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Full text of "History of the town of Haverhill, New Hampshire"

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HISTORY 



OF THE 



TOWN OF HAVERHILL 



NEW HAMPSHIRE 



By 
WILLIAM F. WHITCHER 



1919 






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At 




PREFACE 

In 1840 Grant Powers caused to be published " Historical Sketches of 
the Coos Country and Vicinity." The major part of this history was 
devoted to the early settlement of Haverhill. 

Bittinger's "History of Haverhill," published in 1888, served to show 
the need of a carefully prepared authentic history of the town that would 
preserve for future generations a record of their ancestors who suffered 
so many privations that their descendents might enjoy the comforts of 
civilization. 

At the urgent request of his friends, William F. Whitcher consented 
to undertake the work and for some years devoted his time to interview- 
ing aged people, visiting cemeteries, looking up records, etc. It was his 
aim and hope to fully complete and publish this history, but before he 
could finish the work he was stricken with what proved to be his last ill- 
ness. His earthly career closed on the thirty-first day of May, 1918. 

As a public speaker Mr. Whitcher was often called upon to deliver 
orations and addresses; if not a graceful he was a strong and impressive 
speaker. When much interested he spoke with animation and at times 
with an eloquence which rarely failed to stir the feelings of his hearers. 

He took a prominent part in the legislative work during his services in 
the State Legislature both in the committee room and in debate. 

He did naught to extenuate his faults, nor did he magnify his virtues. 
He suffered no man to prevent him from exercising his own judgment and 
expressing his own opinion. He was independent in forming his convic- 
tions and positive and outspoken in advocating them. He suffered at 
times from the mis judgment of his fellow citizens. 

He contributed liberally to the support of the church; a constant 
attendant upon divine service and listened with attention to the sermon. 
A great reader, he collected a large and valuable library. His collection 
of books bearing on genealogy, history and biography was one of the most 
extensive and valuable in the state. 

In politics he was true to his political friends and fair with his political 
enemies. 

In private life his genial manners and fine conversational powers made 
him a most desirable and interesting companion. 

His death left a void in the community which will not soon be filled. 

The history is almost wholly as it came from the author's hands. A 
few expressions have been changed and some parts have been slightly 



rearranged, but these changes are only such as the author himself would 
doubtless have made in the final revision. To him belongs the credit 
of the whole. 

It was not possible to give full genealogies, many of the biographical 
sketches are regrettably incomplete and no history ever was free from 
errors. 

Had Mr. Whitcher lived to publish this work proper credit would have 
been given to the many who assisted him in collecting information. As 
it is the thanks must be general. 

The publication of the history is made possible through the public 
spirit of the town, as shown by the vote at the annual meeting of March, 
1918: 

"Voted, That a committee consisting of Henry W. Keyes, E. Bertram Pike and George 
E. Cummings be appointed to purchase the History of Haverhill manuscript by Hon. 
William F. Whitcher and cause the same to be printed and placed on sale." 

G. E. C 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I— GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

Haverhill — One op Six in 170,000 Names — Named for Haverhill, Mass. — ■ 
John Hazen a Discoverer — Fortunate in Location — Rich in Drives — 
Irregular in Shape — Hitchcock's Description — Dearth of Lakes and 
Ponds — Ores and Metals — The Whetstone Industry — Lime and Soap- 
stone — Roads — Local Names — Farming Town but Filled with Vil- 
lages 1-8 



CHAPTER II— INDIANS, AND FIRST VISIT OF WHITES 

Little Known of Indians — "The Swift Deer Hunting Coosucks" — Have 
Decreased — Penhallow Tells Us in 1704 of Corn Planted High Up the 
River at Coos — Capt. John Stark — Capt. Peter Powers in 1754 — Maj. 
Robert Rogers in 1759 — Survey Made by Thomas Blanchard 9-14 



CHAPTER III— THE CHARTER AND PROPRIETARY 

John Hazen and Jacob Bailey in Coos in 1760 — The Promised Char- 
ters by Governor Wentworth — Began Settlement in 1761 — Charter 
Granted May 18, 1763 — Hazen Looked Out for Friends — First Meeting 
Held in Plaistow in June, 1763 — Twenty-five More Held — Division of 
Land — Grants for Mills — The Piermont Controversy 15-31 



CHAPTER IV— SETTLEMENT AND FIRST SETTLERS 

Friendship between Hazen and Bailey : Hazen Came up in 1672 — His Char- 
acter Seen in First Settlers — Brief Sketches of Each — Joshua Howard, 
Timothy Bedel, John Page, John Hurd, Asa Porter, Charles 
Johnston, and Others — Town Meetings — Census Growth from 1767 to 
1773 32-65 



CHAPTER V— ATTEMPTED SECESSION AND REVOLUTIONARY WAR 

Haverhill During the War of the Revolution — Officers Appointed by 
the Exeter Government — Cause of Disaffection in Coos and Attempted 
Secession — Its History and the Result — Haverhill Stood by the Patriot 
Cause — Col. Hurd Leaves Town on Col. Porter's Return Home — In 
Double Revolt — Names of Haverhill Soldiers — One Hundred and 
Nineteen Men 66-82 



VI CONTENTS 



CHAPTER VI— READJUSTMENT AFTER THE WAR 

Readjustment Came after the War — Depreciated Currency — Mr. Powers 
Concludes His Work — Tories Asked To Leave Town — Paper Currency 
Voted To Be Issued — Census, 1790-1800 — Difficulty in Securing 
Selectmen — Vaccination Controversy — Brook and Corner Outgrow- 
ing the Plain — Federalists in Power — Haverhill, a Community of 
Farmers — Social Life — Each Home a Manufactory — Church and 
Tavern 83-96 



CHAPTER VII— CHURCHES 

Oldest of Organizations in Town — The Church — Mr. Powers Called as 
Pastor in 1765 — Town Divided into Two Parishes — House at Horse 
Meadow Built First — Ladd Street Organized in 1790 — Discussion Over 
Tax Rate for Ministers — Difficulty Settled — Controversy with 
Church at Newbury over Timothy Barron and Captain Wesson — 
John Smith Settled by Town as Minister — Grant Powers — Bought 
Methodist Episcopal Church at Corner — "Smooth as a Bone" — North 
Parish — Pike — Methodist Episcopalian — Four Churches — Baptist — 
Union Meeting House, Now Adventist — Protestant Episcopal — 
Universalist — Evangelical Association — Mental Liberty Society — 
Pastors Born in Haverhill 97-135 



CHAPTER VIII— SCHOOLS AND EDUCATION 

Timothy Curtis, the First Schoolmaster — Schoolhouses at Two Hundred 
and Fifty Dollars Each — Woodsville House Cost Less — Interior of 
Old Schoolhouse — Text-books and Superintendence — First Commit- 
tee in 1815 — Records of Two Schools — Town Schools in 1885 — Unsuc- 
cessful Attempt to Secure a College — Haverhill Academy — List of 
Scholars and Teachers — Mr. Samuel Southard 136-161 



CHAPTER IX— CIVIC AND POLITICAL 

Town Meetings from 1800 till 1918 — What Was Done and What Failed — 
New Names — Exciting Events — New Town Hall and Clerk's Office — 
Town Seesawed — Appropriations Grew Larger Year by Year 162-216 



CHAPTER X— IN THE WARS OF THE REPUBLIC 

New Hampshire, a Federalist State — John Montgomery — Haverhill Town 
Meetings Take Part — Names of Soldiers at Stewartstown and 
Portsmouth — Moody Bedel — Mexican War — Captain Batchelder and 
Names of Soldiers — The War for the Union — Money Voted — Soldiers 
with Each Individual Record — The War with Spain — The World 
War — Names of Soldiers 217-244 



CONTENTS Vll 



CHAPTER XI— ROADS, BRIDGES AND CANALS 

Roads in the First Place Poor Apologies — Laid Out but Little Done — In 
1783 £100 Was Raised to Repair Highways— In 1807 $800 Was Raised 
and in 1898 and 1899 $8,000 — Three Bridges Across the River — For a 
Long Period All Toll, Now All Free — The Last Made Free in 1917 — 
The River and Attempts to Make It Navigable — All Failed — The Rail- 
road — President Quincy's Remarks — Connection with the Passumpsic — 
Great Celebration at Woodsville in 1853 — Additions to Road — Land 
Damages — Has Built Up Woodsville 245-271 



CHAPTER XII— COURTS AND BAR 

Courts Established in Grafton County in 1773 — Court House in Haverhill 
— First Term April 21, 1774 — Suspended During the Revolution — 
Court House Built — Dissatisfaction — Moved to Corner in 1793 — 
Burned in 1814 — Rebuilt in Connection with Academy — New Court 
House Erected in 1846 — Registry of Deeds, Probate Office and Jail 
Followed — Removed to Woodsville — The Bar — Moses Dow, Alden 
Sprague, George Woodward, John Nelson, David Sloane, Joseph Bell, 
Nathan B. Felton and Others — Gilchrist in Case of Statute Lawyers — 
Haverhill Police Court 272-300 



CHAPTER XIII— THE MEDICAL PROFESSION 
Dr. Samuel White Came to Newbury in 1763 — The Only Physician in Coos 

UNTIL AFTER REVOLUTIONARY WAR — Dr. MARTIN PHELPS FlRST IN HAVER- 

hill — Followed by Drs. Edmund Carleton, Ezra Bartlett, John 
Angier, Phineas Spalding, Henry B. Leonard, John McNab, Samuel P. 
Carbee, Charles R. Gibson — Present Physicians — Drs. Miller, Law- 
rence (died 1919), Dearborn, Speare — Dentists — "Goold" Davis — The 
Cottage Hospital 301-319 



CHAPTER XIV— NEWSPAPERS AND LIBRARIES 

Printing Was Begun in Haverhill Previous to 1800 — Four or Five Small 
Papers — In 1820 the "Grafton and Coos Intelligencer" Appeared; Sketch 
of No. 3, Vol. 1 — "New Hampshire Post," Anti-Masonic — Removed to 
Lebanon — " Democratic Republican," 1828-1863 — Woodsville Register 
1883 — Grafton County Register by Bittinger Press — Removed to 
Woodsville in 1890 — Sold to W. F. Whitcher in 1899 — Sold March 1, 1916 
to F.E. Thayer — The Social Library — The Haverhill — The Woodsville, 
Gift of Ira Whitcher — North Haverhill, Town Assisted in Building 
—Town Libraries 320-336 



Vlll CONTENTS 



CHAPTER XV— TAVERNS, MAILS AND STAGES 

Taverns — Capt. Uriah Morse — John Hazen — Luther Richardson — Capt. 
Joshua Howard — Mr. Cobleigh — Ezekiel Ladd — At the Corner — The 
Bliss — Edward Towle — The Williams — The Grafton — Joseph Balch, 
First Post Rider — Joseph Bliss, First Postmaster — Multiplied in 
Later Years — Stage Line Projected in 1811 — Stage Routes — First 
Stage Owners — Names of Postmasters 337-347 



CHAPTER XVI— BANKS AND BANKING 

Coos Bank Incorporated in 1803 — Large Territory Covered for Twenty 
Years — Grafton Bank Chartered in 1822 — Lasted till 1845 — Payson 

AND BrITTON — WOODSVILLE GUARANTY SAVINGS IN 1889 — WOODSVILLE LOAN 

and Banking Association in 1891 — Succeeded by the Woodsville 
National Bank 348-353 



CHAPTER XVII— LODGES, FRATERNITIES, SOCIETIES 

Free and Accepted Masons — Charter Granted in June, 1799 — Moved to 
Orford in 1809 — Charter Forfeited in 1844 — Restored in 1857 — Odd 
Fellowship, Charter Granted in 1848 — Surrendered in 1858 — New 
Lodge at Woodsville in 1874 — Grand Canton Albin — Owns Lodge 
Block — Mountain View Lodge, 1902 — Now Owns a Block — Patrons of 
Husbandry — Independent Order of Good Templars — Two Lodges K. of P. 
— Woman 's Reading Club — Three Chapters of Daughters of American 
Revolution 354-359 



CHAPTER XVIII— CRIMES AND THEIR PUNISHMENT 

Under N. H. Laws There Were 15 Crimes Punishable by Death — In 1917 
But One, Murder, Remains — Murder Trials— First, That of Toomalek — 
Thomas Webster — Josiah Burnham — His Trial and Execution — Sermon 
by "Priest" Sutherland — William F. Comins — Enos Dudley — Samuel 
Mills— Frank C. Almy 360-366 



CHAPTER XIX— MANUFACTURERS AND MERCANTILE 

Lumber, Beginning in 1764 — The Mills Built Since — At the Brook Various 
Flourishing Industries — Shovel Handles at Woodsville — Lime Burning 
— Pike Manufacturing Co. — The Merchants 367-371 



CHAPTER XX— THE CORNER, NORTH HAVERHILL, WOODSVILLE 

AND PIKE 

The Corner — Old Times — Livermore Reminiscence — Change Began after 
1860 — Fires Broke out in 1848 — Another in 1902 and Another in 1913 — 



CONTENTS IX 

Business Directory in 1827 and Another in 1916 — North Haverhill 
First Settled — Swasey's Mills — Slab City — Horse Meadow — Brier Hill 
and the Centre — Cornet Band — Town Hall in 1847 — New Town Hall — 
Notable Celebration op 150th Anniversary and Unveiling Soldiers' 
Monument, Woodsville — Governor's Farm — J. L. Woods — Growth 
Begun by Charles M. Weeks — Others C. B. Smith, Ira Whitcher, Ezra 
B. Mann — George E. Cummings — More than a Railroad Village — 
schoolhouses — business houses — banks — hotels — directory 1916 — 
East Haverhill and Pike 372-415 



CHAPTER XXI— THE CEMETERIES 

Six in Town — Haverhill — North Haverhill — Number Six — East Haver- 
hill — Haverhill Centre — Woodsville — Under Care of Cemetery Com- 
mission 416-418 



CHAPTER XXII— APPENDIX 

Officers — Court House — County Farm — Fisher Farm — Militia — Population 
— Superintendent Cummings' Address — Haverhill Bibliography. . . .419-447 



CHAPTER XXIII— GENEALOGY 



HISTORY 






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CHAPTER I 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

Haverhill — One of Six in 170,000 Names — Named for Haverhill, Mass. — John 
Hazen a Discoverer — Fortunate on Location — Rich in Drives — Irregular 
in Shape — Hitchcock's Description — Dearth of Lakes and Ponds — Ores 
and Metals — The Whetstone Industry — Lime and Soapstone — Roads — 
Local Names — Farming Town but Filled with Villages. 

The number of names of places and localities found in the "Century 
Dictionary Atlas" is about 170,000, and of these there are six Haverhills: 
One in England, and five in the United States. It is an English name. 

The English Haverhill is an ancient parish and market town in Essex 
and Suffolk counties, on a branch line of the Ancient Eastern Railway, 
eighteen miles southeast of Cambridge. It is delightfully situated in a 
valley and consists of one long street. It has a population of about 
4,500, and "a more typical or picturesque English town of its size — with 
its chequered lawns, its quaint shops, its pretty church and graveyard, 
and the fine trimly kept estates of its gentry and wealthier folk — it wouid 
be difficult to find." 

John Ward was born in Haverhill, England, November 5, 1606. He 
was the son of Rev. Nathaniel Ward, who came to New England in 
1634 and became the pastor of the church at Ipswich, Massachusetts 
Bay, then called Agawam, and the grandson of Rev. John Ward, a worthy 
and distinguished minister of the English town. John Ward, the younger, 
received the degree of A. B. in 1626, and that of A. M. in 1630, and in 
1639 followed his father to New England, where it was hoped that he 
might secure a settlement as pastor of some church. No opening ap- 
pearing, Nathaniel Ward conceived the idea of a new settlement on the 
Merrimack at a place called Pentucket, and in 1640 twelve families from 
Ipswich and Newbury worked their way up the river to the locality 
agreed upon and began the work of building homes in the wilderness. 
The new settlement grew rapidly, and in October, 1641, John Ward 
became the first minister. The Indian name of Pentucket was dropped, 
and in honor of their minister the name of his English birthplace was 
given to the new town — Haverhill. 

John Hazen (Hazzen) was born in Haverhill, Mass., August 11, 1731, 
the son of Moses and Abigail White Hazen. He was resident of that 
part of Haverhill known as Timberlane, which was found to be on the 
north side of the boundary line between New Hampshire and Massa- 
chusetts, on the settlement of that line in 1741. A part of this tract, 
2 1 



I HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

sometimes called Haverhill District, was incorporated by the New Hamp- 
shire government as the town of Hampstead January 19, 1749. John 
Hazen was one of the leading citizens of the new town and rendered 
valuable service in the old French war as an officer. He stood high in 
estimation of the Province authorities, and when in consideration of 
such service, he, with a large number of friends and relatives, was granted 
a township in the Cohos country on the Connecticut River, which he 
promised to settle, the township was given, at his request, the name of 
his native Massachusetts town, Haverhill. 

There are three other Haverhills in the United States, all small towns. 
Haverhill, Ohio, is in the southernmost county — Lawrence — was set- 
tled by a party led by Asa Boynton who went from Haverhill, N. H.; 
while the leading spirits in the settlement of the little towns of Haverhill, 
Iowa, and Haverhill, Kan., were from the Massachusetts town. 

The New Hampshire Haverhill is like no other New Hampshire town. 
Indeed, no two of these towns are alike. Towns, like people, differ. 
Each has a life peculiarly its own, depending upon geographical location, 
physical features, time and manner of its founding, character of its found- 
ers, the industries and customs of its people, its institutions, social, 
religious, educational and political. Haverhill has little or nothing in 
common with other Haverhills mentioned. It differs from the other 
towns of the state and county, indeed, from its next-door neighbors, 
Bath, Benton and Piermont. Newbury, Vt., is its twin sister. The 
charters of the two towns bear the same date. The leading grantees of 
each town were the same. John Hazen and Jacob Bayley headed the 
list of the Haverhill grantees and Jacob Bayley and John Hazen the list 
of Newbury proprietors. The twin towns were settled by the same class 
of people; their first church was the Haverhill and Newbury Church. 
They had for nearly a quarter of a century but one meeting house. 
Peter Powers was the minister of the two towns, but their growth and 
development has been along different lines. Each town has had its own 
peculiar life; each town has its own individuality. Haverhill is fortunate 
in location. Lying on the east of New England's great river, the Con- 
necticut, it is bounded on the west by Newbury, Vt., north by Bath, 
east by Benton, and south by Piermont, though a glance at the map will 
show that a small area in the southwestern section of the town is also 
bounded on the north and east by Piermont, an explanation of which 
will be given later. The parallel 44 degrees north latitude crosses about 
a mile below the southern boundary, and the meridian 72 degrees west 
longitude passes through the town about a mile east of the river. The 
length of the town on the river side is about ten miles and on the east 
about eight miles, with an average width of a little over six miles, the 
width on its northern boundary exceeding somewhat that of the south- 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 6 

era. The narrowest part, that from the village of North Haverhill 
eastward, is something less than six miles. The western boundary, 
conforming to the winding of the river, is very irregular. 

Few if any towns in New Hampshire, a state famous for its scenic 
beauty, have more of which to boast in natural attractiveness and charm 
than has Haverhill. Its ten miles and more of winding river down the 
valley from "the Narrows" of the Connecticut and the mouth of the 
Ammonoosuc at Woodsville, flanked on the right a part of the way in 
the broad intervals of the Great and Little Oxbow, and by the wooded 
hills of Newbury, the villages of Wells River, Newbur} r and the hamlet 
of South Newbury, and on the left by like Oxbow intervales, the rich 
uplands and the villages of Woodsville, North Haverhill and Haverhill 
Center, furnish Connecticut Valley prospect than which there is none 
more beautiful the entire length of the noble river. The Mount Gardner 
range stands at the north like a sentinel overlooking the town. The 
drive down the river to North Haverhill, through the Horse Meadow 
street, on over Brier Hill if one chooses, gives views unsurpassed. From 
the North Haverhill Village plateau, there is to the west the superb view 
of the beautiful Oxbow intervales, and to the east Black Mountain, Sugar 
Loaf, and, in the background overtopping all, grand old Moosilauke, 
finest of all the mountains of New Hampshire, standing solitary guard 
over the two beautiful valleys of the Connecticut and the Merrimack. 

The valley views from Ladd Street and Powder House Hill at "the 
Centre" are of unsurpassed loveliness, while the drive up through the 
valley of the Oliverian to East Haverhill, thence over the Limekiln road, 
or Brushwood road to the Centre then over the Pond road to Swiftwater 
just on the border of Bath, and thence over the hill to Woodsville, in 
case one did not choose to go from Swiftwater up over Bradley Hill to 
Benton, and turning there almost under the shadow of Moosehillock 
take the old County road to North Haverhill — this drive, or this 
series of drives, will be found all the way a wonder and delight. Haver- 
hill, with its rivers, its ponds, French and Woods, its hills and near 
mountains, its valleys and uplands, is a gem of beauty among beautiful 
New Hampshire towns. It has not, like the English Haverhill or its 
nearer godmother, the Massachusetts Haverhill, mills and machinery, 
manufactures and commerce of which to boast, but it has its unrivalled 
scenery, its fertile acres, its productive farms, its thrifty and prosperous 
villages, and its honorable history in which it may justly take worthy 
pride. 

The old historic Corner and Ladd Street, as well as Horse Meadow, 
are rich in old-time associations if not in modern hustle and business 
enterprise. East Haverhill, a little hamlet on the Oliverian — the railroad 
station is now named Oliverian — nestles at the foot of the hills, gateway 



4 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

on the east from Warren and Benton. Pike is Pike, that is all, the 
center of an industry known the world over for its manufacture of scythe 
stones, and in fact all stone sharpeners of edge tools, an industry which 
with its ramifications from Pike is a monopoly, if not indeed a trust. 
North Haverhill— once " Swasey's Mills," later "Slab City," now North 
Haverhill post office but "Blackmount" railroad station — beautiful 
village of residences and farm houses, centre of town official life, with 
town hall and town clerk's office, is no unimportant part of the town, 
and is the business centre for the Brier Hill and Centre sections. Then, 
in the extreme northwest corner, on a peninsula jutting down between 
the Ammonoosuc on the north and east, and the Connecticut on the west, 
lies Woodsville, alive, bustling, optimistic always, county seat, railroad 
centre, business resort for a large surrounding territory which patronizes 
its wholesale houses, with its concrete streets, sidewalks, its electric 
lights, its water and fire department service, opera house, high school, 
hotels, free postal delivery, its — well, — everything up-to-date — one of 
the most beautiful of northern New Hampshire villages. It would be an 
ideal summer resort had its residents time to make it such, but they are 
looking after things which they deem of more importance. Woodsville, 
with more than half the population of the town, the growth of a little 
more than a single generation, is in a sense the new Haverhill. It has as 
a village but little past. Its annals require but little space in a town 
history. Woodsville's history lies in the future. 

The area of the town is about 35,000 acres, much more than one half 
of which is under profitable cultivation, and in the value of its agricultural 
products it maintains the highest rank, in some decades standing first in 
the state, according to the official census returns. It has a large acreage 
of excellent pasturage, and its woodland, such as has escaped the 
lumberman's axe, has a constantly increasing value. Much attention 
has been given in recent years to caring for the second growth of white 
pine, birch, maple and hemlock which has come up where the original 
forest has been cut by the lumberman, and increasing attention will be 
paid in the future. There are but few acres which are not valuable 
either for farming purposes or for the growth of wood and timber. 

The most extensive intervals or meadows on the Connecticut River 
in the state are to be found in Haverhill, and in Newbury, Vt., where 
they are from one half to more than a mile in width. These lands are 
very fertile, being composed of the finest silt, and are enriched nearly 
every year by a coating of mud from the turbid spring freshets. Back 
of these intervals are terraces of greater or less width. The lower 
terraces are of the same material as the intervals, very produc- 
tive, but are not overflowed. There are higher terraces, commonly 
known as plains, which usually show an intermixture of sand or 



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HISTORY OF HAVERHILL O 

gravel. As to the extent and formation of these terraces, Professor 
Hitchcock says: 1 

From Wells River to Wait's River, at Bradford, the lowest terrace or interval is one 
half mile to one mile in width; and the river sweeps in broad curves from side to side 
between its bordering upper terraces. By the largest of the bends called the Oxbow, 
the river traverses three and a half miles to make one half mile of entrance, by which a 
beautiful expanse of interval is added to Newbury. An old channel formerly left this 
and as much more on its east side. . . . North Haverhill is situated on the highest 
normal terrace, 107 feet above the river and 27 feet higher than the corresponding 
terrace opposite on which Newbury is built. This difference may be partly due to the 
fact that here was one of the principal outlets of the melting ice-sheet that continued to 
cover Moosilauke and the high water shed after it had withdrawn from the Connecticut 
Valley. East of North Haverhill, where there are now only insignificant brooks, we 
find an abundance of sand and coarse gravel which came from this source. It is dis- 
posed in irregular slopes, in some portions mounded or ridged, and rising in about one 
mile 250 feet, beyond which the same materials extend nearly level to French pond. 
Taking the road to Haverhill town house, 2 we pass a ridge of coarse gravel or slightly 
modified drift, which rises from 40 to 100 feet above the village. Northeast from this, 
there is a nearly level plain of fine alluvium, with beds of clay. A short distance further 
east we come to a sand ridge which extends about half a mile along the road, rising 80 
feet by a gentle slope, and then abruptly 75 feet more, like the face of a terrace to a level 
plain on which the town house stands, 247 feet above North Haverhill, and 752 feet 
above the sea. This plain, its western steep slope, and the first ridge below are all of sand, 
with none of the coarse gravel characteristic of kames. Similar deposits of fine material 
reach for a half mile on each side of this road, sometimes in level plains of small extent, 
but generally in varying slopes, by which they are continuous from the town house to 
the upper terrace by the river. 

The remainder of the way to French Pond, is comparatively level, being at first a 
plain of stratified, coarse-grained sand, which extends north one half mile to the brook; 
thence for a mile and a half further, sand or coarse rounded gravel extends along the road 
on its east side as far north as French Pond. Immediately about this pond the modi- 
fying action of the water is not apparent, but the surface is composed of heaped and 
ridged morainic drift, over which the road passes. This material is, however, in the 
main, level with irregular hollows and depressions of over 10 to 20 feet. Its rock frag- 
ments are angular, but small in size, seldom exceeding two feet. A coarse morainic 
ridge extends more than a mile on the east side of this level alluvial valley, with a height 
of about 125 feet above it, while on the west rises the precipitious face of Brier Hill. 
Three miles southeast are the serrated mountains which extend north from Owl's Head; 
and nine miles southeast is the high massive ridge of Moosilauke. 

By estimate French Pond is about 770 feet above the level of the sea, and the water- 
shed on the road northwest is from 40 to 50 feet higher. This hollow, bounded on both 
sides by high hills, seems to have been for a time the outlet of the melting ice at the north, 
before the way was opened westward for the Lower Ammonoosuc River. The glacier 
which covered the mountains at the southeast also contributed to these deposits of modi- 
fied drift, as is shown by the high moraine mentioned, and by others, three fourths of a 
mile from the town house, at the mouth of a gap in the first high range of hills. The 
highest of these last has been modified by a current of water. It presents on the west 
side a steep escarpment of clear sand, reaching from 980 to 12,00 feet above the sea. 
The rest are at the east against the hillside. On the northwest nothing intervenes to 

1 "Geology of New Hampshire," Vol. 3, pp. 29, 30. 

2 The old town house which was located at Centre Haverhill. 



6 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

the town house and North Haverhill, 300 and 550 feet below, where we find the sand 
and clay which were brought down by these glacial streams. 

At Haverhill there are only scanty remains of modified drift above the interval, which 
is nearly a mile wide. The highest terrace, best shown on the Vermont side, is 80 feet 
above the river; enough of it is left on the east side to indicate that it was once contin- 
uous across the valley. Hall's Brook and Oliverian Brook, which have their mouths here 
opposite to each other, have brought down large amounts of modified drift, which is 
deposited along the lower portion of their course. On the former this slopes in one mile 
to 125 feet above the upper terrace of the Connecticut. On the east side only slight 
vestiges of this terrace are found, and we have a direct rise of 220 feet from the interval 
to the modified drift of Oliverian Brook, which thus commences at a greater height than is 
reached in the first mile on Hall's Brook. In two miles this slopes upward 100 feet, or 
to 340 feet above the river, being well shown all the way, and at one place nearly a mile 
wide. These streams are both of large size, but the deposits along their source cannot 
be attributed to their ordinary action, any more than the modified drift east of North 
Haverhill is due to the brooks there. All these deposits are plainly of the same date and 
from one cause — the melting of the ice sheet. 

The glacial period was generous to Haverhill. It gave the town its 
fertile soil, interval, terrace or plain and hills, a diversified and some- 
what irregular surface, but with hardly an acre useless and valueless. 
Unlike the neighboring towns Haverhill has no elevations which can be 
dignified with the name of mountains. Black Hill on the east, a part of 
which is in the town of Benton, is the highest of Haverhill's hills, and this, 
perhaps as well as Catamount Hill and Iron Ore Hill in the southern 
part of the town, would be regarded as mountains if located in the 
southern sections of the state, but they are only near mountains in 
the northern region. There is a range of hills in the northwest part of the 
town lying to the east of Horse Meadow and running northerly to the 
Bath line, and another quite well defined range, of which Brier Hill is 
the highest elevation, traverses the central part from north to south. 

Haverhill, unlike many of its neighbors, does not abound in lakes or 
ponds. Woods Pond in the southern part and French Pond in the 
northern part are the only bodies of still water, and these are each com- 
paratively small. 

Equally unimportant are its streams aside from the Connecticut which 
has so slight a fall within the town limits that it furnishes no power which 
can be utilized. For a few rods above its mouth the Ammonoosuc flows 
through Haverhill, and its excellent power is utilized at the present time 
in supplying the village of Woodsville with water, electric lighting and 
other service. 

There are two brooks emptying into the Connecticut: Poole Brook, 
the mouth of which is a little to the south of the village of North Haver- 
hill, is formed on the union of two brooks, the Clark having its rise in the 
northeast part of the town near Benton line and forming a junction near 
the centre of the town with another flowing out of French Pond and thence 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL / 

to the south of Brier Hill through North Haverhill Village to the Con- 
necticut. This brook in former years furnished power for sawmills and 
potato-starch mills, but these no longer exist, and its power is now utilized 
only by a sawmill and gristmill at North Haverhill. The Oliverian has 
its rise on the western slope of Moosilauke in Benton, flows through the 
Benton meadows and enters Haverhill near its southeast corner. It is 
joined at East Haverhill by a tributary known as the North Branch, 
which also has its rise in Benton near Sugar Loaf. The Oliverian flows 
through a valley containing excellent farms falls precipitously between 
Lack! Street and Haverhill Corner to the Meadows and enters the Con- 
necticut near Bedel's bridge. In the past the power of this stream has 
been utilized both on the North Branch and the main stream for sawmills, 
tannery, paper-mill and other manufactures now extinct. It is still util- 
ized in connection with steam at Pike, and also in a comparatively small 
way at what is known as "The Brook" at the southerly end of Ladd 
Street. The power furnished by these streams is variable, there being a 
full volume in the spring and rainy seasons while in the summer it is of 
little account. It is believed, however, that both streams would give 
steady power of great value by the construction of reservoirs, the cost of 
which would be small as compared with the electric power which could 
be generated. It is safe to predict that such utilization will yet be made. 

As is seen from Professor Hitchcock's description, the soil is varied. 
Along the Connecticut it is alluvial, as it is in some sections of the Olive- 
rian Valley. On the North Haverhill terrace or plain it is a clayey loam, 
while the remainder possesses the qualities of the ordinary uplands of 
New Hampshire. The general rock area is what is known as Bethlehem 
gneiss, but other varieties are granite, common gneiss, hornblende schist, 
limestone and soapstone. Granite of fine quality has been quarried, and 
the French Pond granite, both pink and gray, is of fine quality, as is also 
that in the southern part of the town near Haverhill Corner. It is quite 
extensively used in monumental work. A fine quality of limestone is 
found along the north branch of the Oliverian and, previous to the con- 
struction of the railroad, lime of the best quality was preserved in large 
quantities. There is a vein of soapstone in the northern part of the town, 
but an attempt to quarry and market it, made nearly half a century ago, 
was not found to be practicable or profitable. The whetstone quarries 
on Cutting Hill near Pike, in Haverhill and Piermont, have been worked 
successfully for half a century or so, with large profit, and the immense 
beds of this stone show no signs of exhaustion. 

The town, however, can hardly be called rich in ores and minerals. 
Native arsenic is found in small quantities on the Frank Kimball farm, 
and iron from Iron Ore Hill, near Haverhill Corner, was at one time 
hauled to a smelting furnace on the Vermont side of the river. What- 



8 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

ever the future may reveal, Haverhill is today as it has been from its 
beginning, essentially a farming town, and has just reason to be proud of 
her rank among the agricultural towns of the state. 

The town has an excellent system of roads. The three principal ones 
are the River road from Haverhill Corner through Ladd Street, North 
Haverhill and Horse Meadow to Woodsville, now a part of the state 
boulevard system, the County road from Ladd Street through the centre 
of the town to what is known as the Union Meeting House, where turning 
to the right it continues to Benton, to the left to North Haverhill, and 
over Brier Hill to near the Bath line, and in the same direction changing 
its name to the Pond road to Swiftwater. Then there is the Brook road 
up the Oliverian Valley to Benton Flats; the Limekiln road running 
irregularly over the hills and joining the County road at two different 
points; then "over the Hill" road from Woodsville to Swiftwater; the 
Brushwood road from Pike to the County road and North Haverhill, 
and several short roads intersecting into these named. A liberal policy 
has been pursued in their maintenance. 

Local names have been applied to different sections of the town. "The 
Corner" is, indeed, the corner at the southwest. "The Brook" desig- 
nates the smaller village in the valley on the north of the corner and 
formerly the location of various manufactures. A little further up the 
river is "Ladd Street," among the first localities to be settled. Then 
"Dow Plain," now the residence of Governor Keyes, opposite Newbury 
Village, and so called because long owned by Gen. Moses Dow. Still 
further, "Swasey's Mills," "Slab City," now North Haverhill. North- 
erly and still along the river "Horse Meadow," early settled, and at its 
northerly end the county farm, almshouse and jail. "Cobleigh's Land- 
ing," where the Cottage Hospital now stands, was the starting point of 
the lumber rafts down the river in the ante-railroad days, and in the 
northwest corner is Woodsville, once a dense forest of big pines, now a 
railroad centre, county seat and the most important village in the town. 
Following up the Oliverian from "the Brook" is Pike, seat of the famous 
whetstone industry, and further up towards the east, East Haverhill. 
Northerly from East Haverhill are the " Jeffers Neighborhood," "Morse 
Hill " and " Lime Kiln," to the east from North Haverhill is the "Centre," 
with its Union Meeting House, now Advent Church, some times known 
in former days as "Bangstown," and to the northeast, beautiful for situ- 
ation, " Brier Hill." These are names which will more or less often occur 
in the following pages, and this word of explanation may not be amiss at 
the beginning. 



CHAPTER II 



INDIANS, AND FIRST VISIT OF WHITES 

Little Known of Indians — "The Swift Deer Hunting Coosucks" — Herd De- 
creased — Penhallen Tells us in 1704 of Corn Planted High up the River 
at Coos — Capt. John Stulk — Capt. Peter Powers in 1754 — Maj. Robert 
Rogers in 1759 — Survey Made by Thomas Blanchard. 

But little is definitely known of the Indian dwellers in the Upper Val- 
ley of the Connecticut, known to the people of the Massachusetts and 
Connecticut tow T ns in the seventeenth and early part of the eighteenth 
century as Coos, or the Coos country. There were Indians, however, 
and the name given to the section is of Indian origin, and has various 
spellings: Corvass, Cohass, Cohos, Coos, the latter being the more mod- 
ern. Upper Coos embraced the broad intervals near the present town 
of Lancaster and the territory to the northward, and Lower Coos 
embraced that portion of the Connecticut Valley extending from the 
Narrows above Woodsville as far south as Lyme and Thetford, Vt. 
The name, according to tradition, signifies "a place of deer," "a place 
of tall pines," "wide valley," "crooked river," but tradition is not very 
trustworthy. 

Relics of Indian occupation of various kinds have been found in Haver- 
hill. Certain mounds along the meadows have been regarded by experts 
as the work of Indian hands. Stone arrow and spear heads, stone mortars 
and pestles, as w r ell as other implements and utensils used by Indians have 
been found on the meadow and upland farms bordering on the river. 
About a mile north of the Haverhill railroad station and but a short dis- 
tance from the track is a smooth ledge of rock on which is drilled a hole 
about two feet in diameter and two and a half feet deep, which it is claimed 
was used by Indians as a mortar in which was pounded the corn raised 
on the Oxbow meadows. The first white man visiting Coos found a 
cleared space on these meadows, on both sides the river, which had been 
used by Indians as a planting ground and there w T ere numerous other 
indications that this locality had at some time been quite extensively 
occupied before its settlement by whites. 

It is not probable, however, that Haverhill, or for that matter, Coos, 
either upper or lower, was ever the permanent home of any Indian tribe. 
The Indians of the interior of New England were of the great Algonquin 
race, and were called by the seashore tribes of the race, Nipmucks, or 
fresh water Indians, and the places they occupied were always in the 

9 



10 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

vicinity of ponds, lakes and rivers. There were twelve tribes or families 
of these Nipmucks. The Pemigewassets occupied the valley now bear- 
ing that name; the Nashuas, one of the most powerful of the tribes, were 
found in the southern part of New Hampshire; the Amoskeags were at 
the falls on the Merrimac, now bearing that tribal name; the Souhegans 
were on the Souhegan River; the Penacooks on the Merrimac intervals 
above and below Concord; the Swamscotts near Exeter; the Piscata- 
quakes on the Piscataqua; the Ossipees had a wigwam city at Ossipee 
lake; "the beautiful Winnepissaukies " were found by the great lake; 
the Pequakees had villages in the fertile valley of Pequaket; "the death- 
dealing Androscoggins " had lodges on the banks and at the sources of the 
Androscoggin, while "the swift deer hunting Coosucks" were those who 
hunted their game on the hills and cultivated in their rude way the Con- 
necticut intervals of the Coos County. It is not believed that these 
Nipmuck tribes or families dwelt for any considerable length of time in 
one place, but were nomadic in their mode of life. It is also believed 
that previous to the settlement of Coos, the numbers of the Coosucks had 
been greatly decreased by disease. In any event the few degenerates 
who lingered in the valley when settlement by the whites began soon 
disappeared. 

The first visits of white men to the Coos meadows were involuntary. 
When the village of Deerfield, in Massachusetts, was destroyed by 
French and Indians February 29, 1704, among the one hundred and 
twelve captives, men, women and children, carried to Canada, was the 
Deerfield minister, the Rev. John Williams. He lived to return, and 
under the title of "A Redeemed Captive Returning to Zion," published 
an account of his captivity and sufferings. He says that at the mouth of 
the White River, the company divided, a part of the captors and captives 
going up that stream, while the others ascended the Connecticut and 
spent some time at the Coos meadows, where their provisions giving out, 
they only escaped starvation by hunting and fishing, and where two of 
the captives, Daniel Hix and Jacob Holt actually died of hunger. The 
significance of his narrative lies in the fact that he mentions Coos as if 
the region were well enough known, even at that time, to need no other 
description than the mere name. Penhallow also in this same year, 1704, 
mentions a French Indian fort, and corn planted high up on the Connec- 
ticut River at Coos. Just how and when the section had previously 
become known to the whites is still unexplained. 

In February, 1709, five years after the burning of Deerfield, the town 
was again attacked by Indians, and one Thomas Baker was taken cap- 
tive, and was carried up the Connecticut through Coos to Canada. Ran- 
somed the next year, he returned by the same route to his home, and thus 
gained some knowledge of the route, and of the different families of Indians 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 11 

in the sections through which he passed. In 1712, with the purpose of 
destroying a body of Indians having their encampment somewhere in the 
Pemigewasset Valley, he raised a companj'- of thirty-four men and with a 
friendly Indian for a guide started northward on his expedition. He 
proceeded directly to the Coos meadows, in what is now Haverhill and 
Newbury. Then following the lead of his Indian guide, he passed up the 
Oliverian, thence over the height of land south of and in plain sight of 
Moosilauke and then down the Indian Asquamchumauke, in Warren — 
now bearing the name of Baker's River — through Wentworth, Rumney 
and Plymouth. In Rumney he surprised an encampment of Indians, 
some of whom he killed while others escaped. He destroyed their wig- 
wams and secured a large amount of furs. He departed hastily south- 
ward pursued by the Indians, but by strategy suggested by his Indian 
guide he evaded his pursuers and arrived in Dunstable without the loss 
of a single man. Whiton, in his history of New Hampshire, gives the 
date of Baker's expedition as 1724, but he is manifestly in error since the 
journal of the Massachusetts Annual Court shows that the claim of 
Lieut. Thomas Baker, as "commander of a company in a late expedition 
to Coos and over to Merrimack River and so to Dunstable," for Indian 
scalps brought in was allowed and paid in 1712, and an additional allow- 
ance for the same was made in June of that year, with the promotion of 
Lieutenant Baker to the rank of Captain. This fixes the time of Baker's 
visit to Coos beyond question. 

It may be asked why no steps were taken in the direction of the settle- 
ment of what was thus early known to be a desirable country. The 
answer is not far to seek. From about the year 1665 to 1760 there was 
almost unbroken warfare between France and England, with consequent 
hostilities between the French colonists and their Indian allies, and the 
English colonists in America. The danger of pushing onward the Eng- 
lish frontier settlements was too great to be undertaken. But there 
were brief periods of respite. One of these followed the treaty of peace 
between France and England signed at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. Tak- 
ing advantage of the comparative quiet the New Hampshire government 
began to prepare for the settlement of the Connecticut Valley. Settle- 
ment had been made at Charlestown — known as Number Four — and 
had become established after repeated assaults upon it and after having 
been once abandoned. The question of the settlement of Coos began 
to be agitated. 

In the summer of 1751, several hunters went up the river from Number 
Four as far as the mouth of the Ammonoosuc, making somewhat careful 
examination of the country on both sides the river. In 1752 Governor 
Wentworth began making township grants in the valley, and Captain 
Symes of North Hampton made application for charters for townships 



12 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

six miles square at Coos, these charters to be granted to four hundred 
men who proposed to become actual settlers. In his petition he said 
that several of the three hundred and forty men already engaged in the 
project had been to Coos and were favorably impressed with the possi- 
bility of settlement. The would-be settlers were for the most part from 
the towns of Newmarket, North Hampton, East Hampton, Rye and 
South Hampton. It was proposed to cut a road from Number Four to 
Coos, to lay four townships, two on each side the river, opposite to each 
other, where the towns of Haverhill and Piermont on the east side and 
Newbury and Bradford on the west now are. The settlers were to have 
courts of judicatory and other civil privileges of their own and were to 
be under strict military discipline. The French authorities in Canada 
learned of this plan, and a deputation of French and Indians appeared 
at Number Four, remonstrating in threatening terms against it and in 
the interest of safety it was for the time being abandoned. Other plans 
came into being. In the spring of 1752 John Stark, — the General John 
Stark of the Revolution, — William Stark, Amos Eastman of Hollis and 
David Stimson of Londonderry, while on a hunting expedition in the 
Baker's River country were surprised by a party of Indians in what is 
now the town of Rumney. William Stark escaped by flight, Stimson 
was killed, and John Stark and Eastman were taken prisoners, and were 
carried to Canada captives. They were led up over the height of land 
from the Baker's River valley, down the Oliverian and directly through 
the already much talked of Oxbow meadows. They returned home the 
same summer over practically the same route. The account they gave 
of the country increased the desire to explore and settle it. But the 
renewal of hostilities between France and England was inevitable, and 
plans of settlement were postponed. Fearing, however, the establish- 
ment of a French garrison at Coos, Governor Wentworth determined to 
send a company to explore the region, not this time by way of Number 
Four, but over the trail by which Stark and Eastman had been taken 
when captured the year before. Accordingly on the tenth of March, 
1753, a company of sixteen men officered by Col. Zaccheus Lovewell 
and Maj. John Talford, with Capt. Caleb Page as surveyor and John 
Stark as guide left Concord — then called Rumford — proceeded up the 
Merrimac, the Pemigewasset and Baker's rivers, marking out a road 
and cutting out the fallen trees, and, after crossing the height of land 
at what is now Warren Summit, proceeded westerly reaching the Con- 
necticut at Moose meadow in Piermont March 17. They remained 
but one night there, for fearing an attack from Indians, they returned 
hastily over the same route reaching Concord after an absence of thirteen 
days. The Lovewell expedition was a failure except for the fact that it 
had marked out a route from Concord to Coos. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 13 

The next year, 1745, Capt. Peter Powers of Hollis, Lieut. James 
Stevens and Ensign Ephraim Hale, both of Townsend, Mass., led another 
company for the exploration of Coos. A somewhat detailed account of 
this expedition was recorded in a journal kept by Captain Powers, which 
is now in the possession of the Connecticut Historical Societ} r , and from 
which the Rev. Grant Powers in his " History of the Coos County " makes 
liberal quotation. The company rendezvoused at Concord and left for 
their expedition June 15. They went by way of Contoocook up the Mer- 
rimac to the mouth of the Pemigewasset, and thence up that river follow- 
ing the path marked out the previous year by Colonel Lovewell, reaching 
the Connecticut at Moose Meadow in Piermont, June 25. Proceeding 
thence northward through the wide intervals of the river, they "encamped 
on the banks of a large stream which came out of the east," and which is 
described as "furnishing the best of falls and conveniences for all sorts of 
mills." This stream was the Oliverian, and the place of encampment 
was undoubtedly at "the Brook," and very likely on the plot near the 
Gen. John Montgomery house. The next day they proceeded up the 
river, Captain Powers making note of the clear intervals on both sides 
the river later known as the Great Oxbow in Newbury and the Little 
Oxbow in Haverhill. (In these pages the term Oxbow will be used for 
convenience sake as meaning the latter, the Haverhill tract.) On reach- 
ing the Ammonoosuc just north of what is now Woodsville, they found it 
too wide and deep for fording, and they were obliged to build a canoe 
before they could cross. They continued their journey northward 
through the highlands lying between the Connecticut and the Ammonoo- 
suc, on through the present towns of Bath, Monroe, Littleton, Dalton, 
over the intervals below and above Lancaster as far as Northumberland 
where they arrived July 2. Their stock of provisions had become much 
reduced and Captain Powers made his preparations to return. They 
had met no Indians on their march, but a little to the north of their 
Northumberland encampment they found a place where Indians had been 
making canoes and which had been abandoned but a little before. The 
fifth of July found them on their return just below the mouth of Wells 
River on the west side of the Connecticut when they camped for the 
night. July 6, they went down through the cleared interval crossing into 
Haverhill below the Newbury Oxbow at what is now the Keyes farm. 
Thence they marched south by east about three miles and camped on 
high ground near the Oliverian, on what Captain Powers called "the best 
of upland covered by some quantities of large white pine." This place of 
encampment was probably at what later became Haverhill Corner, since 
Captain Powers description answers to that given the Corner by its first 
settlers. The remainder of their march to Concord was over the route 
they had previously taken on their journey northward. 



14 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Captain Powers brought back glowing reports of the wonderful fertility 
and great resources of Coos, but the threatened French and Indian war 
soon broke out, and with New England frontiers exposed to the incursions 
of the French and their savage Indian allies, any plans which had been 
made for the occupancy of the new country were delayed. 

In 1759, a portion of the command of Maj. Robert Rogers, who had 
been sent by General Amherst from Crown Point to destroy the Abenaki 
village of Indians on the St. Francis, a little above its junction with the 
St. Lawrence, fearing retreat to Crown Point had been cut off after the 
purpose of the expedition had been successfully accomplished, attempted 
to return by way of Lake Memphremagog and the Connecticut River. 
It had been arranged that provisions for his command would be sent up 
the river from Number Four. Reaching the spot designated, supposed 
to be the at mouth of the Ammonoosuc, with his men nearly perishing 
from hunger, he found that the relief party had come up the river, and 
after waiting a little had returned taking the supplies with them. The 
situation was desperate. Rogers with two others made his way down 
the river on a rude raft and returned with boats for his men, but many of 
them had wandered into the forests and perished. Of the one hundred 
and forty-two men who left St. Francis, no less than forty-nine died from 
starvation and exposure in the wilderness or were tortured to death by the 
Indians. Remains of some of these were found by the early settlers some 
years later on the meadows and nearby uplands. 

In the early spring of 1760, Thomas Blanchard of Dunstable was 
employed by Governor Wentworth to make a survey of Connecticut 
River between Number Four or Charlestown and the mouth of the 
Ammonoosuc. At the end of each six miles in a straight line, he was to 
erect a boundary or mark a tree on each side the river, these boundaries 
marking the north and south limits of townships to be granted later. 
This survey was made in March, the surveying party going up on the ice. 
Boundaries were duly set each six miles, except for the northernmost pair 
of towns, these being about seven miles, the Ammonoosuc having been 
previously determined upon as the northern boundary. 

All this was in anticipation of settlement, but the clangers threatening 
from the north had made the actual undertaking of settlement unadvisa- 
able. With the surrender of Montreal to the British in September, 
1760, and the consequent downfall of French Empire on the American 
continent, these dangers were practically ended and the coveted Connecti- 
cut Valley region, especially the meadows and uplands of Lower Coos 
were open to occupancy. 



CHAPTER III 

THE CHURCH AND PROPRIETARY 

John Hazen and Jacob Bailey in Coos in 1760 — The Promised Charters by Gov- 
ernor Wentworth — Began Settlement in 1761 — Charter Granted May 18, 
1763 — Hazen Looked Out for Friends — First Meeting Held in Plaistow 
in June, 1763 — Twenty-five More Held — Division of Land — Grants for 
Mills — The Piermont Controversy. 

In the spring of 1760 a regiment of New Hampshire troops, under 
command of Col. John Goffe of Bedford, was sent by Governor Went- 
worth to Canada to aid in the completion of its conquest. It took part 
in the siege of Montreal and was present at its surrender September 8, 
1760. Four officers of this regiment were destined to have large influence 
in the settlement and early history of Coos, and especially of the towns of 
Haverhill and Newbury. Lieut. -Col. Jacob Bayley, Capt. John Hazen, 
First Lieut. Jacob Kent all of Hampstead, and Second Lieut. Timothy 
Bedel of Salem, on their return home, after the surrender passed through 
Lower Coos. The Oxbow meadows, on both sides the river, of which 
they had doubtless previously heard, attracted their attention, and they 
spent several days in the vicinity giving them and the adjacent uplands 
a somewhat careful examination. 

They determined to secure, if possible, charters of two townships on 
opposite sides of the river, in which they might make permanent homes 
for themselves, and on their arrival home they lost no time in making 
application to Governor Wentworth for such charters. Bayley and 
Hazen had each rendered valuable military service which gave them favor 
with the governor, and they also had influential friends whom the 
governor wished to please. There is little doubt that they were given 
assurance by the governor that the desired grants would be made, since 
it is highly improbable that in the absence of such assurance they would 
have begun the settlement of the towns, as they did, two years in advance 
of the issue of the charters. Furthermore, it is known that in the summer 
of 1762 Maj. Joseph Blanchard and Oliver Willard made application to 
Governor Wentworth for charters of these same Oxbow townships, but 
the governor recognized Bayley and Hazen as having prior claims and, 
the application of Blanchard and Willard, though strenuously supported, 
was denied. 

Settlement w r as begun in 1761, and vigorously pushed in 1762, but the 
desired charters were not given till May 18, 1763. They were each 
issued the same day. In the charter for Newbury the list of grantees is 

15 



16 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

headed with the names of Jacob Bayley and John Hazen (or Hazzen) 
and the list of Haverhill grantees is begun with the names of John Hazen 
and Jacob Bayley. This was in accordance with an understanding that 
Bayley w^s to lead in the settlement of Newbury and Hazen in that 
of Haverhill. 

The Haverhill charter was couched in the following terms, and the 
spelling, punctuation, capitals and abbreviations in the original list are 
here followed: 

PROVINCE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE 

HAVERHILL 

L. S. 

George the Third 

By the Grace of God, Grate Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith 
&c &c. 
To all Parsons to whom These Presents shall [come] Greeting — 

Know yee that we of our special Grace Certain Knowlige and mere motion for the 
Due Encouragement of Setting a New Plantation within our said Province by and with 
the advice of our Trusty and well Beloved Benning Wentworth Esq Our Governor and 
Commander in Chief of Our said Province of Newhampshire in New England and Our 
Council of the said Province, Have Upon the Conditions and Reservations herein after 
made Given and Granted and by These Presents for our Our Heirs and Successors Do 
Give and Grant in Equal Shares unto Our Loving Subjects Inhabitants of Our said 
Province of Newhampshire and Our Other Governments and their Heirs and assigns 
for Ever whose Names Are Entered on this Grant to be Divided to and Amongst them 
into Eighty one Equal Shares all that Tract or Parcel of Land Situate Lying and being 
within Our said Province of Newhampshire Containing by Admeasurement 

Acres which Tract is to Contain more Than Six Miles Square Out of which an 
allowance is to be made for high Ways and unimprovable Lands by Rocks Ponds Moun- 
tains and Rivers One Thousand and Forty Acres free according To a Plan and Survey 
thereof made by Our said Governors Order and Returned into the Secretary's Office and 
here unto anexed Budtted and Bounded as follows viz. Beginning at a Tree marked 
Standing on the Bank of the Eastern side of Connecticut river and on the southerly or 
south westedly side of the mouth of the Amonuck River Opposite to the South westedly 
Cornor of 1 Bath from thence Down Connecticut river as that runs Till it comes to a 
marked Tree Standing on the Bank of the River and is about Sevn (7) Miles On a straight 
Line from the mouth of Amonuck River aforesaid from thence south Fiftey Three De- 
grees East five Miles and Three Quarters to a Stake and Stones Thence North Twenty 
Five Degrees East about Eight Miles Until it Corns upon a line with the Lro Side Line 
of Bath Thence North Fiftey Five Degrees West as Bath Runs to the Tree by the River 
The Bounds Began at and that the Same be and hereby is Incorpor- 

ated into a Township by the name of Haverhill and the inhabitants that Do and Shall 
hereafter inhabit the said Township are hereby Declared to be Enfranchized with and 
Intitled to all and Every the Priviledges and Immunities that Other Tounds within 
Our Province by Law Enuse and enjoy and further that the said Tound as soon as thire 
Shall be Fiftey Families Resident and settled Therein shall have the Liberty of Holding 
Two Feares one of Which shall be held on the and the Other on the 

annually which Fairs are not too Continue Longer then the Respect- 
ive Following the said and that as soon as the said 

1 Bath was one of the towns chartered in 1761, though settled later than HaverhilL 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 17 

Tound shall Consist of Fiftey families a Market may be Opened and Kept one or More 
Days in Each Week as may be Thought most advantageous to the Inhabitants also 
that the first Meeting For the Choice of Tound Officers agreable to the Laws of Our 
social Province Shall be held on ye Second Tuesday in June Next. 

Which sd meeting Shall be Notified by Capt John Hazzen who is hereby also appointed 
the Moderator of the said First Meeting which he is to Notify and Govern agreeable to 
the Laws and Customs of Our said Province and that the Annual meetings forever here- 
after for the Choice of such officers for the said Tound Shall be on the Second Tuesday 
of March annually — 

To Have and To Hold the said Tract of Land as Above expressed together with all 
Privileges and appurternance to them and Thire Respective heirs and assigns forever 
upon the following Considerations viz — 

1. That Every Grantee his heres or assigns shall Plant and Cultivate Five acres of 
Land within the Tern of Five Years for Every Fiftey acres Contained in His or Thire 
Shares or Proportion of Land in said Toundship and Continue to Improve and Settle 
the Same by additional Cultivation on Penalty of Forfeiture of his Grant or Share in 
said Toundship and of its Reverting to us Our Heres and Successors to be by us and them 
Regranted to Such of Our Subjects as shall Effectually Settle and Cultivate the same — 

21y. That all White and Other Pine Trees within the Said Toundship Fit for Mast- 
ing Our Royal Navy be carefully Preserved for that Use and not to be Cut or felled with 
Out our special Licence for so Doing First had and Obtained upon the Penalty of the 
Forfeiture of the Right of Sutch Grantee his Hiers and assigns to us Our hiers and Suc- 
cessors as well as Being Subject to the Penalty of an act or acts of Parliament that Now 
are or here after Shall be Enacted — 

31y That before any Division of the Land be Made To and among the Grantees, a 
Tract of Land as near the Centre of the s d Township as the land will admit of: Shall be 
Reserved and marked Out For Tound Lotts one of which shall be allotted to Each Grantee 
of the Contents of One Acre. 

41y, Yielding and Paying therefore to us Our heirs and Successors for the Space of 
Ten Years to be computed from the date hereof the rent of one Ear of Indian Corn 
only on the Twentey Fifth Day December annually if Lawfully Demanded the First 
Payment To be made on the Twentey Fifth Day of December: 1763. 

51y. Every Proprietor Settler or Inhabitant Shall Yield and pay unto us Our Heirs 
and Successors — yearly and Every Year forever from and After the Expiration of Ten 
Years from the above said Twenty Fifth Day of December which will be the Year of Our 
Lord 1773 One Shillings Proclamation Money for Every Hundred acres he so owns 
Settles or Possesses and So in Proportion for a Grater or Lesser Tract of the said Land : 
which money shall be Paid the Respective Parsons abovsaid thire Hiers or assigns in 
Our Council Chamber in Portsmouth or to sutch Officer or Officers as shall be appointed 
To Receive the Same and This To be in Lien of all Other Rents and Serviceses What- 
soever — 

In Testimony whereof we have Caused the Seal of Oursaid Province to be hereunto 
Witness Benning Wentworth Esq r Our Governor and Commander in Cheaf of Our said 
Province the 18th Day of May in the Year of Our Lord Christ One Thousand Seven 
Hundred and Sixty Three and in the Third Year of Our Reign — by his Excellenceys Com- 
mand With the advice of Council 

B. Wentworth 
T. Akinson Junr, Secry — 

Province of New Hampshire May thel8 1763 Recorded in the Book of Charters Page 
397 & 398 

T. Atkinson Junr, Secry — 



18 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 



The Names of The Grantees of Haverhill 



John Hazzen 
Jacob Bayley Esq 
Ephraim Bayley 
James Philbrook 
Gideon Gould 
John Clark 
John Swett 
Thomas Emery 
Benoney Colbourn 
Reuben Mills 
John Hazzen Junr 
Edmond Copley 
Danil Hall 
Lemuel Tucker 
Edmond Moores Esq 
John White 
Benjamin Moores 
William Hazzen 
Moses Hazzen 
Robert Peaslee 
Timothy Bedel 
John Spafford 
Enoch Heath 
William Page 
Joseph Kelley 
Aaron Hosmer 
John Harriman 
John Lambson 
Stephen Knight 
John Hall 
David Hulbart 
Simon Stevens 
John Moores 
William Toborn 
David Page 
James White 
Benj Merrill 
Nathaniel Merrill 
John Church 



Jaasiel Harriman 

Jacob Kent 

Eleazer Hall 

Samuel Hubbard 

John Haile Esq 

Maxey Hazelton 

Thomas Johnson 

John Mills 

John Trusial 

Abraham Dow 

Uriah Morse 

Enoch Hall 

Jacob Hall 

Benoney Wright 

John Page 

Josiah Little 

John Taplin Esq 

Jona Foster 

Joseph Blanchard Esq 

Richard Pittey 

Moses Foster 

The Honorable 

James Nevin Esq 

John Nelson Esq 

Theodore Atkinson Junr 

Nathaniel Barrel 

Col William Symes 

William Porter 

John Hastings 

Capt George Marsh 

Maj Richard Emery 

Capt Nehemiah Lovell 

Hon Henry Shorbern Esq 

Maj John Wentworth 

Samuel Wentworth Esq 

Boston 

Burfeld Lloyd Boston 

And his Excellency 

Governor Barnard 



His Excellency Benning Wentworth Esq, a Tract of Land to Contain Five Hundred 
Acres as Marked B: W: in the Plan which is to be accounted two of the within shares. 
One Whole Share for the Incorporated Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts One Whole Share for a Glebe for the Church of England One Share for the 
First Settled Minister of the Gospel and One Share for the Benefit of a School in said 
Tound 



Province of New Hampshire May the 18th 1763 
Page 399 &c. 

T. Atkinson Junr Secry 



Recorded in the Book of Charters 






HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 19 

Of these grantees most of whom were selected by John Hazen, Jacob 
Bayley, Ephraim Bayley, Jaasiel Harriman, Jacob Kent, Samuel Hub- 
bard, Moses Hazen, Timothy Bedel, Simon Stevens, Theodore Atkinson, 
Jr., Col. William Symes and John Hazen were named also among the 
grantees of Newbury, and some of these, notably Jacob Bayley, Ephraim 
Bayley and Jacob Kent were among the first settlers of that town. Jacob 
Bayley became one of the most conspicuous men of Coos. The massive 
monument of stone and bronze on the Seminary park in Newbury, erected 
to his memory in 1912 by his descendants, bears testimony to his primary 
influence in his town and section in matters civic, religious and military 
in the settlement of Newbury, and during the Revolutionary and post- 
Revolutionary period. In selecting his grantees Captain Hazen named 
many who were not prospective settlers, among them friends and rela- 
tives whose rights in the new township he could doubtless secure for him- 
self at a fair price and without great difficulty. John Hazen, Jr., at that 
time not more than six or seven years of age was a grantee. Robert 
Peaslee, a brother-in-law, Moses and William Hazen, brothers, were 
others. His sister had married Moses Moores, and the names of Edmund, 
John and Benjamin Moores appear in the list. The name of Nathaniel 
Merrill, his future son-in-law, also appears. Captain Hazen early 
acquired the rights of John Spofford of Charlestown, Thomas Emery, 
Gideon Gould, John Clark and Benoni Colburn of Hampstead; John 
Swett of Haverhill, Mass., and Maj. Edmund Moores. He also acquired 
the rights or parts of rights of David Halbart (Hobart) of Hampstead, 
Enoch Heath, Robert Peaslee, William Toburn and John Nelson. But 
ten of the grantees, aside from himself, settled in Haverhill: Jaasiel 
Harriman, Maxi Haseltine, Thomas Johnson, Uriah Morse, John White, 
Timothy Bedel, Nathaniel Merrill, John Page, John Taplin and William 
Porter, and of these Harriman, Johnson, Morse and Taplin remained but 
a short time. 

Of the larger number of the grantees named in the charter, little or 
nothing is known. James Philbrook, Gideon Gould, Thomas Emery, 
Benoney Colburn, Eleazer Hall, David Hall, Samuel (or Lemuel) Hub- 
bart, John Mills, Stephen Knight and David Hulbart (Hobart) were of 
Hampstead, fellow townsmen of Captain Hazen. John Church was of 
Hartford, Conn., Enoch Hall and Jacob Hall were of Newbury, Mass. 
Joseph Blanchard was of Merrimac, and he sold his right to Samuel Ladd. 
George Marsh was of Stratham, Richard Emery was of Exeter, John 
Trusial and John Hall were of Plaistow (Hall sold his share to Joshua 
Haywood also of Plaistow). Joseph Kelley of West Nottingham dis- 
posed of his right to John Corliss; Simon Stevens, to John Hurd; Abra- 
ham Dow and John Wentworth, to Joshua Howard; Aaron Hosmer, to 
John Locke; Benjamin Merrill to Ezekiel Ladd; John Foster and Moses 



20 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Foster to Samuel Way, and James Nevin to Moses Little. These pur- 
chasers, except Way and Little, became settlers, but these latter became 
prominent in the affairs of the proprietors, especially Little, who acquired 
large interests, the valuable governor's right (now Woodsville) passing 
into his possession. 

The meetings of these grantees or proprietors of the town were held 
from time to time for a period of more than thirty years. They were 
entirely distinct from the annual meetings of the voters. An abstract of 
the proceedings of these various meetings can but aid in an understanding 
of the methods employed in dividing lands of the township among the 
proprietors and securing the permanent and successful settlement of the 
town. 

First Meeting. — The charter provided that the first meeting of the 
proprietors should be held on the second Tuesday of June, 1763, for the 
choice of town officers, and John Hazen was authorized to call and govern 
said meeting. The proprietors met accordingly June 13, 1763, at the 
house of John Hall, innholder, in Plaistow. Though settlement of the 
town had been begun more than a year previously, few of the proprietors 
were in Haverhill, and meetings were not held in town till more than a 
year later. Officers chosen were: Town clerk, Jesse Johnson; con- 
stable, Stephen Knight; selectmen, John White, Jacob Bayley, Edmund 
Moores. These officers were chosen to serve until the voters of the town 
should choose their own officers, at the annual meeting the succeeding 
March. 

It was voted, in order to facilitate settlement, that a part of the town- 
ship be laid out immediately in lots, and John Hazen, John White, Jacob 
Bayley, Robert Peasley and Benjamin Moores were appointed a com- 
mittee with discretionary power to bound out the township and lay out 
one lot of meadow and one lot of upland to each proprietor in a manner to 
commode settlers. 1 They were instructed to proceed with the work 
immediately after the town of Newbury should be laid out, and John 

1 In numbering and laying out the lots, thus authorized, the lots were numbered from 
north to south, except the meadow lots, and these were numbered according to the 
meadows in which they were situated. There were seven of these, designated as follows, 
beginning at the north: (1) Upper, (2) Horse, (3) Wheeler, (4) Oxbow, (5) Moores, (6) 
Bailey, (7) Hosmers — afterwards called Oliverian Meadow. The one-acre house lots 
were laid out along the high ground. When the division of the town into lots was com- 
pleted, there were three ranges of lots of 100 acres each, with 100-acre lots within ranges, 
then north and south divisions of 80-acre lots and south divisions of 40-acre lots. The 
owners of rights or shares obtained their holdings by drawing lots, except where by 
special vote. Captain Hazen, Colonel Bayley and a few others who had been instru- 
mental in obtaining the charter, or had specially aided in the settlement, were allowed 
to "pitch" their rights or to take their entire rights in meadow lots. Governor Went- 
worth's right of 500 acres was in the extreme northwest corner of the town, and the right 
of Secretary Theodore Atkinson, Jr., was next south. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 21 

Hazen was appointed a receiver of the money to be collected to defray 
the expense of establishing boundaries and running lot lines. 

Second Meeting. — Question arising as to the legality of some of the 
action of the first meeting, a second was called to meet September 26, 
1763, at the same place as before, for the purpose of choosing proprietor's 
clerk, assessors, collector and treasurer; to ratify and confirm action 
taken at the previous meeting; to see if any part of shares deficient in 
paying expense already incurred shall be sold to meet such expense; to 
see what encouragement will be given proprietors making immediate 
settlement or who have already settled, and to provide for the drawing of 
lots. 

At this meeting officers chosen were: Moderator, Jacob Bayley; clerk, 
Jesse Johnson; assessors, Edmond Moores, Timothy Bedel, James 
White; collector, Hezekiah Hutchins; treasurer, John Hazen. 

"Voted to accept and confirm the report of the committee appointed 
at the previous meeting to lay out the township." 

"Voted to sell part of the shares of the delinquent proprietors to pay 
the charges that have arisen." 

"Voted that John Hazen take meadow lots numbered 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 
and house lots numbered 31, 32, 33, 34 and 35, reserving the mill and 
mill yard priveleges for the use of the proprietors." 

Mr. Whiting, the surveyor, was allowed 4s per day for services in 
laying out the town. 

"Voted that proprietors who pay their proportion of charges as assessed 
by the Committee, heretofore appointed, at or before the next meeting 
shall be entitled to draw their lots at such meeting, and that all others be 
excluded until a further vote of the proprietors." 

The expense of the meeting was made chargeable to the proprietary. 

At an adjourned meeting held in the same place October 3, Major 
Edmond Moores was appointed a committee to conduct the drawing of 
"such lotts as may be drawn this day," and also " voted that Uriah Morse 
have for his pitch No. 1 Meadow lott in Moores Meadow and No. 44 
house lott." 

"Voted that the proprietors of Haverhill join with the proprietors of 
Newbury to look out and clear a road through Haverhill." John Hazen, 
Jacob Bayley and Jacob Kent were made a committee to do this work. 

"Voted to join with Newbury in paying for preaching one or two 
months this fall." 

A committee of five, headed by Jacob Bayley, was appointed to lay out 
100 acre lots "as soon as may be." 

At an adjourned meeting October 16, "voted that the committee that 
laid out the house and meadow lots be paid £5, 10s, old tenor, they finding 
themselves and horses going and coming." 



22 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Then proceeded to draw lots, which was continued at adjourned 
meetings, held December 14, December 27 and January 2, 1764, but 
there is no record of business transacted at these meetings. 

Third Meeting. — This was also held at the house of John Hall, innholder, 
in Plaistow March 1, 1764. Jesse Johnson was appointed to draw the 
remainder of the lots, and adjournment was taken to March 13, when it 
was voted to sell the right to build two mills, and Jacob Bayley, Hezekiah 
Hutchins, Ebenezer Mudgett, Jesse Johnson and Joseph White were 
appointed a committee of sale. The charges of sale were to be paid down 
and the remainder within nine months. These rights were sold at public 
auction and were bid off by Capt. Hezekiah Hutchins for $520 at an 
adjourned meeting in Hampstead, March 27. 

Captain Hutchins evidently did not fulfill the conditions of the sale, 
since at an adjourned meeting, held April 2, the right to build mills was 
set up anew and was purchased by Jesse Johnson, John Hazen and Jacob 
Bayley in partnership. The drawing of the house and meadow lots was 
completed. An indication of the value of a proprietor's right is seen in 
the purchase at this meeting at vendue sale of the right of John Nelson 
for the sum of fifty one dollars. 1 

Fourth Meeting. — This was held at the house of John Marshall, Hamp- 
stead. John Hazen was chosen moderator, and it was "voted to assist 
the town and proprietors of Newbury in having preaching for the next 
next six months and that Timothy Bedel be a committee to join a like 
committee in Newbury to secure this result." Adjourned to meet 
October 16, at the house of John Hazen in Haverhill . At this adjourned 
meeting, the first held in town, Benjamin Whiting was chosen "extemper- 
ary dark." 

"Voted that 200 acres of land be laid out next to the river for a par- 
sonage for this parish." 

"Voted to give Glazier Wheeler one full right of land provided he give 
sufficient bond to set up a shop and follow the trade of blacksmith 
ten year's from date, by himself or some other person, and be obliged to 
work for the people of Haverhill before any others. 2 

At an adjourned meeting at Captain Hazen's, November 20, 1764, 
" voted to give Timothy Bedel and Elisha Locke the whole privelege of the 
lower falls on Hosmers (Oliverian) brook, with the land laid out for such 
privelege, provided they complete two mills by November 20, 1765, one 
a sawmill, the other a gristmill." 

i By the term dollars as then used was meant Spanish milled dollars. 

2 There is a tradition that this Glazier Wheeler turned his skill as a worker in metals 
to illegitimate uses, and was employed in making counterfeit dollars, that he was de- 
tected and had his ears cropped as a part of the penalty for his crime. There is also a 
tradition that years later, after leaving Haverhill, he was employed in the government 
mint in Philadelphia. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 23 

Fifth Meeting. — This was held at the house of John Hazen April 1, 
1768, more than three years having elapsed since the previous meeting. 
John Taplin was moderator, Timothy Bedel, clerk. Timothy Bedel, 
Ezekiel Ladd and Joshua Haywood were appointed a committee to lay 
out 100 acre lots, one lot to each right. Timothy Bedel, Simeon 
Goodwin and Enos Bishop were chosen assessors. John Hazen, Ezekiel 
Ladd and John Way were appointed a committee to lay out and make a 
road through the town. 

"Voted to give privelege to build a sawmill on Hosmer's (Oliverian) 
brook and one half of land laid out for that purpose forever, provided the 
mill is fit to saw boards by April 1, 1769, and owner of the mill to saw for 
the proprietors of the town for the first five years, and to deliver 400 
boards out of a thousand to the man that draws the logs to the mill and 
after the said five years to deliver the one half of boards to the man that 
draws the logs, forever, and to keep the mill in good repair or forfeit the 
privelege in case of neglect of same." 

John Hazen entered his dissent to this vote. 

"Voted to give Elisha Lock the one quarter part of the privelege left 
for mills on Hosmers brook, and the quarter part of the land left to 
accommodate the privelege that is eighteen acres to said Lock." 

It was voted to leave a privelege for mills on the Mill Brook so called 
above the old saw- and gristmill which were built by the proprietors of 
Haverhill and Newbury. [This was Poole Brook or Hazen's Brook as it 
was sometimes called.] 

Sixth Meeting. — At John Hazen's in Haverhill, March 30, 1769. 
Moderator John Hazen; clerk, Andrew Savage Crocker. Simeon 
Goodwin, Joseph Hut chins and James Woodward were made a committee 
to run out and measure the south and east lines of the town. 

"Voted to pay 4s a day for what has been done on the roads and for 
what shall be done the present year." 

At an adjourned meeting April 20 it was voted to give Enoch 
Hall $65 in lieu of a half right of land formerly voted him by the 
proprietors. 

Seventh Meeting. — Held at John Hazen's. Moderator, James Bailey; 
clerk, Asa Porter. 

"Voted to pay for planning the river in this town." 1 

"Voted to give the Rev. Elitzer Whelock, D. D., fifty acres of land in 

» At a meeting held March 30, 1769, a committee had been appointed to run the south- 
ern line of the town, and its report revealed the fact that a serious dispute existed with 
the proprietors of Piermont concerning this line. It was. therefore, voted that Jacob 
Bajdey be a committee to wait on the governor and council to petition him to settle and 
determine the boundary between the two towns. This controversy extended over a 
period of several years, and frequently occupied the attention of the proprietors. An 
account of this will be given later under a separate head. 



24 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Haverhill lying on Capt. John Hazen's Mill brook where there is a con- 
venient waterfall for a mill and to be laid in a convenient form for a 
mill provided Dartmouth College shall be located in Haverhill." 

Eighth Meeting. — Held at the house of John Hazen, November 12, 
1770. John Hazen, Moderator; Andrew Savage Crocker, clerk. 

"Voted to raise the sum of $10 upon each share of land to pay proprie- 
tors debts and that Ezekiel Ladd be Collector." 

Ninth Meeting. — Held at John Hazen's, January 4, 1771. Moderator, 
John Hazen; clerk, A. S. Crocker. At this meeting action was taken, 
which created or set up the tract of land known as "the Fisher Farm," 
and which had an important influence on the settlement of the town. 
An account of this will be given at the close of this chapter. 

Tenth Meeting. — Held at John Hazen's, February 4, 1771. Moderator, 
James Bailey; clerk, Andrew S. Crocker. Charles Johnston was elected 
treasurer; Ezekiel Ladd, collector, and it was voted that he receive two 
pence per pound for collecting. 

"Voted that John Herd in behalf of the proprietors divide the mill 
privelege on Hosmer's brook, between Jonathan Sanders, Charles John- 
ston and Elisha Lock." 

A large number of accounts for work performed in laying out 100 acre 
lots, for work on roads, etc., were presented and allowed. Major Willard's 
account for surveying and planning the one hundred acre lots amounted 
to £10, 18s. An account was also allowed for four and one half gallons 
of rum furnished the surveyor and his men. An adjournment was had to 
February 11, when it was voted to sell all the common and unappro- 
priated lands within lines of second division of 100 acre lots, and Simeon 
Goodwin was appointed vendue master. Five lots within the ranges 
were accordingly sold. Adjourned to February 21, when the time was 
devoted to the consideration and allowance of sundry accounts. 

Eleventh Meeting. — At John Hazen's. Moderator, Ezekiel Ladd; clerk, 
A. S. Crocker. A proposition to petition Governor Wentworth to re- 
grant the town as it is now bounded or any part thereof was negatived, 
and adverse action was also had upon a proposition to lay out a tract of 
land for use of the school in Haverhill and clear a part thereof. 

Voted to give Elisha Lock the privelege of building a gristmill on 
Hosmer's brook between said Lock's mill and the sawmill belonging to 
Jonathan Sanders and Charles Johnston on condition that the mill be 
completed in one year and that Lock will grind for the proprietors in 
preference to any others, and will grind their grain faithfully and well. 

Twelfth Meeting.— At Hazen's, February 22, 1772. Moderator, 
James Abbott. Made choice of Collector and other officers. 

Thirteenth Meeting. — Held May 12, 1772. Action was taken relative 
to a county seat, and John Hurd was appointed agent to secure its 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 25 

establishment in Haverhill. An account of such establishment will be 
found on the chapter devoted to Courts and Court Houses. 

Fourteenth Meeting. — Held at Hazen's, August 7, 1772. Moderator, 
James Bailey. This was a meeting of refusals. Refused to advance 
money in the matter of litigation over the Piermont boundary. Refused 
to assess money or choose a collector. Refused to give titles to lands 
previously sold at vendue sale. Refused to dispose of right of land 
granted to first settled minister. 

Fifteenth Meeting. — At Hazen's, April 19, 1773. A committee of six 
was appointed to open and mind roads. Adjourned to April 25, at which 
time John Hurd was appointed agent to devise some method to recover 
back the common land then in possession of Luther Richardson. Charles 
Johnston, James Woodward and Joshua Haywood were chosen a commit- 
tee to lay out school and other public lots agreeable to the charter. 

Reuben Foster was given the privelege of building a gristmill and saw- 
mill on the falls above the bridge or Oliverian Brook, so called, for twenty 
years, "allowing the sawmill if needed an equal right to falls and stream." 
This is the first appearance in the records of the name Oliverian as applied 
to this brook. 

Sixteenth Meeting. — At house of Luther Richardson, June 17, 1773. 
Moderator, James Bailey; clerk, Simeon Goodwin. Voted to record the 
plan of the town. 1 

At an adjourned meeting June 24, the time was largely devoted to 
allowing accounts. At an adjourned meeting June 28, it was voted "to 
give the road through the town to the town as it is now trode." Col. Asa 
Porter entered his dissent to this. The remaining privelege on Hosmer's 
Brook was given to Reuben Foster, on condition that the mill be erected 
within eighteen months and that he saw logs at the halves. John Fisher 
petitioned for the 100 acre lot reserved for mill privelege on Hazen's 
Brook. "Voted to grant petition on condition that he will set up a saw- 
and gristmill with in fifteen months and saw logs for the proprietors, who 
shall haul them to the mill, for one half the boards, and shall keep the 
mill in good repair for twenty years." 

Seventeenth Meeting. — Met at house of John Hazen, August 16, 1773. 
Chose Ephraim Wesson, moderator, and adjourned to house of Luther 
Richardson. Refused "to lay out the society right and glebe to the 
'exceptence' of minister and church wardens in town of Haverhill." 
This refusal had to do with a somewhat persistent attempt to secure these 
rights for the benefit of the Church of England. 

Eighteenth Meeting. — Held at the house of Luther Richardson, Febru- 
ary 25, 1774. The sale of the following rights for taxes was conducted by 
Ezekiel Ladd, collector. 

1 This plan is missing from the records. 



26 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Right of Samuel Wentworth sold to Asa Porter for Jno. Wentworth, for $19 

Right of William Porter sold to Asa Porter, for $19 

Right of John Hastings sold to Jacob Bayley, for $19 

Part right of John Nelson sold to John Hazen, for $14 

The two rights of Benning Wentworth sold to Moses Little, for $38 

House and meadow lot of James Nevin sold to Moses Little $8 

Meadow lot of Gov. Bernard sold to James Lad, for $19 

Right of Aaron Hosmer sold to John Hall, for $19 

Right of Uriah Morse sold to Nathaniel Merrill for Timothy Bedel Jr. . . $19 

Right of Maxi Hazeltine sold to Asa Porter and Jona. Hall, for $19 

Right of George Marsh sold to Jona. Hall, for $19 

Right of James Philbrook sold to Jona. Hale, for $19 

It was at this meeting that the proprietors refused to carry into effect 
their vote of May 12, 1772, promising 1,000 acres of land to Col. John 
Hurd, for services in securing the county seat. 

Nineteenth Meeting. — At house of Luther Richardson, January 27, 
1775. A committee was appointed to lay out public rights. The time 
of the meeting was mostly devoted to consideration of the Piermont 
boundary question. 

Twentieth Meeting. — July 5, 1779, at the house of William Moors. 
Moderator, Charles Johnston; clerk, Simeon Goodwin. The Piermont 
matter was again considered. 

Voted to give the privelege of building a fulling-mill on Hosmer's Brook 
either above the great bridge, about three rods at a little island, or below 
said bridge, as builder may choose, to be built within six months. 

At an adjourned meeting, August 18, Joseph Pearson made his pitch 
for a fulling-mill on the little island three rods above the bridge and it was 
ordered recorded. 

Voted to lay out the undivided land and Stephen Haywood, Timothy 
Barron and John Rich were appointed a committee to lay out. 

Twenty-First Meeting. — At house of William Moors, November 30, 
1779. Moderator, Charles Johnston. 

Voted that Timothy Bedel, Timothy Barron and John Rich be a 
committee to run the south and east lines of Haverhill and establish 
corners." 

"Voted to Col. Timothy Bedel liberty to erect two sawmills on Hos- 
mer's Brook, one of said mills opposite the fulling-mill and the other 
opposite the flaxmill, and to improve said mills during the pleasure of the 
proprietary, provided said mills are completed in one year from this time, 
and logs sawed for half the boards. Said mills are not to injure any priv- 
eleges already granted." 

Voted to Capt. Joseph Hutchins liberty to erect a gristmill on Hosmer's 
Brook on the South Side of said brook below the bridge, and to improve 
the same during the pleasure of the proprietary, provided said mill is 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 27 

completed in one year from date and not injure any privelege already 
granted." 

Twenty-Second Meeting. — At State House in Haverhill, December 28, 
1779. Moderator, Charles Johnston. 

"Voted to laj r out the land said to be claimed by Col. John Hurd into 
lotts to be drawn as other lands." 

At adjourned meeting at house of Capt. Joseph Hut chins December 29, 

1779, it was voted to resume nine 100 acre lots for the public rights on the 
south side of the Fisher farm. 

"Voted that no proprietor shall draw his lots in the third division till 
he has paid the collector the tax due to him." 

"Voted to Capt. Timothy Barron 21s for 7 quts, rum. Voted to give 
Elisha Lock one gallon rum." 

At an adjourned meeting at the house of Timothy Barron, January 27, 

1780, it was voted to raise £30 on each right to be collected by James 
Woodward. • Adjournments were had to February 17 and February 22, 
but there is no record of business transacted. 

Twenty-Third Meeting. — At house of Joseph Hutchins, May 4, 1780. 
No record of business. 

Twenty-Fourth Meeting. — At State House, April 25, 1781. Asa Porter, 
Ezekiel Ladd and James Woodward were appointed to take care and 
charge of proprietor's land and mill privelege on Oliverian Brook. 

Twenty-Fifth Meeting. — Held October 11, 1781, "at house where 
Bryan Hay now lives." Moderator, Moses Dow. Piermont boundary 
matters considered. 

Twenty-Sixth Meeting. — At dwelling house of Col. Joseph Hutchins, 
January 20, 1785. Moderator, x\sa Porter. 

This meeting and subsequent adjournments till July 7, 1785, dealt 
exclusively with the Piermont boundary Controversy and matters con- 
nected with it. The adjustment of land titles made necessary by the issue 
of the controversy was finally settled and confirmed at the last meeting 
of the proprietors, of which there is record December 22, 1808. 

The Piermont Boundary Dispute 

By the terms of the charter of Haverhill, the southern boundary of the 
town ran in a straight line southeasterly from the Connecticut River 
parallel with the north line. The map of the town at present shows that 
about two miles from the river this line is broken, forming an irregular 
tract on which the village of Haverhill is located, and which, because of 
the dispute that for years raged concerning the ownership of this tract, 
was designated as "the Corner." Referring again to the charter it is 
found that the eastern boundary of the town should be about seven miles 
in length in a straight southerly line from the mouth of the Ammonoosuc. 



28 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Refering again to the present map of the town, this western boundary 
actually is more than eight miles in length. 

When Thomas Blanchard in 1760 made his survey designating pairs of 
towns each six miles north from Charlestown, he marked the northerly 
limit of the eighth pair of towns, now Piermont and Bradford, Vt., near 
the southwest corner of the present Bedel's bridge. From thence to the 
mouth of the Ammonoosuc it is about seven miles, the charter length of 
the towns of Haverhill and Newbury. When Simeon Goodwin, Joseph 
Hutchins and James Woodward who had been appointed by the Haverhill 
proprietors in March, 1769, to run out and measure the south and east 
lines of the town, came to the south line which had been run and marked 
at the instance of the proprietors by Surveyors Caleb Willard and Ben- 
jamin Whiting in 1763, they found the validity of this line disputed by 
the proprietors of Piermont, the charter of which had been granted in 
1764, a year later than that of Haverhill. Moretown, Vt. (now Bradford) , 
made the same claim as Piermont, founding their claims on their char- 
ters, which called for six miles in a straight line on the river, north of 
Oxford and Fairlee. The Piermont proprietors further averred that 
when Willard and Whiting surveyed and marked the boundaries of Haver- 
hill and Newbury in 1763, acting under the private orders of John Hazen 
and Jacob Bayley, and came to the boundary corner near Bedel's bridge, 
established and set up by Thomas Blanchard in 1760, they wholly disre- 
garded this, and kept on into the then unsettled and ungranted land 
below, establishing new boundary corners for both towns a mile and sixty 
eight rods to the south. By so doing they enriched Haverhill and New- 
bury at the expense of the subsequently granted towns of Piermont and 
Bradford, in case the latter should acquiesce in the new boundaries. But 
there was no acquiescence, and a long and bitter controversy followed. 
The Haverhill and Newbury case has been very fully stated by Mr. F. P. 
Wells. 1 Governor Wentworth had promised charters of Haverhill and 
Newbury to Hazen and Bayley and their friends on account of services 
rendered by them in the colonial wars; and previous to the date of the 
charter they had actually begun settlement. When it came, however, to 
the delivery of the charters, the governor insisted on adding to the list of 
grantees prepared by Hazen and Bayley, a score or so of names of per- 
sonal friends and others to whom he was under obligations. Land was 
plenty, money was scarce; and such a course was an easy way of discharg- 
ing obligations. Hazen and Bayley naturally objected, claiming that 
they had personally been at considerable expense in exploring the town, 
cutting roads, and beginning settlement and that a division of the land 
among eighty grantees instead of sixty as, according to custom, they had 
expected would be the case, would detract from the value of each of their 

1 History of Newbury, Vt., page 24. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 29 

shares. The governor insisted, however, that the names of his friends 
should go into the list, but Hazen and Bailey claimed they were told by 
the governor that they might take from the ungranted lands south enough 
to make up for the twenty additional shares. Accordingly this strip one 
mile and sixty-eight rods wide was taken. This claim of theirs was at 
least plausible, but the proprietors of Piermont and Bradford would not 
admit its validity. The Haverhill proprietors had surveyed the meadow, 
house lots, and the first division of 100 acre lots in the disputed territory 
and these had been drawn and settlement begun on some of them previous 
to the survey of the boundary in 1769. At a meeting of the proprietors, 
April 10, 1770, it was voted to pay the committee who had run out the 
boundary line the previous year for their services, and Col. Jacob Bayley 
was appointed a committee to wait on the governor and council to petition 
for a settlement of the bounds between Piermont and Haverhill. John 
Hazen, Jonathan Sanders and Maxi Hazeltine were also appointed to 
instruct Colonel Bayley "as they shall think proper " on the matter. The 
governor and his council did not see fit to interfere, and in the meantime 
the Piermont proprietors had brought suits of ejectment against Jonathan 
Sanders, named above, and William Eastman who had settled on lands in 
the disputed strip. The proprietors had a common interest with these 
parties, and showed this by voting at a meeting held November 26, 1770, 
"to pay Sanders and Eastman for any charge or costs which hath or may 
arise to said Sanders and Eastman in defending themselves against any 
action or actions which the Proprietors of Piermont have commenced 
against them or either of them." 

At the proprietors meeting, held February 4, 1771, a proposition to 
submit the dispute to referees was voted down, and Asa Porter was 
appointed agent "to attend the most Inferior Court of Common Pleas 
to be holden at Portsmouth to assist Jonathan Sanders and William East- 
man in any action or actions which the proprietors of Piermont have com- 
menced against them," and it was also voted that Ezekiel Ladd advance 
Colonel Porter, as such agent, the sum of $20 to be expended in securing 
attorneys and evidence in behalf of Sanders and Eastman. 

A proposition was made at a meeting held February 7, 1772, to peti- 
tion the governor and council to regrant the township "as it is now 
bounded or any part thereof to the present proprietors," but this method 
of circumventing Piermont was voted down. A sense of discouragement 
is next evident, since, August 7, the same year, it was voted not to raise 
any money to carry on litigation. Piermont, however, had proceeded 
against others besides Sanders and Eastman and when men like Charles 
Johnston and John Page became involved the proprietors saw new light. 
So, June 17, 1773, they voted to take the burden on themselves and "carry 
on the several actions the proprietors of Piermont have commenced 



30 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

against Charles Johnston, Jonathan Sanders, Jonathan Elkins, John 
White, George Moor, John Page and Simeon Elkins." "They chose 
Moses Little and Jacob Bayley agents to defend the actions to final 
judgment at the charge of the proprietary" and empowered them to 
employ one or more attorneys. Another step was taken January 27, 
1775, when a committee, headed by Capt. Moses Little, was chosen by 
the Haverhill proprietors and given full power to join with a like committe 
from Piermont to settle the boundary question each by themselves or by 
a committee of disinterested men to whom the matter should be referred. 
Four years and a half later July 5, 1779, this same committee was ap- 
pointed to meet with a Piermont committee at Colonel Webster's in 
Plymouth September 15, 1779, "in order to come into some measure to 
settle the boundary line." Nothing satisfactory came of this meeting, 
and December 29, 1779, another committee, consisting this time of Timo- 
thy Bedel, James Woodward, Charles Johnston, Joshua Howard and 
Asa Porter, was appointed to make settlement. Correspondence was 
carried on without avail, and on April 25, 1781, still another committee 
consisting of Asa Porter, Charles Johnston, Moses Dow, James Woodward, 
John Page, Amos Fisk and John Rich, was chosen to reach a final settle- 
ment September 18, 1781, with the representatives of the Piermont 
proprietors; Jonathan Moulton of Hampton and Richard Jenness of Rye. 

The conditions of this settlement were as follows: "All the meadow 
lots, all the house lots, and all the first division of 100 acre lots as laid out 
and bounded by the proprietors of Haverhill shall be and remain with the 
township and proprietors of Haverhill, and that all suits of law already 
commenced relative to the premises and now pending shall cease, and be 
no further prosecuted than is necessary to carry this agreement into 
execution." The remainder of the disputed strip was to be left within the 
bounds of Piermont. 

The Haverhill proprietors doubtless congratulated themselves in 
having the better of the bargain in thus dividing the disputed territory 
and unquestionably it seemed so then, if division was to be made. 
Since the meadow lands were wide and fertile and were much the more 
valuable part of this territory : but the proprietors were not aware of the 
value of the whetstone ledges which were left to Piermont, and which, in 
the years since, have paid richer dividends than the much coveted meadow 
lands. 

The Newbury proprietors would listen to no proposition of settlement 
from Bradford, and the final result justified their obduracy. Newbury's 
claim that the strip in dispute belonged to it by direct authority of Gover- 
nor Wentworth was finally allowed by the Vermont legislature, and Brad- 
ford lost its entire case. By the Haverhill and Piermont settlement 
certain parties who had drawn 80 acre lots in the third division lost them 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 31 

to Piermont, and in order to reimburse them the 80 acre lots in the fourth 
division were reduced to 70 acre lots, thus giving each shareholder who 
lost by the settlement an equal portion of land with the others. This 
plan was presented by a committee consisting of Asa Porter, Charles 
Johnston, James Woodward, Simeon Goodwin and Daniel Stevens, at a 
meeting held July 7, 1785, but was not finally ratified and confirmed until 
December 22, 1808. 

This settlement of a long continued controversy was not only of 
importance to the proprietors, but it had an important bearing on the 
development and subsequent history and life of Haverhill, and of Pier- 
mont as well. Had Piermont gained its entire contention the larger part 
of the historic "Corner," with its academy, county seat buildings, stage 
coach taverns, etc., would have been lost to Haverhill, and possibly, if 
not indeed probably, would never have existed in Piermont. 



CHAPTER IV 



SETTLEMENT AND FIRST SETTLERS 

Friendship Between Hazen and Bailey: Hazen Came Up in 1672 — His Character 
Seen in First Settlers — Brief Sketches of Each — Joshua Howard, Tim- 
othy Bedel, John Page, John Hunt, Asa Porter, Charles Johnston, and 
Others — Town Meetings — Census Growth from 1767 to 1773. 

In the list of names of the early pioneer settlers of Haverhill there is one 
which must always stand out prominent — that of John Hazen, or as it is 
spelled in the charter, Hazzen. Jacob Bayley has been rightly accorded 
the honor of being the founder of the town of Newbury, Vt. In the annals 
of Haverhill, a like honorable place must be accorded to John Hazen. 
In the list of the grantees of the town of Newbury the name of Jacob 
Bayley stands first, that of John Hazen second. In the list of the grantees 
of the town of Haverhill the name of John Hazen is first, that of Jacob 
Bayley second. Bayley was a native of the town of Newbury, Mass., 
Hazen of the town of Haverhill. It was but natural that the township 
granted to Bayley and his associates should be given the name of New- 
bury, and also that the township granted to Hazen and his associates 
should be named Haverhill. 

There was a warm and intimate friendship between the two men formed 
in boyhood and early manhood and which, cemented by intimate associa- 
tion in adventures of hardship and danger, continued until the death of 
Hazen at the comparatively early age of forty-three years. He was born 
in Haverhill, Mass., August 11, 1731. His early home was in that part 
of the Massachusetts town known as Timberlane or Haverhill district. 
When the boundary line between New Hampshire and Massachusetts was 
established in 1741, this part of Haverhill together with a part of Ames- 
bury fell within the limits of New Hampshire, and in 1749 these tracts 
were elected by the New Hampshire government into a township under 
the name of Hampstead. The Bayley family had removed to this district 
from Newbury about 1747. During the French and Indian wars, Hazen 
and Bayley saw much service together, and as previously noted both men 
more than once held commissions in the same command. Captain Hazen 
was active in the affairs of Hampstead serving as selectman and in other 
official positions, and also resided for a time in Plaistow from which town 
he was enrolled in the Provincial Militia. Having obtained from Gover- 
nor Wentworth promise of charters, they at once began preparation for 
settlement. The early summer of 1761 found them on the ground, where 

32 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 33 

they made a more careful and extended examination of their proposed 
settlement and arranged more definite plans. It was agreed that Hazen 
should settle and have his township on the east side of the river, and 
Bayleyon the west. Bayley went on to Crown Point on military business 
and Hazen returned to Hampstead by way of Charlestown, where he 
engaged several men to go to Coos, cut and stack the hay on the Oxbow 
clearings. There is a tradition to the effect that they secured on both 
sides the river no less than ninety tons. 

In the meantime a stock of cattle, mostly young cows and steers, were 
purchased, and in August Michael Johnston, John Pet tie and Abraham 
Webb started with these from Hampstead by way of Charlestown and, 
following the line of spotted trees made by Blanchard the previous year, 
reached their destination in October. They built for themselves a rude 
improvised shelter, and, as the advance guard of settlers who were to fol- 
low a few months later, they spent the winter alone. The winter was 
exceptionally long and severe, but the time was employed in caring for 
the cattle, and in breaking the steers to the yoke that they might be 
ready for the plough and the other work in the spring. It is to be 
regretted that one of these three, Johnston, who was the better educated, 
did not keep a journal of the happenings of this first winter of white men 
in Haverhill, though the happenings were probably few. One day was 
much like another. Charlestown, seventy miles distant down the river 
was the nearest settlement. The meadow clearings, by the side of the 
frozen river were surrounded by the unbroken forests of giant pines; the 
nearby hills were covered with the old time depth of snow; Black Hill and 
Sugar Loaf could be discerned to the east, and Mount Gardner to the 
north and Moosilauke in the east glistened bare and white on sunny days 
as now, but the three passed the lonely winter in what must have seemed 
a silence which could be felt, a solitude which made loneliness something 
real. 

Their welcome for Captain Hazen and the men who arrived in the early 
spring of 1762 must have been a hearty one, and it is little wonder that 
Johnston and Pettie were ready to make use of the canoe they had con- 
structed during the winter and go down the river where there were people. 
Johnston, whose home was in Hampstead, was drowned by the capsizing 
of the canoe at Olcotts Falls, but Pettie made his way safely to Charles- 
town. So far as known he never returned to Haverhill. The experi- 
ences of that memorable first winter were probably enough for him. 

Captain Hazen came, by way of Charlestown, up the river with a small 
force of men. They brought with them the necessary material for con- 
structing a primitive saw- and gristmill, and the work of building at once 
began. This first mill was built on Poole Brook, on the site, as near as 
■can be ascertained, of the mills afterward erected by Obadiah Swasey, 



34 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

just north of the iron bridge on Depot Street at North Haverhill, and he 
made his "pitch" for a home on the Oxbow Meadow, which later the 
proprietors by special vote authorized him to select as his share in the 
division of land. Of Captain Hazen's party in 1762, Joshua Howard and 
two others came up the Baker's River trail over the height of land and 
down the Oliverian. 

John Hazen was much more than an ordinary man, and was well 
fitted for the pioneer task he undertook. He came of excellent family, 
was fourth in descent from Edward Hazzen who came from England 
and settled in Rowley, Mass., about 1640. He had the genuine soldier's 
spirit. He was a lieutenant in the company of Capt. Jacob Bayley, his 
townsman, in the Crown Point expedition of 1757. The next year he 
was a captain in Colonel Hart's regiment, and in 1760, he was as pre- 
viously noted captain in Colonel Goffe's regiment, of which his friend 
Bayley was lieutenant-colonel. In each of these expeditions in which 
he served he distinguished himself for bravery and capacity. He was a 
man of undaunted courage, of great physical strength and of wise fore- 
sight. This latter quality he evinced not only in securing the nam- 
ing as grantees of the new town those whose rights he might without 
difficulty secure for himself, but also in immediately beginning settle- 
ment without waiting for the issue of the charter, and in the desirable 
class of men he was instrumental in securing as early settlers most of 
whom were not numbered among the grantees. Among the more prom- 
inent of those who became settlers prior to 1774 were: Timothy Bedel, 
John Page, Joshua Howard, Joshua Poole, John White, James Bailey, 
Maxi Hazeltine, Elisha Lock, Uriah Stone, James Woodward, Jonathan 
Elkins, Ezekiel Ladd with his six brothers, Jonathan Goodwin, Edward 
Bayley, Jonathan Sanders, James Abbott, Joseph Hutchins, Simeon 
Goodwin, John Hurd, Willaim Eastman, Joshua Hayward, Timothy 
Barron, Nathaniel Weston, Asa Porter, Andrew Savage Crocker, Charles 
Johnston, Ephraim Wesson, James Corliss, Jonathan Ring, Thomas 
Simpson, Amos Kimball and Charles Bailey. Some of these men would 
have had marked influence in any community in which they might be 
placed. Captain Hazen had doubtless an ambition to become a large 
land owner, and he became one, but he did not attempt the formation of 
a community in which a single personality, and that his own, should be 
dominant. Some of these men named were his superiors in culture and 
qualities of leadership, and none recognized this more clearly than he, 
but these were men who could secure for his town county seat honors, 
who could establish schools and churches, who could give the new town 
enviable prominence, and they did it. 

From the very beginning Haverhill was the first town in Coos. These 
men above named and such as these gave tone and character to the 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 35 

Haverhill of their day, and the Haverhill of subsequent years as well. 
They were of sturdy English stock, of Puritan ideals and training, of 
frugal habits and virtuous life. They were possessed of the pioneer 
spirit, born of the racial hunger for land ownership. Among them were 
men of liberal culture, like John Hurd and Asa Porter, graduates of 
Harvard; men of rugged integrity and devout piety, like John Page and 
Charles Johnston; men of indomitable purpose, like Ezekiel Ladd, James 
Woodward, Timothy Barron and Jonathan Elkins. There were no 
weaklings among them. The War of the Revolution gave proof of 
their courage, endurance and self-sacrificing, undying patriotism. 

Captain Hazen from the time of his arrival to begin settlement in 1762 
till his death September 23, 1774, was a man of incessant activity. The 
burdens were to be borne, the herculean tasks accomplished at the very 
beginning. He was a leading spirit among the proprietors, and served on 
their important committees in dividing the town into lots, in the cutting 
out of roads, and the erection of mills. Active in the civic affairs of the 
new town, he was the first moderater of the town meetings, and served 
in that capacity most of the time till his death. He served also as town 
clerk and selectman and filled the various other town offices. His 
burial was probably in the grave yard at Great Oxbow though this is 
uncertain. The bond of the administrators on his estate, William Simp- 
son of Plymouth and Abigail Hazen, his widow, was filed in the Probate 
Court of Grafton County October 22, 1774. Charles Johnston, Andrew 
Savage Crocker and Joseph Hutchins were appointed appraisors Novem- 
ber 4, 1774 and made return of the inventory of the estate six days later 
November 10. Though he had disposed of his Oxbow farm and the 
large tract adjoining it, extending to the Coventry line, in 1771 and 1772 
to John Fisher, he still had large holdings of real estate. These consisted 
of one right through the town and 8th lot House appraised at Meadow 
£100; a part of two rights without the meadow and house lots Nos. 27 
and 28 on it with undivided land £120; 100 acres upland £8, 8s. He 
still occupied the Oxbow farm as is indicated by the inventory of his 
personal estate, which amounted to £729, including notes of hand for 
£360, 6s. The list of property making up the remaining £368, 14s; 
is worthy careful perusal indicating as it does the manner of life, and 
character of possessions of the more prominent of the early settlers. 
[See Genealogy, Hazen.] 

Just how many and who came with Captain Hazen in the settlement 
near 1762 is not definitely known, but among them were Thomas John- 
son, who after a brief stay went to Newbury; John Page, Simon Stevens, 
Joshua Howard, Jaasiel Harriman, John White, who probably did not 
become a prominent resident, Uriah Morse and Joshua Poole. In 1763, 
the year of the charter, Nathaniel Merrill, James Bailey, Maxi Haseltine, 



36 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Elisha Locke, Jonathan Sanders, Uriah Stone, James Woodward and John 
Taplin were among the new comers. Taplin and Stone remained but a 
short time, the former removing to Newbury and the latter to Piermont. 
Jonathan Elkins, Edward Bayley, James Abbott, Jonathan Goodwin, 
and Joshua Hayward were among those who came in 1764. In 1765 
Ezekiel Ladd of Haverhill, Mass., purchased a lot on what is now Ladd 
Street, and settled there and was immediately followed by his six brothers, 
Daniel, Samuel, John, David, James and Jonathan. They settled near 
each other, and the family became one of large influence in the first half 
century history of the town. Others who came this year were Joseph 
Hutchins, Asa Bailey, Richard Young, Simeon Godwin, and William 
Eastman. Reuben Young settled in 1766. Timothy Barron, John 
Mills, Ebenezer Rice, John Way and Nathaniel Weston came in 1767. In 
1768 came John Hunt, Asa Porter, Andrew Savage Crocker, brother-in- 
law, Charles Johnston, Ephraim Wilson, Joseph Haines; 1769, James 
Corliss, Jonathan Ring, John Chase, John Hew; 1770, Thomas Simpson, 
Amos Kimball, Leal Crocker; 1771, Charles Bayley, Daniel G. Wood; 
1772, Luther Richardson, Stephen Smith, Samuel Hall, Daniel Stevens, 
Jonathan Hale; 1773, Ebenezer Sanborn and Bryan Kay. 

The settlements were for the most part along the river. There had 
not been time as yet to undertake the subduing of the forest and wilder- 
ness country to the east. There were sixty-six families. They were 
comparatively young people. But one male member of the population 
was over sixty years of age. They were men and women, boys and girls 
of stern stuff who were facing hardships and facing them cheerfully. 
And there were hardships; life was simple, but its simplicity did not 
detract from its strenuousness. The first log cabins had begun to be 
succeeded bj^ frame houses, but these were small and scantily furnished. 
The Hazen house on the Oxbow, still standing, seems small and inconven- 
ient today, but it was one of the most pretentious then. Colonel Porter 
and Colonel Johnston perhaps had larger and better furnished dwellings, 
but the difference was hardly appreciable. Money was not plenty. 
Each home was a center of numerous industries. There were a few 
pieces of furniture here and there brought by great effort from the old 
homes in Haverhill, Hampstead, Salem, Hampton, Newburyport and 
Newbury, Mass., but the larger part were of home manufacture. Cloth- 
ing was for the most part the product of the home, and was for protection 
and comfort rather than ornament. The spinning wheel and the hand 
loom were in evidence in nearly every household. 1 Calf skins, deer and 
moose skins and hides from cattle were dressed at home. The shoe- 

1 Items taken from various accounts filed against the estate of Captain Hazen may be 
of interest as showing wages paid and cost of articles purchased for the household. The 
dates of charges are in the years 1773 and 1774. Ebenezer Dame and his wife worked 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 37 

maker journeyed from house to house or turned his own kitchen into a 
shop. Ebenezer Sanborn and Ebenezer Mcintosh were the shoemakers 
of the settlement. Jonathan Ring and Glazier Wheeler, the blacksmiths. 
Maxi Haseltine made the machinery necessary for the primitive mills. 
Nails for building were made by hand, and all building material except 
glass for windows was of home manufacture. Ornamentation of dwelling 
was practically unknown. The soil was fertile, and food though plain 
was plenty. The first ten years of town life subsequent to the charter 
were years of strenuous endeavor, but in that time the town had become 
established. There were in spite of hardships comparatively few deaths. 
Births were numerous. It was the day of large families. Race suicide 
had not become a question. Hardships and privations were borne cheer- 
fully, since those by whom they were borne believed in the future of their 
town. 

The character of any community is, of course, influenced by soil and 
climate, by mountain, lake and river, and Haverhill has been fortunate 
in these; but underlying these in any town or community are the lives and 
characters of its men and its women, and Haverhill has also been fortu- 
nate in these, doubly fortunate in the character of John Hazen, and those 
associated with him in her founding, establishing her churches and 
schools, building her roads and transforming her forests into fertile fields. 

Captain Hazen married November 30, 1752, Anna Swett of Haverhill, 

for Captain Hazen during the summer of both years. In July and August, 1774, there is 
a charge for 36 days at 3s per day, and some of the charges for the work of his wife were: 
spinning 9 skeins wool yarn, 2s, Qd; knitting 2 pairs stockings, 2s; making pair "britches," 
2s, Qd; making 2 pairs trousers, 2s; footing 4 pairs stockings, 8s; spin and make 2 
pairs mittens, 2s, Qd. Here is a charge without date, but not earlier than September, 
diggin grave for Captain Hazen, 3s. Elisha Cook had a charge for sawing and stacking 
up 2,000 boards, 18s, and for dressing two deer skins, 8s. Jonathan Ring presented a 
long account for shoeing horses. The last item in his bill was September 12, 1774 "shoein 
horse," 2s. In the account of Daniel Clark, items were for 1 pound tea, 5s; 1 ax, 6s; 1 
bread trough, 4s; 1 almanac, Qd. Captain Hazen had dinner at Ezekiel Ladd's tavern 
for which including a bowl of toddy he was charged 9d. Joshua Sanders charged 5s for 
3 pounds of "loaf shugar." In the account of Ebenezer Mcintosh in 1773, these items 
appear : "making shoes for John, 3s " ; "making shoes for Anna, 2s, Qd," "making shoes 
for wife, 3s." The leather was of course furnished by Captain Hazen. His daughter 
Anna was at school in the spring of 1774, where does not appear, but at a private school 
as appears from the account of Seth Wales: "Boarding your daughter, 16J weeks at 
3s, £2, 9s, 6d; cash paid for schooling, private school, 9s." In the same account were 
charges for " § case knives and forks and making 2 gowns, 6s, Qd." "Four yards Tanny 
and 2 skeins silk, 14s, Qd; 9 yards camblet, £1, 7s; 3 yards quality, Qd." Asa Porter in 
his account included "3 yards Baize, 10s, Qd; 2 yards serge, 18s; 1J yards shallow, 
6s; 1 breeches pattern, 13s. 4d; 8 j^ards quality, 3s; lh quire paper, 3s." John Ward 
presented an account for 40 panes 7 by 9 glass omitted in previous settlement, £1, 3s, 4d. 
Flip and toddy and rum frequently appear in the charges made by Luther Richardson, 
Ezekiel Ladd, Asa Porter and Andrew Savage Crocker. A quart of rum was 3s, a mug of 
flip 3d, a bowl of toddy the same price. 



38 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Mass., who died soon after their removal to the Oxbow, September 19, 
1765. Of their four children [see genealogy] two died about 1759. Sarah, 
born 1754, married October 10, 1771, Nathaniel Merrill [see genealogy, 
Merrill] and John went to reside with his Uncle William Hazen in New 
Brunswick. John Hazen married, second, 1766, Abigail, daughter of 
Rev. Josiah Cotton. They had one child Anna, born August 1, 1768, 
who came under the guardianship of her Uncle Moses Hazen after the 
death of her father and the remarriage of her mother, January 23, 1775, 
to Henry Hancock of Lyman. Mr. Hancock was one of the first settlers 
of that town. 

Moses and William Hazen, brothers of John, were each grantees of both 
Haverhill and Newbury but neither settled in either town. Moses had a 
somewhat distinguished career. He rendered conspicuous service in the 
French and Indian Wars, and for special gallantry on the Plains of Abra- 
ham under Wolfe, where he was severely wounded, he was retired on half 
pay in the British army. He settled at St. John, married a French lady, 
and became a large owner of land. The outbreak of the Revolutionary 
War found him in warm sympathy with the patriot cause. He sacrificed 
his large Canadian estates and his half pay for life, raised, partly in 
Canada and partly in the Northern Colonies, by his own personal exer- 
tions, a regiment, the service of which he tendered to Congress, which he 
commanded and which won distinction as "Hazen's Own," or "Congress' 
Own." At the close of the war he held a commission as Brigadier-General. 
He cut out and constructed, in conjunction with Gen. Jacob Bayley, the 
larger part of the military road from Wells River in through Peacham and 
through a notch in the Green Mountains to Montgomery, Vt. The notch 
and road still bear his name. He died without issue in Troy, N. Y., 
February 4, 1803. W T illiam Hazen, though, like John and Moses a 
grantee, never visited Haverhill. He conveyed his holdings to his 
brother John, August 24, 1764, and October 19, 1770. Soon after this 
latter date he went to New Brunswick when he became owner of extensive 
tracts of land and held high official position. He was a member of the 
Governor's Council from the organization of the Province till his death 
in 1814. He had a large family of sixteen children and his descendants 
have been prominent in Provincial and Dominion affairs. 

With the death of John Hazen the name passes out of the records and 
history of the town of which he was preeminently the founder. The 
house which he built about 1769 is still standing on the Oxbow farm, 
his only visible monument. It is to be regretted that the location of his 
grave is unknown. It has been generally supposed that he was buried in 
the Oxbow graveyard on the Newbury side of the river, but the charge in 
the account of Ebenezer Dame, the hired man, of 1774 for " diggin ' a grave 
for Captain Hazen" raises the inquiry whether the grave may not have 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 39 

been on the farm he had cleared and made. His descendants, however, 
through his daughter Sarah Hazen Merrill and her ten daughters, bearing 
the names of Hibbard, Swasey, Runnells, Pearsons, Morse and Page have 
been and are still numerous in Haverhill and Newbury and other sections 
of the old Coos County. 

An exceptionally long time was taken for the settlement of Captain 
Hazen's estate, if indeed it was ever really settled. There is no record of 
settlement. After the return of the inventory, a commission of insolvency 
was appointed to allow claims against the estate, but the War of the 
Revolution came on and the functions of the newly established courts of 
Grafton County were suspended until nearly its close. In April, 1783, 
the administrators petitioned for the appointment of a new commission 
in insolvency, and in May, 1784, Asa Porter, Ezekiel Ladd and Andrew 
Savage Crocker were named as the new commission. They made report 
in October, 1792, eight years and more later, allowing claims to the amount 
of £762, 19s, Sd. The administrators were apparently slow in settling 
these claims. In February, 1798, Moody Bedel, administrator of the 
estate of Timothy Bedel, a creditor of the Hazen estate petitioned the 
court for leave to bring suit against Asa Porter, one of the bondsmen of 
the Hazen administrators, and in June the same year, John Page, Joshua 
Howard, Ezekiel Ladd, Josiah Burnham, James Ladd, Simeon Goodwin 
and David Weeks, other creditors, presented a like petition, alleging that 
the estate had been and was being wasted by the administrators. As late 
as May 23, 1816, more than forty-one years after the death of Captain 
Hazen, the administrators were cited to appear at a probate court to be 
held in Enfield in July for settlement, but the probate records are silent 
as to action taken. A settlement of some kind was doubtless made since 
there is a family tradition that Sarah Hazen Merrill finally received the 
sum of twelve dollars as her share of her father's estate, with which sum 
she purchased a large family Bible, which is still in the possession of her 
descendants and known as "the Hazen Bible." The name is appropriate 
though the imprint bears the date of 1817. 

Simon or Simeon Stevens came to Haverhill with Captain Hazen's 
party in 1762, but remained only a short time, choosing rather to settle in 
Newbury of which town he was also a grantee. He sold his Haverhill 
lands in 1765 and later to Joseph Blanchard of Merrimack, Robert Rogers 
of Portsmouth, James Wyman of Woburn, Mass., and David McGregor 
of Londonderry. Blanchard was also a grantee but it does not appear that 
he ever came to Haverhill. He sold his original right to David Page of 
Petersham, Mass. The descendants of Simeon Stevens became prominent 
in Newbury. He rendered valuable service in the French and Indian and 
in the Revolutionary wars. One of his daughters married Capt. Uriah 
Stone of Haverhill and Piermont. 



40 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Thomas Johnson, Haverhill grantee, came to Haverhill with Hazen in 
1762, but soon after settled in Newbury on the Great Oxbow, of which 
town he was, in the early days, next perhaps to Jacob Bayley its leading 
citizen. He rendered distinguished service in the War of the Revolution. 
One of his sons, Moses Johnson, married, first, a daughter of Gen. Moses 
Dow of Haverhill, and second, Betsey Pierson also of Haverhill. A 
daughter Hannah Johnson married David Sloan of Haverhill, a leading 
lawyer of the section for nearly half a century. [See Genealogy, Sloan.] 

Jaasiel Harriman was one of the three who came up by the Baker's 
River and Oliverian trail in 1762 and was a grantee of Bath as well as of 
Haverhill and Newbury. Until 1765 he lived for a part of the time in 
Haverhill and a part in Newbury but in 1765 his was the first family to 
settle in that part of Bath now known as Lower Village. He cleared land 
and established his home on the meadow just south of the village and 
tradition has it that the first vegetables raised in that town were from 
seed planted on the great rock in the upper end of the meadow and near 
the present highway. One of his daughters married Jesse Carleton who 
lived for years in Haverhill as did also their son Isaac Carleton. [See 
Genealogy, Carleton.] Jaasiel Harriman, while living in Haverhill, fol- 
lowed his trade of blacksmith, using a hard rock for an anvil. 

John White of Haverhill, Mass., was chosen by the proprietors select- 
man at their first meeting in 1763, and is thought to have been among 
those who came with the first settlers in 1762, but if he was of their num- 
ber he probably did not remain long at that time. He disposed of a part 
of his rights as proprietor to Joshua Howard in 1764. He returned to 
Haverhill later, however, and held a commission as first lieutenant in 
Colonel Bedel's regiment in the War of the Revolution. 

Uriah Morse not only came with Hazen in 1762, but he brought his 
family with him, the first white family in town. He was born January 7, 
1730-31, the son of Isaac and Elizabeth Morse of Halliston, Shrewsbury 
and Worcester, Mass. He was a descendant in the fifth generation of 
Samuel Morse of Dedham, Mass. He married previous to 1760 and set- 
tled in Northfield, Mass., from which town he came to Coos and settled 
on the bank of Poole Brook west of the bridge on the main road and a 
little southwest of the house now owned by W. H. Ingalls. This was the 
first house built in town and here in the spring of 1763, the first white child 
was born. Here also occurred the first death in the settlement, that of 
Polly Harriman, a young woman of eighteen, a death the records say 
"much lamented." Here Captain Hazen and his men boarded while 
they were building mills and dwellings, and clearing land until Captain 
Hazen moved his family to town two years later. Uriah Morse is 
described in the conveyances of the time as "taverner," and his house was 
the stopping place of such strangers as came to Coos, the first tavern 
as well as first dwelling house in town. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 41 

At a proprietors meeting in 1763, it was voted that Morse be allowed to 
have pitch Number One in the Meadow, which later bore his name, the 
meadow below the Oxbow which was given to Captain Hazen. This was 
accorded him in consideration of his services in boarding the men who 
came up in 1762, and as being the head of the first white family in town. 
After a few years residence in Haverhill, Morse removed to Newfane, Vt., 
where other descendents of Samuel Morse had settled. The name of 
Morse has been prominent in the history of Haverhill, but with the 
exception of Uriah it is believed that all others bearing the name were 
descendants of Anthony Morse who settled in Newbury in 1635. [See 
Genealogy, Morse.] 

Joshua Howard, born in Haverhill, Mass., April 24, 1740, was a 
grantee of Newbury, but by consent of Colonel Bayley entered the employ 
of Captain Hazen and settled in Haverhill. He came in April, 1762, by 
the Baker's River and Oliverian Indian trail. He purchased land of 
Abraham Dow and John White, original proprietors in 1764, and subse- 
quently of John Hazen, John Went worth and Hezekiah Hut chins. He 
established his home on the large island in the Connecticut just north of 
the county farm, an island which still bears his name. 1 He was a quiet 
man, of the strictest integrity, liberal in his religious views and became 
one of the most highly respected and substantial citizens of the town, liv- 
ing to the advanced age of ninety-eight years and nine months. He filled 
most of the various town offices, and with Col. Timothy Bedel was a 
member from Haverhill in April, 1781, of the Assembly held under what 
was known as the Second Vermont Union at Charlestown, an assembly or 
legislature in which thirty-five New Hampshire and thirty-six Vermont 
towns were represented. This abortive attempt to establish a state com- 
posed of the towns in the Connecticut Valley on both sides of the river will 
be described in another chapter. Colonel Howard, who rendered good 
service during the struggle for independence, was a member of the Com- 
mittee of Safety in 1776, and was lieutenant in a company of Rangers. 

1 Grant Powers in his "History of the Coos County," says of him: He was a man of 
strict veracity, and at the time when he gave his narration of events in the earlier settle- 
ment of these towns (July 27, 1824), he was of sound mind and good memory. I am 
much indebted to him for material in these sketches. Howard labored that first season, 
1762, in preparing the timbers for the mills and was present at the raising of them. He 
relates one providential escape from death at the raising of those mills which deserves 
notice. One of their company, John Hughs, an Irishman, fell from the frame, sixteen 
feet, and struck perpendicularly upon the mud sill, head downwards, without anything 
to abate the force of the fall. He was taken up without sign of life, but Glazier Wheeler 
from Newbury, found a penknife with the company and opened a vein, and after the loss 
of blood, he revived and soon recovered from the tremendous blow. Physicians and 
surgeons, those comfortable adjuncts to an improved state of society, were then out of 
the question, and every mind in such an emergency was put upon its own resources. 
[History Coos, p. 44.] 



42 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

He was much interested in the militia from service in which he obtained 
his title of Colonel. [See Genealogy, Howard.] 

Bittinger in his history of Haverhill states that Timothy Bedel was 
one of the 1762 company that came up with Captain Hazen, his authority 
probably being the statement of Grant Powers that "Bedel boarded with 
the family of Uriah Morse in the autumn of 1762." Bedel was unques- 
tionably with Jacob Bayley, John Hazen and Jacob Hunt in the autumn 
of 1760 when they spent a few days at the Oxbows and vicinity on their 
return from the seige and surrender of Montreal. It is, however, un- 
likely that he came to Haverhill for any permanent stay until 1764 when 
he came up with his family and settled at first on Poole Brook, a little 
later near the Oliverian. He could hardly have come in 1762, since he 
went to Havana with the Royal Provincials in that year and was present 
at the six weeks' siege and capture of that place. He was commissioned 
captain under Sir Jeffrey Amherst April 13, 1762, and remained in the 
service until peace was made in 1763. A grantee of Bath as well as of 
Haverhill and Newbury and with the intention of becoming a settler at 
the earliest possible moment, his deep and abiding interest in the town 
dates from the beginning. From 1764 till his death in 1787, he was a 
dominant personality not only in the affairs of Haverhill and of Bath, — 
in which town he had his residence for a part of the time between 1770 and 
1778, — but of the entire Coos County. He was in his fortieth year when 
he set up his home in Haverhill, and his large experience and strenuous 
service in pioneer and military life gave him a peculiar fitness for leader- 
ship. He had been in Captain Goffe's scouting campaign from the 
Merrimac and Connecticut rivers in 1745. In 1754 he was with Colonel 
Blanchard's regiment raised for service on these rivers, and was in the 
detachment of this regiment posted at Charlestown under Major Benja- 
min Bellows. In 1755 he saw service in the expedition against Crown 
Point and the next year was with William Stark's company of rangers in 
the second expedition against that post. In 1757 he had left his native 
town, Haverhill, Mass., becoming a resident of Salem, N. H., and that 
same year went to Halifax as lieutenant under Colonel Meserve. In 
1758, he was with General Amherst at the capture of Louisburg, in 1759 
he was at the taking of Quebec, and in 1760 was lieutenant in Captain 
Hazen's company in the campaign which ended with the surrender of 
Montreal. In 1762, as has already been noted, he was again with General 
Amherst at Havana. His distinguished service in the War of the Revo- 
lution will be noted in another chapter. He was a born soldier and his 
descendants followed in his footsteps. This varied service, coupled with 
great force of character, untiring energy, indomitable will and courage 
eminently fitted him to be a co-worker with Bayley and Johnson of New- 
bury and Hazen of Haverhill in the settlement and development of the 
new Coos County. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 43 

The records of Haverhill and Bath bear testimony to a constant activity 
in all the affairs of the settlement. He is supposed to have built the first 
mill on the Oliverian, at what afterwards came to be called "The Brook." 
He was the first on the committee appointed by the town to secure the 
settlement of Mr. Peter Powers as the first minister of Haverhill and 
Newbury; he was selectman with Jonathan Elkins and Jonathan Sanders 
in 1766, and in later years filled with efficiency and credit to himself every 
position of trust and responsibility within the gift of his fellow townsmen; 
he was a leader in the attempt to unite the Connecticut Valley towns into 
a separate commonwealth, but when this attempt failed, he gave his 
hearty and unswerving allegiance to New Hampshire. In 1784 he was 
representative in the General Court from Haverhill at that time classed 
with Piermont, Warren and Coventry for representation. There is due 
his memory more honorable recognition of patriotic service to his country 
in war, to his town and state in peace that has been awarded him. "His 
dust rests in the old cemetery near the Corner on that commanding 
eminence which overlooks the broad valley of the Connecticut which was 
the centre of his struggles, his leadership and his power." The inscrip- 
tion on the modest stone which originally marked his grave has been 
rendered nearly illegible by exposure to the storms of more than one hun- 
dred and thirty years, but this has been remedied by the Hannah Morrill 
Whitcher Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, of Woods- 
ville, which unveiled with simple but appropriate ceremonies on Saturday, 
May 29, 1915, a memorial tablet over his grave. The tablet, of United 
States standard bronze is inserted in a rough boulder, cut from new West- 
erly granite and was placed on the lot beside the original headstone. 

The day was an ideally perfect one and the large company present 
found the occasion an inspiring one. The lot was appropriately decorated 
with evergreens and flags. Among the specially invited guests were many 
descendants of Colonel Bedel, members of Oxbow Chapter, D. A. R., 
Newbury, Vt., Coosuck Chapter, North Haverhill, Ellen I. Sanger Chap- 
ter, Littleton, the National Westgate Post, G. A. R., and Woman's 
Relief Corps of Haverhill. 

Mrs. Norman J. Page, Regent of the Hannah Morrill Whitcher Chap- 
ter, presided. Prayer was offered by the Rev. C. E. Eaton of North 
Haverhill and the tablet was unveiled by Miss Barbara Aldrich, daughter 
of Mr. and Mrs. E. F. Aldrich of Brookline, Mass, granddaughter of 
Judge Edgar Aldrich of the United States Court, and sixth in lineal de- 
scent from Colonel Bedel. Miss Luvia E. Mann of Woodsville recited 
most appreciatively and effectively Kipling's Recessional and this was 
followed by commemorative addresses by Judge Edgar Aldrich of Little- 
ton, descendant of Colonel Bedel in the fourth generation, and by William 
F. Whitcher of Woodsville. Following the exercises at the grave, lunch 



44 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

was served members of the Chapter and invited guests in the Ladd Street 
schoolhouse hall. [See Genealogy, Bedel.] 

John Page came to the Coos Meadows in September, 1762, and with 
one other man and a boy took charge of General Bayley's cattle on the 
Great Oxbow during that autumn and the following winter. For this 
service, coupled with his promise to become a settler, his name was in- 
cluded among the grantees of Haverhill. In 1763 he went to Lancaster 
and worked for his Uncle David Page for a time, for which service he was 
deeded another right in Haverhill. His uncle was one of the grantees of 
Haverhill, but was dissatisfied with the methods adopted by the pro- 
prietors in dividing the lands and pushed on to Upper Coos where he 
began a settlement in what is now Lancaster, incorporated in July, 1763. 
John Page built his first house on a little knoll on the meadows just south 
of the Bedel bridge road. Later he built a more substantial home on the 
site of the present Page homestead. He was born in Lunenburg, Mass., 
and came to Coos from Rindge where his family then lived. He had 
just passed his majority, and his earthly possessions consisted of an ax 
and a small bundle of clothing. He was, however, endowed with remark- 
able physical strength, sound common sense and rare tact which gave 
him great influence among the Indians yet remaining in Coos, and which 
made him from the first a valuable accession to the new settlement. 
He was thrice married. His first wives each died without issue. [See 
Genealogy, Page.] He married third, in 1786, Mrs. Hannah Green, 
widow of William Green, and daughter of Samuel Royce of Landaff . She 
was a woman of great superiority of mind and character and left her im- 
press on the young community, and especially on the lives and char- 
acter of her four sons, two of whom, as will be noted later, lived to old 
age, an honor to her memory and to the family name. Of the earliest 
settlers of the town, he alone with a single exception has descendants, 
bearing the family name, still living in town, his great grandsons, Charles 
P. and Frederick W. Page. The homestead farm at his death came into 
the possession of his eldest son, John — governor and United States Sen- 
ator — thence to the youngest son and is now owned by his widow, Mrs. 
Edward L. Page. The farm is a valuable one, and, so far as known, 
furnishes the only instance where the farm and homestead of a first 
settler has not been alienated from the family. 

In the Page family lot in the old cemetery at the Corner may be read 
epitaphs, which have the merit of being strictly truthful, something which 
is not always to be said of tombstone inscriptions. 

Among the accession to the settlers in 1763, were Maxi Haseltine (name 
spelled in list appended to charter, Maxey), Elisha Locke, Jonathan 
Sanders, Uriah Stone and James Woodward. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 45 

Maxi Haseltine was a grantee, came from Haverhill and entered at 
once actively into the affairs of the settlement. Aside from his own 
right, he purchased that of John Harriman a few weeks after the issue of 
the charter, and two years later added to his holdings by purchase from 
Hezekiah Hutchins. He was prominent in town affairs, served twice as 
selectman, filled various other town offices and in 1775 was chosen as 
one of the Committee of Safety "to see that the results of the Continental 
Congress were carried out." He served again on the Committee of 
Safety in 1778, but after the war he removed to Bath. While he seems 
to have enjoyed the confidence of his townsmen, he may have found 
himself in straightened circumstances, since there is a record of sale for 
taxes to Asa Porter and Jonathan Hale in 1771 of his one hundred acre 
lot and all subsequent divisions of his original right. 

James Woodward came from Hampstead at the age of twenty-two, 
and purchased the one hundred acre lot on the meadow below Ladd 
Street, which was a part of the right of William Page, a grantee. He was 
one of the young men whom John Hazen was successful in inducing to 
become a settler, and who was destined to have large influence in the 
community. He built his first house on the bank of the river, in which 
he lived for three years alone, engaged in clearing his land, and walking 
to what is now the Keyes farm for his meals. He married December 30, 
1766. Grant Powers says it was the first marriage in town, but the 
record shows that John Page was married to Abigail Sanders, the daughter 
of his neighbor Jonathan Sanders, December 18, 1766, twelve daj r s earlier, 
the first marriage of which there is record in town. He lived in his small 
log house on the Meadow until the flood of 1771 drove him back to the 
upland where he built his second house, a part of which is still standing, 
known as the Judge Woodward place, the second north of the residence of 
the late James Woodward on Ladd Street. He lived here until his death 
in his eightieth year in 1821. He became one of the most substantial 
citizens of the town and county, was the first representative from 
Haverhill to the New Hampshire legislature, elected in 1783, and on the 
reorganization of the Grafton County courts after the war, was appointed 
judge of the Court of Common Pleas, an office he held for many years. 
He served five times on the Board of Selectmen, held many positions of 
trust and responsibility and enjoyed during his long and useful life the 
confidence and respect of all with whom he was associated. [See Geneal- 
ogy, Woodward.] 

Elisha Locke is described in the deed of land which he purchased of 
Jacob Kent, a Haverhill grantee, November 14, 1763, as of Chester, but 
he was born in Rye, where the Locke family was numerous. [See 
Genealogy, Locke.] He was married in 1743 and six of his seven children 



46 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

were born before coming to Haverhill. He probably came to Haverhill 
in 1763, though he may not have brought his family till the summer of 
1764. He at once became prominent in the affairs of the town, was 
moderator of the annual town meeting in 1765, and was elected with 
John Hazen and Jonathan Elkins selectman that same year. He held 
other offices during the next few years but he was one of the older settlers, 
and the records give but little information concerning him after 1771. 
He was one of the committee appointed at the special town meeting in 
January, 1765, to secure the settlement of Peter Powers as minister and 
was a loyal supporter of religious services. He was town clerk in 1766 
and 1767, and the records indicate that his education in penmanship 
had been somewhat neglected, and his spelling would delight those of the 
present time who believe in simplified methods. He was associated with 
Timothy Bedel in building and operating the mills early erected at the 
Brook. 

Jonathan Sanders was a native of Hampton (see Genealogy, Sanders), 
but came to Haverhill in 1763, and purchased land for his farm a little 
to the south of that on which John Page established himself. His one 
hundred acre meadow lot and house lot he purchased of Ebenezer (Eleazor) 
Hale of Hampstead, a grantee, August 4, 1763. His purchase lay in the 
territory in dispute between Haverhill and Piermont, and he suffered 
much annoyance from this until his death January 1, 1775. The Haver- 
hill proprietors, as has been seen, rendered him such assistance as they 
were able to do to protect his interests. He had a large family and two 
of his sons rendered service in the War of the Revolution. His eldest 
daughter, Abigail, became the first wife of John Page. He was selectman 
in 1766. 

Uriah Stone came from Hampstead and built a log cabin for himself 
and wife on the bank of the river near the present Bedel's bridge. His 
house was carried away by high water about two years later, and tradi- 
tion says it was landed on Piermont meadows. Be that as it may he 
followed his house and established himself in Piermont where he cleared 
and cultivated a large farm, conducted a tannery and established the 
first ferry for the accommodation of Haverhill and Piermont settlers, 
and those of Moretown, now Bradford, Vt. He reared a large family, 
and had numerous descendants in both Piermont and Haverhill. One 
of the sons of Uriah, George Washington Stone, removed to Canada. 
A daughter of his, Melvina, became the wife of Rev. William Arthur, 
and mother of Chester A. Arthur, twenty-first President of the United 
States. 

Jonathan Elkins was, like his neighbor, Jonathan Sanders, of a 
family numerous in Hampton, and was fourth in descent from Henry 
Elkins who came to New England previous to 1635, lived for a time in 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 47 

Boston, was among the first settlers of Exeter, but removed to Hampton 
about 1650. [See Genealogy, Elkins.] Jonathan came to Haverhill in 
the early summer of 1764, and settled near what was afterwards known 
as the Dr. Carleton homestead. He had a large family of children six of 
whom were born in town. In 1775 he removed to Peacham, Vt., where 
he built the first house in town, and where, as during his residence in 
Haverhill he was an influential and prominent citizen. He was the first 
deacon of the Congregational Church there, and was the leading spirit in 
its organization and support. A man of deep religious convictions and 
consistent Christian character he was a valuable acquisition to the 
settlement. He was selectman in 1765 and 1766. 

Edward and James Bailey, third in descent from James Bailey who 
settled in Rowley, Mass., about 1640, were among the new comers in 
1764. Edward was constable in 1765 and selectman in 1767. His 
name does not appear on the records subsequent to 1768. James, born 
in Newbury, Mass., February 21, 1722, lived on what was later the Dow 
farm, now the Keyes farm, and was prominent in town matters during 
the War of the Revolution. He also lived in Newbury for a time, but 
later with his family removed to Peacham where he died about 1807. 
He was selectman in Haverhill in 1770-71, 1774-75 and held other town 
offices and was a member of the Provincial Congress in 1777. His 
service in the French and Indian War was especially notable, and in the 
early years of the Revolutionary War he had charge of several scouting 
parties sent out from Haverhill. 

James Abbott, born in Andover, Mass., January 12, 1717, third in 
descent from the emigrant George Abbott who came from Yorkshire, 
England, and was one of the first settlers of Andover, Mass., in 1643, 
came to Coos in November, 1763. He settled first on the Great Oxbow, 
but later sold his land to Rev. Peter Powers, and came to Haverhill 
where he lived till the close of the Revolutionary War when he returned to 
Newbury and bought the farm which has remained in the family since. 
While in Haverhill he was active in town affairs, was town clerk, select- 
man, member of the Committee of Safety. He and his wife and two of his 
ten children were original members of the Newbury and Haverhill Church, 
and he was one of its first deacons. Many of his descendants have at 
various times lived in Haverhill, and a daughter Abigail married Major 
Asa Bailey of Haverhill and Landaff. An autobiography published by 
her is in many respects a remarkable work, and has become one of the 
scarce volumes of American biography. [See Genealogy, Abbott.] 

The Goodwins. Jonathan and Simeon who came from Hampstead 
were of good New England stock. Jonathan came in 1764, and is set up 
in the deed of land which he sought of Richard Potter of Salem as of 
Chester. He was elected to the then important office of tithing manjlin 



48 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

1765, but he probably returned soon after to his old home in Hampstead 
since he went in 1777 from that town as a member of Capt. John Goffe's 
company to Ticonderoga and Saratoga. Simeon Goodwin purchased his 
land of John Mills of Haverhill, Mass., a grantee, and came to Haverhill 
to begin clearing and building a home in the latter part of 1764, or early 
in 1765. He probably spent a part of his time in Hampstead for two 
years or more and did not bring his family to Haverhill till 1767, as his 
son Philip was born in that town in February, 1767, and Susanna, the first 
of his children born in Haverhill, is recorded among the births February 
28, 1769. He was selectman that year, also in 1772 and 1776, was re- 
peatedly called to posts of responsibility. He served on the Committee 
of Safety, and on special comittees of conference with like committees of 
other towns for the protection and defence of Coos during the Revolution. 
On the reorganization of county affairs after the war, he was appointed 
coroner for Grafton County. 

Nathaniel Merrill, born March 2, 1747, was one of the grantees of 
Haverhill. He was from Plaistow, and came early to town. Just when 
is not certain, but there is a tradition that he came with the family of 
John Hazen whose daughter, Sarah, he married in 1771. He was then 
published as of Bath. He soon afterwards removed to Newbury of which 
town he was also a grantee, and settled on the farm afterwards owned for a 
long time by Moses Swasey and his son, George Swasey. He came to 
Haverhill about 1778, and settled on a farm on the plain, a part of which is 
now the homestead farm of Wilbur F. Eastman. In 1816 he removed to 
Vermont where he died in 1825. He was a man of strong character, and 
became one of the most influential citizens of the town. He served as 
selectman several times and represented the town in the legislature in 
1794, '95, '96 and 1806. He was eccentric, brusque in his manner but 
possessed of strong common sense, and marked business ability. His 
education was limited, but the Rev. Ethan Smith said of him, " He knew 
more than any man who hadn't more education than he had." He was 
not an ardent believer in foreign missions. When asked for a contribution 
to civilize the heathen, he replied, "I'll give $20 to civilize the heathen 
within five miles of my house." He rendered valuable service in the War 
of the Revolution and was also a major in the Militia. He was noted for 
the possession of a voice of great volume and it has been stated on good 
authority that Major Merrill and Capt. Joshua Hale of Newbury could 
carry on conversation when a mile apart with the greatest ease, and this 
in the days before the telephone had been dreamed of. 

He had a family of twelve children, eleven of whom were daugh- 
ters, all of whom are said to have been of rare attractiveness and charm. 
The son died at the early age of twelve. Nine of the daughters 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 49 

married and had children. Through the daughters of Major and Mrs. 
Merrill, the descendants of Captain Hazen became numerous. [See 
Merrill Genealogy.] 

Perhaps the most prominent of the arrivals in town in 1765 was that of 
Ezekiel Ladd, who was soon followed by his six brothers, Daniel, 
Samuel, John, David, James and Jonathan, who settled near each other in 
that part of the town bearing their name, Ladd Street. The Ezekiel Ladd 
homestead was on the east side of Ladd Street, between the schoolhouse 
and the residence of Henry S. Bailey, where he lived until his death in 
1818. His brothers settled near him. He was born in Haverhill, Mass., 
April 10, 1738, the third of twelve children of Daniel and Mehitable 
(Roberts) Ladd. His wife was Ruth Hutchins, also of Haverhill. Sam- 
uel Ladd lived on what is known as the James Woodward place, John 
Ladd built the Henry S. Bailey house, David Ladd lived in the Clifford 
house, James Ladd lived opposite the home of his sister who married 
Samuel Cross, and Jonathan Ladd's house was what in recent years has 
been known as the old gristmill house. The Ladd family was a numerous 
one, and for many years was a prominent one in the history of the town. 
No representative of the family is now in town. Ezekiel Ladd was the 
most prominent member of the family. He was active in all the affairs 
of the town, served several years as one of the selectmen, was town 
treasurer, judge of the Court of Common Pleas from 1787 till 1812 
for Grafton County, and rendered valuable service in the War of the 
Revolution holding a commission as captain. His brothers James, 
David and Jonathan also served as soldiers, David rendering service 
during almost the entire war and James serving as lieutenant in the 
company commanded by his brother. Judge Ladd was one of the 
earliest innholders in town and was a pioneer in the tannery business. 
[See Ladd Genealogy.] 

Joshua Hayward (Haywood) came from Plaistow. He made his 
first purchase of land of Enoch Hale, Jr., and subsequently bought of 
James Abbott, John Hazen, John Taplin and John Hall. He settled at 
Horse Meadow in 1765, served in the various town offices, rendered 
honorable service in the Revolutionary struggle, and was later major of 
the 12th Regiment of Militia. His brother Jonathan came later, and 
during the war was one of the Committee of Inspection. Joshua was 
chairman of the Board of Selectmen in 1779 but after the close of the 
Revolution the names of neither Joshua or Jonathan appear in the town 
records. Joshua Hayward conveyed his real estate to Moses Porter and 
Asa Porter. His deed to the latter was dated December 13, 1788, to the 
former conveying the farm on which Col. John Hurd had lately lived at 
Horse Meadow, under date of June 10, 1779. 



50 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Joseph Hutchins came from Haverhill, Mass., in 1765. He pur- 
chased, July 3, a part of the right of Benjamin Merrill, a grantee, and 
settled near the Oliverian brook and at once became prominent in the 
affairs of the settlement. His name appears in the records, in connection 
with that of Ezekiel Ladd and James Woodward as a committee to build 
a pound for the benefit of the town. He was selectman in 1769, 1789 
and 1791, and represented the town in the legislature 1788, 1789 and 1791. 
In 1788 he was delegate from Haverhill to the convention that adopted 
the Federal Constitution, voting against its adoption, and in 1791 he was 
delegate to the Constitutional Convention of that year. After this year 
his name does not appear in the records in connection with town affairs, 
though he owned real estate in town for several years later, when he 
appears to have suffered business reverses, much of his property being 
taken on execution. He removed with his family to Middlesex, Vt., 
residing there until his death. He took an active part in the struggle for 
independence, and was in command of a company of rangers in 1780. He 
was also colonel of a regiment in the state militia. The official positions 
held by him indicate his importance and influence as a citizen in the early 
history of the town. 

William Eastman settled on Ladd Street. He was born in Haver- 
hill, Mass., October 3, 1715, removed to Hampstead. Married, first, Ruth 
Chase; second, Rebecca Jewett. He came to Haverhill in 1765, but 
two years later removed to Bath where he lived till his death. Many of 
his descendants, however, became prominent in the affairs of the town. 
Four of his sons were soldiers in the War of the Revolution. His son, 
James, first brought the news of the surrender of Cornwallis to Haverhill. 
[See Eastman, Genealogy.] 

Timothy Barron came with his wife, Olive, and two eldest children 
in 1766 or early in 1767 and settled at Horse Meadow. He was active 
in town affairs, served as selectman, took a prominent part in the War of 
the Revolution, was captain of a company in Colonel Bedel's regiment in 
1775, was one of the committee named to "see that the results of the 
Continental Congress were observed in Haverhill." He died in 1797 in 
his fifty-eighth year, and his tombstone in the Horse Meadow Cemetery 
records in detail the gift of the land which constituted the original ceme- 
tery to the town. [See Barron Genealogy.] 

Among those settling in town in 1768 were four men who became prom- 
inently conspicuous in its early life, and in the conduct of its affairs: John 
Hurd, Asa Porter, Andrew S. Crocker and Charles Johnston. 

John Hurd was descended from John Hurd who came from England 
and settled in Boston during the first decade of the settlement of that 
town. His father, Jacob Hurd, was a goldsmith by trade and appears to 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 51 

have been a man of property and influence. John was the second of the 
ten children of Jacob and Mary (Mason) Hurd and was born in Boston 
December 9, 1727; graduated at Harvard College in the class of 1757. 
He remained for some years in Boston and was named as of that town in 
1758 as administrator of his father's estate, the settlement of which must 
have occupied some time subsequent to that year. He went to Ports- 
mouth, N. H., sometime near the beginning of the administration of John 
Wentworth, who called about him a coterie of young men of liberal edu- 
cation and ability, and from the numerous grants of land which he made 
to John Hurd in towns in the northern part of the state it is evident that 
he was regarded with high favor. Just when he settled in Haverhill is 
uncertain, but he was here in the latter part of 1768, and acquired real 
estate. In a conveyance dated April 1, 1768, he is named as of Ports- 
mouth, but in another dated March 25, 1769, he is named as of Haverhill, 
these two dates indicating within a few months the date of his becoming a 
resident of the latter town. He was, however, much of his time for 
three or four years subsequently, in Portsmouth and in close touch with 
the Wentworth government. In May, 1770, he purchased the second 
division of excise, and in 1772 he held the office of receiver-general of 
quit rents, the duties of which must have kept him much of his time at 
the seat of government. 

Grafton County was incorporated in 1771, but for two years no courts 
were established or county officers appointed, the county being treated 
as a part of Rockingham for judicial and kindred purposes. There was 
rivalry on the part of the proprietors and inhabitants of various towns in 
securing the establishment of courts of record and county seat. The 
towns of Lyme and Orford presented a petition to the General Assembly 
asking that one of them be designated for holding half the courts of record, 
but when in June, 1775, Israel Morey and Alexander Phelps presented 
their petition they were confronted by John Hurd who appeared in behalf 
of the towns of Haverhill, Bath, Lyman and Gunthwaite (now Lisbon) 
asking that Haverhill be made the shire town of the new county. "Legis- 
lative agents" it would seem served for a compensation then as now. 
The fourth and fifth articles in the warrant for the Haverhill proprietors' 
meeting, to be held May 12, 1772, were "to see if the proprietary will 
choose one or more agents to petition the General Assembly that part or 
all the courts for the county of Grafton should be held in Haverhill" ; and 
also "to see what encouragement or premium they will offer said agent or 
agents in case he or they should succeed in procuring the establishment of 
said courts as aforesaid." At the meeting it was voted that John Hurd, 
Esq., be the agent, and as for the matter of "encouragement," it was 
agreed, with but one dissenting vote, "to give John Hurd, Esq., one 



52 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

thousand acres of land in the undivided land in the township of Haverhill, 
and that he shall have liberty to pitch it in a square form in any part of 
the undivided land in said township, upon condition that he shall succeed 
and obtain one-half the inferior courts for the county of Grafton and one 
Superior Court for said county, to be held at Haverhill. Colonel Hurd 
was doubtless at this time in Portsmouth, since at this same meeting it 
was voted "that Asa Porter, Esq., shall take the earliest method to send 
a copy of this vote to Portsmouth." It is probable that Porter person- 
ally carried a copy of this vote to Portsmouth, as being the "earliest 
method," and certainly the surest. The proprietors felt so certain of the 
success of their agent, that at a meeting held March 25, 1773, they pro- 
ceeded to fix the site of the court house and jail and make ready for the 
erection of suitable buildings. The mission of Colonel Hurd was success- 
ful, the courts were established and Haverhill was made a shire town in 
1773. Gratitude, however, is sometimes "a lively sense of favors to 
come," and like many of his successors in the business of influencing legis- 
lation, Legislative Agent Hurd made the discovery that the agent would do 
well to receive at least a portion of the "encouragement" offered before 
the entire service bargained for was performed. An article in the warrant 
for the proprietors' meeting of February 25, 1774, was significant: "To 
see if the proprietors will bear their proportion with Asa Porter, Esq., 
Capt. John Hazen, Dea. James Abbott and Andrew Savage Crocker, 
Esq., of the thousand acres of land which they voted to John Hurd, Esq., 
or any part of it." The proprietors refused. It is, however, to the credit 
of the four above named that they were willing to meet the claim of 
Colonel Hurd. He evidently did not suffer the matter to drop. The 
vote granting him the land is recorded on the first page of the first book of 
the Grafton registry of deeds, but in 1779 the proprietary took final 
action in the matter and "voted that the thousand acres of land claimed 
by Col. John Hurd be laid out into lots by the committee chosen to lay 
out the third division of lots, and that these be drawn as other land by 
the proprietors." 

It may be that the proprietors sought excuse for their action in the 
fact that Colonel Hurd had received sufficient "encouragement" for his 
services in the official recognition he received. He was appointed in 
February, 1773, recorder of deeds and conveyances for the county of 
Grafton, and subsequently was given the office of county treasurer. On 
the 18th of May, 1773, he was appointed chief justice of His Majesty's 
inferior court for Grafton County, and a little later was commissioned 
colonel of a regiment of militia in the northern towns. Dartmouth Col- 
lege honored him with the honorary degree of A. M. For the next six 
years he was in Haverhill the greater part of the time his only absences 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 53 

being on public business. His home was at Horse Meadow, near that of 
Colonel Porter, and his was a part of that afterwards known as the Moses 
Southard farm. These six years were eventful years in the history of the 
town and in the career of Colonel Hurd. 

As affairs in the colonies approached a crisis Governor Wentworth 
chose the side of the King rather than that of the people. He had been 
the generous patron of Colonel Hurd, who because of this and also because 
of his talents, natural and acquired, and of his experience in public affairs 
had doubtless more influence with His Majesty's government than any 
other man in Grafton County. But when it came to a choice between the 
cause of the colony and that of the King he did not hesitate, and refused 
to follow his patron. His position was pronounced, and was immediately 
recognized in the Revolutionary Provincial Congress of the Colony. 
He was named as colonel of the regiment of militia to be raised in Coos 
for purposes of defence. In June, 1775, he was made custodian of the 
Grafton court records, the Congress having determined that John Fenton, 
clerk of the court, was no longer fit to be trusted with them. He became 
a member of the Fourth Provincial Congress which met at Exeter, May 
5, 1775 — though when and by whom elected does not appear — and was 
designated to receive certain sums of money from Attorney-General 
Samuel Linermon, money which had been received from foreign vessels 
entering the port of Piscataqua, and which had been appropriated for the 
purchase of powder for the colony. He was elected from the towns of 
Haverhill, Bath, Lyman, Gunthwaite, Landaff and Morristown to the 
Fifth Provincial Congress which met at Exeter December 21, 1775, and 
in the proceedings of which he at once took prominent part. He was one 
of the committee of thirteen appointed December 26 "to draw up a plan 
of government during the contest with Great Britain," and to this com- 
mittee belongs the lasting honor of having framed the first form of civil 
compact, or constitution for the government of New Hampshire. Two 
days later he was appointed first of a committee of six to draft a form of 
oath or obligation to be taken by members of the new government, and 
he also served on other important committees. The first article of the 
temporary constitution adopted by the Congress — and which went into 
effect January 5, 1776 — provided that after the Congress had resolved 
itself into a house of representatives, that said house proceed to choose 
twelve persons, "to be a distinct and separate branch of the legislature, 
by the name of a council, for the colony, to continue as such until the 
third Wednesday in December next any seven of whom to be a quorum 
to do business." 

Colonel Hurd was chosen, for Grafton County, one of the twelve coun- 
cillors, also recorder of deeds and conveyances, county treasurer and first 



54 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

justice of the Court of Common Pleas for Grafton County. He was 
appointed June 11, 1776, on the part of the council first on the committee 
to draft the declaration of the General Assembly for the independence of 
the united colonies. He was given almost the entire control of the mili- 
tary operations in Coos. He was to "fix off" all the companies from 
Coos, except two from the vicinity of Charlestown, with ten days' provi- 
sion, "a quart of rum for each man" and six dozen axes, being sent from 
Exeter for this purpose. He was to receive of the quartermaster 300 
pounds of powder, 750 pounds of bullets and 1,200 flints for the use of 
troops. There was paid him for the troops destined for Canada the sum 
of £350, and he was made one of a committee to receive $10,000 from the 
Continental Congress. Haverhill was made the place of rendezvous for 
the troops intended for a Canadian expedition, and Colonel Hurd with 
Colonel Morey was to enlist the companies, muster and pay the soldiers, 
deliver commissions to persons chosen officers by the soldiers, and give 
orders to the several companies of rangers, raised to protect the western 
frontiers, as to the scouting routes to be taken by them. 

It need not be said that the responsibilities placed on Colonel Hurd by 
the new government were heavy and burdensome, all the more so because 
of the existence of a serious disaffection on the part of a large majority of 
the people of Coos with the Exeter government, and of efforts which 
were being made to establish a separate and distinct state consisting of the 
towns in the Connecticut Valley on both sides the river. Haverhill while 
loyal to the patriot cause was in sympathy with this movement, and it is 
not difficult to see that Colonel Hurd, who was an intense partisan of the 
Exeter government, fell into disfavor in the town for the interests of 
which he had labored so ardently. The causes of this will be treated 
more fully in another chapter. He returned to his old home in Boston 
in the latter part of 1778 or early in 1779, but he left his impress on the 
town in which he had held so prominent position, and doubtless more 
than any other held Haverhill in the critical years of 1775, '76 and '77 
in at least nominal allegiance to the Exeter government. His place in the 
history of Haverhill and of Grafton County is an honorable as well as 
important one. He filled important positions of trust with signal ability 
and discharged with fidelity the obligations imposed on him by his King, 
his state and his townsmen. His removal from state, county and town 
was more their loss than his own ; and in so far as his removal was enforced, 
he was the victim of his loyal devotion to the state of New Hampshire, 
and to the conscientious performance of duty as he saw it. Subsequent 
events fully justified his course and proved his foresight, for within five 
years after his removal from Haverhill, both the leaders of public opinion 
and the people themselves were brought either willingly or unwillingly — 
but in any event were brought — to an acceptance of a situation which he, 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 55 

from the outset, regarded as right and politic, foresaw to be inevitable, 
and for advocating which he was, by force of superior numbers and the 
persecution of those who should have gratefully recognized his eminently 
patriotic services, driven from town and county. 

His wife died in Boston in 1779, as appears from an inscription on a 
stone in the old Granary burying ground: "In memory of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Hurd, the amiable and virtuous consort of John Hurd, Esq., who departed 
life the 14th day of November, 1779, ae. 48." Another inscription on a 
stone adjacent, is as follows: "To the memory of John Hurd, Jr., an 
officer in the late Massachusetts line of the Continental Army. Obit. 
20 August, 1784, And Aek. 24." 

Colonel Hurd died in 1809 at the age of eighty-two and was probably 
buried in the Granary ground though no stone can be found to mark his 
grave. After his removal to Boston he seems to have engaged in no 
public service, but to have pursued the business of broker and insurance 
agent. 

Col. Asa Porter was a different type than many of the early settlers. 
He descended from Samuel Porter who emigrated with his wife from the 
west of England to Plymouth in 1622. He was born in Boxford, Mass., 
May 26, 1742; graduated from Harvard in 1762. He established himself 
as a merchant in Newburyport, where he married Mehitable, daughter of 
John Crocker, Esq. He was remarkable for his fine form and manly 
beauty as well as fox* great moral purity of life and character. A man of 
culture, and of abundant means, he had the pioneer spirit, and the fertile 
meadows and rich intervals of Coos attracted him. He made his first 
purchase of land of John Hazen just north of the Hazen farm in April, 
1768, and in the autumn of the same year he purchased additional tracts 
of Joshua Haywood and of Jonathan Hale of Hollis. The spot where 
he built his home a little later, probably the most commodious and sub- 
stantial in the settlement and a part of which is still standing and occu- 
pied by Arthur C. Clough, is one of great attractiveness, situated as it is 
on one of the fairest and most graceful sweeps of the river. He entered 
at once into the life of the settlement, and became a marked figure in the 
Coos region. He had a well trained and intellectual family, and his home 
was favorite resort of the cultivated and refined. Francis Brinley, the 
biographer of his grandson, William T. Porter, says: 

Colonel Porter was a model of affability and dignity; never laying aside the garb or 
deportment of a gentleman of the old school, but always preserving his courtly air and 
address without sacrificing a particle of his self-reliant energy and fearlessness. In 
politeness and civility he was excelled by none. 

Such a man must have had a marked influence in the new community. 
Like his neighbor, John Hurd, he was an Episcopalian in religion, and in 
politics he was unlike him, in that when the War of the Revolution came 



56 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

on his sympathies were royalist. Because of this he was for a time under 
a cloud suffering in person and property, though he later gained the 
esteem and respect of his patriot neighbors. His father, Moses Porter, 
was a zealous supporter of the cause of the colonies. When the son, Asa, 
was arrested on a charge of Toryism, he was later parolled on giving bond 
that he would repair forthwith to his father's farm in Boxford, and not 
depart for the term of one year, except to attend divine worship on the 
Lord's Day. 

There is a family tradition that during the war business obliged him to visit Boston. 
He set out in his own sleigh, which had the arms of England emblazoned upon the back. 
As he drove into town, he found his sleigh an obnoxious mark of attraction. At first he 
was inclined to pay no other heed to it than starting up his horses a little, but the multi- 
plied volleys of missiles and words admonished him to take counsel of his discretion, and 
he stopped at a painters shop and had the obnoxious blazonry effaced. On his return 
home his wife was at the door to welcome him. She soon perceived the discoloration on 
the back of the sleigh, and with ready intuition divined the cause. She was of remark- 
able spirit and entered into the political faith of her husband with all the animation of 
her character. She ordered her woman to bring soap and brushes and without a thought 
of the cold air, or too tender regard for her own fair hands, she picked her way on her 
little high heels to the sleigh and never stopped scrubbing until the old Lion and the Uni- 
corn reappeared fighting for the crown as fresh as on the day they parted from her loyal 
eyes. 1 

Colonel Porter was appointed one of the first judges of the Court of 
Sessions, when the Grafton County courts were organized, was entrusted 
with the erection of the first court house. He had a passion for land and 
at one time he owned at least one hundred thousand acres. He received 
from the King the grant of the township of Broome in Canada. He had 
also a fondness for fine horses. He spared no pains in purchasing blood 
of the purest strain, and obtained some of his best stock of bis friend 
Governor Wentworth. A gentleman himself his associations were with 
such. His sons married gentlewomen, his daughters, brilliant and 
accomplished, educated in Newburyport and Boston, married gentlemen. 
[See Porter Genealogy.] He maintained an establishment in which the 
town might well take pride. His house was well furnished and his family, 
in style of living, was accustomed to luxury. Of the four negro slaves in 
Haverhill in 1790, three were owned by Colonel Porter. 

Moses and William Porter, brothers of Asa, came to Haverhill sub- 
sequently. After the grant of the township of Broome to Colonel Porter, 
Moses removed with his large family to that town. William lived at 
first near his brother at Horse Meadow, but later removed to a farm on 
the turnpike east of Haverhill Corner, on what was known as Porter Hill, 
where he was succeeded in its ownership and occupancy by his son Wil- 
liam, well known as Billy Porter. No representative of the Porter family 
is now living in Haverhill. [See Porter Genealogy.] 

1 Life of W. T. Porter, pp. 6, 7. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 57 

Andrew Savage Crocker came from Newbury port, Mass., at the 
same time with Colonel Porter, and purchased his real estate as did 
Colonel Porter of John Haywood and of Captain Hazen and John Hale 
of Hollis. As the date of the conveyances to both parties is the same, 
they were doubtless drawn to Haverhill by the same attractions. He 
was the brother of Mrs. Porter, and was married in 1770 to Shua Thurston 
of Newbury. He was born about 1743, and died in 1821. Aristocratic in 
his tastes and style of living, like his brother-in-law, he took a more active 
part in town affairs, was town clerk and served for twelve years as one of 
the selectmen. Few men took a more prominent part in the early devel- 
opment of the town, and in its early history few were more influential. 
He was evidently not in full sympathy with the patriot cause during the 
Revolution, and appointed a coroner for Grafton County in 1776, he 
declined the appointment on the ground that he "was not in sympathy 
with the form of government then in vogue." During these years his 
name seldom appears on the records as holding office. He was selectman 
in 1771 and 1773, but did not hold that office again till 1783, and was 
elected for nine times in subsequent years. His name, however, does not 
appear in the town records after 1801 when he was elected selectman. 
His only son, Edward Bass Crocker, lived on the Isle of Orleans just 
below Quebec in the early part of the last century returning to Horse 
Meadow at the outbreak of the War of 1812, and it is not improbable that 
his father lived with him during his residence there. He died at his old 
home in Haverhill, July 17, 1821, at the ripe old age of seventy-eight. 

Col. Charles Johnston, who came to Haverhill in 1769, was like 
Colonels Hurd and Porter, a man of marked ability, untiring energy, wise 
foresight and indomitable perseverance. He settled at Haverhill Corner, 
and may fitly be called the founder of that village, for many years the 
political, social, and business center of Coos. He was born in Hampstead. 
May 29, 1737, of the famous Scotch-Irish stock. His father, Michael 
Johnston, was a native of Londonderry, Ireland; born in 1687; came to 
America, at first to Londonderry, and later in 1737 settled in Hampstead. 
His son, Charles, married Ruth Marsh of Londonderry in 1762, went to 
New Chester (now Hill) in 1767 to look after landed interests in that town 
and two years later, through the representatives of Captain Hazen and 
others of his former Hampstead friends and neighbors who had settled in 
Coos, came to Haverhill, where he at once became prominent in ecclesias- 
tical, social, and political affairs. Like Captain Hazen and Colonel Bedel 
he had rendered honorable service in the French and Indian Wars. He 
served as private in the 4th company of Capt. Peter Gilman's regiment of 
which Jacob Bayley was a lieutenant from September 22, 1755, to the 
end of the campaign of that year. He also served as quartermaster of 
Colonel Goff's regiment, in which John Hazen was captain from March 5, 



58 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

1760 to the end of the war. It is not certain that he established a home 
in New Chester, of which town he was a grantee, and there are indications 
that he brought his family direct from Hampstead to Haverhill. In con- 
veyances of land, in which he is named as one of the grantees of New 
Chester, dated October, 1765, December, 1768, and March, 1769, he is 
named as of Hampstead. The date of his settlement in Haverhill is 
approximately fixed by the fact that at the annual town meeting in March, 
1770, he was elected one of the selectmen. Thenceforward till his death 
in 1813, no name than his appears more prominently and frequently in 
the town records. No citizen of the town held more varied public posi- 
tions of honor and responsibility. He presided at no less than twenty- 
four town meetings; was twice elected town clerk; twenty-one times 
selectman, serving usually as chairman on all important town committees ; 
was town and county treasurer for many years; was a member of the 
governor's council in 1780-82 and filled the important office of judge of 
probate for Grafton County from 1781 till 1807, when he became disquali- 
fied by reason of age. His military record was a notable one. Aside 
from his service in the old French war he took an active part in the Revo- 
lution. He was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 12th regiment, 
Colonel Hobart's, Starks brigade, and was distinguished for special gallant 
conduct at the battle of Bennington. 

Notably public-spirited, he was a constant and untiring promoter of all 
enterprises which he believed to be for the industrial, social, educational and 
religious welfare of the town. He combined with the characteristic Scotch- 
Irish prudence, thrift and energy, the characteristic Scotch-Irish religious 
devotion. He and his wife were admitted to membership in the church 
at Hampstead March 25, 1764, and after their settlement in Haverhill, 
were dismissed to be received by the church in Newbury of which they 
were members until the organization of the church in Haverhill in 1790 
of which church he was the first deacon. He gave to the settlement at 
the Corner the two commons or parks about which the village was built. 
He also gave the land on which the court house and the academy were 
built, and was a leader in the enterprise of founding the academy and 
securing the transfer of the jail and court house from their first site on the 
plain, near Horse Meadow to the Corner. He was one of the incorpora- 
tors of the social library and a leading spirit in securing the incorporation 
and construction of the old Cohos turnpike. 

Whatever earl}' - educational advantages were his were improved, and 
while he was not a graduate of college, he was deemed qualified to take 
charge of the academy for a term when there was a vacancy in the princi- 
palship. His handwriting as it appears in the town and county records 
is a marvel of beauty. Some of his numerous activities will be chronicled 
in other chapters. [See Genealogy, Johnston.] 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 59 

James Corliss, who settled in 1769, was of a family which became 
influential in town and county, and others who added materially to the 
prosperity of the settlement were John Chase, John Herr and Jonathan 
Ring. A daughter of the latter became the wife of Gen. John Mont- 
gomery, and a great grandson, George Ring, carpenter and builder lives 
in Woodsville, one of the very few descendants of the early settlers residing 
in town. 

Among the settlers of 1770 was Amos Kimball who came from Ver- 
mont, settling first at Ladd Street, but later removed to the north end of 
the town near Woodsville, where he became the leading citizen of that 
section, his descendants becoming prominent and influential in town 
affairs. 

Luther Richardson, who was one of the early innholders of the town, 
and who filled various town offices, settled in 1772. Ephraim Wesson 
and Jonathan Hale settled the same year. Major Hale took an active 
part in the Revolution, and was a member of the Committee of Safety 
during that struggle. He was one of the committee having charge of 
the scouting parties sent out from Haverhill. On several occasions he 
secured arms and ammunition for the town. Later he acquired large 
landed interests in Coventry, and owned a farm of upwards of a thousand 
acres on what was known as Coventry Meadows, later Benton Flats. 

Captain Wesson came from Pepperell, Mass. He had seen hard service 
in the old French war, held a lieutenant's commission in the expedition 
against Crown Point in 1755, later was at the taking of Louisburg, partic- 
ipated in the attack on Ticonderoga, and fought in other battles of that 
war. He became prominent in the affairs of Haverhill, served as mod- 
erator and selectman, and very naturally became prominent in the Revolu- 
lution. He was a member for a time of the Provincial Congress at Exeter, 
and a special delegate for the procurement of arms for Haverhill. He 
was a member of the committees of safety and of correspondence. He 
lived at Horse Meadow, and was a neighbor of and intimately associated 
with Timothy Barren. Shortly after the close of the war he moved to 
Groton, Vt., and was one of the first settlers of that town. He was a 
brave and accomplished officer, a man of unblemished character and 
reputation of unyielding Puritan principles. He lived to the advanced 
age of ninety-three years. 

Thomas Simpson settled in 1772 or 1773. He was almost constantly 
in service during the Revolution, was captain of rangers. He served as 
moderator, selectman and held numerous positions of trust and responsi- 
bility. In petitioning for a pension on account of the loss of an eye and 
because of other wounds, he eloquently closed: "that he may express in 
strains of gratitude the liberality of that country in whose service he has 
spent the best of his days, and in whose defence he more than once shed 



60 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

cheerfully the crimson flood of life." No government, not even an 
ungrateful republic could resist such an appeal. Captain Simpson was 
granted a pension. [See Simpson, Genealogy.] 

Bryan Kay came to Haverhill in the latter part of 1774, and became a 
a farmer and inn keeper. At the age of 38 with his wife Dorothy, age 42, 
five daughters, a brother, Robert, age 42, he sailed from Hull, England, 
for Fort Cumberland, Nova Scotia. In landing at Halifax his two elder 
daughters were drowned, and the remainder of the family including the 
brother Robert, who settled in Newbury, came to Haverhill. Of the 
surviving daughters, one married Stephen Morse, another John Morse, 
his brother, and another Moses Porter. [See Genealogies.] During the 
Revolution several of the annual and special town meetings were held at 
his house, and the various offices to which he was repeatedly elected and 
appointed indicate his usefulness as a citizen. Though a Yorkshire 
man, and but recently from the Mother Country, he heartily espoused the 
patriot cause. 

That Haverhill had become in 1774 just previous to the outbreak of the 
Revolution, the leading town in the Coos county was due in part to 
natural advantages, but more to the character of the men who were its 
first settlers, such men as these just enumerated. They had the fitness 
and training for the task they undertook. The records of their town meet- 
ings are meagre, but such as they are they shed light on the beginnings 
of the town. 

The first annual town meeting was held at the house of John Hall, inn- 
holder, in Plaistow, March 13, 1764. James Bayley was elected modera- 
tor, and thereupon the meeting "adjourned to the house of Maj. John 
Taplin in Haverhill, Wednesday, June 13, 1764." Unfortunately there 
is no record of this adjourned meeting. The first meeting of which there 
is record was a special meeting held at the house of John Hazen, January 
25, 1765, a meeting of such importance and significance that the entire 
record is of special interest. Five votes were passed : 

1st: Voted to join with Newbury to give Mr. Peter Powers a call as their gospel 
minister. 

2d: Voted to give their equal proportion of his salary as Newbury has voted, viz.: 
seventy-five pounds — dollars six shillings — and also to give thirty cords good wood at 
his Dore, cut and corded. 

3d: Voted to pay one-third part of Mr. Peter Power's settlement as Newbury has 
voted, with a condition that Newbury shall be bound and obligated to return said money 
when Haverhill shall settle a minister to be returned in the same speacies Haverhill has 
paid it in. 

4th: Voted that Timothy Bedel, John Taplin Esq., and Elisha Lock be a committee 
to wait upon Mr. Powers with the above votes, and to apply to the Proprietors of Haver- 
hill for their assistance in the above affair. 

5th: Voted that this meeting stand adjourned to the 1st day of February, 1765, at 
3 o'clock p. m. at Captain Hazens in Haverhill. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 61 

There is no record of this adjourned meeting. 

The first town meeting of which there is record provided for a "gospel 
ministry." The first money raised and appropriated was for the salary 
of a gospel minister. It antedated appropriations for roads, schools, or 
even the salaries or wages of town officers. The first corporate act of 
these settlers was to establish a town church. The reason for this may 
pertinently be asked. These first settlers were of sturdy Puritan stock, 
were God-fearing men, but were not religious devotees. Indeed, few 
were church members. There were reasons for this action other than 
those purely religious. These settlers wished to give their town char- 
acter and standing, to offer inducements to a desirable class of families 
to make their homes in a wilderness. Hence they first of all established 
a church. The minister of the average New England town in the eight- 
eenth century was its first citizen. He was the recognized, almost 
unquestioned authority on questions of religion and morals, the arbiter 
in matters educational and social, if not indeed political. There were 
no newspapers, few books in the new settlements; schools had not been 
established. Stated worship on the Lord's Day furnished the only oppor- 
tunity for the scattered families to meet, exchange greetings, hear the 
latest news from the old home towns, discuss quietly among themselves 
matters of local importance as well as obtain religious instruction. Every- 
body "went to meeting," to services held not in "a church," but in a 
meetinghouse. They sat on rude benches and listened reverently, or 
indifferently, as the case might be, to long prayers and still longer ser- 
mons; but this Sabbath meeting was their one weekly outing, their only 
vacation from strenuous toil and labor. It was newspaper, library, club, 
as well as the House of God. This first corporate action of the settlers 
was wise, worldly wise. They might not have been devotedly pious, 
most of them were not, but they recognized in the church and its minister 
not only an institution which would attract desirable settlers, give char- 
acter to the community, but a saving salt which would prevent the degen- 
eration of their settlement into the primitive conditions of savagery. 

At the annual meeting of 1765, held at the house of John Hazen, the 
records show no business except the choosing of officers. The minor offi- 
cers elected were: Constable, Edward Bayley; hogreeve, Uriah Morse; 
surveyors of highways, Joshua Hayward, James Woodward; fence viewer, 
Jonathan Sanders; tything man, Jonathan Goodwin. On the second 
article in the warrant, "to see what sum of money the town will raise 
for the payment of Mr. Powers and other public affairs," no action seems 
to have been taken. 

At the annual meeting in 1766, the minor officers chosen were: Con- 
stable, James Abbott; surveyors of highways, Maxi Haseltine, Nathaniel 
Merrill; hogreeve, Moses Bayley; fence viewers, John Page, Asa Bailey; 



62 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

surveyor of timber, Richard Young; tything man, Edward Bayley. The 
progress made in the settlement is indicated by the fact that a pound 
seems to have become a necessity, and it was voted to build a pound for 
the benefit of the town. Joseph Hutchins, Ezekiel Ladd and James 
Woodward were appointed a committee to build it. This pound was 
probably located at Ladd Street and John Ladd was the first pound 
keeper. 

The importance of the pound is indicated by the character of the pound 
committee. It was voted to raise £10 lawful money for the use of the 
town, and the price of all labor done for the town was fixed at one-half 
dollar a day. This was the first money raised for town purposes. 

In 1767, the minor officers chosen were: Constable, Maxi Haseltine; 
surveyors of highways, Edward Bayley, John Page, Joshua Hayward; 
hogreeves, Moses Bayley, Timothy Barns (Barron) ; fence viewers, Joseph 
Hutchins, Joshua Haywood. 

Highways seem to have occupied the time and attention of the annual 
meeting this year. They were rude apologies for highways, little more 
than bridle paths. The difficulty seems to have been that many settlers 
did not respond to the call of the surveyors for work in making roads, 
since it was voted that William Bancroft, Joseph Hutchins and Richard 
Young be "a committee to settle with the old surveyors and see who has 
worked and who has not," and further that "the surveyors shall not call 
on them that has done the most work till the others have done their part." 
Three shillings a day was fixed as the price for a man for work on the 
highway, and two shillings for a yoke of oxen. Elisha Lock was the first 
tax collector. 

A special meeting was held June 15, 1767, at which the question of 
highways was again at the front, and John Hazen, Ezekiel Ladd and 
Timothy Bedel were made a committee to lay out roads and to see that 
the same were made by the town. At this same meeting it was voted to 
raise £35 lawful money for Mr. Powers and other town charges. The 
minister was a town charge. Also voted to "jine" with Newbury in 
building a meetinghouse in the center of Newbury as the road shall be 
laid out beginning at the south side of the governor's farm, measuring 
the road next to the river to the south end of said town or the lower end, 
and the middle is the place. 

In 1768, at the annual meeting, balloting for the choice of officers was 
dispensed with, as it was voted to choose all officers by "handy" vote, 
whatever that might mean. 

The minor officers were: Constable, William Bancroft; surveyors of the 
highways, John Way, Ezekiel Ladd; hogreeves, Moses Bayley, Joshua 
Hayward; fence viewer, John Mills; surveyor of lumber, Nathaniel 
Weston; tything man, Joseph Hutchins. It was voted to raise £40 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 63 

lawful money to pay Mr. Powers and to defray other town charges for 
the year. 

In 1769 the minor officers elected were: Constable, Josiah Elkins; 
highway surveyors, John Way, Joseph Haines; hogreeves, Richard 
Young, Ebenezer Rice; fence viewer, Samuel Ladd; sealer of leather, 
James Abbott; tything man, James Abbott; surveyor of lumber, 
Nathaniel Weston. Wolves were evidently becoming troublesome, for it 
was voted to give a bounty of 20s for each wolf caught and killed in town. 

At a special meeting February 15, 1770, "Voted to build a meeting 
house in Haverhill the present year." 

At the annual meeting March 13, it was voted to set the meetinghouse 
on the common land that Joshua Poole's house stands on; that the 
house be 40 by 50 feet; that Jonathan Sanders, Elisha Locke and Ezekiel 
Ladd be a committee to provide building material. The sum of £35 was 
voted for preaching and £6 to defray town charges. The selectmen were 
made a committee to dispose of the money for preaching. John Page 
and John Chase were appointed "to reckon with the former selectmen." 
The minor officers chosen were: Highway surveyors, Joseph Hutchins, 
Joshua Hay ward; hogreeve, James Corliss; tything men, John Way, 
Jonathan Elkins; fence viewers, John Way, Elisha Lock; sealer of leather, 
and of weights and measures, James Abbott ; surveyor of lumber, Elisha 
Lock. 

The annual meeting in 1771 was held March 12 at Joshua Poole's. 
Simeon Goodwin was chosen constable; treasurer, John Hazen; highway 
surveyors, Timothy Barron, James Bayley, John Hew; sealer weights and 
measures, Charles Johnston; fence viewers, Ebenezer Rice, Joshua Poole, 
John Page; surveyor of lumber, Elisha Locke. A bounty was again 
voted on wolves, and the sum of £35 was voted the Rev. Mr. Powers 
"the present year, provided he preach in Haverhill." It was voted to 
raise the frame of the meeting house, board and shingle and lay the under- 
floor. Later this vote was reconsidered. They voted to build a house 
one story, 30 by 36 feet, and Jona Sanders, Maxi Hazeltine and Ezekiel 
Ladd were chosen a building committee. These votes were subsequently 
reconsidered. Voted to raise £50 lawful money to build a house, and 
that each man shall have the privilege of working out his proportion at 
3s per day. It was voted at an adjourned meeting March 19 to build 
the house proposed in 1770, and Jona Sanders, James Bayley and Timo- 
thy Barron were chosen the building committee. Bills to the amount of 
£23, 6s, Qd were allowed for work already performed on the meeting 
house. Edward Bayley had spent a day in "numbering the people" in 
town in 1767, and for this work, he was now allowed 3s. 

At the annual meeting in 1772 Joshua Hay ward was elected constable; 
Simeon Goodwin, treasurer; Ephraim Weston and James Corliss, high- 



64 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

way surveyors; Charles Johnston, sealer of weights and measures; 
James Abbott, sealer of leather; surveyor of lumber, Elisha Lock; 
hogreeves, Joseph Hutchins, John Way; fence viewer, Ezekiel Ladd. 
The 6s bounty was continued on wolves with the provision that they be 
full grown. 

In 1773, the annual meeting voted to hire a master "to keep a town 
school the present year." At an adjourned meeting it was voted to raise 
£35 lawful money to be paid in specie for the use of school, and £5 in 
cash to defray town charges. John Page was allowed 24s for work on 
timber for the meeting house, and 3s a day was fixed upon as compensa- 
tion for the various officers, when attending to their duties. This was 
the first year money was raised for a school. The river road from Bath 
line to Piermont line which had been laid out four rods wide and which 
had been cut out by the proprietors was this year given to the town. 
The lesser town officials chosen were: Constable, Joshua Hay ward; fence 
viewers, Timothy Barron, Simeon Goodwin, James Woodward ; tything 
men, Jonathan Elkins, Charles Bayley, Joshua Hayward ; surveyor lum- 
ber, James Woodward; hogreeves, Daniel Y. Wood, Charles Bayley, 
David Ladd; deerreeve, Ephraim Wesson. Jurors were chosen this 
year for the first time for the Grafton County courts. 

In 1774 the annual town meeting which had previously been almost 
uniformly held at Captain Hazen's was held March 8 at the house of 
Luther Richardson. A new minor office was created, and Joshua Hay- 
ward and James Corliss were elected surveyors of wheat. Other officers 
were: Constable, James Woodward; tything men, John Page, Jonathan 
Elkins, Maxi Haseltine, Timothy Barron; highway surveyors, James 
Bailey, Maxi Haseltine, Joshua Hayward, Timothy Barron, James Cor- 
liss, John Page (this office had become more important by the taking 
over from the proprietors the river road); surveyor of lumber, Joseph 
Hutchins; fence viewers, Timothy Barron, Samuel Ladd, Luther Rich- 
ardson; hogreeves, Jonathan Ring, Luther Richardson, Stephen Smith; 
deerreeve, Charles Bailey; sealer of weights and measures, Samuel Hull; 
sealer of leather, Ezekiel Ladd. Taverns had been opened. The old 
account books of Ezekiel Ladd and Asa Porter show sales of merchandise, 
the prophecy of the later country stores. Artisans were employed at their 
various trades. Wolves and bears were being exterminated, and the 
necessity for protection of deer was seen in the appointment by the town 
of deerreeves. 

The census taken in 1767 by Edward Bailey gave a population of 172; 
unmarried men from 16 to 60, 21; married men from 16 to 60, 32; boys, 
16 and under, 43; men, 60 and above, 1; unmarried females, 43; married 
females, 29; male slaves, 2; female slaves, 1. 

Another census was taken in 1773, showing a marked increase in the 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 65 

six years, a total of 387, classified as follows: unmarried men between 
the ages of 16 and 60, 30; married men between the ages of 16 and 60, 
66; men over 60, 1; unmarried females, 112; married, 66; widows, 3; 
negro slaves, 2. 

It will be noted that the increase in the number of families during these 
six years was more than 100 per cent, another marked indication of the 
healthy and prosperous growth of settlement. 

Danger from wolves had evidently decreased, and the bounty for their 
killing was withdrawn. It was voted to provide "two burying places" 
in the town, also a burying cloth for use of the town. The places 
provided were what are now the Ladd Street and Horse Meadow 
Cemeteries. 

Premonitions of the struggle for independence in which the colonies 
were to become involved are found in the brief record of a special meeting 
held at the house of Luther Richardson November 4, 1774, Capt. Eph- 
raim Wesson, moderator. 

"Voted to provide a town stock of ammunition." 

"Voted to raise £20 to provide a town stock of ammunition." 

A proposition to provide arms for such persons of the town as are unable 
to procure arms for themselves was negatived. 

The records of the town meetings, and of the meetings of the proprietors 
are meagre, but much progress had been made and Haverhill had become 
a fully established town. The records contain hints of methods adopted. 
A church had been established. Provision had been made for schools. 
An effort had been made, which only narrowly failed to locate Dartmouth 
College in the town. Haverhill had been made the chief shire town of 
Grafton County. The chief justice and one of the associate justices of 
the county court were citizens of Haverhill. A court house and jail had 
been erected. The meadows and adjoining uplands along the river from 
Bath to Piermont had been occupied and were the homes of thrifty and 
enterprising settlers. Mills had been erected, frame houses were super- 
seding the log cabins which were the first homes. Commendable progress 
had been made in making roads. 



6 



CHAPTER V 



ATTEMPTED SECESSION AND REVOLUTIONARY WAR 

Haverhill During the War of the Revolution — Officers Appointed by the 
Exeter Government — Cause of Disaffection in Coos and Attempted Seces- 
sion — Its History and the Result — Haverhill Stood by the Patriot Cause — 
Colonel Hurd Leaves Town on Colonel Porter's Return Home — In Double 
Revolt — Names of Haverhill Soldiers — One Hundred and Nineteen Men. 

The conditions existing in Coos towns, of which Haverhill in 1775 was 
the recognized centre of influence, were peculiar, and need to be consid- 
ered in any account of the part borne in Haverhill in the Revolutionary 
struggle. The Coos towns had been chartered by His Majesty's govern- 
ors, and were nominally a part of His Majesty's province, but in some 
respects this connection with the province was more nominal than real. 
Previous to the termination of the royal government, no town in the Coos 
country, or on either side of the Connecticut River, had been represented 
in the provincial legislature except Charlestown which was first repre- 
sented in 1771. For the House of 1775, members were elected for the 
towns of Plymouth, Orford and Lyme by virtue of the King's writ, but 
they were refused seats on the ground that the writ had been issued with- 
out the concurrence of the legislature. This body was not disposed to 
add to its membership from the recently settled towns. This refusal 
led to an acrimonious dispute between the governor and the house. The 
governor stood on the royal prerogative, and the House upon its right to 
regulate its membership and grant the privilege of representation as it 
saw fit. 

The towns in the northern and western section of the province were 
aggrieved at this denial of representation, and in this grievance Haverhill 
shared. This feeling later induced action which threatened the integrity 
of the new state of New Hampshire. Many of those who had settled the 
Coos towns, — and this was especially true of Haverhill, — were men of 
culture and influence, and they were inclined to pay little heed to legis- 
lative enactments in which they had no voice. When the break came 
between the Province and the Crown and the provincial congress became 
a provisional government, Haverhill was unrepresented, except during 
the fourth and fifth congresses, when Ephraim Wesson and John Hurd 
were members of the fourth, and John Hurd of the fifth, in which he 
represented the towns of Haverhill, Bath, Lyman, Gunthwaite, Landaff 
and Morristown. Just how or when Wesson and Hurd were elected does 
not, however, appear in the town records. There was no subsequent 

66 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 67 

representation of Haverhill in the new government until 1783. When a 
special town meeting was held, January 5, 1775, to consider the threaten- 
ing aspect of affairs, a committee, consisting of James Bayley, Capt. 
Ephraim Wesson, Capt. Charles Johnston, Simeon Goodwin, Timothy 
Barron, Lieut. Joseph Hutchins and Maxi Haseltine, was appointed to 
see that the results of the Continental Congress were duly observed in the 
town. The phrase "results of the Continental Congress" is significant 
as is also the fact that nowhere in the town records during the Revolution 
is there any reference to the provincial congress or house of representa- 
tives of New Hampshire. 

The Exeter government made requisitions for aid and service from 
Haverhill and like appeals were made to the Exeter authorities by lead- 
ing citizens of Haverhill and Coos, but these were made largely because of 
dangers threatening the entire province and state as well as Coos from 
the north. The fact remains, however, that there was little sympathy 
on the part of the masses of the people of Haverhill and the surrounding 
towns with the Exeter government. The tie of allegiance to New Hamp- 
shire was not strongly binding. 

It was recognized, however, at the outset that the holding of Coos 
against attack by the British from Canada was all important. As early 
as May 2, 1775, committees from the towns of Lyme, Orford, Piermont, 
Bath, Gunthwaite, Lancaster, Northumberland and Haverhill met at 
the house of Joseph Hutchins, innholder, in Haverhill and signed the 
following pledge and declaration: 

We, the subscribers, do solemnly declare by all the sacred ties of honor and religion, 
that we will act at all times against all illegal and unconstitutional impositions and acts 
of parliament, made and enacted against the New England governments and the con- 
tinent of English North America. And we do believe that shutting up the port of 
Boston, Quebec bill, and sundry other bills and acts, to be illegal and unconstitutional, 
and also the declaration wherein the New England governments are declared in a state 
of rebellion, etc., are unconstitutional and unjust; and we do engage to stand in opposi- 
tion to all force come, or coming against us, by order of the present ministry, for sup- 
porting of the present measures, while our lives and fortunes last, or until those notorious 
and unconstitutional acts are repealed and the American Colonies re-established in the 
privileges due to them as English subjects. 

This pledge was signed by Lieut. Charles Nelson for Lyme; Daniel 
Tillotson, Esq., for Orford; Lieut. Jonathan Chandler, Lieut. John Weed 
for Piermont; Timothy Bedel, Esq., Capt. Oliver Sanders, William East- 
man for Bath; John Young for Gunthwaite, (Lisbon); Joseph Peverly, 
Esq., for Northumberland; Capt. Edward Beakman for Lancaster; 
James Bayley, Simeon Goodwin, Timothy Barron, Charles Johnston for 
Haverhill. 

These men proceeded at once to take action. They voted to organize 
a regiment for service to consist of enlistments from the several towns, 



68 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

and also chose committees to send scouting parties to Canada or elsewhere 
as may be thought proper. Officers appointed for the regiment were: 
Colonel, Timothy Bedel; lieutenant-colonel, Charles Johnston; first 
major, Jonathan Childs; second major, James Bayley; adjutant, Simeon 
Goodwin; quartermaster, John Young; surgeon, Samuel Hale. It was 
provided that the company officers, captain, lieutenant, and ensign, be 
appointed by the several towns, and it was further voted, that "each and 
every person belonging to our said towns do put themselves under com- 
mand, and submit themselves unto such commanding officers as are and 
shall be chosen by this committee and each particular town." Ezekiel 
Ladd was appointed to represent the committee in the provincial congress, 
and that Charles Johnston, clerk of the committee, was directed to trans- 
mit a copy of the proceedings of the meeting to the fourth provincial 
congress to be convened at Exeter on the 17th of May, 1775. 

It does not appear that Ezekiel Ladd served as a delegate, and it may be 
that Ephraim Wesson and John Hurd were appointed in his place, as 
Wesson appears to have been in attendance on this fourth congress 
fifty-nine days, and Hurd six days, before its dissolution, November 15. 
Colonel Johnston, in transmitting his report of the proceedings of the 
meeting to the fourth congress as directed, mentioned the reports 
prevalent that men were being invited by Governor Carlton of Que- 
bec, and that Indians were being engaged, for the invasion of Coos, 
and further wrote: 

How near the borders of the enemy we are, every one knows who is acquainted with 
the boundaries of our province. As to the position of defence, we are in difficult cir- 
cumstances; we are in want of both arms and ammunition. There is little or none 
worth mentioning, perhaps one pound of powder to twenty men, and not one half of our 
men have arms. Now, gentlemen, we have all reason to suspect, and really look upon, 
ourselves in imminent danger of the enemy, and at this time in no capacity for a defence 
for want of arms and ammunition. . . . We refer the matter to your mature con- 
sideration, whether it is not necessary to give us assistance in case of invasion. We have 
a number of men in these parts of the country who have not any real estate, who will 
certainly leave us unless some assistance is given ; and who are ready to assist and stand 
by our cause with their lives, provided encouragement is given them. If you shall 
think it necessary to raise forces to defend this our Province, if you will give orders in 
what manner assistance can be provided, please to inform us as expeditiously as the 
nature of things will allow. There is no doubt of enlisting numbers without distressing 
or much interfering with towns near the seacoast provided we have the platform to act 
on. 

In response to this appeal, the provincial congress voted, June 3, that 
a company of sixty men be raised of the inhabitants of the western fron- 
tiers to be commissioned by the Committee of Safety, and that these, and 
two companies out of the two thousand men raised in this colony, be 
stationed as soon as the Committee of Supplies procure stores for them 
by the Committee of Safety, on said frontiers and remain until further 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 69 

orders. Timothy Bedel, who had a month before, as has been seen, been 
appointed by the representatives of the Coos towns colonel of a regiment 
to be raised, was appointed to the command of these companies now 
authorized. July 7, he was commissioned captain, and later in the month 
mustered his men at Haverhill, which was made the place of rendezvous. 
In September, commissioned colonel of a force of about 1,200 men, he 
joined the army of General Schuyler who was invading St. Johns, Canada. 
This regiment rendered brilliant service. The patriotic spirit was dom- 
inant. The citizens of Haverhill were ready to act at the very outset; 
they only wanted authority, and though the men raised for defence were 
used for aggression it was little more than authority that was granted. So 
seemingly neglectful were the Exeter authorities in making provision for 
Colonel Bedel's troops, that down to the fall of St. Johns in November, 
1775, it was uncertain whether his command belonged to the military 
establishment of the province or that of the Continental government, 
the result being that both governments neglected to pay his men, a neglect 
due partly to lack of ability on the part of both. 

At the beginning and indeed all through the struggle for independence, 
Haverhill and her sister towns were made to feel that they had little to 
expect in the way of material aid from the Exeter government. 

During the entire war the town maintained a Committee of Safety, 
composed of her most substantial citizens; and these committees were 
constantly on the watch. Haverhill was the rendezvous from which 
troops, scouting parties, rangers and supplies were sent out. There were 
frequent alarms from threatened invasion from Canada. Four stockade 
forts were built in 1776 to secure the people from sudden attacks. Two of 
these were on the Plain (North Haverhill), one on Ladd Street and one 
at the Corner, built around the Colonel Johnston homestead. At all 
times there was a lack of arms and ammunition. The Exeter authorities 
responded to some of the appeals made for such supplies, mostly, how- 
ever, during the later years of the war, but the records show that the 
town was, at its annual and special meetings, making the best provision 
possible for defence. Powder, lead and firearms were the aid sought. 
The town paid the expenses of scouting parties, and furnished horses for 
the same. Supplies were voted for the families of those absent from home 
on military service. Captain Wesson, in 1775, gave his personal note to 
the Exeter authorities for fifty pounds of gunpowder for the use of the 
town. The town at its meeting March 14, 1780, voted to reimburse him. 
At this same meeting it was voted to allow James Ladd £21, 17s, Qd for 
himself and five men one month and seventeen days each scouting to be 
paid in wheat at 6s per bushel; Charles Bailey, 12s for running 98 pounds 
lead into bullets, also £4, 6s for journey and expenses to Hanover in the 
previous January. Conferences were frequently held with committees 



70 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

of safety of other towns, and the scouting parties were under the general 
direction of these committees of safety. 

The break of Haverhill with the new state government began in 1776. 
When Col. John Hurd, who had been a member of the fifth provincial 
congress which met at Exeter December 21, 1775, arrived home in Haver- 
hill in July, 1776, he found affairs in a most unsatisfactory state. Few 
men had been more prominent and influential in the proceedings of the 
congress and the legislature, into which the congress soon after meeting 
was resolved, than he. Before its adjournment he had been given almost 
the entire control of military operations in Coos. Haverhill was to be the 
rendezvous for soldiers intended for service in Canada, for defence of the 
frontiers, and for scouting service. In connection with Col. Israel Morey 
of Orford, he was to enlist and muster the men, form the companies, give 
orders to the scouts and rangers, and deliver commissions to those whom 
the soldiers had chosen as officers. But in July, 1776, the army in Can- 
ada was retreating before the superior force of General Burgoyne. 
Colonel Bedel who, after the fall of St. Johns in the latter part of 1775, had 
in January, 1776, returned to Haverhill, raised in the Coos county another 
regiment and taken it through the woods on snowshoes to the Cedars, 
near Montreal, was under arrest, shortly to be dismissed from the service. 
Coos was in a state of alarm. Haverhill, as previously stated, had been 
fortified to some extent; the towns to the north were practically deserted, 
and many had left Haverhill for their old homes. Among these was Mrs. 
Hurd, whom her husband met at Concord on his way home, and from 
which place he sent back to Exeter urgent appeals for help, while he 
hastened on to Haverhill. 

Arriving home he found the new government, of which he was so impor- 
tant a member, regarded with anything but high esteem by his constitu- 
ents. And the causes of the disaffection existing were not of recent origin. 
The government of none of the colonies had been more arbitrary than that 
of New Hampshire. A president and council had been appointed by 
royal authority, in 1679, to govern what has since been known in history 
as the Mason Grant, and the form of government then set up, depending 
on no written charter, had continued without virtual change till John 
Wentworth abandoned his post in 1775. 

The original province of New Hampshire as granted to John Mason 
was a tract but sixty miles square, but when the royal commission was 
issued to Benning Wentworth, as its governor, it described the province 
as bounded on the west and north by "our other governments." Went- 
worth thus not only laid claim to the territory which constitutes the pres- 
ent state of New Hampshire but also to that within the present boundaries 
of Vermont. Wentworth proceeded to grant townships in the King's 
name in this new territory, with powers and privileges similar to those of 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 71 

the Massachusetts and Connecticut towns from which it was expected 
settlers would be drawn. The controversy which arose between New 
York and New Hampshire, relative to jurisdiction over this territory, led 
to the issuance of an order by the King in Council, in 1764, establishing 
the west bank of the Connecticut River as the boundary line between the 
two provinces. The towns granted by the New Hampshire governor, 
on both sides the river, were many of them rapidly settled, but neither of 
the Wentworths seems to have taken any pains to make them really a 
part of the body politic, known as the Province of New Hampshire. 

The provincial government, based on royal commission, was pretty 
nearly absolute. The power of its assembly had from the first been cir- 
cumscribed by the will of the governor, and its office had been little more 
than to register his decrees. Only such towns were allowed representa- 
tions in it as were selected by him. In 1680, only four towns were given 
representation, and the precepts sent to them expressly named the electors 
who were to choose the representatives. In 1775, the list of favored towns 
had only grown to forty-three, while upwards of one hundred had no voice 
in legislation at all. Only three in all the region to the north and west of 
the watershed between the Merrimack and the Connecticut had ever had 
representatives admitted to seats. One result of this policy was that, 
in the later years, the assembly had become even more exclusive than 
the governor, and had refused to admit representatives from towns to 
which he had sent precepts. 

At the outbreak of the Revolution the government of the province had 
become a practical oligarchy. Its controlling spirits were the aristocratic 
merchants and professional men of the seaport town of the county of 
Rockingham which, down to 1760, contained more than half the popu- 
lation of the province. 

The settlers of the Connecticut Valley towns were mostly from Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut towns and were imbued with a spirit of democ- 
racy. Among them were men of means and liberal culture, graduates of 
Harvard or Yale, eminently fitted to mould the institutions of a state and 
guide its destinies. Dartmouth College was chartered and located at 
Hanover, and naturally became, with its professors and other educated 
and influential men with admitted capacity for public affairs, the centre 
of political influence in the valley. The river was no more than nominally 
a dividing line between separate provinces. The government of New 
York was too remote to make itself much felt on the west side, and that 
of New Hampshire was scarcely more than a name on the east side. It 
issued a few commissions to justices of the peace and to militia officers and 
exacted a trifling tax in return. It left the towns, however, pretty much 
to shift for themselves. Representation in government, dear to the 
hearts of the men who settled these towns, was denied, and when the new 



72 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

revolutionary government provided for it, the provision was regarded by 
the towns interested as unfair and unequal. Representation in the house 
of representatives in the new government set up at Exeter was based on 
population. Grafton County was given but six representatives in a 
total of eighty-nine, and for purposes of representation towns were classed. 

The towns in the valley had been settled by men who held to the prin- 
ciple that the town should be the unit of government, entitled to repre- 
sentation in a legislative assembly in its capacity as a town. Hanover, 
and the five towns classed with it, had refused to send a member to the 
congress which met in December, 1775, and during the spring and sum- 
mer of 1776. Hanover men, led by Col. John Wheelock and Bezabel 
Woodward, had been active in stirring up disaffection with the Exeter 
government in the towns to the north. Haverhill among the others. 
The seeds of dissention thus sown fell naturally into fertile soil, and by the 
time the Exeter legislature adjourned many of the Grafton County towns 
were in a state of incipient revolt against it. 

In fact Colonel Hurd had hardly arrived home before the famous 
Dresden convention met in Hanover July 31. Haverhill and nine other 
towns of Grafton County sent their committees of safety or delegates. Its 
ostensible purpose was to devise means for protection against invasion 
from Canada, but its real purpose was to protest against the authority 
assumed to be exercised over them by the government at Exeter, and to 
take the initial steps for the formation of a new state in the Connecticut 
Valley. An ingeniously framed address to the people was issued by this 
body which was calculated to work great mischief and increase the spirit 
of revolt against the new government of New Hampshire. The devotion 
of the men comprising the convention to the patriot cause was unques- 
tioned. They were in double revolt — openly against their King, and 
hardly less openly against their state. Haverhill was in growing sym- 
pathy with this latter only partially concealed revolt. Colonel Hurd was 
devotedly loyal not only to the Continental Congress, but also to the 
Exeter government. The state of affairs in Haverhill caused him great 
concern, and he exerted all his influence to combat the growing disaffec- 
tion. His Boston birth and training had naturally made him an ardent 
revolutionist, but John Wentworth had been his patron; he was one of 
the four men in the grants who had been high in favor with the provincial 
government, and one of the few men who had come to Coos, not direct 
from Massachusetts or Connecticut towns, but by way of Portsmouth, 
where he had been in full fellowship with the exclusive set that had con- 
trolled the province. He was disposed to look upon disloyalty to the 
Exeter government as disloyalty to the country, and had little apprecia- 
tion of the causes of dissatisfaction which existed in Haverhill and the 
other Coos towns. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 73 

Colonel Hurd discovered, or thought he discovered, that his neighbor 
and former associate on the Grafton County bench, Col. Asa Porter, was 
engaged in a plot to throw Coos under the portection of General Burgoyne. 
The evidence is not clear that Colonel Porter was engaged in any such 
plot. A man of large means, liberal education, aristocratic in his tastes 
and habits, he probably had little sympathy with the revolutionary acts of 
his neighbors — Johnston, Hurd, Bedel, Ladd, Wesson, Barron, Woodward 
and others. He certainly had little sympathy with the Exeter govern- 
ment, and he made little effort to disguise this fact. Human nature was 
much the same in 1776 as now. He had been, on the reorganization of 
the county court by the new government, dropped from his office as a jus- 
tice, while his neighbor, Colonel Hurd, had not only been retained as chief 
justice, but had been made councillor for Grafton County, recorder of 
deeds, county treasurer, and had returned home as chief military author- 
ity for the section. It is just possible, too, that Colonel Hurd may have 
shown signs of consciousness of his own importance as a monopolist of 
county offices, and repository of military authority, and this may have 
made his reception by his neighbor and former judicial colleague less 
enthusiastic than he wished. This much is certain: Colonel Porter was 
a positive man and was beyond question outspoken in his criticism of the 
Exeter government for its neglect to send aid to the seriously threatened 
people of Coos, and while Colonel Hurd must have felt under obligations 
to his neighbor and fellow alumnus of Harvard for his efforts to secure 
him justice from the Haverhill proprietors in the matter of his claim to 
the thousand acres of land voted him, while, as adherents of the Estab- 
lished Church, they had labored together to secure minister and glebe 
rights for that church, he could not overlook criticisms of the Exeter 
government. In the mind of Colonel Hurd that government represented 
the patriot cause of the country, and criticism of one was criticism of the 
other. The conviction that fastened itself in his mind that his friend 
Porter was "practicing things inimical to his country" was not a pleasant 
one, and his duty in the case was still more unpleasant in its performance. 
He did not hesitate, however, but caused Porter's arrest, and after exam- 
ination of the charges against him by the safety committees of Bath, 
Haverhill and other towns, he was sent, with the witnesses in the case, to 
Exeter for trial. Colonel Hurd, without doubt, acted from the most 
patriotic motives, but the sympathies of many were such that he undoubt- 
edly greatly damaged his own influence and popularity in the county by 
his action, and at the same time greatly increased the growing disaffection 
with the Exeter government. 

Colonel Porter was tried by the Committee of Safety at Exeter at our 
expense to the rate of £42, 18s. He was placed under bonds, obtained 
sureties, appealed to the legislature, which after much delay permitted 



74 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

him to go to his father's farm in Boxford, and later in November, 1777, 
by vote of the legislature, he was permitted to return to his home in 
Haverhill "to attend to his private concernments, he being of good 
behavior, according to his bonds." The Porter case, the Dresden address, 
the threatened dangers from the north, gave Colonel Hurd a summer full 
of anxieties, but he attended to his work of organizing companies of 
rangers and directing operations for the defence of Coos. In September 
he returned to Exeter to resume his activity as a member of the council, 
but this was his last work there as he was not again elected. Indeed, 
there was no representation of Haverhill in either branch of the legisla- 
ture for the next seven years. 

The address of the Dresden convention bore its fruit in the refusal of 
the inhabitants of Grafton County to obey the precepts issued in the 
name of the council and house of representatives for the choice of a coun- 
cillor and representatives at the election of 1776. Meetings were held 
in obedience to the precepts issued, but the towns refused to act except 
to choose committees to return the precepts together with the reasons for 
non-compliance. These reasons were similar in each case and were, 
doubtless, inspired at Dresden. The voters of Haverhill gave reasons 
which may be summarized as follows: The plan of representation was 
inconsistent with the liberties of a free people ; the classification of towns 
for purposes of representation was in violation of undoubted rights inher- 
ing in towns as units of government ; none but free holders were entitled 
to election; no bill of rights had been drawn up, or any form of govern- 
ment established subsequent to the Declaration of Independence by the 
Colonies; a council having power to negative proceedings of the house of 
representatives was dangerous to the liberties of the people; if a council 
was to be authorized at all, it should be elected on a general ticket by the 
whole people, instead of by districts. This latter objection was raised 
not only by the towns in the western part of Grafton County, but there 
was a strong sentiment against it in other sections of the state and to the 
method of its election. Indeed, the name chosen for this branch of the 
state government was unfortunate, since the old provincial council had 
been regarded by the people as identified with many abuses in the admin- 
istration of justice and of public affairs. The fact that the congress of 
December, 1775, took it upon itself to elect the council for which the con- 
stitution of January, 1776, provided, from its own membership, did not 
tend, either, to increase the popularity of this body. 

In the legislature of 1777, Haverhill was unrepresented. In the dis- 
organized state of affairs there were no judicial duties requiring Colonel 
Hurd's attention as chief justice of the court. The feeling of revolt 
against the state government was general, and in his loyalty and devotion 
to it he probably had but a small following. His residence in Haverhill 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 75 

was becoming more and more unpleasant for him. He might have sought 
relief in military service had not the state of his health forbidden, as 
appears from the following letter of his to Captain Thornton, under date 
of Haverhill, September 30, 1777: 

I am extremely chagrined that my infirm limbs will not permit me to share the toils 
and dangers of the field with my countrymen. I have spared two of my family and sent 
them off with horses and provisions for nearly a month; one of them, my son Jacob, 
though hardly of age sufficient, but a well grown lad of good heart and disposition to 
supply his father's place. 

The return of Colonel Porter in November, 1777, to his home near 
Hurd's residence, must have made his surroundings doubly unpleasant. 
He certainly could hope to accomplish little for the New Hampshire 
government by remaining in Haverhill, and he must have left town soon 
after the return of Colonel Porter. By so doing he promoted his own 
peace of mind, if anything may be judged from the tone of an extract from 
a pamphlet which appeared in December, 1778, entitled "A Public De- 
fence of the Right of the New Hampshire Grants (so called) on Both 
Sides Connecticut River to Associate Together and Form an Independent 
State." Its reference to Colonel Hurd is as follows: 

As to those who have applied for relief, etc., we know of none, except Col. John Hurd 
of Haverhill at Cohos (who to the great joy of the people has removed out of that part 
of the country, a mutual dissatisfaction having arisen between him and the people) who 
has made application to the assembly of New Hampshire and from them obtained a 
summons or order to notify a certain gentleman living in said Haverhill to appear before 
said assembly to answer to certain defamation some time or other laid in by him against 
said Hurd. Also one Nathaniel Hovey, lately living in Enfield (who is well known to 
have been a litigious person from his youth up, and consenting to be a tool for said Hurd 
to assist him in holding certain lands which he claims in Enfield) who occasioned such 
disturbance in the town that they warned him to depart, and after some time (he not 
obeying the order) the constable by warrant from the selectmen proceeded to remove 
him and family towards his last settlement. 

Grafton County was evidently not a pleasant place of residence for 
Colonel Hurd or for his avowed friends in the year 1778. It is significant 
of the bitterness of the feeling against him that of the names appended to 
this document was that of his former colleague on the bench, Bezabel 
Woodward, and another that of his old time friend, Col. Jacob Bayley. 

Haverhill, however, was fully committed to the movement to separate 
the river towns from the jurisdiction of New Hampshire. The county 
was unrepresented in the council or the general committee of safety of 
the state for the years 1777 and 1778, and Haverhill refused to be repre- 
sented in the assembly until 1783. During these two years the move- 
ment for the Union of the towns lying west of the Mason Grant and east 
of Connecticut River with Vermont, advanced so far that sixteen of these 
towns, Haverhill included, with James Bailey, were duly represented in 



76 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

the Vermont assembly. Such, however, was the pressure brought to 
bear upon the political leaders in Vermont in opposition to this union, that 
they gave the delegates from these towns signal offense by refusing to 
erect counties east of the river, a measure which was demanded as indis- 
pensable to good government. This refusal on the part of the Vermont 
assembly, which met at Bennington in June, 1778, led to a dissolution of 
the union which these towns had formed with Vermont. 

An attempt was then made to influence the New Hampshire authorities 
to claim jurisdiction in Vermont west of the river, and this, instead of 
being successful, led to a reaction in favor of the New Hampshire authori- 
ties. Col. Charles Johnston became the leader in this reaction, taking the 
place from which Colonel Hurd had been driven, with the result that he 
was elected to the New Hampshire council for Grafton County by the 
votes of such of the towns as had remained loyal to the Exeter government 
and the votes of some of the towns which had met with such a decided 
rebuff from Vermont. The county, thenceforward, was represented in 
the council till the adoption of the state constitution in 1784. 

Haverhill, however, remained obdurate and continued in revolt. 
Numbers from both sides the river seceded from this assembly which had 
met first at Bennington in June, 1778, and later at Windsor in October 
and called for a convention to meet at Cornish in December. James 
Bayley and Thomas Simpson were the delegates from Haverhill to this 
convention. The purpose of the leaders of this movement was to secure 
the union of the towns on both sides the Connecticut in one jurisdiction. 
It was proposed to keep them together either by a union with New Hamp- 
shire or with New York, or failing this by the erection of a new state to be 
composed of the valley towns. This Cornish convention in March, 1779, 
drew up a definite proposition for union with New Hampshire, and made 
its appeal to the New Hampshire legislature for concurrence. That body 
referred the matter to the Continental Congress with the result that 
nothing was done. 

Cheshire County next took the lead. A convention of Cheshire dele- 
gates held at Walpole November 17, 1780, issued a call for a convention 
from all the towns within the grants to meet at Charlestown in January, 
1781. Forty-six towns were represented in this convention, and a com- 
mittee was appointed to confer with the Vermont legislature which was to 
meet at Windsor in February, and the convention adjourned to meet at 
the same time at Cornish, on the opposite side the river, and wait events. 
The assembly received the committee of the Cornish convention February 
10, and articles of union were agreed upon to take effect when ratified by 
two thirds of the interested towns. Adjournment was had to ascertain 
the result of the voting, and these being favorable, on the 5th of April 
members from thirty-five towns east of the Connecticut River were ad- 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 77 

mitted to seats in the Vermont legislature. This was the second union 
accomplished. Haverhill was represented by Col. Timothy Bedel and 
Capt. Joshua Howard, elected at a special town meeting held March 31, 
1781, at which it was formally "voted that the articles of union between 
the state of Vermont and the New Hampshire grants be agreed to." 

When the assembly met in June at Bennington, eleven towns near 
Hudson River, now in the state of New York, were admitted to seats on 
similar terms as those granted to the New Hampshire towns, and the 
political situation was changed. Delegates were sent to the Continental 
Congress applying for the admission of Vermont to the Confederation, 
but they were informed that a condition of such admission would be an 
abandonment of all claim to territory east of the Connecticut River and 
west of a line drawn from the northwest corner of Massachusetts to the 
southern extremity of Lake Champlain. The legislature met in October 
in Charlestown, and in default of an election of lieutenant-governor by 
the people, Elisha Payne of Lebanon was chosen to that office. Sixty-six 
Vermont towns and thirty-six of those east of the river were represented. 
Resolutions relating to the terms imposed by Congress were passed, and 
courts were provided for towns east of the river. 

In some of these latter towns there was a minority vigorously opposed 
to this union. In Haverhill the opposition was quietly but effectively led 
by Colonel Johnston. The authority of Vermont was openly defied and 
armed collision occurred in the southern towns. Gov. Meshech Weare 
ordered a draft of a thousand men to proceed to the scene of the disturb- 
ance, and Vermont proceeded to hold these eastern towns by force. 
Civil war seemed imminent, and agents of the British in Canada were 
busy. The period was a critical one. Finally Washington threw the 
weight of his influence in favor of the plan proposed by the Continental 
Congress and this prevailed. In February, 1782, the legislature met at 
Bennington and the union was dissolved by formal vote. The towns 
east of the river were left to adapt themselves and their affairs as best they 
might to the government of New Hampshire. Newbury, Bradford, 
Thetford, Norwich and Hartford on the west side the river sought for a 
time the protection and jurisdiction of New Hampshire, but they received 
little encouragement, and the river towns one by one came to acknowledge 
the jurisdictions determined by the river as a boundary line. It was, 
however, not till December, 1783, that Haverhill sent its first representa- 
tives to the New Hampshire house, and not till 1786 that Newbury became 
enough reconciled to Vermont to send representatives to her legislature. 

It is to the honor of Haverhill that, during all these troubles, there was 
no wavering in her devotion to the patriot cause. The records, while by 
no means complete, show that the town, as already noted, was constantly 
making appropriations to promote the cause, and was year by year plac- 



78 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

ing its most substantial citizens on its committees of safety. Ezekiel 
Ladd was reimbursed for money advanced to Capt. Joshua Haywood for 
"horses for his men to Saratoga"; the Widow Richardson was paid for 
supplies provided for James Hardy, a Continental soldier, in his sickness; 
James Little was allowed £12 for lead bought of Moses Little. 

At a special meeting in January, 1780, Charles Bailey was chosen dele- 
gate to a convention to be held in Dresden January 20, to consult upon 
some united measures to be taken "for the defense of these frontiers"; in 
February, it was voted "to take effectual measures to stop all grain in 
town for the use of the public" and a guard was appointed to carry this 
vote into effect. Captain Bedel, John Rich and James Woodward were 
made a committee to look after such guard, and to give permission to 
such women and children, as they deemed best, to secure supplies of 
grain. 

The town may take just pride in its Revolutionary roll. In spite of 
internal strife concerning state jurisdiction, there was no hesitation when 
it came to giving military service. John Hurd, Timothy Bedel and 
Charles Johnston held commissions as colonels. Thomas Simpson, 
Joseph Hutchins, William Tarleton, Simeon Stevens, Luther Richardson, 
Timothy Barron and Ezekiel Ladd held commissions as captains and at 
various periods were in command of companies. No less than 109 others, 
men and boys, between the years 1775 and 1783, served in subordinate 
capacities as officers or as soldiers in the ranks — and this out of a pop- 
ulation which did not, at any one time, exceed 425. Haverhill occupied 
a strategic position. It paid the penalty for being the foremost Coos 
town. 

In the company of rangers authorized by the provincial congress May 
26, 1775, increased later to a battalion, and later still to a regiment under 
command of Colonel Bedel, and which was at the fall of St. Johns in 
November, 1775, there were 15 Haverhill men. There were upwards of 
25 soldiers from Haverhill in Colonel Bedel's regiment, authorized in 
January, 1776, assigned to the Northern Continental army, and which 
saw service in Canada, at St. Johns, the Cedars, and elsewhere. Haver- 
hill men were found also in Colonel Stark's regiment at Bunker Hill, in 
other New Hampshire regiments during the siege of Boston, in Colonel 
Scammel's battalion, and in other New Hampshire commands on the 
Continental line during the war; they were found in Major Whitcomb's 
company and battalion of rangers, in service from October 15, 1776, to 
December 31, 1779; in Colonel Gilman's regiment at Peekskill, N. Y., 
during the winter 1776-77; in Colonel Warren's regiment in the Jer- 
seys in 1775, and in the fateful expedition of Arnold against Quebec; 
in Colonel Hobart's regiment; in Gen. John Stark's brigade at Benning- 
ton; in Capt. Joseph Hutchins' company which served under the com- 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 79 

mand of Gen. Jacob Bayley in the eastern division of the Northern Army 
under General Gates, from August 17 to October 3, 1777; in Colonel 
Bedel's regiment raised by order of Congress for an expedition to Canada 
in December, 1777, and January, 1778, which after the abandonment of 
that expedition was continued in service for the defence of the frontiers 
on and adjacent to Connecticut River until November 30, 1779 (five of 
the eight companies of this regiment were commanded by Haverhill men) ; 
in Col. Moses Hazen's regiment raised under act of Congress March 15, 
1779, and in General Hazen's later command in 1782; in Capt. Ebenezer 
Webster's company, serving under direction of Col. Charles Johnston, 
from June till November, 1782, and in New York and Massachusetts 
regiments for longer or shorter periods during the war. 

The names of nearly all of these men, with the service they rendered, 
have been preserved, though some muster rolls have been lost. These are : 

David Ladd: In Bedel's company of rangers in 1775; in Bedel's regiment in Canada, 
1776; in May, 1777, in Major Whitcomb's rangers; in Hobart's regiment, Stark's 
brigade, at Bennington in 1777. 

Joseph Moulton: In Bedel's company of rangers in 1775. 

Ebenezer Sanborn (or Sandborn): In Bedel's company of rangers, 1775. 

John Sanborn: In Bedel's regiment in Canada, 1776. 

Mark Sanborn: In Colonel Warren's regiment in the Jerseys in 1775; in 1776 in a 
Massachusetts regiment. 

James Abbott: In Colonel Reed's regiment in 1776. 

Robert Simpson: In Bedel's rangers, 1775; in New Hampshire continental battalion, 
seige of Boston, winter of 1775-76. 

Nathaniel Wales: Quartermaster, Bedel's regiment in Canada, 1776. 

Joseph Fifield: In Bedel's regiment in Canada, 1776; May 1, 1777, in Major Whit- 
comb's rangers. 

John Loverin (Lovering): In Bedel's rangers, 1775; later enlisted in New York state for 
three years. 

Joseph Hadley: In Bedel's regiment in Canada in 1776; in Major Whitcomb's rangers, 
May 1, 1777. 

John Haseltine: In Bedel's regiment in Canada, 1775. 

John Dodge: In Colonel Warren's regiment in the Jerseys in 1775; in 1776 in a Massa- 
chusetts regiment. 

Thomas Simpson: In Bedel's rangers, 1775; in continental battalion, seige of Boston, 
winter of 1775-76; captain of company of 53 men on the frontiers, September 14 to 
December 5, 1776. 

Thomas Simpson, Jr. : Ensign in his father's company, September to December, 1776. 

Harry Morgan: In Colonel Reed's regiment, 1776. 

William Haseltine: In Colonel Reed's regiment, 1776. 

John Rine: In Stark's regiment at Bunker Hill. 

Silas Wheeler: In Col. Moses Hazen's regiment. 

Daniel Stevens: Enlisted in New York state regiment for three years. 

Avery Sanders: Enlisted in New York for three years. 

Alexander Hogg: In Colonel Gilman's regiment at Peekskill in winter of 1776-77. 

Solomon Parker: In Colonel Gilman's regiment at Peekskill. 

Ebenezer Rice: In Colonel Gilman's regiment at Peekskill. 



80 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

William Miner: In Colonel Gilman's regiment at Peekskill; in Captain Hutchins' 

company in 1778. 
George Moors: In Stark's regiment at Bunker Hill; in Colonel Gilman's regiment at 

Peekskill; later in New York service for three years. 
Samuel Lang: In Colonel Gilman's regiment at Peekskill. 
Joshua Hayward: In Colonel Gilman's regiment at Peekskill. 
John Taylor: In Bedel's rangers, and at St. Johns, 1775. 
Ephraim Wesson: In Colonel Gilman's regiment at Peekskill. 
Hezekiah Fuller: In Massachusetts service for three years. 
Anthony Foster: In Captain House's company, Colonel Cilley's regiment, Continental 

line. 
Josiah Elkins: In Bedel's regiment in Canada; in Capt. Joseph Hutchins' company, 

1778. 
John Hodgdon: In Bedel's regiment at St. Johns; May 1, 1777, in Major Whitcomb's 

rangers. 
John Sanders: In Bedel's regiment in Canada; in Captain Hutchins' company, 1778. 
Isaac Stevens: In Bedel's regiment in Canada. 
Thomas Manchester: In Bedel's regiment in Canada. 
John Fifield: In Bedel's regiment in Canada. 
Jona. Sanders: In Bedel's regiment in Canada. 
Asa Bailey: In Bedel's regiment in Canada. 
William Abbott: In Bedel's regiment in Canada. 
Richard Sanborn: In Bedel's regiment in Canada. 
Jesse Heath: In Bedel's regiment in Canada; later enlisted in New York for three 

years. 
Benijah Hall: In Bedel's regiment in Canada. 
Zebulon Hunt: In Bedel's regiment in Canada. 
Amos Heath: In Bedel's regiment in Canada. 

Joseph Sawyer: In Bedel's regiment in Canada; later in Massachusetts service. 
Josiah Burnham: In Bedel's regiment in Canada; May 1, 1777, in Moses Hazen's regi- 
ment. 
Henry Palmer: In Bedel's regiment in Canada. 
Moses Doty: In Bedel's regiment in Canada; later in a New Hampshire battalion, 

Continental line. 
Perley Rogers: In Bedel's regiment in Canada; later in Massachusetts service. 
Joseph Springer: In Colonel Stark's regiment at Bunker Hill, till September, 1775; 

one of the 88 New Hampshire men in Colonel Arnold's Quebec expedition. 
Henry Springer: In New Hampshire battalion, Continental army; in Captain Stone's 

company, Col. Alex. Scammel's regiment. 
William Locke: In Colonel Hobart's regiment, Stark's brigade, at Bennington. 
Elisha Lock: In Colonel Hobart's regiment, Stark's brigade, at Bennington. 
Ezra Gates: In Colonel Hobart's regiment, Stark's brigade, at Bennington. 
Thomas Haselton: In Colonel Hobart's regiment, Stark's brigade, at Bennington. 
Edward Clark: In Colonel Hobart's regiment; in Col. Moses Hazen's regiment organ- 
ized under resolution of Congress, 1779. 
Elisha Brown: In Luther Richardson's company, Bedel's regiment, 1778-79. 
Caleb Young: In Captain Cushman's company, Bedel's regiment, 1778-79. 
Ezekiel Ladd: Captain in Bedel's regiment, April 1, 1778 to May 1, 1779. 
James Ladd: Lieutenant in Bedel's regiment, April 1, 1778 to May 1, 1779; also in 

Bedel's rangers, 1775; lieutenant in Capt. Ezekiel Webster's company, 1782. 
John Brown: In Captain Young's company, Bedel's regiment, December, 1777 to 
March, 1778. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 81 

Moody Bedel: In Captain Ladd's company, Bedel's regiment, 1778-79. 

Simeon Stevens: Captain in Bedel's regiment, 1778-79. 

John Way, Jr.: In Bedel's regiment, 177S-79. 

Gains Niles: In 3d company, Colonel Cilley's regiment, previous to March, 1780; in 

Capt. Moody Duston's company, 1st New Hampshire regiment; enlisted February 

13, 1781. 
Michael Salter: Drummer, Moses Hazen's regiment, organized in 1779. 
Jona. Pratt: Fifer, Moses Hazen's regiment, organized in 1779. 
Israel Olmstead: Moses Hazen's regiment, organized in 1779. 

Robert Hartley: In Major Whitcomb's rangers, March 22, for service during the war. 
Aaron Wesson: In Captain Phelps' company, Bedel's regiment to March 31, 1778. 
Jonathan Cooper: In Continental army from December 4, 1776, to March 1, 1777. 
Jonathan Morse: In Captain Stone's company, Colonel Nichols' regiment, Stark's 

brigade, at Bennington. 
James Gould: In 1st New Hampshire regiment, Continental service. 
Stephen Morse: In 1st New Hampshire regiment, Continental service. 
Ebenezer Whitaker: In 1st New Hampshire regiment, Continental service. 
Eleazar Danforth: In Arnold's expedition to Quebec. 
Timothy Curtis: In Bedel's company, 1775. 
Thomas Caprin: In Bedel's company, 1775. 
Timothy Barron: In Captain Hutching' company, Bayley's brigade, Gates army, from 

August 18 to October 5, 1777; captain of company in Bedel's regiment raised in 

spring of 1778. 
Luther Richardson: In Captain Hutchins' company, Bayley's brigade, Northern 

army, August 18 to October 5, 1777; captain of company in Bedel's regiment 

raised in spring of 1788. 
John Page: In Captain Hutchins' Company, Bayley's brigade, Northern army, August 

to October, 1777; in Captain Ebenezer's company in force under command of Col. 

Charles Johnston raised in June, 1782, for defence of western frontiers. 
William Tarleton: In Captain Hutchins' company, Bayley's brigade, Northern army, 

August to October, 1777; captain in Colonel Bedel's regiment raised in spring of 

1778. 
Joshua Howard: Lieutenant in Capt. Thomas Simpson's rangers, September 14 to 

December 5, 1776; in Captain Hutchins' company, Bayley's brigade, August IS to 

October 5, 1777. 
Joseph Hutchins: Captain company in Bayley's brigade, Northern army, August to 

October, 1777. 
Samuel Ladd: In Captain Hutchins' company, Bayley's brigade, Northern army, 

August 18 to October 5, 1777. 
Ebenezer McKintosh: In Captain Hutchins' company, Bayley's brigade, Northern 

army, August 18 to October 5, 1777. 
David Sanders: In Captain Hutchins' company, Bayley's brigade, Northern army, 

August 18 to October 5, 1777. 
Elisha Cleveland: In Captain Hutchins' company, Bayley's brigade, Northern army, 

August 18 to October 5, 1777. 
Jona. Moulton: In Captain Hutchins' company, Bayley's brigade Northern army, 

August 18 to October 5, 1777. 
Darnel Miller: In Captain Hutchins' company, Bayley's brigade, Northern army, 

August 18 to October 5, 1777. 
Jona. Eastman: In Captain Hutchins' company, Bayley's brigade, Northern army, 

August 18 to October 5, 1777. 
7 



82 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Charles Wheeler: In Captain Hutchins' company, Bayley's brigade, Northern army, 

August 18 to October 5, 1777. 
James Bayley: In Captain Hutchins' company, Bayley's brigade, Northern army, 

August 18 to October 5, 1777. 
James Woodward: In Captain Hutchins' company, Bayley's brigade, Northern army, 

August 18 to October 5, 1777. 
Jonathan Ring: In Captain Hutchins' company, Bayley's brigade, Northern army, 

August 18 to October 5, 1777. 

In Capt. Ebenezer Webster's company, raised June 26, 1782, for the defence of the 
western frontiers, the entire force being under the command of Col. Charles Johnston, 
were besides those previously mentioned: 

Frederick Zilgo Michael Johnston 

Joseph Ladd Elijah Balcom 

Hugh Barnes William Green 

Asa Ladd Joel Richardson 

Amos Blood Smith Williams 

Joseph Young Reuben Page 

Ezra Abbott Jonathan Pike 

William McLaughlin Seth Flanders 

Noah Moulton Daniel Moulton 
Daniel Stevens, Jr. 

Many of these one hundred and nineteen men saw two or three terms 
of service. It is doubtful if any New Hampshire town can, in numbers in 
service in proportion to population, show a superior record. It is true 
many of these men were never on the firing line, never engaged in battle, 
were in no long campaigns, but they rendered arduous, self-sacrificing 
military service in their country's cause. 



CHAPTER VI 



READJUSTMENT AFTER THE WAR 

Readjustment Came After the War — Depreciated Currency — Mr. Powers 
Concludes His Work — Tories Asked to Leave Town — Paper Currency Voted 
To Be Issued — Census, 1790-1800 — Difficulty in Securing Selectmen — 
Vaccination Controversy — Brook and Corner Outgrowing the Plain — 
Federalists in Power — Haverhill, a Community of Farmers — Social Life — 
Each Home a Manufactory — Church and Tavern. 

While no battles were fought in Haverhill during the War of the 
Revolution, it was the centre of military activity, and in a sense the seat 
of war for the Coos county. There was an almost constant state of 
alarm, and the growth of the town was at a standstill; in fact there was 
at one time a decrease of population. In 1773 the number of inhabitants 
was 387; in 1775, it was but 365, and in 1780 it was hardly more than 400. 
Recovering from the effects of the war was slow. Internal disputes had 
engendered strife, and harmony did not come immediately. Town 
expenses had increased, currency had depreciated, real money was ex- 
ceedingly scarce, and corn and wheat were made exchange for the pay- 
ment of debts, and taxes and salaries. In 1775, the sum of £5 was voted 
for town expenses, while in 1780 the sum voted was £1880, 10s and in 
1781 the sum of $34,150 (continental dollars of course) was voted to sup- 
ply the town's quota of beef for the army. The extent of depreciation is 
shown by the fact that it was voted to allow town accounts to be paid in 
wheat, and at a ratio of 40 to 1. Even with this depreciation general 
town expenses had increased nearly tenfold. In this same year parties 
who had contracted to erect mills and make other improvements w r ere 
released from their contracts because of financial embarrassment and 
"difficult times." There were also a large number of sales of original 
rights and other lots of land belonging to parties whose circumstances had 
become straightened by reason of the war. Several prominent families 
left town to become settlers in newer towns. 

The period immediately following the war was evidently a period of 
recuperation from the disastrous effects of the conflict, and of adjustment 
to changed conditions, especially the enforced abandonment of any pur- 
pose of union with Vermont or the formation of a new state in the Con- 
necticut Valley. During the war tow r n meetings, annual and regular, 
w r ere held; town officers were chosen, but in the lists of names of these 
various officers hardly a name appears except those already mentioned 

83 



84 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

as having been chosen prior to 1775. Some of the votes recorded just 
after the war are explanatory of conditions then existing. For example, 
at the annual meeting in March, 1783, it was "voted that the present 
government be continued in full force till the 10th day of June, 1784, not- 
withstanding a general pacification should take place in the meantime, 
provided a permanent plan of government for this state should not be 
established antecedent to that period." The people were making ready 
to recognize the full authority of the general government. The courts 
which had been discontinued during the war were revived, since the 
records show that jurors were drawn for the Court of General Sessions 
and Common Pleas to be held in Haverhill on the third Tuesday of 
August, 1783. 

At a special meeting, September 16, 1783, it was voted not to hire Mr. 
Powers to preach any more. For the two previous years he had not 
preached in Newbury, except occasionally in private dwellings and barns, 
having taken up his residence in Haverhill in the house of Col. Charles 
Johnston late in 1780 or early in 1781. His salary had fallen in arrears, 
and his outspoken utterances in favor of the patriot cause had caused 
adverse criticism on the part of those who were not in hearty sympathy 
with the cause, and were popularly classed as tories. On Sunday, Sep- 
tember 10, 1780, Mr. Powers paid his respects to this class in his parish 
in language that could not be mistaken. He took the text for the two 
sermons of the day from the famous song of Deborah: "Curse ye Meroz, 
said the Angel of the Lord, curse ye bitterly the inhabitants thereof; 
because they came not to the help of the Lord, to the help of the Lord 
against the mighty." There is little doubt that the Merozites, those in 
Newbury in particular, were scathingly and effectively cursed. Mortal 
offense was given, the life of the minister was threatened, and he 
became so greatly alarmed for his own personal safety that he moved 
his family across the river as before stated. General Bayley, Col. 
Robert Johnston and others felt, that, having hurt the patriot cause 
more than he had helped, having by his utterances increased their bur- 
dens and perplexities and by removing from town had left them to face 
the plottings and ill will of their Tory townsmen alone, he had broken 
the agreement of his settlement, they secured the shutting of the meet- 
ing house against him, and for the next two years his ministrations were 
for the most part in Haverhill. But his work in Haverhill closed in 
September, 1783. 

In the warrant for this same special town meeting there was the follow- 
ing significant article: 

Art. 4.: To see if the town will pass some votes concerning tories, absentees, or per- 
sons who have left the United States of America and voluntarily taken residence within 
the lines of the enemies of said states and have returned or may return into this town. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 85 

It was "voted that Jonathan Ring, Joseph Hut chins, Nathaniel Merrill, 
Thomas Miner and Ephraim Bailey be a committee to take care that no 
such persons as mentioned in the 4th article of the warning be suffered to 
reside in this town." 

It may be noted that at the annual meeting this same year, Col. Asa 
Porter was chosen constable and collector of taxes, and, though he de- 
clined to serve, his election is an indication that the charges of "Toryism" 
which had been made against him, and upon which he had been arrested 
and deprived of his liberty were not generally accepted as true by his 
fellow townsmen. 

Another step in bringing the town into accord with the Exeter govern- 
ment was taken at a special meeting here December 8, 1783, the purpose 
of which was recited in the second article, viz. : 

To elect one person, being a reputable freeholder and an inhabitant of said town and 
qualified as the law directs to represent said town in the General Assembly of said state, 
to be convened and held at Concord on the 3d Tuesday of December next, and to im- 
power such representative to transact such business and pursue such measures as he 
may judge necessary for the public good until the first Wednesday of June next and par- 
ticularly to impower such representative to vote in the choice of delegates for the Con- 
tinental Congress. 

At this meeting James Woodward was elected representative, an ad- 
mirable choice, a man of sterling integrity, sound judgment, unimpeach- 
able character, and a reputable freeholder. His successor, elected 
February 10, 1784, for the classed towns of Haverhill, Piermont and War- 
ren was Col. Timothy Bedel. There seems to have been at this time some 
uncertainty as to how the representative was to be compensated for his 
services, as in the warrant for the meeting of the voters of these towns 
there was an article "To see what wages or pay said representative shall 
receive for his attendance at said Assembly and how the same shall be 
apportioned among said towns and how and when paid." That this 
article was dismissed indicates that the voters came to the conclusion that 
the state would provide "wages, " as the Assembly was to meet under the 
provisions of the New Constitution. 

The lack of money in these years of readjustment, led not only to 
appropriations for preaching, schools and other town expenses being 
made payable in corn and wheat, but a meeting was called for December 
11, 1786, "to see if the town is of the opinion that a paper currency be 
emitted on the plan proposed by the sub-committee of the general court 
of the state or any other plan which may be thought proper." The 
following was unanimously passed. 

Voted that a paper currency be emitted on the following plan, viz.: that one hundred 
thousand pounds be emitted, — twenty thousand pounds to be in suitable bills to defray 
the charges of government, and to exchange foi such public securities as may be offered 



86 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

at this current exchange, which is to be ascertained, and to carry no interest, but to be 
receivable in taxes and all demands of government and a tender in all cases equal to silver 
and gold, and to be called in by taxes annually, — the residue to be made in different 
bills expressing their import, and to be loaned to individuals at five per cent, on landed 
security of double the value, and to be paid into the treasury at proper times, which shall 
carry an interest of two and a half per cent, and so receivable in all demands of govern- 
ment and a tender in all cases as above — with the interest due on said bills at the time 
of payment. 

This emission was of course to be by state authority, and favorable 
action on the plan was taken by many other towns beside Haverhill. 
That such a plan was proposed and indorsed showed the desperate 
financial condition prevailing, but the legislature finally decided that it 
was without authority to "make paper bills of credit a tender to dis- 
charge private contracts made prior to the passage of such an act." 
This early irredeemable currency was quickly repudiated by the second 
sober thought of the people, but a century later the similar Greenback 
proposition found ardent advocates in Haverhill. 

Besides those who had been classed as Tories, the town had in this 
decade following the war other residents whom it regarded as "undesirable 
citizens, " and drastic measures were taken to deport. February 8, 1784, 
Timothy Stevens, constable, was commanded to warn no less than twenty- 
eight persons, named in the command, out of town, and he made due re- 
turn of his action except in the case of six who could not be found. In 
November, the same year, Charles Johnston was voted 6s for man and 
two horses to convey Abigail Baxter and two children from town to 
Warren. What Warren had to say is not a matter of record. Ephraim 
Wesson was voted 13s for ordering thirteen of these undesirables out of 
town. Some of these must have returned or the proportion of the unwel- 
come was phenomenally large for, in 1789, Jonathan Ring was voted 
27s or a shilling per capita, for warning out twenty-seven poor. There 
was a current classification of the poor — "the Lord's poor, the devil's 
poor and poor devils." 

The town was not without desirable immigration, however, during the 
war and the years immediately following. Among the newcomers who 
added materially to its prosperity were Stephen Smith, Daniel Mills, 
Moore Russell, Aaron Wesson, Ebenezer Gray, Charles Wheeler, Moses 
Dow (who came in 1782, and at once became prominent), John French, 
Thomas Miner, Deliverance Sawyer, Joseph Pearson, Simon Rodiman, 
Israel Swan, Phineas Swan, Daniel Greenleaf, Stephen Morse, Daniel 
Stevens, Daniel Hunt, John Sly, John Morse, John Montgomery, Samuel 
Brooks and Dr. Martin Phelps. 

The first census taken by the Federal government for the purpose of 
Congressional apportionment was in 1790, and the population of Haverhill 
had then increased to 522, Hanover, Lebanon, Enfield and Plymouth 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 



87 



alone of the Grafton County towns leading, 
the names of ninety-four males appeared as 



were: 

William Abbott 
Samuel Bunker 
Moody Bedel 
Amos Chapman 
James Corliss 
Benjamin Crocker 
Moses Dow 
Jonathan Eames 
Bezaleel French 
Samuel Gould 
Jeremiah Harris 
John Howard 
Joseph Hutchins 
Michael Johnston 
Edward Kendall 
George Knapp 
Ezekiel Ladd 
Joseph Ladd 
David Lock 
Ebenezer McKentosh 

(Mcintosh) 
John Montgomery 
Stephen Morse 
Joseph Pearson 
Moses Porter 
Jonathan Ring 
John Sanborn 
Enos Sayer 
Daniel Stevens 
Samuel Thompson 
Samuel White 
Benjamin Wiser 



David Young 
Paul Adams 
Timothy Barron 
Samuel Bonley 
Edward Clark 
Samuel Corliss 
Ephraim Cross 
Moses Doty 
Samuel Emerson 
Richard Goodwin 
Ebenezer Gray 
Robert Haseltine 
Abner Hunt 
David Jewell 
Bryan Kay 
Benjamin Keniston 
James Ladd 
David Ladd 
Samuel Ladd 
William Lock 
Annis Merrill 
Moses H. More 
Jacob Page 
Martin Phelps 
William Porter 
Simon Rodiman 
Avery Sanders 
John Sly 
Israel Swan 
Peter Wesson 
Ebenezer Whittaker 
James Woodward 



In this census of Haverhill 
heads of families. These 

David Ash 
John Beads 
Samuel Brooks 
John Clark 
Andrew S. Crocker 
William Cross 
Josiah Elkins 
Joseph Flanders 
Simeon Goodwin 
David Greenleaf 
Joshua Howard 
Daniel Hunt 
Charles Johnston 
Amos Kimball 
James King 
Asa Ladd 
John Ladd 
Samuel Lee 
James Luroy 
Nathaniel Merrill 
John Morse 
John Page 
Asa Porter 
Daniel Richardson 
Moore Russell 
Jonathan Sanders 
Daniel Staniford 
Phineas Swan 
Charles Wheeler 
John Winslow 
Joshua Young 



In this census seven women were enumerated as heads of families, viz.: 
Anne Chase, Marian Chase, Abigail Eastman, Elizabeth Fifield, Mary 
Fisk, Elsie McCormick and Mary Simpson. 

The ten years from 1790 to 1800 were years of progress. The questions 
growing out of the war were settled, professional men were establishing 
themselves, mills and various small manufactories were erected, the cause 
of education received more and more attention, a Haverhill church was 
organized. "The Brook" and "the Corner" begun to come into prom- 
inence as business, social and political centres; improvements in roads, 
bridges, and in matters pertaining to health were made, and Haverhill 
began to recognize and appreciate her opportunities. The town records, 
while meagre and fragmentary, abound with significant entries. 



88 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

There was difficulty in 1789 and 1790 in securing selectmen who were 
willing to serve. At the annual meeting of 1789, Charles Johnston, A. S. 
Crocker and Joseph Hutchins were elected. The latter refused to serve, 
and at an adjourned meeting, March 26, Nathaniel Merrill was elected 
in his place. He also refused the honor and at another meeting, March 
30, Simeon Goodwin was elected." In 1790 Moses Dow, Nathaniel 
Merrill and Amos Kimball were elected. Dow and Merrill refused to 
serve, and at an adjourned meeting, March 18, Charles Johnston and 
A. S. Crocker were elected to fill vacancies. Kimball would not qualify, 
and at another meeting, held March 31, Johnston and Crocker were again 
elected, and Ezekiel Ladd was chosen in place of Kimball. The trouble 
seems to have arisen concerning an act passed by the legislature "for 
the better observance of the Lord's Day." This act required the select- 
men to inform against all persons who traveled on the Sabbath between 
sunrising and sunsetting, except to "attend to public worship, visit the 
sick, or do works of charity." The vigorous enforcement of this law 
caused angry protests. The selectmen "informed," the tythingman was 
vigilant, and many persons overtaken on the road by sunrise, almost 
in sight of home, were compelled to pause in their journey until the sun 
had sunk behind the western horizon. John Page, for example, had been 
on a business trip "down country." He had arrived as near home as 
Warren when the Sabbath dawned. He would have gone home, but the 
Warren tythingman invited him to stay, and he was only permitted to 
go home the next morning after payment of fine and costs for violation 
of the Sabbath act. The Haverhill selectmen, less pious perhaps than 
like officers in Warren and other towns, but endowed a little more gen- 
erously with common sense, would not take oath to enforce the law in 
question. Johnston, Crocker and Ladd kindly accepted office in 1790 
by taking a modified oath, with observance of the Sabbath law omitted. 
In 1791, Joseph Hutchins, Nathaniel Merrill and Moody Bedel were 
elected selectmen, but they would not take the oath of office until the 
town had formally voted to eliminate obedience to the provisions of the 
Sabbath act so called from their oath. The rights of conscience were 
thus observed. 

There was evidently a division of sentiment in the earlier days as to the 
wisdom of employing vaccination as a preventive of smallpox, and anti- 
vaccinationists were more numerous then than now. In the warrant for 
a special meeting, held November 21, 1791, the question was stated 
boldly in the 5th article: "To see if the town will vote to have the small- 
pox in said town by way of innoculation." The town said no. At an 
adjourned meeting, January 3, 1792, the negative vote was reconsidered 
and it was "voted that Dr. Martin Phelps have liberty to propogate 
smallpox by way of innoculation." January 23, this vote was rescinded. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 89 

The controversy raged, as did also the smallpox to quite an alarm- 
ing extent, until at a special meeting, held January 7, 1793, the town 
voted to "have such form of smallpox as would come by way of 
innoculation." 

As late as 1792 wheat and corn were receivable for taxes, money still 
being conspicuous by its absence. The sum of £25 was raised to defray 
town charges payable in wheat at 4s per bushel and £50 in addition to the 
amount required by law for keeping grammar school, also payable in 
wheat. James Woodward was chosen to receive the wheat in the district 
where he lived and pay the same to the schoolmaster. 

In 1798 a long standing debt against the town for patriotic services was 
provided for, the town voting to pay Capt. Ebenezer Sanborn the sum of 
£10 "for fetching 200 lbs. balls, 50 lbs. powder and a quantity of flints 
from Exeter in 1775 for the use of the town." 

During the Revolutionary War, and for several years subsequent to its 
close, the finances of the town seem to have been managed loosely. Col- 
lectors of taxes had collected only a part of the taxes committed to them 
for collection, and not all of the moneys collected had been turned over 
to the town treasurer. The official accounts of as prominent a citizen as 
Andrew Savage Crocker were in questionable shape and at a special meet- 
ing in September, 1790, Nathaniel Merrill was chosen collector, Amos 
Kimball, selectman, and Michael Johnston, town clerk, in place of 
Crocker, "said to have removed from the state." Litigation followed 
which was not fully settled till 1796, when the annual meeting voted to 
raise £15 "for the benefit of A. S. Crocker to be assessed the present 
year in full of all disputes between himself and the town." Crocker 
returned later, and was prominent in town affairs as before. There were 
several other disputes, but at the annual meeting in 1800 there was a 
report from a committee which had been appointed to settle with all 
collectors of taxes previous to that year, and there was a general cleaning 
up and settlement of all accounts with collectors and other town officers, 
so that the new century was started with new books, and new methods 
of accounting. 

The care of the poor had become a problem. Previous to 1798, the 
maintenance of the town's poor had been settled by turning the paupers, 
no matter what their previous condition, over to the lowest bidder for 
support. In 1798 Ezekiel Ladd was voted the sum of £22, 6s, 2d for care 
of the poor from April 1, 1797, to March 31, 1798, and then it was voted 
to take care of the poor in accordance with a law which permitted the 
town to have houses of correction or workhouses in which to set their 
poor at work, and these were also to be used when towns saw fit for the 
"keeping, correcting and setting to work of rogues, vagabonds, common 
beggars, lewd, idle and disorderly persons." Inhuman perhaps, but an 



90 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

inhumanity which at that time was prevalent. It is to the credit of 
Haverhill that this system was given but the briefest trial. 

The Brook and Corner had begun to outgrow and surpass the Plain in 
enterprise and manufactures, and a rivalry, not always friendly, grew up 
between the two sections. At a special town meeting, November 21, 
1791, Charles Johnston, Nathaniel Merrill, Dr. Martin Phelps, Amos 
Kimball, Ezekiel Ladd and Joshua Howard were appointed a committee to 
settle all disputes between the two ends of the town, and various votes 
were passed designating the place of holding town meetings. At this 
same town meeting, it was voted that the annual town meetings be held 
alternately at the dwelling house of Moses Dow, then at the Corner, 
and the court house at the Plain, and that district meetings be held at the 
meeting house or court house or such other place as shall be provided at 
Horse Meadow. The division of interest necessitated the building of 
two pounds, one at the north end on land of Joshua Howard, the other 
at the south end on land of Moody Bedel. Persons liable to taxation at 
the south end of the town — south of the Fisher farm — were notified to 
meet the selectmen of 1795 at the house of Joseph Bliss, April 14, and at 
the house of Ezekiel Ladd, April 15, to give under oath invoice of their 
taxable property. 

In 1797 Joshua Howard, Amasa Scott, Asa Boynton and Joseph Bliss 
were licensed to keep tavern and sell liquor, and other licensees were 
William Mitchell, John Montgomery and Josiah Burnham. 

Party lines were being drawn in politics, and Federalists were in an 
overwhelming majority, judging from the vote for governor in 1798 when 
John Taylor Gilman received 55 votes, John Langdon 16, and Timothy 
Walker 8. 

Schools were being given what was a liberal support for that time: 
an academy had been established, the courts had been removed from the 
Plain to the Corner, roads had been inproved, settlers had begun to push 
out east from the river along the Oliverian, lands had been cleared and 
homes had begun to be established to the east of the Plain and to the north 
of the Fisher farm on Brier Hill. Sufficient settlement had been made in 
the extreme north end of the town so that a school district had been set 
off, and a schoolhouse built, in later years known as the Pine Plain school- 
house. The beginning of the new century may well be taken as marking 
the beginning of a new period. The day of pioneer settlement was over. 
The log cabins were disappearing, frame dwellings taking their places 
on the farms and in the villages; especially at the Corner and Ladd Street 
more pretentious residences, a church — a Haverhill church distinct from 
Newbury had been organized, and a meeting house built to which wor- 
shippers were called by a sweet and clear-toned bell, the only bell in the 
north country. Institutions had become established, the town meeting, 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 



91 



the church, the school, the courts, and the story of the town from the 
year 1800 on is the story of its institutions, of its social, political, educa- 
tional, professional and religious life, of its business activity and enter- 
prise, of its people, for, after all, it is the people who are the centre of all 
story and history. 

The increase in population had been marked in the decade 1790-1800. 
In the latter year it was 875 as against 559 in 1790. In 1800 there were 
145 polls. The list will be found interesting by comparison with the list 
of heads of families as given by the census of 1790. Some of the names 
which have become familiar in the preceding pages are missing. Many 
of the earliest settlers had passed away in 1800. New names appear: 
new blood has been infused into the life of the town. 



The number of polls in 1800 was as follows: 



Moses Abbott 
William Abbott 
Cyrus Allen 
Ozias Allen 
Webster Annise 
Phineas Ayers 
Zechariah Bacon 
John Baptiste 
Jonathan Barron 
Caleb Bayley 
Joseph Bayley 
Samuel Bayley 
Jacob Bedel 
John Bedel 
Moody Bedel 
Joseph Bliss 
Asa Boynton 
Samuel Brooks 
Charles Bruce 
Moses Burbank 
Amos Carleton 
Edmund Carleton 
Daniel Carr 
Amos Chapman 
Daniel Chaffin 
Edward Clark 
John Clark 
Ross Coon 
James Corliss 
John Corliss 
Andrew S. Crocker 
William Cross 
John H. Cummings 
Sargent Currier 
David Dailey 



Joseph Dow 
Joseph Dow, Jr. 
Moses Dow 
Lanson Drary 
Moses Edgerly 
Joseph Edmunds 
Jonathan Elkins 
Moses Elkins 
Stephen Elkins 
John Fifield 
Barzilla French 
Richardson French 
Samuel Goode 
Simeon Goodwin 
Benjamin Gould 
James Gould 
Ebenezer Gray 
John Haddock 
Abel Hale 
Henry Hancock 
Daniel Hanniford 
Nathaniel Harris 
John Haseltine 
William Hastings 
Olney Hawkins 
Reuben Heath 
William Heath 
William Hicks 
Amos Horn 
John Howard 
Joshua Howard 
Rice Howard 
Daniel Hunt 
Jeremiah Hut chins 
Charles Johnston 



Michael Johnston 
Bryan Kay 
Amos Kimball 
John Kimball 
James King 
Asa Ladd 
Daniel Ladd 
David Ladd 
Ezekiel Ladd 
Ezekiel Ladd, Jr. 
John Ladd 
Joseph Ladd 
Moody Ladd 
Samuel Ladd 
William Ladd 
Ebenezer Larvey 
Stephen Larvey 
John Merrill 
Nathaniel Merrill 
Abner Miles 
Robert Miller 
William Mitchell 
John Montgomery 
Stephen Morse 
Stephen Morse, Jr. 
Stephen Morse, 3d 
Artemus Nixon 
Joseph Noyes 
Herbert Ormsbee 
John Osgood 
John Page 
Asa Porter 
Billy Porter 
John Porter 
Moses Porter 



92 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 



William Porter 
William Rowell 
Nathaniel Runnells 
Moor Russell 
John Sanborn 
Avery Sanders 
Oliver Sanders 
Amasa Scott 
Ephraim Skinner 
Jonathan Soper 
Alden Sprague 
Daniel Stevens 
Joseph Stimpson 



Ephraim Stocker 
Israel Swan 
Joshua Swan 
Joshua Swan, Jr. 
Phineas Swan 
Phineas Swan, Jr. 
Ezekiel Tewksbury 
John M. Tillotson 
Leopold Tissot 
John True 
Joshua Ward 
Uriah Ward 
John Warrill 



David Webster, Jr. 
Ephraim Wesson 
Kern West 
Clark Wheeler 
Joseph Whitney 
Jacob Williams 
Abiel Willis 
Jahleel Willis 
Clark Woodward 
Jacob Woodward 
James Woodward 
James Woodward, Jr. 
Benjamin Young 



Haverhill was a community of farmers. Few tradesmen and mechan- 
ics were needed in a state of society where simplicity in style of living 
prevailed, and the famous Jeffersonian simplicity was just coming into 
vogue. Each family had its farm, or at least house lot and garden, with 
pigs, poultry and cattle. The minister, in addition to his pastoral duties 
and the preparation of his sermons — and the preparation involved in 
some of these causes one to shudder — carried on his farm, laboring with 
his own hands; and lawyer and doctor by no means relied on the emolu- 
ments of their profession for a livelihood. Then again scarcity of money 
made the farmers in turn tradespeople, mechanics and manufacturers. 

Almost everything required for sustenance and comfort was produced 
within the town limits, and each family was in a large sense sufficient unto 
itself. Each had its own field of rye, oats, wheat, corn and potatoes, and 
each raised its own supply of garden vegetables. Beef, mutton, pork, 
poultry were home products, as were the home cured hams, shoulders, 
sausage, dried and smoked beef. There was, of course, exchange of com- 
modities for mutual accommodation, the excess on one farm contributing 
to the deficiency on another. Nearly every household was a manufactur- 
ing establishment. Household and farm utensils, the common articles of 
furniture were home made. There was the large spinning wheel for the 
wool, and the little wheel turned by foot on which the linen was spun 
had its place in every household. Every family raised its own flax, rotted 
it, hackeled it, dressed it and spun it, and the hum of the spinning wheel 
was seldom unheard, keeping time with the shuttle on both large and 
small looms. The chimney corner for the household dye tub was seldom 
unoccupied. There was "a fulling mill" at the Brook where the home- 
made cloth for men's wear was fulled, dyed and dressed, was for custom 
work only as were also the two or three tanneries. The leather was 
worked up into foot gear by the itinerant shoemaker who set up temporary 
shop in the kitchen corner, until the household was shod. The village 
tailor, from the best of the home-made cloth, brought him fashioned gar- 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 93 

ments for "best" for the heads of families and the young men, while gar- 
ments for every day wear, and for the boys of the family were made by 
housewife and daughters, or by the itinerant tailoress — usually a maiden 
lady of uncertain age and temper — who, armed with a single pattern, 
journeyed from house to house, leaving in her wake habiliments fearfully 
and wonderfully made, with stitches unrippable, and with wearing quali- 
ties defying the roughest kind of rough usage. 

Butter, cheese, soap, candles were all of home manufacture. Soap 
boiling and candle dipping days were household events. Sugar and mo- 
lasses for the most part came from the West Indies, though sugar maples 
were made to pay their utmost tribute. Tea and coffee, though the latter 
was very little known, were of course imported, but each farm had its 
orchard, and there was the fruit of the orchard. There were winter 
apples, apples for table use, apples for apple sauce, and apples for cider. 
The latter was the main thing. No winter's supply of provisions was 
complete without several barrels of cider. It was the common drink, 
and nearly everybody, it may also be said, drank rum. The farmers sup- 
plied their day laborers with it, especially during the summer months. 
Neglect to offer it to male callers or visitors, the minister included when 
he made his pastoral visit, would have been regarded as an unpardonable 
breach of good manners. There were various lands of delicate elixirs and 
cordials of which rum was the basis, in which women indulged, and hot 
toddy was deemed an infallible remedy for soothing crying babies troubled 
with "wind." 

The farmhouse cellars were veritable storehouses. The cellar of one of 
the well-to-do class was, in the autumn — with its barrels of beef, pork and 
cider, its bins of potatoes, turnips, beets and carrots, its stacks of cabbages 
— a picture of plenty, while the garret depository for wool, flax and tow, 
with its ornamentation of long strings of dried apples and pumpkins, with 
large bunches of various kinds of savory herbs, presented a picture hardly 
less attractive. Then there were the barns and outlying sheds and gran- 
aries, the cows, oxen, horses, sheep, and swine; the poultry, especially the 
flocks of geese, source of supply for feather beds and pillows. Haverhill 
had entered upon its era of prosperity at the beginning of the nineteenth 
century. 

The winters were long and cold, but there were the big fireplaces, and 
wood was fortunately plenty, since the amount consumed in one of the 
fireplaces, six feet long by four feet deep, seems in these modern days 
almost incredible. To build a fire and keep it was no small undertaking. 

At the beginning of the century the men still wore long broad-tailed coats with huge 
pockets, long waistcoats and breeches. The hats had low crowns and broad brims, 
sometimes so broad as to be supported with cords at the sides. The stockings of the 
parson and a few others were of silk in summer and of worsted in winter. Those of the 



94 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

common people were generally of wool, blue and gray mixed, though linen was worn 
in summer. The hair was worn long, either loose and floating down to the shoulders; 
or in a diminutive queue tied with a ribbon, or turned up and tied in a sort of club- 
queue. . . . But this style of dress was doomed; early in the century, round hats 
and pantaloons began to make their appearance. Jefferson was, or pretended to be, 
very simple in his taste, dress and manners. He wore pantaloons instead of breeches, 
and leather shoestrings in place of buckles; and his inauguration as President, in 1801, 
seems to have given the signal for the change. Powder and queues, cocked hats and 
broad brims, white top boots and breeches, shoebuckles and kneebuckles began to 
disappear with the departure of the Elder Adams from office, while the establishment of 
democratic rule, short hair, pantaloons and round hats with narrow brims became the 
prevailing costume of men of all classes. Never a style of dress went so completely 
out of date and became antique in so short a time. 

The women wore close, short-waisted dresses of "silk, calico, muslin and gingham" with 
a full muslin kerchief or broad standing ruffle at the neck. The girls wore also white 
Vandykes, but these were worn by the wealthier class, or by the common people only on 
holiday occasions. The ordinary dresses of the women were made of material of their 
own manufacture. There was the plain or plaided flannel for winter use, the striped or 
checked linen and linsey-woolsey for other seasons. . . . But they did like to dress 
up on occasions. Many a buxom lass has lengthened out the summer day with her 
spinning and the winter evening with her knitting, in order to earn, in the time that was 
her own, the money that was to purchase the gay flowered India calico, to be worn to the 
next quilting, or to the ball at the tavern. Women wore large bonnets of straw or 
silk ; sensible bonnets they were, covering the head and protecting the face from the sun 
and wind. 1 

The chief centres of social life were the meeting house and the tavern. 
The influences radiating from the former were not wholly and entirely 
religious. All the people were church goers. No light excuses, based 
on wind and weather, kept them at home. Some of them lived at long 
distances from the meeting house, but for these horses were put in requisi- 
tion, the man riding on the saddle and the good wife on the pillion behind 
him. In the intermission between the two services, those who came 
from any considerable distance gathered in knots to eat the lunch they 
had brought, while they discussed the sermon, the news of the day, and 
other things. The meeting house was really a meeting place, a social 
centre. All this was pleasant in the summer time, but a bit strenuous in 
the winter when the congregation, some of whom had come from a long 
distance through the driving storm or biting cold, sat through the long 
services in a room without stoves, which were then unknown, and desti- 
tute of fireplace. The women had footstoves to warm their feet, the use 
of which was shared with the younger children, while men and boys 
disturbed the easy flow of the minister's prayer or sermon by rapping 
their boots together in the effort, not always successful, to warm their 
half frozen feet. Social life as found at the tavern was not always the 
best, but the men mingled with each other, and from travelers learned of 

1 Conn. Valley Hist. Society, Proceedings, pp. 227, 228. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 95 

the life and the trend of affairs in other towns and communities. Sunday- 
evening was the great time for neighborly visiting. More social calls were 
then made than in all the rest of the week. Holy time was over at sunset, 
but in most cases the work of the week did not begin till Monday morning. 
It was the leisure evening. The best or Sunday clothes had not been 
discarded, and people are usually at their best when best dressed. 
Many an "engagement" dated from a Sunday evening call, or a Sunday 
evening "sitting up, " and, were all the facts known, the making of many 
a local political slate might be traced to a quiet Sunday evening confer- 
ence of a few leading citizens. Strange as it may seem funerals were 
social events. They called together great numbers, for it was a mark 
of respect for the dead to follow them to the grave, as well as a testi- 
monial of sympathy for the living. The house was always filled to 
overflowing, and frequently numbers stood outside. There was prayer 
at the house, and then the coffin was placed on the bier, the bearers of 
which headed the long procession to the old graveyard, where there was 
again prayer and an appropriate address by the minister. The event 
was usually "improved upon" in the next Sunday sermon. The day 
of the funeral was a holiday, a serious one, indeed, but a holiday just the 
same. 

Then they were the great festivals of Fourth of July, Thanksgiving, 
and the General Muster or Training Day. Christmas, Lent and Easter 
were observed in general non-observance. The house and barn raisings 
were events which brought together the men from far and near. There 
was hard lifting to be done, but there was mirth and jollity, aided by 
the flip and cider which circulated unsparingly. The work done, the 
heavy frame in place, there were the usual athletic contests. 

In the way of amusements there were the corn huskings (who has not 
heard of them, with their romance of red ears?), the apple paring bees 
when the fruit was prepared for drying, and the quilting parties where 
the quilt with its mysterious and wonderful patchwork cover was put 
upon the frames in the morning, and marked with its pattern of shells, 
or herringbone, all ready for the work to begin, finished in the afternoon, 
before the young men began to arrive for the bountiful supper and the 
festivities of the evening, and last but not least the "Seeing Nellie home." 
There was also the occasional tea party for the women, antedating the 
sewing circle, and meetings of the ladies aid, when the women plied the 
inevitable knitting needle, sipped their favorite beverage, discussed the 
last sermon of the parson, talked over the news of the neighborhood, 
and the newest goods received at the store. It was gossip perhaps, but 
innocent gossip, and the busy, hard working women of 1800 had few or 
no outside interests and little recreation of any kind. 



96 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Books and newspapers were scarce. Each family had its little store 
of devotional books which were read on Sunday, and by old people on 
other days, but the Bible and Watts Psalms and Hymns were more read 
than all the rest together. The weekly reading was confined for the 
most part to the Farmer's Almanac, and stray copies of the weekly 
newspaper which had begun to be published in the larger towns. News- 
papers were still numbered among the curiosities and luxuries — not 
necessities. 

The new century opened auspiciously for Haverhill with a promise of 
prosperity which did not lack fulfillment. 






CHAPTER VII 



CHURCHES 

Oldest of Organizations in Town — The Church — Mr. Powers Called as Pastor 
in 1765 — Town Divided into Two Parishes — House at Horse Meadow 
Built First — Ladd Street Organized in 1790 — Discussion Over Tax Rate 
for Ministers — Difficulty Settled — Controversy with Church at New- 
bury over Timothy Barron and Captain Wesson — John Smith Settled by 
Town as Minister — Grant Powers — Bought Methodist Episcopal Church 
at Corner — "Smooth as a Bone" — North Parish — Pike — Methodist Episco- 
palian — Four Churches — Baptist — Union Meeting House, Now Adventist — 
Protestant Episcopal — Universalist — Evangelical Association — Mental 
Liberty Society — Pastors Born in Haverhill. 

The oldest institution in Haverhill next to its charter and town organ- 
ization is the church. No separate church organization for the town 
existed until 1790, but previous to this date although the first meeting 
house was on the west bank of the river the church w r as that of Newbury 
and Haverhill. The two towms were one parish. As has been previously- 
stated the proprietors of New T bury and Haverhill united as early as 1763 
to secure preaching, and Mr. Silas Moody, a graduate of Harvard College 
and a relative of Moses Little, came to Coos, preaching three Sabbaths 
in Newbury and two in Haverhill in September and October of that year, 
and was paid by the proprietors of the two towns. It w r as hoped that 
he might be induced to become the minister of the two towns, but being 
disinclined to settle, the choice of the leaders in the two settlements fell 
upon the Rev. Peter Powers of Hollis, who had for some six or seven 
years previously been the minister of Newent (now Lisbon), Conn. Mr. 
Powers came to Coos in May, 1764, remaining for several weeks, preach- 
ing in houses and towns to the acceptance of the settlers. 

In September, 1764, the Newbury and Haverhill Church was organ- 
ized, and in January, 1765, Haverhill joined with Newbury in giving "a 
call to Mr. Peter Pow r ers to become their gospel minister." Mr. Powers 
accepted the call and his installation as pastor of the Newbury-Haverhill 
Church took place on the last Wednesday in February. As there was 
no church within sixteen miles, its was deemed best to have the installa- 
tion ceremonies at some place where a council could convene, and these 
took place in the church at Hollis. Air. Pow r ers preaching his own instal- 
lation sermon from Matt. 22 : 8, 9. The ministers participating in the 
council were Rev. David Emerson of Hollis, Rev. Henry True of Hamp- 
stead, Rev. Abner Bayley of Salem, Rev. Joseph Emerson of Pepperell, 



98 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Mass., and Rev. Joseph Goodhue. Mr. Powers removed his family to 
Newbury in March, and the work of the church was begun. 

From the fact that he lived in Newbury and that the first meeting 
house was built there, the church is often spoken of as the Newbury 
church, but Haverhill contributed by public taxation to its support 
about £90 during the first three years, and after 1771 £35 annually till 
1777 when its share became £37, 6s. 

As has been previously stated, Mr. Powers continued to preach in 
Haverhill for some time after his labors in Newbury were finished. 
Haverhill and Newbury were fortunate in securing Mr. Powers as their 
minister almost coincident with the beginning of their settlement. His 
parish at the first was the entire Coos County, though there is no record 
that towns other than Newbury and Haverhill contributed to his support. 
He preached occasional sermons, officiated at weddings and funerals all 
the way from Hanover and Plymouth on the south to Lancaster on the 
north, and it is claimed that he preached the first sermon in no less than 
twenty-seven towns in Coos and vicinity. For a score of years the log 
meeting house and its successor on the great Oxbow in Newbury was 
the only building for public worship within a radius of many miles. 

After the removal of Mr. Powers from Newbury in 1781, he continued 
to preach in Haverhill until the autumn of 1783. At a special town 
meeting held September 16, 1783, it was "Voted not to hire Mr. Powers 
to preach any more" and he soon afterwards went to Cornish, and later 
to Deer Island, Me. There was a period of religious depression for some 
years following the War of the Revolution and religious services were 
held very irregularly. At the annual meeting March 9, 1784 it was 
"voted £50 be paid out for hiring preaching the year ensuing, except 
£10, 10s for preaching paid the past year by the committee, which said 
£50 is to include the £40 voted last year." Charles Johnston, Ezekiel 
Ladd and Nathaniel Merrill were made a committee to hire preaching 
and provide place of meeting not below Col. Joseph Hutchins (at the 
Brook) nor above the Court house, the meetings to be held in two dif- 
ferent places in equal proportion. An article in the warrant for the 
annual meeting 1785, "to see how much money the town will raise to 
hire preaching" was dismissed. 

At a special meeting January 10, 1788, it was voted to build a meeting 
house and to divide the town into two parishes, the dividing line to be 
on the south side of the Fisher farm in a straight course through the town, 
reserving to each parish an equal share of the ministerial right of land 
and of school and common lands. It seems from this vote that the meet- 
ing house which it was voted to build in 1771, and on which some work 
had been done as appears by subsequent votes had now been completed. 
This house was at Horse Meadow, and later, reduced in size and com- 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 99 

pleted, became the meeting house of the North Parish. At the annual 
meeting in 1788, notwithstanding the vote in January to build a meeting 
house, no action seems to have been taken to secure preaching, and at 
the annual meeting 1789, the proposition to hire preaching was nega- 
tived. The meeting house at Ladd Street was built so that it could 
be occupied for religious purposes in 1790, though it was not finished in the 
style of later years. The meeting house at Horse Meadow had been 
begun, and was partly built by town tax, but there is no evidence that 
the town ever acquired any right in the Ladd Street house. It appears 
to have been erected by the voluntary contributions of the original pew- 
holders. 

For several years following the War of the Revolution and the removal 
of Mr. Powers there had been great religious depression, but coinci- 
dent with the erection of the Ladd Street house there was a great relig- 
ious awakening. Whether this followed the voluntary contributions of 
the people to erect a house of worship, or whether these contributions 
were a result of the awakening is not known, but this is certain that fol- 
lowing the erection of the house of worship and the religious revival the 
First Congregational Church in Haverhill was "gathered" October 3, 
1790 by the Rev. Edw. Burroughs of Hanover, the Rev. Asa Burton of 
Thetford, Vt., and Rev. Mr. North. The covenant adopted and signed 
by the original members is of abiding interest, as indicating the pre- 
vailing theological belief, and attitude of members of the church toward 
each other: 

We whose names are hereunto subscribed being hopefully persuaded each one for 
himself, and charitable for each other, that we have been made willing in the day of 
God's power: and that under these circumstances it has become our indispensable duty 
to subscribe ourselves with our hands unto the Lord and to surname ourselves by taking 
the name of Israel, by taking the vows of God upon us, in giving up ourselves to the 
Lord in the bond of his covenant and unto one another as according to his will, and 
under a solemn sense and conviction of his infinite and condescending compassion in 
admitting such vile worms of the dust to lay hold on his covenant: — We do this day 
avouch the Lord Jehovah, Father, Son and Holy Ghost to be our God, and do give up 
ourselves to Him to be his and his only forever, most solemnly renouncing our own right- 
eousness as being but filthy rags and betaking ourselves from henceforth to the blood 
of sprinkling and the everlasting righteousness of our glorious Redeemer as the only 
ground of our confidence toward God for pardon and cleansing. And for the purpose 
of walking together in the faith and hope of the Gospel, and that our Heavenly Father 
may be glorified by our shining as lights in the world, we do now come under the solemn 
and awful vows of God and do bind ourselves by them to take His Word for the only 
rule of our faith and practice, meaning by such a purpose to make it our care to act out 
such a temper of love, humility and meekness as is according to the true spirit and 
plain meaning of the Word: and in our treatment of one another and in our conduct 
towards all men, that by the manifestation of such temper in our daily walk and con- 
versation, we may approve ourselves to every man's conscience in the sight of God. 
And we do moreover submit our souls to the authority of that Word which binds us to watch 



100 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

over one another in the Lord, and do call him to witness that in attending to this duty 
it is our desire and our governing purpose to condemn every branch of conduct in each 
other which the Word of God condemns, and to require that temper and conduct in each 
other which the Word of God requires, and this without partiality or respect of persons 
(or knowing any one after the flesh). And we do materially and jointly take refuge in 
sovereign mercy and rely upon the free and rich grace of our dear Redeemer that these 
principles may be written in our hearts, as with a pen of iron and the point of a diamond 
that in the issue it may appear that in this solemn transaction with God we have not 
flattered him with our mouth, nor lied with our tongues, but that our hearts are right 
with him and are steadfast in his covenant. 

David Ladd Martha Ladd 

Martin Phelps Hannah Ladd 

Carl Adams Hannah Pearson 

Joseph Ladd Zilpah Ring 

Ebenezer Gray Abigail Cross 

Ezekiel Ladd, Jr. Anna Wood 

Benjamin Young Sarah Ladd 

James Ladd Sarah Johnston 

William Locke Betty Montgomery 

David Young Ruth Phelps 

Lucinda Young 
Betty Tarleton 
Mehitable Cross. 

Mr. Ethan Smith supplied the pulpit of the church a large portion of 
the time for a year or more, under the direction and with the assistance 
of Mr. Burroughs and Mr. Burton, before he became the first settled 
minister of the church. There were difficulties in the way of the settle- 
ment of a minister from the first. The people in the southern portion 
of the town desired to follow the custom of the time and support the 
ministry by a town tax, but this was strenuously opposed by the people 
at the northern end of the town. At the annual meeting of 1790 the 
sum of £40 was voted to hire preaching for that year, one half to be at 
the court house, the other half at the Ladd Street meeting house. At a 
special meeting held August 2 it was voted to select a minister and to 
have worship at the meeting house, and at the court house or some other 
place in Horse Meadow in proportion to the taxes annually raised for 
that purpose at each end of the town, making the south boundary of 
the Fisher farm the dividing line, and also to hire Rev. Mr. Bell to preach 
on probation. Charles Johnston, Nathaniel Merrill and Ezekiel Ladd 
were appointed a committee to carry this vote into effect. 

At a special meeting October 27, 1791, it was voted to rescind all former 
rates respecting a division of preaching according to taxes received and 
"to hire Mr. Ethan Smith four Sabbaths on probation the one half 
to be preached at the meeting house and the other half at the Court 
house," Charles Johnston, Joseph Bliss and Dr. Martin Phelps were 
named a committee to treat with Mr. Smith. At another special meeting 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 101 

November 21, 1791, it was voted that meetings be held alternately at 
meeting house and court house, and also by a vote of 39 to 33, to give 
Mr. Ethan Smith a call to settle in town as gospel minister at a salary 
of £70, one-third part to be paid in money, the other two-thirds in produce 
equal to money in such articles as he will need in a family, provided he 
will settle and continue as minister. James Woodward, Dr. Martin 
Phelps and John Montgomery were appointed a committee to treat 
with Mr. Smith on the part of the town, this committee, it may be noted, 
was from the north end of the town. 

The vote by which Mr. Smith was called was a narrow one. It does 
not appear that there was any objection to him, but the trouble was 
rivalry between the north and south ends of the town, and objection to 
support of the ministry by public taxation. The south end of the 
town was growing in importance and its residents objected to paying taxes 
for one half the preaching to be at the north end. Those at the north 
demanded half the preaching if they were to be taxed. Another special 
meeting was held January 3, 1792, at which it was then voted that all the 
people north of the church line of the Fisher farm shall be freed and 
exempted from paying any minister tax or salary to Mr. Ethan Smith, 
and that all the meetings for public worship on the Lord's Day be held at 
the meeting house at the lower end of Haverhill. Mr. Smith's response to 
the call as modified by this vote was as follows: 

Whereas the inhabitants of the town of Haverhill have invited me to settle with them 
as a gospel minister, I do hereby comply with their invitation and do consent to take 
the pastoral charge of all those in said town, who desire to put themselves under my care, 
and I do comply with the proposal voted in town meeting January 3, 1792, viz.: to have 
all those persons who live north of the south edges of the Fisher farm exempt from pay- 
ing any part of my salary, which I do now consent to receive yearly, viz: £60 to be 
paid as the £70 which the town voted me, with the addition of twenty cords of hard 
wood per year, and to have the meetings for public worship, held on every Lord's Day at 
the meeting house at the lower end of Haverhill. 

Joseph Bliss, Charles Johnston, John Montgomery, James Woodward, 
Dr. Martin Phelps and Ezekiel Ladd were appointed a committee to 
agree with Mr. Smith on a council in order to ordain him and to appoint 
a day of ordination. 

But the end of the settlement had not yet been reached. Another 
special town meeting was held January 23, 1792, two days before the 
time set for the ordination and installation of Mr. Smith. It was then 
voted 34 to 30 to rescind the vote giving Mr. Ethan Smith a call to 
settle as a gospel minister in Haverhill and also the vote to give him £70 
salary. All the votes passed January 3, 1792, at the special meeting 
respecting the settlement of Mr. Smith were also rescinded, and Moody 
Bedel, town clerk, was chosen to wait on Mr. Smith and inform him of 



102 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

these votes. It was left for the church to act on its own motion and 
responsibility in the matter of settlement which it proceeded to do and 
January 25, 1792, Ethan Smith was duly installed pastor, the church 
voluntarily assuming the entire responsibility for his support. 

Mr. Smith's field of pastoral labor covered the entire town and also 
Piermont. While the preaching was at the Ladd Street meeting house 
some families from the north part of the town attended. Soon after 
his installation, eleven members of the church in Piermont not relishing 
the preaching of the pastor, Rev. Mr. Richards, who was accused of 
strong Arminian beliefs, withdrew from his church, and united with the 
church in Haverhill, conditionally, retaining the privilege of returning 
to Piermont whenever a majority of them so voted. At the time of 
Mr. Smith's dismission in 1799, nearly a third of the membership of the 
Haverhill church resided in Piermont, but the Piermont church having 
become extinct, thirty members of the Haverhill church resident in 
Piermont, availed themselves of this conditional membership, and with- 
drew to reorganize the church in their own town. 

Mr. Smith's ministry was immediately greatly successful. At the 
end of its first year there had been fifty-three admissions to church 
membership, mostly by confession of faith. But there were discourage- 
ments. Discipline was strict, and there was a rigid adherence to the 
church covenant, and regard for the sacredness of its obligations. During 
Mr. Smith's pastorate numerous special sessions of the church were 
occupied with cases of admonition and excommunication. Five were 
excommunicated for adherence to the principles and faith of close com- 
munion Baptists, three for drunkenness, a number comparatively small, 
in view of the customs and habits of the time, others for "habitual want 
of Christian temper," one for "unchristian conversation with her neigh- 
bor," two others for neglect of church services, and neglect of mainte- 
nance of family prayer. May 3, 1799, "Brother John Montgomery sent 
in a confession to be read in public for his transgression in riding on two 
occasions on the Lord's Day, with humble acknowledgment of his sin, 
which was accepted. " 

The church records under date of 1794 contain this entry: "Voted, 
that fellowship with the church in Newbury be suspended." This was 
the result of a protracted controversy between the two churches which 
could not but have an injurious effect upon the religious life of both towns. 

As has been noted, the sum of £40 was voted at the annual town 
meeting in March, 1790, to hire preaching for that year. There was 
opposition at the north end of the town to the organization of a Haverhill 
church, to the settlement of Mr. Smith as pastor, and to the raising 
of money by taxation for the support of the church; and several refused 
to pay their proportion of the £40 assessed for this purpose in 1790. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 103 

Several members of the Newbury church residing at Horse Meadow and 
North Haverhill were among this number. The leading spirits were 
Ephraim Wesson and Timothy Barron, both members of the Newbury 
church, and both leaders in the movement to defeat the settlement of 
Mr. Smith. They attended church in Newbury, claiming the right of 
choice in matters of church attendance, and having paid for the support 
of the Newbury church, they held themselves to be exempt from the 
support of any other. They were both prominent in the affairs of 
Haverhill, and to bring the matter to a test they were arrested and 
committed to jail at North Haverhill till this delinquent minister tax 
should be paid. Just how long they remained in jail is unknown, but one 
day finding the jail door unlocked and the keeper out of sight, they 
quietly walked out and went home. They were soon rearrested and 
brought before the magistrates charged with the offense of breaking 
jail. To this they replied, that they had committed no violence; that 
finding their prison door unlocked they had simply gone out, being 
under no promise to remain there: further if the jailor had neglected 
his business it was none of theirs. When they were reminded that they 
had broken the law of the state and were liable to punishment additional 
to that for which they had been committed, they cited the example of 
the Apostle Peter, who, finding the door of his prison open, had walked 
out, claiming that what was right for Peter was also right for Timothy 
and Ephraim. This led to serious admonition for this irreverence in pre- 
suming to liken themselves to Saint Peter. They undoubtedly settled 
by paying the tax in question since there is no record of their being sent 
to jail again. 

But this led to the serious trouble between the churches and the people 
on the two sides of the river. The Haverhill church was aggrieved that 
the Newbury church had not disciplined Barron and Wesson, and the 
Newbury church had a grievance in that certain of their members who 
lived at North Newbury were permitted by the Haverhill people to attend 
church at Ladd Street, and by their support of that church, claimed 
exemption from taxation for the support of the church in their own 
town. Fellowship, between the two churches was suspended. A council 
was called in 1794, which recommended that the Newbury church 
censure Barron and Wesson for their conduct, and that the Haverhill 
church should not receive James Abbott and Thomas Brook to its com- 
munion, but this did not help matters much. The question had been 
raised as to both the right and the expediency of supporting the church 
by taxation, and the leaven had begun to work. The beginning of the 
end of the New England system of union of state and church had come, 
and at the next council, which was called in 1796 — a mutual council — 
one decided step was taken in the direction of a complete severance of 



104 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

church and state affairs. It had been deemed best to select ministers 
from a distance, in view of the high tension of feeling between the two 
churches and the importance of the questions involved. The ministers 
who comprised the council, and by whose decision the church had agreed 
to abide were Conant of Lyme, Spaulding of Salem, Woodman of San- 
bornton, Ward of Plymouth and Swift of Bennington. 

The council met at Newbury on Wednesday of the week before com- 
mencement at Dartmouth College, and was attended by large numbers 
from both towns, Gen. Jacob Bayley, who spoke for the laymen, raised 
a question which the ministers strove to evade. They admitted that 
taxation for the support of religious worship, was right, just; but argued 
strenuously that each tax payer had the right to select the particular 
church or form of belief to which he wished his tax applied. The conduct 
of Captains Barron and Wesson, though not in accordance with the strict 
letter of the law, was not therefore deserving of censure by the church. 
The ministers comprising the council were, however, extremely jealous 
of their prerogatives, and perhaps some of them feared personal loss 
should they be forced to depend on voluntary contributions for their 
salary. They refused to give General Bayley and those he represented 
respectful consideration. They attacked the position taken by General 
Bayley with great violence. The result was that the council censured 
both churches for this unchristian conduct, and maintained the prin- 
ciple that every man should be taxed for the support of the religious 
organization favored by a majority of the voters of his town. The 
church at Newbury was also admonished for not disciplining the two 
members whose obstinacy had caused the trouble. It was a victory for 
the Haverhill church, but many of its members, and the members of 
the council lived to realize and admit the fact that their churches were 
more prosperous under the voluntary system which later was adopted 
having been made obligatory by law. The Newbury church proceeded 
to discipline its two members, excommunicating one, and continuing the 
other only on his confession of sin and repentance. Captain Barron died 
soon after in 1797, and was the first person buried in the Horse Meadow 
Cemetery, and this action of the Newbury church and the feeling against 
him in Haverhill doubtless led Captain Wesson, who had seen hard service 
in the Old French War and also in the War of Revolution, to remove to 
Grafton, Vt., and later to Peacham, Vt., where he died in 1812. A grand- 
son of his, Rev. Ephraim Clark, became a missionary to the Sandwich 
Islands, and a translator of the Bible into the Hawaiian language. 

The last years of the pastorate of Mr. Smith were, as can be easily 
understood from the troubles described, troubles which were the sensa- 
tion of the day, filled with discouragements, and he asked for dismission 
in 1799, which was given him. The church in its subsequent history 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 105 

had no more devoted, godly and able minister than he. He subsequently 
filled important pastorates and died in Boston at the age of 87. He was 
the author of several religious works which had a wide sale in their day, 
among which were treatises on Baptism, the Trinity, on the Prophecies 
and the Book of Revelation, and a small volume in which he ingeniously 
contended that the North American Indians were the lost tribes of Israel. 

After a vacancy of some three and a half years, John Smith was 
ordained and settled as pastor both by town and church December 23, 
1802. As the first minister settled by the town he received as a part of 
his settlement the farm upon which he lived during his pastorate and 
which he insisted on retaining as his own property after he had been 
deposed from the ministry and excommunicated from the church in Jan- 
uary, 1807, under a cloud of grave scandal. His action in persisting in 
retaining the farm coupled with the scandal affecting his character had 
doubtless much to do with the period of religious depression which fol- 
lowed his deposition. Mr. Smith preached both at Ladd Street and at 
the north part of the town. 

Another religious awakening came in 1814, when the church of more 
than a hundred members had dwindled to twelve. This was followed by 
the ordination and installation of Grant Powers January 14, 1815. The 
town had been divided into two parishes, and Mr. Powers' ministry was 
restricted to the South Parish. His pastorate lasted fourteen years and 
three months, and was the longest in the history of the church. He 
was a native of Hollis, a graduate of Dartmouth College, class of 1810, 
had studied theology with Dr. Asa Burton of Thetford. A grandson of 
Capt. Peter Powers the pioneer explorer of the Coos County, a nephew 
of the Rev. Peter Powers the first minister of Coos, he had especial fit- 
ness for writing "A History of the Coos County," a work for which he is 
doubtless better remembered than for his long and somewhat stormy 
pastorate. He was a man of great energy, with especial fitness for 
gathering in and moulding into a strong church the results of the great 
revival which preceded and continued during the first years of his min- 
istry. He was also a man of strong convictions. Methodism began 
to gain adherents, and with Methodist theology and methods he had no 
sympathy whatever. Indeed he regarded them as subversive of genuine 
religion, and they met with his outspoken denunciation. When George 
Woodward, bank cashier and lawyer, opened his house to Methodist 
preachers, and his heart to the Methodist faith, he and his family lost 
caste in the social circle in which they had moved, and when Methodists 
secured the court room for their Sunday services, there was mourning on 
the part of Mr. Powers' church and congregation. But in spite of oppo- 
sition the Methodists grew in numbers, and two years before the close 
of Mr. Powers' pastorate built the brick church on the side of the academy 



106 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

and court house, which was later sold, and is now the Congregational 
house of worship. 

The attitude of Mr. Powers and his church towards the Methodists is 
found in the dismissal of a member, who had asked for a letter or recom- 
mendation to that growing denomination: 

Whereas, Mary Olmstead, who has been for several years a professed sister in this 
church, has for some time past gone out from us to join with the Methodists in belief and 
practice, which system both doctrinal and practical we consider unscriptural and dan- 
gerous to the prosperity of Zion; and, whereas, the said Mary Olmstead has made 
known her wish and determination to adhere to her present belief and practice against 
repeated endeavors to reclaim her from the error of her way, — Resolved, therefore, that 
the church considers the said Mary Olmstead just as she considers herself, no more of 
us. John 1st Epis., 2 : 19. Voted, by the church that this resolve be communicated 
to the said Mary Olmstead by the moderater as their final decision. Church in session 
May 15, 1823. 

Grant Powers, Moderator of the Church. 

The church in session today would hardly so treat a request for a letter 
of dismission to the Methodist Church, either in form or spirit. The 
Rev. Bryan Morse, a Methodist local preacher, and Mr. Powers had 
frequent wordy combats. Both were members of the church militant, 
as both now doubtless hold fellowship in the church triumphant. As 
the Methodists increased in numbers and social position, as they had 
erected, though had not paid for their church next the court house and 
academy, some of the members of Mr. Powers' church began to ques- 
tion whether he were not just a little too strong in his statements of 
Calvinistic doctrine. 

In the autumn of 1824 occurred an incident which tended to increase 
the disaffection in the community towards Mr. Powers. At a Methodist 
camp meeting held in Warren, the conversion of one Narcissa Griffin was 
reported to be accompanied by a spiritual enhancement, in which it 
was affirmed that her face shone like that of an angel and that her skin 
became preternaturally smooth. An anonymous communication appeared 
in the Intelligence in September in which the writer affirmed that he 
believed every word of the story, and that he was particularly convinced 
that the skin of the young woman was perfectly smooth, for he "had 
felt a hundred of them and they all felt exactly so — smooth as bone." 
The phrase became a byword, "Smooth as a bone" was on everybody's 
tongue. An investigation was started to determine the authorship of the 
communication, which was generally denounced as indecent if not sacri- 
legious. So warm did the search for the author become that in the end 
Mr. Powers at a Sunday service confessed himself the author, expressing 
regrets, but at the same time excused himself, by quoting the example of the 
prophet Elijah who made use of irony and satire to confound the priests 
of Baal. In a communication to the Intelligence he also acknowledged 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 107 

himself the author of the much discussed Griffin communication, and 
said: "However numerous and great were the considerations which 
induced me to notice the camp meeting story in so ludicrous and ironical 
sense as I did, I have upon reflection seen and realized it to be wrong — 
all wrong — and deeply regret the tendency of it." Mr. Powers, however, 
never recovered the favor he lost by this event, and this loss combined 
with a growing dissatisfaction with unswerving dogmatism of his pulpit 
utterances led to his resignation early in 1829. 

He was the last pastor to occupy the old Ladd Street Meeting House. 
An indebtedness on the brick church at the Corner which the Methodists 
had built in 1827, and which proved too heavy for the young society to 
meet, gave the Congregationalists an opportunity to purchase a house 
already built and greatly simplified the problem of removing the church 
home from Ladd Street to the Corner. The Ladd Street people were 
now reconciled to the change by the continuance for some years of one 
meeting each Sunday at the old church. This was fashioned after the 
style of the meeting houses of those days, with square pews, a barrell- 
shaped pulpit, perched high and over it the heavy sounding board, hung 
by what seemed all too slender an iron rod. The deacons' seats of honor 
were in front of the pulpit and facing the congregation. The broad aisle 
ran straight from them to the front door. Beside the front door on 
the west side there was another entrance at the south under the tower 
from which rose a stairway to the gallery which extended around three 
sides of the house, the gallery also containing the old fashioned square 
pews. (See cut of the interior.) The accompanying cut made from a 
plan of the interior of the church, now in the possession of Miss Jennie 
Westgate with the names of the original pew owners with prices paid 
for pews enables the reader to build again in imagination the interior of 
this historic old structure, and to people it once more with its old-time 
congregation. The names of the pew owners are the substantial ones of 
Haverhill history: Col. Charles Johnston, Col. Joseph Hutchins, Gen. 
John Montgomery, Judge James, Woodward, Michael Johnston, Samuel 
Ladd, Joshua Young, Judge Ezekiel Ladd, Avery Sanders, Capt. Jonathan 
Ring, Josiah Elkins, Capt. Joseph Pearson, Dr. Isaac Moore, John Page, 
Dr. Martin Phelps, Harris Sawyer, Daniel Stamford, Gen. Moses Dow, 
Samuel Brooks, James Burenton, Ezekiel Ladd, Moody Bedel, Joseph 
Noyes, Dr. Scott J. Ward, Moses Elkins, James Ladd, James Mitchell, 
Jonathan Soper, and Ross Coon. 

And then the bell, the charming autobiography of which was read in 
1901 at its centennial by Miss Grace Woodward, the first bell to hang 
from a belfry in the Coos county, "the sweetest toned bell ever heard, 
which old Mr. Cross made to swing in the steeple with a strongly religious 
expression that no other bell ever had, nor could any other but the same 



108 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

old man draw from that one." The people at the Corner wanted the 
bell for the new church home, but all attempts to secure it, strenuous 
attempts some of them, were defeated, and the bell hangs in the belfry of 
the Ladd Street school house, souvenir and memento of the old meeting 
house which stood for nearly three score years on the same site, its demoli- 
tion taking place in 1849. 

The church has been fortunate in its pastors. Rev. Henry Wood was 
the first after the occupation of the church at the Corner. A native of 
Loudon, graduate of Dartmouth in 1822, valedictorian of his class, 
contemporary and friend of Choate and Marsh at Hanover, theologically 
trained at Princeton, professor in Hampton-Sidney College, Virginia, 
pastor for a brief period in Goffstown. Scholarly, polished, refined in 
taste, yet because of his birth and early associations in heart-touch with 
the humblest and lowliest, he was eminently fitted for the pastorate 
of the new church, new because of environment. (See General Wood.) 
The Corner at this time — county seat, stage centre, with its half dozen 
taverns, its eighty-one dwellings, its twenty-seven shops and stores, its 
bank, academy, newspaper, its new church, its manufacturing establish- 
ments at the Brook — was the most notable village in the north country, 
and the Congregational church one of the strongest and most influential 
in the state. 

On the occasion of the celebration of the one hundredth anniversary 
of the church Mr. J. H. Pearson of Chicago, born in Haverhill, 1820, 
gave a pen picture of the congregation of his boyhood and early manhood 
which in part was as follows: 

As I look back over the years, I see the people as they took their places in church. 
The seats have been turned about since I attended here. The pews faced the minister 
and the singers and also the entrance of the church so that every one in their seats could 
see the people come into church. I used to think that a very nice arrangement, for we 
could see every one and how they looked when they entered. I will follow the pews and 
their occupants as I remember them. I will commence with the wall pews at the south- 
west corner of the church as it used to be. Of course I cannot recall all. There was 
Miss Eliza Cross, who used to sit in one of the cross pews in the corner. She was active 
in all Christian work, especially interested and effective in the Sunday school. She was 
an earnest advocate of the anti-slavery movement that was discussed in Ladd Street from 
as far back as 1840 on. Near her were Jonathan and William Watson who lived in the 
northern part of the town. They were not members of the church, but men who com- 
manded the respect of the community. The Woods family and Mrs. Jewett occupied 
the same pew. The Johnston family occupied, if I remember rightly, two pews. They 
were an old substantial family taking an honorable place among their neighbors. John 
Smith, who was once pastor, and his son, Charles R. Smith, had seats near and were 
regular attendants. Next came the family of Hon. Joseph Bell. He was a man of fine 
appearance, excellent business ability, leading lawyer, and exercised a wide influence 
through all northern New Hampshire. I can see him still as he used to walk into church 
in his Sunday suit, with ruffled shirt bosom, followed by his fine looking wife and children. 
He was not a member of the church, but attended pretty regularly and paid the most 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 109 

pew rent to the church. There was John Osgood and his family on that side. He was 
known throughout the town as honest John Osgood. He and his family were all mem- 
bers — a very fine family and good citizens. 

The Towle family and Dr. Morgan sat side by side. Both were prominent in the 
community. William Burton and his family sat on this side the church — a large family 
regular in attendance, and interested in all the life of the church. Henry Towle (the 
jeweller) was also on that side the house. He was always in church and came early. 
John L. Rix and his family were usually in church, though not as early as some others. 
He was not a church member, but his wife was. He took an interest in church affairs, 
and if all did not go right, he generally had something to say about it. Next that I 
remember were Nathan B. Felton and wife and John R. Reding and wife. They took a 
back seat. I remember it was a little higher than the other pews, so that they 
could overlook the whole congregation. They were both prominent people and good 
citizens. 

Lyman Burk and family, Arthur Carleton and family, Jacob Bell and family and 
James Bell and family occupied body pews. The two Bell families were the more 
prominent and their appearance corresponding. I can well remember John L. Bunce 
as he used to come to chinch. He was a tall fine looking man, as straight as a candle 
and with a military step that suited him well. He was banker and leading man in town. 
Then I can see Deacon Henry Barstow and his tall wife. He was rather short and a 
little lame. He used to lead the singing in the prayer meeting. Near these were James 
Atherton and family and Dr. Spalding and family. Deacon Chester Farnum had a 
front pew in the next row of seats. He lived farthest away from church, and yet you 
would always find him and his family in their seats before any others. 

Benjamin Merrill and family came next. He had a large family and I think they 
occupied two pews. Everybody in town knew Capt. "Ben" Merrill. He was the king 
merchant in the village, a bright, active man and had a bright, active family. Deacon 
A. K. Merrill — eldest son of Benjamin — was made deacon when quite young and remained 
deacon till his death. I recall the name of Russell Kimball, prominent in the church and 
society. He was for many years the leading merchant in the village, and his note was as 
good as that of any man in town, if you could get it, but his notes never floated 
round on the market. John Nelson and family came next. He had one of the good old 
fashioned families that filled two pews when all were present. He was a lawyer of ability 
and also a successful business man. 

Among the leading families that came from Ladd Street, I recall the Ladds and Her- 
berts. Somewhere in the body pews were John A. Page and his wife. Mr. Page was 
cashier of the Grafton bank for a number of years after Mr. Bunce left. Next to John A. 
Page, as I remember, came Dr. Ezra Bartlett and family. I can still see the venerable 
doctor with ruffled shirt bosom and cane coming into the aisle at the head of the family, 
his portly wife following him, and the large family following in their order, according to 
age. I must not forget to mention Peabody Webster. "Pee" Webster, we used to call 
him. He was a leading man in this church and society as long as he lived. Dr. Edmund 
Carleton sat behind Dr. Bartlett. He and his family were remarkable people. He was 
deacon for many years until his death. I recall distinctly Dr. Carleton, as he distributed 
the bread and wine at communion. Benjamin Swan and family were next behind 
Charles Carleton. On the east side the church Joshua Woodward and family and Caleb 
Hunt and family occupied two pews side by side. Somewhere near the Hunts and 
Woodwards were Gen. Poole and his family. Next to these came David Sloan and 
family. "Squire" Sloan, as he was called, was somewhat peculiar. He was, however, 
a good lawyer and with his family was highly respected. I next recall Samuel Page with 
a well filled pew of children on the east side of the church. He was a good Christian man, 



110 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 



an honored citizen, a wise counsellor in all secular and religious matters. Hosea S. Baker 
and family came next. He was a pew holder and attended this church until about 1845, 
when he was induced to take charge of the Methodist Sunday School and afterwards 
attended that church. Then came Moses St. Clair and family. "Major" St. Clair he 
was usually called. One of his sons, George St. Clair, became an active worker in this 
church and also in the church in Chicago, where he later lived and died. The next pew 
was my father's, and next to it sat Moses Dow and family. After his death Voramus 
Keith married his widow and they were regular attendants. Then came the pew of 
Jonathan S. Nichols and family, and the two pews occupied by Michael Carleton and 
his large family. 

I must speak of the members of the choir. The leader was Timothy K. Blaisdell who 
was conductor for many years, from about 1830 to 1845. He was a merchant, a good 
citizen, had a fine family, and his reputation as choir leader was excelled by none in the 
state. Sarah Merrill, or perhaps one of the other Merrill girls — sister of Deacon Merrill 
— played the organ. Miss Eleanor Towle, was the leading soprano. The rest of the 
choir came largely from the Merrill and Barstow families, though there were Samuel 
Ladd, Henry Towle, Nelson Chandler, James Woodward, Jona. S. Nichols, Ellen 
McClary (Mrs. Reding) two of James Bell's daughters, Calista and Orpha, and Luella 
Bell (Mrs. D. F. Merrill). I think it is true this church had the best singing of any 
church in this part of the county. 

This indeed was a notable congregation. Those were the days when the 
leading men of the town who were not church members attended church 
and gave a hearty support to religious institutions. The glory of the 
Corner had not departed, and no small factor of this glory was to be 
found in the influence of the First Congregational church. The list 
of pastors is a notable one, scholarly, able godly men. There have been, 
including the present stated supply, nineteen with terms of service as fol- 
lows: 



Ethan Smith 
John Smith 
Grant Powers 
Henry Wood 
Joseph Gibbs 
Archibald Fleming 
Samuel Delano 
Moses C. Searle 
Edward H. Greeley 
John D. Emerson 
Edward H. Greeley 

J. Q. Bittinger 
Eugene C. Stoddard 
Sidney K. Perkins 
Charles L. Skinner 
Maurice J. Duncklee 
John Snow 
J. Harold Gould 
Almon T. Boland 



Ordained Jan. 25, 1792 Dismissed June 23, 1799 

Ordained Dec. 23, 1802 Dismissed Jan. 14, 1807 

Ordained Jan. 4, 1815 Dismissed Apr. 28, 1829 

Installed Dec. 14, 1831 Dismissed Mar. 3, 1835 

Ordained June 16, 1835 Died Apr. 11, 1837 

Installed June 27, 1838 Dismissed Sept. 23, 1841 

Installed Feb. 16, 1842 Dismissed Jan. 14, 1847 

Stated supply May 1, 1847 Closed May 1, 1849 

Ordained Nov. 7, 1849 Dismissed Jan. 6, 1858 

Ordained Oct. 1, 1858 Dismissed Nov. 19, 1867 

Supply Aug. 1, 1868 

Installed Nov. 25, 1869 Dismissed July 2, 1874 

Installed July 2, 1874 Dismissed Oct. 12, 1886 

Ordained Oct. 22, 1886 Dismissed Mar. 4, 1891 

Stated supply May 17, 1891 Closed July 23, 1893 

Stated supply Nov. 1, 1893 Closed Oct. 31, 1904 

Stated supply July 1, 1905 Closed July 1, 1908 

Stated supply Dec. 1,1908 Closed Oct. 21, 1911 

Stated supply Apr. 14, 1912 Closed July 31, 1915 

Stated supply Apr. 1, 1916 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 



111 



Charles Johnston 


Apr. 


12, 


1792 


Dr. Martin Phelps 


Apr. 


12, 


1792 


John Richards 2d 


Mar. 


29, 


1793 


Samuel Gould 


Oct. 


3, 


1804 


Stephen Morse 


June 20, 


1813 


Charles Farman 


June 


8, 


1815 


Dr. Edmund Carleton 


June 


8, 


1815 


John Punchard 


July 


11, 


1818 


Henry Barstow 


Jan. 


8, 


1829 


Abel K. Merrill 


Jan. 


6, 


1839 


John V. Beane 


May 


5, 


1S48 


Grove S. Stevens 


Oct. 


9, 


1S57 


Peabody W. Kimball 


Oct. 


9, 


1875 


William H. Page 


Jan. 


2, 


1881 


William 0. Burbank 


Jan. 


1, 


1892 


George H. Stevens 


Dec. 


30, 


1902 


Charles P. Page 


Aug. 


11, 


1911 



The church has also been fortunate in its lay officials. Since 1792 
seventeen men have filled the office of deacon, the same number as have 
filled the pastorate. Their terms of service have been as follows: 

Died Mar. 4, 1813 

Removed and deceased 

Dismissed to Piermont 

Dismissed Aug. 13, 1815 

Dismissed to North Haverhill, 1815 

Died Dec. 29, 1847 

Died Nov. 2, 1838 

Resigned March, 1819 

Dismissed Apr. 2, 1841 

Died Nov. 26, 1878 

Dismissed to Worcester, Jan. 21, 1858 

Died Dec. 20, 1905 

Died July 5, 1916 

Died Aug. 2, 1906 

Removed to California 

Died Nov. 19, 1905 

This First Church has had a notable history. It has numbered among 
its members many strong men. A score have been sent out into the 
Christian ministry. It has strengthened with its best brain and heart, 
trained in its Sunday school, and by its pulpit teachings scores of other 
churches in the great centres of population and industry. It has stood 
ever for godly living and sound doctrine; of the eleven pastors installed, 
no less than seven were ordained at the time of their installation. Its 
devout women have been not a few, of whom Hannah Pearson, daughter 
of Col. Charles Johnston, founder of the Sunday school of the church; 
Mrs. Joseph Ladd, living example of unselfish piety, and Mrs. Mary 
P. Webster, leader in good works and helpfulness for the suffering, the 
outcast and the depraved, were types. 

The problems which it faces at the present time are those which con- 
front not Congregational churches alone, but those of other denomina- 
tions, as well, throughout rural New Hampshire. The glory and power 
of "the standing order" has departed, and denominational jealousy and 
rivalry have brought denominational weakness, the weakness, indeed, of 
all church authority. The minister is no longer held in awe, and in many 
cases quiet contempt has taken the place of respect. He is a man and 
citizen nothing more. He is no longer hedged about by the dignity of 
position. Growing looseness of Sabbath observance has resulted in 
decreasing attendance on church services. In many churches free seats 
have displaced the family pew, and the family known for regular church 
attendance as a family has become the rare exception rather than the 
rule as formerly. The younger generation has listened to the call of 



112 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

the city, and the population of the towns, except where manufacturing 
industries flourish, has steadily declined. In the case of the village at 
the Corner, the home of the historic First Church, the railroad came and 
left it one side, fire did its devastating work, courts and county offices 
were removed to another section of the town, manufacturing industries — 
fulling mill, carding mill, tanneries, paper-mill, cabinet making, etc. — 
were abandoned, and the church has been a partaker in the life and 
fortunes of the community. Its past, however, is secure, and its future is 
by no means hopeless. The church property is valued at $7,000, and 
church and society have invested funds amounting to $5,400. 

The Congregational Church in the North Parish of Haverhill was 
organized in 1815. It had been voted in 1788 to divide the town into 
two parishes, but this vote was not at once carried into execution, and 
later it was rescinded. There was disagreement between the two sections 
and several attempts had been made to settle it. In 1815, however, the 
town was divided into two parishes. A meeting of the male members 
of the Haverhill and Bath churches who resided in this newly created 
North Parish was held June 10, 1815. The meeting was opened with 
prayer by Dea. Stephen Morse, who had been chosen moderator and 
it was unanimously voted to form a North Parish Congregational Church. 
Those present were Dea. Stephen Morse, John Carr, Daniel Carr, 
Jona. Whitman, Moses Campbell, John Punchard, John Kimball, Joseph 
Bullock, John Morse, Jahleel Willis, Andrew S. Crocker, Henry Hancock 
and Moses N. Morse. John Kimball was elected clerk. 

The church was duly organized June 15, the Rev. Samuel Goddard 
being moderator, with the Rev. David Sutherland of Bath assisting in 
the organization. Stephen Morse and John Punchard were elected 
deacons. Articles of faith and covenant were adopted. The Covenant 
was a model of simplicity, conciseness and orthodoxy: 

We do avouch the Lord Jehovah Father, Son and Holy Ghost to be our God: We 
profess with our mouths and believe in our hearts in the Lord Jesus Christ, accept him 
as our only Saviour in his mediatorial character as prophet to instruct, Priest to atone 
and King to reign in and over us — and do under these impressions of Divine Grace, 
renounce the world, the flesh and the devil. — We engage to give ourselves and ours to 
God through Jesus Christ in an everlasting covenant. We engage to make the Word of 
God according to the plain import of it the rule of our conduct in all things : promising 
through grace and strength derived from Jesus Christ unquestioning obedience to all 
his commands, approving that only in ourselves and others which Gods Word approves : 
and condemning that which Gods Word condemns. We engage to promote the public 
worship of God by encouraging and supporting according to our ability the administra- 
tion of word ordinances and institutions of the Gospel and by a faithful attendance on 
the same. We engage to maintain the worship of God in our families and bear testimony 
against the neglect of the same which we believe to be displeasing to the Lord. And in 
a word, through the grace of God we engage that our walk and conversation shall in all 
things be agreeable to the Gospel of Jesus Christ, to whom with the Father and Holy 
Spirit be glory and blessing both now and forever. Amen. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 113 

It is a tradition that this covenant -was drawn up by the Rev. David 
Sutherland as well as the articles of faith which were adopted. The roll 
of membership seems to have been quite carefully kept. Fifty-seven 
names are appended to the covenant including the thirteen who met 
June 10, 1815, for the purpose of forming the church. This was not a 
large membership but the North Parish was a farming community, and 
compared with the South Parish was sparsely settled. The names of 
the thirteen have already been given. The others were: Daniel 
Rowell, Joseph Emerson, Nathan Heath, Daniel Carr, Sr., Nathan Avery, 
Moses Mulliken, Moses Mulliken, Jr., Edward B. Crocker, Gorham 
Kezer, Hiram Carr, D. C. Kimball, Augustus Robinson, Elisha Hibbard, 
Daniel Carr, Jr., E. Swift, Sarah Morse, Hannah Carr, Sally Punchard, 
Mehitable Kimball, Sarah Bullock, Eunice Morse, Sally Willis, Shua 
Crocker, Hannah Morse, Betsey Emerson, Elizabeth Carr, Elizabeth 
Bruce, Mary Chase, Mary Goodridge, Isabella Johnson, Polly Johnson, 
Sally Chase, Susanna Howard, Isabella Sanborn, Clarissa Sanborn, 
Jedediah Kimball, Betsey Crocker, Polly Gibson, Betsey Crocker, sen., 
Anna Mulliken, Matilda Carr, Sally Kimball, Mrs. Porter, H. R. Leland. 
No less than twenty-eight of these fifty-seven members received letters 
of dismission to other churches. Dea. John Kimball and a few others 
uniting with the South Parish Church, while the others who did not 
remove from town cast in their lots with the Baptists and Methodists. 

The records of the church aside from the membership roll are meagre. 
It does not appear that for several years there was any regular pastor. 
At first, preaching was doubtless provided by the New Hampshire Mis- 
sionary Society. At a church meeting September 26, 1816, the thanks 
of the church were voted to this Society "for the aid they have extended 
to this church," and further aid was solicited. Some entries in the book 
of the treasurer Dea. John Kimball are of value as indicating the state 
of affairs in the early days of the church: April 7, 1816, paid Rev. 
Samuel Goddard for preaching, S8; December 28, 1817, paid Mr. Goddard 
$8.67; March 22, 1818, received from N. H. Missionary Society, S18.10; 
December 17, 1828, Rev. Silas McKean preached, communion; January 
17, 1819, communion, Rev. Mr. Goddard preached; June 13, 1819, 
communion by Rev. David Sutherland; May 28, 1820, communion by 
Rev. Jonathan Hovey; June 18, 1821, communion by Rev. David 
Smith; July 14, 1822, communion by Rev. David Sutherland; July 17, 
1825, communion by Rev. Sylvester Dana; October 21, 1827, communion 
by Rev. Mr. Porter. 

In the published proceedings of the Convention of Congregational 
Churches in New Hampshire, the church so far as reported was without 
a pastor until 1828, when the name of Rev. Ambrose Porter appears as 
pastor with a total membership of 41. This was increased to 51 in 1830, 



114 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

when the name of Rev. John Dalton appears as pastor. It does not 
appear that he was installed, and the convention reports are silent as to 
the length of his pastorate. At a church meeting May 3, 1843, he was 
elected moderator with John Carr clerk, and it is not improbable that 
he sustained some kind of pastoral relation to the church during the 
intervening years. The largest membership reported was in 1830, 
after which date there was a gradual decrease. 

The Rev. Samuel Delano was dismissed from the pastorate of the 
First or South Parish Church January 14, 1847. Bettinger says of him: 
" He was a man of imperious will, much vigor of mind and quite eccentric. 
Being remonstrated with by one of the sisters of the church on this 
account he replied, in characteristic style: 'I must be Sam Delano or 
nobody.' He was a graduate of Dartmouth College in 1823, and a 
trustee of that institution for thirty-two years." The North Parish 
records of May 16, 1747, contain this minute: "The good hand of 
God should be acknowledged as it has come to pass most clearly by his 
overruling providence that Rev. Samuel Delano, late of Haverhill South 
Parish should come among us to labor in the gospel ministry. And 
with a deep sense of the mercy of God we would here record the fact 
that on the 16th of May, it being the third Sabbath, the above named 
Samuel Delano commenced his labors in this North Parish, being engaged 
for one year." 

The membership at this time was reported as 18. This acting pastorate 
continued for upwards of four years. Such records as were kept are in 
the handwriting of Mr. Delano who signed himself as acting pastor, and 
the last of these entries is under date of September 7, 1851. During the 
pastorate of Mr. Delano his field of labor was extended so that many 
of the church services were held in the Union Meeting House at the 
Centre and in the Baptist Meeting House at North Haverhill. He 
was indeed the minister of the geographical North Parish. Such entries 
as the following are more or less frequent: "May 6, 1849, ordinance of 
the Lord's Supper at the Union House. Mr. & Mrs. Luther Warren 
presented their child for Baptism." "July 1, 1849, ordinance of the 
Lord's Supper at the Baptist Meeting House where we hold meetings all 
the time." Deacons John Punchard, and John Kimball had removed 
their membership to the South Parish. Dea. John Carr was enfeebled 
by age and at a regular church meeting held at the schoolhouse on 
Brierhill, Rev. Samuel Delano was elected clerk, and Elisha Swift and 
Peiiey Ayer were elected deacons. These were the last two elected. 
In 1851 but sixteen members were reported, and Mr. Delano soon after 
closed his labors and went to Hartland, Vt. 

The name of the church does not appear in the convention report after 
1854, when the pastorate is reported vacant, and the membership as 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 115 

sixteen. The last entry in the book of church records is under date 
of April 5, 1855: "A meeting of the church was held at the schoolhouse, 
Brierhill, Rev. Mr. Strong of the Bath Church was moderator. Dea. 
Perley Aver and wife and daughter, Laura W. Ayer, were given letters 
of dismission to the South Parish Church. Another member was 
excommunicated on a charge of disorderly conduct. 

The church building at Horse Meadow soon after this passed into the 
hands of Lafayette Morse, who used it as a barn until it was torn down. 
The land is now a part of the Horse Meadow Cemetery, lying next to 
the River road. 

Haverhill Methodism 

The peculiar polity of the Methodist Episcopal Church renders it a 
difficult task to determine just when there was any organized society of 
this denomination in Haverhill. The early Methodist preachers were 
veritable itinerants. They preached where and when there was oppor- 
tunity. They formed classes, and appointed class leaders; these classes 
grew into societies, which were united in circuits, which became com- 
ponent parts of a Conference, over which a bishop of the denomina- 
tion exercised jurisdiction and assigned his preachers to the charge of 
societies and circuits as in his godly judgment he deemed best. Pre- 
vious to the year 1800 and a little later such Methodist Episcopal classes 
and societies as there were in New England were a part of the New York 
Conference. Laban Clark was born in Haverhill July 19, 1778, but his 
family soon after removed to Bradford, Vt. At about the age of twenty 
he was converted at a meeting held in the home of Mrs. Peckett, who 
had formerly been a member of the family of John Wesley. In 1799 he 
went with a local preacher, John Langdon, to Landaff, and under their 
joint labors a Methodist class was formed, and at the session of the New 
York Conference of 1800, Landaff was the name given to a circuit in 
the New London, Conn., district, and to this circuit comprising all of 
New Hampshire north of Concord, Elijah R. Sabin was assigned as 
preacher. Laban Clark, a native of Haverhill, antedated Sabin, as an 
apostle of what was then the "new faith" or "new departure" in north- 
ern New Hampshire. His subsequent career was a notable one. He 
became prominent as a minister, holding the leading pastorates of his 
denomination in New York and Connecticut, was several years presiding 
elder, the leading factor in founding Wesleyan University at Middletown, 
Conn., purchasing the property it occupied, and serving for several years 
as its financial agent and from 1831 till 1868, as president of its board of 
trustees. He died in Middletown, November 28, 1869. 

Just when Methodism gained a foothold in Haverhill does not appear. 
The name of the town does not appear in any list of conference circuits 



116 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

or stations until 1826, but there is no doubt that the itinerants had 
preached in various parts of the town, and had formed classes of converts 
several years earlier. Haverhill was a part of the Landaff circuit, con- 
stantly diminishing in territory, as it was divided and subdivided from 
time to time until 1826, when Haverhill and Orford appear in the minutes 
of the New England Conference, Danville district, as a station or circuit 
with Ebenezer Ireson and Nathan Howe as preachers. The membership 
reported was 261. The Landaff circuit was a part of the New York 
Conference until 1804, when it became a part of the New England Con- 
ference. The New Hampshire and Vermont Conference was set off from 
the New England in 1829, and this conference was divided in 1832, and 
the present New Hampshire Conference was established. Among the 
famous preachers of old Landaff circuit prior to 1826, who probably 
preached in Haverhill as opportunity offered while travelling the circuit 
may be mentioned Martin Ruter, Thomas Branch, Joel Worth, Asa Kent, 
Isaac Pease, Joseph Peck, John W. Hardy, Jacob Sanborn, John Lord, 
Lewis Bates, Samuel Morris, Moses Fifield, Abraham D. Merrill, Samuel 
Kelly, Dan Young, Charles Baker and George Storrs. 

The date of the organization of the first class in Haverhill Corner is 
not definitely known, but was probably in 1817 or 1818 when Jacob San- 
born, Lewis Bates and Samuel Norris were the preachers on the Landaff 
circuit. From 1826 for a period of thirty years, the church at Haverhill 
corner was joined with other churches or societies forming a circuit, usually 
with more than one preacher in charge. Even when the name Haverhill 
appears in the official minutes alone, the naming of more than one preacher 
in charge indicates the existence of a circuit covering the entire town 
and the adjoining towns of Piermont and Benton. 

The following are the names of the preachers from 1826 till the present 
time: 

1826. Haverhill and Orford — Ebenezer Ireson, Nathan Howe. 

1827. Haverhill — Ebenezer Ireson, Moses Merrill. 

1828. Haverhill— E. Wells, John J. Bliss. 

1829. Haverhill— Schuyler Chamberlain. 

1830. Haverhill and Orford— Caleb Dustin, William Peck. 

1831. Haverhill and Orford — Caleb Dustin, Charles R. Harding. James W. Morey. 

1832. Haverhill and Orford — N. W. Aspinwall, C. R. Harding, Samuel A. Cushing. 

1833. Haverhill— C. Lamb, D. I. Robinson. 

1834. Haverhill — D. I. Robinson, C. Granger. 

1835. Haverhill— M. G. Cass, R. Dearborn. 

1836. Haverhill— J. Gould, L. D. Blodgett. 

1837. Haverhill— Silas Quimby, J. Gould. 

1838. Haverhill and East Haverhill — S. Quimby, J. Dow. 

1839. Haverhill and East Haverhill— E. B. Fletcher, J. W. Johnson. 

1840. Haverhill— D. Wilcox, E. B. Morgan. 

1841. Haverhill and East Haverhill — Geo. W. Stearns, Chester W. Lovings, Elisha 

Brown. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 117 

1842. Haverhill and East Haverhill — Elisha Adams, J. W. Wheeler, T. B. Bingham. 

1843. Haverhill— Elisha Adams, J. W. Wheeler, T. P. Brigham. 

1844. Haverhill and East Haverhill— R. H. Spaulding, D. Lee, H. H. Hartwell. 

Until 1845, North Haverhill had been included in the circuit of which 
Haverhill was the centre. With this year a change in the method of 
appointing Methodist preachers in Haverhill took place. A class had 
been organized as early as 1820 at North Haverhill, and one as early as 
1822 at East Haverhill. A great religious revival began at a camp meet- 
ing held in Landaff in 1842, which spread over the entire old Landaff 
circuit. There were large additions to the membership of the societies 
in North Haverhill and East Haverhill as well as in Haverhill. The 
North Haverhill Methodists had been permitted to hold their meetings 
for some time in the North Parish Congregational Meeting House at 
Horse Meadow; but as a result of this revival they erected a house of 
worship as their own in 1843, on the site of the present Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. A class had been organized at East Haverhill in 1822- 
23, and a society was incorporated under the state law in 1833, with 
Henry Noyes, Moses Mead, Caleb Morse and Roswell Elliott as incor- 
porators, and a church edifice was erected in 1834. From 1845 to the 
present time the assignment of Methodist preachers to the different Haver- 
hill churches has been the following : 

1845. Haverhill— William Hines; East Haverhill— G. W. H. Clark; North Haverhill— 

H. H. Hartwell. 

1846. Haverhill, Piermont and Orford — William Hines, George S. Dearborn; East 

Haverhill — C. L. McCurdy; North Haverhill — Newell Culver. 

1847. Haverhill and Piermont — Lewis Howard; East Haverhill and North Haverhill — 

Benjamin R. Hoyt. 

1848. Haverhill Corner Mission and North Haverhill — Kimball Hadley; East Haver- 

hill and Benton — George W. Bryant. 

1849. Haverhill — no regular pastor; North Haverhill and East Haverhill — Kimball 

Hadley. 

1850. Haverhill and North Haverhill — Charles H. Lovejoy; East Haverhill and 

Benton — no regular pastor. 

1851. Haverhill and Piermont — no regular pastor; East Haverhill — C. H. Lovejoy; 

North Haverhill, Swiftwater and Benton — D. W. Barber. 

1852. Haverhill, North Haverhill and Piermont — R. Newhall; East Haverhill — John 

M. Blake. 

1853. Haverhill, East Haverhill and Piermont — Richard Newhall; North Haverhill — 

Oloff H. Call. 

1854. Haverhill, East Haverhill and Piermont — R. Newhall, A. C. Dustin; North 

Haverhill — Nelson Martin. 

1855. Haverhill, North Haverhill and Piermont — Ashley C. Dutton; East Haverhill — 

O. W. Watkins. 

1856. Haverhill, North Haverhill and Piermont — A. C. Dutton; East Haverhill — 

O. W. Watkins. 

1857. Haverhill — no regular pastor; East Haverhill — no regular pastor; North 

Haverhill — C. U. Dunning. 



118 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

1S58. Haverhill— C. U. Dunning; North Haverhill— A. K. Howard; East Haverhill— 
no regular pastor. 

1859. Haverhill— C. U. Dunning; North Haverhill— A. K. Howard; East Haverhill— 

no regular pastor. 

1860. Haverhill — George C. Thomas; North Haverhill — no regular pastor; East 

Haverhill — no regular pastor. 

1861. Haverhill — Charles H. Chase; North Haverhill — Silas Quimby; East Haverhill 

— C. F. Bailey. 

1862. Haverhill and East Haverhill — C. H. Chase; North Haverhill — Geo. S. Noyes. 

1863. Haverhill, East Haverhill and Piermont — C. H. Chase; North Haverhill — 

Geo. S. Noyes. 

1S64. Haverhill — Richard Harcourt; East Haverhill — Hugh Montgomery; North 
Haverhill — L. W. Prescott. 

1865. Haverhill — J. Mowry Bean; East Haverhill — Hugh Montgomery; North 

Haverhill — L. W. Prescott. 

1866. Haverhill — J. Mowry Bean; East Haverhill — Hugh Montgomery; North 

Haverhill— S. P. Heath. 

1867. Haverhill— J. M. Bean; East Haverhill— A. B. Russell; North Haverhill— 

Simeon P. Heath. 

1868. Haverhill — John Gowan; East Haverhill — A. B. Russell; North Haverhill — 

H. A. Matteson. 

1869. Haverhill— H. S. Ward; East Haverhill— A. B. Russell; North Haverhill— 

H. A. Matteson. 

1870. Haverhill — H. Chandler; East Haverhill — no regular pastor; North Haverhill — 

H. A. Matteson. 

1871. Haverhill — Josiah Hooper; East Haverhill — no regular pastor; North Haverhill 

— G. W. Roland. 

1872. Haverhill — J. Hooper; East Haverhill — A. W. Brown; North Haverhill — John 

Currier. 

1873. Haverhill — J. Hooper; East Haverhill — A. W. Brown; North Haverhill — John 

Currier. 

1874. Haverhill — Joseph Hayes; East Haverhill — I. J. Tibbetts; North Haverhill — 

John Currier. 

1875. Haverhill— J. T. Davis; East Haverhill— I. J. Tibbetts; North Haverhill— J. 

Hayes. 

1876. Haverhill — J. T. Davis; East Haverhill — no regular pastor; North Haverhill, 

J. Hayes. 
1S77. Haverhill— T. Windsor; C. W. Dockrill; North Haverhill— J. H. Knott. 

1878. Haverhill and Piermont— G. N. Bryant; East Haverhill— C. W. Dockrill; 

North Haverhill— J. H. Knott, 

1879. Haverhill and Piermont— G. N. Bryant; East Haverhill— L. W. Prescott; North 

Haverhill— I. J. Tibbetts. 

1880. Haverhill — G. N. Bryant; East Haverhill — no regular pastor; North Haverhill 

— James Cairns. 

1881. Haverhill — C. E. Rogers; East Haverhill — no regular pastor; North Haverhill 

— James Cairns. 

1882. Haverhill and East Haverhill— C. E. Rogers; North Haverhill— S. P. Heath. 

1883. Haverhill— W. Ramsden; East Haverhill— C. E. Rogers; North Haverhill 

— J. H. Brown. 

1884. Haverhill— W. Ramsden; East Haverhill— C. E. Rogers; North Haverhill — 

J. H. Brown. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 119 

18S5. Haverhill— J. H. Trow; East Haverhill— W. A. Loyne; North Haverhill— 
J. H. Brown; Woodsville — Albert Twichell. 

1886. Haverhill— J. H. Trow; East Haverhill— W. A. Loyne; North Haverhill— 

J. H. Hillman; Woodsville— A. Twichell. 

1887. Haverhill— J. H. Trow; East Haverhill— W. A. Loyne; North Haverhill— 

J. H. Hillman; Woodsville— Albert Twichell. 

1888. Haverhill— G. W. Buzzell; East Haverhill— J. Mowry Bean; North Haverhill 

— M. T. Cilley; Woodsville — James Cairns. 

1889. Haverhill— G. W. Buzzell; East Haverhill— H. E. Allen; North Haverhill— 

J. P. Frye; Woodsville — C. J. Fowler. 

1890. Haverhill— G. W. Buzzell; East Haverhill— H. E. Allen; North Haverhill— 

J. P. Frye; Woodsville— C. J. Fowler. 

1891. Haverhill and Piermont — E. .C Langford; East Haverhill — Mellen Howard; 

North Haverhill — E. R. Perkins; Woodsville — C. M. Howard. 

1892. Haverhill and Piermont— E. C. Langford; East Haverhill— G. A. McLucas; 

Woodsville— C. M. Howard; North Haverhill— E. R. Perkins. 

1893. Haverhill and Piermont — E. C. Langford; East Haverhill — G. A. McLucas; 

North Haverhill — E. R. Perkins; Woodsville — C. M. Howard. 

1894. Haverhill— E. C. Langford; East Haverhill— G. R. Locke; North Haverhill— 

E. R. Perkins; Woodsville — William Ramsden. 

1895. Haverhill— E. C. Langford; East Haverhill— G. R. Locke; North Haverhill— 

E. R. Perkins; Woodsville— W. H. Tarkington. 

1896. Haverhill and Piermont— W. J. Wilkins; East Haverhill— E. C. Clough; North 

Haverhill— E. R. Perkins; Woodsville— R. T. Wolcott. 

1897. Haverhill and Piermont — W. R. Webster; East Haverhill— H. F. Quimby; 

North Haverhill — J. R. Dinsmore; Woodsville — R. T. Wolcott. 

1898. Haverhill— E. E. Reynolds; East Haverhill— N. T. Carter; North Haverhill— 

J. Roy Dinsmore; Woodsville — George N. Dorr. 

1899. Haverhill— E. E. Reynolds; East Haverhill— J. H. Vincent; North Haverhill— 

C. E. Eaton; Woodsville — George N. Dorr. 

1900. Haverhill — C. J. Brown; East Haverhill — no regular pastor; North Haverhill — 

C. E. Eaton; Woodsville— W. A. Loyne. 

1901. Haverhill — D. W. Downs; East Haverhill — no regular pastor; North Haverhill 

— C. E. Eaton; Woodsville — W. A. Loyne. 

1902. Haverhill— D. W. Downs; East Haverhill— George M. Newhall; North Haver- 

hill— C. E. Eaton; Woodsville — W. A. Loyne. 

1903. Haverhill— D. W. Downs; East Haverhill— D. W. Downs; North Haverhill— 

C. E. Eaton; Woodsville — W. A. Loyne. 

1904. Haverhill— R. E. Thompson, E. J. Canfield; East Haverhill— W. R. Patterson; 

North Haverhill — C. E. Eaton; Woodsville — James G. Cairns. 

1905. Haverhill— W. P. White; East Haverhill— W. R. Patterson; North Haverhill 

— C. E. Eaton; Woodsville — James G. Cairns. 

1906. Haverhill— W. P. White; East Haverhill— W. R. Patterson; North Haverhill— 

C. E. Eaton; Woodsville — Charles H. Farnsworth. 

1907. Haverhill— A. F. Leigh; East Haverhill— D. J. Smith; North Haverhill— C. E. 

Eaton; Woodsville — C. H. Farnsworth. 

1908. Haverhill— Geo. G. Williams; East Haverhill— D. J. Smith; North Haverhill 

— C. E. Eaton; Woodsville — C. H. Farnsworth. 

1909. Haverhill— Willis Holmes; East Haverhill— F. J. Andrews; North Haverhill— 

C. E. Eaton; Woodsville — C. H. Farnsworth. 

1910. Haverhill— Willis Holmes; East Haverhill— A. H. Drury; North Haverhill— 

C. E. Eaton; Woodsville — Leslie R. Danforth. 



120 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 



North Haverhill — 
North Haverhill — 
North Haverhill — 
North Haverhill — 



1911. Haverhill— Robert Fuller; East Haverhill— A. H. Drury 

C. E. Eaton; Woodsville— L. R. Danforth. 

1912. Haverhill— Robert Fuller; East Haverhill— A. H. Drury 

Alpa M. Markey; Woodsville — L. R. Danforth. 

1913. Haverhill— Robert Fuller; East Haverhill— A. H. Drury 

A. M. Markey; Woodsville — J. Roy Dinsmore. 

1914. Haverhill— Robert Fuller; East Haverhill— A. H. Drury 

A. M. Markey; Woodsville — J. Roy Dinsmore. 

1915. Haverhill— R. S. Barker; East Haverhill— A. H. Drury; North Haverhill— 

A. M. Markey; Woodsville — J. R. Dinsmore. 

1916. Haverhill— R. S. Barker; East Haverhill— A. H. Drury; North Haverhill— 

A. M. Markey; Woodsville — James N. Seaver. 

The first Methodist Episcopal house of worship, was erected at Haver- 
hill Corner, and was the first church building in that village. The South 
Parish Congregational meeting house was at Ladd Street and the North 
Parish edifice at Horse Meadow. There were no other church buildings 
in town. The people at the Corner irrespective of denominational affilia- 
tion greatly wished a "meeting house," and the Methodists were encour- 
aged to build. The corner-stone was laid Monday, June 4, 1827, by the 
newly-installed officers of Grafton Lodge, A. F. and A. M. These were: 
W. M., Jonathan Sinclair; S. W., Samuel Page; J. W., John L. Burns; 
Sec, Sylvester T. Goss; Treas., John Page; S. D., William Ladd; J. D., 
Horace S. Baker; Chaplain, Ebenezer Ireson; Marshal, Joshua Blaisdell. 
The procession formed at the lodge room was composed of the officers and 
members of Grafton Lodge, the building committee, selectmen, the rev- 
erend clergy, the grand master and past and present grand officers. 
The address at the stone was delivered by the Rev. Ebenezer Ireson, 
chaplain of the lodge and minister of the church. It was a great day for 
the Haverhill Methodists. In the Cods Intelligence of June 2, there was 
an appeal for funds for the erecting of the building which reads curiously 
like some appeals of later years: 

While the traveller passes through our village he is delighted with the rich landscape 
before him. He admires our beautiful meadows, our dark rolling Connecticut and 
feasts his vision upon a prospect far more beautiful and far more worthy of admiration 
than those which have called forth all the energies of song, and exhausted the genius of 
the artist. He sees before him a thriving and populous village, but his eye rests upon no 
church. No spire pointing to heaven tells him that God may be worshipped in the 
beauty of holiness, no temple pure lifts up the aspiration of the pure in heart or gives 
an additional charm to our village, but he is forced to inquire amidst all this profusion of 
nature, with all this lovely and enchanting scenery around us, have you no church for 
public worship — a building so peculiarly the ornament of a country village? There is 
scarcely a town in New England, and not one possessing the advantages of Haverhill 
which is not ornamented and consecrated, if I may so say by its meeting house. But 
if we cannot be urged by considerations strong and weighty as those which have been men- 
tioned, mere selfishness would seem to induce us to engage in the undertaking. Money 
expended for the erection of a commodious and handsome church cannot be viewed in 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 121 

the light of a tax upon the inhabitants here, they would thereby invest their money 
certain to bring handsome returns on their investment. Every consideration prompts 
to aid the enterprise now inaugurated. 

This was a fervid appeal. More fervid appeals still were made for 
funds by the famous John Newland Maffit, who preached on the occasion 
of the dedication of the building in 1828. He urged the people to "lend 
to the Lord." He spoke of the large interest some of them were re- 
ported to be receiving, but larger returns would be secured by lending 
to the Lord. But it was a Methodist church, and the influence of Con- 
gregationalist conservatism had not yet been overcome. Grant Powers 
had not yet abdicated. 

Previous to this the Methodists had worshipped in private houses and 
later in the Court house. The society allowed its enthusiasm to get the 
better of its judgment, and when the church was completed, the society 
found itself confronted with a heavy debt, hopelessly crippled. The 
difficulty was solved by selling their church to the Congregationalists 
who were desirous of establishing themselves at the Corner, and giving 
up their meeting house at Ladd Street. The property was conveyed to 
the Congregationalists in 1829 and is still occupied by them. It was sub- 
stantially built, and with improvements made from time to time, this 
oldest church building in town, with an historic association is still an 
attractive place of worship. The Methodists returned to the Court 
house for worship until 1836, where they built their present church edifice, 
the site being given them by Gov. John Page, a leading member. It is a 
commodious building, constructed of wood rather than brick, and with 
its chapel adjoining, and its commodious parsonage property is happily 
free of debt. The property is valued at $5,500. 

The church at East Haverhill was built in 1834, on a site given by Isaac 
Pike, was several times remodelled, until it was destroyed by fire Decem- 
ber 14, 1902. A new building was erected of modern style, and suited to 
modern needs and was dedicated May 24, 1905. The society also owns a 
comfortable parsonage conveniently located near the church. The entire 
property being valued at $4,000. 

The church erected at North Haverhill in 1843 was destroyed by fire 
in 1865, but was rebuilt the next year. Some thirty years later it was 
remodelled, and in 1912 it was greatly improved, and presents one of the 
most attractive interiors in the county. A fine parsonage property ad- 
joins the church. Church and parsonage are valued at $7,000. 

A Methodist Episcopal church was organized at Woodsville in May, 
1885, by George W. Norris, presiding elder of the Concord District with 
a membership including probationers of 17, which was increased to 26 
in 1886 when Woodsville first appears in the minutes of the New Hamp- 
shire Conference. The Rev. Albert Twichell, a local preacher, was the 



122 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

first pastor. A church edifice was erected in 1886 on Central Street, but 
was removed to its present location in 1889. An extension or annex was 
added in 1911, for Sunday school and social purposes. The church is 
finely lighted, carpeted, has a fine pipe organ, the gift of Ira Whitcher in 
memory of his daughter, Mrs. Chester Abbott, and with its recently 
added annex or chapel, is attractive and finely adapted to accommodate 
the various activities and departments of the modern church. A par- 
sonage was erected during the pastorate of the Rev. James Cairns in 
1888, which with its pleasant location and modern improvements fur- 
nishes a pleasant home for the pastor; church and parsonage are valued 
at $12,000. 

The Methodist Episcopal church in Haverhill has an honorable history, 
and has been no unimportant factor in promoting the moral, social and 
religious life of the town. It has numbered among its communicants 
many who have been prominent in other than church affairs, and whose 
influence still remains, whose work abides though they have long since 
passed to their reward. 

Among the early and influential members of the church at the Corner, 
the names of John Page, George Woodward, Jonathan St. Clair, William 
Ladd, Samuel Smith, C. B. M. Woodward, Abba Swift, and Nathan H. 
Batchelder are familiar: at North Haverhill those of Eben Eastman, 
Newhall Pike, James Glynn, Jefferson Pennock, John W. Judson, Nathan 
P. Rideout, Hubert Eastman, Benjamin Gale, George C. Hale and Martin 
S. Meader: at East Haverhill, Moses Mead, Caleb Morse and Alonzo 
F. Pike, and at Woodsville Benjamin Dow and Ira Whitcher, suggest 
themselves. 

None of the four churches are large, none are in large communities, 
and with the exception of that in Woodsville none are in growing com- 
munities. The church at Haverhill has a membership of 56, and a 
property valued at $5,200; that at East Haverhill a membership of 56, 
church property $4,000; North Haverhill, membership 100, property 
$6,600, and that at Woodsville, membership, 137, church property 
$11,500. The total membership of the Methodist Episcopal churches in 
the town was in 1913, 349, and the church property was valued at $27,300. 

Baptist Church, North Haverhill 

In response to a call of a few Baptists in Haverhill and Bath several 
persons met in North Haverhill September 14, 1830, and after consulta- 
tion with two Baptists ministers, the Revs. John Peacock and Noah 
Nichols, proceeded to organize a Baptist church. This first organiza- 
tion consisted of thirteen members: Benjamin Ropes, Deliverance 
Woodward, Oliver Davison, Ira Thyng, William Dudley, Mary Rogers, 
Sally Glazier, Sally Davison, Rhoda Carr, Hannah Morse, Maude Dud- 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 123 

ley, Roxana Bacon, Sarah B. Glazier. In March, 1831, at a council of 
ministers and delegates from six churches of the Merideth Association of 
Baptist churches, Benjamin Ropes was ordained as pastor of the church, 
and continued in this capacity until May, 1834, when he was dismissed. 
The church was without a pastor until September, 1835, when Bradford 
Harvey of New Hampton Institution spent several weeks with the church, 
the result of which was a religious awakening and the addition of fourteen 
to the church by baptism. In 1836 Stephen Morse conducted meetings 
as a licentiate, but there was no pastor until Jan. 1, 1838, when Rev. 
Samuel Eastman became pastor, and began his labors, which continued 
for three years in the new house of worship, which had been dedicated two 
weeks earlier. He was succeeded by Rev. David Burroughs, who re- 
mained pastor until 1845, when he was succeeded by Rev. Lucius Chick- 
ering whose pastorate was brief, closing under a cloud in March, 1846. 
From this time, until the disintegration of the church there was no regular 
pastor, except in 1855, when Rev. J. E. Strong was reported as pastor. 
In 1856 there was no pastor, and the house was opened for worship, only 
occasionally. In 1859 there appears in the minutes of the Baptist State 
Convention the following report from the Merideth Association: 'The 
church at North Haverhill has become extinct," and its name was erased 
from the minutes. 

The church building was erected in 1837 and was formally dedicated 
December 14, 1837. It was built of brick, was well constructed, and is 
standing at the present time in good condition, known as Village Hall, 
having stood uncared for for several years after the disintegration of the 
church, until it was put in order by the Village Improvement Society, 
previous to 1900, and has since been used for social purposes, and as a 
place of worship for Trinity Protestant Episcopal Mission. It was built 
by the "First Baptist Society of Haverhill" duly incorporated December 
22, 1836. The corporators were Oliver Davidson, Asa Thyng, Elijah 
Blood, George Warren, Joshua Blaisdell, Jacob Morse, Asa Bacon, Aaron 
P. Glazier, David Carr, Jr., George W. Bisbee, Zebulon Carey and Clark 
Bacon. The cost of the building was $1,533.87, and this was provided 
for by subscriptions and the sale of pews. This sale amounted to 
SI, 359. 75, and the purchasers of pews were Ira C. Crouch, N. M. Swasey, 
Daniel Carr, Jr., T. H. Braynard, Aaron Southard, E. B. Hibbard, Willard 
Whitman, E. Merrill, Joshua Blaisdell, George Warren, E. W. Carr, 
Aaron P. Glazier, Zebulon Carey, Stephen Morse, D. Worthen, Jona. 
Morse, Oliver Davidson, B. Webster, Jr., E. Lovejoy, D. C. Kimball, 
David Carr, E. Blood, T. Reed Bacon, Asa Thyng, Jacob Morse, Clark 
Bacon, Asa Bacon, Isaac Morse, Jotham Howe, George W. Bisbee. 
Comparatively few of these pew holders were residents of the village, 
then known as "Slab City," but at least ten resided in Centre Haverhill, 



D ? 

„>00 

oo a. 

CO o 



z 

o 



SO 



z 



No. 10 

T. H. Braynard 
Jan. 1,1838 136.00 



No. 12 

A. Southard 
Jan. 1,1838 $35.25 



No. 14 

E. B. Hibbard 
Jan. 1, 1838 336.75 



No. 15 

Willard Whitman 
Jan. 1, 1838 340.25 



No. 18 

E. Merrill 
Jan. 1, 1838 $34.00 



No. 20 

Joshua Blaisdell 
Jan. 1, 1838 $37.00 



No. 22 

George Warren 
Jan. 1, 1838 $34.00 



No. 24 

W. Whitman 
Jan. 1, 1838 $34.00 



No. 26 



No. 28 



No. 30 



z 

o 



DESK 



No. 50 


No. 49 


No. 48 

E. W. Carr 
Jan. 1,1838 $35.00 


No. 47 

Jona. Morse 
Jan. 1,1838 $34.00 


No. 46 

A. P. Glazier 
Jan. 1,1838 $36.50 


No. 45 

Oliver Davison 
Jan. 1, 1838 $38.50 


No. 44 

Z. Carey 
Jan. 1, 1838 $38.25 


No. 43 

B. Webster Jr. 


No. 42 

G. Warren 
Jan. 1, 1838 $40.00 


No. 41 

E. Lovejoy 


No. 40 

S. Morse 2d 
Jan. 1,1838 $38.50 


No. 39 

D. C. Kimball 
Jan. 1, 1838 $35.00 


No. 38 

D. Worthen 
Jan. 1,1838 $34.00 


No. 37 

Daniel Carr 

$38.00 


No. 36 

J. Blaisdell 

$34.00 


No. 35 

E. Blood 
Jan. 1,1838 $34.00 


No. 34 


No. 33 

T. R. Bacon 


No. 32 


No. 31 

E. B. Hibbard 
Jan. 1, 1838 $20.00 



STOVE 



-go 
■grj 

6<» 



s 



CO 



<3 



No. 9 

Z. Carey 
Jan. 1, 1838 $39.00 



No. 11 

A. Thing 
Jan. 1,1838 $34.00 



No. 13 

Jacob Morse 
Jan. 1,1838 $35.00 



No. 15 

Clark Bacon 
Jan. 1, 1838 $37.75 



No. 17 

Asa Bacon 
Jan. 1, 1838 $38.50 



No. 19 

Isaac Morse 
Jan. 1, 1838 $38.25 



No. 21 

Jotham Howe 



No. 23 

David Morse 



No. 25 



No. 27 

George W. Bisbee 
Jan. 1, 1838 $23.50 



No. 29 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 125 

and as many more on Brier Hill, and in other parts of the town outside the 
village. (See diagram of the interior.) 

A somewhat new method was devised for the support of preaching. 
When the Rev. David Burroughs was selected as pastor in 1841 at an 
annual salary of $400, an agreement was signed by forty citizens of the 
town that any deficiency which might exist after the amount raised by 
voluntary subscription was exhausted, should be made up by an assess- 
ment upon their polls and ratable property in the towns where they 
resided. The forty names appended to this agreement were George W. 
Bisbee, David Morse, Zebulon Cary, Oliver Davison, Joseph Willis, 
David Carr, Jr., John Buswell, T. U. Berry, Adams Houston, George 
Warren, William Houston, Joshua Blaisdell, Benjamin Webster, James 
George, Thomas George, David George, George W. George, Richard G. 
Crouch, Curtis Knight, Isaac Pike, Charles Cussen, William Eastman, 
Horace McConnell, Asa Bacon, G. A. Branible, S. E. Blood, Henry 
George, Willard Whitman, John S. Sanborn, William C. Bacon, Timothy 
R. Bacon, Isaac Morse, Alfred George, Jeremiah G. Farnam, Benjamin 
Webster, Jr., A. J. George, Albert D. Johnson, Harvey M. Gales, J. E. 
Clifford, S. E. Leslie. High-water mark in the prosperity of this church 
and society was reached during the pastorate of Mr. Burroughs. In 
1844 the membership reported was 138, in 1845 this had decreased to 
100, and in 1846 after the brief but unfortunate pastorate of Mr. Chick- 
ering it dropped to 40. The church records, now in existence, are scanty 
and poorly kept. In 1855 when the last attempt was made to support a 
pastor and maintain services, the membership had been reduced to 26, 
and many of these members maintained only a nominal relation to the 
church. No member of this church now survives, the late Charles F. 
Carr of Woodsville being the last to pass away, and he had been for 
years affiliated with the Methodist Episcopal church. 

Freewill Baptist Church 

In the eastern part of the town, in what is known as "Number Six" 
there was a deep religious interest, in 1831 and a meeting held in June 
of that year, in the homestead barn of Josiah Jeffers, was followed by the 
baptism of several persons and the organization of a Freewill Baptist 
church. Elder George W. Cogswell of Landaff held preaching services 
in that vicinity for a number of years, and about 1838, Abel Wheeler, a 
member of the church, was ordained and became its pastor. Previous to 
1831, there had been occasional Freewill Baptist preaching. Elder John 
Calkin, a famous evangelist of his time being the earliest of the preachers, 
and Elder John Davis, who afterwards lived in "Number Ten" followed 
him. In 1842 there was quite an extensive revival, and another in 1858. 
Lorenzo D. Jeffers, a convert in the revival of 1842, was later ordained 



126 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

elder and preached with great acceptance in this church and in the 
churches of adjoining towns. He was a man of fervent piety, a student of 
the Book and of marked ability. Other preachers were Elders Stedman, 
Cummings, Almon Shepard, Warren Strafford and J. D. Cross. The 
church never erected any house of worship, and the church organization 
as such passed out of existence. Haverhill does not seem to have fur- 
nished a fertile soil for Baptist seed. 

Union Meeting House 

As the town began to be settled east of the river the need of religious 
services was recognized, and this led to the organization of an undenomina- 
tional society which, in 1836, erected at the Four Corners on the County 
road and on the road leading from North Haverhill to Swiftwater — the 
Pond road — what was known as the "North Haverhill Union Meeting 
House." There was no church organization connected with it, and the 
pulpit was occupied from time to time by the pastors of the North Parish 
Congregational church, the Baptist church, by ministers of the Freewill 
Baptist, Methodist Episcopal, Universalist and Adventist denominations. 
In 1858 and for a few years thereafter, the Free Baptist preachers minis- 
tered to such congregations or they could gather, and later the edifice 
passed into the hands of the Advent Christian church, organized in 
1892, who in 1896 repaired it, remodelled it and now maintain regular 
services. 

Elder George E. Brown, preached at different times before there was a 
regular organization, and filled vacancies between pastors till his death. 
The pastors since the organization in 1892 have been Elders John Magoon, 
L. H. Brigham, R. R. Mead, O. W. Heyer, Bert J. Glazier, and F. W. 
Richardson. 

There was an Advent organization at the Brook which, in 1875, erected 
a church edifice which was regularly occupied for a few years for religious 
services, but the society disintegrated, and the building was unused after 
1880 until it was sold, and was transformed into a creamery. 

Protestant Episcopal Church 

St. Luke's Protestant Episcopal church in Woodsville was organized as 
a mission by Rt. Rev. Bishop William W. Niles of the New Hampshire 
diocese in February, 1877. Services were first held in the schoolhouse 
hall, with Mr. A. B. Crawford as lay reader in charge, and the first rector 
was the Rev. W. B. T. Smith, who began his work September, 1878, and 
who inspired active efforts to build a church edifice. A site was given 
by Charles B. Smith, and the present church was built in 1879 at a cost of 
about $5,000 and was consecrated free of debt in the spring of 1880. It 
has a seating capacity of about two hundred and fifty. It also owns 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 127 

a fine rectory on Maple Street, and a parish house on Central Street, 
with all accommodations for social work and service. The church was 
seriously damaged by fire in 1912, but was immediately restored and 
beautified. 

St. Luke's was the first church organization in Woodsville, followed by 
the Methodist Episcopal, the Universalist, St. Joseph's Roman Catholic, 
and the Evangelical in order. Early in the history of the town there was 
an attempt to gain a foothold for the Episcopal church, which had as its 
chief result much bitterness of feeling. The charter provided for the 
giving of one whole share of land to "the Incorporated Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, " one whole share for a glebe 
for the Church of England, and also one share for the first settled minister 
of the Gospel. Col. John Hurd and Col. Asa Porter were Episcopalians, 
adherents of the Established Church of England. They held that in the 
towns of the charter the right of glebe could be diverted to the use 
of no minister other than of that church, and that the right of the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the society being 
adjunct of said church, went with it, and furthermore, by implication, the 
right of the first settled minister, since no church save the Church of 
England was recognized in the charter. They early secured a church 
organization, with Rev. Ranno Cossit as minister, and Cols. Hurd and 
Porter as workers and laid claim to these rights. The proprietors, how- 
ever refused to recognize this claim and at a meeting, held August 16, 
1773, the only business transacted was the definite refusal "to lay out the 
society right and glebe to the acceptance of the minister and church 
workers in said town of Haverhill. " The claim was persisted in and at 
the regular town meeting in March, 1775, it was voted to defend the 
ministerial right of land against the claims of the aforesaid Ranno Cossit. 
At the meeting in 1776, further action was taken and Thomas Simpson, 
Timothy Barron and Bryan Kay were chosen as committee "to take care 
of the ministerial right of land in Haverhill and rent it for the advantage 
of the town the present year. " Mr. Cossit, however, had in the meantime 
secured a title to the land through the courts, the town having been de- 
faulted, and in 1780 the annual town meeting chose Col. Moses Little 
"agent to petition the General Court that the default may be taken off 
the ministerial right of land in Haverhill said land being called out in favor 
of Ranno Cossit. " This petition was granted and the town came into its 
own. 

The action of Cols. Hurd and Porter, profoundly stirred the community 
in both Haverhill and Newbury. In January, 1775, a document, entitled 
the Haverhill and Newbury Covenant, was numerously signed by the 
adherents of the Haverhill and Newbury church of which Rev. Mr. 
Powers was pastor, denouncing in the most vigorous terms the two 



128 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 



offending colonels. As a speciment of a boycott nearly a century and a 
half old the document possesses a curious interest: 

Whereas it appears to us that in almost every instance, Col 1 John Hurd, and Lieut 
Col 1 Asa Porter do and are acting contrary to the interest of the society of Haverhill and 
Newbury and to the town and proprietary of Haverhill in particular, and to the interest 
of the whole County of Grafton. 

In that when the said John Hurd and Asa Porter knew that the Rev d Peter Powers 
was settled as a minister for both towns, for more than seven years, and that they knew 
there was not many more than two persons of the Church of England in the town of 
Haverhill, that they should reccommend Mr. Ranny Cossit to Governor Wentworth 
and the Bishop of London that he might be ordained a minister over Haverhill: that 
they do use their endeavor that said Cossit should have and enjoy the ministerial right 
in this town, . . . that whereas some of the town of Plymouth Court made request 
to Col 1 John Hurd, who is Judge for the County of Grafton, whether the cause between 
Timothy Barron and Mr. Ranny Cossitt would be tried, and said Hurd declared that 
it would not: nor could not without a special Court, on which the cause was neglected at 
the same Court by Mr. Barron, who was defaulted, execution issued and presented &c. 

That the said Asa Porter, of his own head, did carry on the building of the Court 
House for said County in the most extravagant way, the said Hurd connived at the same. 
And it is believed that he really assisted said Porter in his wickedness, and used his 
endeavor to get his enormous bill allowed. 

Upon consideration whereof, we and each of us look upon — both of these Gentlemen — 
viz.: Col ls Hurd and Porter as public enemies to the good of said society and County, 
and as such we do engage to treat them, and promise that from and after the date of 
this agreement, not to have any connection with either of them (entertainment at public 
houses, and their proper turn to be served at the gristmills only excepted), not so much as 
to trade, lend or borrow, or labor with them (public offices as Justices of the County 
excepted). And we further engage that we will not hold any correspondence, or have 
any dealings with any that hold with Col ls Hurd and Porter, until they shall willingly 
make public satisfaction for what they have done to the premises. Haverhill Jan. 28, 
1775. 



Jonathan King 
John Ladd 
Andrew Carter 
Joseph Janey 
Jesse Lucas 
James Woodward 
James Bailey jr 
Samuel Heth 
Stephen Bayley 
Charles Baybrige 
Enos Bishop 
John Way jr 
Adonijah Koplin 
Timothy Center 
James Bayley 
Daniel Bayley 
Cyrus Bayley 
Timothy Brown 
(name erased) 



Jonathan Janey 
Daniel Stevens 
John Kirk 
John Sanders 
Josiah Elkins 
Daniel Ladd 
Thomas Manchester 
Theodoni Sanders 
Joseph Fifield 
John Fifield 
John Louvin 
Joseph Smith 
George Moor 
Samuel Lad 
Isaac Stevens 
James Abbott Jr. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 129 

There is no record that the two colonels and their handful of sympa- 
thizers ever made public satisfaction, but a century elapsed before the 
Protestant Episcopal Church obtained a foothold in Haverhill, and then 
first in the village of Woods ville which had just begun its career of growth 
and development. 

In September, 1878, the Rev. W. B. T. Smith took charge of the work 
of St. Luke's Mission. Services were still held in school house hall, and 
Holy Communion was first celebrated November 3, 1878. Charles B. 
Smith, a leading citizen of Woodsville, gave the lot on which St. Luke's 
church was later erected, and ground was broken for the erection of the 
building, November 26, which was pushed forward to completion under 
the direction of Mr. Smith, who remained in charge of the parish until 
May, 1880, where he was succeeded by the Rev. W. H. Burbank. In 
1884, the Rev. H. A. Remick became rector, remaining in charge until 
May, 1892. The Rev. A. W. Jenks became rector in August, 1892, and 
was followed by the Rev. James C. Flanders in September, 1895. In 
January, 1905, the Rev. Frederick C. Cowper became rector, and was 
succeeded in May by the Rev. George R. Savage, who was followed in 
the autumn of 1915 by the present rector, the Rev. A. A. Cairns. 

The number of communicants in 1878 was 14 and in 1914, 106, with a 
membership in the Sunday school of 33. The church property, consist- 
ing of church and parish house on the corner of Central and School streets, 
and rectory on Maple Street, with endowment funds, is valued at about 
$15,000. 

In the summer of 1892, the Rev. Arthur Jenks, rector of St. Luke's, 
began holding mission services in Village Hall at North Haverhill, which 
were continued until 1895, when the Rev. James C. Flanders, who suc- 
ceeded him at St. Luke's, organized a Guild, becoming its first president 
and the sum of $50 a year was pledged for its support. His successor, 
the Rev. F. C. Cowper, continued the work, having service twice a month, 
with Holy Communion at Christmas and Easter. In 1914, Trinity 
Mission was regularly organized by Bishop Parker, and has since been 
in charge of the rectors of St. Luke's. The mission still holds its services 
in Village Hall, formerly the place of worship of the Baptist church. It 
hopes in the not distant future to have a church building of its own. 

The Universalist Church 

In the early summer of 1891, a movement was inaugurated by the 
preaching of the Rev. Walter Dole, a Universalist clergyman of Barre, 
Vt., in Music Hall, which resulted in the organization of a Universalist 
parish society by Mr. Dole, in November of that year, and the organiza- 
tion of a church in August, 1892, with a membership of 18. A leading 

10 



130 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

promoter in the organization of the parish and church was the Rev. Q. H. 
Shinn, D. D., general missionary of the denomination, who also urged 
the erection of a church. In August, 1891, Dr. Shinn, and the Rev. M. D. 
Shutter preached in Music Hall and, the first movement towards building 
a church was a collection taken by Mr. Shinn at the morning service, 
amounting to $21.30, and at a meeting held after the service about $600 
was pledged for the same purpose. 

A Help and Hope Society was organized by the leaders on August 12, 
1891. Those present at the first meeting were Mrs. C. E. Randall, Mrs. 
C. K. Kinne, Mrs. C. 0. Whitcher, Mrs. Martin Perkins, and Miss Ida 
Crossier. The membership had increased to 30 in November, and it 
was voted to raise $1,000 towards a building fund. The organization, 
which has taken effective lead in all the financial work of the church, 
still vigorously carries on its work. 

A desirable church lot was obtained on Elm Street for the sum of $500. 
A building committee consisting of W. D. Sargent, C. E. Randall and 
O. D. Eastman was chosen July 21, 1892; plans were adopted and a con- 
tract was made with Martin Perkins to build the church for the sum of 
$3,900. Ground was broken August 8, 1892, and on December 11 serv- 
ices were held in the vestry. The church was finished, except the fur- 
nishings, June 3, 1893, and was dedicated August 11. The pews were 
furnished by the Help and Hope Society, the pulpit and pulpit furniture 
by the Young People's Christian Union, and the organ by the Sunday 
school. This was first held August 2, 1891, and afterwards, when no 
church services were held, it met at the home of Mrs. C. E. Randall. 
The Y. P. C. U. was organized at the home of Mrs. C. K. Kinne, Novem- 
ber 1, 1891. This society placed the pipe organ in the church in the 
summer of 1899. 

During the first year or two of the organization, there were a number of 
preachers, some of the ablest in the denomination, and the Rev. Walter 
Dole frequently served until the church had a regular pastor. The church 
has been greatly prosperous, and for its prosperity too much credit can- 
not be given to the constant, persistent, self-sacrificing work of a few lead- 
ers, among whom Mrs. C. E. Randall must be regarded as pre-eminent 
during the entire life of the church. It has at the present time a com- 
modious church edifice and parsonage valued at $14,000 and entirely free 
from indebtedness. Its pastors have been the Rev. F. L. Carrier, who 
served from June 17, 1894, till March, 1902, except for a few months in 
1898 when he was chaplain of the First New Hampshire Regiment in 
the war with Spain, and his pulpit was supplied by Rev. H. L. Veazey. 
Succeeding pastors have been Rev. F. L. Leavitt, 1902-04; Rev. F. W. 
Miller, 1904-06, and the Rev. C. F. Mclntire, the present pastor who 
entered on his work in July, 1906. 



history of haverhill 131 

St. Joseph's Church, Roman Catholic 

Up to the year 1896, the Catholics of Haverhill had been under the 
spiritual care of priests in Littleton, and St. Johnsbury, Vt. There had 
been, too, for some years a small mission chapel in Wells River, where mass 
was occasionally celebrated, and where the Catholics of Haverhill and 
other towns availed themselves of the rites and sacraments of the church. 
The few Catholics hereabouts were also visited occasionally by priests 
from Littleton and Claremont. The Catholic population here was small 
when January 1, 1896, the Rev. P. S. Cahill was given charge of a parish 
which embraced the towns of Haverhill, Bath, Lisbon, Landaff , Monroe, 
Lyman, Carroll and Lincoln, and took up his residence in Woodsville. 
There was no church building in this parish, except at Twin Mountain in 
Carroll, and at all other places services were held in schoolhouses, town 
halls and private residences. For several months after Father Cahill's 
arrival in Woodsville, mass was celebrated twice a month in the hall over 
what is now the Central Fire Station, but in the meantime plans were 
formulated for the erection of a church, which were carried into effect. 

A house was purchased on Pine Street for a rectory, and land adjoining 
for a church edifice, which was completed and named St. Joseph's before 
January, 1897. The interest taken in providing a church home for the 
Haverhill Catholics may be noted from the fact that upwards of $1,000 
was contributed by non-Catholics towards the erecting of the church be- 
sides the patronage given by them at fairs, entertainments and suppers. 
Owing to the extent of his parish and the large number of Catholic 
visitors during the summer months at Sugar Hill, Fabyans, Bretton Woods 
and Twin Mountain, Father Cahill was in need of an assistant, usually 
from May 1 to November 1, and during his pastorate, his assistants were 
the Revs. William Sweeney, M. J. Reddin, D. D., W. F. Pendergast and 
W. L. Dee, D. D. The Rev. Thomas Reddin succeeded Father Cahill 
in May, 1907, and took up pretty much the same work, with the same 
parish, except the town of Lincoln where a church was built in 1902 by the 
late Rev. J. J. McCooey. Father Reddin was given a permanent assistant 
so that he was able to hold services at St. Joseph's every Sunday. During 
his pastorate his assistants were successively the Revs. J. H. Sullivan and 
Michael R. Griffin. 

Father Reddin was succeeded, October 12, 1913, by the present pastor, 
the Rev. P. E. Walsh, and his assistants have been the Revs. John Belford, 
Edward Quirk and J. E. Belford. 

There are now four churches in the parish: the three outside of Woods- 
ville are St. Catherine's at Lisbon, Our Lady of the Mountain at Bretton- 
Woods, both built during the pastorate of Father Reddin, and St. Mar- 
garet's at Twin Mountain built in 1915 to replace the old St. Margaret's 
destroyed by fire in June, 1914. This new church, built of stone, cost 



132 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

about $14,000 and is said to be one of the most beautiful church edifices 
in northern New Hampshire. These churches are all in nourishing 
condition. St. Joseph's at Woodsville is free of debt, the last of a twenty- 
year mortgage having been paid in 1915 by the present pastor. Some 
$1,500 has been expended on the rectory during the past two years, and 
the church property is valued at about $13,000. St. Joseph's parish is 
efficiently organized and in addition to the regular Sunday morning serv- 
ices, there is a well attended Sunday school class and evening services 
every Sunday, and holy days of obligation. The Catholic population 
of Woodsville is (1916) about 350, and 120 in other parts of Haverhill, 
principally at East Haverhill where plans are being made for the erection 
of a church in the near future. 

The Evangelical Association 

In the summer of 1893 an independent church was organized of which 
Rev. George E. Noble of Haverhill, Mass., became pastor. He was called 
to a larger field the following year, and the society decided to enter the 
Evangelical Association, one of the Methodist bodies, and the change in 
organization was effected July 8, 1894, by the Rev. Joshua Gile, presiding 
elder. The officers were: Trustees, Benjamin Dow, Charles W. Eastman; 
stewards, Benjamin Dow, Charles W. Eastman, Anson B. Bo wen, 
Sarah E. Dow, Helen Eastman; treasurer, A. B. Bowen; recording 
steward, Helen Eastman; Sunday school superintendent, A. B. Bowen. 
A neat and commodious chapel was dedicated August 25, 1897, by Rev. 
John Short, presiding elder. 

During the first year or two the pulpit was supplied by Rev. R. S. 
Harrington and later still for a brief period by Rev. C. A. Lockwood. 
Suceeding pastorates were as follows: 1896-97, Rev. George Haddon; 
1897-99, Rev. L. H. Merrill; 1899-1901, Rev. B. M. Smith; 1901-02, 
supplied by A. R. Craig; 1902-04, Rev. M. E. Perry; 1904-06, Rev. 
L. H. Merrill. From March until August, 1906, the pulpit was supplied 
by J. E. Nickerson, when the church was disbanded, and the chapel was 
converted into a dwelling. 

Mental Liberty Society 

This was the name given an organization formed in 1845 or 1846 at 
North Haverhill. It was not a church, nor did it profess to be a religion, 
but, organized in open and avowed opposition to churches and to all forms 
of supernatural religion, it may, perhaps, be noticed as appropriately 
in this chapter as elsewhere. A pamphlet, published in 1846, contains 
an address of the president of the society, Dr. M. F. Morrison of Bath, 
with the constitution, resolutions and by-laws, the constitution con- 
stituting the articles of faith — or non-faith they might be more appro- 
priately called. Article 9, perhaps, as clearly as any other summarizes the 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 133 

purpose of the society and the attitude of its members towards revealed 
religion : 

It shall be the duty of each and every member of this Society, by candid and careful 
examination, to render firm their own convictions, and the wavering or doubtful opinions 
of others: to meet with candor and frankness, but temperate firmness, the opposing 
prejudices of those swayed by different influences, and convince the world by the prac- 
tical utility and careful observance of our own moral precepts, that while we eschew 
and are Infidels to the modes, forms, ceremonies of all supernatural religion, we are 
faithful to Science, Truth and Morality, and the great and Universal Brotherhood of 
Man. 

The names of officers and associates appended to the constitution are 
Dr. M. F. Morrison, Bath, president; Dr. John McNab, Mclndoes Falls, 
Vt., vice-president; Josiah F. Wilson, Haverhill, secretary and treas- 
urer; Jonathan Wilson, Haverhill librarian; Nathaniel Annis, Haverhill, 
Cyrus J. S. Scott, Newbury, Vt., and Jacob Morse, Haverhill, council of 
supervision; Jacob M. White, Haverhill; Charles J. Scott, Newbury, Vt. ; 
Charles A. Sawyer, Haverhill; Frederick Crocker, Bath; Capt. Daniel 
French, Haverhill; Richardson French, Haverhill. 

Perhaps the object of this Mental Liberty Society is best declared by 
its president, Dr. Morrison, in his address delivered at North Haverhill 
and published in 1846. He said: 

We therefore believe, from the evidence of all history, that religion in all its phases and 
Prolian forms, is the offspring of a wild and visionary imagination, not of inductive 
reason: — that its influence is demoralizing, oppressive, intolerant, legalizing crime, con- 
serving ignorance, nourishing credulity, promoting discord, founded in error, and perpetu- 
ating misery. Shall we then honest and firm in our own convictions, conscious of the 
purity of our motives, and the benefits to be derived from their practical application, 
hesitate to act up to the full measure of our convictions, and thus prove traitors to our- 
selves and recreants to our race? And does it not become highly important and necessary 
to associate for the purpose of accomplishing the high and glorious objects we have in 
view? Few in numbers and isolated in situation, what can be the result of individual 
effort without concentrated, united action? . . . History points out the crimes of 
this visionary superstition (Christianity) and we are sensible to its better ingredients. 
. . . Few have waked to the guidance of reason and the light of truth, but of those 
who claim to be free, we entreat by their experience of the past, by their hopes of the fu- 
ture, to come fearlessly forward and act individually and socially in accordance with the 
impulse of their own conviction. 

Just how long this organization was maintained, when and where it 
held meetings, does not appear. It did not break down and destroy the 
churches. It did not "emancipate" the fellow townsmen and neighbors 
from the thralldom of their superstitions. It soon passed out of sight, 
and it has been long lost to memory. Its only monument seems to be 
the little pamphlet of twenty-four pages containing the inaugural address 
of its president, Dr. Morrison, the resolutions passed, the constitution 
and by-laws adopted, and the names of its members. The church, how- 
ever, lives on and on. 



134 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

The Rev. N. F. Carter in his "Native Ministry of New Hampshire," 
published in 1905, gives brief sketches of no less than twenty-seven 
natives of Haverhill who entered the Christian ministry. This list does 
not include nearly as many who were residents of Haverhill at the time 
of their academic, collegiate and theological education. The list given 
by Mr. Carter is as follows: 

Stephen Adams, Methodist, son of Stephen and Sarah (Johnston) Adams, b. Feb. 12, 
1813. Admitted to N. H. Conference 1840; d. New Hampton, Va., May 14, 1883. 
Paul P. Atwell, Methodist, b. Mar. 28, 1801. Studied medicine; admitted to Troy Con- 
ference 1843; d. Schuylerville, N. Y., June 13, 1873. 
Amos Gilman Bartlett, Congregationalist, son of Dr. Ezra and Jane Hannah (Gale) 
Bartlett, b. Jan. 14, 1814; d. Albany, N. Y., Nov. 7, 1880. 

Ephraim Weston Clark, Congregationalist, son of Edward and Elizabeth (Weston) 
Clark, b. Apr. 25, 1799. Graduated Dartmouth College and Andover Theological 
Seminary; missionary Sandwich Islands, 1827-63; first secretary Hawaiian Mis- 
sionary Society; d. Chicago, 111., July 15, 1878. 

John Clark, Congregationalist, son of John and Mehitable (Hutchins) Clark, b. June 25, 
1800. Pastorates and ministerial labors in New Hampshire and Vermont; d. 
Rumney, Aug. 31, 1887. 

Laban Clark, D. D., Methodist, b. July 19, 1778. Admitted to New York Conference 
1801; d. Middletown, Conn., Nov. 28, 1868. 

Moses Elkins, Methodist, son of Jonathan and Sally (Philbrick) Elkins, b. June 20, 1801. 
Ordained by Bishop Soule, May 21, 1843; most of life spent in teaching; d. Hixton, 
Wis., 1866." 

Stephen Goodhue Emerson, Congregationalist, son of Rev. John Dolbeer and Sarah 
Jane (Dudley) Emerson, b. Oct. 19, 1864. Graduated Dartmouth 1887; Oberlin 
Theological Seminary 1S90; pastorates in California; in Pasadena, since 1898. 

Robert Waterman Carr Farnsworth, Methodist, b. Feb. 20, 1844. Graduated Wesleyan 
University 1871; School Theology, Boston University, 1872-73; admitted to Provi- 
dence Conference 1874; pastorates in that conference and in California; d. San 
Fernando, Cal., Jan. 3, 1888. 

Lucien Haskell Wary, D. D., Congregationalist, son of Charles and Abigail Carpenter 
(Haskell) Wary, b. Mar. 19, 1839. Dartmouth College 1S66; Andover Theological 
Seminary 1869; d. Long Beach, Cal., May 13, 1903. 

Michael J. Gray, Congregationalist, son of Ebenezer and Ruth (Johnston) Gray, b. 
Oct. 28, 1789. Settled as pastor in London 1813. 

Jakey True Howard, Congregationalist, son of John and Sarah (True) Howard, b. Aug. 
22, 1804; d. West Charleston, Vt., Oct. 7, 1883. 

Lorenzo Dow Jeffers, Free Baptist, son of Josiah and Lydia Jeffers, b. 1821. Ordained 
1854; d. Haverhill. 

Charles Johnston, Presbyterian, son of Michael and Sarah Atkinson (Converse) John- 
ston, b. June 3, 1789; d. Ovid, N. Y., Oct. 10, 1866. 

David Merrill Ladd, Free Baptist, son of Asa and Martha (Chase) Ladd, b. 1806. 
Pastorates in Vermont; d. Jan. 8, 1889. 

Benjamin Merrill, Presbyterian, son of Abel Kimball and Mary Leverett Merrill, b. 
Mar. 25, 1835. Graduated Dartmouth, and Princeton Theological Seminary; d. 
Swanzey, Nov. 16, 1888. 

Charles Henry Merrill, Congregationalist, son of Abel Kimball and Abbie (Leverett) 
Merrill, b. June 16, 1845. Dartmouth College 1867; Andover Theological Semi- 
nary 1870; secretary of the Vermont Missionary Society 1887-; resides St. Johns- 
bury, Vt. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 135 

John Leverett Merrill, Presbyterian, son of Abel Kimball and Mary Leverett Merrill, 

b. May 29, 1833. Dartmouth College 1S56; Princeton Theological Seminary 1859; 

last pastorate, Newbury, Vt., 1891-1901; residence, 1911, Reading, Mass. 
Horace Webster Morse, Universalist, son of David and Sarah (Morse) Morse, b. May 2, 

1S10. Numerous pastorates in Massachusetts and New Hampshire; d. Green- 
wood, Mass., March 1, 1903. 
Joseph Bartlett Morse, Universalist, son of John and Eunice (Willoughby) Morse, b. 

May 21, 1814. Dartmouth College 183S; d. Hanover, June 26, 1893. 
Silas Everard Quimby, Methodist, son of Rev. Silas and Penelope Cowdry (Fifield) 

Quimby, b. Oct. 19, 1837. Wesleyan University 1859; New Hampshire Conference 

1863-. 
Jonathan Shepard, Methodist, afterwards Universalist, son of Harris and Martha 

Shepard, b. Apr. 16, 1792. Evangelist, never a pastor; d. Linden, Mich., Aug. 26, 

1878. 
Stephen Sanford Smith, Congregationalist, son of Rev. Ethan and Bathsheba (Sanford) 

Smith, b. Apr. 14, 1797; d. Worcester, Mass., Oct. 29, 1871. 
William Page Stone, D. D., Methodist, son of Joseph and Priscilla Page Stone, b. Sept. 

1, 1831. Graduated Lawrence University, Wisconsin, 1858; joined Wisconsin 

Conference 1858; d. Chicago, Jan. 4, 1896. 
George Stevens Wheeler, Swedenborgian, son of Ezekiel Horace and Mehitable Towne 

Wheeler, b. Apr. 27, 1857. Pastor Bridgewater, Mass., 1890-. 
Dyer Willis, Methodist, b. July 20, 1816. Joined Vermont Conference 1843; pastorates 

all in Vermont; retired 1883. 
Charles B. M. Woodward, Methodist, son of Jacob and Lydia Woodward, b. June 10, 

1808. Admitted N. H. Conference 1839; retired 1847; d. Sept. 9, 1881. 

Elder John Davis, though not a native of Haverhill, but rather of Plais- 
tow from which town so many of the first settlers came, was so long a 
resident of Haverhill that he has been regarded by many as a native. 
He came to Haverhill a boy of fourteen, and the town was his home for 
a greater part of his active life. He was born in 1802 and died in Boston 
in 1885. He was ordained a Free Baptist minister in 1830, and came to 
Haverhill in 1845, and remained till 1866, preaching in the meantime in 
North Haverhill, Centre Haverhill, Bath, Benton, Warren and Piermont. 
His educational advantages were limited but he studied his Bible and 
was sound in the faith. Blunt and outspoken he had a habit of saying, 
in the pulpit as well as out of it, whatever came to his mind. His pulpit 
preparation was made for the most part on his feet after he had begun 
his sermon. He never failed to reprove those who violated the sanctity 
of the Sabbath. On one occasion, while preaching at the Union Meeting 
House, he saw through the open window a man riding rapidly horseback. 
Pausing and pointing out of doors, he shouted, "There goes a man bound 
for hell," but getting a nearer view of the man as he passed and recog- 
nizing him as one of his neighbors, he quickly added, "No, no, it's Mr. 
going for the doctor." His salary was not large, and on one occa- 
sion noticing several of his congregation asleep, he abruptly called out, 
"It's hard enough to preach for a dollar a day without having to talk to 
as sleepy a crowd as this." The sleepers awoke and remained awake. 



CHAPTER VIII 



SCHOOLS AND EDUCATION 

Timothy Curtis, the First Schoolmaster— Schoolhouses at Two Hundred and 
Fifty Dollars Each — Woodsville House Cost Less — Interior of Old School- 
house — Text-Books and Superintendence — First Committee in 1S15 — Rec- 
ords of Two Schools — Town Schools in 1885 — Unsuccessful Attempt to 
Secure a College — Haverhill Academy — List of Scholars and Teachers — 
Mr. Samuel Southard. 

Just when the first school was opened in Haverhill is not definitely 
knowm. The earliest vote of the town on record is that of March 9, 1773, 
when it was "voted to hire a master to keep a town school this present 
year, and to raise £35 to be paid in specie for the use of school." In the 
warrant for the annual town meeting the previous year, 1772, there was 
an article "to see if the town will lay out a tract of land for the use of the 
school in Haverhill." It does not appear that any action was taken on 
this article, but its wording would indicate that a school was probably 
in existence before that date. Such school, however, was doubtless small. 
The population was composed of new families and single persons. During 
the first few years of the settlement there were few children of school age. 
The town at the beginning made provision for a minister. It may be 
safely assumed that when the need arose, it also made provision for a 
schoolmaster. Peter Powers was the first minister, and so far as known 
Timothy Curtis was the first schoolmaster. Little is known of Timothy 
except that he was employed to "keep school" for at least two years. 
On the first page of the earliest volume of town records, there are the two 
following entries: 

May 10, 1774, Received of Capt. Charles Johnston £8, 19s, 6d in full for five months 
and twenty days teaching school in Haverhill. 

Timo. Curtis. 

Haverhill, Feb. 10, 1775, Rec d of Charles Johnston £8, 7s, 6d in full for 5 mos. 18 
days teaching publick school in said town. 

Timo. Curtis. 

In 1774, the sum of £35 to be paid in specie was again voted "for use 
of the school" and in 1775, £34. The records show no separate appro- 
priation for schools until 1786, but notwithstanding the disorganized 
state of affairs during the War of the Revolution there is evidence that 
the public school was not neglected. Just where the town school was 
kept does not appear, whether at Ladd Street, Haverhill Corner, or Horse 
Meadow, or at each of these places alternately is not certain. There 

136 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 137 

were no schoolhouses until 1787. At the annual meeting in 1786, it was 
voted to divide the town into four school districts, and £60 was raised 
for the support of schools to be paid in wheat at 6s per bushel and Indian 
corn at 3s per bushel. District Number One extended from Piermont 
line to the Oliverian, the second from the Oliverian to the south line of 
the Fisher farm, the third to the bridge leading to Colonel Howard's 
island, and the fourth from there to Bath line. These districts were all 
on the river. 

In 1811 a vote was passed to increase the number of districts but it 
does not appear that anything was done till 1815, when the town was 
divided into nine districts and their boundaries were fixed. Number One 
was at Haverhill Corner, and the schoolhouse was near Powder House 
Hill. Number Two was the Ladd Street District, so-called. Number 
Three was at North Haverhill. Number Four was near the Bath line, 
and was known as the Pine Plain or Kimball district. Number Five was 
the Brier Hill district. Number Six was near the Benton line, and was 
later known as the Morse or Jeffers district. Number Seven was known 
as the Union district, a part being in Piermont. Number Eight was at 
what is now Pike village and Number Nine was at Haverhill Centre, the 
schoolhouse being located at the junction of the County road, and that 
leading from North Haverhill to Number Six known as the Limekiln 
road. 

But with the increase of population and the settlement of the eastern 
section of the town districts were divided and subdivided until they 
numbered twenty. An idea of their location is gained from the location 
of the schoolhouses. Number Ten lay to the north and east of Nine with 
schoolhouse at the junction of County road and road leading to Colby 
Hill. Number Eleven schoolhouse was on the road leading from Brier 
Hill to Swiftwater in Bath. Number Twelve was the Horse Meadow 
district. Number Thirteen the Woodsville district. Number Fourteen 
the East Haverhill district midway between Number Six and Eight. 
Number Fifteen had its schoolhouse located on the County road near the 
old stone town house. Number Sixteen schoolhouse was on a road leading 
off the Pond road, so-called, towards the Bradley Hill road leading to 
Benton. Number Seventeen was set off from Number One and the 
schoolhouse was on Main Street at the Corner near Piermont line. 
Number Eighteen was just off the road between the Brook and Pike. 
Number Nineteen was between Ladd Street and North Haverhill and 
was known as the Powers district, and Number Twenty was between 
Nine and Six, and was known as the Limekiln district. 

The school buildings were at first hardly up to the standard of "the 
little red schoolhouse." They certainly lacked paint, either red or 
other color. In 1787 the town voted to build four schoolhouses, and the 



138 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

sum of £100 was appropriated to make the vote effective. Each district 
was to have the proportion of the money to which it was entitled by its 
valuation. 

It was further voted that "scholars must attend school in their own 
district." The sum raised was insufficient to build the houses and at 
a special town meeting held January 10, it was voted to raise £60 pay- 
able in wheat at 5s a bushel to finish the schoolhouses, and at the annual 
meeting in 1789, it was voted to raise £50 more for the same purpose, 
payable in wheat at 6s and Indian corn at 3s. These schoolhouses 
would be considered crude affairs today, and were crude then, but they 
would compare favorably with those in other northern New Hampshire 
towns. Such as they were they answered the purpose until 1805, when, 
at the annual town meeting it was "voted to raise $1,000 to build school- 
houses in the different school districts to be divided between the different 
districts in proportion to money raised by the town." Had the money 
been divided equally, it would have given the town four houses costing 
$250 each. A beggarly sum it seems, and yet nearly half a century later, 
that amount was deemed sufficient to build a good schoolhouse. 

The first schoolhouse in district Number Thirteen, the Woodsville 
district, was built in 1847. It was the average schoolhouse in respect to 
architecture, furnishings and conveniences. It was used as a schoolhouse 
until 1872, when the new and better building was erected to accommodate 
the increasing number of pupils. Even then it was not torn down. It 
was transformed into a dwelling house, and is still standing on its original 
site at the foot of the hill on South Court Street, one of the better class 
of tenements. At a meeting of the voters of district Number Thirteen 
January 29, 1848, it was "Voted to accept of the schoolhouse built by 
John L. Woods with twenty-one dollars reduction from the two hundred 
and fifteen dollars, which the committee recommend be allowed for 
defects, making one hundred and ninety-four dollars that the district are 
to pay for the house." It was also "voted to raise two hundred and 
fifty-five dollars for the purpose of purchasing the schoolhouse built by 
J. L. Woods, Esq., and fitting it up and furnishing stove, out buildings 
and other apparatus and fixings for the same and location." 

Two hundred and fifty dollars was not so small a sum for building a 
schoolhouse one hundred years ago as might at first seem. Architec- 
turally these houses were pretty much the same throughout the state, and 
remained the same for a half century or more. Who of the older genera- 
tion of today does not remember that schoolhouse — the successor of the 
log building of the eighteenth century? It was located as near the 
geographical centre of the district as the highways would permit. It was 
usually a square building — sometimes, however, oblong. You entered 
the one door through a vestibule (entry) sometimes flanked by a wood 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 139 

shed. Facing you was the teacher's desk on a small raised platform about 
four feet square, and in front of it was a seat intended to accommodate 
three or four of the alphabet scholars. On either side next to the wall 
ran a long plank seat, with two or three (as the case might be) rows of 
desks, also made of spruce or pine plank, with shelf underneath, and 
raised some six or eight inches from the floor. On level with the floor and 
facing the centre of the room was another row of desks with plank seats, 
and these were fronted with seats without desks, to be used by the smaller 
scholars, or for recitation purposes. There was the same arrangement of 
seats on each side. There was a boys' side and a girls' side. The boys' 
side was next to the road, because the boys were regarded as having less 
curiosity to look out of the windows at passers by than the girls, and the 
windows, small with their 7 by 9 panes of glass, were placed so high there 
was little temptation for either sex to look out. The desks were intended 
for two pupils each, but when the school was crowded three or four could 
be accommodated at the wall desks, by using all the seat space, and taking 
turns at the desks. These had been made plain, but on the boy's side, 
for boys had jackknives, they soon became anything but plain. They were 
ornamented with "fly traps," initials, carvings (no one ever knew who 
did the ornamentation and carving). In the earlier days the door was 
in one corner, so to give room for the big fireplace at the end fronting 
the throne of schoolmaster, or schoolma'am, but later the centre of the 
room was occupied by the big box stove. In the winter the big boys 
and girls froze on the wall seats, and the little folks on the front seats 
roasted. 

The pupils in winter, which was the important school term, ranged in 
age all the way from four years to twenty, but the basis of the course of 
study for all was "Readin', Ritin' and Rithmetic." There were side 
courses in "jography" and grammar with its parsing. The boys on 
alternate Saturdays "spoke pieces" and both boys and girls wrote com- 
positions. Spelling was embraced under the head of reading and had 
perhaps more careful attention — but "Readin', Ritin' and Rithmetic," 
was the basis of instruction. Nothing was neglected for this. The 
reading classes and spelling classes came into the centre of the floor and 
stood in line for recitation. If there was a crack between the floor boards, 
and there usually was, this was the mark on which they stood in line ; if 
there was none there was a chalk mark, and boys and girls when forming 
in line were required to "toe the mark." At the end of the room on 
either side the door were the blackboards, veritable blackboards, pine or 
spruce boards painted black, and these were in constant use by the arith- 
metic classes. Now and then a schoolhouse boasted an outline map or 
two, and once in a while there was a schoolmaster of mechanical acquire- 
ments who fashioned blocks by which he explained cube root to the more 



140 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

advanced scholars. As for ventilation, there was usually plenty fur- 
nished by illfitting doors and windows, if not by cracks through the walls 
of the house. Sanitation was of nature's provision; modern microbes 
and germs had not been invented. 

Who, also, of the older generation does not remember the school "kept" 
in that schoolhouse? There were two terms a year, a summer term kept 
by a schoolma'am, and a winter term by a master, as in such cases it was 
felt necessary to have some one who "kept order." This "keeping order" 
was regarded as one of the first essentials. The master was first of all to 
have the ability to soundly "thrash" the big unruly boys or any combina- 
tion of them, if such "thrashing" was necessary to keep order. Seats 
were not assigned. They were pre-empted. The boy who first got his 
books on a certain desk on the first Monday of school had established his 
claim to seat and desk. There were early arrivals on that Monday 
morning, and entrances were effected through windows where the door 
was locked. The school was its own janitor. The girls alternated in 
sweeping the floor, and in the winter time the boys by turn kindled the 
fire and attended to it during the day. 

At the annual district school meeting it was decided whether the teacher 
should board round or his board should be hired at some one place. In 
the latter event the board was frequently set up at auction and bid off 
by lowest bidder. The writer remembers his first experience as school- 
master: he had been bid off for seventy-five cents a week, and his remem- 
brance of that boarding place are among the pleasantest of a lifetime. 
His salary for the three months' school was thirteen dollars per month 
and board, a total of thirty-nine dollars. The next winter he boarded 
round. It was a Haverhill country school. His board at the different 
families of the district was timed in several cases by "killing hogs." He 
has still vivid remembrances of fresh pork, sausage, "souse" and scraps. 

Recitation periods were not lengthy. There was time each forenoon 
and afternoon for exercises in reading and spelling by the entire school, 
divided into classes according to age and proficiency. Arithmetic, 
geography, grammar, perhaps United States history, with a brief period 
for writing in the copy book occupied the rest of the time. The morning 
session opened at nine o'clock with reading by those able to read one 
verse alternately from the New Testament, and if he was "a professor" 
and understood to be pious, prayer by the teacher. The issue of the 
Bible in schools had not been raised. The pupils were almost exclusively 
of Yankee Protestant stock. 

There was not a prescribed course of study and text-books were few. 
Even as late as 1831 text-books were not numerous. George Woodward, 
Cummings Sanborn and David Blaisdell, 3d, superintending committee, 
issued the following order as late as December 7, 1831 : 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 141 

List of text-books authorized by the school committee: no others permitted. New Tes- 
tament, Webster's Spelling Book, Easy Lessons, Webster's School Dictionary, Colburn's 
Arithmetic and Colburn's Sequel, Murray's Grammar, Political Class Book, Good- 
rich's Math, Brun's Geography, Historical Reader, Goodrich's History of the United 
States. 

This list, "no others permitted," gives an idea of the studies pursued 
as late as 1831 in the district schools. And Haverhill was in advance of 
other towns.* 

As early as 1800 the sum of $333 was appropriated for the four district 
schools including the amount required by law. In 1810 this amount 
was increased to S500; in 1820, to $600; in 1830, to S700; in 1840, to $820; 
in 1880, SI, 730 with $25 additional for support of Teacher's Institute in 
Western Judicial District. Year by year these appropriations were 
increased. In 1890 the sum of $4,000 was raised and appropriated; in 
1900, $4,500. Previous to 1810, the supervision of the schools, in addi- 
tion to that of the prudential committee of each district, was assigned to 
the selectmen. In this latter year the town at its annual meeting chose 
as "committee in addition to the selectmen to visit schools," Ezra 
Bartlett, John Smith and Moses Campbell. Such committee was 
chosen annually till 1815, when the selectmen were relieved of responsi- 
bility in visiting schools, and a committee for such work was chosen 
consisting of Joseph Bell, Esq., Rev. Grant Powers, Ephraim Kingsbury, 
Stephen P. Webster and John Kimball. This was the first superintending 
committee, composed of the town's leading citizens, men of liberal educa- 

* Lists of text-books previous to the publication of this authorized list are difficult to 
find, but some of the books which did service have survived their hard usage, and are 
still in existence as curiosities. There was "the New England Primer improved for the 
more easy attaining of the true reading of English to which is added the Assembly's and 
Mr. Cotton's catechism." This was published in Massachusetts and had for a frontis- 
piece a portrait of "John Hancock, Esq., late President of Congress," and also of John 
Rogers, burning in the flames at the stake with his wife and nine small children, one at 
the breast looking on. There was an illustrated alphabet begining with, "In Adam's fall 
we sinned all," and then the catechism, in which the children were periodically instructed 
by the minister. For readers the older pupils used the "American Preceptor" and the 
"Columbian Orator." Daboll's Arithmetic antedated Dillworth's Schoolmasters' 
Assistant just as that antedated Adams' Arithmetic. The text-book par excellence, 
however, was "the American Spelling Book, by Noah Webster, Jun, Esquire." The 
title page of the ninth edition of this remarkable book, published in 1794, further de- 
scribes it as "Containing an easy standard of pronunciation, being the first part of a 
grammatical institute of the English language, to which is now first added an appendix 
containing a moral catechism and a federal catechism with many corrections and im- 
provements by the author." A thorough knowledge of this little book from cover to 
cover, with its classic stories of "the old man who found a rude boy in one of his apple 
trees stealing apples," the milk maid, the cat and the rat, etc., amounted to a pretty 
liberal education. Its one blemish was the awful woodcut of the immortal Noah as a 
frontispiece, which the publishers were petitioned to omit on the ground that it frightened 
the children. 



142 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

tion. Thenceforward, for a period of seventy years until the district system 
was abolished, the town has each year had its superintending school 
committee. The list of names of those who have filled this office is a 
distinguished one, evidencing the interest of the town in its schools. 
On this list, besides those already mentioned, are found such names as 
Stephen R. Page, Moses Porter, John Nelson, George Little, Andrew 
Mack, Samuel Cartland, Jacob S. Clark, William Ladd, Josiah F. Wilson, 
David Sloan, John Angier, Archibald Fleming, David Burroughs, 
Samuel Delano, Nathan B. Felton, Hiram Morgan, Eben Eastman, 
Charles R. Morrison, George S. Towle, Samuel Adams, Phineas Spalding, 
Chas. A. Dounning, Daniel F. Merrill, Chas. H. Chase, H. H. Tenney, 
L. W. Prescott, George F. Putnam, Harvey Knight. 

In 1885 the district system of school organization was abolished, and 
the town was made a single district, with the exception of Woodsville, 
which had previously been created into a district by itself, a part of 
Bath having been united with it. Some of the old schoolhouses have 
been abandoned. New schoolhouses have been erected at East Haver- 
hill, Pike, and North Haverhill, and the schoolhouses which are still 
used for school purposes in the former Number Six, Ten, Fifteen and 
Ladd Street districts, are either new or have been modernized to meet 
up-to-date conditions. Districts numbered One and Seventeen at the 
Corner have been united, and by a contract with the trustees of Haver- 
hill Academy, a single school with three departments, high, grammar and 
primary, has been established in the commodious new brick building, 
still bearing the name of Haverhill Academy, erected on a lot adjoining 
the old. 

In 1872 the old $255 schoolhouse in Woodsville was replaced by a new 
two story building with rooms for primary and grammar grades, and for 
the high school grade later established. In 1901 this was replaced by the 
large and commodious building, now used for primary and grammar grades, 
which was erected at a cost of upwards of $20,000. In 1913 in order to 
meet the increasing needs of the high school, and provide room for the 
primary and grammar grades, the fine new high school building, with all 
modern improvements and appliances now standing on King's Plain, was 
erected at a cost of nearly $30,000. It meets the requirements of a 
school which ranks with the best in the state. 

Haverhill takes a just pride in its schools of today. It makes liberal 
appropriations for their support. In conjunction with Bath it employs 
an efficient superintendent who devotes his entire time to supervision. 
It has two high schools, from one of which graduates are admitted to the 
New England colleges (except Yale and Harvard) on certificate, and care 
is exercised in selection of teachers to secure only those of known efficiency, 
of normal training or its equivalent. It may well remember, however,, 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 143 

with grateful appreciation, its old time district school. Some things were 
accomplished and well accomplished. Not so much was attempted as at 
present, but the few things attempted were pretty thoroughly done. The 
foundations of education were laid. Obedience to authority was main- 
tained and enforced. Sound morals and the homely virtues were incul- 
cated. Good citizens were trained and developed by the somewhat hap- 
hazard courses (if they might be so called) of instruction. The district 
schoolhouses were also used for other purposes. Religious meetings were 
held in them, and more than one great religious awakening in the town 
had its beginning at some meeting held in some one of the district school- 
houses. The annual district school meetings were often occasions of 
lively interest. These were duly warned with all the formality attendant 
on the warning of the annual town meeting, and all matters pertaining to 
the schools were discussed and acted upon. 

The choice of a "Prudential Committee" was the important matter, 
and contests over his election were frequent and sometimes bitter. It 
was a distinct honor not lightly esteemed nor thoughtlessly conferred. 
Unless otherwise ordered by the voters, the prudential committee en- 
gaged teachers, arranged for their board, provided for the wood, had the 
care and oversight of the schoolhouse. Sometimes a committeeman was 
guilty of employing a daughter, a niece, or some other relative as teacher; 
sometimes he boarded the teacher in his own home or in the home of a 
relative or some particular friend, and fixed the compensation; sometimes 
it was thought he got a personal "rake off" from the wood he purchased of 
a neighbor. There was temptation for graft and nepotism besetting the 
prudential committee. Sometimes politics entered into district affairs. 
A Whig committee would not readily be forgiven for hiring the son or 
daughter of a Democrat as teacher or for boarding the teacher in a Demo- 
cratic family, and it hardly need be said that Democrats were no less 
violently partisan than their Whig neighbors. Blood and politics in 
school district matters were thicker than water. 

It is to be regretted that the records of these school districts have not 
been more carefully preserved. An effort was made after the districts 
were abolished to collect them and deposit them in the office of the town 
clerk, but this met with little success. The records for a single year in 
two of the districts are fair illustrations of those for other years in other 
districts and are not without interest. 

At the annual district meeting in Number Thirteen, March 29, 1845, 
held in the store of John L. Woods, Alba Hall was elected moderator and 
prudential committee, and B. S. Bard, clerk. There were evidently sus- 
picions concerning the management of affairs, for first of all it was "voted 
that all the business done by the committee for the district for the year 
shall be handed in to the clerk and he shall record it." 



144 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Voted that the mistress shall board round with the schollers. 

Voted to join with the district on the other side of the river (Bath), for a summer 
school. 

Voted that the committee confer with the committee on the other side of the river 
about organizing the districts together. 

Voted that committee procure wood for the ensuing winter. 

Voted to instruct the committee to hire the same mistress that kept the school in 
this place last summer. 

Committeeman Hall, thus instructed, made the following report: 

Paid out. Repairs on schoolhouse: 8 lights glass and nails, 48; 1 door ketch, 12; 8 lbs. 
nails, 48; 1 day's work by Mr. King, 75; one day's work by Mr. Whitcher, 75; 5 day 
by Mr. Sanborn, 33; door handle, bolts and screws, 52; work of Koster Annis, 25; 
Mr. Hall, U days work, 1.00; door hinges and latch, 88; boards, 83; total. . . $6.39 

Wood 5. 15 

Paid for summer school 21 . 83 

Paid Master 47. 25 

Paid Moses Abbott, Jr., for stove 4 . 67 

Paid M. Abbott, for board 8 . 82 

$94.11 
Amount of money received in both districts 93 . 95 

Balance due committee $0.16 

There is no record that Mr. Hall ever received the 16 cents he was out of 
pocket. This may have been the price of the honor conferred. But he 
may have been in on the wood deal, or Moses Abbott, who had received 
$13.49 of the district money, may have considered him. 

The present Ladd Street schoolhouse was not built as were the others 
of the town by a committee appointed for the purpose by the district, but 
it was erected on the site of the old meeting house by certain prominent 
Ladd Street citizens as a private enterprise, the district being given cer- 
tain rights in the building in consideration of a certain specified sum. 
This was the agreement: 

We, the undersigned, agree to build a two story house, about 36 by 28 feet on the 
ground, and to furnish District Number Two with a schoolroom on the lower floor, the 
same to be finished in as good a manner as the schoolroom in District Number One; the 
outside of the building and the lower story to be finished; also to put in a belfrey and 
hang the bell on the same; we further agree to underpin said house with good stone, and 
place a good door stone at the door, said house to be finished by the middle of June, 
1849. The above agreement is in consideration that the district pay us three hundred 
and fifty dollars. 

f Henry Merrill, 
Signed \ J. H. Woodward, 
[ James H. Pearson. 

The upper room is to be used for public meetings or lectures at the disposal of the 
district. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 145 

The building was finished according to agreement, and was occupied 
for school purposes during the school year 1849-50. The historic meeting 
house bell of which the Congregational church, after its purchase of the 
brick meeting house at Haverhill Corner, had tried in vain to get posses- 
sion, and which had been kept in concealment by the Ladd Street people 
for years, was brought out of its hiding place and hung in the belfry. 

It appears that the building was under different rules and regulations 
than those pertaining to the ordinary district schoolhouse, since there 
were printed and framed a set of by-laws governing its control. The 
report of Lyman Buck, prudential committee, made to the annual school 
district meeting, March 27, 1850, gives at least the outlines of a picture 
which represents educational conditions in the Ladd Street district 
during this first year of the school service of the bell. 

School District No. 2 in Account with Lyman Buck, Dr. 
1849 

Aug. 2 For paying for printing by-laws and frame $1 .25 

Sept. 7 Paid for insurance policy 3 49 

22 " for rent for stove, and broom, 1.19-25 1 .44 

27 " for stove and pipe, wire and hooks 15 . 13 

Oct. 3 " S. F. Hook for three chairs 1 . 26 

20 " Mrs. Ward for 8 weeks' teaching and board 21 . 34 

Nov. 17 " for 80 feet of boards 90 

23 " Mrs. Woods for four weeks' teaching and board 12.67 

1850 

Jan. 11 " for Shaker broom .34 

" George Piersons for building woodshed 24 . 37 

26 " J. B. S. Chandler for 8 weeks' teaching 36.00 

Mar. 8 " Mr. Emery for 6 wks' teaching and board 14 wks' 48.00 

11 "J. H. Pearsons for wood 4 1-2 months 12 . 00 

$180.50 
1849 Credit 

Aug. 26 Rec'd from Charles Smith former committee $7.53 

Sept. 7 " of the selectmen on order 37 . 00 

27 " for old stove sold at Bradford 3.79 

1850 

Jan. 11 " town order to pay for shed, stove and pipe 39.50 

Feb. 2 " town order for all due District No. 2 100 . 37 



$188.19 
Which leaves a balance due from your committee of $7.69 after charging nothing for 
getting the stove and pipe, and setting them up, and for washing the schoolhouse out, 
and cleaning it out twice. I, therefore, move that there is nothing allowed our com- 
mittee for cleaning up our schoolhouse for the paltry $1.50 allowed last year. 

The committeeman evidently had a feeling that school districts as well 
as republics, were ungrateful, 
li 



146 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

An interesting glimpse into the affairs of the district at this period 
is obtained from the warrant posted by Mr. Buck, warning the District 
Number Two school meeting in March, 1850: 

State of New Hampshire 
[l. s.] 
To the Legal Voters of School District No. 2 in the Town of Haverhill: 

You are hereby notified to meet at the schoolhouse in said district on Wednesday the 
27th day of March inst., at 7 o'clock in the afternoon for the transaction of the following 
business, viz.: 

1st To choose a moderator to preside in said meeting. 
2d To choose a clerk, prudential committee and other necessary officers for the ensuing 

year. 
3d To see if the district will have a summer school. 
4th To see if the district will have the teachers board round, and if not, see if they will 

set the board at auction to the lowest bidder. 
5th To see if the district will set the wood for the winter school up at auction to the 

lowest bidder. 
6th To see if the district will consent to have the upper part of the schoolhouse con- 
trolled by J. H. Woodward or any other person, contrary to the by-laws of said 
district. 
7th To transact any other business thought proper, when met. 

Given under my hand and seal at said Haverhill this 11th day of March, 1850. 

Lyman Buck, 
Prudential Committee for the District. 

It is to be regretted that no record of the proceedings of this first 
meeting in the new schoolhouse has been preserved. It would be inter- 
esting to know whether the teachers "boarded round" or were "struck 
off to the lowest bidder." There was evidently trouble also concerning 
that upper room. The builders of the schoolhouse, and the district 
authorities were at odds. There is no record of how the difference was 
settled. 

That the early settlers and proprietors of Haverhill were fully alive 
to the advantages arising from institutions for advanced education is 
proven by the efforts they put forth to secure for the town the location of 
Dartmouth College which had been chartered by Governor Wentworth 
in December, 1769. What might have been is of course not history, but 
the story of what Haverhill narrowly missed is at least an interesting 
one. The Rev. Dr. Eleazer Wheelock had for some years maintained an 
Indian Charity School at Lebanon, Conn., but circumstances had arisen 
which made advisable its removal, and coincident with its removal its 
enlargement into an academy, seminary, or college. Dr. Wheelock was 
inclined at first to locate in New York or Pennsylvania, but his attention 
was later directed to the Coos country in New Hampshire, and as early as 
1767 a movement was inaugurated on the part of several towns in the 
Connecticut Valley to secure the college location. In January, 1768, the 
Rev. Peter Powers wrote Dr. Wheelock from Newbury, recommending 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 147 

that region as the best in the Connecticut Valley, though he expressed 

little confidence of benefiting the Indians of the locality. He wrote: 

The Indians who come here are a miserable, abandoned, drunken, frenchified popish 
crew, so effectually prejudiced against religion that there seems little hope of doing them 
any good, though perhaps some of their posterity may be reclaimed; but the school may 
be of advantage to about a hundred new townships in this part of the country. 

A little later Col. Israel Morey and others of Orford recommended this 

town, and then the claims of Lyme, Campton and Plymouth were urged. 

The Rev. Ebenezer Cleveland had been sent out by Dr. Wheelock, 

during the summer and autumn of 1768, to investigate and make report 

on desirable locations for the college in New Hampshire. He first visited 

Campton, Plymouth and Rumney and was disposed to favor one of these 

towns, preferably Campton. He next visited Coos on the Connecticut 

River. 

The inhabitants of that new country were universally much engaged to have the school 
fixed there, both from a respect to Dr. Wheelock 's person and a regard to the general 
design. . . . Several places were more especially set up — namely, Haverhill, Pier- 
mont, Orford, Lebanon, Plainfield, Claremont, Charlestown and Walpole — those in 
which it appeared the greatest donations would centre. . . . Large subscriptions 
have been made and are still making which centre in particular towns, the principal of 
which were Haverhill and Orford. Their situation is very pleasant, and their soil very 
fertile, — their lands so much improved and so fertile that there is already a sufficient 
supply of provisions for the school. At Haverhill is a farm of about 600 acres of excel- 
lent land, about 150 of which are under good improvements — all within two bows of the 
river, which is a sufficient outside fence; and it is otherwise suitably divided and secured 
by good fences, has on it a large and well finished barn on one bow and also a good corn- 
barn on the other bow; also a good gristmill and sawmill, and something for a house. 
. . . It is beautifully situated in the centre of the town and other lands may be had 
to accommodate it here, 5,600 acres are already subscribed for that end. At Orford 
they have already subscribed 2,100 acres of land and about £80 sterling in labor and 
materials for building. . . . Besides the offers already mentioned, upwards of 
2,000 acres are subscribed on condition it shall be fixed in either of the above mentioned 
towns. 

The English patrons headed by Lord Dartmouth upon whom Dr. 

Wheelock relied for financial aid and support wrote him from London 

under date of April 3, 1769: 

We are unanimously of the opinion that the most advantageous situation for carrying 
on the great purposes of your school will be in one of the townships belonging to the 
district of Cowass in the government of New Hampshire, agreeably to the proposal of 
Governor Wentworth and the gentlemen who have generously expressed their intention 
of contributing to that design; but whether Haverhill or Orford may be the most eligible 
for this purpose, we must leave to your judgment to determine. According to the best 
information we can procure of the state of those towns, we think you may give the pref- 
erence to the former, especially if the farm which you mention as very convenient for an 
immediate supply of provisions can be procured upon reasonable terms. 

The charter of the college bears date of December 30, 1769, and this 
was followed by the grant of the town of Landaff to the college, January 



148 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

25, 1770. The competition for the location of the college began afresh. 
Governor Wentworth's views as to location were made known to Dr. 
Wheelock in a letter under date of January 29, 1770: "Upon the whole I 
consent to Bath, Landaff or Haverhill, the college to have at least one 
hundred acres adjoining, and to stand not less than a mile from the river." 
Col. Israel Morey of Orford wrote Dr. Wheelock that his judgment 
favored the selection of Haverhill. 

Col. Alexander Phelps, son-in-law of Dr. Wheelock, was the principal 
agent in securing the charter, and acted for him also in fixing the location. 
He set out Janaury 30, 1770, from Portsmouth for Coos, expecting to 
meet Dr. Wheelock there. In a letter to a correspondent that same day 
Dr. Wheelock wrote of the location "three towns are bidding for it, 
Haverhill, Orford and Hanover." This is the first mention of Hanover in 
any official correspondence, but in September, 1769, Dr. Edward Freeman 
of Mansfield, Conn., in writing to his son Jonathan who had settled in 
Hanover said, concerning the location of the college: "I have heard 
transiently that Dr. Wheelock thinks likely in Hanover, or in Orford, or 
in another town. I know not the name. The doctor, as I hear, says 
Hanover is settled with the most serious, steady inhabitants." Hanover 
and Lebanon, so far as they had been settled at all, had been settled from 
Connecticut, a fact not without significance. 

Colonel Phelps must have understood that he had authority from 
Dr. Wheelock to fix the location, in case he did not meet the latter in 
Coos. Leaving Portsmouth January 30, 1870, he spent the month of 
February and a large part of March in Coos. After a thorough examina- 
tion of the offers made he selected Haverhill and made contracts for the 
purchase of materials and the erection of the buildings. The site deter- 
mined upon as shown by plan, preserved in Chase's History of Dartmouth 
College, was just above the village of North Haverhill opposite the Great 
Oxbow, on the plain which was then the principal settlement of the town, 
and a part of which was later taken as a site for the Grafton County 
buildings. No more beautiful location could be imagined. 

Deeds of neighboring lands, partly given and partly purchased, on both sides the river, 
including some of the best of the Great Meadow were executed (some to the College and 
some to Wheelock) and deposited in the hands of Colonel Bailey, Colonel Porter and Mr. 
Coleman, awaiting Wheelock's acceptance. Of five thousand acres lying in Haverhill, 
Newbury and Bath, the subscriptions are preserved, running four-fifths to the college 
and one-fifth to Wheelock. Besides outlying lands, there were given 180 acres on and 
near the Great Oxbow, and 165 acres of adjoining high lands for business purposes. The 
plan exhibits but a part of it. There was a barn 45 feet by 30 completely finished and a 
small house 16 by 16, finished on the outside. There were also subscriptions for money, 
materials and labor (even down to the 'macking two pear of lethern briches') for which 
notes were to be given by June 1st, payable by October 1st with interest; and contracts 
were made for other materials and buildings. 1 

1 Chase's History of Dartmouth College, pp. 130, 131. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 149 

In the warrant for a meeting of the Haverhill proprietors to be held 
April 6, 1770, there was an article "to see if the proprietors would give 
anything to Dartmouth College, Dr. Wheelock, or Colonel Phelps, or 
either of them, as an 'incouragement' for said college being fixed in said 
township." The proprietors made generous response. They "voted to 
give to Rev d 'Elitzer' Wheelock, D. D., fifty acres of land in Haverhill 
lying on Capt. John Hazen's Mill Brook (Poole Brook) where there is a 
convenient waterfall for a mill and to be laid out in a convenient form for 
a mill, provided Dartmouth College should be located in Haverhill." 
These fifty acres would be near, if not indeed adjoining, the site selected 
by Colonel Phelps for the college, and were of the greatest possible 
value, in connection with the sawmill privilege, to aid in the erection of 
buildings. 

The official correspondence indicates that all these proceedings were 
known to Governor Went worth and had his cordial approval, and Colonel 
Phelps seems to have entertained no doubts as to his authority as the 
representative of Dr. Wheelock in determining on the Haverhill location. 
Colonel Phelps was not a Haverhill partisan. He had large interests in 
Orford, and at first made active to secure the location for that town, but 
he assented to a transfer of the Orford interest and support to Haverhill. 

The action of Colonel Phelps in selecting Haverhill led to a great out- 
cry on the part of the disappointed towns, and there was a union of the 
towns of Plainfield, Hartford, Lebanon, Norwich and Hanover in favor 
of the latter place. The interests of Hanover seem to have been placed 
in the hands of James March, an acquaintance of Dr. Wheelock and an 
early and prominent settler of the town, and he began a most active 
campaign. He wrote to Dr. Wheelock under date of March 13, 1770, 
attacking, at least by insinuation, Colonel Phelps: 

I would also take the liberty to inform you that the people in these parts imagine that 
the colonel (Colonel Phelps) does not give a fair representation, and they think not with- 
out reason for their imagination, for Mr. Powers has told John Wright that the colonel, 
being in company with Colonel Moulton, put the question whether Colonel Moulton 
would give him half his interest he had in Orford if he would get it in that town, adding 
that his interest there did not cost Colonel Moulton so much as it had cost him in that 
business, Colonel Moulton telling him that he would take it into consideration and send 
him a letter with the promise of fifty pounds if he should obtain it at Orford; at which 
Colonel Phelps showed great resentment for so trifling a sum being offered. This here, 
together with much of his talk, gave them to suspect that if he be not bribed, his is trying 
to advance his own interest. 

It became freely charged that Colonel Phelps had sold the college to 
Haverhill. His letter to Dr. Wheelock dated March 22, 1770, from 
Hebron, Conn., whither he had returned after concluding his negotiations 
at Haverhill which he believed to be final, speaks for itself. The follow- 
ing is a part: 



150 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

As you remember, I set out in the affair in November last expressly instructed by you 
to "transact the whole affair relative to said college according to my own prudence," 
with the advice of such as I should think fit to consult; also that when the charter should 
be obtained and recorded, then I should proceed to take the deeds of land given to the 
school and yourself, in doing which your express direction was that I should keep my 
"eye on getting as much land near and convenient for speedy improvement for the 
present support " of your family and school as might be, and that I should bring home the 
several offers to induce the preference for a site of the school in the several places, and 
the governors reasons for preferring the place we should choose to fix it in; and also that 
I should see what "materials for buildings might be had on the spot," viz.: Boards, etc. 
And in order to execute my commission, I was obliged to show the same to His Excel- 
lency and the rest of the Trustees in New Hampshire, who considered you as the prin- 
cipal actor in the whole affair, and as such acting with them by me, and I also considered 
myself as personating you in the whole affair. . . . The occasion of my writing at 
this time is a hint which is spreading that in my late tour in the affair of the college I 
acted without book, which is spread and is spreading by such persons as I fear you will 
have reason, when too late, to consider as angues in herbis, let their present connections 
with the college be ever so near, which hint, if it should reach the governor, will not serve 
any good purpose. ... I had the happiness to gain the governor's friendship to 
the college and to you, when it was most certainly very cold; and as I left him a hearty 
friend in these regards, I hope he will continue such. His friendship lost will hardly be 
regained. As to such lands, such laborers, etc., which I engaged, if it is likely you shall 
not have them, I wish I might know, if my knowing would not disserve your cause, 
that I might write to them, which I promised to do, and now have no opportunity. 

In the latter part of May or early in June Dr. Wheelock made his first 
visit to Coos, and visited the different towns which had made bids for the 
location of the college. He, of course, visited Haverhill, though there is 
no record of how long he remained. He was in Hanover the first week in 
June, when Colonel Phelps joined him and his party. Additional sub- 
scriptions to those already made for Hanover or Lebanon from Charles- 
town, Claremont, Cornish, Plainfield, Lebanon and Hanover, and from 
Hartford, Norwich and Hartland across the river, were handed in. He 
then proceeded to Campton. While there he received a letter from Gov- 
ernor Wentworth and the other Portsmouth trustees earnestly and unan- 
imously recommending that the college be built in Landaff, or if that 
were impracticable, in Haverhill. While at Plymouth Dr. Wheelock 
wrote his wife under date of June 25, and referring to the letter he had 
received from the Portsmouth trustees while at Campton said: "I am 
setting out tomorrow to wait upon the gentlemen, and hope to convince 
them that what they propose is impracticable. . . . Mr. Moses 
Little and Colonel Bayley are with me and design to set out tomorrow 
morning for Portsmouth." 

It is evident that Dr. Wheelock went to Portsmouth with his mind 
fully made up to locate the college in Hanover. On arriving there Colonel 
Bayley, who accompanied him, made his final appeal for Haverhill in the 
following letter : 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 151 

Portsmouth, June 29, 1770. 
Honb' 9 and Rev 1 — In the capacity of agent for the Towns of Newbury and Haverhill 
I promise and Ingage (if Dartmouth College is placed in said Haverhill in New Hamp 8 ) 
that out of the subscriptions of said Haverhill and Newbury and the town of Bath, that 
three thousand acres shall be laid out in a convenient farm at the Corner of Haverhill 
adjoining the southwest corner of the town of Landaff and one thousand acres more 
laid out in a gore in Bath adjoining said town of Landaff and the three thousand acres in 
Haverhill as above. And also engage to give five hundred acres more to the Honb Ie 
and Rev 1 Trust of said College for the use of said College in a handsome farm Round 
said College if it is set in s d Haverhill. Provided it is not set on Lands already laid out, 
which if it is, to lay out said Five Hundred next adjoining in a convenient form, as also to 
make and raise a frame for a Building two hundred feet long and Eighteen feet broad, 
one story high, or frame and labor to that value. The above I promise to perform 
at or before the first day of November next. The frame I promise to set on demand. 
Witness my hand, 

Jacob Bayley. 

The above offer of the 4,000 acres adjoining Landaff was in response to 
a request made by the governor and the Portsmouth trustees, as this 
would bring the college lands into one body, Landaff having been granted 
to the college. The 500 acres on which the college should be set would 
be the commodious and beautiful site above North Haverhill, overlook- 
ing the Oxbow, which had been selected and accepted by Colonel Phelps 
a few months before. 

But Dr. Wheelock had made up his mind. He wanted a town in 
which the college should be supreme, and Hanover offered to give him 
within its limits the smaller town of Dresden. Hanover and Lebanon 
had been granted to and thus far settled by friends and acquaintances of 
his from Connecticut, "more serious and steady" than the settlers of 
Haverhill, from Hampstead, and Haverhill and Newbury, Mass. It may 
also have been deemed by him that these Connecticut friends and ac- 
quaintances, would be more amenable to his wishes than men like Col. 
John Hurd, Col. Asa Porter, Jacob Bailey, Charles Johnston and men of 
like character and ability, who were the leading spirits in Haverhill. 
The choice was made of Hanover and Dr. Wheelock before the summer 
had passed was already living "in his log hut in the wilderness" almost 
before Haverhill had discovered that that which it had every reason to 
believe in March had been gained beyond question, was irrecoverably 
lost. It can be conjectured what might have been the history of the 
college in the light of subsequent events, but after all it would be only 
conjecture. Dr. Wheelock did not escape criticism, and attacks were 
numerously made in which his motives and honor were seriously 
impugned. 

The early settlers of Haverhill did not, because of their failure to secure 
the college, abandon efforts to provide facilities for a more liberal educa- 
tion than their town schools afforded. The controversy with the Pier- 



152 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

mont proprietors over the boundary between the two towns having been 
settled, the settlement at the disputed "Corner" began to grow and plans 
for an academy were made. In the latter part of 1792, or early in 1793, 
Col. Charles Johnston, Major Samuel Bliss, and John Page, with several 
others erected a building between the present Pearson hall and the new 
academy building in what was then Colonel Johnston's field, for an 
"academy and other purposes," and in 1794 the legislature granted an 
academy charter, the trustees named being the three above mentioned 
with the addition of the Rev. Ethan Smith. The petition for the charter 
set forth the erection of the building and that "a young gentleman (Moses 
P. Pay son, afterwards of Bath) had been employed and that about thirty 
pupils had already engaged in pursuit of an education in the arts and 
sciences." The object of the institution was stated to be "to promote 
religion, purity, virtue and morality, and for instruction in English, Latin 
and Greek languages; in writing, music and the art of speaking; in geom- 
etry, logic, geography, mathematics and such other branches of science as 
opportunity may furnish." The academy was one of the earliest in the 
state. Phillips at Exeter began its work ten years earlier in 1783. Apple- 
ton at New Ipswich was incorporated in 1789, Atkinson in 1790, and 
Gilmanton in the same year with the Haverhill institution. The first 
building of wood was burned in 1814, and this was succeeded by the brick 
building just a little north of the old, — now Pearson Hall — which was 
erected under the supervision of Edmund Stevens. The building as it 
stands at the present time after the lapse of more than a century, is a fine 
specimen of the architecture of the time, and furnishes ample evidence of 
the thorough workmanship and good taste of the builder. 

The establishment of the academy was a prominent factor in promoting 
the growth of the village, and with the later removal of the courts from 
Horse Meadow, and the centreing of the various stage lines, Haverhill 
Corner became in a few years the leading and most prominent village in 
northern New Hampshire. The influence of the institution in promoting 
the culture and refinement for which the village was early notable is 
hardly to be overestimated, while its wider influence in the life work of its 
hundreds, if not thousands of pupils in town, state and nation is incal- 
culable. In the first half century of its existence and for some years 
later, it furnished Dartmouth College with an exceptionally large number 
of students. Its early rolls or catalogues have not been preserved, but a 
comparison of some of the earliest with the Dartmouth general catalogue 
show that thirty per cent of the young men on its rolls were also gradu- 
ates of Dartmouth. 

Some of the early lists of students, with the number of weeks attendance 
and the amount charged for tuition, which were reported by preceptors to 
trustees are still in existence and these are interesting as indicating the 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 



153 



families availing themselves of the privileges furnished by the new educa- 
tional institution. There were forty students in attendance for the term 
or quarter beginning December 2, 1801 and ending March 1, 1802. The 
list is as follows: 



Clark Atkinson 
Harriet Sprague 
Michael Gray 
Samuel C. Webster 
Amos Bailey 
Charles Johnston 
Deborah Corliss 
Sukey Swift 
Samuel Brooks, Jr. 
George Brooks 
Joseph Boynton 
Charles Boynton 
Cinthia Boynton 



William Smith 
Sukey Smith 
Rebecca Gilman 
Ephraim Corliss 
Eliza Webster 
Harriet Webster 
Sukey Webster 
John Page, Jr. 
William G. Page 
Samuel Page 
Louisa Corliss 
Sally Johnston 
Hannah Johnston 
William Tarleton 



Esther Miller 
Charles Bailey 
Sukey Ladd 
Olive Bailey 
Levi Gleason 
Phineas Mitchell 
Hannah Ladd 
Phineas Bailey 
Joshua Whittier 
Agur Piatt 
Grove Sanders 
Moses Webster 
Haynes Johnston 



Clark Atkinson was a Latin scholar, and the tuition charged for 
eleven and two-thirds weeks was $2.33. The other thirty-nine are listed 
in English, geography, etc., and the tuition bill was $1.96 each. 

In the third quarter of 1805, ending August 24, consisting of fourteen 
weeks there were sixty students in attendance. The tuition charge was 
$2.80. The list of pupils is interesting as showing the changes which had 
taken place in the personnel of students: 



William Smith 
George W. Brooks 
Hannah Brooks 
Michael Johnston 
John Osgood, Jr. 
Paul Sprague 
Joseph Edmunds 
Charles Johnston 
James Morris 
Chas. Eastman 
Walter Webster 
David Tyler 
Nancy Lee 
Hannah Dow 
George Howard 
Samuel Janes 
Nath 1 Mitchell 
Miss Ramsey 
Betsey Cross 
Miss Vaner 



George K. Montgomery 
Mira Montgomery 
Ralph Webster 
Sukey Webster 
Lucy Boynton 
Caleb Knapp 
Samuel Gookin 
Caleb Stevens 
Henry Ward 
Nathaniel Merrill 
Ebenezer Little 
Sukey Smith 
Fanny Smith 
Eliza Smith 
Sally Elkins 
Samuel Pearson 
Joseph McKean 
Polly Pearson 
Sally Ward 
Parkhurst 



Cynthia Boynton 
Jonathan Burnham 
Caroline Bliss 
Harriet Sprague 
Paul Sprague 
Lydia Ball 
Sukey Ball 
John Ford 
James Gould 
Lucinda Merrill 
Edmund Carleton 
Harry Woodward 
Gardner Smith 
Noah Kimball 
Dorcas Kimball 
Timo. Bedel 
Mary Bedel 
Laban Ladd 
Levi Ladd 
J. Sanborn 



It is greatly to be regretted that all these early lists have not been 
preserved, but the names in those here given are familiar to those who have 



154 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

acquainted themselves with the early history of the town. They sug- 
gest the character of the families which in its early years were patrons of 
the academy. 

It is the character of the teacher which counts for the success or failure 
of a school, and the list of preceptors of the academy from the beginning 
till 1880 when it was merged into the town school system is a notable one. 
In his address at the centennial anniversary of the academy, in 1897, the 
Rev. J. L. Merrill gave an exceptionally interesting sketch of these pre- 
ceptors of which liberal use is here made with grateful acknowledgment. 

Moses P. Payson was the first preceptor, who later as a resident of 
Bath, accumulated a fortune and won an enviable reputation in both 
branches of the state legislature. He was succeeded in 1796, by Thomas 
Snell who remained but one year, later studying theology, became a 
clergyman of prominence, dying in 1862 at the advanced age of 87. 
He was followed in 1797 by Sebastian Cabot, who also became a clergy- 
man and lived till 1853. Stephen P. Webster, a graduate of Harvard, 
in the years of his administration, left his impress on both school and 
town. He was prominent in the affairs of the town and was honored 
by his townsmen with every official position within their gift. William 
Lambert, 1800-05, later entered the legal profession. Abner Emerson 
was principal in 1805, and was succeeded in 1806 by David Shaw who 
graduated from Dartmouth in that year. During his long career as a 
lawyer in Haverhill, he maintained an active interest in the academy, 
and served it as trustee. Joseph Bell was principal in 1807, studied 
law later, was admitted to the bar in 1811, and became one of the most 
prominent in his profession both in New Hampshire and later in Boston. 
Ephraim Kingsbury was principal in 1807-11, and was succeeded by 
Isaac Patterson, who graduated from Dartmouth in 1812. Charles John- 
ston who became preceptor in 1813 was a grandson of Col. Charles John- 
ston. He later studied theology with Rev. Grant Powers and Dr. Lyman 
Beecher and entered the Presbyterian ministry. Joseph Merrill, a 
Dartmouth graduate of the class of 1814, taught while studying law with 
Joseph Bell, but became a Congregational minister and was pastor in 
Dracut, Mass., at a time when all the Congregationalists of Lowell 
attended his church. E. J. Boardman, who was the first principal in the 
new brick academy, taught in 1816-17, and was followed by Cyrus P. 
Grosvenor in 1818, whose administration was not successful. Later he 
won an enviable reputation as an educator, and was president of Central 
College, New York. Jesse Kimball, who succeeded him, made a deep 
impression for good upon his pupils. He was followed for one year by 
Joseph Porter who in turn was succeeded by Andrew Mack, who had 
been a tutor at Dartmouth, before coming to Haverhill and who re- 
mained for a period of seven years, the school enjoying a period of great 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 155 

prosperity, a large number of its graduates going to Dartmouth. Nathan 
G. Dow taught for a year, became a lawyer in Boston, winning marked 
success in his profession. 

In 1829 Ephraim Kingsbury again became the head of the school, and 
made efforts to raise its standard and extend its scope. Mr. Kingsbury 
was for many years a resident of Haverhill, was a lawyer by profession, 
but was active in many directions, was town clerk, treasurer, register of 
deeds for many years, superintendent of schools, secretary of the academy 
trustees and was regarded as an authority in matters educational. Infirm- 
ities of temper, however, extravagance of speech and conduct often 
brought him into needless collision with his pupils, his townsmen and 
his brethren in the church, leading to his excommunication from the 
latter. Arthur Livermore says of him: "Kingsbury was of comely 
proportions; his pale face denoted refinement, reserve, and the infirm 
health that made him irritable. I remember him and his cleanly office, 
redolent of paper and the folios which covered the walls." Though 
excommunicated from the Congregational Church, he evidently did not 
become a Methodist. On one occasion while those of the latter faith were 
holding a tent meeting on the Common and were somewhat demonstrative 
"Squire Kingsbury went to the door of the tent and read the riot act to 
the meeting." He removed to Connecticut about 1834 and later to New 
York where he died in 1855. An example of his extravagance of speech 
was furnished in an address he made against the acceptance by the town 
of a piece of bank wall on the Oliverian highway when he said of the stone 
used in its construction, "I could put any three stones in it in my eye 
and wink with perfect ease." 

Mr. Kingsbury was succeeded by Ambrose Vose, an experienced 
teacher who remained one year, when Joseph T. Bodwell was principal 
for ten years. During his term he was assisted by his Dartmouth class- 
mate, John Lord, later Dr. John Lord, lecturer and historian. There 
was never but one John Lord. While teaching in the academy he had a 
name for each of his pupils, suggested by some individual peculiarity. 
He became a Congregationalist clergyman. He was not adapted to parish 
work, but was delightful on the platform, and his "Modern History for 
Schools," "The Old Roman World," "Ancient States and Empires'" and 
"Beacon Lights of History" are his monument as a historian. His 
examination for ordination to the ministry, before a Council of Congrega- 
tional ministers and laymen is said to have been a somewhat drastic one. 
His eccentricities were even then suspected as was also his thorough 
orthodoxy. "Mr. Lord," said one of his venerable inquisitors, when 
the subject of disinterested benevolence had been broached, "would 
you be willing to be damned for the glory of God?" "I have not yet 
arrived at that state of grace," the harassed candidate replied, "but I 



156 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

am willing this Council should be." He was ordained. He was a 
thoroughgoing, extreme independent, or Congregationalist in matters of 
church polity. He simply had no use whatever for ritual, no sympathy 
or tolerance for the rites and ceremonies of the Protestant Episcopal 
church. He intended his only son for the Congregational ministry. 
He was not a brilliant boy, but had managed to get his A. B. at Dart- 
mouth, and was to enter Andover according to his father's plan. During 
the vacation season, however, he electrified his father one morning at 
breakfast by saying, "I've decided not to go to Andover. I am going 
to be an Episcopal minister, and wish to go to the seminary in New 
York." The plans and hopes cherished by Dr. Lord for years were 
rudely shattered, but he acquiesced. "I think you have, perhaps, decided 
rightly, the Episcopal ministry is your appropriate place; you will make 
your mark; you have no brains, no learning, no religion, God help you." 
The son did not live to realize either his own ambitions or those of his 
father. Mr. Bodwell after his two years service in the academy took a 
theological course at Highbury College, London, on the advice of Mr. 
Gibbs, then pastor at Haverhill, and his first pastoral charge was in 
England where he married. Trained to speak without manuscript, he 
was much in request as a lecturer and as preacher on special occasions 
after his return to this country. He was for many years previous to his 
death, professor in the Hartford, Conn., Theological Seminary. 

Peter T. Washburn was the successor of Mr. Bodwell. He later became 
distinguished at the Vermont bar, and was governor of the state having 
previously rendered distinguished service in the war for the Union. 
Daniel F. Merrill was principal in 1836-37. He was of the Dartmouth 
class of 1836, a born educator, and the best part of his life was devoted to 
teaching. He left, on account of his health, after two years service, and 
taught in Mobile, Ala., for upwards of twenty years. He returned to the 
academy again in the autumn of 1860, and was at its head till 1865, when 
he went to Washington as clerk in the Treasury Department for a period 
of twenty years. 

H. H. Benson was principal in 1838, and later became a Congregation- 
alist clergyman. He was succeeded in the fall of 1839 by John P. Hum- 
phrey, who, like many of his predecessors, became a Congregational 
clergyman, and for twenty years was a successful pastor in Winchester, 
later in St. Johnsbury, Vt., and Winchendon, Mass. H. H. Hazeltine. 
a classmate at Dartmouth, succeeded him as preceptor of the academy 
while the building was occupied by the courts. After the trustees had 
come into full possession of the academy, an opportunity was given for 
greatly enlarging the scope of the work. Thorough repairs with neces- 
sary alterations were made in the interior of the building and in 1846 Rev. 
Herman Rood became head of the school with Miss Catherine Hitchcock 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 157 

as lady principal. There had previously been a separate department for 
girls which had been sustained for much of the time from 1818 to 1832. 
At the head of this had been Miss Ruth Phelps Morse, Miss Harriet 
Marsh and Miss Kent, whose school won deservedly a fine reputation. 
Her schoolroom was on the second floor of Henry Towle's building. Miss 
Hitchcock, assisted by Misses Susan and Jane Rood, in French, instru- 
mental music and drawing, gave the separate girls department great 
popularity. She was the daughter of President Hitchcock of Amherst 
College and became the wife of the Rev. H. M. Storrs, D. D. She was 
succeeded by Miss Lucinda R. Dewey in 1847. When Mr. Rood resigned 
in 1849 the academy passed under the control of Rev. John R. Beane, a 
retired teacher then living in Haverhill, who agreed to maintain a female 
seminary for three years if the trustees would guarantee him the sum of 
two hundred dollars a year, which they did. Among the teachers in this 
period were Mrs. Laura M. Carpenter, Miss Hannah Page and Miss 
Catherine McKean. With the expiration of Mr. Beane's contract in 
1852, the school struggled under adverse circumstances until 1854, when 
the trustees came to its assistance with a guarantee fund of five hundred 
dollars a year, and secured the services as principal of Edward A. Charl- 
ton, a graduate that year of Dartmouth, who had good success during the 
single year of his administration. He was the author of " New Hampshire 
As It Is." Chandler Richards, Dartmouth '55, succeeded him in 1855, 
and Halsey J. Boardman, and Edward M. Denny were teachers in 1856 
and 1857. Mr. Boardman became a successful Boston lawyer, and Mr. 
Denny rendered distinguished service in the Civil War. Miss Mandana 
F. Buswell was assistant principal from 1854 to 1857, when she became 
principal for the next four years, and she was succeeded by Daniel F. 
Merrill who remained at the head of the institution till 1865, when Miss 
Buswell returned for part of the year. Benjamin M. Hill taught in 1867 
and Dr. Kelley in 1869. 

During the next ten years, until in 1880, the academy was merged into 
the public school system, the trustees granted the use of some of the 
rooms in the building to parties who conducted private schools, and in the 
latter part of this period school districts numbers One and Seventeen 
were given accommodations in the building for district school purposes. 
When the academy became in 1880 a part of the town school system, it 
retained and still retains its old corporate name of Haverhill Academy, 
though as a public high school, its work is upon different material, its 
course of study, and its aims and purposes are different from those of the 
old historic academy. Its subsequent history has been that of the public 
school system. 

The New England academy filled an important place in the develop- 
ment of New England character and life, and among these New England 



158 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

academies that of Haverhill holds an honored place. Scores and hun- 
dreds of its graduates have filled positions of prominence and usefulness 
in public and private life. It never had the benefit of an endowment, 
except the comparatively small sum of five hundred dollars, the gift of 
Mrs. Mary P. Webster. It depended on the sums received from tuition, 
and the contributions made by trustees and others to meet current ex- 
penses. Its existence was a standing example of and lesson in self- 
reliance. Many pupils did such work as came to their hands to earn 
money to pay board and tuition, and in the first half of the last century 
"high cost of living " had not been invented. One dollar a week would pay 
all necessary expenses except those for tuition and textbooks. Nathan 
Clifford, afterward associate justice of the United States Supreme Court, 
came up from Rumney and did night and morning chores for his board, 
in the home of John Nelson, and there were many others. Arthur Liver- 
more, who was a boy student in 1819-20, in his reminiscences at the 
Continental in 1891, mentions among the pupils of his time, Andrew S. 
Woods, chief-justice of New Hampshire; Levi Bartlett and Horace N. 
Soper, successful in medicine and law in New York; Benjamin W. 
Bouney, a leading lawyer in New York City; and Warren D. Gookin, 
Cuban sugar planter and New York shipping merchant. Some of the 
names of others who were students both in former and later years, and 
who have won distinction in professional and business life indicate the 
usefulness of the institution. Among those entering the ministry may be 
mentioned Michael Gray, Charles Johnston, Stephen S. and Carlos 
Smith, sons of the Rev. Ethan Smith, John L. Benjamin and Charles H. 
Merrill, sons of Dea. Abel K. Merrill, Levi Rodgers, Franklin P. Wood, 
Charles H. Barstow, Charles N. Flanders, and Lucian H. Tracy. The 
names of George Barstow, lawyer and historian; John Kimball, lawyer in 
New Hampshire and Vermont; Alfred Barstow, lawyer and jurist in 
California; Prescott Hunt, manufacturer in Boston; James W. Bell, 
successful decorator; William Merrill, New York banker and broker; 
Joseph B. Morse, educator; Peabody A. Morse, lawyer and jurist in 
Louisiana and California; George W. Morse, distinguished inventor; 
Thos. L. Nelson, lawyer and U. S. circuit judge; Isaac S. Morse, prom- 
inent Massachusetts lawyer; James H. Pearson, wholesale lumber dealer,, 
Chicago; John A. Page, banker and Vermont state treasurer; John 
Reding, Boston commission merchant; Jonathan B. Rowell, lawyer and 
congressman, Illinois; Lyman D. Stevens, successful lawyer in Concord; 
Edward B. Wilson, wholesale dry goods merchant, Boston; Nathaniel 
Wilson, successful lawyer in Maine; Moses S. Page, watch and diamond 
dealer, Boston ; — these are a few who went out from the academy to win 
more than ordinary success, position and fortune. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 159 

Of the influence of the academy on the village and town of Haverhill 
the Rev. J. L. Merrill in his centennial address fitly said : 

The village of Haverhill owes its early reputation for culture and refinement largely 
to the academy. The fact that the courts sat here and were frequented by the most able 
lawyers in New Hampshire, when Ezekiel Webster, Jeremiah Smith and John Sullivan 
were members of the bar, was no small advantage to the place. Neither was it any slight 
thing that the Congregational church of the village was one of the strongest and most 
intelligent in this vicinity, and Rev. Ethan Smith lifted high the standard of ministerial 
requirements for this church. The travelers also that passed through here from north, 
south, east and west were not, of course, an unmixed blessing but they gave the citizens 
of Haverhill the opportunity of meeting a great variety of people, and the intermingling 
of divers characters helps to polish the mass. More potent, however, than all things 
else was the academy, to keep high the standard of intellectual attainment. 

Few families felt that they had done their duty if they had not given their children a 
taste of academic culture, continuing them in this school from one term to several years, 
according to the appetite of the pupil and the financial ability of the parents. Parents 
who were not self moved to do this felt the contagion of their environment. It was the 
thing to do in Haverhill, and consequently people who might not have thought of it in 
some places gave their children academic advantages here. 

The academy had a strong influence on the district schools of the town 
and vicinity. The fall and spring terms were the fullest. In the first 
quarter of the last century 8 per cent of the young men in attendance at 
the fall term were teaching district schools in winter. The institution 
was normal school as well as academy. 

The academy as a part of the public school system of the town has 
maintained excellent rank as a high school, and in doing the work of such 
school it has had principals and teachers well qualified, fit successors of 
the old academy principals and teachers. It is the teacher after all that 
makes the school. Better results have been secured by the erection of 
the new academy building which was formally dedicated in 1897. In 
these latter years it has been greatly aided by the income from the hand- 
some bequest of the late Samuel F. Southard amounting to about $10,000 
— a bequest the more notable in that it was made by one who only enjoyed 
the privileges of the academy for a comparatively brief time, and who was 
not a native of the town, and in that it constitutes the only permanent fund 
by which the school benefits. Mr. Southard was born in Charlestown, 
May 17, 1813 [see Genealogy] and came to Haverhill with his parents 
when but nine years of age. His father, Aaron Southard, with his twin 
brother Moses, purchased the Col. Asa Porter farm, and on the portion 
which fell to his lot after the death of his father, he spent his life an enter- 
prising, successful farmer. He was successful because he merited and 
won success. "A citizen of sterling integrity, kind and generous feelings, 
frank and manly bearing, he enjoyed the friendship and esteem of the 
leading men of his section of the state." He died May 4, 1893, and Ha- 
verhill Academy was made his residuary legatee. 



160 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

The old academy building was by no means abandoned when the new 
one was erected in 1896-97. When the question arose as to the disposi- 
tion to be made of it Mr. James H. Pearson of Chicago, a former resident, 
offered to put it in repair, and convert its interior into a village hall and 
library. This he did, and the first floor is now transformed into a hand- 
some and commodious hall, with convenient stage and stairways leading 
to the dressing room above. On the second floor is kitchen, banquet 
room on one side and on the other there was a well furnished room for 
the free library until it was removed to the county building on Court 
Street in 1916. The building is still the property of the Haverhill Acad- 
emy, and furnishes supplementary advantages and privileges for the 
school. 

In what Haverhill has done and attempted to do in educational matters, 
she has no reason to decline comparison with other towns in the state. 
Indeed the town may well be proud of its educational history. 

By the first division of the town into school districts, four were created 
all on the river. As population increased these were divided and sub- 
divided until before the return to the town system of schools there had 
been no less than twenty districts, each with a schoolhouse of its own, 
though some of them had been abandoned for school purposes; but divi- 
sion and subdivision having spent its course reunion and consolidation 
had already set in. These twenty districts were situated in different 
parts of the town something as follows : 

1. Haverhill Corner, south of the Brook, now part of the Academy dis- 
trict. 

2. Ladd Street. 

3. North Haverhill. 

4. Pine Plain, house on the river road near Bath line, now transformed 
into a dwelling. 

5. Brier Hill, house on main road known as Pine Plain district. 

6. East Haverhill, house near foot of Morse Hill, in what has been 
known as Jeffers neighborhood. 

7. Union district with Piermont, abandoned. 

8. Pike. 

9. Haverhill Centre, house now demolished, stood at junction of Lime- 

kiln, and County road to Benton. 

10. Haverhill Centre, house at junction of County road, and road leading 
to Colby hill. 

11. Brier Hill, house stood on road leading from main road to Swift water. 

12. Horse Meadow, little brick school house now transformed into a 
tea house. 

13. Woodsville, now as Woodsville Union High School district separate 
and distinct from the town system of schools. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 161 

14. East Haverhill. 

15. District of which the old stone town hall was the centre. 

16. On the Pond road to the road leading from Swiftwater to Benton, 
school building not now standing. 

17. Haverhill Corner, south of Court Street, now part of Academy- 
district. 

18. On the road about midway between "the Brook" and Pike, aban- 

doned. 

19. The Powers district, on river road between North Haverhill and Ladd 

Street, abandoned. 

20. Limekiln district, house stood near top of hill on road from No. 9 
to No. 6, abandoned. 

Under the town system schools have been abandoned in districts num- 
bered 4, 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 19 and 20. 



12 



CHAPTER IX 



CIVIC AND POLITICAL 

Town Meetings from 1800 till 1918 — What Was Done and What Failed — New 
Names — Exciting Events — New Town Hall and Clerk's Office — Town 
See-sawed — Appropriations Grew Larger Year by Year. 

Haverhill town meetings have usually indicated an active interest on 
the part of the voters not only in matters pertaining exclusively to 
the town, but to those of the state and nation as well. With the 
beginning of the nineteenth century party lines began to be drawn, and in 
no state in the Union perhaps was there a more rigid regard for such lines, 
both in state and nation, than in New Hampshire, and Haverhill was 
imbued with the New Hampshire spirit. 

Until 1788, there were no November elections, except quadrennially 
for presidential elections. State and county officers were voted for at the 
annual March meeting, when town officers were chosen, appropriations 
made and other necessary town business was transacted. For many 
years New Hampshire's vote in March was the first in the great national 
campaigns, and as an indication of the temper of the people, and a sign 
of the times, it excited national interest. Times were seldom dull politi- 
cally in New Hampshire, and Haverhill was a typical New Hampshire 
town. Voters kept themselves informed on the issues of the day. Town 
meetings were spirited affairs, frequently lasting two days once indeed 
seven days. Politically the town see-sawed, and elections were often 
close, and the contests were often productive of intense bitterness of 
feeling between neighbors. National, state and local politics had its 
influence on educational affairs, on religion, and social life. The town 
meetings, with their results, were a reflex of town life, and furnished a most 
interesting field for study. The votes taken, the appropriations made 
mark the progress of the town. The list of town officials, even the minor 
ones, tell the story of "Who's been Who" in Haverhill. The list of 
moderators, clerks, treasurers, selectmen and representatives to the 
General Court will be found in a separate chapter. 

1801. At the annual town meeting, March 10, at house of Samuel 
Bailey, officers chosen were: Collector of taxes, John Kimball, who was 
lowest bidder for the office, 16 cents on the £; constables, Daniel Stevens, 
Moses Porter; highway surveyors, Jona. Elkins, Avery Sanders, Moody 
Bedel, Ezekiel Ladd, Joshua Howard, Charles Bruce, John Sanborn; 
fence viewers, John Page, Joshua Howard ; surveyors of lumber, Stephen 

162 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 163 

Morse, John Clark; tythingmen, William Cross, William Abbott; 
hogreeves, Joseph Bliss, Cyrus Alden, John Montgomery, Richardson 
French. The vote for governor was, John Taylor Gilman, Fedr. 61; 
Timothy Walker, Rep. 12. 

1802. Annual meeting at meeting house. Collector, Capt. Daniel 
Stevens; constables, Daniel Stevens, Zechariah Bacon; Highway sur- 
veyors, Michael Johnston, Avery Sanders, Ephraim Skinner, Joseph 
Ladd, Nathaniel Runnells, Stephen Morse, John Kimball, Joshua How- 
ard; surveyors of lumber, Stephen Morse, Jr., Richard Gookin, Moody 
Bedel; tythingmen, Jacob Woodward, Charles Bruce; sealer of weights 
and measures, Benjamin Standring; hogreeves, Stephen Morse, 3d, 
Samuel Ladd, Daniel Stevens, Jahhleel Willis, Daniel S. George, Moses 
Abbott, Moses Horn; vote for governor, John T. Gilman, 58: John 
Langdon, 18. Appropriations: for highways, $600; schools, $333.34; 
town charges, $200; preaching, $300. 

1803. Annual meeting at house of Joshua Howard. Collector of 
taxes, Moses Abbott at 5 cents on a dollar; constables, Moses Abbott, 
Daniel Stevens; highway surveys, David Webster, Avery Sanders, 
John Montgomery, Phineas Ayer, William Dame, Samuel Gould, John 
Kimball, Ebenezer Whitaker; surveyors of lumber, Uriah Ward, 
Nathaniel Merrill; fence viewers, Nathaniel Merrill, John Page; 
tythingmen, Amos Horn, William Abbott; hogreeves, David Stevens, 
Bryan Kay, Uriah Ward; vote for governor, John T. Gilman, Federalist, 
74; John Langdon, Republican, 22. Appropriations: highways, $600; 
schools, $333.34; bridges, $70; town charges, $200; sexton for ringing 
meeting house bell one year, $25. Voted for " smallpox by way of inocula- 
tion." 

1804. Annual meeting at meeting house, March 13. Vote for 
governor, John T. Gilman, Federalist, 86; John Langdon, Republican, 
29. A board of assessors was chosen for the first time, Moody Bedel, 
Nathaniel Merrill, John Montgomery. Appropriations: highways, on 
Main road, $300; on back roads, $300; town charges, $100. 

At the meeting November 5, for election of presidential electors, the 
Federal ticket headed by Oliver Peabody received 81 votes; the Jeffer- 
sonian or Democratic ticket headed by John Goddard, 33. New Hamp- 
shire, by a narrow margin, swung away from Federation and voted for 
Jefferson. 

1805. Annual meeting, March 12, at dwelling house of Benjamin 
Morrison. Vote for governor, John Taylor Gilman, Fed., 90; John 
Langdon, Dem., 64. Party lines were not so closely drawn as to prevent 
Charles Johnston, Federalist from receiving 135 votes for treasurer, and 
Samuel Brooks, another Haverhill Federalist, the same number, only 
one vote being cast against each. 



164 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

1806. Annual meeting at meeting house, March 11. Vote for gov- 
ernor, John Langdon, Democrat, 75; Oliver Peabody, 55. The Demo- 
crats also elected their candidate for representative to General Court, 
Nathaniel Merrill, but Samuel Brooks, Federalist, received 131 votes for 
register of deeds, practically a unanimous vote. Collector of taxes, Moody 
Bedel, at 3 cents on a dollar; constables, Moody Bedel, Zacheus Bacon; 
highway surveyors, Amos Blood, John Pike, Richard Gookin, Nathaniel 
Merrill, Amos Kimball, Ephraim Wesson, Ebenezer Whitaker; surveyors 
of lumber, Jacob Ladd, Peter Johnson; surveyor of wood and sealer 
of weights and measures, Samuel Brooks; tythingmen, Samuel Ladd, 
Peter Johnson; poundkeeper, Samuel Ladd; hogreeves, Joseph Elkins, 
George Woodward, David Mitchell, Isaac Pearson, James Sanders, 
Zach. Bacon, Moses Morse, Jacob Abbott. Appropriations: schools, 
$300; highways, $500, in labor; town charges, $200. 

1807. Annual meeting at meeting house, North Parish, March 10. 
Governor vote, John Langdon, Democrat, 66; Oliver Peabody, Federalist, 
34. In the entire state this year only 16,861 votes were cast, of which 
Langdon received 13,912. Collector, Zach. Bacon, 3 cents on the dollar; 
constables, Zach. Bacon, Jacob L. Corliss; highway surveyors, Michael 
Johnston, Uriah Ward, Richard Gookin, Timothy A. Edson, Richardson 
French, John Kimball, Caleb Morse; fence viewers, John Page, Zachariah 
Bacon; surveyor of lumber, Gen. Moody Bedel, Capt. Stephen Morse; 
tythingmen, Mr. John Smith (he had been deposed from the ministry 
a year earlier, for gross immorality), Andrew S. Crocker, Esq.; pound- 
keepers, Samuel Ladd, Nathaniel Merrill; sealer of weights and measures, 
Samuel Brooks; hogreeves, James Porter, John Jeffers, Jesse Woodward, 
Zach. Bacon, Edward King. Appropriations: schools, $300; town 
charges, $200; bridge and highways, $800, one third to be paid in money 
to be laid out under the direction of the selectmen. Voted to allow 
David Ladd $40 on account of sickness in his family. 

1808. Annual Meeting, South Parish meeting house, March 8. 
Governor vote, John Langdon, Democrat, 10; Oliver Peabody, Feder- 
alist, 20; John T. Gilman, Fed. 1. Collector, Capt. Stephen Morse at 
3 cents on the dollar; constables, J. L. Corliss, Zach. Bacon; highway 
surveyors, Ephraim Kingsbury, Clark Woodward, Ezekiel Ladd, Jr., 
John True, John Kimball, Cyrus Allen, Ebenezer Whitaker, Asa Ladd; 
fence viewers, Michael Johnston, Zach. Bacon; surveyors of lumber, 
Richard Gookin, Stephen Morse; tythingman, William Cross; sealer 
of weights and measures, Samuel Brooks; sealer of leather, Richard 
Gookin; hogreeves, John Nelson, Esq., John C. Butler, Edward Towle, 
James Abbott, Jr., Z. Bacon, Caleb Morse. Appropriations: highways, 
$800, $300 in money to be laid out by the selectmen; schools, $350; town 
charges, $400. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 165 

At the meeting November 4, 1808, for voting for presidential electors, 
a decided political change appeared. The policy of the Jefferson admin- 
istration was disapproved by a vote of 122 for the Federalist electoral 
ticket headed by Jeremiah Smith, to 59 for the Democratic ticket headed 
by John Langdon. 

1809. Annual meeting at North meeting house, March 14. Gov- 
ernor vote, Jeremiah Smith, Federalist, 123; John Langdon, Democrat 
47. The embargo laws had aroused New Hampshire as well as the rest 
of New England, and Langdon who had been elected governor the year 
before, almost without opposition, was defeated by the Federalist candi- 
date, Smith. In Haverhill there was a Federalist landslide. Collector, 
Stephen Morse; constables, Stephen Morse, Jacob Williams; highway 
surveyors, Jonathan Nelson, John Montgomery, Moody Ladd, David 
Merrill, Jacob Bailey, John Carr, John Jeffers, Asa Ladd; fence viewers, 
Nathaniel Merrill, Michael Johnston; surveyors of lumber, Timothy B. 
Bayley, R. Goodkin, John True; tythingman, Stephen Morse; sealer of 
weights and measures, Samuel Brooks ; sealer of leather, Richard Gookin. 
Article 14 of the town meeting warrant was: "To express by vote or 
resolutions the opinion of the town upon the alarming state of public 
affairs." John Nelson, George Woodward and Nathaniel Merrill were 
appointed a committee to take the article into consideration and before 
the meeting adjourned they reported lengthy and elaborate resolutions, 
evidently carefully prepared beforehand, which were adopted and the 
selectmen were ordered "to get them printed in the Coos Courier. These 
resolutions passed were the following: 

Resolved As the sense of this meeting that the present situation of our country both in 
its internal and external relations is truly interesting and alarming, and furnishes an 
extraordinary occasion for the expression of public opinion. 

Resolved That we hold it an essential and established right secured both by our 
Fraternal and State constitutions, and on great and extraordinary conjunctions, the 
solemn duty of the people peaceably to assemble and express their sentiments and 
consult together for the common good. While the citizens now assembled claim this 
right and vindicate this truth, they disclaim the principle of resistance to any Constitu- 
tional law of their country. They claim merely the right to express their solemn and 
dispassionate opinion of the measures of their rulers, and to bring their complaints before 
them, believing, that elevated to power for the benefit of the people, and accountable 
to them for the correctness of their conduct in office, they will be inclined to respect the 
opinions and listen to the complaints of their constituents. . . . 

Resolved That we have viewed with deep regret and concern the total destruction of 
our foreign, and the increasing embarrasments imposed upon our domestic commerce 
by certain laws of the United States called the Embargo laws. Nor are our anxiety 
and concern in any way diminished by the extraordinary measures in which the same 
laws have been enforced. Indeed the late law enforcing the Embargo has called forth 
our astonishment and surprise. We have been anxious for the safety of our public 
Rights and Liberties. We have feared that the Constitution of our Country has been 
violated. . . . 



166 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Resolved That we are ready to expose ourselves to any hazard and to meet any sacrifice 
of life or fortune to preserve the peace, safety, honor and liberties of our Country when- 
ever they shall be in danger. 

Resolved That in the opinion of the citizens now assembled, the Embargo Policy, 
adopted and persevered in by the late administration, has not consulted the dignity nor 
interest of the Nation, nor have the immense sacrifices and losses thereby imposed upon 
the people been called for by the safety, honor, or independence of the United States. 

These resolutions and other of like towns reveal the feeling which existed 
throughout New England, and which was especially dominant in Haverhill. 
Smith was elected governor over Langdon by a majority of about 250 in 
a total vote of nearly 31,000, and for the next six years the parties in this 
state were nearly equally divided. The Democrats did not return to 
power in Haverhill till 1816. Appropriations: highways, $800, $300 to be 
paid in money; schools, $400; town charges, $300; to hire preaching $200. 

1810. Annual meeting, South meeting house, March 13. Vote for 
governor, Jeremiah Smith, 120; John Langdon, 77. Chas. Johnston and 
Samuel Brooks no longer received unanimous votes for county treasurer 
and registrar of deeds, respectively. They each had their party vote and 
no more. Collector of taxes, Stephen Morse at 2| cents; constables, 
Stephen Morse, Jacob Williams; highway surveyors, Josiah Elkins, 
John Pike, Benjamin Swan, Nathaniel Merrill, Jacob Bailey, Stephen 
Morse, 2d, Ebenezer Whitaker, David Clark; fence viewers, Michael 
Johnston, Jacob Bailey; sealer of leather, Richard Gookin; tythingman, 
Stephen Morse; hogreeves, William Burston, Timothy Bedel, James 
Morse, Joseph Morse, John S. Sanborn, Alpheus Ladd. Appropriations: 
highways, $800; schools, $400; town charges, $300. It was voted not 
to hire preaching. 

1811. Annual meeting, North meeting house, March 12. Governor 
vote, John Langdon, Democrat, 65; Jeremiah Smith, Federalist, 106. 
Collector of taxes and constable, Stephen Morse; highway surveyors, 
Isaac Pearson, George Woodward, John Smith, Thomas Morse, Jacob 
Bayley, Charles Bruce, Billy Porter, David Clark; fence viewers, 
Richard Gookin, Nathaniel Merrill; sealer of weights and measures, 
Jacob Williams; tythingmen, Stephen Morse, Joseph Pearson; sur- 
veyors of lumber, Timothy B. Bailey, Stephen Morse; hogreeves, Joseph 
Jones, Jr., Moses Campbell. Appropriations: highways, $700; schools, 
amount required by law; town charges, $400. 

1812. Annual meeting, South meeting house, March 10. Governor 
vote, John Taylor Gilman, Fed., 95; William Plumer, Dem., 90; collector 
of taxes, Stephen Morse; constables, Stephen Morse, Israel Swan; high- 
way surveyors, Ezekiel Ladd, Clark Woodward, Moses Campbell, John 
Kimball, John Carr, Billy Porter, David Clark; fence viewers, John 
Kimball, Michael Johnston; tythingmen, William Cross, Jacob Wood- 
ward; culler of staves, Nathaniel Runnells; surveyor of lumber, John 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 167 

True, Timothy B. Bayley; sealer of leather, Richard Goodkin; sealer 
of weights and measures, Jacob Williams; corder of wood, John Osgood; 
hayward, Jona. Soper; auditors, Ezra Bartlett, David Merrill. Appro- 
priations: highways, $600; to repair bridges, $100; town charges, $500. 

At the presidential and Congressional election in November the 
Federal or anti-war party were triumphant. The electoral ticket 
headed by Oliver Peabody received 120 votes to 72 for the Democratic 
ticket headed by John Langdon. The Congressional ticket headed by 
Daniel Webster, Fed., 120 votes; that by John F. Parrott, 69 votes. 

1813. Annual meeting, North meeting house, March 9. Governor 
vote, John T. Gilman, Fed., 135; William Plumer, Dem., 86. Collector 
of taxes, Timothy B. Bailey at 1 per cent; constables, Jona. Sinclair, 
Zachariah Bacon; highway surveyors, John Pike, Joshua Woodward, 
Obadiah Swasey, John Kimball, John Emerson, Enoch Chase; surveyors 
of lumber, Timothy B. Bailey, Timothy A. Edson; corders of wood, 
Edward Towle, Noah Davis; tythingmen, Ross Conn, Asa Porter; sealer 
of weights and measures, John Osgood; auditors, Ephraim Kingsbury, 
Ezra Bartlett, Joseph Bell. The vote for the senater was, Moses P. 
Payson, Federalist, 104; Stephen P. Webster, Democrat, 71; for register 
of deeds, Ephraim Kingsbury, Federalist, 103; John Page, Jr., Democrat, 
69. Appropriations: highways, $600, one half in money, to be expended 
by the selectmen; town charges, $400; for hiring preaching to be expended 
at the discretion of the selectmen, $200. A special town meeting was 
held on August 31 of this year to take into consideration matters per- 
taining to the war then in progress, and an account of this meeting will 
be found in a subsequent chapter. 

1814. Annual meeting, South meeting house, November 8. Governor 
vote, William Plumer, Dem., 73; John T. Gilman, Fed., 129; straight party 
vote for other officers; collector of taxes, Stephen Morse, ItV per cent; 
constables, Stephen Morse, Timothy B. Bailey; highway surveyors, 
John Pike, Richard Gookin, John Morse, 1st, Amos Kimball, Jr., Daniel 
Carr, Thomas Davis, David Clark; sealer of weights and measures, John 
Osgood; corders of wood, Edward Towle, Thomas Morse; hayward, 
Jacob Williams; surveyors of lumber, Jacob Bailey, Timothy B. Bailey, 
Horace H. Goodwin, Timothy B. Edson; culler of staves, Nathaniel 
Runnells; auditors, Joseph Bell, Ephraim Kingsbury, Dr. Edward Carle- 
ton; on revision of constitution, yes 1, no 172. Appropriations: high- 
ways, $1,000, $400 in money, balance in labor at 8 cents per hour; town 
charges, $450; to hire preaching, article dismissed. 

1815. Annual meeting, North meeting house, March 14. Governor 
vote, William Plumer, Democrat, 69; John T. Gilman, Federalist, 119; 
collector of taxes, Stephen Morse, 3 per cent; constables, Stephen Morse, 
Jona. Sinclair; highway surveyors, Israel Swan, Isaac Pearson, Daniel 



168 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Morse, John S. Sanborn, Enoch Chase, Caleb Morse, Robert Forsaith; 
tythingmen, John Nelson, John Punshard, John Kimball, Stephen Morse, 
Clark Woodward, John Osgood, Ebenezer Whitaker, John Smith, Eph- 
raim Crouch, Asa Ladd (it was determined to enforce a more rigid observ- 
ance of the Lord's Day than had been the custom for several years) ; 
fence viewers, Michael Johnston, Ezekiel Ladd, Jr., Thomas Morse; 
sealer of weights and measures, Israel Swan; sealer of leather, John Smith; 
corders of wood, Joseph Bell, Benjamin Merrill, Richard Gookin, John 
Punchard; surveyors of lumber, Stephen Morse, Timothy A. Edson, 
Jabez Brown, Joseph Ladd; pound keeper, Ezekiel Ladd, Jr.; auditors, 
Joseph Bell, Edmund Carleton, Jno. Kimball, Noah Davis. Appro- 
priations: highways, $400 in money for bridges, $600 in labor on roads; 
schools, $500; town charges, $450. 

1816. Annual meeting, March 12, North meeting house. Governor 
vote, James Sheaf e, Fed., 107; William Plumer, Dem., 112. The town 
was once more Democratic, and elected Stephen P. Webster representa- 
tive to General Court. Collector of taxes, Isaac Pearson, at 2 per cent; 
constables, Jona. Sinclair, Isaac Pearson, John Kimball; highway survey- 
ors, Jona. Sinclair, Jesse Woodward, David Merrill, John Kimball, Jacob 
M. White, Joseph Flanders, Jr., Asa Ladd; fence viewers, Michael Johns- 
ton, Benjamin Morse; surveyors of lumber, Chester Farman, Obadiah 
Swasey; corders of wood, Benjamin Merrill, Jno. True; cullers of staves, 
Nathaniel Runnells, Ahira Wright; auditors, Ezekiel Ladd, Jr., Edmund 
Carleton, Joseph Bell, John Kimball, Noah Davis; tythingman, Jno. 
Kimball. Voted that all instructors in schools be examined by the super- 
intending committee previous to beginning to teach. Appropriations: 
highways and bridges, $600; schools, $500; town charges, $900. 

Presidential election, November 4. Vote for Federal electors, 72; 
Democrats, 75. 

1817. Annual meeting, March 11. Governor vote, scattering 2; 
James Sheafe, Fed., 94; William Plumer, Dem., 103. Collector, Jno. 
Kimball, 3 per cent; highway surveyors (town divided into seven high- 
way districts), (1) Edward Towle, (2) Richard Gookin, (3) Timothy 
A. Edson, (4) John Kimball, (5) Moses N. Morse, (6) Joseph Flanders, 
Jr., (7) Henry A. Chellis; fence viewers, Jno. Page, Jr., Timothy A. Edson, 
John Kimball; sealer of leather, Jno. Smith; sealer of weights and meas- 
ures, Jno. Osgood; corders of wood, Benjamin Merrill, John True; 
surveyors of lumber, Joseph Ladd, Chester Farman; culler of staves, 
Benjamin Merrill, poundkeeper, Ezekiel Ladd, Jr. ; tythingmen, John Kim- 
ball, Chester Farman; hay ward, Jno. Sinclair; firewards, Richard Gookin, 
Ephraim Kingsbury, John Pike, Jabez Brown, Thomas Morse, Obadiah 
Swasey; auditors, same as previous year. Appropriations: highways, 
$600 in labor at 8 cents per hour; schools, $500; town charges and to 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 169 

rebuild bridge over Poole brook, $1,580. The boundaries of nine school 
districts, into which it was voted in 1815 to divide the town, were fixed. 

1818. Annual meeting, South meeting house, March 16. Governor 
vote, Jeremiah Mason, 86; William Plumer, 94. Collector of taxes, 
John Kimball, at 2\ cent; constables, Jno. Kimball, Jona. Sinclair; high- 
way surveyors, District 1, William G. Page, (2) Chester Farman, (3) 
John C. Morse, (4) Amos Kimball, (5) Jacob M. White, (6) Jno. Hartwell, 
(7) Ralph Webster; tythingmen, John Page, Jr., Jno. Kimball, Benjamin 
Merrill; fence viewers, Michael Johnston, Obadiah Swasey; sealer of 
leather, Jno. Kimball, Richard Gookin; sealer of weights and measures, 
Israel Swan; corders of wood, John True, Henry Towle; surveyors of 
lumber, T. A. Edson, Jabez Brown, Joseph Ladd; culler of staves, Nathan- 
iel F. Hurd; hayward, Benjamin Merrill; firewards, Ephraim Kingsbury, 
Richard Gookin, Obadiah Swasey, Jno. Pike, Jabez Brown; hogreeves, 
John Stearns, Jno. W. Milliken, John Farnum, Amos Kimball, Jr., James 
King. Appropriations: highways, $700, $100 to be in money to be 
laid out by selectmen; schools, $500; town charges, $1,200. It was voted 
that the selectmen have power to dispose of the town paupers at auction 
at any time they may think proper. In connection with this it was also 
voted that Ephraim Kingsbury, John Montgomery and John Kimball 
be a committee to consider the expediency of building a poor house, and 
report at the next meeting. "Voted that no sheep or swine run at 
large within 100 rods of the North and South meeting houses or court 
house from April 1 to October 31 under penalties of law passed January 
17, 1811." "Voted that the town is willing to have that part of Bath 
south of the Ammonoosuc River and west of road leading from David 
Rowell's to Bath Village annexed to Haverhill." Nothing ever came of 
this, for while Haverhill seemed willing to receive, Bath was not willing 
to give. John Page, Jr., Piermont, was chosen representative, defeating 
Moody Bedel. 

1819. Annual meeting, North meeting house, March 9. Governor 
vote, William Hale, Fed., 78; Samuel Bell, Dem., 91. The town had 
become admittedly Democratic, and there was not a large vote. John 
Page, Jr., was again elected representative. Collector of taxes, Stephen 
Morse, 3 per cent; constables, John C. Morse, John H. Sinclair; highway 
surveyors, District 1, Ephraim Kingsbury, (2) Ezekiel Ladd, (3) Obadiah 
Swasey, (4) Jno. Kimball, (5) John Carr, (6) Peter Whitaker, (7) Ralph 
Webster; fence viewers, Michael Johnston, Obadiah Swasey, Jno. Kim- 
ball; sealer of leather, Richard Gookin, who was directed to procure a 
suitable seal at the expense of the town; culler of staves, Simeon Olms- 
stead; surveyors of lumber, Oliver Davison, Joseph Ladd, T. A. Edson, 
Jabez Brown; tythingmen, Edward Towle, John Kimball; hayward, 
Jacob Williams; auditors, Ezekiel Ladd, Edmund Carleton, Joseph Bell, 



170 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

John Kimball, Noah Davis; hogreeves, John L. Wright, Alfred Nevins, 
Ezra Sanborn, Joseph Wyman, Phenias Gould, Nathaniel F. Hunt; com- 
mittee to examine teachers and visit and examine schools, Grant Powers, 
Ephraim Kingsbury, Stephen P. Webster, Jno. Smith, Jno. Kimball, 
Stephen R. Page, Jno. Nelson. Appropriations: highways, $1,000, $400 
to be raised in money; schools, $600; town charges, $500. 

1820. Annual meeting, South meeting house, March 14. The Fed- 
eralist party had pretty much gone out of existence in 1820 in New Hamp- 
shire as well as elsewhere in the nation. In 1819 their candidate for 
governor received but 8,860 votes to 13,761 for Samuel Bell, Dem., and 
in 1820 they made no nominations. Samuel Bell received 22,212 out of 
a total vote of 24,771, the remainder being classed as scattering. In 
Haverhill he received 212, and John Page, Jr., was again elected repre- 
sentative. Collector of taxes, Stephen Morse, 3 per cent; constables, 
Uriah Ward, John C. Morse. The number of highway districts was 
increased, and highway surveyors were, John Sinclair, Benjamin Swan, 
Jona. Wilson, Jno. C. Morse, Amos Kimball, Jr., Ezra Sanborn, Richard 
French, Jacob M. White, Caleb Morse, Luther Warren, Jacob Fuller, 
Jno. L. Corliss, Ralph Webster; fence viewers, Michael Johnston, Oba- 
diah Swasey; sealers of leather, Daniel Worthen, Benjamin Merrill; 
surveyors and inspectors of shingles, Obadiah Swasey, Richard Gookin; 
auditors same as previous year; school committee, same with exception 
of preceptor of academy for the time being; tythingman, William Barstow; 
hay ward, Samuel Page; firewards, same as previous year; there was 
pretty much a new list of hogreeves, the office having come to be con- 
sidered in the light of a joke, Samuel Page, Nathaniel Kimball, Henry 
Stearns, Francis D. Kimball, David Worthen, Austen Ladd. Appro- 
priations: highways, $800 in labor, $200 in money; schools, $600; town 
charges, $300. 

At the Congressional and Presidential election November 6, a light 
vote was polled. The largest vote for members of Congress was 66 for 
Arthur Livermore, and the largest for presidential electors was 61 for 
Ezra Bartlett. 

1821. Annual meeting, North meeting house, November 13. No 
contest again for governor. Samuel Bell, Dem., 167. Collector of taxes, 
Jacob Williams, 3 cents; constables, John C. Morse, John H. Sinclair; 
highway surveyors, Ephraim Kingsbury, Isaac Pearson, T. A. Edson, 
David Worthen, Jno. Kimball, Ezra Sanborn, Daniel Carr, Cyrus Allen, 
Thomas Davis, Daniel Sargent, Stephen Farnsworth, David Leonard; 
sealer of weights and measures, John Osgood; sealer of leather, Daniel 
Worthen; corders of wood, Jno. Punchard, Samuel B. Wright; surveyor 
of lumber, same as previous year; culler of staves, Joseph Ladd; hay ward, 
Benjamin Merrill; school committee, auditors and firewards same as 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 171 

previous year. Appropriations: highways, $200 in money, $800 in 
labor at 8 cents an hour; schools, $600; town charges, $400. On the 
question of a convention to revise the constitution, yes 0, no 82. It was 
voted that no swine be permitted to run in the roads or commons. 
"Voted that two hearses and appurtenances be purchased for the use of 
the town. It was certainly a meeting where no partisanship prevailed. 
Evidence of this is seen in the election of Joseph Bell as representative 
to the General Court. It is doubtful if there had been a more uncom- 
promising Federalist than he, and his election must bear testimony to 
his pre-eminent ability. A second term, however, did not come till later. 

1822. Annual meeting, South meeting house, March 12. Governor 
Bell had no opposition for re-election. He received 197 votes, Ezra 
Bartlett for councillor 195, Arthur Livermore for senator 198, and Eph- 
raim Kingsbury for register of deeds, 200. John L. Corliss was elected 
representative. Mr. Corliss had always been identified with the 
Democratic party. The vote for representative was not made a matter 
of record until 1832. Collector of taxes, Caleb Morse at 3f cents; 
constables, John H. Sinclair, John C. Morse; highway surveyors, Edward 
Towle, Ezekiel Ladd, James Hibbard, George Banfield, Francis D. 
Kimball, Nathan Heath, Jahleel Willis, Jacob M. White, Benjamin Davis, 
Carleton Batchelder, Roswell Wilmot, Simeon Stafford, David Webster; 
tythingmen, Chester Farman, John Kimball; fence viewers, Michael 
Johnston, Thomas Morse, John True, Isaac Pearson; other minor officers 
were the same as in 1821, except that there was a new set of hogreeves, 
headed by Joseph Bell, who had failed of re-election as representative. 
The others were Jacob Bell, Austin Ladd, Perley Aj^er, Stephen Farnum, 
Moses Stevens, George Banfield, Amos Kimball, Phineas Gould. Appro- 
priations: same as previous year. "Voted that Dr. I. P. Woodward be 
paid $30 for vaccinating all persons who have not had Kine or smallpox, 
provided they assemble at the schoolhouses, such as cannot at their homes, 
and that he visit them at their homes until they have had Kinepox." 
At the Congressional election, September 16, Dr. Woodward brought in a 
bill for $138 as the total expense of vaccination, and it was voted that the 
selectmen allow him such sum as they deem best. 

1823. Annual meeting, North meeting house, March 11. Until this 
year the Democratic members of the legislature, at the June session had 
been in the habit of naming the candidate for governor to be supported 
at the succeeding March election. In June, 1822, they had nominated 
Samuel Dinsmoor, but this met with a protest especially in Rockingham, 
Strafford and Hillsborough counties, and later meetings and councillors, 
and Senatorial conventions named Levi Woodbury of Portsmouth. The 
contest was an animated one, resulting in the election of the latter by a 
vote of 16,985 to 12,718 for Dinsmoor. This split in the party was 



172 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

destined to lead to the formation of distinct parties. Haverhill gave its 
support to Woodbury, the vote being Dinsmoor 40, Woodbury 160. 
Collector of taxes, Caleb Morse, 3f cents; highway surveyors, District 1, 
Henry Noyes. (2) Moody Ladd, (3) Chester Farman, (4) Aaron Southard, 
(5) Levi Little, (6) Ezra Sanborn, (7) Joseph Emerson, (8), Cyrus Allen, 
(9) Thomas Davis, (10) Tristram Hanns, (11) David Wilmot, (12) Moses 
Kimball; fence viewers, Michael Johnson, John True, Benjamin Davis; 
surveyors of lumber, Richard Gookin, John True, Simon Stafford, 
Moses Dunkley; firewards, Richard Gookin, Obadiah Swasey, Thomas 
Morse, Sylvester T. Goss; poundkeeper, Samuel Ladd; tythingmen, 
Jno. H. Sinclair, Thomas Morse; hogreeves, Francis D. Kimball, George 
Little, George Banfield, Sylvester T. Goss, Roswell Wilmot, Ebenezer 
Tenney, Nathaniel S. Burnite, Samuel W. Hadley, Samuel Ladd, Jona. 
Sinclair, Hiram Martin, Isaac Pike. School committee and other minor 
officers same as in previous years. Appropriations: highways, $800 in 
labor, $200 in money; schools, $600; town charges, $800. The sheep 
and swine by-law of former years was passed, with penalty of $1 for each 
offence. Jacob M. White and Jacob M. White, Jr., were disannexed from 
school district number 5. 

1824. Annual meeting, South meeting house, March 9. Governor 
vote, Jeremiah Smith, 22; David L. Morrill, 12; Levi Woodbury, 180. 
There was no choice for governor, and David L. Morrill was elected by 
the legislature. Parties had begun to form. The division line marked 
preference for presidential candidates, and, in New Hampshire for some 
years, the parties were Adams or Jackson. Governor Woodbury had 
expressed his preference for Jackson. The successful candidate, Morrill, 
was for Adams. Haverhill furnished certainly its full quota of candidates 
for office this year. For councillor, Ezra Bartlett received 210 votes; 
Stephen P. Webster for senator, 176; Benjamin Merrill for county 
treasurer, 202; Ephraim Kingsbury for register of deeds, 214; all of 
whom were elected. Collector of taxes, Stephen Farnsworth, 2\ per cent; 
highway surveyors, Jona. Sinclair, Stephen Farnsworth, Ezekiel Ladd, 
Joshua Morse, Moses Southard, John Kimball, Ezra Sanborn, David Carr, 
Jacob M. White, Thomas Davis, Daniel Rollins, Jacob Fuller, Moses 
Kimball; surveyors of lumber, Richard Gookin, John True, Simon 
Stafford, Ezra Sanborn, Josiah F. Wilson; firewards, Ephraim Kings- 
bury, Obadiah Swasey, S. T. Goss, Moses Southard; collector of taxes, 
Ahira Wright; sealer of weights and measures, Henry Towle; superin- 
tending school committee, Grant Powers, Joseph Bell, Jno. Kimball, 
Ephraim Kingsbury, J. C. Higgins, Andrew Mack, John Nelson, John 
Smith, Stephen P. Webster, Samuel Cartland; auditors, Joseph Bell, 
E. Carleton, Jr., Ezekiel Ladd, John Page; hogreeves, Andrew Mack, 
Samuel Page, Austin Ladd, Jason C. Higgins, Dudley C. Kimball, Daniel 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 173 

Carr, Jr., Charles Webster, Simeon Haines. The by-law forbidding 
sheep, swine and geese to run at large was continued. John Page, 
Obadiah Swasey, John Kimball, Daniel Carr, Caleb Morse, Jno. L. Corliss, 
and Jona. Wilson were appointed a committee to bring in at the next 
annual town meeting nominations for all town officers not necessary to be 
chosen by ballot. 

At the Presidential election, November 2, the electoral ticket headed 
by Josiah Bartlett received 55 votes, and there were three scattering. For 
Congress eleven candidates were voted for. The successful candidates 
received votes as follows: Ichabod Bartlett, 67; Arthur Livermore, 57; 
Nehemiah Eastman, 52; Jona. Harvey, 20; Titus Brown, 24; James 
Healey, 28; Thomas Whipple, Jr., 6. 

1825. Annual meeting, North meeting house, March 8. John Quincy 
Adams had just been inaugurated President. The opposition or Jackson 
party had not organized. David L. Morrill was re-elected governor, 
receiving 29,166 votes to 563 scattering. In Haverhill the vote was: 
Levi Woodbury, 2; David L. Morrill, 230. Samuel Cartland was chosen 
representative. Collector of taxes, Caleb Morse, 3| cents; highway 
surveyors, Jona. Sinclair, John Sanborn, Richard Gookin, Stephen 
Farnum, John C. Morse, Jona. B. Rowell, Ezra Sanborn, John Carr, 
James King, Jr., Aaron Morse, Geo. Bisbee, Moses Kimball, Frederick 
Carr; fence viewers, Joshua Woodward, John L. True, Jno. L. Corliss; 
cullers of staves, Ahira Wright, George Bixbee; corders of wood, 
surveyors of lumber and school committee, same as previous year, with 
addition of Jacob S. Clark to school committee. Other officers as in 1824, 
except hogreeves. For this office the nominating committee presented a 
somewhat distinguished list, which was duly approved, John L. Bruce, 
James Place, Moses Dow, John Nason, Stephen Farnum, George Banfell 
(Banfield), Jno. Kimball, Moses N. Morse, Caleb Morse, Person Noyes, 
Asa Beacon, Isaac Morse, Jacob M. White, Jr. Appropriations: high- 
ways, $300 in money, $900 in labor; schools, $600; town charges, $850. 
The sheep, swine and geese by-law was again passed, with neat cattle 
added. 

1826. Annual meeting, South meeting house, March 14. The 
opposition to the Adams administration had begun to crystallize; the 
parties centered about the persons of Adams and Jackson. Adams was 
a candidate for re-election; Jackson was a candidate in opposition. There 
was the Adams party and the Jackson party; the issues "were largely 
personal, and personal issues engender bitterness, vindictiveness. Ben- 
jamin Pierce was supported by the Jackson men for governor, receiving 
79 votes, and David L. Morrill (Adams), 139. John L. Corliss (Adams) 
was elected representative. Collector of taxes, Caleb Morse; highway 
surveyors, new names in list, Schuyler Merrill, Jona. A. Ladd, John S. 



174 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Stafford, Elisha Swift, Luther Warren; no new names appear in the lists 
of the minor town offices, except those of Isaac P. Wilson, Nathan Hay- 
wood, Charles J. Swan and Joseph Niles as hogreeves. Appropriations : 
highways, $400 in money, $600 in labor; schools, $600; town charges, 
$900. The sheep, swine, geese and cattle by-law was passed. 

1827. Annual meeting, North meeting house, November 13. It was 
an off year politically. Benjamin Pierce (Jackson) was elected governor 
with little opposition. Haverhill gave him a vote of 239 with a few scatter- 
ing, and there seems to have been little opposition to the re-election as 
representative of John L. Corliss (Adams). Collector of taxes, Caleb 
Morse; constables, Moses H. Sinclair, Jno. C. Morse; new names among 
highway surveyors, James Acherton, Leonard Morse, Enoch P. Woodbury, 
Joseph Stow; corders of wood, Joseph Ladd, Russell Kimball; new names 
among the hogreeves, Gould French, Benj. Coon, Jr., Isaac Heath, James 
A. Morse, Aaron Martin, Hiram Ladd. Appropriations: highways, 
money, $400, labor $600; schools, $650; town charges, $500. 

1828. Annual meeting, South meeting house. The political lull of 
1827 was followed by an exciting campaign in 1828, and the governor vote, 
39,807, was the largest yet polled in the state. There were but 76 scatter- 
ing votes. Party lines were closely drawn. Benjamin Pierce (Jackson) 
received 18,672; John Bell (Adams), 21,149. In Haverhill the vote was 
Pierce, 148; Bell, 206. Caleb Morse (Adams) was elected representative. 
Collector, Caleb Morse; constables, Horace S. Baker, Dudley C. Kimball; 
highway surveyors, new names, Samuel Hibbard, Zebulon Cary, Robert 
Ford, William Gannett; no new names appear in lists of fence viewers, 
sealers of leather, sealers of weights and measures; corders of wood, 
surveyors of lumber, cullers of staves, poundkeeper, tythingmen, auditors 
or school committee. Jacob Morse later prominent in town affairs makes 
his first appearance in the records, having been elected hogreeve. Appro- 
priations: highways, $400 in money, $1,000 in labor; schools, $650; town 
charges, $500. The selectmen were instructed to contract with some one 
person for support of paupers. At a special meeting, September 22, an 
additional amount of $500 was voted to be paid in labor for the repair 
of roads and bridges. 

At the presidential election, November 3, 1828, the Adams electoral 
ticket headed by George Sullivan received 212 votes; the Jackson ticket, 
155. The total vote in the state was the largest yet cast. The Adams 
electors received 22,922; the Jackson, 22,124. 

1829. Annual meeting, North meeting house, March 10. Governor 
vote, Benjamin Pierce (Jackson), 171; John Bell (Adams), 206. The 
state swung over to the support of the Jackson administration and Pierce 
was elected 22,615 to 19,583 for Bell, and only 45 scattering. The coun- 
cillor candidates were both Haverhill citizens, Stephen P. Webster (Jack- 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 175 

son) received 170, and Ezra Bartlett (Adams), 205. Webster was elected. 
Joseph Bell and Caleb Morse, both Adams men, were elected representa- 
tives by a strict party vote. Representation was based on the number 
of ratable polls. A town having 150 was entitled to one representative, 
and one for each additional 300. Haverhill, for the first time, was 
entitled, by its upwards of 450 ratable polls, to two representatives. 
Collector of taxes, Perkins Fellows, 2f cents; constables, Hosea S. Baker, 
Dudley C. Kimball; highway surveyors, new names, Ephraim Couch, 
David Cheney, Daniel How; tythingmen, Nathaniel Rix, Stephen Morse; 
no new names appear in the lists of other officers except that of one new- 
comer among the hogreeves, George W. Kent. Among these officials this 
year were Joseph Bell, Jno. Nelson, Samuel Cartland and William Ladd. 
Appropriations: highways, $600 in money, $1,000 in labor; schools, 
$700; town charges, $600. It was voted that the school districts choose 
their own officers. This was the beginning of home rule for school 
districts. 

1830. Annual meeting, South meeting house, March 9. The governor 
vote showed Haverhill still in the hands of the Adams party. Matthew 
Harvey (Jackson) had 168 votes; Timothy Upham (Adams), 190. The 
state, however, had become safely Jackson. Joseph Bell and Caleb 
Morse were reelected representatives. Collector, Perkins Fellows, 2 
cents; constables, Perkins Fellows, D. C. Kimball, H. S. Baker, John S. 
Stafford; highway surveyors, Benjamin Merrill, Ezekiel Ladd, Benjamin 
Ropes, Daniel Morse, John Angier, Nathan Heath, Joseph Willis, Jacob 
M. White, Peter Whitaker, Ashael Comstock, John Stearns, Moses 
Kimball, Joel Davis, Moses Dunkley; fence viewers, Jno. Page, Samuel 
Ladd, John True, Luther Warren; sealer of weights and measures, R. N. 
Brown; corders of wood, Henry Towle, Joseph Ladd, Hosea S. Baker, 
Jacob Bell, Ezra Sanborn, John Stearns; surveyors of lumber, Isaac 
Pierson, Simon Strafford, Stephen Farnum, Joseph Olmstead, Elisha 
Hibbard; cutter of stones, Ahira Wright; poundkeeper, Samuel Ladd; 
tythingmen, Samuel Newton, James King, Barzillia Pierce; auditors, 
Joseph Bell, Ezekiel Ladd, Edmund Carleton, John Nelson, John Page, 
John Kimball, John Angier; firewards, Ephraim Kingsbury, Isaac Pier- 
son, Obadiah Swasey, Moses Southard; the list of hogreeves is a notable 
one, John L. Rix, Amos Drown, Arthur L. Peters, David Rollins, Samuel 
P. Adams, Anson Brackett, James Harriman, George Johnson, Samuel 
Carr, Barzillia Pierce, George Banfield, John Stearns, Hiram Ladd, 
Kimball Tyler, Zebulen Carey, John Angier, John R. Reding. There 
were new names in this list, and these owners were destined to become 
important factors in the affairs of the town. The coming of two of these 
in particular, John L. Rix and John R. Reding, marked a new era in the 
politics of the town. Appropriations: highways, $300 in money, $900 



176 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

in labor, not over $50 for use of tools on highways; schools, $700; town 
charges, $500. The selectmen decided to provide for town paupers; 
selectmen authorized to lease lands belonging to the town. Voted that 
the selectmen shall not grant licenses to showmen. 

1831. Annual meeting, North meeting house, March 8. Haverhill 
this year was controlled by the Jackson party. The governor vote was: 
Ichabod Bartlett (Adams), 187; Samuel Dinsmore (Jackson), 199. John 
Page, for register of deeds, received nearly a unanimous vote, 392. For 
senator, Samuel Cartland (Jackson), 192; John Wilson (Adams), 198. 
Cartland was elected. The congressional ticket headed by Rev. John 
Brodhead (Jackson) received 164 votes to 141 for that headed by Jno. F. 
Parrott (Adams). Jona. Wilson and Samuel Page were elected repre- 
sentatives. The victory of the Jackson men was complete. Collector of 
taxes, Caleb Morse, 2f cents; constables, Perkins Fellows, H. S. Baker, 
J. B. Rowell, William Ladd; highway surveyors, Perkins Fellows, Jona. 
A. Ladd, Schuyler Merrill, Moses Southard, J. B. Rowell, Nathan Heath, 
Daniel Carr, Jacob M. White, Simeon Haines, Asa Bacon, Joseph Niles, 
Moses Kimball, Josiah Jeffers, Anson A. Smith; fence viewers, John 
Page, Samuel Ladd, John True, Stephen Farnsworth; firewards, Joseph 
Bell, Ephraim Kingsbury, Isaac Pierson, Obadiah Swasey, Moses South- 
ard; surveyors of lumber, Ezra Sanborn, Isaac Pierson, Joseph Ladd, 
Simon Stafford, John True, Stephen Farnum, Joseph Olmstead, D. C. 
Kimball; hogreeves, John Blaisdell, Gorham Kezer, Russell Kimball, 
J. R. Reding, Jno. Carr, Jr., Timothy Smith, Moses Dunkley, E. R. Olcott, 
Joseph Snow, Hiram Ladd, S. P. Sinclair, Lin Hamlet, Walter Bailey; 
tythingmen, Bryan Morse, Daniel Page, David Worthen. Appropria- 
tions : highways and bridges, $500 in money, $900 in labor; schools, $700; 
town charges, $400. 

There was an article in the warrant "to see if the town will shingle the 
meeting houses in the North and South parishes for the privilege of hold- 
ing town meetings in them." The proposition was negatived, and the 
question of building a town hall was discussed, but no action taken. The 
selectmen were instructed to investigate the desirability of purchasing a 
farm for the support of the poor and report at the next annual meeting. 

1832. Annual meeting, South meeting house, March 13. Party feel- 
ing had become intense. The administration supporters had assumed 
the designation of Democratic Republicans, or Democrats, and their 
opponents that of Whigs. The Democrats were still in the ascendancy 
and party lines were rigidly drawn. The anti-Masonic movement had 
not crystallized into a separate party in Haverhill, but Free Masonry 
became an issue in the election of local officers, and neither party dis- 
regarded it in the selection of candidates. The governor vote was: 
Ichabod Bartlett, Whig, 188; Samuel Dinsmoor, Dem., 222. The vote 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 177 

for representatives to the General Court is recorded for the first time. 
Jona. Wilson received 210; Samuel Page, 209, and there were 69 scatter- 
ing. The Whigs for the most part evidently refrained from voting. 
Collector of taxes, Caleb Morse, 2 cents, 7 mills. The office as had been 
customary for many years had been set up at auction, and struck off to 
the lowest responsible bidder for rate of collecting. Politics was elimi- 
nated. Constables, H. S. Baker, Perkins Fellows, Jona. B. Rowell, 
William Ladd, Elisha Swift; highway surveyors, Benjamin Merrill, 
Ebenezer L. Burbeck, Stephen Farnum, Aaron Southard, John Kimball, 
John S. Kimball, Samuel Carr, Edward King, Thomas Davis, Jacob 
Morse, Levi Stafford, Moses Kimball, Elisha Swift, Daniel Rollins; the 
tythingmen disappear this year in the board of selectmen; sealers of leather 
also drop out; fence viewers, John Page, Ezekiel Ladd, Moses Southard, 
John L. Corliss; sealer of weights and measures, Henry Towle; pound- 
keeper, John A. Ladd; auditors, same as in previous years, except that 
John Angier was added; Willard Whitman, James Bell and Benjamin 
Woodbury were new names in corders of wood; surveyors of lumber, 
same as previous year; hogreeves, H. S. Baker, Perkins Fellows, John B. 
Rowell, William Ladd, Elisha Swift, Nathaniel Bailey, Isaac Morse, John 
Stearns, Hiram Morse. The matter of providing for paupers was left 
with the selectmen, with instruction to procure, if practicable, one person 
to take care of all. It was made a closed season for horses, cattle, swine, 
sheep and geese ; they were prohibited from running at large for the year. 
The selectmen were instructed to lease all unoccupied public lands on 
best possible terms. It was voted that the selectmen report, at the next 
town meeting in November, a suitable plan with estimated expense and 
a proper location for a town house, and that they be authorized to pro- 
vide at the expense of the town a suitable place to hold town meetings 
until a town hall shall be built. Appropriations: highways, money 
$600, labor $1,000; schools, $700; town charges, $600. 

At the November election, November 5, the Democratic electoral 
ticket received 207 votes; the Whig, 168. No report was made in the 
matter of building a town hall as had been voted at the March election. 

1833. Annual meeting, March 12. The Whigs were evidently dis- 
heartened. Governor vote, Arthur Livermore, Whig, 87; Samuel Dins- 
moor, Dem., 239. For other offices there was a straight party vote. 
John Angier was elected representative for members of Congress. There 
was an anti-Masonic ticket which polled 7 votes. Constables, H. S. 
Baker, Perkins Fellows, William Ladd; firewards, Joseph Bell, Ephraim 
Kingsbury, Isaac Pierson, Obadiah Swasey, Moses Southard, Samuel 
Carr, Caleb Morse, Jno. Angier; highway surveyors, H. S. Baker, Ezekiel 
Ladd, Samuel E. Merrill, Reuben Foster, Daniel French, Leonard Stev- 
ens, Joseph Storr, Luther Colby, Caleb Page, Moses Kimball, Perley 

13 



178 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Aver, Ebenezer Tenney, Joel Davis; fence viewers, poundkeeper, sealer 
of weights and measures, corders of wood, surveyors of lumber, auditors 
and hogreeves furnished no new names. For the first time in its history, 
the town voted to choose a board of health, and this new and hitherto 
unheard of board was: John Page, Simon Stafford, Jona. B. Rowell, 
Anson Bartlett, Edmund Carleton, Ezra Bartlett, John Angier, Ezekiel 
Ladd, Jacob Bell, Moses Southard, Ephraim Kingsbury. Just why 
this imposing board was elected at this particular time and just what 
they accomplished does not appear. The four physicians of the town 
were in evidence. Appropriations: highways, $1,000 in labor, $800 in 
money; town charges, $500. The selectmen were authorized to pur- 
chase a suitable farm for paupers and house of correction, and it was 
voted to raise $400 for that purpose and $500 annually until farm is paid 
for. On the question of holding a constitutional convention the vote was 
99 yes, 28 no. Article 13 of the warrant was "to take the sense of the 
town on petition of James J. Page and others of Coventry to be annexed 
to the town of Haverhill." It was proposed to annex what was known 
as the Page school district of Coventry, a tract lying to the east of school 
district Number 6 in Haverhill, and which was cut off by mountains 
from the other part of Coventry. Logically and geographically this tract 
belonged to Haverhill, but it was voted to dismiss the article. 

1834. Annual meeting, South meeting house. Governor vote, Will- 
iam Badger, Democratic, 304. There was no organized opposition to 
Badger throughout the state, and there were no scattering votes in Haver- 
hill. For senator there was a short party vote, Jared W. Williams, Dem. 
242; Oliver S. Brooks, 66. For representatives to General Court, the 
vote is not given in the town records. The contest seems to have been 
along personal lines rather than party. Dr. Ezra Bartlett, Whig, received 
a majority of the votes on the first day of the meeting, and on the second 
day John L. Rix, Whig, received a majority and was declared elected. 
His seat was successfully contested, however, on the ground that he was 
elected on the second day. Collector, Stephen Morse, 3d, 2| per cent; 
constables, Jona. Sinclair, H. S. Baker, John S. Kimball, William Ladd, 
Elisha Swift, Joshua Howard, Jr., Perkins Fellows, Stephen Morse, 2d; 
highway surveyors, Eph. Kingsbury, Joshua Woodward, Ephraim Woods, 
James C. Webster, John S. Kimball, Daniel Carr, Jr., James King, Jr., 
Hiram Morse, Daniel Morse, 2d, John Steavens, Moses Kimball, Josiah 
Jeffers, Aaron Southard, Daniel Rollins; tythingmen, T. K. Blaisdell, 
Jona. Bliss, Isaac Pike, Richardson French, Caleb Morse; only one new 
name in the list of hogreeves, Alden E. Morse; there were no new names 
in the lists of other minor offices. On the proposition to revise the con- 
stitution, yes, 179, no 102. Appropriations: highways, $400 in money; 
$1,200 in labor; schools, $700; town charges $600. A proposition to 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 179 

build a town house was negatived. The Democratic Republican for March 
19, 1834, gives the result of the various ballots for representatives: First 
ballot on Tuesday: John Angie, Dem., 142; Jona. Wilson, Dem., 164; 
J. L. Corliss, 34; Isaac Morse, 73; John L. Rix, 147; Ezra Bartlett, 181. 
The last four named were candidates in opposition to the regular Demo- 
cratic caucus nominees. Angier and Wilson, second ballot: John Angier, 
142; Jona. Wilson, 168; J. L. Corliss, 15; Isaac Morse, 65; J. L. Rix, 158; 
Ezra Bartlett, 208; and Dr. Bartlett was declared elected. Third ballot, 
John Angier, 6; Jona. Wilson, 171; Isaac Morse, 36; John L. Rix, 153. 
A motion was made to adjourn, and was carried. Fourth ballot, Wednes- 
day, Jona. Wilson, 149; Isaac Morse, 51; John L. Rix, 172. Fifth 
ballot, Jona. Wilson, 151; Isaac Morse, 41; J. L. Rix, 189. Sixth ballot, 
scattering, 5; Jona. Wilson, 149; Isaac Morse, 34; John L. Rix, 190; and 
the latter was declared elected. Explanations of the peculiar result of 
this election were in order, and Editor John R. Reding of the Democratic 
Republican proceeded to explain. His editorial is of interest even now, 
three quarters of a century later. It gives an insight into old time politi- 
cal conditions in Haverhill : 

In order to give our distant friends an explanation of the strange state of matters in 
this town, we are compelled to state the following facts. On Thursday evening previous 
to the election a caucus was holden at Burbank's tavern on the Olverian, which was 
attended by about forty individuals, a large majority of whom were federalists. Several 
republicans attended the meeting — some of whom did not act at all — several took part 
in some of the proceedings, and we are glad to have it in our power to say, that very few 
acted throughout the whole. This meeting was got up by D. S. Palmers 'radicals,' & 
was christened "Independent Republican," or "Freeman's Meeting." At this meeting 
Joseph Bell was nominated for moderator, John P. Chapin was nominated for Town 
Clerk, John L. Rix, and John L. Corliss, Esq. were nominated for Representatives, and 
Joshua Woodward, John L. Corliss and Jonathan B. Rowell, were nominated for Select- 
men. Messrs. Corliss and Rowell absolutely refused to stand as candidates for the 
offices for which they were nominated, especially as it would have a tendency to make 
division in the Democratic party. These two gentlemen would not have been voted 
for had they not both been so much indisposed as to prevent their attendance at town 
meeting. Mr. W. also declined standing a candidate — and instead of his name that 
of John Nelson, was placed upon the 'radical' ticket. Thus it will be seen that John L. 
Rix was the only one having any pretence to being a republican who consented to accept 
the nomination from this meeting. Joseph Bell, John P. Chapin, John Nelson and John 
L. Rix, republicans indeed ! On Friday night the Anti-Masonic party so called held a 
caucus at Slab-City and nominated Joseph Bell and J. P. Chapin (reccollect the names) 
for the same offices which they were before in nomination for by the 'radicals.' They 
also nominated Dr. Ezra Bartlett and Isaac Morse for Representatives, and James Bell, 
Elisha Swift and Samuel Carr for Select men. These men are all federalists and are 
understood to be decided ani-masons. 

What is called the National or federal party made no nominations except so far as 
they attended the above named caucuses. 

On Monday evening the regularly democratic republican caucus nominated the can- 
didates above arranged under the head of "republican." This was the state of things 
on the morning of election. 



180 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Notwithstanding this state of things, we feel proud to have it in our power to state 
that more than seven eights of the democratic republicans remained true to themselves 
and to their principles. — We have been present at eight town meetings in this place — six 
annual elections, and two presidential elections, and never before have we seen so much 
anxiety manifested, or so much exertion used by the opponents of democracy as at the 
last election. But little exertion was made to bring our friends to the polls — while every 
thing was done by the combination to rally their forces. 

Had not the democrats been taken by surprise, and had our party generally attended 
the polls the result would have been different. No democrat expected to see anti- 
masons vote for a master mason, neither did they expect to see Royal Arch and other 
masons vote for anti-masons — but all this they saw, aye more. They saw Joseph Bell 
and his brothers of course, John Nelson, David Sloan, Joshua Blaisdell, Benj. Merrill, 
Ezra Bartlett, Samuel Cartland, John L. Rix, Nathaniel Rix, Jonathan Pool, Perkins 
Fellows &c. &c. combined together like a band of brothers, voting and doing all in their 
power to elect Joseph Bell, John P. Chapin, Ezra Bartlett and John L. Rix to the places 
they now occupy. 

The result is undoubtedly gratifying to the federal party generally, but we do know 
that there were some democrats in this combination who regret it exceedingly. It is 
impossible for any genuine democrat to view with pleasure the treachery of some of our 
pretended friends on this occasion in offering up as they did the democratic party as a 
sacrifice to gratify private anamosities. There were not thirty individuals of our party 
who embarked in this crusade against democracy, and had the truth been adhered to by 
the projector of this plot, and the few who are his tools, there would not have been fifteen 
republicans found in the combination. 

These are some of the facts as they at present occur to us, and certainly they are the 
most favorable that can be presented for the opposition. 

Without making further comments, we will bring this article to a close, by merely 
enquiring, what could have induced the entire federal party and a majority of the anti- 
masonic party in this town to support John L. Rix for representative, or what could have 
induced a portion of the republican party to support Joseph Bell and other bitter and 
vindictive federalists when staunch republicans were put up in opposition to them? 
The object of the federalists was undoubtedly to divide and conquer — that of the "radi- 
cals" we shall leave for themselves to determine. 

1835. Annual meeting, North meeting house, March 10. Gover- 
nor vote, William Badger, Dem., 265; Joseph Healer, Whig, 181. The 
Democratic Congressional ticket headed by Franklin Pierce, 265; Whig 
headed by Samuel Hale, 166; scattering, 7. The law required the record 
of vote for representative which was as follows: whole number of votes, 
470; necessary to a choice, 236. Abel Wheeler, Simeon Haines, James 
Bell, Obediah Swazey, 1 each; Aaron Southard, 3; John Angier, 13; John 
L. Rix, 214; Jonathan Wilson, Democrat, 235; John Page, Dem., 260; and 
John Page was declared elected. The election of 1835 was bitterly con- 
tested. A fusion of Whigs, anti-Masons and disaffected Democrats 
had defeated the regular nominees of the Democratic party for repre- 
sentatives in 1834, though the Democratic candidate for governor re- 
ceived virtually a unanimous vote. The result was keenly felt by the 
Democratic leaders, and they conducted a canvass almost throughout 
the entire year to win a victory in 1835. Instead of the usual caucus to 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 181 

nominate candidates for representatives and town officers, a meeting of 
Democrats was held January 17 and made the following arrangements. 
Chose as a committee of vigilance, Jona. Wilson, Simon Stafford, John 
Angier, Joseph Storr and Samuel Page. This committee named the 
following Democrats to call a caucus in each school district for the choice 
of delegates to a general convention to be held at Haverhill Corner the 
Saturday evening preceding the election, for the purpose of nominating 
candidates for representatives and for town offices. The committee to 
call the district caucuses with number of delegates to which each district 
was entitled was, District No. 1, Jona. Sinclair, 6 delegates; No. 2, J. 
Adams, 2 delegates; No. 3, J. T. Wilson, 4 delegates; No. 4, Ezra San- 
born, 3 delegates; Nos. 5 and 11, Daniel Carr, Jr., 3 delegates; No. 6, 
Joseph Storr, 4 delegates; Nos. 7 and 8, Simon Stafford, 5 delegates; 
No. 9, Stephen Morse, 3d, 4 delegates; No. 10, Jacob Morse, 2 delegates; 
No. 12, Nathaniel Annis, 3. The convention nominated for moderator, 
John Page; town clerk, Henry Barstow; selectmen, Jonathan Sinclair, 
Jona. B. Rowell, John L. Corliss; representatives, John Page, Jonathan 
Wilson. The test vote was for moderator; John Page was elected, receiv- 
ing 254 votes to 240 for Joseph Bell. The Democrats elected their entire 
ticket with the exception cf second representative, Mr. Wilson failing 
by a single vote. The Democratic Republican of March 18, commenting 
on the result, said : 

This year as well as a year or two preceding the Democracy of this town have had 
to contend with not only a bitter and vindictive but a treacherous and dishonest opposition. 
At any and all times since 1830, when united the Democratic party could beat the feder- 
alists with ease, but for two of the years our ancient foe with the assistance of a few 
treacherous friends have succeeded in defeating us. On the 11th inst. however the allied 
forces received a blow from which they will not soon recover, — and that day will be 
remembered by every true Democrat. In this election the Democratic party triumphed 
over Federalism, Anti-Masonry, Whigism and independent Republicanism combined. 
All we have to regret is that a few friends should have mistaken the name of Dr. Angier 
for that of Mr. Wilson the regular candidate for second representative. As it was Mr. 
Wilson only wanted one vote of an election. 

The only new names appearing in the lists of minor offices were : high- 
way surveyors, Nathaniel Annis, Nathaniel Runnels, George Bixby, 
Walter Bailey, Drury F. Willoughby, Joseph Jones, Anson Smith; sur- 
veyors of lumber, Richard N. Brown; hogreeves, Charles J. Jones, George 
Glines, Solon Swift, Jona. S. Nichols, Ezra S. Kimball, Charles Carleton, 
Hubbard Russ, Alva Howard, J. N. Noyes, Samuel Ward, Drury F. Pike; 
these were mostly the names of new voters. Appropriations : highways, 
$700 in money, $1,200 in labor; schools, $700; town charges, $800. It 
was voted to require inventory to be given under each. The selectmen 
were instructed to appoint collector of taxes. On revision of constitu- 
tion, yes, 104, no, 36. 



182 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

1836. Annual meeting, Old South meeting house, March 8. Gov- 
ernor vote, Isaac Hill, Dem., 248; Ezra Bartlett, Whig, 133; William 
Badger, 2. Representatives to General Court, Joseph Bell, 1; Jona. 
Wilson, 3; Joshua Woodward, Whig, 193; Aaron Southard, Whig, 193; 
John Angier, Dem., 248; John McClary, Dem., 248; the two last named 
were declared elected. New names appearing in the list of minor officers 
were : Jona. Blaisdell, Charles R. Smith, Samuel E. Merrill, Luther Butler, 
Jabez R. Willis, Jona. Flanders, Valentine Morse, Aaron Wheeler; corders 
of wood, William Watson, Austin Ladd; surveyor of lumber, Percival 
Erwin; hogreeves, Amos H. Lund, F. T. Kimball, Samuel P. Adams, 
Joseph Dutton, Horatio Willoughby; firewards, Jona. Pool. Appropria- 
tions: highways, $1,000 in money, $1,500 in labor; schools, $700; town 
charges, $1,000. The appointment of collector of taxes was left with the 
selectmen, a custom which was thereafter followed. An article in the 
warrant relative to hiring the Union meeting house for town meetings 
was dismissed, as was also an article relative to buying a town farm. 

Presidential election, November 6. Democratic electoral ticket, 183; 
Whig, 8. An article to vote for councillor in fifth district to fill vacancy 
caused by resignation of John Page, who had been elected United States 
senator, was dismissed, and like action was taken on an article to vote 
for representative to the General Court to fill vacancy caused by death 
of John Angier. On expediency of building a state hospital for insane, 
yes, 8; no, 189. 

1837. A special town meeting was held February 11, at the North 
meeting house, to see what action should be taken with Haverhill's share 
of the surplus revenue which had been distributed among the states by 
the Federal government. This was the first and, up to date, the last 
such distribution. Voted to receive from the state Haverhill's share of 
the surplus revenue in accordance with an act of the legislature providing 
for such disposition. 

Chose Josiah F. Wilson to receive said money and also to retain and 
loan the money in sums of not less than $50 nor more than $300, on good 
security at 6 per cent, to inhabitants of this town, and report his doings 
to the selectmen, and then to the town annually at the meeting in March. 
"Voted to loan the money to individuals for their own use and not to banks 
nor money lenders, to take notes on demand with annual interest and 
to loan to applicants without distinction of party." "Voted that the 
agent give notice on what day he will receive applications and that he 
proportion the money among the applicants in sums of not less than 
$50 nor more than $300." The agent was required to give bonds in 
double the amount he received, and in case of his non-acceptance 
or resignation the selectmen were authorized to appoint some other 
person. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 183 

Annual meeting, 1837, North meeting house, March 10. Governor 
vote, scattering 5; Isaac Hill, Democrat, 222. The same vote was cast 
for other state and county officers, and the Democratic vote for members 
of Congress was 223; the Whig vote, 1. The Haverhill Whigs this year 
were conspicuous by their absence from the annual meeting. The vote 
for representatives to the General Court was, scattering, 30; John Page, 
Democrat, 60; Jonathan Wilson, Democrat, 207; John McClary, Demo- 
crat, 266. It was emphatically a Democratic year. The new names in 
list of minor town offices were: highway surveyors, Alvah Haywood; 
constables, Daniel Batchelder; tythingmen, Aaron P. Glazier; hogreeves, 
Curtis C. Noyes, Robert French, John C. White, Hiram Sawyer, New- 
hall Pike, Nathan B. Felton, Bailey B. Martin, Jothan Howe. Appro- 
priations: highways, $800 in money, $1,500 in labor; schools, the amount 
required by law; town charges and support of paupers, $1,000. It was 
voted that any surplus remaining after defraying town charges be laid 
out on highways and bridges under the direction of the selectmen. An 
article relative to purchase of town farm was dismissed. It was voted 
that no person shall sell ardent spirits on town meeting days within half 
a mile of the place of holding town meetings except at public taverns. 

1838. Annual meeting, Old South meeting house, March 13. The 
quiet non-resistance of Haverhill Whigs in 1837 was followed by a year 
of active campaign work, and the business distress and financial directors 
of the year helped them. The blame for the hard times naturally fell 
on the Democratic party, and the Whigs made the most of their oppor- 
tunity. The governor vote was: Isaac Hill, Democrat, 232; James 
Wilson, Whig, 250; a strict party vote. For representatives to the 
General Court the vote was, scattering, 2; Samuel Swasey, Dem., 228; 
Jacob Williams, Dem., 233; John S. Sanborn, Whig, 254; Hosea S. 
Baker, Whig, 255; and the two last named were elected. The new 
names in the list of minor offices were more numerous than usual. Whigs 
displaced Democrats. Highway surveyors, Shubal Bliss, Andrew Edger- 
ton, Samuel Newton, Walter P. Flanders, George W. Glines, Henry 
Sawyer; surveyors of wood, Abel K. Merrill, James Bell, Ebenezer Jeffers, 
Ezekiel B. Hibbard; constables, Royal S. Clark; tythingmen, Timothy K. 
Blaisdell; hogreeves, Thomas Snell, Michael B. Carr, Greenleaf N. Pierce, 
John K. Brainard, Benjamin Morse. Aaron Southard, Whig, was chosen 
agent for the surplus money fund in place of Josiah F. Wilson, Dem., and 
Joseph Bell was chosen agent to settle with Wilson. The selectmen were 
authorized to insure the Haverhill part of the Ammonoosuc bridge. The 
selectmen, with Joseph Bell, John Page, N. B. Felton, Samuel Page and 
Daniel Carr, were appointed to take into consideration the purchase of a 
farm for paupers, and resources of the town available to pay for the same, 
and report at an adjourned meeting, May 29. 






184 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Special meeting, April 10. Voted to purchase farm, and to use in pay- 
ment $5,000 of the surplus fund. John Page, Joseph Bell and Ezra 
Bartlett were chosen a committee to make the purchase. 

At the adjourned meeting, May 29, no business of importance was 
transacted. 

1839. Annual meeting, North meeting house, March 12. Circum- 
stances favored the Democrats again. The disposition of the surplus 
was made an issue, and a Haverhill citizen was the Democratic candidate 
for governor. The Democrats were also thoroughly organized. The 
Whigs missed the organizing genius of John L. Rix who was spending 
some years in Boston. Vote for governor, Jeremiah Smith, 1 ; Jonathan 
Harvey, 7; James Wilson, Whig, 212; John Page, Dem., 260. For 
representatives to General Court, scattering, 3; John I. Sanborn, Whig, 
230; Hosea S. Baker, Whig, 230; Samuel Swasey, Dem., 254; Jacob 
Williams, Dem., 256. New names in list of minor officers: highway 
surveyors, Orris Pattee, David Putnam; constables, Robert French, 
Abiel Deming; hogreeves, David Adams, Horace Herbert, Samuel 
Herbert; surveyors of lumber, Windsor S. Cobleigh. Appropriations, 
highways, $2,000; schools, $710; town charges, $2,000. "Voted to 
instruct the selectmen to let out by job, work on the highways to lowest 
bidder. The vote of the previous year to apply the surplus revenue 
fund to the purchase of a town farm was rescinded, and it was voted to 
make the fund a permanent one for the use of schools. 

1840. Annual meeting, South meeting house, March 10. Governor 
vote, Enos Stevens, Whig, 142; John Page, Dem., 291; other Democratic 
candidates, 289. Representatives to General Court, Joseph Storr, Aaron 
Wheeler, Samuel Page, 1 each; John Gould, 64; Hosea S. Baker, 69; 
Caleb Morse, Whig, 110; Joseph Bell, Whig, 110; Samuel Swasey, Dem., 
273; Samuel Smith, Dem., 279. There were four new names in the list 
of town officers. Tythingmen drop out, the town voting that their duties 
devolve on the selectmen, and the policy placing the appointment of tax 
collector and school committee in the hands of the selectmen seems to 
have become a settled one. New names: highway surveyors, Henry H. 
Page, Benjamin Webster, Jr., Rufus Stearns, James M. Bancroft, H. K. 
Batchelder, John Jeffers, Jona. A. Bagley, Isaac Carleton, Charles C. 
Chamberlain, Abijah Cutting; hogreeves, Robert T. Dick, William 
Richardson, J. F. C. Hayes, Franklin Kezer, Hiram Carr. Appropria- 
tions: highways, $1,800 in labor; schools, $710; town charges, $2,000. 

Special meeting, June 16. It was voted that the selectmen be author- 
ized to hire money sufficient to pay the balance due for the town farm at 
a rate of interest not exceeding bank interest. It appears that a farm 
had at last been purchased. The proposition to divide Grafton County 
was negatived. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 



185 



At the Presidential election, November 2, in spite of the log cabin cam- 
paign enthusiasm which enabled the Whigs to increase their March vote 
by more than a hundred, the Democrats held their ranks firm and gave 
Van Buren electors a substantial majority. The vote was, Whig, 264; 
Democrats, 308. That the Democrats were able to maintain their 
ascendancy in this log cabin, hard cider landslide year was due largely to 
a perfect organization. John Page was governor and was to be a candi- 
date for re-election. John R. Reding was to be a candidate at the March 
election of 1841 for Congress, and it was held to be all important that 
Haverhill should continue loyal to the party. Early in September, 1840, 
a Vigilance Committee, a device of John R. Reding, was appointed in 
each school district, whose chief duty was to see that every Democratic 
voter possible was got to the polls. The names of this committee are of 
interest as indicating the names of the live Democratic workers of the day. 



Dist. No. 1 
Henry Page 
M. H. Sinclair 
S. P. Adams 
Chandler Cass 
Perkins Fellows 

No. 4 
Windsor Cobleigh 
Abiel Deming 
Hiram King 

No. 7 
Nathaniel Rix 



No. 10 
Stephen Morse 2d 
Eli Pike 
Moody Mann 

No. 14 
Niles Doty 
John L. Corliss 
Stephen Farnsworth 



Dist. No. 2 
James Adams 
Samuel Herbert 
Willard Keith 
Rufus Stearns 

No. 5 
Thos. J. Pennock 
Hiram Martin 
Dan Y. Jackson 

No. 8 
Kinsley H. Batchelder 
Benj. Noyes 
Greenleaf N. Pierce 

No. 11 
James King 
William Southard 
J. G. White 

No. 15 
Samuel Newton 
Charles Wetherbee 
Ransom Clifford 



Dist. No. 3 
Joel Angier 
Aaron P. Glazier 
Willard Whitman 

N. M. Swasey 

No. 6 

Alvah Haywood 
Joseph Flanders 
Ebenezer Tenney 

No. 9 
Simeon Haines 
Gad Bisbee 
Paine Blake 

No. 12 
Ezra Sanborn 
Daniel Morse 
James M. Bancroft 

No. 16 
Horace Battis 
Alfred Tyler 
L. H. Chase 



1841. Annual meeting, North Parish, March 9. With a Haverhill 
candidate for Congress as well as for governor, the Democrats polled a 
full vote, and easily maintained their ascendancy. The governor vote 
was, Enos Stevens, Whig, 187; John Page, Democrat, 304; John R. Red- 
ing also received 304 for Congress, and other candidates on the ticket, 
306. For representatives, Joseph Bell, 1; Joshua Blaisdell, Whig, 114; 
Aaron Southard, Whig, 119; Samuel Smith, Dem., 296; Samuel Swasey, 
Democrat, 296. New names on the list of minor offices were: highway 



186 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

surveyors, Moses Dunkley, Thomas E. Barron, Thomas B. Perkins, 
Wilder P. Dix, Jarvis Sargent, Samuel Page, Jr., David Cheney; survey- 
ors of lumber, Ezra Niles; fence viewers, Nathaniel Rix, Jr.; hogreeves, 
Michael Carleton, Jr., S. E. Lester, Arthur Carleton, Nathaniel Dickin- 
son, Silas M. Burke, Amasa Niles, B. Frank Gale, George W. Bisbee. 
Voted to tax the town farm for support of schools. Voted to raise a 
sum of money equal to interest on surplus fund for schools; this vote was 
rescinded at an adjourned meeting March 17. "Voted to lay out $100 
on the road from Brier Hill to Slab City." At an adjourned meeting 
March 17. Appropriations: highways and bridges, to pay town debts 
and town charges, $3,000 in money, $1,800 in labor; schools, $881. 

1842. Annual meeting, old meeting house, South Parish, March 8. 
The Democrats retained control of affairs in spite of a division from the 
regular ranks by so called Independent Democrats, who were opposing 
giving charters to railroads permitting them to take land for roadway 
by right of eminent domain. This remained an issue for three or four 
years, and the Independents were led by some of the ablest leaders of 
the party. Governor vote, John H. White, Ind. Dem., 30; Enos Stevens, 
Whig, 167; Henry Hubbard, 258. Representative vote, William South- 
ard, 1; Daniel Batchelder, 4; Jona. Wilson, 4; Jona. B. Rowell, 4; Samuel 
Page, Whig and Free Soil, 218; Roswell Elliott, Whig and Free Soil, 223; 
Samuel Swasey, Dem., 250; Nathan B. Felton, 259. The Free Soil as 
well as the railroad issue entered into the choice of selectmen. On the 
first ballot Samuel Swasey and Nathaniel Rix 2d were chosen, no check 
list being used, and on the second John Page was elected, the check list 
being demanded. The new names appearing in the list of minor offices 
were: Highway surveyors, Isaac F. Allen, Samuel B. Morse, Abram 
Thomas, Joseph Willis, Jesse Rollins, Ransom Clifford, Franklin Crouch, 
Clark Bacon, David Merrill, John Cummings; auditors, D. H. Collins, 
Abiel Deming; surveyor of wood, Gardner Elliott; hogreeves, Samuel 
T. Wood, Horace Jones, Orson Morse, Jona. Poole, Jr., Hiram George, 
D. H. Hall, Norman Baker. John A. Page was chosen agent to take 
charge of the literary fund. Appropriations: highways and town 
expenses, $2,000 in money, $1,800 in labor; schools, $1,181, of which 
$300 was to be divided equally among the school districts. 

1843. Annual meeting, Old meeting house North Parish, March 14. 
Governor vote, John M. White, Ind. Dem., 72; Anthony Colby, Whig, 
161; Henry Hubbard, Dem., 301. Representatives to General Court, 
Nathaniel Kimball, Ind. Dem., 46; Samuel Page, Ind. Dem., 50; Russell 
King, Whig, 148; Gardner Elliott, Whig, 149; Eben Eastman, Dem., 
299; Samuel Swasey, Dem., 301. Swasey for the first time polled the 
full party vote. He had been elected speaker of the House in 1842, and 
his town appreciated the honor conferred. He was speaker again in 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 187 

1843. New names in the list of town offices were: highway surveyors, 
Eleazer Smith, Jona. A. Russell, Dan Y. Jackson, William Leonard, Lor- 
enzo H. Chase, Charles Wetherbee, Timothy R. Bacon, Russell Wright; 
surveyors of lumber, John C. Deming; hogreeves, Joseph Mack, Henry 
Merrill, John N. Morse, William Brown, Voranus Keeth, Samuel M. 
Hubert, Simeon Hurlburt, Ira Sanborn, Chester Farnham, Ephraim 
Crouch. Appropriations: highways, $2,000 in labor; town charges, etc., 
$1,600; schools, $1,180, of which $300 was to be divided equally among 
the districts. The overseer of poor, Daniel Batchelder, was authorized 
to let out the town farm, and make provision for support of paupers for 
one year, and it was voted that the selectmen and overseer erect addi- 
tional buildings on the town farm. 

1844. Annual meeting, Ladd Street meeting house, March 12. 
Governor vote, David Hoit, Free Soil, 22; John H. White, Ind. Derm, 22; 
Anthony Colby, Whig, 135; John H. Steele, Dem., 175. The contest 
at this election and it was an exciting one was over the election of repre- 
sentatives to the General Court. Eben Eastman and Daniel Batchelder 
were the Democratic candidates. Batchelder was a comparatively new- 
comer in town — coming from Coventry — and secured his nomination in 
the caucus by a close vote. Daniel Morse, 2d, and Hosea S. Baker were 
the Whig candidates. The Independent Democrats had been for three 
or four years a disorganizing factor, and the Free Soilers had become a 
force to be reckoned with and party lines, especially on the part of the 
Democrats had become loosely drawn. Only 354 votes had been cast 
for governor and the remainder of the state and county ticket, but the 
smallest representative vote on the four ballots taken was 454. 

First ballot — whole number votes, 481; necessary for choice, 241; 
scattering, 6; W. S. Cobleigh, 3; Eleazor Smith, 4; Hiram Morgan, 11; 
Nathaniel Kimball, 11; Samuel Page, 14; John McClary, 33; Hosea S. 
Baker, 185; Daniel Morse, 2d, 190; Daniel Batchelder, 232; Eben East- 
man, 272, and the latter was declared elected. 

Second ballot — whole number votes, 478; necessary for choice, 240; 
scattering, 5; John McClary, 6; Samuel Page, 7; Hiram Morgan, 9; Daniel 
Morse, 2d, 223 : Daniel Batchelder, 228. 

Third ballot — whole number votes, 485; necessary for choice, 243; 
scattering, 9; John McClary, 3; Hiram Morgan, 4; Daniel Morse, 2d 
233; Daniel Batchelder, 236. 

Fourth ballot — whole number of votes, 454; necessary for choice, 228; 
scattering, 5; John McClary, 4; Daniel Batchelder, 214; Daniel Morse, 
2d, 233, and the latter was declared elected. His supporters had the 
better staying qualities. The Democrats evidently wanted more time for 
election of selectmen, &c, and the meeting was adjourned without delay. 
A special meeting was warned for March 29, at the Horse Meadow Meet- 



188 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

ing House when appropriations were made, and town officers were 
elected. Alvah E. Haywood and Samuel Swasey, Dems., were elected 
selectmen on the first ballot and Isaac Morse, Whig, on second ballot. 
New names on the list of other offices were: highway surveyors, Isaac 
F. Allen, Jefferson Pennock, Samuel Newton, Lyman M. Southard, James 
Blake, Aaron Knight; constables, Cephas Cummings, James A. Cutting, 
Luther Colby; tythingman, James Blake, Jr. When it came to the elec- 
tion of hogreeves, the town simply outdid itself. No less than 29 more 
or less distinguished citizens were elevated to that important office. The 
list is certainly an interesting one. Rev. David Burroughs, Orrin Sart- 
well, Charles Noyes, Joseph Locke, Marquis D. Stearns, James Gould, 
Ira Gould, Winthrop Elliott, Alexander Moore, Sylvester Jeffers, Benj. 
Webster, Jr., Osgood M. Morse, Cyrus George, Phineas Spalding, M. D., 
Isaac Morse, Joel Davis, David Page, Samuel T. Ward, Simeon Haines, 
David Dunckley, S. F. Hook, Samuel Poole, C. S. Cox, William H. 
Cummings, Daniel Carr, Jr., John Page, Samuel Carr, John L. Rix, 
Samuel Swasey. Hogs were never so well provided for either before or 
since. School committee was once more elected, instead of authorizing 
selectmen to appoint: Rev. Samuel Delano, Rev. Elisha Adams, 
Joseph Niles, Eben Eastman, Nathan B. Felton. Appropriations: 
highways, $2,000 in labor; schools, $1,181, to be divided as in previous 
years; town expenses, $1,000. Abiel Deming was appointed agent to 
settle with the tax collectors for 1840, 41 and 42, and to report at the 
November meeting or be fined. There is no record of either settlement 
or fine at the November meeting. It was voted not to license the sale of 
intoxicating liquors. At the November presidential election, the fate 
for electors was, Free Soil, 16; Whig, 213; Dem., 289. For revision of 
Constitution, yes, 275; no, 53; abolition of capital punishment, yes, 110; 
no, 201. 

1845. Annual meeting, Horse Meadow meeting house, March 11. 
Governor vote, David Hoit, Free Soil, 47; Anthony Colby, Whig, 158; 
John H. Steele, Dem., 249. There was again an exciting contest for 
election of representative to General Court. Nathan B. Felton and 
Jonathan Wilson were the regular Democratic candidates, Daniel Morse, 
2d, was the Whig candidate and Daniel Batchelder, who had been 
defeated in 1844 as the regular Democratic candidate, was running inde- 
pendently. The result indicated that there had been a deal, Whigs were 
found supporting the life-long Democrat "Dan" Batchelder. The deal 
was successful. It was charged that John L. Rix engineered it. This at 
least is certain, John L. Rix had returned to town and was active in local 
politics. In fact, he was never anything but active. There were three 
ballots. 

First ballot — whole number of votes, 490; necessary for a choice, 246; 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 189 

scattering, 14; Daniel Batchelder, Ind., 221; N. B. Felton, Dem., 238; 
Jona. Wilson, 236; Daniel Morse, 2d, 247, and David Morse, 2d, was 
declared elected. 

Second ballot — whole number of votes, 484; necessary for a choice, 
243; scattering, 12; Daniel Batchelder, 235; N. B. Felton, 237. 

Third ballot — whole number of votes, 471; necessary for a choice, 236; 
scattering, 4; N. B. Felton, 227; Daniel Batchelder, 240. At least ten 
Democrats failed to remain till the voting was over, and Daniel Batchel- 
der was elected. Before another election, there was a getting together 
of Democrats, and Daniel Batchelder dropped out of Haverhill political 
life, reappearing only after a lapse of more than twenty years when he was 
twice elected moderator. The Whigs elected two of the selectmen, Dudley 
C. Kimball and Isaac Morse, Alvah E. Haywood, Democrat, being elected 
to third place on the second ballot. New names on the lists of other 
town officers were: highway surveyors, G. W. George, Alba Hale, Chas. 
Champlin, Hiram Keyes, Hiram Ladd, Thos. B. Perkins, Abijah Cutting, 
Anson A. Smith, Joseph Sanborn, David Morse; constables, James 
Bancroft, Walter P. Flanders; surveyors of wood, Charles G. Smith; 
superintending school committee, Clark Haywood; appropriations: 
highways, $2,000 in labor, $2,500 in money; schools, $300, in addition to 
the sum required by law. Chose Dudley C. Kimball "to ferret out and 
find if possible certain notes reported by auditors as lost or misplaced 
and if found to collect them forthwith," "also the literary fund notes and 
apply the same on town debt." 

A special meeting was held September 23 for election of member of 
Congress. It was voted to dismiss an article in the warrant relative to 
building town hall. 

1846. Annual meeting, Ladd Street, March 10. Governor vote, 
J. H. White, 1; N. S. Berry, F. S., 90; Anthony Colby, 168; Jared W. 
Williams,. 256 It is to be noted that the Free Soil vote drawn from both 
Whig and Democratic parties had become an important factor. There 
was a larger vote for representatives than for governor. Had the entire 
Free Soil vote been given to the Whig candidates, they would have been 
elected, but it had not yet been sufficiently welded together to make the 
most of itself. 

First ballot — whole number of votes, 525; necessary for a choice, 263; 
Nathaniel Kimball, Whig, 255; Daniel Morse, 2d, Whig, 249; Nathl. 
Rix, Dem., 262; Samuel Swasey, Dem., 270: Second ballot — whole 
number of votes, 502; necessary for a choice, 252; scattering, 6; Nathl. 
Kimball, Whig, 232; Nathl. Rix, Dem., 264. Two ballots were necessary 
to elect selectmen. John McClary, Dem. and Isaac F. Allen, Whig, 
were elected on first ballot, and Josiah Jeffers, F. S. on second. 

New names on list of minor offices: highway surveyors, Horatio N. 



190 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Ladd, Daniel French, David Putnam, Gad Bisbee, George Walcott, Ros- 
well Wilmot, Abram H. Chandler; surveyor of lumber, David Page; 
surveyor of wood, Nathaniel M. Swasey ; hogreeve, Samuel Pike, tything- 
men, Abel K. Merrill, Niles Doty; superintendent school committee, 
Herman Rood. Appropriations: highways, $2,000 in labor; schools, 
$1,250; town expenses, $1,500. The selectmen were instructed to report 
a plan of town house at the next annual meeting. 

1847. Annual meeting, Horse Meadow meeting house, March 9. 
Governor vote, Nathaniel S. Berry, F. S., 54; Anthony Colby, Whig, 
229; Jared W. Williams, Dem., 260. For representatives and selectmen, 
most of the Free Soilers voted with the Whigs, the result being the elec- 
tion of the Whig candidates on first ballot. New names in list of offices, 
highway surveyors, Stephen Metcalf, Joshua Carr, Ward Mason, Tris- 
tram Cross, Peter Whitaker, Amos C. Foster, N. M. Chase; constable, 
George Wetherell; hogreeves, James Glazier, Eli L. Evans, George W. 
McConnell, Hubert Eastman; superintendent school committee, Charles 
R. Morrison, Geo. S. Towle. Appropriations: highways, $2,000 in 
labor; schools, $1,310; town expenses, $1,700. On revision of Consti- 
tution, Yes, 201; No, 42. At a special meeting August 6, "to see if 
town will vote to sell town farm and purchase one of less value," voted to 
refer to next annual meeting; "to see if the town will pay John Nason for 
horse killed on highway," voted to dismiss the article. 

1848. Annual meeting, Horse Meadow, March 14. It was a bitterly 
contested election from the start, and lasted through three days. Whigs 
and Free Soilers had united on a candidate for governor, and also for 
representatives and town offices, for councillor, senator and county 
offices there were separate Whig and Free Soil tickets, the latter polling 
from 67 to 70 votes. Daniel Morse, 2d, was elected moderator, by a 
plurality of three votes. James T. Burston was chosen town clerk on 
second ballot. Governor vote, Anthony Colby, Whig, 1; Nathaniel 
S. Berry, Whig and F. S., 285; Jared W. Williams, 286. For Repre- 
sentatives: Whole No. votes, 543; necessary for a choice, 272; Samuel 
Swasey, Dem., 269; Thomas B.Jackson, Dem., 270; Samuel Page, W. and 
F. S., 270; Daniel Morse, 2d, 272. Adjourned till 9 a. m. Wednesday. 
Second ballot for representative: Whole number votes, 536; necessary for 
a choice, 269; John L. Rix, 1; Thomas B. Jackson, Dem., 264; Samuel 
Page, W. and F. S., 271. Two ballots were necessary to elect selectmen, 
and the coalition was successful. New names in list of town offices: 
highway surveyors, Rinaldo Moulton, Lyman Haines, Kimball Corliss, 
Simon Heath, Luther Warren, Benj. Cole; hogreeves, Isaiah Wood- 
ward; tythingman, Alexander Manson. William H. Page was appointed 
tax collector by the selectmen. On the question, is it expedient that a 
law be enacted prohibiting the sale of wines and spiritous liquors except 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 191 

for mechanical and medicinal purposes the vote was, yes, 76; no, 96. 
This was the first vote on the question of statutory prohibition. Appro- 
priations same as previous year. At the presidential election November 
7, the Democratic electoral ticket received 235 votes, the Whig 179, the 
Free Soil 49. 

The Democratic Republican of March 22, made caustic comment on the 
result : 

Never since we have known anything of political matters, have we seen such gross 
unfairness and favoritism shown by selectmen as was shown by our board to the Whig 
party in putting the names of Whigs on the list, and in excluding Democrats from it. 
Nor was the favoritism of the selectmen the only thing the Democracy had to contend 
with. Rum and rowdyism, countenanced by the Whig leaders, reigned supreme through 
the first two days of town meeting. Bullies armed with bludgeons, were appointed by the 
Whigs at their caucus to sleep in the meeting house and to take possession of a certain 
pew, which they supposed to be a desirable spot for them to operate in, and others were 
selected to row it in the aisle, through which the voters were obliged to pass to get to the 
ballot box. It was impossible for Democrats to get to the ballot box without being 
insulted in the grossest manner. In several instances we saw men who were going orderly 
and quietly to deposit their ballots assaulted by bullies in the aisle, and it became neces- 
sary for them to fight their way, or defer giving their votes. At one time a fight was going 
on in the house for nearly or quite half an hour, and not the least effort was made on the 
part of the moderator, though he was ordered, in the most peremptory manner to do so by 
the editor of the Whig paper in this village. The moderator probably knew that the 
valor imported to the bullies of his party by the rum furnished them must find vent 
somewhere, and he did not care to call down their indignation on his head by interfering 
with their sport. 

There was evidently an after-election soreness on the part of the Demo- 
crats. On the first ballot for representatives on the first day of the meet- 
ing, Daniel Morse, 2d, was declared elected by the moderator, as having 
received 272 votes, just the number necessary to a choice, but it seems an 
error had been made. The Whig and Free Soil or Coalition candidates 
were Daniel Morse 2d, and Samuel Page, the Democratic Samuel Swasey 
and Thomas B. Jackson. But an error was discovered. The whole 
number of votes cast on the first balloting was 544; necessary to a choice, 
273. At the time of the count it was found that there were 269 ballots 
bearing the names of Morse and Page, three bearing the name of Morse, 
but not that of Page, and one bearing the name of Page, but not that of 
Morse, making the number of Coalition ballots 273. There were 269 bal- 
lots bearing the names of Swasey and Jackson, and one bearing the name 
of Jackson, but not that of Swasey making the number of Democratic 
votes 270, a total in all of 543, which was declared by the moderator as the 
vote. Before the declaration, however, a ballot bearing the names of 
Swasey and Jackson was received by the moderator, bringing the total 
Democratic vote up to 271, and the total vote, 544. This latter vote was 
not reckoned in the declaration, and so Morse really failed by one vote 



192 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

of receiving the number required to elect, 273. The Democrats in the 
Legislature had an ample majority, and Mr. Morse, though declared 
elected did not attempt to take his seat, and thus provoke a contest, 
in which he would have doubtless have been defeated. 

1849. Annual meeting, at New Town Hall March 14. There was no 
vote for governor. For representative : whole number votes, 544 ; neces- 
sary for a choice, 273; scattering, 2; T. B. Jackson, Dem., 262; Samuel 
Swasey, Dem., 265; Samuel Page, W. and F. S., 273; Daniel Morse, 
2d, 279; James T. Burston was elected town clerk only on second ballot. 
There was no choice for selectmen on Tuesday and adjournment was had 
till Wednesday, when Dudley C. Kimball, Isaac Morse and Washington 
W. Simpson, Coalition candidates, were elected. The warrant contained 
the usual article : "To bring in your votes for governor, councillor, senator, 
county treasurer, register of deeds, three road commissioners and repre- 
sentative in Congress from the Fourth District." Voted, "to dismiss the 
article," and Haverhill for the first and only time in its history deliber- 
ately disfranchised itself in national, state and county affairs. The 
minor town offices were elected on report of a committee on nominations. 
New names in list: highway surveyors, David Parker, Jr., E. B. Wil- 
loughby, Israel H. Davis, Alonzo W. Putnam, Roswell Elliott, Moses 
Noyes, Roswell Crosby, Charles Cox, Hiram Wilmot. Hogreeves, 
Isaac L. Morse, Paul N. Meader. Appropriations: highways, $1,500 
in labor at 10c an hour, $1,500 in money; schools including literary fund 
and surplus revenue, $1,730; for part of our standing town debt and 
town expenses, $2,000. 

1850. Annual meeting, March 12. The pendulum swung again. It 
was a Democratic year. Governor vote, N. S. Brun, F. S., 25; Lin 
Chamberlin, Whig, 201; Samuel Dinsmoor, 265. The Democratic 
candidates for selectmen and representatives were elected by substantial 
majorities. Other officers were again elected on nomination of committee 
previously appointed. New names were: highway surveyors, Eben 
Gitchell, Warren Rogers, Joseph Hardy, Jr., James L. Bisbee, Jason 
Blood, D. F. Palmer, Samuel Peters, Benj. L. Warren; hogreeves, David 
Dickey, Henry W. Smith, Azro Niles, Lysander Brayvorn, Hazen Ricker, 
I. B. Ayer; surveyors of wood, T. F. Coggswell. Rev. S. Delano, for the 
superintending school committee, made report, which was ordered to be 
printed in cheap pamphlet form and that one copy be furnished to each 
family in town. This was the first published school report. Rev. 
Samuel Delano, Chas. R, Morrison were elected school committee. The 
selectmen were authorized to appoint a collector to collect uncollected 
taxes on the tax books of W . H . Page . Appropriations : highways , $ 1 , 500 
in labor; schools, $1,730; current expenses, $1,500; outstanding indebt- 
ness, $1,000; teachers' institute in Western Judicial district, $25. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 193 

A special meeting was held Oct. 8, to choose delegates to a Constitu- 
tional Convention. Samuel Swasey and Jacob Morse, Dems., were 
elected with practically no opposition. 

1851. Annual meeting, March 11. This year the pendulum swung 
the other way. Governor vote, John Atwood, F. S., 32; Samuel Dins- 
moor, Dem., 216; Thomas E. Sawyer, Whig, 228. Representative vote, 
scattering, 26; Thomas B. Jackson, Dem., 219; Nathan B. Felton, Dem., 
229; Chas. E. Thompson, Whig, 251; Dudley C. Kimball, 255. The 
Whigs elected their candidates for selectmen. New names on the list 
of other town offices: highway surveyors, W. C. Marston, Eben F. Morse, 
Daniel W. Webster, Geo. W. Mason, Rufus Foster, Henry Chandler; 
hogreeve, C. A. Gale; collector taxes, Geo. Wetherell. All the amend- 
ments proposed by the Convention of 1850 to the Constitution were 
overwhelmingly defeated. Voted, to recommend that the justices of the 
Court of Common Pleas purchase two "poor farms," one in the Eastern 
and the other in the Western Judicial district. Voted, that the selectmen 
curtail the expenses of prudential school committees as much as possible. 
Appropriations: highways, $1,500 in labor, 10 cts. per hour; schools, 
$1,730; outstanding debts, $1,000; current expenses, $1,500. 

1852. Annual meeting, March 9. Another close election with Whig 
and Free Soil victory in town affairs. Governor vote, John Atwood, F. S., 
32; Thomas E. Sawyer, Whig, 205; Noah Martin, Dem., 207. Repre- 
sentative vote, first ballot, scattering, 6; Jacob Morse, Dem., 250; 
Nathan B. Felton, Dem., 253; Dudley C. Kimball, Whig, 253; Charles 
E. Thompson, Whig, 259, and the latter was declared elected. Second 
ballot, scattering, 2; N. B. Felton, Dem., 238; Dudley C. Kimball, Whig, 
251. New names on list of town offices: highway surveyors, Nathaniel 
Bailey, Benjamin Hatch, Asa Bacon, Daniel Day, William Tenney, 
George Gleason, George W. Prescott; hogreeve, Abner Palmer; fire- 
wards, J. V. Bean. Appropriations: highways, $1,500 in labor; schools, 
$1,730; outstanding debts, $500; town expenses, $1,500. Voted, to 
dispense with tything man. Three amendments to the constitution were 
submitted: To abolish religious test, yes 106, no 48; to abolish property 
qualification, yes 129, no 23; on submission of future amendments by 
legislature, yes 67, no 93. Presidential election, 1852. Democratic 
electors, 231; Whig electors, 204; Free Soil, 27. 

1853. Annual meeting, March 8. A Democratic year, once more, but 
the last till thirteen years later. The scepter passed. Governor vote, 
John H. White, F. S., 70; James Bell, Whig, 188; Noah Martin, Dem., 
226; Representative vote, scattering, 14; Isaac Morse, Whig, 243; John 
L. Rix, Whig, 244; Jacob Morse, Dem., 259; Nathan B. Felton, Dem., 
262. Three ballots were required to elect a town clerk, the third result- 
ing: Lorenzo D. Jeff ers, F. S., 5; James T. Barstow, Whig, 254; Charles 

14 



194 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

G. Smith, Dcm., 262. New names in list of town offices: highway- 
surveyors, Selden Willey, Moody Maren, Henry W. Reding; constable, 
Edson B. Hadlock. George W. Aiken was appointed tax collector and 
treasurer. For the first time there was a single superintending school 
committee, Eben Eastman. Appropriations: highways, $1,500 in labor; 
schools, $1,300, and $450 additional to be equally divided among the 
school districts; town expenses, $1,400. 

1854. Annual meeting, March 14. There was a large vote, the repre- 
sentative contest bringing out nearly every available voter. Governor 
vote, Jared Perkins, F. S., 26; Nathaniel B. Baker, 211; James Bell, 234. 
Representative vote, whole number of votes, 526; necessary for a choice, 
264; scattering, 5; Jacob Morse, Dem., 246; Nathan B. Felton, Dem., 
247; John L. Rix, Whig, 273; Isaac Morse, Whig, 277. New names in 
list of town offices: highway surveyors, Warren Stevens, Major W. 
Nelson, Irad Porter, D. P. Kimball, B. F. King, Raymond Page, Charles 
P. Warren, Luke C. Glazier, Seth Heath, Stephen Jeffers; corders of 
wood, George S. Kelsea, Nathan Dickinson; hogreeves, E. P. Woodbury, 
Willard Weatherbee, David Whitcher, Moses Mulliken, Henry Blake, 
Royal W. Clark. Appropriations: highways, $1,800 in labor; schools, 
$1,300; town expenses, $1,000. Voted, to adopt act of legislature 
providing for the establishment of a police court and the appointment of 
a police justice. At a special meeting September 23, the vote relative to 
the establishment of a police court was rescinded. 

1855. This was the famous "Know Nothing" year. The secret 
organization known as the American party, came into existence and 
virtually absorbed the Whig and Free Soil parties and drew to some 
extent from the Democrats. Its candidate for governor, Ralph Metcalf , 
was elected, receiving 32,769 votes to 27,055 for Nathaniel B. Baker, 
Dem.; 3,436 for James Bell, Whig, and 1,237 for Asa Fowler, F. S. The 
absorption of Whigs and Free Soilers was more general throughout the 
state than in Haverhill where the governor vote was, Fowler, F. S., 18; 
Bell, Whig, 107; Metcalf, A., 172; Baker, Dem., 208. "Know 
Nothings" and Whigs united on representatives, and the vote was, 
whole number, 511; scattering, 5; Moses B. Gove, F. S., 16; Major W. 
Nelson, F. S., 17; George W. Bisbee, Dem., 206; Nathan B. Felton, 
Dem., 206; John L. Rix, W. and A., 283; Isaac Morse, W. and A., 286. 
New names in list of town officers; highway surveyors, F. P. Bowen, 
Jr., B. F. Woodward, J. Porter Kimball, Solon Baker, George W. Morrison, 
John Palmer, Ananias Millen, Edward Dean. Appropriations: highways, 
$1,200 in labor; schools, $1,600; town charges, $1,400. It was ordered 
that 400 copies of the report of superintendent of schools be printed and 
distributed. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 195 

1856. Annual meeting, March 11. Governor vote, Ichabod Goodwin, 
Whig, 12; John S. Wells, Dem., 248; Ralph Metcalf, A., 278. Repre- 
sentative vote: whole number, 543; George W. Bisbee, Dem., 256; 
Charles R. Morrison, Dem., 256; John L. Rix., W. and A., 286; Isaac 
Morse, W. and A., 287. New names in list of town officers: highway 
surveyors, William Eastman, Lyman G. Clark, Eben Hardy, Simon 
Clifford, Abel Wheeler, Riley J. Mack; constable, W. B. Douglass; hog- 
reeves, D. C. Knight, P. W. Kimball, Collins Durant, E. B. Adams, 
E. L. Page, Jacob Brock, Hiram S. Carr, Chase S. Blake. Appropriations : 
highways, SI, 200 in labor; schools, $1,600; current expenses and town 
indebtedness, $2,000. It was voted that 400 copies of the auditors' 
report be printed and 250 copies of report of superintendent of schools. 
At the Presidential election, November 4, but two electoral tickets were 
voted. Democratic candidates for electors received 248, and the candi- 
dates of the newly organized Republican party, 309. 

1857. Annual meeting, March 10. Governor vote, John S. Wells, 
Dem., 214; William Haile, Rep., 264. Representative vote, whole 
number , 459; George W. Bisbee, Dem., 196; John McClary, Dem., 196; 
Nathaniel Bailey, Rep. 263; Russell King, Rep., 263. New names in town 
office list: highway surveyors, William Jewett, Samuel Kezer, Charles 
Jacobs, George Tilton, Harry Patridge, W. McCloskey, Jr.; hogreeves, 
Ezra S. Kimball, G. C. Smith, A. E. Hildreth, George Keyes, Mark 
Hildreth, John Hovey, Edwin Hildreth. Appropriations: highways, 
$1,000; schools, $1,600; current expenses and indebtedness, $2,000. 

1858. Annual meeting, March 9. Governor vote, Asa P. Cate, Dem., 
228; William Haile, Rep., 293. Representative vote, scattering, 2; 
Hiram Morgan, Dem., 194; Joseph Powers, Dem., 195; Nathaniel 
Bailey, Rep., 272; Russell King, Rep., 274. New names in list of minor 
offices: highway surveyors, Nathan P. Rideout, Royal H. Baker, Wil- 
liam G. Campbell, Parker Metcalf, J. H. Large; hogreeves, Greenleaf 
Page, H. H. Tenney, Solomon Blumley, Akel E. Davis, Abiel Nelson, 
Geo. W. Chapman, Calvin Pennock, James Battis. Appropriations: 
highways, $1,000; schools, $1,600; town expenses, and debts, $2,000. 
Lyman Buck was by vote licensed to sell liquor. 

1859. Annual meeting, March 8. Governor vote, Asa P. Cate, 
Dem., 219; Ichabod Goodwin, Rep., 271. Representative vote, whole 
number, 475; scattering, 5; Marcus B. Jackson, Dem., 208; John 
McClary, 208; George S. Kelsea, 258; James P. Webster, 258. New 
names in list of town offices: highway surveyors, S. S. Hovey, Fred 
Clough, Eben T. Hardy, George Aldrich, James B. Clark, C. Alonzo 
Cummings; constable, Nathaniel M. Page; corders of wood, Albert 
Bailey; hogreeves, S. S. Evans, Rev. Charles U. Dunning, W. B. Rogers, 



196 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Jerome B. Carr, Chester Phelps, Albert Gordon, David Kezer. Appro- 
priations: highways, $1,000 in labor; schools, $1,600; town charges and 
debts, $2,000. Voted to build a new dwelling house on the town farm 
and to raise $500 therefor. Voted to give each school district the amount 
of the school tax raised on its property. H. M. Marsh was licensed to sell 
liquor for medicinal, chemical and mechanical purposes. S. F. Hook was 
chosen town agent to sell liquor, to sell at not exceeding 25 per cent profit 
and to receive $75 for services. Marsh to sell at same profit and to re- 
ceive $50 compensation. Neither to sell to common drunkards, nor to 
any person using liquor to excess, unless on prescription of physician. 
^(Comment on this kind of regulation of sale of liquor is unnecessary.) 

1860. Annual meeting, March 13. Governor vote, Asa P. Cate, 
Dem., 210; Ichabod Goodwin, Rep., 276. Representative vote, whole 
number, 470; N. M. Swasey, Dem., 5; Marcus B. Jackson, Dem., 198; 
John McClary, Dem., 203; James P. Webster, Rep., 266; George S. 
Kelsea, Rep., 267. New names on list of town offices: highway survey- 
ors, Peter Flanders, Amos Sly, A. D. Elliott, Franklin Hurlburt, Syl- 
vester Hurlburt; surveyors of lumber, Addison Ring, D. C. Hutchins; 
hogreeves, Henry Chapman, W. I. Fisher, Nelson Hanaford, Hibbard S. 
Sleeper, George Tilton, Harry Hix. Appropriations: highways, $1,200 in 
labor; schools, $1,600; debts and town charges, $2,000. S. F. Hook and 
Ann C. Marsh, agents to sell liquor on same terms as previous year. 
Presidential election, November 6. There were four electoral tickets 
voted for, Bell and Everett, Union, 2; Breckenridge and Lane, Dem., 
68; Douglas and Johnson, Dem., 109; Lincoln and Hamlin, Rep., 263. 
The North Haverhill cornet band was invited to play while voters were 
coming in. "Voted that the thanks of the meeting be presented to the 
band for their excellent and enlivening music." 

1861. Annual meeting, March 12. Governor vote, George Stark, 
Dem., 210; Nathaniel S. Berry, Rep., 255. The regular Republican 
nominees for representatives were George W. Chapman and Daniel 
Morse. The Democrats nominated Nathaniel M. Swasey and John S. 
Bryant. The Democrats had no hope of electing either of their candi- 
dates, and so were ready to help Republicans dissatisfied with the regular 
nominations to defeat them. It was a go-as-you-please contest, and three 
ballots were necessary. First ballot: whole number, 479; scattering, 11; 
John S. Bryant, Dem., 112; Nathaniel M. Swasey, Dem., 112; Hosea 
:S. Baker, Rep., 102; George W. Chapman, Rep., 228; Daniel Morse, 
2d, 247; and the latter was declared elected. Second ballot: whole 
number, 456; scattering, 7; N. M. Swasey, Dem., 9; Nathaniel W. 
Westgate, Rep., 10; Geo. W. Chapman, Rep., 210; Hosea S. Baker, 
Rep., 220. Third ballot: whole number, 448; Nathaniel M. Swasey, 
Dem., 4; H. S. Baker, Rep., 213; Nathaniel W. Westgate, Rep., 231; 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 197 

and the latter was declared elected. The Democrats were powerless to 
elect a candidate of their own, but they dictated the choice of a Repub- 
lican. New names in list of minor offices: highway surveyors, John C. 
Moore, Daniel W. Day, Lyman A. Marden, Daniel Merrill, Jr., Benj. 
Noyes; hogreeves, Edmund M. Carleton, Gilman Torsey, Joseph Dow, 
W. F. Johnson. Appropriations: highways, $1,200 in labor; schools, 
$1,600; town expenses and indebtedness, $2,500. N. H. Ladd and George 
W. Mason were appointed liquor agents under the statute. 

During the next four years several special town meetings were held to 
take action in regard to enlistment of soldiers, payment of bounties and 
other matters growing out of the war of the rebellion. The action taken 
will be noted in another chapter. 

1862. Annual meeting, March 11. Governor vote, Paul J. Wheeler, 
War Dem., 7; George Mark, 198; Nathaniel S. Berry, 248. The Demo- 
cratic candidates for representative were Dr. Henry B. Leonard and 
Charles G. Smith ; the Republican candidates, Luther Butler and Albert 
Bailey. Daniel Morse, 2d, had not been nominated for re-election. 
George W. Chapman was as much entitled to renomination as he, but the 
party caucus thought it wise to drop both and make new nominations. 
"Daniel" decided to run independently. He had been the beneficiary 
of great luck at previous elections. He made the same mistake now, 
that other politicians, big and little, had made before and have made 
since. It is not safe to run for office on a platform of personal popularity. 
Four ballots were taken before election was completed. Morse had the 
satisfaction of breaking the party ticket, and of accomplishing his own 
political extinguishment at the same time. First ballot : whole number, 
446; scattering, 5; Daniel Morse, bolting Rep., 35; Henry B. Leonard, 
Dem., 192; Charles G. Smith, Dem., 194; Luther Butler, Rep., 212; 
Albert Bailey, Rep., 252; and the latter was declared elected. Second 
ballot: whole number, 423; scattering, 2; Daniel Carr, Rep., 23; H. B. 
Leonard, 199; Luther Butler, 199. Third ballot: whole number, 448; 
Carr, 31 ; Leonard, 205; Butler, 209. It is sometimes safe to swap horses 
while crossing a stream. The Republicans hastily decided that the swap 
had become imperatively necessary, and they swapped. Fourth ballot: 
whole number, 443; scattering, 2; Leonard, 202; Maj. W. Nelson, Rep., 
239; and the latter was declared elected. New names in town office 
list: highway surveyors, Henry Swan, A. D. Nelson, Nathan B. Davis, 
Sylvester Hildreth, A. H. Chandler, Roland Niles; surveyor of lumber, 
E. C. Hutchins; hogreeves, Henry F. King, John Currier, Tristram Hart- 
well, John Martin, Marcellus M. Davis, Andrew J. French, John E. Carr, 
Berton Smith, Nathaniel Messer, Wilbur Johnson, R. Heeney. Appro- 
priations: highways, $1,200 in labor; town charges and debts, $2,500: 
schools, $1,600. 



198 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

1863. Annual Meeting, March 10. Governer vote, Walter Harriman, 
War Dera., 18; Ira A. Eastman, Dem., 241; Joseph A. Gilman, Rep., 
245. The Republicans elected two of their candidates for selectmen 
on the first ballot, Dudley C. Kimball and Daniel Merrill, and on the 
second ballot, Nathaniel M. Swasey, Dem., was chosen. The Republi- 
cans found themselves near the danger line, and on the representative 
vote party lines were closely drawn. Whole number votes, 471; neces- 
sary for a choice, 236; Luther Butler, Rep. 1; Charles G. Smith, Dem., 
229; Henry B. Leonard, Dem., 232; Maj. W. Nelson, Rep., 236; Albert 
Bailey, Rep., 238. It was a narrow escape for the dominant party. New 
names on list of minor offices: highway surveyors, George C. Butler, 
Myron Bailey; corders of wood, Harvey Gannett. Appropriations: 
highways, $1,500; schools, .11,600; town charges and debt, $2,500. 
Voted to fund the floating debt of the town and issue bonds or certificates 
to an amount not to exceed $7,000, signed by the treasurer and counter- 
signed by the selectmen and not to be sold less than par. 

1864. Annual meeting, March 8. Governor vote, E. W. Harrington, 
Dem., 246; J. A. Gilmore, Rep., 278. Representative vote, whole 
number, 518; scattering, 4; Charles G. Smith, Dem., 244; Henry B. 
Leonard, Dem., 247; Joseph P. Cotton, Rep., 270; Peabody W. Kimball, 
Rep., 270. New names in list of town offices: Selectman, Harvey A. 
Albee; highway surveyors, James Knapp, Allen Bailey, Fred Clough, 
Joseph A. Pike, Albert Chase; surveyors of lumber, John D. Lawrence, 
Charles M. Weeks; fireward, William R. Park. Appropriations: 
highways, $1,500 in labor; schools, $1,600; town charges and debt, $6,000. 
Voted to fund the floating debt to an amount not to exceed $20,000. 
Presidential election, November 8. Electoral vote, Lincoln and Johnson 
electors, 255; McClellan and Pendleton electors, 239. On calling a 
constitutional convention, yes, 98; no 119. 

1865. Annual meeting, March 14. Governor vote, E. W. Harrington, 
Dem., 198; Frederick Smyth, Rep., 245. Representative vote, whole 
number, 436; scattering, 2; Nathan B. Felton, Dem., 197; Charles 
M. Weeks, Dem., 197; Peabody W. Kimball, Rep., 234; John N. Morse, 
Rep., 238. New names on list town offices: highway surveyors, John 
Nute, Charles Fisher, Nathan Heath, David S. Hurd, Nathan Chase, 
Amos H. Lund, Charles P. Warren, William Davis, Leonard J. Brown; 
hogreeve, Alvah Blake. Appropriations: highways, $2,000 in labor, 
at 14 cents an hour; schools, $1,600; current expenses, $3,000, to be 
applied on town debt $15,000. 

1866. Annual meeting, March 13. The vote for moderator resulted 
in the election by a small plurality of Daniel Batchelder, Dem. The 
first count showed the election of James P. Webster, the Republican 
candidate, but amid great excitement amounting almost to a riot, a 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 199 

recount resulted in the election of the Democrats' candidate. The 
Democrats again gained control of town and retained it except for such 
divisions as were made by Greenbackers, until 1894. The governor vote 
was, Fred Smyth, Rep., 239; John G. Sinclair, Dem., 264. Representa- 
tive vote, whole number, 508; scattering, 2; C. A. Dole, Rep., 240; John 
N. Morse, Rep., 241; Charles G. Smith, Dem., 263; Henry B. Leonard, 
Dem., 265. New names on list minor offices: highway surveyors, Albert 
H. Tefft, Henry Holt, H. P. Burleigh, Parker Beal, Stephen Jeffers, Jr., 
Thomas C. Sloan; fireward, John Piatt; hogreeves, Levi Nelson, Clark 
Dunkley, M. V. Bleady; superintendent of school committee, George 

F. Putnam. N. M. Taber, George S. Cummings and Charles Fisher were 
chosen agents to sell liquor. A consultation of the full list of town 
officers shows the triumph of Jacksonian principles in Haverhill: "To 
the victors belong the spoils." The names of Republicans are con- 
spicuous by their absence. Appropriations: highways, $2,000 in labor, 
at 14 cents; schools, $1,600; town expenses, $3,000; on town indebted- 
ness, $4,000. On the first ballot for selectmen, Roswell Elliott was 
elected with Charles M. Weeks and Langdon Bailey. He declined to 
serve, and Jacob Morse was chosen in his place. 

1867. Annual meeting, March 12. Governor vote, Walter Harriman, 
Rep., 233; John A. Sinclair, Dem., 304. Representative vote, John F. 
Morse, 3; John N. Morse, Rep., 225; C. A. Dole, Rep., 227; Charles 

G. Smith, Dem., 300; Henry B. Leonard, Dem., 301. New names on 
list of other offices: highway surveyors, Merrill Phelps, Jeremy Titus, 
Morey Gannett, Moses Knight, George A. Elliott; hogreeves, Harlan 
Blanchard, Ethan O. Harris, Morris E. Kimball. Appropriations: 
highways, $2,000; town charges, $3,000; interest and principal, town 
indebtedness, $4,000; schools, $1,900, $600 to be divided equally 
among the school districts. Voted to adopt provision of act of June, 
1845, with additional act of June, 1852, to authorize contiguous school 
districts to associate together and establish high schools. 

1868. Annual meeting, March 10. Governor vote, Walter Harriman, 
Rep., 249; John G. Sinclair, Dem., 322. Representative vote, whole 
number, 540; George. W Chapman, Ind., 27; Langdon Bailey, Ind., 28; 
Luther Butler, Rep., 198; Abel K. Merrill, Rep., 198; George F. Putnam, 
Dem., 317; Charles M. Weeks, Dem., 319. New names, minor offices: 
highway surveyors, Orrin M. Whitman, E. W. Bolkum, W. B. Rogers, 
T. P. Blake, Horace Noyes, S. B. St. Clair, Mark F. Colton, Hosea B. 
Cass; hogreeves, J. C. Pennock, Amos M. Pike, Ezra B. Mann, Henry 
Battis, Frank Davis, Harrison Carleton. Appropriations: highways, 
$2,000 in labor; schools, $2,000, $600 to be equally divided among school 
districts; town charges, $4,000; town debt and interest, $4,000. 

Voted to petition Congress to tax all bonds of the United States not 



200 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

exceeding 1 per cent annually and to make the tax a lien on coupons and 
interest on bonds, and to set such sum apart as a sinking fund to apply 
on the debt of the United States. Voted $200 to be expended in grading 
road to Bedel's bridge. Presidential election, November 3. Republican 
electoral ticket, for Grant and Colfax, 219; Democratic electoral ticket, 
Seymour and Blair, 246. 

The volume containing the records of town meetings, of the vote of the 
town for state and county offices and the quadrennial vote for Presidential 
electors was destroyed by fire in 1885, when the store of the town clerk, 
Enoch R. Weeks, at North Haverhill was burned. Unfortunately the 
town did not print a report of its officers, with a list of minor officers for 
the most of these years, nor was a weekly newspaper published in town, 
so that the details of these meetings and elections are irrecoverably lost. 
One result of this loss was the erection soon after of a substantial brick 
building with a commodious fireproof vault for the safe keeping of the 
records. The stable door had not, however, been locked in time. The 
governor vote and the representative vote after 1877 until 1887, together 
with some other facts relative to town officials and town expenditures 
during the seventeen years the records for which are lost, are available, 
and are here given. 

1869. Annual meeting, March 9. Governor vote, Onslow Stearns, 
Rep., 205; John Bedel, Dem., 277; Charles M. Weeks and George F. Put- 
nam, Dem., were re-elected representatives. 

1870. Annual meeting, March 8. Governor vote, Lorenzo D. Bar- 
rows, Pro., and scattering, 15; Samuel Flint, Dem., 61; Onslow Stearns, 
Rep., 195; John Bedel, Dem., 229. Representatives, Langdon Bailey, 
John W. Cutting, Dem. 

1871. Annual meeting, March 14. Governor vote, James Pike, Rep., 
181; James A. Weston, Dem., 277. There was no choice this year for 
governor by the popular vote, and James A. Weston was elected by the 
legislature through a coalition of the Democratic members and two or 
three so-called labor reformers. Henry Holt and John W. Cutting, 
Democrats, were elected representatives. 

1872. Annual meeting, March 12. Governor vote, Lemuel M. 
Cooper, Pro., and scattering, 8; Ezekiel A. Straw, Rep., 221; James A. 
Weston, Dem., 292. Nathaniel M. Swasey and Sylvester Reding, Demo- 
crats, were elected representatives. At the November election for choice 
of Presidential electors, while the Democrats carried the town, it was by a 
reduced vote, many voters refusing to support the nomination of Horace 
Greeley, candidate of their party and of the Liberal Republicans. 

1873. Annual meeting, March 11. Governor vote, scattering, 1; 
Ezekiel A. Straw, Rep., 121; James A. Weston, Dem., 192. N. M. Swa- 
sey and Sylvester Reding were elected representatives. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 201 

i 

1874. Annual meeting, March 10. Governor vote, John Blackmer, 
Pro., 2; Luther McCutcheon, Rep., 193; James A. Weston, Dem., 269. 
Weston was elected, and was the last Democrat to fill the office until 
Samuel D. Felker was inaugurated in January, 1913. Representatives 
elected were Levi B. Ham and Andrew J. Edgerly, Democrats. 

1875. Annual meeting, March 9. Governor vote, scattering, 1; 
Person C. Cheney, Rep., 221; Hiram R. Roberts, Dem., 310. Levi B. 
Ham and Charles A. Gale, Democrats, were elected representatives. 

1876. Annual meeting, March 8. Governor vote, Person C. Cheney, 
Rep., 233; Daniel Morey, Dem., 302. Representatives, Charles A. Gale, 
Ezra B. Mann, Democrats. 

1877. Annual meeting, March 13. Governor vote, Benjamin F. 
Prescott, Rep., 238; Daniel Morey, Dem., 311. Ezra B. Mann and 
Samuel T. Page, Democrats, were elected representatives. 

1878. Annual meeting, March 12. Governor vote, Benjamin F. 
Prescott, Rep., 225; Frank A. McKean, Dem., 303. Beginning with this 
year the town clerk made return to the secretary of state of the number 
of voters whose names were on the check list, the number of ratable polls, 
and the representative vote. Names on check list, 703 ; number of ratable 
polls on back of list, 16. Representative vote, whole number, 488; 
necessary for a choice, 245; Nathaniel M. Swasey, 1; Henry Merrill, 1; 
Ira Whitcher, 2; Jacob Burton, Rep., 206; Benjamin K. Eastman, Rep., 
208; John E. Carr, Dem., 274; Samuel T. Page, Dem., 279. 

The annual election in 1878 was the last at which state and county 
officers and a legislature were chosen. The elections for these offices, 
and for Congressmen, by amendment to the constitution have since then 
been biennial, the first of the biennial elections being held in 1878. 

1878. Biennial election. Governor vote, Warren A. Brown, Green- 
backer, and scattering, 118; Natt. Head, Rep., 215; Frank A. McKean, 
Dem., 224. Representative vote — the town after repeated trials to elect 
"voted not to send," and for the first time in nearly a century Haverhill 
was without representation in the legislature of 1879. 

1879. Annual meeting, March 11. The Greenbackers, a party hold- 
ing to the belief that the cure for all financial ills was the issue by the 
government of an irredeemable paper currency, had come into existence, 
and had sufficient numbers in Haverhill to hold the balance of power 
between Republicans and Democrats. Straight party nominations for 
town offices were made this year, and the Greenbackers issued their 
ultimatum. The result was the longest drawn out contest in the history 
of the town. The meeting lasted for six consecutive days, and most of 
the time was spent in balloting for selectmen. The contest was an excit- 
ing and at times bitter one, and the meeting was attended with much 



202 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

disorder. The result was the election of Nathan P. Rideout, George C. 
Jeffers, and Enoch G. Parker. 

1880. Biennial election, November 2. Governor vote, scattering, 50; 
Charles H. Bell, Rep., 262; Frank Jones, Dem., 344. Representative 
vote, whole number of votes, 641 ; necessary to a choice, 321 ; Jacob Bur- 
ton, 1; Tyler Westgate, 1; Samuel F. Southard, 16; Benjamin K. East- 
man, 14; Hubert Eastman, Rep., 293; Charles H. Simpson, Rep., 289; 
John E. Carr, Dem., 331; William C. Marston, Dem., 332. The whole 
number of names on the check list was 688. The vote for Presidential 
electors was, Greenback, Prohibition and scattering, 49; Garfield, Rep. 
electors, 263; Hancock, Dem., 347. 

1882. Biennial election, November 7. Governor vote, Greenback, 
Prohibition and scattering, 35; Samuel W. Hale, Rep., 231; Martin S. B. 
Edgerly, Dem., 289. Representative vote, first ballot: whole number 
votes, 543; necessary for a choice, 272; scattering, 6; Charles H. Simpson, 
Rep., 39; William F. Westgate, Rep., 241; Charles Fisher, Dem., 258; 
Samuel B. Page, Dem., 257; William W. Coburn, Rep., 282; and the 
latter was declared elected. No record of the second ballot is available. 
Third ballot: whole number votes, 277; necessary for a choice, 139; scat- 
tering, 7; Samuel B. Page, Dem., 129; William F. Westgate, 144. The 
whole number of names on list was 695. 

1884. Biennial election. Governor vote, Prohibition and scattering, 
19; Moody Currier, Rep., 313; John M. Hill, Dem., 349. Representative 
vote; whole number votes, 680; necessary to a choice, 341; scattering 3; 
Charles H. Simpson, Rep., 326; Samuel P. Carbee, Rep., 333; Joseph 
Poor, Dem., 340; George H. Mann, Dem., 342; George H. Mann was 
declared elected. The following note appears on the return of the town 
clerk to the secretary of state: "There was one vote challenged, and it 
should be decided that it was not a legal one, then the moderator declared 
that Joseph Poor was elected as one of the representatives from the town 
of Haverhill for two years from the first Wednesday of June, 1885." 
It appears to have been decided that the challenged ballot was legal, and 
that Joseph Poor was not elected. The whole number of names on the 
check list was 739. For Presidential electors the whole number votes, 
679; scattering, 20; Blaine electoral ticket, Rep., 309; Cleveland electoral 
ticket, 350. The meeting this year was held in the new town hall at 
North Haverhill. The old town hall first occupied in 1851 was built of 
stone and was located on the County road a little to the west of the 
Union meeting house, and near the geographical centre of the town. The 
sum of $1,500 had been appropriated for the building, but the building 
committee greatly exceeded this sum, and there was strong opposition 
to the acceptance of the building. The matter was finally settled, the 
town finding itself liable from the fact that the selectmen had without 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 203 

realizing the legal consequences of their act, warned the town meeting to 
be held in the new house, and had posted the warrant on the door. The 
location had come to be unsatisfactory, and in 1883 when it was voted to 
build a new town hall at North Haverhill, this was built of wood under 
the direction of the selectmen at a cost of about $2,000 and with subse- 
quent inprovements the town has now a commodious and satisfactory 
hall. 

1887. Annual meeting, March 8. The vote for town clerk indicated 
that the Democrats were losing their hold on town affairs. Morris E. 
Kimball, Rep., received 192 votes, and Enoch R. Weeks, Dem., 199. 
For selectmen, Henry F. King, Rep., and Levi B. Ham, Dem., were 
elected on the first ballot, and three more ballots were taken before Wil- 
lard W. Coburn, Rep., was elected. Tyler Westgate and George S. Cum- 
mings were chosen fish wardens, and it was voted that the selectmen 
appoint all minor town officers. New names appear in these appoint- 
ments. Collector of taxes, C. O. Morse, $150 compensation; chief of 
police, Albert Hood; road agents, Orville Noyes, Clifford Sawyer, C. W. 
Simpson, Hiram M. Putnam, Calvin Prescott, Edward Everett; health 
officers, Charles R. Gibson, Charles Newcomb. Appropriations: high- 
ways, $2,000; this like all other sums raised, it was voted, should be paid 
in money; schools, $4,000; Memorial Day, $50; town expenses, $1,000. 
The article to see if the town would make an appropriation for a town 
history was dismissed. 

Special meeting, May 23. Voted to build a fireproof brick building, 
16 by 24 feet, at North Haverhill, with fireproof vault for the books and 
papers of town officers, and the town records, at a cost not exceeding 
$1,200 with land. This building, the present town clerk's office, was 
erected just west of the present town hall. Willard W. Coburn, Fred 
Partridge and E. R. Weeks were chosen building committee. That this 
vote was not obtained without opposition, is evidenced by the action of 
another special meeting held July 16, at which it was voted not to rescind 
the vote of May 23. Another special meeting was held September 24 at 
which it was voted to accept the building in question, erected on land 
given by the citizens of North Haverhill. It was further voted to in- 
struct the selectmen to deliver to the building committee an order on the 
town treasurer for $1,200. This closed the incident of a town clerk's 
office and fireproof vault. 

1888. Annual meeting, March 13. Samuel B. Page, Dem., and 
Enoch R. Weeks, Dem., were elected moderator and town clerk respec- 
tively, with but little opposition, but it took three ballots to complete the 
election of a board of selectmen. Dexter L. Hawkins and Edward C. 
Kinne were elected on the first ballot, and Willard W. Coburn on the 
third ballot by the following vote; whole number, 255; necessary for a 



204 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

choice, 128; Darius K. Davis, Rep., 6; Henry F. King, Rep., 15; Caleb 
Wells, Dem., 103; Willard W. Coburn, 131. The total vote cast was 
255, the largest number voting at this meeting, though there were over 
800 names on the check list. Biennial elections for state and county 
officers and representatives had already resulted in a comparatively small 
attendance at the annual town meetings, when matters more intimately 
affecting the interests and welfare of the town are settled. The election 
of town officers and the appropriation of money raised by taxation had 
come to be regarded with comparative indifference by the great majority 
of voters, and conditions have not improved in this respect in more recent 
years. At an adjourned meeting, March 17, appropriations made were: 
highways, $4,000, one half in money, one half in labor; schools, $4,000; 
town purposes, $500; Memorial Day, $50. It was voted to leave the 
appointment of minor town offices with the selectmen. New names 
appearing among these appointments were: police, Frank D. Paul, 
Ernest Scott; road agent, Henry L. Woodward, Horace Blake, E. W. 
Jeffers, F. P. Cutting, Manson Young, C. C. Rinehart, Simeon Sanborn, 
Edwin Everett; fish and game warden, Charles S. Newell; surveyors of 
lumber, Eben C. Weed, A. J. Holmes. 

Biennial and Presidential election, November 6. Governor vote, 

E. S. Carr, Pro., 7; David H. Goodell, Rep., 341; Charles H. Amidon, 
Dem., 401. Presidential electors, Pro., 7; Rep., 347; Dem., 392. The 
vote for representatives was: whole number of votes, 724; necessary to a 
choice, 363; Benjamin Dow, 1; Ezra B. Willoughby, 9; John W. Jackson, 
9; Francis B. Sleeper, Rep., 312; Moses D. Carbee, Rep., 324; Samuel B. 
Page, Dem., 392; Amos Tarleton, Dem., 394. Daniel W. Meader, 
Albert H. Leighton and Charles W. Pike, Democrats, were elected super- 
visors of check list by a strict party vote. Delegates to constitutional 
convention, Charles Fisher and Charles G. Smith, Democrats. Edward 

F. Mann of Haverhill, the Democratic candidate for Congress, ran 
largely ahead of his ticket, receiving 437 votes. 

1889. Annual meeting, March 12. The whole number of votes cast 
for selectmen on the first ballot was 490; necessary to a choice, 246; 
scattering, 4; E. C. Kinne, 108; George C. Butler, 203; Henry S. Bailey, 
205; Darius K. Davis, 212; H. J. Holmes, 195; Charles G. Smith, 253; 
Dexter L. Hawkins, 296; and D. L. Hawkins and C. G. Smith were 
declared elected. Second ballot: whole number, 425; necessary to a 
choice, 213; H. J. Holmes, 96; Darius K. Davis, 148; E. C. Kinne, 181. 
Third ballot: whole number, 371; necessary to a choice, 186; Horace J. 
Holmes, 62; Darius K. Davis, 116; E. C. Kinne, 187. Appropriations: 
highways, $3,000 in money; schools, $3,500; town expenses, $1,500; town 
debt, $1,500; Memorial Day, $50. It was voted to dismiss the article 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 205 

relative to the purchase of 100 copies of the History of Haverhill by the 
Rev. J. Q. Bittinger to sell to citizens of the town at cost. The selectmen 
were authorized to appoint minor town officers. New names in the list 
of such officers were: police, Arthur E. Davis, W. E. Pike; collector of 
taxes, E. E. Shepardson. 

1890. Annual town meeting, March 11. Five ballots were necessary 
to elect the board of selectmen. On the first ballot, Dexter L. Hawkins, 
Dem., was elected, receiving 231 votes in a total of 444; on the second, 
Ashael L. Warren, Rep., received 201 in a total of 400 and was elected 
on the fifth, Percy Demin, Dem., received 155; the whole number was 
292. Appropriations: highways, S3, 000; schools, $4,000; town charges, 
$1,500; town indebtedness, $1,500; Memorial Day, $50. The town re- 
fused to purchase any copies of Bittinger's town history, and also refused 
to exempt the Opera Block in Woodsville from taxation for a term of 
years. The selectmen were directed to appoint all necessary town officers, 
and appointed collector of taxes, Charles J. Ayer. 

Biennial election, November 4. Governor vote, J. M. Fletcher, Pro., 
12; Hiram A. Tuttle, Rep., 272; Charles A. Amsden, 386. Representative 
vote, whole number, 653; scattering, 7; F. M. Morrison, Pro., 6; Paul 
N. Meader, 5; Amos Tarlton, Dem., 37; Samuel P. Carbee, Rep., 268; 
Nathan S. Knight, Rep., 242; Ira Whitaker, Dem., 355; Henry W. Keyes, 
Dem., 373. The removal of the court house from Haverhill Corner to 
Woodsville was made an issue, and Haverhill Corner Democrats halted 
the nomination of Mr. Whitcher, because of his instrumentality in 
securing the removal. M. V. B. Cady, Daniel W. Meader, Albert H. 
Leighton, Democrats, were elected supervisors of the check list by prac- 
tically a strict party vote. 

1891. Annual meeting, March 10. There was again a prolonged con- 
test in the election of selectmen. Dexter L. Hawkins, Dem., was elected 
on the first ballot, Ashael L. Warren, Rep., on the second, and John A. 
Kimball, Rep., on the fifth. Appropriations: highways, $3,000; schools, 
$4,500; town charges, $1,500; Memorial Day, $50. Moses A. Meader 
was appointed by the selectmen, treasurer. 

1892. Annual meeting, March 8. The vote for selectmen was, scat- 
tering, 3; Darius K. Davis, 69; W. R. Cheney, 83; W. O. Burkeck, 136; 
A. C. Clough, 138; Franklin P. Currier, 225; Henry W. Keyes, 251; 
Dexter L. Hawkins, 257. Charles B. Grisward, Tyler Westgate and 
Ezra B. Mann were elected auditors; E. S. Blake and L. E. Collins, fish 
and game wardens; R. A. Horner, treasurer. There is no record of the 
appointment of other town officers by the selectmen. Appropriations: 
highways, $3,000 in money; schools, $4,500; town charges, $1,000; 
Memorial Day, $50. 



206 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Biennial and Presidential election, November 8. The vote for Presi- 
dential electors was St. John, Pro., 19; Blaine, Rep., 312; Cleveland, Dem. 
369. Governor vote, E. L. Carr, Pro., 20; John B. Smith, Rep., 303; 
Luther F. McKinney, Dem., 367. Supervisors of check list, H. L. 
Woodward, Rep., 300; George C. Jeffers, Rep., 303; Quincy A. Scott, 
Rep., 310; M. V. B. Cady, Dem., 356; D. W. Meader, Dem., 360; Albert 
H. Leighton, Dem., 367. Representative vote, Rev. E. C. Langford, 
Rep., 306; George C. Butler, Rep., 318; Samuel B. Page, Dem., 380; 
Henry W. Keyes, Dem., 361. 

1893. Annual meeting, March 14. There was a comparatively small 
attendance, and Democratic candidates were elected by substantial 
majorities. Selectman vote, A. C. Clough, Rep., 126; Charles J. Pike, 
Rep., 134; Arthur E. Davis, Rep., 137; F. P. Currier, Dem., 172; George 
Wells, Dem., 174; Dexter L. Hawkins, Dem. 176. Auditors were the 
same as in the two previous years. Fish and game commissioners, E. S. 
Blake, Charles S. Grisword; treasurer, R. A. Horner; collector of taxes, 
Wilbur F. True. Appropriations: highways, general, $2,000, per- 
manent, $1,000; schools, $5,000; town charges, $2,000; Memorial Day, 
$50. Voted to dismiss article relative to the establishment of a town 
library. 

1894. Annual meeting, March 13. The vote for town clerk showed 
that the Democratic majority had become slight. Albert F. Kimball, 
Rep., received 196; Enoch R. Weeks, 203. For selectmen, first ballot 
whole number of votes, 438; necessary to a choice, 220; scattering, 8 
H. L. Woodward, Rep., 210; Arthur E. Davis, Rep., 215; Charles J 
Pike, Rep., 245; F. P. Currier, Dem., 174; George Wells, Dem., 206 
Dexter L. Hawkins, 230. Second ballot: whole number votes, 352 
necessary to a choice, 174; A. F. Kimball, 1; George Wells, Dem., 154 
Arthur E. Davis, Rep., 174. The Democrats had lost control in town 
affairs; the selectmen appointed in most cases Republicans to the various 
town offices. New names were, collector of taxes, Fred P. Dearth; treas- 
urer, Charles J. Ayer; road agents, Burns N. Pike, F. L. Keyes. 

Biennial election, November 6. In spite of the warning given at the 
annual town meeting, the Democrats approached the November election 
serenely confident. For nearly thirty years they had never been wholly 
defeated, and they had come to look on control of affairs as a virtual 
right. The result was a surprise, and they have since been the minority 
party in town affairs. The governor vote was, Daniel D. Knowles, Pro., 
17; Henry O. Kent, Dem., 337; Charles A. Bussel, Rep., 382. Represen- 
tative vote, scattering, 5; Charles C. Rinehart, Dem., 321; Samuel B. 
Page, Dem., 350; Samuel P. Carbee, Rep., 365; George C. Butler, Rep. 
379; supervisors, M. V. Cady, Dem., 340; D. W. Meader, Dem., 345; 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 207 

Albert H. Leighton, Dem., 350; Daniel E. Carr, Rep., 352; Frank P. 
Pray, Rep., 354; William O. Burbeck, 367. Moderator, E. S. Kimball, 
Rep., 339; Samuel B. Page, 353. This last vote was the one crumb of 
comfort of the day for the Democrats. 

1895. Annual meeting, March 12. Enoch R. Weeks was again 
elected town clerk by a vote of 242 to 234 for Albert F. Kimball. Vote 
for selectmen, scattering, 8; Martin S. Meader, 4; George W. Richardson, 
3; Benjamin Dow, 5; George Wells, Dem., 236; Arthur C. Clough, Rep., 
252; D. L. Hawkins, Dem., 256; Henry W. Keyes, Dem., 258; Arthur 
E. Davis, Rep., 268; Charles J. Pike, Rep., 271; and the three last named 
were declared elected. Harry H. Pike, David E. Bliffin and Joseph F. 
Bittinger were elected fish and game wardens. Eli D. Collins was elected 
surve\ r or of highways for the Woodsville district; Burns H. Pike was 
elected special fish and game detective. Appropriations: highways, 
$6,000; schools, $3,500; town expenses, $1,500; Memorial Day, $50. 
There is no record of the appointment of town treasurer, collector 
of taxes or road agents. "Voted that the selectmen re-guideboard the 
town." 

1896. Annual meeting, March 10. Vote for town clerk, Enoch R. 
Weeks, Dem., 251; Albert F. Kimball, Rep., 269. Selectmen vote, whole 
number, 558; necessary to a choice, 280; E. E. Shepardson, Dem., 243; 
Dexter L. Hawkins, Dem., 267; Henry W. Keyes, Dem., 279; Charles J. 
Pike, Rep., 282; Ezra B. Willoughby, Rep., 291; Arthur E. Davis, Rep., 
294; George B. Silver was elected road agent; Henry W. Keyes, Tyler 
Westgate and Ellsworth E. Morgan, auditors; Russell T. Bartlett, Charles 
H. Wetherbee and Harry H. Pike, fish and game commissioners. Appro- 
priations: highways, $6,000; schools, $4,000; town expenses, $1,500; 
Memorial Day, $50. 

Biennial and Presidential election, November 3. Presidential vote, 
scattering, 3; Pro., 8; Palmer Natt, Dem., 32; Bryan, Dem., 224; McKin- 
lee, Rep., 463. Governor vote, scattering, 4; Berry, Pro., 7; Henry O. 
Kent, Dem., 307; George A. Ramsdell, Rep., 387. Representative vote, 
Enoch R. Weeks, Dem., 306; Samuel B. Page, Dem., 318; Frank S. 
Sleeper, Rep., 381; Charles R. Gibson, Rep., 422; supervisors, Henry 
W. Keyes, Dem., 361; J. 0. Tuttle, Dem., 313; James F. Leonard, Dem., 
328; Daniel E. Carr, Rep., 396; Charles J. Ayer, Rep., 400; Clarence L. 
Bailey, Rep.,- 401; moderator, Samuel B. Page, 359; George C. Butler, 
388. The Republican victory was complete. 

1897. Annual meeting, March 9. A. F. Kimball was re-elected town 
clerk, and has since been re-elected each year by unanimous vote. Select- 
men vote, whole number, 545; necessary to a choice, 273; James O. Tuttle, 
Dem., 211; Albert H. Leighton, Dem., 247; Charles J. Pike, Rep., 265- 



208 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Henry W. Keyes, Dem., 295; Ezra B. Willoughby, Rep., 297; Arthur E. 
Davis, Rep., 305. Library trustees were elected for the first time as 
required by the new library law, Arthur K. Merrill, Moses A. Meader, 
Fred P. Dearth, and they have since been re-elected as their terms have 
expired. Fred P. Dearth was elected collector of taxes, but resigned 
June 26, 1897, to accept the appointment of postmaster at Woodsville, 
and Daniel E. Carr was appointed in his place. Charles J. Ayer was 
elected treasurer. Appropriations: highways, $3,000; schools, $4,500; 
town expenses, $1,500; town indebtedness, $2,000; Memorial Day, $50. 
A cloud burst in the early summer caused great damage to the highways, 
and a special town meeting was called for June 8, "to see if the town will 
raise additional money for repairs of highways." Voted to pass the 
article. This action was taken because of so small attendance no legal 
action could be taken. Another special meeting was held the second 
Friday in August at which it was "voted that the sum of $30,000 be 
raised for highway purposes in addition to the amount raised in March 
and that the same be raised by temporary loan for one year." The vote 
by ballot was, nays 8; yeas 491; the whole number voting 499. The 
whole number of legal voters was 931. Though the vote was nearly 
unanimous in favor of raising this additional sum, which the board found 
was but little more than half enough to meet the repairs made, there was 
dissatisfaction with the work of the selectmen which made itself evident 
at the annual meeting of 1898. 

1898. Annual meeting, March 8. Selectmen vote, scattering, 2; 
Moses A. Meader, Rep., 211; George C. Smith, Rep., 240; F. R. Dean, 
Rep., 242; Dexter L. Hawkins, Dem., 312; Ashael L. Warren, Rep. 313; 
Henry W. Keyes, Dem., 378; the whole number of votes was 572; neces- 
sary to a choice, 287. Mr. Keyes had been a member of the board the 
previous year, but had refused to act with his associates in the building of 
bridges and repairing highways. A motion to fund the town indebted- 
ness was indefinitely postponed owing to uncertainty as to the amount. 
Hebert W. Allen was elected town treasurer; Jonas N. Brown, highway 
agent. The selectmen were authorized to appoint other town officers. 
Appropriations: highways, $8,000; schools, $4,500; town expenses, $1,500; 
indebtedness, $2,000; town library, $200; Memorial Day, $50. New 
names in the list of minor offices were, board of health, Dr. Charles 
Newcomb, Dr. Henry C. Stearns; highway agent, Jonas N. Brown; 
fence viewers, George F. Kimball; police, T. A. Rowden, C. S. New- 
ell, C. R. Ward, N. S. Knight, P. M. Howe, Henry Talbert, F. L. 
Wilmot, S. R. Drown, F. C. Keyes; tax collector, Chas. S. Newell. 

Special meeting, October 25, 1898. Of the 959 legal voters 553 were 
present and voting. The total indebtedness of the town was reported 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 209 

at $57,116.32. On motion of Henry W. Keyes it was voted that this 
indebtedness be funded and that bonds be issued to the amount of 
$57,000, 45 of the denomination of $1,000 each, and 24 of the denomina- 
tion of $500 each, bearing interest at the rate of 4 per cent, $3,000 to be 
payable each year. The vote was 550 yes, 3 no. 

Biennial election, November 8. Governor vote, Stevens, Pro., 10; 
Charles F. Stone, Dem., 341; Frank W. Rollins, Rep., 412. Represen- 
tative vote, scattering, 4; Charles G. Smith, Dem., 308; Samuel B. Page, 
Dem., 373; Henry F. King, Rep., 389; Morris E. Kimball, Rep., 407. 
Ernest E. Craig, Daniel E. Carr and Harry W. Jewett, Republicans, 
were elected supervisors by a strict party vote. Moderator vote, Samuel 
B. Page, Dem., 341; George C. Butler, Rep. 408. 

1899. Annual meeting, March 14. The Republicans made party 
nominations for selectmen, but the memory of 1897 had not yet died out 
and the result was a non-partisan board with a Democratic majority. 
The vote was, whole number, 435; necessary to a choice, 218; W. W. 
Coburn, Rep., 141; Henry F. King, Rep., 161; Dexter L. Hawkins, Dem., 
263; Henry W. Keyes, Dem., 303; Ashael L. Warren, Rep., 431. The 
Democrats pursued a policy of naming one Republican on their ticket, a 
policy which the Republicans later wisely adopted. Other electors were: 
auditors, S. B. Page, C. J. Pike, Tyler Westgate; fish and game wardens, 
L. E. Collins, C. H. Wetherbee, Edward M. Clark. The selectmen were 
instructed to appoint other town officers. Appropriations: highways, 
$8,000; schools, $4,500; town indebtedness, $2,000; town expenses, 
$1,500; Memorial Day, $50; town libraries, $200. James F. Leonard 
and F. M. Morrison were appointed sealers of weights and measures, 
and M. S. Williams, fence viewer. 

1900. Annual meeting, March 13. Selectmen vote, whole number, 
451 ; necessary to a choice, 226; scattering, 2; Edward M. Clark, Rep., 187; 
Charles J. Pike, Rep., 193; George C. Butler, Rep., 194; Arthur C. Clough, 
Rep., 216; Dexter L. Hawkins, Dem., 233; Henry W. Keyes, Dem., 285; 
second ballot, Arthur C. Clough, 3; E. M. Clark, 127; Charles J. Pike, 
180; auditors, Tyler Westgate, Samuel B. Page, Morris E. Kimball; fish 
and game wardens, Edward C. Rowe, Leforest E. Collins, Burns H. Pike. 
Appropriations: highways, $6,000; schools, $4,500; bonded indebtedness 
and interest, $3,500; town expenses, $1,500; library, $200; Memorial Day, 
$50; to purchase snow roller, $350. Isaac Pike was appointed tax collec- 
tor, but resigned and C. S. Newell was appointed in his place. Surveyor 
of lumber, W. B. Southard. New names on list of police, James C. 
Gallagher, Eben C. Weed, George E. Emery. 

Biennial and Presidential election, Nov. 6. Presidential vote, Social- 
ist, 3; Prohibition, 7; Bryan, Dem., 278; McKinley, Rep., 508. Gov- 
ernor vote, Claflin, Soc, 4; Fletcher, Pro., 6; Potter, Dem., 275; Chester 

15 



210 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

B. Jordan, Rep., 498. Representative vote, John M. Phillips, Dem., 324; 
Samuel B. Page, Dem., 327; Enoch R. Weeks, Dem., 330; William F. 
Whitcher, Rep., 457; Charles J. Pike, Rep., 482; Henry S. Bailey, Rep., 
487. Moderator, S. B. Page, Dem., 292; George C. Butler, Rep., 478. 
Ernest E. Craig, Harry W. Jewett and Daniel E. Carr, Republicans, 
were elected supervisors of check list on regular party vote. 

1901. Annual meeting, March 12. Meeting was called to order by 
Supervisor Daniel E. Carr, owing to death of the moderator George C. 
Butler. William F. Whitcher was unanimously elected moderator for 
the unexpired term of George C. Butler. But one ballot was cast for 
each of the town officers elected: town clerk, Albert F. Kimball; select- 
men, Henry W. Keyes, Charles J. Pike, Dexter L. Hawkins; auditors, 
Tyler Westgate, Samuel P. Page, Morris E. Kimball. It was voted 
that remaining town officers be appointed by the selectmen. Appro- 
priations: highways, $6,500; schools, $5,000; town expenses, $1,500; 
bonds and interest, $3,000; library, $200; Memorial Day, $50. There 
were 15 articles in the warrant, officers were elected, appropriations made, 
and the meeting lasted 31 minutes. This was record time for an annual 
town meeting. New names in list of minor officers were, highway agent, 
Nathan H. Nutter; police, William Wigmore. 

1902. Annual meeting, March 11. A single ballot was cast by 
unanimous consent for, town clerk, A. F. Kimball; selectmen, H. W. 
Keyes, D. L. Hawkins, Charles J. Pike; auditors, Tyler Westgate, S. B. 
Page, M. E. Kimball; treasurer, H. W. Allen. The selectmen were 
authorized to appoint all necessary town officers. E. B. Pike, A. C. 
Clough and F. W. Baine were chosen committee to act with the selectmen 
in investigating the condition of the cemeteries in town. Appropriations: 
highways, $6,500; schools, $5,000; school supplies, $750; bonded indebt- 
edness, $3,000; town expenses, $1,500; library, $200; Memorial Day, $50. 
Voted to construct a lock-up at Pike station. New names in list of minor 
officers were; surveyor of wood and lumber, Charles F. Carr; police, 
George Rogers, Rufus Sawyer. 

Biennial election, November 4. Governor vote, Berry, Pro., 10; 
Henry F. Hollis, Dem, 210; Nahum J. Batchelder, 455. Representa- 
tive vote, Thomas E. Taylor, Dem., 226; Oliver D. Eastman, Dem., 234; 
Wilbur F. True, Dem., 246; E. Bertram Pike, Rep. 406; Daniel E. Carr, 
Rep., 429; William F. Whitcher, Rep., 435. Delegates to constitutional 
convention, James F. Leonard, Dem., 243; S. B. Page, Dem., 250; E. B. 
Pike, Rep., 377; Scott Sloane, Rep., 402; Tyler Westgate, Rep., 626. 
Ernest E. Craig, George W. Richardson and H. W. Jewett were elected 
supervisors by strict party vote, and William F. Whitcher, moderator, by 
a like vote. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 211 

1903. Annual meeting, March 10. Selectmen vote, whole number, 
276; necessary to a choice, 139; scattering, 4; W. G. White, Dem., 83; J. 
M. Phillips, Dem., 83; C. J. Pike, Rep., 193; H. W. Keyes, Rep., 194; D. 
L. Hawkins, Dem., 244; auditors of previous year were re-elected, and the 
selectmen were authorized to appoint other officers. Appropriations: 
highways, $6,500; schools, $5,000: school supplies, $950; indebtedness, 
$3,000; town expenses, $1,500; libraries, $200; for observance of Old 
Home week, $200; Memorial Day, $50. New names on the list of minor 
officers appointed by the selectmen; highway agent, George B. Silver; 
surveyor of wood and lumber, Jesse R. Squires. 

Special meeting, May 12. Called under the license law passed by the 
legislature of 1903 to vote on the question, "Shall licenses be issued for 
the sale of intoxicating liquor?" The vote was, yes 263; no 179. 

Special meeting, May 27. The fee for licenses of the second class was 
fixed at $1,200, for the fourth class at $600. 

Special meeting, June 17. The fee for licenses of the third class was 
fixed at $800. 

1904. Annual meeting, March 8. The town clerk, treasurer and se- 
lectmen of the previous year were unanimously re-elected. Tyler West- 
gate and S. B. Page were re-elected auditors, and the selectmen were 
given the usual authority to appoint other town officers. Appropriations: 
highways, $6,500; schools, $6,000; school supplies, $750; indebtedness, 
$3,000; town expense, $1,500; libraries, $200; Memorial Day, $50. The 
only new name on list of officers appointed by the selectmen was that of 
Thomas Scallon, police. 

Presidential and biennial election, November 8. Presidential vote, 
Prohibition, 4; Democratic, 223; Republican, 534. Governor vote, 
Claflin, Soc, 1 ; Heald, Pro., 7; Henry F. Hollis, Dem., 218; John McLane, 
Rep., 524. Representative vote, Andrew J. Leighton, Dem., 220; 
Samuel B. Page, Dem., 221; Peter E. Tragansa, Dem., 222; William F. 
Whitcher, Rep., 512; Daniel E . Carr, Rep., 520; George W. Richardson, 
Rep., 520. Supervisors, Frank L. Chase, Dem., 213; E. R. Cady, Dem., 
213; Samuel T. Page, Dem., 221; Joseph M. Howe, Rep., 517; Willard 
W. Coburn, Rep., 519; Harry W. Jewett, Rep., 520. Moderator, John 
J. Jesseman, Dem., 207; W. F. Whitcher, Rep., 512. "Shall licenses be 
granted for the sale of intoxicating liquor"; yes 346; no 267. 

1905. Annual meeting, Mar. 8. Henry W. Keyes, Charles J. Pike 
and Dexter L. Hawkins were unanimously elected selectmen, and Joseph 
M. Howe and Tyler Westgate, auditors. Cemetery commissioners, 
Wilbur F. Eastman, P. W. Kimball, E. B. Pike, James M. Jeffers, Caleb 
Wells. Voted to raise all license fees to the maximum sum provided by 
law. Appropriations: highways, $7,500, and voted to apply for state aid; 



212 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

schools, $6,000; school supplies, $750; indebtedness, $3,000; libraries, 
$200; Memorial Day, $50. H. Damon Gannett was appointed by the 
selectmen as one of the three highway agents. 

1906. Annual meeting, March 13. Town clerk, selectmen, treasurer 
and auditors of the previous year were re-elected. Appropriations: high- 
ways, $7,500, and voted to apply for state aid; schools, $6,000; school 
supplies, $750; indebtedness, $3,000; town expenses, $1,500; libraries, 
$200; Memorial Day, $50; $1,000 for improvements made in cemeteries in 
1905, and $500 for improvements the present year; $300 for markers for 
unmarked graves. New names on list of minor officers; surveyors of 
wood and lumber, Joseph Willis; cemetery commissioners, James M. 
Jeffers; police, George Wheat. 

Special meeting, July 24. Fred S. Wright was appointed moderator 
pro tern, by the supervisors. "Voted to unite with the town of Newbury 
to purchase and repair the bridge between Haverhill and Newbury and 
make it a free bridge, the entire expense not to exceed $1,500." 

Biennial election, November 6. Governor vote, McFall, Soc, 2; 
Tetlin, Pro., 29; Jameson, Dem., 265; Charles M. Floyd, Rep., 474. 
Representative vote, S. T. Page, Dem., 249; Caleb Wells, Dem., 262; 
George H. Mann, Dem., 289; W. F. Whitcher, Rep., 408; G. W. Richard- 
son, Rep., 477; Ezra B. Willoughby, Rep., 488; Joseph M. Howe, Willard 
W. Coburn and Harry W. Jewett were re-elected supervisors by party 
vote as was W. F. Whitcher, moderator. The vote on issuing licenses to 
sell liquor was, yes 303; no 428. 

Special meeting, February 2, 1907. "To see if the town will apply for 
a charter to supply the town with pure water." Voted to dismiss the 
article. 

1907. Annual meeting, March 12. Henry W. Keyes, Charles J. 
Pike and Dexter L. Hawkins were re-elected selectmen. Appropriations: 
town expenses, $1,500; schools, $6,000; highways, $7,500; and voted to 
ask for state aid; to retire town bonds, $3,000; libraries, $200; Memorial 
Day, $50; school supplies, $750; free bed at Cottage Hospital, $300. 
Through failure of supervisors to post check list in time, the meeting was 
illegal, and a special act of the legislature was passed during the week 
legalizing its proceedings. 

Special meeting, September 19. A precinct was authorized and laid 
out at Haverhill Corner for the purpose of lighting streets. 

1908. Annual meeting, March 10. Selectmen elected were Henry W. 
Keyes, Charles J. Pike, Ernest E. Craig. New names on the list of minor 
officers: police, Will Atkins, Wane W. Allen, A. A. Irwin, Hubert Davis, 
C. P. Glover. Appropriations: schools, $6,000; school supplies, $750; to 
retire bonds, $3,000; highways, $3,000, and voted not to apply for state 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 213 

aid; town charges, $1,500; town libraries, $200; Memorial Day, $50; free 
bed, Cottage Hospital, $300. 

Presidential and biennial election, November 3. Vote for Presidential 
electors; Socialist, 1; Independent Labor, 5; Prohibition, 11; Democratic, 
246; Republican, 543. Governor vote, Claflin, Soc, 2; Lewis, Ind. Labor, 
5; , Pro., 12; Clarence E. Carr, 279; Henry B. Quinby, 493. Rep- 
resentative vote, Jesse R. Squires, Dem., 246; James F. Leonard, Dem., 
290; Henry S. Bailey, Rep., 490; Arthur E. Clough, Rep., 525; Elmer M. 
Miller, Rep., 539. Moderator, S. B. Page, Dem., 255; W. F. Whitcher, 
Rep., 512. Supervisors, S. W. Tewksbury, Dem., 239; Wilbur F. East- 
man, Dem., 245; G. Henry Mann, Dem., 246; Walter Burbeck, Rep., 
520; Edward M. Clark, Rep., 524; Willard W. Coburn, Rep., 577. 

Annual meeting, March, 1909. Selectmen elected were Charles J. Pike, 
William J. Clough and Ernest E. Craig; highway agents, Manson F. 
Young, Pardon W. Allen, Willey E. Dearth; auditor, Tyler Westgate. 
Appropriations; schools, $6,000; to retire bonds, $3,000; highways, in- 
cluding amount for permanent improvement, and amount necessary to 
secure state aid, $7,000; other town charges, $1,500; Memorial day, $50; 
town libraries, $200; free bed at Cottage Hospital, $300. At a school 
meeting held subsequently there was appropriated for repair of school 
house, $500, and to retire school bonds, $2,000. 

Annual meeting, March, 1910. Selectmen, Charles J. Pike, William 
J. Clough, Dexter L. Hawkins; auditors, Henry W. Keyes, Fordyce T. 
Reynolds, Herbert E. Smith; highway agent Willie H. Ingalls. Appro- 
priations: town bonds, $3,000; highways, $6,000; town libraries, $200; 
free bed in Cottage Hospital, $300 ; Memorial Day, $50; other town charges, 
$1,500; support of schools, $6,000; retire school bond, $2,000; repair 
schoolhouses, $500; repair schoolhouse at Pike, $1,000. 

At the biennial election, November 8, the vote for governor was, 
Robert E. Bass, Rep., 391; Clarence E. Carr, Dem., 245; John C. Berry, 
Soc, 7. Representative vote, Louis M. Kimball, 400; Edward M. 
Clark, 375; William F. Whitcher, 348; Wilbur F. Eastman, 254; James F. 
Leonard, 212; Oliver D. Eastman, 210. Supervisors, Walter Burbeck, 
401; Edward M. Clark, 393; Willard W. Coburn, 390; John E. Eastman, 
215; Albert H. Leighton, 214. Moderator, W. F. Whitcher, 567. On 
calling convention to revise constitution, 145 voted no, 167 yes. 

Annual meeting, March, 1911. Selectmen, Charles J. Pike, William 
J. Clough, Dexter L. Hawkins; treasurer, Louis M. Kimball; highway 
agents, Thomas Morris, Willey E. Dearth, Henry Dexter; auditors, 
Herbert E. Smith, Wilbur F. Eastman, Fordyce T. Reynolds. Appro- 
priations: to retire town bond, $3,000; highways, $4,500, and to secure 
state aid, $5,000; town libraries, $300; other town charges, $1,500; Me- 



214 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

morial Day, $50; schools, $6,000; repair schoolhouse, $1,000; to retire 
school bond, $1,800. 

Annual meeting, March, 1912. Selectmen, Charles J. Pike, William 
J. Clough, Dexter L. Hawkins; treasurer, Louis M. Kimball; highway 
agent, Thomas Morris; auditors, Norman J. Page, Herbert E. Smith, 
William F. Whitcher; assessors, William H. Langmaid, Raymond U. 
Smith, James N. Brown; committee on the observance of one hundred 
fiftieth anniversary of the settlement of the town, William F. Whitcher, 
Henry W. Keyes, E. Bertram Pike, Wilbur F. Eastman, Maurice H. 
Kimball. Delegates to Constitutional Convention, E. M. Clark, W. E. 
Lawrence, W. F. Whitcher. Appropriations: retire town bond, $3,000; 
highways, $4,500; to secure state aid on highways, $3,500; soldiers' monu- 
ment, $2,000; town libraries, $300; Memorial Day, $50; free bed in hospital, 
$300; other town charges, $1,500; repairs on state highways, $250; support 
•of schools, $8,500; to retire school note, $1,600. 

At the biennial election, November 5, 1912, the vote for governor was, 
Franklin Worcester, Rep., 306; Samuel D. Felker, 206; Winston Church- 
ill, 174; Albert F. Morrill, 6; William H. Wilkins, 2. Representative 
vote, Pardon W. Allen, 279; Walter Burbeck, 277; William E. Lawrence, 
315; Ezra B. Mann, 172; Jesse R. Squires, 154; Caleb Wales, 110; Cyrus 
Batchelder, 186; George A. Wells, 180; Selwyn K. Dearborn, 256. Super- 
visors, Pardon W. Allen, 287; Walter Burbeck, 307; Willard W. Coburn, 
308; John J. Jesseman, 186; James F. Leonard, 97; Flavius M. Wells, 
186; Joseph Willis, 139; Prescott H. Morse, 136; William H. Langmaid, 1. 
Moderator, William F. Whitcher, 464; Alba M. Markey, 154. 

1913. Annual meeting, March, 1913. Selectmen, Charles J. Pike, 
William J. Clough, Dexter L. Hawkins; treasurer, L. M. Kimball; high- 
way agents, Thomas Morris, Manson F. Young, Irving Thayer; auditors, 
William F. Whitcher, Norman J. Page. Appropriations, to retire town 
bond, $3,000; highways, $5,000; permanent improvement, $2,000; state aid, 
$2,000; care present roads, $125; care state highway, $260; Memorial 
Day, $50; town libraries, $300; other town charges, $1,500; schools, $9,000; 
repairing schoolhouses, $500. C. J. Pike resigned as selectman, and 
Henry W. Keyes was appointed in his place. 

Annual meeting, March, 1914. Selectmen, Henry W. Keyes, Fred P. 
Dearth, Jonas N. Brown; treasurer, Louis M. Kimball; auditors, William 
F. Whitcher, Norman J. Page. Appropriations: to retire town bond, 
$3,000; highways, $5,000; repair state highway, $260; permanent im- 
provement, $3,000; town libraries, $300; North Haverhill library, $500; 
Memorial Day, $50; free bed in Cottage Hospital, $300; other town 
charges, $1,500; schools, $10,000; repairing schoolhouses, $500; transpor- 
tation of pupils to and from high school, $500. 

At the biennial election, November 3, 1914, for governor, Rolland H. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 215 

Spaulding, 414; Albert W. Noone, 212; Henry D. Allison, 17; scattering, 

4. Representatives, Frank N. Keyser, 452; Fred P. Dearth, 420; Henry 
W. Keyes, 386; James C. Gallagher, 199; Samuel T. Page, 177; Scott W. 
Mann, 169. Supervisor, Williard W. Coburn, 374; Walter Burbeck, 355; 
Pardon W. Allen, 355; Jonas N. Brown, 216; Dexter L. Hawkins, 206; 
William W. Cook, 197. Moderator, William F. Whitcher, 569. 

Annual meeting, March, 1915. Selectmen, Henry W. Keyes, Fred P. 
Dearth, Jonas N. Brown; treasurer, Louis M. Kimball; auditors, William 
F. Whitcher, Norman J. Page. Appropriations: to retire town bonds, 
$3,000; highways, $5,262.50; trunk line maintenance, $1,700; permanent 
improvement, $2,025; state aid, $1,012.50; town libraries, $300; North 
Haverhill library, $500; Memorial Day, $50; free bed for Cottage Hospital, 
$200; improvement in cemeteries, $500; other town charges, $1,500; re- 
pairing schoolhouse,$275; schools, $11,000; transportation of pupils, $400. 

Annual meeting, March, 1916. Selectmen, Henry W. Keyes, Fred P. 
Dearth, Jonas N. Brown; treasurer, Louis M. Kimball; auditors, Tyler 
Westgate, Norman J. Page; trustees of town funds, for three years Den- 
nis R. Rouhan, for two years Maurice H. Randall, for one year John E. 
Eastman. Appropriations: to retire town bond, $3,000; highways, 
$5,000; maintenance of trunk line, $1,500; building state aid roads, 
$2,999.25; town libraries, $600; Memorial Day, $50; free bed in Cottage 
Hospital, $150; for benefit of Cottage Hospital, $1,000; other town 
charges, $1,500; support of schools, $11,000; repairs of schoolhouse, 
$1,500; transportation of pupil, $500. 

Biennial election, November 7, 1916. For governor, Henry W. Keyes, 
658; John C. Hutchins, 202; scattering, 6. For representatives, Henry 

5. Bailey, 493; George C. Butler, 499; Frank N. Keyser, 553; John E. 
Eastman, 293; Olin A. Lang, 321; Samuel T. Page, 275. For supervisor, 
Pardon W. Allen, 499; Walter Burbeck, 576; Willard W. Coburn, 493; 
Elmer S. Blake, 278; William W. Cook, 279; Ira W. Mann, 313. For 
moderator, Raymond U. Smith, 533; Samuel T. Page, 271. 

Annual meeting, March, 1917. Selectmen, Henry W. Keyes, Fred P. 
Dearth, Jonas N. Brown. In the early summer Collector of Taxes C. S. 
Newell resigned, and Fred P. Dearth was appointed in his place, and 
Ernest E. Craig was appointed selectman in Mr. Dearth's place. Treas- 
urer, Louis M. Kimball; highway agents, Harry A. Clark, George B. 
Silver; auditors, Tyler Westgate, Norman J. Page; trustee of town funds, 
for three years John E. Eastman, for one year Tyler Westgate. Appro- 
priations: support of highways, $5,000; permanent improvement, 
$3,030.75; maintenance of trunk lines, $1,800; state aid road, $800; town 
libraries, $600; Cottage Hospital, $1,600; Memorial Day, $50; other town 
charges, $2,000; support of schools, $11,500; repair schoolhouses, $1,200; 
transportation of pupils, $1,000. 



2ig HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

The list of town officers varies very much with the list in the latter part 
of the eighteenth century, and the first part of the nineteenth. Back as 
far as 1775 besides the moderator, town clerk and selectmen, voters chose 
Asa Bailey', constable; James Bailey, town treasurer; tythingmen, Daniel 
Stevens, Asa Bailey, James Bailey, Jona. Hale; surveyor of highways 
Timothy Barron, Thomas Manchester, Simeon Goodwin, John Earl, 
Maxi Haseltine; surveyor of lumber, Joseph Hutchins; fence viewers, 
John Page, Joshua Hay ward; hogreeves, Daniel Stevens Timothy Stev- 
ens, Charles Bailey; deerreeves, Maxi Hazeltine, Simeon Goodwin, Dame 
Stone; sealer of weights and measures, John Page; sealer of leather Ezekiel 
Ladd- surveyor of wheat, Joshua Haywood, James Corliss. In 1817, 
just 100 years ago, the voters chose firewards, a collector of taxes corder 
of wood, culler of staves, poundkeeper, and a hayward. In 1916 the 
moderator, town clerk, selectmen and treasurer were chosen as usual, but 
a change had come over the town in the choice of other officers. There 
were tax collectors, fence viewers, sealers of weights and measures, and 
supervisors of wood and lumber, and a school board for the town, superin- 
tendent of schools, a board of health, auditors, a highway agent, super- 
visors of check list, library trustees, a tree warden, a board of com- 
missioners of cemeteries, and seven policemen-three for Woodsville 
and four for the remainder of the town-but constables, tythingmen, 
hogreeves, deerreeves, sealer of leather, surveyor of wheat had gone. 
Albert F Kimball has been town clerk since 1896. H. W. Keyes has 
been one of the selectmen since 1895 for most of the time W. F 
Whitcher served as moderator for sixteen years, and C. S. Newell and 
A E Davis had been tax collector and sheriff for a long time. 



CHAPTER X 



IN THE WARS OF THE REPUBLIC 

New Hampshire, a Federalist State — John Montgomery — Haverhill Town 
Meetings Take Part — Names of Soldiers at Stewartstown and Ports- 
mouth — Moody Bedel — Mexican War — Captain Batchelder and Names of 
Soldiers — The War for the Union — Money Voted — Soldiers with Each 
Individual Record — The War with Spain — The Present War — Names of 
Soldiers. 

The War of 1812 was not welcomed by the dominant party in Haver- 
hill. The town was overwhelmingly Federalist in sentiment, and as 
may be seen from resolutions passed in 1809, which appear in another 
chapter, it had little sympatlry with the policies of the Democratic admin- 
istration, which in its attempts to retaliate for unjustifiable action on 
the part of Great Britain, had crippled and almost destroyed the leading 
industries of New England. War was declared against Great Britain 
June 18, 1812. In anticipation of such declaration, active preparations 
had been made for war by the national administration, and under act 
of Congress of April 10, 1812, President Madison made requisition on 
New Hampshire for its quota of detached Militia. Governor John 
Langdon, who was in full sympathy with the administration, issued 
general orders under date of May 29, 1812, detaching 3,500 men from the 
Militia of the state, to be organized into companies, battalions and regi- 
ments to be armed and equipped for actual service and to be in readiness 
to march at the shortest notice. The draft was made and companies, 
battalions and regiments duly organized, in part, to be completed 
by his successor, William Plumer, who was also in sympathy with the 
Madison administration, and who was inaugurated June 5. On the 
23d of July, 1812, Governor Plumer issued an order completing the organ- 
ization of the detached Militia into two brigades, one to be under com- 
mand of Brig.-Gen. Clement Storer, and the other under the command 
of Brig.-Gen. John Montgomery. 

General Montgomery was at this time one of the most prominent citi- 
zens of Haverhill. He had in early life engaged in military affairs as 
an officer in the Thirteenth Regiment of New Hampshire Militia, was 
major of the second battalion of that regiment from 1804 to 1806, lieu- 
tenant colonel commandant from 1806 to 1812, and was commissioned 
brigadier general of the Sixth Brigade June 15, 1812, succeeding Brig.- 
Gen. Moody Bedel also of Haverhill, who had resigned to accept a com- 
mission as lieutenant colonel of the Eleventh United States Infantry. 

217 



218 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

General Montgomery was an ardent Federalist, but he was first of all a 
soldier who obeyed orders. 

The first call upon Haverhill for men for active service was made upon 
representation of the people of the northern part of the state that there 
was danger of depredations from Canada, and that contraband trade 
was rife on the frontier, by which the enemy were obtaining supplies. 
General Montgomery drafted for six months' service at Stewartstown 
and other points on the Canadian frontier the company under command 
of Capt. Ephraim Mahurin of Strafford. This company was composed 
of men from Haverhill, Warren, Coventry, Wentworth, Piermont and 
Orford and served from July 27, 1812, to January 27, 1813. Ten mem- 
bers of this company were from Haverhill: Lieut. John Page, Jr.; Pri- 
vates Joshua H. Johnson, John Abbott, Jonas Flagg, Irad Ford, Levi 
Judd, Robert McKeon, John Stearns, Nathan Stevens and Samuel Wood- 
bury. These men rendered efficient, though somewhat irksome service 
in the field to which they had been sent, though they did not win glory 
by being called upon to engage in bloody battles. 

Haverhill was divided into war and anti-war parties. There was a 
feeling on the part of many that these drafted men should receive com- 
pensation in addition to their regular pay as militiamen, for being sum- 
marily called away from their homes for this six months' service. A 
special town meeting was called for August 31, 1812, in response to the 
following petition or statement : 

We the subscribers, inhabitants of Haverhill taking under due consideration at this 
critical time, the necessity of protecting the frontiers against foreign invasion and against 
encroachments of savages and the hard task which falls upon those who are drafted to 
perform that service, are of opinion that they ought to have additional compensation 
from that allowed them by the general government as an additional encouragement for 
the more faithful and patriotic discharge of their duty. 

This was signed by John Hall, Jacob Woodward, Stephen Morse, Jr., 
Caleb Morse, Richard Colby, Obadiah Swasey, John F. Hurlburt, Elisha 
Hurlburt, John True, Zach. Bacon, John Morse, 2d, Benjamin Morse, 
Daniel Morse, Amos Kimball, Abel Willis, Ezra Bartlett, John Page, 
John Osgood, Timothy A. Edson, John Page, Jr., Moses Dow, Edward 
Towle, J. L. Corliss, Josiah Elkins, Jona. Sinclair, Joseph Morse, Stephen 
Morse, 2d, Timothy B. Bayley. It is not probable that these signers 
expected to secure favorable action at the town meeting, though on the 
governor vote in the March previous, the vote was nearly equally divided 
between Democrats and Federalists. If they hoped to bring out an 
anti-war declaration on the part of the Federalists, they were adundantly 
successful. 

The proposition to give additional compensation to such men as might 
be drafted for military service was defeated after acrimonious debate, 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 219 

as was also a vote to dissolve the meeting. A vote to choose a committee 
to report by resolutions or otherwise on the present situation of national 
affairs led to further debate, the opponents of the motion, claiming 
that the meeting having been called for another and entirely different 
purpose, no such action could be taken. Finding that protests and oppo- 
sition would prove useless, most of the supporters of the national ad- 
ministration withdrew from the meeting and the motion prevailed. 

Ezekiel Ladd, David Webster, John Nelson, John Montgomery, John 
Kimball and Ezekiel Ladd, Jr., were chosen such committee, and they 
almost immediately reported resolutions, the preparation of which 
had been carefully attended to beforehand, and they were adopted 
as follows: 

Government is instituted for the common benefit, protection and security of the whole 
community and not for the private emolument of any one man, family, or class of men. 
When, therefore, the Administration of such a government is so conducted that the com- 
mon benefit of the whole community is neither the end proposed nor the object attained, 
when the speculative opinions of visionary theorists have for a long time predominated 
in the courts of the nation, by the influence of which a system of commercial restric- 
tions has been adopted in direct opposition to the rules of practical wisdom and the 
dictates of universal experience — when a system of notorious antipathy to one of the 
great Belligerents of Europe, and partiality, if not subserviency to the other has at length 
precipitated the nation unprepared into all the horrors and calamities of war, premature, 
unnecessary, and impolitic, with an extensive range of sea coast comparatively defense- 
less and an immense amount of commercial capital exposed to inevitable capture and 
destruction, and when amidst such a complication of errors and distress, the interest of a 
particular man and the emoluments of a particular class of men engross the cares and 
attention of the Administration of our Government to the exclusion or neglect of the great 
concern of the Union, under such circumstances it is not only the right, but it is the impe- 
rious and indispensable duty of the people in an orderly and peaceable manner to assem- 
ble to consult upon the public good, and with firm, united and strenuous exertions to 
endeavor to restore wisdom to our council and peace to our country. 

Such a spirit of inquiry and investigation into the spirit and conduct of their rulers is 
the distinguishing characteristic of freemen, and the right of examination into the objects, 
policy and operation of these measures, a primary and essential principle of every free 
government. It is to this spirit that Americans are indebted for their Liberty, their 
Independence, and all their privileges as a nation: it is to the firm, temperate and delib- 
erate exercise of this right that they must look for the preservation, support and continu- 
ance of them. 

These principles so dear to the patriots of the Revolution, at all times so important 
and in all countries so interesting to the friends of rational freedom, are in these times 
of unprecedented calamity, peril and distress rendered particularly dear, important and 
interesting to the advocates of liberty and the friends of peace, of commerce and philan- 
thropy throughout our once flourishing and happy republic. 

1st. Therefore, Resolved, that while we fully recognize and explicitly acknowledge as 
the fundamental principle of our Constitution "that a majority must rule," and while 
we as fully and explicitly denounce and discourage all forcible and unwarrantable 
opposition to constitutional laws and the constituted authorities of the Country we can- 
not but remember that although in a minority Freeman still have rights in the Country, 



220 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

and that the Liberty of Speech and of the Press, publicity of debate and freedom of 
electives are essential to the existence of Republican government. 

2d. Resolved, that in a Country where the theory of the Government is that all power 
resides originally in and is derived from the people, when all the magistrates and officers 
of government are but their substitutes and agents, and at all times accountable to them, 
it is essential to the preservation of the rights of the people and to a just, proper and 
impartial exercise of their electoral privileges that all the channels of information respect- 
ing public men and public measures should be open to all. 

3d. Resolved, therefore, that we cannot but view with anxiety, apprehension and 
alarm the late proceedings in Congress by which a system of measures has been deliber- 
ated, matured and avowedly adopted to check the freedom and prevent the publicity of 
debate at the whim or caprice of a heated majority, and thus to conceal from the people 
the unfaithfulness of public men, and prevent the detection and exposure of the impolicy 
and inexpediency of public measures. 

4th. Resolved, that we revere the principles and honor of the patriots of the Revolution. 
Their example and conduct have spread a lustre over this country which we hope will 
never be tarnished by their descendants. The war which they waged was necessary and 
just : it was in self defence : its objects were great : they were the safety, liberty and inde- 
pendence of this country: they were attainable. In such a war we would be foremost 
in tendering our fortunes and our lives. But until such an occasion shall again call us 
to arms, we cannot but believe that the interests and honor of the United States will 
require us to cherish the relations of Peace. We cannot discover in the present war that 
necessity, that justice and those great and attainable objects which sanctified the former: 
drawn into it however by the constituted authorities of our country, we will as good citi- 
zens submit to the laws and make all the sacrifices which they require : But at the same 
time we are firmly resolved to exercise our unalienable rights of scrutinizing the measures 
of our rulers, to bring them to the test of the maxims of wisdom and sound policy : and 
to use every legal and constitutional means of placing in the several departments of gov- 
ernment men whose views shall be more conformable to the honor and interest of our 
Country, and whose policy and wishes shall be more friendly to the establishment of 
peace. 

5th. Resolved, that while we are necessitated wholly to disapprobate the policy of our 
national administration as involving the sacrifice of our dearest rights and tending to a 
dissolution of our national compact, we declare our firm attachment to the Constitution 
of the United States, and our determination to preserve it inviolate, and to support the 
union at any hazard. 

6th. Resolved, that a frequent recurrence to the fundamental principles of the Consti- 
tution of the United States, and a constant adherence to justice, moderation, temperance, 
industry and frugality, and all the social virtues are indispensably necessary to preserve 
the blessings of liberty and good government: the people ought therefore to have a 
particular regard to all those principles in the choice of their officers and representatives. 
7th. Resolved, therefore, that for the promotion of the above described objects, and 
for the maintainance of our rights and privileges, and for the advancement of the general 
welfare, we will unite with any other town or towns in this county by delegates to a 
County Convention. 

8th. Resolved, therefore, that it is expedient to appoint and we do hereby appoint 
Joseph Bell, John Smith and George Woodward to represent this town in a County 
Convention for the County of Grafton to meet at Orford on the first Tuesday of October 
next to consult on and carry into effect the foregoing object. 

9th. Resolved, that the Town clerk be directed to record in the Town Book the above 
resolves. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 221 

It may be noted that Grafton County was represented in the famous 
Hartford Convention, and that Haverhill, by this action ever connected 
with it. 

That these resolutions, in the drafting of which the hand of John 
Nelson may be seen, accurately represented the feeling of the majority 
of the voters of the town may be seen from the fact that at the November 
election of 1812, the vote for Federal presidential electors was 120 to 67 
for the Democratic candidates, and at the March election of 1813 John 
T. Gilman, the Federal candidate for governor received 135 votes to 86 
for Governor Plumer, the Democratic candidate for re-election and the 
Federalists, who were distinctly an anti-war party retained their ascen- 
dancy in the town till after the close of the war. The service of Haver- 
hill men was confined almost exclusively to those who were drafted from 
the Militia, and no other draft than the one already mentioned was 
made until September 9, 1814. 

During the entire summer of the war, there was a general expectation 
of an attack on Portsmouth by the British cruisers which were con- 
stantly hovering near that town. For a time the governor paid little 
attention to this, until in September, the people becoming thoroughly 
aroused, he yielded to their demands, and made a draft upon the Militia 
of two companies from each of the Second, Third, Fourth, Twenty- 
fifth and Thirty-fifth Regiments to march immediately for Portsmouth 
for its defense. General Montgomery went to Portsmouth in com- 
mand of the brigade there formed and rendered important service. He 
was accompanied by his son, George Knox Montgomery and by eleven 
men belonging to Capt. John D. Harty's company of the Third Regi- 
ment of Militia who served for sixty days from September 27. These 
were 3d Sergt. William W. Bailey, Privates Jacob Alls, Timothy Good- 
win, William Jones, Joseph Pratt, Daniel Perkins, Levi Stafford, 
Charles J. Swan, William Stevens, Ulysses Young and Freeman P. 
Bowen. In Capt. Reuben Hayes' company in the First Battalion of 
Artillery, detached Militia, drafted for sixty days beginning October 3, 
1814, for service at Portsmouth were, Qm. -Sergt. Benj. Swan, Corp. 
Samuel Smith and Private Amos H. Jones. 

In addition to these names Bettinger gives the names of eleven others 
as serving in this war, viz. : Sergt. John McClary, Isaac Carleton, Elisha 
Hibbard, Jeremiah Goodwin, Uriah Ward, Ezekiel Day, William 
Stearns, Henry Towle, Ethan S. Ladd, James Woodward and E. P. 
Woodbury. These names do not appear on the rolls of New Hampshire 
Militia detached for service, excepting that of Isaac Carleton, who served 
for sixty days at Portsmouth in Capt. John Bassett, Jr.'s, company, but 
who was from Bath. He later became a resident of Haverhill, which 
perhaps accounts for his being given place among the Haverhill soldiers 



222 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

by Bettinger, as it also accounts for the mention of Sergeant McClary, 
who served through the war in the Forty-fifth Regiment of Volunteers, 
where he had been sergeant-major. He was in his later life a prominent 
citizen of Haverhill, becoming a resident in 1832. The others named 
were recipients of pensions for service in the war and were residents of 
Haverhill. Some of them were doubtless among the 397 men recruited 
at Concord between May 8 and September 16, 1812, by Lieut.-Col. 
Moody Bedel for his regiment, the 11th U. S. Infantry. 

It is no disparagement to others to say that Colonel Bedel rendered 
distinguished and brilliant service. He was a born soldier. He was the 
son of Col. Timothy Bedel, of Revolutionary fame, born in Salem May 
12, 1764. He came to Haverhill with his father's family the same year. 
At the age of twelve years, he accompanied his father in his expedition 
into Canada, and was an enlisted soldier in his father's regiment, Capt. 
Ezekiel Ladd's company, from April 1, 1778, to May, 1779, acting a 
large part of the time as issuing commissary. Active and deeply inter- 
ested in the Militia of his state he had served through the various grades 
from 2d lieutenant of the first company of the Thirteenth Regiment to 
that of brigadier-general of the Sixth Brigade holding this commission 
from June, 1806, till he resigned in April, 1812, to accept a lieutenant- 
colonelcy in the Regular Army. In May, 1812, he took command of 
the "District of New Hampshire for Recruiting" with headquarters at 
Concord with orders to recruit seven companies. He was commissioned 
lieutenant-colonel of the Eleventh Infantry July 6. From September 
26, 1812, to August 22, 1813, he was in command of his regiment at 
Burlington, Vt., 1 "when in recognition of his marked executive ability, 
he was placed by his superior officers upon detached duty requiring 
energy and perseverance, and had no opportunity to participate in 
those battles in which his regiment had gained the title of 'the Bloody 
Eleventh.' Of course, a soldier from boyhood, he chafed under this 
deprivation; and when opportunity offered he hastened to the front to 
take command of his regiment, which, by the battles of Chippewa and 
Lundy's Lane, was without a field officer. He joined General Brown, 
when he assumed command at Fort Erie, September 2, 1814. At the 
memorable sortie of September 17, Lieut.-Col. Bedel, with the 11th 
at his particular solicitation, had the honor of leading Gen. Miller's 
column, and, being in the advance, disabled their guns, took twenty-four 
prisoners, and brought them from the field before the engagement 
became general, and otherwise so distinguished himself as to be honor- 
ably noticed by his superior officers." He was promoted to the colonelcy 
of his regiment, a promotion long deserved. On the withdrawal of the 
American forces from Canada, he was ordered with his regiment to 

1 Potter's Military History of New Hampshire, p. 239. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 223 

Sackett's Harbor, where he remained until the reduction of the army, 
when he returned to Haverhill. His town has reason, under the cir- 
cumstances and in view of the strong anti-war feeling then existing — 
verging on the unpatriotic in character — to be especially proud of the 
brilliant service rendered by her distinguished son, Col. Moody Bedel. 

Mexican War 

The part borne by Haverhill men in the war with Mexico, 1847-48, is 
found in the service of sixteen men in Company H, Ninth United States 
Infantry, Capt. Daniel Batchelder. This regiment had been recruited in 
New England under the auspices of Col. Franklin Pierce of New Hamp- 
shire as its colonel, Abner B. Thompson of Maine as its lieutenant-colonel, 
and Gen. Trueman B. Ransom of Vermont as its major, their commis- 
sions bearing date of February 16, 1847. Colonel Pierce was appointed 
brigadier-general, having command of a brigade composed of the Ninth, 
and other detachments, and Major Ransom was promoted to the colonelcy. 
Company H of the Ninth was recruited in the main by Daniel Batch- 
elder, then of Haverhill, from towns in Grafton County, and the Haverhill 
members of the company were 3d Sergeant Ezra T. Pike, mortally 
wounded at Chepultepec; Corporal James Williams; Privates Henry 
Albert, Kinsman Avery, John Brudle, John W. Bewer, George E. Barnes, 
John Flynn, William Gould, Jr., Joseph E. Little, Arthur L. Pike, Asa 
Randall, George W. Woods, Nelson B. Woodward, George Welch, Wil- 
liam W. Welch. The term of enlistment was during the war. Sergeant 
Pike was at the time of his enlistment in the employ of the New Hamp- 
shire Patriot at Concord. General Pierce in a public address at Concord 
soon after this return from Mexico in speaking of those who fell in the 
victorious assault on Chepultepec said: 

And there was Sergeant Pike, who, having behaved with distinguished gallantry in 
all the preceding engagements, fell pressing upon the causeway to the gate below. He 
was on one of the arches of the Aqueduct, when a bomb from the castle exploded, and 
killed every man on it except Pike, and his leg was literally torn off by the shell, and was 
made worse by the pretended amputations that followed. The bone of his thigh was 
found protruding two inches, two or three days after. There was a second amputation. 
Some defect made a third necessary. When I called upon the Sergeant and said, "I 
fear you are not able to endure another amputation now," Pike replied, "I can, sir, I 
have made up my mind to it. I want it taken off today, and when they cut it off again, 
I hope they will cut it, so that it will stay cut." 

Company H rendered excellent service. It was noted for its bravery 
and gallantry at Conteras and Cherebusco, and it led the assault on 
Chepultepec. Colonel Ransom was killed at this time. There were no 
ladders at hand to scale the wall of the castle. Company H was in 
advance, and Captain Bowers placed his broad shoulders against the 
wall, crying out, "Now, boys, up and at them," the boys used his hands 



224 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

and shoulders as so many rounds of a ladder, each getting a toss upward 
from the stalwart captain as he went up the wall. 

Capt. Daniel Batchelder — the older readers of these pages will remem- 
ber Dan Batchelder, Grafton County deputy sheriff and auctioneer — was 
born in Corinth, Vt., May 10, 1803; died in Haverhill, July 8, 1868. He 
was active in Militia affairs; was appointed adjutant of the Thirteenth 
Regiment in 1833, and Captain of the Sixth Company of Infantry in 
1839. He was active in recruiting Company H in the Ninth (or New 
England) Regiment for the Mexican War, and was appointed captain, 
March 6, 1847, but was detained at Newport, R. I., for recruiting service, 
the command of the company falling on 1st Lieut. George Bowers who 
was commissioned captain in December, 1847. Captain Batchelder 
resigned in March, 1848, and returned to Haverhill. He represented 
Coventry in the legislature in 1833, '34, '35, '36, '37, '38 and '39, and 
secured the passage of the act enabling the town to change its name to 
Benton. He was also a representative from Haverhill in 1845. (See 
General Batchelder.) 

The War for the Union 

In the War for the Union, 1861-65, Haverhill may well take just pride 
in its record. It furnished its full quota of troops at every call. Those 
of her sons who went forth to danger, hardships, privation and death 
have been gratefully remembered, and those who remained at home, 
bore the burdens, which at times bore sorely and heavily, without com- 
plaint. The monument erected in 1912 at North Haverhill, for which 
the women of the Relief Corps of Nathaniel Westgate Post had labored 
and to the erection of which the town contributed by vote the sum of 
$2,000, commemorates in enduring granite and bronze the service of her 
sons in the great struggle for national life and unity. The war cost the 
town heavily in money, representing toil and sacrifice, of those who 
remained at home to toil on farm, in shop and store and in homes, wait- 
ing anxiously in many cases for those who never returned from the front. 
The votes to raise money were for the most part passed at special town 
meetings. The record is brief, but it tells the story of how the town 
rose to the occasion, and met each increasing demand: 

At a special meeting, November 23, 1861: "Voted, that the town 
raise by hire, what money may be needed for the support of the families 
of the volunteers who have enlisted in the service of the United States 
from this town, not exceeding $500, and that the selectmen be a com- 
mittee for appropriating the same." 

At a special meeting, August 26, 1862: "Voted, to raise a sum of 
money not exceeding $8,000 to be appropriated in payment of bounties 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 225 

of $100 each, to volunteers who have enlisted since the call of the presi- 
dent of the United States for 600,000 more troops, and to all who may 
hereafter enlist for the term of three years or for the term of nine months 
in pursuance of said call to be paid when such volunteers shall be mus- 
tered into the United States Service in the New Hampshire Volunteers 
under the rules and regulations of the War Department." 

At the annual meeting, March 10, 1863: "Voted, to fund the floating 
debt of the town and issue bonds or certificates of indebtedness to an 
amount not to exceed $7,000, signed by the treasurer and countersigned 
by the selectmen not to be sold less than par." 

At a special meeting, September 15, 1863: "Voted, that the sum of 
$10,000 be appropriated and paid as bounties to those members of the 
enrolled Militia of this town who have been, or may be drafted or con- 
scripted under the laws of the United States to serve in the Army of the 
United States during the existing rebellion, or to the substitutes for such 
conscripts or substitute according to the provisions of the statute of 
this state, approved July 10, 1863, and that the selectmen of this town 
are authorized and empowered to hire such money from time to time as 
the same may be needed, to pledge the credit of the town therefor, and 
to give a note or notes in behalf of the town at a rate of interest not exceed- 
ing 6 per cent, and to pay over the money to said conscripts or substitutes 
according to the provisions of said statute." 

At a special meeting, December 3, 1863: "Voted, to raise the sum of 
$14,000 and that the selectmen be authorized to hire on notes of the town 
at a rate not exceeding 6 per cent money to encourage voluntary enlist- 
ment to fill quota of 300,000 men last called for by proclamation of the 
president — provided that such volunteer assign to the town such bounties 
as he may be entitled to receive from the state." 

At a special meeting, April 23, 1864: "Voted, to raise the sum of 
$3,400 to pay for voluntary enlistments to this date, and $1,000 to be 
expended by the selectmen in case there should be another call." 

At special meeting, August 8, 1864: "Voted, that the town raise the 
sum of $15,000 agreeable to Act of July 16, 1864." 

At special meeting, August 30, 1864: "Voted, that the selectmen be 
authorized to raise money and appropriate the same as pay for the serv- 
ices of agents to recruit in the insurgent states, and also to advance the 
state bounty to all persons so recruited according to the provisions of an 
act entitled 'An act to facilitate the raising of troops,' approved August 
19, 1864." 

At special meeting, September 21, 1864: "Voted, to raise the sum of 
$27,000 to be appropriated in bounties of $1,000 each for volunteer citi- 
zens of the town of Haverhill, who shall enlist and enter the service of 

16 



226 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

the United States and be counted on the quota of Haverhill on the last 
call of the president for 500,000 men." 

At special meeting, January 17, 1865: "Voted, to raise and appro- 
priate money or bounty to such person who shall be mustered into service 
to fill the quota of this town under the last call of the president for 300,000 
troops, whether such person shall have voluntarily enlisted, or volun- 
teered as a drafted or enrolled man of Haverhill, such bounty not to 
exceed, in addition to the state bounty, the sum of $100 for each one- 
year man, $200 for each two-year man, $300 for each three-year man, 
and also a bounty of $300 for each person who may for three months 
preceding have been an inhabitant of the town and enlisted in its quota 
and actually mustered into service for one year." 

At special meeting, February 17, 1865: "Voted, to raise and appro- 
priate money to fill quota under call of the president December 20, 1864, 
for 300,000 men, in accordance with provisions of act of the New Hamp- 
shire Legislature, approved August 19, 1864, and that the selectmen take 
such measures as they think best to fill the quota of the town under this 
last call, and to hire money for such purpose on the best terms that can 
be secured." 

At annual meeting, March 14, 1865: "Voted, that the selectmen be 
authorized to fill future quotas of the town for men on the best terms 
possible and to raise money on the best terms it can be procured." 

The beginning of the end had come however, and there were no more 
quotas and no more enlistments to be secured. These rates quoted, 
indicate the difficulty of securing volunteers as the most of the war passed 
without the stimulus of substantial bounties. All the patriotism was 
not monopolized by the men and boys who donned uniforms and went 
to the front. There has been a tendency to forget the men who remained 
at home, who toiled and sacrificed to furnish the sinews of war, who 
paid the regular war taxes assessed in multifarious forms, and the extra- 
ordinary taxes which they assessed on themselves to pay bounties to 
the men who enlisted. When the war was over it was found that the 
town had voted for bounties and for assistance to the families of soldiers 
no less than $77,900 and this with the total valuation of all its property 
at about $950,000. It was a debt to be met. It was funded, and in 
1885, the last dollar was paid. 

The men who volunteered from Haverhill, were for the most part men 
and boys who wore the uniforms of privates, who fought in the ranks. 
Haverhill furnished no officers of marked distinction. Few indeed held 
commissions of any sort, and the few commissions were earned. The 
record of service, a summary of which follows, is that of the average 
volunteer soldier, the record for the most part of boys. It is an hon- 
orable record: 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 227 

Second Regiment Volunteer Infantry 

The Second, the first of the three-year's regiments. It left New Hampshire June 20, 
'61, and arrived in Washington June 23. Was attached to Department of Washington 
same day; Hooker's Brig., Army of Potomac, Aug. 12, '61; 1st Brig., Hooker's Div., 
Oct. 3, '61; 1st Brig., 2d Div., 3d Corps, Mar. 16, '62; Department of the East, Mar. 3, 
'63; Casey's Div., 22d Corps, May 27, '63; 3d Brig., 2d Div., 3d Corps, June 14, '63; 
Department 7 of Virginia and North Carolina, July, '63; 2d Brig., 2d Div., 18th Corps., 
Apr. 23, '64; 18th Corps (Corps Headquarters), June, '64; 1st Brig., 1st Div., 18th 
Corps., Aug. 13, '64; 3d Brig., 1st Div., 18th Corps., Oct. 7, '64; 3d Brig., 3d Div., 24th 
Corps., Dec. 2, '64; 1st Independent Brig., 24th Corps., July 10, '65; Dist. N. E., Va., 
Dept. Va., Aug. '65. 

This certainly was varied service, and the regiment was not permitted to rust out for 
lack of fighting. The engagements in which it participated were some of them the most 
memorable of the war. They were: Bull Run, Va., July 21, '61; siege of Yorktown, 
Va., Apr. 11 to May 4, '61; Williamsburg, Va., May 5, '62; Fair Oaks, Va., June 23, '62; 
Oak Grove, Va., June 25, '62; Peach Orchard, Va., June 29, '62; Peach Orchard and Glen- 
dale, Va., June 30, '62; Malvern Hill, Va., July 1, Aug. 5, '62; Kettle Run, Va., Aug. 27, 
'62; Bull Run (2d), Aug. 29, '62; Chantilly, Va., Sept. 1, '62; Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 
14, '62; Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, '63; Wapping Heights, Va., July 23, '63; Swift Creek, 
Va., May 9, '64; Drurys Bluff, Va., May 16, '64; Cold Harbor, Va., June 1-9, '64; 
Petersburg, Va., Aug. 18, Sept. 1, '64; occupation of Richmond, Va., Apr. 3, '65. 

Van Buren Glazier, Co. G; b. Haverhill; age 19; enl. Apr. 24, '61, for 3 mos.; not 
mustered in; paid by state; re-enl. May 21, '61, for 3 yrs.; mustered in June 5, '61, as 
Priv.; disch., disab., Feb. 9, '63, Washington, D. C. 

Joel E. Hibbard, Co. G; b. Haverhill; age 22; enl. Apr. 22, '61, for 3 mos; not must, 
in; paid by state; re-enl. May 21, '61, for 3 yrs; must, in June 5, '61, as Priv.; disch., disab., 
July 16, '61, Washington, D. C; Enl. Co. D, 13th N. H. V., Aug. 13, '62; must, in Sept. 

19, '62, as Corp.; must, out June 21, '65, as Priv. 

Samuel E. Merrill, Co. F; b. Peacham, Vt., age 21; cred. Haverhill; enl. Aug. 

20, '62; must, in Aug. 30, '62, as Priv.; app. Sergt. July 1, '64; 1st Sergt., Nov. 3, '64; 
disch. June 9, '65, Manchester, Va. 

Hiram K. Ladd, Co. G; b. Haverhill, age 19; res. Haverhill; enl. Apr. 20, '61, for 
3 mos.; not must, in; paid by state; re-enl. May 21, '61, for 3 yrs.; must, in June 5, '61, 
as Sergt.; app. 1st Sergt., Jan. 1, '62; 1st Lt. Co. I, July 31, '63; tr. to Co. A, 
Sept. 1, '63; must, out June 21, '64; re-enl. Co. A, 18th N. H. V., Sept. 7, '64, for 1 yr; 
must, in as Priv.; app. 2d Lt., Sept. 20, '64; 1st Lt., Apr. 4, '65; must, out June 10, '65. 

William G. Walcott, Co. G; b. Lancaster; age 24; res. Haverhill; enl. Apr. 20, '61, 
for 3 mos.; not must in; paid by state; re-enl. May 21, '61 for 3 yrs.; must, in June 5, '61, 
as Corp.; disch., disab., Jan. 7, '63, David's Island, N. Y. H.; Enl. 1 N. H. H. A. for 1 
yr, Aug. 31, '64; must, in Sept. 5, '64 as Priv.; must, out June 15, '65. 

John T. Walcott, Co. G; b. Lancaster; age 21; enl. May 21, '61; must, in June 5, '61, 
as Priv.; disch., disab., Aug. 3, '61, Washington, D. C. Enl. Co. I, 4th N. H. Inf., Sept. 
3, '61; must, in Sept. 18, '61, as Priv.; app. Corp.; re-enl. Feb. 11, '64; disch., disab., 
June 13, '65, Manchester. 

Samuel Woodward, Co. F; age 21; cred. Haverhill; enl. Aug. 12, '62; must, in Aug. 
30, '62, as Priv.; wounded severely July 2, '63 at Gettysburg; disch. for wounds Oct. 19, 
Brattleboro, Vt. 

Fourth Regiment Volunteer Infantry 

The Fourth was mustered into service of United States, Sept. 18-20, '61, at Man- 
chester. Each man was a volunteer for three years or during the war. The original 



228 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

members who had not re-enlisted were mustered out Sept. 27, '64 at Concord: The re- 
enlisted men and recruits were mustered out Aug. 27, '65 at Raleigh, N. C. 

The regiment was a part of Sherman's Expeditionary Corps, Oct. 28, '61 to Mar. 31, 
62; at various times in Dept. of the South till Apr. '64; 1st Brig., 3d Div., 10th Corps, 
Apr. to June 19, '64; 3d Brig., 2d. Div., 10th Corps, to Dec. 3, '64; 3d Brig., 2d Div., 24th 
Corps, to Apr. 2, '65; 1st Brig., 2d Div., 10th Corps., to Aug. '65. 

The engagements in which it participated were: Port Royal, S. C, Nov. 7, '61; James 
Island, S. C, June 10, '62; Pocotaligo, S. C, Oct. 22, '62; siege Fort Wagner, Morris 
Island, S. C, July 10 to Sept. 6, '63; siege Fort Sumpter, S. C, Sept. 7, '63, to Jan. 15, 
'64; Drury's Bluff, Va., May 14-16, 20, '64; near Bermuda Hundred, Va., May 17-18, 
'64; Cold Harbor, Va.; June 4-12, '64; Petersburg, Va., June 16, '64; siege Petersburg, 
Va., June 23 to July 29, '64; mine explosion, Petersburg, Va., July 30, '64; Fort Fisher, 
N. C, Jan. 15, '65; Fort Anderson, N. C, Feb. 18, '65. 

John W. Beamis, Co. I; b. Haverhill; age 18; enl. Sept. 3, '61; must, in Sept. 18, '61, 
as Priv.; re-enl. Feb. 15, '64; must, in Feb. 29, '64; app. Corp.; 1st Sergt.; must, out Aug. 
25, '65. 

Jonathan Clark, Co. I; b. Haverhill; age 23; enl. Sept. 3, '61; must, in Sept., '61, 
as Sergt.; disch., disab., Jan. 29, '63, at Concord. 

Dana Fifield, Co. I; b. Chelsea, Vt.; age 25; res. Haverhill; enl. Sept. 3, '61; must, in 
Sept. 18, '61, as Priv.; app. Corp.; disch., disab., June 12, '63. 

Alfred T. Hardy, Co. I; b. Piermont; age 20; enl. Aug. 31, '61; must in Sept. 18, '61, 
as Priv.; re-enl. and must, in Dec. 25, '63; cred. Haverhill; dishon. disch. Mar. 30, '65, by 
sentence G. C. M. with loss of all pay and allowance, and to be confined at Clinton 
Springs, N. Y., for the period of 3 yrs. 

James E. Haynes, Co. J; b. Wentworth; age 21; res. Haverhill; enl. Aug. 27, '61; 
must, in Sept. 18, '61; must, out Sept. 27, '64. 

Henry M. Hicks, Co. I; b. Lyndon, Vt.; age 24; res. Haverhill; enl. Sept. 10, '61; 
must, in Sept. 18, '61, as Sergt.; App. 2 Lieut. Co. H, Oct. 25, '62; 1 Lt., Feb. 8, '63; 
disch., disab., Sept. 14, '64. 

John D. McConnell, Co. I; b. Newbury, Vt., age 25; res. Haverhill; enl. Sept. 3, 
'61; must, in Sept. 18, '61, as Priv.; killed July 30, '64, mine explosion, Petersburg, Va. 

Daniel C. Randall, Co. I; b. New Brunswick; age "36"; res. Haverhill; enl. Sept. 2, 
'61; must, in Sept., 18, '61, as Priv.; disch., disab., Nov. 17, '62, Beaufort, S. C, enl. 
Co. A, 9th N. H. V., Dec. 17, '63; Age "40"; must, in same day, died, disease, Camp 
Nelson, Ky., Mar. 18, '64. 

Joseph Raney, Co. I; b. Derby, Vt., age 22; res. Haverhill; enl. Aug. 30, '61; must, 
in Sept. 18, '61, as Corp.; app. Sergt.; re-enl. Feb. 11, '64; must, in Feb. 20, '64; app. 2 
Lieut., Mar. 1, '65; 1 Lieut., Aug. 23, '65, not must.; must. out. Aug. 23, '65, as 2 Lieut. 

James Wilson, Co. I; b. Elgin, Can.; age 24; res. Haverhill; Enl. Aug. 24, '61; must, 
in Sept. 18, '61, as Priv., re-enl. and must, in Feb. 28, '64; app. Corp.; must, out Aug. 
23, '65. 

Sixth Regiment Volunteer Infantry 

The Sixth was mustered into the U. S. Service, Nov. 27-30, 1861, at Keene, N. H- 
Each man enlisted for three years unless otherwise stated. Original members who had 
not re-enlisted mustered out Nov. 27-28, near Petersburg, Va. Re-enlisted men and 
Tecruits must, out July 17, '65, near Alexandria, Va. Left New Hampshire Dec. 25, 
'61. It was attached to Gen. Casey's Provincial Brigade, near Washington, Dec. 28; 
as a part of the Burnside expedition to North Carolina in Jan. '62; 4th Brig., Dept. 
North Carolina, March 6, '62; 1st Brig., 1st Div., Dept. North Carolina June, '62; 
1st Brig., 2d Div., 9th Corps., July, '62; Dist. of Kentucky, Dept. Ohio, Sept. 9, '63; 
veteran furlough, Jan. '16, '64; 9th Corps, unassigned, March '64; 2d Brig., 2d Div., 
9th Corps, Apr. 20, '64. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 229 

The engagements in which the Sixth participated were: Camden, N. C, Apr. 19, 
'62; Bull Run, Va., Aug. 29-30, '62; Chantilly, Va., Sept. 1, '62; South Mountain, Md., 
Sept. 14, '62; Antietam, Md., Sept. 17, '62; White Sulphur Springs, Va., Nov. 15, '62; 
Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62; siege of Vicksburg, Miss., June 14 to July 4, '63; 
Jackson, Miss., July 10-16, '63; Wilderness, Va., May 6, '64; Spottsylvania, Va., May 
8-20, '64; North Anna River, Va., May 23-26, '64; Bethseda Church, Va., June 2-3, 
'64; Cold Harbor, Va., June 4-12, '64; seige of Petersburg, Va., June 16, '64 to Apr. 3, 
'65; mine explosion, Petersburg; assault, July 30, '64. 

Samuel P. Adams, Co. B; b. Haverhill; age 51; res. Haverhill; app. Capt., Nov. 30, 
'61; must, in to date Nov. 27, '61; resigned, July 30, '62. 

Horace L. Blanchard, Co. B; age 26; res. Haverhill; enl. Sept. 14, '61; must, in, 
Nov. 27, '61, as Sergt.; wounded Dec. 13, '62, Fredericksburg, Va.; died, accidental 
injuries, May 30, '63, near Lexington, Ky. 

Chandler G. Cass, Co. B; b. Haverhill; age 17; res. Haverhill; enl. Nov. 9, '61; 
must, in, Nov. 27, '61, as Priv.; re-enl; and must, in Jan. 2, '64; killed June 3, '64, 
Bethesda Church, Va. 

John Flavin, Co. B; b. Granby, Can.; enl. Sept. IS, '61; must, in Nov. 27, '61, as Priv.; 
captured, Aug. 29, '62, Bull Run, Va.; released; re-enl. and must, in Dec. 20, '63; res. 
Haverhill; captd. Oct. 1, '64, Polar Springs Church, Va.; released; died dis., Manchester, 
Feb. 16, '65. 

Sumner Hardy, Co. B; b. Haverhill; age 32; res. Haverhill; enl. Sept. 14, '61; must. 
Nov. 27, '61, as Priv.; missing, Aug. 29, '62, Bull Run, Va.; gained from missing Dec. 29, 
'62; disch., disab., Philadelphia, May 14, '63. 

Horace J. Holmes, Co. B; b. Hanover; age 21; Haverhill; enl. Sept. 10, '61; must. 
in Nov. 27, '61, as Corp.; disch., disab., Dec. 3, '62, Alexandria, Va.; had previous service 
in 1st N. H. Vols.; enl. Apr. 17, '61, 3 mos.; must, in May 2, '61; must, out Aug. 9, '61. 

Charles P. Potter, Co. B; b. Bucksport, Me.; age 29; res. Haverhill; enl. Sept. 16, 
'61; must, in Nov. 27, '61, as Priv.; captd. Aug. 29, '62, Bull Run, Va.; released; re-enl. 
and must, in Jan. 3, '64; app. Corp. July 1, '65; must, out July 17, '65. 

Edwin C. Holmes, Co. B; b. Haverhill; age 20; res. Haverhill; enl. Sept. 16, '61; 
must, in Nov. 27, '61, as Priv.; disch., disab., June 19, '62, New Berne, N. C. 

West Pearson, Co. B; b. Bethlehem; age 21; enl. Sept. 14, '61; must, in Nov. 27, 
'61, as Corp.; disch., disab., Sept. 29, '62, Philadelphia. 

Hiram H. Poole, Co. B; b. Haverhill; age 35; enl. Nov. 9, '61; must, in Nov. 27, '61, 
as Priv., re-enl. and must, in Jan. 2, '64; app. Corp. July 1, '65, must, out July 17, '65. 

Andrew J. Randall, Co. B; b. Maine; age 31; res. Haverhill; enl. Sept. 9, '61; must, 
in Nov. 27, '61, as Corp.; app. Sergt.; disch., disab., Aug. 3, '63, Concord. 

Martin V. B. Randall, Co. B; b. Piermont; age 20; res. Haverhill; enl. Sept. 20, 
'61; must, in Nov. 27, '61, as Priv. wounded Aug. 29, '62, Bull Run, Va.; disch., wds., 
Nov. 26, '62, Washington D. C. 

Charles W. Sherwell, Co. B; b. Warren; age 18; res. Haverhill; enl., Oct. 30, 
'61, must, in Nov. 27, '61, as Priv.; killed Dec. 13, '61, Fredericksburg, Va. 

Elijah L. Smith, Co. B; b. Brookfield; age 32; res. Haverhill; enl. Sept. 14, '61; 
must, in Nov. 27, '61, as Sergt.; reduced to ranks, Sept. 1, '62; disch., disab., Dec. 1, 
'62, Washington, D. C. 

George H. Smith, Co. B; b. Haverhill; age 18; res. Haverhill; enl. Nov. 9, '61; 
must, in Nov. 27, '61, as Priv.; re-enl. and must, in Jan. 4, '64; wounded May 6, '64, 
Wilderness, Va.; app. Sergt., July 1, '65; must, out July 17, '65. 

Ira Stowell, Co. B; b. Hyde Park, Vt.; age 18; res. Haverhill; enl. Sept. 18, '61; 
mu6t. in Nov. 27, '61, as Priv.; died, dis., Apr. 16, '62, Roanoake Isl., N. C. 

Archibald H. Stover, Co. F; b. Rockland, Me.; age 29; res. Haverhill; enl. 



230 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Sept. 14, '61; must, in Nov. 27, '61, as 1st Sergt.; reduced to Sergt.; killed Aug. 29, '62, 
Bull Run, Va. 

John P. Swift, Co. B; b. Haverhill; age 21; res. Haverhill; enl., Oct. 1, '61; must, 
in Nov. 27, '61, as Priv.; disch., disab., Sept. 11, '62, Concord. 

Henry G. Tasker, Co. B; age 21; res. Haverhill; enl., Sept. 12, '61; must, in 
Nov. 27, '61, as Sergt.; reduced to ranks Mar. 31, '62; Cap'd, July 21, '62, at New 
Berne, N. C; died dis., Nov. 15, '62, Richmond, Va. 

Joseph Weed, Co. B; b. Topsham, Vt.; age 27; res. Haverhill; enl. Sept. 16, '61; 
must, in Nov. 27, '63, as Priv.; wounded May 6, '64, Wilderness, Va.; disch., Dec. 10, 
'64, Concord, term expired. 

Nathan W. Wheeler, Co. B; age 20; res. Haverhill; enl. Sept. 21, '61; must, in 
Nov. 27, '60, as Priv.; died, dis., Mar. 18, '62, Hallisas Inlet, N. C. 

Ninth Regiment Volunteer Infantry 

Mustered into service of the United States, July 3 to Aug. 23, 1862, at Concord. 
Organization completed, Aug. 23; left state Aug. 25, '62. Each man was recruited for 
three years or during the war. Original members mustered out June 10, 1865, near 
Alexandria, Va.; recruits transferred to 6th N. H., June 1, 1865. 

The Ninth was attached to Whipples Division, defenses of Washington, Aug. 28, 1862; 
1st. Brig. 2 Div., 9th Corps, Sept. 6, 1862; District of Kentucky, Dept. of Ohio, Sept. 
'63 to Jan. '64; unattached Jan. to Mar. '64; 1st Brig., 2d Div., 9th Corps., Mar. 26, 
'64; 2d Brig., 2d Div., 9th Corps., Apr. 27, '64. 

Participated in engagements as follows: South Mountain, Md., Sept. 14, '62; Antie- 
tam, Sept. 17, '62; White Sulphur Springs, Va., Nov. 15, '62; Fredericksburg, Va., 
Dec. 13, '62; siege Vicksburg, Va., June 14 to July 4, '63; Jackson, Miss., July 10-16, 
'63; Wilderness, Va., May 6, 7, '64; Spottsylvania, Va., May 10-18, '64; North Anna 
River, Va., May 24-26; Totopotomy, Va., May 31 to June 1, '64; Bethesda Church, 
Va., June 2, 3, '64; Cold Harbor, Va., June 5-12, '64; siege of Petersburg, Va., June 16, 
'64, to Apr. 3, '65; Petersburg, Va. (assault in the Shana house), June 17, '64; mine explo- 
sion, Petersburg, Va. (assault), July 30, '64; Weldon Railroad, Va., Aug. 20-21, '64; 
Poplar Springs Church, Va., Sept. 30, Oct. 1, '64; Hatcher's Run, Va., Oct. 27, '64; 
Petersburg, Va.; Apr. 1, 2, '65. 

Haverhill Men 

Henry N. Chapman, Co. A; b. Haverhill; age 24; cred. Haverhill; enl. June 27, 
'62; must, in July 3, '62, as Priv.; wounded July 27, '64; died of wounds July 28, '64, 
near Petersburg, Va. 

William Clark, Co. A; b. Newbury, Vt.; age 18; res. Haverhill; cred. Haverhill; 
enl. June 12, '62; must, in July 3, '62, as Priv.; died, dis., Hampton, Va., Apr. 6, '63. 

Charles T. Collins, Co. A; b. Southborough, Mass.; age 27; res. Haverhill; 
cred. Hav.; enl. June 18, '62; must, in July 3, '62, as Priv.; app. Corp.; disch., disab., 
Oct. 6, '63, at Concord. 

George S. Humphrey, Co. A; b. Waterbury, Vt.; age 34; res. Haverhill; cred. 
Haverhill; enl. June 3, '62; must, in July 3, '62, as Priv.; disch., disab., May 24, '65; 
Louisville, Ky. 

Scott W. Keyes, Co. A; b. Haverhill; age 20; res. Haverhill; cred. Haverhill; 
enl. June 13, '62; must, in July 3, '62, as Sergt.; wounded, Sept. 17, '62 at Antietam; 
disch., disab., Oct. 6, '62, Washington, D. C. 

Joseph L. Willey, Co. A; b. Rhode Island; age 18; res. Haverhill; cred. Haverhill; 
enl. July 5, '62; must, in July 12, '62, as Priv.; app. Corp.; killed June 18, '64, Peters- 
burg, Va. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 231 

Eleventh Regiment Volunteer Infantry 

Mustered into service of the United States Sept. 2, 1862, at Concord. Left the state 
Sept. 11, '62. The original members were mustered out June 4, 1865, near Alexandria, 
Va., and the recruits were transferred to the Sixth N. H. The Eleventh was attached 
to 1st Brig., Casey's Div., defenses of Washington, till Sept. 29, '62, and was afterwards 
in 2d Brig., 2d Div., 9th Corps, till mustered out June 4, '65. 

The engagements in which it participated were: Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62; 
siege of Vicksburg, Miss., June 15 to July 4, '63; Jackson, Miss., July 10-17, '63; siege 
of Knoxville, Tenn., Nov. 17 to Dec. 3, '63; Wilderness, Va., May 6, '64; Spottsylvania, 
Va., May 9-18, '64; North Anna River, Va., May 23-27, '64; Totopotomy, Va., May 
28-31, '64; Bethesda Church, Va., June 2, 3, '64; Cold Harbor, Va., June 5-12, '64; siege 
of Petersburg, Va., June 16, '64, to Apr. 3, '68; mine explosion, Petersburg, Welden 
Railroad, Va., Poplar Springs Church, Hatcher's Run, Va. (during the siege), Peters- 
burg, Va., Apr. 1-3, '65. 

Haverhill Men 

Leroy Bell, Co. G; b. Hav.; age 22; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 22, '62, as Priv.; 
must, in as 2d Lieut, to date Sept. 2, '62; wounded May 12, '64, Spottsylvania, Va.; 
wd. June 2, '64, Bethesda Church; app. Capt. July 22, '64; wd. July 30, '64; mine explo- 
sion, Petersburg, Va.; Sev. wd. Sept. 30, '64, Poplar Springs, Church, Va.; disch. to date 
June 4, '65. 

Thomas Baxter, Co. G; b. Canada, East; age 24; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 
14, '62; must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; tr. to Band, 2d Brig., 2d Div., 9th Corps, Oct. 14, 
'62; must, out June 4, '65, as 2d class Muse. 

Lewis Bean, Co. G; b. Rumford, Me.; age 33; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 13, 
'62; must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Sergt.; disch. May 16, '65, Lexington, Ky. 

Cyrus Alden, Co. G; b. Middleboro, Mass.; age 30; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 
18, '62; must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; must out June 4, '65. 

Levi B. Bisbee, Co. G; b. Hav.; age 27; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 15, '62; 
must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; tr. to Brig. Band, Oct. 14, '62; must, out June 4, '65, 1st 
class Muse. 

Benjamin (Bixbee) Bixby, Co. G; b. Warren; age 22; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. 
Aug. 18, '62, as Priv.; app. Sergt.; must, out June 4, '65. 

Riley B. Cady, Co. G; b. Hav., age 24; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 15, '62 
must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; app. Corp.; died dis., Baltimore, Md., Apr. 11, '64. 

Martin U. B. Cady, Co. G; b. Hav.; age 20; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 15, '62 
must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; app. Muse; disch. May 12, '65. 

Charles F. Carr, Co. G; b. Hav.; age 31;res.Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 15, '62; must 
in Sept. '62, as Priv.; disch. disab. Dec. 29, '62, Concord. 

Frank B. Carr, Co. G; b. Hav.; age 33; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 14, '62 
must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; disch., disab., Aug. 29, '63. 

Hiram S. Carr, Co. G; b. Hav.; age 30; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 22, '62 
must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; tr. to Brig. Band, Oct. 14, '62; disch., disab., Aug. 6, '63 
as 1st Class Muse, Milldale, Miss. 

Daniel J. Coburn, Co. G; b. Hav.; age 21; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 22, '62 
must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; trans, to Brig. Band, Oct. 14, '62; disch., incompetency 
May 21, '63, Lancaster, Ky. 

Ira B. Gould, Co. G; b. Hanover; age 31; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 15, '62 
must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; tr. to Brig. Band, Oct. 15, '62, as 3rd class Muse; disch. 
disab., Jan. 26, '63, near Falmouth, Va. 

Robert W. Haney, Co. G; b. Canada; age 25; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 15, 



232 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

'62; must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv. ; wd. May 12, '62, Spottsylvania, Va.; missing July 30, 
'64, mine explosion, Petersburg, Va.; gained from missing; disch. to date from June 4, '65. 

Amos Lund, Jr., Co. G; b. Hav.; age 21; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 15, '62; 
must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; wd. June 16, '64, Petersburg, Va.; must, out June 4, '65. 

Moody C. Marston, Co. G; b. Hav.; age 22; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 15, '62; 
must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; tr. to Brig. Band, Oct. 14, '62; disch. May 15, '63. 

Henry Merrill, Co. G; b. Hav.; age 19; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 15, '62; 
must, in as Priv. Sept. 2, '62; died, dis., Apr. 13, '63, Mt. Sterling, Ky. 

George W. Miller, Co. G; b. New Hamp.; age 23; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. 
Aug. 15, '62; must, in Sept. 2, as Priv.; died, dis., Feb. 28, '65, near Petersburg, Va. 

Elias Moulton, Co. G; b. Corinth, Vt.; age 39; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 14, 
'62; must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; disch., disab., Jan. 9, '63, Washington, D. C. 

Jonathan C. Pennock, Co. G; b. Hav.; age 20; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 
15, '62; must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; W. W. Brig. Band Oct. 14, '62; disch. Feb. 2, 
'63; enl. and must, in July 25, '64, as Corp. Marten Guards; sent Fort Constitution, 
Portsmouth; must, out Sept. 16, '64. 

Adin M. Pike, Co. G; b. Orford; age 24; res. Or ford; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 13, '62; 
must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; wd. June 19, '64, near Petersburg, Va., and died of wds. 
Sept. 14, '64, Washington, D. C. 

Martin Rogers, Co. G; b. Ireland; age44; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 14, '62; 
must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; app. Corp.; wd. May 6, '64, Wilderness, Va.; miss. July 
30, '64, mine explosion, Petersburg, Va.; gd. from miss.; disch. June 4, '65, Concord. 

James W. Sampson, Co. G; b. Lyman; age 34; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 15, 
'62; must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; tr. to Brig. Band, Oct. 14, '62; app. Band leader; 
disch., disab., Dec. 22, '62; died, dis., Jan. 14, '63, Washington, D. C. 

George Southard, Co. G; b. Hav.; age 19; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 18, 
'62; must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; died dis., Apr. '63, Cincinnati, O. 

Salon Swift, Co. G; b. Weathersfield, Vt. ; age 44; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 
20, '62; must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; wd. Dec. 13, '62, Fredericksburg, Va.; tr. to Co. 
K, 12 I. C. Jan. 15, '64; disch., disab., Nov. 14, '64, Alexandria, Va. 

George C. Swift, Co. G; b. Hav.; age 18; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 15, '62; 
must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; killed July 22, '64, near Petersburg, Va. 

Albert H. Tefft, Co. G; b. Schituate, R. I.; age 32; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. 
Aug. 15, '62; must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; disch., disab., Sept. 21, '63. 

Orrin M. Whitman, Co. G; b. Hav.; age 24; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 15, '62; 
must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; tr. to Brig. Band Oct. 14, '62; disch., incompetency, 
Feb. 2, '63, as 3rd Class Muse, near Falmouth, Va. 

Albert U. Willey, Co. G; b. Wheelock, Vt.; age 39; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. 
Aug. 16, '62; must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; killed Dec. 13, '62, Fredericksburg, Va. 

Joseph Willis, Co. G; b. Hav.; age 20; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 14, '62; 
must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; tr. to Brig. Band Oct. 14, '62; must, out as 2d Class Muse, 
June 4, '65. 

George W. Woodward; b. New York; age 22; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Aug. 14, 
'62; must, in Sept. 2, '62, as Priv.; must, out June 4, '65. 

Eleven of the 32 men who enlisted in Co. G from Haverhill were members of the 
North Haverhill Cornet Band at the time of their enlistment, and were transferred with 
their leader to the 2d Brig., 2d Div., 9th A. C. Band. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 233 

Fifteenth Regiment New Hampshire Volunteer Infantry 

Enlisted for nine months. Mustered into the service of the United States at Concord, 
Nov. 12, 1862, and left the state, Nov. 13. It -was with the U. S. forces at Carrollton, 
La., Dept. of the Gulf, Dec. 24, '62, to Jan. 27, '63; attached to 1st Brig., 2d Div., 19th 
A. C, Jan. 27 to July 11, '63; 2d Brig.; 3d Div., 19th A. C, July 18, '63; 2d Brig. U. S. 
forces, Port Hudson, La., July 18 to date of muster out, Aug. 13, '63. It was engaged in 
the seige of Port Hudson, La., May 27 to July 9, '63. There were 27 Haverhill men in 
this regt. mostly in Co. B: 

John D. Brooks, Co. B; b. Charlestown, Vt.; age 27; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. 
Sept. 4, '62; must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; must, out Aug. 13, '63. 

Neander D. Brooks, Co. B; b. Canada; age 29; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 
22, '62; must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; must, out Aug. 13, '63. 

James Buckland, Co. B; age 21; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 30, '62; must, in 
Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; must, out Oct. 10, '62, Concord. 

Charles Carpenter, Co. B; b. Canada; age 35; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 
8, '62; must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; must, out Aug. 13, '63. 

Edwin J. L. Clark, Co. B; b. Newbury, Vt.; age 37; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. 
Sept. 2, '62; must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; must, out Aug. 13, '63. 

Royal F. Clark, Co. B; b. Haverhill; age 23; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 1, 
'62; must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; must, out Aug. 13, '63. 

Richard C. Drown, Co. B; b. Hav.; age 32; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 2, 
'62; must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; must, out Aug. 13, '63. 

Daniel C. Dunklee, Co. B; b. Hav.; age 25; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 1, 
'62; must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; must, out Aug. 13, '63. 

Franklin Furgerson, Co. B; b. Sharon, Vt.; age 30; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. 
Sept. 12, '62; must, in Oct. 10, '62, as Priv.; must, out Aug. 13, '63. 

James Glynn, Co. B; b. Hav.; age 22; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 1, '62; 
must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; disch. to date Aug. 13, '63. 

Nelson S. Hanaford, Co. B; b. Bath, age 28; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 1, 
'62; must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; must, out Aug. 13, '63. 

Hylus Hackett, Co. B; b. Hav.; age 18; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 1, '62; 
must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; died dis., Aug. 5, '63, Memphis, Tenn. 

John Hackett, Co. B; b. Hav.; age 27; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 1, '62; 
must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; must, out Aug. 13, '63. 

Ethan O. Harris, Co. B; age 29; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Oct. 3, '62; must, in 
Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; must, out Aug. 13, '63. 

George F. Keyes, Co. B; b. Hav.; age 24; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 1, '62; 
must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; must, out Aug. 13, '63; re-enl. for one year 1st N. H. 
Heavy Artillery and must, in Sept. 24, '64, as Priv.; must, out June 15, '65. 

Hiram P. Kidder, Co. B; b. West Fairlee, Vt.; age 32; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; 
enl. Sept. 18, '62; must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; must, out Aug. 13, '63. 

Caleb Knight, Co. B; b. Benton; age 40; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Oct. 15, '62; 
must, in Oct. 21, '62, as Priv.; must, out Aug. 13, '63. 

Aikin Ladderbush, Co. B; b. Canada; age 39; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 
20, '62; must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; must, out Aug. 13, '63; re-enl. Aug. 1, '64, Co. 
D, 1st N. H. Cav. 

Lewis Ladderbush, Co. B; b. Canada; age 19; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 30, 
'62; must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; must, out Aug. 13, '63. 

Sylvester W. Marden, Co. B; b. Hav.; age 18; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 



234 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

26, '62; must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; discharged Oct. 25, '62, at Concord; enl. for one 
yr., Co. I, 1st N. H. H. A., Sept. 24, '64; must, in Sept. 24, as Priv.; must, out June 15, 
'65. 

James A. Page, Co. B; b. Orford; age 26; res. Hav.; enl. Sept. 1, '62, as Priv.; app. 
2d Lieut. Nov. 3, '62; must, in to date 2d Lieut. Oct. 8, '62; must, out Aug. 13, '63. 

George W. Leith, Co. B; b. Quebec, P. Q.; age 41; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 
10, '62; must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; must, out Aug. 13, '63; enl. Sept. 7, '64, one 
yr. 1st N. H. H. A.; must, in Sept. 26, '64, as Priv.; must, out June 15, '65. 

Calvin Pennock, Co. B; b. Hav.; age 29; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 2, '62; 
must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; must, out Aug. 13, '63. 

George W. Pennock, Co. B; b. Hav.; age 24; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 2, 
'62; must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Sergt.; must, out Aug. 13, '63. 

Charles G. Perkins, Co. B; b. Goffstown; age 31; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 
4, '62; must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; died, dis. Jan. 12, '63, Carrollton, La. 

John C. Shelly, Co. B; b. Hav.; age 18; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 1, '62; 
must, in Oct. 8, '62, as Priv.; must, out Aug. 13, '62. 

George C. Smith, Co. B; b. Hav.; age 27; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 15, '62; 
must, in Oct. 8. '62, as Priv.; must, out Aug. 13, '63. 

Eighteenth New Hampshire Volunteer Infantry 

Six Companies of this regiment were raised under the call of the president July 18, 
1S64. The last four companies were ordered enlisted by the governor by proclamation 
of Oct. 13, in advance of the call of the president of Dec. 19. The regiment was not fully 
organized until the spring of '65 and Co. K, which was mustered into service Apr. 6, 
did not leave New England. Some of the men enlisted for three years; some for one 
year. The first six companies went to the front in Oct. '64. Three others joined it 
later. The regiment was attached to Engineer Brigade, defences of Washington, Oct. 
6, '64 to Nov. 19, '65; to 9th Army Corps, Mar. 19 to 26, '65; 3d Brig., 1st Div., 9th 
A. C. Corps, March 26, to date of muster out, June 23 and July 29, '65. The engage- 
ments in which it participated were: Fort Stedman, Va., Mar. 25, 29, '65; Petersburg, 
Va., Apr. 2, '65. Haverhill contributed, 10 men to this regiment: 

Harlin S. Blanchard, Co. E; b. Hav.; age 30; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 22, '64, for 1 yr.; 
must, in Sept. 27, '64, as Sergt.; resigned warrant; disch. May 26, '65. 

Levi Braddish, Co. F; b. Hartford, Vt.; age 43; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 28, '64, for 1 
yr.; must, in Sept. 28, '64, as Priv.; must, out June 10, '65. 

Solomon H. Butterfield, Co. E; b. Standstead, Canada, East; age 36; cred. Hav.; 
enl. Sept. 26, 1 yr. ; must, in Sept. 27, '64, as Priv.; must, out June 10, '65. 

Joseph Cams, Co. E; b. Picto, N. S.; age 2S; cred. Hav.; enl. and must, in for 3 yrs. 
Sept. 27, '64, as Priv.; des. Oct. 4, '64. 

Frank D. Davis, Co. E; b. Benton; age 18; cred. Hav.; enl. for 1 yr. Sept. 26, '64; 
must, in Sept. 27, '64; must, out June 16, '69. 

Curtis H. Hicks, Co. F; b. Hav.; age 23; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 21, '64 for 1 yr.; must, 
in Sept. 27, '64, as Sergt.; disch. June 3, '65. 

Oramus S. Hix, Co. E; b. Burke, Vt.; age 38; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 27, '64, for 1 yr.; 
must, in same day as Priv.; must, out June 10, '65. 

Hiram K. Ladd; see 2d Regt. N. H. Vols. 

Simon E. Puffer, Co. E; b. Hav.; age 21; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 26, '64 for 1 yr.; 
must, in Sept. 27, as Priv.; must, out June 10, '65. 

Person Wallace, Co. E; b. Hav.; age 42; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 24, '64, for 1 yr.; 
must, in Sept. 29, '64, as Priv. ; disch. June 23, '65. 

Don F. Willis, Co. E; b. Hav.; age 21; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 26, '64; must, in Sept. 

27, as Priv.; disch. May 27, '65, at Concord. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 235 

New Hampshire Battalion First New England Volunteer Cavalry 
Also Known as First Rhode Island Volunteer Cavalry 

The New Hampshire Battalion was composed of Companies I, K, L, M, until these 
companies were detached Jan. 7, 1864, and made a part of the 1st Regt., N. H. Vol. 
Cavalry. The battalion participated in the following engagements: Cedar Mountain, 
Va., Aug. 9, '62; Groveton, Va., Aug. 29, '62; Bull Run (2d), Va., Aug. 30, '62; Chantilly, 
Va., Sept. 1, '62; Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 12-14, '62; Kelly's Ford, Va., Mar. 17, '63; 
Stoneman's Raid, Va., Apr. 27 to May 8, '63; Brandy Station, Va., June 9, '63; Middle- 
burgh, Va., June 18, '63; Rapidan Station, Va., Sept. 14, '64; Culpeper, Va., Oct. 12, 
'63; Bristol Station, Va., Oct. 14, '63. There were five Haverhill men in this regiment: 

Byron L. Carr, Co. M; b. Hav.; age 21; res. Hav.; enl. Jan. 20, '62; must, in Jan. 21, 
as Priv.; captd. June 18, '63, near Middleburgh, Va.; par. '63; app. Corp.; re-enl. and 
must, in Feb. 1, '64; app. Sergt.; wd. Sept. 22, '64; disch. wds. June 23, '65. 

Jerome B. Carr, Co. I; b. Hav.; age 23; res. Hav.; enl. Oct. 30, '61; must, in Dec. 
17, '61, as Priv.; app. Corp. Jan. 1, '63; re-enl. and must, in Feb. 1, '64; captd. Aug. 17, 
'64, Winchester, Va.; died Jan. 21, '65, Danville, Va. 

Simon G. Cutting, Co. I; b. Hav.; age 21; res. Hav.; enl. Nov. 25, '65; must, in Dec. 
17, '61, as Priv.; re-enl. Jan. 2, '64; must, in Jan. 5, '64; must, out July 15, '65. 

George W. Morrison, b. Boston, Mass.; age 23; res. Hav.; enl. Oct. 24, '61; must, in 
Dec. 17, '61, as Priv.; app. Sergt. July 13, '62; re-enl. Jan. 2, '64; must in Jan. 5; app. Co. 
Q. M. Sergt.; 2d Lieut. Co. A, July 30, '64; mis. Dec. 21, '64, near Lacey's Springs, Va.; 
gd. from mis.; app. 1st Lieut. Co. G, July 10, '64; not must.; must, out July 18, '65, as 
2d Lieut. Co. A. 

Horace H. Morrison, Co. I; b. Roxbury, Mass.; age 23; res. Hav.; enl. Oct. 25, '61; 
must, in Dec. 17, '61, as Priv.; captd. June 18, '63, near Middleburgh, Va.; par.; re-enl. 
Jan. 2, '64; must, in Jan. 5; app. Sergt. Sept. 1, '64; must, out July 15, '65. 

First Regiment New Hampshire Volunteer Cavalry 

In February, 1864, the four companies of cavalry from New Hampshire belonging to 
the New England regiment returned to Concord to recruit a regiment. Companies A, 
B and C were soon recruited, and the seven companies were ordered to Washingtion 
reaching there Apr. 25. Four other companies were recruited later, but they served 
after going to the front in a separate detachment. They were composed for the most 
part of bounty jumpers, gamblers and thieves, and though they cost this state and towns 
to which they were credited from $1,000 to $1,500 apiece, they were worthless and 
deserted at the first opportunity. The regiment was in almost constant service from 
May, '64, until mustered out. It was attached to 2d Brig., 3d Div. Cav. Corps, June 
6, '64, to Mar. 23, '65, and to Cav. Forces, Dept. Washington, 22d A. C, from March 
23, '65, the detachments having been united, till June 29, when it soon after left for 
Concord, where it was mustered out July 21. The principal engagements in which it 
participated were Hanover Court House, Cold Harbor, White Oak Swamp, Winchester, 
Charlestown, Cedar Creek, Lacey's Springs and various raids. In addition to the five 
men serving in the N. H. battalion of the New England Regiment, five others enlisted 
from Haverhill in the first three new companies : 

George F. Cutting, Co. I; b. Lebanon; age 19; cred. Hav.; enl. Mar. 24, '64; must, in 
same day as Priv.; mis. Dec. 21, '64, Lacey's Springs, Va.; gd. from mis.; disch. June 27, 
'65, Concord. 

Jeremiah B. Davis, Co. E; b. Benton; age 19; cred. Hav.; enl. and must, in Aug. 17, 
'64, as Priv.; app. Corp. May 1, '65; must, out July 13, '65. 

Simon W. Elliott, Co. G; b. Hav.; age 20; cred. Hav.; enl. and must, in Aug. 10, '64, 
as Priv.; must, out July 15, '65. 



236 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Hiram S. Kellam, Co. C; b. Irasburgh, Vt.; age 29; cred. Hav.; enl. and must, in 
Mar. 31, '64, as Priv.; app. Corp. May 1, '64; wd. Aug. 25, '64, Kearney ville, Va.; Captd. 
Dec. 21, '64, Lacey's Springs, Va.; released Feb. 16, '65; disch. June 5, '65. 

Nathaniel W. Westgate, Jr., Co. I; b. Enfield; age 19; cred. Hav.; enl. and must, in 
Mar. 24, '64, as Priv.; Captd. Aug. 17, '64, Winchester, Va.; died Jan. 7, '65, Danville, Va. 

First Regiment New Hatnpshire Volunteer Heavy Artillery 

The recruiting of this regiment was authorized in August and September, 1864, and 
the companies as fast as recruited were sent to the front. During the winter of '64 and 
'65, the regiment garrisoned a line of works in defense of Washington. The men were 
enlisted for one year. Ten Haverhill men served in this regiment: 

Patrick Baldwin, Co. L; b. Ireland; age 38; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 24, '64, 1 yr.; 
must, in same day as Priv.; must, out June 15, '65. 

Ezekiel Day, 2d, Co. I; b. Cornish, Me.; age 44; cred. Hav.; enl. and must, in Sept 
24, '64, as Priv.; died, dis., Dec. 11, '64. 

John H. Day, Co. I; b. Hav.; age 21; cred. Hav.; enl. and must, in Sept. 24, '64, as 
Priv.; must, out June 15, '65; served previously in 9th Vt. Vol. Inf. 

Joseph S. Deland, Co. I; b. Stanstead, Can.; age 43; cred. Hav.; enl. and must, in 
Sept. 24, '64, as Priv.; disch., disab., Apr. 17, '65, Fort Reno, Washington, D. C. 

Charles Goodwin, Co. I; b. Salem; age 20; cred. Hav.; enl. Sept. 28, '64; must, in 
Sept. 29, '64, as Priv.; must, out June 15, '65. 

Henry M. Miner, Co. I; b. Hav.; age 18; cred. Hav.; enl. and must, in Sept. 24, '64, 
as Priv.; must, out June 15, '65. 

Charles J. Pike, Co. I; b. Hav.; age 18; cred. Hav.; enl. and must, in Sept. 24, '64, as 
Priv.; must, out June 15, '65. 

Orren Simpson, Co. I; b. Newbury, Vt.; age 44; cred. Hav.; enl. and must, in Sept. 
24, '64 as Corp.; must, out June 15, '65. 

John Stears, Co. I; b. Hav.; age 29; cred Hav.; enl. and must, in Sept. 24, '64; 
must, out June 15, '65. 

George W. Woods, Jr., Co. A; b. Hav.; age 18; res. Hav.; cred. Hav.; enl. July 23, 
'65, must, in July 29, '65, as Priv.; must, out Sept. 11, '65. 



The War with Spain 
New Hampshire sent but one regiment into the field in the war declared 
with Spain in 1898, and this fight into which it was sent could hardly 
be called a fight, except for disease from which the regiment suffered 
severely. The camp established in the Southland was unsanitary, the 
food unfit, and conditions could hardly have been worse. Haverhill 
furnished but few recruits. Rev. F. L. Carrier, pastor of the Woodsville 
Universalist Church, was among the first enlistments as private, but 
before the return of the regiment home the chaplain having resigned 
he was commissioned chaplain with rank of captain. Other enlistments 
were those of Newell C. Wright, Thomas Jehue and Felix Guerrin. 
Almon D. Pike enlisted in the First Vermont, the service of which was 
similar to that of the New Hampshire command, viz., waiting idly in a 
fever stricken camp. 




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HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 237 



The World War 

Following the inauguration of Wilson there was two or three years 
of war with Mexico, though at the time no declaration was made. This 
might have continued till the present time had not the United States 
been drawn into the war across the seas, the most awful of modern times, 
at a cost in treasure and blood beyond compare. Our entrance on the 
conflict was in April, 1917, and the preparations for war have been 
taken in nearly every conceivable way since. Haverhill's honor roll is as 
furnished by Mr. Norman J. Page, town historian. 

Abbreviations 

E. =enlisted; I. = inducted; D. = discharged; R. =released from active 

duty; A. =age; Trf. = transferred. 

1. Adams, Charles Curtis — E. Dec. 7, '17; A. 28; 2nd CI. Gun-pointer; 3 mos. at 
Newport, R. I., as instructor in Machine gunnery; trf. to U. S. S. Narragansett at 
New London, Conn.; May 15, '18, Chief Boatswain's Mate; July, '18 until Apr. '19 on 
Narragansett in English Channel service; Apr. '19 Chief Master-at-Arms on Patricia 
during homeward journey; R. Apr. 26, '19. 

2. Ashley, Daniel Whitcher — E. Apr. 30, '17; A. 23; Naval Reserves; Pay Corps; 
Ensign Sept. 26, '17; from Nov. '17 until Jan. '19 made 14 trips across Atlantic as supply 
officer on U. S. S. Standard Arrow; Lieut. Jr. Grade July 1, '18; Lieut. Sept. 21, '18; 
R. Mar. 8, '19. 

3. Avard, Aime M — I. Apr. 26, '18; A. 24; Camp Dix; A. E. F., May '18 to June 
'19; Alcquines, Chelers, St. Mihiel, Limey, Meuse-Argonne ; Hdqtrs. Co., 309th 
Regt., 78th Div., Inf.; D. June 11, '19. 

4. Bailey, George Austin— E. Oct. 17, '18; A. 18; Co. E, Inf., S. A. T. C, N. H. 
State College; D. Dec. 15, '18. 

5. Bailey, Harold Roy— E. Sept. '18; A. 21; Co. A. Inf., N. H. State College; D. 
Dec. 6, '18. 

6. Bailey, Hugo George — May 9, '18; A. 21; Fort Slocum; Specialist School, 
Camp Hancock; Camp Dix; Bugler, Hdqtrs. Co., M. G. Tr. Corps; D. Feb. 26, '18. 

7. Beamis, Herbert Leon — E. Apr. 17, '18; A. 20; Fort Slocum, Washington 
Barracks; Engineering Corps; trf. to Co. C, 2nd Inf., 2nd Div.; A. E. F.; gassed at Ch. 
Thierry; D. Mar. 14, '19. 

8. Bedard, Albert Joseph — E. May 28, '18; A. 18; Forts Slocum and Adams, 
Camps Eustis and Hill; C. A. C, 4th Anti-Aircraft Bn.; A. E. F., Oct. '18 to Jan. '19; 
Montmorency, France; D. Jan. 21, '19. 

9. Bedard, Horace Joseph — E. June 7, '17; A. 19; Fort Ethan Allen, Camp Bartlett; 
Hdqtrs. Co., 103rd Inf., 26th Div.; A. E. F., Sept. '17 to Apr. '19; Chemin-des-Dames, 
Toul, Ch. Thierry, St. Mihiel, Verdun, Meuse-Argonne; D. Apr. 28, '19. 

10. Bedard, Napoleon — E. 1916; Camps Keyes, Bartlett, Greene; A. E. F., July 
'18; at Brest about one year serving as Cook; D. July '19. 

11. Bishop, William Geo. — E. June 14, '18; A. 22; Dartmouth College; Camp 
Jos. E. Johnston; A. E. F., Sept. '18 to July '19; Roque Fort La Pallice, Biarritz; 
Motor Transport Co. 314; trf. Motor Transport Co. 619; D. July 17, '19. 

12. Blake, Harold Prescott — E. June 4, '17; A. 21; Navy; Fireman; U. S. S. 
Covington from July '17 until July '18, when the ship was torpedoed; U. S. S. Tucker. 

13. Blake, Herbert E. — E. June 4, '18; A. 21; Naval Reserves; U. S. S. Columbia, 



238 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

C. W. Morse and Adirondack; Fireman 3rd CI.; died, Naval Hospital, Brooklyn, Sept. 
25, '18 of Sp. Influ. 

14. Blank, Eric H. — E. June '17; A. 18; Fort Oglethorpe, Camps Jackson, Sevier, 
Mills; A. E.F., Aug. '18 to June '19; St. Die; Meuse-Argonne; Med. Corps, Fid. Hosp. 
Co., 322, 306th San. Tr., 81st Div.; D. June 27, 1918. 

15. Boemig, Roy Ernest — E. May 10, '17; A. 19; Camps Keyes and Bartlett; 
A. E. F., Oct. '17 to Apr. '19; Chemin-des-Dames, Bois Brule, Aisne-Marne, St. Mihiel, 
Marcheville-Riaville, Meuse-Argonne; Co. B, 103rd M. G. Bn.; Corporal; cited for 
bravery; wounded Oct. 23, '18; D. Apr. 29, '19. 

16. Balond, Harold Pollard — E. June 20, '17; A. 18; Fort Slocum, Camps Wilson, 
Stanley, McArthur, Upton; A. E. F., May 27, '18 to July 22, '19; England; Camp 
Valdahon, France; Moyenvontier ; St. Mihiel; Puneville; Luxembourg; Batt. C. 19th 
Field Artillery; cited for bravery; D. July 29, 1919. 

17. Briggs, Wilbur F. — E. May '17; Co. B, 14th Ry. Engrs.; Camp Rockingham; 
A. E. F., July '17 to Apr. '19; Cook; D. May 2, '19. 

18. Brown, Leroy Elton— E. Oct. 31, '18; A. 19; Co. A, Engrs.; S. A. T. C, No. 
Eastern College, Boston; D. Dec. 10, '18. 

19. Bunker, Charles B — I. June 28, '18; A. 23; Co. B, 12th Military Police; Camp 
Devens; D. Jan. 28, '19. 

20. Burleigh, Fred Seymoren— I. May 16, '18; A. 22; N. H. State College; 26th 
Co., 7th Bn., 151st Depot Brig.; trf. to 246th Ambulance Co., 12th San. Tr., 12th Div.; 
Camp Devens; D. Jan. 28, '19. 

21. Carr, Hazel Glazier — A. 23; Enrolled in Med. Corps Sept. '18; called Feb. 12, 
'19; Reconstruction aid (Physio-therapy); Camp Upton; Plattsburg; Oct. '19 Camp 
Porter. 

22. Chandler, Edson T. — E. Jan. 15, '18; A. 18; 175th Aero Squadron; Jan. 20, 
'19, Serg.; Fort Slocum; Ellington Field; Payne Field; Camp Dix; D. Apr. 7, '19. 

23. Clark, Harold John — E. May '17; A. 21; Q. M. C; Camps Keyes, Bartlett, 
Greene, Wadsworth, Devens; Oct. 6, '18, 1st Serg.; D. Dec. 28, '18. 

24. Clark, Thomas Edward— E. May 31, '17; A. 31; Co. B, 14th Ry. Engrs.; 
Camp Rockingham; A. E. F., July 27, '17 to May 21, '19; Somme, Marne, Meuse- 
Argonne; D. May 28, '19. 

25. Cotton, Leon Fernald — E. Aug. 9, '17; A. 25; Navy; Fireman; Charleston, 
S. C; South America on U. S. S. Proteus; D. Jan. 28, '19. 

26. Darby, Edward Everett — E. Sept. 3, '18; A. 21; Med. Corps, Veterinary 
Fid. Unit, Ambulance Co., Camp Devens; D. Jan. 29, '19. 

27. Davison, Harold K — E. Apr. 28, '17; A. 24; Plattsburg; 2nd Lieut., Aug. 15, 
'17; 1st Lieut, Aug. 12, '18, Co. G, 101st Inf., trf. to Supply Co., 101st Inf., 26th Div.; 
Commanded Co. two months; rec'd Croix-de-Guerre and 4 citations; Camps Devens, 
McGuinness; A. E. F., Sept. '17 to Apr. '19; gassed once; Chemin-des-Dames,TouI, 
Ch. Thierry, St. Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne, Verdun; D. Apr. 29, '19. 

28. Davison, Harry C. — E. May 2, '17; A. 22; Camps Keyes, Bartlett, Greene; 
Co. B, M. G. Bn., trf. to Dep. Brig., 1st N. H. M. G. Co.; D. Jan. 26, '18. 

29. Desautels, Louis C. — E. Mar. 18, '18; A. 26; Fort Slocum; Ordnance Dept.; 
U. S. Gov't plant No. 1, Sheffield, Ala.; accountant; D. Jan. 15, '19. 

30. Dow, Henry Horace— E. June 9, '17; A. 27; Co. F, 103rd Inf., 26th Div.; 
Camps Keyes and Bartlett; Sept. '17 England; France (Villouxel, Toul, Ch. Thierry); 
July 18, '18 severely wounded; D. Mar. 25, '19. 

31. Dunn, Burleigh Hiram — E. Dec. 13, '17; A. 27; Fort Slocum, Camps Lee and 
Hancock; Hdqtrs. Co.; 2nd Motor Mechanic Sig. Corps, Aviation section A. E. F., 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 239 

Mar. 4, '18 to June 12, '19; trf. while in France to 803rd Aero Repair Squadron, trans- 
portation Reserve Park; Chauffeur; D. June 21, '19. 

32. Dutton, Shelley Earle— E. Oct. 7, '18; A. 19; S. A. T. C, N. H. State College; 
Aviation, Co. E, 2nd Bn.; D. Dec. 15, '18. 

33. Eastman, Milo Donald — E. May 24, '18; A. 23; Medical Reserves; Newport, 
R. I., Pelham Bay; D. about Mar. 1, '19. 

34. Emory, Kenneth Pike— E. Oct. 3, '18; A. 20; S. A. T. C, Dartmouth College; 
Co. B; Corporal; D. Dec. 16, '18. 

35. Emory, William Closson — E. Apr. '17; Hdqtrs. Co., 101st Regt., F. A.; A. E. F., 
Sept, '17 to May 23, '19; trf. to 53rd Brig., 108th F. A., 28th Div.; Croix-de-Guerre and 
citation; 1st Lieut,, Mar. '19; in army of Reserves. 

36. Farland, Wilfred — E. July 5, '17; Co. K, 1st N. H. Regt. Inf.; Camp Bartlett, 
France. 

37. Field, Donald Wells— E. June 29, '17; A. 23; Naval Reserves; Sept. 1, '18, 
1st CI. Seaman; Norfolk, Va., U. S. S. Iowa; R. Dec. 22, '18. 

38. Field, Girvelle L. — E. July 17, '18; A. 21; Hdqtrs. Dept,, 1st Replacement 
Regt,, Engrs.; Washington Barracks, Camp Devens; D. Jan. 17, '19. 

39. Fletcher, Almon D— E. June 24, '16; A. 20; Corporal; Co. C. 101st Engrs.; 
France. 

40. Follansbee, Harry Chas. — I. Apr. 26, 'IS; A. 22; Camp Dix; Fort Niagara; 
Camp Raritan; Co. B, 11th Bn. Inf.; D. Jan. 21, '19. 

41. French, Ray Malcolm — E. Nov. 19, '17; A. 22; Fireman 3rd CI.; Common- 
wealth Pier, Boston; Newport, R. I.; died of pneumonia, Feb. 5, '18, Newport. 

42. Gale, Errol Clinton— E. July 14, '18; A. 23; N. H. State College, Fort 
Hancock, Camps Eustis and Stuart; A. E. F., Oct. '18 to Feb. '19; stationed at Libourne, 
France, with Hdqtrs. Co., 37th Regt. C. A. C; D. Feb. 11, '19. 

43. Gale, Linn Augustus — E. Apr. 23, '18; A. 27; Montreal; Overseas, May '18; 
England, France, Belgium; Co. A, 5th Canadian Mounted Rifles; D. Apr. 30, '19. 

44. Gale, Morris Merrill — E. Dec. 13, '17; A. 29; Fort Slocum; Camp Jos. E. 
Johnston; A. E. F., June '18 to July '19; Montigny-le-Roi; France as clerk in Quarter- 
master's Dept,, 309th Supply Co.; D. July 15, 1919. 

45. Gallagher, Edward Francis— E. May 22, '17; A. 27; Camp Rockingham; 
A. E. F., July '17 to Apr. '19; Somme, Aisne-Marne; Co. B, 14th Ry. Engrs.; D. May 7, 
'19. 

46. Gates, Frederick Tabor— E. Oct. 5, '18; A. 18; S. A. T. C, Yale, F. A.; D. Dec. 
16, '18. 

47. Gray, Agesilaus C. — I. Oct. 4, '18; A. 30; Forts Constitution and Monroe; 
D. Dec. 6, '18. 

48. Guyette, Albany Albert — E. May 29, '17; A. 23; Camp Rockingham; 
A. E. F., '17 to Apr. '19; Somme, Aisne-Marne; Co. B, 14th Ry. Engrs.; D. May 2, '19. 

49. Guyette, William Henry — E. May 29, '17; A. 25; Camp Rockingham; 
A. E. F., July '17 to Apr. '19; Somme, Aisne-Marne; Co. B, 14th Ry. Engrs.; D. May 
2, '19. 

50. Hardy, Lawrence A. — I. Oct. 21, '18; A. 21; Forts Constitution and Foster; 
D. Dec. 9, '18. 

51. Hatch, Llewellyn Victor — I. Sept. 19, '17; A. 24; Camp Devens; A. E. F., 
July '18 to Apr. '19; Ceyrat, Hannonville; Batt. C, 303rd Regt,, H. F. A., 76th Div.; 
D. May 1, 1919. 

52. Holt, Henry A.— E. July 16, '18; A. 19; Fts. Terry and Hamilton, Camps 
Eustis and Stuart; Mechanic; 38th Regt,, 41st Brig., H. A.; D. Dec. 6, '18. 



240 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

53. Hosford, Larkin Lambert — E. Sept. 27, '17; A. 25; Naval Reserves; Charles- 
ton Navy Yard, Bumkin Island, Newport; Musician, 2nd CI.; R. Dec. 16, '18. 

54. Howe, Luman Burr — E. Dec. 14, '17; A. 21; Navy Yard, Boston; Yeoman 
2nd CI.; D. June 19, '18. 

55. Hoyt, John I.— E. June 9, '17; A. 20; Camps Keyes and Bartlett; A. E. F., 
Sept. '17 to Apr. '19; Chemin-des-Dames, Toul, Ch. Thierry, St. Mihiel, Verdun; Co. K, 
103rd Inf., 26th Div.; cited for bravery; gassed at Verdun; D. Apr. 28, '19. 

56. Jeffers, Weston Harvey — E. early in '18; 4th O. T. C, Camp Devens; Camps 
Lee and Funston; Sept. '18, France; 2nd. Lieut., June 1, '18; 1st Lieut., Aug. 21, '18; 
D. . 

57. Jewett, Harold Earl — E. Apr. 27, '18; A. 18; Naval Reserves; Seaman; 
Newport, R. I.; Philadelphia, Pa.; U. S. S. Victoria. 

58. Johnson, Raymond R. — I. Sept. 19, '17; Camp Devens; A. E. F., July '18 to 
Apr. '19; Corporal, Batt. E, 303rd H. F. A., 76th Div.; D. May 1, '19. 

59. Joseph, Arlie L. — E. July 29, '18; A. 21; Signal Corps; instructor in Radio, 
Dartmouth College; D. Dec. 12, '18. 

60. Kezer, F. Ray— E. Oct. 8, '18; A. 20; S. A. T. C, Tufts College; Co. B, Engrs.; 
D. Dec. 9, '18. 

61. Kezer, Roland Winfield — E. Sept. 19, '18; A. 22; Vocational Section N. H. 
State College; Co. A, Corporal; D. Dec. 10, '18. 

62. Kimball, Ray L. — E. Mar. 16, '18; Carpenter; Kelley Field Aviation Camp; 
trf. to 507th Aero Squadron, Wilbur Wright Field; Sergeant, Dec. 1, '18; D. Mar. 
26, '19. 

63. Klarke, Perley N— E. Dec. 3, '17; A. 24; Navy; Feb. '18 Musician 1st CL; 
U. S. S. Vestal, U. S. S. Supply; R. Dec. 7, '18. 

64. Knight, Andrew Thomas — E. Mar. 21, '18; A. 18; Naval Reserves; Seaman 
1st CI.; R. Dec. '18; 

65. Kugelman, Robert Somers — E. Oct. '18; A. 19; S. A. T. C, Harvard; Co. C, 
Aviation; D. Dec. 5, 1918. 

66. Lancaster, Herman L. — E. May, '17; A. 22; Fort Slocum, Washington, over- 
seas with Co. C, 10th Engrs. Lumber Unit; Corporal; D. Feb. 19, '19. 

67. Large, Robert H. — E. Dec. 7, '17; A. 22; N. C. D. R., Radio Seaman; Sept. 1, 
'18 Electrician, 3rd CL; Newport, R. I., Light Vessel No. 66 on Great Round Shoals, 
Light Vessel No. 85 South Shoals as Radio Operator; R. Aug. 14, '19. 

68. Larty, Wilfred J.— E. June 29, '17; A. 22; N. C. D. R.; Boston, Charleston, 
S. C; Fireman 2nd CL; trf. to Hospital Corps and again to Q. M. Corps, Naval Avia- 
tion; R. Dec. 5, '18. 

69. Lavoie, George Joseph — I. Sept. 5, '18; A. 31; 11th Co., 152nd Depot Brig., 
Camp Upton; D. Dec. 24, '18. 

70. Lee, Frederick A. E. — E. Feb. 1, '18; A. 24; Co. A, 24th Canadian Victorian 
Rifles, 5th Inf., 2nd Div.; Montreal, England, France (Amiens, Arras, Cambrai, Valen- 
ciennes, Mons), Germany; D. May 19, '19. 

71. Leonard, George Wesley — E. Apr. 24, '18; A. 23; Tufts College, Camps 
Lee and Upton; 7th Co. 2nd B:, 152nd Depot Brig.; 2nd Lieut.; Oct. 5, 1918; D. Dec. 
4, '18. 

72. Leonard, Jasmin Mortimer — E. Apr. 6, '17; A. 29; Naval Reserves, Lieut. 
J. G.; Lieut., July 20, '18; Newport, R. I., Sept. 29, '18, District communication Supt., 
2nd Naval Dist.; R. Apr. 26, '19. 

73. Leonard, John Ray — E. Nov. 26, '17; A. 20; Fort Slocum, San Antonio, Dayton; 
162nd Aero Squadron; England, France; Chauffeur; D. Feb. 13, '19. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 241 

74. Libby, William Herman — I. Apr. 26, '18; A. 23; Camp Dix; Proving Grounds, 
Aberdeen, Md.; Co. M, 328th Inf. Ordnance Dept.; died Oct. 11, '18 of Sp. Influ. 

75. Lord, Henry W.— E. May 6, '17; A. 21; Batt. F, 19th F. A.; trf. 5th Trench 
Mortar Batt.; Camps Sam Houston, Stanley, Mc Arthur, Upton; A. E. F., June 4, '18, 
to Mar. 12, '19; D. Apr. 4, '19. 

76. Luce, Frank Allen — I. Oct. 22, '18; A. 21; Fort Constitution, 1st Truck Co., 
60th Ammunition Tr.; D. Dec. 16, '18. 

77. McCarthy, Peter H. — E. June 9, '17; A. 23; Forestry; one year in Scotland 
enlisted in U. S. Navy, June 13, '18; Mine force; 2nd CI. Yeoman; R. Apr. 4, '19. 

78. McClintock, Herbert Elmer — E. July 13, '18; A. 25; N. H. State College 
Fort Hancock, Camps Eustis and Stuart, Fort Terry; Supply Co., 37th C. A. C; trf., 
to 10th Co., C. A. C, Long Island Sound; D. May 12, '19. 

79. McConnell, Malcolm E. — E. May 19, '17; A. 23; Boston, Newport, R. I., 
Seaman 2nd CI.; Musician 2nd CI.; R. Feb. 3, '19. 

80. McCormick, Jasmin B. — I. June 27, '18; A. 27; Camps Devens and Alfred Vail; 
Co. B, 212th Field Sig. Bn.; D. Jan. 28, '19. 

81. McDuffee, Fred Wm.-E. Jan. 15, '18; A. 21; C. A. C; trf. to Batt. B, 2nd 
Trench Mortar Bn.; Company Mechanic; Portsmouth, Forts Slocum and Caswell, 
France. 

82. McIntire, Clarence W. — E. Dec. 12, '17; A. 25; Forts Oglethorpe and Monroe, 
Camp Stuart; A. E. F., Apr. '18 to Feb. '19. (St. Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne) ; Batt. E, 
60th Regt., C. A. C; Feb. 1, '19 Corporal; D. Feb. 25, '19. 

83. McMeekin, Norman Alex. — E. May 23, '17; A. 26; Camp Rockingham; 
A. E. F., July '17 to Apr. '19 (Somme, Aisne-Marne) ; Co. B, 14th Regt. Ry. Engrs.; 
D. May 2, '19. 

84. McNtjlty, Anthony Edward — E. Mar. 28, '18; A. 26; Camp Devens; France; 
Batt. F, 107th Regt. F. A. ; trf. ; to 1st Prov. Div. Batt., 1st Replacement Depot; D. . 

85. Martin, Alphonse Desire — E. Apr. 4, '17; A. 26; Camps Keyes, Bartlett, 
Greene, Wadsworth; A. E. F., Aug. '18 to June '19; 326th Field Signal Bn.; stationed 
at Remiremont with the 1st Army in the Meuse-Argonne offensive, with Army of 
Occupation in Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany; Corporal; Sergeant; D. July 
7, '19. 

86. Merrill, Asbury T. — E. Dec. 12, '17; A. 26; Signal Corps, Aerial Coast Patrol; 
Bayshore, L. I.; A. E. F., Mar. '18 to Nov. '18 (Brest, Finistere); Pelham Bay, Charles- 
ton, S. C, Great Lakes, 111.; 1st CI. Machinist on Aeroplanes; D. July 18, '19. 

87. Miller, Harold Rodney — E. Aug. 30, '17; A. 25; 2nd Lieut.; Signal Corps, 
28th Balloon Co.; St. Louis, Mo.; Waco, Texas; Balloon School, Lee Hall, Va. ; D.Dec. 
20, '18. 

88. Miller, Lynne Willis— I. Apr. 26, '18; A. 28; Camp Dix; A. E. F., May '18 
to Dec. '18 (St. Mihiel, Argonne); Co. D, 309th Inf., 78th Div.; Corporal, July 4, '18; 
D. Jan. 24, '19. 

89. Moore, Ralph Leavitt — I. July 25, '18; A. 31; Camps Devens, Lee and Upton; 
Co. L, 302 Remount Depot, Veterinary Dept.; D. . 

90. Morrill, Charles H. — E. Aug. 17, '17; A. 28; Camp Curtis Guild, Newport 
News; A. E. F., Dec. '17 to Apr. '19. (Chemin-des-Dames, Toul, Ch. Thierry, St. 
Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne); 101st F. A., Hdqtrs. Co., 26th Div., Corporal Sept. 1, '18; 
D. Apr. 29, '19. 

91. Morrill, Dorothy (Miss) — E. Aug. 8, '18; A. 25; Army Nurses Corps; Camp 
Greene; Base Hospital 61; A. E. F., Sept. '18 to May '19. (Beaume, Base Hospital 57 
at Paris); D. May 16, '19. 



17 



242 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

92. Morrill, Herman A. — E. June 15, '17; A. 18; Fid. Ambulance Service, 315th 
Inf. Med. Dept.; Forts Slocum and Oglethorpe; Camp Meade; A. E. F., July '18 to 
May '19 (sector No. 304, Meuse-Argonne, Montfaucon, Grand Montagne); D. June 5, 
'19. 

93. Morrill, John H — E. Feb. 22, '18; A. 20; 426th Motor Truck Co., 412th 
Motor Supply Train, Q. M. C; Fort Slocum, Camp Jos. E. Johnston; A. E. F., July '18 
to July '19 (St. Nazaire); Corporal; D. July 17, '19. 

94. Morse, Horace E. — E. Oct. 30, '18; A. 18; Long Island Aviation Camp; 13th 
Provisional Co.; D. Dec. 8, '18. 

95. Moulton, Amos Lloyd— E. July 29, '18; A. 21; Sig. Corps, Tr. Detach.; 426th 
Telegraph Bn., Co. E, Fid. Sig. Bn. 40; Dartmouth; Camp Meade; D. Jan. 15, '19. 

96. Myott, Lawrence A.— I. July 24, '18; A. 29; Camp Devens; 40th Co., 10th 
Bn. 151st Depot Brig.; D. Dec. 5, '18. 

97. Nelson, Clarence — E. July '17; Co. K, 1st N. H. Regt.; severely wounded in 
France; D. Dec. '18. 

98. Nutter, Joseph Simes — E. Aug. 7, '18; A. 19; Naval Reserves; Charleston, 
S. C; U. S. Rifle Range, Mt. Pleasant, S. C; Landsman for Carpenter's mate; D. 
Dec. 2, '18. 

99. Page, William E — E. June 22, '17; A. 28; Hosp. Ambulance Corps, Sec. 599; 
Camp Crane; June '18 Italy; France; D. Apr. 26, '19. 

100. Palmer, Fred A., Jr. — E. July 15, '16; A. — , Camps Keyes and Bartlett; 
Co. K, 103rd U. S. Inf.; A. E. F., Sept. '17 to Apr. '19. (Chemin-des-Dames, Toul, 
Ch. Thierry, St. Mihiel, Verdun); gassed 3 times; Corporal; D. Apr. 28, '19. 

101. Palmer, Wenlock C— E. June 9, '17; A. 23; Co. K, 103rd Inf., 26th Div.; 
Camps Keyes and Bartlett; A. E. F., Sept. '17 to Apr. '19 (Chemin-des-Dames, Toul, 
Ch. Thierry, St. Mihiel, Verdun); gassed twice; D. Apr. 28, '19. 

102. Paradie, Napoleon — I. May 25, '18; A. 31; Camp Devens; D. . 

103. Park, Bernard E — E. Mar. 11, '18; A. 21; Light Artillery; trf. in France to 
Ammunition Tr. ; Camp Logan; France; Army of Occupation; Corporal; D. Aug. '19. 

104. Pike, Carl A. — I. June 27, '18; A. 26; Camps Devens and Upton; 42nd 
Inf. 12th Div.; D. Jan. 23, '19. 

105. Pike, Isaac Watson— E. May 15, '18; A. 29; N. H. State College; Co. F., 28th 
Engrs. (Quarry); Camps Humphries, Bally McElroy; A. E. F., Aug. '18 to Mar. '19; 
D. Apr. 4, '19. 

106. Robinson, Charles Earl. — E. June 7, '17; A. 27; Co. F, 9th Mass. Regt., 
Inf.; trf. to Co. B, 3rd Pioneer Regt.; again trf. to 4th Anti-Aircraft M. G. Bn.; Camps 
McGuinness, Greene, Wadsworth; A. E. F., Sept. '18 to Jan. '19; Corporal, Sergeant; 
D. Jan. 25, '19. 

107. Robinson, Duff. — I. May 10, '18; A. 26; Machine Gun Bn.; Fort Slocum, 
M. G. School, Camp Hancock; D. Jan. 15, '19. 

108. Robinson, John McDonald— E. Oct. 7, '18; A. 20; N. H. State College, 
S. A. T. C; Co. G, Inf.; D. Dec. 15, '18. 

109. Ross, Tracy John — E. June 16, '17; A. 18; Forts Slocum and Sam Houston; 
3rd Fid. Art., Batt. C; died of scarlet fever July 26, '17; first man from Haverhill to 
give his life in the war. 

110. Rowden, Henry T.— E. Oct. 17, '18; A. 18; S. A. T. C, N. H. State College; 
Co. G, Inf.; Sergt. -Bugler; D. Dec. 15, '18. 

111. Russell, Fred Cutler, M. D. — E. July 12, '17; Med. Reserve Corps; called 
July 6, '18; A. 52; Fort Ethan Allen; Lieut.; D. Dec. 6, '18. 

112. Russell, John Farrington — E. Mar. 29, '17; A. 18; Camp McGuinness; 





Tracy Ross 



Dorothy Morrill 




Harold K. Davison 





Robert H. Large 



Eric Blank 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 243 

A. E. F., Sept. 17 to Jan. '19; gassed May 31, '18; Co. L, 101st Inf., 26th Div.; D. 
Feb. 12, '19. 

113. Sanborn, Carl R— E. Aug. 14, '18; A. 21; Co. D, 426th Tel. Bn., Sig. Corps; 
Dartmouth, Camp Meade; D. Jan. 15, '19. 

114. Sanborn, Roy E.— E. June 1, '17; A. 22; Camp Devens; A. E. F., Mar. '18 
to May '19; Co. E, 401st Tel. Bn.; D. June 19, '19. 

115. Smith, Fred A.— E. May, '18; A. 30; O. R. C; 2nd Lieut., 60th Engrs.; 
Camp Lee; Fort Benj. Harrison; A. E. F., July '18 to July '19; D. July 30, '19. 

116. Spear, Franklin E., M. D — E. June '18; A. 44; called Nov. 9, '19; 1st Lieut.; 
Med. Corps; Co. 12, 3rd Bn.; Camp Greenleaf; D. Dec. 21, '18. 

117. Squires, Walter Hale, M. D — E. May '18; A. 24; 314 Regt., 79th Div. 
Med. Reserve Corps; Camp Meade; A. E. F., July '18 to May '19; Gen. Hospital 
30 U. S. A. since June '19; 1st Lieut.; Capt. Feb. 24, '19. 

118. Stimson, Erville Rupert— E. Oct. 17, '18; A. 20; S. A. T. C, N. H. State 
College; Co. H, Engrs.; D. Dec. 15, '18. 

119. Stimson, Raymond E — E. Oct. 22, '18; A. 22; Fort Constitution; 2nd Regt., 
C.A. C; D. Dec. 17, '18. 

120. Sullivan, William Thos— I. Sept. 9, '19; A. 28; Camp Devens; A. E. F., 
July '18 to Apr. '19. (Toul sector); Batt. F, 303rd Regt., H. F. A.; 1st Serg..; D. May 
1, '19. 

121. Sutherland, Robert H — E. Oct. 15, '18; A. 20; S. A. T. C, Yale; Chemical 
Warfare Service, Co. E, Chemists and Engrs.; D. Dec. 14, '18. 

122. Swan, Harold W. — E. June 15, '17; A. 22; Fort Oglethorpe; Camps Jackson, 
Sevier, Mills; A. E. F., Aug. '18 to June '19 (St. Die, Meuse-Argonne) ; 322nd Ambu- 
lance Co., 306th San. Train; Sergt. Med. Corps; D. June 27, '19. 

123. Swan, Herbert Ralph — E. June 15, '17; A. 22; Fort Oglethorpe, Camps 
Jackson, Sevier, Mills; A. E. F., Aug. '18 to June '19 (St. Die, Meuse-Argonne); 322nd 
Ambulance Co., 306th San. Tr.; Sergt. Med. Corps; D. June 27, '19. 

124. Sweeney, James M. — E. Nov. '17; A. 24; Forts Slocum and Oglethorpe, 
Camp Merritt; A. E. F., Apr. '18 to Apr. '19 (Ch. Thierry, Verdun); Evacuation Hosp. 
26; Sergt. Med. Corps; D. May, '19. 

125. Thayer, Bernard Allen— E. Apr. 29, '19; A. 31; Co. D, 66th Regt., Trans- 
portation Corps Engrs.; Fort Slocum, Camp Laurel, Md.; June, '18, France; D. 
June, '19. 

126. True, Merle Selwyn — E. May 11, '17; A. 24; 1st Army Band, later Gen. 
Hdqtrs. Band; Musician 1st CI.; Camp Greene; A. E. F., Apr. '18 to June '19 (Bor- 
deaux, Aix-les-Bains, Chaumont); D. June 13, '19. 

127. Walker, Maurice C. — E. May 11, '17; A. 18; Camps Keyes and Bartlett; 
A. E. F., Sept. '17 to Apr '19 (Chemin-des-Dames, Toul, Seicheprey, Ch. Thierry, St. 
Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne); Corporal, Co. E, 103rd Inf., 26th Div.; severely wounded, 
Oct. 27, '18; D. May 22, '19. 

128. Ward, Leon Clinton— E. Sept. 7, '18; A. 27; Camp Devens, 36th Co., 9th 
Bn. 151st Depot Brig.; Clerk, with Registration Board of Grafton County at Woods- 
ville; D. Jan. 7, '19. 

129. Ward, Reymer E. — E. May 31, '17; A. 24; Camps Keyes and McGuinness; 
A. E. F., Sept. '17 to Apr. '19 (Vosges, Ch. Thierry, St. Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne); Field 
Hosp. 104; trf. to Field Hosp. 161; D. Apr. 29, '19. 

130. Wells, Howard A.— E. June ' , '17; A. 21; Co. L, 101st Regt., 26th Div.; 
Camp McGuinness; A. E. F., Sept. '17 to Apr. '19 (Chemin-des-Dames, Toul, Ch. 
Thierry, St. Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne); Corporal; gassed twice; cited for bravery twice; 
D. Apr. 28, '19. 



244 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

131. Wheeler, Joe Horace— E. Aug. 31, '16; Fort Slocum; A. E. F., June '17 to 
Jan. '19; Camp Merritt; Corporal; wounded Oct. 5, '18; Co. B, 26th Inf. Regulars. 

132. Williams, Ralph Stewart— E. Apr. 21, '17; A. 18; 2nd Co. C. A. C. 1st 
N. H. Regt.; trf. Batt. B, 73rd R. R. Artillery; Corporal; D. Dec. 30, '18. 

133. Willoughby, Harold Rideout — E. Aug. 1, '18; A. 28; Sergeant; Camp 
Jackson; Batt. A, 6th Regt.; instructor in dismounted drill; D. Dec. 23, '18. 

134. Wilson, Frank W — E. May 4, '17; A. 21; U. S. Army Balloon School, Fort 
Omaha; 1st Balloon Squadron; retained at Omaha as instructor in Meteorology and 
Aerology being attached to Meteorological Section of U. S. Army; Sergeant; D. Apr. 4, 
'19. 

135. Wood, Arthur Ernest— E. May 24, '17; A. 30; Co B, 14th Ry. Engrs.; 
Sergeant, Camp Rockingham; A. E. F., July '17 to Apr. '19 (Somme, Aisne-Marne); 
D. May 9, '19. 

136. Wright, Freeman Ernest— E. Oct. 22, '18; A. 21; Fort Constitution; 1st 
Truck Co., 60th Ammunition Train; D. Dec. 16, '18. 

137. Young, Maurice Ray— I. Sept. 5, '18; A. 24; 11th Co., trf. to 28th Co., 152nd 
Depot Brig.; Camp Upton; D. Dec. 4, '18. 



CHAPTER XI 



ROADS, BRIDGES AND CANALS 

Roads in the First Place Poor Apologies — Laid Out but Little Done — In 1783 
£100 Was Raised to Repair Highways — In 1807 $800 Was Raised and in 1898 
and 1899 $8,000 — Three Bridges Across the River — For a Long Period 
All Toll, Now All Free — The Last Made Free in 1917 — The River and 
Attempts to Make It Navigable — All Failed — The Railroad — President 
Quincy's Remarks — Connection with the Passumpsic — Great Celebration at 
Woodsville in 1853 — Additions to Road — Land Damages — Has Built Up 
Woodsville. 

The matter of roads was one of the earliest to engage the attention of 
both proprietors and first settlers of Haverhill. The proprietors wished to 
promote the settlement of their town; the settlers who came at first 
through an unbroken wilderness following a trail marked by blazed 
trees, wished to make ingress into the new town easier for those who 
might follow them, and they also wanted to maintain some sort of com- 
munication with the outside world. They could not hope to supply all 
wants and necessities from the forest and the soil; some articles of food 
and drink — and drink was no small item in the living of those days — some 
farm and household tools and utensils must be brought in, and some 
products of forest and soil were expected to go out in exchange. At the 
very first food, as well as tools and utensils, had to be brought in on horse- 
back over the trail, dragged on sleds or sledges over the snow, or hauled 
up the river on the ice in winter from the settlements below. If a minister 
of the gospel was a necessity to make plain the road to heaven, roads to 
Concord, Exeter, Portsmouth and Newburyport were a like necessity. 

At the second meeting of the proprietors held September 26, 1763, it 
was "voted to join with the proprietors of Newbury to look out and clear 
a road through Haverhill," and Col. Jacob Bayley, Capt. John Hazen 
and Lieut. Jacob Kent were made a committee to carry this vote into 
effect. This vote was somewhat indefinite as to the location of the road, 
and it was made more definite by the proprietors a few months later, 
March 27, 1764, when it was "voted to join the proprietors of Newbury to 
make a road through Haverhill so as to meet the road that leads to Ports- 
mouth," and Colonel Bayley, Captain Hazen and John Taplin were made 
"a committe to look out said road, clear and make same soon as may be." 
This "Portsmouth road" was the trail or bridle path leading from the 
Plain (now North Haverhill village), over what has since been known as 

245 



246 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Morse Hill, down near the present Number Six schoolhouse,and thence to 
Coventry line, was subsequently known as "the Coventry road." The 
road which the committee named were to look out and clear was from 
Horse Meadow to the "Plain," and this with "the Coventry road" was 
doubtless the earliest in town. It followed the trail which was used by 
some of Captain Hazen's men when they came up from Hampstead to 
begin settlement in 1762, as it was the nearest route from the southern 
part of the state to the Plain or Oxbow. It is, of course, only by courtesy 
that it could be called a road. For some years it was little more than a 
bridle path. The meagre records of the proprietors indicate, however, 
that something was done, since at a meeting held at Captain Hazen's 
March 30, 1769, it was voted "to allow 4 shillings per day for what work 
has been done on roads, and for what may be done the present year." 
The proprietors early turned over to the town the clearing and making of 
roads, though at a meeting held April 25, 1773, Haverhill having been 
made the county seat, they voted a piece of land 200 rods square for 
court house and jail, opposite the great Oxbow, and made provision for a 
road 2 rods wide and 200 rods long. This does not appear to have been 
built, nor does it appear that their subsequent vote to enlarge the Cov- 
entry bridle path road by "cutting out a road 2 rods wide from the court 
house to Coventry line" was carried into execution. They did, however, 
at this time vote to give to the town the "rode through the town as it is 
now trode," though Asa Porter, Esq., entered his dissent. This was the 
path along which the settlers had built their houses, and was described as 
running "from the Bath south line, southwesterly to Lieut. Hay ward's, 
thence south to north side of Ministerial house [Horse Meadow], thence 
southeasterly to Capt. Hazen's, thence southeasterly a little over Mill 
brook (Poole), thence in a general southwesterly line to Piermont." 
In turning this road over to the town "as now trode," the settlers provided 
that their houses should not be left off the road. From the Bath line to 
Woodsville, it ran as now east of Woodsville — there was no Woodsville — 
and was the original of the present state road through the town. The 
course of the road from Colonel Bedel's on Ladd Street was down the hill 
crossing the Oliverian below the present gristmill, and along the west side 
of Powder House Hill, passing the log cabin where John Page lived and 
thence to the Colonel Johnston house where Jesse R. Squires now lives. 
The change to the present road from the lower end of Ladd Street to the 
Corner was made in 1795. 

In 1765 the General Court at Portsmouth was petitioned to construct at 
the public expense a road from that city to Cohos, and an act was passed 
for such purpose and signed by the governor. The Haverhill portion of 
this road was to be from Coventry Meadows over Morse Hill to "the 
Plain," but the province authorities did little or nothing to carry the act 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 247 

into effect as appears from the petition of John Hurd to the governor in 
1774 to have this road "improved and made safe." 

The first road from the Corner to the country below was that to 
Plymouth known as the Plymouth road. It followed pretty much the 
same course taken later by the Coos turnpike. It ran east to St. Clair 
Hill, thence over the lower part of the hill, bearing thence to the south- 
east, past Lake Tarleton, and over the height-o-land to Warren. This, 
like the others, was at first only a bridle path, but as early as 1772, an ox 
team made its way over this road to Plymouth and return, an event which 
caused excited interest and was regarded as the beginning of convenient, 
not to say rapid, communication with the old homes of the settlers. This 
road and its successor, the Coos turnpike, became the great thoroughfare 
from Haverhill to the towns below. In 1789 what is known as the Oliver- 
ian Brook road leading from the brook on the south side the stream to 
Pike was begun, but it was only opened up as settlements along the 
Oliverian were made. And it was not till about 1820 that settlements of 
any account were made up the stream beyond Pike. 

In 1798 a road was cut out from Greenleaf's Mill at the Brook to the 
Coventry road and intersected with this near where the stone town hall 
was later located, later extended and in part constructed by the county 
it ran up through school districts Number Nine and Number Ten to the 
county line, thence through the north part of that town and the east 
part of Landaff, it became known as the County road from Haverhill to 
Franconia. In the same year a road, such as it was, was cut out from the 
mills on the Fisher farm at the Plain, intersecting with the County road 
near where the Union Meeting House now stands, and later turning at 
at that point to the left became what is known as the Pond road leading 
to the Bath line near Swiftwater village. A road had also been begun 
about this time from the Plain to Brier Hill. Previous, however, to 1800, 
the only roads which might be entitled to the name — and the name would 
hardly be appropriate in places — were the River road, the Coventry 
road over Morse Hill, and the road leading from the Corner over St. 
Clair Hill to Warren and Plymouth. The most important impetus given 
to road building came from the construction of the Coos Turnpike, which 
took the place of the last named road. The charter was obtained Decem- 
ber 29, 1803, and was one of the early charters granted for such roads. 
Three such charters were granted in the closing years of the eighteenth 
century, one in 1800 and another 1802. 

In December, 1803, charters were granted to no less than seven 
turnpike corporations, the Coos being among the number. The incor- 
porators were: Moses Dow, Absalom Peters, Joseph Bliss, David Web- 
ster, Jr., Asa Boynton, Charles Johnston, Alden Sprague, Moody Bedel, 
Col. William Tarleton, John Page and Stephen P. Webster, all with a 



248 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

single exception Haverhill men of enterprise and influence. It was 
completed and opened to public travel in 1808, and for more than a genera- 
tion, by its connection with other turnpikes and roads became the great 
thoroughfare for teams, travel and stages from northern New Hamp- 
shire to the central and southern sections of the state. It became the 
chief factor in making the Corner, during this time, the most important 
village north of Concord. More than anything other, it aroused the 
citizens of the town to the necessity of good roads as essential to pros- 
perity. With the opening of the Coos Turnpike, the town began to com- 
plete the roads already projected, and to build others as its settlement 
eastward from the river demanded. By the middle of the nineteenth 
century the town had become well supplied with roads, and four have 
been laid out and built since then. The accompanying map reproduced 
from a state and town atlas published in 1892 shows with approximate 
accuracy the location of the roads of the town at the present time. 

The methods of constructing roads and keeping them in repair, have 
been crude and uneconomical until recent years, when the problem of good 
roads has come to the front. The policy which has prevailed in Haver- 
hill has been much like that of other New Hampshire towns. 

Highway surveyors were first elected in 1765. These were two, 
Joshua Hayward from the north end of the town — Horse Meadow — 
and James Woodward from the south end — Ladd Street. There is no 
record of the amount raised by taxation for highway construction or 
maintenance. Whatever the highway tax was it was to be paid in 
labor, and that there was a voluntary element entering into it, appears from 
the vote passed at the annual meeting of 1767, "that the surveyors shall 
not call on them that has done the most work, till the others have done 
theair part." It was also voted at this time "that 3s a day shall be the 
standing price for work done on the highway and 2s for ox work." Evi- 
dently there were some who had not done "theair part," since it was fur- 
ther "voted that William Bancroft, Joseph Hutchins and Richard Young 
be a committee to settle with the old surveyors and see howe has 
worked and howe has not." 

The first recorded vote of a definite amount raised for highways was 
that passed at the annual meeting of 1783, when the sum of £100 was 
voted to repair highways to be paid in labor at 4s a day. As but £30 
was raised for town charges, it is probable that road maintenance had been 
much neglected during the War of the Revolution. The amount raised 
for building and maintenance of highways had increased by 1795 to 
£150 to be paid in labor at 3s per day, and the surveyors of highways to 
six. In 1801, the sum of $500 was voted " to mend and repair highways," 
and in addition to this it was voted that $100 be laid out on the road from 
Captain Montgomery's store to Coventry line (the Oliverian Brook road) ; 






HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 249 

$100 on the road from Fisher farm to Coventry line (the Coventry 
road); and $100 on the road running opposite the old court house to 
near Ephraim Wesson's and from thence by James King's to Bath (the 
Brier Hill road). At the same meeting the town refused to consent to 
building the turnpike for which two years later a charter was obtained. 
In 1807, the sum of $800 was raised for highways and bridges, one third 
of which was to be paid in money to be laid out at the discretion of the 
selectmen. In 1820, the appropriation for highways was $800 in labor 
and $200 in money; in 1830, $900 in labor at 8 cents per hour and $300 
in money; in 1840, $1,800 in labor under the direction of no less than 
nineteen highway surveyors; in 1850, $1,500 in labor at 10 cents per hour 
and $1,500 in money, and the number of highway districts had increased 
to twenty-three. Thereafter, the annual appropriation was $1,500 in 
labor, until 1864 when it was raised to $2,000 to be paid in labor at 14 
cents per hour, the number of highway districts remaining the same. 

The highway bridge over the Ammonoosuc between Haverhill and 
Bath was built in 1829, cost $2,400 equally divided between the two 
towns. 

The policy of having a large portion of the tax paid in labor prevailed 
for some years later and the appropriation seldom exceeded $2,000 until 
1888 when $4,000 was appropriated, one-half to be paid in money and 
one-half in labor. In 1889 the appropriation was $3,000, all to be paid 
in money. In 1893, the same sum was raised of which $1,000 was for 
permanent highway repair; in 1894, the amount was $4,500; in 1895, 
$6,000; in 1895 and 1896, the same. In 1897 the sum was reduced to 
$3,000. Unprecedented damage was done to the roads and bridges by a 
summer cloudburst, and at a special town meeting Friday, August 2, the 
sum of $30,000 was voted to be raised by temporary loan for making 
immediate necessary repairs. In making repairs and replacing bridges 
which had been carried away, the selectmen pursued a policy of doing 
thorough work, having regard to permanence instead of affording tem- 
porary relief, and as a result in March, 1898, the auditors reported a town 
debt of $57,116.32, represented by unpaid bills, outstanding orders and 
town notes on which from 4^ to 6 per cent interest was being paid. 
At a special town meeting October 25, 1898, it was voted, 550 to 3, to 
issue bonds to the amount of $57,000 in order to bring the town debt into 
one form of obligation. These were issued, interest at 4 per cent, $3,000 
to be retired annually under the terms of the issue. The bonds were 
sold at a premium, placing the interest charge on nearly a 2>\ per cent 
basis and have now been nearly all retired. 

This disaster had the effect of deepening the interest of the citizens of 
the town in good roads and in 1898 and 1899, the appropriation for high- 
ways was $8,000 each year. This was not all available for highways in 



250 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

the town proper, since in 1881, the village of Woodsville had been made a 
separate district for certain purposes including streets and highways, and 
its proportionate share of all highway money raised, based on valuation, 
was expended by commissioners elected by the district. The policy of 
the town in recent years has been a liberal one in the matter of high- 
way appropriations, and with the adoption by the state of a policy of 
aiding towns in making permanent improvements the town has availed 
itself of this aid on the conditions prescribed by the state. The river 
road from Piermont to Bath line, with a branch from the Cottage Hos- 
pital to Woodsville, has been constructed as a state road, steel bridges 
have in other parts of the town succeeded those constructed of wood, and 
the growing use of automobiles in recent years has led to a policy of mak- 
ing improvements of a more permanent character than formerly, and 
more scientific methods of construction and repair. The voters have not 
only made liberal appropriations for highways, but have insisted on 
knowing where and by whom the money has been expended as the full 
detailed and itemized statement of expenditure in the printed town 
reports since 1879 bear testimony. The town, outside the Woodsville 
district, has in round numbers a hundred miles of highways. They are 
not all what they should be as yet, methods of maintenance are not yet 
perfect, but there is constant improvement, and it is believed that in the 
near future the town will be able to take genuine pride in its highways. 
Many of the interests of the settlers of the two towns of Haverhill and 
Newbury were common, and constant communication between the two 
settlements was a necessity, but the waters of the Connecticut separated 
them. There were few if any places where the river could be forded, and 
ferries came early into existence, remaining the only accommodation for 
public travel across the river during the open summer season for a period 
of upwards of thirty years. Some of these were owned by individuals 
and were operated by permission of the town, and others were chartered 
by the legislature of New Hampshire after the boundary line had been 
determined. The earliest ferry was kept by Richard Chamberlin, and 
after his death by his sons. He had no charter at first, but in 1772 the 
New Hampshire legislature approved his right, and the town of Newbury 
confirmed it the next year and fixed rates of toll. Col. Asa Porter ob- 
tained a ferry charter which gave him exclusive rights between his farm 
and the Newbury bank for three miles both up and down the river. 
This charter was a perpetual one, and became an appurtenance of his 
farm. Er Chamberlin maintained one at the extreme north end of the two 
towns, and obtained a charter for it after some years from the New 
Hampshire legislature. At the southern end of the town, Uriah Stone, 
until his removal down the river to Piermont, carried people across the 
river in 1763 and 1764, and later Moody Bedel maintained a ferry near 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 251 

the present bridge. At a special town meeting held February 9, 1791, 
to consider matters pertaining to ferries, it was "voted to give Moody 
Bedel exclusive right for ferry over Connecticut River near the Mouth 
of Oliverian brook, between meadow land of Ezekiel Ladd and John 
Page and to ask the General Court to give him a charter." It was pro- 
vided in connection with this vote that Bedel give bonds of £300 to the 
town with sufficient sureties that he pay the town £30 lawful money 
with interest within one year," and that he will open and keep in good 
repair, fit for the public use at all times, free from any expense to the town, 
a good road from the main road, leading through the town of Haverhill 
up and down the river, to the place of keeping the ferry, and keep a good 
boat or boats for the accommodation of the public, and keep the same in 
good repair and give due attendance." These votes indicate that ferry 
privileges had become valuable. The meeting also took action relative 
to the upper ferry which had been maintained by Er Chamberlin. It 
appointed Amos Kimball and Joshua Howard a committee to rent the 
ferry, and instructed the selectmen "to lay out a road to the upper 
ferry without being very expensive to the town." The first ferry boats 
were primitive affairs, but later they were made large enough to convey 
loaded wagons drawn by horses or oxen, though smaller ones were kept 
for the accommodation of pedestrians. 

The ferry business was a profitable one, so much so that the question 
of toll bridges begun to be agitated soon after Moody Bedel secured his 
ferry rights. The first bridge across the Connecticut between New 
Hampshire and Vermont was erected at Bellows Falls in 1785, and in 
1797 there were thirteen bridges across the river, the Haverhill and New- 
bury bridge being the thirteenth. Perhaps the number thirteen was un- 
luckj r ! The bridge was erected in 1796, but was gone in 1798. This is 
evident from a letter written by Col. Thos. Johnson to General Chase 
under date of April 19, 1798, seeking aid in the rebuilding of the bridge 
which had been carried off. Some kind of a bridge was constructed this 
year, but it lasted but a few years, since in 1805, the corporation appointed 
a committee to make estimates for building a bridge similar to the 
"Federal bridge" over the Merrimack River at Concord, and to deter- 
mine the best place to build the bridge. The Haverhill Bridge Corpora- 
tion had been chartered at the June session 1795, the members being 
Benjamin Chamberlin, Ezekiel Ladd, Moses Dow, Thomas Johnson, 
William Wallace, John Montgomery and their associates. Their rights 
extended from the extreme point of Little Oxbow to the southwest 
corner of Ezekiel Dow's farm, a short distance above the mouth of the 
Oliverian. The committee appointed in 1805, Charles Johnston, Samuel 
Ladd, Joseph Pierson, John Montgomery, Jeremiah Harris and Asa 
Tenney, reported, to locate the bridge "from land of Phineas Ayer in 



252 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Haverhill to that of Col. Robert Johnston in Newbury, and the bridge 
was built sometime between 1705 and 1709 on the site of the present 
bridge. The bridge built in the new location was not long lived, and 
must have been pretty thoroughly wiped out since it is on record that the 
clerk of the corporation, Ephraim Kingsbury, on April 3, 1822, sold all 
the shares of the bridge to Josiah Little and Asa Tenney at the nominal 
price of one cent a share. In September, 1833, a meeting was held to 
secure stock subscriptions for a new bridge which was built in 1834 the 
cost being approximately $9,200. That this was a good bridge con- 
structed of the best of material is evidenced by its life and service of nearly 
eighty years. It had double drive ways, the only bridge on the river 
thus constructed. In 1895 it was strengthened by means of arches, the 
repairs costing some $2,000. In 1898 the old stock was called in and new 
was issued, ninety-two shares in all and these held by eleven persons. 

In 1906 when it was found that the bridge again needed strengthening, 
the proprietors seemed indisposed to incur the necessary expense. Henry 
W. Keyes of Haverhill purchased all the stock and became in his own per- 
son "Proprietors of Haverhill Bridge." He made a proposition to the 
towns of Haverhill and Newbury that if they would make the necessary 
repairs, which competent engineers had estimated would give the bridge 
a life of twenty years, and maintain a free bridge, he would give the towns 
the structure as it then stood. 

At a special town meeting in Haverhill, July 12, 1906, it was voted to 
unite with the town of Newbury to purchase and repair the bridge be- 
tween Haverhill and Newbury and to make it a free bridge, at an expense 
of not more than $1,500. Like action was taken by Newbury, and the 
offer of Mr. Keyes was accepted. Repairs were made, the toll gate 
abolished, and it was believed that the bridge was good for another 
quarter of a century. It is said of man that his days "are three score 
years and ten, and if by reason of strength they be four score years, yet 
is their strength labor and sorrow." This may likewise be said of Con- 
necticut River bridges. The floods of the spring of 1913, the ice jam of 
the year, had their effect on the aged structure, the towns thought not 
best to repair — and it was decided to erect a new steel structure at once. 
This latter was opened to public travel December 1, 1913. The material 
in the old bridge when taken down was sold at public auction for one 
hundred dollars. 

In the charter granted for the bridge in 1795 rates of toll were fixed 
which remained much the same until the bridge became free. These 
are interesting as indicating modes of transportation, and the character 
of vehicles in use at that time: "For each foot passenger, one cent; for 
each horse and his rider or leader, four cents; for each chaise or carriage 
of pleasure with two wheels and one horse, ten cents; for each sleigh with 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 253 

one horse, four cents; for each sleigh with two horses, eight cents and 
two cents for each additional horse; for each cart or wagon or sled or 
other carriage of burden drawn by one beast, four cents; for the like car- 
riage drawn by two beasts, eight cents; if by more than two, four cents 
for each additional pair of horses or yoke of oxen; for sheep and swine 
one quarter of one cent each; for cattle and horses three quarters of one 
cent each, and to each team one person only shall be allowed to pass free 
of toll." 

A previous charter for a bridge had been granted January 14, 1795, 
to Asa Porter and his associates. This was to be erected a few rods north 
of the present Woodsville and Wells River bridge. The middle pier was 
to be erected on the island or peninsula now known as "No Man's land" 
which was ceded to the corporation. Exclusive rights were granted from 
the south end of Howard's Island to a point two miles above the mouth 
of Ammonoosuc River. By extension of time seven years were allowed 
for the completion of the bridge, but none was erected there. 

The second charter for what for a century was known as the Wells 
River bridge was granted December 27, 1803, to Er Chamberlin, Ezekiel 
Ladd, James Whitelaw, Moses Little, Amos Kimball, William Abbott 
and their associates. They were given the same privileges previously 
granted to Colonel Porter whose charter had lapsed. Chamberlin had 
for thirty years or more maintained a ferry here, and he was given a share 
in the charter to recompense him for the loss of his ferry privileges which 
were to revert to him should the bridge be discontinued. The bridge 
was built in 1805 and the Vermont end was on the ledge of rocks above 
the mouth of Wells River. This was the first of the five Wells River 
bridges. It was an open structure resting upon wooden "horses," but in 
the spring freshet of 1807 it was carried away. The shares of stock sold 
at par in 1806. The rates of toll fixed by the charter were: "For each 
foot passenger, one cent; for a horse and rider, three cents; each chaise 
or two wheeled carriage drawn by one horse, ten cents; one-horse wagon 
or cart drawn by one beast, eight cents; by two beasts, ten cents; each four 
wheeled carriage or coach, twenty-five cents; and two cents for each horse 
more than two; two cents for each animal except sheep and swine, which 
were one cent each." 

Steps were taken at once to rebuild, and at a meeting held July 7 a 
tax of $12.50 was levied on each share for the purpose of rebuilding. This 
amount was insufficient, and at a meeting January 28, 1809, it was voted 
to assess a tax of $24 a share including the $12.50 previously voted. 
Amos Kimball was the moving spirit in the erection of this bridge, and 
of the $1,139 allowed in accounts for building, his bill for materials fur- 
nished and labor performed amounted to $838.50. He was the owner of 
a large farm comprising what were subsequently known as the Eli Evans, 



254 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

the Russell King, the J. P. Kimball and E. S. Kimball farms. He had 
great confidence in the stability of the bridge he had been so instrumental 
in building and offered to insure it against freshets for a term of years 
for a comparatively small sum. His offer was naturally accepted and 
when the bridge went out by a freshet in 1812 the loss fell on Mr. Kimball 
causing him serious financial embarrassment. No effective action was 
taken towards building a new bridge till the spring of 1819. The charter 
was extended by successive acts of the legislature in 1813, 1815 and 1819. 
In the meantime the ferry was revived and conducted by Er Chamberlin 
till 1817 when he sold his rights to John L. Woods. In April, 1819, 
Timothy Shedd, Charles Hale and David Worthen were elected directors, 
and May 15 it was voted to rebuild the bridge and an assessment of $10 
a share was voted to be paid before June 1. A second assessment of 
$15 a share was voted September 27 to be paid before the first of Novem- 
ber. On the 2d of November it was voted to build a toll house and move 
and repair the barn belonging to the corporation, to purchase land, to 
dispose of the old toll house, to contract for filling the trestle work of the 
bridge with stone, and the directors were authorized to proceed with 
building the bridge by contract or otherwise at their discretion. In 
December another assessment of $20 a share was levied. Abraham Gale 
was engaged at 7s. 6d, per day as overseer in building the bridge under 
the direction of the directors, Messrs. Worthen, Hale and Shedd. The 
original members of the corporation seem to have dropped out of the 
management. 

The bridge was completed in the summer of 1820. An additional 
assessment of $20 a share was levied, the entire four amounting to $65, 
or a total of $3,120 which may be set down as the cost of the bridge. It 
was located south of the two former bridges. The toll house then 
erected still stands in the meadow now owned by Ezra B. Mann and 
known for many years as the Sawtell house. The bridge was constructed 
with a roof, and the system of annual passes seems to have been inaug- 
urated with its opening to public travel. Some ten years later the 
matter of repairing or rebuilding the bridge was agitated, but nothing 
was done till 1836, when the bridge was rebuilt for the most part from 
money in the treasury, only $500 being hired for the purpose. This was 
built with stone abutments, stone piers, and with a roof. The main 
span was carried away by a freshet in the spring of 1850, but was immedi- 
ately rebuilt, an assessment of $40 a share being levied for the purpose. 
That the bridge was profitable appears from the fact that it paid a 
dividend of $26 a share the first year. The matter of a free bridge was 
much discussed, and at the same time the matter of dispersing to other 
parties all or a part of the rights and franchises of the corporation. 

The situation was this: The Boston, Concord and Montreal Railroad 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 255 

was completing its tracks to Woodsville and wished to cross the Connecti- 
cut to form a junction with the Passumpsic. The latter corporation did 
not want this junction and was doing all in its power to prevent it. The 
bridge company owned franchises which would be of service to the New 
Hampshire road in accomplishing its purpose of crossing the river. 
Though the toll bridge had been rebuilt but two years previously it was 
of an unsatisfactory character having to be weighted with stone to resist 
the pressure of high water. A new bridge was needed. A free bridge 
was desirable, but there seemed, as there also seemed some fifty years 
later, to be no way of securing it. A contract was, therefore, entered into 
between a committee of the bridge corporation of the one part and a com- 
mittee of the railroad of the other, a contract later ratified by both cor- 
porations, which gave the bridge proprietors a new bridge without any 
expenditure on their part, and the railroad a right of way into Vermont, 
enabling it to form a junction with the Passumpsic at Wells River. The 
railroad agreed to construct for the bridge proprietors a bridge, opposite 
the village of Wells River, with all necessary highways and approaches, 
for the accommodation of public travel, to be for the sole use of the 
proprietors of Wells River bridge for the purposes of a toll bridge. The 
bridge was to be so constructed that if the railroad should wish to run 
their cars and engines over the same, they might do so by constructing 
a track for that purpose on the top or upper chords of the bridge, while 
the lower chords and approaches to the bridge were to remain unen- 
cumbered by such construction and the running of cars. The bridge was 
to be forever kept in repair by the railroad, except the flooring of the high- 
way. The bridge company was to issue to some person or trustee for 
the railroad fifteen capital shares of its corporation stock, to be on a par 
per share with the already existing forty-eight shares of bridge stock. 
The new bridge was completed and opened to travel March 2, 1853. 
Its cost including the approaches and several rods of highway to connect 
with what was the old ferry highway near the present railroad bridge 
across Wells River was about $20,000. The material used in construction 
was of the best. The frame was selected from old growth white pine cut 
in the town of Whitefield, and when taken down in 1903 was still sound 
showing no signs of decay except on the ends of the arches. The bridge 
was what is known as "the Burr truss," and at the time of its construction 
was the only one of its kind and was also the longest single span in the 
United States. The old toll house was sold to Julia Ann Sawtell, and 
the old bridge to the railroad company for $175. 

The bridge was strengthened and thoroughly repaired in 1868, and was 
again strengthened by new arches in 1876, but these latter made the road- 
way too narrow for safety and a new bridge became necessary. It was 
hoped that a free bridge might be secured. The Concord and Montreal 



256 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Railroad had acquired all the shares of stock and franchises of the bridge 
corporation and the legislature of 1903 legalized this acquisition and gave 
the railroad the power to fix rates of toll. It offered on liberal terms to 
construct a highway bridge separate from the railroad bridge, to make it 
free at the outset or open the way for making it a free bridge in the immedi- 
ate future, but its offer was not accepted, and the new steel bridge 
completed and opened to travel in February, 1904, was a double bridge, 
still a toll bridge. The bridge was constructed "a half-hitch Baltimore pin 
truss," and is 239 feet, 2 inches in length from centre to centre of pins. 
The truss is 33 feet high and contains 460 tons of thoroughly tested open 
hearth steel. The posts are 2| feet square and 37 feet in length. The 
four large pins in the posts are 8^ inches in diameter, and the other 
pins in the truss 6| inches. The bridge is one of the finest in New 
England. There had been talk for years of securing free transporta- 
tion between the villages of Woodsville and Wells River, but in the 
absence of a proffer of state aid, it has been only talk. With the 
matter of state aid for the building a bridge at Portsmouth, it was 
felt that it was only proper to ask the state for aid, and at the annual 
meetings in 1916 in the two towns of Haverhill and Newbury, action was 
taken in Haverhill on the following article which was passed without 
dissent: "To see if the town will vote to authorize the selectmen to 
contract with the selectmen of the town of Newbury in the state of Ver- 
mont to build a free bridge across the Connecticut River between the 
village of Wells River in said Newbury and Woodsville in the town of 
Haverhill, at an expense in proportion to the valuation of the respective 
towns, and to make all necessary agreement relating thereto." Newbury 
adopted a like resolution, and later obtained from Vermont the sum of 
$8,000 and $500 from the town of Ryegate. New Hampshire obtained 
$8,000 voted by the legislature of the state and also the sum of $2,000 
appropriated by the county commissioners. 

In the erection of this bridge, a beautiful and most modern structure, 
the two towns have made a record, having abolished or freed more toll 
bridges during the past six years than any other two towns from 
Canada to Massachusetts. The masonry consists of two abutments 
and two piers. The foundations for the piers are about twenty-five 
feet below water level. For these piers coffer dams were built and nec- 
essary excavation was made, and everything cleared off from the bed of 
the river to the ledge foundations. The bridge is what is known as a 
riveted Warren Deck Truss consisting of three spans with a total length 
of about two hundred and sixty feet. The floor of the bridge is of rein- 
forced concrete seven inches thick with a wearing surface of tar and 
asphalt two inches thick, giving a roadway of twenty-four feet in 
the clear between curbs and a six foot sidewalk. The railing of 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 257 

the bridge, while artistic in design, is substantial in structure being 
built of seven-eighths vertical rods, spaced six inches on centres, being 
capped with a three inch diameter pipe. There are electric lights on 
both sides of the bridge, and over each of the piers. The capacity of 
the bridge is equal to almost any loads that could possibly be brought 
upon it, being designed for the heaviest trucks or road rollers. This 
means that there could be two lines of twelve ton trucks closely follow- 
ing each other, and extending the full length of the bridge. 

On October 15, 1917, the new free bridge was opened in the presence of 
the Governors of New Hampshire and Vermont and more than 5,000 
people. The day of opening was a perfect one. Promptly at 1.30 o'clock 
there were two processions starting for the bridge; one from Rowden's 
block in Woodsville, and the other from Hale's Tavern in Wells River. 
The line of march from Rowden's block was made up of Major Ray- 
mond U. Smith, grand marshal; Gov. Henry W. Keyes; the bridge 
engineer, John Storrs of Concord; A. H. Kittredge, secretary of the 
United Construction Company of Albany, N. Y. ; the Grafton County 
commissioners; members of the Woodsville Board of Trade; Camp 
Fire Girls; citizens of Woodsville and surrounding towns, and the 
pupils of the Woodsville schools. The line of march from Hale's 
Tavern was made up as follows: Raymond E. Farwell, marshal; 
color bearer, John Martin; members of the Boy Scouts; Horace F. 
Graham, governor of Vermont; members of the Vermont Bridge com- 
mission; selectmen of Newbury; trustees of the village of Wells River; 
members of the Red Cross First Aid Class; Colonel Preston, Relief 
Corps; citizens of Wells River; the pupils of the Wells River schools. 
The two processions met in the middle of the bridge and the exercises 
began with speeches by the governors and others. Governor Keyes 
gave a brief sketch concerning the toll bridges which have been built 
between the two towns, this being the seventh between Woodsville and 
Wells River, and went somewhat into detail over the controversy 
which existed when the Boston, Concord and Montreal road extended 
its line into Vermont. Governor Keyes had much to do with securing 
free bridges. Governor Graham dwelt on the historical events which 
had taken place, and suggested that the bridge be called Rangers 
bridge. Not less than 4,000 people were on the bridge, giving it a 
test which will stand through coming years. The approximate cost 
of the bridge was $65,000. The opening of this bridge means a closer 
relation between the villages of Woodsville and Wells River, and as 
time goes on will do more to unite their social and business interests 
than any one thing in the history of the towns. 

The charter for the bridge between Haverhill and South Newbury, 
to be built within the limits of Bedel's ferry, was granted by the New 

18 



258 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Hampshire legislature to Moody Bedel and others, June 16, 1802. Of 
the one hundred shares of stock Moody Bedel held thirty-five, and 
Capt. William Trotter of Bradford, Vt., fifteen. The first meeting of 
the stockholders was held May 9, 1805, at the house of Asa Boynton, 
innholder in Haverhill. General Bedell conveyed his ferry rights to the 
new corporation for the sum of $900. The first bridge, an open one 
resting on wooden piers, was built that same year by Avery Sanders for 
a contract price of $2,700. Just when this bridge was carried away is 
uncertain, but at a meeting held September 4, 1821, steps were taken 
to rebuild the bridge which had been partially destroyed. The cost of 
rebuilding was a little less than $2,600. This bridge stood till February, 
1841, when it was again carried away. The ferry came into use again 
till 1851 when an open bridge supported by wooden piers was con- 
structed which lasted till the spring of 1862 when it was carried away by 
the high water resulting from the unprecedented depth of the winter's 
snow. The next year a covered bridge was constructed. It was of 
light construction, and was strengthened by arches in 1865 which made 
the roadway narrow and unsafe. This bridge was demolished by a gale 
in 1866, and was replaced the same year by the present structure. It 
has been known for more than a century as Bedell's bridge. 

The fourth toll bridge between Haverhill and Newbury was never 
built. A charter was granted in 1809 to Asa Porter and others of 
Haverhill and to Asa Tenney, and others of Newbury, for a bridge 
between Horse Meadow and the Oxbow in Newbury at some place 
between half a mile above and half a mile below Col. Asa Porter's ferry. 
The proprietors were to build a road "from Colonel Porter's house to 
the main road in Haverhill." The bridge and road were never built. 

The Connecticut River was early utilized for transportation purposes. 
In the early settlement of the town many heavy manufactured articles, 
including some of the machinery for the first mills, were hauled up the 
river on the ice, and rafts were early used to convey lumber and some 
agricultural products to the markets below during the open season. 
Large quantities of sawed lumber were sent down the river each season, 
after a series of locks and canals had been constructed at White River, 
Quechee, Bellows Falls, Millers Falls and South Hadley and the lumber 
industry in Haverhill and vicinity became an important and profitable 
one. These rafts of lumber were sent from Kimball's landing in Haver- 
hill, situated on the east bank of the river near the present Cottage Hos- 
pital, the hospital being on the site of the tavern, known in later years 
as the Cobleigh Tavern, a part of which still remains as a portion of the 
hospital building. Boats were also used to carry to tide water, the prod- 
ucts of the soil, and to bring back all kinds of merchandise. During the 
spring and fall seasons when the water in the river was of mean depth, 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 259 

the trade between Wells River, Vt., the head of navigation, and Hart- 
ford, Conn., was considerable. The navigation was carried on in boats, 
from 60 to 64 feet in length, with an average width of 9 or 10 feet. Their 
draft of water was from 20 to 24 inches, with full freight weighing on the 
average 16 tons. This amount could be transported in one boat, when 
the river was between flood and low water at what is called boat pitch. 
Such pitch continued from six to eight weeks in the spring and from four 
to six weeks in the fall. The time required to descend the river from 
Wells River to tide water was ten days, and to return twenty days, and, 
not more than two or at the most three trips could be made from Wells 
River to Hartford and return in any one year. The customary charge 
for freight down the river was $10 per ton and from Hartford up $20 per 
ton. This was much lower than the cost of transportation of merchan- 
dise by land from Haverhill and Newbury to Boston which was upwards 
of $20 per ton each way throughout the year. 

It was but natural that schemes for cheaper transportation were 
devised and promoted. That which was of chief interest to Haverhill 
and its sister town Newbury involved the improvement of navigation on 
the river, by utilizing its waters in connection with canal construction. 
To promote such improvement the Connecticut River Company was 
organized in the latter part of 1824. In February, 1825, four of the 
officers of this company participated in a convention held at Windsor, 
Vt., which was attended by more than two hundred delegates from various 
towns in the Connecticut Valley. This convention was in session for two 
days and after passing resolutions and appointing various committees, 
unanimously adopted and forwarded to Congress a memorial requesting 
aid from the general government towards improving navigation in the 
Connecticut Valley. 

In order to ascertain the cost of carrying into execution a river and 
canal plan, the River Company entered into negotiations with the pro- 
prietors of the various locks and canals on the river, and provided for a 
detailed survey of the river to see what other locks and canals would be 
needed, and to find as near as might be the total cost of the improvements. 
It was found that the shares of the companies owning the then existing 
locks and canals could be purchased for the sum of $368,000. The 
Federal government, through the War Department, provided for a sur- 
vey of a route for a canal from the river at Barnet to Lake Memphrema- 
gog, and also to make a survey of the river from Connecticut Lake to 
Long Island Sound. It was found that the government surveyor would 
not be able to make both surveys in a single season, and the River Com- 
pany secured the services of Holmes Hutchinson, an experienced engineer 
who had been connected with the construction of the Erie canal, to make 
a survey of the river from Barnet to Hartford to ascertain the practica- 



260 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

bility of making the river navigable by using in connection with it locks 
and canals. This survey was made in the summer and fall of 1825, was 
thorough and comprehensive and, as published in 1826, is a most interest- 
ing and valuable document. Mr. Hutchinson's summary after giving his 
detailed statement of the cost of improving the nineteen sections into 
which he divided the river for estimation of needed improvements and 
cost of same was as follows: 

The whole distance from Barnet to Hartford in the course of the proposed water com- 
munication is 219 miles, of which 17 miles would be canal and 202 miles slack water 
navigation in the river. The number of locks proposed is 41 to overcome 420 feet of 
descent, and the total estimatal cost is $1,071,827.91. 

All the works have been planned to afford a connected navigation of four feet depth at 
low water; and with reasonable repairs, will, it is believed, admit the use of boats draw- 
ing three feet of water through the summer. The difficulties of making a canal from 
Barnet to Hartford would be great; and I think the improvement of the river decidedly 
the most judicious, considering the relative expense and utility, and the extent of country 
to be accommodated. 

The board of directors of the River Company adopted the opinions of 
Mr. Hutchinson, but were met with obstacles at the outset. The capi- 
tal stock of the company authorized by the charter, granted by the 
legislature of Vermont, was manifestly insufficient for the undertaking, 
which with the purchase of the rights of the existing lock and canal 
companies would require, at least, a capital of $1,500,000, and the orig- 
inal charter had to be amended. This occasioned delay. Then, sub- 
scriptions for stock could not be opened, until the Vermont act had 
received the assent of the states of New Hampshire and Connecticut 
nor could the company be organized until subscriptions should amount 
to at least $500,000. All this tended to cause delay. 

Then came the question of power, whether steam or horses, and the 
board inclined to the use of steam, though this necessitated the construc- 
tion of the canals ten feet wider than those which had beeen constructed 
in the state of New York. It was concluded that steamboats with a 
draft of three feet of water would possess sufficient power to safely navi- 
gate the river and pass with convenience all the requisite canals. 

Still again came the question of railroad construction. These had 

recently been constructed in Great Britain, and the discussion of the 

expediency and practicability of railroads in which President Alfred Smith 

of the River Company indulged makes at the present day decidedly 

interesting reading. He said, quoting from his published report: 

As to the saving of expense in the first outlay, railroads require less land than canals, 
•and no water, and the savings in those particulars amount in Great Britain, to a large 
sum. The land necessary for a railway in this valley would, on the contrary, cost 
much more than that which is necessary for improving the river. Iron, an article of 
the first consequence in railways, is dearer in this country than in Great Britain. 
Frosts in New England are much more severe than in that country, which would 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 261 

occasion an increased expense by requiring the supports of the rails to be longer and to 
be sunk deeper. 

President Smith discussed at length the comparative merits of a rail- 
road, or the improvement of the river, as furnishing transportation 
facilities for Haverhill, Newbury and the other towns in the Connecticut 
Valley, citing the various experiments which had been made in Great 
Britain and finally pronounced what he doubtless believed to be a sound 
verdict, he said: 

It appears to be a safe conclusion that a power moving a boat with a speed of four miles 
an hour will produce an effect at least equal to that which will be produced by the same 
power on a railroad. And it is only when the quantity or value of property to be trans- 
ported is very great, that a velocity exceeding four miles an hour will become important, 
and were the question here, as in England, between a railway, which would cost $16,000 
a mile, and a canal which would cost double or treble that sum, we think the subject of a 
railway may be safely dismissed from consideration ; inasmuch as the cost of the proposed 
improvement of the navigation is estimated at less than half the stated average expense 
of railways; as the navigation by steamboats with a velocity of four miles an hour is 
equal to the wants of this section of country, and may be maintained on the river with 
no greater power than that required on a railway. 

The entire programme for the improvement of the river was not carried 
out, but enough was done so that navigation was carried on to a certain 
extent. A steamboat, the Barnet, built in New York in 1826, had got 
up as far as Bellows Falls. In 1830, the John Ledyard was taken up the 
river by the aid of the locks then constructed as far as Wells River, and an 
attempt was made to steam up through the Narrows to Barnet. It 
grounded on a bar just above the Narrows, and the man-power furnished 
by a gang of rivermen was insufficient to pull it further. It went back 
down the river and never returned. 

In the autumn of 1830 the Connecticut River Valley Steamboat Com- 
pany was organized, and stock was issued for building five boats which 
were to ply the river in sections without attempting to pass through the 
locks and canals which had been constructed. The Adam Duncan was 
built at Wells River, at a cost of nearly $5,000, to ply between that point 
and Olcott Falls. The boat would be a curiosity today. It was about 
60 feet in length with a breadth of beams of 12 feet and had a draught of 
22 inches of water. It had four boilers each 15 feet in length by 1 foot in 
diameter. Horace Duncan of Lyman was captain, and Hiram Wells, 
pilot. The career of the boat was brief. On its second trip, July 4, 1831, 
to take a party of excursionists from Wells River to Hanover, the con- 
necting pipe between the boilers burst, letting the steam and water escape. 
This created a panic, but no one was injured, except a Dr. Dean of Bath, 
who in his excitement jumped overboard and was drowned. The Adam 
Duncan went out of commission. It was taken to Olcott Falls and dis- 
mantled. Steamboat navigation on the Connecticut, between that 



262 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

point and Wells River, was abandoned. The Connecticut River Valley 
Steamboat Company had also a brief career. It was not popular in the 
more important towns on the river. Haverhill — and Haverhill was then 
Haverhill Corner — gave it no encouragement. It threatened the turn- 
pike and stage routes; and there were obstacles in the way of success, 
found in high freight rates and uncertain service. Assessments were in 
order, and state assessments usually mark the beginning of the end of 
any corporation. A specimen receipt reads: 

Connecticut River Valley Steamboat Company 
This certifies that the assessment of four dollars per share has been paid by John & 
Joseph Patterson on Shares Nos. 1197 & 1198 of the Capital Stock of Said Company, 
agreeably to a vote of Directors, passed February 9, 1832, at Brattleborough, Vermont. 

Frederick Pettis, Treasurer. 
$8.00. 
Windsor, Vt., May 12, 1832. 

The company failed in 1832. Assessments even when paid, did not 
save it. The canals and locks which had been constructed at large 
expense around the various falls continued to be used for rafts of lumber 
from Haverhill and for steamboats below Turners Falls. At the present 
time the Enfield canal, and the canal at Holyoke are utilized in furnishing 
power for manufacturing and the same is true of the canal at Bellows 
Falls. 

There had been other waterways planned previous to the Connecticut 
River scheme. Better connection was desired with the Boston market. 
A canal was proposed from the Pemigewasset River in Wentworth to 
Haverhill, the channel of that river and Baker's river to be improved to 
that point. The route of the canal, as surveyed by John McDuffee in 
1825, would have been practically that later followed by the railroad. 
But the lack of water made this plan impracticable. There was also a 
strong opposition in some quarters to any river navigation whatever. 
This was especially the case in Haverhill. 

The merchants of Haverhill Corner, which eighty years ago was the most important 
place in the north country, were not in favor of river navigation, their interest lying in 
the Coos turnpike, which was largely built by Haverhill capital, and which in its turn 
built up Haverhill Corner. This turnpike which went out through Court Street and 
passed between the Tarleton lakes in Piermont to Warren was then the most travelled 
road in all this region. There was a tavern every two miles, and often 200 teams passed 
over it in a day. One may now travel for miles along that road without meeting a team, 
and what was then a prosperous community, east of Tarleton lake, has not now a soli- 
tary inhabitant. 1 

Haverhill Corner opposed river and canal navigation and transporta- 
tion, but later was enthusiastically in favor of railroad construction. It 
duly recognized what had been done for its prosperity by the Coos turn- 

1 F. P. Wells' History of Newbury, p. 303. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 263 

pike, and it expected greater things from the railroad. Railroad construc- 
tion did indeed have large influence in promoting the prosperity of Haver- 
hill, though not to the section anticipated so fondly by the leading 
citizens of the Corner. 

The Boston, Concord and Montreal Railroad was incorporated by the 
legislature December 27, 1844. Among the incorporators were John 
Page and John McClary of Haverhill. No town was more deeply inter- 
ested in the road than Haverhill which was expected to be its northern 
terminus, an interest all the more felt since the exact location of this ter- 
minus remained for some time unsettled after the granting of the charter. 
Section 2 of the act of incorporation read, "beginning at any point on the 
westerly bank of the Connecticut River opposite Haverhill or Littleton 
in this state, or any town on said river between the towns aforesaid thence 
passing in the direction of the Oliverian route, so-called to Plymouth," 
etc. The return of the survey of the route by William P. Crocker, civil 
engineer, was made August 1, 1845. The northern terminus of the 
survey was at the whetstone factory in Haverhill (now Pike), a distance 
from Concord of eighty-one miles. The engineer said: "The course of 
the line from this point will depend upon what shall finally be decided 
upon as the crossing place into Vermont. The line may be continued 
down the Oliverian, upon either side of the stream, as shall best accommo- 
date the farther extension of the road. The distance from this point to 
the village of Haverhill is about three miles." It was doubtless at first 
expected that the road would cross the Connecticut near the mouth of 
the Oliverian and that a junction would be made with the Passumpsic, 
but difficulties in the way of grade, and dangers from freshets and high 
water on the meadows, led to an abandonment of this plan, much to the 
disappointment of the citizens of Haverhill Corner whose fears of the 
results have been realized. Subsequent events, including the construc- 
tion of the White Mountain and the Montpelier and Wells River roads 
have vindicated the wisdom of the decision which made Woodsville the 
terminus. 

As evidencing the optimism of the promoters of the road, some abtracts 
from the statistical report made by the directors in July, 1845, give an idea 
of the amount of business which these promoters expected in order to 
make the road profitable to the stockholders. They stated that the total 
number of passengers annually over the Grafton Turnpike, and the Bris- 
tol, Sanbornton, Meredith, Sandwich, Moultonborough, Eaton, Conway 
and other small roads was 34, 350, and most of these would be diverted from 
the stage routes to the railroad. The 4,600 passengers over the Grafton 
Turnpike would take the road at Haverhill. The promoters believed that 
mountain travel would add something to the income. They said: 
"The White Mountains, Franconia Notch, Red Hill and Center Harbor, 



264 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

and the variety of natural scenery which this section of our state presents, 
it is well known, have become objects of great attraction and are visited 
by thousands of people from all parts of our country. Railroad facilities 
into these mountain regions would undoubtedly increase very much this 
kind of travel — many suppose it would double in a single year." Then 
they proceed to map out an ideal excursion. "It would be difficult to 
imagine a more beautifully, romantic excursion than this would afford, 
leaving the railroad at the head of the lake, Meredith Village, passing to 
Centre Harbor, which is a place of great resort, being in the vicinity of Red 
Hill, thence passing up the southeast side of the White Mountains 
through the Notch to the Hotels upon the west side. Then visiting the 
Franconia Notch, the Flume, the Old Man of the Mountain, and passing 
out striking the railroad again at Plymouth ; or passing down the Ammo- 
noosuc into the Valley of the Connecticut at Haverhill. The quantity of 
this mountain travel is not easily estimated, but from the present amount, 
it may be set down as no inconsiderable item in the business of the rail- 
road." In the light of present day summer travel this outlook into the 
future was certainly modest. 

But the promoters of the road expected great things in the way of 
Haverhill business. "Haverhill Lime. This article of universal con- 
sumption is found at Haverhill, contiguous to the track of the railroad 
(some two miles distant). According to Dr. Jackson's Geological report, 
of superior quality, better than the best of Thomaston, and as inexhaust- 
ible as the mountains of which it is composed. Lime is produced here 
to a limited extent, being carried off for the surrounding country, some of 
it as far down as Holderness. There is no doubt that lime will be fur- 
nished for our entire consumption as far down as Nashua, if it would not 
compete successfully for the Lowell and Boston markets; and this item 
alone will furnish many thousands of tons annually. ... Of the 
lime of Haverhill Dr. Jackson says: 'This bed of limestone is of incal- 
culable importance to the people of New Hampshire, and will save an 
immense sum from expenditure for foreign lime.'" The optimism of 
these statistics has not been justified by subsequent events. The rail- 
road has not by way of transportation made inroads on this deposit. 
The limekilns at the base of Black Mountain have fallen into decay, and 
Haverhill is as rich as ever in limestone deposits. 

The railroad promoters also counted on making Haverhill the seat of 
an iron industry. The iron ore of Piermont was within a mile and a half 
of the line of road as surveyed. Quoting from Dr. Jackson: "The 
Piermont iron mine is favorably situated for advantageous operations in 
the manufacture of iron. The ore is abundant and the mine will need no 
artificial drainage. Water power is close at hand and is unoccupied at 
present. Charcoal may be had in any desired quantity, for three or four 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 265 

dollars per 100 bushels. Stone, proper for the construction of blast 
furnaces, is found in the immediate vicinity." The furnaces have never 
been erected. Iron and lime have been transported in, not out. Strange 
that in this outlook for business, the whetstone factory at the end of the 
survey was overlooked, as were also the cattle, swine and sheep then 
driven to market, but later filling long heavily loaded cattle trains. 

The difficulties in the way of the construction of the road were great, 
and would have seemed insurmountable to men less determined than its 
promoters, and less energetic than the president of the Corporation, 
Josiah Quincy, whose indomitable zeal and self-sacrificing devotion to the 
task which he unwillingly accepted won at last merited success. 

Some of these obstacles were detailed in a paper written by Mr. Quincy 
in 1873 for perusal by his children. His story was an interesting one. 
A part of this paper is here presented : 

Our plan was to connect with the Passumpsic Road at Wells River, and by that road 
with the Grand Trunk in Canada. The gentlemen who represented the Passumpsic 
interest gave us the strongest assurances of their co-operation, cautioned us against being 
carried away by side issues, and begged us to reject at once all applications to deviate 
from the general course proposed. 

At the time our road was chartered, a charter was granted to the Cheshire and to the 
Northern roads. It was then understood that the Cheshire was to connect with the 
Rutland, the Northern with the Vermont Central, and the territory through which they 
respectively passed was assigned to them, while the territory through which the upper 
part of the Passumpsic and Connecticut River lies was assigned to us. A scheme was, 
however, privately formed to defeat the building of our road, and to have the Passump- 
sic connect with the Northern about forty miles down the Connecticut River. I 
received notice that a ( committee of the Passumpsic road were in Boston attempting to 
carry such a scheme into effect. I immediately went to Boston, where I 'found the com- 
mittee and was informed by them that the Northern had offered to subscribe five hundred 
thousand dollars to their stock, on condition that they should leave us and join them. 
This was entirely out of the question as we could not secure subscriptions to stock to 
build our own road. They made the threatened arrangement, thus abandoning us 
entirely, and informed us that the promised subscription had been made. This sub- 
scription we afterward proved before the railroad committee of the Legislature was a 
bogus one. There were but few subscribers, some of whom took $50,000 apiece, and all 
lent their names with the understanding and agreement that they were not to take a 
single dollar of the stock subscribed for. The Concord Road, also, which we supposed 
would be greatly benefited by the building of our road, turned a cold shoulder to us, and 
exerted its influence, which was then great against us. Its principal managers sneeringly 
said we could "not get stock enough to operate a wheelbarrow." Wherever our agents 
went in Boston to procure subscriptions, they were preceded or followed by parties in 
the interest of the Passumpsic and Northern roads, who insisted upon our inability to 
accomplish anything, and who declared that every cent of money paid us would be lost. 
The struggle was so hard and our prospects were so discouraging, that at one time we 
accepted a proposition from the Northern directors to the effect that they should furnish 
us sufficient subscriptions to our stock to build our road to the present Laconia, which 
should be our terminus; and that our road from Concord to Sanbornton should be trans- 
ferred to them. The bargain was to be ratified in Boston, but upon our proceeding 
thither for this purpose, they peremptorily withdrew from it. Mr. Addison Gilmore 



266 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

(who was at that time a kind of railroad king) having assured them that if they should 
let us alone, we must fail and that we could not complete a single mile without their 
assistance. 

By incessant labor and with wearing effort we at length graded our road to Sanborn- 
ton, when a new and utterly unsuspected difficulty assailed us. Our agent made an 
agreement with a Boston firm for the iron required, stipulating that the order and pat- 
tern should be sent to England by the next steamer which was to sail in one or two days. 
When too late, I learned that the vessel had sailed without the order, and upon asking 
the cause, was told that after our agent had left the city, certain gentlemen connected 
with the Passumpsic and Northern roads had assured the firm that we could not pay for 
the iron, that our pattern would be unsalable, and that consequently it would be a dead 
loss. I immediately cancelled the bargain, and dispatched an agent to England, who 
bought the iron of the very house from which it was to have been obtained by the Boston 
parties, and thus saved in commissions about twenty thousand dollars. 

After our road was opened to Sanbornton, two lines of stages from the north connected 
with it. We had the sympathy of the people through that section and northern Vermont, 
and not only were the stages filled to their utmost capacity, but, at times, all the car- 
riages which could be obtained were pressed into the service. The Northern put on an 
opposition line from Plymouth to their road but obtained little patronage. The North- 
ern built a branch road to Bristol for the purpose of heading us off, but without success. 
A great effort was also made to stop us at Laconia. Just before the annual meeting when 
the subject of extension was to be considered, Mr. French, who was then our treasurer, 
was induced to issue a circular purporting to give the condition of our affairs, and pro- 
fessing to show that we could not proceed further. In this were statements absolutely 
false. I immediately went to Concord, took the books from Mr. French, appointed Mr. 
George Minot treasurer, and issued another circular stating the facts. At the meeting it 
was voted to go on, and the utmost efforts continued to be made to promote success. . . . 

We struggled on, but could not get sufficient stock taken and were obliged to borrow 
money. This could not be raised simply on the Corporation notes, and some of the 
directors were obliged to indorse them. Times were hard and we had to pay large sums 
to keep our floating debt along. ... It was a gloomy time for us. Our difficulties 
increased instead of diminishing, and at length became insurmountable. I was holden 
as endorser for large sums and finally I advised the directors to stop payment and put 
the road into the hands of trustees to secure the endorsers. This was done, strenuous 
efforts were made to sell the bonds, a thorough investigation was made into the affairs 
of the corporation and every debt was paid. 

This statement of President Quincy gives some idea of the almost 
insuperable obstacles which met the directors of the corporation in the 
construction of the road. At the annual meeting in 1850 the directors 
reported the road as open to Plymouth, and in 1851 it was open to Warren, 
and work was proceeding on the unfinished section to the north. The 
location of the road in Haverhill was not fully decided until the summer 
of 1851. The Passumpsic owners were anxious that whatever junction 
was made with this road should be at Newbury instead of Wells River, 
and the people at Haverhill Corner also hoped that this would be the 
plan finally adopted. In their annual report in May, 1852, the directors 
say: 

During the last summer, negotiations were entered into between this Corporation 
and the Connecticut and Passumpsic Rivers Railroad, for a connection of the two roads, 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 267 

but that company was extremely desirous it should be made at Newbury instead of 
Wells River, and made proposals in accordance with that wish. Such propositions 
could not, of course, receive other than the most attentive consideration of this board; 
and three lines were surveyed into Newbury, with a view to determine its practicability. 
The result was that considering the progress that had been made above the point of 
divergence between the lines to Newbury and Wells River, there would have been no 
saving of expense, and it would have been attended with the permanent disadvantage of 
a grade of nearly seventy five feet to get down to the line of the Passumpsic track, as well 
as danger from freshets to the road and bridge in crossing the intervale lands at New- 
bury. Under this aspect of the case as presented in the engineers report, this Board con- 
sidered a connection there as substantially impracticable, and declined the proposition. 

The road was opened to East Haverhill in the fall of 1852, and in May, 
1853, to Woodsville. The Passumpsic railroad having failed to force a 
junction of the Boston, Concord and Montreal at Newbury, were deter- 
mined to prevent a junction, if possible, at Wells River. The White 
Mountain Road was approaching completion. If the Boston, Concord 
and Montreal was halted at Newbury, the White Mountain would be 
obliged to take all its mountain passenger travel from the Passumpsic at 
Wells River, or at the New Hampshire line. The Passumpsic proposed 
to control the mountain travel. It laid out a spur track from its main 
tracks to the prospective bridge across the Connecticut, in order to reach 
the White Mountain Railroad, but not proposing to have any connection 
with the Boston, Concord and Montreal. The latter could not extend 
its road into Vermont without a charter from that state, and with the 
president of the Passumpsic corporation holding the office at the same 
time of Governor of Vermont, this charter could not be obtained. The 
Passumpsic, on the other hand, could not build a bridge across the river 
without a New Hampshire charter, and this it could not obtain. On the 
advice of counsel the Boston, Concord and Montreal purchased land on 
the Vermont side of the river for bridge abutments, acquiring title to some 
eight acres of land extending to the Passumpsic right of way. The 
Passumpsic then undertook, by way of injunction, to prevent the build- 
ing of a bridge abutment on the land purchased by the rival road, and 
failing in this tried to confiscate the land to the state on the ground that a 
foreign corporation could not hold land in Vermont, but the courts held 
that such corporation could so hold. Resort was then had to physical 
force. The Boston, Concord and Montreal began to grade for tracks on 
its land, and the Passumpsic sent a small army by night to destroy the 
work done. The Boston, Concord and Montreal did this work over 
again, removing obstructions made by their rivals and for some days 
exciting, though bloodless warfare followed. In the end the New Hamp- 
shire Corporation won out, and its tracks were permanently laid on the 
Vermont side of the river. There was a great celebration at Woodsville 
in May, 1853, when the road was opened to that point and the junction 



268 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

with the Passumpsic was completed, though trains did not begin to run 
regularly till August. The rivalry between the roads was continued for 
some time, and the weapon of cut rates was brought into use. The Bos- 
ton, Concord and Montreal during the summer of 1853, and perhaps later 
also, ran a stage from Newbury to Haverhill depot, and gave passenger 
service from Newbury to Concord and other points between Concord 
and Boston at less rates than were charged by the Passumpsic over its 
line to the same places. This was somewhat unprofitable, and the 
bitter railroad fight was soon ended. 

For three or four years previous to granting the charter to the Boston, 
Concord and Montreal there had been strong opposition to such grant to 
any railroad, and the dominant democratic party was divided into two 
factions, the one led by Isaac Hill being an anti-railroad faction. It 
especially opposed permitting railroads to secure right of way by right of 
eminent domain, but insisted that such right should be acquired only by 
purchase from individual owners of land. Finally by act of June, 1844, 
all railroad corporations were declared to be public corporations, and a 
board of railroad commissioners was created with power to determine 
routes and assess damages for right of way where agreement was not 
had between corporations and individual owners. The damages awarded 
Haverhill land owners by the railroad commissioners for right of way 
amounted to $4,643.73 of which $1,100 or nearly one-fourth was awarded 
to Windsor S. Cobleigh, owner of the property now owned and occupied 
by the Cottage Hospital. It happened that Mr. Cobleigh had but a 
little before erected new buildings that had to be removed or destroyed. 

The line of the road extended for about sixteen miles in Haverhill, and 
stations were established at Woodsville, North Haverhill, Haverhill, 
Pike Station, East Haverhill and later at Horse Meadow, between Woods- 
ville and North Haverhill. 

As has been noted the progress in construction was slow, largely due to 
the difficulty experienced in raising the necessary funds. When the 
construction account closed in May, 1856, it footed up $2,580,134.78, 
and $282,288.33 had been expended for equipment. The liabilities were 
$850,000 in bonds, a floating debt of $239,743.82, $800,000 of preferred, 
$541,000 of new, and $421,700 of old stock. The income for the year 
ending April 30, 1856, was $286,949.83, and the operating expense 
$163,378.67, a net income of $123,949.83. But the tide of liabilities con- 
stantly increased, and in January, 1857, the property was assigned to 
trustees, and a committee was appointed to devise some means for pro- 
viding for the floating debt and the maturing bonds. The committee 
were measurably successful and in 1860 the management reverted to the 
directors. 

In 1860 John E. Lyon of Boston, who had become interested in the 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 269 

road, succeeded Josiah Quincy as president of the board of directors. 
From that time until his death in April, 1877, he was the controlling 
spirit of the road. He foresaw the possibilities of the road as an avenue 
to the mountain region, and he had the strength to grasp them. He had 
large resources and he devoted them all to the support and extension of 
the road; and step by step, in spite of great obstacles, he carried the road 
through the wilderness and over the steeps to Groveton and Fabyan's. 

The White Mountain Road was chartered in 1848, and opened to 
Littleton in August, 1853. As it was without equipment, the Boston, 
Concord and Montreal agreed to run its trains over its track for $7,000 
a year, and in 1859 leased the road at an annual rental of $10,000 for five 
years. This lease was subsequently extended, until in 1873 the White 
Mountain was consolidated with the Boston, Concord and Montreal, its 
stockholders exchanging their stock for $300,000 in 6 per cent consolidated 
bonds. Prior to this the White Mountain had been extended to the 
Wing Road in Bethlehem, which it reached October 1, 1869; to Lancaster, 
January 1, 1872; to Groveton, August, 1872, and to Fabyan's in July, 
1874. The cost of these extensions, about $1,440,000, was provided for 
as far as possible by the sale of mortgage bonds. In July, 1876, the road 
was extended to the base of Mt. Washington, giving direct connection 
from that point to the summit of the mountain. The Boston, Concord 
and Montreal voted in 1881 to lease the Pemigewasset Valley Road for a 
period of ninety-nine years at a rental of 6 per cent of its cost. 

As has been the case with other roads, the benefits growing out of con- 
struction have largely accrued to the state, and to the communities 
through which the road has passed, rather than to its builders. The town 
of Haverhill, especially the Woodsville section, owes much of its pros- 
perity to the railroad. The original stock, amounting to $1,000,000, 
until the merger of the road in the Concord paid nothing but scrip divi- 
dends, and $800,000 preferred likewise paid nothing until 1869, after 
which it paid 3 per cent semiannually until 1885. 

In 1884 the Boston, Concord and Montreal and its leased lines was 
leased to the Boston and Lowell for a period of ninety-nine years, the rental 
being guaranteed to be sufficient to pay the interest on its indebtedness, 
the rental due the Pemigewasset Valley Road, and 6 per cent on the pre- 
ferred stock of the Boston, Concord and Montreal for the first year of the 
lease and 5 per cent thereafter. This lease however was declared in- 
valid in March, 1887, and a fight was inaugurated between the Concord 
and the Boston and Lowell to secure legislation which would enable a 
valid lease to be made to the latter road. After a long and bitter con- 
test, such an act was passed which was vetoed by the governor, and the 
Boston, Concord and Montreal returned into the hands of its stock- 
holders. Subsequently the larger part of the stock of all descriptions was 



270 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 



purchased by a syndicate of stockholders of the Concord Railroad, and 
in November, 1888, a contract was made with the Concord Road which 
placed the operation of the Boston, Concord and Montreal in the hands 
of the former, which was followed by the merger of the two roads in 
September, 1889, into a single corporation under the Corporate title of 
Concord and Montreal Railroad, and this latter road with its leased 
lines was in turn leased to the Boston and Maine, June 29, 1895, and 
became part of that great New England system. 

The land damage to owners of land for right of way by Boston, Con- 
cord and Montreal Railroad through the town of Haverhill as awarded 
by Asa P. Cate, J. M. Weeks and S. M. Dearborn, commissioners, in 
September and November, 1851, was as follows: 

F. &H. Keyes $111.00 

Town of Haverhill 75 .00 

Archibald Hoyt 60.00 

Abigail Eastman, Guard 12.50 

John C. Morse 161 .00 

Windsor S. Cobleigh 1,100.00 



Alexander Manson $100 .00 



Lyman G. Clark 

Isaac Pike 

Henry M. Marsh 

Caleb S. Hunt 

Abner Bailey 

Joshua Q. Clark 

J. Powers & E. Swift 
John S. Sanborn 
Ruth E. Eastman 

Hannah Currier 

William Waddell 

James Woodward . . . 



72.00 

65.00 

45.00 

2.00 

20.00 

24.00 

1.00 

38.00 

12.50 

25.00 

81.00 

230.23 

Stephen Farnsworth 280 .00 



Horace Jones 
B. F. Palmer . 



B. F. Simpson, Lowell man . . 

David Dickey 

Charles R. Smith 

Henry O. Eastman 

Betsey Johnson 



225.00 
50.00 

165.00 
25.00 
31.00 



70.00 

180.00 

Jeremy S. Cross 120 .00 

Charles Wetherbee 100 .00 

Lyman Buck 35 .00 

William Bailey 42 .50 

Jefferson Pennock 230 .00 

John F. Mulliken 202 .00 

Hubert Eastman 50 . 00 

Major Nelson 200 .00 

J. M. Morse and wife 60.00 

Francis D. Kimball 365 .00 



The commissioners also awarded damages for White Mountain right 
of way in Haverhill, as follows: Socrates Tuttle and Franklin Eastman 
of Barnet, Vt., $184.00; Isaac F. Allen, $800.00. The right of way 
through land of Abiel Deming and other parties was purchased. 

As has been noted, the building of the railroad and the enlargement and 
improvement of its facilities operated disastrously on the further growth 
and development of the village at Haverhill Corner, and Woodsville at 
the other extreme corner of the town, an insignificant hamlet in 1880, 
advantageously situated at the junction with the Passumpsic, and later 
with Montpelier and Wells River railroad, grew into a busy railroad 
centre, more than offsetting in its growth and prosperity the decadence 
into which its sister village fell, when stage lines were superseded by rail- 
road trains, when manufactories at the Brook were given up, when the 
Court house and County offices were removed, and when a large and 
important section of the village was devastated by fire. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 271 

Haverhill, except for the village of Woodsville, has, in common with 
most other farming towns of the county, and for that matter of the state, 
fallen off in population since the building of railroads. Some of the 
towns have grown and increased in population by the building up and 
growth of manufactures, but Haverhill is not of this number. Except 
for the whetstone plant at Pike, and to a limited extent a lumber 
industry it is still a farming town, and maintains its old time reputa- 
tion of being one of the best in the state, but that it has in recent years 
increased in population and valuation is due to the growth and develop- 
ment of Woodsville as a railroad centre, and railroad division head- 
quarters. 

The census statistics for Haverhill and Grafton County from 1840 to 
the present time tell their own story. In that year when the Corner was 
at the height of its prosperity as county seat and stage centre the popula- 
tion of the town was 2,675; in 1850, 2,405; in 1860, 2,291; in 1870, 2,270; 
in 1880, 2,452; in 1890, 2,545; in 1900, 3,414; in 1910, 3,498. The growth 
since 1870 has all been in Woodsville, and this has been coincident with 
the growth in importance of Woodsville as a railroad centre. Its most 
marked growth was in the decade 1890-1900, when the Boston, Concord 
and Montreal merged with the Concord into the Concord and Montreal, 
was leased to the Boston and Maine and Woodsville became the head- 
quarters of an important division of a large and powerful railroad sys- 
tem. The growth of the town has been proportionately larger than the 
growth of the county, to which contribution has been made by the col- 
lege town of Hanover and the manufacturing towns of Littleton and 
Lebanon. 

The population of Grafton County in 1860, was 42,245; in 1870, 38,725; 
in 1880, 38,791; in 1890, 37,145; in 1900, 40,844; in 1910, 41,632. The 
county reached high-water mark in 1860. Its population in 1910 was 
less by 613 than in the former year, while that of Haverhill was 1,207 more. 
Yet there have been prominent Haverhill citizens who have decried the 
advantages accruing to the town from railroad transportation and facili- 
ties, and have used their utmost endeavor to prevent railroad develop- 
ment and prosperity. 

The application of electricity to transportation is in its infancy and 
its history is yet to be written. 



CHAPTER XII 



COURTS AND BAR 

Courts Established in Grafton County in 1773 — Court House in Haverhill — 
First Term April 21, 1774 — Suspended During the Revolution — Court 
House Built — Dissatisfaction — Moved to Corner in 1793 — Burned in 1814 
— Rebuilt in Connection with Academy — 'New Court House Erected in 
1846 — Registery of Deeds, Probate Office and Jail Followed — -Removed 
to Woodsville — The Bar — Moses Dow, Alden Sprague, George Woodward, 
John Nilson, David Sloane, Joseph Bell, Nathan B. Felton and Others — 
Gilchrist in Case of Statute Lawyers — Haverhill Police Court. 

The proprietors of Haverhill embraced every opportunity which pre- 
sented itself to secure for their township anything which would tend to 
promote its growth and prosperity, and give it a leading position among 
its sister townships. They failed of securing the location of Dartmouth 
College within its borders, but were more successful in their efforts to 
have the town made the county seat. 

It was not until 1755 that any effort was made to divide the Province 
of New Hampshire into counties. In January of that year it was pro- 
posed to set up two counties — Portsmouth and Cumberland — with the 
Merrimack River as the dividing line between them. The Assembly 
favorably entertained the proposition, but the council rejected the plan 
since it provided for a court at Exeter as well as at Portsmouth, and this 
could by no means be consented to. It was not till 1769 when an agree- 
ment was finally reached and the approval of the Crown secured. March 
19, 1771, five counties were erected: Rockingham, Strafford, Hills- 
borough, Cheshire and Grafton. Strafford and Grafton, on account of 
sparsity of population, were annexed to Rockingham, until the governor, 
with advice of the council, should declare them competent to exercise 
their respective jurisdictions. This was done in 1773. 

Grafton County was territorially large, embracing all of the present 
counties of Grafton and Coos, a large part of Carroll and parts of Merri- 
mack and Sullivan. According to a census taken of twenty-five towns in 
the county in 1773, it had a population of 3,549, including 90 students in 
Dartmouth College and 20 slaves. A census ordered by the Revolution- 
ary Convention of 1775 resulted in a return of 4,101. The importance of 
Haverhill among these towns is seen from the fact that, in 1767, five years 
after its settlement was begun, it had a population of 172, which had 
increased to 365 in 1775. 

In anticipation of the organization of the county the proprietors, at a 

272 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 273 

meeting May 12, 1772, took measures to secure for their town the distinc- 
tion of county seat. Col. John Hurd was in high favor with the govern- 
ment at Portsmouth, and was at that time in the town by the sea. He 
was chosen agent to petition the General Assembly to secure the bringing 
of the courts to Haverhill, and for such service he was voted, if successful, 
" 1,000 acres of land in the undivided land in the township of Haverhill," 
with "liberty to pitch it in square form." Col. Asa Porter was chosen to 
send a copy of the vote to Colonel Hurd by "the easiest method" which 
doubtless meant that he made a personal visit to Portsmouth. Colonel 
Hurd was successful in securing the county seat for Haverhill, but the 
proprietors later refused him the land they had promised. They did, 
however, reimburse him for cash expended in the matter, since at a meet- 
ing held August 16, 1773, they voted to allow his account as follows: 
"Cash paid for two petitions to the General Cort to gitt the Courts in 
Haverhill, 12s; cash paid to Mr. Livermore, 12s; cash paid to Mr. Lovel, 
£2, 8s." The total was £3, 12s, a modest sum for securing so important 
results. 

With the organization of the county, it was included in the circuit of 
the Superior Court of Judicature. A county Court of Common Pleas 
of four justices and a Court of General Sessions of the Peace, composed 
of the justices of peace resident in the county, were established with the 
other departments of county civil government. 

The Court of Common Pleas was an exceptionally able one in its per- 
sonnel. Col. John Hurd of Haverhill was named as chief justice, with 
Col. Asa Porter of Haverhill, David Hobart of Plymouth, and Bezaleel 
Woodward of Hanover, as associates. Colonels Hurd and Porter were 
graduates of Harvard, and had large influence in giving Haverhill early 
prominence. Colonel Hurd had been receiver of quit rents, and, besides 
his appointment as chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas, he was 
also appointed county treasurer and register of deeds. He had large 
holdings of lands in Haverhill and also in other towns of the county. 
Colonel Hobart was a prominent citizen of Plymouth and was active in 
the military affairs of the Province. Bezaleel Woodward came from Con- 
necticut with Eleazar Wheelock, and was professor in the college at Han- 
over. A graduate of Yale, he was for a period of more than thirty years 
the final legal authority in Hanover and the neighboring towns. He was 
trial justice for many years under the authority of both New Hampshire 
and Vermont. Col. John Fenton of Plymouth was clerk. It was a dis- 
tinguished court. It is doubtful if the Grafton Court of Common Pleas 
ever saw an abler bench. 

The first term of this court of which there is record was held at Haver- 
hill April 21, 1774, the chief justice and associate justices being present. 
The term lasted for three days. John Fenton was clerk. There were 

19 



274 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

twenty-three cases on the docket of which fifteen were disposed of, and 
of these fifteen, six were tried by a jury. Eight were continued to the 
July term. The counsel in the cases whose names appear on this first 
docket were Jonathan M. Sewall of Portsmouth who had been appointed 
register of probate and who probably intended to settle in the county as a 
lawyer, and who appeared for the plaintiff in each case, and Simeon Olcott 
of Charlestown who was entered for the defendant in two cases. There 
were probably no resident attorneys in the county. Moses Dow suc- 
ceeded Sewall as register of probate in this same year, 1774, and at the 
October term of the court in Haverhill his name appears on the docket of 
forty cases as attorney, together with those of J. M. Sewall and Samuel 
Livermore of Portsmouth and B. West, Jr. The full bench was present, 
as it also was at the April term, 1775, when the names of Chief Justice 
Hurd and Associate Justice Porter appear as parties in suits. As this 
April term was the last held by this court previous to the Revolution, 
only three terms were held in Haverhill. At the July term, which was set 
for Plymouth, only Associate Justice Hobart appeared and no business 
was transacted. Adjournment was taken to the second Tuesday in 
October to meet in Haverhill, but there is no record that the court met or 
that any term was held. The King's courts ceased to do business in Graf- 
ton County. Though the Provincial Congress of 1776 reorganized them 
with a reformed personnel in harmony with the spirit of the times, there 
is no record that the Common Pleas transacted any business, and it prob- 
ably never met during the war. 

The members of the first court were then variously occupied. Chief 
Justice Hurd was an active member of the New Hampshire Committee of 
Safety for Grafton County. He took an early and pronounced stand in 
the cause of independency, and had a general charge of all military opera- 
tions in the Coos country, until, because of his loyalty to and warm parti- 
sanship for the Exeter government, his influence was undermined by the 
faction in the Connecticut Valley which, repudiating that government, 
was endeavoring by effecting a union with Vermont towns to establish a 
new state, and he was practically forced to leave the county, returning to 
his old home in Boston. Judge Porter did not find time hanging heavy 
on his hands, as he was facing charges of Toryism and disloyalty, and for 
a considerable period was under surveillance on his father's farm in Box- 
ford, Mass. ' Judge Woodward was devoting himself to the promotion of 
a scheme for the annexation of that part of Vermont east of the Green 
Mountains and known as New Hampshire Grants to western New Hamp- 
shire in which event he would have the capital of the state thus formed at 
Hanover, the seat of Dartmouth College, or in some near-by town, and 
Haverhill was a party to this scheme. Judge Hobart was in the saddle 
at the front, rendering valuable and efficient service with his sword. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 275 

Colonel Fenton, clerk of courts and judge of probate, had been deprived 
of his office and sent out of the country for his country's good. 

Grafton County was too thoroughly occupied with other matters to 
pay attention to litigation during the Revolutionary War, and the Court 
of Common Pleas was not reorganized until 1782, when Samuel Emerson 
of Plymouth, Ezekiel Ladd and James Woodward, both of Haverhill, 
and Enoch Page were named as judges, with George Williamson Liver- 
more of Holderness as clerk. 

The first term of the new court was held in Haverhill August 3, 1782. 
Ten cases, which had been continued from the April term of 1775, were 
disposed of and there were twenty-one cases on the new docket. The 
counsel appearing were Moses Dow of Haverhill, John Porter of Plymouth 
and Aaron Hutchinson of Lebanon, and so far as the records show these 
were the only members of the bar in the county at that time. The mem- 
bers of the court were laymen. Lawyers were not numerous, and those 
who were competent for judicial honors could hardly afford to accept 
places on the bench on account of the insufficient salaries. For some 
years it was as much the custom to appoint physicians, clergymen and 
merchants to the bench as members of the legal profession. There is 
good authority for saying that the laymen of that period made better 
judges than such lawyers as could afford and were, therefore, willing to 
accept appointments. Lawyers were not popular in many towns in the 
period immediately following the Revolution. A general demoralization 
following the war, the evils arising from an unlimited issue of paper 
money, confiscation of the property of those who had been adjudged 
Tories, the contracting of debts the payment of which became hopeless, 
the relations of church and state, and questions arising out of grants of 
lands and townships by the Province governors resulted in a flood of liti- 
gation in which lawyers seemed to derive most of the benefit instead of 
litigants, and lawyers were, for a time, not only unpopular, but no incon- 
siderable party demanded the abolition of the profession. 

The Court of General Sessions of the Peace, commonly called the 
Sessions Court, held its first term in Haverhill April 19, 1774, with nine 
justices present, viz.: John Hurd, Asa Porter, John Fenton, Bezaleel 
Woodward, Israel Morey, Daniel Brainard, John Wheatley, Seth Wales 
and Samuel Gilbert. Moses Dow was appointed to act as King's attorney 
in the absence of Att. Gen. Samuel Livermore. The statutes provided 
that this court should "have cognizance of all matters relating to the con- 
servation of the peace and punishment of offenders." It was also " author- 
ized and empowered to make orders for the raising any sum or sums of 
money that may be necessary from time to time, for building and repairing 
court houses, prisons, houses of correction or other public county build- 
ings, payment of grand jurors, travel of petit jurors, travel and attendance 



276 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

of the justices of the Sessions, and all other county charges; and to examine 
and allow any accounts or demands that may be laid before it for the ends 
aforesaid, and to remit any fines or forfeitures accruing to the county." 
On its organization, justices of the peace were not numerous in Grafton 
county, but in 1794, when the court was abolished and its powers trans- 
ferred to the Court of Common Pleas, it had become too large a body for 
the satisfactory transaction of business, the records showing no less than 
twenty-two justices present at one term held in Haverhill. 

The records of this court give much valuable information concerning 
the erection of the first court house and jail, a little to the north of North 
Haverhill Village, and of its abandonment twenty years later for a loca- 
tion at the Corner. Before the organization of the courts the proprietors 
of Haverhill, at a meeting held April 23, 1773, had made generous provi- 
sion for the location of court house and jail, by voting "a parcel of land 
200 rods square and a road two rods wide and 200 rods long opposite the 
Great Ox-Bow to accommodate the court house and jail." Col. Asa 
Porter was made the agent of the committee for the erection of the build- 
ing which was to be court house and jail combined, two stories high, 50 
by 80 feet, the upper story to be used as court and jury rooms, and the 
lower for jail, at the west end, and at the east end, rooms for the sheriff 
and dwelling of the jailer. In Colonel Porter's detailed account of ex- 
penses incurred in erection, the first charge was made in May, 1773, and 
the last in May, 1775. The colonel evidently intended to build for the 
future as well as the present. The raising of the frame was a notable 
event. It began on the 19th of November, 1773, and ended November 
30. Provision was made for the men employed in the raising on a liberal 
scale. They consumed 45 gallons of rum at 6s a gallon, 650 pounds of 
beef, 25 pounds of pork, 1| gallons of molasses at 6s, and bread that cost 
£4, 9s, about one third the amount which was expended for rum. The 
fathers were by no means total abstainers, and could not be charged with 
extravagance and wastefulness in the item of bread. 

There was evidently dissatisfaction with the work of Colonel Porter 
on the ground of expense incurred, and at the April term of the Sessions 
Court, 1774, John Fenton, Samuel Gilbert, Daniel Brainard, John Wheat- 
ley, Samuel Gilbert and Seth Wales were appointed to inspect Colonel 
Porter's accounts respecting the erection of court house and jail. The 
committee reported that the accounts showed gross extravagance on the 
part of the agent, and the court added Samuel Gilbert and Mr. Jonathan 
Hale and Capt. Charles Johnston to the building committee, who were 
instructed to report the next day "in what manner it will be best to 
finish the court house and goal." The committee reported, as instructed, 
what needed to be done at present, and recommended "that it be done 
in the plainest and most frugal manner." This recommendation of the 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 277 

committee was adopted, and the committee were directed to proceed 
accordingly. 

At this same session it was voted that the sheriff be instructed to notify 
the selectmen of Plymouth and Haverhill that it is expected they erect 
stocks and whipping posts in their respective towns near the court houses 
and jails forthwith. There is no record, however, that this vote was ever 
carried into effect. Colonel Porter's account for the building was the 
subject of long continued discussion and was not finally settled until the 
September term of the court in 1791, when a final and formal settlement 
was made with Colonel Hurd, who was the county treasurer at the time 
of the erection of the building. The bill in question amounted to £386, 
5s, 2d, or a little less than $2,000. In the frame and covering of the 
building the best materials were used. Some of the shingles of old growth 
pine were sixteen inches in width, and were in perfectly sound condition 
when the building was finally taken down fifty years after it was built. 
The plainness and frugality ordered were found, in the interior, which led 
to a constant demand for repairs when terms of the court were resumed 
February 20, 1783, after being suspended from April, 1775, a period of 
nearly eight years. The condition of the house was such that at the 
February term, 1783, the court adjourned to the house of Maj. Nathaniel 
Merrill, near by, and then to the house of Ezekiel Ladd, Ladd Street, for 
the remainder of the term. That the building had been used by Hazen's 
regiment in 1779 appears from the appointment, by the court, of a com- 
mittee at the September term, 1791, "to prepare an account against the 
state of New Hampshire for damages done the court house in Haverhill 
by the Continental soldiers stationed near that place, and procure the 
necessary vouchers for supporting said account." Later, in 1794, the 
court allowed the account of Joshua and Nathaniel Young for underpin- 
ning and other stone for steps, etc., furnished in 1774 for the court house, 
only half of which were used. The committee investigating the account 
reported that Joshua Young took one of the stones away, that another 
was used for a hearth in Captain Merrill's house, and that the residue 
were taken by Colonel Hazen's regiment in 1779 and used for chimneys 
to their huts. The court allowed the account to the amount of £42. 

The jail seems to have been in worse condition than the court house. 
At the May term in Plymouth, 1783, the sheriff entered his protest against 
the present situation of the jails in the county, and the court ordered the 
Haverhill jail to be put in order. At the November term, 1883, Moses 
Dow, Charles Johnston and James Woodward were appointed a commit- 
tee to repair the jail, and also "to consider the method for building a jail 
and jail house in Haverhill and make a plan of the same, also to prepare 
a place and conveniences for the same, ascertain on what terms the land 
may be had and see who will advance property towards effecting the same 



278 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

and how much and report thereon at the next Court of the General Ses- 
sions." This committee reported in favor of building a new jail and jail 
house "on land of John Ladd a little south of the Brook," probably 
Powder House Hill, but action on the report was postponed, and noth- 
ing came of it. In June, 1785, Colonel Porter and Nathaniel Merrill 
were appointed a committee to make a jail yard, and a suitable close 
room for prisoners, with window shutters and bars, and cause the room 
to be properly cleansed. They were also to contract for the erection of a 
barn, 20 by 22 feet in dimensions, suitable for stabling horses at an expense 
not to exceed £30. 

In spite of frequent repairs, conditions continued unsatisfactory. At 
the March term, 1788, Bezaleel Woodward, Charles Johnston and Moses 
Baker were appointed "to receive offers from individuals or corporations 
with respect to the accommodation of the County of Grafton with nec- 
essary public buildings and consider the proper place for their erection." 
At the September term, the same year, in response to the vote just named, 
offers were made, one by Colonel Craig of Rumney, and another by 
Esquire Shattuck and others of Cockermouth to erect in their respective 
towns court house and jail free of expense to the county, and, at the same 
term, Moses Dow and Andrew S. Croker were appointed to see on what 
terms the court house at Haverhill could be disposed of. No action, 
however, seems to have been taken. At the September term, in 1790, 
Ezekiel Ladd and A. S. Crocker were appointed "to repair the jail in 
such manner as they think fit for the confinement of prisoners, and to 
repair the dwelling so as to be comfortable for a family to live in." The 
sum expended for these repairs was £82, 17s, 2d. Minor repairs were 
again made in 1792, amounting to £9. 

Dissatisfaction with the building and its location was not overcome by 
these repairs. It rather increased. There was ample waterpower at 
the Brook which was being more and more utilized and the settlement 
there, and at Ladd Street, was rapidly growing, and the Corner was 
coming into prominence. The meeting house had been erected at Ladd 
Street and the church organized in 1790, and enterprising men in that 
section of the town took advantage of the situation. 

In 1793, Col. Charles Johnston and others had erected a building for 
an academy, for which they secured a charter a year later. The building 
was a large and commodious one, and contained accommodations for the 
courts as well as the academy if it should be decided to abandon the 
■court house at the north end of the town. It was located in Colonel 
Johnston's field on the land between the present Pearson Hall and the 
academy building. The lawn in front of it extended down to the river 
road, and is now the North Common. There was then one building on 




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HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 279 

it, in the present northwest corner, the residence of Samuel Brooks, sub- 
sequently removed to the west side of Main Street. 

Colonel Johnston and his associates memorialized the Court of Sessions, 
offering the free use of the building for the Sessions Court and the Court 
of Common Pleas. This was considered at an adjourned session of the 
March term which was held at the meeting house in June. Court was 
opened and immediately adjourned to the new academy building. After 
examination of the building it was "voted that the offer of Col. Charles 
Johnston and others this day, of the use of a building for holding the 
courts, in their memorial mentioned, be accepted by the justices of this 
court, and that hereafter the courts when sitting in Haverhill do sit in 
said building until the further order of this court." A formal vote of 
thanks was tendered to Colonel Johnston for this generous offer, and an 
adjournment was taken to the old court house, where, on meeting, the 
court immediately adjourned to "the new court house." 

This was burned in 1814, and the question of providing accommoda- 
tions for the court again demanded attention. The burned building also 
contained room for the accommodation of the schools of the first school 
district. Negotiations were at once begun for the joint occupation of 
the new academy building, which should be erected by academy, court 
and district school. At a meeting of the voters of the school district 
September 2, 1814, it was "voted that Joseph Bell, Jonathan 
Soper & Jonathan Sinclair be a committee to confer with the trustees of 
Haverhill Academy and see whether they will grant to district No. One 
the privilege of holding a district school in any building which may be 
erected for the accommodation of the Academy." That these negotia- 
tions were successful appears from the vote of Demember 16, 1815, to 
raise the sum of five hundred dollars for the purpose of building a school- 
house in connection with the trustees of Haverhill Academy and that 
Ephraim Kingsbury, Ezra Bartlett, and John Nelson be a committee to 
superintend the expenditure of this money. It was also voted that the 
committee be instructed to have the building built of brick. The courts 
were also successful in securing a home for themselves as appears from a 
report of a committee consisting of Ezra Bartlett and David Webster, 
Jr., made in March 1817, to the effect that the County of Grafton had 
become a tenant in common with the trustees of Haverhill Academy and 
school district Number One in the erection of a building for joint occu- 
pancy, and that the whole of the upper part of the building was to be for 
the use of the courts with such privilege in the district schoolrooms as 
are desired for the use of juries. In consideration of this the committee 
reported that it had, in behalf of the county, paid to the trustees of the 
academy the sum of $1,000. 



280 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

This building, the old academy, now Pearson Hall, was for a period of 
about thirty years the home of academy, courts and district school. Its 
exterior has suffered little or no change since its erection more than a 
century ago. Of the interior the late Daniel F. Merrill, twice principal 
of the academy, says: 1 

I well remember the old academy building with entrance into a large vestibule or 
"entry" as it was called having stairways on either side leading up to the old court room 
in the second story, used for several years as a place of worship for the Methodist denom- 
ination. Opposite the front entrance below were three doors, those on either side open- 
ing into narrow rooms used for the "town schools," and also for jury rooms during the 
sessions of court. . . . The middle door, opposite the front entrance, led into a long 
narrow hall, the length of the town schoolrooms. Another door at the end opened into 
a large, well lighted room, the width of the whole building with the teacher's desk upon 
a raised platform opposite the entrance. 

This arrangement could hardly have been satisfactory to any of the 
parties, and yet, in spite of dissatisfaction all the time increasing, it was 
continued for three decades. 

In 1845 the partnership was dissolved. The county proposed to relin- 
quish its interest in the academy building, and build a court house for 
its sole use, if the trustees of the academy would furnish free of expense 
to the county a suitable building lot. The school district also agreed to 
give up its rights in the building if needed interior repairs should be made 
so that the entire property might be used for academy purposes. Both 
these propositions were accepted by the trustees and, to meet the expense 
of repairs and the purchase of court house lot, the friends of the academy 
raised by subscription the sum of $1,500. The lot lying to the east of 
the recently erected county offices building, then occupied by a dwelling 
house, a wheelwright shop and a blacksmith shop, was purchased and 
presented to the county and on this the commodious court house was 
erected, and made ready for the courts in 1846. The court room was 
admittedly one of the best in the state, the jury rooms and judge's room 
were convenient. The cost of the building was about $4,500, and Grafton 
County had reason to take a just pride in its court house. The building 
is still standing on Court Street. 

For several years before definite action was taken, the question of the 
removal of the court house and county offices from Haverhill Corner to 
Woosdville was agitated, and the matter was brought before the county 
convention only to have the proposition negatived. The opposition to 
the removal on the part of the people at the Corner was vigorous and, 
combined with the sentiment existing throughout the county against 
destroying and breaking up traditions and historic associations nearly a 
century old, was successful for a time. New offices for the registry of 
deeds and probate and for the clerk of courts were imperatively de- 

1 Haverhill Academy Centennial Anniversary. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 281 

manded, and it was recognized that the location at the Corner had 
become, since the building of the railroads, inconvenient of access to the 
people of the county. Woodsville had become a railroad centre, and it 
was pointed out that any one in any section of the county having business 
at any of the county offices could leave his home, transact his business 
were it at Woodsville and return the same day. As a place for holding 
the sessions of the court for the Western Judicial District of the county 
the superiority of Woodsville over the Corner was unquestioned. Mani- 
festly destiny pointed to Woodsville, and its citizens conducted an aggres- 
sive campaign for securing the removal of the county offices from the 
Corner, and the erection of a new court house in their village. Plans and 
specifications for the proposed new building were secured for presenta- 
tion to the convention of 1889, and the offer of a most desirable lot for 
such building to be presented to the county, without cost, was made by 
Ira Whitcher of Woodsville who had been one of the leading promoters 
of the proposed removal from the Corner to Woodsville. The lot in 
question lying just north of his own residence, he had for years refused 
to sell, frequently saying that he was holding it in reserve for the Grafton 
County court house. A new court house was also needed for the Eastern 
Judicial District at Plymouth, and the friends of both projects combined 
to secure the results they so earnestly desired. The matter was thor- 
oughly canvassed and at a meeting of the convention, held July 24, 1889, 
the following resolution, offered by Harry Bingham of Littleton, was 
adopted by a vote of 20 to 12: 

Resolved, That the court house and county offices, now located at Haverhill Corner, 
be located at Woodsville in said town of Haverhill and that the sum of twenty thousand 
dollars be appropriated for building a new court house and offices at Woodsville, and 
that the sum of ten thousand dollars be appropriated for building a new court house at 
Plymouth, said buildings to be erected in accordance with plans and specifications to 
be approved by the county commissioners and to be furnished in a thorough and work- 
manlike manner at a cost not to exceed the sums heretofore named, and that said appro- 
priations to be expended and said buildings be erected under the direction of the county 
commissioners, and Ira Whitcher of Haverhill, B. F. Kendrick of Lebanon, Frank H. 
Abbott of Bethlehem and Alvin Burleigh of Plymouth, who are hereby constituted a 
committee for said purpose. Said appropriation of thirty thousand dollars is to be 
funded at the lowest possible rate of interest payable in fifteen years at two thousand 
dollars a year. 

F. B. Kendrick of Lebanon declining to serve upon the committee, 
J. F. Perley of Lebanon was appointed to serve in his place. 

Plans and specifications for the two buildings were adopted, and Ira 
Whitcher, chairman of the sub-committee having in charge the erection 
of the Woodsville building, agreed to erect it according to the plans and 
specifications for the sum of $20,000, the amount appropriated, and 
bond was given by Edward F. Mann and others to guarantee the fulfill- 
ment of this agreement. The building was completed, ready for occu- 



282 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

pancy, in the latter part of 1890, and at the convention of the represen- 
tatives from Grafton County in February, 1891, the following resolutions 
were adopted: 

Whereas The courthouse in that part of Haverhill called Woodsville has been com- 
pleted and suitable offices for the clerk of the Supreme Court, register of deeds, and 
register of probate have been provided therein; 

Resolved That said officers be instructed to remove the records and furniture of their 
respective offices to the rooms provided for them in said new court house; 

Resolved That the commissioners be instructed to duly advertise and sell at public 
auction on the first day of May, 1891, all the property owned by the county, situated at 
Haverhill Corner, excepting what is necessary for the use of the county at that place, 
and to pay the proceeds of the same into the county treasury. 

The removal ordered was promptly made and the 1891 March term 
of the Supreme Court was held in the new court house. In the course 
of the construction of this building certain changes from the plans and 
specifications adopted were made by Mr. Whitcher, at the request of the 
commissioners, involving additional outlay and expense. The com- 
missioners also insisted that by the vote of the convention making the 
appropriation, and by the terms of the bond furnished, he had obli- 
gated himself to furnish the building with needed furniture as well as to 
erect it. In the vote of the convention the following words occur, "and to 
be furnished in a thorough and workmanlike manner." Mr. Whitcher 
contended that there was an error in the record, that instead of the word 
"furnished," the word finished was intended, the word almost invariably 
employed in such votes and contracts. The record should have read 
"finished in a thorough and workmanlike manner." He presented his 
bill for furnishing, and for additional expenditures asked for by the com- 
missioners, which the commissioners refused to approve and pay. The 
report of the Building Committee was presented to the convention of 
the legislature of 1893, and after reference to a special committee, and 
due consideration by the convention, it was accepted, and a resolution 
was adopted as follows : 

That the County of Grafton appropriate the sum of $2,995.20 to pay Ira Whitcher, 
that being the amount expended by him as chairman of the Sub-building Committee in 
excess of the appropriation for building the Woodsville court house, and that the sum 
of $2,995.20 be raised by taxation for this purpose. 

The commissioners still refused to approve the bill on the ground that 
the vote of the convention was illegal and unconstitutional, and it was 
finally paid only after the Supreme Court had affirmed its legality. 

The removal of the court house and county offices from the Corner 
caused some bitterness of feeling on the part of the residents of that vil- 
lage, especially against Mr. Whitcher, and at the election of 1890 when he 
was a Democratic candidate for representative to the General Court, the 
Democrats of the Corner placed a candidate in the field against him, 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 283 

who polled 37 votes. This was a protest of the Corner Democrats, which, 
however, was offset at the polls by Woodsville Republicans voting for 
Mr. Whitcher who was elected by substantially his party vote. 

In 1915, the office of registry of deeds was given more room which had 
come to be needed, by an addition to the west side of the building, and 
the vaults of the registry of deeds and probate and clerk of court were 
reconstructed so as to make them fireproof in accordance with newest 
and up-to-date methods. All dissatisfaction with the removal of the 
court house and county offices to Woodsville has long since passed away. 

The courts had been secured for the Corner, and then came the ques- 
tion of jail. Immediately on meeting at the new court house, the court 
took under consideration the proposition of John Page, Michael John- 
ston and others to build, at their own expense, on a suitable lot of land at 
the Corner a good and sufficient jail and jail house. This was accepted. 
The court voted that the new building be on a parcel of land contain- 
ing one acre on the northerly line of the road leading from Haverhill to 
Plymouth about twenty rods easterly from the dwelling house of Capt. 
Joseph Bliss. Plans and specifications were presented and accepted. 
The building was to be thirty-six feet long by thirty feet wide. It was 
to be two stories in height, the jail to be on both floors on the west end, 
the end towards the river road. The jail house or dwelling was to be in 
the east end. Page and his associates were to give security for the proper 
performance of their duties and were "to be entitled to the present build- 
ing belonging to the county, now used as a jail and jail house near Capt. 
Nathaniel Merrill's, also to the land where it stands, provided that it be 
not dismantled until the new building is done to the acceptance of the 
county." 1 

The specifications for the construction of the jail proper were minute, 
and indicate that it was intended to make it at least a secure place of 
confinement for prisoners: 

That 16 feet of the westerly end of the house including walls and partitions and of the 
whole width of each story be taken for prisons, which are to be divided into two apart- 
ments in each story, as nearly equal as may be judged expedient: that under the prison 
part, one foot below the natural surface of the ground to the sleepers, be placed large 
flat rocks, one on the top of others and so as to break joints, and that the edges of the 
rocks be in no case more than two or three inches from each other and to touch where it 

1 The old court house and jail was not demolished for some years after the removal of 
the prisoners to the new jail at the Corner. It was difficult for its new owners to find 
for it any profitable use. It was occupied for a time as a dwelling, and the court room 
was used for town meetings, but for several years previous to its demolition it stood 
empty. It was a desolate looking affair, and stories of its being haunted made children 
on their way to school afraid to enter it. The small green glass window panes made 
targets for the boys who practiced throwing stones, and finally not one was left, the 
empty sash bearing evidence of their marksmanship. 



284 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

can be convenient: that the prison part be double posted, silled and studded and planked 
with three inch plank of hard wood, and that large flat rocks, in the lower story of the 
thickness of six inches be placed edgewise between the outer and inner planks, close to 
each other: that one window for each apartment, of suitable dimensions, be made at 
the west end of said building, and securely grated by fastnesses to the outer side of the 
inner planks, and the inner side of the outer planks : that the partitions between the pris- 
ons and jail house be effectually secured by timbers, planks and iron bars and the par- 
titions between the two prisons in the lower story in the same or other equally effec- 
tive manner: that the prison rooms in the chamber or second story, be formed and secured 
by timbers, hard wood plank and grates to the satisfaction of the court or its committee : 
that the partitions between the two stories and over the second story be effectively 
secured by timber hard wood and stone where the agent thinks necessary and that one 
proper vault for the conveyance of filth be formed from each prison room, descending 
obliquely from the apartment to the outer side of the building so as to terminate on the 
outer side above ground. 

This was hardly the way a modern jail is constructed, but it was as 
secure as the modern building erected a few years since at the county 
farm. It was voted, at this time, that the jail in Haverhill be the only 
one for the county, and the lumber which had been purchased for a new 
jail at Plymouth was ordered sold. 

The work on the building proceeded rapidly, and at the December term, 
held in Plymouth in 1794, it was accepted as the new jail and the prison- 
ers were ordered to be removed from the old jail at the north end. The 
limits of the jail yard were established as extending two hundred rods in 
every direction from the new jail and no more "provided it does not 
cross Connecticut River." This was to permit prisoners, confined for 
debt and for mild offenses, to leave the jail during the day to work for 
farmers or others, these prisoners being given what was known as the 
liberty of the yard. 

The official bill of fare for prisoners was fixed at the March term of 
the court as follows: "For dinner, one half pound meat and sauce such 
as is used for family. One pound good flour bread per day, one pint 
bean or pea poridge or cyder, or half pint of milk, or tea, or coffe reason- 
ably sugared, once a day, morning or evening, and so much water as is 
necessary." 

The court also ordered a barn to be erected on jail lot 30 by 28 feet, 
with eighteen-foot posts. 

This jail was used without material change until 1845, when the prison 
portion of the building was taken down and one erected in more modern 
style and under improved sanitary conditions. During the operation 
of rebuilding, the four attic rooms in the attic story of the dwelling of 
Eleazar Smith, afterwards known as Smith's or the Exchange Hotel, 
were used. This with some repairs was occupied as a jail until, after 
the removal of the court house to Woodsville, a new jail was built at 
the County Farm. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 285 

At the convention of Grafton County representatives, February 17, 
1897, the matter of the erection of a new jail which had been discussed at 
the session of the legislature in 1895 was again brought up, and an informal 
vote was taken as to whether it should be located at Woodsville or the 
County Farm. The result was 25 in favor of the County Farm to 5 in 
favor of Woodsville. At a meeting held March 18 a resolution was 
adopted providing that a jail and house of correction be erected at the 
County Farm at a cost not to exceed $12,000 in excess of the amount which 
should be received from the proceeds of the sale of the old jail, and for the 
issue of bonds payable in ten years, at a rate of 4 per cent interest, and a 
building committee consisting of the county commissioners, Henry F. 
Green, James E. Huckins and Horace F. Hoyt, J. E. Henry of Lin- 
coln and H. W. Herbert of Rumney was appointed. The county com- 
missioners were also authorized to sell the jail property at Haverhill 
Corner and apply the proceeds on the cost of the new building. The jail 
was erected that year, and its cost was provided for out of current funds, 
and without the issue of bonds authorized. 

For more than half a century after the organization of the Grafton 
County courts, the records of the courts, and of the register of deeds were 
kept in the homes or places of business of the clerks of the courts and 
registers. As these records increased in bulk and volume, the importance 
of safeguarding them from fire or other accident was more and more recog- 
nized, and the convention of representatives at the June session of the 
legislature, 1838, voted to raise the sum of $2,000 for the erection of a 
suitable building for the records. It was to be provided "with a sufficient 
number of fire safes," and the court was authorized to locate such building 
in such town as they deemed best, taking into consideration the sum 
pledged by each town for the building aforesaid. It would appear from 
this vote that it was not a matter of legal requirement that the records 
should be kept at the county seat. 

The justices of the Court of Common Pleas, reported to the convention 
of 1840 that, in accordance with the vote of the convention of 1838, they 
had built at Haverhill a two-story brick building, containing four offices, 
each furnished with fireproof vault, for the accommodation of the register 
of deeds, the register of probate, and the clerks of the courts. The cost 
of the building was $2,450, exclusive of the land which was donated by 
citizens of the Corner. The building still stands, and is occupied by 
former Judge of Probate Tyler Westgate, and the Haverhill Free Library. 
It was at first intended to construct the building with but one story, but 
the court at its discretion changed the plan to two stories, and made the 
roof of slate instead of shingles. Col. John R. Reading was the contractor, 
and the court reported he had done his work "in good style and in a most 
thorough manner." 



286 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

As the bar of Grafton County increased in membership it became recog- 
nized as one of the ablest in the state, and the members of the profession 
in Haverhill have been an honorable part of the bar of county and state. 

Moses Dow, the first of the profession to settle in town, was a native 
of Atkinson, the son of John Dow, and a graduate of Harvard College in 
the class of 1769. He came to Grafton County, first at Plymouth, 
probably prior to 1774, since in that year he was appointed register of 
probate, and also by the Court of General Sessions to act as King's attorney 
in the absence of the attorney-general. He removed from Plymouth to 
Haverhill in 1779. In 1783 he was elected moderator, town clerk, one 
of the selectmen and sealer of weights and measures. After that date 
his name frequently appears, indicating activity and prominence in local 
affairs until near the close of his life. [See Genealogy Dow.] 

He was beyond question an able and learned lawyer, and stood high in 
the esteem of the public. He was interested in military affairs and held a 
commission as brigadier-general in the state militia. He was solicitor 
of Grafton County for four years, and from 1774 to 1807 he was register 
of probate. In 1784 and 1791, he was elected to the state senate and 
was chosen president of that body in the latter year. He was also a 
member of the executive council in 1785-86. He became judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas in 1808 and remained on that bench until his 
death in 1811. In 1784 he was elected, by the General Court, a member 
of the Congress of the Confederation, but declined the election on the 
ground that he did not feel qualified for the responsibilities and duties 
of the office. No Haverhill citizen has since followed his example, nor 
for that matter any citizen of New Hampshire. He was the first post- 
master of Haverhill, his commission bearing the signature of George 
Washington. He was one of the incorporators of the academy, and a 
heavy subscriber to the stock of the Haverhill Bridge Company. He 
resided for the most part of his life at the Corner, his residence being that 
later owned by the late Milo Bailey, and burned a few years since. 
Some of his time was spent on his valuable farm south of North Haver- 
hill, known for many years as "the Dow farm," now owned by Henry 
W. Keyes. He was one of the earliest to protest against taxation for the 
support of the ministry, advocating a complete separation between 
church and state. Energetic, enterprising, public spirited as a citizen, 
of unimpeachable character, his literary attainments, his unquestioned 
abilities and his standing in his profession gave him great influence in his 
town, and eminence in his county and state. 

Alden Sprague settled in Haverhill about 1796. He was eminent in 
his profession and had a large and lucrative practice. He was a native 
of Rochester, Mass. ; studied law with his half brother and was admitted 
to the bar in Cheshire County. He excelled as an advocate before juries. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 287 

He was appointed by the court in 1805 senior counsel to defend Josiah 
Burnham for the murder of Freeman and Starkweather, with Daniel 
Webster as junior. As there was really no defense, Mr. Sprague declined 
to make any argument to the jury, leaving the case in the hands of Mr. 
Webster who proceeded to address the jury in opposition to capital 
punishment, his first and also his last address of that character. Burn- 
ham was not acquitted, but Mr. Webster's argument attracted the favor- 
able attention of the court. Mr. Sprague was twice married. One 
daughter by his first wife became the wife of James I. Swan of Bath, a 
famous lawyer of his time. Another daughter married Hamlin Rand, and 
Charles W. and Edward D. Rand, leading members of the Grafton bar, 
were her sons. 

John Porter, a son of Col. Asa Porter, graduated from Dartmouth 
College in 1787, read law in Chester and practiced there for a time. He 
came to Haverhill about 1795 and engaged in practice both in Haverhill 
and Newbury, Vt., until he removed to Broome, Canada, his father, 
Colonel Porter, having received some years before a grant of almost that 
entire township. 

Moses Dow, Jr., studied law with his father, and began practice in 
1800. He succeeded his father as register of probate in 1807, and held 
that office for thirty-two years. He also succeeded his father as post- 
master. He lacked the energy and ambition of his father, and his legal 
practice was never extensive. 

George Woodward was a native of Hanover, a son of Judge Bezaleel 
Woodward and a grandson of President Wheelock of Dartmouth College 
from which institution he graduated in 1793. After his admission to the 
bar he began the practice of law in Haverhill in 1805. He became cashier 
of the Coos Bank when it was established in 1804. He was also clerk of 
the court for some years, and stood high in his profession. He was a man 
of great purity of character, and a devout Christian. He identified 
himself with the early Methodists and, strange as it may seem today, this 
action led to practically a social ostracism, which doubtless had much to 
do with his removal to Lowell in 1816 when he engaged in the practice 
until his death in 1836. 

Joseph Emerson Dow, second son of Gen. Moses Dow, graduated 
from Dartmouth in 1799, studied law with his father and was admitted to 
the bar in 1802. He remained but a little time in Haverhill, however. 
He opened an office for a short time in Strafford, Vt., and became the 
pioneer-lawyer in Littleton in 1807. In 1812 he removed to Franconia, 
where he was engaged in teaching until his death in 1857, except for a 
few years when he followed this vocation in Thornton, at the same time 
holding the office of postmaster. He was not a successful lawyer, being 
by nature averse to strife, and in his later years practically abandoned his 



288 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

profession. He was twice married. His first wife, the daughter of Hon. 
Jonathan Arnold of Rhode Island, was a woman of remarkable strength of 
character and of prominent social standing. A son of theirs, Moses 
Arnold Dow, amassed a fortune in the conduct of the Waverly Magazine, 
and was the founder of Dow Academy in his native town, Franconia. 

John Nelson was one of the leaders of the bar of the county, and 
ranked high in the legal profession of the state. He was a native of 
Exeter, but his boyhood was spent in Gilmanton, his parents having 
removed there from Exeter when he was still a child. He graduated at 
Dartmouth in 1803. He read law with Charles Marsh of Woodstock, 
Vt., and later with Peter 0. Shacker of Boston and, on his admission to 
the bar, settled in Haverhill where he spent his life. He was twice mar- 
ried, first, to Susannah Brewster, daughter of Gen. Ebenezer Brewster of 
Hanover, and, second, to Lois Burnham Leverett, daughter of John 
Leverett of Windsor, Vt. The Leverett family was a prominent one in 
Colonial Massachusetts, giving to the colony a governor, and to Harvard, 
in its early history, a president. Mrs. Nelson was a woman of superior 
charm, a highly cultured intellect and of refined literary taste. The 
family of eleven children inherited the tastes and ability of parents and 
the Nelson home was a social centre in the golden days of the Corner. 
Mr. Nelson had a large and lucrative practice and was counsel in some of 
the more important cases of his time. A gentleman of the old school, of 
unsullied integrity he stood high in the esteem of his townsmen. One of 
his daughters was the wife of Chief Justice Ira Perley of Concord, and a 
son, Thomas Leverett Nelson, residing in Worcester, Mass., was a distin- 
guished lawyer, and for some } r ears before his death was judge of the 
United States Circuit Court. Mr. Nelson for many years was known as 
"the Admiral," a name given him because of his somewhat stately and 
measured step, and of his clinging to the old time dress of blue coat with 
polished brass buttons. 

Henry Hutchinson, son of Aaron Hutchinson of Lebanon, one of the 
pioneer lawyers of the county, graduated at Dartmouth, studied with his 
father, was admitted to the bar in 1807, and in 1810 came to Haverhill, 
where he practiced his profession for five years. He then went to Han- 
over, and later to New York when he died in 1838. He married a daugh- 
ter of Judge Bezaleel Woodward of Hanover. 

David Sloane began the practice of law in Haverhill in 1811. Born 
in Pelham, Mass., in 1780, he worked his way through Dartmouth Col- 
lege and studied law with W. H. Woodward of Hanover and George 
Woodward of Haverhill. Eccentric in manner, somewhat careless as to 
personal appearance, he was a shrewd and able lawyer, a practical busi- 
ness man, and was prudent in the care of the emoluments of his profession. 
He married Hannah, a daughter of Col. Thomas Johnson of Newbury, Vt. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 289 

His youngest daughter, Miss Elizabeth Sloane, is still living (1914) in 
the old homestead at the Corner, the interior of which is rich in old time 
furniture, china, and souvenirs of the early part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. Scott Sloane, for several years a practicing lawyer at Woodsville, 
now of Lebanon, is a grandson of David Sloane. 

Joseph Bell, born in Bedford in 1787, of Scotch Irish parentage, grad- 
uated at Dartmouth in 1807, and came to Haverhill as precepter of the 
academy the same year. He read law with Samuel Bell of Amherst, 
Samuel Dana of Boston and Jeremiah Smith of Exeter, and began the 
practice of his profession in Haverhill in 1811 and continued it till 1842, 
when he removed to Boston and became associated in practice with Henry 
F. Durant, the founder of Wellesley College. In his early professional 
career he was cashier of the Grafton Bank and later its president. He took 
an active interest in political affairs, was an ardent Federalist and later a 
Whig. He represented Haverhill twice in the legislature, held various 
town offices, was county solicitor, and candidate for Congress in 1835. 
After his removal to Boston he was a member of the Massachusetts legis- 
lature, both House and Senate, and was president of the latter body for 
one term. He married Catherine, daughter of Mills Olcott of Hanover 
and subsequent to this was defendant in a famous suit for breach of prom- 
ise to marry, the plaintiff being a daughter of Gen. Moses Dow, who, after 
two bitterly fought trials of the case, lost. Of large and powerfully built 
frame, he was of commanding presence, and impervious and overbearing in 
manner, autocratic in his relations with others, he was not a popular man. 
He won his successes by sheer ability, and his enemies were doubtless as 
numerous as his friends. He stood, however, in the front rank of his 
profession in the state; and among his apponents at the bar, sometimes 
successful and sometimes unsuccessful, were George Sullivan, Ichabod 
Bartlett, Jeremiah Smith, Ezekiel Webster, Levi Woodbury and Joel 
Parker. He did not excel so much as an advocate as a lawyer. Careful 
and painstaking in the preparation of his cases, he trusted little to others. 
A master of legal principles, he was thorough and exact in his knowledge 
of law. He never came to court unprepared; the minute details of his 
cases were carefully attended to, and he was always on guard, and seldom 
if ever taken by surprise. He was beyond question Haverhill's most 
distinguished lawyer. He began his professional life in straightened cir- 
cumstances, but by great industry, careful saving and shrewd farsighted 
investments, he amassed a large property. As administrator of the estate 
of Col. Asa Porter, it is said that by his management and disposal of the 
estate, especially of its large landed property, he made in connection with 
the syndicate who purchased the lands in bulk "big money." In money 
matters he was extremely exacting, and held all with whom he had deal- 
ings to the strictest account. He always kept his agreements, but he was 

20 



290 HISTORY OP HAVERHILL 

extremely careful in making them. He became in time the money king of 
Haverhill. Although his early circumstances were humble, he was a 
born aristocrat. He lived much alone, did not mingle freely with his 
fellow townsmen, was feared by them more than loved. He was the 
high priced lawyer of his town, yet his services were always in demand. 
His removal to Boston was, doubtless, due as much to his ambition for 
political preferment, an ambition shared and fostered by his wife, as to 
expectations of increased professional emolument. He regarded Massa- 
chusetts as offering more favorable opportunities for the realization of 
his ambition than rock-ribbed, Democratic New Hampshire. To some 
extent he was successful, but his sudden death at Saratoga in 1851, ended 
his distinguished career. His Haverhill residence is now owned and 
occupied by Frederic W. Page. 

One of his five children, a son, Joseph Mills, graduated at Dartmouth 
in 1844, read law with his father, and became associated in practice with 
Rufus Choate whose daughter he married. Mrs. Choate was a sister of 
his mother. During the war of the Rebellion he served on the staff of 
Gen. Benjamin F. Butler in New Orleans and later became judge of the 
Recorders Court in that city. 

Samuel Cartland was born in Lee in 1797, graduated at Dartmouth 
in 1816, studied law and came to Haverhill some time prior to 1825. 
He represented Haverhill that year in the state house of representatives 
and was a member of the state senate from the twelfth district for a part 
of the session of 1829, and for the years 1830-31. He was president of 
that body in 1829, also in 1831. Immediately after the adjournment of 
the legislature he was appointed judge of probate for Grafton County, 
resigning the office in June, 1832. He was a candidate for Congress in 
1835, but was defeated, a defeat which he took seriously to heart. He 
went South for a time in 1837 or 1838, then to Maine when he died in 1840 
at the age of 43. He held high rank as a lawyer, and of accomplished and 
gentlemanly manners he was a social favorite. His practice would have 
been a most lucrative one had not political ambitions interfered with it. 
"The law is a jealous mistress." 

Edmund Carleton, a native of Haverhill, son of Dr. Edmund Carle- 
ton, was born in 1797; he graduated at Dartmouth in 1822, engaged in 
teaching in Virginia, reading law in the meantime, returned to Haverhill, 
when he finished his law studies with Joseph Bell, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1826. He began practice in Haverhill, but in 1831 removed to 
Littleton. Mr. Carleton was well grounded in the principles of juris- 
prudence, a sound and safe adviser who always advised a peaceful settle- 
ment of differences instead of contests in courts. On account of ill health 
he finally abandoned his profession and engaged in active business. He 
was one of the early members of the Abolition party, and his Littleton 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 291 

home was one of the stations on the underground railroad leading to 
Canada. 

Hale Atkinson Johnston, son of Michael and Sarah Atkinson John- 
ston, and grandson of Col. Charles Johnston, began the practice of law 
with excellent prospects in 1829, but died two years later of pulmonary 
consumption. He was born in Haverhill in 1801, graduated at Dart- 
mouth in 1825, taught in Northumberland, Pa., read law with James 
McKeen in New York City and finished his studies with Joseph Bell. 

Daniel Blaisdell, after his admission to the bar in 1830 from the 
office of Joseph Bell, began practice in Haverhill as an associate of John 
Nelson. In 1832, he removed to Lebanon, and later in 1835 to Hanover, 
where, aside from his duties as treasurer of Dartmouth College, he con- 
tinued in the practice of his profession till his death in 1875. A gentle- 
man of the old school, courteous and refined in manners, he was well 
read, painstaking and judicious as lawyer and counsellor. He was a 
son of Elijah B. and Nancy (Fogg) Blaisdell, born in Pittsfield in 1806. 
He fitted for college at Kimball Union Academy and graduated at Dart- 
mouth in 1827. He married Charlotte, a daughter of John Osgood, the 
famous clockmaker and silversmith of Haverhill. 

Edward R. Olcott, son of Mills Olcott of Hanover, was admitted to 
the bar in 1828, but came to Haverhill in 1830 where he was associated 
for a short time with Joseph Bell, but removed to Louisiana where he 
won distinction at the bar and was raised to the bench. 

Jonathan Bliss was a native of Randolph, Vt., born in 1799, the son 
of Jonathan and Maria (Martin) Bliss. He graduated at Dartmouth in 
1824, read law with Joseph Bell, and William C. Thompson of Plymouth 
and began practice of the law at Plymouth in 1828. Two years later he 
came to Haverhill, and was in active practice for four years when he 
went to Gainesville, Ala., where he remained in practice, a successful 
advocate, and an able lawyer, till his death in 1879. He married, first, 
Lucretia, daughter of William Leverett of Windsor, Vt.; second, Mary, 
daughter of Dr. Samuel Kidder of Charlestown, Mass., and third, Maria 
Kidder of Medfield, Mass. 

William H. Duncan, whose later years were spent in Hanover, was 
in practice a year or two in Haverhill. He was born in Candia, then a 
part of Londonderry, in 1807, and graduated at Dartmouth in 1830. He 
was a man of brilliant talents, of fascinating manner, a great favorite 
with the ladies of Hanover, one of the most beautiful and accomplished 
of whom — Sarah, the daughter of Mills Olcott — he afterwards married. 
Two of Mr. Olcott's daughters were already married, one to Rufus Choate 
and the other to Joseph Bell, and Mr. Duncan, after teaching in the South 
for three or four years, reading law in the meantime, was admitted to the 
bar and began practice in Haverhill, with promise of success equal to 



292 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

that of his two distinguished brothers-in-law. The failing health of 
Mr. Olcott led to the removal of Mr. Duncan to Hanover to assist his 
father-in-law in his large and important business concerns. He soon 
acquired a large and lucrative practice, which was later interrupted by 
the necessity of spending his winters in the South on account of the health 
of Mrs. Duncan, and this interruption was increased by the death of 
Mr. Olcott in 1845, and Mrs. Olcott in 1848, the settlement of their 
estates falling into his hands. The death of Mrs. Duncan in 1850 was 
a blow from which he never recovered, and he soon withdrew from active 
participation in professional or business affairs. In politics he was a 
conservative Democrat, in religion a devout Episcopalian. Though his 
residence in Haverhill was brief, he left a lasting impression of a lawyer 
of especially brilliant promise, of graceful and elegant deportment, and 
of a social charm rarely equalled. 

Samuel C. Webster could hardly be called a Haverhill lawyer, though 
the year of his death, 1835, he practiced in Haverhill, coming from Ply- 
mouth where he had been in practice since 1815. At the time of his 
death he was sheriff. He was an able lawyer, active in politics, and was 
speaker of the New Hampshire House in 1830. 

Few if any of the Haverhill lawyers enjoyed more thoroughly the re- 
spect and confidence of his townsmen, were more thoroughly trusted by 
members of the bar, for soundness of judgment and rigid integrity, than 
Nathan B. Felton. He was born in Pelham, Mass., in 1798, grad- 
uated at Middlebury College, studied law with Gen. Charles W. Field 
at Newfane, Vt., and was admitted to the bar in 1824. He began prac- 
tice at Lebanon that same year where he remained for about ten years, 
the latter part of which time he was postmaster. Appointed clerk of 
the court in 1834, he came to Haverhill, and remained until his death in 
1876, the most of the time in full practice of law. He was clerk for ten 
years, and register of probate, five years from 1852, town clerk in 1837 and 
1843, and representative in 1842 and 1853. "Squire" Felton was a 
careful, painstaking and learned lawyer. His mind was eminently 
judicial, and in knowledge of court procedure he had no superior in the 
state. Few men were endowed with a larger capacity of acquisition. 
He fitted for the junior class in college in eighteen months from the time 
he began the study of Latin and Greek, at a time when Latin, Greek and 
mathematics constituted almost the entire college curriculum. Quiet 
and retiring in manners, he was not a great trial lawyer, but his opinions 
in matters of law, always trustworthy and valuable were constantly 
sought in cases of large importance. His unpaid services for the poor 
and dependent freely given were no small part of his professional work. 
In his forty-two years' residence in Haverhill, his integrity of character 
was never questioned, and though in his political affiliations he was a 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 293 

lifelong uncompromising Democrat, he had always the respect of his 
political opponents. He probably never used a stub pen, typewriters 
were unknown in his day, but his papers, legal documents, and records, 
all written with the quill, were models of neatness, exactness, and — what 
could not be said even of Choate — were always legible. Joseph Bell was 
Haverhill's most distinguished lawyer; Nathan B. Felton, Haverhill's 
most useful lawyer. 

David Dickey, a member of the bar, graduate of Dartmouth in 1835, 
son-in-law of John Nelson, was in Haverhill 1838-40, but was devoted 
rather to speculative enterprises than to the practice of his profession. 

David H. Collins^ born in Deerfield, a graduate of Dartmouth in 
1835, was in practice in Haverhill in 1839 to 1843. He was register of 
probate for three years, but resigned on account of failing health. He 
returned to his native town, and died of consumption at the early age of 
31. While register of probate, he put the papers and records of the 
office, which he found in much confusion, in order and made an index, a 
service of great value to the county. A brilliant scholar, well read as a 
lawyer, a devout Episcopalian, he showed great promise of professional 
success, the fulfillment of which was prevented by his early death. He 
left the larger part of a considerable property for religious purposes. 

Jonas D. Sleeper spent twelve years in Haverhill, from 1848 to 1860, 
as clerk of court, and was not in active practice as a lawyer. He was 
born in Gilford in 1814, a son of Jonas and Sally (Bean) Sleeper. He 
fitted for college at Gilmanton Academy and graduated at Brown Uni- 
versity in 1836. He read law in the office of Josiah Quincy of Rumney 
and was admitted to the bar in 1842, and entered on the practice of his 
profession in Hill where he remained till appointed clerk of the court for 
Grafton County in 1848. Courteous and gentlemanly in manners, he 
made friends of all with whom he sustained professional or business rela- 
tions and in the discharge of the duties of the important positions he 
occupied he was punctiliously faithful and trustworthy. A Democrat 
in his political affiliations he never gave offence by unfair partisanship. 
In 1854 and 1855, he represented the Grafton and Coos district in the 
state senate. In 1860 he accepted the position of cashier of the state 
Capital Bank at Concord, but only remained one year when he was 
appointed clerk of court for Merrimack County which office he held until 
his death which occurred in 1868 at Plymouth, while engaged in a reference 
case. He was married in 1845 to Martha Grace, daughter of Josiah 
Quincy of Rumney. 

John S. Bryant was a native of Meredith born in 1800, and before 
coming to Haverhill in 1839 lived in Bristol. He was a deputy sheriff 
for a number of years and was engaged in what was known as "running 
lines" and surveying land. For several years he employed his leisure in 



294 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

the study of the law, and was admitted to the bar in 1846, as what was 
known as "a statute lawyer." Section 2, chapter 177, Revised Statutes, 
1830, provided that "any citizen of the age of twenty-one years of good 
moral character, on application to the superior court shall be admitted 
to practice as an attorney." This provided a somewhat short cut for 
admission to the bar and Mr. Bryant availed himself of the opportunity 
offered. He was a man of more than usual natural ability, of untiring 
energy, industiy and perseverance, which brought him a profitable 
practice until his death in 1873. 

David Page was another "statute lawyer," admitted to the bar in 
1845. He had previously been a teacher and clerk in a store. He was 
engaged in mercantile business, abandoning his practice for a time, but 
returned to practice in 1857, and did a large business in procuring pen- 
sions subsequent to the War of the Rebellion. 

It hardly need be said that these "statute lawyers" were not in high 
favor with the court. In 1850 a petition addressed to the Court of 
Common Pleas asked for the disbarment of John S. Bryant for certain 
alleged unprofessional practices, which allegations seem to have been 
fully sustained by the investigation ordered by the court, but the case 
was transferred to the Superior Court for the reason that the Court of 
Common Pleas doubted whether it could "exercise authority over attor- 
neys who appear by virtue of an admission to the bar of the Superior 
Court upon the ground that they are persons of good moral character." 
At the December term, in the opinion of the Superior Court rendered by 
Chief Justice Gilchrist, he took occasion to say some things concerning the 
policy of creating lawyers by statute, which made an interesting page in 
Volume 24 of the New Hampshire Reports. In commenting on the action 
of Attorney Bryant in the case which gave rise to the petition for his 
disbarment he said: 

Almost any course would have been better than the one he pursued : for the positions 
he took were inconsistent with each other, and all his statements could not have been 
true. ... In looking after his interest and fixing his eyes constantly upon that he 
lost sight of the truth, and that is, in great measure, the cause of his present difficulty. 
. . . But he was ignorant of the law and the practice, and being thus ignorant, and 
perhaps embarrassed and uncertain what course to pursue, he did whatever he thought 
would answer the immediate purpose, without looking beyond it. This course may fairly 
enough be presumed to have resulted from his ignorance of the law, and not to have 
proceeded from any corrupt and fraudulent motive. 

In dismissing the petition for Mr. Bryant's disbarment, Judge Gilchrist 
took occasion to say some things concerning the statute, the keen and 
biting sarcasm of which doubtless had some influence in securing the re- 
peal of the statute machinery for the manufacture of lawyers: 

This brings us to the question whether, in the present state of the law, mere ignorance 
of the law, however gross, can authorize the court to remove an attorney from practice. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 295 

But how can the court possess this power, when the statute declares that any citizen, 
twenty-one years of age and of good moral character, shall, on application, be admitted to 
practice as an attorney? The statute requires no knowledge of the law, no acquaintance 
with the practice, and no education whatever. The applicant may be destitute of even 
the rudiments of an education. He may be unable to read or write. He may subscribe 
the oaths to the constitution and of office, by making his mark. But if he comes within 
the statute he must be admitted. It has been sometimes thought that if attorneys, 
who take such an important part in the administration of justice, should be reasonably 
familiar with those great principles, which for some hundreds of years have formed the 
foundation of government, have selected domestic relations, have fixed the construction 
of contracts and have secured the rights of persons and property to all who speak the 
English language. If these could be dispensed with, some knowledge of the ordinary 
rules of practice, or, at least of the distinction between forms of action, has been supposed 
to be necessary. But the statute dispenses with all this. It does not require so much 
education in an attorney, to whom such momentous interests are entrusted, as it requires 
in the teacher of a district school. A school mistress must be qualified to teach the 
English language grammatically, and the rudiments of arithmetic and geography. But 
the statute does not require that the studies of an attorney should have been prosecuted 
so far. Anything that tends to lower the standard of professional acquirements among 
those whose duty it is to investigate and defend the rights of others is to be lamented. 
. . . And it is with a full conviction of the importance of preserving the standard of 
professional qualifications, that we have been, nevertheless, constrained to come to 
the result, that ignorance of the law in an attorney does not authorize the court to 
suspend or remove him from office, as a contrary doctrine would render it necessary that 
an attorney should possess some knowledge of the law — a condition which the statute 
does not require. 

Charles E. Thompson born in 1802, a graduate of Dartmouth, class 
of 1828, was in practice in Haverhill till 1855, when he went to Chicago. 
He married Mary, a daughter of Mills Olcott of Hanover. He was a 
man of brilliant accomplishments but unfortunate habits interfered with 
his professional success. He died in 1882 at the home of his daughter in 
New Jersey. 

George W. Chapman came to Haverhill from Hill where he had 
been in practice for three or four years, in 1853, and enjoyed a successful 
practice, accumulating ample fortune. He married Eleanor H. Towle 
(see Genealogy) and their home was a hospitable one, Mr. and Mrs. 
Chapman being social favorites. He read law at first in Cleveland, Ohio, 
later with Jonas D. Sleeper in Hill, and with Judge Nesmith and A. F. 
Pike in Franklin. He was a native of Hollis, born in 1827, and died in 
1896. He was admitted to the bar at Plymouth in 1849. He was public 
spirited, interested in the cause of education, serving as a trustee of 
Haverhill Academy, and superintendent of the town schools. 

Charles R. Morrison was born in Bath on January 22, 1819 (see Gen- 
ealogy), educated at Newbury (Vt.) Seminary, was admitted to the bar 
in 1842, from the office of Goodall & Woods, and remained in Bath for a 
time in partnership with Mr. Goodall. In 1845 he came to Haverhill 
and practiced his profession till the summer of 1851, when he was ap- 



296 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

pointed "Circuit Justice of the Court of Common Pleas," holding this 
position until the Know Nothing ascendancy of 1855. In 1856, he re- 
moved to Nashua, and his later practice was in Manchester and Concord. 
During the War of the Rebellion, he served as adjutant of the Eleventh 
New Hampshire Volunteers for nearly two years, when he resigned and 
returned to the practice of his profession. He was an able, learned lawyer, 
endowed with an acute, critical mind. He rendered his state and pro- 
fession valuable service by his "A Digest of the New Hampshire Reports," 
"Town Officer," "Justice and Sheriff and Attorneys Assistants," "Probate 
Directory," and "Digest of School Laws." 

Nathaniel W. Westgate was born in Plainfield January 26, 1801 
(see Genealogy). He received his academic education at Kimball Union 
Academy, read law with Charles Flanders, and was admitted to the bar 
at Newport in 1827. He located at Enfield, and continued in the prac- 
tice of his profession there until 1856, when he was elected register of 
probate and removed to Haverhill where he made his home, an honored 
and respected citizen, until his death in 1890. He was appointed judge 
of probate in 1861, succeeding Judge Berry, who had been elected 
governor, and served until 1871, when he retired under the statute age 
limitation. His life was a useful one, his personal character stainless 
and his record was one of a safe and valued counsellor to the hundreds 
who, relying on his integrity and sound judgment, sought advice and 
counsel. His early political affiliations were with the Whig party, and 
on the organization of the Republican party, he cordially espoused its 
principles. Such men as Judge Westgate made it "the Grand Old 
Party." 

George Frederick Putnam, born in Croydon (see Genealogy), grad- 
uate of Thetford (Vt.) Academy and of Norwich University, read law with 
Nathan B. Felton, and with Charles R. Morrison in Manchester where he 
was admitted to the bar in that city in 1867, and began practice in Haver- 
hill. He removed to Warren in 1870, returning to Haverhill in 1877, 
taking the office of Mr. Felton after the death of the latter in 1876, and 
continued in successful practice until 1882 when he removed to Kansas 
City, Mo., where he took a leading position at the bar of that city, and was 
prominent in financial circles until his sudden death in 1899. 

Luther C. Morse, was a native of Haverhill, born in 1834, the son of 
Daniel and L. (Colby) Morse (see Morse, Genealogy). He graduated at 
Dartmouth in 1860, and read law with O. W. Lull, and Nathaniel W. 
Westgate, and was admitted to the bar in 1863. He succeeded Judge 
Westgate as register of probate in July 1861, and in April 1871, was 
succeeded by Tyler Westgate. He went West soon after, and in recent 
years has been engaged in the management of mining properties in 
California. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 297 

Samuel T. Page is also a native of Haverhill son of Daniel and Marga- 
ret (Taylor) Page, born in 1849 (see Genealogy). He graduated at Dart- 
mouth in 1871, read law with Cross & Burnham in Manchester, and was 
admitted to the bar in Amherst. His professional practice has been for 
the most part in Haverhill. In the meantime he has held various official 
positions; has been superintendent of schools, and was register of probate 
in 1874-76, and again in 1881-85. He represented Haverhill in the 
legislature in 1877-78, and again in the prolonged session of 1887. He was 
private secretary to Governor Weston in 1874, and was for some time 
general business manager of the New Hampshire Democratic Press 
Company at Concord. It may be safely inferred that Mr. Page is in his 
political affiliations a Democrat. 

William F. Westgate, son of Nathaniel W., was born in Enfield in 
1852, and completed his academic education at the Chandler Scientific 
School, Dartmouth College. He read law with his father and G. F. Put- 
nam and was admitted to the bar in 1880. Besides his professional 
practice he was also engaged quite extensively as civil engineer and land 
surveyor. In 1882 he represented Haverhill in the legislature, and was 
twice elected register of probate. A Republican in politics he was active 
in the councils of his party. 

Samuel B. Page, the last years of whose professional life was spent in 
Haverhill (Woodsville) was a native of Littleton, born in 1838 (see 
Genealogy). He read law with Woods & Bingham of Bath, attended the 
Albany (N. Y.) Law School and was admitted to the bar in 1861 in Ver- 
mont, and to practice in the United States courts in 1869. He began 
practice at Wells River, Vt., but soon afterward went to Warren, subse- 
quently to Concord and later to Woodsville where he continued in practice 
till his death in 1912. He was not a great lawyer, but was a man of 
wonderful versatility, and was effective before juries. He was active in 
politics, which activity undoubtedly militated against his professional 
eminence and success. A born parliamentarian, ready in debate, never 
at a loss for the correct word, a brilliant rhetorician, he was a power in 
the New Hampshire legislature, from 1863 to 1869, from the town of 
Warren, in 1874 from Concord, and in 1887, 1889, and 1893 from Haver- 
hill. His services on the stump in political campaigns were always in 
demand, and in the Democratic party councils he was, for more than a 
quarter of a century, influential and prominent, and few New Hampshire 
men were better known in every section of the state. He was a member 
of the constitutional convention of 1876. In Haverhill he was active in 
town affairs, was superintendent of schools and moderator for several 
years. He was prominent in several fraternal organizations, especially 
the Odd Fellows, Masons and Elks, having served as grand master of the 
former organization. Versatility and its accompaniments interfered, 



298 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

however, with his success. He was a genius, and genius ofttimes exacts 
penalties. 

Edgar W. Smith may not perhaps be properly classed as a Haverhill 
lawyer, since his office and residence have been in Wells River, Vt., but 
during his partnership with Scott Sloane and later with his son, Raymond 
U. Smith, he maintained with them an office in Woodsville, and he has 
enjoyed a large and important practice in the Grafton County courts. 
He is an able, learned and successful lawyer of sound and reliable judg- 
ment as a counsellor, and exceptionally effective in the trial of causes. 

Scott Sloane (see Genealogy), who was associated with Mr. Smith for a 
time in Wells River, and for several years when the firm opened its office, 
in Woodsville, is of an old Haverhill family, the grandson of David Sloane 
one of the early lawyers of the town, is still in successful practice of his 
profession at Lebanon, whither he removed from Woodsville in 1904. 
While in Haverhill he was an active worker in the Republican party, a 
member of the constitutional convention of 1902, and prominent in the 
affairs of the community. As a lawyer he is painstaking and persistent 
and in the trial of causes before either court or jury, he meets with a 
marked degree of success. 

Raymond U. Smith, on his graduation from Norwich University in 
1894, began the study of law, and on his admission to the bar entered into 
partnership with his father, having charge of the office in Woodsville 
and taking up his residence in Haverhill. In 1911, the partnership was 
dissolved, and Mr. Smith has continued in practice since that time 
alone. He has a rapidly growing practice and is winning an enviable 
reputation as a lawyer. Elected solicitor of Grafton County in 1914 
and held office four years; appointed Major on staff of Governor Keyes 
in January, 1917; acted as Government Appeal Agent during war in 
connection with Local Board for Grafton County; moderator of town 
1917-18-19. 

Charles H. Hosford, though maintaining his legal residence in 
Monroe, has been in the active practice of his profession in Woodsville 
since 1899. He is also largely interested in real estate, which with his 
law practice has won him financial success. He represented the second 
senatorial district in the legislature of 1911, and has been active in the 
counsels of his party. While having a voting residence in Monroe, he 
has been in all other respects active in all the affairs of Woodsville where 
he takes a leading part. 

Dexter D. Dow maintains his voting residence in Littleton, but, as 
clerk of the court for the County of Grafton since 1897, he has resided 
in Woodsville, where he has become one of the leading factors in its social 
and business life. Debarred by the nature of his office from the active 
practice of his profession, he serves as commissioner in taking testimony, 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 299 

as referee in important civil actions, master in taking testimony in equity 
cases, and holds many positions as trustee or administrator of estates. 
He is also justice of the Police Court of the Haverhill district. Careful, 
methodical, painstaking, he is recognized both by court and bar as a 
model clerk. He graduated from Dartmouth in the class of 1889, and 
was admitted to the bar from the office of Bingham, Mitchell & Batchellor 
of Littleton. 

Fred S. Wright, a graduate of the University of Vermont, studied 
law at the Yale Law School, and shortly after his admission to the bar 
entered into partnership, in 1901, with C. H. Hosford under the firm 
name of Hosford & Wright. This continued until January 1, 1909, 
when, Mr. Wright having been elected to the office of county solicitor, 
the partnership was dissolved, and he entered on practice by himself. 
He served four years as solicitor and has since been engaged in a general 
practice which is becoming yearly more important. 

Fred B. Lang has had offices both in Newbury and Woodsville since 
1899, but has not been largely engaged in court practice, business affairs 
outside his profession occupying his time and claiming his attention to a 
large extent. Some of his business ventures have proven successful in a 
marked degree. In the autumn of 1915, he disposed of his business and 
professional interests and removed to the province of Alberta, Canada. 

Ira W. Thayer, on his graduation from the Woodsville High School, 
took the law course in Boston University and, on his admission to the bar, 
began practice in St. Johnsbury, later in Woodsville for a brief period, 
having his office with C. H. Hosford, but in 1913, a favorable opening 
occurring he removed to Berlin where he has every prospect of a success- 
ful practice. 

The history of the Haverhill bar has been an honorable one. 

Haverhill Police Court 

In accordance with a vote at the annual town meeting of 1893, the 
legislature of 1895 passed an act establishing a Police Court in Haverhill, 
and William F. Westgate was appointed justice, and this was amended 
at the session of 1899 by providing for an associate justice, the latter to 
"have sole jurisdiction within the limits of the Woodsville fire district," 
Dexter D. Dow, clerk of the Supreme Court, was appointed associate 
justice in May, 1899. He served in this capacity until February 11, 
1903, when he was appointed justice in place of W. F. Westgate who had 
died April 23, 1902. Herbert E. Smith of Pike was appointed associate 
justice, but served only a brief period, when Russell T. Bartlett, register 
of probate for Grafton County was appointed associate justice. The 
court was abolished by the legislature of 1913, and Haverhill was made 
part of a police district, consisting of the towns of Haverhill, Orford, 



300 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Piermont, Warren, Benton and Monroe, to be known as the police court 
for the district of Haverhill. Dexter D. Dow was appointed justice, and 
it was provided that the court should hold its sessions at some suitable 
place in the town of Haverhill. These district police courts were given 
enlarged jurisdiction in both civil and criminal matters. The change 
was not wholly satisfactory throughout the state, and the legislature of 
1915 abolished the district Court, and the old Haverhill Police Court, 
under the new name of Haverhill Municipal Court, was re-established, 
and Judge Dow was appointed justice, with Russell T. Bartlett associate. 
The jurisdiction given by the act of 1913 was in the main retained and the 
Court was for Haverhill alone. 



CHAPTER XIII 



THE MEDICAL PROFESSION 

Dr. Samuel White Came to Newbury in 1763 — The Only Physician in Coos 

UNTIL AFTER REVOLUTIONARY War — Dr. MARTIN PHELPS FlRST IN HAVERHILL — 

Followed by Drs. Edmund Carleton, Ezra Bartlett, John Angier, Phineas 
Spalding, Henry B. Leonard, John McNab, Samuel P. Carbee, Charles R. 
Gibson — Present Physicians — Drs. Miller, Lawrence (died 1919), Dearborn, 
Speare — Dentists — "Goold" Davis — The Cottage Hospital. 

Haverhill's first physician, like Haverhill's first minister, lived in New- 
bury, but no account of the medical practitioners of Haverhill would be 
complete without mention of Dr. Samuel White, who, while he lived 
across the river, was Haverhill's only doctor till just after the Revolution. 
Like many other of the early settlers of the two towns, he was a native of 
Plaistow. He was the fourteenth of the fifteen children of Nicholas 
White of whom seven fine sons and two daughters were among the early 
settlers of Newbury. The eldest son, Noah, b. 1728 was one of the 
grantees and came with his wife and four brothers to the town in 1763. 
Samuel, born November 6, 1750, a boy of thirteen, remained but a short 
time, returned to Plaistow and later studied medicine with Doctor Brickett 
of Haverhill, Mass., and in 1773 located permanently in Newbury, was 
for some time the only physician in Coos, and for many years the principal 
practitioner in the settlements on both sides the river, his account books 
showing visits as far to the north as Guildhall and Northumberland. 
F. P. Wells says of him: 1 

"He had the confidence of the people and was esteemed very skilful. Many of his 
journeys were on foot, and in winter on snowshoes. He was surgeon to the troops sta- 
tioned in Coos, and accompanied the soldiers who went to Saratoga. He reached 
Bennington the day after the battle and helped care for the wounded. Two accounts 
kept by him are owned by Mrs. Z. A. Richardson of St. Johnsbury and are in a beautiful 
handwriting, each entry being clear and exact and the ink as fresh as if just written. 
These accounts begin in 1773 and end in 1790. For an ordinary visit the charge was 
one shilling here in Newbury; from two to six shillings in Haverhill; in Bath from three 
to seven shillings. A visit to Capt. Ward Bayley at Upper Coos is charged at forty 
shillings. Medicine was always extra. In these books about one hundred and fifty 
remedial agents are mentioned. Physic stands first, some sort being used over fifteen 
hundred times. Bleeding was common. Surgical operations were few, scarcely a dozen 
are mentioned in these volumes, and these were simple fractures of arms or legs. . . . 
In person Doctor White was tall and large in frame, capable of great endurance, and strong 
constitution as his great age testified. He was fond of anecdote, and abounded in wit 
and humor. He used to say that he was 'apt to have poor luck with his patients in their 
last illness.' He was generous to a fault, somewhat slack in business, and would take 

1 History of Newbury, Vt., pp. 736-737. 

301 



302 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

notes from people whose financial ability he knew nothing about. For years he drank 
heavily, but afterwards discontinued the use of spirits. Late in life he made a profes- 
sion of religion, and was admitted to the Congregational Church at a special service 
held at his house September 19, 1844." 

Doctor White died January 25, 1848, in his 98th year. During the 
period covered by his account books, but seven confinement cases, an 
indication of the prevailing employment of midwives in those early days, 
and the few cases of surgery indicate that the use of the knife was almost 
unknown. Appendicitis, gall stones and a score or so of other ailments 
had not then been discovered or invented, and anaesthetics had not 
taken the place of alcohol which was the only opiate then used by the 
profession. The medical treatment by practitioners was heroic, and 
Doctor White was undoubtedly the first of the Haverhill heroes. He had 
a large family of twelve children, none of whom married, and the graves 
of nine of these with those of their parents are marked by the long row 
of white gravestones in the Jefferson Hill Cemetery. 

Bittinger mentions a Dr. John Porter as connected with the early 
evidence relative to the charges of disloyalty made against Col. Asa 
Porter as early as 1776, and says that he was probably a brother of Col. 
Asa, but the latter had no brother of that name, nor is there any evidence 
that he ever practiced medicine in Haverhill, and as little is known of 
Dr. Samuel Hale who is mentioned in the proprietors in 1778, where he 
was voted £3, 18s for doctoring in Ezekiel Chapman's family. 

Dr. Thaddeus Butler came to Haverhill in the closing years of the 
Revolution. He was married before 1783 to a daughter of Col. Timothy 
Bedel. He must have died early, since his widow married Samuel Brooks 
in 1787 or 1788. 

The first physician resident in Haverhill who came into prominence 
was Dr. Martin Phelps, who must have come to the town as early as 1782, 
since in that year he acted as attending surgeon to the soldiers at Haver- 
hill under Capt. Charles Johnston. He was born in Northampton, Mass., 
in 1756, the third of the nine children of Martin and Martha Parson 
Phelps and fifth in descent from William and Dorothy Phelps, who was 
born in Tewksbury, England, August 4, 1560, and came to New England, 
arriving March 20, 1630, and was one the first settlers and founders of 
Dorchester, Massachusetts Bay. Doctor Phelps graduated at Yale in 
1776, studied medicine and came to Haverhill. He married, first, Febru- 
ary 28, 1786, Ruth Ladd of Haverhill, who died in Chester, Mass., April 
16, 1804, and, second, February 5, 1806, Mary Fowler of Westfield, Mass. 
He died in Chester, Mass., whither he had removed some time subse- 
quent to 1796, his name appearing on the tax list for the last time in that 
year. Of his eight children, 1 the first five were born in Haverhill, the 

1 See Phelps Genealogy. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 303 

sixth in Belchertown, Mass., in 1799, and the two youngest in Chester, 
Mass. He was a man of great excellence of character, and enjoyed an 
enviable reputation as a physician. At a special town meeting, Novem- 
ber 21, 1791, a proposition to introduce "the small pox in town by way of 
inoculation" was negatived. At an adjourned meeting January 3, 
1792, this action was rescinded and it was "voted that Dr. Martin 
Phelps have liberty to propagate the small pox in town by inoculation." 
At a special meeting January 23, this action was rescinded, and the mat- 
ter remained in abeyance till at a special meeting January 7, 1793, it was 
"voted that the town consent to have small pox in town by way of inocu- 
lation." It is evident that a strong feeling was aroused over this subject, 
and there is a tradition that one result of this was the removal of Doctor 
Phelps from town. In Chester he became prominent as a physician and 
a citizen holding various town offices and was a representative to the 
General Court. While in Haverhill he was active in the organization of 
the First Congregationalist Church, and with Col. Charles Johnson was 
one of its two first deacons, an office which he held until his removal to 
Belchertown. In the record of baptisms are found, children of Doctor 
Martin and Ruth Phelps: Patty, 1788; Samuel, October 14, 1790; Sally, 
April 29, 1792; Electa, February 16, 1794. 

Doctor Phelps was succeeded by Dr. Amasa Scott, who lived in the 
Phelps house on Ladd Street, where he maintained a sort of tavern for 
invalids, what perhaps would be called in these modern days a sanata- 
rium. In 1800-01-02 he served as moderator at special town meetings, 
but soon after this went to Hanover, where he was in practice in 1815. 
In the treatment of what was known as the spotted fever or black plague 
which was epidemic in this section that year especially in the town of 
Warren, he was eminently successful where other physicians failed. 
During the time he remained in Haverhill his practice seems to have been 
special rather than general. 

Dr. Isaac Moore was of Scotch ancestry, born in Worcester, Mass., in 
1765. He came to this section of the country early in life, since as a 
boy of fifteen he witnessed the burning and sacking at Royalton, Vt., 
by the British and Indians in 1780. He probably began the practice of 
medicine in Haverhill, but remained here but a short time, going to Bath 
in 1790, in which town and in Littleton he practiced until his death in 
1818. He had not special knowledge of books, but was a man of great 
natural ability, and though rough in manners and speech, often shocking 
his more refined patients, he had more than ordinary success in his prac- 
tice. His wife was a daughter of Col. Timothy Bedel and they had a 
family of thirteen children. He was one of the early advocates of vaccina- 
tion, and his efforts to introduce it in Bath antedated those of Doctor 
Phelps in Haverhill. In 1789 Bath voted to permit him to "set up a 



304 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

house inoculation," but so strong was the prejudice against it, in spite of 
this vote, the building was torn down before it was completed. In 1790, 
however, he erected another building, and somewhat extensively adver- 
tised his small pox hospital for the accommodation of "those who wished 
to take the small pox by the safe and easy way of inoculation." 

Dr. Edmund Carleton practiced his profession for nearly half a 
century in Haverhill. He was born in Bradford, Mass., May 13, 1772, 
fifth in descent from Edward Carleton, who came from England and 
settled with Rev. Ezekiel Rogers and nineteen others in 1638-39, 
Rogers Plantation, afterwards Rowley, Mass. Soon after birth he 
went with his parents to Haverhill, Mass. In 1792 he taught school 
in Boscawen, where he later married Joanna, daughter of Peter and 
Rebecca Coffin, born April 11, 1773. He studied medicine with Dr. 
Jacob Kittredge of Dover, and settled in Haverhill in 1795, and pursued 
the practice of his profession until a few years before his death, which 
occurred November 2, 1838. After beginning his practice in Haverhill, 
he attended lectures in Hanover and graduated from the Dartmouth 
Medical School in 1804. He lived on the main street near the Piermont 
line, at first in a small house, and later in the large one which he built, 
and where his youngest son, Arthur, afterwards lived. He had a fine 
productive farm, and was active in the affairs of the community especially 
in the church of which he was a respected deacon for nearly twenty-five 
years. He was for many years a director of the Coos Bank, and took a 
deep interest in the Academy and the schools of the town. Prudent and 
economical, a foe of anything that looked like waste, he narrowly escaped 
being regarded by his neighbors and fellow townsmen as "near," if, 
indeed, he may be said to have escaped, and he amassed what was 
regarded in his time a handsome property. He stood high in his 
profession and was much in demand by his brother physicians for con- 
sultation in critical cases. In a time when medicine was administered 
heroically, he anticipated modern treatment by giving more diminutive 
doses than did his brethern, claiming that better results were thereby 
obtained. 

Dr. Ezra Bartlett came to Haverhill from Warren, where he had been 
in practice since 1797, in 1812, and remained in active practice for a 
period of thirty-six years. He was distinguished as a physician and 
surgeon, and was also prominent in public affairs. He had an aptitude 
for both vocations, much of this by inheritance. He was born in Kingston 
in 1770, the son of Josiah Bartlett, who was a native of Amesbury, Mass. 
In one of the public squares of that town there is a bronze statue of 
Josiah Bartlett, and on a bronze tablet imbedded in the pedestal is an 
inscription of which the following is a part: 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 305 

Patriot, Scholar, Statesman 

A delegate to the Continental Congress 

A signer of the Declaration of Independence 

With Stark at Bennington 

A member of the Convention — which ratified 

The Constitution of the United States. 

Chief Justice, President and First 

Governor of New Hampshire 

Not more illustrious for public services 

Than for his private virtues. 

He was 45 years of age when the War of the Revolution broke out, and 
was enjoying a large and successful practice of medicine in the town of 
Kingston. Ezra Bartlett owed much to inheritance. He began the 
practice of medicine in Warren in 1797. The fact that his father was one 
of the grantees of the town, and had not disposed of his holdings of land 
doubtless had something to do with the settlement of the son in that town. 
He had a large practice almost immediately. He took an interest in the 
affairs of the town, was moderator in 1800, 1808 and 1811, town clerk 
and treasurer in 1803 and 1804, and represented Warren in the legislature 
in 1805-06-07. He gave a great impetus to town affairs, and when 
in 1812 he removed to Haverhill, where there were better educational 
advantages for his children and a larger field for professional practice, 
Warren was not the same town in which he established himself in 1797. 
The roads were better; the schools were better; the farms were better, 
and he set a good example by building a fine house for himself, which 
served as a pattern for scores of others. His professional reputation was 
such and he had such excellent facilities for study, that he nearly always 
had one or more medical students with him, some of whom became in 
after life eminent professionally and politically. Two, Dr. Thomas 
Whipple, and Dr. Robert Burns became members of Congress, the former 
for four terms. Something of his popularity in Warren, and afterwards 
in Haverhill and adjourning towns is indicated by the fact that many 
children were named for him, and even to the present time, the christian 
name of Ezra Bartlett like that of George Washington is frequently 
found. During the thirty-six years of his practice in Haverhill he was 
beyond question the leading physician in this region, and was regarded as 
an authority in consultations. His interest in public affairs brought him 
frequent honors. In 1819 and 1820 he was treasurer and town clerk, 
presidential elector in 1820, a member of the Governor's Council in 1822, 
and represented Haverhill in the Legislature in 1834. He was chief 
justice of the Court of Sessions before that Court was abolished, a judge 
of the Circuit Court and for several years an associate justice of the Court 
of Common Pleas. All these positions he filled with honor to himself, 

21 



306 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

and with scrupulous fidelity to the public. He had a large family of 
children, and of his seven sons, five adopted the profession of father and 
grandfather and some became eminent in their profession. Many stories 
were related of him illustrating his tact and readiness in emergencies. 
Arriving home after midnight after a professional visit one night, as 
he drove his two-wheeled doctor's sulky in the yard, he saw a man dis- 
appear suddenly from his cellar window. Quietly alighting and making 
for the window, he was surprised to receive from some one in the cellar 
a large piece of salt pork. He took it silently and deposited it in a bag 
which was lying near and then another, and still another and another 
until two bags had been filled, when there came from the cellar the 
question "Shall we take it all?" "No, friend, no," replied the doctor, 
"leave me enough for my breakfast." The runaway was discovered, 
and the two it need not be said settled for pork. He died at his home on 
Court Street nearly opposite the old Court house December 5, 1848, 
mourned by the entire community. 

Dr. Ezra Bartlett, Jr., was born in Warren, September 28, 1811, the 
year before the removal of his father to Haverhill, and died in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., June 16, 1892. He was educated at Haverhill Academy, preparing 
for college, but did not enter, and after studying medicine with his father 
and with his uncle Dr. John French of Bath was graduated at Dart- 
mouth Medical School in 1832, and began practice in Warminster, Va. He 
remained there but one year when on account of the illness of his father 
he returned to Haverhill, and entered into partnership with him. He 
remained but a few years, however, when he went to South Berwick, Me., 
where he remained fifteen years. Later he went to East Boston, Mass., 
where he remained for nearly five years, when he went to Exeter, where 
he practiced until he retired on account of advancing years. He was a 
successful and skilful physician and enjoyed a large and lucrative prac- 
tice. During the War of the Rebellion he was "contract surgeon" for 
two years, and was on duty in Tennessee, Georgia, and after Sherman's 
march to the sea at Hilton Head, S. C. He was twice married, first, to 
Sarah Calef of Saco, Me., and, second, to Mrs. Eleanor Augusta Tucker, 
widow of John Hubbard a lawyer of South Berwick, Me. One son by 
the first marriage, Josiah Calef Bartlett of Chicago, was connected with 
the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad. 

Dr. John Angier was born in Fitzwilliam December 20, 1784, the young- 
est of the eleven children of Silas and Elizabeth (Drury) Angier. His early 
practice of medicine was in Alstead and Maine, but came to North 
Haverhill in 1827, where he had an enviable reputation as a physician 
and an extensive practice until his death in 1836, losing his life by being 
thrown from a buggy while on a visit to Weathersfield, Vt. He was the 
first resident physician in North Haverhill. Active in politics, a Demo- 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 307 

crat when party feeling ran high he was elected to the Legislature in 
1833, and was defeated for the same office by John L. Rix in 1834, though 
Rix was denied his seat on the ground that he was declared elected on 
Wednesday at an adjourned meeting. He was again elected in 1836, and 
served at the June session the year of his death. He married Mary 
Mann, who died in 1873, at the age of 84. Of their children two are 
buried in the family lot in Horse Meadow Cemetery. One daughter 
became the wife of Nathaniel M. Swasey (see Swasey Genealogy) and 
his two sons, J. Dorsey and George W., went early in life to northern 
Pennsylvania where they successfully engaged in the lumber business. 
Dorsey Angier may be said to have been the discoverer of petroleum, 
accidently observing oil floating on his mill pond, which he secured by 
digging pits into which the water flowed, and the oil was removed from 
the top. Believing that the oil must have come from pools in the earth, 
he sunk a well near the mill pond "striking oil" at a depth of sixty-nine 
feet. Other wells were sunk and there was the beginning of the immense 
petroleum industry — John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil. A Haverhill 
boy was the pioneer. It is needless to say that the Angier brothers made 
handsome fortunes and were numbered among the first citizens of Titus- 
ville, Pa. Dr. Angier was a man of striking personal appearance, tall, 
straight and is said to have borne a striking resemblance to Gen. Andrew 
Jackson, so much so that when acting as one of the marshals, while a 
member of the legislature, on the occasion of General Jackson's visit to 
that body, he was mistaken by many for the general himself and was the 
recipient of quite an ovation. 

Dr. Joel Angier, a nephew of Doctor John, was a son and the eighth 
of the twelve children of Major Joel and Olive (Turner) Angier, was born 
in Acworth, married Mary E. Polly of Acworth. He studied medicine 
with Dr. Bliss of Alstead, graduated at the Dartmouth school, and after 
practicing in Washington and Bethel, Vt., came to North Haverhill 
about 1840 where he practiced five or six years, with a good degree of 
success, when he removed to Swiftwater, was for a time in Benton, the 
only practicing physician ever residing in that town, when he removed to 
Bath and from there to Hazel Green, Wis., where he remained in practice 
until his death. 

Dr. Anson Brackett was a native of Wheelock, Vt., graduated at the 
Medical College of Burlington, Vt., and after practicing for a time in 
North Danville, Vt., and Lyons, N. Y., where he gained much success 
came to Haverhill some time previous to 1829 and remained here about 
six years when he removed to Gainesville, Fla., where he practiced till his 
death, becoming one of the leading surgeons and physicians in that state. 
He was especially distinguished in surgery and before leaving Haverhill 
performed some very important operations, among which was the ampu- 



308 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

tation of the leg of B. Frank Palmer, which was, owing to the weakened 
condition of the patient, a specially critical operation. The leg had been 
terribly crushed and torn in a bark mill in Bradford, Vt. Dr. Brackett 
would allow no stimulants to be used — anaesthetics were unknown, but 
did consent that the patient might have a strong cup of tea after the opera- 
tion. Mr. Palmer subsequently acquired fame as the inventor of the 
Palmer artificial leg which brought him a fortune. Dr. Brackett was a 
man of high character, and his removal to the south was a distinct loss to 
the profession in New Hampshire. 

Dr. Simon B. Heath had studied medicine with Dr. Brackett, and 
after the removal of the latter to Florida succeeded to his Haverhill 
practice, but though a man of marked natural ability, his intemperate 
habits prevented his success and after a brief association with Dr. Hiram 
Morgan which proved unsatisfactory to the latter, he removed to Groton, 
Vt. 

Dr. Hiram Morgan was born in Rochester, Vt., in 1805, and died in 
Haverhill in 1876. He studied medicine first with Dr. Page of Bethel, 
Vt., then at the Woodstock (Vt.) Medical School from which he graduated 
in 1833, practiced for a time in Hancock and then in Corinth, Vt., and 
came to Haverhill about 1836. After a practice of a dozen years or so 
in Haverhill, which was constantly increasing, giving promise of abundant 
success, he went to New York to attend lectures, but soon after his return 
was stricken with disease from which he never fully recovered, and was 
so broken in health that he relinquished practice for the remainder of 
his life. He married November 13, 1837, Elizabeth, daughter of Col. 
Edward Towle, a woman of great refinement and most attractive per- 
sonality. For many years after he gave up his practice he and his wife 
boarded at Smith's Hotel and occupied an influential position in the best 
society of the village. Before his loss of health Dr. Morgan gave promise 
of taking high rank in his profession. 

Dr. Edward S. Mattocks, a son of Governor Mattocks of Vermont, came 
to Haverhill prior to 1839, but failed to secure business and remained but 
a short time, when he went to Lyndon, Vt., where he died soon after. 

Dr. Henry Hayes was a native of Scotland, studied medicine with Dr. 
Colby of Stanstead, Canada, and came from there to Haverhill about the 
same time that Dr. Mattocks did. He came with the best of recommen- 
dations, and was employed by many of the best families who formed a 
warm friendship for him. But Haverhill at that time was over supplied 
with doctors, competition was sharp and after a few years he went to 
Bradford, Vt., from there to the Vermont towns of Irasburg and Hart- 
land, and then to Massachusetts, where he died. He was regarded as a 
well read and skilful physician, but did not remain long enough in one 
place to achieve the best possible success. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 309 

Dr. Phineas Spalding was born in Sharon, Vt., January 14, 1799, the 
son of Reuben and Jerusha (Carpenter) Spalding, and died in Haverhill 
where he had resided since 1839, and where he had been a practicing physi- 
cian for fifty years, October 29, 1897. Some years of his early life were 
spent in teaching in his native town and in Montpelier, Vt., where he 
began the study of medicine with his brother, James, later attending the 
Medical School at Dartmouth, from which institution he graduated in 
1823. He spent the next fifteen years in Lyndon, Vt., where he built up a 
prosperous and successful professional practice. In 1838 he attended a 
course of lectures at the Harvard Medical College and settled the next 
year in Haverhill, where he spent the last fifty-eight years of his long and 
useful life. He was devoted to his profession, a member of various medi- 
cal associations and societies, a delegate on several occasions to the Amer- 
ican Medical Society, and a frequent contributor of articles to medical 
journals, also reports of cases. Among these was the successful treat- 
ment of an "inter-capsular fracture of the thigh bone" in 1827, previous 
to which time successful treatment of such a case had been held by the 
highest authorities to be hopeless. In 1841 he was lecturer on Surgery 
in the Woodstock, Vt., Medical College. He took a deep interest in 
public matters, and was a prominent leader in church affairs. He was 
deacon of the Congregational Church in Lyndon, Vt., and was elected to 
the same office in Haverhill but declined it. An early advocate of tem- 
perance he organized in 1828 the first temperance society in Vermont. 
He was one of the promoters of the construction of the Boston, Concord 
and Montreal Railroad, the first meeting relative to it in this section 
having been called by him and Harry Stevens of Barton, Vt. He took a 
deep interest in Haverhill Academy, was one of its trustees for many 
years, and also served as superintendent of the Haverhill schools. He 
was a man of decided positiveness, and was a strong partisan Republican 
in politics as well as a strong partisan Congregationalist. His party said 
in writing of him in his later years, while admitting that the sense of 
humor was somewhat lacking in his make up: 1 "He takes a large view of 
things and is never trivial in the treatment of questions of duty and action. 
What he does he does intelligently and from a conviction of what he sees is 
right. He is social, hospitable, fond of company, loves argument, and 
is entirely free from demagogism. He is a staunch friend of all that is 
good, and steadfast in purpose — full of hope, courage, energy." He was 
twice married (see Genealogy). His residence for many years and at 
the time of his death, was the large brick three story house built as a 
hotel, early in the nineteenth century, enlarged and repaired in 1830 by 
Jonathan Sinclair and kept by him as the Grafton Hotel for several years 
before it passed into the possession of Doctor Spalding. The property 

JBittinger's Haverhill, p. 301. 



310 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

is still owned by the Spalding heirs, but life possession of it was given by- 
Doctor Spalding to Mrs. Nettie Crawford who was his faithful nurse and 
attendant during his last years and who has made it an attractive hotel 
once more, under the name of the Crawford House, a favorite resort in 
the summer months for many former residents of the town. 

Dr. Henry B. Leonard was born in Sharon, Vt., July 8, 1817, the eldest 
son of Gaivs and Eunice (Spalding) Leonard. His early years were 
spent on the home farm, but he acquired by his own efforts and persist- 
ence an academic education, and began the study of medicine with his 
uncle Dr. James Spalding in Montpelier, Vt., and later graduated from 
the Woodstock, Vt., Medical School. He began the practice of his pro- 
fession at North Haverhill in 1842, succeeding Dr. John Angier as the 
physician in that village. He continued this with marked fidelity and 
success until his death February 7, 1869. His practice covered the 
entire town of Haverhill, extending into Bath and Benton. During 
the diphtheria epidemic of 1863, he had great success in the treatment of 
the dread disease, and night and day he was driving in his old fashioned 
two-wheeled sulky over the rough roads of the outlying districts of the 
towns mentioned. Dr. Leonard was the ideal country doctor, and his 
name is held in grateful remembrance by many living at the present. 
He was twice married (see Genealogy). His mother was a sister of 
Dr. Phineas Spalding, and it is said that he settled in North Haverhill 
against the advice if not indeed the protest of his uncle, and they 
never maintained intimate relations with each other. Indeed it was 
not a matter of common knowledge among their respective patients 
that they were relatives. They had little in common except that 
each took a deep interest in public affairs. Doctor Leonard was 
liberal in his religious beliefs, and seldom attended church. He was as 
ardent a Democrat as was his uncle a Republican and when in 1866, 
the Democrats recovered possession of the town after twelve years of 
Republican ascendancy, he was elected one of the two representatives to 
the General Court and was re-elected the following year. 

Dr. Homer H. Tenney began the practice of his profession in Haver- 
hill in 1858, but on account of ill health removed after two or three 
years to Kansas, where he remained in practice, gaining an honorable 
place in his profession, until his death several years later. 

Dr. John McNab did not come to Haverhill (Woodsville) to reside 
till about 1865 but as a physician in Wells River and Barnet, Vt., for 
some thirty-five years previously, he was frequently called in critical 
cases, especially in surgical operations in which he displayed great daring 
and skill, in towns on the New Hampshire side of the river. He was born 
in Glenarchay, Scotland, January 27, 1784, and came to America with 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 311 

his parents while he was still a child. They settled at first in Thornton, 
and afterwards in Barnet, Vt. He graduated at the Dartmouth School 
in 1824 and came to Wells River, Vt., where he practiced and at Barnet 
until about 1865 he removed to Woodsville, where he remained, never 
wholly giving up his practice, until his death in 1879 at the advanced age 
of 94. He was brusque in manner, liberal to the extreme in his theolog- 
ical views, and prominent as a Mason. He suffered the amputation 
of his left arm because of a cancerous affection contracted in performing 
an operation for that disease. A man of a remarkably vigorous physical 
and mental constitution he retained his faculties to an exceptional degree 
until his death. Indeed but ten days before this event he made a trip 
to Boston unattended. He was survived by four children: Capt. 
John McNab, a retired officer of the United States Army, Mrs. Joseph 
Y. Cheney of Woodsville, Mrs. Calvin Dewey of Mclndoes, Vt., and Mrs. 
N. M. Loomis of Charlestown, Mass. In his political affiliations he was 
a pronounced Democrat. 

Dr. Samuel Powers Carbee, was born in Bath June 14, 1836, youngest 
of the five sons of John H. and Anna Powers Carkee. He married 
September 30, 1885 N. Delia, daughter of Lyman Buck of Haverhill. 
He obtained his education in the schools of his native town and at 
Newbury, Vt., Seminary. Beginning the study of medicine in 1860, 
after several years spent in teaching, with Dr. A. H. Crosby of Wells 
River, Vt., he continued the same with Doctors Dixi and A. B. Crosby 
of Hanover until 1862, when he enlisted as a private in the 12th New 
Hampshire Volunteers, subsequently commissioned as assistant surgeon, 
he held that position till the close of the war. He was with his regiment 
at Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and Gettysburg and was the first 
surgeon to enter Richmond as its captain. Returning home he con- 
tinued his studies at the Dartmouth Medical School, graduating in 1866, 
and began the practice of his profession at Haverhill succeeding Doctor 
Tenney. A man of marked energy, enthusiastically devoted to his 
profession, he brought to its practice not only knowledge of the books, 
but a marked degree of common sense which contributed to his marked 
success till his death January 31, 1900. He was a member of the White 
Mountain and New Hampshire Medical Societies and was for fourteen 
years member of the board of examiners for pensions. A Republican 
in his political affiliations he was active and influential in the councils 
of his party; was surgeon general on the staff of Governor Busiel; elected 
one of the board of County Commissioners in 1884 and re-elected in 1886; 
and was a member of the Legislature 1905-07. His optimistic cheerful 
disposition won him a large circle of friends, both among his patients 
with whom he was a general favorite, and in the community at large. 



312 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Dr. Moses D. Carbee a cousin of Samuel P. was born in Newbury, Vt., 
May 13, 1847, son of Thomas Henry and Olive L. (Robinson) Carkee. 
He pursued his Academic studies in the Lancaster Academy and 
graduated from the medical school of the University of Vermont in 
1873. He came to Haverhill in 1874, and entered into partnership 
with his cousin, Samuel P., which continued till 1882, when he practiced 
by himself. At his sudden death from diphtheria Oct. 23, 1889, he was 
enjoying a successful and growing practice. 

Dr. Haven Palmer, son of Lewis and Susan H. Palmer was born 
Jefferson in 1843, graduated at Bowdoin Medical College, practiced in 
Wentworth for a year or so, came to Haverhill in 1872 and was in partner- 
ship with Dr. S. P. Carkee for two years when he went to Meredith, 
where he remained till 1883, when he went to Plymouth. He was a 
man of high character and was successful in his profession. 

Dr. Ira E. Brown, who came to Haverhill in 1880, was well equipped, 
for the practice of his profession. He was the son of Dr. Ira and Emily 
(Clark) Brown of Wells River, Vt. He graduated at Dartmouth in 
1874 and from the Dartmouth Medical School in 1878, and continued 
his preparation in hospitals in New York City. He remained in Haverhill 
but two years, when he went to Minneapolis, Minn., where he won 
distinction in health and quarantine service for both city and state, and 
was professor of chemistry, toxicology and preventative medicine in the 
Minneapolis College of Physicians and Surgeons. He was also the 
founder of the Society for the Prevention of Vice in that city. 

Dr. Clarence H. Clark, after graduation from the Dartmouth Medical 
School in 1878, came to Haverhill in 1879. He was a native of Newbury, 
Vt., and his preliminary medical studies were with Dr. Watkins of that 
town. For a year before coming to Haverhill he was a subordinate officer 
in a Montreal hospital and attended medical lectures in that city. Enthu- 
siastically devoted to his profession, he gave great promise of success but 
failing health caused him to relinquish practice after a few years, and 
after seeking relief from a change in climate, he returned to Haverhill to 
die of New England's scourge, consumption. 

Dr. Henry P. Watson, born in Guildhall, Vt., in 1845, the son of Dr. 
Henry L. Watson, fitted for college at Newbury Seminary, and beginning 
the study of medicine with his father, continued it under Drs. A. B. and 
Dixi Crosby and graduated from the Dartmouth Medical in 1866. He 
began practice in Groveton, but came to North Haverhill about 1868, 
practicing there for fifteen years when he removed to the Corner where he 
remained in the enjoyment of a large and successful practice having 
earned in the meantime the reputation of being a skilful surgeon, until 
his removal to a larger field in Manchester, where he stood in the front 
rank of his profession. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 313 

Dr. Nathaniel H. Perkins, of the homeopathic school of medicine, who 
came to Woodsville in 1868 and remained till 1876 when he removed to 
Winchendon, enjoyed a large and lucrative practice. Homoeopathy has 
never been popular in northern New Hampshire, but Dr. Perkins before 
his removal was rapidly overcoming such prejudice as existed and had the 
promise of winning success. He remained in Winchendon several years, 
removing from there to Milton, Mass., where he has taken a high place 
in his profession. He has been one of the State Board of Medical Exam- 
iners. While in Winchendon he represented the town in the New Hamp- 
shire Legislature. 

Dr. Charles R. Gibson was born in Alstead on April 12, 1853, the son of 
Reuel and Emily Barnard Gibson. He fitted for College at Appleton 
Academy, New Ipswich, and graduated from Bowdoin College in the 
class of 1872. He read medicine with Dr. S. T. Smith and graduated 
from the Bowdoin Medical School in 1875. He was for nearly two years 
an interne in the Maine General Hospital at Portland and began his pro- 
fessional life in Woodsville, where he practiced till his death, October 2, 
1914. He was twice married, first, to S. Jennie Park of Plymouth, who 
died March 21, 1911, and, second, to Mrs. Jennie Quimby, who survives 
him. When he settled in Woodsville the village was small, but he had 
faith that it was destined to grow and he patiently waited for more than 
six months before he had his first patient. Success came, however, and it 
was well earned by his faithfulness and devotion to his patients, and his 
skill as a physician, especially as a surgeon. He was an Episcopalian, 
warden of St. Luke's church, a Republican when Republicans were scarce 
in Woodsville, and represented Haverhill in the Legislature of 1897-99. 
He was president for many years previous to his death of the Woodsville 
Guaranty Savings Bank, a director of the Woodsville Opera Building 
Association, and besides his residence on Pleasant street was the owner 
of other real estate. Public spirited and helpful as a citizen, responding 
cheerfully to calls for which there was no hope of payment, never indulg- 
ing himself in vacations, he could always be depended upon for cheerful 
and willing service. During the last year of his life his health had failed 
him, and he associated with him Dr. F. E. Speare of Lisbon, who suc- 
ceeded to his practice. 

Dr. Oliver D. Eastman was born in Sonora, Calif., but owing to the 
death of his father came east in childhood to live with his grandparents 
in Vermont. He received his Academic education at Newbury Seminary, 
began his professional studies with Dr. H. P. Watson, and attended lec- 
tures at Burlington, and Dartmouth Medical, graduating from the latter 
in 1882. He began practice in Piermont in 1882, but came to Woodsville 
in 1884, where he has since remained. He has a large practice not only in 
Woodsville, but in other sections of the town especially East Haverhill, 



314 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

also in Warren. He married Addie D. Davis in 1882 (see Genealogy), 
and of their four sons, D. K. is a veterinary surgeon, Oliver is practicing 
medicine in Burlington, Vt., and lectures in the Medical School there, and 
Burns is practicing medicine in Michigan. The youngest, Milo, is yet 
in school. 

Dr. Charles Newcomb, who practiced his profession in North Haverhill 
from 1887 to about 1900, was born in Montpelier, Vt., in 1858, where he 
received his early education. He read medicine with Dr. C. M. Chandler 
of Montpelier, and attended lectures both at Dartmouth and Vermont 
University Medical, taking his degree from the latter institution. Pre- 
vious to coming to North Haverhill he practiced in West Fairlee and in 
Washington, Vt., and about 1900 he returned to his native city, where he 
has since enjoyed a good practice. 

Dr. I. N. Eastman, who began practice in Woodsville in 1893 at the 
age of 26, was soon having an excellent business, but his health became 
broken and about 1900 he returned to his native town of Groton, Vt. 

Dr. Henry C. Stearns, born in Lovell, Me., Sept. 21, 1866, received his 
academic training in Fryeburg, Me., and his professional training in the 
Dartmouth school, graduating in the class of 1896. After a brief practice 
in Bartlett and Warren, he came to Haverhill, where he had married in 
1897 (see Genealogy), Mary Louise only daughter of Joseph and Elizabeth 
Swasey Pow. Except for a short time spent in Concord he practiced 
successfully in Haverhill until he was instantly killed August 23, 1915, 
his automobile being struck by an automobile at Cobleigh's Crossing, 
near Woodsville. He took an active interest in town affairs, and was 
largely instrumental in securing a water supply for the village, and was 
treasurer of the Water Company at the time of his death. He was 
succeeded in his practice by Dr. F. C. Russell, who had been his classmate 
at Dartmouth, and who for a short time was associated with him when he 
first came to Haverhill, but who later practiced in Newbury and Bradford, 
Vt., until he returned to Haverhill after the death of Dr. Stearns. 

Dr. Forrest J. Drury, son of Rev. A. H. Drury, was born in Easton 
January 17, 1885. His preparatory education was obtained at Colebrook 
Academy and Tilton Seminary. He graduated from the School of 
Medicine, Boston University, in 1911, and was house physician at the 
Cullis' Consumptives Home in Berlin for a year or more before gradua- 
tion. He began practice at Haverhill Corner in March, 1912, but left 
in December, 1912, for Seabrook, when he has since been in practice. 

Dr. Elmer M. Miller came to Woodsville in 1898 after his graduation 
at Baltimore Medical College, having previously studied at Dartmouth 
Medical School. His preparation was at St. Johnsbury Academy, from 
which institution he graduated in 1894. He has a large and eminently 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 315 

successful practice as a member of the American Medical Association, 
and was (1916) president of the Grafton County Medical Society: Is an 
Odd Fellow, Mason, and in politics a Republican. He represented 
Haverhill in the Legislature 1909-11. He married in Boston June 22, 
1898, Lillian Estelle, daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth M. Ray. 

Dr. William E. Lawrence came to North Haverhill in 1903, succeeding 
in practice Doctor Newcomb. He was born in Eden, Vt., August 1, 1871, 
son of Daniel E. and Martha (Johns) Lawrence. Graduated at Beman, 
New Haven, Vt., Academy 1891, studied in University of Vermont 
1892-3, and took his medical degree at Baltimore Medical College in 
1896. Practiced in Worcester, Vt., 1898-03. He had a large and growing 
practice, and took a keen interest in town and state affairs. He was a 
trustee of the Woodsville Guarantee Savings Bank and had been a 
member of the Haverhill Board of Education since 1903. Was a member 
of the New Hampshire Constitutional Convention of 1912, and of the 
Legislature of 1913-15. He was appointed in 1915 by Governor Spaulding 
a member of the State Board of Control having charge of the State 
Hospital, School for Feeble Minded, Sanatorium for Consumptives, 
and other kindred institutions, and as one of the two members having 
special charge of the sanatorium at Glencliff. Doctor Lawrence was a 
member of the American Medical Association, the New Hampshire 
Medical Society, in politics a Republican, a Mason, in religious belief 
a Unitarian. He died April 19, 1919. 

Dr. Selwyn K. Dearborn began his practice in Woodsville in 1905. 
He was born in Bristol, September 10, 1879 the son of Kenson E. Dearborn, 
a well-known Grafton County attorney. He graduated from Dart- 
mouth College in the class of 1901, and from Dartmouth Medical School 
in 1905, since which time he has been in practice in Woodsville and is at 
present established in a good practice. Doctor Dearborn has been twice 
married. 

Dr. Franklin E. Speare came to Woodsville Jan. 1, 1914, associating 
himself in practice with Doctor Gibson, and after the death of the latter 
succeeded to his practice, by his care, devotion and skill earning marked 
favor, and rapidly securing a good practice. He was born in Charlotte, 
Vt., July 18, 1873; was educated in the public schools of his native town, 
and of Burlington, in the University of California and University of 
Vermont. He graduated from the Vermont College of Medicine in 
1903 and spent the next two years as house physician at the Mary 
Fletcher Hospital. He was in practice in Lisbon from September, 
1905, until he came to Woodsville. He is a Mason, Odd Fellow, and 
member of Grafton County, New Hampshire State and American 
Medical associations. 



316 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Dr. Jacob Blaisdell was for a short time in practice at the Corner in 
1836. 

Dr. Edmund H. Noyes came to North Haverhill in May, 1896, but 
remained in practice less than two years when he removed. He received 
his medical education in the Medical Department of the University of 
Ohio at Cincinnati graduating in 1885. Previous to his coming to North 
Haverhill he practiced in Cambridgeport and Gloucester, Mass. He 
remained in North Haverhill hardly long enough to establish himself 
fully in practice. 

Vernon H. Edson, D. O., and Anna Edson, D. O., his wife, graduates 
of the American College of Osteopathy at Kirksville, Mo., which is under 
the presidency of Dr. Andrew T. Still, founder of the science, have been 
in a highly successful practice in Woodsville since December, 1914. 

Dentistry 

Dentistry as a profession did not come into vogue in Haverhill till in 
recent years. The early physicians had, of course, among their instru- 
ments the old fashioned "cant hooks" and forceps, the sight of which is 
enough to cure toothache in these modern days. After dentistry had 
become somewhat common as a profession the people of Haverhill for 
many years had recourse to dentists who had established themselves at 
Bradford, Newbury and Wells River, Vt., and in Lisbon and Littleton. 
Dr. Moses N. Howland of Lisbon maintained for a time a branch office at 
the Corner, and Dr. James B. Clark for a number of years combined the 
practice of dentistry with farming at Center Haverhill. A Doctor Dar- 
ling was for a time in practice in Woodsville until his office was destroyed 
by fire about 1901. Woodsville has at the present time no less than four 
dentists. Dr. Frederick G. Weeks, Dr. Edward S. Miller (a brother of 
Dr. E. M. Miller), Dr. F. E. Speed and Dr. Samuel Baker. 

There are doctors and doctors, and Haverhill has had some of the latter 
class who have borne the self-given title without bothering medical schools 
to confer degrees or state examining boards to grant licenses. The earliest 
of these was Ross Coon who in the early part of the last century was the 
landlord of the Coon tavern at the Corner. He kept a fine bar and is 
said to have been a most generous patron of the same. One of his favorite 
remedies for bilious troubles was a compound for clearing out as he said 
the "bilery dux." He sometimes preached though without ordination 
as a minister. Weighing upwards of four hundred pounds, he was in the 
constant "enjoyment of poor health" and in his later years he was con- 
fined for most of his time to a large armchair, where he prescribed for 
both soul and body and regaled his visitors with mirth-producing stories. 
He averred that "a thousand lies are told every day and not half of them 
are true." 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 317 

"Dr." Myron S. Wetherbee combined the practice of medicine with 
farming at North Haverhill. He called himself an eclectic physician, 
practicing, so far as he knew, the best from all schools of the profession. 
He had never a large practice, but for a period of twenty-five years had 
the satisfaction of calling himself and being called doctor. 

"Doctor" Shaw also of North Haverhill and a contemporary of Doctor 
Wetherbee had a like satisfaction even if the most who addressed him as 
"doctor," smiled significantly when they did it. He got little if anything 
more out his alleged profession than the above named satisfaction of being 
called doctor. 

But the character of this entire class of practitioners was Israel B. 
Davis better known as "Dr. Goold," or "Gooley" Davis. He lived on 
the Limekiln road, was peddler, agent for insurance companies which 
were all right except when it came to the payment of fines. His physical 
appearance was striking; like Darius Green of flying machine fame, "his 
body was long and lank and lean" and in speaking his voice alternated 
between that of a high pitched tremulous falsetto, and a deep rotund 
basso profondo. Yet in the sixties of the last century, strange as it may 
appear this illiterate, without the faintest knowledge of medicine, a 
thoroughgoing charlatan, had quite an extensive practice. He had 
always quite a stock of liquors, samples procured on his application from 
wholesale liquor houses. There were few if any such houses this side the 
Mississippi to which he had not made application and frequently with 
success. It might be said of "Doctors" Wetherbee and Shaw that they 
were at least honest. This could hardly be said of "Dr." Goold Davis. 

Cottage Hospital 

The Cottage Hospital at Woodsville was incorporated under the 
general laws of New Hampshire providing for voluntary corporations 
October 6, 1903, the following being named as corporators. William 
A. Loyne, Scott Sloane, Herbert W. Allen, Fred E.Thorpe, Newton Lang, 
Charles H. Greene, Eustache M. Lamarre. The purpose of the hospital 
was set forth in corporation agreement as follows: "The object of the 
Association is the establishing and maintaining of a general hospital 
for the treatment and care of the sick and injured, and for the establish- 
ment and maintenance of a training school for nurses in connection 
therewith, and of supplying trained nurses for the sick in their own homes. 
Said hospital and training school may charge and receive from patients 
such fees as may be established by said Hospitals Association of this 
state, varied by the necessity of each case, and the ability of the patients 
to pay, but for no other purpose whatever, being a charitable institution 
for the alleviation of suffering without profit to any person. " 



318 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

The prime mover in the establishment of the institution was the 
Rev. William A. Loyne, pastor of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 
Woodsville from April, 1900, to April, 1904. Woodsville was a railroad 
centre; a large proportion of its population consisted of railroad employees, 
married men with their families, and single men whose homes were in 
boarding houses. Woodsville was also the centre from which operations 
in large lumbering and logging industries to the north and east were 
supervised and directed, and to which the sick and injured would natu- 
rally be taken for care and relief. Mr. Loyne became convinced of the 
imperative need of a hospital at Woodsville and labored enthusiastically 
in season and out of season to convince others of such need. During 
the last year of his pastorate he secured pledges which he believed 
warranted incorporation, and the purchase of the property on the river 
road at the junction of the Bath and Woodsville roads which was known 
as the Cobleigh place, and which had been a well-known tavern in the 
old stage days, and the days of sending rafts of lumber down the river. 
Necessary repairs were made, the interior was remodeled and the 
hospital was opened to patients in the summer of 1894. Mr. Loyne 
left the pastorate for a year in April 1894. and for the following year 
devoted himself exclusively to the work of superintendent of the hospital. 

The by-laws adopted provided for a board of trustees of not less than 
seven and not more than sixteen members; a board of directors of not 
less than ten and not more than twenty-five, a clerk, treasurer, financial 
secretary, board of advice, house committee, each to serve for one year. 
The duties of these were defined, and are much the same as those of like 
officers in similar hospitals. The institution has been in the main 
excellently managed, and has done a work greatly needed. It has 
been generously supported by an appreciative public, but like other 
institutions of the same character is in need of funds for its maintenance, 
and for the payment of a mortgage and floating indebtedness. The 
town of Haverhill at its annual meeting has for several years maintained 
a free bed, and at the meeting of 1916 made an appropriation of $1,000 
in its aid. 

In the year ending March 22, 1916, the receipts were from patients 
$6,756.33; donations by individuals, $746.25, and from the free bed 
fund $127.55, a total of $7,630.18. The trustees for 1916 are Joseph M. 
Howe, G. E. Cummings, F. P. Dearth, R. E. Farwell, Newton Lang, Dr. E. 
M. Miller, E. W. Smith, Dr. F. E. Spear, S. E. Clark, Dr. F. C. Russell, 
W. A. Loyne, E. Bertram Pike, H. W. Keyes, Daniel Whitcher, L. C. 
Desautels, Chas. Butson. The board of directors is composed of 
ladies, of whom it may be said they have rendered most efficient service 
in securing funds for the support of the institution through the medium 
of fairs and personal solicitation and by their officers members of the 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 319 

House Committee. The directors for 1916 are Mrs. Mary D. Randall, 
F. A. Carr, Kate D. Lee, Geo. H. Clark, Newton Lang, W. F. Whitcher, 
F. L. Sargent, E. M. Miller, W. F. Eastman, A. R. Franklin, C. T. Gates, 
A. M. Pike, D. R. Rouhan, James Laurie, R. M. Stahl, Geo. E. Mann, 
W. S. Burton, Fred Gibson, Frank Sherwell, Misses Luvia E. Mann, and 
O. McLam. The institution has rendered most invaluable service, a 
large part of which has been without compensation. It needs an 
endowment, and merits generous support. 



CHAPTER XIV 



NEWSPAPERS AND LIBRARIES 

Printing Was Begun in Haverhill Previous to 1800 — Four or Five Small Papers 
— In 1820 The "Grafton and Coos Intelligencer" Appeared; Sketch of No. 
3, Vol. 1 — "New Hampshire Post" Anti-Masonic — Removed to Lebanon — 
"Democratic Republican," 1828-1863 — Woodsville Register 1883 — Graf- 
ton County Register by Bittinger Press — Removed to Woodsville in 1890 
— Sold to W. F. Whitcher in 1899 — Sold March 1, 1916, to F. E. Thayer — 
The Social Library — The Haverhill — The Woodsville, Gift of Ira Whit- 
cher — North Haverhill Town Assisted in Building — The Town Libraries. 

Just when the printing press came to Haverhill is uncertain. While 
the controversy relative to jurisdiction over the New Hampshire Grants 
during the War of the Revolution was raging, a printing press, and 
printer in the person of Alden Spooner, was imported from Connecticut 
into Hanover, and a press of some kind found its way to Haverhill not 
many years later. Previous to 1800 Daniel Caverly attempted the 
publication of a small weekly newspaper, but gave up the attempt after 
six months, and a small magazine printed by Wesley Dunham was even 
shorter lived. Another paper, under the name of the Cods Courier was 
projected in 1808, but publication was soon suspended. Still another 
attempt was made in 1810 when the Haverhill Advertiser was published 
by T. L. Houghten for about three months. This was a four-page paper 
of three columns each. The price was one dollar a year, partly to be 
paid by subscribers. In the issue of June 28, 1810, Volume 1, number 6, 
almost the entire paper is made up of miscellaneous, though a local flavor 
is introduced by the statement of James Whelelan concerning a survey of 
land to which he had testified in court in a case tried in the Superior 
Court in October, 1809, Thomas Johnson of Newbury seeking to recover 
from the proprietors of the Haverhill bridge for timber cut by them on his 
land. It was not till November, 1820, that Sylvester T. Goss began the 
publication of the first newspaper which might be regarded as a perma- 
nency. This was first published under the name of The Grafton and Cods 
Intelligencer. Two years later it was called the New Hampshire Intelli- 
gencer and Grafton and Cods Advertiser, and in 1825, the latter part of the 
title was dropped and the paper appeared until its suspension in 1827 as 
the New Hampshire Intelligencer. This was a four-page paper, and four 
columns to the page of 12 by 20 inches, and was published at "two 
dollars a year payable half in produce and half in cash." No subscrip- 

320 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 321 

tion was received for a less time than one year, later changed to six months, 
and subscribers were required to pay the postage on their papers, and 
letters to the editor were required to be postpaid. The weekly newspapers 
of that day are curiosities at the present. The Intelligencer was much 
like its contemporaries. Number 3 of Volume 1, dated December 13, 
1820, may be taken as a sample. On the first page is found the second 
part of an essay or sermon on "The Sabbath"; an article of two columns 
on" The Denominations of the Christian World"; an abstract of the pro- 
ceedings of the New Hampshire legislature for the last week in November 
and of Congress for the same week, and an announcement of the drawing 
of a prize of $40,000 in the Baltimore Cathedral Church Lottery. The 
second page is devoted mostly to extracts from newspapers "On last 
Thursday's Mail" under the titles of "President Boyer" of St. Domingo; 
"Singular Elopement," from the Bridgeport Courier; "A Discovery," 
from the New York Gazette; "Savage Outrage," from the New York 
Evening Post; "The Discovery Ships," "Kentucky"; "A Panther Hunt"; 
New York Grand Canal. The only items of news on the page are brief 
accounts of a robbery of the mail at Alexandria, Va., the capture of a mail 
robber at Fredericktown, Va., a fatal accident in Montreal, the murder of 
two soldiers, by Indians at Rock Creek Island, Mich., and an account of 
an Indian at Mackinac, Mich., who has in each arm and leg more than 
double the number of joints usually found in legs and arms. The third 
page contains a half-column summary, a column of "Latest from Eng- 
land," an account of a recently invented "cambouse" for the purification 
of air on closely crowded warships, and a letter describing the Massachu- 
setts Constitutional Convention then in session in Boston; a list of con- 
victs sent to the New Hampshire state prison during the year from the 
counties of Strafford, Rockingham, Hillsborough, Cheshire and Grafton. 
There is on this page a column and a half of advertisements; notice of a 
meeting of the Haverhill Bridge Corporation to see about raising money 
for rebuilding the bridge, and a notice informing the public that in spite of 
reports to the contrary Bedel's Bridge was safe for passengers and teams. 
Webster & Underwood of Boston advertise their staple and fancy goods. 
In the long list may be found " bombazettes, figured and plain, all 
colors"; "black and colored double chain Levantines"; "black sinchans 
and Sarsnetts"; "fine flag and bandanna handkerchiefs" and "mourning 
articles of the best quality." It is safe to say these articles are not in 
stock in the Boston department stores of today. Hamlin Rand, executor, 
advertises an auction sale of the personal property of the late James I. 
Swan of Bath. Among the articles to be sold are "a second-hand chaise 
and harness; secretary; pair card tables; set Northumberland tables; 
terrestrial globe; high post bedsteads; cook-stove and funnel; 2 buffalo 
skins; 1 bear skin, and fancy chairs, clock, looking glasses. On the last 

22 



322 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

page is a poem, "The Voice of Nature," 1 Kings 3, 16; "Mary of the 
Mountains," a pathetic story from the Christian Journal, while three 
columns and a half are devoted to advertisements, monthly tax collector's 
sales in the towns of Haverhill, Piermont and Warren. There are notices 
of the annual meetings of the Coos Bank stockholders, and the Coos 
Turnpike Corporation. Benjamin Merrill, and Samuel Page, merchants, 
request settlement of accounts, which are the only advertisements of 
Haverhill merchants. John Slevinger of Lancaster gives notice that he 
has provided for the support of Samuel Springer and forbids the harbor- 
ing or trusting the said Samuel on his account, and the loss of a red mo- 
rocco work box containing valuable articles by the bursting of a trunk 
behind the mail stage between Concord and Boscawen is advertised and a 
handsome reward is offered for its recovery. Editor Goss evidently 
combined trade with his newspaper business, since he advertises "for sale 
at this office," Day & Martin's Real Japan Blacking; Maynard & Noyes' 
Ink Powder, and that he has just received evangelical reviews, for 
schools and all kind of school supplies, with Watt's Psalms and Hymns, 
Bibles, Testaments, spelling books, Murray's grammar and Reader, 
Scott's Lessons, Adams' arithmetic, last edition of Walker's diction- 
ary, etc., also "the Mother-in-Law," a useful instructive book for young 
people. He also wants an apprentice, and offers to buy linen and cotton 
rags. 

The Intelligencer is well printed, is remarkably free from typographical 
errors, and wood pulp paper had evidently not at that time been heard of. 
As a local newspaper, the Intelligencer, was remarkable for containing, 
aside from the notices mentioned, nothing whatever in the way of news of 
a local character. It was printed at Haverhill, that was all, and in this 
respect it differed little from other weekly newspapers of the time. 
Gradually local merchants and artisans began to advertise, as five years 
later in November, 1825, three brief local advertisements appear, and 
there is also the publication of an act passed at the previous June session 
of the legislature incorporating "the First Musical Society of Haverhill" 
(South Parish) and a statement that the society has been organized and 
that Capt. B. Stevens has been engaged to instruct a singing school 
which will meet on Tuesday and Saturday evenings at the academy. 
Not only was there almost nothing in the way of local news, but abso- 
lutely nothing editorial, and it was conducted on the lines of its first issues 
until its suspension in 1827. In November, 1822, Mr. Goss published his 
prospectus of The Evangelist, a religious paper to be published once in 
two weeks beginning the following month. In this he said: 

The cause of religion is now exciting a general interest in Christendom. Many very 
valuable religious papers are now published and circulated for the diffusion of Christian 
knowledge. But it has appeared that the great majority of these publications are con- 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 323 

ducted upon so large a scale as to render them too expensive to gain circulation among 
the majority of our Christian readers. The design of this publication is to remove this 
embarrassment, by giving an epitome of what ordinarily appears in the Missionary 
Herald, the Boston Recorder, the Religious Intelligencer, the New Hampshire Repository 
and the Evangelical Monitor. Original communications of the same nature in a concise 
form, are solicited of the Christian public and will receive notice. 

The Evangelist consisted of eight large octavo pages and was to be 
delivered to subscribers for fifty cents a year to be paid at the expiration 
of six months. These liberal terms did not, however, secure a profitable 
circulation, and the life of this new religious venture was short. 

Among the four advertisements of a local nature which appeared from 
time to time in the Intelligencer, one in the issue of November 22, 1825, 
may be noted as indicating that the virtues of so-called patent medicines 
were as great then as in these modern days. John L. Rix had come to 
Haverhill and engaged in trade, and through the Intelligencer notified 
the public that he had "just received a fresh supply of Chemical Embro- 
cation, or Whitewill's Improved Opodeldoc. This article is in the liquid 
form, and is considered by the first physicians in the U. S. to rank higher 
than any other composition in existence for the following complaints: 
Bruises, sprains, gout, rheumatism, croup, numbness, weakness or stiff- 
ness of the neck or joints, chilblains, chapped hands, sting of insects, 
vegetable poison, etc. It is applied to both man and beast — and is 
recommended by the celebrated Dr. Mitchell of New York." Mr. Rix 
also had on sale "the volatile aromatic snuff, so celebrated throughout 
the U. S. in cases of catarrh and headache. It is extremely grateful and 
fragrant to the smell." 

Editor Goss evidently had the printers' proverbial difficulty in making 
collections. Under date of November 3, 1824, he publishes the follow- 
ing letter: 

Haverhill June 7, 1824. 

Mr. Goss, the statement that you have made to my Boy is not so for I told you that 
I must have the money & that if it does not come this afternoon I shall sell it to an 
attorney for what it will fetch. 

Stephen Adams. 

Mr. Adams had made good his threat and Mr. Goss had been served 
with a "Greeting to appear," etc., and made a fervent appeal to those 
indebted to him to pay in order that he might "settle with this dealer 
in tape and buckram." Mr. Goss also, in order to make both ends meet, 
had a circulating library, and also had on sale patent medicines, which 
he advertised extensively in 1821. Among these were Dr. Relfe's Botan- 
ical Drops, Dumfries Ointment for the Itch, British Anticeptic Denti- 
frice, Albion Corn Plaister, Asthmatic Pills, Cambrian Tooth-Ache Pills, 
Dr. Tibbs Rheumatic Liniment, etc. The publication of the Intelligencer 
was suspended, and presses and material were sold to John R. Riding who 



324 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

had come from Concord to establish a weekly newspaper in Haverhill. 
Mr. Goss had done his best but the Intelligencer lacked enterprise, spirit, 
ginger, and that it lived for seven years and more was remarkable. Dur- 
ing its lifetime the Masonic Cabinet, "designed for the benefit of Free and 
Accepted Masons," was first printed in 1824, but was discontinued in 
about two years, at the beginning of the famous anti-Masonic crusade. 

In June, 1827, The New Hampshire Post and Grafton and Coos Adver- 
tiser, published by Atwood & Woolson, made its appearance and at once 
manifested the enterprise, spirit and ginger which the Intelligencer had 
lacked. In politics it was anti-Jackson, and was strongly partisan. It 
joined the anti-Masonic crusade, and was to say the least vigorous in its 
denunciations of the Masonic order. It secured advertising, something 
essential to success, and with a live rival competitor established the next 
year, intensely Jacksonian in its politics, and ably conducted, it main- 
tained itself for twenty years, a successful weekly newspaper. In the 
latter part of 1828, Woolson withdrew and for a time the paper was 
published by Moses G. Atwood. Later John L. Bunce, who had come 
from Hartford, Conn., to be cashier in the Grafton Bank, became part 
owner and later sole proprietor, the paper being printed by a young man, 
John English, who later became a well-known minister of the New Hamp- 
shire Conference. About 1839 George S. Towle bought the paper and 
published it until 1848 when he removed it to Lebanon, the name having 
been changed to the Granite State Whig. From the first the Post had 
liberal advertising patronage by the Haverhill merchants, and while 
articles from exchanges and miscellany abounded ever increasing space 
was given to local news and editorials. Mr. Atwood conducted a book- 
store in connection with his newspaper. The political position of the 
Post is indicated by an extract from its columns in its first issue after the 
inauguration of General Jackson as President: "We print in other columns 
the inaugural address of President Jackson. We have a few remarks to 
make. As a state paper it is absolutely beneath criticism or comment. 
When we turn back to the similar productions of the celebrated statesmen 
who have preceded Mr. Jackson in the exalted station he now holds, the 
mind sickens at the comparison," etc. In this same issue, Carleton & 
Tracy, cabinet makers, in a display advertisement mention among their 
attractive manufactures, "Grecian, card, dining, Pembroke, Extension, 
Work and Breakfast Tables, with or without bags." They had also 
recently opened a shop in Bath. In the next issue there appeared the 
following editorial mention of Hon. Levi Woodbury who had been a warm 
supporter of Jackson. "Levi Woodbury is to be sent somewhere, we 
don't exactly know to what place, not having the proofs in our pocket. 
Some say he is going to the Netherlands, others that he is to be sent to 
St. Petersburg, — others again assign him to Denmark thereby adding, if 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 325 

he should go, confirmation strong to the ancient truism that there will 
be found ' something rotten in the state of Denmark.' We pray him good 
deliverance from New Hampshire." 

That Editor Atwood found it difficult to reconcile himself to the ad- 
ministration of President Jackson is evident from the following mild 
criticism which appeared in an editorial in April, 1829 : " We should depre- 
ciate everything that looks like an unnecessary opposition to the acts of 
General Jackson — it would be following too close in the steps taken by 
the Jackson party — even before Mr. Adams began to act. But if ever 
there was reason to 'cry aloud and spare not,' — that is now. No Presi- 
dent ever yet acted through his whole course, so far contrary to the inter- 
ests of the whole nation, as has General Jackson in one little month of 
his administration." 

Under the editorship of Mr. Bunce, the Post was an out and out anti- 
Masonic organ. At the head of its editorial columns it placed the names 
of the anti- Masonic nominees for President and Vice-President, William 
Wirt of Maryland and Amos Ellmahr of Pennsylvania. In an address to 
the anti-Masons of New Hampshire, Editor Bunce pointed to the success 
of the cause in Vermont, to the progress being made in New York, Massa- 
chusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut and Maine, but was somewhat pessi- 
mistic regarding the cause in New Hampshire. "What shall be done?" 
he asks. "Go back one cannot, if we were so disposed; stand still we 
must not; go forward we must, and all the means in our power must be 
brought into operation to crush the foe that lurks in secret for blood." 
He complained of the attitude of the press of the state towards the insti- 
tution. "Look into the twenty different papers in New Hampshire, and 
then point to us a single syllable or letter or word that was ever published 
on the subject of Masonry or anti-Masonry unless it was to throw ridicule 
on every attempt of anti-Masons to spread the truth before the people." 
Mr. Bunce evidently felt himself alone and the sequel showed he was 
fighting a losing fight. The publishing of the Post was not his chief 
business. During his proprietorship he held the position of cashier of the 
bank, which he assumed about 1824. He married, June 17, 1824, first 
Louisa, daughter of Richard Gookin who died April 17, 1837. Shortly 
after her death he was offered the position of cashier of the Phenix Bank 
of his home city, and he closed out his interests in Haverhill and returned 
to Hartford where he spent the remainder of his life as cashier and later 
as president of that bank. He married, second, June 6, 1838, Louisa 
Merrill of Haverhill, and at the time his residence was given as Hartford. 

Mr. George B. Towle, after his purchase of the paper, made it a Whig 
organ, and in the log cabin and hard cider campaign of 1840, it was in- 
tensely partisan. He was a native of Meredith, a graduate of Dartmouth, 
class of 1839. After his purchase of the Post, he studied law, was admit- 



326 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

ted to the bar and practiced his profession to some extent in connection 
with his duties as editor. He became active in the political life of Lebanon 
after the removal of his newspaper to that town in 1848, the name being 
changed to the Granite State Whig. He was representative in 1853, '56 
and '57^ and state senator in 1859 and 1860, being president of that body 
the latter year. In 1861 he went to Boston, having been appointed to a 
clerkship in the Boston Custom House. 

The Democratic Republican was established in June, 1828, by John 
R. Reding and continued to be published by the Reding family until 
it was discontinued in 1863. Mr. Reding was born in Portsmouth, 
October 18, 1805. He received an academic education and before coming 
to Haverhill served his newspaper and printer's apprenticeship under 
Isaac Hill of the New Hampshire Patriot, and spent two years as foreman 
in the composing room of the Boston Statesman, afterwards the Boston 
Post. He purchased the plant of the Intelligencer, which had suspended 
publication a year or two previously, and was sole proprietor of the Dem- 
ocratic-Republican until his election to Congress in 1840, when the paper 
passed into the hands of his brothers, Silvester and Henry W., until 
the suspension of the publication in 1863. He published his editorial 
valediction, November 24, 1841. Mr. Reding was admirably trained 
for the conduct of a weekly newspaper, a man of great force of character, 
an uncompromising Democrat, and there was never any doubt as to the 
position of his newspaper on political questions. His relations with Isaac 
Hill, whose sister he married, were intimate, and these were of great 
advantage to him in the conduct of his paper. After his retirement 
from Congress he returned to his native city where he was one of its 
most prominent citizens, dying at the advanced age of 88 years. The 
Democratic-Republican was ably conducted, and during its thirty-five 
years of life was probably the most influential paper in the northern part 
of the state. Had its files been preserved they would be invaluable as 
furnishing historical material, but not more than two or three bound 
volumes are known to be in existence, and only now and then is a single 
stray copy to be seen. The paper was published at first on Eastern 
Avenue, now Court Street, but in 1840 the establishment with the 
post office which had been in the same building, was removed to Main 
Street four doors south of the Towle Tavern, and, at the time publication 
was suspended, it occupied the southerly end of the Buck block. 

There was no mistaking the meaning of Mr. Reding in his editorials, 
as will be noted from examples given in a previous chapter. The 
following from the issue of September 4, 1833 is one sample of his style: 

Report says that Ex-Pres. Adams stopped at Orford on Friday night last, having 
objections to riding in the stage in the evening: that on Saturday a coach and six went 
from this place to Orford, took his highness on board crossed into Vermont proceeded to 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 327 

the Spring Hotel in Newbury, deposited the invaluable cargo and then returned in 
ballast home : that on Sunday — mark the day — his highness recrossed the river and took 
lodgings in Bath. Many conjectures are afloat as to the immediate objects of the 
journey of his highness and the reasons why he was so very particular in running by 
Haverhill Corner, so recently the headquarters of anti-ism in this state. Some think 
he is ashamed of his former officials in Haverhill and was ashamed to be seen in their 
company. 

On the issue of Masonry, Mr. Reding was not a Mason or its defender, 
but was opposed to political anti-Masonry on the ground that its object 
was to break down the Democratic party. "Queer indeed isn't it to 
hear tools of Joseph Bell and Ephraim Kingsbury president and secretary 
of the Washingtonian Benevolent Society, prate about Democracy 
and urge objections to such men as Nathaniel Rix, John Page, and 
Enoch Page because they belong to a secret society." 

The outspoken criticism of political opponents in which Mr. Reding 
indulged was not always well received. Caleb Morse, an Adams or 
Whig partisan was elected representative in 1829 and 1830. In the 
latter year, previous to the March election, Editor Reding printed some 
rather unhandsome things concerning Mr. Morse, the result of which was 
that Mr. Morse brought an action of libel against Mr. Reding at the 
May term of the Superior Court. The case was tried four times and 
naturally excited great interest, at least in Haverhill where the parties 
were so well known. At the first trial the jury disagreed; at the second 
in November, 1832, a verdict was obtained for the defendant, but the 
case was carried up to the law term, 1833, on exceptions, but these were 
overruled, and execution was issued which was not, however, paid. 
At the November term, 1833, a writ of review was sued out, and the 
action was continued till the May term, 1834, once again till the adjourned 
term in October where the jury again disagreed. At the fourth trial in 
May, 1835, the plaintiff obtained a verdict, with damages assessed at one 
cent, which must have healed the wounded feelings of Mr. Morse. 
The counsel in the case for Mr. Morse were Iver Goodall, A. S. Woods 
and Joseph Bell, for Mr. Reding, Bartlett and Josiah Quincy. In 
sustaining the verdict of November, 1832, the Law Court held: 

Defendant may under general issue give evidence to rebut the presumption of malice. 
Any voter is justified in publishing for the information of his fellow voters any facts of 
which he is advised touching the character and qualifications of a candidate for his 
suffrage. In an action for libel it is no excuse that the publisher received the libel from 
a third person. In an action for slander the rule is different. 

Dr. Reding gave his opinion of the character of the suit in the columns 
of his paper previous to the fourth trial in 1835. He said: 

This, as every one knows, is a political suit, originally intended, undoubtedly, to break 
us down, and as a certain leading federalist who advised to the prosecution expressed it 
to drive us from the town. In this they have not yet suceeded — how long it will take 



328 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

them we cannot tell. That the expense of prosecuting this suit is borne by the plaintiff 
on the record we do not believe, and we have strong reasons for disbelieving it. 

In a pecuniary point of view, it would, no doubt, have been better for us had the case 
ended on the first trial, even had it gone against us for there is no pretence that the 
damage would have been anything equal to what the cost has been to each party since 
that time. What the cost has been we are at this time unable to determine, but every 
one at all acquainted with the blessings that result from a law suit, especially a political 
libel suit, must know, that the expenses of ten terms of court are not paid with a song — 
especially when a number of the most able counsel to be found, are engaged in it. Well, 
more or less, it is several hundred dollars and as yet we have fortunately been enabled to 
face up the expense of the defence single handed, and if the plaintiff has paid up his bills, 
we have no doubt a purse has been raised for that purpose by those who led him into 
the scrape. 

The political effect of this litigation on the parties in the case differed. 
Mr. Morse won his suit and recovered his damages, but he did not there- 
after hold official position, while six years later Mr. Reding was elected 
to Congress. 

In 1839 J. F. C. Hayes began the publication of the Whig and Egis 
devoted to the interests of the Whig party, but this was suspended in 
1842. 

In January, 1882, W. C. Mahurin, who had learned the printers trade 
with the Redings in 1859 and '60, purchased the material of the Demo- 
cratic-Republican, and began the publication of the Grafton County Signal, 
a six-page quarto, neutral in politics, and well supplied with local news. 
After two years he sold the paper to Joseph W. Dunbar, principal of the 
academy, who continued the paper at Haverhill for a year, later having it 
printed at Hanover, then at Littleton, where it was later merged with the 
Republic- Journal. The Haverhill Herald, later called the Advertiser and 
Budget of Fun, were published for a short time at Woodsville, by A. W. 
Jones, but was short lived, as was also a little sheet published at East 
Haverhill called the Oliverian. The Woodsville Enterprise was established 
in 1883, by W. H. Pringle, and the Grafton County Register by the Bittinger 
Brothers, which made its first appearance at Haverhill January 1, 1886. 
The Bittengers, Joseph F. and Frederick W., sons of the Rev. J. Q. Bit- 
tinger, were graduates of Dartmouth, and who, as proprietors of the 
Cohos Steam Press with its excellent outfit and machinery, had a con- 
stantly increasing business. They purchased the Enterprise and in 1890 
consolidated it with the Register, and published the consolidated paper 
under the name of the Weekly News, the first number appearing August 
22. The Cohos Press was moved from the Corner to Woodsville into a 
building which they had erected, known as Bittinger's Block and where 
the News is still published. The Weekly News was neutral or independent 
in politics, though, as the proprietors were both Democrats, it was some- 
times accused of having Democratic sympathies. It was a four-page, 
five-column sheet, bright, breezy and enterprising, and had a growing 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 329 

circulation, with job work up to the capacity of the office. About 1898 
the Bittingers purchased the Memorial Press at Plymouth, Mass., and 
sold the News to William F. Whitcher who had come to Woodsville from 
Boston in 1898. He had been for eighteen years on the editorial staff 
of the Boston Traveller and Advertiser, for several years editor-in-chief of 
the former paper. He to6k possession November 1, 1899, enlarged the 
paper to a six-column quarto, and January 1, 1900, changed its name 
to the Woodsville News. He made the paper aggressively Republican in 
its politics, and gave special attention to its editorial columns with the 
result that no weekly newspaper was more widely quoted throughout the 
state. Besides giving attention to local news, and matters of local inter- 
est, he also gave much space to articles of local historical interest. He 
conducted the paper as sole editor, proprietor, and manager till March 1, 
1916, when he sold it to the Woodsville Publishing Company and, under 
the editorship and management of one of the company, F. E. Thayer, who 
had been foreman of the composing room for four years previously, the 
News, now neutral in politics, is energetically devoting itself to the local 
interest, and has a deservedly growing circulation and patronage. Mr. 
Whitcher, in taking leave of his readers to devote himself to historical 
work, said: 

With this week's issue of the News the connection of owner, editor and publisher for 
the past sixteen years and more, closes, and the paper will hereafter be issued under its 
new ownership and management. That it will merit the confidence and the patronage 
of the public we have no doubt. The value of the weekly newspaper to a community 
is one of the things not appreciated. Like air and sunlight it is too common. Like the 
weather it is the subject of adverse criticism. There is complaint concerning the things 
printed, there is forgetfulness of gratitude for the things not printed. 

Gratefully appreciating the patronage of subscribers and job customers for the past 
sixteen years, the retiring editor asks not for the same but also better patronage for his 
successors. He has endeavored to work for the interests of Woodsville, with malice 
towards none and charity for all and wherein he has failed and needlessly offended — and 
for which he is sorry — he is willing to be forgiven. In taking leave of his thousands of 
readers, he has this word : Patronize your weekly paper, and protect your own interests 
and happiness thereby. 

The newspaper history of Haverhill is certainly marked by numbers 
and variety, but the two that stand out prominent for permanency and 
influence are the Democratic-Republican and the News. 



330 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 



Libraries 

The early attempts to establish libraries for the general use of the 
public were not crowned with large success. These attempts were nat- 
urally made at the Corner. In 1801 "the Social Library" was incor- 
porated with Charles Johnston as prime mover, and associated with him 
were John Osgood, Israel Swan and John Page. In 1812 the name was 
changed to the"Aurelian Social Library." In 1829 the libraries were char- 
tered, one called the "North Social Library" and the other the "South 
Social Library." Bittinger thinks that these were continuations of the 
original "Social Library," and that it is more than probable that another 
library which came into existence in 1845 was a reorganization of these 
of 1829, since this was also called the "Social Library," and some of the 
books belonging to the earlier libraries probably formed the nucleus of 
this last. The number of volumes in it was about 250, while the number 
contained in the earlier ones was doubtless smaller, though in 1827 the 
number of volumes in the "Aurelian Social" was stated to be 314, with 
a library fund of $200. There was also a circulating library established 
by S. T. Goss at his printing office and bookstore November 12, 1823, 
and continued later under the name of "Haverhill Circulating Library," 
by Samuel C. Stevens at his bookstore. Subscribers entitled to two 
volumes at a time paid $5 per year in advance, or $2.50 for six months, 
$1.50 for three months, or 50 cents for one month. Books could not be 
detained for longer than three weeks, and could not be changed oftener 
than once a day. Non-subscribers paid 6| cents per week for each vol- 
ume taken out, except for octavos, and for these 10 cents per week. 

The Social Libraries contained a less proportion of fiction and lighter 
reading than the public libraries of the present day, and the volumes 
consisted in the main of standard works, such as Dwight's Theology, 5 
volumes; Scott's Works, 6 volumes; Life of Brainerd; Cases of Conscience; 
Vicar of Wakefield; Doddridge's Rise and Progress; Spring's Essays; 
Scott's Essays; Reign of Grace; Don Quixote; Chalmer's Discoveries; 
Edwards on the Affections; British Poets, in 15 volumes; Blair's Phil- 
osophy; Life of Franklin; Whelpy's Compend of History; Northern Trav- 
eller; Beauties of Shakespeare; Kenilworth; Scottish Chiefs, 3 volumes; 
History of New England; Napoleon in Exile, 2 volumes; Revolution in 
in South America; The President's Tour; Nicholl's Recollections During 
the Reign of George III. Books such as these were the standards of the 
time. It is not perhaps to be wondered at that the library was not gen- 
erally patronized, and that some of the books which have come down to 
the present are in good condition. If they have ever been used, the use 
has been most careful. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 331 

The list of books in the circulating libraries includes those of a lighter 
vein and fiction predominated. These were the works of Walter Scott; 
Charlotte Temple; Arabian Nights; Young Grandson; Gulliver's Travels; 
Sons of Whitefield, General Putnam, Commodore Perry, General Marion, 
General Jackson, Lord Nelson; Roderick Randem, 2 volumes; Heiress of 
Desmond; Count Fathom; Adventure of Caleb Williams; Elizabeth or the 
Exile of Siberia; The Saracen, 2 volumes; Portraiture of Shakerism; 
Annals of the Parish; Sarah, or the Exemplary Wife; Paul and Virginia; 
Merchant's Widow; Spanish Daughter, etc. These are for the most part 
but names. Small wonder that libraries did not flourish. Besides these 
mentioned there was a People's Circulating Library Association. This 
was in existence in 1861. The membership fee was $1; G. F. Hook was 
librarian. 

The first step in the direction of securing a library of educational value, 
of furnishing books which would be read, was taken in October, 1880, in 
the organization of the Haverhill Library Association. Mrs. Augustus 
Whitney was the prime mover in the plan of furnishing not only useful 
but attractive reading for the young people. Her plan at first embraced 
not only books, but also a reading room, but this latter project was aban- 
doned. The association consisted of women; and the original officers 
were: President, Mrs. Charles B. Griswold; vice-president, Mrs. George 
F. Putnam; librarian, Miss Kate Mc Johnston; committee on books, 
Mrs. Griswold, Mrs. Stephen H. Curnmings, Mrs. Whitney, Miss Johns- 
ton. The library opened in November with ninety volumes of new 
books to which were added about one hundred and fifty volumes from 
the "Social Library" of 1845. The library was established in the old 
academy building now Pearson Hall, anyone could become a member of 
the association and continue so by the payment of one dollar initiation 
fee and a yearly tax of fifty cents. It has had a steady growth, and has 
at the present time (1916) about 5,000 volumes. After the act of 1901 
creating a division of the town library fund, it became and still remains a 
part of the free town library system. 

The library has an income besides its proportion of the annual appro- 
priation made by the town, from funds received since 1901, from the 
following named estates: Mrs. Salome D. Curnmings, $100; Amos Tarle- 
ton, $315.29; Mrs. Sarah A. Carleton, $3,558.56; Mrs. Ellen M. Page, 
$100. After occupying the rooms in Pearson Hall for nearly twenty 
years, the library, in the summer of 1916, moved into the old county office 
building on Court Street, and occupied the rooms which were formerly 
the office of the register of deeds. The present officers of the Library 
Association are: Trustees, Peabody W. Kimball, Charles P. Page, Mary 
E. Flanders; president, P. W. Kimball; vice-president, Mrs. Mary L. 
Stearns; secretary and treasurer and librarian, Miss Mary E. Flanders. 



332 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

This system was inaugurated by an act of the legislature of 1891, which 
created a state board of library commissioners which was "authorized 
and directed to expend upon the application of any town owning no free 
public library owned and controlled by the town, a sum not exceeding 
one hundred dollars, for books for such town entitled to the benefit of 
these provisions, such books to be used by the town for the purpose of 
establishing a free public library." This was conditioned upon the town 
having accepted the provisions relative to free public libraries at a regular 
called town meeting, and also having provided in a manner satisfactory 
to the commissioners for the care, custody and distribution of the books 
furnished. It was also provided that any town accepting these provisions 
should "annually appropriate for the use and maintenance of its free 
public library, a sum not less than fifty dollars, if its last assessed valua- 
tion was one million dollars or upward, or a sum not less than twenty-five 
dollars if the valuation was less than one million, and not less than two 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars, or a sum not less than fifteen dollars 
if the valuation was less than two hundred and fifty thousand dollars." 

An article was placed in the warrant for the annual town meeting of 
1893 to see if the town would accept the provisions of the library act, 
but it was voted to pass the article, and it was not till 1898 that the town 
voted to accept the provisions in question, chose three trustees and voted 
an appropriation for a free town library. 

There had been an attempt to start a library at Woodsville in the early 
seventies, and the association then formed collected a number of volumes. 
The association was named the Ladies' Charitable Society, organized for 
charitable work, January 4, 1871, with the following officers: President, 
Mrs. Betsey Evans; vice-president, Miss Sarah Chamberlain; secretary 
Miss Lizzie A. King; treasurer, Mrs. Marian Drake. The ladies met 
once in two weeks to sew for the poor, and each member was to pay into 
the treasury five cents at each meeting. Under the rules no refreshments 
were served. On June 28, 1871, it was voted to buy books for the use 
of the association with the money on hand, and Charles B. Drake, a 
druggist, was chosen librarian. In October, nearly $75 was expended 
for the beginning of a library. The last meeting of which there is any 
record was held January 8, 1874. There were additional purchases of 
books, and such volumes as had been preserved were turned over to the 
Woodsville Free Library when that was established in 1894. 

In the winter of 1893-94 Ira Whitcher who had come to Woodsville in 
1870, and had since been actively engaged in business, recognizing the 
desirability of library privileges and advantages, erected on a lot in the 
square fronting the school building, a substantial brick building with 
granite basement, designed for library purposes, at a cost of upwards of 
six thousand dollars and on the 16th day of May, 1894, conveyed the 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 333 

same with such fixtures and appurtenances as he might in his lifetime add 
thereto, by deed of trust, to Dexter D. Dow, clerk of the Superior Court 
of Grafton County, Maude Kimball, Annabel M. Sloan, Fred W. Bit- 
tinger, Mary E. Whitcher Abbott, Alzina M. Griswold, Charles R. Gibson, 
Charles C. Whitcher and Oliver D. Eastman, trustees, the conditions of 
the trust being the following: 

Said trustees shall hold and control said estate and other property to and for the uses 
of a public library open at all reasonable times and under such reasonable rules and 
regulations as said trustees may prescribe to all citizens of the said (Woodsville Union 
High) school district, provided however that such trustees by major vote may extend 
the privileges of said library to any worthy and deserving person not resident in said 
district; or they may by major vote enlarge the limits of such use and privilege. The 
trustees named shall elect a president, clerk and necessary committees in the month of 
May in each year and shall become incorporate. Said Dow shall hold office until 
another person is chosen or appointed clerk of the Superior Court for Grafton County 
and that person shall be his successor in this trust; said Kimball shall hold office until 
the next annual meeting of same school district, when said district may choose his suc- 
cessor, and continue to do the same annually; said Gibson and Whitcher shall hold office 
for four years; said Griswold for three years; said Abbott and Bittinger for two years; 
and said Sloane and Eastman for one year; and upon the expiration of their terms the 
remaining trustees shall choose their successors for the term of four years. All trustees 
shall hold office until their successors are chosen, and the trustees are empowered to fill 
vacancies, arising from death, resignation, permanent removal from the district, or any 
other cause ; the trustees shall report to the proper state officers as in case of institutions 
of a similar character. 

The following memoranda by Mr. Whitcher was filed with the deed: 

Memoranda of cost of Library Building and furnishings conveyed by me in trust for 
the purpose of a Free Public Library in Woodsville : 

The cost of excavation, foundation, stone work, building material, construction, 
grading, furniture and fixtures, etc., was six thousand fifty-two dollars and seventy-one 
cents. 

In addition to this I also placed in the building, in connection with William F. Whitcher 
and Mary E. Whitcher Abbott, books to the value of upwards of a thousand dollars, it 
being the understanding that a like amount should be raised by the citizens of Woods- 
ville to be expended for books to be placed in the library previous to its being opened 
for use." 

The sum of six hundred dollars was raised by citizens and expended for 
books in pursuance of this understanding. 

The trustees met for organization, July 16, 1894, and chose: President, 
Dr. C. R. Gibson; secretary and treasurer, Charles Whitcher; committee 
on purchase of books, D. D. Dow, F. W. Bittinger, Mrs. Griswold, Mrs. 
Abbott, Mrs. Sloan. New books were purchased and the library was 
opened for the public in the following October. The district at first 
appropriated $150 a year for the support of the library which has since 
increased nearly to $300. The town appropriation for the use of the 
Woodsville library was at first $66.66, and this has been increased so 



334 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

that in 1916, it was $200. The library opened with upwards of 2,000 
volumes, and it has at the present time on its shelves about 7,000 volumes. 
The first librarian was Charles B. Griswold. He was succeeded July 29, 
1901, by Mrs. F. A. Gray, who was in turn succeeded in June, 1905, by 
Mrs. S. M. Chamberlain. The library organization at the present time 
(1916) is: President, W. F. Whitcher; secretary and treasurer, S. M. 
Chamberlain; librarian, Mrs. S. M. Chamberalin; assistant librarian, 
Miss Luvia E. Mann; committee on purchase of books, W. F. Whitcher, 
S. M. Chamberlain, Norman J. Page; executive committee, D. D. Dow, 
J. F. Leonard, Joseph M. Howe. 

In October, 1898, an association was formed and chartered at North 
Haverhill under the title of "The North Haverhill Library Association," 
with the following members named in the charter: Mrs. Mary A. Benton 
of Boston, Mrs. Ellen B. Fisher, Mrs. Mary L. Southard, May E. Peters, 
Mrs. Kate C. Meader and Henry W. Keyes. Hon. Josiah H. Benton of 
Boston, chairman of the board of trustees of the Boston Public Library, 
showed his interest in the association by giving the use of the front room 
of the Dr. Watson house then owned by him for library purposes, and 
this was furnished by Mrs. Benton, who was a frequent summer visitor, 
at her own expense, and who also donated five hundred volumes as a 
nucleus of the library. Indeed Mrs. Benton may be regarded as the prime 
mover in founding the library. There was an informal opening of the 
library October 21, 1898, about fifty being present, most of whom joined 
the association, paying the prescribed fee of one dollar. A constitution 
and by-laws were adopted, and officers were chosen: President, Henry W. 
Keyes; librarian, Mary L. Southard; assistant librarian, Ellen B. Fisher; 
secretary, Kate C. Meader; treasurer, May E. Peters; book committee, 
Mary A. Benton, Katherine Morse, Emma Weeks. Funds for the 
purchase of books were provided by the annual membership fee, and from 
the proceeds of various entertainments given under the charge of the 
chairman of the executive committee, an office held for several years by 
Mrs. Fisher and later by Mrs. Henry W. Keyes. By the gift of books 
and magazines from friends, of funds from the Village Improvement 
Society and the Dramatic Association, the library contained 1,600 vol- 
umes in 1905, and there was in the treasury the sum of $180. The library 
availed itself of participation in the town appropriation for free public 
libraries by formally accepting the provisions of the act of 1901, and 
Ezra B. Willoughby, Moses A. Meader and Dr. W. B. Lawrence were 
elected library trustees. 

In April, 1912, Mr. and Mrs. Charles Fisher gave a fine lot for a library 
building on Main Street, and a committee consisting of Rev. A. M. 
Mackey, Mrs. H. W. Keyes, Miss Annie Filley, Miss Ida Tragausa and 
L. M. Kimball, was appointed to solicit funds for the erection of a building. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 335 

They met with a gratifying response from friends and former residents 
of the town, and later reported the sum of $1,946 as having been raised, 
the largest gift being from Mrs. Annie Cotton Thyng, in memory of her 
father, Joseph B. Cotton, a former merchant in the village. The town, 
by two appropriations, one in 1913, and another in 1915, added $1,000 to 
the fund. A beautiful brick building, well furnished and well equipped 
with library conveniences, was opened and dedicated September 15, 
1915, the exercises being held in the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
the dedicatory address was delivered by Dr. G. M. Watson of Manches- 
ter. The plan was furnished by F. Lyman Clark, architect of Brookline, 
Mass., and the contractors were the Cummings Construction Company. 
The total cost was $4,728.97, not including pictures, reading table and 
chairs, the gift of Mr. and Mrs. Benton, and the librarian's desk, the gift 
of the Village Improvement Society. The building committee were 
Messrs. Willoughby, Keyes, Dr. Lawrence, Mrs. Fisher and Miss Morse. 

At the annual meeting in January, 1916, there were reported 2,047 
volumes on the shelves, besides files of magazines and the library was out 
of debt. The library is open to the public each Wednesday evening and 
Saturday afternoon. Branch libraries have been established at East 
Haverhill and the Center and boxes of books have been sent out as called 
for. Officers at present (1916) are: President, H. W. Keyes; vice-presi- 
dent, E. B. Willoughby; secretary, Kate C. Meader; treasurer, Ida M. 
Tragausa; librarian, Mary L. Southard; trustees, E. B. Willoughby, 
Dr. W. E. Lawrence, L. M. Kimball; chairman executive committee, 
Mrs. H. W. Keyes; book committee, Mrs. Benton, Mrs. Southard, Mrs. 
Keyes, Miss Morse, Mr. Kimball. 

There were three libraries in town w r hen the town voted to accept the 
provisions of the act: that at Woodsville, a free public library; the other 
two voluntary associations. It was manifestly impracticable to estab- 
lish a town library district from these, and as manifestly unfair to make 
either of the three a town library. A town library at North Haverhill 
would accommodate neither Woodsville nor the Corner, each five miles 
distant, and still less would a town library at Woodsville or the Corner 
accommodate other sections of the town. It was proposed that the state 
board of library commissioners approve a decision between the three libra- 
ries of the fund voted by the town, but they would not consent to this on 
the ground that two of the libraries were not free, and they were also 
opposed to any decision on the ground that the library act provided for a 
single town library not for two or three. In the meantime the Haverhill 
library trustees simply placed the funds which came into their hands in 
the bank. There was need of legislative action, but such action would 
be special legislation, not easy to secure on any matter covered by a gen- 
eral law. Under the general title of "An Act to Prevent Misappro- 



336 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

priation of Funds raised by Taxation for Public Libraries," the legis- 
lature of 1901 enacted: 

One third part of the taxes heretofore raised and set apart under existing law for the 
purpose of a free public library in the town of Haverhill shall be paid by the trustees of 
the town library to the trustees of the Woodsville Free Public Library in said town for 
the purposes of said library, and one third part of the amount hereafter to be raised for 
free public library purposes in said town shall annually be paid to said trustees for the 
purposes of said Woodsville Free Public Library. The accumulation of said library 
funds in said town by reason of said two thirds of said library taxes in said town not 
hereby appropriated to the present use of any library shall be held by the town library 
trustees for the use of any other free public library or libraries in said town which may 
hereafter conform to the requirements of law regarding free public libraries. 

The Woodsville library received immediately one third of the three 
years' accumulation of funds, and a little later the libraries of the Corner 
and North Haverhill availed themselves of the provisions of the act of 
1901, and Haverhill has now three town libraries, or rather three free 
public libraries, each entitled to one third the amount raised by taxation 
for town library purposes. The duties of the Haverhill library trustees 
are not onerous. They receive from the town treasurer the amount 
annually appropriated and pay the same over to the treasurers of the 
three libraries, and there their duties end. It is needless to say that they 
serve without pay. 



CHAPTER XV 



TAVERNS, MAILS AND STAGES. 

* 

Taverns — Capt. Uriah Morse — John Hazen — Luther Richardson — Capt. Joshua 
Howard — Mr. Cobleigh — Ezekiel Ladd — At the Corner — The Bliss — 
Edward Towle — The Williams — The Grafton — Joseph Balch, First Post 
Rider — Joseph Bliss First Postmaster — Multiplied in Later Years — • 
Stage Line Projected in 1811 — Stage Routes — First Stage Owners — Names 
of Postmasters. 

No sooner was the settlement of Haverhill begun, than there was felt 
the need of some place where the settlers, oppressed by the loneliness of 
the wilderness, might meet for social intercourse, and the solace and 
comfort which in that day was believed to be found in bowls of punch and 
mugs of flip. Travellers were not numerous in those first days, indeed 
there were no travellers, but there was the comfort of the settler himself 
to be considered. When Capt. John Hazen guided his horse over the 
bridle path or " road as it is now trode" down the river to Ladd Street to 
transact a matter of business with Timothy Bedel, it was a matter of 
great convenience that they could meet at Ezekiel Ladd's and transact 
their business, while they partook of the liquid refreshment which Cap- 
tain Ladd was licensed as common importer to sell. That Captain 
Hazen did not always have his six pence or his "three pence ha'penny" 
with him made no difference, as appears from accounts of Captain Ladd, 
as rendered to the Administrators of Captain Hazen's estate. The old- 
fashioned ordinary, the tavern, the licensed innholder were first of all for 
the comfort and accommodation of the home people; later for the traveller. 
There were few travellers, until there were roads, and roads were hardly 
worthy the name, until the beginning was made with the construction of 
the Coos turnpike. With roads came stages and Haverhill became one 
of the most important of stage centres, just as in later years it has become 
one of the most important of northern New England railroad centres. 
The fact that it was the first settled of the Coos County towns had 
something to do with this, but geographical situation was the determining 
factor. The earliest taverns were not at the Corner. "Probably 1 the 
first tavern, or at least what served the purpose of a tavern, was Uriah 
Morse's on Poole brook. Captain Hazen was an innholder as early as 
1766, in the same locality a little north, and Luther Richardson kept a 
public house in 1774 at the 'Plain.' Another very early tavern was kept 
by Samuel Ladd on Ladd Street. This house stood just south of the James 

JBittinger, p. 200. 

23 337 



338 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

Woodward place. There was also a tavern in early times on Ladd 
Street, where the house known as the Mrs. Osgood Morse house now 
stands. Col. Joshua Howard kept a tavern near the site of the County 
almshouse. Also a little later there was a tavern at Horse Meadow 
known as the 'Morse tavern, ' which was kept by John Morse, and a mile 
north of this was the 'Cobleigh tavern', where the fast men of the day 
met and drank and handled cards. 2 The Burk house at the north end of 
Ladd Street was once a tavern known as the ' Swan tavern.' In later days 
it was kept by Capt. "Lyman Burk." Ezekiel Ladd also held an innhold- 
er's license for several years. His house was near his tannery on the 
west side of Ladd Street a little south and on the opposite side of the 
street from Henry S. Bailey's. 

The most notable of the taverns or hotels, as in the later stage days 
they were called, were at the Corner. One of the first that was built and 
which is still standing was the famous "Bliss tavern." It was built 
by Joseph Bliss who came to Haverhill about 1790, and who took a 
leading part in the early history of the town. He was one of the number 
that built the first Academy building. He was the first postmaster of 
Haverhill appointed under Washington in 1792 or 1793. He kept this 
tavern until his death in 1819, and in its day it was the aristocratic head- 
quarters for the judges and lawyers during the sessions of the court. It 
is still standing, a dignified and comfortable mansion, at the corner of 
Court and Academy streets. The Coon tavern, built and kept by Ross 
Coon, was on the west side of Main Street on the site of the Grafton Bank 
house, and of the new house now owned and occupied by Mrs. Rogers. 
The Coon tavern, previous to the erection of the bank building, was cut 
in two and moved from the premises, a part becoming the Levi B. Ham 
house, east of the south common, and a part the Augustus Whitney 
house. 

The great stage tavern was owned and kept by Col. Simon Towle, who 
came from Chester to Haverhill in 1805. It was previously kept by Asa 
Boynton, and it is probable he was the builder. Colonel Towle died soon 
after coming to Haverhill and he was succeeded as landlord by his son, 
Edward Towle, who made the Towle tavern one of the most famous on 
the northern New England stage lines, until it was burned in the great 
fire of April 18, 1848. The fire caught from a defective flue in the tavern 
which stood on the site of what was afterwards known as the Nathaniel 
Page property, now the store of W. H. Page & Son. Six buildings 
besides the tavern were burned, and the loss was one from which the 
Corner never fully recovered. 

On the opposite corner from the Bliss tavern there is still standing 

2 Now transformed into the Cottage hospital. 



HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 339 

another relic of the old tavern days, the present residence of Samuel S. 
Page, and for many years the residence of his father, David Page. This 
was kept for many years by Jacob Williams, who later bought a resi- 
dence on the west side of Main Street, which he enlarged and kept as a 
hotel until he sold to Eleazer Smith, who with his son and successor, 
Charles G. Smith, made it for many years a popular hostelry. Charles 
G. Smith was succeeded by Scott Fellows, but with the removal of 
the courts to Woodsville the glory of the Exchange Hotel departed, and 
the building burned in the fire of 1902. 

The large brick three-story building on Court Street so long the home 
of Dr. Phineas Spalding and now known as the Crawford House was 
originally built for a tavern and under the name of the Grafton Hotel was 
kept for many years by Jonathan Sinclair, and it is thought by many was 
built by him early in the first decade of the last century. In 1830 Mr. 
Sinclair enlarged and repaired the house and the following prospectus or 
announcement, published in the Intelligencer February 24, 1830, is inter- 
esting as what might be expected of a first class tavern of the time: 

Jonathan Sinclair has recently enlarged and repaired the Grafton Hotel at Haverhill 
Corner, his former establishment, and has re-opened the same as a house of public enter- 
tainment. To his friends and former customers he would say that his accommodations 
are much superior to what they formerly were, and inferior to none in the state. To 
the public generally he would observe that his house shall never be the haunt of tipler, 
gambler and idler but shall on all occasions be found a pleasant and commodious resort 
for the weary traveller, the man of business and the gentleman of pleasure. On the 
subject of charges, attendance and fees, the proprietor would remark that fair dealing, 
trusty servants and good living shall be found inmates of his establishment. He also 
professes to be a connisseur in the article of coffee, and care will distinguish the Coos 
domestic from the Java coffee. The bar is furnished with the best of liquor and one 
toddy stick for the accommodation of gentlemen with many for family use. 

The terms of court were longer in the early days than now. Besides 
the court of Common Pleas and the Court of General Sessions of the 
Peace at which sometimes no less than twenty justices were present there 
was the Supreme Court of Judication, and with justices, lawyers, clients, 
sheriffs, deputies, jurors and witnesses remaining in town until their law 
business was finished, the taverns at the Corner were crowded for weeks 
at a time, as besides these there was the daily stage passenger list which 
had to have accommodations. Bliss's tavern was headquarters for court 
and bar, which had a special dining table to which no layman, however 
high his social standing was admitted. 

There was another old "Morse tavern," besides the one at Horse 
Meadow. This was on Morse Hill on the road leading from the Plain or 
North Haverhill up through the Centre over the hill down through "No. 
Six" through the Coventry or Benton Meadows, the Coventry road, so- 



340 HISTORY OF HAVERHILL 

called, to Portsmouth and Boston. This stood on the hill a little east of 
the present Dearborn place. This, like many of the taverns of the day 
outside the villages, was a story and half building containing four rooms 
below and two in the attic, these latter occupied by the family. Of the 
four lower rooms one at the front was the bar room, and the one opposite 
a sort of reception room. Back of these were the dining room and kitchen. 
For a number of years more teams passed over the Coventry road than 
over the turnpike from the Corner to Plymouth. In the summer time 
freight was carried to and from the cities in heavy wagons for the most 
part, the regular teamsters never having less than four horses, a ton being 
allowed for each horse, but there were three horse teams called "spikes," 
two horse, called "podangers" and single horse with cart "gimlets," all 
demanding the tavern as a necessity, though the smaller teams were 
never favorites with the tavern keepers. It was in the winter time, when 
there was usually plenty of snow, that the wagons were housed, that 
taverns like the Morse on Morse Hill and the Tarleton on the turnpike 
were crowded. The farmer became his own carrier, and sold and pur- 
chased for himself in the large towns "down country." Often twenty or 
thirty farmers would start together on the road to town. The two-horse 
pung or single horse pod sleigh was closely packed with farm produce 
that could be sold in the large town or city, "frozen hogs, poultry and 
venison: firkins of butter, casks of cheese, bags of beans, peas, sheep 
pelts, and hides, mink, fox and fisher cat skins, and now and then a bear 
skin, nuts that the boys had gathered, shoe pegs they had cut, yarn their 
sisters had spun, stockings and mittens they had knitted, homespun cloth 
and linen, splint brooms and birch brooms strapped on behind. So 
closely packed was the sleigh that the driver could not sit : he stood on a 
little semi-circular step on the back of the sleigh protected from the cut- 
ting mountain winds by the high sleigh back. At times he