Nathaniel Gra^'es, 

128. 
" " " James McGiv-ern, 

236, 248. 
" " " James Wolcott, 129, 

130. 

Blaine, James G 126 

Bleeck, Ernst 202, 214, 216, 224, 235, 248 

Blood, Horace 79, 251 

" James 79 

" Road, (See Roads) 

Blossom, Blacksmith 212 

" Bridges, (see I^ridges) 

" Cliurches (see Churches) .... 302 

" Fire Company 204, 229 

Mill, Cider 248 

" " Grist, (see Grist Mills) 

" " Saw, (see Sawmills) 

" Post Office(see Post Offices) . 301 
Schools, (see Schools) . . .308, 309 
" Stores, (see Stores) 
" Saloons (see Saloons) 
" Villaa;e, 19, 20, 27, 93, 101, 108, 
143, 147, 151, 198, 213, 218. 



Blue Lodges 178 

Board, Robert C 234, 238, 243 

" of Supervisors, 60 to 64 91, 121, 

132, 137, 140, 146, 
223, 250. 

Bodimer, Jacob 220 

" Philip, (see Deaths) 269 

Bonimer, Adam 108 

Booth, J. Wilkes 154,165 

Border Ruffians 179, ISO, 181 

Bounty Fund, 168, 169 

Bowen, Oliver, 108, 135, 141 

Bower, Peter, 141, 147 

Breckenridge, John C .148, 157, 182, 191, 

193, 194. 
Bridges, Built 

Blossom 200, 221 

BuUis 90, 143 

Cemetery Road 230 

East Elma 125, 141 

Elma Villae,-e, ... 95, 108, 204, 244 
Northrup, 12'6, 127, 129, 131, 149, 
200,249,311. 

Simanton Ill, 119 

Standart 120, 141 

Winspear, 139, 140, 200, 224 

Burned, Blossom 220 

Carried off bv Flood, 

" East Elma 125 

" Elma Village 95,108 

" Northrup, 127, 129, 131, 149 
" Simanton . . .111, 118, 150 

" Standart ..150,206 

" Winspear 200 

Condemned, Northrup, 249 

Damaged bj- Flood 

Blossom 200 

East Elma. . . .140,141 
Elma ^'illage . . 108, 204 

" Northrup 200 

" Winspear 200 

Repaired, Bullis 225, 230 

Elma YiWsige 238 

Northrup 200,204,214 

" Standart 200,204 

" Winspear 200 

Brings, Dr. Albert H., . .228, 234, 236, 238, 
243. 

" Charles S 229, 231 

" Cortland C 231 

" Erasmus 62, 121- 

" George D.. .223, 224, 231, 232, 234, 
243. 

" Geor^-e D., Mrs.." 220 

" Joseph 109 

" Joseph B 61, 101, 104, 105, 106 

107, 110, 114, 115, 
121, 144, 168, 210, 
215, 217, 219, 224, 
232. 

" Golden Wedding 228 

" Mrs ...104,109 



816 



Briggs, J. B. & Co. .115, 120, 13.5, 141, 146 

" J. Eddy 231, 236, 244 

" Wilbor B. .115, 200, 229, 232, 234, 
236, 243. 

" & Sweet, 214,219 

Bristol, George H 155, 201 

" John B 132 

Brooks. Russel 78, 79, 94 

Brown, Mason L 225 

" Warren 86 

Brunner, Augustus 151, 152 

Bryan. William J 2.35, 241, 245, 247 

Buchannan, James 137, 147, 148, 158, 159 

160, 165, 176, 177,182 

183, 184, 194, 195. 

Buffalo, City of, 28, 73, 76, 78, 85, 95, 133, 

1.36, 201, 249, 311, 314 

Town of 59 

Creek, Little 19 

" Reservation, 19, 26, 28, 29, 

30, 32, .33, 51,. 52, 

.53, 54, ,55, 59, 77, 87, 

89,90,91,93,100,101, 

123. 

' & AUeganv Valley R. R 198 

N. Y. & P. R. R. (see Railroads) 
Building.s Burned 

" " Baker's Saloon. . . .236 

Beckman's Barn. . .312 

" " Bodimer Barn 220 

" " Blossom Mills and 

Bridge 220 

" " Bower's Steam Mill, 147 

" " " Bam 223 

« " Briggs & Sweet Mill, 219 

BuUis Mill & Shop .109 

Burns' Barn 236 

" " Curtis & Deming 

Tannery. ..... . 150 

" " Edwards' Shop. . . .213 

" Hall, Otis A., Barn 312 

Koch, Jacob, Barn .223 

" " Kratz Grocery .,..213 

Kyser Steam' Mill. .204 

" " Leger Saloon and 

Barn 232 

" " Lutheran Church, 

Blossom 211 

McMullen, John, 

House 236 

Metcalf, Frank, 

Barn 229 

" " Miller, Jacob, 

House 214 

" " Miller, John, Barn .242 

" " Munger & Crane, 

Mill, 200 

" Northrup S., Store .205 
" Ott, Lewis, Mills.. .220 
" " Phalen, Patrick, 

Barn 249 

" " Pound's Steam Mill, 140 



Buildings burned, 

" " Robinson & English 

Mill 128 

" " Railroad Depot, 

Elma 2.33 

" " School House, Dist. 

No. 6 211 

" Slade's Coal Office .233 

" " Sutton, Alex, Store 233 

" Sweet, C. H., Store .242 

" " Williams' Store 204 

" " Woodard's House and 

Barn 228 

Bull Plow, Wood's 70, 82 

" Run, Battle of 162 

" William 203 

Bullis Mills, (see Sawmills). 
" Road (see Roads). 

" Frank 203 

" Harmon 86 

" Lewis M., 25, 88, 105, 106, 109, 121, 
134, 144, 145, 203, 251 

" Marion 81 

" Orson S 203 

" Seth M 78, 81 

Bunnell, Augustus 106 

Bureaugard, (Gen.) 149, 161, 170 

Burman, Charles 231, 248, 301 

Burns 122,123 

Burns, Peter 236 

Butler, Gen. B. F 163, 188, 191 

Butter Factory 248 

Button, Abel N 103 

Business Directory for 1900 248, 249 

C. 

Cabot, .John 38, 39 

Cady, F. L. A 232 

Calhoun, John C 173, 174, 175 

Calkins, Stephen 132 

Cambria, Town of 59, 68 

Canada, 23, 27, 28, 30, 32, 44 

" Indians 26, 28, 29 

Canandaigua Lake 24 

Carman, John 93, 121 

Case, Truman 126, 127 

Cass, Lewis 159, 176 

Cassady, Patrick 240 

Cattaraugus County 57, 58, 68, 78 

Creek 58, 59 

Carefield, Peter 121 

Cayuga Creek 27, 52 

" Indians 22.25,26,-33 

Cazenove Creek, 19, 20, 21, 27, 77, 80, 96, 
103, 122, 124, 125, 126, 
127. 131, 134, 1.35, 141, 
149, 197, 199, 200, 249, 
311. 

" Theophelis 20 

Certified Milk 233 

Cemeteries, 

" Catholic, in Spring Brook .129 



317 



Cemeteries, 

Davis, on Mile Strip . .86, 141 
Elma Village 114, 115, 310, 313 

" Indian 141 

" Lutheran, on Woodard 

Road 205 

Spring Brook . . .128, 129, 149 

Tillou, or Union 201 

Census, N. Y. State 155, 296, 297 

" United States, . . 147, 168, 197, 204, 
214, 240, 296,297 

Chair Factory, 112, 198, 219 

" " Road, (see Roads) 

Chandler, Lvman 78, 79 

Charles, 2d" (King) 40, 42, 43 

Charter of Liberties 40, 56 

Charleston, City of 159, 185, 186 

Chautauqua County. . . .23, 57, 58, 59, 68 

" Reading Circle 219 

Cheektowaga, Town of 26, 59 

Chicago, 230 

Chicker, Stanlius 86 

Chippewa, Battle of 29, 33 

Chowder Partv 228, 234 

Churches in 1820 73 

inElma, (see Chap. 21) 302 

" Catholic (Mother Freiberg) 

116,117,303 
" Spring Brook,. .102, 116, 
129, 132, 211, 235, 239, 
303. 

" East Elma 305 

Ebenezer, Blossom 108, 116, 151, 
302. 
" Evangelical, Blossom, 151, 213, 

302. 
" " Rice Road, .211,304 

" " Spring Brook, .205 

230, 304. 
" Lutheran,Blossom, 205, 211, 212, 

302. 
Woodard Road . .205, 
220, 302. 
Methodist,Elma Village, 109, 11 6, 
141, 144, 145, 154, 
216, 220, 223, 228, 
238, 306. 
Spring Brook, 230, 235, 
304. 
" Presbyterian, Spring Brook, 

130, 303. 
" " Elma Village, . . 109 

141,145,305. 
" Union, Spring Brook, . . .116, 130 

203, 304. 

Cider Mills, 213, 234, 235, 248 

Civil War, Cause of 149, 170 to 196 

" During, 86, 154, 161, 165, 170 

" Volunteers, State 156 

" " " from Elma. .156, 166, 167, 
168. 
" Elma, Bounty Fund.. . 168, 169 



Clans of Iroquois 29, 30 

Clarence, Town of . . .55, 59, 68, 87, 89 

Clark, Briggs & Co 114, 116, 118, 120 

" Elon 109, 111, 114, 120 

" James. .92, 115, 140, 141, 146, 203 

" Joseph 110, 117 

" Mvron H. . .220, 221, 231, 232, 237, 
242,243,312. 

" Oliver H 109, 114, 120 

" & Elon 109,111,120 

Clay, Henrv 172, 174 

Cleveland, Grover 82, 216, 218, 229 

Clifford, Timothy 153, 203 

Clinton, DeWitt 73 

Clough, Charles 240, 248 

Coal Dealers in 1900 248 

Cobb, Rev. Nehemiah. .110, 130, 303, 305 
" Zenas M., 61, 126, 128, 132, 168, 209 

Colden, Town of 68, 77, 95 

Coldest day 149 

Cole, Bordan J 81, 244 

" Charles P 86 

" Daniel F 78,80 

" & Fish 248 

" John P 81 

" JohnW 81,86 

" Henry 204 

" Salathiel, 78, 80, 86 

" William J 214, 218 

" & Sweet 214, 218, 226 

Collins, John _ 210, 214 

Colonies, Infant period of 18, 65, 66 

U. S 18,40,41,65,66 

Commissar}^ Supplies, Civil War 169 

Commissioner of Highways .139, 149, 223, 

227, 244, 250, 311, 312 

for Massachusetts, 44, 48, 51, 53, 

54, 90, 93 
for New York, . .44, 48, 54, 93 

forU. S 51,53,54,90,93 

Confederacy of Iroquois 24, 28 

Southern, 149, 154, 160,163 

Confederate Armj^ 154, 165, 170 

States 149, 160, 195 

Congress of U. S. (see U. S. Congress) 
" Committee to Kansas. .181, 182 

Conlej^ Bernard 132 

Patrick 132 

Conners, John 225 

Connecticut River 39, 46 

Constitutional Convention 41 

Constitution of U. S. .18, 41, 148, 158, 171, 
173, 174, 195, 196 

Continental Congress 40, 41, 43 

Contrabands 163 

Cook, John 198 

Corbin, William H 128, 135 

Cornplanter (Chief) 25, 33, 34 

Cotton, Elisha 94, 154, 155 

Gardner 117, 121 

Hiram 121 

Counties of N. Y. formed 56 to 59 



318 



Coverdale, Thomas 78, 81 

Crane, Albert 103, 134 

Ernest C 243 

Creek, Big Buffalo, (see Big Buffalo Creek) 
" Cazenove, (see Cazenove Creek) 

" Little Buffalo 19, 119, 135 

Crooked Broo k 135 

Crystal,City 226 

Cunningham, Mrs. Sarah A 312 

Curtis & Dealing 142, 150, 155 

" Stephen 259 

" Albert 259 

" Frank 259 

" Walter L 142 

D. 

Darcey, John 103 

DaAds, Albert 80 

" HattieE 200 

" Jacob R 78, 80, 96, 134 

" James 78, 80, 86, 154 

" James, 2d 61, 127, 132, 251 

" Jefferson. . . .149, 160, 162, 185, 186 

" John 132 

" William H 80, 86, 132, 200 

Dean, tierman 121 

Deaths, Alphabetical Lists 269 to 285 

Declaration of Lidependence . .41, 65, 66 

Deed, Massachusetts to N. Y 44 to 48 

Delaware River 46, 49, 56, 57 

Democratic Convention .... 186, 187, 191 

Party 136, 137, 146, 148, 154, 

157, 173, 176, 178, 

182, 183, 191, 193. 

Platform . . .182, 186, 187, 240, 

241, 245. 

;' Senators 173, 174, 176 

Deming, Frederick ^ 142 

Denio, H. B 123 

Denver, City of 216 

Devils Hole 103, 200 

Dewitt, Ziba 121 

Diebold, Anthony 131, 132, 139 

Diemert, Joseph 135 

" Lawrence 146 

Dingman, Edwin H, 102, 221,230, 231,234, 
248, 302. 

" Harry 103 

Divens, John 78, 80 

Donahue, Patrick 132, 209 

Douglas, Stephen A.. . .148, 157, 191, 193, 

194 

Drought, Great 238 

Duke of York 40, 43 

Dunbar, James 128, 130 

Dungan, Thomas 40, 56 

Dmiham, Milton H 132 

Dusch, Alois 212, 242, 248 

Dutton, Charles A., 112, 120, 121, 143, 146, 
202 229. 

Dutch, ! .!^. !.38, 39, 40 

West India Company. . .38, 39, 42 



E. 

Earl, Taber 78, 79, 80 

East Elma, 19, 20, 26, 96, 99, 100, 101, 

102, 103, 150, 151, 152, 
200, 218, 221, 240. 
Blacksmiths (see Blacksmiths) 

Bridge 125, 140, 141 

Buildings burned, . . .200, 204, 
213, 236 

Church 305 

Indians 101, 102 

Post Office, (see Post Office) 

301 

Residents in 1856 103 

Saw Mills, 96, 99, 134, 150,151, 
198, 205. 

School 103, 308 

Shingle Mill 103, 134, 141, 200 
Store, (see Stores) 

Woolen Factory 198, 200 

East Hamburgh, Town of 19, 26 

Ebenezer Society,. .93, 108, 110, 116, 124, 
133, 138, 147, 151 
" Upper, (see Blossom) 

" Village 78 

Edenhoffer, John 229 

Edwards, A. M 215 

Thomas 229, 248 

William 213 

Eldridge, Benjamin J 244 

Ellis, James 86 

Ellsworth, A-\-engers 152 

" Isaac 86 

Election Districts, 225 

Elma Centre, 107 

Blacksmith, 234, 248 

Buildings burned . .228, 233 

" " Coal and Lumber dealer, 248 

Post Office, (see Post Offices) 

301 

Saloon, 222, 248 

" " Stores, (see Stores) 

Sunday School 236 

Elma Circus 242, 243, 312 

" History of Town 17 

" Indians 22, 32, 33, 101, 102, 103 

" Post Office, (see Post Offices) . . .301 
" Town of, Organized 18, 60 to 64, 86, 

103,121,132,250. 

" Town of 17, 18, 19, 25, 26, 28, 32, 40, 

51, 52, 55, 57, 58, 59, 65, 67, 74, 

77, 78, 79, 87, 94, 95, 101, 122, 

133, 137, 138, 140, 147, 155, 

157, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 

197,221,227,228,231. 

Map, (Front Cover) 220 

Meeting, First 137 

Officers Elected 298,'299 

S. S. Association: 221 

Surveyed 77, 91 

Village, 19, 20, 21, 26, 95, 101, 106, 
111, 137, 143, 144, 145, 



319 



Elma Village, 146, 147, 149, 150, 151, 

154, 155, 217, 219, 234, 

238, 244, 310, 312. 

" " Blacksmiths, (seeBlacksmiths) 

" Bridge, 95, 108, 204, 238, 244 

" Cemetery 114,115,228 

" " " Association .. 220, 224, 

310, 313 
" " Church, (see Churches) ... 305, 

306. 
" " " Pastors (see Churches) 

307 

" Gas Well 231 

" Park 115 

" " Saloon 118, 119 

" " Stores, (see Stores) 

" " Young People's Association, 

228 

Emancipation Proclamation 164 

^Emigrant Aid Society 178, 187 

Emporimn, 201, 206 

Endicott Company, 42 

England, 17, 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 65 

English, William 127 

Enlistment in Civil War, .... 166, 167, 168 

Erie Canal 73 

" County 23, 25, 51, 57 to 61, 68, 74, 84, 
157. 

" " S. S. Association 131 

" Indians, 23 

" Town of 57,59 

Errata, 16 

Estabrook's Saw Mill, (see Saw Mills) 

John, 87, 88 

Seth .87,96, 105, 106 

Exposition at Philadelphia, 211 

^i " " Chicago, 230 

" _ Pan American . . .311, 313, 314 
Evangelical Churches, (see Churches) 302, 

304 

F. 

Fairbanks, Horace Scott, 80 

James, 78, 80 

Willard, 78, 80 

Falstein, (suicide) 123 

Farmer Brother, (Chief) 25, 28, 33 

Farmers, 222, 238, 239, 244, 314 

Alliance, 223, 224, 235 

Club of Town of Elma . . 312, 313 
" Institute, Erie Co., 220, 223, 224 

Fath, Christian, 155 

Federal Army 165, 170 

Fillmore, Rev. Gleazen, 145 

Millard, . . 81, 128, 129, 176, 182, 
183, 194 

Financial Storm, 83, 85 

Fire Company of Blossom, 204, 229 

Fischer, John G 212, 213, 222 

Five Nations, 23, 24, 25 

Flannigan, Thomas, .... 125, 126, 129, 132 
Floods in Elma, 150, 199, 200 



Florida, 38, 40, 160 

Flour City, 100 

Flower City, 1 00 

Floyd, John B 159, 195 

Fogleman 152 

Fones, John, 78 

" Wallace W., 132 

Ford, Mrs. Asa, 237, 248 

Fort Orange, 38 

" Sumter, 149, 159, 161, 170, 195 

Foster, Caleb, 81 

Fourth of July in Elma Village. . .116, 242 

Fowler, Edwin, 86, 103 

France, 17, 38, 39, 42, 43 .. . 

Freiberg, George, 108 

John, 108, 116, 121 

" Mother, 116, 117 

Franklin, Benjamin, 41 

Fremont, John C 163, 182, 183, 194 

Free Soil Party, 147, 177 

" and Free Speech 182, 183 

" State Constitution 181 

French and Indian War 30 

J. J 128, 135 

Allen, 110, 121 

Frobes, Charles, 153 

Frog Pond, 99, 103, 134 

Frost, hard, 144, 245 

Fugitive Slave Law, . . .136, 174, 176, 178 

G. 

Gail, Isaac, 103, 152, 199 

Galveston, 243 

Garby, Christ, 121 

Fred, 121 

John, 151, 200 

Garden ville, 27, 92, 96, 112 

Garfield, James A 213 

Gas Company 231, 232 

Gas Wells, Elma Village 231 

" Lot 55 231 

" " Spring Brook 230, 238 

Gaulden, W. B 189, 190 

Geary, John W 183, 184 

Gentsch, George 121 

Genesee County 57, 58, 68 

River, 26, 48, 57, 68, 75 

Geography of Elma 17, 19 

Geology of Elma 20 

Georgia, State of . . .40, 160, 171, 194, 195 

German Evangelical Churches. . .302, 304 

" Blossom, . .151, 213, 302 

" Rice Road 211, 304 

" " Spring Brook . . .205, 230, 

304. 

Getty sburgh. Battle of 152 

Geyer, Joseph 234, 236, 248 

Gibson, Charles S 243 

" Mrs. Clara E 237 

Gilmore, Dr. James 130, 132 

Girdled Road, (see Roads) 

Gloss, Mrs. Pauline 230 



320 



Good, George and Edward . .128, 131, 135 

Golden Weddings, 203, 218, 228, 238 

Grace, James J 132 

Joseph 126, 128, 132 

" William W 132 

Grader, Peter Sr. 140 

" Jr., . . . .222, 223, 235, 248 

Gramm, Frederick 218 

Grant, U. S., 154, 165, 170, 202, 205 

Graves, Nathaniel 126, 128 

Greely, Horace 205 

Green, Samuel, 198 

" Silas, 147 

Greiss, Michael 121, 134, 244, 248 

Great Britain 28, 46 

Grist Mills, 248 

" Bower, Peter 141, 147 

" " Briggs & Sweet 214, 219 

" Ebenezer Society .... 108, 220 

" Greiss, Michael 234, 248 

" " Hurd & Briggs, 141, 147 

" Harvey J 217, 234, 248 

" " Kyser, Horace 205, 214 

Leger & Diebold, 131, 132, 139 

" George ; 139, 141 

Northrup, Lewis 130, 131, 141, 
214. 

" " " Eli B 214, 248 

" " Ott, Lewis, 220 

" " in 1900 248 

Groceries in 1900 248 

Griffin, John W 103, 251 

Griggs & Ball 244 

H. 

Haas, Lewis 221 

Hagar, Catharine 225 

Hall, Maria 103 

" Nathan K 81 

" & Fillmore 81 

" Otis A 105, 121, 312 

Hamburgh, Town of. .26, 77, 88, 95, 122 

Hamlin, C. J. 79 

" Hannibal 157 

John W 155 

Hanvv, Thomas 103, 134 

Hard Times 83, 84, 85, 136 

Harrah, Charles H., 225, 226, 227 

Harris., Hiram, 61, 63, 79, 128, 198 

Samuel, 78, 79 

Hatch, George W., 202, 204. 231 

James, 103, 231 

Leonard, Sen., 92, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 
123, 134, 218. 

" Leonard, Jr.,, 231 

Niles, 103, 231 

Wilder, 78 

Hayes, Rutherford B., 212 

Head, James, 140 

Heim, Fred, 152 

" George, 240 

" Jacob, 153, 223, 235, 248 



Heinemann, Ferederick, 121 

Heitman, Fred, Sen., 110, 138, 153 

Helfter, George, 204, 211, 219 

Hemstreet, Zina A., 61, 78, 99, 103, 134^ 
146,218,251. 
" Bridge (see Bridges), 
" Saw Mill (see Saw mills), 

Hensel, Conrad P., 143, 230, 248 

Herlan, F. T., 230, 248 

Hesse Adolph F., 248 

" Herman, Sen., 198 

" " Jr., 248 

Hicks, John, 202 

Hill, Henry, 131 

'; Zenas, 121, 251 

Hines, Solon, 238 

Thomas, 201 

" Willard F., 240 

History of Elma, 17 

Holidays for Elma, 94 

Holland, Town of, 17, 38, 78, 122 

Land Company, 19, 20, 49, 50, 58, 
68, 76, 87. 
" Purchase, 50, 65, 67, 72, 73, 74, 
77, 82, 89. 

" " Survey, 50,59 

First Settlers, 68 to 74, 
133. 

Hopper, James, 103 

Horning, Max, Ill 

Howard & Crane, 103, 134 

" Marcus A., 143 

" Nathan, 103 

RufusL., 110, 111, 114, 116,118, 
120. 

Russel, 103, 1.34, 141 

Howe, Dr. Carey W., 146 

Hoyt, Samuel, .' 209, 210 

Hudson, Henry, 38 

River, 38, 42 

Hunt, William, 132 

Hurd & Briggs, . . .101, 105, 106, 107, 112, 
115, 116, 134, 141, 
147, 199, 210, 217, 
219, 221. 

Hurd, Allen J 152 

" Burton H., 237, 239, 243 

" Clark W. 63, 104, 105, 106, 110, 117, 

134, 137, 140, 141, 143, 

168, 169, 204, 206, 210, 

215, 216, 228. 

" " W., Golden Wedding. . . 219 

" Cyrus, 106. 107, 115, 121, 153 

" George W., 214, 230, 236 

" Harvey J., ..212, 213, 217, 221, 225, 
231, 232, 2.34, 236, 
244, 248, 310. 
" James T., . ..202, 219, 220, 223, 224, 
231, 232, 236, 243, 
244, 312. 
■ " Melville J., 312 



321 



Indians, 21, 22 to 36, 47, 75, 76, 87, 90, 100, 
101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 123, 124 

Canadian, 27, 28 

Cayuga, 22, 25, 26, 75 

Cemeteries, 33, 101 

Character of, 35 

Chiefs, 31, 53, 54, 87, 88, 90, 96, 
97,98,99,101. 

ofEIma, 21,32,33, 101 

Erie, 23 

Iroquois, 22 to 31, 75 

" Confederacy, 24, 28, 29, 
35, 36. 
Mills, (see Saw Mills, Estabrook & 
Hatch.) 

" at Transit, 122 

Mohawk, 22, 27,29, 30,32 

Neuters, 23 

Openings, 101, 102 

Oneida, 22,25,27 

Onondaga, 22 to 27 

Reservations, 27, 28, 32, 50 

Seneca, 22 to 36, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 
65, 75, 88, 90, 93, 100, 102,103 
123 

in Elma Village, 33, 101 

" Traditions, 23, 24, 25, 31 

Trails, .76, 90, 100, 122, 123, 124 

Tuscarora, 26, 27, 75 

Villages, 26, 32, 33, 36, 78, 101, 
102. 

" War Dance, 33 

I. O. of O. F. Society, 230, 232, 238 

Ives, Riley, 115, 119, 121 

J. 

Jack-berry-town, 29, 92, 93, 96 

Jackman,'JamesR., 112, 114, 115, 117, 118, 
121. 
Warren, 61, 111, 112, 113, 115, 
119, 120, 121, 137, 144, 
145, 146, 150, 152, 199, 
200, 215, 220, 232, 236, 
237, 249. 

Mrs. Warren, 215 

William J 118, 121 

Jackson, Andrew, S3 

James, First, (King), 40 

Jamison Road, 125, 151, 254 

" Blacksmiths, (see Blacksmiths). 

Post Office 224, 230, 235, 248, 302 
" Rail Road Station . . 79, 202, 236 

Stores, 214, 216, 221, 248 

Jasel, Christ, 248 

Jefferson, Thomas, 41, 176 

Jemison, Mary, 24, 25, 33, 34, 35, 88, 101 
Jerge Brothers, 92, 105, 219, 229, 236, 248 

" Casper, 221,251, 203 

" Hermon, 219, 229, 244 

" Jacob, . . 108, 120, 121, 143, 146, 151, 
203, 204, 222, 228, 229. 



Jerge, Philip, .219, 229, 238, 244 

Johnson, Calphirena, 127 

Philetus, 121 

" Sir John, 30 

Jones, William, . 127, 130, 131 

Jurisdiction of Nations, 37 

Justice of the Peace, 61, 63, 298, 299 



Kansas & Nebraska Bill .... 176, 178, 183 

" Territory 179, 180, 183, 185 

Delegates, . . .179, 180, 181 

" " Elections, 179 

" " Committee. . 181 

182 
" Governors, .179, 180, 183, 
184. 
Legislatures, 179, 180, 182 

State Convention, 180, 184 

" Constitution, .181, 184, 195 

" Admitted, 184,195 

" " Governors, 184 

Keim, Karl, 121 

Kelgus, George, 211, 230 

Kennedy, Charles, 132 

Kent, E. G., 128, 132, 242 

Ketchum Mower, . . 110, 111, 114, 116, 120 

Reaper, 114, 116, 120 

Kihm, Henry, 222, 230 

" John, 197 

" Peter, 132 

King, James First, 40 

Kinney, Hiram W 106, 121, 145 

Kinsley, Stephen, 251 

Klas, Joseph,_ 235, 238, 248 

Kleberg, Louis, 204 

Klehm, Henry, : 197 

Klein, Joseph, 121 

Kleinfelder, William, 221 

Mrs. William 229 

Knaab, Jacob, 61, 121, 251 

Ivnights of Golden Circle, 164, 195 

Know Nothing Party, 136, 137 

Kock, Jacob, 198, 223 

Kratz, Joseph, 213 

Krouse, George, 110, 121 

" Lawrence, 121 

Kvser, Horace, 61, 125, 126, 128, 132, 151, 
168, 204, 205, 209, 214 



Lagore, 120 

Lake Erie, 22, 24, 27, 47, 50, 75, 95 

" Ontario, 22, 23, 24, 27, 47, 49, 50, 57, 
58, 75 

Lamberton, John, 77, 91 

Lancaster, Town of 18, 19, 26, 59, 61, 62, 
68, 79, 91, 94, 95, 105, 
124 133 
" ■ Part of Elma, ! .87, 91, 123, 124 

Lathrop, Paul B., 86, 146 

Lee, George, 132, 150 



322 



Lee, Gen. Robert E., . . 154, 163, 165, 170 

" John R., 243 

" Richard Henry, 41 

" R. Porter, 219, 229, 231, 238, 242, 
243, 312 

" Robert W 152 

" Zebina 95, 126, 132, 149 

Leger & Diebold 131, 135 

" George, 130, 131, 132, 139, 141, 152, 
153. 

" Place 130 

" Louis & William, 248 

" Saloon, 232, 248 

Legislature of N. Y 57, 58, 59, 60, 91 

Lincoln, Abraham, 147, 149, 154, 157, 160, 
161, 162, 163, 164, 
165 193 194 196. 
Little Buffalo Creek, ...'....'. .19, '90, 119 

" & Bowen, 141 

" Osman, 108, 121, 141 

Livingston, Robert, 41 

Loekwood, William M., 61, 132, 209 

Long, Mrs. Maria, 221, 301 

Looking Backwards, 65 

Longee, Benjamin P., 121 

" Norton B., 152 

" William V., 25 

Luders, Fred, 244, 249 

" John, 121, 198, 235 

Ludamon, John, 121 

Lumber Dealer, .233, 248 

Lutheran Churches, (see Churches) . . .302 

M. 

Mad Dog,. .' 238, 239, 240 

Manke, Karl, 213 

Mann, Charles, 121 

" Fred, 121 

Map of Town of Elma, 220 

" " New Spring Brook, 226 

Marilla, Town of, 19, 26, 28, 52, 61, 80, 90, 

91 95 147. 
Markham, Erastus J.,'. .115, 146, 150, 152, 
203, 213, 215, 
218, 220, 228, 
232. 

Stephen, 117, 142, 200 

Marvel, Alfred, 127, 132 

Mary, Jacob, 248 

Maurer, Frederick, 117, 121 

Marriages, Alphabetical list 197, 257 

Massachusetts Bay Colony, . . . .42, 43, 56 
" Commissioner for, 44, 48, 51, 53, 
54, 90, 93. 
State of 44, 45, 47, 48, 162, 174 

Measles, Epidemic of, 240 

Meat Markets, 248 

Meeker & Bowen, 131, 142 

" Henry, 131, 132, 139 

" & Wattles, 131, 139 

Merchants in 1812, 72, 73 

" 1900, 248 



Meridian Time for Railroads,. . . .215, 216 

Mertz, Conrad, 108 

Metcalf, Frank, 25, 26, 101, 229 

" Spencer, 102 

Methodist Churches, . .304, 305, 306, 307 
" in Elma Village, (see 
Churches), 306. 
" " in Spring Brook, (see 

Churches), 304. 

Mexico, 172, 173, 174, 176 

Mexican War, 172 

Michigan, State of 85, 172, 176, 183 

Michaelis, Frederick 151 

Mile Strip, Purchase of, .32, 51, 52, 55, 77, 
86, 133. 

" " Surveyed, 77, 91 

" Settled, 77, 78, 83, 94 

" Saw Mills on 80, 96, 134 

" Schools, on 77, 81, 308, 309 

" " Population of in 1840, 85 

" " Residents of in 1840, 81, 85 

" of in 1856, 86 

Milford, 112 

Milk, 244 

Miller, Jacob, 214, 240 

" John, 242 

" William, Sen., 155 

Mississippi River, ... .24, 38, 39, 44, 179 

Missourians, 178, 179 

Missouri Compromise Act, . . 136, 172, 174, 

176, 178, 179, 

182, 183, 184. 

State of. . 163, 172, 173, 174, 177, 

179. 

Mitchell, Joshua, 78, 81 

William, 78,81 

Mohawk Indians, 22, 27 to 32 

Mohn, Jacob, 198 

Monroe, Jesse, 121 

Montgomerv County, 57 

Moore, Bradley, 119, 121, 135 

" Thomas, 212 

Morris, Albert, 198 

David J., 61, 62, 123, 125, 126, 127, 
128, 130, 132, 203 

" John, 61, 125, 128, 132, 

144 

Lafayette, 132 

" Robert, 26, 34, 49, 50 

" William, 155, 198 

Mound Builders, 23, 24, 25, 26 

Mouse Nest Tavern, 122, 123, 125, 126, 128 
129, 132, 147, 149, 
151, 198, 215. 

Mowing Machines ,110, 111, 114, 116, 

120 

Mullen, Hugh, 151, 212 

Munger & Crane, 141 

Fowler, 141, 150 

Municipal Gas Company, 231 

Murders, (see Chap. 19), 269 

Murlin, Edgar L., 234 



323 



Mc. 

McClelland, George B., 154 

McFee, John, 128, 130, 132, 148, 204 

McGiveron, James, 236, 248 

McHugh, Cornelius, Sen., 152, 276 

McHugh, Cornelius, Jr., 312 

McKean, Robert, 92, 96, 99 

McKinley, William, . . . .235, 241, 245, 246, 
313, 314. 

McLean, (Judge) 177 

McMuUen, John, 236 

MePherson, Rev. George W., 202 

N. 
Names of Indian Chiefs, . . .52, 53, 54, 98 

"Roads, 250, to 256 

" " Streets, 226 

" " Subscribers to Bounty, .... 168 

" Volunteers in Civil War, ...166, 

167, 168. 

Nations, Right and Jurisdiction, 37 

Native American Party, 136, 178, 182, 191 

New Mexico, 173 

" Orleans, 195, 216 

" Spring Brook, 225, 226, 227 

" York, City of 38, 39, 73, 84, 162 

" Colony, 43,56 

" " State, 17, 22, 24, 38, 39, 43, 44, 

45,48, 175, 183. 

" " " Commissioners, 44, 48, 54, 

- 93. 

" Census, 155, 197, 296, 297 

" Legislature, 57, 58, 59, 60 

" " " Reservation, 27, 49, 50, 57, 

75. 

Niagara County, 58, 59, 68, 87 

River, 22, 28, 49, 57, 58, 75 

Woolen Mills, 200, 205 

North Carolina, State of, 25, 160, 186, 195 

" Star Tavern, 80, 81, 122 

Northrup Bridge, (see Bridges), 

" & Baker's Mills, (see Saw Mills) , 
" Store, (see Stores), 

Gas Well, 230, 238 

& Baker, 125, 126,221 

Eli B., ., 126, 130, 132, 197, 214, 

221, 223, 226, 227, 

230, 231, 238, 248, 

250. 

Lewis, 61, 63, 125, 126, 128, 130, 

131,132, 134,137,141, 

168, 197,209,214,251, 

" Stephen, 132, 153, 201, 205, 212 

Nosbisch, Matthias, 140, 237, 248 

Nouse, Eleazer, 121 

" John, 121 

Noyes, Amasa, 121 

" Charles, 110, 121, 

" Simeon, 110 

" Theodore, 110, 121, 141 

0. 

Oberly, Peter, 121 



Odd Fellows Society, 230, 232, 238 

Hall, 232, 238 

Ogden Company, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 51 to 
55, 77, 78, 88, 89, 90, 
91,93,95,99,100, 101, 
103, 122, 123, 133, 136, 
138. 

David A., 50 

" Samuel, 49 

" Thomas L., 50 

Clean, ,.58, 201, 205 

Omnibus Bill, 172 

Oneida Indians, 22, 25, 27 

Onondaga Indians, . .22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 

Lake, 22, 25 

Ontario County, 57 

Oregon, 172, 176 

Orr, George, 135 

Ostrander, John W., 251 

Ott, Lewis, 121, 220 



Pacific Ocean, 38, 40, 42 

Pail Factory, 128, 131, 135 

Paine, Emily, 81 

" William, 86 

Palmer, Asa, 125, 126, 132 

Asa J. W., 130, 132 

Harvey C, . . ._. 100, 200, 211, 231 
Pan-American Exposition, . 311, 313, 314 

Parker, Lyman, 132, 153 

Park, Elma Village, 115 

Paris, Treaty of, 40, 41, 43, 44 

Patriot War, 85 

Pattengill, Hiram, 80 

" Jacob, 78 

Taber, 78 

Pawnee City, 179 

Paxon, Harvey, 86, 132, 251 

Peace Congress, 160 

Peck, Joseph, .105, 108, 121 

Peek, Christopher, . .86, 141, 153, 168,169, 
204. 

" Clement, 203 

" George, 86 

" JohnW., 86 

Pennsylvania, 46, 47, 48, 50, 57, 58 

" Railroad Company, 242 

Persons, Ellsworth G., 100, 244 

Phalen, Patrick, 249 

Phelps & Gorham Tract, . .26, 28, 49, 75 
Philadelphia, . .40, 43, 44, 182, 211, 216 

Phillips, Simeon, 312 

William, 221 

Picnic, 4th of July, 116 

Pierce, Franklin, 178, 180 

Pioneers, 68 to 74 

Pittsburgh, 182 

Plank Road, Aurora and Buffalo, 85, 127, 

249 

" " Reservation Central, 119 

Piatt Argus, 179 



324 



Plymouth Company, 40, 42 

Polk, James K., 127, 172 

Pomerink, John, 121, 144 

Pond Brook, 19, 20, 21, 94, 96, 97, 114, 
142, 150, 197, 210, 231, 
238, 243, 244. 

Porter (Gen.), 28 

Porterville, 100 

Post Offices and Post Masters, . . .197, 248, 

301. 

" " Blossom, Ebenezer Co., . . 108 

" " Charles Reichert, 147 

" " " Louis Klebreg, 204 

" " " Frederick H.Gramm, 

218 
" " " Wm. Kleinfelder, 

221 
" " " Mrs. Wm. Kleinfel- 
der 229 

" " Conrad P. Hensel, 

231, 248 
" " E. Elma, Fowler Munger, 150 

" " " Isaac Gail, 152 

" " " Discontinued, . . 152 

" " " George W. Hatch, 

204, 231 
Charles Burman, 

231, 248 
" " Elma, Warren Jackman, 113, 

150. 
" Joseph Standart, . . .147 
" " " W. Wesley Standart, 

155 

" " James Clark, 203 

" " " Mrs. Mary Long, . . .221 

" Louis P. Reuther, . . 235, 
248. 
" " Elma Centre, Eron Woodard, 

212, 218. 
" " " " Henrv A. Wright, 

218, 230. 
" " " " Peter Grader, 223 

" " " " Frank Sutton,233 

" " " " Mrs. Emilie Ford, 

238, 248. 

" " Jamison Road, 302 

" Ernst Bleek, ..224,235, 
248 
" . " Edwin H. Dingman, 230 
" " Spring Brook,D. J. Morris,127 
" " " " Zenas M.Cobb, 

128 
" " " James H. Ward, 

129, 150. 
" " " A. J. W. Palmer, 

131. 
" " " " J. W. Simons, 

131, 132. 
" A. Twitchell, 148 
" S. Northrup, 201 
" J. G. Fischer, 213 
" Wm. J. Cole, 218 



(( cc 



Post Office, Spring Brook, H. L. Tillou, 

223, 235, 248. 
" R. T. Barnett, 
230, 302. 
Presbyterian Societies, (see Churches) 
303, 305. 
Presidential Campaign for 1856, 182, 183 

" " " 1860, 147, 

148, 157. 

" 1864, 154 

" 1896, 2.35 

" 1900, .240, 241, 
245. 

Elections " 1856, 183 

" 1860, 157 

" 1864, 1.54 

" 1868, 202 

" 1872, 205 

" " " 1876, 212 

" 1880, 213 

" 1884, 216 

" 1888, 221 

" " " 1892, 229 

" 1896, 235 

" 1900, . .240,241, 
245. 

Potatoes and Point, 69 

Pound, Samuel, 135, 140, 251 

Price, Albert, 224 

" Daniel, 106, 121, 229 

Prison House, (Ebenezer), . .110, 138, 139 

Pro-Slavery Party, 178, 181, 183 

Public Debt, 165, 170 

Pugh, George E., 185, 189 

R. 

Rail Roads, 66, 67, 198, 199, 201, 206, 212, 
213, 215, 216, 242. 

" " in Elma, 198, 199, 201 

Stations, Elma 59, 202, 

233 
" " " Jamison Road, 79, 

202 236. 
" Spring Brook', . . .202, 
225. 

Rain Bow, 228 

Raloff, Charles, 153 

" John, 153 

Rathburn, Benjamin, 84, 88 

Reaping Machines, . . . .114, 116, 118, 120 
Real Estate, Resident owners of in 1900, 

282 
Red Jacket, (Chief), . . 25, 27, 28, 29, 33, 34 

Reeder, Andrew H., 179, 180, 181 

Registered Voters in 1st Dist. in 1900 289 
" 2d " " 1900, 293 

Reichert, Charles, _ 147 

Republican National Convention 1860, 191 
192 

Party, 136, 137, 146, 147, 154, 

157, 182, 183, 191, 192 

Platforms, . .182, 192, 193,245 



325 



Reservation, Buffalo Creek, (see Buffalo 
Creek, Reservation) 

Indian, 27, 28, 32, 34 

N. Y. State, 27, 49, 50, 57, 75 

" Survey of Mile Strip, .77, 91 

" " " Aurora part, ... .91 

" " " Lancaster part . . 91 

Residents, first on Mile Strip, 81,85, 86, 95 

"in Elma Village, 95 

" " " Spring Brook, 95 

in East Elma in 1856, 103 

" " Elma Village in 1856, . .121 

" Spring Brook in 1856, . . 132 
on Mile Strip in 1856, 81, 85, 86 
" owners of Real Estate in 1900, 

282 
Reuther, Louis P., 115, 228, 234, 235, 236, 
248. 

William, 206 

Revolutionar3^ War . .25, 26, 27, 30, 40, 41 

44, 65. 
Rights and Jurisdiction of Nations, ... .37 

Rice, William M., 126, 132, 168, 251 

Rickertson, James B., 251 

Riley, Joseph, 96, 99 

Roads, and Bridges, cost of, 300 

" Description of, Chap. 17, 250 

" Revised records of, 223 

" Table and Names of, 251 

Road, Adams, 80, 100, 251, 252 

" Aurora & Buffalo, 79, 80, 85, 90, 91, 

92, 100, 102, 122, 

123, 125, 127, 

249, 251, 252 

Baker, 251,252 

Barto, 251, 252 

Billington, 79, 80, 251, 252. . . 

Blood, 79,251,252 

Blossom, 251,252 

Bowen, 80, 90, 91, 92, 94, 117, 251, 

253. 
Bullis, ......' .20, 25, 105, 251, 253 

Central, 251, 253 

Chair Factory, . . .107, 210, 251, 253 
Clinton Street, . . .105, 106, 251, 253 

Conley, 251, 253 

Davis, 124,251,253 

Ebenezer Village, 251, 254 

Elma Cemetery, . .228, 230, 251, 254 

Girdled, 80, 92, 251, 254 

Hemstreet, 251, 254 

Hill, 107, 251, 254 

Jamison, 125, 251, 254 

Kinsley, 251, 254 

Knaab, 251, 254 

Lancaster Town Line, . . . .251, 254 

Marilla Town Line, 251, 254 

New Spring Brook, (Streets)226, 227 

North.Star, 251,254 

Northrup, . .124, 127, 149, 251, 255 

Ostrander, 251, 255 

Paxon, 251, 255 



Road, Pound, 251, 255 

" Rice, 123, 125, 251, 255 

" Reservation Central, 119' 

" Rickertson, 251, 255 

" Schultz, 251, 255 

" Seneca Creek, 251, 255 

" Smaltz, 251, 255 

" Standart, 120, 251, 256 

" Stolle, 206, 251, 256 

" Thompson, 210, 251, 256 

" Trolley, 313 

" Williams, 79, 251, 256- 

" Winspear, 139, 251, 256 

" Woodard, . . .90, 107, 123, 251, 256 

" Woods, 89, 90, 100, 104, 123 

Robinson & English, 127, 128 

" Finley, 127 

" Gov. of Kansas, 184 

Roosevelt, Theodore, 237, 241, 314 

Roscoe, Sherman, 128, 135 

Rost, Charles, 135 

Rowley, Amos P., 103 

Mrs. Harriet D., .310, 312 

Rush, Alexander, 215, 237 

Sylvester, 240 

S. 

Saloons in 1900, 248 

Sargent, Henry C, 204, 206 

Saw Mills, Steam, in 1856, 134, 135 

" Bower, Peter, ..141,147 

" Briggs, J. B. & Co., ..120, 

135, 146. 

" & Sweet. 214, 219 

" Clark, Briggs & Co., . .115, 

116,120,135. 

" Corbin, French & Roscoe, 

128, 135. 

" Dimert & Rost, 135 

" Good, George and Ed, 128 

131,135. 
" Kyser, H., 151, 201, 205, 

214. 
" Leger & Diebold, 131, 132, 
135,139. ■ 

" George, . .139,141, 
150, 153. . . 
" Peek, Christopher, . . .153, 

204. 
" Pound, Samuel, .135, 140 
" Robinson & English, .127, 
128. 

" Schultz, Philip, 197 

" Woodard, Eron, 135 

" " Burned, (see Buildings 
Burned), 

" Water, in 1856 134, 135 

" Allen Brothers, .198, 205 

" Anthony, 205 

" Baker, George, . . 125, 126 
" Bancroft, Eleazer,104, 134 
" Barto, Jesse, .... 100, 134 



ti a 



li ii 



II it 



it II 



u a 

li II 

ii (I 



326 



Saw Mills, Water, Bass, Lyman K., . .204 
" Bowen & Little, .146, 153 
" Bullis,LewisM., 20,87, 88, 
96, 105, 106, 109, 134, 150, 
151. 
" Bullis, Orson S., 203, 204. 
" Davis, Jacob R., 80, 96, 
134. 
" " " Ebenezer Society, 108,135, 
151, 220. 
" Estabrook, 87, 88, 94, 95, 
96, 105, 106, 123, 134 
" Hanvev, . . .103, 134, 212 
" Hatch & Riley, . . .96, 99 
" Leonard, 95, 123, 134 
" Hemstreet, Z. A., 96, 99, 
134, 1.50, 151, 198. 

" Hurd, Cvrus, 153 

" & Clark, 117 

" " " " &Briggs,104,105,134, 
217 221. 
" Clark W.', ..117, 134, 

142. 
" Harvey J., .217,221, 
231, 234. 
" " " Indian, near Transit, 122 
" " Markham, Stephen, . .117, 
142, 200. 
" Moore, Bradley, .119, 135 
" Mullen, Hugh, . .103, 212 
" " " Northrup & Baker, . . 125, 
126, 221. 
" " " Lewis, 20, 125, 
126, 130, 132, 134, 141, 
197. 

Eli B., 197, 221 

" Orr, George 135 

" Ott, Lewis 220 

" Sargent, H. C, 204 

" Shindler, 134 

" Simanton, Robert, 110, 134 
" " " Standart, Geo., Sen., 94, 
95, 146, 153. 
" " & Bowen. .108, 135, 

1.53. 
" " Geo., Jr., and Wash- 
ington, 108 

" " " William, 20, 109, 
135. 
" " Joseph C, . . .200 

" Tiffany & Dimert, 146, 153 

" Titus, Orvil, 135 

" " Winspear, William, . . 135 

" in Elma in 1888, 221 

" " " " 1900, ... .248 

Schifferstein, Andrew, 210, 230, 248 

F., 235 

Frank, 230, 233 

Schmaltz, John, 221, 251 

Schnurr, Michael, 132 

Schultz, Philip, 251 

Schurr, Irving, i . . . . 234 



ti it 



a ii 



Schurr, Samuel, 222 

Schools in the Town, 307, 308, 309 

" District No. 1, 112 

" 2; 111,213 

" 3, 103 

" 4, 81 

" 5, ?1 

" 6, 211 

" 7,106, 107, 217, 218 
" 8, . . . .108,242,308 

' " " " 9, 308, 309 

" 10, 127, 132, 206 to 
210,309. 

" 11, 81,308,309 

Catholic, 153, 308 

Scott, Dred, 176, 177, 189 

" John, 86 

Seeger, Jacob, 244 

Secession, 148, 158, 160, 172, 189, 190, 191, 
193, 194, 195. 

Secretary of War, 93, 159 

Seneca Indians, (see Indians), 

" Lake, 22, 57 

Settlement Day, 94 

Seward, William H., . . .154, 165, 175, 176 

Seymour, Horatio, 202 

Shane, Peter, 106, 111 

Shannon, Wilson, 1^0, 181, 183 

Sharick, Abraham, 153 

Shawnee Mission, 179 

Shay, John, 204 

Shingle Mills, Bullis, 109, 134 

" Howard & Crane, . .103, 134, 
141. 
" " Munger & Crane, . . .141, 200 

" " Shindler, 134 

" Wilder, Julius P., . .135, 146 

Shoe Makers, 72 

Shufelt, George, 121 

Schultz, Peter, 112, 121 

" Philip, 197 

Side Walks, 225, 231 

Silos, 224, 234, 236, 244 

Simmons, Eli, 131, 132 

Simanton, Robert, 110, 134 

Simons, Janies W., 129, 130, 132, 147 

Sisler, Lewis, 132 

Six Nations, 25, 26, 27 

Skinner, Rev. L. A., 109, 305 

Slab City, .90, 100 

Slave Holders Rebellion, (see Civil War) 

" Trade, 171, 189, 190, 191 

Slavery Question, 136, 160, 163, 171, 172, 
173, 175, 184, 187, 188 

Smith, Isaac, 231 

" Christian, 67 

Sommers, Charles, 234, 235, 248 

Soil of Elma, 21 

Sons of the South, 178 

South Carolina,148,158, 159, 160, 171, 175, 

194 
Southern Confederacy, .149, 154, 160, 163 



327 



Southern Congress, 162 

Spain, 17, 37, 38, 39 

Spade, Peter, 107 

Spaulding, E. G., ' 157 

Spencer, Cyrus S., 128, 130, 132, 213 

Adelbert, 214, 248 

Sperry, James, 89, 91 

Spooner, Whipple, 86 

Spring Brook, 20, 62, 78, 90, 102, 103, 110, 
122, 124, 125, 126, 127, 
131, 132, 133, 135, 149 
150, 153, 155, 197, 206 
to 210, 249. 

New, 225, 226, 227 

" " Blacksmiths, (see Black- 

smiths) . 
" " Buildings burned, (see Build- 

ings Burned). 
Churches, (see Churches) 

303, 304, 305 
Cemetery, . . .128, 149, 198 
Farmers Alliance, .223, 224, 
235. 

" Gas Well, 230, 238 

Grist Mills, (see Grist Mills) 
Groceries, 128, 129, 132, 148, 

150, 248. 
Odd Fellows, 230, 232, 238 
PailFactoiy, 128,131,135 
Post Office (see Post Offices) 
302. 

Rail Road Station, 202 

Residents in 1856, 132 

Saloons, 128, 129, 132, 232, 

236, 248. 
Saw Mills (see Saw Mills) 
" Schools, 127, 132, 206 to 
210, 309. 

" Sidewalks, 225 

" " Stores, (see Stores) 

" Tannery, 131, 132, 133, 135, 
139, 142, 150. 
" " Tavern, (see Mouse Nest) 
Squatter Sovereignty, 148, 176, 184, 185, 
187, 188, 189. 

Stamback, Henry G., 130 

Standart, Celina, 106, 107 

Deforest, 63, 104, 105, 109, 121, 

137, 149, 153. 
George, Sen., 92, 93, 94, 95, 108, 
111, 121, 135, 151,251, 
George, Jr., . . .61, 108, 109, 121 

John, 210 

Joseph C, 147, 200, 312 

Samantha, 108, 109 

Washington, 61, 108, 109, 121, 

149,. 
William, 108, 109, 114, 116, 121, 
135, 140. 
" Golden Wedding, .203 
W. Wesley, . . 121, 147, 151, 153, 
155, 203, 238. 



State Jurisdiction, 56 

Stave Town, 100 

Stetson, Benjamin F., 106, 113, 121 

Charles E., 240 

Stephens, Alexander H., 149, 160 

Stevens, John, .■ 66 

Stitz, Philip, Ill, 121, 206, 213 

" Henry W., 121, 141 

StoUe, Christian, 205, 228, 251 

Stone, Harry, 121 

Stores, Blossom, Ebenezer Society,. . .108 
Reichert, Charles, . . .147 
Kleinfelder, Wm., . . .221 

Herlan, F. T., 248 

" East Elma, Burman, Charles, .231, 

248. 
" Dingman, E. H., .231 
" Gail, Isaac, . .103, 199 
" Hatch, George W., 202 
231 
Geo.W.& Leon- 
ard, 231 
& James, 
231 
&Niles, 
231 
" Palmer, Harvey C, 

231 

" " " Smith, Isaac, 231 

" Williams, 204 

" Elma Centre, Ford, Mrs. Asa., 237, 

248. 
Grader, Peter,. ..222, 
235. 
" " " Sommers, Charles, 

234, 235, 248 

" & Sutton, 234 

235. 

" Sutton, Alex., . .232, 

234 

" . " " " " &Son, 

235. 237 
" " " Wilkes, Mrs., . . .'.232 

Wright, Henry A., 

212, 232 

" Elma Village, Briggs, J. B. & Co., 

115,121,141 

" ElmaVillage, Clark, James, 115, 141 

146 
Ives, Riley, 115,119, 
121 
Jackman, Warren, 112, 
115, 119 
Markman, E. J., 115, 
146, 1.50, 228 
Reuther, L. P., 115, 
228, 235, 236, 248 
Standart, W. Wesley, 
153 

Walker, 107 

Stores, Jamison Road, Bleeck, Ernst, 214 

216, 248 



328 



Stores, Jamison Road,Dingman, E. H. , 

221, 248 
" " " Wilting, Fred, 214 

" Spring Brook, Barnett, Richard T., 

230, 248 

" Bristol, George H., 

155, 201 

" Cole & Sweet, 214, 

218 

" Collins, John.. 2 10, 

214 

" Curtis & Deming, 

142, 155 

" Dunbar, James, 129, 

130 

" Fischer, John G., 212 

222 

" Hoyt, Samuel, 210 

" Jones, William, 130 

" Kent, E. J., 128, 132 

" Kihm, Henry, 222, 

223 230 

" Kihm & TiUou,' 223 

" Meeker & Bowen, 

139, 142 
" Meeker & Wattles, 

131, 132, 139 
" Northrup, S., . . 132, 
152,201,205,212 
" Spencer, Cj^rus S., 

213,214 
" Spencer, Adelbert, 

214, 248 
" Sweet, Charles A., 

242 
" Warner, John P., 

152 

Stowell, Nathan W., 110, 121 

" Theoron, 110, 121 

Sugar Making, 70 

Sugg, Nicholas, 248 

Suicides, Bull, William, 1869, 203 

" Davis, James M., 1874, 

" Fath, Christian, 1865, 155 

Frazier, 1866, 272 

" Lagore, 1855, 120 

" Mann, Charles, 1873, 276 

Miller, Mrs. Jacob, 1865, ... .276 

" Morris, William, 1865, 277 

Pattengill, Hiram, 1846, 80 

Phillips, Simeon, 1901, 278, 312 

" Rossman, Wm., 1885, 278 

" Seeger, Christopher, 1888, .. .278 

" Standart, John, 1874, 210 

" Tiffany, Thomas D., 1860, . . 147 

Summerfield, Thomas, 121,, 225 

Supervisors, 60 to 64, 91, 121, 132, 

137, 140, 146, 223, 250 

Survey, by Holland Land Co., 50, 59 

" . of Mile Strip, 77, 91 

" " Aurora part of Elma, 91 

" " Lancaster part of Elma, ... .91 



Sutton, Alex, 232, 233,234, 235 

" Frank, 233,234, 235 

Sweet, Charles H., 214, 225,227, 231, 

242, 249 



Taber, Martin, 78,80, 81 



Tab 



.269 

.257 



286 
289 
293 



le of Deaths, (see chap, 19), 
"Marriages (see chap. 18), 

" Roads (see chap. 17), 250 

" Owners of Real Estate on 

Mile Strip, 282 

" Owners of Real Estate on 

Aurora part, 283 

" Owners of Real Estate on 
Lancaster part, . 
" Registered Voters, 1st Dist. 
" 2d 

" Saw Mills in 1856, 134, 135 

"Silos in 1900, 244 

" Town Accounts, 300 

" " Assessments, 300 

" " Officers Elected, . 298, 299 
" " Road & Bridge Expenses , 

300 

" " Taxes, 300 

" Wind Mills in 1900 , 239 

Talmadge, Charles, 126, 132 

C. J., 132 

Taney (Judge), 177 

Tonneries, 72, 131, 132, 133, 

135, 139, 142, 150 

Taverns, Hurd's 140 

" Mouse Nest, (See Mouse Nest) , 

North Star, 80,81, 122 

Taxes Table of, 300 

Taylor, Zachery, 127, 128 

Territorial Legislatures, 179, 180, 182, 

185, 186,187 

Texas, 160, 195 

Thayer, Charles, 125, 136 

" Mrs. Charles, 215 

" WiUiam, 132 

Thompson, Joseph G., 103, 351 

William, 86 

Thompson 's Bank Note Reporter, .... 84 

Threshing Machines, 82 

Tiffanv & Dimert, 146, 153 

" " Thomas D., 61, 121, 153 

" Wallace, 146 

Tilden, Samuel, 212 

Tillou Cemetery, 201 

Tillou, Erastus, 132 

" Isaac, 132 

" James, 132, 169 

" Joseph, 127, 132 

" Harrison L., 132, 213, 223 

229, 232, 235, 248 

Time, (New Meridian), 215, 216 

Timber of Elma, 21, 134, 135, 

136,201,206 
Timon, John (Bishop), 129 



329 



Titus, Orvil, 121, 135 

Todd, (Gov.), 191 

Tonawanda Creek, 59 

Topeka, 180 

Tornado, Galveston & Buffalo, 243 

To^vn Board, 139, 140,141, 225, 

231, 244, 250, 310, 313 

To^vn Clerks Office Safe 222 

" Geology of 20 

" Geography of 17, 19 

" Map of 220 

" Meeting, First 137, 138 

" Officers Elected 298, 299 

" Town Organized 60 to 64 

" Meeting, Special . , 152, 169, 310, 311 

" Streams of 19 

" Surveyed 77, 91 

" Timber of 21, 135 

Townsend, George 118, 121, 144, 154 

Tradition of Indians 23, 24, 25, 31 

Treaty to Indians to Ptobert Morris, 

Sept., 1797 27 

Treaty to Ogden Co., Aug. 31st, 1826 30, 

51 
" " " " Jan. 15th, 1838, 31, 

53, 90 

" Aug. 7th, 1838, 31, 

53, 90 

" " " " May 20th, 1842, 32, 

54, 55, 93 

" U. S. to Indians, Sept., 1794,26,49 

Treaty of Breda, July 31st, 1667 40 

" Paris, Feb. 10th, 1763 40 

" Sept. 23d, 1783 41 

Treat, Timothy 78, 79 

Trolley Ptoad 313 

Tryon County 57 

Tiily Limestone 20 

Tuscarora Indians 26, 27, 75 

Twitchell Austin .149 

Two Guns, Daniel . . 102, 122, 123, 124, 125 

U. 

Uncle Sam : 18 

Union Cemetery Association 201 

" of States 189 

" Dissolution of 148, 158, 172, 175, 194 

United States 17, 18, 26, 27, 28, 31, 

32, 44, 65, 66, 75 

" 100th Anniversary 211, 212 

" Army in Civil War 156, 162, 

170 

" Bank 83 

" " Census . . 147, 168, 197, 204, 

214, 240, 296, 297 

" " Commissioners for. .51, 53, 

54, 90, 93 

" " Congress. .41, 44, 83, 90 

149, 161, 162, 163, 172, 

174, 178, 181, 184, 185, 186 

" Constitution 18, 41, 148,158 

171, 173, 174, 195, 196 



United States, Early Period of . . . .18, 65 

" " Property taken 159 

" Public Debt 155, 165, 170 

" " Secretary of War. .93, 159 

"Treasurv, 83 

" Senate 31, 53, 90, 91, 172, 

174, 175, 181, 184, 185 

" Supreme Court, 32, 176, 

177, 188, 189 

" Treasury. ._ 161, 162 

" " Treaty with Seneca 

Indians 26, 49 

V. 

Volunteers from New York 156 

" Elma, 152, 156, 166, 167, 

168 

Voters Registeredlst District in 1900, 289 

u u 2d " " " 293 

A^'oting Machines 314 

W. 

Wagner, Joseph 205, 221, 234 

Waith, Rev. William. . .110, 112, 114, 115, 
120, 141, 145, 305 

Wales, Town of 26, 68, 77, 78, 

95, 96, 122 

Walker 107, 108, 

L. P. of Alabama 188 

Wallace, William 198, 199 

Wallis, William D 86, 200 

" Nellie E 200 

Wannemacher, O. J 126, 153, 310 

War of Revolution 25, 26, 27, 30, 

40, 41, 44, 65 

War French & Indian 30 

" of 1812 27 

" " 1813 27,28 

'' " 1814 28 

" mth Mexcio 172 

" Ci^nl 149, 154, 156, 161, 

165, 170, 195, 196 
Ward, James H 127, 129, 132, 137, 150, 151 

Warner, Jolin P 153 

Washington, George 40, 44 

Webster, Daniel 174 

Weed, Elias 132 

Wertman, Noa 61, 132 

West Seneca 19, 20, 26, 61, 62, 131 

Western N. Y 38, 40, 4"5, 56, 65, 67, 

73, 75, 76, 90, 100 

W. N. Y. & P. Railroad, 198, 199, 201, 205, 
206, 225, 226, 233, 236 

Wet Summer 218, 224 

Whig Party 136, 172, 174, 175, 

176, 178, 182 

White City 230 

Whitfield, John W 179, 180, 181 

Whitney, Charles, 132 

Wilbor, Cj^renus, 110, 121 

" Henr^^ D., 120, 121, 144 

Wier, Thomas E., 132 

Wilder, Julius P., 146 



330 



Wiley, Robert, 86, 239 

Wilhelm, Alex, 248 

Wilkes, Mrs., 232, 233 

Williams, Gibson T., 110, 111, 114, 

Isaac, ... .78, 79, 94, 249, 251 

Thomas D., 79, 249 

William W., 79 

" Store burned, 204 

Williamsville, 133 

Willink, 58,59, 68 

Wilson, Dennis L., 128, 132 

Willing Fred, 202, 214 

Wind Mills, ... 239 

Winspear, Horatio, 130 

Winspear, WiUiam, ... .61, 121, 135, 251 
" Bridge, (See Bridges) 

Saw Mill, (See Saw Mills) 
Wolcott, James, 130 



Wolf, John, 61, 121 

Woodard, Eron, . . 105, 128, 135, 199, 212, 
222, 228, 230, 233, 251 

" George H., 312 

James H., 232, 235, 312 

Woodson, Daniel, 180, 183 

Wood's Bull Plow, 70, 82 

Women Spin and Weave, 71 

World 's Fair in Chicago, 230 

Woolen Factory, 198, 200, 205 

Wright, Henry A., 212, 218, 230, 232 

" Rev. Louis A., 229 

Y. 
Young, Jacob, . . .104, 105, 106, 111, 121 

Adam, 121 

" Philip, 106 

Young People 's Association, 228 



331 



6 190^ 



/.PK jJj l^ij2