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Full text of "History of the town of Hingham, Massachusetts"

Boston Public Library 
Boston, MA 02116 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



TOWN OF HINGHAM, 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



IN THREE VOLUMES. 

Volume I. — Part I. 
HISTORICAL. 



PUBLISHED BY THE TOWN. 

1893. 



5 oosox 
fl£f 

/■ / 

<9tottocrsitu IQrrss : 
John Wilson and Sox, Cambridge. 



Reprinted by - 

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148 Washington Street, Post Office Box 778 

Salem, Massachusetts 01970 

Phone: 978/745-7170 Fax: 978/745-8025 



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PREFACE. 



TN the year 1827 a History of Hingham was compiled 
by Solomon Lincoln, Jr., which was published by- 
Caleb Gill, Jr., and Farmer and Brown, of Hingham. It 
was a small volume of one hundred and eighty-three 
pages, the work of private enterprise, and only three 
hundred copies were printed. Many of the copies have 
been destroyed or lost, or distributed among the families 
of persons who have removed from Hingham ; collec- 
tors of rare books have also contributed to make the 
work still more scarce, and of greatly enhanced money 
value ; so that it has been difficult to secure information 
concerning the early annals of the town. Moreover the 
last half-century has been prolific with changes in our 
local affairs as important as any in all our previous 
history. It therefore became a matter of sufficient public 
interest for the town to take some action in relation to 
the publication of its history, and at the annual meeting 
in 1882 a committee was appointed to consider the expedi- 
ency of publishing a History of Hingham. This committee 
made a report at the annual town meeting, in 1883, recom- 
mending " that the town cause a History of Hingham 
to be prepared and published, and that a committee be 
appointed to have entire charge of the publication." 



vi Preface. 

The report was accepted, the recommendations adopted, 
and the following committee appointed to carry the same 
into effect, viz. : — 

George Lincoln. E. Waters Burr. Edmund Hersey. 

Fearing Burr. Elijah Shute. Amasa Whiting. 

John Cushing. Henry Stephenson. Joseph 0. Burdett. 

Francis H. Lincoln. John D. Long. Walter L. Bouve. 

Amasa Whiting was unable to serve, and Arthur Lincoln 
was appointed in his place. 

Liberal appropriations have been made by the town 
from time to time, for the accomplishment of the work. 

The first question which confronted the committee was, 
" Who shall write the History ? ' It was agreed at once 
that for the preparation of the Genealogies of Hingham 
families Mr. George Lincoln was best fitted, on account of 
the amount of material already in his possession, his many 
years of research, and his familiarity with the families 
of the town. He was therefore employed by the com- 
mittee to furnish that portion of the work. Had there 
been known to the committee any one person possessing 
the ability and taste for historical writing, the leisure to 
devote to it, and familiarity with the history and tra- 
ditions of our town, he would have given to the work a 
uniformity of style and continuity of narrative which is 
very desirable. But no one answering this description 
appeared to be available, and as assurances of a willing- 
ness to write upon special topics were given by several of 
our citizens, who seemed to be well adapted to such special 
work, the plan was decided upon which has its fulfilment 
in the following pages of " Historical " matter. The work 
of these authors has been without compensation other than 



Preface. vii 

the pleasure and satisfaction gained from the study of the 
past, and at much cheerful and voluntary sacrifice of 
time and strength. Many of the illustrations have been 
procured through the enthusiasm of some of our local 
amateur photographers. 

The work has grown far beyond any original expecta- 
tion of its magnitude, and, as it is, much has of necessity 
been omitted which it might be profitable and interesting 
to preserve ; the patience of the town has been taxed 
through many years of anxious waiting ; but it is hoped 
that the perusal of these pages, with their narratives of 
past accomplishments, may inspire a patriotic pride among 
our citizens to maintain an honorable place in the world's 
history for the Town of Hingham. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Volume 1. — Part I. 



Page 

The Geology of Hingham . . . Thomas T. Bouve . . 1 

Mineralogy '• '• . . 75 

Notes on Animal Life .... •• •• ... 79 

The Botany of Hingham ... '•' •• 87 

Trees and Shrubs of Hingham . Edward T. Bouve . . . 139 

Ancient Landmarks " '•' ... 157 

Early Settlers John D. Long .... 201 

Military History Walter L. Bouve . . . 209 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Volume I. — Part 1. 



Page 

Portrait of Thomas T. Bouve i!4 

Union Street Dike 34 

Beach Street Dike 35 

From a drawing by Edward T. Bouve. 

Double Dike, Rocky Neck 49 

From a drawing by Edward T. Bouve. 

Pot Holes, Cohasset 54 

Pot Holes, Cohasset 56 

Kames near Great Hill . 60 

Bowlder, Cobb's Bank 67 

From a drawing by Edward T. Bouve. 

Bowlder, Derby Street 68 

From a photograph by George E. Siders. 

Main Street, Hingham . 140 

From a photograph by Francis H. Lincoln. 

Old Elm, East Street 150 

From a photograph by Francis A. Osrorn. 

Old Elm, Prospect Street 150 

From a photograpli by Francis A. Osborn. 

Tittling Rock 164 

Engraved by Wallace Corthell from a photograph by George E. Riders. 

Pond Rock, Scituate Pond 169 

Engraved by Wallace Corthell from a photograph by George E. Siders. 

Home of General Lincoln ISO 

Main Street, South Hingham 184 

From a photograph by Henry F. Guild. 

Thaxter House 188 

From a photograph by William Hudson. 

Corner of Main and Leavitt Streets 190 

From a photograph by Francis A. Oshorn. 



xii Illustrations. 

Page 

Glad Tidings Eock ...... 195 

Engraved by Wallace Cortiiell from a photograph by George E. Siders. 

Sprague's Bridge, Union Street 196 

From a photograph by Henry F. Guild. 

Portrait of Joseph Blake 256 

Portrait of General Lincoln 304 

General Lincoln's Monument 306 

Portrait of Governor Andrew 342 

Statue of Governor Andrew 368 

From a photograph by Henry F. Guild. 

Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument 371 

From a photograph by Fraxcis H. Lincoln. 



MAPS TO ILLUSTRATE GEOLOGY. 

General Map of Hingham 4 

District between Crow Point and Huit's Cove .... 30 

District between Lincoln Street and Beal's Cove . . 42 

Rocky Neck on Weir River 46 

Hingham Village and West Hingham 52 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



TOWN OF HINGHAM, 

MASSACHUSETTS. 



IN THREE VOLUMES. 

Volume I. — Part I. 
HISTORICAL. 



HISTORY OF HINGHAM 



THE GEOLOGY OF HINGHAM. 

BY THOMAS T. BOUVE. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Boundary Lines. 

The boundary-line of Hinghain, commencing on the water- 
front at Cohasset, near the head of Nantasket Beach, runs west 
through an elongated inlet of the sea or bay which lies east of 
the lower waters of Weir River, and from thence follows along 
this river, and subsequently skirts the coast at the base of the 
hills known as Planters' and World's End, in a northwesterly 
direction until it passes the latter, when it turns westerly and 
crosses outside the harbor of the town and the shores north to 
the mouth of Weymouth Back River. From there this river 
forms the boundary between the town and a part of Weymouth 
to the head of navigation, about three and a half miles. The other 
boundary-lines are artificial, dividing the town on the west from 
a part of Weymouth not separated by the river, on the south and 
southeast from Rockland and Norvvell, and on the east from Cohas- 
set. The boundary-line of the harbor leaves exterior to it Bunkin 
Island, which belongs to Hull, and that of the southern boundary 
crosses Accord Pond, the beautiful sheet of water from which 
Hingham draws its abundant supply. 

The shore-line of the water-front of the town, as distinct from 
that of the boundary, is much more extensive, following as it does 
the numerous indentures of the coast, and embracing the circum- 
ference of the islands. Notice should be taken of the distinction 
between the boundary and shore lines, as they comprise the limits 
between which the marine forms of life appear that may be here- 
after mentioned. 

The coast bordering upon the Weir River and Bay is of varied 
and picturesque character, with its alternating rocky projections 
and swampy plains. The shore-line, too, from Crow Point west 

VOL. I. — l 



2 History of Hingham. 

to the mouth of Weymouth River presents much diversity, and at 
Huit's Cove, where the rocky cliffs are covered with forest growth, 
the scenery becomes again quite interesting, and continues so upon 
the river front to the head of navigation. 



"O' 



The Harbor. 

The harbor of Hingham, properly so called, is embraced within 
an extension of land on the east side which rises into hills of con- 
siderable magnitude, the outermost of which is World's End, and 
an opposite shore of less extent, which presents itself partly as a 
sandy and stony beach, but having towards its extremity some 
rocky prominences, finally terminating at an elevation of land 
which received at an early period the name of Crow Point, prob- 
ably from the great number of crows that congregated there. In 
the harbor, which is from three fourths of a mile to a mile in 
width and about one mile and a half in depth, are three beautiful 
islands, bearing the names respectively of Ragged, Sarah's, and 
Langlee's ; of which the first named is particularly picturesque, 
from the rugged outline of its coast and the dark savins upon its 
crags. They are all of moderate elevation, and shrubs of low 
growth cover their undulating surfaces. Only one deciduous tree 
is seen, and that a Linden of considerable size, upon the one known 
as Langlee's. 1 Besides these three islands, there is yet another near 
the shore of the town, and which from its diminutive size received 
the name of Button Island. The harbor itself is a charming one 
when the tide is in, and by no means lacks beauty when this has 
ebbed. True, the lovely sheet of water has disappeared from view, 
but the exposed flats are covered everywhere with the dense sea- 
grass that rests recumbent on their surfaces, and there is seen 
meandering through its sombre green a silvery channel pleasing 
to the eye, and which is of sufficient width and depth to admit the 
steamers and other vessels that approach the town. Other large 
islands lie off the coast of Hingham, but the town line separates 
them from its possessions. Particular attention is called to those 
of the harbor and to the contour of the coast, in order to the 
better understanding of the geological phenomena to be hereafter 
presented. 

Area. 

The area of Hingham, as given in the Town Report for 1885, 
p. 76, is 12,973 acres. 

The greatest length of the town is that shown by a line from 
World's End to the southwesterly point at Rockland. This is over 
eight miles. 

1 Since the above was written young trees set out upon the two islands, Sarah's 
and Langlee's, by the present proprietor, are becoming conspicuous, and promise to add 
much to the beauty of their surfaces and of the harbor generally by their growth. 



The Geology of Hingham. 3 

The greatest width across the town, direct east and west, is from 
where Scituate touches the boundary to Weymouth. This is five 
miles. Across the northern part of the town, at the point of its 
junction with Hull and Cohasset, west to Weymouth River, the 
width is a little over four and a third miles. Between these two 
measurements it narrows on an east and west line to about three 
and a third miles. 

Topography. 

The topography of Hingham is of sucli marked character as to 
make it of exceeding interest to those who are at all acquainted 
with surface geology. The writer therefore hopes to be able to 
impart such knowledge of this in later pages devoted to the phe- 
nomena of glacial action as will add much to the pleasure of 
townsmen and strangers alike in travelling over its territory. 

The most noticeable features arise from the great number of 
the beautiful hills belonging to a class called by Irish geologists, 
Drumlins, signifying long, rounded hills, and by our own country- 
man, Prof. Charles H. Hitchcock, Lenticular Hills, from their 
lens-like form. They are distinguished by their oval and sym- 
metrical outlines, by their composition, and by the direction of 
their longest axes, which in this region is approximately north- 
west and southeast. They are products of the ice period, in the 
treatment of which a full account of them will be given. Otis 
Hill, Turkey Hill, Prospect Hill, Baker's Hill, Squirrel Hill, Great 
Hill, Planters' Hill, the Hills of World's End, the Hills of Crow 
Point and neighborhood, and many others of lesser magnitude, 
are of this character. Of much less prominence, but of not less 
interest to students of surface geology, are the Karnes, so called, 
consisting of ridges, hills, and hillocks, which occur over a large 
portion of territory in the western part of the town. These, like 
the Lenticular Hills, owe their origin to glacial action. 

In a very general way it may be said that the settlements of the 
town rest upon four surfaces of different elevations, namely : one 
along the harbor and spreading west towards Fort Hill and Wey- 
mouth River ; Lower Plain, so called, which rises from the first- 
mentioned, half a mile or more inland ; Glad Tidings Plain, a 
slightly higher level which succeeds the last, three or four miles 
inland, and which is separated from it by a depression of the land ; 
and finally, Liberty Plain, the highest of all, reaching to the 
southern boundary. 

This statement, however, though true of the several settlements 
of the town, affords but a very inadequate idea of the diversified 
character of the whole territory, for even the lowest region has 
several of the high hills mentioned rising from it, and bordering 
the second is Turkey Hill, having an altitude of 181 feet, which is 
only inferior to the highest of all in town. 



4 History of Hingham. 

One of the most prominent of the elevations of the lowest plateau 
is Otis Hill, which rises quite near the harbor on its western side. 
The views from this are very fine, and should be seen by all who 
keenly enjoy an extended prospect. It is said that Daniel Webster 
ascended the hill whenever opportunity presented itself, feeling 
amply repaid for the necessary exertion in reaching its summit. 
On the east, beyond Nantasket Beach and the rocky shore of Co- 
hasset, the open sea spreads itself to the vision until lost in the 
distant horizon ; north, the coast of the opposite side of Massa- 
chusetts Bay may be traced until it, too, fades from sight towards 
Cape Ann ; and northwest, the domes and spires of the great city, 
with the expanse of water gemmed with islands and dotted over 
with vessels gliding among them, afford an enchanting scene. 
The height of Otis Hill is about 129 feet. The still higher ele- 
vation of the second plateau, Turkey Hill, before mentioned, 
affords yet grander views. No one who has not been here can 
appreciate the transcendent beauty of such as may be enjoyed 
from its summit, in looking towards the west and northwest just 
as the sun is sinking beneath the horizon, especially when hover- 
ing clouds are lit up by its rays and the intervening water is tinted 
by their reflections. 

The highest elevation of all is that of Prospect Hill, and it is 
worthy the name. This is in the south part of the town, and has 
a height of 218-^ feet. Measurements of other hills give the fol- 
lowing results : — 

Baker's, 141 feet; Squirrel, 133 feet; Great Hill, 120 feet; 
Planter's, 118 feet ; Old Colony, 70 feet ; Liberty Pole, 107 feet ; 
the highest of the World's End hills, 92, the lowest, 66 ; Crow 
Point Hill, 81 ; Pleasant, near Crow Point, 93 ; Bradley's, 87 ; 
Tucker's, between Crow Point and Pleasant, 65. 

Much of the remaining territory presents itself in rounded hil- 
locks of various elevations, and in the west part of the town these 
prevail over a great area. Unfortunately they have to a. great 
extent been denuded of trees. Barren wastes are found, unsightly 
to the eye where beauty might abound, and where profit might be 
realized if the surface could be devoted to forest culture. Nothing 
could be done that would be more advantageous to this almost 
destitute portion of the town than to cover it with the white pine, 
as there can be no doubt but that it would be a wise investment 
of money to do this if proper precautions were taken to protect 
the growth from destruction by fires. 

Independently of the interesting features of the landscape men- 
tioned, there is such variety of surface over the town as to make 
all parts attractive. 

In some portions are miles of rich and rocky woodlands, in 
other portions swamps impenetrable from forest growth. In 
places, high cliffs of rock rise from above the general level ; in 
others, green meadows of peaceful beauty stretch far before the 



The Geology of Hingham. 5 

vision. Here may be seen from some elevation tree-clad hills and 
dales ; there, water checkered with islands, and the ocean itself 
receding in the far distance from sight. Here one may wander 
along a rock-bound coast, with objects of interest everywhere in 
view; or he may seek and find, in deep dark woods, sequestered 
glens as far remote seemingly from all human surroundings and 
associations as would be to him the recesses in the distant moun- 
tains. Few towns, indeed, can present more diversified features. 

Swamps. 

There are numerous swamps in the town, some of which are 
quite extensive, as Bare Swamp, which extends over a considera- 
ble tract of country, from the neighborhood of the West End depot 
to French Street, near Weymouth ; Hemlock Swamp, which lies 
between Hobart and High streets ; and several others southwest 
of these. 

Rivers. 

Excepting Weymouth Back River, which borders a part of the 
town on the west, and Weir River, there are none worthy the 
name. Many streams contribute to the latter, the most important 
of which has its origin in Accord Pond. Others of its tributaries 
flow from the swamps of the town, which, as before stated, are 
numerous, especially in its western portions. 

Ponds. 

Of the ponds of the town delineated on the map, Cushing's, 
Trip-Hummer, Fulling-Mill, and Thomas', are all artificial. The 
only natural one of any considerable area, of which any portion is 
within the borders of Hingham, is Accord Pond. This seems sin- 
gular, considering the many natural line sheets of water which are 
found in the surrounding territory. What Nature has, however, 
denied, has been in part provided through the enterprise of the 
inhabitants, who for manufacturing purposes have dammed the 
streams, spread their waters over surfaces bounded by hills, and 
thus greatly enhanced the beauty of the scenery in many locali- 
ties. Cushing's Pond resulted from the damming of one of the 
tributary streams of Weir River, known as Plymouth River ; Trip- 
hammer Pond, from the damming of another tributary known as 
Beechwood, or Mill River ; Thomas' Pond from the damming of 
the main stream ; and Fulling-Mill Pond from a small stream, 
sometimes called Cold Spring. 



PRELIMINARY REMARKS ON GENERAL GEOLOGY. 



Any account of the Geology of Hingham would necessarily be 
but of little service to the unscientific reader, unless preceded 
by some remarks upon the several ruck formations of the earth 
and the periods of their deposition. The advance of knowledge 
respecting these has been so rapid that the very terms but re- 
cently used to designate their relative age are not only obsolete to 
a considerable degree, but often misleading. For instance, it is 
not long since the word ' ; primitive " conveyed to all students the 
idea that the rocks so designated, the granites, were the earliest 
formed of all the earth's strata ; but now it is a well-recognized 
fact that these have been produced in nearly all periods of geo- 
logic time. All ideas based upon views taught in the books of 
a past generation respecting Primitive, Transition, and Secondary 
rocks should be dismissed from thought as being now but of 
little or no significance. 

In order that the mind may be receptive of the grand ideas 
which a knowledge of geological phenomena cannot fail to im- 
part, it is necessary first of all to disabuse it of the narrow con- 
ceptions of creation which have too long prevailed among men. 
It must recognize the sublime truth that the great Power which 
permeates and controls all matter has been for inconceivable ages 
evolving from the chaos of things the innumerable worlds that 
compose the universe ; and in fine must look upon the earth we 
inhabit, with all its multitude of living and ever-changing forms, 
as the result of the constant and never-ceasing action of creative 
energy for not only thousands, but for very many millions of 
years. 

The calculations relative to the age of the earth have been 
based upon several grounds, — one astronomical, by estimates of 
the time which would be required to reduce the sun from the dimen- 
sions embraced within the orbit of the earth to its present size. 
This Professor Newcomb makes 18,000,000 years. Add to this 
the time which he concludes might have passed before the tem- 
perature of the globe itself would have been reduced so as to 
allow of the existence of water upon it, 3,845,000 years, and the 
time estimated by him for the development of the several forma- 
tions composing the earth's strata, which he embraces within 



The Geology of Hingham. 7 

a period of 10,000,000 years, and we have a total of 31,845,000 
years since the globe was separated from the sun in a gaseous 
condition, and of but 1:3,815,000 years since the first incrusta- 
tion of its surface. 

Another method of determining the age has been to base esti- 
mates upon the internal heat of the globe and the rate of cooling. 
Sir William Thomson thus concluded that about 80,000,000 
years must have elapsed for the globe to cool to its present con- 
dition, dating from the first incrustation upon its surface. 

Another method has been to base calculations upon the geo- 
logical changes that have been going on during comparatively 
recent times, b}' which sedimentary deposits have been formed 
at a known rate of thickness within certain periods. Dr. Croll 
estimates in this way that not less than 60,000,000 years must 
have elapsed, and probably much more since sedimentation began. 
Another investigator, Dr. Haughton, on the same basis extends 
the time to more than 200,000,000 years. 

It is unnecessary to add more on this point. It is sufficient to 
state that no man capable of forming a judgment, and who has 
duly investigated the question, has been able to come to any other 
conclusion than that our good mother the earth has been revolv- 
ing in her orbit, since incrustation and the commencement of 
sedimentation, for millions of years, and whether these be num- 
bered by tens or hundreds can be but of little moment, when the 
feast mentioned is more than long enough to appall the mind in 
its contemplation. 

It is however desirable, in view of a better understanding of 
what may follow relative to different periods in the earth's history, 
to give a table showing the estimated duration of each, assuming 
the whole length of time since incrustation to be 80,000,000 
years, as calculated by Sir William Thomson. Of course, if it 
should be assumed that the whole period since incrustation was 
more or less than 80,000,000 years, the time estimated for each 
period would be proportionately lengthened or shortened. The 
time ratios of the several periods have been determined by Pro- 
fessor Dana from the relative thickness of the rocky sediments, 
and of the probable time required for their deposit, and though 
estimates thus based must necessarily be imperfect," yet by them 
we can approximate somewhat nearer to the truth than in any 
other way. The presentation will be useful in impressing on the 
mind of the reader the remote antiquity of the rocks of Hingham ; 
for if, as generally claimed, the greater portion of them had their 
origin in Archaean Time, basing their age on Sir William's esti- 
mate of the ao;e of the world, tbev must have been formed more 
than 30,000,000 years ago. The table is abbreviated from one 
presented in the very valuable work of Alexander Winchell, 
LL. D., Professor of Geology and Palaeontology in the University 
of Michigan, called " World Life, or Comparative Geology." 



8 



History of Hingham. 
Estimated Length of Geological Periods. 



Formations. 


Kock Measure. 
Feet. 


Percentage. 


Thomson's Basis. 
Years. 


PYROLITHIC TIME .... 


123,200 


27.77 


22,216,000 


ARCHAEAN TIME. 










01,600 


13.88 


11,104,000 


Eozoic Age. 










41,200 


9.20 


7,408,000 




20,400 


4 62 


3,696,000 


PALAEOZOIC TIME. 








Silurian Age. 








Primordial Period 


16,400 


3.70 


2,960,000 


Canadian Period 


45,400 


10.23 


8,184,000 


Trenton Period 


14,700 


3.32 


2,656,000 


Niagara Period 


7,100 


1.60 


1,280,000 


Salina Period 


2,050 


.46 


368,000 


Lower Helderberg Period . . 


7,500 


1.69 


1,352.000 


Devonian Age. 








Oriskany Period 


720 


.17 


136,000 


Corniferous Period .... 


2,800 


.63 


504.000 


Hamilton Period . . . . 


6,000 


1.35 


1,080,000 


Chemung Period 


4,900 


1.11 


888,000 


Catskill Period ...... 


7,544 


1 70 


1,360,000 


Carboniferous Age. 








Lower Carboniferous Period . 


7,500 


1.70 


1,360,000 


Upper Carboniferous Period . 


14,570 


3.28 


2,624,000 


MESOZOIC TIME. 










31,540 


7.11 


5,688,000 




8,200 


1.85 


1,480,000 


Cretaceous Period 


5,020 


1.26 


1,008,000 


CJEXOZOIC TIME. 










11,735 


2.65 


2,120,000 


Post Tertiary Age. 










1,956 


.44 


352,000 


Post Glacial Period .... 


978 


.22 
100.00 


176,000 


Total Crust 


443,073 


80,000,000 



It is proper to state here that investigations within a few years 
past by Dr. G. Frederick Wright, the author of the " Ice Age in 
North America," Warren Upham, and other geologists who have 
made special study of the phenomena of the Glacial Period, have 
satisfactorily determined that all that has happened on the surface 
since that period may not have required more than from ten to 
fifteen thousand years. When the above table was prepared, much 
less was known of glacial action than now. 



The Geology of Hingham. 9 

A second table is presented, giving a list of the formations ; 
the forms of life that appeared in the several periods ; and some 
general remarks upon the land surfaces, the climatic conditions, 
and the mountain elevations. Periods not recognized in the first 
table are presented in this. 



Formations. 




PYROLITHIC 
TIME. 

ARCHAEAN 
TIME. 

Azoic Age. 



Eozoic Age. 
Laureutian 

Period. 
Huronian 

Period. 



PALAEOZOIC 
TIME. 



ilurian Age. 
Primordial 
Period. 









Canadian 
Period. 



Trenton 
Period. 



Note. From lack of definite 
knowledge of the particular pe- 
riods in which insect forms first 
appeared, mention of them is onl_y 
made after the close of remarks 
upon other life in the several 
periods of each Age. 



Indications of Marine 
Plants and of Protozoa, 
the lowest of the forms 
of animal life. 



General Remarks. 



Age of Invertebrates. 

Marine only ; 

Plants, sea-weeds. Ani- 
mals, all invertebrates. 
Protozoa, Radiata, Mol- 
lusca, and Articulata. 
Trilobites in immense 
numbers and of mam/ 
species are found. The 
largest of these became 
extinct before the close 
of this period. Crinoids ■ 
and Sponges appear. 

Marine only : 

Plants all sea-weeds. 
Animals, invertebrates. 
Among Cephalopods Or- 
thoceras first appear. 

Marine almost entirely. 
Some late discoveries of 
land plants have been 
made in Ohio and Ken- 
tucky. Animals all in- 
vertebrates. 



Physical condition making life im- 
possible. 



The continent in the Eozoic Age 
was limited to a region mostly 
within limits of British North 
America, but embracing, outside, 
the Adirondack region of N. Y., 
a region in Mich, south of Lake 
Superior, a long belt, including 
the Highlands of N. Y., and the 
Blue Ridge of Penn. and Va., 
also areas along the Atlantic 
Coast in Nova Scotia, Newfound- 
laud, and Eastern Mass. 

A long but narrow ridge existed 
along the line where afterwards 
were raised the Rocky Mountains. 
Four-fifths at least of the present 
surface of the continent were 
under water. 



A mild climate certainly prevailed 
in the Arctic regions during 
these periods, as proved by the 
forms of life found in high north- 
ern latitudes. 

The Appalachian region, embrac- 
ing that of the Green Mountains, 
was one of shallow waters, whilst 
areas of the rocks of Archasan 
Time formed islands and reefs. 
A barrier was thus partially 
formed, which led the interior 
continental sea to be compara- 
tively quiet, where flourished 
crinoids, mollusks, and corals, 
the detritus of which made up 
the growing limestone. This 
period of physical quiet, Dana 
remarks, was probably as long 
continued as " all the time that 
has since elapsed," a remark cal- 
culated to impress the mind very 
forcibly of its duration. 



10 



History of Hingham. 



Formations. 



Niagara Period 



Salina Period. 



5 

«2 



Lower Helder- 
berg Period. 



Oriskany 
Period. 



Devonian Age. 

Corniferous 

Period. 




Marine only : 

Plants, sea-weeds. 
Animals, invertebrates. 
No evidence yet of fishes 
or of fresh-water life. 

Almost destitute of fossils. 



Fossils of the same generic 
character generally as 
in preceding periods, the 
species distinct. 

Trilobites common, but 
with them a new Crus- 
tacean appears for (lie 
first time, the Euryp- 
terus remipes, a foot or 
more in length. 

Plants generally marine. 
One species of Lijcopo- 
dium (ground pine) has, 
however, been found. 

No fishes yet noticed in 
American beds of this 
period, but in Europe 
their remains are met 
with in the Ludlow 
rocks, which are equiv- 
alent to the Lower Hel- 
derberg and Oriskany of 
America, and are the 
first vertebrates yet dis- 
covered in formations 
earlier than the De- 
vonian. 



Of the Class Arachnida: 
articulated animals having 
the body generally divided 
in two parts, as Scorpions, 
Spiders, Ticks, etc., — the 
first represented in the 
earth's formations were 
found in the Upper Silurian. 
Three species, all Scorpions. 
Of the true Insects, one 
specimen has been found in 
the Upper Silurian, but the 
character of this has not 
been clearly made out. It 
belongs to one of the orders 
of the Hexapoda. 

Age of Fishes. 

Marine Plants include a 

new form, the Spirophy- 

ton cauda galli. 



General Remarks. 



The Niagara Period was one of 
subsidence of the land over ex- 
tensive regions. 



The rocks of the Salina Period 
yield salt from brines contained 
in them. The subsidence men- 
tioned as occurring during the 
NiagaraPeriod continued through 
this. 

The extinction of species during 
the progress of the Silurian Age 
was great. ] )ana says, " There is 
no evidence that a species existed 
in the later half of the I'pper 
Silurian that was alive in the 
later half of the Lower Silurian." 



The greater part of the continent 
yet remained under water at the 
close of the Silurian Age. 

There is no evidence that the cli- 
mate, even in high latitudes, had 
become otherwise than warm and 
temperate as in the Lower Si- 
lurian Periods. 



During the Corniferous Period, a 
large part of the continent was 
covered with shallow seas, in 



The Geology of Bingham. 



11 




General Remarks. 



Hamilton Period. 



Chemung Period. 



Catskill Period. 



Land Plants : 

Lycopods, Ferns, and 

Conifers. 
Corals in great numbers, 

Echinoderms, Trilo- 

bites. 
Fishes, first appearance 

of in American rocks: 

Sharks, Ganoids, Placo- 

derms ; but no osseous 

species. 



Land Plants : Lycopods, 
Ferns, Eqoiseta ; but as 
yet no flosses. 

The Vertebrates are rep- 
resented only by Fishes. 

Goniatites, a group of Ce- 
phalopods first appear. 



Land Plants of like gen- 
era as in the preceding 
period. 

Trilubites, so abundant in 
former periods, have be- 
come rare. 



Remains of life rare. The 
plants are similar to 
those of the Chemung 
Period. 

The change in life during 
the Devonian Age was 
marked by the introduc- 
tion of many new forms 
and the extinction of 
many old ones, as in pre- 
vious ages. 



which corals of great variety 
flourished. 
The climate was warm, and proba- 
bly so over the Arctic regions. 



Articulates of the Myrio- 
poda, a class allied to In- 
sects, worm-like but having 
many segments and nu- 
merous feet, first appear in 
the Devonian Age. 

True Insects, of the class 
Herapoda, appear in several 
species. 



In the Hamilton Period, extensive 
forests of Lycopods. some similar 
to modern spruces and pines and 
others widely different from any 
known family, undoubtedly ex- 
isted, as shown by the Lepido- 
dendra and Sigillaria found in 
the strata. 



At the close of the Devonian Age 
the area of the continent had 
much increased, and embraced a 
large part of East Canada and 
New England, but the greater 
part of North America yet re- 
mained beneath the waters. 
Neither the Rocky Mountains 
nor the Appalachians yet existed. 
The Green Mountains were low 
hills compared with their present 
height. 

Great" disturbance seems to have 
followed the close of the age over 
the eastern part of the continen- 
tal area leading to elevation of a 
great portion of Maine, etc. 

The occurrence of Devonian species 
in the Arctics shows, as Dana 
remarks, that there was but little 
diversity of climate between the 
regions" now called Temperate 
and Arctic Zones. 



12 



History of Hingham. 




Carboniferous 
Age. 
Sub-Carbonifer- 
ous Period. 



Carboniferous 
Period. 



Permian Period. 



Sea-weeds similar to tbose 

of the Devonian. 
Land Plants : 

Lycopods, Ferns, Coni- 
fers and Calamites. 
The animal life was abun- 
dant, as shown by the 
profusion of the remains 
of Crinoids. 
Of Radiates : Polyp 

Corals. 
Of Brachiopods : Spi- 

rifer Productus. 
Of Cephalopoda : Go- 

niatites, Nautilus. 
Of Articulates : Trilo- 
bites, ( >rthoceratites, 
Scorpions, etc. 
Of Fishes : as in De- 
vonian Age. 
Of Amphibians : Foot- 
prints. 

Immense development of 
the coal-forming plants, 
the Tree-ferns, the Ly- 
copods, Sigillarids, the 
Fquiseta, Conifers, and 
Cycads. The latter first 
appeared in this period. 

No Angiosperms, no 
Palms, no Mosses yet 
discovered. 

Plants similar to those of 
the Coal Period. 

Of animal life, Goniatites, 
which first appeared in 
the Hamilton Period, 
and Trilobites, which 
appeared in the Primor- 
dial Period, both had 
become extinct. 

Several genera of the Mol- 
lusea, as Productus, 
( )rthis,and Murchisonia, 
are not found later than 
this period. 



As might have been ex- 
pected from the immense 
development of vegetable 
life under tropical tempera- 
ture, the remains of great 
numbers of insects are found 
in the deposits of the Car- 
boniferous Age, during 
which theif first appeared. 
Species of the extinct Order 
Palseodictyoptera are espe- 
cially abundant, embracing 



General Remarks. 



During the Sub-Carboniferous Pe- 
riod a great mediterranean sea, as 
previously, covered a large area 
of the interior of the continent, 
and the temperature being fa- 
vorable, there was a great devel- 
opment of crinoids, corals, and 
the many forms of life now found 
in the strata. 

Forests and marsh areas were ex- 
tensive. The period was one of 
subsidence. The condition of the 
Arctic regions was yet undoubt- 
edly similar to the more southern 
portions of the continent, the air 
being warm and moist. 



This Period, differing from that of 
the Sub-Carboniferous, was one 
of extensive emergence instead 
of subsidence. 

As yet the Alleghanies did not ex- 
ist, but over their area were great 
marshes, where flourished the 
coal-making plants of the period. 



The beds of the Permian are 
marine. 



Palaeozoic Time has now come to 
an end. Great disturbances fol- 
lowed, leading to the elevation 
of the Alleghany Mountains and 



The Geology of Hingham. 



13 



Formations. 




MESOZOIC TIME 
Reptilian Age. 
Triassic Period. 



Jurassic Period. 



Cretaceous Period, 



ancient types of cockroach- 
es, walking-sticks, May-flies, 
etc. 

< )ther extinct Orders are 
also represented. 



Plants : 

Cycads and new forms 

of Ferns, Equiseta, 

Conifers. 
No species yet met. ivith 

of Grass or Muss. 
No Palms. 

No Angiosperms, the 
class which includes all 
our New-England plants 
having a bark, excepting 
Conifers, as maples, wil- 
lows, birches, oaks, etc. 
Animals : 

Vertebrates in great 
numbers and of great 
size. Fishes, Reptiles, 
perhaps Birds. 
First appearance of 

Mammals. 

Plants : 

Similar to those of the 
Triassic Period. 
Animals : 
Gigantic Reptiles, among 

them flying lizards. 
Marsupial mammals. 
First appearance of os- 
seous jishes. 
Birds. 

Plants : 

First appearance of the 

Angiosperms. 
Of the Angiosperms, 

oaks, beeches, poplars, 

willows, hickories, and 

others existed. 
First appearance of 

Palms. 
Animals : 

Reptiles were very nu- 
merous and of great size, 
one genus of which, 
Mosasaurus, had species 
varying from forty-five 
to eighty feet in length, 
and having been snake- 
like in form, may well 
be termed, as by Dana, 
sea-serpents of the era. 



General Remarks. 



In the deposits of the Pe- 
riods of the Reptilian Age, 
first appear insects of the 



to preat changes along the coast 
of New England, in New Bruns- 
wick, Nova Scotia, and generally 
over all the surface east of the 
Mississippi. 



The forests of this period differed 
much from those of the Carbon- 
iferous in having neither Sigil- 
larids nor Lepidodendrids. Tree- 
ferns, Conifers, and Cycads were 
the prevailing forms. 

There were great disturbances of 
the surface during the Triassic 
Period, as shown by the vast 
ridges of trap rocks which were 
forced up through the strata in 
a molten condition, and now form 
some of the prominent elevations 
of tiie eastern part of the conti- 
nent, as Mounts Tom and Holy- 
oke of Mass., the high hills near 
New Haven, Conn., the Palisades 
of the Hudson, etc. 



The Jurassic Beds of Europe em- 
brace those of three epochs, — - 
the Liassic, Oolitic, and Weilden. 

The first of these have yielded 
some of the best preserved and 
finest fossils that are to be found 
in our collections. 



Cretaceous rocks are common over 
a considerable portion of Europe, 
in the southeastern and southern 
parts of the United States, and 
in the Rocky Mountains. The 
well-known chalk composes great 
beds in England, and is found in 
France and other parts of Europe. 



Great changes of level seem to have 
taken place towards the close of 
this period, leading to increased 
height of the land in' the northern 
regions, causing much change in 



14 



History of Hingham. 



Formations. 




CJENOZOIC 
TIME. 
Tertiary Age. 
Laramie Pe- 
riod (or Lig- 
nitieP.). 

Note. — This period 
is included by some 
geologists in the Cre- 
taceous of Mesozoic 
Time. 



Alabama Period 
(same as Eocene). 



General Remarks. 



Orders Orthoptera, Neurop- 
tera, Hemiptera, Hymenop- 
tera, Coleoptera, JJiptera, 
and Lepidoptera. 



Plants : 

The deposits of this pe- 
riod yield great num- 
bers of the leaves of 
Augiosperms, — species 
of oak, poplar, maple, 
hickory, fig, magnolia, 
and others ; also of Con- 
ifers and palms. Nuts 
of some species are 
common. 

Animals : 

Freshwater shells and 
some manine species. 
No mammals. Pishes 
and Reptiles have been 
found in the Laramie 
beds. 

Plants : 

Trees mostly of the 
same genera as those of 
the present period. 
The infusorial deposits 
near Richmond, Va , 
yield a large number of 
species of Diatoms. 

Animals: 

The remains, vertebra;, 
and teeth, in great num- 
bers, of a large animal 
allied to a whale, called 
the Zeuglodon Cetoides, 
are found in the de- 
posits of this period in 
the States of Georgia, 
South Carolina, Mis- 
sissippi, and Alabama. 
The animal was at least 
seventy feet in length 

In beds of this period in the 
west are found remains 
of species similar to 
those of the present, as 
the rhinoceros, Mexican 
wild boar, horse, mon- 
key, and others, among 
them the earliest of the 
squirrels. Of the birds, 
one species from the 
Eocene of New Mexico 
was larger than the 
ostrich. 



the climates and a general de- 
struction of the life then existing 
upon or near the surface in both 
hemispheres. 



Estuary deposits in Mississippi, in 
the region of the Upper Missouri, 
in the Rocky Mountain region, 
and at Brandon, Vt. 

Called the Lignitic Period because 
of the prevalence of Lignitic beds 
in the deposits. 



Great disturbance of the surface in 
North America at the close of 
this period, that led to the eleva- 
tion of mountains in California, 
which, increased undoubtedly by 
subsequent movements, are now 
4,000 feet high. 



Further disturbances at the close 
of this period, raising the bor- 
ders of the Gulf of Mexico, and 
probablv elevating above the pre- 
vious height the Rocky Mountain 
region. 



The Geology of Hingham. 



15 



Formations. 



Life. 



Yorktowu Period. 
(Miocene.) 



Sumter Period. 
(Pliocene.) 



Quaternary Age. 
Glacial Period. 



Champlain Period. 



Animals : 

Whales, dolphins, seals, 
walruses, bones of ta- 
pir-like animals, and of 
new species of horses 
and of hogs, rhinoce- 
roses of several genera, 
wolves, lions, beavers, 
etc. 



Animals : 

Of Birds : eagles, cranes, 

and cormorants. 
Of .Mammals elephants, 
camels, rhinoceroses, 
deer, tigers, horses, 
and the jirst of the 
mastodons found in 
American deposits. 



All the Orders of Insects 
the remains of which are 
found in the Mesozoic de- 
posits are also represented 
in the Caenozoic. Great 
numbers of species have 
been preserved to us in 
amber, a fossil gum of the 
Tertiary Age. 



Entire destruction of life 
over the glaciated North 
which extended in the 
eastern part of the 
United States as far 
south as Pennsylvania. 

Animal life : read under 
next period. 

The animal life of the two 
earlier periods of the 
Quaternary Age was of 
remarkable character, 
especially as shown by 
the remains of the Mam- 
mals found both in 
Europe and America. 
These show 
species were 



that the 
of enor- 
mous size compared with 



General Remarks. 



During this period, and culminating 
at its close, there is evidence of 
great disturbances over a large 
portion of the continent. By 
great volcanic action, extensive 
regions of the Pacific slope were 
overflowed by igneous rocks to 
the depth of thousands of feet, 
and the Rocky Mountains raided 
to their present elevation. Their 
uprise during the Tertiary Age, 
according to Dana, could not 
have been less than 11,000 feet. 
The height at which the deposits 
of the Miocene Period are found 
on the southeast and southern 
coast, being several hundred feet, 
shows the extent of the move- 
ments. 

The phosphatic beds of South Caro- 
'ina are of this period. 



A period generally regarded as one 
of extreme cold, but there is rea- 
son to think the degree of this 
has been exaggerated. Ice cov- 
ered Eastern North America to 
the height of from 2,000 to 6,000 
feet. 



The period of the passing away of 
the ice, and of great floods ; a 
period, too, of considerable de- 
pression of the surface and of 
extensive alluvial deposits. 



16 



History of Hingham. 



Formations. 




Recent Period. 



those of more ancient 
or of more recent times. 
In North America, 
roaming over the sur- 
face, were elephants, 
mastodons, horses much 
larger than the present, 
bison, tapirs, beavers of 
huge size, lions, bears, 
and others. In South 
America, massive sloth 
forms, as the megatheri- 
um, mylodon, and mega- 
lonyx, were numerous, 
as were many species of 
other genera. In Eng- 
land and other countries 
of Europe, bears, lions, 
hyenas, rhinoceroses, 
hippopotamuses, deer, 
were common. 
Man undoubtedly existed 
in this period, and proba- 
bly in the early portion, 
as his remains and the 
implements of his hands 
have been found with 
the bones of the Cham- 
plain animals, as the 
mastodon and reindeer 
There is evidence of 
man having appeared at 
a still earlier period, — 
possibly in the Tertiary 
Age. 

The animals of the Cham- 
plain Period largely 
passed away in the early 
part of this, destroyed 
undoubtedly by the 
colder temperature, and 
species of less size took 
the places of the huge 
forms that preceded 
them. Although man, 
as previously stated, 
was in existence, it was 
not until the modern 
era of this period that 
he attained the domin- 
ion over all other races 
since possessed by him. 



General Remarks. 



The deposits of this period are 
alluvial beds along rivers, drift- 
sands, deposits of rivers in the 
ocean, or from the washing and 
wearing away of the shores, 
coral-reef formations, shell lime- 
stone growth in the ocean or 
inland waters, bog-iron ore in 
marshes, stalactitic and stalag- 
mitic formation in caves, deposits 
from springs, lavas from volcanic 
action, etc. 

There was an elevation of the land 
in the high latitudes in the early 
portion of this period, which re- 
stored its height to about the de- 
pression of the Champlain. The 
temperature of the North, par- 
ticularly over Asia and Europe, 
became again extremely cold. 

The terraces so common around 
lakes and along river-courses in 
parts of New England owe their 
origin to the rise of land after 
the Champlain Period, and the 
action of waters. 



The Geology of Hingham. 



17 



Explanation of Names of Formations, etc., mentioned in the Tables above. 



Pyroliihic. From the Greek, fire-stone. 

Arclwan. Ancient; the beginning. 

Azoic. Without life. 

Eozoic. Dawn of life. 

PaUeozoic. Ancient life. 

Mesozoic. Middle life. 

Ccenozoic. Recent life. 

Primordial. First in order. 

Silurian. Geographical, first applied to 

rocks of Siluria. 
Devonian. Geographical, first applied to 

rocks of Devonshire. 
Carboniferous. Having the great coal 

fields. 
Cretaceous. Latin, for chalky. 
Triassic. Named from a series of three 

kinds of rocks. 



Jurassic. Geographical, from rocks of 
Alt. Jura. 

Permian. Geographical, from rocks of 
Permia, an ancient kingdom of Russia. 

Tertiary. Adopted from old classifica- 
tion, when the terms Primary, Second- 
ary, and Tertiary embraced ail the rock 
formations. 

Corniferous. From Latin cornu, horn, and 
fero, I bear, the rocks bearing seams of 
hornstone. 

Quaternary. From Latin qnatuor, four, 
applied to strata following Tertiary 
(third). 

Salina. From its salt-bearing brines ; 
salina, in Latin, being a place where 
salt is made. 



Other names geographical of known localities will not need explanation. 



Pyrolithic Time. — As the name denotes, the Pyrolithic for- 
mations were igneous only, for the condition of the molten, but 
gradually cooling globe admitted of none other. The immense 
period required for any approach to stability of the surface must 
have witnessed constant changes upon it, and over and over again 
must the earlier incrusted portions have been broken up and re- 
melted as they became from time to time, through the shrinking 
consequent upon refrigeration, submerged in the incandescent 
sea. At length when consolidation of the surface had increased, 
rocky masses undoubtedly appeared above the general level, but 
these were necessarily of a different character from any now 
known. They were the truly primitive rocks, and it is very 
doubtful if any trace of them can be found on the earth. 

Archaean Time. — Previous to the formation of the rocks of. 
Archaean Time, the cooling of the globe had proceeded to a de- 
gree allowing the existence of water in the atmosphere and its 
deposit upon the surface. Of its earlier rocks we can know as 
little as of those of Pyrolithic Time, for all now recognized appear 
to be the result of the wearing down of pre-existing formations, 
the deposit of their debris in the form of sands and clay as sedi- 
ments in water, and the subsequent crystallization of much of the 
material into gneisses, mica slates, etc. Other rocks of the time 
are conglomerates, sandstones, and clay slates. 

There is evidence that both vegetable and animal life existed 
in this early time, but only in its lowest forms. 

Paleozoic Time ; Silurian Age ; Primordial Period. — The 
rocks of this period were formed from the wearing away of those 
of Archaean Time, and the reconstruction of the material into new 
strata. Great interest is felt in these because, so far as clearly 
shown, they contain impressions of the remains of the first organ- 

VOL. I. — 2 



18 History of Hingham. 

ized forms of life that have left impressions, the characters of 
which can be deciphered. All that can be known of the early 
species, therefore, vegetable or animal, must apparently be learned 
from what has been, or may yet be discovered in them. The 
estimated duration of this period, taking Thomson's basis as 
shown, by the table, is nearly 3,000,000 years. The forms of life 
preserved by the strata are all of course marine, and consist 
largely of impressions of Trilobites, — animals that lived in the 
shallow waters of the coasts, upon the muddy and sandy surfaces 
below, and finally became entombed in their substance. There 
were many species of these animals in these and later formations, 
but they all became extinct before the close of the Carboniferous 
Period. The fortunate discovery by Prof. Wm. B. Rogers of the 
remains of some of these in the slate rocks of Braintree, furnished 
proof that a part at least of the slate of the Boston Basin belongs 
to the Primordial Period. 

We will now pass over the immense time in the history of the 
earth, numbering many millions of years, during which other rocks 
of the Silurian and of the Devonian Ages were deposited beneath 
the sea to the enormous thickness of one hundred thousand feet, 
all abounding in forms of life, as scarcely more than a mention 
can be made of any period that has not left mementos of its pas- 
sage over or about this particular territory. 

Carboniferous Age. — Of the Carboniferous Age, it may be said 
that notwithstanding the contrary views hitherto held by geologists, 
it is yet by no means settled that the Conglomerates and Associated 
rocks of Hingham are not formations of this age rather than of 
the Primordial Period of the Silurian Age. However this may 
be, it is certain that a considerable portion of the rock formations 
near and south of Hingham, bordering Rhode Island and extend- 
ing into that State, is made up of the deposits of the Carboniferous 
Age, embracing not only Conglomerates of like character as those 
of the Boston Basin, but also large beds of Anthracite with the 
accompanying shales and fossil plants, demonstrating them to be 
contemporaneous with those of the great coal-fields of Pennsyl- 
vania and other regions of the continent. This fact suggests, 
what it is well to bear in mind, that the temperature of the region 
we inhabit, as well as that of the whole North, was then very 
much warmer than in succeeding ages, sufficiently so to allow 
the growth of tropical plants of which coal itself is a product, not 
only in the Alleghany and the western coal regions, but in those 
of Massachusetts, of Cape Breton, and of the Arctic Circle. It is 
certainly a striking fact that upon the surface of this town, 
where in after ages rested for thousands of years ice of great 
thickness, flourished tree-ferns, and other plants of forms now 
found only in the torrid zone ; but there can be no question 
that this was the case. The rock formations of the Carbon- 
iferous Age measure in thickness about 22,000 feet, and the esti- 
mated time for their deposit on Thomson's basis is about 4,000,000 



The Geology of II Ingham. 19 

years. It was not until after the close of this age that the 
Alleghany Mountains were elevated, bearing up with them the 
Carboniferous matter which now makes up the great body of the 
coal found in their strata. 

To the Carboniferous Age succeeded the Triassic, Jurassic, and 
the Cretaceous Periods of Mesozoic Time, and the several periods 
of the Tertiary Age in Camozoic Time. It was during the Creta- 
ceous Period of the former, and the periods of tbe latter that 
deposits were made along the eastern and southern shores of 
North America, forming strata which by subsequent elevation 
now compose a considerable part of the middle coast States, and 
nearly the whole of those that border the Gulf of Mexico, and 
it was, too, during these periods that a large portion of the strata 
now composing the Rocky Mountains were formed beneath the 
waters. These mountains did not attain to their present elevation 
until near the latter part of the Tertiary Age. The Reptilian and 
Tertiary Ages passed without leaving any traces now recognizable 
on the territory of Hingham. 

We have now reached a period which has received the name of 
Glacial, and which calls for particular notice, because nowhere 
perhaps can results of the extraordinary phenomena attending it 
be more readily seen than in Hingham. The extent of the change 
made upon the whole surface of the land north of Pennsylvania 
can never be fully realized, and it was probably as great over this 
town as over a like area anvwhere. What were the distinguish- 
ing characteristics of this period ? We have seen that in a pre- 
ceding ao;e, when the coal of the threat coal-fields of the continent 

CO? O 

was laid down, the climate everywhere north was tropical. We 
now find it to have changed to one of great cold, and that this 
continued, if we may rely on the estimate made by Thomson, 
more than 350,000 years. Life became extinct under its influ- 
ence, and over nearly the whole land north of Pennsylvania there 
came to be a covering of ice several thousand feet in thickness, 
which, governed by the same influences that affect the great 
bodies of ice in glacial regions at the present time, moved steadily 
and majestically towards the south, throwing off icebergs where 
it reached the sea, as is the case with the glaciers of Greenland 
now, and gradually melting and thinning out as it approached 
warmer latitudes on the land surface. 

Through the investigations of the Rev. G. Frederick Wright, 
Mr. Warren Upham, and others, we now have certain knowledge 
of a great part of the boundary line of the glacial sheet over the 
land, from as far west as Illinois to the Atlantic, this being well- 
marked by the morainic deposits of the debris brought from 
northern regions in and upon the ice, and deposited at its margin. 
Want of space will not permit the writer to dwell upon these, but 
the reader is assured that their character cannot be mistaken. 
The terminal moraine has a very irregular course east from Illi- 
nois, passing through the States of Indiana, Ohio, a part of Ken- 



20 History of Hingham. 

tucky, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, reaching the ocean at Perth 
Amboy, where it is lost to sight. It is not difficult, however, to 
trace the limit of the ice sheet east from the land. The evidence 
by morainic deposits shows its front at one period to have been 
over Long Island, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket, from which 
it unquestionably extended far out over the ocean in a northeast 
direction, the shallowness of the waters at the Great Fishing 
Banks being due to the immense deposits from the glacier. 

What brought about the great change that converted a large 
area of the earth from one teeming with life to one where the 
silence of death reigned supreme, we may never certainly know. 
If not due entirely to the elevation of the land in the northern 
regions of the earth, which occurred in the later Tertiary Age, 
there can be no doubt but that this was a potent factor, for the 
Glacial Period was one of high latitude elevation ; nor can we 
fully account for the great subsecjuent reconversion of the same 
area, or much of it, to become again the abode of life after long 
ages of desolation. It is only with the results of the action of the 
ice upon the surface of the land that we have now to concern our- 
selves, and it is absolutely necessary to understand these in order 
to have the slightest appreciation of observed phenomena in Hing- 
ham as well as elsewhere over the North, consequent upon the 
great ice movement during the long period of its domination. 
One certainly was the bearing forward of a great part of all the 
loose material beneath its mass formed by the disintegration of 
the rocks, and redistributing it on the line of its advance south. 
Hence, a considerable portion of the rocky masses, bowlders, and 
pebbles, as well as of the gravelly and sandy material in which 
they are imbedded, now forming the surface upon the hills and 
fields of New England, have been borne from the North ; and 
whenever such bowlders and pebbles are of marked character, 
they can generally be traced to the locality of their formation. 
A good instance of this is seen in the bowlders and pebbles of 
porphyritic iron ore, found everywhere between Cumberland Hill, 
R. I., and the shores of Rhode Island, south, all on the line of 
the ice movement, — the masses, as might be expected, being 
generally of smaller and smaller size as the distance increases 
from their source, where a great bed of this peculiar ore exists 
in situ. The quantity of earth-substance moved forward over 
the surface must have been enormous, as is shown by the fact 
that many of the hills of the glaciated territory are composed en- 
tirely of it, and in the southeast of this State, over a large area, 
the rocky strata are buried beneath a covering of it to the depth 
of three hundred feet. Another result of the movement w r as the 
wearing down, the planing, so to speak, of the rocky surfaces ex- 
posed to the great friction of the detrital material carried forward 
under the mass of the superincumbent ice. Whenever bowlders 
such as are seen everywhere in our New England soil, or 
even large pebbles, were torn off from the places of their origin, 



The Geology of H Ingham. 21 

and became imbedded in the substance of the glacier below, they 
must necessarily have exerted an immense gouging force as they 
were borne on ; and consequently we see everywhere upon the 
rock-surfaces of New England deep traces of their passage, always 
showing the direction of the great glacial movement. These 
generally are found to be not far from south, 40° east, in this 
region. Many thousands of years have elapsed since these were 
traced, but still they are distinctly visible. 

The Glacial Period of intense cold, of the wearing away by the 
ice of the rocks over which it passed, of the excavation of valleys 
by its action, at length came to an end, and was followed by the 
Champlain Period. This period was of marked contrast with the 
preceding. It was one of great depression of the whole surface 
of the North in both hemispheres, and this was probably the cause, 
partly at least, of the great increase in the temperature which led 
to the melting away of the ice sheet that had for an immense 
period covered the earth. Land that now stands at considerable 
height was below the level of the sea, as shown by forms of 
marine life found at various elevations in northern New England, 
where it is evident they lived and died when submerged in the 
waters. Contrary to views that have been hitherto presented, 
this depression did not affect the surface to any considerable 
degree south of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. The 
occurrence of shells and other marine remains in elevated posi- 
tions above the sea, often cited as proofs of depression, at Point 
Shirley near Boston, and at Sancati Head, Nantucket, has been 
satisfactorily demonstrated to have been the result of the scoop- 
ing up from the bottom of the adjacent waters by the ice-sheet 
the material forming the Till Hills, in which such remains have 
been found. In these hills the shells do not occur, as in Maine 
and elsewhere north, in beds, showing the places they occupied in 
life, but scattered indiscriminately throughout the mass of ma- 
terial, and generally in a fragmentary condition. 

The degree of subsidence north, as shown by the heights at 
which remains of marine life have been found, increased with the 
latitude. On the coast of Maine the highest stated is 217 feet 
above the sea ; at Lake Champlain near 400 feet ; on the St. 
Lawrence near Montreal, 500 feet ; about the Bay of Fundy, near 
400 feet ; on the Labrador coast, from 400 to 500 feet ; and at 
places in the Arctic regions, 1,000 feet. These figures are taken 
from Dana. 

As the glacier melted, great floods poured over and from it, 
and the stones, sand, and gravel in it were distributed over the 
land. It was a period of deposition of earthy matter from the ice, 
and of subsequent redistribution of portions of it by the waters. 
The direct deposits as now found are not stratified, or but very 
partially so, and are known as diluvium, while those which fol- 
lowed, the result of the action of the waters in redistributing the 
material, are known as alluvium. It was in this period that 



22 History of Hingham. 

were formed the terraces so common along the borders of some 
of the river valleys of New England, and of the kames, so-called, 
of which notice will be presented hereafter. 

Following the passing away of the ice-sheet came another great 
change over the area which it had so long occupied. The sun's 
rays again rested upon and warmed the surface of the land, ren- 
dering it a fit abode for the manifold forms of vegetables and 
animals that appeared upon its remodelled hills and plains. The 
green herb and the fruit-bearing tree sprang up, and adorned the 
landscape with beauty. Rivers again teemed with life, birds and 
insects hovered in the air, and beasts small and large trod the 
earth ; while among these last walked with majestic mien Man, 
the crowning glory of all created forms. 

The remains of life of this period, and even of the Glacial pre- 
ceding it, demonstrate the existence of a great number of species 
of enormous size, such as were not found in either earlier or later 
eras. Of course, while the ice covered the surface but few forms 
could maintain life within its area, but it was otherwise south of 
its margin, and when it had passed away huge monsters roamed 
over the surface, spreading from more southern regions far to- 
wards the Arctic Circle in both hemispheres. In Europe, elephants 
of great size, gigantic deer, tigers surpassing the Bengal of the 
present day, horses and oxen proportionally large, and many 
other beasts occupied the land in vast numbers ; while in America 
there were elephants, mastodons, horses, beavers, and sloths, 
including the megatherium, the mylodon, and megalonyx, — all of 
colossal dimensions compared with the animals of like character 
now living. But of far greater importance than all else, Man as 
stated, undoubtedly appeared. With feeble frame he came among 
races of gigantic stature and strength ; but he came to wield do- 
minion over them, and to subdue and conquer by other power 
than that hitherto possessed on earth. It is not known precisely 
when Man first appeared, but the evidence is strong that it was 
in a pre-glacial period, as implements undoubtedly of human con- 
struction have been found in transported material from deposits 
of an anterior date. 

Again, a great change in the surface level of the North, and 
increased cold followed in Europe by a second glacial era, which 
by its sudden advance carried death to many of the animals that 
had found a home far north in the warmer Champlain Period. 
This is shown by the carcasses of elephants, and the perfect 
preservation of their flesh in Arctic ice. The change must have 
been not only sudden, but the cold extremely severe to account 
for these encased remains, and for other phenomena, such as the 
extension of the range of the reindeer and other Northern species 
to southern France where their bones have been found abund- 
antly. This, and the advance of ice again over parts of northern 
Europe gave the name of Reindeer, or Second Glacial Epoch to the 
early part of the Recent Period. There is no conclusive evidence 



The Geology of H Ingham. 23 

of a second advance of the glacier on the American continent, 
though there is abundant proof of great refrigeration in tempera- 
ture, which was probably the principal cause of the extinction of 
most of the large animals, the elephants, mastodons, horses, and 
other species before mentioned, that roamed over the northern 
plains. 

The modern era of the period, that of the reign of Man, shows 
that the same causes that have produced changes of level of the 
surface and of temperature are yet active. There is evidence of 
the gradual subsidence of Greenland, and that it has been sinking 
slowly for centuries, and that a like change has been going on 
along a great part of the eastern coast of the United States. On 
the other hand it is shown that in other regions there has been a 
gradual elevation. The formation of rocks still goes on as in 
former times ; the ocean depths receive as in past periods the 
remains of siliceous and calcareous shells from the multitudinous 
forms that live in its waters ; the coral animals yet build up their 
reefs to become part of the strata of the dry land of the future ; 
volcanic action continues as of old to add to the surface its lavas, 
and vegetable life as in earlier ages of the earth's history, by ac- 
cumulation of peat and other plant structure, contributes some- 
thing towards future formations. 

Having thus by a rather elaborate preliminary essay presented 
what the writer has deemed essential to an understanding of the 
Geology of Hingham, by those who have not made the earth's 
history a study, he proceeds to remark upon the phenomena 
observable within the town limits, referring to what is exterior 
only as far as may be necessary for a clearer idea of the subject. 



24 History of Hingham. 



GEOLOGY OF HINGHAM. 



The geology of Hingham, particularly that of the northern part 
of the town, though interesting, is of too abstruse a character to 
be even partially understood except by those who have made the 
rock-formations of the vicinity of Boston a study ; and its elucida- 
tion will require on the part of the writer much reference to what 
is exterior to the limits of the town. That of the greater portion 
of its territory inland is more simple, exhibiting Granite as the 
prevailing rock, but having some areas of Diorite, and occasion- 
ally dikes of Diabase, which cut through the others, and appear 
at the surface as black or dark-green rocks traceable often for 
considerable distances, having a width sometimes of but few 
inches, but frequently of several feet. Petrosilex is also found 
associated with the granite, but in very limited exposures. 

GRANITE. 

This has been mentioned as the prevailing rock of a large por- 
tion of the town. It seems necessary to first define what is meant 
by the name before referring to its particular exposures on the 
surface and its variation in character. Until quite recently geolo- 
gists called all such rocks as were composed of quartz, feldspar, 
and mica, granite ; using the term " syenite " to distinguish those 
which had hornblende in the place of mica. When all four min- 
erals were found together, the rock was called hornblendic granite. 
The advance of the science of lithology has led to more strict defi- 
nition. Now the use of the name u syenite " is restricted to rocks 
composed of orthoclase (one of the group of feldspars), or ortho- 
clase and hornblende, or orthoclase and mica ; while the essential 
constituents of granite, as now defined, are quartz and orthoclase. 
If to these mica is added it is called micaceous granite, and if 
hornblende, hornblendic granite. Hence the rock of Hingham, 
as well as of Quincy, is granite, and not syenite, as it is often 
designated. 

Over the whole of South Hingham and the greater part of 
Hingham Centre, wherever there are exposures of rock above 
the surface it is granite, excepting only the material of the dikes 
which are frequently found within it, and which will be hereafter 




'?c 






/ 



The Geology of Hingham. 25 

mentioned. Granite too underlies the whole of the areas named 
now covered over by the clays, the sands, and the gravels of the 
glacial period. It also extends north to the shore on Weir River, 
and to the coast line of the harbor on the eastern shore, where it 
is found bordering the channel from near the steamboat landing 
to Martin's Well, and showing itself prominent upon the adjacent 
uplands. It appears also within the harbor upon the small island 
known as Button Island. The rock varies in different localities, 
being sometimes found composed entirely of quartz and ortho- 
clase,but sometimes with mica added, making it a true micaceous 
granite. The color varies generally with that of the orthoclase, 
which is often of a reddish hue. Quartz veins are not infrequent 
in it, but these rarely furnish crystals ; some, however, of fine 
amethvstine tint were obtained a few years since from the rock 
of Old Colony Hill. 

The granite of Hingham is generally too much fissured to afford 
good blocks for building, though there are locations where, if 
better situated for cheap transportation of material, stone might 
be quarried to advantage. Near Long Bridge Lane a quarry was 
opened and worked for several years by Mr. Israel Whitcomb, 
and much excellent stone was obtained and made use of for local 
requirements. 

There are many places where fine red granite is found, but the 
color is not often persistent over any considerable area, and the 
stone is not sufficiently free from cracks to admit of good blocks 
being procured, though possibly these might disappear to some 
extent at a small distance from the surface. 

The exposures of granite are very numerous. A few that differ 
from the rest in general character are here mentioned : — 



er 



In Laseil .Street, reddish with epidote. 

In Central Street, red and flesh-colored from the tint of the orthoclase. 

In Union Street, with flesh-colored orthoclase. 

In Thayer Street, red, nearly binary. 

In French Street, flesh-colored, with mica and hornblende. 

In Whiting Street, very fine structure, light-colored and micaceous, 

with very numerous joints. 
In Summer Street, red, mostly binary. 
In Emerald Street, red, mostly binary. 
In Beechwood Street, decomposing. 
In Thaxter Street, finely porphyritic with red orthoclase crystals. 

Specimens of these may be found in the collection of the 
Public Library. 

DIORITE. 

Diorite, as mentioned, is found within the region generally 
occupied by the granite rocks, but it nevertheless may be noticed 
that in Hingham it is not found far from the sedimentary forma- 



26 History of Hingham. 

tions, no exposure of it having been observed in all the region 
south of Hingham Centre. This rock contains necessarily but 
one constituent, a triclinic feldspar, usually oligoclase, but it has 
generally associated with it hornblende. Sometimes mica is also 
found in it and not infrequently particles of quartz. 

In Hingham, when composed of feldspar and hornblende in 
nearly equal proportions and when the grains of each are clearly 
perceptible, it appears not unlike granite, but having no quartz as 
a general constituent it may be readily distinguished. In limited 
areas it is found almost entirely of feldspar, when it presents 
itself simply as an impure white rock, its character being conse- 
quently more obscure. 

One of the best exposures on a highway of the town of typical 
diorite occurs in Summer Street, on the right side going south 
from the railroad crossing, and within 100 feet of Kilby Street. 
It juts into the road from the adjoining field, and presents itself 
with a smooth, rounded face about twelve feet across, on which the 
two minerals, feldspar and hornblende, are well defined and plainly 
visible. Two other exposures may be seen between the one men- 
tioned and Kilby Street, and in the field back from the road are 
several ridges of it. 

Another interesting exposure of diorite on a highway is to be 
found on the surface at the top of Fort Hill, just front of the 
cemetery. Here it is cut through by numerous narrow veins of 
a whitish granite, which by distortion and separation of parts 
afford an interesting studv for the observer. The rock of this 
locality should not be disturbed, as there is no other known 
instance in town where granite can be seen so clearly to have 
been intruded in veins into the diorite. The exposure here, too, 
is interesting from the glacial striae which may be plainly seen 
upon its surface. 

Diorite occurs abundantly on East, Kilby, Weir, and Hull 
streets. 

Going northeast from Horticultural Hall on East Street, some 
rocky elevations appear on the left side of the road which are 
known as Andrew Heights. The rocks of the slope facing the 
street are diorite, with the exception of an intervening portion 
of granite. This last rock also appears on the land opposite the 
diorite back from the road. Beyond the heights mentioned, all, 
or nearly all, the rocks of the street and of land contiguous are 
diorite until Kilby Street is passed. 

Intermediate between Andrew Heights and Kilby Street, by a 
reduction of the level of the road over an elevation, and the neces- 
sary excavation of rock, there is left exposed on the left side a 
cliff of considerable interest. The main body is a dark diorite, 
but there may be seen by close examination a distorted dike of 
felsite eight or ten inches in width, and a mass of diabase trap, 
both of which have been intruded into it. The trap contains an 



The Geology of Hlngham. 27 

unusual quantity of sulphide of iron in crystals, as may be seen 
in specimens from this locality deposited in the general collection 
of the Public Library. 

The diorite of the area of this rock under consideration does 
not follow on East Street beyond Kilby, as its trend which is 
northeast and southwest, leads to its development along the latter 
street which has the same direction, and where it is found show- 
ing itself on the road and adjoining lands at various points for 
more than half a mile. At the junction of East and Kilby streets 
it follows the curve from the former to the latter directly in the 
roadway. Passing northeast on Kilby, it may be observed in lim- 
ited exposures on the left of the road until the crossing of the rail- 
road is reached, where there is a lateral extension of it 300 feet 
west on the line of the rails, and 150 feet east. About 500 feet 
from the crossing it again appears on the left side of the street, 
followed at a short distance by granite. On the right side of the 
road at 940 feet from the railroad may be seen a rock exposure 
presenting a face towards the street of about thirty feet, the first 
portion of which for twenty feet is diorite, the rest being granite. 
Proceeding; 420 feet more along the road there will be seen ledires 
on the left side back from the street which extend for a further 
distance of about 270 feet. These are all diorite. After passing 
these 130 feet, there may be observed on the right of the road, and 
just beyond the fence which borders it, a face of rock about twenty 
feet in width, the first portion of which, about one third, is granite, 
and the rest diorite. The two rocks are separated by a diagonal 
line having a declination of 45° N. E., thus showing the latter rock 
as resting somewhat upon the former. Just beyond this exposure 
granite follows for a distance of about 70 feet. There are no fur- 
ther exposures of diorite on the road towards Rockland Street, the 
few outcrops of rock observed there being all granite. 

Another area of diorite exists near the eastern border of the 
town towards Cohasset, showing itself extensively on Weir, East, 
Side Hill, and Hull streets. 

On Weir Street going from East Street, there is scarcely any 
other rock observable for at least one third of a mile. Beyond 
this, it alternates more or less with granite for about one eighth 
of a mile, when it gives place entirely to the latter. On the east 
side of the street, 2,310 feet from East Street, there is an exposure 
of rock presenting a face to the carriage-way, showing a singular 
mixture of both diorite and granite. 

This will be again and more particularly referred to in remarks 
to follow upon " mixed rocks," — a name given by Professor Crosby 
in treating of a like association observed by him at Marblehead 
and Salem. 

As a general fact, it may be stated here that the diorite of Weir 
Street is not so clearly typical as that of East and Kilby streets 
before described. A preponderance of the feldspar and partial 
decomposition, gives it in some cases a dirty white exterior. 



28 History of Hingham. 

On East Street, passing from Side Hill Street towards Cohasset, 
may be found in the fields adjoining the right side of the road 
and back from it many extensive ridges of rock. Short of 200 
feet a small exposure of granite occurs just within the fence-wall, 
and a little further on, say twenty or thirty feet, is one of diorite. 
Back of these about sixty feet is another of diorite. Following the 
road 310 feet from these, rock appears in patches over the sur- 
face for eighty feet, extending some distance back from the fence, 
which is likewise diorite. Passing beyond these exposures 140 
feet, fields of rocks are reached occupying a great part of the sur- 
face for at least 700 feet. Some of them are diorite, some granite, 
while others among them, presenting surfaces of both diorite and 
granite, are apparently of the singular combination mentioned as 
mixed rocks. It would, however, be necessary to blast them in 
order to verify this. 

On the left side of the road there are but few exposures, and 
these are of the same general character as those mentioned. 

On Side Hill Street, and in fields adjoining, diorite appears 
abundantly. At a distance of 310 feet from East Street, a small 
exposure may be found on the right side of the roadway, and fifty 
feet beyond this another just within the border fence. Proceeding 
300 feet further there is within view on the fields at the right many 
ridges and smaller rock masses extending over an area of two or 
three acres, all or nearly all of which are of the same rock. On 
the left of the road, 620 feet from East Street, a long ledge of rocks 
skirts the carriage-way, which extends 280 feet. For the first few 
feet it is diorite, the rest of it is granite. Granite is also the pre- 
vailing rock on the high ground of the adjoining field. 

When entering Hull Street from East Street, diorite appears on 
the right side, close to the junction of the two streets, both on the 
border of the roadway, and within the enclosure of the adjoining 
estate. Proceeding on Hull across the railroad, a high cliff of 
rock is seen back from the street. 200 feet or more in length, which 
exhibits upon some portions surfaces of diorite, upon others granite, 
— showing it to be probably of the mixed character mentioned in 
previous cases and to be described hereafter. This is succeeded 
by granite, and there is no more exposure of diorite on or near the 
street until about 2,060 feet from the railroad, where a ridge of it 
appears on the field at the left, not far from 200 feet from the 
fence ; and 300 feet farther some may be seen on both sides of the 
road. The rock exposures beyond these are all granite, until after 
passing Canterbury Street between three and four hundred feet, 
when there may be seen ridges on the fields skirting the left side 
of the road and extending for a quarter of a mile or more, which 
are likewise of the mixed diorite and granite. The rocks of the 
last 300 to 400 feet of the street within the town limits are all 
granite. 

All the exposures of diorite within the territory of the town that 
may be observed in passing along the streets and lanes have been 



The Geology of Hingham. 29 

mentioned, except a limited one on Central Street, between four 
and five hundred feet from Elm Street, in a field adjoining the 
west side of the road, and two others of small area on a field at 
the corner of Central and Elm streets. Away from usual travel 
between Fort Hill Street and Weymouth River the rock appears 
in numerous exposures. Reference to the map will give their 
location. 

MIXED ROCKS. 

The rocks so-called by Professor Crosby, though simply com- 
posed of a mixture of the two kinds already described, are of such 
peculiar combination as to seem worthy of notice under a separate 
heading. There is no appearance among them, as far as observed, 
of anything like a dike of either penetrating the other. There is 
found simply a mixture of masses of every size and shape, each 
single mass being clearly distinctive as granite or diorite, the ele- 
ments of one in no case coalescing generally with the other. The 
locations of these rocks have been mentioned in the remarks upon 
the diorite. 

There seems no way of accounting for such mixture except by 
supposing that at the time of their eruption the rocks existed sep- 
arately beneath the surface in two contiguous zones, both being in 
a plastic condition, and that when forced to the surface they were 
made to intermix so as to present themselves as now found. 



PETROSILEX. 

The rocks of Hingham hitherto known as porphyry, compact 
feldspar, and felsite, the writer classes under the name of petrosi- 
lex, as with but one or two exceptions to be mentioned, all belong 
to that division of such rocks as contain over 63 or 64 per cent of 
silica, and which Phillips and others have designated as petrosilex, 
retaining the name felsite for those of a more basic character, and 
having a plagioclase feldspar instead of orthoclase as a constituent. 

The name " porphyry " is no longer in use as a substantive by 
geologists. It was applied by the ancients to rocks generally ho- 
mogeneous, but which contained crystals, commonly feldspar ; and 
this use continued to modern times. As, however, the rocks so- 
called differed widely in composition, and it became necessary in 
the progress of science to define their character more particularly, 
the name became obsolete. The word " porphyritic," however, 
remains in common use as an adjective expressing the texture of 
rocks of a homogeneous base, having crystals disseminated through- 
out their mass. Thus petrosilex with enclosed crystals is called 
porphyritic petrosilex, and diabase, the rock of trap dikes with 
enclosed crystals, is called porphyritic djabase or porphyritic trap. 

The writer, in communications to the Boston Society of Natural 



30 History of Hingham. 

History and otherwise, has expressed the opinion that much of 
the pctrosilcx of the Boston Basin, and particularly the red rock 
of Hingham, was derived from conglomerate. This view is not 
held by others, whose opinions are entitled to respect ; but this has 
not shaken confidence in his own. There is petrosilex, however, 
in Hingham of quite a different character, but which he claims 
has another origin. Mention of that will follow some further 
remarks upon the red variety. 

Prof. Edward Hitchcock, in his great report upon the " Geology 
of Massachusetts," mentions under the head of Porphyry the red 
rock now under consideration, as occurring in Hingham in ridges 
a little north of the village. Undoubtedly this accurate observer 
found such ridges, though but one small exposure can now be 
found above. the surface. This is near the junction of Crow-Point 
Lane and Downer Avenue. Masses of this beautiful /ock may be 
seen in the stone walls of Lincoln Street near Thaxter, and sug- 
gest to the mind that in widening this street for the greater con- 
venience of travel the ridges noticed were dcstroved. 

The rock is called above beautiful. Professor Crosby speaks of 
it as the most beautiful of any in Massachusetts, and it undoubt- 
edly is so. The color is a bright red, with interspersed spots of 
lighter or darker hue. The variation was caused apparently in 
some cases from the enclosure of pebbles, which, with the general 
mass, became more or less fluent. The pebbly structure can be 
better seen on weathered surfaces than on those caused by recent 
fracture. 

The other variety of petrosilex referred to above, differs essen- 
tially from the red, being of different color, rather more glassy in 
lustre, entirely homogeneous, and presenting no appearance indi- 
cating enclosed pebbles. Of the origin of this variety there can 
be no question. It has the chemical constitution of granite, oc- 
curs associated with it, and is undoubtedly the same with granite, 
excepting that its mineral constituents are not crystallized, the 
rock being too rapidly cooled to admit of crystallization. This 
variety is always in Hingham associated with the granite. It may 
be found with the granite that forms the cliffs of Peck's Pasture, 
bordering the Home Meadows, and also on Lincoln Street, in the 
rear of the first house next north of the Unitarian Church which 
faces Fountain Square. Specimens from these and other localities 
are in the collection of the Public Library, where may also be seen 
those of the red variety. 



PORPHYRITE. 

The name Porphyrite has been given to basic rocks differing 
but little in composition from Diorite and Diabase. Like them 
they are composed of a triclinic feldspar with hornblende or 
augite, but they are not, like them, crystalline granular. They 



The Geology of Hingham, 31 

contain from 56 to 58 per cent of silica. Rocks of this character, 
of various shades of color, are found at Nantasket, but only one 
exposure has been noticed in Hingham. This is on the shore of 
the marsh land that borders Weir River, quite near Rocky Neck. 
At this place it is of a dark-brown color, similar to that of the 
brown sandstone commonly used in structures of Boston and 
New York. It is a heavy, tough rock, and undoubtedly owes its 
origin to volcanic action, being, like melaphyr, an ancient lava. 



DIABASE. 

Diabase, like Diorite, is composed partly of a triclinic Feldspar, 
generally Labradorite, but differs from it otherwise in having 
Augite associated with it instead of Hornblende. Not unfre- 
quently Mica is found in its composition, and often Pyrite, though 
these are not essential ingredients. This rock is generally known 
as Trap, and the dikes which it forms in all parts of the town are 
called Trap Dikes. The rock as exposed at the surface exhibits 
more or less the results of decomposition, becoming of a dull 
green color, from the change of the Augite to Viridite. It has a 
much higher specific gravity than granite, and is exceedingly 
tough. The bluish, close-grained masses often found in the soil 
and called Blue Rocks are of this kind. 

Diabase forms dikes alike in the granitic rocks of the town, 
and in those of the Slates and Conglomerates to be hereafter 
mentioned. 

DIKES. 

Having now noticed all the rocks of the Crystalline series found 
in Hingham, — Granite, Diorite, Petrosilex, and Diabase,- — and 
as each of them is found in dikes within the Boston Basin, two of 
them at least in Hingham, it seems fitting to present here some 
special remarks upon the form of structure known under that 
name, and to give an account of localities where they may be 
observed. 

Dikes are igneous, unstratificd rocks, which occupy fissures in 
the formations, and which have been forced up from beneath the 
surface of the earth in a liquid or semi-liquid state, into the 
superincumbent rocks. 

This molten material undoubtedly at first spread itself, as does 
the modern lava of volcanoes, over considerable areas after reach- 
ing the surface. As seen in Hingham, the rock of the dikes is 
usually found only within the walls of the fissure that gave it pas- 
sage, the decomposition and washing away of the hundreds of feet 
of solid matter that once formed the surface having generally left 
for our view only what is now seen within narrow limits. Often, 
in forcing a passage through the invaded rock, masses of the latter 



32 History of Hingham. 

were torn off and enclosed in the molten matter, and it is not 
therefore uncommon to find in Hingham instances of the enclos- 
ure of granite within the darker trap rock of the dike. 

The name Trap has heen generally used to designate the dark- 
green or black rock forming dikes ; but as it is now recognized 
that different rocks of like appearance constitute the invading ma- 
terial, it is necessary to be more definite in scientific description. 
The dikes of Hingham as far as examined, with two or three ex- 
ceptions only, are all of Diabase. 

In narrow dikes the rock has a homogeneous structure, as the 
sudden cooling prevented a crystallization of its mineral constitu- 
ents, but in those of any considerable width where the material 
cooled more slowly, it is often porphyritic towards the central 
portion, crystals especially of feldspar being disseminated. Upon 
the invaded rock the action caused by the introduction of the 
molten matter is generally more or less perceptible by a change 
in its structure near the junction of the two rocks, and frequently 
by the production of minerals along their margins. In Hing- 
ham, Epidote is not uncommonly found as the result of this action. 
Mention will now be made of some of the dikes which have come 
under the observation of the writer. 

Meeting-House Hill, Main Street, South Hingham. — There 
is a dike in the granite of this elevation but a few steps north 
from the church which may be seen on the surface of the rock 
and traced sixiy to seventy feet to the margin of the carriage 
road. It is from five to six feet in width, and runs in a northwest 
and southeast direction. Generations of men have come to the 
temple here to worship, wholly unconscious that their footsteps 
were over a record of events that took place millions of years 
before man breathed the breath of life. 

Leavitt Street and Jones Street. — Between these two roads 
on land of Mr. James Jones is a rocky hillock of granite about 
equidistant from both, in which may be found three trap dikes 
not far apart, one of which has the considerable width of ten 
feet. To readily find these, proceed from the bridge that crosses 
Weir River 700 feet in a southeasterly direction on Leavitt 
Street, which will bring one to Mr. Alanson Crosby's house on 
the left side. By passing to the rear of the house about 300 
feet from the road, the rocks will be reached with their en- 
closed dikes. The most northerly of the three is about two and 
a half feet in width, the second, eighteen feet from the first, 
is ten feet wide and exposed for a distance of seventy-five feet. 
These two show well on the face of the granite cliff which en- 
closes them. The third, forty feet from the last-mentioned, is 
from three to four feet wide. This will not be readily perceived 
without close examination, as it is only on a comparatively level 
spot and obscured somewhat by surface soil. The direction of 
these dikes is east and west. Two hundred and fifty feet, more or 



TJie Geology of H Ingham. 33 

less, east of these dike exposures occur considerable bodies of trap, 
but the connection with them is not perceptible. 

On Leavitt Street, about a mile and a half from Leavitt's Bridge 
going east, and less than a quarter of a mile before reaching the 
town line, a trap dike crosses the road diagonally. It appears 
first on the right side for a few feet, and the exposure on the left 
is seventy-five feet from where the first is lost to view. In neither 
place does it show above the surface more than a few feet, nor can 
it be traced beyond the two exposures. Its width is about six feet, 
and it is porphyritic. Its direction is east and west. 

Lasell Street. ■ — Considerable elevations of granite skirt Lasell 
Street on the left side, some of which approach and border the high- 
way. After passing Free Street 740 feet, one of these is reached, 
which presents a bold front, having a very interesting dike of about 
six feet in width. Lichens obscure this somewhat, on the face of 
the rock as seen from the street, and one needs to climb to the 
upper surface to study it to advantage. Here it is found extending 
itself a considerable distance east, showing, away from its margins, 
a porphyritic character, the crystals of feldspar being quite distinct. 
Fifty feet south of this is another dike, parallel with the first, but 
having a width of only thirty-two inches. This does not exhibit 
crystals of feldspar so perceptibly, its cooling having been too 
rapid for their favorable development. This dike cannot be seen 
from the street, as the front face of the rock has retreated from 
its border. The two dikes have both an east and west direction 
by compass, as have nearly all that are found in the granite not 
approximate to the rocks of the sedimentary series. 

Long Bridge Lane. — At the granite quarry of Mr. Israel 
Whitcomb, about a quarter of a mile from Union Street, may be 
seen two dikes east and west by compass, one about a foot wide, 
the other twenty-two inches. They are not far from thirty feet 
apart. 

Friend Street. — On the right-hand side of this street, pro- 
ceeding from Main, and not far from the latter, may be seen two 
dikes cutting through the granite of the roadway, both having a 
general direction of east and west, and both of which may be 
traced for considerable distances. The first is found 330 feet 
from Main Street, and varies from four to six feet in width. This 
may be observed in the adjoining field, 80 to 100 feet east from 
the road, and has been traced west across meadow land in differ- 
ent ledges, nearly 1,000 feet. The second one is about forty feet 
beyond the first-mentioned, and has a width of about two feet. It 
appears on both sides of the carriage way in the bordering ledge 
through which the street was cut, but is not so readily seen on the 
left as on the right without close observation. This has been 
traced 120 feet or more. 

Union Street. — There is a dike on this street, 360 feet from 
Lasell Street going east, which may be seen in a ridge of granite 

VOL. I. 3 



34 



History of Hingham. 



which extends along the left side of the road for a distance of 
about 120 feet. It varies in width from fifteen inches to nearly 
two feet, and is much distorted. The general direction is, how- 
ever, east and west. It may be traced nearly the whole length of 
the ridge. 

About 2,000 feet beyond this, going from Lasell Street, another 
dike occurs which crosses the street diagonally. It may be seen 
on both sides of the roadway in the granite, and may be traced 
into the adjoining field on the left seventy-five feet or more from 
the fence. Its width is about three and a half feet; its direction 
east and west. See Figure No. 1. The crosses (x x) represent 
exposures of the granite. 



I 



/ 



45 ft. from Me 







X 



XX 

X 

XXX 

X X 



6 ft. between 



20 ft between 



A *»X X X 



STREET 



Dike about 3% ft. wide. 
Traceable about /OO feet. 



Figure jSTo. 1. 



Old Colony Hill. — Proceeding from the harbor on Summer 
Street towards and up the slope of Old Colony Hill, there may be 
seen on the right side just above the surface a small exposure of 
trap, being part of a dike which passing east is lost to sight by 
the covering earth, but which again appears just in front of Mr. 
Bouve's stone wall, near the corner of Rockland Street. Here it 
presents a flat face upon which may be observed numerous glacial 
stride. The distance on the street is about 250 feet. From here 
the dike is lost to view for 130 feet, but may be found in an east- 
southeast direction upon the adjoining field, where it continues 
above ground 85 feet. It then again sinks below the surface, but 
reappears 190 feet further on in the same direction, and there 
shows an exposure of about 160 feet before finally disappearing. 
The whole length as thus presented is 815 feet. The width of 
the trap as it appears above the soil varies from five to twelve 
feet. 

Hull Street. — Two trap dikes, one three feet wide, the other 
over four feet, were observed on this street. Their direction was 
found to be east and west, but irregular. 



The Geology of H Ingham 



35 



Weir River. — In the granite rocks of the east side of Weir 
River, north of Rockland Street, may be seen several dikes. One 
may be found a few hundred feet below the Riverside House, ex- 
tending from the river bank in an east-southeast direction, having 
a width of six feet. There are two others not far distant having 
the same general direction, each about two feet wide. Still 
another was noticed of less width than either mentioned, having 
pieces of granite, through which it had cut, enclosed. 

Beach near Summer Street. — On the beach east of Hersey's 
wharf, near the steamboat landing and about ninety yards from it, 
may be seen a trap dike running east and west, having a width of 
nine feet. This dike has veins of epidotc. 

About twenty-eight yards beyond this there is another east and 
west dike of the same character, which is somewhat irregular and 
intermixed with granite, but showing, where distinct, a width of 
two feet. 

Fifty yards farther a dike is reached which crosses the beach 
in the granite, and which is particularly interesting, because it 
shows within its body a continuous mass of granite which was 
torn from the walls of that rock and enclosed in the igneous ma- 
terial, when this was irrupted from beneath in a molten condi- 
tion. See Figure No. 2. 




Figure No. 2. 



One hundred and twenty-five feet farther east a small cove, 
called Mansfield's Cove, is reached, where may be seen just at its 



36 History of Hingham. 

entrance a dike six feet in width, of porphyritic texture and par- 
tially decomposed, its direction being, like the others, east and 
west. 

The cove is about ninety feet deep, and is bordered on its south- 
erly side by granite, having here and there more or less mixture 
of trap. Some Melaphyr is also seen in juxtaposition with the 
granite, and this rock also appears on the adjoining land near, 
but to a limited extent. 

Martin's Lane. — On the right of Martin's Lane and just 
beyond its termination, a dike may be observed within granite 
walls, having an east and west direction and traceable 100 feet. 
Its width is about six feet. 



JOINTS. 

Joint structure properly finds place here, as all the rocks of the 
town exhibit it, and none more than the granites. 

Probably there can be found no reader of these pages resident 
in Hingham who has not observed lines of fracture both in the 
granitic and the sedimentary rocks of the town, as his eyes have 
rested upon its numerous ledges. To explain these it will be well 
to give some account of different kinds of joints that occur in 
rocks, as they vary in character, have an entirely different origin, 
and give rise to varied structure. 

The first to occupy attention, then, are such as arise from the 
contraction by cooling, as in the case of igneous rocks, or by desic- 
cation, as in the case of sedimentary strata. This contraction 
results in cracks never parallel or intersecting, and are generally 
short and not continuous. In some igneous rocks the contraction 
tends to the formation of polygonal columns, which the joints then 
surround and embrace. The best exemplification of this structure 
is seen in the Basalt of the Giants' Causeway in Ireland, where 
this structure presents the whole rock mass in beautiful prismatic 
columns, each column separated into blocks having concave and 
convex surfaces. They vary in dimension and are somewhat 
irregular, but have been regarded by some as resulting from im- 
perfect crystallization. There is, however, nothing of crystalliza- 
tion in their formation, this being without doubt entirely due to 
contractive action. Professor Crosby has mentioned a case where 
the columnar structure was observed by him in the felsite of 
Needham, but no instances of the kind have been noticed in the 
rocks of Hinscham. 

The joints next to be mentioned are such as have now re- 
ceived the name of Joints of Expansion. Almost all rocky 
masses have, in addition to those of other character, joints, or 
seams as they are often called, that arc approximately horizontal, 
or nearly parallel with the surface of the ground. They may be 
observed in any quarry. They divide the rock into layers, and 



The Geology of H Ingham. 37 

thus enable the workmen to get out blocks much more easily than 
would be otherwise possible. The origin of this kind of jointing, 
as first suggested by Professor Shaler, is now generally admitted 
by geologists to be due to the effect of the sun's rays upon the 
surface, leading to a permeation of more or less heat to a con- 
siderable depth, with consequent expansion, and finally to a sepa- 
ration of the rock into layers. 

The last kind of joints to which attention is called, and the 
origin of which has been by far the most difficult to explain, are 
those which are most readily observed upon all the exposed rocks 
of this town. They may be seen in parallel lines upon their sur- 
faces, sometimes extending for considerable distances, and often 
intersected by other lines which are also parallel with each other. 
These joints are approximately vertical and vary much in direc- 
tion, which, in view of their probable origin, is an important 
matter of consideration. 

Examination of the direction in many localities shows as 
follows : — 

North and south. 

North by west and south by east. 

North-northwest and south-southeast. 

Northwest and southeast. 

North-northeast and south-southwest. 

Northeast and southwest. 

East and west. 

East-northeast and west-southwest. 

East-southeast and west-northwest. 

Others are found varying in direction from all these, but they 
are not so noticeable. 

One of the best localities to observe this joint structure on an 
extensive scale, although not in this town, will be mentioned here, 
because it is within a short distance from its boundary and easily- 
observed. It is on Beach Street in Cohasset, very near Sandy 
Cove, where a large area of rock surface extends from the road- 
side west on an upward slope, covering a space of several hundred 
feet. The joints on this surface are particularly well-defined. 

The parallel lines under consideration may be observed on 
almost every exposure of rock, sometimes several feet apart but 
in other cases only a few inches. At one granite locality on 
Whiting Street they occur so near each other in some instances 
as to enable one to pry off pieces not over half an inch thick, 
specimens of which may be seen in the collection of the Public 
Library, made to illustrate the geology of the town. 

It has always been a source of great astonishment alike to 
students and casual observers, to find that in the severance of the 
conglomerate rocks the parts are often found divided as smoothly 
as if a knife had cut them asunder, and that the very pebbles 
contained in it are divided with the rest of the mass, instead of 



38 History of H Ingham. 

being left intact upon one of the sides of the joint, as would have 
been judged likely, whatever the force that rent the rock apart. 

When two series of the joints under consideration are observa- 
ble upon any rock surface, those of one series running in a cer- 
tain direction will be found often to be intersected by those of the 
other, the result being to separate the rock more or less vertically 
in rectangular or rhomboidal divisions, and when, as is often the 
case in slates, there are also joints of expansion, cleavage planes, 
or planes of stratification, which are more or less transverse to the 
two mentioned, the rock will break into rectangular or rhomboidal 
blocks. 

Such may be obtained at Huit's Cove or more readily at Slate 
Island just outside the town limits. Fine specimens may be seen 
in the town collection of rocks from the former locality. 

It remains now to state the probable origin of the vertical in- 
tersecting joints. Much study has been given to the subject by 
several o-eolos;ists. To Professor W. 0. Crosbv is certainly due 
the credit of susro-estini:; and ablv advocating a theory that seems 
to the writer after much consideration, conclusive. The theory 
is that eartbquake action caused the phenomena. Space will not 
here allow further remarks, but the reader who wishes to learn 
more of it, is referred to the Proceedings of the Boston Society of 
Natural History, vols. xxii. and xxiii. 

THE BOSTON BASIN. 

The border line of the granitic and dioritic rocks of the town, 
whether near or far from the coast and however irregular its 
course, may be regarded approximately as part of the border of a 
great area which is known by geologists as the Boston Basin, and 
which embraces a portion of the towns of Cohassct, Hull, Hing- 
ham, Weymouth, Quincy, Milton, Hyde Park, Needham, Newton, 
Brookline, Somerville, Cambridge, Watertown, Maiden, Medford, 
Everett, and the city of Boston, with its harbor east to the outer 
islands, and possibly a considerable distance beyond, the diameter 
east-west being not far from twenty-five miles, and having a north- 
south diameter averaging about twelve miles. 

It is absolutely necessary to know much of the history of the 
formations of the Boston Basin in order to appreciate what may 
be said of that portion embraced within the limits of Hingham. 
There has been much discussion carried on over a long period 
respecting the age and the sequence of its formations. Recent 
investigations in all parts of it by Professor Crosby have thrown 
much light upon the subject, changing materially his own views 
and those of others, who have been informed of his important 
observations. 

One result of his work has been to establish the fact, that in- 
stead of there beino: but one formation of slate, as advocated by 
himself, there is shown clearly to be two, as claimed by other oh- 



The Geology of H Ingham. 39 

servers; and another is to demonstrate that instead of the sedi- 
mentary rocks of the basin being of one period, the Primordial, 
a large portion of them are the deposits of a later age. 

Before going further the reader should recognize that in a very 
early period, probably in Archaean Time, there came to exist over 
the area of what is now known as the Boston Basin, a groat de- 
pression of the whole surface, probably largely due to subterra- 
nean igneous action, aided perhaps by long continued erosion by 
the sea. The certainty that in subsequent ages, through perhaps 
millions of years, the whole area became as it were a great crater, 
with violent volcanic action at many periods and in many parts 
of it, during which vast flows of lava were poured into it, form- 
ing a considerable portion of its rocks, makes it probable that 
subterranean action was the chief cause. 

Appreciating highly the value of the recent investigations of 
Professor Crosby referred to above, and agreeing with him gen- 
erally in his conclusions, the writer believes that he can do no 
better than to follow him in presenting a summary of the prin- 
cipal events in the history of the formations within the basin 
before giving a detailed statement of the sedimentary and asso- 
ciated rocks of Hingham. 

The formation recognized as the oldest in the basin is that of 
the primordial slates and accompanying Quartzite, known to be 
of primordial age by the discovery in the slates of Trilobites of 
that age. These slates occur at Braintree, where only such fos- 
sils have been found, at Weymouth near by, and in numerous 
places in the northern portion of the basin. As stated by Pro- 
fessor Crosby, they probably underlie a large part of the basin 
covered by the rocks of a later age. 

Subsequent to the deposition of the primordial strata a period 
of violent volcanic action followed, during which were torn asun- 
der the slates and the quartzite, and vast floods of basic lava, now 
known as Diorite, were poured in among them and over their 
surfaces. Following this, there appears to have come a long 
period of repose and erosion, which was terminated by another 
of prolonged violent igneous action, bringing to the surface and 
spreading over it the acid lavas which formed the granite and 
the pctrosilex. As the diorite is found intrusive in the primor- 
dial strata, and the granite and petrosilex are alike intrusive 
in the diorite and the primordial strata, it is clear that the latter 
are the oldest of these, and that the granite and pctrosilex are 
the most recent. If the granites and allied rocks of eastern 
Massachusetts are, as has been taught by Dr. T. Sterry Hunt 
and other geologists, Archaean, it may possibly be that these un- 
derlying the primordial and subjected to intense igneous action, 
became locally fluent, and thus were injected into and over the 
superincumbent strata. While, therefore, all thus injected and 
reformed above the primordinl may be regarded as more recent, 
it may not be true of those outside the basin. There is much, 



40 History of Hingham. 

however, that can be said in favor of the view that all the gran- 
ites and other rocks of the region, hitherto considered Archa3an, 
are more recent than the Primordial, including even those of the 
well-known Quincy Hills. Indeed, the evidence that this is the 
case is well-nigh conclusive. Certainly there can be no question 
but that considerable areas of the granite were fluent and erup- 
tive after the primordial slates were formed. A very valuable 
and instructive article was published in the Proceedings of the 
Boston Society of Natural History in 1881, by Professor M. E. 
Wadsworth, on the relation of the Quincy granite to the primor- 
dial argillite of Braintrec, in which he demonstrated that in dif- 
ferent localities the granite was eruptive through the slates, as 
shown by the close welding of both rocks, and by the effect of 
the contact in altering the character of both near the line of 
junction. 

After the events narrated, the area of the basin became one of 
slow subsidence that must have continued through a vast period 
of time, as during its ages the oreat bodv of the rocks that form 
the conglomerate series was formed, — the conglomerates and sand- 
stones near the margins of the coasts, and the slates, the material 
of which was deposited by the rivers, in the deeper portions. As 
subsidence continued, the sea encroached more and more upon its 
shores, the margins of the land became more remote, and the 
great body of the slate was gradually laid down in the deep 
waters to a thickness of more than a thousand feet. 

Before proceeding further in the history of the basin, the writer 
will express views long held by him relative to the origin of the 
pebbles that made up the great body of the conglomerate in- 
cluding the sandstone, which is only rock of the same character 
formed of finer material, and of the slates. 

Of the conglomerate it may be said that the formation of this 
rock wherever found has generally been regarded as mainly due 
to the action of water, and its existence in the Boston Basin has 
been ascribed to the force of the waves beating for countless gen- 
erations against, and making an inroad upon, the coast, resulting 
in the wearing down of the rocks, and the formation by attrition 
of the bowlders and pebbles which subsequently were cemented 
into compact strata. This view the writer does not concur in, as 
he judges it impossible that in any number of ages the action of 
the waves alone on the area of the basin could have led to the 
production of such a body of bowlders and pebbles as make up 
the conglomerate. He believes there was a far more potent cause 
for their origin silently at work moulding them into form long 
anterior to their submergence in the surging waters. This cause 
is to be found in the highly corrosive character of the atmosphere 
in the early ages of the earth's history, by which the hills, origi- 
nally of course but rock elevations, became under its action rap- 
idly disintegrated. Such elevations of early periods in southern 
regions yet exist as monuments of this corrosive action, for the 



The Geology of Hingham. 41 

decayed material remains upon them, showing, though but par- 
tially, the extent of the corrosion, much of the substance having 
been washed oil' the surface by the denuding action of rains. 

There is certainly no reason to suppose the general condition 
of the surface of the land prior to the glacial period was different 
over the area of the early formations of New England from what 
prevailed over formations of a like age south of glacial action. 

We may therefore picture to ourselves, with good reason, the 
country everywhere in the neighborhood of Boston covered with 
hills of considerable altitude, composed of the decayed material 
of the rocky formations, and having disseminated through it 
bowlders and pebbles of every size, that had not yet yielded to 
the decomposing influence. It is well known that corrosive 
action tends to produce such forms, though of course it is not 
questioned but that subsequent action of water and attrition had 
much influence in working a large portion of the pebbles found 
in the conglomerate into the shapes which they now present. 

The subsidence of the area of the basin after the primordial 
period mentioned, extending the water surface to the base of hills 
filled with the material for the conglomerate, the igneous action 
that followed and was active at times during the formation of 
that rock, causing more or less of oscillation and change of level 
to the surface, and the subsequent action of the waves upon the 
cliffs and beaches of coast margin, together, will amply account 
for the production of the conglomerate, but it will be recognized 
that the main factor in such view is to be found in the disintegra- 
tion of the rocky hills long before the action of other forces. 

The presentation now made of the origin of the conglomerate 
of the Boston Basin is greatly strengthened by the fact lately 
called to the notice of the writer by Professor Crosby, — that no 
pebbles of the basic rock diorite are found in the conglomerate 
with those of the acidic rocks. All will agree in the statement 
that pebbles of the granite, the quartzite, and the petrosilex 
rocks of the northern border of the basin, have contributed 
largely to make up the conglomerate ; but what became of those 
of the diorite, a rock quite as abundant in the ancient hills as 
any of them ? Its absence can only be accounted for by the 
view that it could not like the others withstand the corrosive 
action, as did partially the others, and therefore not even pebbles 
were left to help form the newer rock. Respecting the slates, 
their origin is clear. Simultaneously with the depression of the 
area of the basin below the sea level, there would commence a 
deposit of the finer sediment brought down by the rivers. This 
may well be thought to have been copious considering the char- 
acter of the country passed through, everywhere composed of 
the decayed remains of the earlier rocks. Indeed it cannot be 
doubted that the streams would be turbid with argillaceous mat- 
ter, and, as well known, this would be immediately precipitated 
upon coming in contact with salt water. Thus the material for 



42 History of Hingham. 

the slates of the basin must have steadily accumulated through 
long ages. 

The origin of another abundant rock of the basin, associated 
with the conglomerate, the melaphyr, long continued to be a ques- 
tion of much discussion, but there is now no doubt concerning it. 
During all the immense time that subsidence continued, and 
while sedimentary strata were gradually accumulating, the area 
of the basin remained a great centre of igneous action, and vol- 
canoes here and there within it belched forth from time to time 
floods of lava which spread itself over the surface. Professor 
Crosby has made out in the Nantaskct region several flows of it, 
each of which alternates with deposits of conglomerate and sand- 
stone. In such cases the outpouring was probably beneath the 
surface of the water, where the deposits followed each period 
of activity. In Hingham the melaphyr is found in very great 
bodies not separated by deposits of the sedimentary rocks. 

One more great event in the history of the basin is yet to be 
mentioned. Long after the volcanic action tbat had produced the 
basic lava, melaphyr, bad ceased, and after all the sediments were 
deposited that produced the rocks known to us as the conglomer- 
ates, the sandstones, and the slates, a great disturbance occurred 
over the whole area of the basin and of the crystalline rocks 
surrounding it, caused by another manifestation of igneous en- 
ergy, which changed the whole character of the surface. With- 
in the basin, apparently from immense pressure exerted in north 
and south directions, the rocky strata were forced up in folds or 
in broken ridges. Through crystalline rocks and sedimentary 
strata alike, subterranean action brought to the surface, and 
probably poured over it, vast quantities of lava of highly basic 
properties, different from those of the previous eruptions, now 
known to lithologists as Diabase, an account of which has been 
given. The great erosion of after ages is undoubtedly the rea- 
son why the rock Diabase is not found spread over the surface, 
as well as within the walls of dikes. 

At length the disturbing action ceased, and the earth, which 
had been shaken from its foundations to its surface, and rent 
asunder in a thousand localities, once more became quiescent. 
The effect upon the area of the basin was great, for where the 
waters had for an immense period spread themselves over the 
surface, and under which conglomerates and slates had been laid 
down, dry land appeared. 

How strange to reflect that in these three words is embraced 
a fact without which all the stupendous events that have been 
mentioned, occurring over millions of years, would have re- 
mained entirely unknown to mortal man ; for with the waters 
covering the basin, where could a trace of its long history have 
been found ? 

The rocks of the Boston Basin as they present themselves in 
Hingham will now be noticed. Unfortunately the non-occurrence 



The Geology of Hingham. 43 

of fossils in any of them makes it impossible to determine defi- 
nitely their age. The fact of slates within half a dozen miles of 
the town containing trilobites, thus showing them to be primor- 
dial, has led reasonably to the view that a part at least of those 
in Hingham might be found to be also primordial. The super- 
position of the strata, however, and their inclination, as far as 
these can be studied at their exposures, militate against this 
view. Nevertheless, considering how much is hidden from obser- 
vation where the great body of slate lies, towards Weymouth 
River, and the disturbances to which the formations have been 
subjected, it is by no means to be regarded as settled that slate 
of primordial age does not exist in Hingham as in other parts 
of the basin. It cannot, however, be shown that any is found 
resting; beneath the rocks of the Conglomerate Series. That 
which occurs alternating with the conglomerate must be regarded 
as of the same age as the conglomerate itself. The great body 
of slate referred to above, towards Weymouth River, seems by 
its dip, as far as this has been determined, to be superior to the 
strata of the conglomerate series, and therefore a later rock. 

This slate, on the maps is designated separately from that of 
the conglomerate series, as belonging to the Slate Series. 

The Conglomerate Series comprises Conglomerates, Sandstones, 
Slates, and Melaphyr, which have together a thickness of nearly 
one thousand feet. The great disturbances alluded to, by which 
all these rocks were rent asunder by faults, and forced into ap- 
proximately vertical positions, will be more clearly apparent by 
a glance at the maps than by hours of reading. 



THE CONGLOMERATE SERIES. 

Conglomerate is formed of pebbles or angular fragments and 
gravel derived from pre-existing formations, these being cemented 
together into a compact rock. Sometimes the enclosed masses 
are of considerable dimensions, being several feet in diameter. 
When the enclosed stones are pebbles, that is, are rounded, the 
rock is called Pudding-Stone ; when they are angular it is called 
Breccia. The pebbles or fragments vary much in character, — 
those of Petrosilex, Quartzite, Granite, and other rocks being often 
found in close juxtaposition. Such is the case with the conglom- 
erate of Hingham, as may be seen at almost any exposure. When 
the rock is "found made up exclusively of fine material, small 
gravel, and sand, it becomes a sandstone, and as such occurs in 
Hingham alternating with the coarser portions. 

Conglomerate is the predominant rock over considerable areas 
of the town. It presents itself prominently in the harbor, com- 
posing the strata of the islands known as Sarah's, Langlee's, and 
Ragged, and its walls face the water along the coast front of 
Melville Gardens. It crops out upon the surface in great abun- 



44 History of Hingham,. 

dance over the hilly region between South and Elm streets, appear- 
ing near the former in cliffs of considerable altitude, and it forms, 
with the amygdaloidal melaphyr, a part of the shore rocks of 
Rocky Neck that border Weir River, east of Planter's Hill. It 
also occurs abundantly about and over the high lands contiguous 
to Unit's Cove. 

Away from the coast and the islands in the harbor the most 
imposing exhibition of this rock may be found in a narrow, pri- 
vate road that runs from Real Street towards Weymouth River, 
some distance north of the Hockley Lane. Soon after entering 
this road it turns towards the north, winding about the base of 
some exposures of the conglomerate which lie between it and 
Beal Street. Following the passage through low ground and 
through forest growth for the distance of about a quarter of a 
mile, there suddenly appear high cliffs of the rock partially ob- 
scured by trees, rising to the height of forty to fifty feet, and pre- 
senting the appearance of having been torn asunder by some 
convulsion of nature, large masses being found in the foreground. 
The rocks extend along the road and near it six to seven hundred 
feet. The exposure here is well worth visiting. 

The conglomerate rocks of Hingham were originally deposited 
upon the more ancient rocks, perhaps much farther inland than 
is now apparent, and were worn away by the erosion of the sur- 
face in after ages. At some localities, however, a partial coating 
of the conglomerate may be seen upon the granite, occupying 
depressions in it, showing where it once rested probably in con- 
siderable beds. 



CLAY SLATE, OR ARGILLITE, OF THE CONGLOM- 
ERATE SERIES. 

The slate of the conglomerate series in Hingham occurs, as 
may be seen by the maps, quite abundantly in the northern parts 
of the town, alternating with the conglomerate. The color of 
these slates varies considerably, a portion being of the ordinary 
bluish shade, while other portions are red or reddish. Both 
these colors are found quite near each other in the same exposure, 
as in Hersey Street on the left side going from, and not far from, 
South Street. 

The slate of the slate series will be mentioned after notice of 
melaphyr, which is included in the conglomerate series. 



MELAPHYR. 

The name Amygdaloid commonly applied to this rock was given 
because of the frequent occurrence in it of cavities filled with other 
minerals than those constituting its mass, which are often approxi- 



The Geology of Hingham. 45 

mately almond-shape in their outline. These cavities, how- 
ever, may be entirely wanting, when of course the name amyg- 
daloid loses its significance. Moreover, rocks of a different 
composition have sometimes the same amygdaloidal structure. 
The name now applied to the rock by geologists is Melaphyr, 
and nowhere does it present itself in its typical and varied char- 
acteristics more advantageously for observation and study than in 
Hingham. The composition is the same as that of Basalt, which 
has as its essential elements, augite, magnetite, and titaniferous 
iron, but often containing a triclinic feldspar and other minerals, — 
the only difference being apparently the result of a change of 
some of the constituents by decomposition. Here it is found 
beautifully amygdaloidal over extensive areas, the amygdules 
being filled with minerals of several species which are sometimes 
arranged in concentric bands, the most common being epidote, 
quartz, chlorite, and calcite. At one locality, on land bordering 
Unit's Cove, there is an exposure of melaphyr, forming an escarp- 
ment on the slope of a hill, which is quite dark in color and in 
portions free from amygdules, and where these occur they are of 
calcite. This is found in the immediate neighborhood of other 
melaphyr, full of amygdules containing the various minerals men- 
tioned as common in the rock. 

The best exposures for the study of melaphyr may be found at 
the northeast part of the town along the shore of Rocky Neck, 
on the northeasterly slope of Squirrel Hill, Lincoln Street, and at 
Huit's Cove. At all these places the amygdaloidal rock is abun- 
dant, and specimens of much beauty can be easily obtained. In 
the amygdaloidal melaphvrs of Rocky Neck fine red jasper and 
vellowish white epidote occur, both in nodules and in veins. 



CLAY SLATE OF THE SLATE SERIES. 

This slate, which forms a great body resting with apparent con- 
formity over the rocks of the conglomerate series, has a thick- 
ness of over one thousand feet, and undoubtedly is spread, as indi- 
cated on the maps, over a great area of the town toward Weymouth 
River. Its exposures are, however, not numerous, as the drift of 
the glacial period covers it from observation. It shows itself on 
the border of Weymouth River at Deal's Cove, and also at Huit's 
Cove. At the south side of the latter it forms a point of land 
which extends into the water. Here it is well-jointed, and the 
lines of stratification are distinctly perceptible. The dip is west- 
erly, and the inclination about 60°. On the north shore of the 
cove it appears associated with conglomerate and melaphyr, and 
portions of it show clearly lines of cleavage which are not often 
manifest at the exposures of slate in Hingham. 

In a region where the rock formations have experienced great 
disturbance, as in Hingham, the dip of the strata varies very 



46 History of Hingham. 

much at the several localities. In attempting to obtain this, it 
may be well to admonish the reader, if not a geologist, that in the 
case of slates and some other rock's, the true lines of deposition 
by no means correspond with the lines of cleavage. It is owing 
to the planes of the latter that the rock is serviceable for the 
uses to which it is put in the arts, as a roofing material, and 
for other purposes. This kind of cleavage is called Slaty 
Cleavage, and it is unquestionably due to great lateral pressure 
of the material of which slates are composed, after its deposition. 
The fact of such pressure being exerted upon the strata beneath 
the surface is well-known, and experiments by Sedgwick, Tyndall, 
and Daubree, upon clay and other substances, demonstrated that 
the effect of pressure was to produce lamination. 

The writer has thought it well, before closing his remarks upon 
the rock exposures of the town, to suggest two excursions that 
may be made to advantage by students interested in them. One 
of these is through the northern portion of Hersey Street, from 
South Street to Elm Street. The rocks mentioned rest immedi- 
ately on or quite near the margin of the road, and may be seen 
without going any distance from it in the adjoining fields. Since 
the examination has been made there has been some change on 
the east side of the street by the erection of a building, and the 
covering over of a portion of the rocks near ; but thus far none 
that will lessen interest in inspecting those yet undisturbed. The 
other excursion suggested is that of a visit to Rocky Xeck and a 
walk along its shores, as promising more pleasure and instruction 
than can be found in any other locality. 



Hersey Street. 

This street, in its northern part, affords a good opportunity to 
observe a succession of the sedimentary rocks of Hingham with 
the intrusive trap which is found with them. In ascending the 
rising ground from South Street, there occurs, on the right side, 
about 240 feet from the commencement of the road and back from 
it, an exposure of Conglomerate. It shows itself quite near the 
house of Mr. Allen A. Lincoln. Its face is parallel with the side 
of the house and at right angles with the road. On the next 
estate, 60 feet beyond, there is rock exposure near and facing the 
street, the first part of which is composed of trap and constitutes 
a dike six or more feet in width. This is succeeded bv conglom- 
erate, with which it makes a close junction. This conglomerate 
extends about 15 feet and is followed by a reddish slate extend- 
ing 20 feet, in the centre of which is a second trap dike. Suc- 
ceeding the slate is more conglomerate, which shows itself 50 
feet or more. There is no further exposure on the right side of 
the road for 1090 feet, and then it is found that the limit of the 



Geology of Hingham. s « l ' Timfl 

map t > r 

ON 

Weir River. 

reDiredby WO CROSBY. 
Scalp -'0 i ud-. or .\ W feel = I inch 

f .:. . 




Cutlqlnm frttfr. 



EXPLANATION OF COLORS 

f iramtr 
Melaphvr 



f}m£f(i>mrra/c 
Dikes 
Fciuttx 



SECTION [I 




SL'CTION I 




Horizontal Scale. %30 -/" lerticcd Scale 10S 1 '— /" 



The Geology of H Ingham. 47 

sedimentary rocks has been passed, as granite now appears. This 
extends 30 feet and is followed by an exposure of trap. Beyond 
this trap, which here crosses the street, the rocks are all granite. 

On the left side of the street, ascending the hill from South 
Street and about 310 feet from it, there is an exposure of rocks 
which present themselves in the following order: conglomerate 
nine feet, slate six feet, sandstone twenty feet, slate again twelve 
feet, this last being succeeded by a dike of trap about nine feet in 
width. Beyond this trap there is no exposure for about 60 feet, 
at which distance another ledge appears, the first part of which 
shows blue and red slate six feet, the rest of it being conglom- 
erate, which extends 36 feet. Another space, of 72 feet, without 
rock follows the conglomerate, when this rock reappears in 
another ledge, — composing the first part of it for six feet, the 
rest of it, 45 feet, being blue and red slate. Still another space 
of about 80 feet occurs without rock, when sandstone appears 
along the road for the very considerable distance of 110 feet. 
Trap, partially covered with soil, succeeds the sandstone for about 
40 feet, then conglomerate with an exposure of six feet. Beyond 
this conglomerate, which is the last seen on the road of the sedi- 
mentary strata, no other rocks appear on the left side of it for 650 
feet. Then appears a considerable elevation of trap rock, which 
extends along the street about 30 feet and back upon the adjoin- 
ing fields towards Elm Street. As stated above, when mention- 
ing the portion of this dike exposed on the right side of the road, 
there are no other rocks beyond it excepting granite. 



Rocky Neck. 

East of Planter's Hill, and partially separated from it by a 
depression of the surface, is an elevation of land forming a prom- 
ontorv, which is bordered bv Weir River on its north and east- 
erly shores. The rocks here, finely exposed as they are along the 
water's edge, and exhibiting well their relation to each other, 
afford one of the localities the best worth visiting of any within 
the town. The map of course shows the development over and 
beneath the surface of the land as made known by the rock expos- 
ures ; but a statement of what may be readily observed in a walk 
along the margin of the water will perhaps help visitors to 
understand what they pass, and thus make such a trip the more 
interesting. 

At low water on the river front of the meadow that lies south 
of Rockv Neck, mav be seen close to the water's eds;e a small 
ridge of rocks which the student should especially notice, as they 
are composed of the basic rock Porphyrite, and no other exposure 
of this rock is known in Hingham. Following the shore north of 
the porphyrite and just where the land rises from low and marshy 
ground, the first rocks which appear above the surface and rest- 



48 History of Hingham. 

ing somewhat back from the beach are conglomerates. Proceed- 
ing further a short distance, two dikes of diabase jut upon the 
beach, and not far inland may be seen to have cut through con- 
glomerate, the line of junction on a facing of one of them towards 
the water being distinctly perceptible The lirst of the dikes is 
about 450 feet from the porphyrite on the line of the beach, and 
the second about 40 feet further. The former of these will be 
more particularly mentioned before the close of these remarks 
upon Rocky Neck. Beyond the dikes, extending over the beach 
and along the shore for 350 feet or more, is a confused mixture of 
melaphyr with other rocks, petrosilex, porphyrite, granite, quartz- 
ite, etc. In portions the melaphyr forms with them a conglom- 
erate of which it is by far the larger part. Other portions can 
hardly be designated as conglomerate, being apparently the result 
of the intrusion of the melaphyr in a molten state among pebbles 
and masses unconsolidated, and absorbing them in its substance, 
each being now found surrounded entirely by the melaphyr. 

It is in this portion of the rock of the shore that there is found 
much good red jasper, affording cabinet specimens of some beauty. 
The formation of this was clearly due to the chemical action 
arising from the union of the molten melaphyr with the material 
invaded. There are some veins of quartz found in the rock and 
others of an impure, buff-colored epidote. 

Following this mixed melaphyr and conglomerate and less than 
100 feet from it, is a very typical conglomerate containing peb- 
bles of granite, quartzite, and petrosilex. This extends about 90 
feet. The jointing in this may be noticed as north and south. 

About 80 feet from the conglomerate, melaphyr appears and 
extends for the considerable distance of about 500 feet. In it 
may be seen veins of quartz and also of the yellowish, opaque 
epidote mentioned above as occurring in the mixed melaphyr 
and conglomerate, but in far greater abundance. This melaphyr 
at its termination abuts directly against conglomerate, the line 
of demarcation being distinct and nearly vertical, though in places 
this does not clearly appear. There is undoubtedly a fault here. 
The conglomerate from the junction of the two rocks extends 
along the coast line about 240 feet. In this conglomerate is an 
east and west dike four to five feet wide. Melaphyr follows for 
some 50 feet or more, of a character similar to that before de- 
scribed as mixed with other material. 

A bay in the land here occurs, and crossing it westerly on the 
beach at low tide the visitor finds cliffs of melaphyr which form a 
jutting point into the water. Crossing this a second bay is 
reached at a distance of about 100 feet. Here the rock displays 
the characteristic nodules that lead to its designation as amyg- 
daloid. Indeed a large portion of the melaphyr of Rocky Neck is 
finely amygdaloidal, and affords good specimens of this variety of 
the rock. On the beach here there is a protruding flat surface 
of rock, a yard or so in diameter, on which may be seen glacial 



The Geology of H Ingham. 



49 



striae, though probably exposed there to the elements for centu- 
ries. These lines are northwest and southeast, and south 30° 
east. Other lines on a neighboring rock are northwest by west 
and southeast by east. On the westerly side of the bay granite 
appears in a high cliff towards and extending into the water. 

By ascending this cliff, passing over it to its western declivity 
and descending to the narrow beach at its base, which should be 
done at low tide, a dike exposure may be seen of much interest. 
It is what is called a double dike, the molten material having 
made its way to the surface within two contiguous joints in the 
granite. The larger portion has a width of about eight feet, the 




Figure No 3. 



smaller one about one foot, and they are separated by about one foot 
of the invaded rock. See Figure No. 3. This double dike slopes 
to the south from the vertical at an angle of 45°. This is the 
extreme western end, on Rocky Neck, of the dike first mentioned 
as appearing on the eastern shore. It does not present there 



VOL. I. 



50 History of Hingha/m. 

or generally over the surface of the neck its double character be- 
cause obscured by the soil. Across the water of the river, on 
Nantasket where it reappears, it shows itself double. 



THE GLACIAL PERIOD. 

A pretty full notice of the great glacier that rested over the 
North, and the phenomena attendant upon its advance and 
final melting away, has been given in the preliminary remarks. 
We have now only to treat particularly of the traces left upon 
the surface of the town by its passage. Those who bave atten- 
tively read what has been expressed will understand that the 
decomposed material of early rock formations making up the 
soil of the territory of Hingham prior to the advent of the ice 
was largely borne away by its movement, the solid rock founda- 
tions being laid bare, whilst a large part of that which now forms 
the bills and covers the valleys was brought forward by the on- 
ward progress of the glacier from more northern localities. The 
whole of the earth tbus disturbed and redistributed is known as 
Drift. Much of it was materially changed in the transportation. 
That directly beneath the glacier, and subjected to its enormous 
pressure and to great friction upon the rock surfaces below, was 
reduced to fragments, and even to the finest particles. The masses 
of rock, too, which were borne on beneath the glacier, that escaped 
destruction, were mostly smoothed, and often striated, like the 
rocky strata over which they passed. The part of the drift thus 
subjected to the crushing and grinding action of the glacier is 
known as Till. The definition of this term " Till," as given by 
James Geikie, the author of the exceedingly valuable work, 
" The Great Ice Period," is " a firm, tough, unstratified stony 
clay, with no very large bowlders, and having stones of a peculiar 
shape." The stones referred to are such as are oblong without 
being symmetrical in outline, and which exhibit strias most often 
in the direction of the longest axis. Till constitutes the lowest 
member of the drift deposits. It is the " moraine profonde, n or 
" ground moraine " of foreign geologists, the " bowlder clay " of 
most writers, the " hard pan " of our townsmen. It owes its 
compact and tough character undoubtedly to the immense pres- 
sure of the ice. 

A considerable portion of the drift which was borne in the body 
of the glacial sheet itself, and thus escaped its grinding action, 
upon the final melting of the ice was spread loosely over the 
whole surface to a varying depth of from one to ten feet, and in 
some places to a much greater thickness. It is generally com- 
posed of gravel and sand with enclosed pebbles, and often contains 
an abundance of bowlders of large dimensions. Like the till, this 
upper drift is unstratified ; but neither the bowlders nor pebbles 
in it are striated, as is the case with part of those of the former. 



The Geology of Hingham. 51 

This is often called the Upper Till. It rests upon the general 
surface of New England, overlying the true till where the latter 
exists. It is easily distinguished from it by its somewhat dif- 
ferent composition, containing comparatively but little clay, and 
being much less compact, from not having been subjected to such 
great pressure. Its color, too, is generally yellowish, arising from 
the oxidation of the iron contained in it. 

There is yet a third glacial deposit to be mentioned ; it is known 
as Modified Drift. This undoubtedly owed its origin generally to 
the action of rivers, which upon the melting of the ice-sheet swept 
over it and conveyed the rock masses, gravel, and sand, with which 
it was laden, to many localities where they are now found. 

Having thus given an account of the origin of the drift deposits 
and their dissemination over the surface of the land, it remains 
for us to present the views of those who have made a special study 
of glacial phenomena respecting the peculiar hills that prevail in 
many sections over which the ice-sheet rested, and which form a 
predominant feature in the topography of the town ; and also 
of the less elevated summits and ridges known by geologists as 
Karnes, which likewise present themselves prominently over a large 
part of its territory. The first of these, the peculiar hills referred 
to, are what have been called by the Irish geologists " Drumlins," 
a name of Irish derivation, signifying a long, rounded hill, — and 
by Professor Charles H. Hitchcock they have been called " Lenticu- 
lar Hills," from their lenslike form. We will first dwell upon 
these hills, upon the grooving and striation of the rocks over which 
the glacier advanced, and upon what are known as " pot-holes," 
as phenomena of the period under consideration ; postponing re- 
marks upon the later drift deposits and much other matter con- 
nected with the passing away of the ice, which will be presented 
when treating of the Champlain Period. 



DRUMLINS, OR LENTICULAR HILLS. 

These remarkable elevations are found in many towns of east- 
ern Massachusetts, but nowhere are seen to form more interesting 
features of the landscape than in Hingham. Baker's Hill, Otis 
Hill, Prospect Hill, Great Hill, Turkey Hill, and Pleasant Hill at 
Crow Point are all elevations of this character. They are com- 
posed, wherever found, mainly of the lowest member of the drift, 
the till, or bowlder clay, having generally but a thin deposit on 
their surface of the gravel and bowlders of the upper drift. They 
vary much in size, sometimes presenting themselves as mere hil- 
locks, but often found half a mile or more in length, and not 
infrequently over a mile. In form they are generally oval, more 
or less elongated, having symmetrical, rounded summits, with gen- 
tle slopes in the direction of their longest axes and much steeper 
ones laterally. In height they sometimes exceed two hundred 



52 History of Hingham. 

feet. These hills rest on rock surfaces which have been subjected 
to glacial action and show striation. 

Now when the fact is taken into consideration that all such 
hills are only to be found in countries which have been covered 
with the ice-sheet, that their longitudinal axes always coincide, 
or very nearly coincide, with the direction of the stria? upon the 
rocks of the regions where they occur, and that they are com- 
posed almost entirely of till, no one can reasonably doubt that 
they were originally formed under and by the action of the ice- 
sheet itself. How the till could be raised into such hills has been 
a subject of much question, but there is now a general acquies 
cence in the view that they had their origin in the gradual and 
long-continued accumulation of the clay and its accompanying 
pebbles in certain places favorable for the aggregation of the ma- 
terial, in the same manner that sand-banks are formed in rivers. 



GROOVINGS AND STRIATION OF THE ROCKS. 

The rock exposures in different parts of the town show clearly 
the wearing away of the material, causing extensive grooves upon 
their surfaces, and often fine striae, which mark unmistakably the 
course of the glacier over them. The granite, while it exhibits 
the smooth, rounded outlines and the deep groovings on a grand 
scale, seldom shows the finer and more delicate markings as seen 
upon the slate and diabase. Among the localities where the stria? 
mov be clearly discerned are the following : — 

Fort Hill. — The diorite on the side of the street next the 
cemetery very generally exhibits stria?. An examination of these 
shows their direction to be as follows, — compass measurement 
(which measurement will be given in all cases) : — 

East of south 1 0° 
East of south 1 2° 
East of south 15° 

Lasell Street. — On the left side of this street, going south, 
about 1000 feet from Free street, and extending from the carriage- 
way to the fence, is the flat surface of a dike of diabase, upon 
which are very numerous stria?. Several of these examined were 
found to run east of south 10°. 

Beal's Cove, Weymouth Back River. — There is here a consid- 
erable exposure of slate, through which is a large dike of diabase. 
On both rocks stria? are abundant. Examination showed them to 
vary in direction as follows : — 

East of south 10°, J 

East of south 15°, >on slate. 

East of south 20°, ) 

East of south 25°, on dike rock. 



The Geology of Hinghmn. 53 

Rocky Neck. — On a beach of the northern shore, upon diabase, 
are glacial strise showing a direction southeast, and also cast of 
south 80°. 

Union Street. — On the left side of Union street, 1670 feet 
from Lascll, and just beyond Long Bridge Lane, is a granite ledge 
upon which are numerous striae. 

Summer and Rockland streets. — Just at the corner of these 
streets, by the roadside, is an exposure of diabase trap, before men- 
tioned when treating of dikes, upon which are striae which show 
variation in direction as follows : — 

East of south 10° 
East of south 12° 
East of south 15 D 

Weir Street. — On the right side of the roadway of this street, 
a short distance from the railroad-crossing, is an exposure of dio- 
rite showing striae running — 

East of south 5° 
East of south 1CP 



INDIAN POT-HOLES, OR GIANTS' KETTLES OF 
FOREIGN WRITERS. 

It is well known that wherever there exist waterfalls of any mag- 
nitude, pot-holes, so-called, are often found beneath the rushing 
waters, formed by the friction of stones which have been lodged 
in the hollows of the rock surface over which the torrent pours, 
and which, having a somewhat circular motion imparted to them, 
gradually wear away the rock, with the result of producing these 
singular objects. 

It is not surprising that when these have been found, as has often 
been the case, where there was nothing to indicate there had ever 
been a river or running stream, they should have excited alike the 
wonder and interest of both scientific and unscientific beholders. 

It should be borne in mind that the knowledge of a great conti- 
nental ice-sheet resting over our whole northern region is but a re- 
cent acquisition, and that phenomena having their origin under such 
a condition of things could not possibly be understood previously 
by the most learned of observers. 

' The ideas of the unlearned respecting such pot-holes are often 
ludicrous. With our own people they have been regarded as the 
work of the Indians, and where found have been called Indian Pot- 
Holes, from the thought that they had been wrought for and used 
as cooking vessels. Abroad they have been called Giants' Kettles, 
undoubtedly from the belief that they were made by giants for 
their culinary use. 

The study "of glacial phenomena within a few years has thrown 
a flood of light upon much that was before obscure, and we now 



54 



History of Hingham. 



can well understand how pot-holes may have been formed in lo- 
calities remote from any water-courses of the present period by 
rushing - torrents through crevasses in the great ice-sheet. 

The pot-holes to be mentioned, though not found within the limits 
of Hingham, are too near its borders, and too interesting as phe- 
nomena of the glacial period, not to be noticed here. They are 
to be found in Little Harbor, Cohasset, on Cooper's Island, so- 
called, which however is not an island in the sense of being a body 
of land surrounded with water, but from its being a somewhat 
elevated land surrounded partly by water and partly by low, marshy 
ground. There is a border of rocky cliffs on the northern portion 
of the east coast of this island which end at a beach that separates 
them from other cliffs farther south ; and it is near the termi- 
nation of those first-mentioned and quite close to the beach that 
the pot-holes are found. Just before this termination there is a 
partial separation of the rocky mass by an opening on the water 
side, which, however, rapidly narrows inland but a few feet from, 
the water. It is on the northern side of this opening, that is, on 
the rock that slopes towards the south, and very near the water 
at low tide, that two of the holes, or what remains of them, may be 
readily seen when the tide is out. 

Of the lowest of these, and the best preserved of them, and which 
is designated as No. 1 in Figure No. 4, there yet remains a pot- 
hole in the rock which will 
hold water to the depth of 1 
foot 9 inches, having a well- 
defined rim just at the sur- 
face of the water. The di- 
ameter of it at rim is 25^ 
inches ; below the rim 30 
inches. Above this rim the 
whole southern side of what 
once formed a portion of the 
pot-hole is gone ; but on the 
northern side there remains, 
as a concavity in the rock, 
what formed a part of it, 
having well-worn marks up- 
on the surface; and these 
are plainly discernible for a 
height of four feet. From 
the rock sloping away rapid- 
ly above, it is very probable 
that even these traces, wheh 
•I prove a depth of six feet, do 
not give the whole of that of 
the original vessel when it 
was intact. Exterior to this pot-hole the tide sinks below the 
level of its bottom, but at high tide all is covered. 










Figure No. 4. 



The Geology of Hingham. 55 

The second pot-hole has its bottom three feet above that of the 
lowest one, and a perpendicular line from the centre of each shows 
the two to be three feet apart. The wall dividing them must have 
become, while yet action went on within them, very thin, and prob- 
ably one broke into the other before it ceased altogether. The 
whole southern side of this second hole, which is marked/No. 2 in 
Figure No. 4, is gone, and water can now stand in its bottom to 
the depth of only about two inches. 

The concavity above this, which formed the northern portion of 
the hole, exhibiting as it does a well-worn surface of three feet in 
width, shows that it must have been as large as or larger than the 
first. This concavity can be discerned to the height of live feet, 
where further traces are lost ; but, as is the case with No. 1, the 
whole depth of the pot-hole may have been much greater than 
what is indicated. The slope of what remains of the walls of 
these holes shows that the flow of water over the rock surfaces 
was from the northwest. That of No. 2 approximates to 30° from 
that direction towards the southeast. 

Of No. 3, so designated in Figure No. 4, there is but little to be 
said except that it is small and shallow. It is 4 feet 9 inches 
above No. 2 in a northwest direction, and there may be traced 
from it westerly a narrow water channel about six feet in length. 

The fourth of the pot-holes to be mentioned is or was the 
largest of all, and hence has been called by the people near by 
the" " Well." It is designated as No. 4 in Figure No. 5. Passing 
over the rocky elevation in a northerly direction, it may be found 
about a hundred feet distant from the others, in front of a cliff 
which faces an opening in the rocks more immediately near the 
water. This pot-hole, unlike those previously mentioned, is not 
found on a sloping portion of rock, but is on a flat surface directly 
at the base of the cliff. Horizontally, the form of it is oval, and 
its largest diameter, which is northeast and southwest in direc- 
tion, is four feet, the narrowest two feet ten inches. The depth 
at which water is now retained is about a foot. 

The cliff rises nine feet high from the margin of the "Well" 
and ten feet from its bottom. 'The " Well " itself was probably as 
deep at least as ten feet, the curvature and wearing of the rock of 
the cliff above the present hole clearly showing this. 

The rocky ridge in which all these pot-holes or kettles are found, 
has a height of from 20 to 25 feet, and is of granite. Besides 
the pot-holes of which an account has been given, there are other 
depressions showing distinctly a commencement of action towards 
their formation. Two of such may be found 20 feet in a north- 
erly direction from those numbered 1, 2, and 3; that is, between 
these and the one called the " Well," No. 4. One is shallow, 
appearing like the bowl of a spoon, about a foot across, show- 
ing, extending from it, a water-worn channel sloping easterly to 
the edge of the rock surface, about ten feet ; and on a lower sur- 
face of the same rock, another and larger depression just where 



56 



History of Hingham. 



water from the first might descend. Moreover, a large portion of 
the rock surface shows not only glaciation but continued water 
action. 



■■WUfottM-M'j 




Figure No. 5. 



It is very certain that no river has ever existed in the region of 
the pot-holes at Cohasset to account for their existence. We are 
forced, therefore, to ascribe their origin to the flowing of water 
from the great continental glacier. 

Considering the shallowness of the portions of the pot-holes de- 
scribed on Cooper's Island remaining for our observation, and the 
probability that they have been visited by generations of people, 
both of the Indian and the white man, it is not surprising that no- 
thing is left of their contents in or about them. There is, however, 
one rounded stone in the possession of Mr. Charles S. Bates, the 
owner of the estate on which the pot-holes are found, which tra- 
dition states to have been taken from the deepest one mentioned. 
It is elliptical, nearly spherical, in form, — its longest diameter 
being about four and a half inches, its shortest four inches. Trans- 
versely, it is quite circular. It is of granite, not unlike that of the 
surrounding country. There is no reason to question the truth of 
the tradition. 

To account for the phenomena presented by the pot-holes de- 
scribed, it is necessary to recognize that when the great glacier 



The Geology of Hingluim. 57 

lay over the land, many hundreds of feet in depth, during the 
summer, particularly towards the close of the period, rivers flowed 
over its surface, as they now do over the glaciers of the Alps. 
As there, crevasses were formed in the ice, into which the water 
poured and worked passages to the bottom of the great sheet, dis- 
charging itself in torrents, often conveying stones and other mo- 
raine matter to the rock surfaces below. Such passages in modern 
glaciers become somewhat circular in form and are hence called 
wells. They are also called moulins, the latter name from the 
noise made by the rushing waters in the ice, being not unlike 
that of a mill. The water, and the material conveyed by it through 
such wells of the great glacier of our continent, must have smoothed 
and worn rapidly away the rock surface on which they impinged, 
often causing, by the same kind of action as is witnessed under 
falls of water in some of our rivers, holes in the rocks like those 
now under consideration. Of course the action of the water and 
material conveyed by it would be immensely more rapid in form- 
ing such holes, falling, as they undoubtedly did, from a great 
height, and striking upon the rocks below with intense force. 
This would lead to the abrasion of the rock, by any rotating 
stones lodged in the hollows, so much more powerful than any 
action we know under falling waters of the present day as to 
render estimation of the result incalculable. 

It is doubtful, however, to the mind of the writer, if circum- 
stances often favored the formation of pot-holes directly beneath 
such a fall and where its full force would be felt. He is impressed 
with the view that if this were the case they would not be found 
ha vino; the form thev horizontallv present. 

It has, indeed, been thought strange that, as the ice moved con- 
tinuously on, the holes were not found generally elongated in the 
direction of the movement of the glacier rather than circular. 
Such thought, however, is only consistent with the presumption 
that the holes were made just where the water first fell upon 
the rock surface below. Far more reasonable is it to suppose that 
the holes were formed somewhat distant from this place, where 
the masses of rocks borne by the waters found a lodging in some 
depression, and there by rotation worked out the pot-holes. The ice 
might move on and the waters descend through the moulin far from 
where they first fell, yet continue their flow in the same direction 
as at first,' and go on with the work of rotating the contents of the 
hole through a whole season. In such case there could be, of course, 
no reason to expect elongation. 

The fact that pot-holes have been found in near proximity, 
and in such positions relative to each other as to show them to 
be apparently the result of independent falls of water, leads to a 
consideration of what has been noticed in the Alps. Observation 
upon the glaciers there shows that as a crevasse is carried for- 
ward by the general movement of the ice from where it received 
the flow of waters in the summer, and winter cuts off the supply, 



58 History of Hingham. 

it closes, leaving only upon the surface of the glacier a mark show- 
ing where it had once been. Subsequently, a new one is formed 
just where in relation to the land at the margin of the glacier, 
the former one existed ; and the waters of the succeeding sum- 
mer again descend upon the rock surface near where they before 
fell, but not often, probably, in exactly the same place ; and thus 
other pot-holes are formed contiguous to those of a preceding sea- 
son, and yet far enough distant to make it evident that they were 
not produced by the same flow of water. 

Respecting the formation of the crevasses in about the same 
places on the ice-sheet, there can be no question but that this is 
due to the irregularities of the subglacial surface ; and as high 
ridges transverse to the direction of the glacial flow must favor 
their formation, it is no wonder that pot-holes are often found in 
the slopes of such ridges and at their bases, as in the case of those 
described at Cohasset. 

Though lenticular hills, strise upon the rocks, and pot-holes 
have been described as phenomena of the Glacial Period, it may 
be well to add that both pot-holes and striae upon rocks may in 
some instances have been formed in the Champlain Period, now 
to be presented. 

CHAMPLAIN PERIOD. 

The early part of the Champlain Period was characterized by the 
final melting away of the glacier. The phenomena attendant up- 
on the great and long continued flooding over the ice-sheet and 
over the surface of the land were of marked character. Un- 
doubtedly, there is to be ascribed to it the formation of the ridges 
and hillocks called Kames, and the singular hollows in the lands 
contiguous to these, known as " kettle-holes." Of these some ac- 
count will now be given. 

KAMES. 

There are found extensively over New England as well as in 
other regions where the great ice-sheet covered the surface, ridges 
of a peculiar character, which ordinarily run in a direction some- 
what approximate to that of the principal stria? on the rock sur- 
faces northwest and southeast. That is to say, the general direc- 
tion is this, but the variations are common, and often so like those 
of a stream of water in its course as to have suggested that the 
many rivers pouring over the glacial sheet during the prolonged 
period of its subsidence, cutting into its surface and receiving 
from it a large portion of its burden of rocky, gravelly, and sandy 
material, somehow led to the formation of these singular eleva- 
tions which have long excited the interest of beholders. The 
view is a reasonable one, and if such was the origin of the kames 
referred to, their general direction and sinuous course is readily 



The Geology of Hingham. 59 

accounted for, as currents of water on the melting glacier would 
ordinarily run towards the retreating ice front. 

From quite a full account of the Karnes of New England by the 
Rev. G. P. Wright, published in the " Proceedings of the Boston 
Society of Natural History," Vol. XXII. , Part 2, there are several 
mentioned which had been traced over one hundred miles. These 
ridges vary in height from a few feet to nearly or quite one hun- 
dred, often having very steep slopes and narrow summits. Thev 
are composed generally of stones, gravel, and sand. 

It is necessary, before proceeding further, to mention that the 
term " kaines " is not now so restrictively used, to signify merely the 
long ridges of glacial material referred to above, but is made to 
include the numerous hills and hillocks of the same character, 
which are found often associated with the ridges, especially 
towards the termination of the ice-sheet, and, like them, deposited 
by the melting ice during its retreat from the surface. The ma- 
terial is the same and its origin the same, the only difference 
consisting in the method of its deposition. 

There are frequently found among the kame hills and hillocks, 
and often along the sides of the ridges, deep depressions of the 
surface, sometimes many acres in extent, which are known as 
" kettle-holes " and of which an account will be given further 
on. 

Few, if any, of the towns of the State can show more interesting 
mementos of the great ice period than Hingham. What with the 
grand lenticular hills ; the kame ridges and kame hills ; the gla- 
ciated and striated rocks ; the large bowlders dropped from the 
ice and scattered here and there over the surface ; the deep 
kettle-holes where masses of the ice rested, — one could scarcely 
ask for more. 

Besides all this, however, the Indian pot-holes of which a 
description has been given may be seen by taking a short ride 
to the town of Cohasset, once a part of Hingham. 



KAME RIDGES OF HINGHAM. 

One of the most interesting of the kame ridges of the town is to 
be found on the northern and northeastern borders of Accord 
Pond. Where the small structures of the Hingham Water Com- 
pany stand, at the margin of the pond near Whiting Street, the 
ridge, which was approximately continuous, is no longer so, and 
here are presented to view two transverse sections separated from 
each other for a distance of 350 feet. The direction of the kame 
at this place was about south-southeast, as shown by a line between 
the two exposed faces. Following this southern portion, it is 
found to skirt the pond in a somewhat irregular course, varying 
from cast to southeast, and ends just before reaching Hingham 
Street in Rockland. The northerly part of the kame, commencing 



60 History of Hingham. 

from where it has been dug away at the line of boundary of the 
land of the water company, follows a somewhat serpentine course, 
first along the margin of the pond, southeast, and then in a north- 
erly direction towards Whiting Street. After crossing this street 
it continues in a northerly direction about 150 feet, then changing 
and running westerly about 320 feet, where it terminates. The 
whole length of the ridge is somewhat over five eighths of a mile. 
It is well worth visiting, being a good example of a typical kame 
ridge, and though generally wooded, is sufficiently open at the sum- 
mit to allow of free passage to pedestrians. 

Kames op Gushing Street. — Proceeding from Whiting Street 
north, through Gashing Street, the range called Breakneck Hills 
is at first seen at a considerable distance on the left, but these 
elevations gradually approach the road, and at about half a mile 
from Whiting Street terminate quite near to it. No sooner are 
these passed than there looms up on the right side of the way, 
in rear of a farmhouse and adjoining fields, a high and very re- 
markable ridge, which is well worth ascending, not only to study 
its construction, but because it affords quite an extensive view 
from its summit of the Breakneck (kame) Hills and other objects. 
The height of this ridge is about 80 feet, its length about 1200 feet, 
and the slope from the top, especially on the west side, very steep. 

A short distance north from the farmhouse mentioned, a great 
kame ridge crosses the street, the transverse sections exposed by 
digging the roadway through, rising high on each side. These 
show the base of the ridge to be about 200 feet. Its greatest 
height is about 100 feet. The length is greater than that of any 
other in Hingham, being about a mile. Its general course is east- 
southeast and north-northwest, but it is now so closely wooded as 
to make particular examination difficult. Its southerly termina- 
tion is quite near Gardner Street. 

Proceeding but a short distance further north on Cushing Street, 
another ridge is found to cross the road, but at a different angle 
from the first, its course being approximately northwest and south- 
cast. It consequently intersects the other at a point distant five 
to six hundred feet from the road, and there has its termination. 
In the angle between the two is a deep kettle-hole depression. 
This ridge extends northwest from the road between eleven and 
twelve hundred feet. 

Cushing Street passes through another kame deposit, but this is 
rather a hillock than a ridge, as it extends but a short distance 
from the road on either side. 

The Kames near Great Hill. — In passing through New Bridge 
Street towards Hobart, looking to the right may be seen, on land of 
Mr. F. W. Brewer, two high parallel ridges near the road, of about 
equal altitude, and which coalesce with each other about 900 feet 
from the street, by one of them — the most northerly — abruptly 
dividing, one branch crossing to the other ridge, the first con- 
tinuing beyond about 350 feet. The northerly kame crosses the 



mm 



y. 




The Geology of Hingham. 61 

street, and its extreme length is 1825 feet. The height of these 
ridges is from 30 to 50 feet, with quite narrow summits, and hav- 
ing very sloping sides. Their composition is small stones, most- 
ly shingle, gravel, and sand. As seen from Great Hill, they are 
striking objects to the view. A view of these is given, which also 
shows in the distance, at the left, one of the beautifully rounded 
summits of a drumlin, that of Baker's Hill. 

A peculiarity of these kames is the fact that their direction is 
from west to east, thus being nearly at right angles to all others 
which have been referred to. This direction would be entirely 
inconsistent with the view that the great ice front of the glacier 
continued to present itself, as at an earlier period, along an un- 
broken line from west to east, for if so, the rivers caused by the 
melting glacier w T ould have continued to flow south or nearly so. 
Mr. Upham, in endeavoring to account for deflection in the direc- 
tion of some of the lenticular hills described by him, makes re- 
marks which are quite applicable to the changed direction of the 
kames under notice. In writing upon the retreat of the ice-sheet 
in southeastern Massachusetts, he states : — 

" The warmth of the ocean, however, had begun to melt away the ice- 
fields which encroached upon its depths, more rapidly than they were 
driven hack upon the land, or in the shallow sounds south of New Eng- 
land. At their further departure it seems probable that this cause 
produced within the Gulf of Maine a great bay in the terminal front of 
the ice-sheet, so that it entirely melted away east of Massachusetts, while 
it remained in great depth upon all the territory except its southeast por- 
tion. The effect of this unequal rate of retreat would be to leave the ice 
upon our coast unsupported at the east side, and to cause its motion conse- 
quently to be deflected towards the vacant area." 

This view being taken as a correct one, it will be at once recog- 
nized that the direction of the ice movement itself would be also 
approximately that of the rivers that poured over it, and conse- 
quently of the kames formed by the ddbris washed into the river- 
beds from the glacier. 

There is not wanting other evidence than that here suggested 
to sustain the view that in eastern Massachusetts the onward 
movement of the ice changed towards the close of the Glacial 
Period from the normal southeast direction to one more east, as 
a second series of stria? are found on some of our rock exposures 
attesting this. 

Another remarkable system of kame ridges exists at the north- 
west extremity of Hingham, extending more than 3000 feet along 
the west side of Stoddard's Neck, and across Beal Street near the 
bridge over Weymouth Back River, from thence southward to a 
little indentation just north of Beal's Cove. These ridges run in a 
general north and south direction, although winding and branch- 
ing considerably south of Beal Street. On Stoddard's Neck the 
heavily wooded ridge varies from 50 to 75 feet in height ; on the 
west side above it is quite abrupt. South of Beal Street the steep 



62 History of Hingham. 

ridges are about 50 feet high. There is another low ridge on the 
east side of Stoddard's Neck, and on the south side of Beal Street 
are several small ridges and kame hills, besides the high serpen- 
tine kames. 

A kame ridge of considerable length borders the western shore 
of Fulling-Mill Pond, and another skirts its southern shore. The 
first-named extended several years ago to the street line, but has 
been dug away 50 or 60 feet. The direction of this kaine is gen- 
erally north and south, varying in some portions toward the east 
and west of north, and its length is nearly 2000 feet. Its width 
at base is some 150 feet, and its highest elevation about 50 feet. 
Somewhat less than 1500 feet south from its northerly termination 
another ridge runs west at a right angle from this one, for a dis- 
tance of 750 feet, having an elevation of 25 feet, in places, and a 
basal width of 150 feet. 

Beyond these ridges, to the southward, are numerous kame hills, 
so covered by forest growth as to obscure observation. Still fur- 
ther away, especially east and southeast, are hills of this charac- 
ter, of considerable elevation. 

THE KAME HILLS AND HILLOCKS OF HINGHAM. 

The range called Breakneck Hills, which crosses Whiting Street 
some distance north of Cushing, and extends southwest half a 
mile or more, is a great kame deposit, the material of it not differ- 
ing from that of the kame ridges. The width of the range varies 
somewhat, but averages perhaps 1000 feet. The average height is 
about 50 feet. A very considerable depression of the surface ex- 
ists along the north side of the range, followed by other approx- 
imately parallel elevations, with depressions alternating for a 
considerable distance, of the same general character but less 
prominent. 

The long range of hills lying nearly parallel with, and north of 
the Old Colony Railroad, between North and East Weymouth, 
though outside the limits of Hingham, may well be mentioned 
here, as these hills can hardly fail to attract the attention of trav- 
ellers by the railroad, as they pass within full sight of them. These 
are kame elevations, and owe their origin to the great continental 
glacier. The general direction of this range is west-northwest 
and east-southeast. 

The separate kame hills and hillocks cover a very considerable 
portion of the surface, especially in the southern and western sec- 
tions of the town, where they present conspicuous features in the 
landscape. This is the case on the territory bordering French 
Street, from Hobart to High, and on High Street west. Here may 
be seen an area almost entirely covered with hills and hillocks, 
having many kettle-hole depressions among them. The same 
may be said of much of the territory bordering Main Street, from 
Cushing Street to Prospect Street, and some distance beyond. The 



The Geology of Hingham. 63 

road indeed runs through and over hillocks of kame material until 
reaching' Prospect Street, where the surface becomes more level, and 
so continues until near Whiting Street. 

The kame elevations of Hingham are by no means limited to the 
ridges and the rounded hills that cover so large a portion of its sur- 
face. They indeed present themselves sometimes in extensive de- 
posits that can hardly be included under the head of either. One 
such is of so marked a character, and has such remarkable propor- 
tions, as may make particular mention of it desirable. This is to 
he found southwest from Great Hill, bordering the south side of 
Hobart Street, along which it extends irregularly. It may proper- 
ly be designated as table land, being of a height varying from 30 
to 50 feet, and having at top a flat surface. It measures in length 
east and west about half a mile, and has a width of from 500 to 
1000 feet. Its sides are very steep, and are thickly covered with 
trees. At the south side of it is a large kettle-hole, which is par- 
tially embraced in the kame limits by an extension of an arm from 
the main body. As a sketch of the kame, however rough, will give 
a better idea of its singular contour than any description, one is 
presented on the map of the town. 

The country about this interesting kame is well worth the ob- 
servation of those who would know of glacial phenomena in Hing- 
ham. North is Great Hill, one of the large drumlins, or lenticular 
hills, and south of it to High Street, and indeed far beyond, the 
country is covered with kame ridges and hillocks of irregular size 
and shape. 

The effect upon the surface of the town by the distribution of 
kame material was much greater than that caused simply by its 
deposit in hills, ridges, and other elevations, for it is likely that all 
these contain scarcely one half the whole quantity resting over its 
area. Temporary lakes formed by barriers of ice and other mat- 
ter, together with the flow of the waters, undoubtedly led to such 
spread of the gravel and sand as to result in the formation of 
the extensive plains that form at different levels so large a por- 
tion of the territory. This was not all, for great bodies of it were 
deposited in such depressions of the general surface as to choke up 
the water-courses. There is no doubt in the mind of the writer 
that our principal stream, that of Weir River, pursued its way in 
pre-glacial times through a very different channel from that it now 
follows, and instead of turning east of north as it does at Hing- 
ham Centre just before reaching Leavitt Street, and finally enter- 
ing the sea between World's End and Hull, it discharged itself 
directly into Hingham Harbor, which then was open to the spread 
of its waters but a few hundred feet from where the river takes an 
eastward course as mentioned. 

It is due to Prof. W. 0. Crosby to state that he suggested the 
probability of this to the writer, and that subsequent examination 
by both revealed to us that an extensive kame deposit here had 
caused the river, which had flowed for some distance directly 
north, to make the detour mentioned. 



64 History of Hingham. 



KETTLE-HOLES. 

Intimately connected with the kames are depressions in the 
surface, sometimes of considerable depth, which have received 
this name. Their origin, formerly a puzzle to students of glacial 
phenomena is no longer so, as nature has been detected in the 
very act of their formation. From observations of Dr. G. F. 
Wright upon the glaciers of Alaska, he found tbat when a con- 
siderable surface of a melting ice-sheet had been covered over to 
any depth with earth material, rocks, pebbles, and sand, the ice 
thus prevented from melting beneath remained intact, whilst all 
more exposed over the field sunk away and finally disappeared. 
The result of this would be to leave a great mass, sometimes of 
large area, to settle as the glacier retreated from it, with enormous 
weight upon the subsoil below. Here it would remain until melt- 
ed, and it might require the heat of many summers to effect its 
entire dissolution, protected as it would be from the sun's rays 
by its earthy covering. As, however, the melting progressed, this 
covering matter would necessarily slide down around its margin, 
producing ridges and hillocks of material the forms of which 
would be more or less modified by the running water from the 
ice as it dissolved away. With the accumulated quantity of mat- 
ter thus deposited, the resting-place of the ice mass would be 
much below the surrounding surface. After knowing the results 
of Dr. Wright's investigations, it may be confidently stated that 
there can be no longer any reasonable doubt concerning the origin 
of these depressions. 

THE PASSING AWAY OF THE ICE-SHEET. 

Some suggestions respecting the kame ridges, the kame hills, 
and the kettle-holes may well be presented in remarks upon the 
passing away of the great ice-sheet that had for ages covered the 
land. The reality of the ice spread over the whole North, where 
previously for millions of years a tropical climate had prevailed ; 
its increase until it hid from the sun's rays the summits of all 
but the highest mountain-peaks ; its onward grand movement so 
fruitful of great results, bearing as it did upon and within it the 
material of the present hills and valleys ; and its final melting 
away, leaving an entirely remodelled surface, — are no longer 
questions for discussion. Let us therefore contemplate what the 
condition of the glacier was, particularly when passing away, first 
briefly referring to what was probable at an earlier date. 

The question sometimes presents itself to mind why, with the 
o:.ward movement of the ice for many thousands of years, was not 
all the loose material of the previously decayed rocks borne to its 
termination long before the change that led to its passing away, 
thus preventing its spreading over the land in its retreat such 
immense quantities of material now forming the surface in this 



The Geology of Hingham. 65 

region, and constituting the innumerable kame hills and hillocks 
that diversify the landscape. 

In considering this question, it should be borne in mind that 
with the gradual increase of the ice in an epoch of intense cold, 
there could probably have been but little flooding of the elevated 
regions, and consequently less disturbance of the loose material 
than in a later age. Consideration of this may result in the view 
that the glacier during the greater part of its existence had less 
to do with the transportation of the kame material than when 
passing away, aided as it then was by the torrents of water that 
(lowed over its surface and swept the hills of all movable matter, 
as they emerged from the melting ice. The writer is strongly in- 
clined to this view, as it will satisfactorily account for the immense 
quantity of stones, gravel, and sand borne upon and deposited by 
the glacier when it finally disappeared from the surface. 

Now let us picture to ourselves if we can the probable state of 
things over and about this town when the ice-sheet had become 
reduced from possibly thousands of feet in thickness to a few 
hundred, bearing upon it great quantities of transported material, 
and having floods of water pouring over it and in its channels such 
as the world could never before have witnessed. Let us recog- 
nize, too, that its water-courses were being gorged with stones, 
gravel, and sand, and that vast collections of these were protecting 
great areas of the ice from the sun's rays, often causing the chan- 
nels of water to deviate from their normal course in seeking new 
channels. Let us note, too, that the great bodv of the ice itself 
had by lessened continuity ceased its onward movement, and we 
shall find reasons for all we see and wonder at in the marvellous 
diversity of the present surface over large portions of this territory. 
Where great areas of the glacier by the protecting debris were kept 
intact for a long period when that about them had melted away, 
there would be found about each such area, as before stated in 
treating of the formation of kettle-holes, hills and hillocks formed 
by the falling of the gravel and sand from its summit, more or 
less modified by the melting ice ; and when all the ice had melted 
there would remain a deep depression such as we now know as 
kettle-holes. Where channels existed of any length, and these 
became filled with the sand and gravel, there would be formed 
ridges ; and when large areas of the ice first melted away, the 
material flooded into these areas would form hills and ranges 
of hills such as we now find occupying a considerable portion of 
our territory. 

It will be readily recognized that, though the course of the chan- 
nels of the surface and in the glacier was generally the same as 
that of the movement of the ice-sheet itself, and consequently 
the ridges formed would be now found having a like direction, yet 
when, by the clogging of the channel's unequal melting, the water 
was forced to deviate, the ridges formed would present themselves 
varying much from the normal direction, as they now do in regions 

VOL. I. 5 



66 History of Hingham. 

approximating to the termination of the great ice-sheet. Some 
of our ridges, notably those of Great Hill, have an east-west 
direction, such as it is supposed the glacier itself had near its 
closing period over eastern Massachusetts ; but others or portions 
of others vary so as to be found running in every direction. 



BOWLDERS. 

Bowlders are found scattered over all parts of the North within 
the region occupied by the ice, having been borne by it from more 
northern positions than those they now occupy. With a knowl- 
edge of the direction of the movement of the glacier, they can 
often be traced to the locality whence they came. 

A marked instance, often cited by geologists, and previously 
mentioned in the preliminary remarks upon the glacial period, is 
that of bowlders found south of Providence, of a character readily 
recognized, being those of a porphyritie iron ore from a well- 
known bed at Cumberland, R. I. They exist in the soil or upon 
the surface for a distance of thirty-five miles or more in the direc- 
tion mentioned, but are never found in any other. So of all 
bowlders found. If of distinctive character, they are often recog- 
nized as belonging to rock formations north, sometimes more 
tban a hundred miles distant. 

They vary much in size, from cobble-stones to masses of enor- 
mous magnitude, such as it is hard to realize have been trans- 
ported great distances. There are none in Hingham equal in 
dimensions to those found elsewhere. One of the largest ob- 
served by the writer is in woods bordering Rockland Street, but 
a few feet from the road upon the right side going east, not far 
from the foot of Old Colony Hill. It is of granite and measures 
nineteen feet in length, sixteen in width, and seventeen in height 
= 5,168 cubic feet. The weight of this must be over 430 tons. 
Some large masses have become detached from the main body 
and these are included in the estimate of size and weight. Large 
as this bowlder is, it is small compared with one in the town of 
Madison, N. II., which measures 75 X 40 X 30 feet = 90,000 
cubic feet, and which consequently weighs over 7,500 tons. 

Great numbers of bowlders are found together in certain locali- 
ties of this town, the most notable of which is that of the south- 
western slope of Prospect Hill, where they cover a large portion 
of the surface. 

On the northeast slope of Otis Hill are a few bowlders which 
call for particular notice from the fact that they are of granite 
and that no rock of this kind occurs north of the hill less than 
fifteen miles distant. The ice therefore must have transported 
them at least as far as that and possibly very much farther. 

There is a bowlder now to be seen in what was once an exten- 
sive kame hill known as Cobb's Bank, which is fast disappearing 
by being dug away. The bowlder projects from the face of the cliff 



The Geology of Hingham. 



67 



and shows the more from its color contrasting strongly with that 
of the surrounding material. It is of deep-red granite. Its front 
face measures about eight feet across horizontally, is six feet high, 
and the upper surface from the front to the cliff which holds it is 
six feet. It probably does nut extend much farther back into the 
gravel, as this slopes from the rear to the front so as to give it 
support without such extension. As bowlders of this size are 
very rarely found in kame deposits, it has much interested geolo- 
gists. See Figure No. 6. 




Figure No. 6. 



One of the most interesting bowlders to visit in this neighbor- 
hood, though just beyond the town limits, may well be mentioned 
here. It is to be found on the left side of Derby Street, a short 
distance from the line that divides South Weymouth from Hing- 
ham. It is upon a high rock declivity where it was deposited by 
the ice many thousands of years ago, and where it will remain as 



68 



History of Hingham. 



many thousands more in all probability, unless vandal hands of 
man shall disturb its long repose. See Figure No. 7. 







Figure No. 7. 

At Huit's Cove, on laud formerly belonging to General Benja- 
min Lincoln, is a large bowlder of conglomerate, somewhat rec- 
tangular in form, which is about fifteen feet long, eight feet wide, 
and ten feet high. A measurement around its sides and end-; 
UTive a circumference of about 48 feet. 



RECENT PERIOD. 

Little can be said of the immediate effect of the great change 
that ushered in the earlier era of this period, a change arising, so 
far as can be now known, by the re-elevation of the land from the 
Arctic Circle south to about the latitude of Northern Massachu- 
setts. This rise of the land has been before mentioned, and fig- 
ures showing the degree of elevation at various points have been 
given. The magnitude of this was such as to have produced un- 
doubtedly a much colder climate over the country even far south 
of New England, and to this was probably due the destruction of 
the huge animals that had for nges roamed over the Continent 
from its most southern limits to the Arctic region. 

In Europe two eras of this period have been recognized, — the 
first characterized by a second advance of the Glacial sheet, 



The Geology of Hingham. 69 

which led man) r Arctic species of animals to extend themselves 
south to the Mediterranean, among them the reindeer, and this 
era has hence been called the Reindeer Era, while the latter part 
of the period has been called the Modern Era. 

As there has been no evidence produced showing a second ad- 
vance of the Glacier in America such distinction does not apply 
here. We will embrace therefore what is further to be said under 
the heading of the Modern Era. 



MODERN ERA. 

Before limiting remarks to what appertains alone to the terri- 
tory of Hingham, it may be well to express a few words here upon 
changes of the era that have occurred in other regions, and which 
are of general interest. 

Among such changes may be instanced those that have taken 
place by elevation and depression of the earth's surface. It has 
been demonstrated by investigations made for the government of 
Sweden that the coasts of that country and of Finland have been 
slowly rising for the past one or two centuries. On the other 
hand, as is well known, a slow subsidence has been going on in 
Greenland during the past four centuries, for hundreds of miles 
along the coast, where in places the buildings of the early inhabi- 
tants have been found submerged. 

The Geologist of New Jersey. Mr. G. II. Cook, became satisfied 
from his investigations that a slow depression of the surface along 
the coasts of that State, and also along the coasts of Eong Island 
and Martha's Vineyard, had been in progress since the occupation 
of the country by the white man. 

An immense subsidence has been taking place over a large area 
of the Pacific Ocean which has carried beneath the waves hun- 
dreds of islands to the depth of thousands of feet. These in- 
stances are only given as indications of changes that are occurring 
extensively over perhaps a large portion of the globe. 

The extinction of species of life has been going on during this 
era as in earlier periods, accelerated undoubtedly by the agency 
of man. The cases of the Eodo and of the Solitaire in the islands 
of the Indian Ocean, of the Dinornis of New Zealand, of the 
^Epyornis of Madagascar, and of the Great Auk of the North Sea, 
and of the coasts of Labrador, Maine, and Massachusetts, may be 
cited among birds. 

A noted instance of destruction tending fast to extinction is 
that of the noble animal of the western wilds, the Bison. At the 
time of the settlement of the country by the white man, immense 
herds roamed over territory extending from Mexico far north into 
British America, and from the Rocky Mountains east to the At- 
lantic, nearly or quite all of which have been annihilated, not so 
much by the reasonable requirements of civilization as by the 



70 History of H Ingham. 

brutality of such as find sport in wanton slaughter of their unre- 
sisting victims, that they may boast of the numbers slain by their 
skill and prowess. 

Of vegetable species, some of the noblest are doomed to destruc- 
tion through the cupidity and recklessness of man. Of the early 
extinction of that giant of the California forests, the Sequoia, or 
Redwood, Dr. Asa Gray expressed himself as certain. 

We will now dwell upon the phenomena of the Modern Era of 
the Recent Period as presented in Hingham. At its advent vegeta- 
ble and animal life had spread over the surface, and the land was 
again undoubtedly clothed with verdure. In the low and swampy 
grounds peat-producing plants had extended themselves, while 
upon all the higher elevations shrubs and trees had sprung up 
and covered the earth with dense forests, under the shadow of 
which the gentle deer and other herbivorous species found suste- 
nance and safe retreats, and where, too, carnivorous beasts, the 
bear, the wolf, and others sought their prey. 

Notwithstanding the fact stated that since the re-elevation of 
the land that ushered in the Recent Period, it has remained very 
nearly stationary, yet there is much to show change, — mostly, 
however, caused by irruption of the sea and consequent destruction 
of barriers that protected the land from the waters. Within the 
memory of the writer a considerable body of peaty matter, sev- 
eral feet in thickness, rested upon the land below high-water 
mark in Huit's Cove, which of course was formed there when its 
whole area was an inland swamp. 

Many Hingham people will remember the peat swamp cut 
through between W T eir River Village and Hull Street when Rock- 
land Street was laid out and made, and particularly the huge 
trunks of trees that were found in the peat, some of which may 
yet be seen along the margin of the road. This whole territory 
had long been inundated with salt water at high tide, but it needs 
no argument to show that this could not have been so when the 
locality was congenial for the growth and development of the 
plants that formed the peat and the trees that flourished there. 

It would be interesting to fix the time when man first appeared 
in this locality, but this can never be known. It may be sur- 
mised, however, that it was not long after the commencement of 
the Modern Era, as he certainly existed upon the continent, and 
primitive man naturally made his home on the borders of rivers 
and about the inlets of the ocean, because of the nutriment easily 
obtained from the waters for his subsistence. 

The most that can be learned concerning the earliest inhabi- 
tants of the territory of Hingham, must be from the relics found 
in their graves, and from the tools and implements they used, 
found scattered in the soil, or in shell heaps about their habi- 
tations. So far as these have been examined there is no evidence 
of the existence of any race preceding the one found here when 
the white man first appeared. 



The Geology of Hingham. 71 

Some account of investigations made to learn more than was 
known of the Indians of Hingham, and some mention of chance 
discoveries yielding information concerning the animals that were 
contemporary with them, will now be given. 



REMAINS OF AN EARLY PERIOD FOUND IN 

HINGHAM. 

In a shell heap on World's End there were found several years 
since by Professor Spencer F. Baird, Dr. Thomas M. Brewer, Mr. 
Francis W. Brewer, and others, bones of the 

Goose Fish, — Lophius piscatorius, Linn., 

Cod, — Gadus collar ins, Linn., 
with many of unknown fishes. 

Birds belonging to several species, large and small, but not recogniz- 
able. 

Deer, — Cariacus virginianus (Bodd), Gray. 

Foxes, — Vu/pes vulgaris, pennsylvanicus (Bodd), Coues. 

Otter. — Lutra canadensis, Turton. 

Red Squirrel, teeth of, — Scinrus hudsonius, Pallas. 

Beaver, teeth of, — Castor Jiber, canadensis (Linn.), Allen. 

Besides the bones, there were several pieces of pottery orna- 
mented by dots and lines. 

One deer bone was finely pointed apparently for use as an awl. 
The most of these relics were found on beds of charcoal. 

As the Indian went no farther for food than he could help, it 
may reasonably be inferred that the animals whose bones are men- 
tioned were found in the immediate neighborhood. 

In 1868 Professor Spencer F. Baird, Professor Jeffries Wyman, 
Mr. Fearing Burr, Dr. Thomas M. Brewer, and others, including 
the writer, joined in a party for the purpose of exploration at a 
known burial-place of the aborigines on the slope of Atlantic 
Hill near Nantasket Beach. The hill had been much duo: awav 
for roadways, and bones had been frequently found there with 
other relics, such as broken pottery, axes, chisels, etc. 

From what had been obtained by previous parties, and from 
what little was procured by the persons above-mentioned, it was 
manifest that the burials were comparatively recent. The best 
evidence that the locality was used as a place of sepulture since 
the advent of the white man, was the fact that among undoubted 
specimens of aboriginal art were quite as undoubted specimens of 
the skill of the European, notably in fragments of brass imple- 
ments such as kettles or pans. Wishing if possible to examine a 
burial-field where evidence of greater antiquity would be conclu- 
sive, the party proceeded to the slope of a declivity, facing south 
towards Weir River Bay, where numerous circular depressions on 



72 History of Hingham. 

the surface indicated the ancient graves of the Indian. The 
writer will confess to a feeling somewhat repulsive as we com- 
menced digging open the resting-places of the dead and exposing 
their remains to the rude gaze of the alien race that had sup- 
planted them in the land the}- loved. This feeling did not how- 
ever last long, after finding that there were but few human remains 
to be disturbed ; for nearly all that had composed their corporeal 
forms in life, the flesh, the sinews, and the bones, had alike been, 
for a long period perhaps, resolved into their original elements, 
leaving but few traces behind. There was not found in the first 
grave opened a single relic of humanity. Much more care was 
taken in opening the second, the earth being very thinly scraped 
away as excavation was made downwards, every ounce being 
closely examined. 

In this one, strange to say, a part of the occiput of a skull was 
soon disinterred, which, however, was t >o far gone for preserva- 
tion, and some inches below, teeth of the body that had been 
placed here ; but not another bone or part of a bone of the whole 
skeleton. All had disappeared. The burial posture of the dead 
had been a sitting one, as shown by the fact that at a proper dis- 
tance from the surface there was found a collection of shells, all 
of which had been undoubtedly placed about the person in the 
posture stated. 

The investigators had indeed come upon the resting-place, with- 
out doubt, of such as had lived and died before, and perhaps long 
before, the foot of the white man impressed itself upon the soil. 

In swampy land brought under cultivation by Mr. John R. Brewer 
on the margin of Weir River a pair of deer's antlers and several 
rib bones were dug up. The corrugation on the antlers and the 
basal ring is perfect; the antlers measure in circumference 2| 
inches, and though the tips and prongs are broken off, their 
length on the outside curve is 11 inches. 

At another locality on Mr. Brewer's land not far from the foot 
of Martin's Lane, there was dug from low mendow-hmd, formerly 
a swamp, a pair of antlers attached to a part of the skull. 

A pine cone and several stone implements were found in the 
same ground not far distant. 

The writer has thought it well to state what little he has con- 
cerning the North American Indian in Hingham, confining himself 
simply to the fact of his existence upon these shores in the modern 
era, at a somewhat remote period before the occupancy of the 
white man, and incidentally mentioning some of the implements 
used by him in obtaining sustenance, as well as some of the ani- 
mals that were contemporary with him. What else relates to him. 
his life in war and in peace, what his association with our fathers, 
and through what causes he disappeared from the land, — all this 
belongs to the historian of human events, and it is hoped that he 
will be able to glean from records of the past much that yet re- 
mains unknown. 



The Geology of H Ingham. 73 

Let us emphasize to our minds some of the changes in tin* 
past that we may the mure readily appreciate their surprising 
character. 

Those who have followed the writer in his attempt to portray 
past events in the history of this locality have been led 1o contem- 
plate it, at first, only as an undistinguished part of a molten globe 
wheeling with immense velocity through space about its parent 
sun, and gradually through countless ages cooling and tending to- 
wards consolidation. 

A second view, millions of years later, though immensely remote 
in the past from our own period, presents a very different scene. 
The earth has become incrustcd and the land and the waters di- 
vided ; the atmosphere is hot and murky by exhalations from the 
surface ; and corrosive rains descend upon the primeval rocks, dis- 
integrating their substance and washing it into the waters, where 
it is forming the first sedimentary strata of the planet. 

There is no life discernible, for conditions favorable to life do 
not exist on the gradually developing world. 

The third striking view in the order of events long after pre- 
sents the dry land of our territory limited to the area where now 
arc found the granitic rocks, and this land borders waters of an 
extensive basin, in which is being slowly deposited the sediment 
of rivers, and upon this sediment, which is of clayey matter may be 
seen moving forms of life ; for the Period is the Primordial, and 
trilobites abound in great numbers along the coast margin in its 
shallow waters. 

The next view is yet more striking ; for the whole surface of the 
land bordering the basins along the coast of the territory now of 
H high am and Nantasket is disturbed by violent igneous action, and 
volcanoes in active operation are pouring from their craters vast 
floods of lava over large areas of the surface. 

Many, very many millions of years more elapse before another 
glimpse is vouchsafed of this locality. Its characteristics arc not 
distinctly seen, but by a clear view of the landscape of the neigh- 
borhood and over a vast portion of the land, we recognize that 
they could not differ from those of the other regions. It is in the 
great Carboniferous Period, and tropical heat prevails even to the 
Arctic. The air is heavy with carbon, and gigantic trees and 
other plants, of a character now known only in the Torrid Zone, 
grow profusely over the surface. 

The next view presented is the marvellous one that has been 
dwelt upon, that of ice covering not only this territory but extend- 
ing from the Arctic Circle, far south and east, into the waters of the 
Atlantic, there dropping off icebergs as is now the case from the 
margins of the great ice-sheet of Greenland. 

We take another and a last retrospective view of the locality 
destined to be our abode. It is in the early part of the present 
era. Vegetable and animal life have again spread over the ter- 
ritorv. The Indian roams in the forests hunting deer and other 



74 History of Hingham. 

animals, and he fishes from his bark canoe in the same waters 
where are now found the boat and the rod of the white man. 

A panorama truly of wonderful scenes, such as well may stagger 
belief in minds not accustomed to geological research, but which 
in the main can be as satisfactorily demonstrated as any events in 
human progress. 

If such contemplations incline us to dwell upon the insignifi- 
cance of Man, we have only to turn our thoughts to his great 
achievements to be astonished by their grandeur. Compared with 
the universe of matter, he is indeed, physically, but as a grain 
of sand, or a mote in the sunbeam, to a revolving world ; but as 
an intellectual and conscious being, he is more than all the mate- 
rial universe, in the great creation of God. Atom as he is on 
the earth he inhabits, time and space alike yield to him secrets 
unrevealed, so far as known, to other created intelligence. 

He turns over the strata of the earth as leaves of a book ; 
reads the record of thousands and millions of years, and the his- 
tory of the world he stands on is known to him. He directs his 
thoughts to the distant spheres in the infinitude of space, he weighs 
them as in a balance, he measures them, and their weight and size 
are alike revealed to him. He even asks of them their composi- 
tion, and lo ! they answer in letters of light on an instrument of 
his handiwork. He studies their motions and the velocities of 
their movements, and predicts with unerring certainty where in 
the canopy of the heavens they will be found long after his own 
mortal being shall have crumbled to dust. Well may he exclaim : 
" Thou hast indeed made man but little lower than the angels. 
Feeble and weak though he be, yet as the creature of Thy hand, 
endowed with power to comprehend something of Thy works, by 
no means to be despised." 



MINERALOGY. 

BY THOMAS T. BOUVK 



In view of erroneous ideas prevalent in the minds of many, a 
few remarks of a general character concerning minerals may not 
be out of place. 

It should be understood that mineral bodies are not limited to 
those of a stony nature, but that they embrace everything of an 
inorganic character that is found within or at the surface of the 
earth. This definition therefore includes not only all Rocks, 
Pebbles, Sands, and Clays, but even Water, and the Gases that 
form the atmosphere. Temperature alone determines the condi- 
tion of inorganic bodies so far as relates to their being Solid, Liq- 
uid, or Gaseous ; and at a low degree Ice is as much a rock as is 
Granite or any other solid earthy material. Raise the tempera- 
ture enough and all matter becomes Liquid or Gaseous. No one 
but admits Quicksilver to be a metal because at the ordinary 
temperature of the atmosphere it remains a fluid. 

Not an uncommon thing is it to meet persons who think that 
stones grow like organized beings ; and often this view is supposed 
by them to be fully demonstrated by the statement that after plow- 
ing a field and picking out, as they believe, about all the stones 
in the soil, they find quite as many as they first did when again 
plowing the same field a few years later. It is difficult sometimes 
to convince such persons that they are wrong. Of course there is 
no such thing as inward development of a stone, as is the case 
with organic life, and there is no possibility of a pebble or other 
rock mass in the soil adding one atom to its substance. There is 
often enlargement, where a rock is forming by accretion, as when 
hot waters containing carbonate of lime deposit it on that already 
formed, or when mountain rivulets that have taken up iron from 
decomposing rocks in their course, deposit this from time to time 
as a bog ore in marshy grounds. So in caverns, waters saturated 
with carbonate of lime dripping into them from above, form 
stalactites and stalagmites, slowly constructing the beautiful 
columns that are seen in the Mammoth, the Luray, and many other 
caves of our country. 



76 History of Hingham. 

In all these cases it may in a sense be called growth, but there 
is no relation between it and the growth of animals and plants. 
It is increase by additions to the surface. 

Thus far mineral bodies have been mentioned. The rocks of the 
earth are generally composed of aggregations of minerals, as 
Granite, of Quartz, Orthoclase, and Mica ; and Diorite, of Oligoclase 
and Hornblende. 

Let us now consider briefly what a mineral species is. 

A mineral is a homogeneous, inorganic substance, either simple 
in containing but one element, as Sulphur, Carbon, Gold, Iron, 
Copper, Quicksilver, and the other native metals, or a compound 
of elements which have been united bv laws as immutable as those 
that govern the motions of the planets, or any others that act in 
the universe. To recognize this clearly is to awaken an interest 
in inorganic matter that tends to enlarge one's conceptions of the 
whole material world. The writer will refer to one or two mineral 
bodies as illustrations of the law of combinations. 

Quartz is a compound of two elements, Silicon and Oxygen, 
united in the proportion of three atoms of Oxygen to one of Sili- 
con, and these proportions never vary. The resultant substance, 
Quartz, or pure Silica, can and does unite as an acid with very 
many bases, which in relation to it act as alkalies, forming the 
greater portion of all known minerals ; and these unions are 
always governed by the law of definite proportions. 

Take Carbon. This appears as a native mineral in the Dia- 
mond ; but it appears also combined with Oxygen, forming Car- 
bonic Acid, in the proportion of one atom of Carbon to two of 
Oxygen. This Carbonic Acid, in its turn, unites with a large 
number of basic substances, forming carbonates of Iron, Copper, 
and very many others, always in definite proportions. Nothing 
more can be said here of the chemical unions by which minerals 
are produced ; but something must be added relative to the law 
of crystallization, by which particles of the mineral as formed are 
drawn together, and led to arrange themselves in crystals such 
as we see in nature. No one can behold these beautiful objects 
without admiration, and this is greatly increased in those who 
know something of the forces which lead to their development. 
Crystals of the mineral species have been rightly characterized 
as the flowers of the inorganic world. To have some idea of their 
formation, let the reader's mind consider the phenomena attend- 
ing the cooling of a hot saturated solution of any salt. As the 
water loses its heat, the particles of salt, in forming, will at once 
by attraction be drawn together, and the molecules will arrange 
themselves by the law of crystallization in well-defined forms, — 
if common salt, in cubes ; if alum, in octahedrons. If the water 
contains several salts, one will be found generally to have a ten- 
dency to crystallize before the others, and may be thus formed 
about any substance placed in the solution ; and subsequently crys- 



Mineralogy. 77 

tals of the others will form upon the first and adhere to it, and 
these in turn will have others added to them. 

Let us now consider what has heen going on in nature. Fis- 
sures have been formed, by earthquake action or otherwise, extend- 
ing upwards through the rocky strata ; and the hot waters of 
thermal springs, holding in solution mineral elements dissolved 
from the rocks in deep recesses of the earth, have risen upwards, 
and losing more or less of their heat as they passed through the 
colder rocks towards the surface, have deposited minerals upon 
the. walls, one species often succeeding another. Thus were de- 
posited the magnificent crystallizations of Quartz, Fluor Spar, 
Galena, Carbonate of Lime, and other species from Cumberland and 
Derbyshire in Great Britain, specimens of which may be seen in 
the Hingham Public Library. 

Minerals are not only found to have been produced in liquid 
solutions containing their elements, but they are also produced 
whenever a molten condition of matter allows of the free move- 
ment of its particles ; consequently the elements of an igneous 
rock, as they cool in coming to the surface, will tend to aggre- 
gate themselves according to their chemical affinities, and to 
arrange themselves in crystals ; but the cooling being generally too 
rapid for this, we have, as in granite, only an aggregation of im- 
perfect crystals. 

With these very general remarks upon minerals, intended only 
as a very partial presentation of the matter, the writer will call 
attention to the few that are found in Hingham. The larger 
portion of these have been already mentioned in the Geology 
of the town as constituents of the rocks, namely, Quartz, Mica, 
Hornblende, Augite, Orthoclase, and Oligoclase. 

Quartz may be otherwise referred to than as a component part 
of a rock, as it appears forming veins in every part of the town ; 
and in cavities of these veins have been found some beautiful but 
small crystals of Amethyst, which is a variety of Quartz. 

Jasper, another variety of the same mineral species, is found 
at Rocky Neck, as stated in the Geology of that locality. 

Other minerals, not of the Quartz family, are — 

Pyrite (Sulphide of Iron), which often appears in small cubic 
crystals in the Trap rocks. 

Chalcopyrite (Sulphide of Copper), which has been found dis- 
seminated in a vein of Quartz. 

Molybdenite (Sulphide of Molybdenum), observed in small scales 
in granite blasted from a ledu - e on the line of the Nantasket Rail- 
road, near Weir River. 

Epidotc, often found at and near the junction of Trap with 
Granite, sometimes exhibiting slight crystallization. It also 
occurs, of an impure character, in veins at Rocky Neck. 

Calcite (Carbonate of Lime), found in digging a ditch on the 
line of and near Burton's Lane, where some rock was blasted 



78 History of Hingham. 

below the surface having veins of Calcite. Specimens may be 
seen in the Geological Collection of the Public Library. One of 
them is a good example of vein structure. The rock is a decom- 
posed Diabase. Calcite is also found as pebbles in the Conglom- 
erate rock of Huit's Cove. 

Limonite (Bog Iron Ore), which has been dug up in consider- 
able masses from the low land of Mr. Francis W. Brewer, near 
Great Hill. Specimens of this may be seen in the collection of 
the Public Library. 

It may be confidently stated that there are no indications of 
mineral deposits in any part of the town that would justify 
exploration. 



NOTES ON ANIMAL LIFE. 

BY THOMAS T. BOUVE. 



There was in the minds of many people o'f the town a desire 
that not only its geology and botany should be presented in the 
proposed history, but that an account of its animal life should be 
given. The full accomplishment of such an undertaking would 
have required the labor of a large corps of naturalists many years, 
and the expense would have been enormous. To do this was 
therefore impracticable. 

Inasmuch, however, as considerable changes have been going on 
in the fauna of the territory within the present century, and more 
may be expected in the future, the writer, to meet the probable 
wishes of the living as well as those of future generations who 
may seek to know what forms of life have been and passed away, 
has thought it desirable to mention a few that were contemporary 
with the inhabitants of the town in a past period and are not now 
to be found, or which were common and are now seldom seen. 
The rare visits of some species never resident here will also be 
alluded to. 

So far as relates to marine life a few general remarks mav not 
be superfluous before referring to any species that live or have 
lived in the waters of the harbor. 

The encircling arm of Hull as it stretches itself far out in the 
ocean from the main land, shelters the harbor of the town from 
the heavy seas that often prevail outside that barrier, and thus 
exerts a considerable influence upon its fauna and flora, inasmuch 
as many forms of life, both animal and vegetable, which naturally 
exist in the sands and upon the exposed rocks of the open sea, 
find no home in the more placid waters within. While this influ- 
ence is generally of a character to lessen the number of species 
of invertebrate animals and of marine plants found on the shores 
of the town, it may also be said that some few are protected that 
would perish if exposed to the full action of the storms that strike 
the outer coast. The results are that very few of the mollusks 
which strew the beach at Nantasket after a storm have ever been 
found within the limits of the harbor of Hingham. On the other 



80 History of Hlngham. 

hand, without the sheltering protection of the headlands of the 
harbor on the east, the common clam, which has been of inesti- 
mable value alike to savage and civilized man, would have been 
comparatively unknown. This and other species of the lower 
forms of life will be more particularly referred to after mention- 
ing- some of the higher that are or have been known in the 
harbor. 

Animals living in the water will first be mentioned. 



'8 



MAMMALS. 

Perhaps it may surprise many who read these pages to learn 
that among the visitors to the harbor which have within quite 
recent periods entered it, may be included at least three species 
of the highly organized type of the mammalia, and particularly 
to be informed that one of these was of that family now so rarely 
seen west of Cape Cod, the Whale. Yet not many years since, 
within the memory of the living, one of these huge monsters of 
the deep, after amusing himself for a day or two just outside the 
boundary limits of the town, and around Bunkin Island, actually 
proceeded to enter and to pursue his way up the circuitous chan- 
nel. No sooner was this observed than a body of hardy citizens, 
duly prepared for encounter and inspired by a love of adventure, 
possibly by a desire for spoil, boldly but cautiously, as may well 
be surmised, ventured to go down the channel and approach him. 
Appreciating intuitively, no doubt, if he did not fully understand, 
the maxim of Shakspeare "that the better part of valor is dis- 
cretion," the whale quietly turned and went to sea. 

Another species of the mammalia and one quite common in 
Massachusetts Bay, the Porpoise, used formerly to frequently 
enter the harbor and sport in its waters. The effect of steam 
navigation has led to such visitations becoming rare. The writer 
has seen from the Hingham steamboat, some lifty years since, on 
the passage to Boston, a great number of these animals crossing 
and rccrossing before the bows of the vessel, apparently in sport, 
and this pastime was continued for a considerable time. 

The third and last of the three marine mammals referred to as 
entering our harbor is the Seal, an animal of such highly sensitive 
organism and superior intelligence as to call for particular notice, 
especially as many reside with us during all but the severe winter 
months. They are observed with great interest by the thousands 
of passengers who pass in the steamers through the islands of the 
town, resting upon the rocky shores in full confidence that they 
will not be harmed. When unmolested they will repose them- 
selves not far distant from man, and will not move except upon 
his quite near approach. 

Taken in captivity they become, like a dog, quite attached to 
those about them, and will not willingly be parted from them. 



Notes on Animal Life. 81 

Kept as pets for a time, individuals have become so fond of per- 
sons about them as to manifest great uneasiness upon being re- 
stored to their native element, and have been known to work 
themselves over a considerable surface of land in order to re- 
join their captors. A vessel on which was a captured young seal 
has been known to be followed a great distance by the frantic 
mother, suffering from the loss of her offspring. Surely, animals 
with affection and sensibility quite equalling man's, and having 
the great intelligence which they are known to possess, merit 
and should receive all the protection which has been accorded 
to those of their number who have trusted themselves to the 
hospitality of the neighborhood. 

FISHES. 

The fishes of Massachusetts Bay have been admirably described 
and beautifully illustrated by Dr. D. Humphreys Storer in his " His- 
torv of the Fishes of Massachusetts." It is reasonable to suppose 
that individuals of very many of the species sometimes enter the 
harbor. Indeed one of the citizens, Mr. Charles B. Barnes, who 
has fished in its waters as much perhaps as any one living, and 
the accuracy of whose observations can be relied upon, has recog- 
nized a very large number of fish that have been caught by him 
and others within the limits of Hingham through the descriptions 
given in that work. 

A few w r ords concerning the Smelt, that the future inhabitants 
of the town may know how greatly their predecessors were blessed 
by the abundance of this delicious lish. The number caught by 
hook and line in the harbor is very large, supplying the tables of 
most of the inhabitants in the fall months, and furnishing great 
quantities for the Boston market. During the right season numer- 
ous boats are always to be seen with parties engaged in fishing, 
while on the wharf margins, rows of men and boys may be ob- 
served intent upon drawing in the coveted prey. No idea can be 
given of the number taken during a season. 

MOLLUSKS. 

The Mollusks of the harbor are few in species, but fortunately 
for the town, the most highly prized member of them all, the 
Common Clam (My a arenaria, L. ), is exceedingly abundant. There 
can be no doubt, judging by the clam-shell heaps near the shores, 
that this species contributed largely towards the sustenance of the 
Indian when he alone occupied the territory ; and if in the present 
period it is not so absolutely necessary to sustain the life of the 
white man, it yet affords a luxurious repast for his table, and fur- 
nishes the material for hundreds of clam-bakes for the summer 
parties that daily visit the watering places. The number taken along 

vol. I. — 6 



82 History of Hint /ham. 

the beaches of our coast, including those of the islands, is enor- 
mous, and has been estimated at upward of a thousand bushels 
during a season. 

The Razor Fish is mentioned because of its great rarity and the 
likelihood of its not being much longer found within the harbor. 
A fine specimen discovered near the shore was recently presented 
to the writer by Mr. F. W. Brewer. 

One other species will be mentioned because formerly found 
along the shores, although now no longer so, having become ex- 
tinct within the territory of the town. This is the Scallop Shell 
{Pecten concentricus, Say.). The fact of the shells of this species 
being objects of beauty has undoubtedly led to the animals being 
taken wherever found by the clam-diggers, and as they have an- 
nually turned over almost every foot of the muddy coast, the ex- 
termination of the scallop shell has followed. 



CRUSTACEA. 

The Crustacea of the harbor until within a few years included 
the Lobster, but it is now doubtful if any are to be found within 
its limits. The Common Crab, the Fiddler Crab, the Hermit 
Crab, and the species known to all visitors to the shores as the 
Horse Shoe are not uncommon. That most valuable bait for 
smelt and other fish, the Shrimp, is found in the shallow pools. 

To the above brief notes upon some of the forms of life observed 
in the waters of the town a few will now be given upon species 
found upon the land. 

MAMMALS. 

By the bones found in the peat-bogs of the town we know that 
the Deer was an inhabitant in an early period. How late he 
remained such is unknown. As where these animals exist Wolves 
always hover about, it is fair to presume that they also found here 
an abode. It is certain that Beaver were once numerous alone 
the streams, and there is no reason to doubt that the Bear like- 
wise found a congenial home in the territory. These have prob- 
ably passed away never to return. There are, however, some 
wild species of the mammalia, that were common in more re- 
cent years, and which after apparently becoming extinct have 
reappeared, sometimes in considerable numbers. Such has been 
the case with the Raccoon. This animal, commonly called the 
Coon, has at times suddenly manifested its presence in locali- 
ties of the town by depredations where it had not been known for 
many years. 

In 1882 Mr. Jacob Corthell, on Leavitt Street, lost many chick- 
ens undoubtedly by this animal, as about the same time four 



Notes on Animal Life. 83 

young coons were treed by his dog, and the parent subsequently 
shot. Two of the young were kept a year after. 

Mr. Charles B. Barnes, to whom the writer is indebted for much 
information concerning wild animals of the land as well as of 
fishes, says that when young he trapped a coon in the woods 
between Old Colony Hill and Weir River, and shot the mate in a 
high tree near. 

In the winter of 1885-86 coons appeared in considerable num- 
bers, and many were killed, especially in Hingham Centre. One 
was trapped near the house of the writer in the following spring. 

Mr. Israel Whitcomb, who is a good observer, and much inter- 
ested in the animal life of the town, states that raccoons are 
by no means so rare in the woods between Hingham Centre and 
Cohasset as generally supposed. He has known more than twenty 
to be killed in a single season. 

Foxes were quite numerous half a century ago. Large parties 
of hunters with dogs were accustomed once or twice a year to 
scour the woods in the lower part of the town and drive them 
toward and beyond Planters' Hill across the bar that connects 
World's End with it, when, escape being cut off, they were readily 
killed. 

Mr. Francis W. Brewer informs the writer that in the spring 
of 1882 a fox had a hole in a meadow near his father's house, in 
which were its young. 

There are yet undoubtedly many foxes living in the woods of 
the eastern and southern sections of the town. 



The Mink, a pest of the poultry-yard, is unfortunately quite com- 
mon, and often manifests its destructive propensities to the great 
annoyance of and considerable cost to the farmer. In the summer 
of 1882 five hens were killed in one night in a hen-house on Mr. 
John R. Brewer's estate, Martin's Lane, by minks, one of which 
was trapped the following night, and another shot a few days 
afterwards. 

Mr. Israel Whitcomb, of Union Street, also lost during a night 
of the last season a considerable number of chickens by a visita- 
tion of this animal. 

The Weasel is another blood-thirsty visitor of the poultry-yard, 
but is comparatively much more rare than the Mink. 

The Otter, now extinct in the town, has not been so more than 
half a century. Mr. Charles B. Barnes remembers one that years ago 
frequented the swamp, not far from his home on Summer Street 
during a season, and he has known of others being seen in 
Hingham. 



84 History of Hingham. 

The Musk-Rat is yet common in the town, and is found along 
slow-running streams. Many are yearly trapped in the vicinity of 
Weir River. 

Rabbits are yet frequently met with in the wooded parts of the 
town, but are less numerous than formerly. 

Of the squirrel tribe the little striped one known as the Chip- 
munk, and the Red Squirrel arc very common, the former 
sometimes being so numerous as to become troublesome. One 
season, when exceedingly abundant on the farm of the writer, 
they acquired the habit of burrowing holes in ripe fruit such as 
melons and pears, to obtain the seeds. 

The Red Squirrel is often quite mischievous. Mr. F. W. Brewer 
mentions that one caused constant vexation during a whole sea- 
son to a large Newfoundland dog, by descending from trees at 
every favorable opportunity, and stealing his food. Like the gray 
squirrel, the red will sometimes rob birds' nests of the eggs and 
the young. 

The Gray Squirrel is often seen in the autumn months grace- 
fully Floating, as it were, from tree to tree as he passes through 
the forest. 

The little Flying Squirrel probably yet exists in Hingham, 
though none have been reported as seen for several years. 

BIRDS. 

Of birds nothing will be said respecting those that are well 
known, and usually during a part of the year find a home in the 
town. Upon some species formerly abundant and now but occa- 
sionally seen, and upon the visitation of others rarely found in 
the region, a few remarks may be interesting. 

It is but a few years since there existed in the woods of the 
low, swampy ground between Old Colony Hill and Weir River an 
extensive heronry. When first known to the writer the nests of 
the birds might be seen upon almost every tall tree, high in the 
air over acres of ground. The species was the Night Heron. 

When the forest was cut through that Rockland Street mi slit 
be laid out, the colony that had perhaps existed there for hun- 
dreds of years was disturbed, but not broken up. Attachment to 
the locality, notwithstanding its exposure to increasing annoyance 
from gunners and others, kept the birds there for years after, but 
they finally departed in a body and were seen no more. There 
are undoubtedly some inhabiting the town, as they are heard 
uttering the peculiar sound that has led to the common name 
given them of Qua-birds, when flying at the approach of night 
towards the shores to obtain their accustomed food. 

Of several species of birds now becoming more and more rare, 
Mr. F. W. Brewer has expressed much in a communication to the 



Notes on Animal Life. 85 

writer which is of interest. He states that the Great Blue Heron 
used formerly to visit the Hats of the harbor, but that he has not 
seiMi one for several years, and that the Green Heron, which was 
often observed there, now appears but seldom. He further stated 
that this last mentioned bird used to nest in Jacob Loud's woods, 
and that in 1883 a nest was found back of Mr. Keeshan's house 
near the foot of Pear-tree hill. 

After a violent and long-continued northeast storm in the spring 
of 1872 a considerable number of Little Auks were driven upon 
the coast by the severity of the gale. All of them seemed ex- 
hausted, and they could easily be knocked down with a stick. 

Mr. W. S. Brewer saw them singly and in small flocks of five 
or six. Several were picked up at different localities dead or in a 
dying condition. The same gentleman saw two at the edge of the 
water on Nantasket Beach in 1886, and procured one of them. 
Thus it appears that this interesting bird may be expected to 
appear at times on our shores after severe gales from the ocean. 

The Wild Pigeon, formerly a visitor in large Hocks, is now sel- 
dom seen. A pair came into the hen-yard on Mr. J. R. Brewer's 
farm about four years ago, and not far from that time a small 
number were seen upon a tree on Summer Street. 

The Carolina Pigeon, or Turtle-Dove, is rarely met with in 
Massachusetts, but it has been seen in Hingham at least twice 
within two or three years, once by Mr. Israel Whitcomb in the 
southern part of the town, and once by Mr. W. S. Brewer, near 
Martin's Lane. 

As in the case of the Turtle-Dove, the Indigo Bird, though ex- 
ceedingly rare, has been seen within a year or two both hy Mr. 
Israel Whitcomb in the southern part of the town, and by Mr. 
W. S. Brewer at Martin's Well. 

The last bird to.be noticed is the Scarlet Tanager. Though 
rarely seen, this very beautiful species unquestionably nests and 
breeds every year in Hingham. Choosing generally its abode in 
some deep forest away from the habitations of man, it is but 
seldom exposed to observation, as its shyness makes it cautious 
when visitors approach its precincts. There is exception to this 
when the young first leave the nest. The male then seems to 
lose all fear for himself in his solicitude to protect and to supply 
food for the young, which he does with the utmost assiduity. On 
this point the writer will quote some remarks from Nuttall, the 
celebrated ornithologist : • — 

" So attached to his new interesting brood is the Scarlet Tana- 
ger that he has been known at all hazards to follow for half a 



86 History of Hingham. 

mile one of his young, submitting to feed it attentively through 
the bars of a cage, and with a devotion which despair could not 
damp, roost by it in the branches of the same tree with its prison. 
So strong, indeed, is this innate and heroic feeling that life itself 
is less cherished than the desire of aiding and supporting his 
endearing progeny." 

As most of our birds are known to suffer intensely in being- 
deprived of their young, it would seem that the recital of such a 
case as that given should lead to a feeling of more interest than 
is always manifested in protecting our native species from cruel 
molestation. 

It is pleasant to add that in the instance mentioned, of the 
young Tanager followed and tended by the courageous parent, the 
heart of the person having it in charge was so moved by the ex- 
hibition of parental devotion, that the cage was opened after four 
days, and the young set free. Happily reunited, parent and off- 
spring flew into the deep woods. 

The Tanager in some rare instances has been known to build 
its nest near the residence of man, when this has stood near the 
border of a forest. 

The body of the male is scarlet-red, and the wings and tail are 
black in the pairing season. In the autumn he becomes, like the 
female and young, of a dull green color. 

The Tanager is but for a short time a resident in the North, 
arriving about the middle of May, and leaving for his tropical 
home verv earlv in August. 



THE BOTANY OF HINGHAM. 

BY THOMAS T. BOUVE. 



PRELIMINARY REMARKS. 

In presenting to the public an account of the plants of Hing- 
ham, the writer desires to express his great indebtedness to sev- 
eral persons, without whoso aid the work of collecting specimens 
and identifying them could not have been accomplished in the 
short time allowed for its completion. Especially would he state 
that without the active co-operation of his esteemed friend Mr. 
Charles J. Sprague, many plants of our flora would undoubtedly 
have remained unknown, and certainly no attempt would have been 
made to include the Grasses or the Carices in the list of species. 
He gratefully acknowledges his indebtedness to the Misses Ellen 
and Isabel Lincoln, by whose zeal and intelligent assistance a 
considerable number of the plants enumerated were discovered 
within the town limits, and to Mr. Fearing Burr, Mr. I. Wilbur 
Lincoln, and Mr. Henry C. Cushiug also for valuable aid. 

It is to be regretted that the botanists of Hingham whose inves- 
tigations preceded those of the writer, Mr. James S. Lewis, Mr. 
Fearing Burr, and others, did not prepare and preserve herbaria 
for their own study, and for the service of those who should follow 
them. The Rev. John Lewis Russell was the only one who 
appears to have preserved the plants he obtained ; but he made 
such disposal of his collections, to different parties in distant 
places, as to make it practically impossible to examine more than 
a very few of the specimens found by him in Hingham. 

The list of plants as presented includes but very few that have 
not been collected by the writer, or by those referred to who have 
aided him. Those that have not come under his own eye and 
study have been admitted on the high authority of the Rev. Mr. 
Russell and Mr. Fearing Burr. Plants found in the immediate 
neighboring towns, even but a few feet from the boundary line, 
but not within it, have been rigorously excluded. 

Some reasons why many plants occurring in not far distant 
localities find no home in Hingham, may be of interest to the 
reader. Its climatic conditions, compared with those of other 
towns, particularly those of the North Shore, will account for this 
in a great degree. Cape Ann has the influence of the cold ocean 
currents between the Gulf Stream and the land. Hingham, being 



88 History of Hingham. 

situated south of a shallow land-locked bay, loses this influence 
and has that of the prevalent summer southwest winds which 
come from the Gulf Stream. Although possessing a considerable 
sea margin on the north, it has no sand beaches, and therefore 
several of the peculiar plants of the ocean beaches do not occur 
upon its shores. These are stony, or have marsh grasses growing 
to the water's edge. Its ponds, excepting Accord Pond upon which 
it only partially borders, are all artificial, formed by damming its 
streams, and are lined with trees and thickets extending to the 
water, leaving no sandy margins like those of the Plymouth and 
Weymouth ponds, which afford a home for numerous plants not 
to be found in Hingham. A large proportion of the town's area 
has been cultivated for centuries and there remain few localities 
which have been undisturbed by the hands of man. 

It may be asked how thoroughly the task of presenting a 
full account of the flowering plants of the town has been ac- 
complished, and it will gratify all interested in the subject to 
be assured that, though it cannot be asserted that every spe- 
cies growing within our borders is included in the list given, 
yet it may fairly be stated that the omissions can be but few. 
It embraces not only the trees, the shrubs, and the flowering 
herbs, including the Grasses and Carices, but also the Equi- 
setaceEe (Horsetail Family), the Filices (Ferns), and the Ly- 
copodiacea 1 (Club-moss Family). The Lichens, the Fungi, and 
other Cryptogamous forms have been necessarily omitted, as they 
could not have been presented without additional years of inves- 
tigation by specialists. 

In regions where glacial action has not led to a general mixing 
of the earth derived from various geological formations, and where 
that from the decayed rocks has been but little disturbed, it is 
always interesting to note the influence of the several soils upon 
the growth of species. This is so marked as to enable the 
student often to recognize the character of the geological forma- 
tions beneath the surface by the prevalence of certain trees. This 
of course is not the case in Hingham, yet there is much in the 
varying character of locations within its limits to influence 
greatly the kind of species which will find in them healthy devel- 
opment. Some arc found only in salt marshes, others only in 
fresh-water swamps and meadows: some only in dry, sandy, or 
gravelly localities, others only in rich soils. A large majority 
open their petals only in sunny exposures, whereas many expand 
their beauties only under the shade of trees or of sheltering rocks. 
That nature thus varies her gifts of beauty adds much to the 
charm of botanical research in Hingham, diversified as its sur- 
face is with hills and dales, with marshes and swamps, with ex- 
tensive woods and rocky elevations; for who can wander over its 
high lands and its low lands, along its water-courses, and into the 
romantic recesses of its forest glens, without being impressed by, 
and gladdened with, the beauty spread before him everywhere ? 



The Botany of Hingham. 89 

There are some species that, without any apparent reason, are 
limited to certain localities, rarely being found elsewhere, not- 
withstanding circumstances seem equally favorable for their devel- 
opment. As among these are several of exceeding beauty and 
their extermination in the town would certainly be a calamity, 
the writer cannot forbear calling attention to the fact that some 
are fast disappearing, and will soon be no longer found in the 
town unless care is taken for their preservation. One of these 
is that rare plant, bearing one of the most lovely of flowers, 
the Fringed Gentian. Unlike the common Blue Gentian, this 
delicate species is propagated only by seeds. What, then, must 
be the result of a general plucking of the flowers when they 
are in bloom, leaving none to mature? Only extermination. And 
such plucking has been often done, and bouquets exhibited contain- 
ing scores of these flowers, when far better taste would have been 
sbown had but few been placed together instead of a multitude. 
Animals are not alone in danger of extermination by thoughtless- 
ness. The tendency to take plants from their natural habitats 
and transplant them into gardens where circumstances have been 
less favorable for their existence, has undoubtedly led to the entire 
destruction of several species of perennials from our flora. One 
of these, the Aselepias tuberosa, has doubtless met such fate. This 
plant, one of the most beautiful of all the perennials that adorned 
the woods, and always rare, there is reason to believe is now ex- 
tinct except in cultivation, as no specimen has been discovered for 
several years, after diligent search. It is however given in the 
list of species, as it certainly grew in at least two localities, and 
may possibly yet exist. Furthermore there is one plant still 
living which was transplanted more than twenty years ago from 
the woods of South Hingham to the grounds now of Mr. Henry C. 
dishing, where it yet may be seen yearly displaying a rich pro- 
fusion of its most charming orange-flowers. 

There are several other plants that are found in but one or two 
localities, which it is hoped may be allowed to remain members 
of the flora. One of these is the Sambucus racemosa, L., the Red- 
Berried Elder. Another exceedingly rare plant with us is the 
Hibiscus Moscheutos, L. (Swamp Rose Mallow.) This is a tall 
perennial, with quite large, showy, rose-colored flowers, the corolla 
being five inches in diameter. It is found near the salt water, and 
but a single plant is known in Hingham. 

Yet another species may be mentioned as observed in only one 
locality. This is the Lythrum Salicaria, L. The beautiful purple 
flowers of this may be seen upon a clump of the plants just at the 
edge of the water of Weir River, a short distance below the bridge 
on Leavitt Street. 

It is not only for the preservation of the exceedingly rare plants 
of the town that the writer would plead. Quite as earnestly 
would he urge that the transcendent beauty which is often pre- 
sented along the sides of our roads, especially of those bordered 



90 History of Hingham. 

by forest-growth, may be allowed to display itself and gladden 
the eyes and heart of the wayfarer. Yearly many of these roads 
are adorned with flowers of varied hue, charming to every be- 
holder. In the spring the modest Violet, the delicate Anemone, 
and the showy Buttercup open their petals to the sight. As the 
summer " sun shoots full perfection through the swelling year," 
the Wild Rose, the Eglantine (Sweet brier), the Common Elder, 
and many other species display their loveliness and exhale their 
fragrance. Then follows autumn, and everywhere there start up 
to beautify our highways the many Asters and Golden-rods, and 
it is just when these expand in gorgeous loveliness, outrivalling all 
that man can produce by the most consummate art, that the de- 
stroyer comes and sweeps them away in a day. The writer cannot 
too strongly express his regret at the custom of mowing down 
every plant that shows a flower through miles of highway, where 
this is by no means necessary. 

A gentleman of much culture and taste, who had but recently 
visited and travelled extensively over England, remarked in con- 
versation : " 1 pined when abroad for the sight of wild flowers along 
the roads. The bordering grass-plots smoothly shorn to the 
hedge-rows became monotonous. I longed for the picturesque 
objects that everywhere attract attention here and which serve 
so much to interest the mind." The year before this was said, 
the writer had passed through the Third Division wood-road, 
where was displayed along its borders a profusion of fall flowers, 
making the view at many points simply exquisite. Delighted 
with the prospect of presenting to his friend a scene so in contrast 
with those mentioned, he was taken through the same road that 
had been spangled with beauty the previous season, with the hope 
that there might be a like display, but it was too late. The scythe 
had done its vandal work, and scarcely a flower was left to meet 
his eye. There is no desire to criticise in these remarks the work 
necessarily done for the convenience of wayfarers, whether on 
foot or in vehicles, but only to urge that what no person of taste 
would wish to have destroyed may be allowed to live. In the 
case referred to it is doubtful if ten persons could be found in the 
town who really would regard the devastation an improvement. 
Man should not ruthlessly destroy what has been given for his 
pleasure and refinement. 

In the following list of plants native to or occurring in Hing- 
ham, the names have been given in accordance with the recent 
edition of Gray's Manual, 1890. There have been numerous 
changes since the previous edition of 1848, and the student will 
therefore find this harmony with the last edition of great service 
to him in the identification of species. 

The names of the introduced species are printed in italics, that 
they may be thus readily distinguished from those indigenous to 
the town. 



PH^ENOGAMOUS OR FLOWERING PLANTS. 



POLYPETALOUS EXOGENS. 

1. RANUNCULACE51. (CROWFOOT FAMILY.) 

The Ranunculaceae are mostly natives of cool regions, few- 
being found within the tropics, and these generally in elevated 
situations. 

The leaves are much divided, hence the popular name of crow- 
foot applied to some of the species. Flowers both regular and 
irregular, — some exhibiting remarkable forms, as those of the 
wild Columbine. 

Our flora is greatly enriched by plants of this family, and the 
fields and groves owe much of their beauty to them. Among 
those most common are the Buttercups, spangling the grass with 
their golden petals ; the Marsh Marigold of the swamps and wet 
meadows ; the Clematis, or Virgin's Bower, gracefully climbing 
over bushes in shady thickets, displaying in profusion its beau- 
tiful cymes of flowers ; the Wood Anemone, with its delicate 
white petals, often tinged with purple ; and the showy wild 
Columbine, delighting by its varied hues the visitor to its rocky 
recesses. 

The Peony, so commonly cultivated in the gardens, belongs 
to this family. 

Most of the species contain a very acrid juice, rendering them 
highly injurious as food, in a fresh state. Fortunately, heat and 
dryness deprive the plants of their poisonous character ; otherwise 
the cattle would suffer from its effects in partaking of hay from 
the pastures. Cooked or dried the species of this town are harm- 
less. There are genera, however, having exceedingly poisonous 
properties, — such as the Helleborus, the Aconitum, and the Del- 
phinium. As species of these are common in gardens under 
the names Monkshood, Wolfsbane, Larkspur, and Hellebore, care 
should be taken that children do not carry the flowers in their 
mouths. 

Clematis, L. 

Virginiana, L. Virgin's Bower. 
Anemone, Tourn. 

cylindrica, Gray. Long-fruited Anemone. 

Virginiana, L„ Virginian Anemone. 

nemorosa, L. Wind-flower. Wood Anemone. 



92 History of Hingham. 

Hepatica, Dill. 

triloba, Chaix. Round-lobed Hepatica. 

Anemonella, Spach. 

ihalictroides, Spach. Rue Anemone. 

Thalictrum, Tourn. 

dioicum, L. Early Meadow-rue. 
purpuiascens, L. Purplish Meadow-rue. 
polygauium, Muhl. Tall Meadow-rue. 

Ranunculus, Tourn. 

aquatilis, L. var. trichophyllus, Gray. White Water-crowfoot 

Cymbalaria, Pursh. Seaside Crowfoot. 

abortivus, L. Small-flowered Crowfoot. 

abortivus, L. var. micranthus, Gray. 

sceleratus, L. Cursed Crowfoot. 

Pennsylvanicus, L. f. Bristling Crowfoot. 

fascicularis, Muhl. Early Crowfoot. 

repens, L. Creeping Crowfoot. 

bu/bosus, L. Bulbous Buttercup. 

acris, L. Tall Buttercup. 

Ficaria, L. 

Caltha, L. 

palustris, L. Marsh Marigold. 

Coptis, Salisb. 

trifolia, Salisb. Goldthread. 

Aquilegia, Tourn. 

Canadensis, L. Columbine. 
Actaea, L. 

alba, Bigel. White Baneberry. 

2. BERBERIDACE-ffi. (BARBERRY FAMILY.) 

The only plant of this order found within the borders of Hing 
ham is the well known beautiful shrub, the Barberry, introduced 
from Europe. The stamens of the flowers are peculiarly sensi 
tive, springing back against the pistil on being lightly touched. 
The fruit is extensively used as a preserve, and boiled with sugar 
produces an excellent jelly. 

Berberis, L. 

vulgaris, L. Barberry. 

3. NYMPH ffiACEiE. (WATER-LILY FAMILY.) 

An aquatic order, one species of which is the beautiful and 
sweet-scented Water-lily of our ponds. 

Brasenia, Schreb. 

peltata, Pursh. Water-shield. 

Nymphaea, Tourn. 

odorata. Ait. Water-lily. 
Nuphar, Smith. 

advena, Ait. f. Yellow Water-hlv. 



The Botany of Hingham. 93 

4. SARRACENIACEJE. (PlTCHER-PLANT FAMILY.) 

The only Hingham species is the Side-saddle Flower. The 
leaves are singularly formed in a swollen tube and are generally 
more or less filled with water, containing drowned insects. 

Sarracenia, Town. 

purpurea, L. Pitcher-plaut. 

5. PAPAVERACEiE. (POPPY FAMILY.) 

Three species only are found in this town, and but one of these 
is indigenous, — the beautiful Blood-root, so called from the color 
of its juice. This, if taken into the stomach, acts as an emetic 
and a purgative. The juice of some of the species has highly 
narcotic properties, — that of the Papaver somniferum, dried in 
the sun, forming the Opium of commerce. 

Argemone, L. 

Mexicana, L. Prickly Poppy. Waste places. Rare. 

Chelidonium, L. 

mqjus, L. Celandine. 

Sanguinaria, Dill. 

Canadensis, L. Blood-root. 

6. FUMARIACE.SJ. (FUMITORY FAMILY.) 

An order containing many beautiful plants which have a 
watery juice. The flowers are irregular. But two species are 
found in Hingham. 

Corydalis, Vent. 

glauca, Pursh. Pale Corydalis. 

Fumaria, Tourn. 

officinalis, L. Fumitory. 

7. CRUCIFERJB. (MUSTARD FAMILY.) 

An exceedingly useful family to man. furnishing many of the 
vegetables which he uses for food or as condiments, such as 
Turnips, Cabbages, Radishes, Cauliflowers, Cress, and Mustard. 
They all contain nitrogen, hence their highly nutritious qualities. 
Many of them have also an essential oil containing sulphur. 
Though acrid and pungent to the taste, none of them are poi- 
sonous. Plants of this family are easily recognized by their 
having four petals, which are regular and placed opposite to each 
other^ in pairs, forming a cross. This has given them the name 
of Crucifera3. 

Nasturtium, R. Br. 

officinale, R. Br. Water-cress, 
palustre, D C. Marsh-cress. 
Armoracia, Fries, Horse-radish. 

Cardamine, Tourn. 

hirsuta, L. Bitter Cress, 
hirsuta, var. sylvatica, Gray. 



94 History of Hingham. 

Arabis, L. 

Canadensis, L. Sickle-pod. 
Barbarea, R. Br. 

vulgaris, R. Br. Winter Cress. 

Sisymbrium, Tourn. 

officinale, Scop. Hedge Mustard. 

Brassica, Tourn. 

nigra, Koch. Black Mustard. 
campestris, L. Rutabaga. 

Capsella, Medic. 

Bursa-pastoris, Mcench. Shepberd's Purse. 
Thlaspi, Tourn. 

arvense, L. Field Penny Cress. Rare. 
Lepidium, Tourn. 

Virginicum, L. Peppergrass. 

rudera/e, L. 

campestre, L. Field Pepper Grass. Rare. 
Cakile, Tourn. 

Americana, Nutt. Sea-Rocket. 
Raphanus, Tourn. 

Raphanistrum, L. Wild Radisb. 

8. cistace^. (Rock-Rose Family.) 

Low, shrubby plants with regular flowers, possessed of no 
marked properties. 

Helianthemum, Tourn. 

Canadense, Mx. Rock-rose. Frost Weed. 

Lechea, Kalm. 

major, L. Pin Weed. 

thymifolia, Mx. 

minor, L. 

minor, L., var. maritima, Gray in herb. 

tenuil'olia, Mx. 

9. violace^s. (Violet Family.) 

A family well known by the profusion of flowers of several 
species found everywhere within the town. Only one genus is 
represented in Hingham, — the Viola. All its species here are 
stemless, with a single exception. The Pansy and the great 
Purple Violet of the gardens belong to this order. The roots 
generally possess an acrid, sometimes an emetic property, which 
has led to their use in medicine. 

Viola, Tourn. 

lanceolata, L. Lance-leaved Violet. 

primulasfolia, L. Primrose-leaved Violet. 

blanda, Willd. Sweet White Violet. 

palmata, L. Common Blue Violet. 

palmata, L., var. eucullata, Gray. Rolled leafed Violet. 

sa^ittata, Ait. Arrovv-h-aved Violet. 



The Botany of Hingham. • 95 

pedata, L. Bird-foot Violet. 

canina, L., var. Aluhleubergii, Gray. Dog Violet. 

10. CARYOPHYLLACE2E. (PlNK FAMILY.) 

Herbs with entire, opposite leaves, except that the upper ones 
;ire sometimes alternate, and with regular, symmetrical flowers. 
The stems are usually swollen at the joints. They are all harm- 
less in their properties. 

Dianthus, L. 

Armaria, L. Deptford Pink. 
deltoides, L. Maiden Pink. 

Saponaria, L. 

officinalis, L. Soapwort. 

Vaccaria, L. 
Silene, L 

cucubalus, Wibet. Bladder Campion. 

Armaria, L. Sweet- William Catch-fly. 

antirrhina. L. Sleepy Catch-fly. 

nodi flora, L. Night-flowering Catch-fly. 

Lychnis, Tourn. 

vespertina. Sibth. Rare. 

Githago, Lam. Corn Cockle. Rare. 
Arenaria, L. 

serpylUfolia, L. Thyme-leaved Sandwort, 
lateriflora, L. 

Stellaria, L. 

media, Smith. Chickweed. 

loiigifolia, Muhl. Long-leaved Chickweed. 

uliginosa, Murr. Swamp Chickweed. 

graminea, L. 
Cerastium, L. 

vulgatum, L. Mouse-ear Chickweed. 

arvense, L. 

Sagina, L. 

procumbens, L. Pearl wort. 

Buda, Adans. 

rubra, Dumort. Sandwort. 

marina, Dumort. Sea-shore Sandwort. 
Spergula, L. 

arvensis, L. Corn Spurrey. 
Gypsophila, L. 

muralis, L. 

11 PORTTJLACACEiB. (PURSLANE FAMILY.) 

Succulent low herbs with regular but unsymmetrical flowers. 
The Claytonia, justly called the Spring Beauty, belongs to this 
family. The common Purslane is our only species, and this 
springs up abundantly in cultivated and waste grounds. It does 
not appear to be generally known as a very palatable food. Cooked 



96 History of Hingham. 

as " greens," and properly served, it vies with the best in furnish- 
ing an attractive dish. The plants should not be too old. None 
of the species arc harmful. The beautiful Portulaca of the gar- 
dens is of this Family. 

Portulaca, Tourn. 

oleracea, L. Common Purslane. 

12. HYPERICACEiE. (St. JoHN"S-WoRT FAMILY.) 

The plants of this family are all herbs in Hingham, though 
found as shrubs and even trees in other regions. They have 
opposite, dotted leaves, and an astringent, resinous juice, which in 
some species is very acrid, as in the H. perforatum. This is some- 
times used as a gargle, and internally in dysenteric cases. 

Hypericum, Tourn. 
ellipticum, Hook. 
perforatum, L. St. John's-wort. 
inaculutum, Walt, 
mutilum, L. 
Canadense, L. 
nudicaule, Walt. 

Elodes, Adans. 

campanulata, Pursh. Marsh St. John's-wort. 

13. MALVACEiE. (MALLOWS FAMILY.) 

The plants of this family native within the town are all 
herbs. Elsewhere they are found as shrubs, and sometimes as 
trees. They form a very natural order. The species all have 
regular flowers and alternate leaves, and all abound in a muci- 
laginous substance, which is found in great quantity, particularly 
in the roots of many. This is much used in medicine as an 
emollient. 

None of the plants have deleterious properties. The young 
foliage of some has been used to boil as a vegetable. 

Cultivated species of several of the genera are seen in gar- 
dens : as the Althea and Hollyhock. 

Malva, L. 

sylvestris, L- 
rotiindifolia, L. Mallow. 

Abutilon, Tourn. 

Avicennce, Gcertn. Velvet Leaf. Rare. 

Hibiscus, L. 

Moscheutos, L. Swam]) Rose-M;dlow. Very rare. 

14. tiliaceje. (Linden Family.) 

Trees and shrubs, mostly natives of tropical regions. Like 
the Malvaceae, they all possess mucilaginous properties of whole- 
some character. 



The Botany of Hingham. 97 

The Tilia Americana, the well-known Linden or Bass-wood, 
is native of the town, being generally found near the shore. The 
species of this family commonly set out as an ornamental tree, 
is the European Linden. 

The inner bark of the trees of this family is very fibrous and 
strong. The jute of commerce is the product of one species. 

Tilia, Tourn. 

Americana, L. Linden. Basswood. 

15. LiNACEiE. (Flax Family.) 

An order of mostly herbaceous plants with regular and sym- 
metrical flowers. The genus Linum, the only one represented 
in Hingham, has a bark of exceedingly tenacious fibre, from one 
species of which is formed the Linen Thread and Cloth in common 
use. The same plant also furnishes seeds which yield the well- 
known Linseed Oil, Linseed Cake, etc. The seeds are used ex- 
tensively in medicine, possessing as they do abundant mucilage, 
which is extracted by boiling water, producing thus Flax-seed 
tea. There are several other uses which the products of the 
plants serve, and it may perhaps be said that no one, not fur- 
nishing food, is more serviceable to man. There is but one 
species of the genus indigenous in our limits, the L. Virginianum. 
The other is the Common Flax, found sometimes springing up in 
fields from scattered seeds. Some species are mildly cathartic. 

Linum, Tourn. 

Virginianum, L. Wild Flax. 
usitatissimum, L. Flax. Not common. 

16. GERANIACEiE. (GERANIUM FAMILY.) 

Chiefly herbs, with perfect but not always symmetrical flowers. 
The beauty of our gardens is largely due to plants of this family ; 
especially to the species of Pelargonium introduced from the 
Cape of Good Hope, where they are native, and to hybrid 
varieties. 

The plants generally have an astringent property, and many 
have a disagreeable odor. The Herb Robert, not uncommon with 
us, affords a marked instance of this. There are, however, 
species which give out an aromatic and agreeable fragrance. 

Some plants of the order have edible tubers, and others have 
leaves which are used as food, being pleasantly acid. 

The G. maculatum, common in every part of the town, has 
very astringent roots. An infusion of them is used as a gargte. 

Geranium, Tourn. 

maculatum, L. Wild Geranium. 
Carolinianum, L. Carolina Geranium. 
Robertianum, L. Herb Robert. 
vol. i. — 7 



98 History of Hingham. 

Impatiens, L. 

fulva, Nutt. Touch-me-not. 
Oxalis, L\ 

corniculata, L., var. stricta, Sav. Wood-Sorrel. 

17. ilicine-E. (Holly Family.) 

Trees and shrubs. Interesting to us as containing the Holly, 
the Neinopanthes, and the several species of Ilex, all contrib- 
utors to the beauty of the forests and swamps. It is one 
of the species of Ilex which displays, late in the autumn and 
early winter a profusion of bright red berries, that never fail 
to attract the attention and admiration of beholders. 

There is an astringent property in the bark and leaves of the 
Holly, and of other species of Ilex. The berries are purgative, 
and used medicinally. 

Ilex, L. 

opaca, Ait. Holly, 
verticillata, Gray. Black Alder, 
laevigata, Gray. Smooth Alder. Rare. 
glabra, Gray. Inkberry. Not common. 

Nemopanthes, Raf. 

fascicularis, Raf. Mountain Holly. Rare. 

18. CELASTRACE^. (STAFF-TREE FAMILY.) 

Shrubs, rarely trees. One species only known to our flora, — 
the Celastrus scandens, or Waxwork. 

The fruit of this, with its orange and scarlet hues, is very 
attractive in autumn, as displayed among the foliage of the 
shrubs or trees upon which it climbs. 

The plants of this family have generally acrid and bitter prop- 
erties, sometimes emetic. 

Celastrus, L. 

scandens, L. Waxwork. 

19. RHAMNACE5!. (BUCKTHORN FAMILY.) 

Shrubs and small trees, represented in Hingham by the Rham- 
nus catharticus, the Buckthorn, and by the Ceanothus Ameri- 
canus, New-Jersey Tea. 

The berries and bark of the Buckthorn are cathartic, and have 
been used in medicine. The leaves of the Ceanothus Americanus 
were much used during the American Revolution, by infusion, as 
a tea ; hence the common name. 

Rhamnus, Tourn. 

cathartica, L. Buckthorn. Not common. 

Ceanothus, L. 

Americanus, L. New-Jersey Tea. 



The Botany of Hingham. 99 



20. viTACEiE. (Vine Family.) 

Climbing shrubs, represented in Hingham by two genera, — 
Vitis, the Grape, and Ampelopsis, the Virginia Creeper or Wood- 
bine. The estimable products of the vine are well known ; and, 
alas ! the effects of misuse of them too much so. The beauty of 
the Ampelopsis, as it climbs upon trees within its reach, espe- 
cially when its deeply tinted leaves in autumn contrast with the 
dark-green foliage of the Savin, affords a great charm to every 
observant eye. 

Vitis, Toum. 

Labrusca, L. Fox Grape. 

aestivalis, Mx. Summer Qrape. 
Ampelopsis, Mx. 

quinquefolia, Mx. Virginia Creeper. Woodbine. 



21. SAPINDACEiE. (MAPLE FAMILY.) 

Trees, shrubs, and herbs. This order enriches our flora with 
the Sugar Maple and the Red Maple. Among those introduced 
for ornamental purposes are the Horse Chestnut, several species 
of the Buckeye, and the Negundo or Ash-leaved Maple. 

Narcotic and poisonous properties are found in some of the 
plants of the order ; yet bread is made from the seeds of one 
species. The nuts of the common Horse Chestnut contain a 
large proportion of starch, which renders them a very valuable 
food for cattle, swine, sheep, and horses. They are thus used 
extensively abroad, while here they are allowed to rot upon the 
ground. This is a matter worthy the consideration of those who 
have these trees upon their premises. 

It is stated that the fruit and leaves of the Buckeye of Ohio, 
the tEscuIus glabra, are quite poisonous. As this tree is found 
in cultivation with us, care should be taken not to confound the 
fruit with that of the common Horse Chestnut. 

The bark of several species is bitter and astringent, sometimes 
used for tanning and dyeing, and also in medicine, as a substi- 
tute for Peruvian bark. 

Acer, Toum. 

saechaiinum, Wang. Sugar Maple, 
rubrum, L. Red Maple. 



22. ANACARDIACE51. (SUMACH FAMILY.) 

Trees or shrubs, with alternate leaves and inconspicuous 
flowers, having a resinous juice, which is acrid and sometimes 
poisonous. Some bear wholesome fruits ; others furnish valuable 
varnishes. We have in Hingham but one genus, — the Rhus. 



100 History of Hingham. 

This includes the species best known to us as poisonous. One 
of them, Rhus venenata, or Poison Sumach, often called the 
Poison Dogwood, is found in nearly all our swamps. It is poi- 
sonous alike to the touch and taste, and at times imparts its 
noxious qualities to the atmosphere about it so as to cause per- 
sons inhaling it to be seriously affected. Common as this small 
tree is in Hingham, but few recognize it readily, and as it 
is particularly beautiful when colored by the tints of autumn, it is 
often collected, much to the suffering of those who handle it. It 
differs from the Rhus typhina and the Rhus glabra in having no 
serratures on the leaflets. 

Another species of the same genus common with us is the 
Rhus toxicodendron, known generally as the Poison Ivy. This 
is also a very pernicious plant to handle, though upon many per- 
sons it seems to have no effect. Undoubtedly both the species 
are more dangerous at times than at others, and something prob- 
ably depends on the condition of the individual. This is cer- 
tainly true, and it should be a strong incentive for precaution 
that when a person has once been poisoned, the system is ever 
after more susceptible to the noxious influence than before. 

Rhus, L. 

typhina, L. Stag-horn Sumach, 
glabra. L. Smooth Sumach, 
copallina, L. Dwarf Sumach, 
venenata, D C. Poison Dogwood. 
Toxicodendron, L. Poison Ivy. 

23. POLYGALACE5]. (MILKWORT FAMILY.) 

Herbaceous plants, one genus of which only occurs in Hing- 
ham, --the Polygala. The name "milkwort" was given from 
the supposed influence of the plants in increasing the secretion 
of milk in the animal system. The roots of several species are 
used medicinally, and those of one. the P. Senega, are found very 
serviceable in many affections. These are known to us as the 
Senega root or Snake root. 

Polygala, Tourn. 
sanguinea, L. 
cruciata, L. 
verticillata, L. 

verticillata, var. ambigua. Nutt. 
polygama, Walt. 

24. LEGUMINOS-SB. (PULSE FAMILY.) 

A very large family, six or seven thousand species being 
known. It embraces trees, shrubs, and herbs. The most of the 
plants have papilionaceous flowers, so called from their fancied re- 
semblance to butterflies. All the native species found in Hing- 



The Botany of Hingham. 101 

ham have such flowers, except those of the genus Cassia. The 
fruit is always a legume or true pod ; but it varies, — being sim- 
ple, as in the Pea, or lobed, as in Desmodium. Within our bor- 
ders this great family is represented only by herbs, except in one 
introduced species, which has become naturalized, — the Robinia 
Pseudacacia, common Locust-tree. 

Other trees and shrubs of the family occur that have been set 
out for ornamental purposes, as the Gleditchia or Three-thorned 
Acacia, the Red-bud or Judas-tree, the Laburnum, Wistaria, etc. 

The Leguminosa? stand high among the families of the vege- 
table kingdom in their usefulness to man, furnishing as they do 
much of the food used by him and his domestic animals, many 
of the resins, and a large portion of the dyes used in the arts. 
Among food products are Peas, Beans, and Clover ; among medi- 
cines, Liquorice, Senna, Balsams, and Gums ; among those used 
in the arts, Gums Senegal, Tragacanth, and Arabic; Indigo, 
Brazil-wood, Logwood, and Red Sandal-wood. But few of the 
plants have injurious properties. The indigo of our households 
is very poisonous. This is mentioned because of the danger of 
its being handled by children. 

The leaves of our Cassia Marilandica can be used as a substi- 
tute for senna, having similar properties. 

Lupinus, Tourn. 

perennis, L. Lupine. 
Crotalaria, L. 

sagittalis, L. Rattle-box. Not common. 
Trifolium, Tourn. 

arvense, L. Rabbit-foot Clover. 

pratense, L. Red Clover. 

hybridum. L. Dutch Clover. 

repens, L. White Clover. 

agrarium, L. Yellow Clover. 

procumbens, L. Low Hop Clover. 
Melilotus, Tourn. 

officinalis, Willd. Yellow Melilot. 

alba, Lam. White Melilot. 

Medicago, Tourn. 
sativa, L. 
lupulina, L. Black Medick. 

Robinia, L. 

pseudacacia, L. Locust. 

Tephrosia, Pers. 

Virginiana, Pers. Goat's Rue. 

Desmodium, Desv. 
nudirlorum, D C. 
acuminatum, D C. 
Canadense, D C. 
Marilandicum. Boott. 
rifjidum, D C. 



102 History of H Ingham. 

Lespedeza, Mx. 

procumbens, Mx. 

reticulata, Pers. Bush Clover. 

Stuvei, Nutt., var. intermedia, Watson. 

polystachya, Mx. 

capitata, Mx. 

Vicia, Tourn. 

saliva, L. Vetch. 
tetrasperma. Loisel. 
hirsuta, Koch. 
Cracca, L. 

Lathyrus, Tourn. 

maritimus, Big. Beach-pea. 
palustris, L. Marsh-pea. 

Apios, Boerh. 

tuberosa, Moench. Ground-nut. 

Strophostyles, Ell. 

angulosa, Ell. Kidney Bean. 

Amphicarpsea, Ell. 

monoica, Nutt. Hog Pea-nut. 

Baptisia, Vent. 

tinctoria, R. Br. Wild Indigo. 

Cassia, Tourn. 

Marilandica, L. Wild Senna. 
Chamascrista, L. Partridge Pea. 
nicitans, L. Wild Sensitive Plant. 

25. ROSACE2E. (ROSE FAMILY.) 

This family, comprising trees, shrubs, and herbs, is an exceed- 
ingly valuable oue to man, supplying him as it does with deli- 
cious fruits, and with flowers that delight his eye with their 
beauty and enchant him with their fragrance. Who can think 
of the Rose, of the Meadow Sweet, and of the many other shrubs 
and herbs that open their petals and exhale their fragrance to the 
surrounding air; of the gorgeous blossoming of the Apple and 
the Pear, the Cherry and the Plum, or of the fruits of these 
which follow, in due season, without having his heart warmed 
with gratitude towards the great Giver of all good ? These all 
belong to this family, as do most of the berries we use for food, 
as the Strawberry, the Blackberry, and the Raspberry. 

But few plants of the order have injurious properties, though 
some, as the Almond and the Peach, contain Prussic Acid, which 
is a deadly poison. It is found mostly in the seeds, but not to 
an injurious degree, as partaken of by us. 

Prunus, Tourn. 

maritima, Wang. Beach Plum. 

Pennsylvania, L. f. Red Cherry. 

Virginiana, L. Choke Cherry. 

serotina, Ehrhart. Black Cherry. 

spinosa, L. car. insititia, sloe. Bullace Plum. 



The Botany of Bingham. 103 



Spiraea, L. 

salicifolia, L. Meadow-sweet, 
tomentosa, L. Hardback. 

Agrimonia, To urn. 

Eupatoria, L. Agrimony. 

Geum, L. 

album, Gmelin. Avens. 

Potentilla, L. 

Norvegica, L. Five-finger. 
Canadensis, L. Low Five-finger, 
argentea, L. Silvery Five-finger. 
Anserina, L. Marsh Five-finger. 

Fragaria, Tourn. 

Virginiana, Mill. Strawberry, 
vesca, L. 

Rubus, Tourn. 

strigosus, Mx. Raspberry, 
occidentalis, L. Thimbleberry. 
villosus, Ait. Higb Blackberry. 
Canadensis, L. Low Blackberry, 
hispidus, L. Swamp Blackberry. 

Rosa, Tourn. 

Carolina, L. Swamp Rose. 

lucida, Ehrh. 

rubiginosa, L. Sweet-brier. 

Crataegus, L. 

coccinea, L. Scarlet Thorn. 

Pyrus, L. 

arbutifolia, L. f. Choke Berry. 

aucuparia, Gcert. European Mountain Ash. 

Amelanchier, Medic. 

Canadensis, Torr. & Gr. Shad-bush. 



26. SAXIFRAGACE-SJ. (SAXIFRAGE FAMILY.) 

This family is interesting to us as containing a considerable 
number of our cultivated plants rather than of indigenous ones, 
of which we have but few representatives. The most important 
one is the Gooseberry. None of them are harmful. The Hy- 
drangea, frequent in cultivation, and the Red Currant belong 
here. 

Ribes, L. 

oxyacanthoides, L. Gooseberry. 

Saxifraga, L. 

Virginiensis, Mx. Early Saxifrage. 
Pennsylvania, L. Swamp Saxifrage. 

Chrysosplenium, Tourn. 

American um. Schwein. Golden Saxifrage. 



104 History of Hlnyham. 

27. CRASSULACEiE. (STONE-CROP FAMILY.) 

Herbs, represented in Hingham by two genera, — Penthorum 
and Seduni. The plants of the latter are very succulent. The 
Houselcek, Sempervivum tectorum, well known by its thick, 
fleshy leaves, belongs to this order. None of the species have 
noxious qualities. 

Penthorum, Gronov. 

sedoides, L. Stoue-crop. 
Sedum, Tourn. 

acre. L. Mossy Stoue-crop. 

Telepldum, L. Live-forever. 

28. DROSERACEiE. (SUNDEW FAMILY.) 

Delicate, small plants occurring in boggy grounds, and gener- 
ally covered with glandular hairs. One species of this family, 
the Diomea muscipula, a native of North Carolina, is the cele- 
brated Venus's Flytrap, which has glands that exude a secretion 
of a character to attract flies. As soon as one alights upon the 
lobes of the leaf, which has projecting processes, they close upon 
the unfortunate insect. 

Excepting a slight bitterness, the plants of this family have 
no marked qualities. 

Drosera, L. 

- rotundifolia, L. Round-leaved Sundew, 
intermedia, Hayne, var. Americana, D C. 

29. HAMAMELIDEJE. (WjTCH-HaZEL FaMTLY.) 

Trees and shrubs. The well-known tree, the Witch Hazel, is 
common in our damp woods. It is peculiar in blossoming late 
in autumn, when the wintry winds betoken early death to the 
flowers, and in not maturing its fruit until the succeeding sum- 
mer. The divining rods of those who seek metals or water in 
the earth through their agency are formed from the small 
branches of this tree ; hence the common name. The plants of 
the family are harmless. An extract of one species is much used 
as a medicine externally, and sometimes internally, with reputed 
advantage. 

Hamamelis, L. 

Virginiana, L. Witch-Hazel. 

30. HALORAGE5I. (WATER-MlLFOIL FAMILY.) 

Water and swamp plants, with inconspicuous flowers, having 
no noticeable properties. 

Myriophyllum, Vaill. 

ambiguum, Nutt. Water Milfoil. 
ambiguum, Nutt., var. limosum, Torr. 



The Botany of Hingham. 105 

Proserpinaca, L. 

palustris, L. Mermaid-weed. 

pectiuacea, Lam. 
Callitriche, L. 

verna, L. Water Starwort. 

31. MELASTOMACEiE. (MELASTOMA FAMILY.) 

A tropical family, one genus only being found in temperate 
regions, and of this genus one species is a native of Hingham. 
It is strikingly beautiful, and fully worthy of the name it bears, 
— the Meadow Beauty. 

Rhexia, L. 

Virginica, L. Meadow Beauty. 

32. LYTHRACEiE. (LOOSESTRIFE FAMILY.) 

This family is represented in Hingham by two genera, the 
species of which are found in marshes or swamps. The plants 
are all astringent. 

Lythrum, L. 

Hyssopifolia L. Loosestrife. 

Salicaria, L. Spiked Loosestrife. Very rare. 
Decodon, Gmel. 

verticillatus, Ell. Swamp Loosestrife. 

33. ONAGRACE-S3. (EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY.) 

Herbs with perfect and symmetrical flowers. The most showy 
plants in Hingham belonging to this family are the Primroses, and 
the Willow Herb. The cultivated ornamental plants belonging 
here are the Fuchsias, natives of South America and southern 
North America. All are harmless. 

Circsea, Tourn. 

Lutetiana, L. Enchanter's Nightshade. 

Epilobium, L. 

angustifolium, L. Willow-herb, 
lineare, Muhl. 
coloratum, Muhl. 

(Enothera, L. 

biennis, L. Evening Primrose, 
fruticosa, L. Very rare, 
pumila, L. 

Ludwigia, L. 

alternifolia, L. Seed-box. Not common, 
palustris, Ell. Water Purslane. 

34. CUCURBITACE^!. (GOURD FAMILY.) 

Succulent herbs that creep or twine by tendrils. This family, 
which yields in cultivation several highly-valued vegetables, — 



106 History of Hingham. 

the Cucumber, Squash, Watermelon and Muskmelon, — is known 
to the Hingham flora only by two introduced weeds. 

Sicyos, L. 

angulatus, L. Star Cucumber. 
Echinocystis, Torr. & Gr. 

lobata, Torr. & Gr. Wild Balsam-apple. 

35. FICOIDEiE. 

An order separated from the Caryophyllaceae. Represented 
here by an insignificant weed having no important properties. 

Mollugo, L. 

verticillala, L. Carpet-weed. 

36. UMBELLIFERiE. (PARSLEY FAMILY.) 

Herbs. Flowers, except in very rare cases and these not of 
Hingham species, in umbels. The genera and the species of the 
order are very numerous, and vary much in their properties. 
They are generally aromatic, some being harmless, while many 
are very noxious. Of the latter, the Cicuta maculata (Water 
Hemlock), the Cicuta bulbifera (narrow-leaved Hemlock), the 
iEthusa cynapium (Fool's Parsley), and the Sium lineare (Water 
Parsnip) are all deadly poisons when taken into the system. 

The seeds are stated to be always harmless, and many of them 
are in common use, as Anise, Carraway, Dill, and Coriander. 
The roots and herbage of several yield wholesome food, as the 
Carrot and Parsnip. 

Hydrocotyle, Tourn. 

Americana, L. Pennywort. 

Sanicula, Tourn. 

Marylandica, L. Sanicle. 
Marylandica, var. Canadensis, Torr. 

Daucus, Tourn. 

Carota, L. Carrot. 

Heracleum, L. 

lanatum, Mx. Cow-parsnip. 

Pastinaca, L. 

sativa, L. Parsnip. 

Angelica, L. 

atropurpurea, L. Great Angelica. 

Coelopleurum, Ledeb. 

Gmelini, Ledeb. Coast Angelica. 
/Ethusa, L. 

Cynapium, L. Fool's Parsley. 

Ligusticum, L. 

Scoticum, L. Lovage. 
Thaspium, Nutt. 

aureum, Nutt. Meadow Parsnip. Rare. 



The Botany of Hingham. 107 

Cicuta, L. 

maculata, L. Water Hemlock, 
bulbifera, L. Narrow-leaved Hemlock. 

Sium, Touru. 

cicutaefolium, Gmel. Water Parsnip. 

Osmorrhiza, Raf. 

longistylis, D C. Sweet Cicely. 

37. ARALIACE^EJ. (GlNSENG FAMILY.) 

The properties of the plants of this family are much the same 
generally as in those of the Umbelliferae. Some species furnish 
valuable medicines, as Ginseng, Sarsaparilla, and Spikenard. The 
order is represented in Hingham by one genus only. 

Aralia, Tourn. 

racemosa, L. Spikenard. 

hispida, Vent. Bristly Sarsaparilla. Rare. 

nudicaulis, L. Wild Sarsaparilla. 

trifolia, Decsne & Planch. Dwarf Ginseng. 

38. CORNACEiE. (DOGWOOD FAMILY.) 

Trees and shrubs, very rarely herbs. There are two genera in 
Hingham, — Cornus and Nyssa. Of the former a number of spe- 
cies are common in all parts of the town. The bark is very 
astringent and that of the C. florida is used sometimes medicinally 
as a tonic. The Nyssa is represented by the tree known as Tupelo, 
which in autumn adorns our forests with its bright crimson 
foliage. 

Cornus, Tourn. 

Canadensis, L. Bunch-berry, 
florida, L. Flowering Dogwood, 
circinata, L'Her. Round-leaved Dogwood, 
sericea, L. Silky Dogwood, 
paniculata, L'Her. Panicled Dogwood, 
alternifolia, Lf. Alternate-leaved Dogwood. 

Nyssa, L. 

sylvatica, Marsh. Tupelo. 



GAMOPETALOUS EXOGENS. 

39. CAPRIPOLIACE^J. (HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY.) 

Mostly shrubs, often twining, and rarely herbs. All have oppo- 
site leaves. The fine genus Viburnum enriches our flora with 
several species of great beauty. Some of the plants are used 
medicinally, as emetic and cathartic properties prevail in many. 
Triosteum perfoliatum, Fever-wort, has much reputation for 
effects similar to those of Ipecac. 



108 History of Hingham. 

Sambucus, Tourn. 

Canadensis, L. Elder, 
racemosa, L. Red-berried Elder. 

Viburnum, L. 

aeerifolium, L. Maple-leaved Arrow-wood, 
deutatum, L. Toothed Arrow-wood, 
cassinoides, L. Withe-rod. 
Lentago, L. Sweet Arrow-wood. 

Triosteum, L. 

pertbliatum, L. Fever-wort. 

Lonicera, L. 

sempervirens, Ait. Trumpet-Honeysuckle. 
Dierviila, Tourn. 

trifida, Moench. Bush-Honeysuckle. Very rare. 

40. RUBIACEiE. (M ADDER FAMILY.) 

Trees, shrubs, and herbs. Represented in Hingham but by a 
single shrub, the Button-bush, and by a few herbs, but among 
these last is one of rare beauty, far too little appreciated, the 
Mitchella rcpens, Partridge berry. This sweet little plant adorned 
with fragrant twin flowers, bright polished evergreen leaves, and 
showy scarlet berries is worthy of much more notice than is 
given it. 

Though our species do not furnish products of noticeable value, 
the family includes plants of great importance to man. Madder, 
so serviceable in the arts, is from the root of one of the species. 
Others furnish some of our most-highly prized medicines, as Peru- 
vian Bark, Quinine, Cinchona, Ipecacuana, etc. Coffee, the 
common luxury of our tables, is the product of a tree of this 
family. 

Houstonia, L. 

caerulea, L. Bluets. 

purpurea, L., var. longifolia, Gray. 

Cephalanthus, L. 

occidentalis, L. Button-bush. 

Mitchella, L. 

repens, L. Partridge-berry. 

Galium, L. 

Aparine, L. Cleavers, 
circrezans, Mx. Wild Liquorice, 
tritidum, L. Small Bedstraw. 
asprellura, Mx. Rough Bedstraw. 
triflorum, Mx. Sweet-scented Bedstraw. 

41. composite. (Composite Family.) 

The compound flowers of early botanists. The plants of this 
order are readily recognized by their flowers being grouped in 



The Botany of Hingham. 109 

numbers upon a common receptacle, the enlarged head of the 
flower stalk, and by the anthers of the stamens cohering in a tube. 
The marginal flowers generally have strap-shaped corollas, which, 
extending as rays around the receptacle, are often very showy, 
while the interior ones of the disk having only tubular corollas 
are comparatively insignificant. This gives the impression to 
observers unfamiliar with botanical details that only a single 
flower is seen where many are aggregated. 

Take the Sunflower, so called, for an example ; the very name 
of which implies it is one flower. In this case each of the yellow 
rays surrounding the whole receptacle is the corolla of a single 
marginal flower, those of the disk having no such rays. The 
greater portion of the Composita? of our town are of this charac- 
ter. The flowers of some have the corollas all strap-shaped or 
ligulate, as this form is called, as may be seen in the Dandelion 
and many others. 

The Composite, considering the vast number of species, do not 
furnish many useful products to man. A few supply food, as the 
Artichoke, Salsify, and Lettuce. The root of the Chickory is used 
extensively as a substitute for coffee. From the seeds of the Sun- 
flower and some others an oil is expressed which is valuable. A 
bitter principle, found in several species, combined with other 
properties, has led to the use of many of them medicinally, par- 
ticularly Wormwood, Camomile, Arnica, Artemisia, and Elecam- 
pane. Some are quite poisonous, as Arnica. 

As objects of beauty many of the cultivated species of the order 
surpass ifchose of any other in the autumnal season. How greatly 
should we feel the loss of the Asters, the Chrysanthemums, the 
Dahlias, and the varieties of Coreopsis from our flower gardens 
when nearly all their earlier companions " are faded and gone." 

Vernonia, Schreb. 

uoveboracensis, Willd. Iron Weed. Rare. 

Mikania, Willd. 

scandens, L. Hemp Weed. 

Eupatorium, Tourn. 

purpureum, L. Trumpet Weed. 

teucrifolium, Willd. 

sessilifolium, L. Boneset. 

perfoliatum, L. Thoroughwort. 
Solidago, L. 

cassia, L. Golden Rod. 

latifolia, L. 

bicolor, L. 

sempervirens, L. 

puberula, Nutt. 

odora, Ait. 

speciosa, Nutt. 

rugosa, Mill. 

Eliiottii, Torr. & Gr. 



HO History of Hingham. 

neglecta, Torr. & Gr. 

neglecta, Torr. & Gr., var. linoides, Gray. 

juncea, Ait. 

serotina, Ait. 

serotina, var. gigantea, Gray. 

Canadensis, L. 

nemoralis, Ait. 

lanceolata, L. 

tenuifolia, Pursh. 

Sericocarpus, Nees. 

solidagineus, Nees. White-topped Aster, 
conyzoides, Nees. 

Aster, L. 

corymbosus, Ait. 

macrophyllus, L. 

Novae-Angliae, L. 

patens, Ait. 

undulatus, L. 

cordifolius, L. 

lasvis, L. 

ericoides, L. 

multiflorus, Ait. 

dumosus, L. 

vimineus, Lam. 

diffusus, Ait. 

paniculatus, Lam. 

salicifolius, Ait. 

Novi-Belgii, L. 

Novi-Belgii, var. litoreus, Gray. 

puniceus, L. 

umbellatus, Mill. 

linariifolius, L. 

acuminatus, Mx. 

subulatus, Mx. 
Erigeron, L. 

bellidifolius, Mubl. Robin's Plantain. 

Philadelphicus, L. Fleabane. 

annuus, Pers. 

strigosus, Muhl. Daisy Fleabane. 

Canadensis, L. Horse-weed. 
Pluchea, Cass. 

camphorata, D C. Marsh Fleabane. 
Antennaria, Gaert. 

plantaginifolia, Hook. Plantain-leaved Everlasting. 
Anaphalis, D C. 

magaritacea, Benth. & Hook. Pearly Everlasting. 
Gnaphalium, L. 

polycephalum, Mx. Everlasting. 

uliginosum, L. Cudweed. 
Inula. L. 

Helenium, L. Elecampane. Rare. 



Tlie Botany of Hingham. m 

Iva, L. 

frutescens, L. Marsh Elder. 

Ambrosia, Tourn. 

artemisisefolia, L. Roman Wormwood. 

Xanthium, Tourn. 

Canadense, Mill. far. echinatum, Gray. Cockle-bur. 

Rudbeckia, L. 

hirta, L. Cone-flower. 

Helianthus, L. 

aim ti us, L. Sunflower. 

divaricatus, L. 

strumosus, L. 

decapetalus, L. 

tuberosus, L. Jerusalem Artichoke. 

Coreopsis, L. 

tinctoria, Nutt. Not common. 

Bidens, L. 

frondosa, L. Beggar-ticks, 
connata, Muhl. Swamp-ticks. 
cernua, L. Smaller Swamp-ticks, 
chrysanthemoides, Mx. Larger Swamp-ticks. 

Anthemis, L. 

Cotula, D C. May-weed. 

arvensis, L. Corn Chamomile. Rare. 

Achillea, L. 

Millefolium. L. Yarrow. 
Ptarmica, L. Sneeze-wort. Rare. 

Chrysanthemum, Tourn. 

Leucanthemum, L. Daisy. White-weed. 

Tanacetum, L. 

vulgare, L. Tansy. 

Artemisia, L. 

vulgaris, L. Mugwort. 

Senecio, Touru. 

aureus, L. Golden Rag-wort. 
vulgaris, L. Groundsel. 

Erechtites, Raf. 

hieracifolia, Raf. Fire-weed. 

Arctium, L. 

Lappa, L., var. minus, Gray. Burdock. 

Cnicus, Tourn. 

arvensis, Hoffm. Canada Thistle. 

lanceolatus, Hoffm. Common Thistle. 

pumilus, Torr. Pasture Thistle. 

altissimus, Willd., var. discolor, Gray. Tall Thistle. 

muticus, Pursh. Swamp Thistle. 

horridulus, Pursh. Yellow Thistle. 

Onopordon, Vaill. 

Acanthium, L. Cotton Thistle. 



112 History of H Ingham. 

Centaurea, L. 

nigra, L. Knapweed. 

Krigia, Schreb. 

Virginica, Willd. Dwarf Dandelion. 
Cichorium, Tourn. 

Jnfybus, L. Chiccory. 

Leontodon, L. 

antamnalis, L. Hawkbit. Fall Dandelion. 
Hieracium, Tourn. 

Canadense, Mx. Canada Hawkweed. 

paniculatum, L. Panicled Hawkweed. 

venosum, L. Rattle-snake Hawkweed. 

scabrum, Mx. Rough Hawkweed. 

Prenanth.es, Vaill. 
altissima, L. 
serpentaria, Pursh. 

Taraxacum, Hall. 

officinale, Weber. Dandelion. 

Lactuca, Tourn. 

Canadensis, L. Wild Lettuce. 

integrifolia, Bigel. 

leucopha^a, Gray. Blue Lettuce. Rare. 

Sonchus, L. 

oleraceus, L. Sow-Thistle. 
asper, Vill. Spiny-leaved Thistle. 

42. IiOBELIACEiE. (LOBELIA FAMILY.) 

Herbs with a milky juice. All the species are poisonous. One 
of them, the Indian Tobacco, Lobelia infiata, a common plant of 
our town, is very much so, and has been used too freely in char- 
latan practice, — many deaths having resulted from such use. One 
of the most beautiful and showy plants of our w r et meadows is the 
Lobelia Cardinalis, which exhibits its large and bright scarlet 
flowers in the summer and early autumn. 

Lobelia, L. 

cardinalis, L. Cardinal-flower. 
Dortmanna. L. Water Lobelia, 
spicata, Lam. 
inflata, L. Indian Tobacco. 

43. CAMPANULACEiE. (BELLWORT FAMILY.) 

Like the Lobeliaceoe, the plants of this family are herbs with a 
milky juice, but unlike them, they are harmless. Indeed, the 
roots and. young leaves of some of them are eaten for food. 

The flowers are generally blue. They are so in our two 
species. 



The Botany of Ringham. 113 

Specularia, Heist. 

perfoliata, A. D C. Venus's Looking-glass. 
Campanula, Tourn. 

rapancidoides, L. Bell-flower. Escaped from gardens. 

44 ERICACE^. (HEATH FAMILY.) 

Shrubby and Herbaceous plants, — dear to us for the luxuries 
furnished in our rural walks and upon our tables ; for what would 
a season be to us without Huckleberries, Blueberries of many 
species, and Cranberries ! 

As objects of beauty and fragrance, how could we spare the 
Trailing Arbutus, the Cassandra, the Andromeda, the Clethra, 
the Rhododendron, and the Kalmia, in our wanderings. All 
these and manv others of our flora make fragrant the air with 
the odors they exhale, or charm the eye by their beauty. 

With but few exceptions the plants of this family are entirely 
innocuous. 

The leaves of the Rhododendron and the Kalmia, however, con- 
tain a narcotic principle which sometimes renders them poisonous. 

Some of the species, as the Bearberry and the Chimaphila, are 
used medicinally, — - infusions of the leaves being found serviceable. 

Gaylussacia, H. B. K. 

frondosa, Torr. & Gr. Dangleberry. 
resinosa, Torr. & Gr. Black Huckleberry. 

Vaccinium, L. 

Pennsylvanicum, Lam. Dwarf Blueberry. 

vacillans, Solander. Low Blueberry. 

corymbosum, L. Tall Blueberry. 

macrocarpon, Ait. Cranberry. 
Chiogenes, Salis. 

serpyllifolia, Salis. Creeping Snowberry. Very Rare. 
Arctostaphylos, Adan. 

Uva-ursi, Spreng. Bearberry. 
Epigaea, L. 

repens, L. Mayflower. 
Gaultheria, Kalm. 

procumbens, L. Checkerberry. 
Andromeda, L. 

ligustrina, Muhl. 
Leucothoe, Don. 

racemosa, Gray. 

Cassandra, Don. 

calyculata, Don. Leather-leaf. 
Kalmia, L. 

latifolia, L. Mountain Laurel. 

angustifolia, L. Sheep Laurel. 

Rhododendron, L. 

viscosum, Torr. Swamp Honeysuckle. 
Rhodora, Don. Rhodora. 

VOL I. — 8 



114 History of Hingham. 

Clethra, Gronov. 

alnifolia, L. White Alder. 

Chimaphila, Pursh. 

umbellata, Nutt. Prince's Pine, 
niaculata, Pursh. Spotted Wintergreen. 

Pyrola, Tourn. 

secunda, L. Wintergreen. 
ehlorautha, Swartz. 
elliptica, Nutt. 
rotundifolia, L. 

Monotropa, L. 

uuitiora, L. Indian Pipe. 
Hypopitys, L. Pine-sap. 



45. PLUMBAGINACEiE. (LEADWORT FAMILY.) 

Seaside plants. Our species, the Sea Lavender or Marsh Rose- 
mary, is very common along our shores. The root is very as- 
tringent, and is much used in medicine, especially in cases of 
inflammation and ulceration of the throat. 

Statice, Tourn. 

Lituouiurn, L. Marsh Rosemary. 

46. PRIMULACEiE. (PRIMROSE FAMILY.) 

None of the plants of this family serve important useful pur- 
poses, but all are harmless. The species are few in our flora, but 
they differ much in appearance and habits. The Trientalis is one 
of the most delicate of them and is often seen nestling in the 
thickets with its companions, the Anemones, bearing its beautiful 
star-shaped flowers ; while in contrast may be found in the wet 
swamps and stagnant waters, the Hottonia, a coarse plant with 
large inflated stems, interesting more from its peculiar character- 
istics than from its beauty. 

Hottonia, L. 

inflata, Ell. Featherfoil. 

Trientalis, L. 

Americana, Pursh. Star-flower. 

Lysimachia, Tourn. 

quadrif'olia, L. Loosestrife. 

stricta. Ait. 

mtmmiilaria, L. Moneywort. 

Steironema, Raf. 

lanceolatum, Gray. 

Anagallis. Tourn. 

arvensis, L. Pimpernel. 

Samolus, Tourn. 

Valerandi, L. var. Americanus, Gray. Brookweed. 



The Botany of Hingham. 115 



47. OLEACE-3L (OLIVE FAMILY.) 

Trees and shrubs. Though possessing bitter and astringent 
properties they are harmless. The Olive tree is one of the best 
known of the family, as its fruit and the oil it produces are eaten 
throughout the civilized world. Among the cultivated plants are 
the Common and Persian Lilacs, the Virginia Fringe tree, and the 
Jessamine. The species native to our flora are the White, Red, 
and Black Ash. The Privet is extensively naturalized in all parts 
of the town. 

Ligustrum, Tourn. 

vuk/are, L. Privet. 
Fraxinus, Tourn. 

Americana, L. White Ash. 

pubescens. Lam. Red Ash. 

sambucifolia, Lam. Black Ash. 

48. APOCYNACEJE. (DOGBANE FAMILY.) 

Apocynum, Tourn. 

androsiemifolium, L. Dogbane, 
cannabinum, L. Indian Hemp. 

49. ASCLEPIADACE-EJ. (MlLKWEED FAMILY.) 

Herbs and shrubs ; but in Hingham, herbs only which belong 
to the genus Asclepias, and all bear umbels of flowers. Like 
the Apocynaceas, they have a milky juice, but the properties 
of this as well as the other parts of the plants are much less 
noxious. One of the most beautiful plants of New England is the 
A. tuberosa, which is exceedingly rare, if indeed it is yet to be 
found wild within the town limits. 

Asclepias, L. 

tuberosa, L. Butterfly-weed, 
incarnata, L. Swamp Milkweed. 
Cornuti, Decaisne. Hedge Milkweed, 
obtusifolia, Mx. 

phytolaccoides, Pursh. Poke Milkweed, 
quadrifolia, L. Four-leaved Milkweed, 
verticillata, L. Whorled Milkweed. 

50. GENTIANACEiE. (GENTIAN FAMILY.) 

Herbs. This family has furnished us with one of the most 
beautiful and interesting of the plants of our flora, the Fringed 
Gentian, and care should be taken to prevent its extermination, 
now seriously threatened. The only way to prevent this is to 
leave at least a portion of the flowers to mature and drop their 
seeds, it being an annual and propagated only in this way. All 



116 History of Hingham. 

the plants of the family have pervading them a very bitter princi- 
ple, which, affording a good tonic, has led to the extensive use of 
several of the species medicinally. 

Gentiana, Tourn. 

crinita, Froel. Fringed Gentian. 
Andrewsii, Griseb. Closed Gentian. 

Bartonia, Muhl. 
tenella, Muhl. 

Menyanthes, Tourn. 

trifoliata, L. Buckbean. Not common. 

51. BORRAGINACEiE. (BORAGE FAMILY.) 

Mostly herbs. All our species are such, and all bristly or hairy. 
They are mucilaginous and harmless. 

Myosotis, Dill. 

arvensis, tloffm. 

verna, Nutt. 

laxa, Lehm. 

palustris, With. Foi'get-me-not. 

Symphytum, Tourn. 

officinale, L. Comfrev. Rare. 

Echium, Tourn. 

vulgare, L. Blue-weed. Rare. 

Echinospermum, Lehm. 

Lappula, LeJim. Stick-seed. Rare. 

Lythospernum, Tourn. 

arvense, L. Corn Gromwell. 

52. CONVOLVULACEJE. (CONVOLVULUS FAMILY). 

Mostly herbs, twining about other plants; always so with those 
of our town. Two of these of the genus Cuscuta are parasitic 
upon the bark of the herbs or shrubs they climb upon. Some 
species are very ornamental in cultivation, as the Morning Glory 
and the Cypress vine. 

The roots of the plants have generally a milky juice which is 
used in medicine as a purgative. The Sweet Potato is a valuable 
product of a plant of this family, native to the East Indies, but 
now cultivated in all tropical and semi-tropical regions, and even 
to a considerable extent within the temperate zone. It will 
flourish well in Hingham and yield good-sized tubers, but they 
lack the sweetness of such as come from the Carolinas. 

Convolvulus, Tourn. 

sepium, L. Hedge Bindweed. 
arvensis, L. Smaller Bindweed. 

Gnscuta, Touru. 

Gronovii, Willd. Dodder, 
compacta, Juss. Rare. 



The Botany of Htngham. 117 



53. SOLANACE-aB. (NIGHTSHADE FAMILY.) 

Herbs with us ; sometimes shrubs in other regions. This fam- 
ily furnishes that most valuable tuber, the potato; and also the 
nutritious and wholesome fruit of the Tomato and Egg plant. A 
narcotic alkaloid, however, pervades the species, rendering many 
noxious and some violently poisonous. Even the herbage of the 
potato and its raw fruit (not the tubers) contain too much of the 
alkaloid to be safe for food. 

Tobacco, one of the most potent of all the enemies that man 
puts into his mouth, is a product of the Nicotiana Tabacum, a 
native of Central America. 

Our wild species are all more or less poisonous, — the Datura 
tatula, or Thorn-apple, being the most so. 

As might be supposed from the active narcotic character of the 
plants of this family, many furnish useful medicines. 

Solanum, Tourn. 

Dulcamara, L. Nightshade, 
nigrum, L. Black Nightshade. 

Physalis, L. 

Virginiana, Mill. Ground Cherry. Rare. 

Nicandra, Adans. 

p/iysaloides, Gcert. Apple of Peru. Rare. 

Datura, L. 

Tatula, L. Purple Thorn-apple. 



54. SCROPHULARIACE^J. (FlGWORT FAMILY.) 

Mostly herbs. A very large family of plants, inhabitants alike 
of cold and warm climates, and though properly classed together 
by natural affinities, yet exhibiting great diversity of character. 
One, a native of Japan, is a tree forty feet in height, and hav- 
ing a trunk two to three feet in diameter, yet bearing clusters of 
blossoms similar to those of the common Foxglove. We may 
contrast with this the Limosella, a plant from one to two inches 
in height, which grows in the tidal mud of the shores. The 
family is well represented in Hingham by the Gerardias, the 
Veronicas, and other well-known genera. 

The properties of the plants are not such as to inspire the lov- 
ing feelings towards them that are excited bv the Rosacea;, the 
Labiatoe, and some others, for they are acrimonious and dele- 
terious. One of them, a commonly cultivated species of the 
genus Digitalis, the Foxglove, is violently poisonous. This and 
several others of kindred nature afford to man some compensa- 
tion for their noxious qualities by furnishing medicines of great 
value. Many of the species are highly ornamental. 



118 History of Hingham. 

Verbascum, L. 

Thapsus, L. Mullein. 
Blattaria, L. Moth Mullein. 

Linaria, L. 

Canadensis, Dumont. Toad-Flax. 
vulgaris, Mill. Butter-and-Eggs. 

Scrophularia, Tourn. 

nodosa, L. var. Marilandica, Gray. Figwort. Rare. 

Chelone, Tourn. 

glabra, L. Snake-bead. 

Mimulus, L. 

ringens, L. Monkey-flower. 

Gratiola, L. 

aurea, Mubl. Hedge Hyssop. 

Ilysantbes, Raf. 

riparia, Raf. False Pimpernel. 

Veronica, L. 

Anagallis, L. Water Speedwell, 
scutellata, L. Marsh Speedwell, 
serpyllifolia, L. Thyme-leaved Speedwell, 
peregrina, L. Purslane Speedwell. 
arvensis, L. Corn Speedwell. 
agrestis, L. Field Speedwell. 

Gerardia, L. 

pedieularia, L. Gerardia. 
flava, L. Downy Gerardia. 
quercifolia, Pursh. Oak-leaved Gerardia. 
purpurea, L. Purple Gerardia. 
maritima, Raf. Seaside Gerardia. 
tenuifolia, Vahl. Slender Gerardia. 

Pedicularis, Tourn. 

Canadensis, L. Louse-wort. 

Melampyrum, Tourn. 

Americanum, Mx. Cow-wheat. 

55. OROBANCHACE5!. (BrOOM-RaPE FAMILY.) 

Plants without leaves ; low, fleshy, and of a reddish-brown or 
yellowish-brown color. All parasites upon the roots of other 
plants. There are in Hingham but two species, one of which 
exists upon the roots of the Beech and is consequently found only 
under the shade of this tree. The plants are astringent and. 
bitter. 

Aphyllon, Mitch. 

uniflorum, Torr. & Gr. Cancer-root. 

Epiphegus, Nutt. 

Virginiana, Bart. Beech-drops. 



The Botany of H Ingham. 119 



56. LENTIBULARIACE^3. (BLADDERWORT FAMILY.) 

Aquatic herbs. Represented in Hingham by one genus, the 
Utricularia. The species are generally immersed, sometimes 
deeply, and have leaves much dissected, having upon them little 
bladders which being filled with air cause the plant to bear the 
flowers above the water. One species, the U. gibba has been 
found rooted in the marginal mud of a pond. 

The plants have no noxious properties. 

Utricularia, L. 

inflata, Walt. Inflated Bladderwort. 
vulgaris, L. Greater Bladderwort. 
gibba, L. Dwarf Bladderwort. 
intermedia, Hayne. 

57. VERBENACEiE. (VERVAIN FAMILY.) 

Trees, shrubs, and herbs ; with us, herbs only, and confined to 
two species. The plants of this family are harmless and differ 
but little from those of the next in general characteristics ; but 
they lack the aromatic fragrance that makes the Labiatae 
attractive. 

The Teak wood of India, so renowned for its durability, is the 
product of a tree of this order, of large dimensions, having a 
height of about one hundred feet. 



*© 



Verbena, Tourn. 

hastata, L. Blue Vervain, 
urticaefolia, L. White Vervain. 



58. LABIATiE. (MlNT FAMILY.) 

A family of pleasing and useful herbs ; pleasing by the aroma 
they exhale and useful in many ways to man. No species is 
harmful or, as the botanist Wood states, even suspicious. To it 
belong the Peppermint, Spearmint, Pennyroyal, Sage, Thyme, 
Lavender, Hoarhound, Catnip, and other well-known herbs. 

The foliage has small glands which secrete a volatile oil that 
yields the fragrance so marked in most of the species. 

Trichostema, L. 

diehotomum, L. Blue Curls. 
Teucrium, Tourn. 

Canadense, L. Germander. 

Mentha, Tourn. 

viridis, L. Spearmint. 
piperita, L. Peppermint. 
Canadensis, L. Wild Mint. 



120 History of Hingham. 

Lycopus, Tourn. 

Virginicus, L. Bugle-weed. 

sinuatus, Ell. Cut-leaved Bugle-weed. 

Pycnanthemum, Ms. 

muticum, Pers. Mountain Mint, 
linifolium, Pursh. Narrow-leaved Mint. 

Origanum, Tourn. 

vidyare, L. Wild Marjoram. Rare. 

Hedeoma, Pers. 

pulegioides, Pers. Pennyroyal. 

Monarda, L. 

fistulosa, L. Wild Bergamot. 

Nepeta, L. 

Cataria, L. Catnip. 
Glechoma, Benth. Ground Ivy. 

Scutellaria, L. 

lateriflora, L. Scull-cap. 
galericulata, L. 

Brunella, Tourn. 

vulgaris, L. Self-heal. 

Ballota, L. 

nigra, L. Black Horehound. 
Leonurus, L. 

Cardiaca, L. Motherwort. 

Galeopsis, L. Hemp-Nettle. 
Tetrahit, L. 

Stachys, Tourn. 

arvensis, L> Woundwort. Rare. 
Lamium, L. 

amplexicaule , L. Dead-Nettie. 

intermedium, Fr. Rare. 

59. PLANTAGINACEiE. (PLANTAIN FAMILY.) 

Stemless herbs without properties of any importance. The 
Plantago major, one of the species, is so common about our 
dwellings as to have given rise to the saying that wherever the 
white man puts his feet the Plantain is sure to spring up. 

Plantago, Tourn. 

major, L. Plantain. 

Rugelii, Decaisne. 

decipiens, Barneoud. Marsh Plantain. 

lanceolata, L. Ribgrass. 

Patagonica, Jacq., var. aristata, Gray, Rare. 

60. HiLECEBRACE-a:. (Whitlowwort Family.) 

There are but two plants in Hingham belonging to this new 
order, separated from the Caryophyllacese. Their properties are 
unimportant. 



The Botany of Hinyliam. 121 



Anychia, Mx. 

capillacea, Nutt. Forked Chickweed. 

Scleranthus, L. 

annuas, L. Knawel. 



APETALOUS EXOGENS. 

61. AMARANTACEiE. (AMARANTH FAMILY.) 

Aii ordei' containing some shrubs, but mostly herbaceous plants, 
and found to some extent in temperate regions, although princi- 
pally natives of the tropics. Medicinal properties are ascribed to 
some species, and one at least produces edible seeds. The Cocks- 
comb, one of the Prince's Feathers, and other species, are com- 
mon annuals in our gardens. 

Amarantus, Tourn. 

paniculalus, L. Prince's Feather. Rare. 
albus, L. Amaranth, 
retrorlexus, L. 

62. CHENOPODIACE2E. (GOOSEFOOT FAMILY.) 

A family of herbs or undershrubs, found all over the world, 
but chiefly natives of northern Europe and Asia. The Beet, 
Mangel-wurtzel, Spinach, and other edible plants, are of this or- 
der. Some species have medicinal value, and an oil is extracted 
from one. The ashes of several of them yield soda. 

Chenopodium, Tourn. 

album, L. Pigweed. 

glaucum, L. Oak-leaved Goosefoot. 

urbicum, L. 

hybridum, L. Maple-leaved Goosefoot. 

capitatum, Wats. Strawberry Blite. Rare. 

Atriplex, Tourn. 

patulum, L. Orache. 

arenarium, Nutt. Seaside Orache. 

Salicornia, Tourn. 

herbacea, L. Samphire, 
mucronata, Big. 
ambigua, Mx. 

Suseda, Forsk. 

linearis, Moq. Sea Blite. 

Salsola, L. 

Kali, L. Saltwort. 



122 History of Hingham. 



63. PHYTOLACCACEiE. (TOKEWEED FAMILY.) 

A small family of herbs or undershrubs, chiefly natives of the 
tropics. We have only one species, — the Garget or Pokeberry, 
the root of which is poisonous. 

Phytolacca, Tourn. 

decandra, L. Poke. 

64. POLYGONACEiE. (BUCKWHEAT FAMILY.) 

This order includes a few trees and shrubs, but is almost en- 
tirely composed of herbaceous plants, principally natives of the 
north temperate zones, but found in nearly all parts of the world. 
Some species are medicinal, some furnish dyes, and to the food 
supply of the earth the order contributes Buckwheat, Rhubarb 
(the stalks of which are edible, the leaves containing so much 
oxalic acid as to be poisonous), and the fruits of some East and 
West Indian species. 

Polygonum, Tourn. 

orientate, L. Prince's Feather. 

Pennsylvanicum, L. 

lapathifolium, L., var. inearnatum, Watson. 

Persicaria, L. Lady's Thumb. 

Hydropiper, L. Smartweed. 

acre, H. B. K. Water Smartweed. 

hydropiperoides, Mx. Mild Smartweed. 

Muhlenbergii, Watson. Water Persicaria. 

aviculare, L. Knotgrass. 

erectum, L. Rare. 

ramosissimum, Mx. 

tenue, Mx. 

arifolium, L. Halberd-leaved Tear-thumb. 

sagittatum, L. Arrow-leaved Tear-thumb. 

Convolvulus, L. Bindweed. 

dumetorum, L., var. scandens, Gray. 

cilinode, Mx. 
Fagopyrum, Tourn. 

esculentum, Moench. Buckwheat. Rare. 

Rumex, L. 

salicifolius, Weinmann. White Dock. 

crispus, L. Curled Dock. 

obtusifolius, L. Bitter Dock. 

sanguineus* L. Bloody- veined Dock. Rare. 

Acetosella, L. Sorrel. 

65. LAURACE.2EJ. (LAUREL FAMILY.) 

A very important order of trees and shrubs, natives of Amer- 
ica, Europe (one species), and Asia, but mostly tropical. 

The character pervading the order is a pleasant aroma, and 



The Botany of H Ingham. 123 

among the products are Cinnamon, Camphor, Cassia, and other 
medicinal barks, and a number of aromatic fruits and oils. The 
timber of some species is valuable. 

Sassafras, Nees. 

officinale, Nees. 

Lindera, Thunb. 

Benzoin, Blume. Spice Bush. 

66. SANTALACE-3E3. (SANDAL-WOOD FAMILY.) 

An order of trees, shrubs, and herbs, natives of Europe, Amer- 
ica, Australia, and the East Indies. The European and North 
American species are herbaceous, while the trees occur in the 
East Indies and South Sea Islands. The celebrated Sandal-wood 
is a product of several species of this order. The family has 
medicinal properties, and a tea is made from the leaves of one 
species, while another (the Buffalo-tree or Oil Nut J yields an 
oil. Represented in Hingham by one insignificant species. 

Comandra, Nutt. 

umbellata, Nutt. Toad-flax. 

67. EUPHORBIACE^I. (SPURGE FAMILY.) 

A family of about 2,500 species, comprising trees, shrubs, and 
herbs, natives chiefly of warm countries, especially tropical Amer- 
ica. The few Northern species are herbaceous. The plants of 
this order abound in an acrid juice, which, in nearly all of 
them, is poisonous. Many are valuable in medicine, furnishing 
Croton Oil, Castor Oil, Cascarilla Bark, etc. The fruits and 
seeds of some, and the starch of others (yielding Tapioca, etc.), 
are edible. The timber of some trees is valuable, — African 
Teak, for example. Caoutchouc is the product of several South 
American plants of this order. Some species yield various dyes 
and many are cultivated for their beauty. 

Euphorbia, L. 

maculata, L. Spurge. 

Preslii, Guss. 

Cyparissias, L. 
Acalypha, L. 

Virgin ica, L. Three-seeded Mercury. 

68. TJRTICACEJE. (NETTLE FAMILY.) 

A large and interesting order, embracing trees, shrubs, and 
herbs, principally natives of the tropics, although the temperate 
zones contain a considerable number. 

The trees and shrubs have generally a milky juice, the herbs 
a watery one. This juice in some of the sub-orders is acrid and 
poisonous. The celebrated Bohon Upas, one of the deadliest 



124 History of Hingham. 

poisons known, is the concrete juice of one species found in the 
islands of the Indian Ocean. The hairs on the leaves of the 
nettles are proverbial for their stinging qualities. Notwithstand- 
ing the poisonous properties of the sap of some species, the cele- 
brated Cow-tree of South America supplies a milky juice which 
is wholesome and valuable as food or drink. This order also 
produces the Fig, Breadfruit, Mulberry, and other fruits, besides 
the Hop. Hemp, and Fustic, are also products of this family, 
as is Gum-lac. The famous Banyan-tree is one of the species. 

Ulmus, L. 

Americana, L. Elm. 
Celtis, Tourn. 

occidentalis, L. Hack-berry. 
Urtica, Tourn. 

gracilis, Ait. Nettle. 

dioica, L. 

urens, L. 
Pilea, Lin (11. 

pumila, Gray. Richweed. 
Bcehmeria, Jacq. 

cylindrica, Willd. False Nettle. 

Cannabis, Tourn. 
sativa, L. 

Parietaria, Tourn. 

Pennsylvaniea, Muhl. Pellitory. Rare. 

69. PLATANACEiE. (PLANE-TREE FAMILY.) 

An order of trees and shrubs, natives of the Levant, Barbary, 
and North America. The trees of this family are immense ; 
specimens of our only species having been found in the West, 
thirteen feet in diameter. A tree of the Oriental Plane (P. ori- 
cntalis) standing on the bank of the Bosphorus, is 141 feet in 
circumference and believed to be 2,000 years old. The wood of 
the trees of this order is used in the arts. 

Platanus, L. 

occidentalis, L. Bnttonwood. 

70. JUGLANDACB3!. (WALNUT FAMILY.) 

An important family, of about thirty species, principally in- 
habiting North America. It comprises trees of large size and 
imposing appearance, which are very useful in the arts ; fur- 
nishing valuable timber, besides affording a dye-stuff made from 
the husks and roots. Sugar similar to maple sugar is obtained 
from the sap, and the leaves and bark of some species are used 
in medicine. The fruit of many trees of this order is highly 
esteemed. 



The Botany of Hingham. 125 

Carya, Nutt. 

alba, Nutt. Shag-bark Hickory, 
tomentosa, Nutt. Mocker-nut Hickory, 
porcina, Nutt. Pig-nut Hickory, 
amara, Nutt. Bitter-nut Hickory. 

71. MYRICACEiE. (SWEET GALE FAMILY.) 

A small family, inhabiting the temperate parts of North Amer- 
ica, India, South Africa, and Europe. The fruit of the Bayberry 
affords a wax sometimes used in making candles. 

Myrica, L. 

cerifera, L. Bayberry. 
asplenifolia, Endl. Sweet Fern. 

72. CUPULIFERiB. (OaK FAMILY.) 

This noble order comprises the Birch, Alder, Hornbeam, 
Hazel. Oak, Chestnut, and Beech. It inhabits principally the 
north temperate zone ; but species are common as far south as 
tbe mountainous districts of the tropics. It contains trees of 
magnificent size and grandeur, and low shrubs. 

Its importance to man, both in the arts and in medicine, and 
as furnishing food, is well known. 

Betula, Tourn. 

lenta, L. Black Birch, 
lutea, Mx. f. Yellow Birch, 
populifolia, Ait. White Birch. 
papyrifera, Marsh. Canoe Birch. Rare. 

AlmiS, Tourn. 

incana, Willd. Alder, 
serrulata, Willd. Smooth Alder. 

Carpinus, L. 

Caroliniana, Walt. Hornbeam. 

Ostrya, Micheli. 

Virginica, Willd. Hop Hornbeam. 

Corylus, Tourn. 

Americana, Walt. Hazel. 
rostrata, Ait. Beaked Hazel. 

Quercus, L. 

alba, L. White Oak. 

bicolor, Willd. Swamp Oak. 

Prinus, L. Chestnut Oak. 

Muhlenbergii, Engel. Yellow Chestnut Oak. 

prinoides, Willd. Chinquapin Oak. 

ilicifolia, Wang. Bear Oak. 

coccinea, Wang. Scarlet Oak. 

tinctoria, Bartram. Black Oak. 

rubra, L. Red Oak. 



126 History of Hingham. 

Castanea, Tourn. 

sativa, Mill., var. Americana. Chestnut. 

Fagus, Tourn. 

ferruginea, Ait. Beech. 

73. SALICACE.SJ. (WlLLOW FAMILY.) 

This family, comprising the Willows and Poplars, is found 
almost entirely in the temperate and frigid zones. Two species 
are the most northern woody plants known. The order embraces 
trees and shrubs; some trees reaching a height of eighty feet, 
and certain species of the shrubs, in alpine and arctic regions, 
rising scarcely more than an inch from the ground. The family 
is variously useful in the arts and valuable in medicine, and 
the leaves and young shoots furnish fodder for cattle in some 
countries. 

Salix, Tourn. 

alba, L., var. vitellina. Koch. White Willow. 

tristis. Ait. Dwarf Gray Willow. 

humilis, Marsh. 

discolor, Muhl. Glaucous Willow. 

sericea, Marsh. Silky Willow. 

petiolaris, Smith. Petioled Willow. 

rostrata, Richard. Livid Willow. 

lucida, Muhl. Shining AVillow. 

nigra, Marsh. Black Willow. 

myrtilloides, L. Myrtle Willow. 

Populus, Tourn. 

tremuloides, Mx. American Aspen, 
grandidentata, Mx. Large-toothed Poplar, 
balsamifera, L., var. candicans, Gray. Balm of Gilead. 

74. CERATOPHYLLACE-SJ. (HORNWORT FAMILY.) 

Aquatic plants growing in slow streams and ponds. 

Ceratophyllum, L. 

demersum, L. Hornwort. 

75. CONIFERS. (PlNE FAMILY.) 

An order of evergreen trees and shrubs, common to the tem- 
perate and torrid zones, but more extensive in the former regions. 
The tropical species differ entirely from those existing in cold 
climates. The family embraces both low shrubs and some of the 
tallest trees in the world ; the gigantic Pines and Redwoods of Cali- 
fornia. It is of great importance to man, furnishing timber, tur- 
pentine, tar, pitch, and resin, besides certain oils. The seeds of 
some species arc esculent, and the order is of value in medicine. 



The Botany of Hingham. Ill 

Chamaecyparis, Spach. 

spliEeroidea, Spach. White Cedar. 
Juniperus, L. 

communis. L. Juniper. 

Virgin iana, L. Red Cedar. 
Pinus, Tourn. 

rigida. Miller. Pitch Pine. 

strobus, L. White Pine. 
Picea, Link. 

nigra, Link. Black Spruce. 
Tsuga, Carr. 

Canadensis, Carr. Hemlock. 

MOXOCOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS : ENDOGENS. 

76. ORCHID ACEiE. ( ORCHIS FAMILY.) 

A vast family of mostly herbaceous plants, although some in 
the tropics are shrubs. Many of the orchids are epiphytes; 
plants growing on living or dead trees, but drawing sustenance 
from the air. They are natives of all parts of the world, but 
most numerous in the tropical forests of America, and are re- 
markable for the extreme beauty and odd structure of their 
flowers, as well as for the grotesque character of the stems and 
roots of many species. The root tubercles of a few species fur- 
nish the ingredients of a nutritious article of food. Vanilla is 
a product of a climbing shrub belonging to the order. Only a 
few species grow in the United States. 

Corallorhiza, Haller. 

multiflora, Nutt. Coral-root. 

Spiranthes, Rich. 

cernua, Rich. Ladies' Tresses, 
gracilis, Big. 

Goodyera, R. Br. 

repens, R. Br. Rattlesnake Plantain, 
pubescens, R. Br. 

Arethusa, Gronov. 

bulhosa, L. 
Calopogon, R. Br. 

pulchellus, R. Br. 

Pogonia, Juss. 

ophioglossoides, Nutt. 

Habenaria, Willd. 

tridentata, Hook. 

blephariglottis, Torr. White Fringed Orchis. 

virescens, Spreng. 

lacera, R. Br. Ragged Orchis. 

psycodes, Gray. Fringed Orchis. 

fimbriata, R. Br. Large Fringed Orchis. 
Cypripedium, L. 

acaule, Ait. Ladies' slipper. 



128 History of H Ingham. 



77. iridace-E. (Iris Family.) 

Herbaceous plants, with tuberous roots, natives of the Cape 
of Good Hope, Central Europe, and North America. They are 
celebrated more for their beauty than for use, although some 
are medicinal and the root-stocks of a few are edible. Saffron 
is the product of one species. 

The Flower-de-Luce, Crocus, and Gladiolus are of this family. 

Iris, Tourn. 

versicolor, L. Blue Flag. 
prismatica, Pursh. Slender Flag. 

Sisyrinchium, L. 

anceps, Cav. Blue-eyed Grass, 
angustifoliuin, Mill. 

78 AMARYLLIDACE5!. (AMARYLLIS FAMILY.) 

Generally bulbous herbs, mostly tropical, furnishing our gar- 
dens with some of their most splendid flowers. A few species have 
poisonous properties. The celebrated Mexican drink, pulque, is 
made from the Agave. 

Hypoxis, L. 

erecta, L. Star-grass. 

79. LILIACEiE. (LlLY FAMILY.) 

A large family of principally herbaceous plants, with generally 
bulbiferous roots, found mostly in the warmer portions of the 
temperate zones. A few tropical species are trees or shrubs. The 
order embraces many of our most beautiful wild and cultivated 
plants. Some species are useful in medicine, furnishing squills, 
aloes, etc. A few such as Onion, Garlic, Asparagus, are edible 
Some are used in the arts. 

Smilax, Tourn. 

rotundifolia, L. Greenbrier. 

glauca, Walt. Rare. 

herbacea, L. Carrion-flower. 
Asparagus, Tourn. 

officinalis, L. 

Polygonatum, Tourn. 

biflorum, Ell. Solomon's Seal. 
Smilacina, Desf. 

racemosa, Desf. 

stellata, Desf. 
Maianthemum, Wigg. 

Canadense, Desf. Low Solomon's Seal. 
Hemerocallis, L. 

fulva, L. Day Lily. 



The Dolmny of Hlmjham. 129 

Allium, L. 

vineale, L. Garlic. 
Canadense, Kalin. 

Muscari, Toarn. 

botryoides, Mill. Grape Hyacinth. Rare. 

Ornithogalum, Touro. 

umbellatum, L. Star of Bethlehem. 

Lilium, L. 

Philadelphicum, L. Orange Lily. 

Canadense, L. Yellow Lily. 
Erythronium, L. 

Americanum, Ker. Dog-toothed Violet. 

Oakesia, Watson. 

sessilifolia, Watson. Bellwort. 

Clintonia, Raf. 

borealis, Raf. Rare. 

Medeola, Gronov. 

Virginiana, L. Cucumber-root. 

Trillium, L. 

cernuum, L. Nodding Trillium. 

Veratrum, Tourn. 

viride, Ait. Hellebore. 

80. PONTEDERIACE^J. (PlCKEREL-WEED FAMILY.) 

Aquatic herbs, natives of America and tropical Asia and 
Africa, growing in shallow water. 

Pontederia, L. 

cordata, L. Pickerel-weed. 

81. XYRIDACEiE. (YELLOW-EYED GRASS FAMILY.) 

Sedge-like herbs, natives of the tropics, with few species in- 
digenous northward. 

Xyris, Gronov. 

flexuosa, Muhl. Yellow-eyed Grass. 

82. juncace^i. (Rush Family.) 

Grassy or Sedgy herbs, generally natives of temperate zones, 
growing in dry or marshy grounds. 

Luzula, D C. 

campestris, D C. Wood Rush. 

Juncus, Tourn. 

effusus, L. Bulrush. 
Balticus, Dethard, var. littoralis, Engel. 
bufonius, L. 
VOL. t. — 9 



130 History of Hingham. 

Gerardi, Loisel. Black Grass. 

tenuis, Willd. 

Greenii, Oakes & Tuck. 

pelocarpus, E. Meyer. 

acumiuatus, Mx. 

scirpoides, Lam. 

Canadensis, J. Gay. 

Canadensis var. longicaudatus, Engel. 

83. TYPHACEiE. (CAT-TAIL FAMILY.) 

An order of marsh herbs common to all portions of the earth. 
The young shoots of some species are edible. The pollen is 
inflammable, and used in fireworks. The flags, or leaves, are 
made into chair-seats. One of the species is the Cat-o'-nine-tails. 

Typha, Tourn. 

latifolia, L. Cat-tail. 
Sparganium, Tourn. 

simplex, Hudson. Bur-reed. 

simplex, Huds., var. androcladum, Engel. 

84. ARACE-5J. (ARUM FAMILY.) 

A large family, principally inhabiting the tropics. They are 
mostly herbaceous, though some tropical species are shrubby. 
Certain plants of the order are esculent, and others medicinal. 
Some species are very poisonous, if eaten. 

Arisaema, Mart. 

triphyllum; Torr. Indian Turnip. 
Peltandra, Raf. 

undulata, Raf. Arrow Arum. 

Calla, L. 

palustris, L. Water Arum. 

Symplocarpus, Salis. 

foetidus, Salis. Skunk Cabbage. 

Acorus, L. 

Calamus, L. Sweet Flag. 

85. LEMNACR5!. (DUCK-WEED FAMILY.) 

These are the simplest, and some species are the smallest, of 
flowering plants. They float free on the top of the water, having 
no stems. 

Lemna, L. 

trisulca, L. Duck-weed, 
minor, L. 

Spirodela, Schleid. 

polyrrhiza, Schleid. 



The Botany of Hingham. 131 



86. ALISMACE-3EJ. (WATER PLANTAIN FAMILY.) 

Aii order of marsh or water plants, chiefly natives of northern 
latitudes. The root-stock of one species is esculent ; otherwise 
the family is of no use to man. 

Sagittaria, L. 

variabilis, Euglm. Arrow-head. 

87. NAIADACB5!. (PONDWEED FAMILY.) 

Aquatic plants found in both salt and fresh waters in all 
countries. 

Triglochin, L. 

maritima, L. Arrow-grass. 

Potamogeton, Touru. 

natans, L. Pondweed. 
Pennsylvanicus, Chain, 
hybridus, Mx. 
pulcher, Tuck. 
pauciHorus, Pursh. 
pucillus, L. 

Zostera, L. 

marina, L. Eel-grass. 

Ruppia, L. 

maritima. Ditch-grass. 

88. ERIOCATJLE^J. (PlPEWORT FAMILY.) 

An order of plants growing in or contiguous to water, and 
mostly natives of South America. But one species has been 
found in Hingham. This grows on the borders of ponds, only 
a few inches high ; but in deep water the stem attains a length 
of several feet. 

Eriocaulon, L. 

septangulare, With. Pipewort. 

89. CYPERACE51. (SEDGE FAMILY.) 

An order of plants akin to the Grasses, which occur in all 
zones. They are generally of low growth, although some species, 
as the Bulrush and Papyrus, reach a respectable size. The 
family is of little importance as compared with the Grasses, 
although the Egyptian Papyrus was of great value for a num- 
ber of purposes in ancient times, and the Bulrush and Cotton 
Grass are now used in the arts. A few species are esculent or 
medicinal. 

Cyperus, Tourn. 

diandrus Torr. 
Nuttallii, Torr. 



182 History of Hingham. 

dentatus, Torr. 
esculentus. L. 
strigosus, L. 
filiculmis, Vahl. 

Dulichium, Pers. 

spatbaceum, Pers. 

Eleocharis, R. Br. 
ovata, R. Br. 
palustris, R. Br. 
tenuis, Schult. 
acicularis, R Br. 

Fimbristylis, Vahl. 

autumnalis, Rocm. & Schult. 
capillaris, Gray. 

Scirpus, Tourn. 

subterminalis, Torr. Club-Rush, 
pungens, Vahl. 
lacustris, L. 
maritimus, L. 
atrovirens, Muhl. 

Eriophorum, L. 
cyperinum, L. 

Virgiuicum, L. Cotton-grass, 
polystachyon, L. 

Rhynchospora, Vahl. 

alba, Vahl. Beak-Rush, 
glomerata, Vahl. 

Carex, L. 

folliculata, L. 

inturnescens, Rudge. 

lupulina, Muhl. 

lurida, Wahl. 

Pseudo-Cyperus, L. var. Americana Hochst. 

scabrata, Schw. 

vestita, Willd. 

riparia, W. Curtis. 

filiformis, L. var. latifolia, Boeckl. 

stricta, Lam. var. angustata, Bailey. 

stricta, Lam. var. decora, Bailey. 

crinita, Lam. 

virescens, Muhl. 

debilis, Mx. var. Rudgei, Bailey. 

gracillima, Schw. 

flava, L. 

pallescens, L. 

conoidea, Schk. 

laxiflora, Lam. 

laxiflora, Lam. var. patulifolia, Carey. 

laxiflora, Lam. var. striatula, Carey. 

platyphylla, Carey. 



The Botany of Hlngkam. 133 



panicea, L. 

Pennsylvania, Lain. 

varia, Muhl. 

stipata, Muhl. 

vuloinohlea, Mx. 

rosea, Sehk. 

muricata. L. 

Muhlenbergii, Sckh. 

echinata, Murr. var. cephalantha, Bailey. 

echinata, Murr. var. microstachys, Boeckl. 

cauescens, L. 

trisperma, Dewey. 

broraoides, Schk. 

scoparia, Schk. 

silicea, Olney. 

stramiuea, Willd. var. aperta, Boott. 

straminea, Willd. var. fceuea, Torr. 



90. G-RAMINEiE. (GRASS FAMILY.) 

All order of plants growing all over the world, but most preva- 
lent in the temperate zones, where they cover the ground with a 
low turf. Tn the tropics they rise to the stature of trees, as in 
the bamboos, and grow in an isolated manner, never forming a 
turf. This family, of about four thousand species, is of all the 
orders of plants the most useful to man. It comprehends all the 
grains, the farinaceous seeds of which form a chief part of human 
food, and the grasses furnish a very great proportion of the fodder 
upon which cattle live. Sugar is the product of a grass. The 
malt, and many spirituous liquors are made from fruit of some of 
the species. Many are used in the arts and a few yield oil. 

Only one species has been supposed to be poisonous, and the 
best authorities consider the supposition erroneous. 

Paspalum, L. 

setaceum, Mx. 

Panicum, L. 

filiforrne, L. 
glabrum, Gaudin. 
sanguinale, L. Crab-grass, 
agrostoides, Muhl. 
proliferum. Lam. 
capillare, L. 
virgatum, L. 
latifolium, L. 
clandestinum, L. 
dichotomum, L. 

numerous varieties, 
depauperatum, Muhl. 
Crus-galli, L. Barn -yard Grass. 



134 History of Hingham. 

Setaria, Beauv. 

glauca, Beauv. Foxtail. 
viridis, Beauv. Bottle Grass. 

Cenchrus, L. 

tribuloides, L. Hedgehog- Grass. 

Spartina, Schreb. 

cynosuroides, Willd. Marsh Grass. 

juncea, Willd. 

stricta, Roth. var. glabra, Gray. 

Zizania, Gronov. 

aquatica, L. Wild Rice. 

Leersia, Swartz. 

oryzoides, Sw. White Grass. 

Andropogon, Royen. 

furcatus, Muhl. Beard Grass, 
scoparius, Mx. 
macrourus, Mx. Rare. 

Chrysopogon, Trin. 

nutans, Benth. Broom Com. 

Anthoxanthum, L. 

odoratum, L. Sweet Vernal Grass. 

Hierochloe, Gmel. 

borealis, Rcem. & Schult. Holy Grass. 

Alopecurus, L. 

pratensis, L. Meadow Foxtail. 
geniculatus, L. Floating Foxtail. 
geniculatus var. aristulatus, Mx. 

Aristida, L. Poverty Grass, 
dichotoma, Mx. 
gracilis, Ell. 
purpurascens, Poir. Rare. 

Oryzopsis, Mx. 

asperifolia, Mx. Mountain Rice. 

Muhlenbergia, Schreb. 

capillaris, Kunth. Hair Grass. Rare. 

Brachyelytrum, Beauv. 
aristatum, Beauv. 

Phleum, L. 

pratense, L. Herd's Grass. 

Sporobolus, R. Br. 

asper, Kunth. Rush Grass. 

vaginaeflorus, Vasey. 

serotinus, Gray. Drop-seed Grass. 

Agrostis, L. 

perennans, Tuck. Thin Bent Grass. 

scabra, Willd. Hair Grass. 

alba, L. White Bent Grass. 

alba, L., var. vulgaris, Thurb. Red Top. 



The Botany of Hingham. 135 



Calamagrostis, Adans. 

Canadensis, Beauv. Blue Joiut Grass. 
Nuttalliana, Steud. 

Ammophila, Host. 

arundiuacea, Host. Sea Sand Reed. 

Cinna, L. 

arundinacea, L. Wood Reed Grass. 

Deschampsia, Beauv. 

flexuosa, Trin. Hair Grass. 

Holcus, L. 

lanatus, L. Velvet Grass. 

Danthonia, D C. 

spicata, Beauv. Oat Grass, 
compressa, Austin. 

Eragrostis, Beauv. 
minor, Host. 
pectinacea, Gr. var. spectabilis, Gray. 

Triodia, R. Br. 

purpurea, Hack. Sand Grass. 

Phragmites, Trin. 

communis, Trin. Reed. 

Briza, L. 

media, L. 

Dactylis, L. 

glomerata, L. Orchard Grass. 

Distichlis, Raf. 

maritima, Raf. Spike Grass. 

Poa, L. 

annua, L. Low Spear Grass. 
compressa, L. Wire Grass, 
serotina, Ehrhart. Fowl-meadow Grass, 
pratensis, L. Kentucky Blue Grass. 
trivialis, L. Rough Blue Grass. 

Glyceria, R. Br. 

Canadensis, Trin. Rattlesnake Grass. 

obtusa, Trin. 

nervata, Trin. 

pallida, Trin. 

fluitans, R. Br. 

acutiflora, Torr. 

Puccinellia, Pari. 
distans, Pari, 
maritima, Pari. 

Festuca, L. 

tenella, Willd. Fescue Grass. 

ovina, L. Sheep's Grass. 

elatior, L. var. pratensis, Gray. Tall Grass. 

nutans, Willd. Nodding Grass. 



136 History of H Ingham. 

Bromus, L. 

secalinus, L. Chess. 
mollis, L. Soft Chess, 
ciliatus, L. 
tectorum, L. Rare. 

Agropyrum, Grcrt. 

repens, Beauv. Quitch Grass. 

Elymus, L. 

Virginicus, L. Lyme Grass, 
striatus, Willd. 

Lolium, L. 

perenne, Ray or Rye Grass. 



CRYPTOGAMOUS or FLOWERLESS PLANTS. 

91. EQUISETACEiE. (HORSETAIL FAMILY.) 

A family of one genus, growing on wet or low grounds. The 
fossil remains found in coal deposits, show that these plants were 
once of enormous size, and formed a large part of the original plant 
life of the globe ; but the few species which exist now comprise 
low, simple, or in some cases branched plants, leafless, and hav- 
ing jointed hollow stems. They abound in silex, and are used 
somewhat in the arts. 

Equisetum, L. 

arvense, L. Horsetail, 
sylvaticum, L. 

92. filices. (Ferns.) 

One of our most beautiful orders of plants which, in the early 
history of the globe, formed a very considerable part of its flora. 
They were of great size, and our vast coal-fields are largely com- 
posed of the fossil remains of ferns. With us they are low and 
slender, but in warmer regions they attain the size of small 
trees. 

Polypodium, L. 

vulgare, L. Polypody. 

Pteris, L. 

aquilina, L. Brake. 

Woodwardia, Smith. 

Virginica, Smith. Chain Fern, 
angustifolia, Smith. 

Asplenium, L. 

Trichomanes, L. Spleen-wort, 
ebeneum, Ait. 
Felix-foemina, Bernh. 



The Botany of Hingham. 137 



Phegopteris, Fee. 

hexagonoptera, Fee. Beech Fern. 

Aspidium, Sw. 

Thelypteris, Swartz. Shield Fern. 
Noveboraeense, Swartz. 
spinulosum, Swartz. 
cristatum, Swartz. 
marginale, Swartz. 
acrostichoides, Swartz. 

Cystopteris, Bernh. 

fragilis, Bernh. Bladder Fern. 

Onoclea, L. 

sensibilis, L. Sensitive Fern. 

Licksonia, L'Her. 

pilosiuscula, Willd. 

Osmunda, L. 

regalis, L. Flowering Fern. 

Claytoniana, L. 

ciniiainoinea, L. Cinnamon Fern. 



93. OPHIOGLOSSACEiE. (ADDER'S-TONGUE FAMILY.) 

The plants of this order have the general characters of the 
Filices, but differ in some structural peculiarities, for which they 
have been placed in a separate order. The Botrichium ternaturn 
is a beautiful species. 

Botrichium, Sw. 

ternaturn, Sw. Moonwort. 
several varieties. 



Ophioglossum, L. 

vulgatum, L. Adder's Tongue. 



94 LYCOPODIACE^]. (CLUB-MOSS FAMILY.) 

An order of low, creeping, moss-like, evergreen plants ; but in 
the early ages of the world this family contained many of gigan- 
tic size. Some species are emetic, but otherwise their properties 
are unimportant. The powder (spores) contained in the spore- 
cases is highly inflammable and is used in the manufacture of 
fireworks. 

Lycopodium, L. 

lucidulum, Mx. Club-moss, 
obscurum, L. Ground Pine, 
clavatum, L. Club-moss, 
complanatum, L. Spreaditig-moss. 
auuotiuum, L. 



138 History of Hingham. 



95. SELAGUSTELLACEiE. 



Low, leafy, moss-like or marsh plants, differing from the club- 
mosses in having two kinds of spores. 

Selaginella, Beau v. 

rupestris, Spring. 



THE TREES AND SHRUBS OF HINGHAM. 



BY EDWARD T. BOUVE. 



The beauty of the natural scenery of Hingham, extremely diver- 
sified as it is by hill and valley, pond and stream, and by its long 
and varied coast-line, is greatly enhanced by the extent and vari- 
ety of its woodlands. 

Standing on some of the highest hills, the picture spread out to 
the view in various directions is that of a sea of verdure, stretch- 
ing to the far horizon, as impenetrable to the vision as the virgin 
forest that covered the land like a shadow when the pilgrims first 
set foot on the darkly wooded shore of this county. 

These woodlands are rich in the number of species, and add a 
corresponding variety to the landscape at all seasons. In winter 
and early spring the purplish-gray masses form a picturesque 
background to the snowy fields, except where these are fringed 
by dark evergreens. They vary in their summer dress from the 
black-green of the savins to the brilliancy of the oaks that reflect 
the flashes of sunbeams from their polished foliage. In autumn 
they light up the hillsides with colors of fire. 

But not alone do the continuous woods interest the observer. 
Individual trees remarkable for size and symmetry are not rare ; 
and the wild hedge-rows along fences or old stone-walls, as well 
as the clumps and thickets in the fields, are made up of shrubs 
and woody plants whose very existence, conspicuous as many of 
these are in their flower, fruit, or foliage, is no more recognized 
than is their beauty appreciated by the great majority of people 
who spend a lifetime side by side with them. 

A series of rambles over the hills, through the woods, by the 
meadow-bordered streams and along the seashores of Hingham, 
will always well repay 

"him who in the love of Nature holds 
Communion with her visible forms." 

The woody plants of New England embrace nearly two hundred 
and fifty species. Of these, there are indigenous to Hingham 
about half that number. 

BERBERIDACBiE. 

In all parts of the town grows that always beautiful shrub, the 
Barberry (_Berberis vulgaris, L.). 



140 History of Hingham. 

It prefers the hillsides, although very fine specimens are found 
in rough, swampy land. Its delicate racemes of fragrant yellow 
flowers in the spring-time, its rich foliage through the summer, 
and brilliant clusters of scarlet fruit in autumn, make it at all 
seasons one of the most ornamental wild shrubs. 



TILIACEiE. 

The American Linden (Tilia Americana, L.) grows all along 
the water line of Hingham from Weymouth River and Huit's 
Cove, where there are many fine specimens, at intervals on the 
shores of the inner harbor, and plentifully on the borders of the 
pretty inlets and coves of Weir River Bay. Although also found 
inland, it much prefers the immediate neighborhood of the sea. 



ILICINEiE. 

The American Holly {Ilex opaca, Ait.) grows most plenti- 
fully in the woods of the eastern part of Hingham. although it 
occurs also elsewhere occasionally, notably at Turkey Hill and 
near Old Colony Hill. This tree is always brilliant, its shining, 
polished leaves, armed with spines, being even more noticeable in 
the winter woods than they are when new and fresh in summer. 
The small, white flowers are not showy, but the scarlet berries 
form a striking^ contrast to the evergreen foliage in the winter. 

The Black Alder (Ilex verticillata, Gray). This plant grows 
everywhere in Hingham, preferring low, wet lands. Its flowers, 
small and white, are in crowded clusters in the axils of leaves. 
The brilliant scarlet fruit is the cause of the beautiful display 
which this shrub makes, all along roadsides in low grounds, and 
in swamps, through the fall and early winter. 

The Single-berry Black Alder (Ilex laevigata. Gray) grows 
in Hingham in the deep swamps of the southern borders of the 
town. It differs from the I. verticillata in having more slender 
and delicate leaves, and larger, scarcer, and more orange-colored 
berries. The sterile flowers are on long peduncles. 

The Ink Berry (Ilex glabra, Gray) is found on the high lands 
of Union Street, Third Division woods, and rarely in the south- 
ern woods of the town. It is one of the most elegant of shrubs : 
and is from two to six feet in height, having brightly polished, 
narrow, evergreen leaves, and shining, black berries. The flowers 
are white, small, and inconspicuous, as in the other species of 
Ilex. 

Mountain Holly (Nemopanthes fascicularis, Raf.). An ele- 
gant shrub, with bluish-green leaves on purple or crimson leaf- 
stalks. The flowers are white, the fruit crimson-red berries on 
long red peduncles. It grows in the deeply wooded swamps of 
South Hingham, and at Turkey Hill and Lasell Street woods. 



X 



V. 




The Trees and Shrubs of Hlngham. 141 



CELASTRACE^J. 

Nature's Waxwork (Celastrus scandens, L.) is common in 
many parts of the town, although it seems to prefer the approxi- 
mate neighborhood of the sea. It is a pretty climber, deriving its 
popular name from the brilliant and artificial cbaracter of its red 
and yellow fruit. 

RHAMNACEiE. 

The Buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica, L.) grows sparingly in 
Hingham. It may be found at Turkey Hill and Third Division 
woods, possibly elsewhere growing wild, besides being cultivated 
somewhat for hedges. 

Jersey Tea (Ceanothus Americanus, L.). This pretty little 
shrub occurs in Lincoln Street woods, toward Huit's Cove, in the 
woods southeast of Old Colony Hill, at Peck's Pasture, Stoddard's 
Neck, and probably elsewhere. Tlie plant has a special interest, 
from having been used as tea during the Revolutionary war. 

VITACEiE. 

The Wild Grape is represented in Hingham by two species, 
the Common or Fox Grape ( Vitis labrusea, L.), and the more 
delicate Summer Grape ( Vitis aestivalis, Michx.) with its compact 
bunches of very small berries. This is more rare than the labrusea, 
occurring in the woods between Old Colony Hill and Weir River, 
as well as in Third Division, Union Street, and Lasell Street 
woods, and probably elsewhere in town. But the labrusea is 
found everywhere, and with its rapid growth covers the swampy 
woods with a tropical luxuriance of rich foliage, while its small 
and inconspicuous flowers in the spring, and dark purple or amber 
clusters of fruit in autumn fill the air with delicious fragrance. 

The Woodbine (Ampelopsis quinquefolia, Michx.) grows in 
every part of the township. Finest among our climbing vines, in 
summer covering in careless profusion of foliage the gray rock, or 
hanging in delicate festoons from tall trees, its strongly individual 
leaves, resembling somewhat an irregular, live-pointed star, render 
it conspicuous. But in the fall, flung with Nature's inimitable 
grace like a scarlet mantle around the cone of a savin, its younger 
sprays fringing here and there the flame-colored masses, there 
is no more striking contrast in the woodlands than its brilliancy 
and the black-green of the cedar. The deep blue of its corymbed 
berries adds variety to the picture. 

SAPINDACE^J. 

The Maple family is represented in Hingham by the Red 
Maple (Acer rubrum, L.), which grows everywhere in low and 



142 History of Hingham. 

swampy lands, while it also flourishes on uplands. It is a hand- 
some tree, conspicuous in the fall through the bright uniform red 
of its leaves. 

The Sugar Maple (Acer saccharinum, Wang.) is also indigenous 
to this region, although the fact of its being so is not generally 
known. It grows, and specimens of large size are now standing, 
near the Cohasset line. This species, which is cultivated every- 
where in town as an ornamental tree, is always one of our most 
beautiful shade-trees. Bright and healthy in foliage all through 
the summer, in autumn nothing can exceed its beauty, the leaves 
turning red, scarlet, and yellow, these colors often mingling in 
patches with the bright green on individual leaves. The forests 
in the North, when made up mainly of the Sugar Maple, exhibit a 
splendor unparalleled elsewhere in the world. 

ANACARDIACEiE. 

The plants of the Rhus family are very common all over the 
township, and on one or two of the islands. The Staghorn 
Sumac (Rhus typhina, L.), its leaves coarser, and like the branch- 
lets and deep crimson fruit, very velvety-hairy, and the Smooth 
Sumac (Rhus glabra, L.) with leaves, branches, and scarlet fruit 
smooth, are found everywhere. The smaller and more delicate 
Dwarf Sumac (Rhus copallina, L.) grows east of the Old Colony 
Hill and in various other localities. It is a beautiful species, by 
no means so common as the preceding. 

The Poison Dogwood (Rhus venenata, D C ), a delicate low 
tree, is common in swamps everywhere; and the Poison Ivy 
(Rhus Toxicodendron, L.) grows in great profusion. No family 
of woody plants presents a more show}- beauty of foliage at all 
seasons than this. In the gorgeous apparel of autumn, the Rhus 
is particularly conspicuous, and of all the species, the most bril- 
liant is the dangerous Poison Dogwood. 

LEGUMINOSiE. 

This order has but one representative among our woody plants : 
the Common Locust (Robinia pseudacaeia, L.). The Locust grows 
on Lincoln Street, Kilby Street, at Rocky Nook, and elsewhere. 
Its delicate foliage and long racemes of fragrant white flowers 
would make it one of the most desirable of our ornamental trees 
but for the ravages of the worm which honeycombs its very hard 
and tough wood, and often destroys its beauty at an early age. 

ROSACEiE. 

This large order in its subdivisions is very fully represented in 
Hingham. 

The Beach Plum (Primus maritima, Wang.) still exists on 



The Trees and Shrubs of Hingham. 143 

the westerly slope of Peek's Pasture, near the water, and prob- 
ably grew formerly all along' our beaches and shores. It may 
possibly be found now in some such localities, although it has be- 
come very rare. The best specimen known to have been lately 
standing, was growing a few years since near the steamboat- land- 
ing on Summer Street. It has unfortunately been destroyed. 

The American Red Cherry (Primus Pennsylvanica, Li.) grows 
in nearly every part of the town. It is a low tree, distinguished 
by its red bark, small, red, translucent fruit, and narrow leaves, 
tlie two semi-blades of which double toward one another, forming 
an angle with the midrib. The flowers of this species in favorable 
locations are very large and showy, and their beauty ought to lead 
to its cultivation as an ornamental tree. 

Bullace Plum (Prunus spinosa, L. var. insititia). This is a 
variety of the Sloe or Black Thorn, being a shrub with thorny 
branches, sharply serrate, ovate-lanceolate, somewhat pubescent 
leaves. It is very rare in Hingham, having been found on Weir 
River Lane. 

The Choke Cherry (Primus Virginiana, L.) is also common. 
It is a shrub or low tree, distinguishable from the Black Cherry by 
the peculiar serratures of the leaf, which are fine, sharp, and bend 
forward toward the apex. Its flowers also, are larger and more 
showy, and the very astringent property of its conspicuous and 
handsome fruit is familiar to every one. 

The Black Cherry (Primus serotina, Ehrh.) is found every- 
where in Hingham as a low shrub, as well as among our largest 
and finest trees. It grows to an immense size, although the 
wholesale destruction of our forests and individual trees has 
unhappily left but \ery few specimens of even respectable dimen- 
sions in this region. 

Of the Spiraeas, the Meadow Sweet {Spiraea salicifolia, L.) and 
Hardhack or Steeple Bush (Sph-cea tomentosa, L.) are beautiful 
denizens of our meadows. The Meadow Sweet grows sometimes 
to the height of six feet, and its fragrant white or rose-tinted 
blossoms and pretty delicate foliage make it an ever welcome 
midsummer and fall flower. Its cousin, the Hardhack, is one of 
our most common plants in low grounds, its tapering spike, cov- 
ered with rose-colored bloom, showing all along fence-rows and on 
hummocks in the meadows. 

Wild Red Raspberry (Eubus strigosus, Michx.). Common at 
rocky roadsides and in clefts of rocks. A plant hard to distin- 
guish from the Thimbleberry, except when in fruit. 

Thimbleberry (Rubus occidentalism L.). Common everywhere 
in fence-rows and thickets. The fruit purplish-black, while that 
of the Raspberry is red. The stems are covered with a heavier 
(bluish-white) bloom than those of the Raspberry. 

Common High Blackberry (Rubus villosus, Ait.). This plant 
is very common, the coarse, thorny stems reaching a height of 



144 History of Hingham. 

eight or nine feet in favorable situations, such as damp ditches 
by roadsides. The white blossoms are very conspicuous. The 
fruit is firm, close-grained, sometimes hardly edible. 

Low Blackberry (Rub us Canadensis, L.). This is a trailing, 
thorny vine, growing in rough fields where the soil is sandy, and 
on hillsides in all parts of the town. The fruit is juicy and 
agreeable. 

Running Swamp Blackberry (Rubus hispidus, L.). A delicate, 
pretty species, with shining leaves, found in marshes and dam]) 
woods. The fruit is sour, and of a red or purple color. Quite 
common. 

The Swamp Rose (Rosa Carolina, L.). This is the common 
wild rose of our swampy lands. It is often, in wet places, a very 
tall plant, rising sometimes to the height of seven or eight feet. 
The deeply pink flowers grow in corymbs, and the fruit, scarlet 
and bristly, is very brilliant in the fall. The leaflets are dull 
above and pale beneath. 

The Dwarf Wild Rose (Rosa lueida, Ehrhart) is common, but 
on higher grounds, or the border of meadows, growing usually 
about two feet in height. The leaves are shining above and 
sharply serrate. 

The "Sweet Brier" of song and story (Rosa rubi</inosa,~L.). 
This beautiful rose, its branches thickly set with hooked bristles 
and thorns, grows all through Hingham, mostly in neglected pas- 
tures or quiet woods. Its flowers, smaller and paler than those 
of the Carolina, and the sweetness of its foliage, which fills the 
air about it with fragrance, are its distinguishing characteristics. 

The Choke Berry (Pijrus arbutifolia, L.), which grows almost 
everywhere in the swamps and low lands, is a beautiful shrub. 
The bright, shining, finely serrate leaves, the white and pink fra- 
grant flowers, and the clusters of dark crimson fruit (tasting very 
much more astringent than the Choke Cherry) mark this plant at 
all seasons. 

The White or Scarlet-fruited Thorn (Crataegus cocci nea, L.). 
This handsome shrub or small tree grows in the fields and woods 
bordering Lincoln Street, especially north of Thaxter Street, at 
Stoddard's Neck, at Peck's Pasture, and elsewhere. It is con- 
spicuous for its bright, shining leaves, rusty-spotted from a fungus 
which attacks them early in the season, its fragrant white flowers, 
brilliant, scarlet, pear-shaped fruit, a little larger than a cranberry, 
and its sharp, rigid thorns. 

The Shad Bush (Amelancliier Canadensis, Torrcy & Gray), in 
its two varieties, the small tree and the low shrub, grows in all 
our woods and along walls and fences. Its showy white, fragrant 
flowers, appearing just as the leaves are starting, in May, cover 
the branches so densely as to make it appear at a distance as if 
loaded with snow. A propensity of the tall variety is to grow 
close to larger trees, supported by them. It rarely appears 
standing alone and perfectly erect. 



The Trees and Shrubs of Hingham. 145 



SAXIFRAGACE-22. 

Gooseberry (Mibes oxyacanthoides, L.). This species grows in 
moist places, along fences and by walls or rocks, everywhere. 

H AM AMELIDEiE . 

The Witch Hazel (Hamamclis Viryiniana, L.) is with us a 
shrub or low tree rarely exceeding twenty-live feet in height. 
Straggling and irregular as it generally is, it is unique among our 
woody plants from the fact of its blooming and ripening its fruit 
at the same time. The peculiar yellow blossoms are an agreeable 
surprise to the rambler in the woods in October and November, 
latest reminders as they are, with asters and golden rods, of the 
season of flowers. 

CORNACEiE. 

The Cornel family is well represented in Hingham, every spe- 
cies common to Xew England growing freely in town, excepting, 
probably, C. stolowfera. 

The Dwarf Cornel (Cornus Canadensis, L.), a little plant 
four to eight inches high, is not properly ranked among the woody 
plants, but having a woody root, although neither shrub nor tree, 
it is here included. It has its leaves in a whorl of four or six. 
At the apex is a cluster of small, greenish flowers surrounded by 
a large, four-leaved, showy, white involucre. The fruit is red. 
This species grows at Third Division woods and elsewhere. 

The Flowering Dogwood ( Cornus florida, L.) occurs in the 
woods between the Old Colony Hill, Martin's Well Lane, and Weir 
River, in Third Division and Turkey Hill woods, and elsewhere. 
The showy beauty of this small tree when in bloom in June is 
well known to all who are familiar with woodcraft. The large 
white 'involucre, or floral envelope, which surrounds the true flow- 
ers, makes it conspicuous for a long distance. Further soutb, 
where this species fruits more fully, its brilliant scarlet berries 
have the appearance of coral beads hung from the twigs. 

The Rou.vd-leaved Cornel (Cor)ius circinata, LVHeritier), a 
pretty shrub, occurs in the Martin's Well woods, and at Stoddard's 
Xeck, and Hockley. The leaves are large and almost round in 
their general shape ; the flowers in white spreading cymes with no 
involucre. The fruit is light blue. 

The Silky Cornel (Cornus sericea, L.), a large shrub, is found 
everywhere in low grounds. The silky down upon the under side 
of the leaves and young shoots, and their rusty color, as well as 
the purple tint of the branches, mark it plainly. The flowers and 
fruit are similar to those of the circinata. 

The Red osier Dogwood {Cornus stolonifera, Michx.) has not 
been certainly identified in Hingham by the writer, although it 
may yet be found within the town limits. 

VOL. I. — 10 



140 History of Hingham. 

The Panicled Cornel ( Cornus paniculata, L'Heritier) grows at 
Hockley, Stoddard's Neck, and on Lincoln Street. Its leaves, 
liner and darker than in any other of our species, and its more 
delicate growth, plainly distinguish it. The white flowers are 
somewhat panicled, and the fruit white. 

The leaves of the preceding species are all opposite. Those of 
the Alternate-leaved Cornel (Cornus alternifolia, L. f.) are 
mostly alternate, and crowded at the ends of the branches, which 
are also alternate, that is, not opposite each other on the trunk or 
limbs. This is a shrub or small tree, of a very elegant appearance, 
growing in all parts of Hingham. The white flowers arc in broad 
cymes, the fruit deep blue. 

The Tupelo (JVyssa sylvatica, Marsh.) is very common. It is 
in every way beautiful, its brilliant polished foliage, dark-green in 
summer and of a rich red in autumn, rendering it conspicuous. 
Either growing singly or in clumps, it is very noticeable, especially 
after the fall of the leaves, for its peculiarity in having the numer- 
ous branches start from the main trunk or limbs at a right angle, 
and tend more or less downward. 

CAPRIFOLIACEiE. 

The Trumpet Honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens, Ait.), so 
much cultivated for its beauty, grows wild in the woods on the 
easterly slope of Old Colony Hill, and elsewhere, although it has 
probably been introduced from more southern localities. 

Common Elder (Sambucus Canadensis, L.). This plant grows 
everywhere in low grounds. Its large cymes of white fragrant 
flowers are conspicuous in early summer, and later in the season 
the blackish-purple fruit is no less showy in its way. 

The Red-berried Elder (Sambucus racemosa, L.), a beautiful 
plant, is very rare in Hingham. The white flowers of this species 
are in panicles, and are replaced by bright red berries. 

Sweet Viburnum (Viburnum Lentago, L.). This plant has 
been found everywhere in damp situations and swampy woodlands. 
It is, like all the viburnums, a beautiful shrub, with its bright 
green finely serrate leaves, fragrant white dowers, and sweet edible 
fruit. A specimen growing east of Old Colony Hill has attained 
a diameter of trunk of five to six inches. 

Withe-rod ( Viburnum cassinoides, L.). This shrub grows in 
the woody swamps of the south and west parts of Hingham, par- 
ticularly in Lasell and Gardner streets, and is found also more 
sparingly in other localities. This species is distinguished from 
the other viburnums by having entire leaves, with wavy or revolute 
edges, the others all having sharply serrate leaves. 

Arrow-wood (Viburnum dentation, L.). The Arrow-wood is 
common in low grounds everywhere. Its very deeply toothed 
leaves and long straight stalks distinguish it. The Indians were 
said to use its twigs for arrows ; hence the name. 



The Trees and Shrubs of Hingham. 147 

Maple-leaved Arrow-wood ( Viburnum acerifolium, L ). This 
pretty little shrub is (he smallest of our viburnums, although it 
oceasionally grows to a height of six feet ami upwards. The 
white blossom is very delicate. Its leaves, excepting those at the 
apex of the stalks, are so like those of the red maple (hat close 
examination is often necessary to distinguish them. The maple 
leaves, however, are smooth, while these are somewhat woolly on 
the under side. 

All the viburnums turn in the fall to a very brilliant crimson 
color. 

Bush-Hoxeysuckle (Diervilla trifida, Moench). This low, 
elegant, but rather inconspicuous shrub is very rare in Hingham, 
occurring at Hop-Pole Hill, and possibly in the western part of 
the town. 

RUBIACEiE. 

Button-Bush (Cephalanthus occidentalism L.). This shrub grows 
along water-courses and on the banks of ponds in all parts of the 
town. Its peculiar spherical heads of white Mowers, very thickly 
set, render it conspicuous at time of blooming. 

The little trailing Partridge Berry (Mitchella repens, L.'), with 
its fragrant white flowers, single or in pairs, and bright scarlet 
I terries and evergreen leaves, grows in the Rockland Street and 
Cedar Street woods, as well as in a few other places Although 
but a little vine, running upon rocks or the ground, it belongs to 
the woody plants. 

ERICACEiE. 

Daxgleberry (G-ai/lussacia frondosa, T. & G-.). This shrub is 
not very common, although observed in several localities, notably 
in the woods between Old Colony Hill and Weir River. It is 
two to five feet high with us, having long, oval leaves, greenish 
flowers, and dark-blue sweet berries in loose racemes. 

The Huckleberry ( Graylussaeia resinosa, T. & G.) grows 
everywhere, preferring rough pasture-lands and rocky hillsides. 
It may be distinguished by the resinous deposit on the under sur- 
face of the leaves, which is much greater in this species than in 
any other ; and by its jet-black, shining fruit. Very rarely the 
fruit is found white. The flower is reddish. 

Dwarf Blueberry ( Vaccinium Pcnnsylvanicum, Lamarck). 
This pretty little blueberry grows in South Hingham, in the 
woods east of Old Colony Hill, and doubtless elsewhere. It is a 
very low shrub, with small, finely serrate leaves, and furnishes 
the earliest blueberries found in the city markets. 

Low Blueberry (Vaccinium vacillans, Solander). This little 
straggling, low bush is one of our blueberries. It may be dis- 
tinguished by the color of the twigs and branches, which is green, 
instead of dark, like that of the other species. It is rather com- 
mon, existing at South Hingham, Weir River woods east of Old 
Colony Hill, and elsewhere. 



148 History of Hingham. 

Common or Swamp Blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum, L.) 
This, a high-bush whortleberry, has a number of varieties for- 
merly considered as separate species. It varies greatly in our 
woods and swamps, where it grows freely. Its bell-like white 
blossom is, in some varieties and in certain favorable locations, 
quite large, and iu other cases very small. The foliage also differs 
according to locality. 

Large or American Cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon, Ai- 
ton). The Cranberry grows quite commonly in our swamps and 
bogs, its delicate sprays being quite easily found when loaded with 
its white flowers or crimson fruit. 

Mountain Partridge Berry (Chiogenes serpyllifolia, Sal is.). 
A pretty, evergreen, creeping plant, very rare, but existing in 
swamps in the extreme southerly part of the town. The bell- 
shaped white flowers arc like those of the checkerberry, and a 
resemblance to this shrub is also found in the flavor of its white 
berries. 

Bearberry (Arctostajiliylos uva-ursi, Sprengel). This pretty 
and rare little shrub, which grows in beds in the woods, has been 
found by the writer between Old Colony Hill and Weir River, at 
Martin's Lane, and at Liberty Plain. Its stem trails under the 
dead leaves and leaf mould, sending up shoots some six inches 
high, clothed with bright, polished, thick evergreen leaves. The 
flowers are white, at the ends of the branches. The fruit is a red 
berry. 

Trailing Arbutus, Mayflower {Epiytea repens.L.'). The well- 
known Mayflower grows in the woods near the Weymouth line 
and in the extreme south part of the town. Efforts made to 
domesticate it nearer the seashore have been unsuccessful, as it 
is a very wild plant and does not take well to cultivation. 

Creeping Wintergreen, Checkerberry (G-aultheria procum- 
bens, L.). The Checkerberry is very common in our woods. Its 
bright evergreen leaves, sweet white flowers, and scarlet aromatic 
berries arc well known to all. 

Andromeda (Andromeda Ugustrina, Muhl.). This shrub is 
common everywhere in low grounds. Its very full panicles of 
small, globular, white flowers in July are replaced later by cor- 
responding clusters of the seed-vessels, which hang on for a year 
or more. This plant can be distinguished at all seasons by its 
thin outer layer of light, cinnamon-colored bark, which seems 
always just ready to peel off. 

Leucothoe (Leucothoe racemosa. Gray). This beautiful shrub 
is rare in Hingham and but little known. It is found in the 
woods east of Old Colony Hill, in Cushing Street, in Leavitt 
Street woods, and probably grows elsewhere in the south part of 
the town. It is from six to ten feet in height, has rather strag- 
gling branches, and elliptical leaves, and long one-sided racemes 
of white, bell-like flowers, exquisite in beauty and fragrance. Thi 
raceme is generally branched once, and the flowers all hang 



s 



The Trees and Shrubs of Hingham. 149 

downward in a regular row. Their peculiar honey-like sweetness 
is unequalled by the perfume of any other of our plants. 

Leather-Leaf (Cassandra calye-ulata, Don). The Cassandra or 
Leather-leaf grows in the swamps near Weir River west of Union 
Street and at Sojith Hingham. It is a bright, pretty shrub, two 
to five feet high, and has racemes of white sweet flowers much 
like those of the Leucothoe, but smaller. The fruit, as in many 
plants of the Heath family, is very persistent. 

Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latffolla, L.). The Mountain Laurel, 
exquisite in its beauty, is found in great quantities just over the 
borders of Hingham, but within the limits of the township it is 
rare. It grows in one locality at least in the woods near Gardner 
Street, in Gushing Street woods, and perhaps may be found 
elsewhere. 

Sheep Laurel (Kalmia angustifolia, L.). This plant, the 
blossom of which is not less beautiful, if less conspicuous, than 
the preceding species, is common all through Hingham. 

The Clammy Azalea or White Swamp Honeysuckle (Rhodo- 
dendron viseosum, Torr.) grows in the wet woods of Summer 
Street, Martins Lane, Lascll Street, and Turkey Hill, and is 
found also in other localities. Its pretty, white, very fragrant, 
and somewhat sticky flowers appear in conspicuous clusters and 
are of that trumpet-like shape common to the azalea tribe. 

Rhodora (Rhododendron Rhodora, Dow). This beautiful plant 
is very rare in this region, being found only in a peaty bog at the 
west end, and possibly occurring in the swamps of the south part 
of Hingham. Its delicate, rose-colored blossoms, appearing very 
early, are among the most exquisite of our wild flowers. 

White Alder (Clethra alnifolia, L.). The Clethra inhabits all 
our swampy woods, and is well known from its upright racemes 
of white fragrant flowers, which are conspicuous from the latter 
part of July even into October. 

OLEACEiE. 

Privet or Prim (Ligustrum vidr/are, L.). This shrub, much 
used for hedges, grows wild at Martin's Lane, Lincoln Street 
woods, Huit's Cove, Turkey Hill, and Stoddard's Neck. Its fine, 
fresh-looking foliage, white flowers, and black berries are familiar 
to all observers. 

White Ash (Fraxinus Americana, L.). This noble tree is 
common in the swampy woods, and as an ornamental tree all over 
town. One of the noblest specimens in this State was standing 
until 1869 in the field on the corner of Summer and East streets, 
opposite the residence of the late Deacon Gorham Lincoln. This 
tree was mentioned by Emerson in the " Report on the Trees and 
Shrubs of Massachusetts." It measured when he described it, in 
1839, four feet two inches in diameter at four and a half feet from 
the ground. A tornado, in September, 1869, destroyed it. 



150 History of Hingham. 

Red Ash (Fraxinus -pubescens, Lam.). The Red Ash, more 
rare than the white, is found in swamps on Rockland Street and 
probably grows elsewhere in town. It may be distinguished from 
the other species by its pubescence and its narrower leaves and 
sharper keys or seed-vessels. 

Black Ash (Fraxinus sambucifolia, Lam.). This tree, rare in 
Hingham, occurs in swamps in Cushing Street and south of the 
Old Colony Hill. It grows very tall and slender, and the buds are 
conspicuously black. 

LAURACEiE. 

Sassafras (Sassafras officinale, Nees.). The pleasant aromatic 
Sassafras is very common. It is a line tree, with peculiar leaves, 
some being regularly lobed, others formed like a mitten, with a 
sort of extra lobe on one side. Its green blossoms arc not showy. 
The leaves, bark, and especially the root, are highly spicy. 

Spice- Bush {Lindera benzoin, Meisner). This plant grows near 
water-courses and in low lands in various parts of the town. It 
is a beautiful shrub, with a handsome bark, and brilliant shining 
leaves which exhale a pungent, spicy odor on being crushed. The 
small yellow r blossom is followed by the bright scarlet fruit, some- 
thing like a small cranberry in shape. 

URTICACE^G. 

The White Elm (fUlmu% Americana, L.) is one of our noblest 
trees, and grows in all kinds of soil, everywhere, but prefers 
swamps. Among the finest specimens in town are the elm at 
Rocky Nook, a magnificent and very symmetrical tree, the noble 
Cushing elm on Main Street a few rods south of Broad Bridge, 
and the tree in front of the Gay estate at West Hingham. The 
variety of growth in trees standing alone on wet meadows, 
leading to their being called " wine-glass elms," is extremely 
beautiful and graceful. Some of these may be seen on the river 
banks at Rocky Nook. 

The Nettle Tree (Celtis occidental is, L.) grows on the turn- 
pike on the westerly slope of Baker's Hill and at Stoddard's 
Neck ; also near New Bridge and Cross streets. It is rare. The 
very singular twisted and gnarled habit of growth which some 
specimens exhibit is peculiar to the species. Its flower is very 
inconspicuous ; the fruit a small olive-green berry on a long 
stem. 

PLATANACEiE. 

Buttonwood or Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis, L.). This 
tree grows sparingly in all parts of the town. Its ragged, flaky 
bark, its large leaves, and the rigid character of its growth 
strongly mark it. Some very imposing specimens of this species. 




OLI» ELM, EAST STREET. 



The Trees and Shrubs of Hingham. 151 

stand in various localities, although the injury sustained by the 
Buttonwoods some fort}' years ago, generally ascribed to the 
severity of a winter, has caused an apparent feebleness in 
these trees. For many years they bore no fruit, but of late 
they have matured the curious spherical balls of seed vessels, 
which, some inch and a half in diameter, hang from the twigs 
on stems three to six inches long. One of the finest trees in 
town stands at the junction of Main and Leavitt streets on the 
Lower Plain. 

JUGLANDACEiE 

The Hickories are well represented in Hingham. 

The Shagbark (Carya alba, Nutt.) is quite common, being met 
with in nearly all our woods. Its ragged, shaggy bark gives the 
species its name, while its rich, meaty nuts have been sought by 
the schoolboy from time immemorial. The Mockernut (Carya 
tomentosa, Nutt.) is a fine tree, found everywhere in the woods, as 
is also the Pignut (Carya porcina, Nutt.), the outline of the husk 
of the nut of which has a not inapt resemblance to a pig's head. 
The Bitternut (Carya amara, Nutt.) is more rare. It grows at 
Crow Point, Planters Hill, and Union Street, possibly elsewhere. 
Its yellow buds and liner foliage, as well as the thinness of the 
husk of the nut. distinguish it from the other hickories. 

MYRICACEJE. 

Bayberry, Wax Myrtle (Myrica cerifera, L.). This beautiful 
shrub, from two to ten feet high, is very common. The delicious 
aromatic odor of its crushed leaves, and in the fall the crowded 
masses of round, small, waxy fruit, clinging to the twigs, are its 
peculiarities. 

Sweet Fern (Myrica asplenifolia, Endl.). This pretty, low 
shrub is very common on dry hillsides and in oak woods. It has 
long, narrow, regularly and deeply cut leaves, resembling the 
fronds of a fern. These are very aromatic when crushed. 

CUPULIFERiE. 

The Black or Sweet Birch (Betula lenta, L.) grows in all our 
Hingham woods, being rarely met with in open fields. The bark 
of its twigs is very aromatic. The leaves are thin and ovate, and 
sharply serrate. The bark is dark and ragged. 

The Yellow Birch (Betula lufea, Michx. f.) is rare in Hingham. 
It grows on the border near Cohasset and in Third Division 
woods. Its leaves are hardly to be distinguished from those of 
the black birch. The bark of the young shoots is slightly 
aromatic. The outer bark of the trunk is greenish-yellow, 
shining, and always peeling off in thin layers. The catkins, or 
mole blossoms of all the birches are extremely showy and grace- 



152 History of Hingham. 

ful, loaded as they are when ripe with golden pollen. Those of 
this species are especially conspicuous. 

American White Birch (Betula populifolia, Ait.). This, the 
common White or Little Gray birch of our woods and fields, is a 
slender, sometimes rather tall tree, with thin, white, peeling, outer 
bark and very small branches, merely twigs in fact, covering the 
tree with their growth. It generally grows in clumps, from old 
roots, and the trunk is short lived for this reason ; but upon its 
being cut or blown down new shoots at once succeed it. The 
leaves are small, shining, and triangular. 

Canoe Birch (Betula papyrifera, Marsh.). This tree is rare 
now, growing only along the shores of the bay near Crow Point, 
at Iluit's Cove, and at Broad Cove. Its leaves are thicker and 
coarser than those of the other species. The outer bark peels off 
in large sheets, is chalky white on the outside layers, the inner 
ones pinkish. It was used by the Indians for their canoes. This 
is a large and strongly branched tree. 

The Speckled Alder (Ahius vncana, Willd.) grows in clumps 
along Weir River near Turkey Hill, at South Hingham, and else- 
where in wet places. It is a tall shrub with speckled bark, and 
serrate and deeply cut dark-green leaves. 

The Common Alder (Alnus xcrrulata, Ait.) is present every- 
where on wet lands. It is a high shrub, growing in clumps. Tlie 
leaves are shining, roundish, and finely serrate. The male flow 
ers of the Alders are graceful catkins, generally several together, 
and appear very early in spring. The scales open and show at 
maturity beautiful golden flowers. 

American Hornbeam (Carpinus Caroliniana, Walt.). This 
tree, t lie leaves of which are almost exactly like those of the pre- 
ceding species, is common in town, preferring low, wet grounds. 
It is found at Rocky Nook, Turkey Hill, Lasell Street, and 
elsewhere. 

The Hop Hornbeam (Ostrya Virginica, Willd.) grows at Old 
Colony Hill, dishing Street, Huit's Cove, and at many other 
points. Its fruit resembles that of the Hop Vine. The wood is 
very hard and the trunk often twisted in appearance. 

Common Hazel (Corylus Americana, Walt.). This plant, gen- 
erally growing in shrubby bunches, is found everywhere. It is 
one of the first of our shrubs to blossom, putting forth its delicate 
catkins in early spring, together with the very small and beauti- 
ful female flowers, scattered along the twigs like scarlet stars. 
Its nuts are much like those of the Filbert imported for the 
market. 

The Beaked Hazel (Corylus rostrata, Ait.) is occasionally met 
with in Hingham, growing in Third Division woods, on Kilby 
Street, and elsewhere. The leaves and manner of growth are 
hardly distinguishable from those of the Common Hazel. It 
derives its name from the curved beak or long point which pro- 
jects from the husk which encloses the nut. 



The Trees and Shrubs of Hingham. 153 

The Oak tribe is very fully represented in all the woods and 
fields of the township. 

The White Oak (Quercus alba, L.) is a noble tree, very com- 
mon, some of the finest specimens being found on the easterly 
slopes of Old Colony Hill and thereabouts. Its light bark, the 
bluish-green of its rounddobed leaves, and the purplish crimson 
of their fall colors easily distinguish it. 

The Swamp White Oak {Quercus bicolor, Willd.), scraggy 
branched, and with a deep rich green leaf with rounded lobes, 
grows everywhere in swamps and low lands. 

The Chestnut Oak (Quercus prinus, L.). This tree, with its 
variety the Rock Chestnut Oak (a separate species with some 
botanists), is very rare, growing only in Third Division woods. 
It is a imc tree, although not so large or imposing in appear- 
ance as others of the family. Its leaves resemble those of the 
Chestnut, hence its name. 

Chinquapin Oak (Quercus prinoides, Willd.). This little shrub, 
the smallest of the family, rarely reaches five feet in height. It 
grows on the bank at Broad Cove, and on the border of the salt 
meadow on Otis Street south of Broad Cove, and is also found on 
the sandy bank on the northerly border of that portion of the mill- 
pond which lies east of Water Street. Its leaves are round-lobed, 
verv irregular, and its small acorns are beautifully striped with 
black. 

The Bear Oak (Quercus illicifolia, Wang.), a shrub usually 
five to ten feet high, rarely becomes a small tree of fifteen feet in 
height. It grows east of the Old Colony Hill, on Lasell Street, in 
the woods near Weymouth, in the south part of Hingham, and 
in some other localities. It has leaves with not very prominent 
sharply pointed lobes terminated with bristles. The acorns are 
quite small and symmetrical. 

The Scarlet Oak (Quercus eoccinea, Wang.) grows in all parts 
of the town. This species probably crosses with the Black Oak, 
in many cases, the typical Black Oak leaf being often found upon 
the Scarlet, and that of the Scarlet (which is much more deeply 
cut and more highly polished) very often appears upon Black 
Oak trees. The only certain way of determining the species in 
many cases is to cut into the bark. The inner bark of the Scarlet 
is pinkish. That of the Black is bright orange or yellow. The 
Scarlet is not one of our largest oaks, but is an elegant tree, its 
delicate, shining, sharply lobed leaves, often cut almost down to the 
midrib, turning brilliant red or scarlet in autumn. 

The Black or Yellow-barked Oak (Quercus tinctoria, Bartram) 
is a noble, sturdy tree, growing everywhere in Hingham. The 
crevices in its bark are black, which gives it the name. The 
leaves, sharp-lobed and more or less deeply cut, turn red or crim- 
son in the fall. 

The Red Oak (Quercus rubra, L.) is quite common with us. 
Some of the noblest trees of this species growing in New England 



154 History of Hingham. 

stand on East Street opposite Kilby Street. They are monuments 
to the owners of the estate upon which they stand, who have 
shown, themselves capable of appreciating the magnificence of 
these superb monarchs of the forest. It is to be devoutly hoped 
that the vandalism which has destroyed so inanv fine trees in 
Hingham may never appear near the locality where these trees 
stand in their sturdy grandeur. 

The Red Oak leaves are more regular and less deeply cut than 
those of the Black or Scarlet. They are sharp-lobed and turn dull- 
red in autumn. The acorn is very large. The inner bark is 
reddish. 

Chestnut (Castanea sativa, Mill. var. Americana). This beau- 
tiful tree is rare in Hingham, growing in but two or three locali- 
ties, at Beechwoods and elsewhere. A noble specimen formerly 
standing on Hersey Street was ruthlessly destroyed a few years 
since. 

American Beech (Fagus ferruginea. Ait.). This fine tree 
grows in many localities in Hingham. Its light-colored bark, 
sharp-pointed, rigid leaves, dense habit of growth, and delicately 
beautiful pendulous blossoms easily mark it. 

SALICACEiE. 

The Dwarf Gray Willow (Salix tristis, Ait.) may be found 
in Third Division w r oods, on the roadside. It is a small shrub, 
hardly two feet in height. 

The Prairie Willow (Salix humilis, Marsh.) is a shrub about 
ten feet high, often much less. It grows in Hingham on Derby 
Street and Gushing Street, very likely elsewhere. 

Glaucous Willow (Salix discolor, Muhl.). This shrub or small 
tree grows everywhere in low grounds. It is our most common 
willow. Its blossoms expand from the bud in early spring, first 
into what the children call " pussy willows," little gray furry 
bunches ; then as the season advances, they become long, graceful 
catkins, covered with fragrant flowers golden with pollen. There 
often are cones at the end of the twigs, composed of leaves abor- 
tively developed, and crowded closely one upon another. 

Silky Willow (Salix sericea, Marsh.). This is a beautiful 
shrub, growing on Lincoln Street and at many other localities. 
The leaves and young branches are covered with a silky down, 
which gives this species its distinctive name. 

Petioled Willow (Salix petiolaris, Smith). This shrub, strongly 
resembling the previous species, grows on Lincoln Street, and has 
been found elsewhere. It is somewhat silky, but its specific 
name is derived from its long petioles, or leaf-stalks. 

Livid Willow (Salix rostrata, Richardson). A shrub or small 
tree growing on Old Colony Hill, Lincoln Street, on the bank 
of the pond at West Hingham, Lasell Street, and perhaps else- 
where. It has a rough, dark, thick leaf, whitish underneath. 



The Trees and Shrubs of Bingham. 155 

Shining Willow (Salix lucida, Muhl.). The beautiful shrub 
srrows on Lincoln Street and elsewhere in town. The leaf is 
large, pointed, bright, and shining. 

Black Willow (Salix nigra, Marsh.). This graceful tree, with 
its very narrow and delicate leaves, grows on Gardner Street. It 
is very rare in Hingham. 

The Myrtle Willow (Salix mgrtilloides, L.) grows in Hing- 
ham, although very rare. It is a shrub, from one to three feet in 
height. 

The American Aspen (Populas tremuloides, Michx.) grows in 
all the woods of Hingham. It is not a large tree. The small, 
bright-green leaves, light underneath, keep up a continual tremu- 
lous motion in the wind. The trunk is light-ash colored, and 
smooth in young trees. 

The Large Poplar (Populus grandidentata, Michx.) is found 
in low lands in all parts of the town. Its leaves are deeply 
toothed, and the catkins are very large and coarse. 

Balm-of-Gilead (Populus bahamifera, L. var. candieans, Gray). 
This tree is quite common in Hingham. Its large, very rigid and 
sharp buds are covered with a sticky, highly aromatic balsam, 
which has been used in medicine. 

CONIFERS. 

The White Cedar (Ohammcyparis sphceroidea, Spach.) is a 
beautiful and very useful tree, growing thickly in swamps near 
the Weymouth line and at South Hingham, in several localities. 
It is distinguishable from the Red Cedar by the comparative 
smoothness of its trunk, smaller branches, the flatness of its scaly 
leaves, and the angular character of its fruit. 

The Juniper (Juniperus communis, L.) is a low, spreading shrub, 
growing in a dense mass, with foliage very similar to that of the 
Savin. It is found at West Hingham, Huit's Cove, and sparingly 
in a few other localities. 

The Red Cedar or Savin (Juniperus Virginiana, L.) occurs 
everywhere, by roadsides and in hilly pastures. When growing 
alone, and left to itself, its perfect conical form makes it a very 
beautiful tree, either in its dark-green foliage, or in the fruiting 
season, having the green intermingled with heavy masses of blue, 
from the great quantities of berries which it matures. 

The Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida, Miller). This rather stiff and 
ungraceful tree is quite common, growing at Hockley, South 
Hingham, and in many other places. It is a small species here, 
specimens not averaging thirty feet in height. Its leaves are in 
threes. 

The White Pine (Pinus strobus, L.) is very common, forming 
heavy forests in localities in Hingham. It is one of our noblest 
trees, — a specimen on Lasell Street, although now shattered by the 
storms of perhaps hundreds of winters, showing a majesty even in 



156 History of Hingham. 

its decay which well befits a tree which unquestionably was ma- 
ture in aboriginal days. Would that the axe had spared more 
such! The White Pine has its leaves in lives. 

The Black Spruce (Picea nigra, Link.) This tree grows in a 
swamp east of High Street, and probably nowhere else wild in 
Hingham, although cultivated here as an ornamental tree. 

The Hemlock Spruce (Tsuga Canadensis, CarriSre) grows in 
the woods in nearly every part of the town. It is a large, hand- 
some species, with feathery, delicate foliage, and is much culti- 
vated for ornamental purposes. 

LILIACEiE. 

The Greenbrier, Horsebrier (Smilax rotundifolia, L.). This 
vine is very common. There is considerable beauty to it, the 
bright-green leaves always fresh and shining, and the clusters of 
small greenish flowers and blue-black berries in autumn quite 
interesting;. The plant is however a disagreeable one to meet 
with in summer rambles, the thick sharp thorns making it a 
barrier almost impassable. 

The Carrion Flower (Smilax herbacea, L.). This is a hand- 
some plant, and although a vine, it often stands alone in a leaning 
position without support. The leaves arc rounded-oblong, thinner 
than those of the Greenbrier, and the fruit is a very compact 
bunch of black berries. The greenish masses of flowers are 
carrion-scented. 

The Smilax Glauca (Walt.) strongly resembles the rotundifolia 
but is much more rare, being found only lately, and in the South 
Hingham woods. 



MEASUREMENTS OF SOxME NOTABLE TREES. 

The Gay Elm on South Street, opposite the depot at the west end, measured 
in 1859 18 feet 6 inches, surpassing in circumference of trunk all other trees 
in town. Torn asunder some years since by a gale, the portion of the trunk 
remaining uninjured measured in 1889 a little over '20 feet. 

The beautiful Rocky Nook Elm on East Street measured in 1887 15 feet 
•H inches, with a spread of foliage of 90 feet. The Gushing Elm, corner of 
Main and South streets, measured in 1889 15 feet. The Seymour Elm, on 
Main Street, had a girth, in 1SS9, of 16 feet 3 inches. The Elm on Prospect 
Street, in front of Mr. Bernard Cooney's house, measured in 1889 14 feet 6 
inches. 

Of the noble Red Oaks on East, opposite Kilby, Street, one measured in 
1887 13 feet 10 inches, and another 13 feet 9£ inches. The Buttonwood 
on the corner of Main and Leavitt streets had a girth, in 18S9, of 13 feet \\ 
inches, with a spread of 100 feet. 

A large Savin on land of Mr. Samuel Burr, at Martin's Lane, measured in 
1890 9 feet 8 inches. 

The great White Pine on Lazell Street measured 14 feet in 1887. 

All the above measurements of circumference of trunk were taken at 4^ feet 
from the ground. 




OLD ELM. I'KOSPECT rfTREET. 



ANCIENT LANDMARKS. 

BY EDWARD T. BOUVE. 



In the following description of the ancient landmarks of Hingham and 
Cohasset, it will be understood that the term includes both natural objects 
which have been adopted as bounds from the earliest settlement of the 
country, such as hills, rocks, waters, etc., and those artificial creations 
which come in time to be recognized as landmarks, as roads, bridges, mill- 
dams, and certain buildings. 

The sources of the information from which the facts in this chapter are 
derived are largely traditional, although old deeds have furnished much 
material. 

It would be improper and ungracious for the writer to omit the expres- 
sion of his acknowledgments to those who have aided in his researches ; 
and he takes great pleasure in owning his indebtedness to that interesting 
and valuable work, the " History of Hingham." by the late Hon. Solomon 
Lincoln, as well as to the "Centennial Address" and unpublished his- 
torical notes of the same gentleman. 



At Hingham and Cohasset, on the south shore of Massachu- 
setts Bay, the most delightful month of the year is October. 
The heats and drought of summer are past, the blustering rain- 
storms of September have gone, leaving as their legacy a renewed 
greenness and freshness to the hillsides. The forests, spreading 
far and wide, glow with the exquisite brilliancy of the American 
autumn, and the ocean stretches in blue length along the shores 
and up into the little bays, its ripples plashing as lazily as if they 
would never rise into great green waves that in December will 
shatter themselves in foam and spray on the mighty ledges of 
Cohasset. The very winds seem to sleep, in their hammock of 
gauzy haze, that hangs, thin and graceful, over sea and shore. 
Nature is taking a siesta, in restful preparation for her grim 
struggle with winter's tempests, fierce and furious as they are on 
this coast. 

I invite you to spend a few of these bright October days in 
seeking out the ancient landmarks of this old Puritan town of 



158 History of Hingham. 

Hingham (including Cohasset, which until 1770 formed a part 
of it) ; and to do this most thoroughly and onjoyably a tramp 
will be necessary, although at times it will be agreeable to take 
to the saddle ; and a boat will twice or thrice be indispensable, 
especially at the outset. For we will start, if you please, at the 
extreme easterly point, and take some of the ledges which lie 
off shore. Many of these are nearer to Scituate Beach, but the 
rest, including the most noted of all, Minot's, are opposite Cohas- 
set harbor and beaches. 

Minot's Ledge is the outermost of those awful rocks, upon 
which many a ship has met her doom ; and unnumbered men, 
ay, and women and children too, have vanished in the foam of 
those breakers which lash the ledges unceasina'lv when the east 
wind vexes the sea. 

But on this hazy morning the ocean is calm enough. Only a 
ground swell, smooth as glass, rolls languidly in, and we can lie 
off the grim Minot's Ledge and examine the proportions of the 
great granite tower at our ease. This tower was built by the 
government to take the place of the wooden lighthouse, elevated 
on iron posts, that was washed away, together with its keepers, in 
the terrible storm of April, 1851. 

Leaving Minot's outer and inner ledges, we come to an archi- 
pelago of rocks, many of which are submerged at high water. 
The principal ones between Minot's and the Cohasset shore are, 
the East and West Hogshead Rocks, the East and West Shag, 
the Grampuses, Enos Ledge, Brush Ledge, Barrel Rock, Shep- 
pard's Ledge, Gull Ledge, Sutton Rocks and Quamino Rock. 

At the westerly entrance to Cohasset harbor is a high, wooded, 
rocky promontory called Whitehead. During the last war with 
England earthworks were erected there and garrisoned. In June, 
1814, a British man-of-war came to destroy the shipping at Co- 
hasset, but the commander, upon reconnoitring these fortifica- 
tions, deemed them too strong to be attacked, and withdrew. 
On the west side of the harbor is Gulf Island, and south of it 
Supper, or Super, Island. We leave ' ; the Glades " (in Scituate) 
on our left in entering Cohasset harbor. On the south side of 
the harbor, and close on the main land, is Doane's Island, now 
Government Island. Here for several years the work of cutting 
and shaping the rock sections to be used in building Minot's 
Lighthouse was carried on. 

Barson's Beach, northeast of Doane's Island, extends to Scitu- 
ate Beach. In the palmy days of the fisheries on this shore 
there were several acres of flakes there, and fishing-vessels were 
fitted out at this spot. Several Cohasset vessels, loaded with fish 
here, were captured in the Mediterranean during the Bonapartist 
wars, and many Cohasset people are to this day among those 
interested in the French spoliation claims. 

Let us land at the head of the harbor, and take the road, skirt- 
ing the shore, Border Street. A little stream called James's 



Ancient Land marks. 159 

River, which flows through the town, crossing South Main Street 
not far from the depot, empties into the cove. 

The Old Shipyard was on Border Street. This road passes 
between the water and high elevations on the inner side, called 
Deacon Kent's Rocks, from which is an extremely fine prospect. 
The body of water between Doane's Island and the main land is 
The Gulf or The Gulp Stream. The entrance from the har- 
bor is narrow and jagged, and the rushing tide, foaming and 
seething in resistless volume in its ebb and flow, is a picturesque 
and beautiful sight. A bridge crosses the stream, and just below, 
where there was formerly a rocky dam, stood the old Gulf Mill, 
which is now a thing of the past. A new mill, however, stands 
near the site of the old one. 

CONOHASSET RlVER, or BOUND BROOK (CONOHASSET RlVULET of 

Hutchinson's History), flows into the harbor on the south side, 
emptying through the Gulf. Anciently it formed the boundary 
line between Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay Colonies. 

Retracing our way, we will take Elm Street (the Ship-Cove 
Lane of early days), pass around the head of Cohasset Harbor, 
which narrows into a pretty little landlocked bit of water at this 
point, and take the road which follows the shore as nearly as 
possible over the isthmus between the harbor and Little Harbor, 
the narrowest portion of which is known as Great Neck. After 
going a few score rods in a direction generally northeasterly, the 
road turns sharply to the north. At this point, extending down 
the harbor, and in fact forming its northerly shore for some dis- 
tance, is Deacon Bourne's Island, now the site of a fine private 
estate, the property of a distinguished actor. These " islands," 
in the nomenclature of our ancestors, were frequently pieces of 
land divided from the mainland only by a narrow creek or water- 
way but a foot or two in width, or even high lands in swamps or 
on beaches. 

Beyond the little inlet and marshes north of this island, is 
Hominy Point, a beautifully wooded locality extending out along 
the water. There were formerly wharves at Hominy Point. The 
road strikes across through thick woods and a very picturesque 
country, coming near the water again at Sandy Cove, a slight 
indentation north of the promontory previously mentioned, 
and finally turning west, pursues its winding way through 
thickets gorgeous with the red and yellow of sumacs and the 
scarlet of maples and woodbine, by rocky precipices dark with 
lichens, coming upon delightful vistas of wood-bordered meadows 
and lovely bits of water-views which break in here and there 
unexpectedly, until it suddenly enters Cohasset village at The 
Plain. 

The Punch Bowl, a singular depression about one hundred feet 
in diameter and twenty-five feet in depth, with apple trees now 
growing in it, is on the north side of Towers Lane, a short dis- 
tance from the corner. The Devil's Armchair, composed of 
slight depressions in the granite, probably of glacial origin, is a 



160 History of Hingliam. 

few rods east of the highest point of the rocks on the south side 
of this lane near the Plain. 

Scattered here and there, in the thick natural shrubbery on the 
water side, are the pretty, quaint cottages of those who spend 
their summers by the sea. All along this shore formerly, from 
Whitehead to Pleasant Beach, were Saltworks, — among them 
Parson Flint's Saltworks. 

Beach Street, which we have been following, is the old Tower's 
Lane. We will retrace our course over it, to the private way 
which leads to Cuba Dam, where now is the bridge flung across 
the waterway which divides the territory over which we have 
been passing from Beach Island. Here one might well linger 
for hours to watch the rushing waters which foam and swirl 
through this narrow, rocky inlet, which lets the sea into the 
otherwise completely landlocked, most picturesque, and exquisitely 
beautiful sheet of water called in early days Littel Harbour (Lit- 
tle Harbor) or Old Harbour. 

Whale's Valley is near Cuba Dam, in Old Harbor. A whale 
is said to have once gone up the inlet into this harbor. 

This inland bay, with its greatly diversified shores, "-The Ridge 
Road " along the precipitous bank at the west, wooded hills on 
points making out into it here and there, low sandy beaches and 
Beach Island dividing it from the sea ; and containing Cooper's 
Island, Rice's Island, and Little Rock within its waters, is a 
fascinating localitv for the admirers of line secnerv. 

On Cooper's Island are The Indian Pot and The Indian Well. 
The former is a curious excavation, round, smooth, and regular, 
having a capacity of about a dozen pails. The Indian Well is 
another excavation near the first one described. From the bot- 
tom it is elliptical to the height of about four feet. The re- 
mainder is semicircular, opening to the east. 

These excavations arc glacial pot-holes, but may have been 
used by the Indians for various purposes ; and from the fact of 
hatchets and other aboriginal implements having been found 
in the ground near by, the early settlers supposed them to have 
been the work of the Indians. 

Cuba Dam derived its name from there having been a dam 
built by a company of Hingliam and Cohasset people about the 
beginning of the century, across the inlet, to shut out the sea, 
and enable them to reclaim the Little Harbor, which it was 
thought would eventually become very profitable as hay fields. 
This was all very well until the great storm of April, 1851, 
which left nothing intact upon the shores which the sea could 
possibly destroy, tore this dam to pieces : and it has never, hap- 
pily for the scenery, been rebuilt. \n the old days vessels were 
built at Little Harbor. 

The bridge across the inlet at Cuba Dam leads to Beach 
Island, a partly wooded eminence rising from the beach sur- 
rounding it, and as romantic a spot for the fine seaside resi- 
dences situated on the easterly slope as could be desired. 



Ancient Landmarks. 161 

Next beyond this is Sandy Beach, aptly so called, while off 
shore are Black Ledge, — ominous name, — and Brush Island. 
At the end of this beach arc higher lands, very rocky, and with 
great ledges extending out into the sea. Here is Kimball's, a 
pleasantly situated tavern, celebrated for its fish and game fare, 
somewhat as Taft's upon the north shore has been, for many 
years. From here extend the stony beaches, picturesquely varied 
with sea-worn ledges, known collectively as Pleasant Beach, 
which terminates at Walnut Angle, as the northwest corner 
of the Second Division was denominated, at the east end of 
Cohasset Rocks. 

Now let us turn about, and taking the road by which we have 
just come in reverse, return to Cohasset Harbor again. Thence 
going west over the old Ship-Cove Lane (now Elm Street) we 
before long reach South Main Street. 

South Main Street leads southeast to the Scituate line, at 
Bound Brook, which was the Conohasset Rivulet of Hutchin- 
son's History. Here, over the brook, was the old dam, a wide 
roadway now, whereon stood the Old Mill. About half-way 
over the dam, and presumably at the middle of the stream as it 
was at the time, the Patent Line was established. Bound Rock 
was at this point. It is now represented by a hewn granite stone, 
set up to mark the spot, by Captain Martin Lincoln, of Cohasset, 
more than half a century ago. 

When the Indian chiefs, Wompatuck and his brothers, gave a 
deed of the territory of Hingham to the English in 1665, there 
was also embraced in this instrument a tract of " threescore acres 
of salt marsh " which lay on the further side of the Conohasset 
Rivulet, in Scituate, in the Plymouth Colony. These lowlands 
were known as The Conohasset Meadows. 

The Patent Line at Bound Rock was the base line north of 
which the First, Second, Third, and Second Part of the Third 
Divisions were directly or remotely laid out. 

It will be necessary to explain the significance of the term 
" division," which often recurs in any description of the topog- 
raphy of Hingham and Cohasset. 

When the Rev. Peter Hobart first came with his little band of 
colonists to " Bare Cove," in 1635, he found several of his friends 
who had settled there as early as 1633. " Bare Cove " was as- 
sessed in 1634. The " plantation " was erected in July, 1635, and 
on September 2nd, following, the name of the town was changed 
to Hingham by authority of the General Court. There are but 
eleven towns in the State, and only one in the county of Ply- 
mouth, which are older than Hingham. 

On the 18th of September, 1635, Mr. Hobart and twenty-nine 
others drew for houselots, and received grants of pasture and 
tillage lands. This year specific grants of land were made to 
upwards of fifty persons, and this method was followed for many 
years ; but as the colony increased in size, and the people spread 

VOL. I. — n 



162 History of Hingham. 

along the shore, it was deemed advisable by the proprietors to 
survey and lay out the unappropriated portions of the township, 
to be divided among the settlers in proportion to the number of 
acres which they had in their houselots. 

This led to the establishment of numerous landmarks, many of 
which are recognized up to the present time, and their names, 
often very quaint, will be handed down to posterity long after 
their significance is forgotten. 

It may be of interest to state here that the houselots drawn 
for on the 18th of September, 1635, were upon Town, now North 
street. This year, also, the settlements extended to Broad Cove, 
now Lincoln Street. In 1636 houselots were granted upon the 
other part of Town Street, since re-named South Street, and on 
the northerly part of " Bachelor's Rowe," now Main Street. 

The first grants of land in Cohasset (variously called " Cono- 
hasset," " Conihast," " Comessett,") were mentioned in the Hing- 
ham town records in 1647. The first settlements are said to have 
been at Rocky Nook and on the Jerusalem Road. 

All these specific grants of land were for many years from ter- 
ritory yet belonging properly to the Indians; but on the 4th of 
July, 1665, a deed of all the tract of land now comprising the 
towns of Hingham and Cohasset, together with " three score 
acres of salt marsh" on the Scituate side of the river, which 
divides Hingham from Scituate, was obtained from the chiefs 
Wompatuck, Squmuck, and Ahahden, sons of the great sachem 
Chickatabut, who lived on the banks of Neponset river, and who 
probably permitted the first settlers to locate at Hingham, which 
was in his realm. He ruled over the principal portion of the ter- 
ritory now comprised in Plymouth and Norfolk counties. 

The system of surveying and allotting certain districts led to 
their being designated by the general name of " divisions ; " as 
" First Division," " Second Division," etc. There were six of 
these divisions made. The first, second, and third were in 1670. 

The First Division, entirely in Cohasset, starts at the " Patent 
Line," which runs from Bound Rock, on the milldam, across 
Bound Brook in a straight line southwest by west, five miles 
eighty rods. The coast line of the First Division follows the 
course of Bound Brook northward to the harbor, then strikes into 
Meeting-House Road (now South Main Street), crosses Great 
Neck, extends along this road to Deer Hill Lane opposite the 
southwest side of Little Harbor, then runs along this lane south- 
westerly to King Street, thence follows a line through the centre 
of Scituate Pond southeasterly to the patent line. 

The base line of the easterly part of the Second Division is the 
northwest boundary of the First Division (Deer Hill Lane). On 
the southeast, the line starts at the corner of the First Division 
on Little Harbor, and follows the westerly side of the Ridge Road, 
skirts Peck's Meadow on the west, returns to the Ridge Road and 
runs to Walnut Angle (westerly end of Pleasant Beach) on the 



Ancient Landmarks. 163 

shore, which it follows to Strait's Pond, thence in a general south- 
westerly direction to " Breadencheese Tree," and from there south- 
easterly over Lambert's Lane and King Street to the northwest 
corner of the First Division on King Street. 

Supper Island and Gulf Island in the harbor, the promontory 
east of Great Neck, and Beach Island, and the other so-called 
" islands " and high lands along the beaches east and north of 
Little Harbor, are also in this portion of the Second Division. 

The westerly part of the Second Division lies on the west side 
of Lambert's Lane and King Street. The easterly boundary 
stretches from " Breadencheese Tree " to Scituate Pond, along 
the west side of the east part of the Second Division, and of the 
First on King Street. The northwesterly boundary line runs 
from " Breadencheese Tree" irregularly southwest, passing around 
and excluding Smith's Island to a cart path running southeast- 
erly, which it follows to a point where it turns and runs easterly to 
the First Division line, north of Scituate Pond. 

The Second Division is entirely in Cohasset. 

The Third Division is partly in Cohasset, but mostly in Hing- 
ham, the northwesterly boundary starting at the northwest angle 
of the Second Division and running rather irregularly southwest 
till it strikes the patent line not far from Prospect Hill. The 
southwesterly boundary starts at the southwest corner of the 
Second Division and runs to the patent line in a direction gener- 
ally parallel to the northwesterly boundary line. 

The Second Part of the Third Division is partly in Hing- 
ham, mostly in Cohasset, and lies south of the Third Division and 
the westerly portion of the Second, between them and the patent 
line, and west of the First. It includes about half of Scituate 
Pond. 

The Fourth Division was made of the tract lying along the 
extreme southwest boundary of Hingham on the Weymouth 
border. 

The Fifth and Sixth Divisions were of detached portions of 

lands remaining from the former divisions (excluding specific 

grants). Nutty Hill was included in the Fifth, and certain of the 

'westerly and northerly meadow lands in both the Fifth and Sixth. 

The Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Divisions of lands were made a 
few years previous to the middle of the eighteenth century. 

We will return over South Main Street, passing, just before we 
reach the road leading to the depot, the long old house, once 
Christopher James's Tavern. A short distance further north, 
on the Plain, stands the Old Church, erected in 1747, — the 
first Meeting-House having been built here in 1713, 

About an eighth of a mile further on, Winter Street runs south- 
west over Deer Hill. This street was the old Deer Hill Lane. 
Just beyond the corner of the lane with North Main Street, there 
begins, on the right, the renowned Jerusalem Road, also called 



104 



History of Hingham. 



the Ridge Road, or The Ridges. It runs north for some dis- 
tance along a high bank, or ridge, beneath which lies Little Har- 
bor, on the east side. The scenery in this direction is beautiful. 
The little inland bay exhibits all its variety of outline from this 
point, with its picturesque rocks, wooded headlands, and islands. 

In a field west of the road, and quite a distance from it, is a 
huge bowlder balanced, apparently, so delicately upon a point that 
it seems as if it could be easily dislodged from its position upon 
a ledge where it lies 
Rock. 



This has long been known as Tittling 




TITTLING ROCK. 



The road soon slopes downward on to a lower level and enters 
woods, but still skirts Little Harbor. Winding along the edge of 
a rocky descent, it crosses a salt marsh by a dike. On the left is a 
jagged precipice, clothed partly with trees. This is Steep Rocks. 
Around the marsh's edge and skirting the fout of the rocks is an 
old road, Bow Street, which was once the principal highway, and 
was used again after the great storm of April, 1851, which washed 
away the dike, until this latter was rebuilt. 



Ancient Landmarks. 165 

Beyond the marsli the road rises rapidly, and winds along over 
abrupt rocky hills, well wooded, and having fine private estates 
on each hand. A pretty meadow on the west side, at the foot of 
a steep descent, has been known from earliest times as Peck's 
Meadow; "The Steppen Stones " used to be, in old days, the 
only thoroughfare across the water here. The road still winds 
on, reaching, before long, Pleasant Beach, and the east end of 
Cohasset Rocks ; and here it bends abruptly westward and rises, 
turning on to the crest of the cliff above these celebrated rocks, 
along which it runs for their entire length, from Pleasant Beach 
to Greenhill Beach. 

As wild a stretch of iron-bound shore as could be wished for 
are these cliffs. Woe to the ship that, escaping the awful ledges 
to the eastward, drives on here before a northeast gale. The 
Jerusalem Road along their upper edge, but a few years since 
was a rough, picturesque way, bordered by stunted cedars " blown 
into " a peculiar shape of growth aivay from the storm winds, so 
to speak, that prevail from the north and northeast. Within the 
past twenty years wealth and fashion have taken possession of 
the lands on these hills, and the elegant villas of summer resi- 
dents are to be seen on every hand, while the roadway has been 
smoothed and " improved," fancy fences or elaborate stone-walls 
built, and the storm-shapen cedars cut down or trimmed into 
artificial forms, thus in a measure destroying the picturesque 
character of the surroundings. 

The town of Cohasset should never have permitted the sea side 
of this road to be owned by private individuals, but should have 
kept it as a public ocean park, accessible to the people. 

Near the point where the road takes up its course to the west, 
there is, not far above the level of the breakers, and down among 
the rocks, a little basin of clear, cool water which bubbles out 
from the precipitous, weather-beaten ledges, known as Cold 
Spring. 

Following the road along, a superb view presents itself. To 
the east are Minot's Light and The Ledges. Beyond them, and 
losing itself at the horizon, is the broad Atlantic. Here, in front, 
to the northward, is the blue expanse of Massachusetts Bay, the 
north shore in the dim distance hanging upon the verge of vision 
like a cloud ; to the northwest, the great stretch of sands known 
as Nantasket Long Beach, Point Allerton at its extreme end, and 
Boston Light beyond on the Outer Brewster. 

After descending a hill we come to the Black-Rock House, on 
a slight rise, close beside the sea, whose waves drench it with 
spray in great gales. 

The picture spread out before one along this road in wintry 
storms is magnificent, presenting as it does the wild grandeur of 
the conflict between the seas, driven before the gale, and the stub- 
born granite lines of these mighty ledges. 

Just off Greenhill Beach, which is at the eud of Cohasset 



166 History of H Ingham. 

Rocks, lies Black Rock, a long, jagged, wave-worn mass, a few 
hundred feet off shore. At the west end of this beach (a pebbly 
isthmus, joining Cohasset to Greenhill in the precincts of Hull) 
begins Strait's Pond, a beautiful sheet of salt water lying along 
the westerly part of Jerusalem Road, and between it and the 
beaches of Hull north of it. After passing through a rocky gorge 
bordered by misshapen savins, we come upon a low, long, an- 
cient, one-story house on the left of the road, which is one of the 
oldest buildings in Cohasset. It belonged to a branch of the Lin- 
coln family, and was built in 1709, having been originally con- 
structed on Greenhill, in Hull, and moved across the ice of Strait's 
Pond in winter. The roadway formerly lay on the south side 
of it. 

As the neighborhood is being rapidly overrun by fashion, which 
cares nothing for old landmarks, this house will probably disap- 
pear very soon, to make way for modern " improvements." 

In the next hollow Rattlesnake Run, on its way from Great 
Swamp, crosses under the road to empty into Strait's Pond. In 
the pretty canal, flowing among trees and shrubs in the private 
grounds on the south side of the road, one would fail to recognize 
the old run as it was before its metamorphosis. 

Beyond this point the road bends round a steep, rocky ledge on 
the south side. This is Joy's Rocks, and the bend was the old 
Joy's Corner, — an angle of the Second Division. 

Folsom's Island (originally Jones Island) is in Strait's Pond, 
near Nantasket Neck. 

The Jerusalem Road continues along the border of Strait's 
Pond until it ends at Hull Street, on the Hingham line. 

Turning to the left, Hull Street (which here divides Hingham 
from Cohasset ; the east side being Cohasset, the west Hingham) 
leads in a generally southerly direction, crossing Turkey-Hill 
Run at the foot of the first slight rise. Nearly half a mile fur- 
ther on, after going up a hill and winding somewhat to the left, 
Lambert's Lane, or Breadencheese Tree Lane, is found oppo- 
site Canterbury Street, in Hingham, and leading in an easterly 
direction into Cohasset woodlands. It soon crosses Turkey-Hill 
Run, and at the spot where it intersects the western boundary 
line of the Second Division, stood, in 1670, the celebrated Bread- 
encheese Tree. The surveyors, who laid out the First, Second, 
and Third Divisions at that time, were evidently of a waggish 
turn of mind, and chose to name certain points or angles from 
which they " took their bearings " according to the composition 
of the lunch which they had for the day. Thus the northeasterly 
angle of the First Division they named Pie Corner. 

When they arrived under a certain large tree, they sat down 
and ate their bread and cheese ; and Bread-and-Cheese Tree, or 
Breadencheese Tree, became a landmark from that hour on, 
through these last two centuries and more. 

The Maypole was a tree at an angle a short distance southwest 



Ancient Landmarks. 167 

of Breadencheese Tree, on the line of the Second Division. 
Smith's Island was on this line further to the southwest. 

A half-mile or so from Turkey-Hill Run, the lane crosses Rat- 
tlesnake Run, which, starting in Purgatory Swamp, we encoun- 
tered upon Jerusalem Road, where it empties into Strait's Pond. 
Lambert's Lane, running through thick woods almost all the way, 
passes over Breadencheese Tree Plain ; and here was Hum- 
phrey's, or, as commonly called in the old days, At Humphrey's. 

Lambert's Lane eventually emerges at the modern Forest Ave- 
nue, and at this point there was in the early part of the century 
a dairy farm belonging to General Lincoln. Nearly all of these 
tillage and pasture lands of earlier times are now overgrown by 
thick forest. Walnut Hill is in this vicinity. Purgatory 
Swamp is northwest of Walnut Hill. 

Passing south over Forest Avenue, we come soon to North 
Main Street, and turning into this, we almost immediately strike 
off diagonally to the right into Gedar Street, now a deserted way, 
but a beautifully winding and wooded one, formerly the Old^ Co- 
hasset Road, over which, in early times, people journeyed from 
Hingham to Cohasset. It leads over hill and dale, bisects a 
superb fancy farm at Turkey Meadows and passing by a quiet 
little graveyard at a turn to the northward, comes out on Hull 
Street. 

In order to reach most expeditiously the next locality which it 
is desirable to visit, it will be best to proceed through Hull Street 
to East Street, Hingham, and thence through this town by the 
way of the old Side-Hill road, over Turkey Hill (a most delight- 
ful ride, especially at this season), through Leavitt, Spring, Pleas- 
ant, and Union streets, until Bcechwood Street is reached, 
which leads from Union Street to Cohasset. This street at first 
winds through beautiful and wild woodlands, largely composed 
of beeches, with many holly-trees here and there, their exquisite 
foliage reflecting the sunbeams, and the bright scarlet berries 
forming a brilliant contrast to the rigid leaves' polished green. 

Here is the part of Cohasset called Beechwoods, or in old 
deeds The Beeches, deriving the name from the trees which 
form so large a part of the woods of this district. Stony Brook 
is the name of a little stream which crosses Bcechwood Street, 
flowing through a pretty meadow bordered by trees and bright 
with wild flowers in their season, near the village called Pratt's 
Corner. 

Hard by is Barn Hill, made almost an island by this Stony 
Brook. The locality known as Kingo is comprised in this neigh- 
borhood, taking its name from a former inhabitant who lived 
near, in a stone house in the woods. 

A short distance further on, Doane Street enters Beechwood 
Street on the north side. Doane Street is a continuation in Co- 
hasset of Leavitt Street in Hingham, which leads through Third 
Division woods. 



168 History of Hingham. 

On the north side of Beechwood Street, and about a third of a 
mile east of Doane Street, is Rattlesnake Rock, or Rattlesnake 
Den, formerly a haunt of these reptiles, although they are un- 
doubtedly extinct there now. 

Souther's Hill is a short distance east of Doane Street, and 
Joy's Hill, or Captain Pratt's Hill, is on the south side of 
Beechwood Street. There is a fine view from this hill. About 
a mile east of Doane Street, on the north side of Beechwood 
Street is a great ledge, having a large bowlder on it, which 
is called Mount Pisgah. Turtle Island is near Beechwood 
Street where it crosses a branch of Bound Brook. The old Iron 
Works stood here. 

Pratt's Rocks form a ledge near the road, nearly two miles 
from Doane Street. On the south side of Beechwood Street, 
near King Street, is Widow's Rock, which is shaped like a hay- 
stack. The property about this rock was once sold for exactly 
one thousand dollars. When the deed came to be passed, and 
payment made, the buyer offered the seller a one-thousand-dollar 
bill, which was contemptuously refused. " What," cried the 
seller, "I. sell my land for one little bit of paper like that! No 
sir ! I will have a good pile of bills for it." And the buyer had 
to give him a sufficient quantity of small bills to the amount of 
$1000 to make the transaction look " big " to him. A short dis- 
tance east of Widow's Rock is Governor's Hill. The name has 
no special significance in this connection, however. 

We will turn northwest into King Street, and proceed along 
this ancient road, the original boundary of the First and Third 
Divisions, and the dividing line which separates the Second into 
two parts. It is a hilly and pleasantly wooded road in places, 
and borders Scituate Pond, also called 'Kiah Tower's Pond, of 
late years sometimes Lily Pond. It was named Scituate Pond 
by the first settlers because it was on the road to Scituate ; and 
'Kiah Tower's Pond afterwards because land about it was owned 
by a Mr. Hezekiah Tower. This land, or a portion of it is still 
held by his descendants. By the latter name the pond is known 
in the country adjacent. It is a very beautiful sheet of water, its 
banks being composed of both high and low lands, and heavy 
woods, always such an indispensable adjunct of fine scenery, 
covering a large proportion of its shores. 

How exquisite it is now, in the quiet afternoon sunlight, its 
unruffled waters reflecting a white feathery cloud lazily drifting 
across the deep blue sky, and the scarlet and yellow forests 
about it contrasting so brilliantly with those rich, deep-green, 
pine woodlands ! 

That great rounded gray ledge rising out of its bosom, Pond 
Rock, has looked the same to every race of men which has dwelt 
about these shores or fished in their waters, since the melting 
away of the great glacier first let in upon it, as it is now, 
the light of day. It echoed the war-whoop of the red man 



Ancient Landmarks. 



169 



when he first shrieked it in the forests of the hills around, and 
gave back its latest faint reverberation when it despairingly 
died away for the last time on the western wind. Its lichen- 
clad granite slopes Hung back a quick response to the sharp 
crack of the pale-faced pioneer's firelock, when it imperiously 
announced to those solitudes that the reign of the wolf and 
the Algonquin must give place to that of the Anglo-Saxon. 
The dawn will touch the old rock with its earliest rosy beam, 
and the last ray of sunset linger upon it in yellow light, when 
that Anglo-Saxon, with his mighty works, shall have vanished for- 
ever, and the history of his existence remain only as a myth. 




POND ROCK, SCITUATE POND- 



King Street runs along the eastern slope of Scituate Hill, 
which lies east of Turkey Hill. The name was applied to it by 
the early settlers because it was on the way to Scituate. 

After crossing the railroad, King Street ends at North Main 
Street. This road winds pleasantly through the beautiful Co- 
hasset Woods and crosses the northern portion of Great Swamp, 
which extends far to the southward, covering a large tract of 
country. North Main Street enters Hingham as East Street, at 
the Homesteads. 

Now turning about, we will ride eastwards again, and strike 
into King Street. Upon reaching Winter Street, we will turn 
off to the east over this road, which is the old Deer Hill Lane. 
It crosses Deer Hill, a smooth, rather high hill, and comes out 
on North Main Street, nearly opposite the cemetery. 

Southeast of Deer Hill, is" Bare Hill (Bear Hill), now called 
Joiner's Hill, where the water reservoir is. 

A huge and steep ledge lying opposite the westerly end of 
Summer Street is known as Sunset Rock. 



170 History of Hingham. 

But the fair October sunset itself has faded into twilight, leav- 
ing a beautiful afterglow that promises another fine day for to- 
morrow. If the promise is fulfilled, we will start in the early 
morning to visit the Hingham landmarks. 



A morning like that of yesterday, " so cool, so calm, so bright," 
ushers in a second perfect autumn day, of all times in the year 
the finest for rambles in the saddle. Let us take up our subject 
this morning at the point where three townships meet. 

The Jerusalem Road ends at the Hingham line, where the 
towns of Cohasset, Hingham, and Hull form a junction. To the 
right, northerly, lies Nantasket Beach, about half a mile distant. 
A few rods to the north, the road to the beach crosses the old 
Mill Lane Bridge, which separates Strait's Pond from the little 
estuary called Lyford's Liking, or Weir River. This, however, 
is not the river itself, but merely an extension of the bay into 
which Weir river empties. The origin of this quaint name, 
LyforcTs Liking, is buried in obscurity. In 1642, however, in 
Suffolk Deeds, Vol. I., the names of Ruth Leyford, John Leyford 
her father, and Mordecay Leyford her brother, appear ; and in 
1649 an old deed speaks of "foure Acres meadow, more or less, 
at Laiford's Likeing." 

The road coming from the south, on the left hand, Hull Street, 
divides Hingham from Cohasset, and winds through the rocky 
village known as Tugmanug, an old Indian name of the locality. 
Until within thirty-odd years, this was the only road from Hing- 
ham to Nantasket Beach. 

Rockland Street runs west along the marshes for nearly a mile, 
skirting a range of higher and rocky table land lying to the 
south, which is known as Canterbury. It was probably included 
in a grant to Cornelius Canterbury, who settled in Hingham be- 
fore 1649. 

In the ditch by the side of this street, where it runs through 
the salt marsh, are the stumps of gigantic trees, which were dug 
out of the roadway here when the street was made, about the 
year 1855. These trees were unquestionably members of a forest 
which lived and flourished here untold ages ago. The lands 
where it existed were probably low, and near the then coast 
line; and through some gradual subsidence of the land, or sud- 
den convulsion of nature, there Avas a breaking in of the sea, with 
consequent destruction of the forest. All through the period of 
submergence of this locality these stumps were preserved, being 
under salt water, and now, perhaps a thousand years after the 
catastrophe that ended their lives, the relics of the trunks of these 
old trees are mouldering to decay in the rays of the same sun- 
shine that caused their buds to break into leafy beauty in the last 
springtime of their existence. 



Ancient Landmarks. 171 

North of Rockland Street, just before it reaches the rising 
ground, and perhaps a quarter of a mile or so out over the 
marshes, upon Ly ford's Liking, is Barnes's Island, formerly 
Sprague's Island. From the road it has the appearance of a 
slight rise, well wooded. 

A short distance further west the road crosses Weir River, 
here a pretty stream about to empty into Weir River Bay, a 
quarter of a mile northward. Tide water comes up beyond the 
bridge at this point, to the falls at the dam a few score rods 
south, where Thomas's Pond is, and where Thomas's Foundry 
stood until within a few years. 

Along the river bank on the east side, for some distance, is a 
range of high rocky cliffs, beautifully wooded, and very pictur- 
esque. Down from this savin-clothed height comes the little 
Woodcock's Run, or Lypord's Liking Run, a small brook hardly 
distinguishable in the dry months. 

There was in early times across Weir River, not far from the 
bridge now spanning it at Rockland street, a log, upon which 
people could cross the stream, and also a landing where timber 
and firewood were loaded upon vessels bound for Boston and 
elsewhere. This place was called The Log, or At the Log. 
Log Lane led to this spot, from Weir River Lane. 

Down the river about a quarter of a mile, and at the point 
where it broadens into a wide estuary, there was, nearly a cen- 
tury since, a woollen mill, owned by and carried on in the interest 
of General Benjamin Lincoln, who seems to have been interested 
in many enterprises. There was afterwards a flour mill here, and 
the place was subsequently occupied by the small-pox hospital. 
The Lime Kiln was near by, and the neck of land opposite, 
situated between the river and the cove which makes up on the 
west side of this neck, is terminated by Bass Point. 

Crossing Weir River by the Rockland Street bridge, we are 
upon higher ground, included in Plain Neck, which comprehends 
all the country south and west of this bridge (as well as north- 
ward as far as Cushing's Neck), which can be comprised in the 
territory bordered on the east and south by Weir River, and upon 
the west by the harbor, and probably extending as far as Cham- 
berlain's Run. The limits are indefinite, but old deeds show 
that they are about as described. 

A short distance west of the river Rockland Street passes 
through a thickly wooded swamp, which was for many years, 
until 1855, The Heronry. Here were the homes of the night 
herons, their nests being visible in the woods on every side. 
They were driven away when the road was laid out through 
their haunts. 

Neck Gate Hill, now Old Colony Hill, at the junction of 
Rockland Street, Summer Street, and Martin's Lane, is a pleas- 
antly located hill, having fine woodlands and beautiful country 
about it. The view from the summit in every direction is charm- 



172 History of Hingham. 

ing. For many years the Old Colony House, a favorite summer 
resort, stood here. It was built in 1832, and burned in 1872. 

But now before going on to Hingham harbor, let us turn down 
Martin's Lane, to the right, and northward. This is a narrow 
road, formerly having the Neck Gate across it, at the hill. It 
slopes gradually downward, and is bordered by trees, with masses 
of tangled woodlands upon the right, now exquisite in the glory 
of autumn. Wild hidden ravines, picturesque rocky precipices, 
clothed with vines, ferns, and savins, are upon the east side. The 
trouble of searching them out will be well repaid in learning 
what scenery generally thought peculiar to mountain districts 
is here under our very eyes, but almost unknown. 

On the west, the land lies in beautifully rolling fields, dotted 
here and there with fine trees, down to the water. The road 
finally winds over a slight rise, between shrubby woods and 
through a noble private estate till it reaches, nearly a mile from 
Neck Gate Hill, Martin's Well, formerly Abraham's Well, the 
remains of which are still visible in the field to the right, near 
by where the lane ends. There is a pretty cove, or indentation, 
at this point. 

Abraham Martin was one of the early settlers who came with 
Rev. Peter Hobart in 1635. He owned land in this locality and 
built this well. 

This land is embraced in the strip between the harbor and 
Weir River to the eastward, called Cushing's Neck, — large tracts 
having been owned here early by a branch of that family, which 
has furnished, in peace and war, so many celebrated Americans. 
Hingham was the home of the family in America. Lands at Cush- 
ing's Neck are still in possession of one of the descendants. 

The road which crosses the head of this cove goes over the 
heavy stone dam (Martin's Well Dam) which shuts out the sea 
from the fertile meadows lying east of it. These formed one of 
the Damde Meddowes, so often referred to in old deeds. The 
east end of these meadows is also dammed at Weir River Bay. 

Passing through a gate, we come to Pine Hill, a little emi- 
nence overlooking the harbor, now a smooth, rounded hill, with 
a few trees upon its summit. North of this is the fine Planter's 
Hill, also smooth and oval in outline, like all the Hingham hills. 
There is a noble view from its top, extending all around the hori- 
zon, — of the Blue Hills of Milton, in the far distance, the town 
lying close by, Third Division woods southward, the harbor to the 
west, and broad ocean to the north and east beyond Nantasket 
Beach. 

At the foot of the northerly slope of Planter's Hill is a short, 
low isthmus, a few rods in length, and very narrow at high tide, 
— World's End Bar. A generation ago the fox hunters used 
to beat the country at South Hingham and drive the game north- 
ward through the woods and fields of the township till it arrived 
at the peninsula bounded by Weir River and the harbor. After 



Ancient Landmarks. 173 

reaching that point, there was no escape for the unhappy foxes, 
whose flight led them inevitably to World's End Bar, upon which, 
or on the next hill, they atoned with their lives for " crimes done 
in the flesh." 

There is a curiously stunted elm-tree growing on the very top 
of Planter's Hill. It is evidently dwarfed by having grown up 
wedged among large rocks. It is of great age, early records re- 
ferring to it soon after the settlement of the country, and appar- 
ently has not increased in size during the two past centuries. It 
is, indeed, an " ancient landmark." 

The doubly rounded eminence north of this bar is World's 
End, a peninsula surrounded by water on all sides excepting 
where this bar connects it with Planter's Hill. The harbor is on 
the west, Weir River Bay upon the east side. 

Following the shore of Weir River Bay, we come to a little 
cove upon the east side of Planter's Hill, and then an extremely 
picturesque locality, having high rocks and precipices along its 
water front, and great ledges cropping out all over it. This is 
known as Rocky Neck. 

Up the little bay, to the eastward, lies Nantasket Beach, and 
north of it, the point of land stretching out into the harbor, is 
White Head. These localities are in Hull. 

The rough and broken easterly shore line of Rocky Neck finally 
crosses a little meadow and beach, and beyond these is a narrow 
passage between great masses of craggy rocks, which are called 
Lincoln's Rocks. Through this passage comes the current of 
Weir River. Close here, too, is the great rock in the water which 
has been known from early times as The Ringbolt Rock, 
from the huge iron ring let into its surface for the accommo- 
dation of vessels hauling up the river. At " The Limekiln," in 
the upper part of Weir River Bay, there were, in old times, 
vessels built. The last one was the ship "Solferino," of about 800 
tons, launched in the year 1859, the largest vessel ever built in 
Hingham. 

The water here is the westerly portion of the inlet which ex- 
tends easterly to the dam at Strait's Pond, and which we met 
with there under the ancient name of Lyford's Liking. 

Let us go down the river again to Rocky Neck and cross Old 
Planter's Fields, lying on the southeasterly slopes of Planter's 
and Pine hills, and on over the " Damde Meddowes " to Martin's 
Lane, which we will cross at the cove, and proceed along the 
shore skirting the beautiful tract of country between Martin's 
Lane and the harbor, called, anciently, Mansfield's, to Mans- 
field's Cove, a slight indentation at the head of the harbor, 
bounded on the west by a ledge making out into the water, called 
Barnes's Rocks, upon and over which the old steamboat pier and 
hanging wire bridge used to be. This ledge extends out under 
the channel, interfering with navigation at low water. The 
United States government has expended considerable sums of 



174 History of Hingham. 

money in not entirely successful attempts to remove it by sub- 
marine blasting. 

There were formerly Salt "Works east of Mansfield's Cove. 

A few rods farther on is Hersey's Wharf, at the present time 
as stanch a structure as it was when it was constructed. Upon 
this wharf, and on the beach west of it, were built several fine 
ships, besides numerous barks, brigs, and schooners ; for this 
was Hall's Shipyard. West of this wharf is the steamboat pier. 
Upon Summer Street, on the hill just above Hersey's wharf, is a 
large white house at the south side of the road, now the mansion 
of a private estate. This was, in former times, one of the old 
inns, and was known as the Wompatuck House. 

After crossing another stone wharf, now disused, we find this 
beach extending along toward a line of wharves at The Cove at 
the head of the harbor. The earliest settlers at the harbor called 
the place Bare Cove, from the fact that the receding tide leaves 
the fiats bare ; and by this name the settlement was designated 
and assessed, until later it received the name of Hingham. 

Previous to the building of Summer Street, the only highway 
leading from the cove to the village lying between the disused 
wharf above referred to and Neck Gate Hill, was along the upper 
edge of this beach ; people and teams going down into the dock 
below the mill-dam at the Cove, at low tide, crossing the mill 
stream and passing along the beach on their way east. Summer 
Street here was constructed from material taken from Ward's 
Hill, a high knoll of sand and gravel rising south from the beach, 
now known as Cobb's Bank, which in early times extended sev- 
eral hundred feet to the eastward. It is fast disappearing under 
the demand for sand and gravel for filling purposes. 

Along the water side north of Ward's Hill there were also ves- 
sels built. 

The low land lying between Summer Street and the railroad 
track, and east of Ward's Hill, was formerly Wakely's Meadow, 
or Brigadier's Meadow. Within a very few years this meadow 
was salt, and the owner, wishing to reclaim it, caused it to be 
drained into the harbor, the pipes passing under Summer Street. 
In digging beneath this street at the old sea-level, the contractor 
unearthed old piles and the stone retaining walls of wharves, thus 
proving the early existence of landing places for vessels far within 
the limits where it is now possible for them to come. 

The meadow belonged early to Thomas Wakely. It afterwards 
was the property of Brigadier-General Theophilus dishing, and 
received its later name in this connection. Thomas Wakely was 
an early settler with Rev. Mr. Hobart, in 1635. 

The high land south of Wakely's Meadow, beyond the railroad 
track, is Peck's Pasture. Robert and Joseph Peck came to this 
country in 1638. 

Following the ancient water line from the harbor up through 
the mill-dam, we reach The Mill-Pond. Here stood the Corn 



Ancient Landmarks. 175 

Mill, and also the Saw Mill, erected, probably, in 1643 or 1644. 
The present grist mill stands upon or near the same spot. 

The body of water connected with the mill-pond through the 
water-way which exists under the junction of the railroad with 
Water Street, affords, east of this street when the full tide is in, 
some of the finest scenery about Hingham, taken in connection 
with the beautifully wooded uplands on the marshes, called An- 
drews or Sassafras Island, and the high rocks and precipices jut- 
ting out from thick oak woods along the eastern bank. The 
brilliant colors of the foliage contrasting with the gray of the 
rocks, the blue of the water, and bright green of the meadows go 
to make up a picture worthy the brush of an artist. 

These salt marshes, extending south to Pear Tree Hill, are 
known as the Home Meadows. 

But to return to the mill-pond. This body of water lies be- 
tween North and Water Streets and the maple-bordered and beau- 
tiful shades of the cemetery lying to the south. The railroad 
skirts its southern bank. The mill-pond was anciently a little 
cove, and the Rev. Peter Hobart, with his band of settlers, landed 
near the head of this cove where now is the foot of Ship Street. 
Here the first religious services were held, near a magnificent 
elm, which, standing in all its majesty up to a dozen or so years 
ago, an ornament to the street and town, was barbarously cut 
down by the authorities on the wretched pretext that it was in 
the way of pedestrians on the sidewalk. At the time of its 
destruction two cannon balls were found imbedded among its 
roots, which were undoubtedly left there by the early settlers. 
These are now in the possession of a zealous antiquarian and local 
historian. 

The Town Brook empties into the western extremity of the 
mill-pond. 

With the idea of following the harbor line from the mill-pond 
north, we will avail ourselves of the ancient private way which 
runs along by the heads of the old wharves, some of which are 
yet used for the reception from a few coasters of such lumber and 
coal as are required for use in the town ; some have fallen into 
decay, and with the old rotting warehouses upon the landward 
side of this little way, are sad reminders of the maritime glories 
of this once active locality. For Hingham formerly sent a large 
and well-appointed fishing fleet to sea. Along her shores we have 
visited some, and shall come across more of the shipyards where 
numerous ships and smaller craft were built and launched, and 
the sea captains, sons of her stanch old families, sailed to all 
quarters of the world. 

At the end of this old private way, and where it connects with 
Otis Street, was formerly Souther's, earlier Barker's, Shipyard. 
Here, where now are pretty seaside villas, the keel of many a fine 
vessel was laid, and the plunge of these into their destined ele- 
ment was made in a direction toward Goose Point, a small, low, 



176 History of Hingham. 

marshy promontory, forming the northerly arm of the little cove 
here. On the west side of this cove was Keen's Shipyard. 

Following along Otis Street over a salt meadow, we come to a 
few summer residences scattered along by the bay, some being 
near the former edge of the sand cliff which was cut away when 
this road was laid out. Here were, a generation ago, extensive 
Salt Works, having their windmills upon the beach ; for, in ear- 
lier days large quantities of salt were required in packing mackerel 
taken by the fishing fleet, and much of it was of home production. 
A few score rods further to the north, and we are at Broad Cove, 
an estuary extending in westward as far as Lincoln Street, and 
then northward as much farther. As our plan is to follow the 
shore, we will proceed along the southerly bank of this cove. 
The first locality of interest is at the south side of the entrance 
from the harbor. Here stood Major's Wharf and the warehouse 
adjoining it on the edge of the sand cliff. The writer remembers 
the old well which was at the foot of the cliff near or under where 
the building stood. At this wharf were rigged the vessels which 
were built at the head of Broad Cove at Lincoln Street. The 
wharf and property in the vicinity belonged, in the latter part of 
the last century, to Major Thaxtcr, of the old Provincial army. 
This gentleman was an officer in the regiment raised in this 
vicinity which formed part of the garrison at Fort William Henry, 
which surrendered to Montcalm and his French and Indian forces 
after a protracted siege in the old French war. He came very 
near being one of the victims of the subsequent massacre, being 
taken prisoner and tied to a tree by the Indians, who lighted a 
fire around him. A French officer rescued him, and he subse- 
quently escaped or was exchanged. 

The land lying south of this cove adjoining (and perhaps in- 
cluding) the present camp-grounds belonging to the First Corps 
of Cadets of the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, was formerly 
known as John's Neck. 

Upon the south bank of the cove were, in early days Salt 
Works. 

At the Lincoln Street end of Broad Cove was a Shipyard, 
where numerous vessels were built. An old lady in conversation 
with the writer a few years since, spoke of having seen four 
vessels at a time upon the stocks there in the early part of this 
century. 

Broad Cove divides into two creeks which extend northward 
and westward for about a quarter of a mile. Over these creeks, 
from Lincoln Street to Crow Point, ran Crow Point Lane, cross- 
ing the creeks by bridges. These were landmarks a century ago, 
the territory hereabouts being known as " At Y 12 Bridges." 

Planter's Fields Lane led from Crow Point Lane to Planter's 
Fields. 

From " Y Bridges " northwestward toward Weymouth River for 
a considerable distance lay the Ship Lots. 



Ancient Landmarks. 177 

Returning - by the northerly shore of Broad Cove to the harbor 
again, we skirt the foot of Otis Hill, very steep upon its western 
slope, and from this cause known to the early settlers, in their 
quaintly expressive nomenclature, as Weary-all LTill. The 
southeastern extremity of this hill, stretching out into low land 
at the north side of the entrance to Broad Cove, is Paul's Point. 

The hill takes its name from John Otis, an early settler with 
Rev. Peter Hobart, in 1635, and who received a grant of land 
here. He was the ancestor of the celebrated Otis family in 
America. 

The view from Otis Hill, like that from all the high hills of 
Hingliam and Cohasset, is exquisite. The waters of the bay, and 
of Hingliam harbor, with its picturesque islands, lie at one's feet. 
To the northeast and east, is the deep blue expanse of ocean, be- 
yond the long, narrow neck of Nantasket Beach, which connects 
the peninsular town of Hull with the mainland. Beyond Wind- 
mill Point, Hull, the granite bastions of Fort Warren reflect the 
light in the afternoon sun. Ships and steamers on their course 
lend life to the ocean view. The north shore melts to haze in the 
distance. Islands dot the waters of Boston Bay, the white towers 
of lighthouses surmounting some of them. To the northwest 
looms the city, crowned with its golden dome. The Blue Hills 
of Milton, the Mas-sa-chu-setts, 

" rock-ribbed and ancient as the sun," 

rise against the western horizon. Fields and heavy woodlands lie 
from the southwest to the southeast, interspersed with towns and 
villages scattered here and there. 

Daniel Webster greatly admired Otis Hill with its view, and 
often visited it on his way to Marshfield. It is said that he had a 
great desire to buy it and make his home there, but feared that as 
it was so near the city he could not hope for the seclusion which 
a more distant spot would afford. 

At the north end of Otis Hill is Walton's Cove, or Wampum 
Cove, a slight indentation westward from the harbor, with very 
pretty scenery about it, having a high rocky shore on one side 
and fine trees all about it. An early settler of 1635, William 
Walton, owned land here, hence its name. 

Beyond Walton's Cove is Crow Point, a rounded hill extending 
like a cape into the harbor. It was the first ancient landmark 
sighted by the early explorers who sailed into Hingham Harbor, 
and probably the first spot landed upon. 

Before leaving this neighborhood, it will be well to take a look 
at the islands. The tide is high, and a row about the bay will be 
a fine thing this bright fall afternoon. 

Taking a boat, then, at Crow Point, we will pull over first to 
Ragged Island, the westernmost of the group lying next the 
shore. This island, well-named, is a very picturesque mass of 

VOL. I. — 12 



178 History of H Ingham. 

rock, and the scarlet and yellow of the sumacs, and other wild 
shrubs, form a fiery contrast to the deep olive green of the savins 
here and there among - the ledges. At half-tide, the rusty under- 
water coloring of the rocks of these islands, supplemented by the 
dark, yellowish-russet tints of the rockweed, which only grows 
submerged on the ledges, is very interesting in an artistic point 
of view. 

East of this lies Sarah's (Sailor's, or Sayles's) Island. This 
is also the summit of a great rocky ledge rising up from the 
water, and clothed with sumacs and other shrubs. 

Towards the head of the harbor, hardly a mile south, lies 
Button Island. This little heap of rock and gravel, bearing no 
trees nor shrubs and but little grass, is not worth visiting. But 
one other remains to be noticed, Langlee's Island (in early days 
Ibrook's), which is a beautiful spot. Steep ledges surround it, 
except for small intervals, where there are gravelly beaches, upon 
one of which stands a line linden. Shrubs abound upon the 
uplands. It will be, in a few years, yet more beautiful than 
now, thanks to the enlightened taste of the gentleman who owns 
it. He has planted many small trees, which will eventually cover 
it with forest growth, as was originally the case when the country 
was settled, and restore it to the condition in which all the islands 
of Boston harbor should be. Had they been kept so for the past 
two centuries, the forces of erosion would not have succeeded in 
practically sweeping some of them from the face of the earth, and 
destroying the contour of all. Richard Ibrook, who probably 
owned this island very early, came in 1635. 

As we row ashore again, those few light clouds in the west are 
taking upon themselves from the declining sunbeams colors yet 
more gorgeous than those of the fall foliage, and we have a fine 
opportunity of admiring one of those superb sunsets for which 
Hingham harbor is justly celebrated. Glowing, as it does, over 
the waters of the bay and across the western hills, it presents a 
splendor which no locality in the world can surpass. 

Although twilight is short at this season, there is yet time for 
a ride around the shore before the gloaming is upon us ; and 
as we left our horses here, let us mount at once and follow the 
road around the north side of Crow Point, and then the beach 
along the foot of the fine hill next west of it, the bank of which 
is bordered by a heavy growth of Lindens, Canoe Birches (very 
rare hereabouts), and other trees. This is Pleasant Hill. Be- 
yond it arc Planter's Fields, or Planils, and another of those 
Damde Meddowes which our ancestors rescued from the inroads 
of the sea wherever they could do so to advantage. Between the 
southerly slopes of Crow Point and Pleasant Hill, and Walton's 
Cove on the south, is a slight eminence called Tucker's or Tuck- 
er's Hill. John Tucker was an early settler, coming in 1635. 

The beach west of Pleasant Hill is Gardner's or Garnett's 
(Garner's) Beach. 



Ancient Landmarks. 179 

Beyond Pleasant Hill is the mouth of Weymouth Back River, 
here an arm of the sea. At this point is Huet's (Hewitt's) 
Cove, which with the land in its vicinity, including the localities 
formerly known as The Wigwam and The Captain's Tent, is a 
beautiful and romantic spot. The cove itself is an indentation 
formed bv a low rocky point making out to the westward, the 
opposite shore being a steep ledge or precipice, the upper part 
covered with canoe birches, oaks, and other forest trees in pro- 
fusion. The rolling contour of the country here, embracing 
pretty open fields, alternating with savin and linden thickets 
extending to the verge of the beaches, gives a charming va- 
riety to the landscape, while the water view is all that could be 
desired. 

Dnrino- the siea-e of Boston bv Washington, the English found 
themselves in sore straits for forage. Learning of some barns 
well filled with hay upon Grape Island, which lies off Huet's 
Cove, the British commander ordered a foraging party to pro- 
ceed in boats to the island and secure the supplies. The expe- 
dition, however, was discovered, and the militia of Hingham and 
vicinity were soon on the march down Lincoln Street to Huet's 
Cove, it being feared that the enemy intended landing there. 
Finding, however, that their objective point was Grape Island, 
a. detachment was sent off which set the barns on fire before 
the English could land. Being disappointed in their object, the 
enemv returned to Boston without attempting a landing. 

Among the fields at Huet's Cove is a small tract formerly known 
as Patience's Garden. Patience Pometick, the last Indian squaw 
living in Hingham, used to gather roots and herbs here, and sell 
them to the townspeople. In later days, and early in this cen- 
tiirv, an eccentric colored woman called " Black Patty" used to 
visit Patience's Garden, and haunt the territory adjoining Huet's 
Cove. Upon one occasion Patty was collecting herbs there, when, 
happening to glance seaward, attracted by a peculiar and unac- 
customed sound, the poor wretch's blood was frozen by what she 
saw. A dark, uncouth looking monster was rapidly approaching 
over the water, snorting black smoke with a spiteful sound, the 
waves of the bay foaming behind it, and sparks of fire mingling 
with the smoke which it belched forth. Patty waited to see no 
more, but rushed over the fields and into the first house that she 
could reach, screaming that the Fiend himself was close behind 
her. The monster which poor Patty had taken for the Enemy 
of Souls was the first Hingham steamboat coming into the harbor! 

Farther up Weymouth River, and just before reaching the 
bridge over which the Hingham and Quincy turnpike ran, there 
is a high, partly wooded promontory, which until within a year 
or two belonged to the town, and is known as Stoddard's (Stod- 
dar's) Neck. 

The old building nearest the bridge, on the north side of the 
road was, in the days of the turnpike, the Toll House. From 



180 History of Hingham. 

here a sharp ride over Lincoln Street will take us into the village- 
about dusk. Until within twenty years this street only extended 
west a short distance beyond Crow-Point Lane, and the first set- 
tlers who laid it out called it Broad-Cove Street. It runs along 
the northerly base of Squirrel Hill, near its junction with Crow- 
Point Lane. The view from this hill almost equals that from 
Otis Hill. At the foot of Squirrel Hill were formerly Clay Pits, 
where there were brick kilns. 

The name of Broad-Cove Street was changed to Lincoln Street 
in honor of Major-General Benjamin Lincoln, of the army of the 
Revolution. The General Lincoln Mansion, on the corner of 
this and North Streets, is still occupied by his descendants. A 
portion of it is upwards of two hundred and twenty years old. 

About a dozen years since it became necessary to construct a 
sewer on Main Street, to relieve the part of the road south of the 
Old Meeting-House of surplus surface water. The line of this 
sewer was laid out so as to run along in front of the hill upon 
which stands the Derby Academy ; a part of which hill, as else- 
where stated, was cut down, and the roadway lowered to the 
present level. The rising ground thus removed was originally 
part of the burial-hill, and Main Street here passes over where 
the edge of the slope originally was. 

Upon digging to build this sewer several skeletons were un- 
earthed, which were identified as those of the Acadian prisoners 
who died in Hingham ; for a number of those unhappy exiles were 
sent here after their expatriation. Some of them lived for a time 
in a small one-story house which stood on Broad-Cove Street, on 
land which is now the southeast corner of Lincoln Street and 
Burditt Avenue. In this house also were quartered, early in the 
Revolutionary War, Lieutenant Haswell and his young daughter, 
who was afterwards the celebrated Mrs. Rowson. Mr. Hasweli 
was a British officer, and collector of the customs at Hull, for 
the King. He was for some time a prisoner-of-war in Hingham 
and elsewhere. 

On Lincoln Street, at the easterly side of the road, and at the 
summit of the hill north of Fountain Square, stands a large, old- 
fashioned house which was, sixty years since, Wilder'* Tavern, 
and yet earlier, The Andrews Tavern. There used to be a post 
in front of the porch, on which was a large golden ball. 



Another crisp, bright October morning, — 

" when the quiet light 
Succeeds the keen and frosty night; " 

and what could be finer than this for further explorations among 
the landmarks ? Let us start, therefore, in the direction of the 
West End. The house next west of the General Lincoln man- 
sion was in old times Seth Cushing's Inn. Going up North 




HOME OF GEN. BENJAMIN LINCOLN". 



Ancient Landmarks. 181 

Street, we are all the time moving parallel with the Town Brook, 
which rises in Bare Swamp and flows down, crossing South Street 
at the West Hingham depot, thence easterly through the centre 
of The Swamp, — ■ a fresh meadow bounded by North, West, and 
South Streets, and probably extending originally to the cove 
which is now the mill pond, — - to its outlet in the last-named local- 
ity. The bridge across the brook, connecting North and South 
Streets at the point near the Methodist church, is known as 
Goold's Bridge. That one where these two streets approach 
each other at the east end of The Swamp, is Marsh's Bridge. 
A short distance further west an old way called Burton's Lane 
runs north from North Street toward Squirrel Hill. 

At the last bend of North Street is a small hill, a spur of 
Baker's Hill, known as Mars Hill. One of the oldest houses 
in Hingham stands upon it. 

After turning into Beal Street, Baker's Hill rises on the 
right hand. It is one of the largest and highest hills in town, 
and there is a superb view from the top. It derived its name 
from the residence, at its foot, of Nicholas Baker, who with his 
brother Nathaniel came with Rev. Peter Hobart in 1635. 

Beal Street, formerly The Turnpike between Hingham and 
Quincy, and the direct road to Boston until Lincoln Street was 
cut through, was in early times Goold's (Gold's) Lane, and ran 
north until it reached the first hill. Then it divided into three 
blind lanes. One led westward to Great Lots ; one northwest- 
ward to the same locality ; and one was Squirrel-Hill Lane, 
which runs from Beal Street, north of Baker's Hill, to Squirrel 
Hill. Edward Gold, from whom this lane took its name, was an 
early settler. He was known as " the pailmaker." 

A few rods from the junction of Beal with North Street, Hook- 
ley Lane runs west from Beal Street to Hockley. Where this 
lane begins is Hockley Corner (another Hockley Corner is on 
Fort-Hill Street). Hockley is an extensive district, consisting 
of hundreds of acres of rolling country, embracing fine meadows, 
woodlands, and a beautif id water front on Weymouth Back River. 
It is one of the most attractive localities in Hingham. Tucker's 
Swamp is situated north of Hockley Lane. In former days the 
cutting and drying of peat for fuel was quite an industry at this 
place. There were about twenty-five buildings then standing in 
the vicinity, used for the storage of dried peat. 

Near the foot of the lane is Hockley Run, which empties into 
the river at Beal's Cove, a pretty indentation here. Two other 
small runs flow into the river near by. The old crossing known 
in early days as London Bridge was not far distant. 

The territory north, about Lincoln and Beal streets, including 
the Almshouse and Town Farm, was formerly denominated 
Great Lots. Stovvell's Hill is on Weymouth River, near the 
Alms House. 

Returning to Beal Street, and crossing the head of the Swamp, 



182 History of Hingham. 

over West Street, we turn to the right into Fort-Hill Street, which 
passes over Fort Hill, about a quarter of a mile farther south- 
west. The old name was Nichols's Hill, until, in the time of 
King Philip's War, a fort was built upon it for protection against 
Indian attacks, and the name was changed to Fort Hill. When 
the top of the hill was cut off, the lines of the old fort were oblit- 
erated. Near the end of this street, and close to the Weymouth 
line, is Fresh Rivei;, a little stream rising in Bare Swamp and 
emptying into Weymouth Back River. A small branch of this 
flows from the neighborhood of Nutty Hill across Hobart 
Street. The bridge across Fresh River at Fort-Hill Street is 
West Bridge. The one over it on French Street is French's 
Bridge. At the corner of Fort Hill and French streets is a 
small sheet of water through which this little stream flows, called 
Round Pond. 

New Bridge Street, which runs in a southerly direction from 
Fort-Hill Street, crosses Fresh River, passes through Bare 
Swamp, and skirts the easterly side of Great Hill, which lies 
between it and Hobart Street. Bare Swamp was, like all mead- 
ows found already cleared of forest by the early settlers, very 
valuable to them, for the reason that such lands afforded for- 
age for their cattle. In their system of valuation meadow 
property was rated highest, corn lands next, and woodlands 
least. How the present estimate would reverse this if a portion 
of the magnificent primeval forest which the}'' found were yet 
standing ! Bare Swamp, when they came, was found to have 
been cleared by the beavers, and received its name from its being 
bare of trees. Those animals, evidently plenty up to that time, 
had by their dams across the watercourses, overflowed the vicin- 
ity. This had, perhaps, been the case for centuries, at least for 
so long a period that the trees had died out and fallen, and 
meadow land was the natural consequence. 

Great Hill is rather a barren height, as are most of the small 
eminences about it : but interspersed among these are various 
little green and fertile meadows. Some of them arc under culti- 
vation, others growing up to woods, which it is to be hoped will 
advance up the slopes of the hills, thus increasing their value 
and enhancing their beauty. The neighborhood is of great in- 
terest to the geologist, exhibiting as it does, remarkable traces 
of the occupancy of this region by the great glacier. Pigeon 
Plain is a sandy tract of land between the Great Hill district 
and High Street. It was in early days a haunt of the wild 
pigeons. 

South of Hobart Street, and between it and High Street, lies 
Hemlock Swamp. At the corner of French and High streets is 
Nutty (or Nutter's) Hill, so called because the early settlers 
found walnuts there in great abundance. 

Beyond High Street is Ward Street. The portion of this road. 
Old Ward Street, which used to be a highway running nearly 



■/. 



•j. 



y 




Ancient Landmarks. 183 

due south to Queen Ann's Turnpike, is discontinued, although 
even now it is a delightful bridle path through the thick woods. 
Where it crosses a small branch of Plymouth River is a pecu- 
liarly shaped field always known as Ox-13ow Meadow. The 
present part of Ward Street between its junction with Old Ward 
Street and Gushing Street, used to be called Fox Lane. Root's 
Bridge and Root's Hill are near the junction referred to. 

Riding through the pleasant old deserted Ward Street, we reach 
Whiting Street, formerly Queen Ann's Turnpike (or " Quean " 
Ann's Turnpike). This name, sad to say, was not bestowed in 
honor of good Queen Anne, but was derived from the sobriquet 
of a far less reputable individual, who kept a tavern of unsavory 
reputation upon it in former days. 

This street enters Hingham from Weymouth, and makes its 
exit at Queen Ann's Corner, just east of Accord Pond, at the 
point where it meets Main Street. On Whiting Street, near the 
Weymouth line, is a rocky ridge across the street, called The 
Devil's Back. It is said that whatever may be done in the 
way of covering this ridge, or lowering it by blasting, it always 
in time reappears. Whether the inhabitants of an earlier gene- 
ration considered this peculiarity as evincing undue activity on 
the part of Satan in making travel in that vicinity more labori- 
ous, or whether they surmised that the " Ward Witches " had a 
hand in the mischief, instigated thereto by the Evil One, they 
bestowed upon the ridge this unsanctified name. The territory 
certainly must have been within the jurisdiction of these " Ward 
Witches," who were lady members of a family which formerly 
dwelt in a part of the town not very far away, and who were 
popularly believed to practise the Black Art. 

Passing southeast over this old turnpike we come to a deep 
ravine through which flows, in a northerly direction, an active 
little stream called Plymouth River. Further on, a branch of 
the same crosses the road. This " river," now but a brook in 
size, received its name from the fact of its being on the way to 
Plymouth, as it crossed the Old Indian Path which was in this 
vicinity, and which was the only road which the earlv settlers 
had between Boston and Plymouth. 

It must be noted that the little streams called " rivers " in 
Hingham, were doubtless in aboriginal days much wider and 
deeper than now. The denudation of the country by the extir- 
pation of the heavy forests, with the consequent desiccation of 
lands which then held in their sponge-like soils, mulched by thou- 
sands of generations of fallen leaves, volumes of water vastly in 
excess of what falls upon or remains in them now, has resulted 
in the dwarfing of the once good-sized streams, and the diminu- 
tion of the annual rainfall ; and the dry and starveling wood- 
lands (as compared with the primeval forest), cannot retain the 
moisture necessary to the formation of rivers of any size. 

A short distance southeast of the easterly branch of Plymouth 



184: History of Hingham. 

River, on Whiting Street, we come upon dishing Street, crossing 
the old turnpike. We will turn to the right and proceed a few 
rods until we strike Derby Street, which leads from the intersec- 
tion of Gardner with Whiting Street, westward into Weymouth. 
This country is all in the old Fourth Division. Ancient land- 
marks are plentiful in this corner of Hingham, although many 
of them can with difficulty be distinguished, owing to the country 
being now extensively covered with woods where formerly were 
farms. Consequently, in most cases their location merely can be 
pointed out. 

South of Derby, and immediately west of Gardner Street, lies 
Huckleberry Plain, famous for the abundance of the fruit from 
which it derives its name. West of this, and south of Derby 
Street are the Farm Hills. Between Derby and Abington Street 
and Rockland, is Mast Swamp, where formerly grew very large 
pines, suitable for masts of vessels. North of Derby Street, and 
between it and Whiting Street, are the Smooth Hills. To the 
south again are the Three Hundred Acres, a tract once be- 
longing to Madam Derby. Derby Street was named in honor 
of this lady. Just before this street enters Weymouth, it passes 
through Musquito Plain, so called from the supposed super- 
abundance of these insects. 

Retracing our course over Derby Street, we will turn into 
Gushing Street and proceed almost due north. Between this 
street, Whiting Street, and Plymouth River, is Breakneck Hill, 
now not a specially perilous descent where it invades the high- 
way, however steep it may formerly have been. East of dishing 
Street, at this point, is Hoop-Pole Hill, where great quantities 
of trees were cut in the days when the mackerel fishery was in 
its prime, to furnish hoops for the barrels made at the harbor for 
packing the fish. Woods now cover nearly all the hills in this 
romantic and almost deserted portion of the town. A branch of 
Plymouth River crosses and recrosses the road along the base of 
these hills six times. The next point of interest is Mullein 
Hill, a sharp ridge lying on the east side of the road. The 
extensive growth of mullein in this locality in past days gave 
this hill its name. The somewhat abrupt ranges next crossed, 
and extending west of the road, are those of the High Hills. 

The country all about here has a peculiarly broken surface, 
and the woods covering it are principally oak. 

White-Oak Neck lies between Plymouth River, just before it 
enters Cushing's Pond, and Eel River, a little stream which 
flows north, crossing Cushing Street, and also emptying into this 
pond. The road turns abruptly to the eastward here, and crosses 
the southerly extremity of Cushing's Pond, a pretty sheet of 
water lying among wooded hills, upon the banks of which have 
been carried on some of the most noted industries of the town. 
Here is the Bucket Factory, where for generations were made 
the celebrated "Hingham buckets" which were sold, far and 



Ancient Landmark*. 185 

wide, all over the country. It is proper to state, however, that 
it was the manufacture of buckets by hand, at little shops else- 
where in town, earlier than the establishment of this factory, 
that had procured for Hingham the sobriquet of " Bucket Town." 
Here also were made the " Jacobs Hatchets " esteemed for their 
excellence and exported all over the world in days gone by. 
Alas, alas ! how the mercantile, manufacturing, and maritime en- 
terprises of Hingham have faded away, never to reappear. The 
Thomas Iron Foundry at Thomas's Pond on Weir River, the 
Eagle Foundry at the harbor, the Bucket Factory and Hatchet 
Works at Cushing's Pond, the Cordage Factory, the Iron Works 
and Factory at Trip-Hammer Pond, — the productions of all these 
various industries were justly appreciated both in this country 
and abroad, and none more so than those of the Stephenson Scale 
Works. The shipyards of Hingham — Hall's, Souther's, and 
others — launched as noble vessels as sailed under the flag. The 
fishing interests of the town employed a large fleet of fine schoon- 
ers, well commanded and manned by hundreds of her stalwart 
young men. These interests built up more than one fortune, 
large for those days. 

The house near Main Street was one of the old inns of earlier 
days. It was known as Brigadier Cushing's Tavern. Reaching 
Main Street, we will turn to the right. The first hill on the road, 
going south, was in early days called Mayse's or May's, now 
Liberty Pole Hill. The country south of this locality, to the 
town line, is called Liberty Plain. 

At the foot of the southerly slope of this hill, a blind lane 
leads west through the woods, towards Eel River. This is Eel- 
River Lane. The gradual rise on Main Street from this point, 
south, is called Dig- away Hill (in some old papers Didgeway). 
Further on, to the west of the road, at Gardner Street, is White- 
Oak Plain. Half-way between Gardner Street and the town 
line, at Gardner's Bridge, Main Street crosses Beechwoods 
River, sometimes called Mill River, the little stream flowing 
northeast from Accord Pond, which unites with others near the 
centre of the township to form Weir River. 

On the town line where Main Street meets " Queen Ann's Turn- 
pike," now Whiting Street, is Queen Ann's Corner, and a few 
rods to the west is Accord Pond, from which Hingham draws its 
water supply. It is a beautiful sheet of water, of about three- 
fourths of a mile in length, lying within the limits of three 
towns, — Hingham, Rockland, and Norwell (formerly South Scitu- 
atc). The easterly shore is bordered by open country, the west 
side generally heavily wooded. The forest in this vicinity is 
largely composed of the Scarlet Oak, and at this season is in a 
blaze of brilliant coloring. 

It is a singular fact that of all the ponds of any considerable 
size in Hingham, but one is a natural pond. All the rest, — 
Cushing's, Fulling-Mill, Trip-Hammer, Thomas's, and the Mill- 



186 History of Hingham. 

pond, are artificial. According to one tradition Accord Pond 
received its name from the following circumstances. 

A treaty with the Indians was about to be concluded by the 
inhabitants of the adjacent country, and it was 'decided to as- 
semble for the purpose at the point where the three towns of 
Abington, Scituate, and Hingham at that time met, somewhere 
near the middle of the pond which lay within the limits of these 
three townships. The conference was held in winter, on the ice, 
and was entirely successful, the questions at issue being settled 
amicably. On account of the happy accord which manifested 
itself between the contracting parties, the sheet of water received 
from that time the name of Accord Pond. 

There are other traditions of similar import, but this one 
seems the most interesting. 

One other large natural pond was within the original limits of 
Hingham, — Scituate Pond ; but it lies in Cohasset, which town, 
as previously stated, was set off from Hingham in 1770. 

A small stream called Slough River flows from the Farm 
Hills across Gardner Street, and empties into the northern ex- 
tremity of Accord Pond. 

On Main Street, a long house, almost the last building in Hing- 
ham before reaching the town line, was in the early part of the 
century Sivret's Tavern. The old country taverns in those days 
were vastly more numerous than they are now, when the railroads 
covering the country have rendered them superfluous. 

And now that bright yellow sunset over there, beyond the Blue 
Hills, indicates a fine day for to-morrow. 



This bright morning follows appropriately in the wake of the 
past few perfect days ; and now let us start for a stroll at the old 
cove itself. From the Mill bridge, passing west through North 
Street (the old Town Street of the early settlers) we come within 
a few rods to where the road bends slightly to the right. Here, 
where the millpond contracts to half its previous width, there 
was in the early days of the town, a second mill, and mill-dam 
across to the cemetery hill. A short distance farther west is 
Ship Street on the right, in old times Fish Street. At this 
spot the early settlers with Rev. Peter Hobart landed from 
their boats. 

The old houses on either corner of Ship and North Streets were 
formerly the Waters Taverns. An old house next to the one of 
these two on the westerly corner, was tbe Nye Tavern. Here is 
where certain British officers, quartered in town as prisoners of 
war during the Revolution, were brought for their meals. The 
old house next west of the Nye Tavern, standing on rising ground, 
with many trees about it, the Gay Mansion, was the home of the 



Ancient Landmarks. 187 

Rev. Dr. Gay, long the celebrated pastor of the First Parish. 
Immediately west of this stands a building which, now enlarged 
and rebuilt, was in its original condition the home of the Rev. 
John Norton, the second pastor of the First Parish. 

Opposite this spot, South Street enters North Street diagonally. 
This road also was termed Town Street when laid out by the 
first settlers. At its very beginning it crosses the Town Brook 
by Magoon's Bridge. 

Passing on a few rods more, we come to Main Street, which 
runs south from the railroad depot. On the easterly corner of 
Cottage Street, which enters North Street opposite Main, stands 
the dishing House, formerly the Union Hotel, and earlier yet, 
Little & Morey's Tavern. This was a noted old inn in its day. 
Next east of it is a very old house, which was one of the " Gar- 
rison-houses " of the time of King Philip's War. 

Main Street crosses the Town Brook by Broad Bridge.. The 
old bridge, notwithstanding its name, was formerly hardly wide 
enough for two teams to pass abreast, and a watering place for 
horses and cattle existed by the roadside where it crossed the 
brook. It is related that a worthy citizen, hurrying in a violent 
thunder storm to fetch the doctor, was obliged to wait for a flash 
of lightning to show him the bridge, which in the darkness was 
quite invisible. There is no locality in Hingham of which the 
name has a more familiar sound than that of the " Broad Bridge." 
Very near it, on both sides of the road, stood many of the shops 
where the town wits and celebrities used in the old times to 
gather in the winter evenings to talk over news and politics, 
crack jokes, and tell stories, some of which have come down to 
posterity with all their pristine savor. Pertinent to this subject 
may be a little circumstance which took place at a fine colonial 
mansion hard by, where dwelt in former days a gentleman of the 
old Hingham school, Squire Blank. Some French officers who 
had served with General Lincoln under Washington, were travel- 
ling in this country, and came to Hingham to pay their respects 
to the old general. Squire Blank gave a soiree in their honor, 
and considered himself in courtesy bound to converse in French 
instead of the vernacular. Consequently, after welcoming his 
foreign guests, he launched into a general conversation with the 
most prominent Frenchman, who stood gracefully bowing and 
smiling, and using the most agonized endeavors to comprehend 
the SquhVs French. At last, in despair of coming at his enter- 
tainer's meaning, he broke out deprecatingly but vigorously, and 
in the Squire's mother tongue, " For Heaven's sake, Mr. Blank, 
speak English if you can ! " 

On North Street, facing Broad Bridge, where the Catholic 
Church now is, there stood until recently a fine old colonial 
mansion, having tapestried halls, and with some of the door- 
panels decorated by sketches painted by the celebrated Madam 



188 



History of Hingham. 



- ASfl&fcfia 




LL*H$£f*G.CO.,B< 



THE THAXTEK HOUSE, 
Which stood on North Street opposite Broad Bridge. 



Derby, — the old Thaxter House. At the time of the Revolu- 
tion it was owned and occupied by a Mr. Elisha Leavitt, who was 
a bitter Tory. It was thought by the patriots that he suggested to 
the British commander, during the siege of Boston, the sending of 
the expedition to Grape Island for the purpose of securing for- 
age. To punish him for this, a mob assembled and started for his 
house, with the idea, perhaps, of destroying the mansion, or pos- 
sibly, even, of offering him personal violence. He got wind of 
their coming, however, and had a barrel of rum rolled out of his 
cellar in front of the house, with other refreshments, such as 
crackers and cheese, for the rank and file of the mob, while cake 
and wine were provided in the house for the gentlemen leading 
the populace. Upon the arrival of the crowd, they were invited 
to help themselves to the refreshments, while the gentlemen 
aforesaid were received by Mrs. Leavitt in elegant dress, and 
urged to walk in and partake of the wine. This unexpected and 
politic courtesy disarmed the fury of the Whigs, and the threat- 
ened violence was drowned in good cheer. 

Just beyond South Street the road formerly divided. The prin- 
cipal roadway came over the low hill upon which the Derby 
Academy stands, the westerly portion of which has since been 
cut down. The other road ran along the foot of this hill. Be- 
tween the two roads on the high land stood the post-office, and 
one or two other buildings. Several old gravestones also were 



Ancient Landmarks. 180 

there, as the slope had been in the early days a part of the burial 
ground, and the First Meeting-House of the early settlers with 
Rev. Peter Hobart stood in front of the present site of the Derby 
Academy. It was probably a log house, and there was a belfry 
upon it, containing a bell. It was fortified by palisades. 

When the street was lowered to the present level by cutting- 
down the hill and removing the buildings upon it, many graves 
were found in and about the roadway, containing the bones of 
some of the first settlers. These were reverently gathered to- 
gether and reinterred within the breastworks of the Old Fort, 
which is a circular earthwork on the summit of the burial hill, 
back of the Academy. This fort was built to command the ap- 
proach by water, either of Indians in their canoes during King 
Philip's War, or in anticipation of a possible attack at the time of 
the troubles with the Dutch at New York. It is kept in a fine 
state of preservation, and a plain granite shaft in the centre was 
erected by the town to the memory of the first settlers. Around 
its outer slope are set many very quaint and ancient gravestones, 
unearthed here and there in the process of repairs or improve- 
ment of this beautiful cemeterv In the arrangement and adorn- 
ment of this resting-place of the dead, the taste displayed and the 
great work done by Dr. R. T. P Fiske and Mr. John Todd, the 
gentlemen who have had it in charge during the past fifty years, 
have been in the highest degree creditable and honorable to them. 

In this cemetery are interred some of the most distinguished of 
Americans, as well as those men who came from over the sea to 
make Hingham their home. Here sleep the long line of eminent 
pastors of the First Parish, who preached in the Old Meeting- 
house yonder, — Hobart, Gay, Norton, Ware, Richardson, Lincoln. 
Many families whose members have attained to high position in 
the political, military, professional, or business circles of the re- 
public bring their dead here to the home of their ancestors, to 
slumber in the beautifully wooded hills or valleys of this lovely 
spot. 

Many a soldier, from the general commanding an army to the 
riflemen who stood shoulder to shoulder in the line of battle, awaits 
the last reveille here. Many a sailor, who fought under " Old 
Glory " behind the cannon on the high seas, is ready to start up 
from this ground when " All hands on deck ! " is piped for the last 
time. The tomb of Major-General Benjamin Lincoln, of the Rev- 
olutionary Army, is here. John Albion Andrew, the " great war 
governor" of Massachusetts during the Rebellion, rests here by 
his monument. The shaft to those who died by land or sea in the 
war for the Union crowns one of these beautiful heights. 

On Main Street, in front of the entrance to the cemetery and on 
a height above the road, the handsome retaining wall of which is 
draped with ampelopsis, now beautiful in autumn coloring, is The 
Old Meeting-House of the First Parish, now in the two hundred 
and eighth year of its existence. Standing far apart from and 



190 - History of Hingham. 

above all other buildings, and embowered in fine trees, it is too 
well known to need description here. In simple, homely grand- 
eur it towers there, a century older than the republic itself. If it 
could speak so as to be heard by mortal ears, what might it not 
reveal of the dead and of the living, of the story of the past! But 
to those who love Hingham and her history, it has a thousand 
tongues which are never silent. 

Main Street, as far as Pear-Tree Hill, which is the steep 
bluff at the beginning of the Lower Plain, was, in the earliest 
times, known as Bachelor's Rowe, or Bachelor Street. 

The salt marshes east of the road, below Pear-Tree Hill, are the 
Home Meadows. 

Having surmounted Pear-Tree Hill, we are upon the Lower 
Plain, which is a tract of mainly level country extending south as 
far as Tower's Bridge, on Main Street. But we will leave this 
street and take Leavitt Street eastward. A large, low building 
on the corner, under a noble buttonwood-trce, was, in former days, 
Lewis's Inn. The large, old-fashioned building east of it was 
once the old Almshouse. 

Leaving the Agricultural Hall upon the left, we soon come to 
Weir River, here crossed by Leavitt's Bridge. A short distance 
further on, a wav is reached winding off to the riirht and south, 

m O CD ' 

which is Pope's Lane, or Pope's Hole. At the first turn on this 
lane are the Clump Bars, known also to the boys of past genera- 
tions as Plumb Bars. This is evidently a corruption, as they de- 
rived the name from being, in former times, near a clump of trees 
when there were but few trees in the vicinity. The country there- 
abouts had not then grown up to woodlands, but was devoted to 
tillage or pasturage. Between this lane and Weir River lies 
Rocky Meadow. Turning to the eastward, the way leads into 
thick woods, in a rocky, rolling country, and among these, on the 
right side of the lane, is the wild and romantic ledge known as 
Indian Rock. 

Nearly opposite this rock is Chubbuck's Well, and the cellar 
of Chubbuck's House, which house itself was demolished in 1759. 
This old well, now filled to the brim with leaves and debris, yet 
shows the carefully built wall, as good now as when constructed 
by Thomas Chubbuck, who was an early settler in 1634. 

Further down the lane there is a rocky place in the woods 
called The Hogpen. 

The lane, turning westward, crosses Trip-Hammer Pond by a 
causeway. This pond is formed by Weir River, which flows 
through it. There were formerly iron works here, with a trip- 
hammer, and also a shingle factory. 

Returning to Leavitt Street (the part of which leading into 
Third Division Woods was the old Third Division Lane) we 
will stop to look into James Lane, now so overgrown with woods 
that it cannot be distinguished, except by its location, from other 
cartways into the forest. It leads to James Hill, in Cohassct. 



Ancient Landmarks. 191 

Near its junction with Lcavitt Street is Pine-Log Hill. The 
Iron Mine (so called) is here at the corner of the lane, although 
indistinguishable in the undergrowth. It is hard to say now 
what gave this name to the locality. Near it is Black Snake 
Hill. Dismal Swamp is northeast of the Iron Mine, and ex- 
tends into Cohasset. Close by is, or rather was, the famous 
Forest Sanctuary. This was an open grove of noble pines, the 
growth of centuries, — the ground beneath them being carpeted 
with a thick layer of fragrant pine needles, with gray and mossy 
rocks here and there. The name was a fitting one, and well ex- 
pressed the quiet grandeur of the natural beauty of this remote 
spot. But it was deemed desirable to sweep away these superb 
trees in order to 

" coin their blood for drachmas/' 

and Forest Sanctuary has accordingly long been a thing of the 
past. 

We are now in the Third Division Woods, which extend far 
and wide, over hill, dale, and swamp, and form probably the near- 
est approach to the primeval wilderness which can be found 
within fifteen miles of Boston. They spread over into Cohasset, 
and far southward. The deciduous part of these woodlands is 
largely composed of various species of the oak family ; the ever- 
green portion principally of the white pine, although many other 
species of both classes of trees abound. At the side of the old 
Third Division Road, on the line between Hingham and Cohasset, 
is a mark which was called the Stone Bounds. When the select- 
men of the two towns " make their rounds," they are popularly 
and mysteriously supposed to reach this mark at high noon, and 
according to the ancient custom "'crack a bottle" against it. 
Other landmarks in Third Division Woods are Josh Leavitt's 
Bars, on the right side of the way near the road to Beechwoods. 
Near by is Thorph. Burr's Hill, so called from a Mr. Burr, who 
owned land at its foot. Glass Rock was on the line of the Third 
Division, far south. 

Now let us return again to Leavitt Street, and, retracing our 
former course, turn to the eastward into Turkey Hill Lane, 
which leads up over three quite elevated eminences, until we reach 
the principal height of Turkey Hill. It is nearly a mile to this 
summit. At the first bend, to the right of the lane, are the re- 
mains of what was once a ledge, or enormous bowlder, about 
twelve feet high, with a rounded top sloping off smoothly to the 
south. This was Great- Rock. Upon this smooth surface an 
eccentric individual had chiselled in large letters this odd inscrip- 
tion : — 

" When wild in woods the naked savage ran, 
Lazell, Low, Loring, Lane, Lewis, Lincoln, 
Hersey, Leavitt, Jacobs, King, Jones and Sprague, 
Stemmed the wild torrent of a barbarous age, 
And were the first invaders of this country 
From the Island of Great Britain, in 1635." 



192 History of Hingham. 

A few feet away from the above, was also cut the following : — 

" This Inscription- 
was WROUGHT BY HOSEA Sl'RAGUE, 
A NATIVE OF HlNGHAM, 
WHO WAS A TRAVELLER HERE 

July 4th, 1828." 

It was regarded as a great curiosity, and would have been more 
and more interesting as time passed on. But, unhappily, in the 
year 1833 certain persons considered that the only value in the 
great rock was the handful of dollars which it would bring for 
building purposes, and it was blown to pieces and sold for a 
pittance. 

As one mounts higher and higher upon this hill, or rather upon 
this series of heights, the view in all directions grows more and 
more beautiful, until, when the top of Turkey Hill is reached, it 
mav be called sublime. 

Look at it now in this red October sunset ! To the east on the 
horizon lies the deep blue line of the broad Atlantic, Avhich sweeps 
round toward the north. North and northwest are the headlands 
and islands of the bay. In the extreme distance in this last di- 
rection the sun's rays flame upon the roofs and towers of the city. 
In the nearer space they are reflected in golden light from the 
placid waters of the harbor. Weir River shines between the 
green meadows, almost at our feet, like a silver thread. The Blue 
Hills are misty in the far west. Villages and houses speck the 
landscape here and there. That great hill to the southeast is 
Scituate Hill. 

Now turn southwards. There are brilliant woodlands in the 
other directions, but what a glory of scarlet, yellow, and green 
from the painted forests that stretch away to the southern hori- 
zon's edge here ! This surpasses any other Hingham view. 

In the War of 1812 people came to this hill on a sorrowful June 
day to see a famous naval duel. The British frigate " Shannon '' 
had been cruising off Boston harbor, and the captain sent a chal- 
lenge in to Captain Lawrence, who commanded the frigate " Chesa- 
peake," then lying at the navy yard, her crew having been paid off. 
The American officer gathered as good a crew as could be ob- 
tained from the sailors in port, and hurriedly set sail to meet the 
enemy. The encounter was off Scituate, and was very sanguin- 
ary. In the midst of it the brave Lawrence fell, mortally 
wounded. As they carried him below lie cried, " Don't give up 
the ship ! " But with his fall, the Americans lost heart, and 
after a hopeless struggle they were forced to surrender. A sad 
and wretched pageant for the spectators on Turkey Hill and along 
the shore ! 

Turkey Hill lies mostly in Hingham, but a part is in Cohasset. 
Its name was bestowed on account of the early abundance of wild 
turkevs there. 



Ancient Landmarks. 103 

In descending the hill at the easterly end, we leave the old way 
and pass over a private road, which has been laid out through the 
dark pine woods, winding beautifully down the slope till it reaches 
Side-Hill Road, following which, northward, we come out of 
these charming woods upon East Street, which we will turn into 
and proceed toward Cohasset. The Battery Pasture, or The 
Battery, was near Side-Hill road. The origin of the name is 
obscure. There is a very singular tongue of Hingham territory 
which extends over half a mile into Cohasset, and is known as 
The Homesteads. It is only a few rods in width, and tapers off 
to nothing at the railroad crossing at its east end. " The Home- 
steads " were the home lands of certain of the inhabitants, who, 
soon after Cohasset was laid off from Hingham, petitioned to be 
allowed to have their lands here re-annexed to Hingham. On 
the north side of East Street are the Turkey Meadows, and the 
little stream which crosses the road from the south and eventu- 
ally flows under Lambert's Lane, emptying finally into Lyford's 
Liking River, is Turkey-Hill Run. 

Retracing our course, we come back to where Side-Hill Road 
ends on East Street. Near this junction once stood the Black- 
Horse Tavern, a famous resort for gunners and persons on their 
way to or from Hull. Ebenezer Beal was the old-time host of this 
inn. 

Hull Street leads north from this point to Nantasket Beach. 
From the extreme northwesterly part of " The Homesteads " it 
forms the boundary line between Hingham and Cohasset. About 
half a mile from the railroad crossing, Canterbury Street leads 
away on the left, through the district called Canterbury. 

The village on Hull Street, extending from Canterbury Street 
to Jerusalem road, is known by the singular name of Tugmanug, 
and it used to be one of the most quaint and interesting localities 
along the shore. Its odd little houses, many of them having the 
front door painted in most gorgeous hues, the rough and rocky 
road, the queer little nooks and corners here and there, and the 
salty savor which pervaded the whole place, and the inhabitants, 
whose characteristics were in some respects peculiar to a village 
on the New England coast where wrecks were not uncommon, 
lent a picturesque glamour to the hamlet and its people, xllas ! 
all this is gone now, and the charm which once hung over this 
mysterious locality is fled forever. All is now " spick and span,." 
tidy and humdrum. 



This day, which will be the last of our wanderings among the 
ancient landmarks, is far colder than the lovely Indian-summer 
days which have been granted us until this morning, and sharp 
riding will be necessary in order to keep comfortably warm. 

We will turn back again to East Street and make our way west- 
ward. That little road, crossing the railroad track and winding 

VOL. I. — 13 



194 History of Hingham. 

through a rocky, shrubby country and over high lands toward 
Rockland Street, is Weir Street, once the old Weir-River Lane. 
It affords one of the beautiful and sequestered rides for which 
Hingham and Cohasset are famed. The tract of high land lying 
east of it, now largely overgrown by woods, used to be Great 
Pasture. 

A little further on, around a bend in the road, we come to 
Cushing's Bridge, across Weir River. Many fine " wine-glass 
elms " are scattered here and there in the meadow by the river's 
banks, and by the roadside, across the stream, is the magnificent 
Old Elm, which was transplanted to this spot in 1729, three 
years before the birth of Washington. It is justly celebrated for 
its size and symmetry. All the territory in this vicinity, from 
Hull Street to Summer Street, has always been known as Rocky 
Nook. 

The road, after passing a row of sturdy red oaks on the left, 
which must have been old trees when the Pilgrims landed, reaches 
a descent cut through a rough ledge and known as Rocky Hill. 
Just bevond the hiffh lands to the right is Chamberlin's Swamp, 
and the little stream running through the meadow, parallel with 
the road and crossing it at last, to empty into Weir River at the 
foot of the Agricultural Society's grounds, is Chamberlin's Run. 
It is nearly dry in summer. The large white house between it 
and the Agricultural Hall, now a private residence, was, in the old 
days, a tavern. 

East Street ends at Leavitt Street, passing over which west 
to Main Street, we find ourselves in the middle of the village of 
" Hingham Centre," upon Lower Plain, which extends from 
Pear-Tree Hill to Tower's Bridge, as generally understood, al- 
though the town book giving the " names of streets, lanes, plains, 
and bridges, as established by the town May 7, 1827, and since," 
gives the boundaries of Lower Plain, " Pleasant Street to Pear- 
free Hill." 

Main Street runs through the village, passing The Common, 
lying east of the public library, and on the west side of the road 
at this point a fine old-fashioned residence, which was in earlier 
days a tavern. A short distance beyond, opposite the Grand 
Army Hall, is a deep depression on the north side of the road, 
containing a small sheet of water, now hardly more than a 
puddle, which was often referred to in old deeds as Bull's 
Pond. An Almshouse formerly stood on the site of the Grand 
Army Hall. 

After a turn to the westward, about a quarter of a mile further 
on, the street turns abruptly south at Cold Corner, and a few 
rods beyond is entered by Hobart Street, near the corner of 
which was the old Town Pound, where stray cattle were im- 
pounded. Half a mile or so beyond, the road crosses a little 
stream by Tower's Bridge. From this bridge to the south line 
of the town, the country bears the general title of Great Plain, 



Ancient Landmarks. 195 




GLAD-TIDINGS ROCK. 

although particular portions are more specially designated. The 
road winds up a slight rise from Tower's Bridge, and High Street, 
a few rods beyond, runs west to Weymouth. Just off this street 
is White-Horse Pond. Free Street is opposite to High, on 
Main Street, and runs east to Lasell Street. Just north of Free 
Street is a small conical height called Crow Hill, formerly a 
famous resort for the birds of that feather. Near by is Crow- 
Hill Swamp. 

A short distance further south Main Street crosses the stream 
coming from Cushing's Pond bv Wilder's Bridge. From this 
bridge to Mayse's (Liberty Pole) Hill, is Glad-Tidings Plain. 
After surmounting another rise in the road, we find on the west 
side the church of the Second Parish. 

This village is South Hingham, and the street is very wide 
and straight for a long distance, running between extensive 
bordering lawns and fine rows of trees. Back of the houses 
on the east side is a high granite ledge, known as Glad- 
Tidings Rock. 

In King Philip's War, a famous hunter, John Jacob by name, 
went out to shoot deer near where the church now stands. He is 
said to have frequently declared that he never would allow him- 
self to be taken alive by the Indians if he encountered them. 
They ambushed and shot him dead near this rock, and one tra- 
dition says that his friends, overjoyed to find that he had been 
killed outright and not captured to be tortured to death by the 
savages, called it Glad-Tidings Rock. Another tradition re- 
counts that a woman, lost by her friends, was discovered by them 
from the top of the rock, and that from this circumstance the 
ledge received its name. 



196 History of Hingham. 

We will turn eastward into South Pleasant Street, on the cor- 
ner of which is a notable mansion, the home of the celebrated 
Rev. Daniel Shute, D. D., the first pastor of the Second Parish. 
The house is inhabited at the present day by one of his lineal 
descendants. 

South Pleasant Street is shaded by noble elms, set out by 
a former member of the old Gushing family ; whose lands, 
for generations, have extended far and wide in this section, 
and do still, for hereabouts the population is largely composed 
of Cushings. 

Fulling-Mill Pond is on the right of the road, and at its out- 
let, which is a little stream called Fulling-Mill Brook, once 
stood the Fulling Mill. The bridge across this brook is Page's 
Bridge. Between Page's Bridge and Lasell Street, on the south 
side of the road, is Little Pond. This is a sluice-way of clear 
water which never freezes, and is on a piece of land of about 
three acres in extent, which was leased by the town to the Rev. 
Dr. Shute for nine hundred and ninety-nine years ! The hill be- 
yond Page's Bridge is rightly named Stony Hill. 

Now we will strike off into Lasell Street, a wild and pretty 
road, winding mostly through woods and between shrubby way- 
sides. 

On the easterly side of this street, about one eighth of a mile 
from Free Street, and just north of a rocky rise, there is in a 
thickly overgrown and woody field, the Old Lasell Pine. 

It seems probable that this ancient giant may be one of the few 
mighty trees yet remaining of the primeval forest. The shat- 
tered branches, rent by the storms of ages, would themselves 
form large trees, and the vast trunk, standing grimly amid its 
own ruins, presents but a picturesque suggestion of the old pine's 
earlier majesty. 

Rocky Run is a little stream flowing under the street- 
Entering Union Street, we find that Fearing's Bridge crosses 
Weir River a short distance further northward, where it flows 
among willows. Now, turning about, we will keep to the south- 
ward over this street. At the first bend to the east, on rising 
ground, there is a gateway, through which a cart road leads to 
Trip-Hammer Pond. A short distance beyond this gateway Long- 
Bridge Lane runs eastward from Union Street, winding through 
woods to granite quarries, and then crosses Beechwoods River. 
Near the entrance to this lane is Coal-Pit Hill. A few rods 
further south the road crosses Beechwoods River at Sprague's 
Bridge, and then passing the place where South Pleasant Street 
enters it, rises on to high land, and over what is called The 
Mountain, or Mount Blue Road, Mount Blue being in Norwell 
across the line. 

The view west and south from this vicinity is very fine, and 
the drive over this road, thence over Beech wood Street into 
Cohasset, is a most delightful one. 



Ancient Landmarks. 197 

Beechwoods is a very sparsely settled district, mostly heavily 
wooded with beech and oak, and with much of the beautiful 
holly growing at intervals. That rare and delicate shrub, the 
ink-berry, is not uncommon on the open roadsides of Union 
Street. 

Retracing our way, and taking South Pleasant Street, we will 
turn south into Charles Street by Stony Hill. Here is Mast- 
Bridge Plain, where formerly fine masts were cut from the for- 
est to equip the vessels building at the harbor. Mast-Bridge 
Meadows lie along Beechwoods River. This little stream is 
crossed by Hersey's Bridge. The noble height to the east is 
Prospect Hill, the highest in Hingham. The view from the 
summit is very extensive. 

After crossing Hersey's Bridge the road turns southward. To 
the westward is The Wigwam, a most interesting locality. Here 
dwelt the Indians in considerable numbers, and the stone lire- 
places of their wigwams were standing within the remembrance 
of persons now living. Many of their implements of domestic 
use and of the chase have been found here. 

There remains but one part of Hingham which has not been 
explored for the landmarks. To cover that, we will start at Cold 
Corner and take Central Street, a road laid out within a few 
years, which near the Ropewalks runs over a marsh which was 
once known as Christmas Pond. No trace now remains, however, 
which would indicate that a pond had ever existed here. Turning 
west into Elm Street, we soon pass over rising ground, the portion 
of which on the right, between Elm and Hersey streets, was called 
Powder-House Hill. A red Powder House formerly stood 
upon it, in which was stored a supply of gunpowder. It was 
moved here from the hill just north of the New North Church, 
on Lincoln Street. 

Near the corner of Elm and Hersey streets, there stood until 
within a few years a beautiful wood, known as Tranquillity 
Grove. It was long made use of for picnics and various other 
sorts of gatherings, social, political, and religious. The early 
abolitionists used it for some of their stirring meetings. 

The lower part of Hersey Street, from Elm to South streets 
was in early times Austin's Lane, taking its name from Jonas 
Austin, one of the first settlers in 1636, who had his homestead 
granted on Town Street (now South) at the north end of this 
lane. 

South Street, which was, like North Street, first called Town 
Street, begins at North Street opposite the old Gay mansion, im- 
mediatelv crosses Maroon's Bridge, and runs west. After cross- 
ing Main Street, and just before Lafayette Avenue is reached, it 
until within three years passed by a homely old provincial build- 
ing, which was in the last century the Anchor Tavern. General 
Lafayette once lodged in it when he had occasion to pass the 
night in Hingham, during the Revolutionary War. It was the 



198 History of Hingham,. 

country home of John A. Andrew, the war governor of Massa- 
chusetts, for one summer during the great rebellion. The short 
street which connects South with North Street, immediately west 
of the railroad depot, crosses the town brook, and is known as 
Thaxter's Bridge. In the old days the Whipping Post was 
located here. About a quarter of a mile further on, and a few- 
rods east of Austin's Lane (now Hersey Street), formerly stood 
the old Pine-Tree Tavern. On the site of it there now stands 
a large white house which was built by General Lincoln for his 
son-in-law and private secretary, Mr. Abner Lincoln. The road 
runs west and enters Fort-Hill Street after crossing the Town 
Brook at Derby's Bridge. On the south side of the street at 
this point formerly stood the mansion of Madam Derby, who 
applied the property left for the purpose by her first husband, 
Dr. Ezekiel Hersey, to founding Derby Academy. Many stories 
are told of this able but eccentric woman. Among others is this 
one, applicable to her home. 

She had a rustic seat arranged among the branches of one of 
the trees near her house, from which she could observe her la- 
borers in the fields. She was upon one occasion sitting there 
decidedly in dishabille, when she saw a carriage some distance 
off, containing visitors whom she had expected to arrive later 
in the day, but with whom she was not well acquainted. She 
jumped down from her perch, ran round to the back of the house, 
caught a brace of chickens on the way, twisted their necks and 
thing them to the cook with orders to broil them for dinner at 
once, ran through the house, and (her house servants not being 
at home) received the guests, who did not know her in her role 
of servant, showed them to their rooms, and hastening to her 
own, dressed and descended to the parlor to welcome them as 
Madam Derby ; and they did not recognize the servant who had 
ushered them to their apartments in the lady of the mansion 
who received them in state. 

When the money for the endowment of Derby Academy was 
brought from Salem to Hingham by Nathan Lincoln and his wife 
(he was a nephew of Dr. Ezekiel Hersey), it was concealed in 
a bucket which stood on the floor of a chaise, between Mr. 
and Mrs. Lincoln. Madam Derby caused stones in the cellar 
wall of her house to be removed, and the money, enclosed 
in woollen bags, was built into the wall, for concealment and 
safety. 

When this old mansion was burned, in the early part of this 
century, there had been living in it people whose habits of life 
were far from being such as invited the approval of the neighbors. 
And certain old women who were gathered together watching its 
destruction, averred that they saw fiends and witches ascending 
in the smoke and dancing in the flames. 

The nineteenth century would appear to be a little subsequent 
to the era of unseemly performances on the part of individuals 



Ancient Landmarks. 199 

of that ilk ; but the old ladies who witnessed their antics at the 
fire aforementioned were wives of respectable citizens of the 
West End, and their statements are not to be lightly called in 
question by the incredulous. 

You have now been with me among- the landmarks of these 
old towns, from the grim ledges off the eastern shore, where the 
surf beats itself incessantly to foam and spray on Cohasset rocks, 
to the singular rolling gravel mounds at the west end of Hing- 
hum, where the glacier of the last ice-period has left such in- 
disputable proofs of its former presence, — from the pretty 
landlocked harbor at the north, the ancient " Bare Cove," to the 
secluded woodlands which cover the greater part of the southern 
portion of these townships ; and where the ponds, those scarcely 
ruffled sheets of blue water, lie among green meadows and for- 
ests like sapphires among emeralds, — through old streets and 
lanes full of points of interest to the antiquarian, and over beau- 
tiful hills, whose graceful contour forms the background of every 
landscape. 

We maritime New Englanders breathe a double inspiration 
from our surroundings, for, dwelling by the ocean, upon which 
our people have proved themselves worthy descendants of the 
Northmen, we are at the same time practically mountaineers. 
Our rockv hills are the foot-hills of the mountain ranges a few 
miles west and north of us, which on the coast of Maine actually 
invade the realm of the sea. Even upon Boston Bay, look at 
those Blue Hills of Milton, whose tops are sometimes above the 
clouds. A short distance inland, and Wachusett and Monadnock 
show their heads, while Mount Washington itself is visible from 
the sea-coast. 

In the atmosphere of such surroundings, what wonder is it 
that upon rolls containing the Hingham and Cohasset names of 
Lincoln, dishing, Hobart, Tower, Gay, Thaxter, Shute, Sprague, 
Pratt, Hersey, Stoddard, Fearing, and others, should be found 
many which have adorned the professions of the ministry, law, 
and medicine ; which have become eminent as those of poets, 
literati, artists ; of men who have achieved the fortune and prac- 
tised the liberality of merchant princes ; who in the battle line 
by land and sea have, from sailors at their guns and soldiers in 
the ranks to great generals, shed lustre upon the Colony and the 
Republic ; who have, as deputies, or congressmen, or governors, 
or ambassadors, reaped honorable laurels in this and in foreign 
lands ; or lastly, in the presidential chair itself, won a simple, 
homely, but illustrious fame which will through all our future 
history go hand in hand with that of Washington ! 

Even as the Ancient Landmarks of Hingham and Cohasset 
tell a story of the existence and physical progress of the race 
and community of which those families were the type, so have 



200 History of Hingham. 

the lives and deeds of the leading spirits of those families served 
as landmarks in the annals of the Great Republic ; which is 
herself the brightest landmark in the present, as we devoutly 
hope she will be for the ages of the future, in the history of 
mankind. 



EARLY SETTLERS. 

BY JOHN D. LONG. 



Hingham is one of the oldest towns in Massachusetts. There 
were settlers here as early as 1633. Its first name was Bearcove 
or Barecove, more likely the latter, in view of the exposure of al- 
most its entire harbor at low tide, and as appears also in the 
spelling of the name in the order of the General Court referred to 
below. * So far as it had any legislative incorporation, it was in- 
corporated, and this has been the usual statement of writers, Sept. 
2, 1635, only eleven towns having in that respect an earlier date. 
Perhaps, however, the term incorporation is not appropriate in 
this connection, the brief order which the General Court, consist- 
ing of the Governor, assistants, and deputies, adopted and entered 
on that day being as follows, — a form used before, and afterwards, 
in the case of several other towns: — "The name of Barecove is 
changed and hereafter to be called Hingham." 

Who was the first settler, or at what exact date he came, it is 
impossible to say. Mr. Solomon Lincoln, the historian of the town 
in 1827, gives the following interesting facts : — 

•• The exact date at which any individual came here to reside cannot 
be ascertained. Among the papers of Mr. Oustiing, there is a ' list of the 
names of such persons as came out of the town of Hingham, and towns ad- 
jacent, in the County of Norfolk, in the Kingdom of England, into New 
England, and settled in Hingham.' From this list we are led to believe 
there were inhabitants here as early as 1633, and among them Ralph 
Smith, Nicholas Jacob with his family, Thomas Lincoln, weaver, Edmund 
Hobart and his wife, from Hingham, and Thomas Hobart with his family, 
from Windham, in Norfolk, England. During the same year Theophilus 
•Gushing, Edmund Hobart, senior, Joshua Hobart, and Henry Gibbs, all of 
Hingham, England, came to this country. Cushing lived some years at 
Mr. Haines's farm, and subsequently removed to Hingham. The others 
settled at Charlestown, and in 1635 removed to this place. In 1634 there 
were other settlers here, and among them Thomas Chubbuck ; Bare Cove 
was assessed in that year. T n 1635, at the May court, Joseph Andrews 



202 History of Hingham. 

was sworn as constable of the place. There was a considerable increase of 
the number of settlers, and in that year grants of land were made to up- 
wards of fifty individuals, of which a record is preserved. It was in June 
of that year that Rev. Peter Hobart arrived at Charlestown, and soon after 
settled in this place. 

" I here subjoin the names of those who settled or received grants of 
land here, in the respective years mentioned. Possibly there may be some 
names omitted, which have escaped my observation, and those of others in- 
serted to whom lands were granted, but who never settled here. The list 
is as perfect, however, as long, careful, and patient examination of public 
and private records can make it. 

"In 1635, in addition to those before-mentioned (namely: Joseph An- 
drews, Thomas Chubbuck, Henry Gibbs, Edmund Hobart, Sen., Edmund 
Hobart, Jr., Joshua Hobart, Rev. Peter Hobart, Thomas Hobart, Nicholas 
Jacob, Thomas Lincoln, weaver, Ralph Smith), were Jonas Austin, Nicholas 
Baker, Clement Bates, Richard Betscome, Benjamin Bozworth, William 
Buckland, James Cade, Anthony Cooper, John Cutler, John Farrow, Daniel 
Fop, Jarvice Gould, Wm. Hersey, Nicholas Hodsdin, Thos. Johnson, An- 
drew Lane, Wm. Large, Thomas Loring, George Ludkin, Jeremy Morse, 
William Nolton, John Otis, David Phippeny, John Palmer, John Porter, 
Henry Rust, John Smart, Francis Smith (or Smyth), John Strong, Henry 
Tuttil, William Walton, Thomas Andrews, William Arnall, George Bacon, 
Nathaniel Baker, Thomas Collier, George Lane, George Marsh, Abraham 
Martin, Nathaniel Peck, Richard Osborn, Thomas Wakely, Thomas Gill, 
Richard Ibrook, William Cockerum, William Cockerill, John Fearing, 
John Tucker. 

"In 1636, John Beal, senior, Anthony Eames, Thomas Hammond, 
Joseph Hull, Richard Jones, Nicholas Lobdin, Richard Langer, John 
Leavitt, Thomas Lincoln, Jr., miller, Thomas Lincoln, cooper, Adam Mott, 
Thomas Minard, John Parker, George Russell, William Sprague, George 
Strange, Thomas Underwood, Samuel Ward, Ralph Woodward, John 
Winchester, William Walker. 

"In 1637, Thomas Barnes, Josiah Cobbit, Thomas ChafFe, Thomas 
Clapp, William Carlslye (or Carsly), Thomas Dimock, Vinton Dreuce, 
Thomas Hett, Thomas Joshlin, Aaron Ludkin, John Morrick, Thomas 
Nichols, Thomas Paynter, Edmund Pitts, Joseph Phippeny, Thomas Shave, 
Ralph Smith, Thomas Turner, John Tower, Joseph Underwood, William 
Ludkin, Jonathan Bozworth. 

" In 1638 there was a considerable increase of the number of settlers. 
Among them were, Mr. Robert Peck, Joseph Peck, Edward Gilman, John 
Foulsham, Henry Chamberlain, Stephen Gates, George Knights, Thomas 
Cooper, Matthew dishing, John Beal, Jr., Francis James, Philip James, 
James Buck, Stephen Payne, William Pitts, Edward Michell, John Sutton, 
Stephen Lincoln, Samuel Parker, Thomas Lincoln, Jeremiah Moore, Mr. 
Henry Smith, Bozoan Allen, Matthew Hawke, William Ripley. 

" AH of those preceding, who came to this country in 1 638, took 
passage in the ship ' Diligent,' of Ipswich, John Martin, master. In ad- 
dition to these, the following named persons received grants of land in 
the year 1638, viz.: John Buck, John Benson, Thomas Jones, Thomas 
Lawrence, John Stephens, John Stodder, Widow Martha Wilder, Thomas 
Thaxter. 

"In 1639 Anthony Hilliard and John Prince received grants of land. 
The name of Hewett (Huet) and Liford, are mentioned in Hobart' s Diary,. 



Early Settlers. 203 

in that year, and in the Diary the following names are first found 
in the respective years mentioned; in 1646, Burr, in 1647, James 
Whiton ; in 1649, John Lazell, Samuel S to well ; in 1653, Garnett and 
Canterbury. 

"The number of persons who came over in the ship ' Diligent,' of Ips- 
wich, in the year 1638, and settled in Hingham, was one hundred and thirty- 
three. All that came before were forty-two, making in all one hundred 
and seventy-five. The whole number that came out of Norfolk (chiefly 
from Hingham, and its vicinity) from 1633 to 1639, and settled in this 
Hingham, was two hundred and six. This statement, on the authority of 
the third town clerk of Hingham, must be reconciled with the fact that 
there was a much larger number of settlers herein 1639 than would appear 
from his estimate. They undoubtedly came in from other places, and I am 
inclined to believe that there may be some omissions in Mr. Cushing's list. 
It may be remarked here, that many of the names mentioned in the previous 
pages are now scattered in various parts of the country. Many of the first 
settlers removed to other places during the militia difficulties which occurred 
within a few years after the settlement of the town ; and a considerable 
number had previously obtained lands at Rehoboth. 

•' The earliest record to be found of the proceedings of the town in rela- 
tion to the disposition of the lands is in 1635. In June of that year grants 
were made to a considerable number of individuals, and on the 18th of 
September, as has been before stated, thirty of the inhabitants drew for 
house-lots, and received grants of other lands for the purposes of pasture, 
tillage, etc. 

"It was in July, 1635, that a plantation was erected here; and on the 
2d of September following that, the town was incorporated by the name of 
Hingham, from which it appears that there are but eleven towns in this 
State, and but one in the county of Plymouth, older than Hingham. lean- 
not ascertain satisfactorily when the first meeting for civil purposes was 
held. It is stated by Mr. Flint in his century discourses, to have been on 
the 18th of September, 1635. There is as much evidence in our town re- 
cords, and in those of Cushing's MSS. which I have examined, that the first 
town-meeting was held in June of that year, as in September. The state- 
ments in the same discourses, that the inhabitants of Hingham arrived in 
1635, and that they obtained deeds of land from the natives to form the 
town previously to holding the first town-meeting, are unquestionably erro- 
neous, being at variance with our town records, Cushing's MSS., and the 
Indian deed itself. 

"The house-lots drawn on the 18th of September, 1635, were situated 
on the ' Town street,' the same which is now called North Street. During 
that year the settlement was extended to ' Broad Cove Street,' recently 
named Lincoln Street. In the year following, house-lots were granted in 
the street now called South Street, and in the northerly part of ' Bachelor 
Street,' now Main Street. 

" Some idea of the relative wealth of several towns in 1 635 may be 
estimated from the following apportionment of the public rate for that 
year. Newton and Dorchester were assessed each £26 5 ; Boston, £25 10 ; 
Salem, £16; Hingham, £6; Weymouth, £4, etc. In 1637 the number 
of men furnished by this town to make up the number of one hundred and 
sixty to prosecute the war against the Pequods, were six ; Boston furnished 
twenty-six ; Salem, eighteen ; Weymouth, five ; Medford, three ; Marble- 
head, three. The assessment upon this town at the General Court in An- 



204 History of Hingham. 



& 



gust following, was £8 10 ; the least, except that of Weymouth, which was 
£G 16. Property and population appear to have been unequally distributed 
and often fluctuating. In 1637 we find the first record of the choice of a 
town clerk. Joseph Andrews was chosen, and in 1638 the first record of 
the choice of assessors." 

The following is a literal copy of the deed of the township of 
Hingham, given by the Indians in 1665 : — 

"Whereas divers Englishmen did formerly come (into the Massachusets 
now called by the Englishmen New England) to inhabit in the dayes of 
Chickatabut our father who was the Cheife Sachem of the sayd Massachusets 
on the Southward side of Charles River, and by the free Consent of our 
sayd father did set dowue upon his land and in the yeare of our Lord God 
one thousand six hundred thirty and four divers Englishmen did set downe 
and inhabit upon part of the land that was formerly our sayd fathers land, 
which land the Englishmen call by the name of Hingham, which sayd Eng- 
lishmen they and their heires and assosiats have ever since had quiet and 
peaceable possession of their Towneshippe of Hingham by our likeing and 
Consent which we desire they may still quietly possess and injoy and be- 
cause ther have not yet bin any legall conveyance in writing passed from 
us to them conserning their land which may in future time occasion differ- 
ence between them and us all which to prevent — Know all men b}' these 
presents that we Wompatuck called by the English Josiah uowChiefe Sachem 
of the Massachusets aforesayd and sonue and heire to the aforesayd Chick- 
atabut ; and Squmuck all called by the English Daniel sonne of the afore- 
sayd Chickatabut and Ahahden — Indians : for a valueable consideration 
to us in hand payd by Captaine Joshua Hubberd and Ensigne John Thax- 
ter. of Hingham aforesayd wherewith wee doe acknowledge our selves fully 
satisfyed contented and payd and thereof and of every part and percell 
thereof doe exonerate acquitt and discharge the sayd Joshua Hubberd and 
John Thaxter their heires executors aud Administrators and every of them 
forever by these presents ■ have given granted bargained sold enfeoffed and 
confirmed and by these presents doe give grant bargaine sell Enfeoffe and 
confirme unto the sayd Joshua Hubberd and John Thaxter on the behalfe 
and to the use of the inhabitants of the Towne of Hingham aforesayd that 
is to say all such as are the present owners and proprietors of the present 
house lotts as they have bin from time to time granted and layd out by the 
Towne ; All That Tract of land which is the Towneshij>pe of Hingham 
aforesayd as it is now bounded with the sea northward and with the River 
called by the Englishmen weymoth River westward which River flow from 
the sea ; and the line that devide betwene the sayd Hingham and Wey- 
moth as it is now layd out and marked until it come to the line that devide 
betwene the colony of the Massachusetts and the colony of New Plimoth 
and from thence to the midle of accord pond and from the midle of accord 
pond to bound Brooke to the flowing of the salt water and so along by the 
same River that devide betwene Scittiate and the said Hingham untill it 
come to the sea northward ; And also threescore acres of salt marsh on the 
other side of the River that is to say on Scittiate side according as it was 
agreed upon by the commissioners of the Massachusets colony and the com- 
missioners of Plimoth colony Together with all the Harbours Rivers 
Creekes Coves Islands fresh water Brookes and ponds and all marshes unto 



Early Settlers. 205 

the sayd Towneshippe of Hingham belonging or any wayes app'taineing 
with all and singular thapp'tenences unto the p'misses or any part of them. 
belonging or any wayes app'taineing : And all our right title and interest 
of and into the sayd p'misses with their app'tenences and every part and 
p'cell thereof to have and to hold All the aforesayd Tract of land which is 
the Towneshippe of Hingham aforesayd and is bounded as aforesayd with 
all the Harbours Rivers Creekes Coves Islands fresh water brookes and 
ponds and all marshes ther unto belonging with the threescore acres of salt 
marsh on the other side of the River (viz.) on Scittiate side with all and sin- 
gular thapp'tenences to the sayd p'misses or any of them belonging unto 
the sayd Joshua Hubberd and John Thaxter on the behalfe and to the use 
of the sayd inhabitants who are the present owners and proprietors of the 
present house lotts in hiugham their heires and assignes from the before- 
named time in the yeare of our Lord God one thousand six hundred thirty 
and four for ever And unto the only proper use and behoofe of the (the) 
sayd Joshua hubberd and John Thaxter and the inhabitants of the Towne 
of hingham who are the present owners and proprietors of the present house 
lotts in the Towne of Hingham their heires and assignes for ever. And the 
said Wompatuck Squmuck and Ahahden doe hereby covenant promise and 
grant to and with the ^ayd Joshua hubberd and John Thaxter on the behalfe 
of the inhabitants of hingham as aforesayd that they the sayd Wompatuck 
Squmuck and Ahahdun — are the true and proper owners of the sayd bar- 
gained p'misses with their app'tenances at the time of the bargaine and sale 
thereof and that the said bargained p'misses are free and cleare and freely 
and clearely exonerated acquitted and discharged of and from all aud all 
maner of former bargaines sales guifts grants titles mortgages suits attach- 
ments actions Judgements extents executions dowers title of dowers and all 
other incumberances whatsoever from the begining of the world untill the 
time of the bargaine and sale thereof and that the sayd Joshua hubberd and 
John Thaxter with the rest of the sayd inhabitants who are the present 
owners and proprietors of the present house lotts in hingham they their 
heires and Assignes the p'misses and every part and parcel 1 thereof shall 
quietly have hold use occupy possese and injoy without the let suit trouble 
deniall or molestation of them the sayd Wompatuck : Squmuck and Ahad- 
dun their heires and assignes : and Lastly the sayd Wompatuck : Squmuck 
and Ahadun for themselves their heires executors administrators and as- 
signes doe hereby covenant promise and grant the p'misses above demised 
with all the libertys previledges and app'tenences thereto or in any wise be- 
longing or appertaineing unto the sayd Joshua Hubberd John Thaxter 
and the rest of the sayd inhabitants of Hingham who are the present own- 
ers and proprietors of the present house lotts their heires and assignes to 
warrant acquitt and defend forever against all and all maner of right title 
and Interrest claime or demand of all and every person or persons whatso- 
ever. And that it shall and may be lawfull to and for the sayd Joshua 
Hubberd and John Thaxter their heires and assignes to record and enroll 
or cause to be recorded and enrolled the title and tenour of these p'sents 
according to the usuall order and maner of recording aud enrolling deeds 
aud evedences in such case made and p'vided in witnes whereof we the 
aforesayd Wompatuck called by the English Josiah sachem : and Squmuck 
called by the English Daniell and Ahahdun Indians : have heere unto set 
our hands and seales the fourth day of July in the yeare of our Lord God 
one thousand six hundred sixty and five and in the seaventeenth yeare of 
the raigne of our soveraigne Lord Charles the second by the grace of God 



206 History of H Ingham. 

of Great Brittanie France and Ireland King defender of the faith &c. 
1G65. 



Signed sealled and delivered 
In the presence of us : 

Job Noeshteans Indian 

the marke of W william Man 

ananianut Indian 
the marke of 8 Robert Mamun- 

tahgin Indian 
John Hues 
Mattias Q Briggs 
the marke of |" Jon Judkins 



the marke JO of (l. s.) Wompa- 

tuck called by the English Josiak 

cheif sachem, 
the marke J of Squmuck (t,. s.) 

called by the English Daniell 

sonne of Chickatabut. 
the marke fTTl 0I Ahahden (l. s.) 



Josiali Wompatuck Squmuck Ahahden Indians apeared p'soually the 
19th of may 1668 and acknowledged this instrum't of writing to be theyr 
act and deed freely and voluntary without compulsion, acknowledged 
before 

Jno. Leverett, Ast. 

It needs but a glance at the names of the early settlers of Hing- 
ham, as given above by Mr. Lincoln, to recognize the founders of 
some of the most respectable and influential families of Massa- 
chusetts. Few names are more distinguished in the annals of the 
Commonwealth or nation than that of dishing. There is reason 
to believe that Abraham Lincoln was one of the manv descendants 
from Hingham stock who have made it illustrious in American 
history. Nearly all of the names in the foregoing lists are still 
familiar in this generation. These first settlers were men of 
character and force, of good English blood, whose enterprise and 
vigor were evident in the very spirit of adventure and push which 
prompted their outset from the fatherland and their settlement in 
the new country. They were of the Puritan order which followed 
Winthrop rather than of the Pilgrim element that settled at Ply- 
mouth a few vears earlier. The distinction between the two is now 
well understood. The Pilgrims were Brownists or Separatists, 
later called Independents, opposed to the national church, insist- 
ing on separation from it, and reducing the religious system to 
the simplest form of independent church societies. 

Indeed it was natural that the spirit that led to reform and 
greater simplicity in church methods and organization, which was 
the aim of the Puritans, should go still further and demand entire 
separation and independence, which was Separatism, and of which 
the most illustrious type is found in the Pilgrims who sailed in 
the " Mayflower," and settled in Plymouth in 1620. It is to be 
noticed that those who thus went to the extreme of ecclesiastical 
independence were consistent in granting the same liberty to others 
which they claimed for themselves ; and it is true that the Pil- 
grims were more tolerant than the Puritans. Lying on the 
border-line between the jurisdictions of Plymouth and the Massa- 
chusetts Bay, the first settlers of Hingham are not to be too closely 
identified with either. They were within the outer limits of the 



Early Settlers. 207 

Puritan colony, but from an early day they manifested a good deal 
■of independence of the Boston magnates ; and Peter Hobart's de- 
fiant attitude towards Governor Winthrop is one of the picturesque 
features of that early time. There is sometimes, undoubtedly, an 
inclination to exaggerate the religious element in the early settle- 
ments of New England. It was a mixed purpose that animated 
our forefathers. There was in them the genius of adventure and 
enterprise which in later days has peopled our own West with 
their descendants ; there was the search for fortune in new coun- 
tries over the sea ; there was the spirit of trade and mercantile in- 
vestment ; there was the hope of new homes, and the ardor of new 
scenes, all clustering around what was unquestionably the central 
impulse to find a larger religious freedom than the restrictions, 
legal or traditional, of the old country afforded. This is evident 
from the fact that while the population of Massachusetts grew 
rapidly by accessions from England till the execution of Charles 
the First, yet, as soon as that event happened, the republic of 
Cromwell and the supremacy of Puritanism during his Protec- 
torate were accompanied by a practical suspension of immigration 
to Xew England. For the next two hundred years it had little 
other growth than that which sprung from its own loins. 

In these first settlements the ministers were the leaders. Their 
influence was supreme. They gave tone to the time, and color to 
history ; and the communities which they largely moulded seem, 
as we look back upon them, to be toned by the ecclesiastical atmos- 
phere which the clergy gave to them. But with all this there was 
still all the time an immense deal of human nature. The picture 
of the early time, if it could be reproduced, would present a body of 
men and women engaged in the ordinary activities of life, culti- 
vating the farms, ploughing the seas, trading with foreign lands 
and among themselves, engaged in near and remote fisheries, 
maintaining the school, the train-band, and the church, holding 
their town-meetings, — a people not without humor, not altogether 
innocent of a modicum of quarrel and greed and heart-burning, yet 
warm with the kind and neighborly spirit of a common and inter- 
dependent fellowship. The Massachusetts settlers indulged in no 
mere dream of founding a Utopia or a Saints' Rest. They were 
neither visionary philosophers nor religious fanatics. Their early 
records deal with every-day details of farm and lot, of domestic 
affairs, of straying cattle and swine, of runaway apprentices and 
scolding wives, of barter with the Indians, of whippings and stocks 
and fines for all sorts of naughtinesses, of boundaries and suits, of 
debt and legal process and probate, of elections and petty offices 
civil and military, and now and then the alarum of war and the 
inevitable assessment of taxes. They smack very much more of 
the concerns, and the common concerns, of this world than of 
concern for the next. They are the memoranda of a hard, prac- 
tical life ; and if the name of Hingham now and then appears in 
them during the first half-dozen years of its existence, it is in 



208 History of Hingham. 

connection with a fine for bad roads, or leave to make hay in 
Conihasset meadows, or permission to use its meeting-house for a 
watch-house, or the appointment of a committee to settle its 
difficulties with Nantasket, or something of equally homely import. 
There is in these records no cant nor sniffling, none of that pre- 
tentious sanctimoniousness which is so flippantly charged upon 
the Puritans. There is less reference to theology than to wavs 
and means ; and the practical question, for instance, of restraining 
the liquor-traffic and evil, seems to have taxed the ingenuity and 
attention of their law-makers and magistrates very much as it 
does in the case of their descendants. There is no waste of words 
in the grim sentences, but a plain, wholesome dealing with the 
material needs of the colony. One cannot read them and not feel 
the sense of justice and righteousness that inspired the leaders of 
the settlement, and that sought, rigorously indeed but honestly, 
to institute and maintain a commonwealth which should be ani- 
mated by virtue, thrift, education, the sanctity and sweetness of 
home, fear of God, and fair dealing among men. They were de- 
veloping that sturdy, educating, self-reliant New England town 
life which till forty or fifty years ago was so unique, but which 
since then has gradually been disintegrated and changed by the 
tremendous influence of the transportations of the railroad, the 
wide scattering of the New England seed, the influx of foreign 
elements, the rapid growth of large cities, the drain on rural 
sources, and the general change from diffusion to consolidation, 
and from the simplest and most meagre to the most profuse and 
complex material resources. 



MILITARY HISTORY. 

BY WALTER L. BOUVE. 



The story of the settlement of Hingham and of the struggles, 
employments, and daily life of her lirst inhabitants, is one differ- 
ing but little from that of many other of the older sea-coast towns 
of Xew England. Alike in their origin, their religion, and their 
opinions, similar in their pursuits and experiences, menaced by a 
common danger, and, with the exception of the Plymouth Colony 
communities, influenced by the same hopes and purposes and 
governed by the same laws, it was natural that in their growth 
and development the little hamlets forming a frequently broken 
thread from the Merrimac to Buzzard's Bay, should, fur a con- 
siderable period, bear a strong resemblance to one another. Yet 
each, from the first, possessed those peculiar characteristics which 
differences of wealth, the impress of particular families, and the 
influence of vigorous leaders inevitably create. This individualism 
was enhanced by the effects of time, of situation, and of interest, 
and in each grew up the legends, traditions, and local history 
peculiar to itself. 

If those of our own town are devoid of the dramatic and tragic 
incidents which light up the chronicles of Salem, of Deerfield, of 
Hadley, and of Merry Mount ; if no Myles Standish with his mar- 
tial figure, no Eliot with the gentle saintly spirit, and no Endicott 
with fiery speech and commanding will, grace our story, and if no 
battle-banner like that of a Lexington, a Concord, or a Bunker 
Hill, wreathes about us the halo of a patriotic struggle, there is 
nevertheless within the pages of our modest records not a little to 
awaken the absorbing interest which the tales of the grandfather 
always bear to those of the younger generations. And the local 
colorings, if not of unusual brilliancy, still glow for us with all the 
warmth of the home-hearth, and to the quaint pictures of the 
olden time the mellowing of change and of years only adds a 
hallowing light. The chapters, of which this is one, treating of 
the forefathers and their descendants, from the religious, indus- 
trial, social, educational, and public relations in which we find 
them, are mainly for ourselves and our children, for our and 
their use and pleasure, prepared with little ambition other than to 
preserve and transmit a fairly accurate account of the birth and 
growth of our native town, — one which even to this day is typical 

VOL. I. — 14 



210 History of Hingham. 

of those modern democracies which form the distinguishing char- 
acteristic of New England. We cannot however isolate ours from 
the other settlements which already, two hundred and fifty years 
ago, formed, like it, parts of a complete commonwealth, with 
established customs, diverse interests, and self-reliant spirit. 

It is interesting to observe these sturdy and half independent 
plantations, bound together as they were by the common laws and 
necessities, re-enacting, each within its own limits, much of the 
complex life of the province at large. They were truly miniature 
commonwealths, and the claims of the State and the claims of the 
Church received as well the consideration of the people of the 
village as of the deputies at the capital; and the various commer- 
cial, religious, and social interests made themselves felt alike in 
the town meetings and in the legislative and council chambers. 

In each town, too, was the military organization and establish- 
ment, demanding and receiving from nearly every citizen active 
participation in its exacting and stern requirements. Like the 
civil authority it was, it is true, regulated and controlled largely 
by the central government, but it nevertheless possessed, from 
very necessity, much local independence. 

To the story of its part in the life of Hingham this article is 
devoted. And here it may not be inopportune to consider briefly 
a phase in the history and policy of the colony, and indeed of the 
other colonies as well, which has perhaps not at all times been 
accorded its full value, and which is well illustrated in the record 
and experience of our own town. From their situation and sur- 
roundings the North American colonies were necessarily little 
less than military provinces, whose armed forces were their own 
citizens. Of them Massachusetts was the most prominent, and 
her usual condition was that of an armed peace, with many of 
the incidents of martial law, not infrequently broken by open hos- 
tilities with her Indian and French neighbors. For more than 
one hundred years succeeding the organization of the government, 
a large portion of the legislative enactments pertained to the arm- 
ing and disciplining of the inhabitants, to the erection of forts, 
the purchase of military stores, and to other measures of defence 
and offence ; and no inconsiderable part of her expenditure was 
for the raising and equipping of troops, and for expeditions against 
the Indians and against Canada. The laws on these subjects were 
frequent, minute in their details, and often severe in their require- 
ments ; and they affected not only the individual citizen, but 
reached the towns in their corporate capacity and prescribed their 
duties as well. 

These enactments, with frequent experience in actual service, 
produced not only a hardy, disciplined, trained citizen soldiery 
ready for the emergency of the hour, but, continued as they were 
through the legislation of a century, they created the military tra- 
dition, knowledge, and discipline which were of such inestimable 



Military History. 211 

value in the opening days of the Revolution ; and into that 
struggle sprang, nut alone the embattled farmer, but with a value 
far greater to the cause, the alert minute-man who had been at the 
taking of Louisburg, the trained-baud men who, like their able 
officers, had threaded the forests around Fort William Henry and 
Frontenac, and the sturdy regiments whose leaders had climbed 
the heights of Quebec with Wolfe, and seen the fall of Montcalm. 
It is well for us not to forget that the troops of Great Britain 
were met in 17TG, not by undisciplined levies, but by an Ameri- 
can army, whose great commander was a soldier of many years' 
invaluable experience in that best of military schools, service in 
the field ; that the hard lessons learned by the young colonel 
of twenty-one at Fort Necessity and Brad dock's defeat made 
possible the general of A^alley Forge, Trenton, and Yorktown ; 
that Putnam, with his English commission, attacking the Span- 
iards in 1762 was preparing for the sturdy old Continental com- 
mander of 1776 ; that Stark, the intrepid leader at Bennington, 
was but the Stark of 1756, grown a little older and more experi- 
enced; or that old Seth Pomeroy, fighting in the ranks, and old 
Richard Gridley, pushing on with his artillery at Bunker Hill, had 
both heard the roar of French guns in the campaigns which made 
them veterans. These, with scores and hundreds of others, both 
officers and privates, now enlisted in the ranks of liberty, gave to 
a large force the true character and discipline of an army. 

One of the earlier of the settlements, situated upon the very 
border of the Colony and adjoining the frontier of that of Ply- 
mouth, Hingham was peculiarly liable to suffer from the differ- 
ences which might at any time arise between the governments of 
either province and their Indian neighbors. A realization of this 
danger, and consequent thorough preparation, probably accounts 
for the remarkable immunity from attack and depredation which 
was so long the good fortune of the town, notwithstanding the 
fact that the Indian trail to Plymouth led directly through its 
southern part along the shores of Accord Pond. 

The Indians of Hingham formed a part of that great division 
among the red men known as the Algonquins. This mighty race 
comprised many powerful tribes, and occupied nearly the whole 
territory of the northeastern United States. The strength of 
the New England, and especially the Massachusetts nations had 
been greatly reduced by a great pestilence shortly before the set- 
tlement of Plymouth. For this the good King James was duly 
thankful, and he gratefully says in his charter — 

" that he had been given certainly to knowe that within these late years 
there hath by God's visitation reigned a wonderful plague together with 
many horrible slaughters and murthers committed amongst the savages and 
brutish people there heretofore inhabiting in a manner to the utter de- 
struction devastation and depopulation of that whole territorye so that 
there is not left for many leagues together in a manner any that doe 
claim or challenge anv kind of interests therein." 



212 History of Hingham. 

These disasters were probably in 1617 or thereabouts. Only a 
little earlier, in 1614, Smith says : " The sea-coast as you pass 
shows you all along large corn-fields and great troupes of well 
proportioned people." Others computed the number of warriors 
at from eight thousand to twenty-five thousand. They were 
divided into a number of nations, and these again into tribes. Of 
the former, some of the principal were the Wampanoags, ruled over 
by Massasoit, a life-long friend of the English, and whose domin- 
ion lay between Cape Cod and Narragansett Bay ; the Narragan- 
setts, who lived in Rhode Island upon the western coast of the bay 
of that name, and whose chiefs were Canonicus and Miantonomo ; 
the Pequods, under Sassacus, whose territory lay between the Mys- 
tic and the Thames, then the Pequod River, in Connecticut ; and 
the Massachusetts, under Chickatabut, who occupied the territory 
to the south of Boston and extending as far as Duxbury. In 1633 
Chickatabut was succeeded by Josiah Wompatuck. In addition to 
the above there were the Pawtuckets north of the Charles River, 
and the Chur-Churs and Tarantines in Maine. All played a part 
more or less important in the history of the New England settle- 
ments. Hingham, it will have been noted, lay within the land 
ruled, until just about the time the first settlements were made 
here, by Chickatabut ; and it was his son and successor, Wompa- 
tuck, together with Squmuck and Ahahden, who joined in 1668 
in conveying to the English the territory now comprised in the 
towns of Hingham and Cohasset. For many years the intercourse 
between our forefathers and their red neighbors seems to have 
been peaceable and agreeable. 

The earliest known settlement of Hingham was made sometime 
in the year 1633, and the first houses were probably located upon 
what is now North Street, and near the bay which the erection of 
tide gates has converted into the Mill Pond. This little arm of 
the sea although fordable at low tide was still of sufficient depth to 
float craft of a size considered respectable in those days ; and many 
a fishing smack has ridden out in safety the gales of winter 
under the lee of the protecting hills which surrounded it, and 
upon whose sunny southern slopes were perhaps the first cleared 
lands in the town. 

Up it, too, sailed one day in the summer or early autumn of 
1635, the Rev. Peter Hobart and his company ; they landed, as 
we are told, on the northerly shore about opposite to where Ship 
and North streets intersect, and here in the open air, the first 
public religious services were held. Not far from this spot, and 
but a few rods in front of where Derby Academy now stands, and 
upon a part of the hill long since removed, was erected the first 
meeting-house. This was a plain square building, low and small 
as compared with modern churches, but constructed of hewn logs 
and undoubtedly very substantial. It was surmounted by a 
belfry containing a bell, and around was a palisade for defence 
against the Indians. 



Military History. 213 

Here then our Military History commences, and the church 
erected for the worship of Almighty God was in truth a fortress 
of the Lord against the heathen enemies of the bodv, as well as 
against the beguilers of the soul. Nor was the worthy pastor 
apparently less lilted to command in a temporal than to lead in 
a spiritual capacity. Of its actual use as a defensive post we have 
n> lack of evidence. In June, IGo'J, according to the "Records 
of the Governor and Company of Massachusetts Bay in New Eng- 
land"' (from which the authority for much here given is derived), 
k - Himrham had liberty to use their meeting house for a watch 
house ; " and again, December 1640, " Hingham Meeting house for 
the present is allowed tor their watch house." Already, in 1636, 
the delegates in General Court had ordered " that the military 
men in Hingham [with other towns] be formed into a regiment 
of which John Winthrop, Sen. Esq., be Colonel, and Thomas 
Dudley, Lieut.-Colonel." This indicates the existence here at a 
very early period of at least a part of a company, and our ances- 
tors certaiulv had eminent commanders in two such remarkable 
men as Governor Winthrop and Governor Dudley. Among the 
interesting orders from the central authority about this time was 
one providing that captains be maintained from the treasury, and 
not from their companies ; it was evidently passed for the purpose 
of giving greater independence to the officers, and was manifestly 
in the interest of the strict discipline towards which all legislation 
constantly tended. It was also enacted that musket-balls of full 
bore should pass current for a farthing apiece ; which, although 
pertaining to the finances and currency rather than to the mili- 
tary, is a fact of sufficient interest to justify its mention in this 
connection. In 1*335 it was ordered that no dwelling-house be 
built above half a mile from the meeting-house, and in this order 
Hingham had the honor of being specially included by name ; in- 
dicating perhaps that she had already shown a tendency to exceed 
that limit and to stretch herself out along the main street, towards 
the neighboring colony with which her people had later so much 
in common. 

Aers passed in 1634, 1635, and 1636 required towns to provide 
at their own charge a place in which to keep such powder and 
ammunition as the military authorities should order them to take 
from Boston, and fixed a penalty for neglect ; commanded all 
persons to go armed with muskets, powder, and ball, to all public 
assemblies, and forbade any one going unarmed at any time above 
a mile from his dwelling-house ; and specifically directed " that 
the military officers in every town shall provide that the watches 
be duly kept in places most fit for common safety, and also a 
ward on the Lord's day, the same to begin before the end of the 
first month and to be continued until the cud of September, and 
that everv person above the age of eighteen years (except magis- 
trates and elders of the churches) shall be compellable to this 



214 History of Hingham,. 

- service either in person or by some substitute to be allowed by 
him that hath the charge of the watch or warde for that time, with 
punishment for disobedience." The settlement of 1633, then 
called Bare Cove, was in July, 1635, erected into a plantation, 
which carried the right of sending deputies to the General Court ; 
and in September of the latter year the name was changed to 
Hingham. 

House lots were granted to some fifty individuals in June and 
September, and other lands fur the purposes of pasturage and 
tillage. The former were situated mainly upon Town, now North 
Street, but during the year the settlement was extended to Broad 
Cove Lane, now Lincoln Street, and in 1636 the grants were upon 
what is now South Street and upon Batchelor's How, now the 
northerly part of Main street. And these early beginnings of our 
modern streets comprised the whole of the little town, with its two 
hundred odd inhabitants, when in 1637 it first became a duty to 
furnish a quota of her sons for the public defence. 

It was the second year of the Pequod War, and Massachusetts — 
which had already been acting with Connecticut -- was to raise 
an additional force of one hundred and twenty men, to be placed 
under the command of Capt. Israel Stoughton ; this number was 
subsequently increased to one hundred and seventy. Of these, 
six were men from our town. We unfortunately know the names 
of none of them, but we can follow in imagination the toilsome 
march of the little army of which our forefathers formed a small 
part, as it slowly and painfully made its way through the virgin 
thickets, almost impenetrable with the stiff', unbending, knarled 
scrub oak, the matted masses of luxuriant-growing and lacerating 
horse-brier, beautiful in its polished green, and the almost tropi- 
cally developed poison-sumac, seductive in its graceful form and 
rich coloring ; through i.he great forests, dark with the uncut 
forms of the towering pines ; and through the swamps of the coun- 
try around Narragansctt Bay, with the rich, black soil of the bot- 
toms, and the majestic white cedars rising, like great sentries of 
the red man, far into the air ; and thence up towards the Mystic, 
spreading widely over the country between. We need not re- 
hearse the details too minutely here ; we know the story, — the 
Indians defeated, their tribe destroved, and a dav of thanksgiving 
appointed ; this time October 12, when it was also ordered that 
the various towns should " feast" their soldiers, — an injunction 
doubtless faithfully obeyed, here at least. 

From the time of the Pequod War, apprehensions of renewed 
trouble with the natives, and the necessary precautions against it, 
continually grew throughout the colony. Among the enactments 
was one passed March 13, 1638, directing " that Hingham have a 
barrel of powder, to be paid for by the town," and from 1640 to 
1644 frequent orders regulated the time for training the train- 
bands, and prescribed punishments for neglect. In the former of 



Military History. 215 

these years, an interesting town record informs us that the follow- 
ing vote was passed, " That from the date hereof thenceforth there 
shall be no ti'ee or trees cut or felled upon the highway upon the 
pain of twenty shillings to be levied for the use of the town 
because all good trees are to be preserved for the shading of 
cattle in the summer time and for the exercising of the military."' 
The desirability of preserving the trees " for the exercising of the 
military " arose from the benefit to be derived from training the 
latter in the practical methods of Indian warfare, wherein every 
savage placed the protecting trunk of a tree between himself and 
the enemy ; a situation giving him a distinct advantage over 
troops in regular order. It was ignorance or neglect of this fact 
that led to the destruction of the brave Capt. Pierce of Scituate 
and his company in 1676 and to the defeat of Braddock nearly 
eighty years later. " Garrison houses," so-called, which for the 
most part were probably private dwellings of unusual size and 
adaptability for defence, were constructed, and stringent laws 
passed for the enforcement of military discipline. The location 
and appearance of such of the former as were then or after- 
wards erected in Hingham, it is not possible to fully determine. 
Among them, however, was what is now known as the Perez 
Lincoln house standing on North, and a little east from Cot- 
tage Street. It was erected by Joseph Andrews, probably in 
1640. He was the first constable and first town clerk of Hing- 
ham. From him it passed for a nominal consideration, in 1665, 
to his son Capt. Thomas Andrews, and was then known as the 
Andrews house. It is the best authenticated " garrison house " 
that we have. Doubtless during many an alarm its massive tim- 
bers and thick log walls gave a sense of security to the settlers 
who, with their wives and children, had gathered within. A pecu- 
liarity of this building, now perhaps the oldest in town, is that, 
excepting its first transfer, it has never been conveyed by deed, 
but has continuously passed by will or simple inheritance for some 
two hundred and twenty-five years from one owner to another. 
Although now clapboarded and plastered, it is still one of the 
most interesting of the old landmarks, and its sound old ribs 
as seen within seem capable of defying the inroads of another 
century. Another of these primitive defences stood near what is 
now the easterly corner of Hersey and South streets, and on the 
site of the Cazneau house, — formerly belonging to Matthew 
Lincoln. Another was the house of Capt. John Smith, on the 
Lower Plain, about where the store of Mr. Fearing Burr now 
is. John Tower's house near Tower's Bridge was also a orarri- 
son house : and yet another, at South Hingham, was Capt. John 
Jacob's house, situated in the pass between Massachusetts and 
Plymouth. There were doubtless others, of which the record is 
lost. 

In 1612 military officers were empowered to punish neglect 



216 History of Hingham. 

and insubordination by fine, imprisonment, corporal punishment, 
the stocks, etc., and every town was obliged to provide a place for 
retreat for their wives and children, and in which to store ammu- 
nition. The meeting-house answered for this double purpose in 
Hingham, although the military stores were often distributed 
among the commissioned officers of the town, thus securing greater 
safety and availability in case of surprise. Every smith was 
directed to lay aside all other work, and " with all speed attend 
the repairing of the ammunition of the several towns, fitting them 
for any sudden occasion, and shall receive country pay for it." In 
every town there was a council of war, consisting doubtless of the 
military officers, the selectmen, — generally including in their 
number these same officers, — and perhaps other prominent citi- 
zens. This council seems to have had certain advisory powers, 
and perhaps even of direction in emergencies, but in the event of 
its failure to act, the commander of the company was specially 
authorized to use his own discretion both for defence and offence. 
The General Court directed, too, the manner in which alarms 
mia'ht be given in case of danger. Anv inhabitant was empowered 
to distinctly discharge three muskets, to continually beat the 
drum in the night, or to fire the beacon, or to discharge a piece 
of ordnance, or to send messengers to adjoining towns ; and every 
soldier was to respond at once, under a penalty of live pounds. The 
captains of the three towns nearest that in which the enemy should 
be discovered were to proceed thither with their companies. The 
watches throughout the country were posted at sunset at the beat 
of the drum, and discharged at sunrise drumbeat. From this 
arose the custom of payments which we find made to many indi- 
viduals through a long series of vears for " maintaining the drum." 
Thus among the ;t disbursements paid out of the Towne rate for 
the Towne's use " in 1662, are the following: — 

" To Joshua Beals for maintenance of ye drum, <£01 00 00. 

" To Steven Lincoln for maintenance of ye drum, £00 10 00." 

And again, — besides many other similar disbursements, — 
" John Lincoln to be paid ten shillings a year for drumming, he to 
buy his own drum : " this in 1690. 

Increasing rumors of Indian conspiracies induced greater vigi- 
lance and more careful preparation from year to year. In 1043 
the military officers were placed in charge of the arms brought to 
public meetings, and the care of ammunition in the farmhouses 
was given to them ; and in 1644 all inhabitants were compelled to 
keep arms ready for service in their houses. At a town meeting, 
June 24, 1645, it was voted to erect a palisade around the 
meeting-house " to prevent any danger that may come into this 
town by any assault of the Indians." Previous to 1645 Hingham 
appears to have had no captain, and it is probable that for pur- 
poses of military organization and discipline the soldiers of Hull 
and Weymouth were joined with our own in forming a company, 



Military History. 217 

and that they were commanded by a captain residing - in the latter 
place. Winthrop says that in 1645 Hingham chose Lieutenant 
Eames, who had been the chief commander for the previous seven 
or eight years, to be captain, and presented him to the council for 
confirmation. For some reason not now known, the town be- 
came offended with Eames before his new commission could be 
issued, and a new election was held, or attempted to be held, at 
which Bozoan Allen was chosen captain ; whom, however, the 
council refused to confirm. A bitter controversy lasting several 
years ensued. The town became divided into partisans of the 
two officers, and the quarrel occupied much of the time of 
the deputies and magistrates until 1648. In it the Rev. Peter 
Hobart, together with many leading - citizens, became deeply in- 
volved, and the issues soon came to relate to civil and reli- 
gious, rather than to military interests. The details of this 
most unfortunate affair, which cost the town many of its 
best families and much of its prosperity, would seem to be- 
long more properly to the chapter on ecclesiastical history, and 
there they may be found at length. 

Lieut. Anthony Eames, the first local commander of the town, 
was one of the first settlers, coming here in 1636, in which year 
a house lot was granted him on the lower plain. He seems to 
have been an able officer and a leading and trusted citizen, being 
a deputy in 1637, 1638, and 1643, and frequently holding positions 
of responsibility and honor in the town. Together with Allen, 
Joshua Hobart, and others, he was chosen to represent the town's 
interests in Xantasket lands, and in 1643 he with Allen and 
Samuel Ward had leave from the town to set up a corn mill 
near the cove. From Lieutenant Eames, through his three 
daughters, — Milicent who married William Sprague, Elizabeth 
who married Edward Wilder, and Marjory who married Capt. 
John Jacobs, — many of the people of Hingham are descended. 
Pending the settlement of the trouble in the company, the 
General Court ordered, August 12, 1645, that " Lieutenant 
Tory shall be chief military officer in Hingham, and act accord- 
ing as other military officers till the court shall take further 
orders." Lieutenant Tory was from Weymouth, and was un- 
doubtedly appointed as a disinterested party to the controversy. 
He was succeeded in the care of the company in May, 1646, by 
Maj. Edward Gibbons. The same day that Lieutenant Tory was 
assigned to the charge of the company an important order was 
passed by the General Court to the effect that the commander of 
every company should select thirty men out of every hundred in 
their command who should be ready for service at half an hour's 
notice ; and further provided for the thorough arming and equip- 
ping of every man, with penalties for neglect. Provision was also 
made at the May session of the General Court for the training of 
youth between the ages of ten and sixteen years of age, by experi- 



218 History of Hingham. 

enced officers, in the use of arms " as small guns, pikes, bows and 
arrows " but excepting such as parents forbade. This order was 
renewed in nearly the same form in 1G47. Another order pro- 
vided that any man not having arms might be excused from the 
usual penalty by bringing to the company clerk corn to one-fifth 
greater value than the cost of the articles in which he was defi- 
cient. " But if any person shall not be able to provide himself 
arms and ammunition through mere poverty, if he be single and 
under thirty years of age, he shall be put to service by some ; if 
he be married or above thirty the constable shall provide him 
arms, and shall appoint him with whom to earn it out." How 
indicative are all these orders, both of the constant dangers which 
necessitated them, and of the efficient and untiring provisions 
against surprise and ruin. The distaste for temporary officers 
from other towns, and the danger from farther delay apparently 
led the people to seek a settlement of the military trouble, and 
we find in the State archives the following petition : — 

The Humble Petition of the Soldiers of Hingham to the Honorable 
Court now sitting in Boston. Sheweth That we acknowledge ourselves 
thankful to you for many favors ; especially considering how little we have 
deserved them, either from the Lord or yon his instruments. Yet your 
bounty does encourage us and our own necessities forces us to crave help 
from you that so we may be provided for the defense of ourselves, wives, 
children, and liberties, against all oppressors. Therefore we crave this 
liberty, as the rest of our neighbors have which we take to be our due, to 
choose our own officers, which if granted it will be a great refreshment. 
But if we be not worthy of such a favor for present as your allowance 
herein, then that you would be pleased to set us in a way that we may be 
able to do you servis and provide for our own safety and not be in such 
an uncomfortable and unsafe condition as we do. So praying for the 
presence of our Lord with you, we are yours as he enables us and you 
command us. 

In answer to this it was ordered that Bozoan Allen be lieutenant, 
and Joshua Hobart, ensign. Three years later at the request of 
the town both these officers were promoted, and Allen obtained at 
last the rank for which he had vainly striven six years before. 
He was a man of much force and considerable pugnacity. On at 
least one, and probably two occasions he was compelled to humbly 
beg pardon for disrespectful words spoken of Governor Dudley, 
and in 1G47 he was dismissed from the General Court for the 
session. He held, however, many positions of honor in Hingham, 
being repeatedly elected a deputy, serving often with his friend 
Joshua Hobart. He came to [Iingham in 1638, and as already 
mentioned was, with Lieutenant Eames, one of the owners of the 
mill. He removed to Boston in lf!52 and died the same year. 
Joshua Hobart, a brother of the Rev. Peter Hobart, succeeded to 
the command of the company in 1053. He was a man of great 



Military History. 219 

strength of character and one of the most distinguished citizens 
the town has had. In 1641 he was a member of the Ancient and 
Honorable Artillery company, — then a military organization, — 
was a deputy more than twenty-live times, serving with Allen, 
Lieutenant Flouchin of Boston, — who, according to the custom of 
the time, on several occasions served on behalf of Hingham, — and 
with other prominent citizens. In 1670 he was on a committee 
to revise the laws, and in 1673 was chosen to audit tbe accounts 
of the treasurer of the colony. In 1672 Captain Hobart and Lieu- 
tenant Fisher presented their report upon the boundary line 
between the colonies of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth which 
they had been appointed commissioners to determine. In 1674 
he was speaker of the House of Deputies. He was frequently a 
selectman and held other town oihees. Besides holding the posi- 
tion of commander of the military of Hingham during: manv years 
when unwearied vigilance, strict discipline, and constant prepara- 
tion were of the first importance to the welfare and preservation 
of the town, — for it must be remembered that suspicion, fear, 
and at times open war succeeded the defeat of the Pequods, and 
that at no time was the danger of destruction absent from the 
minds of the colonists, — Captain Hobart is said to have com- 
manded a company in active service in Philip's War. His house 
lot was on Main Street and included the spot upon which stands the 
Old Meeting-house, and here, in 1682, after having been Hingham's 
chief officer for nearly thirty years, he died full of honors, at the 
age of sixty -seven vears. Notwithstanding the uneasiness sue- 
ceeding the Pequod War, peace generally prevailed between the 
colonists and the Indians for a quarter of a century thereafter ; 
settlements multiplied and the older towns not only grew in num- 
bers, but began to prosper with the development of agriculture, 
the pursuits of the fisheries, the birth of manufactures, the trade 
in lumber, and the commerce which was already springing up 
with the West India islands. In the general prosperity Hingham 
shared, although her growth was not rapid, and, as has been said, 
the military and ecclesiastical dissensions at one time led to a 
serious loss in population, and consequent injury to the material 
advance. 

The soil was however fair and in many places rich, and its suc- 
cessful cultivation led to the rapid increase in the number and 
area of the " planting fields " which were granted from time to 
time. Our almost circular harbor surrounded and protected on 
all sides by hills clothed with a noble growth of oak, pine, and 
cedar, and guarded at its entrance by the three beautiful islands 
which like faithful sentinels stood as bulwarks against the storms 
of the open ocean, early turned attention to Hingham as an 
advantageous point for the construction of craft of various de- 
scription and size, and the development of a prosperous foreign 
trade. 



220 History of Hingliam. 

Shipyards and wharves soon dotted the shore and multiplied 
with astonishing rapidity : and many a stately vessel received her 
baptism and commenced her perilous life in the little bay which 
washes our coast. The commerce which subsequently was one 
of the chief sources of local wealth began, too, almost with the 
birth of the town, and in 1679 we read of the loss at sea of a 
vessel in which Joshua Hobart, one of Hingham's stalwart mari- 
ners, was a part owner. Before this Winthrop mentions the over- 
turning off Paddock's Island of a small shallup of ten tons, in 
which was John Palmer, whose house lot was on Broad Cove, and 
two others. This was in 1639, and the shallop was perhaps one 
of the fishing smacks forming the advance guard of the fleet which 
lined our wharves and enriched many of our citizens, and which 
only finally disappeared within a very few years past. But while 
this town and her sisters grew and prospered and pursued their 
peaceful vocations, the shadow of a coming struggle lengthened, 
and the inevitable contest between the white race and the red race 
neared yearly and daily its culmination. In 1665 the town " Lyd 
out for powder, bullets, and match, £.11." — a very considerable 
sum for the time, and indeed a very large proportion of the total 
expenditures for the year. The following quaint order passed July 
20, 1668, is interesting because of the glimpse it affords of the 
customs and vigilance of the period : — 

It is ordered by the Selectmeu of the town that all such p's's as are 
app 1 & warned to watch on the constables watch shall from time to time 
appear at the meeting house half an hour after sunset to receive their 
charge ; and the constable is hereby ordered to meet them there at the said 
time or soon after to give them their charge according to law ; and we do 
also order that after the new watch is come about as far as the meeting 
house that then the 2 constables shall take their watches to give the watch 
in charge, that is, one constable f watch & the other another & so by 
turns till the time is expired which the law sets for the keeping up the sd 
watch. 

A generation had reached manhood since the extermination of 
the Pequods ; the town and the colony alike had attained to strength 
and confidence born of prosperity, and a feeling of security re- 
sulting from unceasing vigilance and preparation pervaded the 
settlements. Nevertheless fear of the French, jealousy of the 
Dutch, and suspicion of the Indian kept the weapons of prepa- 
ration bright. A rumor now and again of some forest outrage, an 
actual barbarity, and possibly a self-consciousness of not being 
without wrong on their own part, kept the colonists alert and 
active. The military enactments of the General Court grew more 
specific, more frequent, and more stern : the co-operation of the 
towns and their own watchfulness became more marked. A 
successful expedition against the French on the Penobscot in 
1653, and another to Niantick to suppress a Xarragansett conspir- 



Military History. 221 

acy in 1654, afforded valuable experience, although accompanied 
by little or no bloodshed. Suddenly the long anticipated conflict 
opened. An Indian was found drowned in Assawanset Pond near 
Middleborough. He was a friend of the whites ; three Wam- 
panoags were arrested, tried, and executed for the murder. On 
the 20th day of June, 1675, several houses were burned at 
Swansea, and the greatest of New England's native warriors 
opened the first of the two campaigns which only ended with the 
death of Philip at Mt. Hope August 12, 1676, sealing on that day 
the fate of a mighty race, and after the most extreme suffering 
and cruelty on both sides. 

Thirteen towns had been wholly destroyed, and many more 
sustained severe loss, while six hundred of the colonists lay dead 
upon the battle-field. On the other hand, the power of the red 
man was at an end in New England. Their wigwams had been 
burned, their wives and children sold into slavery, their warriors 
slain, and the tribes almost swept out of existence. The history 
is not a pleasant nor a wholly creditable one ; its detailed rela- 
tion fortunately belongs elsewhere. Into the struggle, however, 
the men of Hingham entered bravelv, and within her borders at 
least one incident in the great tragedv was enacted. Before tell- 
ing the story of her contributions in men and money, the honor- 
able part she took, and the loss she sustained, let us make a 
sketch of the old town as it appeared in the summer of 1675, 
relocate and repeople at least some of the houses, remap the old 
roads, glance at the occupations and characteristics and appear- 
ance of the inhabitants, and catch as we may in the gloaming 
some tracery of the homes and the lives of our forefathers. 

Away back in 1645 a dam had narrowed the entrance to the 
inner bay, then a beautiful sheet of water, undivided by the 
street connecting Main Street and the harbor. Tide-gates had 
finally closed the passage, and the friends Eames and Allen had 
set in motion the busy wheels which now for two hundred and 
fifty odd years, in the self-same spot, have sung their music in 
the starry midnight and the merry sunlight alike, grinding the 
corn and the grain of the settlers and their descendants for eight 
generations. Here, then, in this opening year of King Philip's war 
the little mill stood as now, not far from the public landing-place 
at the Cove. Built of stout logs and hewn planks, with jolly 
John Langlee, the miller, in the doorway, the rush of a foaming 
stream beneath, a gleam of blue waters to the north, and in 
front the dancing ripples of the glassy pond reflecting in the 
morning light the giants of the forest which clothed the sur- 
rounding hills and crept down to the very water's edge, it was 
indeed a pleasant place ; and here the farmer with the heavy ox- 
cart or pack-laden horse, the sailor back from some West Indian 
port, the bright-eyed school-boy, the idler from the town, the 
squire, the captain, and now and again even Parson Hobart him- 



222 History of Hingham. 

self, might have been seen watching the hot meal as it poured 
from the stones, while hearing and telling what each might of 
news and rumor and gossip. Here the forebodings of the forest, 
the startling stories of Indian devastation and cruelty, the tales 
from over seas, the crop prospects, and the latest talk of the vil- 
lage whiled away many an idle hour, and doubtless, too, lost little 
in their later relation by the home firesides. To the eastward 
and westward of the mill stream, and sloping towards each other 
until meeting beneath its bubbling waters, rose two noble hills, 
their tops crowned with the oak and the pine, and their ocean- 
ward sides scantily protected by wind-twisted and stunted cedars. 
In Cobb's Bank, earlier known as Ward's Hill, we have, bare 
and unsightly, the little that remains of the first of these, 
which then, rounded and srreen, stretched awav for several him- 
drcd feet along the harbor, and gradually descending, finally dis- 
appeared in Wakeley's meadows. Through these last coursed a 
tiny run, which emptied into the sea by the " landing-place " of a 
subsequent period, — now a grass-covered wharf, long since disused 
for commercial purposes. An easy ford at the town dock ena- 
bled those having occasion, to reach the beaches along the base 
of the eminence, and thence, after crossing the run, to ascend 
the hill near the steamboat landing, and through the fields and 
woods reach Neck Gate Hill, Martin's Lane, and the planting lots 
beyond. The hill west of the stream also skirted the harbor for 
some distance, and then, drifting inland, continued far towards 
the western extremity of the town ; it remains materially unal- 
tered to this day. Old Town Street, with its name changed to 
North, follows now as in the early days its graceful, curving 
course along the base of the hill at whose foot it lies. Here 
and there its lines have been moved a trifle, this way or that, 
but from the harbor to West Street it is the same old road, border- 
ing the pond, the brook, and the swamp, as in the days when the 
Lincolns, the Andrews, and the Hobarts built their one-storied, 
thatched huts along its grassy ruts. 

From the Cove, where the mill, the town dock, and the ford 
crowd in neighborly friendship together, to the further extremity 
of the " Swamp," this, the first of Hingham's highways, has few 
spots uncelebrated in her history. Yet almost the whole interest 
is confined to the northern or upper side ; for not only -was its 
other boundary fixed so as to border upon the brook, but in fact 
the land on that side of the travelled way was generally too 
swampy to admit of its use for dwellings. Consequently we find 
that scarcely a building stood upon the southerly side of the 
street, and probably the only exception was the house of Samuel 
Lincoln and his son, occupying a site nearly opposite the pres- 
ent location of the New North Church. A very few years later, 
however, in 1683 or thereabouts, another mill was built upon 
the water side, and almost exactly where is now the little red 



Military History. 223 

blacksmith-shop; parts of the dam may still be seen projecting 
from either shore of the pond. Starting at the Cove and going 
westward, we should have seen at this early period the charred 
remains of the houses of John Otis and Thomas Loring. But lit- 
tle was left, however : for the fire that destroyed them was an 
old storv many years back, and now had become little more than 
a tradition. Nevertheless, from a spot nearly opposite the smithy, 
their owners had looked out many a bright morning on the pretty 
scene before them. A few steps further, and near the corner of 
Ship Street, — or Fish Street, as formerly known, and which per- 
haps was a lane at even this early time, — was the home of Peter 
Barnes, the ancestor of the present family of that name ; and 
close by, for a neighbor, lived John Langlee, the miller, who was 
also a" shipwright, and later an innkeeper on the same spot. 
Now, however, he must go a-soldiering, and a-soldiering he went, 
and not over willingly, we may presume ; for not only do we 
know that he left a wife and one or two babies to fare as the 
fates should will, but we learn that he was impressed into the 
service. However, he shared with many a fellow-townsman in 
the glory of the brave and unfortunate Captain Johnson and his 
company, and was one of the two men from Hingham who 
were wounded in the great battle. He was the owner of the 
island originally granted to Richard Ibrook, now known as 
Laugley's Island, and from him descended Madam Derby. The 
house of Charles A. Lane stands on the spot where lived Joseph 
Church, brother of the famous Capt. Benjamin Church, the final 
conqueror of Philip ; and just beyond was the garrison house of 
Capt. Thomas Andrews, now occupied by the Misses Lincoln. 
With Captain Andrews lived his father, Joseph, the first town 
clerk, at this time one of the old men of the settlement. A 
hundred feet or so to the south, bubbling and rippling as it 
danced along, flowed the cool waters of the town brook, crossed 
a trifle higher up by a bridge, and broadened at that point into a 
drinking-pond for cattle and horses. Lincoln Building covers 
the spot from which the little pond long since disappeared. 
Captain Andrews' next neighbor to the westward was Capt. John 
Thaxter, who had served with distinction against the Dutch, and 
who was at this eventful period a selectman and one of the fore- 
most citizens. His family was a large one, and a son — later 
known as Capt. Thomas Thaxter — served at Martha's Vineyard 
under Captain Church. The old Thaxter house was known 
twenty-five years since, and for many years before, as the Leavitt 
house. The fine old mansion has given place to St. Paul's Ro- 
man Catholic Church. In the rear, " Ensign Thaxter's Hill " 
formed the northerly boundary of a wide training-field, which lay 
between it and the houses on the street. Next beyond, and just 
at the bend of the road, was the home of old Edmond Pitts, — 
Goodman Pitts, as he was called, — a weaver, sexton of the 



224 History of Hingham. 

church, and a man of no little consequence. The house in its 
modernized form still remains, and is the first one west of St. 
Paul's Church. Directly in its front is Thaxtcr's Bridge, span- 
ning the brook, and diagonally across the street, as already men- 
tioned, was the abode of Samuel Lincoln, weaver and mariner, 
and of his son Samuel, who served in the war as a cornet of 
cavalry. Opposite the General Lincoln place, Broad Cove Lane, 
now Lincoln Street, branched off, passed a low, marshy thicket, 
which, cleared and filled, has become Fountain Square, climbed 
the gentle slope beyond, and then descended again until it reached 
the broad, and then deep arm of the sea from which the lane 
was named. Beyond this point it continued for perhaps half a 
mile, and terminated in pastures and planting fields beyond. 
From it another lane running nearly at right angles led, as 
does the wide avenue which has succeeded, to the deep water 
at Crow Point and to Weary-all-Hill, since called Otis Hill, 
where, through other lanes and by deep ruts and numerous bars 
the rich lands granted as planting lots were reached. Upon Lin- 
coln Street were located the homes of the Chubbucks, of John 
Tucker, and perhaps a few others ; and on the corner, and front- 
ing on Town Street, we should have found Benjamin Lincoln, 
great-grandfather of General Lincoln. He was a farmer, with a 
young family, and on his lot stood the malt-house given him by 
his father, Thomas Lincoln, the cooper; here was carried on one 
of the primitive breweries of our ancestors, and here doubtless 
was enjoyed many a glass of flip. Mr. Lincoln's next neighbors 
to the westward were his brothers-in-law John and Israel Fearing;, 
who occupied the family homestead nearly opposite to the site of 
the Universalist Church ; while just beyond, and extending for 
a long distance up towards the West End, were the domains of 
the Hobarts, a very prominent family at the time. Here was 
Edmund the younger, but now a venerable man of seventy -two 
years, a weaver by trade, prominent in town affairs, and a twin 
brother of the minister. His house was near Hobart's Bridge, 
where with him lived his son Daniel, who followed his father's 
occupation and succeeded to his influence. John and Samuel, 
elder sons, and both just married, had their homes with or near 
their father, while just beyond, and opposite Goold's Bridge, 
the Rev. Peter Hobart occupied the parsonage, which for forty 
years had been the centre of social and intellectual life in the 
town. It may be well to mention here that the brook, which in 
general occupies nearly its original bed for the greater part of its 
length, has had its course materially altered in recent years 
between the site of John and Israel Fearing's house and Hobart's 
Bridge. It formerly flowed quite up to, and in places even into 
the present location of North Street between these points ; and 
the line of the sweep of the marsh and old Town Street is clearly 
indicated by the segment of a circle upon which the houses from 



Military History. 225 

Mr. David Cushing's to the Andrews' are now built. Rev. Peter 
Hobart's neighbors to the westward were Thomas Gill and his 
sons, Lieut. Thomas, and Samuel, and his son-in-law, Josiah 
Lane ; and beyond them were Thomas and Ephraim Marsh, one 
or both of whom lived in the paternal homestead which came 
from George Marsh, their grandfather, and which bounded west- 
erly on Burton's Lane. On the further side of this passage-way 
the brothers Ephraim Lane, who served in Captain Johnson's 
company, and John Lane, the carpenter, occupied their father's 
place, while near them was George Lane, an uncle. On Mars 
Hill, Thomas Lincoln, the cooper, one of the old men of the vil- 
lage, and ancestor of the Benjamin Lincoln family, occupied the 
spot which has been the home of his descendants to the present 
time. Jacob Beale lived near by, but the exact spot is not easily 
located. Apparently Thomas Hobart was the sole inhabitant of 
West Street at this period, although Caleb Lincoln's house was on 
the corner, but probably facing Fort Hill Street. The latter's twin 
brother Joshua, and their father, Thomas Lincoln, the husband- 
man, were close by, as were Sergeant Daniel Lincoln and his son 
Daniel, Thomas and Ephraim Nicolls, Moses Collier, and Thomas 
Lincoln, the carpenter, Henry Ward, Robert Waterman, Samuel 
Stowell and his sons John and David, Joshua Beale, who main- 
tained the drum, and his brother Caleb, at this time a con- 
stable ; all were located on Fort Hill Street. Here also, and 
probably on the crown of the hill, and within a very few feet of 
the street to which it gave its name, was erected at this time one 
of the three forts which formed a part of the defences against 
the Indians. The location was admirable, the eminence over- 
looking and commanding the fertile fields on its several sides, as 
well as the village clustered around its base, while the road to 
Weymouth, much of the water supply, and a wide range of 
country were within the protecting fire of its guns ; while signals 
by day or a beacon light at night would carry an alarm to distant 
points. Leaving this locality and proceeding along what is now 
South Street, we should have found on the Gay estate of a later 
day William Hersey, and near him John and James and William 
Hersey the younger, and Widow Hewitt and her brother-in-law, 
Timothy Hewitt. On the westerly corner of Austin's "Lane, now 
Hersey Street, were John Beale, and John his son, while on the 
easterly corner another garrison house formed the connecting 
defence between the fort at West Hingham and Captain An- 
drews' garrison house at Broad Bridge. The house belonged to 
Steven Lincoln, and the Cazneau cottage stands nearly upon its 
site. In the immediate vicinity were Simon Gross, Joshua Lin- 
coln, Richard Wood, and Samuel Bate, who had a daughter 
born April 12, 1676, "in the garrison," — not improbably the 
garrison house of Steven Lincoln, which was undoubtedly already 
occupied as a place of refuge in consequence of the alarm pre- 

VOL. I. 15 



226 History of Eingham. 

ceding the attack of a few days after in the south part of the 
town. Other neighbors were Dr. Cutler, known as " the Dutch- 
man," and Arthur Caine ; while Joseph Bate's house stood 
where Mr. William 0. Lincoln, who is of the eighth generation 
occupying the same spot, now resides, — Clement Bate, the 
father of Joseph, being the first. Next east lived Nathaniel 
Beal, Senior, cordwainer and constable, and who had formerly 
been chosen by the selectmen to keep an ordinary to sell sack and 
strong waters, and who may still have been engaged in the same 
pursuits. His ordinary and home was about opposite Thaxter's 
bridge. Across the travelled way, and on the lot occupied by 
the building in which the District Court holds its sessions, were 
the stocks, — conveniently near the place where the strong 
waters, which perhaps frequently led to their occupancy, were 
dispensed. The street now so beautiful in all its long course 
from Broad Bridge to Queen Anne's Corner, is the street of the 
old days which we are picturing, and has undergone little change 
of location. Its northerly part was known however at that time 
as Bachelor's Row. We must recollect, however, that the hill 
upon which Derby Academy stands then extended over the pres- 
ent Main Street, sloping down nearly to the houses on the west, 
and that going south it fell away to about the present level of 
the street in front of Loring Hall, when the ascent again com- 
menced, terminating in quite a little eminence opposite the Bas- 
sett house, but which has largely disappeared through the cutting 
off of the crown and the filling of the swampy tract beyond, — a 
process which, repeated a short distance south, in the vicinity of 
Water Street, has also modified the appearance of Main Street 
quite materially at that point. The old road was in fact a suc- 
cession of ascents and descents almost continuously, until after 
reaching the level above Pear-tree Hill. The first meeting-house 
stood upon the part of the hill near Broad Bridge, which has 
been removed, and probably not far from, and a few rods in front 
of, the site of Derby Academy. It has already been described. 
Over the hill, and probably to the eastward of the Meeting-house 
ran a road, and around the base was another, doubtless more easy 
to travel. These two commencing at the same point near the 
bridge, soon united into one again at or near where Loring Hall 
stands. On the slopes of the hill and around the meeting-house 
our fathers were buried, and there they doubtless thought to 
sleep undisturbed forever. Their remains now rest in the old 
fort in the cemetery, of which in life they were the garrison, — a 
most fitting sepulchre for the sturdy old soldiers. This fort, still 
in an admirable state of preservation, was probably erected in 
1675 or early in 1676, and was the main defence of the inhabi- 
tants. It overlooked and commanded most of the village and 
the main approaches thereto, and in connection with the palisaded 
Meeting-house and the garrison house across the brook, provided 



Military History. 227 

ample protection to the settlement. The two latter completely 
covered the stream for a long distance, making it impossible for 
the Indians to deprive the townspeople of its sweet waters. 
Nearly every house on the lower part of Main Street was within 
range, and under the protection of the guns of the fort, which 
also commanded an unobstructed view of the whole territory 
between Captain Andrews' and the harbor, whose blue waters, 
framed in their bright setting of green, then as now made a 
beautiful and peaceful picture, as seen from its ramparts. The 
present appearance of the fort is outwardly that of a circular, 
sodded embankment, two or three feet in height, upon which are 
planted several of the oldest of the gravestones; but from 
within, the earth walls appear to be considerably higher, and the 
excavation is rectangular, with sides about forty feet in length. 
In the centre, from the summit of a mound, there rises a plain 
granite shaft, inscribed upon the southwesterly and northeasterly 
sides respectively as follows : — 

To The Erected 

First Settlers by the 

of Town, 

Hingham, 1839. 

The late Hon. Solomon Lincoln, in his " History of Hingham," 
mentions in a foot-note a tradition related to him as coming from 
Dr. Gay, to the effect that " this fort was built from the fear of 
invasion by the sea, by the Dutch, etc." There can be no doubt 
that the tradition referred to another fortification, also in the 
cemetery, probably built for defence against the Dutch or the 
Spanish, the remains of which were discovered a few years since 
while constructing a road in that part of the burying-ground 
tow-ards Water Street, by Mr. Todd, the superintendent. The 
location, as described by him, was on the northerly side of the 
hill formerly owned by Isaac Hinckley, whose family lot is upon 
its crown, the situation entirely commanding the harbor and its 
approaches, and affording a magnificent view, and a valuable out- 
look for military purposes. The defence was probably in the 
nature of a stone battery, upon which it was intended to mount 
a gun or guns, and the remains consisted of several tiers of large 
stones, placed regularly together and backed by earth. Unfortu- 
nately they have been removed. 

On Bachelor's Row, and near where Elm Street now intersects the 
main highway, Daniel and Samuel Stodder, brothers, and each with 
a numerous family, occupied neighboring houses. Daniel attained 
a greater age than has any other person in Hingham, finally dying 
at one hundred and four years. A few rods south, Ensign Joseph 
Joy, by occupation a carpenter, bore them company ; and on the 
opposite side of the street, and not far from where the Old Meet- 
ing-house now is, was the home of blacksmith and lieutenant 
Jeremiah Beale, with his family of seven children. Close by, for 



228 History of Hingham. 

a neighbor, was the famous Captain of the Trainband, Joshua 
Hobart, the most prominent of the townspeople, excepting- his 
brother, the minister. As already said, his lot included the land 
upon which the meeting-house of 1681 stands. 

Here too, then, or a little later, we should have found probably 
the only gathering-place outside the Meeting-house, for the ma- 
trons of these early times in our history; for here Dame Ellen, the 
worthy wife of the Captain, kept a little shop, in which were sold 
the gloves and ribbons, the laces and pins and needles and thread, 
and possibly even, now and then a piece of dress goods of foreign 
make, and all the little knick-knacks as dear and as necessary to 
our great-great-grandmothers as to the wives and sisters of the 
present day. Upon the homestead of his father on the easterly 
side of the street, lived Samuel Thaxter, a cordwainer, and 
ancestor of Joseph B. Thaxter, who occupies the same spot ; 
while a little south, and about opposite the head of Water Street, 
Andrew Lane, a wheelwright, settled upon a lot of some four 
acres, with John Mayo near by. A little beyond, and very near 
to where Winter Street intersects Main, John Prince, a soldier of 
the war, made his home. At this point also we should have seen 
the tannery of the Cushings, stretching for a considerable distance 
along the street, as tanneries almost always do, with the sides of 
leather drying in tlie sun, the bits scattered here and there, the 
piles of red bark, and the inevitable tan entrance and driveway ; all 
making the air redolent with an odor bv no means disagreeable. 

Upon the lot now occupied by Dr. Robbins at the foot of Pear-tree 
Hill, a few rods north of his residence, Matthew dishing, who died 
in 1G60 at seventy-one years of age, the progenitor, probably, of 
all the families of that name in the United States, had established 
the home which remained uninterruptedly in the family until 1887 : 
and here still lived his wife, who died subsequently to the war, aged 
ninety-six, his son Daniel, then and until his death town clerk, and 
one of the wealthy men of the period, and Matthew a grandson, 
afterwards lieutenant and captain. Not far away Matthew Gushing 
senior's daughter Deborah lived with her husband, Matthias Briggs, 
while on the opposite side of the street, at what is now the Kecshan 
place, Daniel the younger, a weaver by trade, established a home 
and reared a numerous family. The Cushings were shopkeepers 
in addition to their other occupations, and probably the little end 
shop built onto the dwelling on cither side of the street contained 
articles of sale and barter, — produce and pelts and West India 
goods and ammunition. We may suppose that these small centres 
of trade, together with the tannery in the immediate vicinity, gave 
quite a little air of business to the neighborhood, — forming 
indeed the primitive exchange of the period. 

Not far from where Mr. Fearing Burr's store now is, Lieut. John 
Smith, Captain Hobart' s able second in rank, had a home and a 
fort combined, being one of the " garrison houses " whose wise 



Military History. 229 

location probably saved the town from a general attack. Lieu- 
tenant Smith is stated to have been in active service during - the 
\v;ir. and to have commanded a fort. lie was a man of marked 
ability, holding many positions of public trust, representing the 
town in the General Court and succeeding to the command of the 
foot company in 1683, after the death of Captain Hobart. He was 
also one of the wealthiest of Hingham's inhabitants, leaving prop- 
erty valued at upwards of <£1100, a considerable sum for the 
time. Commencing at his house and thence extending south to 
the present location of Pleasant Street and cast to that of Spring 
Street and bounded north by Leavitt, and west by Main Street, 
was a large common or training-field in which, probably not far 
from where is now the Public Library, was Hingham's third fort, 
doubtless under the immediate charge of Lieutenant Smith ; and 
which in connection with his garrison house, provided a fair 
means of defence to most of the houses on the plain. Around 
this field were the lots of many of the first settlers, and the homes 
of their descendants formed at this time cpnte a village. Among 
them on Main Street was that of Matthew Hawke, afterwards 
the third town clerk. From him is descended Col. Hawkes Fear- 
ing, whose house is upon the same spot. Matthew, one of the first 
settlers, was by occupation a schoolmaster. His granddaughter 
married John Fearing, Colonel Fearing's paternal ancestor. 
James Hawke, son of Matthew, also resided at Hingham centre 
and probably with his father, — he too becoming town clerk in 
1700, succeeding Daniel Gushing ; and was himself succeeded in 
the same office by his son James, also a resident of this part of 
the town, and with whom the name ceased. He left two daughters, 
one becoming the mother of John Hancock. Next them was Fran- 
cis James, and but a short distance further south, about where Mi-. 
David Hersey's house now is, was the homestead of the Ripleys, 
and on or near it were located John Ripley and Jolin junior and 
his brother Joshua. Their nearest neighbor, John Bull, " Goodman 
Bull," was the progenitor of many of the present inhabitants of the 
town. Bull's Pond, a small bit of water opposite Grand Army 
Hall, takes its name from the old settler, and marks the location of 
his property. On Leavitt Street Deacon John Leavitt, tailor, and 
the father of thirteen children, had the grant of a house lot. He 
appears, however, to have made his home as far from the centre as 
he well could, as his residence was in that part of the town known 
as " over the Delaware." He was not only one of the deacons of 
the church, but a trusted and leading citizen and officer, represent- 
ing the town for many years in the General Court. His two sons, 
Josiah the cooper and fanner, and Israel the husbandman, lived 
on the same street. Nathaniel Baker, a farmer, large landowner, 
and a selectman in 1076, and a soldier in the war, was conven- 
ientlv located at the iunction of Leavitt and East streets. Never- 
theless we find under date of Dec. 18, 1676 the following : — 



230 History of Hingham. 

To the Constable of Hingham. You are hereby required iu his ma- 
jestys name forthwith at the sight hereof to destraine upon the goods or 
chattels of Nathaniell Baker of this Town to the value of twenty shillings 
for his entertaining a Indian or Indians contrary to a Town order which 
fine is to be delivered to the selectmen for the use of the Town. Hereof 
you are not to fail. Benjamin Bate in the name of & by the order of 
the rest of the Selectmen of Hingham. 

This is a true copy of the warrant as attest Moses Collier Constable of 
Hingham. 

The line imposed upon Mr. Baker was in consequence of his 
disobedience of an order passed by the town forbidding the em- 
ployment or entertainment of an Indian by any person. It was 
almost immediately followed by petitions from Baker, John Jacobs, 
and others to the General Court asking that they be permitted to 
retain their Indian servants, and it appears from the State Ar- 
chives that the following similar request had already been granted. 
It is of added interest for its illustration of the conduct of the 
war and the standard of the times. 

John Thaxter petitions the Hon. Gov. and Council now sitting in 
Boston &c. that his son Thomas Thaxter was in service under the com- 
mand of Capt. Benj m Church at Martha's Vineyard and Islands adjoining 
where they made many captives and brought them to Plymouth ; and 
Captain Church gave ye petitioner's son an Indian boy of abt nine years 
old and the selectmen having made an order that no Inhabitant shall keep 
anv Indians in his family, &c. — hence the petition — Granted Jan. 11, 
1676. 

From the residence of Nathaniel Baker, going east, there were 
few, if any, houses until reaching the vicinity of Weir river on 
East Street, then a little travelled lane. Here, however, we should 
have come upon the farm of John Farrow with whom lived his 
sons John and Nathan, while beyond and near if not upon the 
very spot where the Misses Beale now live, was the last residence 
of Sergeant Jeremiah Beale ; and near him his friend and neigh- 
bor Purthee McFarlin, the Scotchman, found himself blessed with 
nine bonny lassies and three sturdy laddies. Beyond, in what is 
now Cohasset, then known as the Second Precinct, there were a 
few settlements whose story seems properly to belong to that of 
our sister town. On the farther side of the common before referred 
to, Simon Burr the farmer, and his son Simon, a cooper, located on 
a lane which has since become School Street ; and not far off, 
Cornelius Cantleberry, John Mansfield, and his son John, and 
perhaps a few others made homes for themselves. On the corner 
of Union Street Captain Fames had lived, and it was in that part 
of the town known then as now as " over the river," and where 
Israel Whitcomb grows his beautiful asters in such profusion, that 
Millicent Eames, daughter of Capt. Anthony, went to live with her 
husband William Sprague, the first of a long line of descendants 



Military History. 231 

many of whom have become celebrated ; and here in this exciting 
period was a little settlement almost by itself, of which Antony 
and William Sprague, the younger, Robert Jones, then quite an 
old man, his son Joseph with his family, and the Lazells, John 
and his sons Joshua and Stephen, formed the greater part. From 
the Lazells the street bearing their name was called, and probably 
their homes were upon it. Leaving the common with its fort in 
easy reach of all the surrounding houses, and following the general 
direction of Main street as it now lies, we should have come at 
Cold Corner to the lot allotted John Tower. Upon it he built his 
house, which was admirably located for defence from Indian 
attack, and commanded not only a considerable portion of the 
highway, but also a long line of the river and no inconsiderable 
part of the country in its vicinity. Tower was a resolute man, 
who determined to take advantage of his position and defend his 
home untrammelled by the behests of the town authorities. To 
this end he petitioned as follows : — 

To the Honored Gov. & Council convened in Boston, March 10, 1675, 
John Tower Senior of Hingham is bold to inform your Honors that he 
hath at his own proper charge fortified his house & to begg your flavor 
that his four sonns & one or two persons more that he may hire at his 
own cost may be allowed to him for garrisoning his house ; and may not 
be called off by the Comittee of the Town for to come into any other 
garrison, my sonns having deserted their own dwellings and brought their 
goods into my fortification. I shall thankfully acknowledge your Honors 
ffavor herein & be thereby further obliged to pray for a blessing on your 
Counsels. Your humble Servant 

J. Tower, Senior. 

Ibrook Tower, one of his sons, probably lived near his father, 
and together with John Jr., Jeremiah, and Benjamin, constituted 
the " four sonns " of which his garrison was to mainly consist. 
John Tower was not only a brave man, but a diplomatic one also, 
and is said to have possessed no little influence with the red men. 
There is a tradition that even during the war, and while lurking 
in the vicinity, the Indians permitted him to get water from the 
river without molestation. 

Edward Wilder, Jr., ancestor of all the Hingham Wilders and 
husband of Elizabeth Eames, owned at one time all the land 
between Tower's and Wilder's hridges and resided between High 
and Friend streets, on Main. He was a soldier in the war against 
Philip. With him lived his son Jabez and in the immediate 
vicinity several more of his children, including Ephraim and John. 
The region about the meeting-house at South Hingham was occu- 
pied largely at this time by the Jacobs, a wealthy and influential 
family. Foremost anions- them was Capt. John Jacob, a member 
of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, probably one 
of its officers and perhaps at one time its commander, and an able 



232 History of Hingham. 

and trusted officer in the war against Philip. Captain Jacob 
succeeded to the command of Captain Johnson's company after 
that officer's death, and directed the defences at Medfield when 
that town was attacked and partially destroyed Feb. 21, 1676. 
On this occasion there were with him Lieutenant Oakes and twenty 
troopers, besides his own foot company of about eighty men. The 
only Hingham name upon the roll at this time of which there is 
reasonable certainty, besides his own, is that of Nathaniel Beal. 
With Captain Wadsworth, Captain Jacob was engaged during the 
winter in guarding the frontiers from Milton to the Plymouth 
colony bounds, — Weymouth, Hingham, and Hull, being specially 
assigned to the latter. The service was an important and arduous 
one, and these towns were fortunate in having so able an officer 
assigned to their protection ; it may well be that to this is to be 
ascribed the small loss sustained from attack by any of them 
during the two eventful years. He was among the moneyed men 
of the town, his estate being appraised at X1298. He owned a saw- 
mill and a fulling mill, besides much land and considerable per- 
sonal property. He too was a son-in-law of Captain Eames, having 
married his daughter Marjery. Their son John, a young man of 
twenty-two years and who had served in the war, was perhaps the 
onlv inhabitant of Hingham ever killed in the course of military 
hostilities upon her own soil. Preceding the descent upon the 
southern part of the town, to be hereafter spoken of, he was slain 
near his father's house April 19, 1676. Joseph, a brother of 
Captain Jacob, was also a resident of this part of the town, and 
Samuel Bacon, who married Mary Jacob, and Peter Bacon were 
near neighbors. At Liberty Plain, Humphrey Johnson, who had 
been turned out of Scituate, set up the house which he removed 
from that town, but only on condition that he should remove it 
out of Hingham on short warning, as he was a troublesome man. 
Later he was admonished to accept a fence line quietly. He. 
however, in part atoned for his short-comings by serving his 
country in the conflict then going on. His son Benjamin, a black- 
smith and afterwards proprietor of Pine Tree Tavern, doubtless 
resided with his father at this time. Other residents of Liberty 
Plain were James Whiton, whose house was burned by the Indians, 
and his son James who lived near by, and William Hiliard. On 
Scotland Street a Scotchman, Robert Dunbar by name, made his 
home, and from him have descended the Dunbars of the present 
time. Nathaniel Chubbuck, also one of those whose houses 
were destroyed on the 20th of April, lived not far away, and 
probably near or upon Accord Pond. 

On the 25th of February, 1675, it was ordered, on request of 
Capo. John Jacob, " that his house standing in the pass between 
this colony and Plymouth be forthwith garrisoned, and such as 
are his nearest neighbors are to joyne therein." This was the 
last of the defences of the town of which we have any knowledge, 



Military History. 233 

although it is more than probable that there were other garrison 
houses in the small hamlets, like that " over the river " or the 
one in the vicinity of Weir River. The " pass " where Captain 
Jacob's garrison house was situated is somewhat uncertain. It 
may have meant simply the street leading toward Plymouth 
Colony, or possibly the Indian trail near Accord Pond was so 
denominated. 

This, then, was the Hingham of 1675, and these, with perhaps a 
few more whoso names the kindly and gentle hand of time has 
shadowed into the great oblivion, were the heads of families in this 
olden time, — a little town consisting of perhaps one hundred and 
twenty homes, divided among several small villages and a few nearly 
isolated settlements ; a half-dozen or so streets, of which Town, or 
North, Fort Hill Street, South, Bachelor's Row, a part of Leavitt, 
what is now School, and the part of Main from Bachelor's Row 
proper to the extreme southern boundary, were the principal. 
These streets, however, were mere grassy lanes, almost unimproved, 
whose deep-cut ruts were strangers to any other vehicles than the 
heavy, lumbering teams which served as farm wagons two centuries 
ago. Here and there it is probable that necessity or the public 
spirit of an individual, or perhaps the combination of several, had 
resulted in trilling attempts at road making, and in some of the 
swampy sections bits of corduroy were constructed. One such, at 
least, was upon the low approaches to the brook at Broad Bridge, 
and some of its remains were found several years since, and even 
yet lie in the bottom of its bed. Road surveyors and superintend- 
ents and working out of taxes, and even taxes themselves, were for 
the most part blessings of a later period. There were no sidewalks 
either, and along the little side paths leading from house to house 
and farm to farm, the blue violet blossomed in the early days of 
May as now, and the white violet scented the air with its delicate 
fragrance, while the wild rose and the golden rod in their season 
made the ways bright with their beauty. The chipmunk, his 
cheeks filled with the yellow Indian maize stolen from the adjoin- 
ing field, sat saucily upon the fresh-cut stump and chipped at the 
passer, while the golden-winged woodpecker tapped for insects in 
the tree overhead, the kingfisher flashed his steel-blue breast across 
the waters of the bay and uttered his shrill cry, and the robin 
and the cat-bird danced along with their familiar friendliness be- 
fore the settlers' feet. On either hand, and nestling near together 
for mutual protection, were the low log or hewn-board thatch- 
roofed homes of the people, in most of which glazed windows 
were unknown, the light entering through oiled-paper panes and 
the opened door. Heavy board shutters added something to the 
warmth and much to the safety of the interior after dark. The 
rooms were few in number, unplastered and not always sheathed 
inside, while a single chimney, with a great open fireplace and a 
crane, served as oven and furnace alike. Here and there, how- 



234 History of Hingham. 

ever, more pretentious, and in one or two cases perhaps, even 
stately edifices had been erected. Some of these had a second 
story, overhanging slightly the first, and this added greatly to the 
power of resisting an attack. A few had glass windows, and here 
and there a little shop protruded from one end. Besides these 
the three forts, the garrison houses, and the meeting-house gave 
a certain diversity and rough picturesqueness to the landscape. 
Fine tracts of wood covered a large part of the territory, but nu- 
merous planting fields had been granted from time to time, and 
the axe of the settler during forty years had made no inconsider- 
able mark, and the clearings had been industriously cultivated 
from Otis, or Weary-all-Hill, to World's End. The soil was new 
and fairly good, and prosperity had lightened the lot of not a few, 
so that while certainly far from rich as wealth is measured in 
these days, the appraisal of some estates indicates the accumula- 
tion of the means of considerable comfort and influence. The 
people were for the most part sturdy, industrious, English farmers 
with a fair proportion of carpenters, blacksmiths, and coopers, 
more, probably, than the necessary number of inn-keepers with 
their free sale of strong-water and malt, a few mariners, several 
mill owners and millers, two or three brewers, not a larger number 
of shop-keepers, a tailor, a tanner perhaps, one or two " gentle- 
men," a schoolmaster, and last, and on many accounts most im- 
portant of all, the parson. As already said, the inhabitants were 
for the most part English, but a large proportion of the younger 
generation was native born, and there was also a small sprinkling 
of Scotch. In addition there remained a few Indians, whose wig- 
wams were pitched outside the settlement, besides a small number 
employed as servants in the houses of several of the whites ; and 
in the same capacity a negro might here and there have been 
found. From a people mainly composed at first of the British 
middle-class, impelled to emigrate and settle rather from an am- 
bition to improve their worldly lot than from any deep-seated dis- 
satisfaction, either with the government or institutions of home, 
or even from especially intense religious aspirations, there had 
developed a sober, industrious, earnest, self-sustaining community, 
whose energy was already laying the foundations for the com- 
merce with the West Indies which afterwards became extensive, 
and for the varied manufactures which for so many years gave 
employment to our people. A few small shallops too were 
owned here, and some of the inhabitants had an interest in one or 
two vessels of larger size; but fishing, which subsequently became 
a great industry, had scarcely begun at this period. The real 
business of the settlement as yet was farming. The families of 
the day were not small, and year by year added to their propor- 
tions ; Rev. Peter Hobart himself was father to no less than 
eighteen children while others were hardlv less numerous. Men 
and women alike were commonly dressed in homespun, and un- 



Military History. 235 

doubtedly the style of their garments was that so often seen in the 
pictures of the period. Can we not, for the moment, people our 
streets with them once more ? — the men in their tall-crowned, 
broad-brimmed hats, the short coat close-belted, with broad buckle 
in front, the knee breeches, long stockings and buckled shoes 
varied by the better protection of long boots worn by others, 
especially in winter, and in this latter season the long cape 
hanging gracefully from the shoulders ; the women in their be- 
coming hoods, faced it may be with fur, the straight, rather short 
skirts, and the long enveloping cloaks, with gloves or mittens in 
cold weather. 

The costumes were picturesque if the materials were not of 
the finest, but we have no reason to suppose an utter absence of 
more elegant fabrics when occasion demanded, and not a few are 
the traditions of silks which would stand alone, carefully treas- 
ured as their chief pride by our great-great-grandmothers, while 
doubtless velvet coats and knee-breeches, with famous paste or 
silver buckles, and perhaps even a bit of gold lace, about this 
time forbidden by the General Court to all but certain excepted 
classes, found proud and dignified wearers on days of importance 
among the town fathers and military commanders. We read, 
too, of the bequest of swords in some of the wills of the period, 
and it is not unlikely that they were at least occasionally worn 
by the grandees of the town, as well as by the trainband officers, 
on ceremonious occasions. Nor must it be forgotten that from 
necessity, as well as by mandate of law, the musket had become 
so constant a companion that, though strictly not an article of 
dress, it may at least be considered as a part of the costume of the 
men ; it was upon their shoulders in the street, it rested against 
the nearest tree when the farmer toiled, it went with him to 
meeting on the Sabbath, and leaned, ready loaded, in the corner 
at the house when he was at home. 

The heavy cloud which had so long threatened Plymouth, and 
which finally burst upon Swansea in June, was extending over 
Massachusetts also. The border towns were immediately upon 
the defensive. Hingham, with her boundary upon that of the 
Plymouth Colony, and peculiarly bound to it by neighborhood, 
by frequent marriages between her families and those of the 
Pilgrim settlements, and by the removal of some of their people 
to live among hers, may well have benefited by the kindly influ- 
ences of the sister colonv, and imbibed a liberalism and ima«;i- 

•/ 7 O 

nation not common among the Puritans. At all events, no 
persecution for conscience' sake mars the records of the old town, 
which a little later loyally followed for more than half a century 
the teachings of Dr. Gay, with his broad and embracing Chris- 
tianity. Now, with sympathy for her friends and apprehension 
for herself, the town quietly, soberly, grimly prepared for the 
contest, and awaited the call for duty. 



236 ' History of Hlngham. 

Under Captain Hobart's direction the three forts were erected, 
the garrison houses provisioned, and the careful watch and strict 
discipline maintained. The summer slipped away, the people 
pursuing their usual vocations. The drum-beat at sunrise 
relieved the weary sentinel, called to life the sleeping town, and 
put in motion the industries of the field, the shop, and the home. 
And while the men labored at their various vocations, the women 
were equally industrious ; for not only were the children and the 
homes and the dairies to be cared for, but the very clothes must 
be woven and made in the kitchen of every house. Probably the 
mill, the inns, and the malt-houses were favorite places of 
gathering for the men during their leisure moments, while Mrs. 
Hobart's shop formed the ladies' exchange of the period, and 
many a confidence and bit of gossip were here whispered, only 
to reach the goodman's ears a few hours later. 

On the Sabbath-day all attended meeting, and after the ser- 
vices — probably several hours long — lingered around the porch 
to exchange greetings and make inquiries about friends and 
relations too scattered to visit during the week. 

An occasional sail whitened the placid bosom of the little cir- 
cular harbor, whose outlet was nearly hidden by the three islands 
with their dark cedar foliage. Grand old trees here mirrored 
themselves, and again in the waters of the inner bay and the 
beautiful pond, which belonged to Plymouth and Massachusetts 
alike, while fields of maize ripened and yellowed on the hillsides. 
The sharp stroke of the axe, the occasional report of a musket, 
the voice of the plowman talking to his cattle, the grinding of 
the mill wheels, the music of the anvil, the merry splash of the 
bounding stream, the whir of the partridge, the not distant howl 
of the wolf, the stamp of the startled deer, the crackling of dry 
boughs beneath the foot of an Indian, whose swarthy form flitted 
silently and ominously along the trail to the sister colony, — 
these were the every-day sights and sounds of the summer 
of 1075. 

The weeks following the attack on Swansea had seen the up- 
rising of tribe after tribe, allies of Philip, the destruction of town 
after town in various parts of the colony, and the ambuscade and 
defeat of various bodies of troops under brave and able officers. 
United action on the part of Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Con- 
necticut became necessary. Governor Winslow was appointed 
commander-in-chief, and additional companies were raised by the 
three colonies. Among these was one commanded by Captain 
Johnson, of Roxbury, already a distinguished officer, who had 
led a company of Praying Indians in the earlier days of the con- 
flict. He was known as the brave Captain Johnson, and in his 
command it was the good fortune of a part of the men from 
our town to serve. The following quaint report marks Hing- 
ham's entry into the struggle, and indicates also the names of 
those who served her in the field : — 



Military History. 237 

TO THE HoN ORD COCNSELL NOW SITTING IN BOSTON : 

In persuance of an order from the Hon. Major Thomas Clarke bearing 
date of the 29 of y e 9 m 1G75, we have accordingly by the constables 
given notice to our souldiers impressed for the countrys service to appear 
as expressed in the sayd order and find those that appear completely fur- 
nished for the service. Others we are informed [are] to be at Boston 
making provision for the sayd service. So as we [be able] they will be 
completely furnished according to sayd order. 

The names of these souldiers are as follows, Benj n Bates, John Jacob, 
John Langlee, Edward Wilder, Thomas Thaxter, Ebenezer Lane, Sam- 
merwell Lincoln Jun r , Ephraim Lane, John Lazell, John Bull, William 
Woodcock, William Hersey Jun r , Francis Gardner, Nathaniel Beal Jun r , 
Nathaniel Nicols, Humphrey Johnson. 

Joshua Hobart, Captain. 
John Smith, Sergt. 

Hingham, Dec. 1, 1675. 

Upon inquiry 1 of the above souldiers are found to want coats which 
we hope will be taken at Boston to supply. J. H. 

William Woodcock was missing when the time came to march, 
but he subsequently appeared and served. 

In addition to the above, the New England Historical and 
Genealogical Register gives the names of the following as in 
service from Hingham : Henry Chamberlin, William Chamberlin, 
Joseph Benson, Christ. Wheaton, Isaac Prince, Isaac Cole, Sam- 
uel Nicholson, John Dunbarr, Paul Gilford, Richard Francis, John 
Chamberlin, and Dr. John Cutler. Dr. Cutler, known as ' ; the 
Dutchman, 1 ' was one of the surgeons attached to the Massachu- 
setts regiment under Major Appleton at the great battle with the 
Narragansetts. In his professional capacity, the care of John 
Langlee and John Faxton, wounded fellow-townsmen, fell doubt- 
less to him. A note also says that Josiah the Sagamore went to 
fight against the Mohawks. A report of Capt. John Holbrooke, 
of Weymouth, shows that he had upon his rolls six men and four 
horses, and two men from Hingham, but that among the " de- 
fects " were Jno. Feres and Arthur Sherman from our town. 
From the town records we get the names of many individuals 
paid for arms and coats lost in the war. Among them are Samuel 
Stodder, a sergeant, James Whiton, Andrew Lane, Ephraim Wil- 
der, and Simon Brown. By the same authority we learn that 
Nathaniel Baker helped fill the town's quota. The following 
petition from the State archives adds two soldiers to our list: — 

To the much hon d Governeur and the rest of y e Hon rd Magestrates now 
sitting in Councill, the petition of James Bate of Hingham, Humbly 
sheweth, that whereas your petitioner having now for the space of more 
than two months had two sons prest into the service against the Indians 
whereby many inconveniencyes and great Damages have been sustained 
By us for want of my Eldest Son who hath house and land and cattle of 
his own adjoining to mine being a mile from the Town and therefore 
nobody to look after them in his absence, and whereas there are many in 



238 History of Hingham. 

our Town that have many sons that were never yet in this Service who 
have also declared their willingness to take their Turns and seing God 
hath been pleased hitherto to spare their Lives, If he should now take 
them away before I doe again see them (upon several considerations) I 
know not how I should beare it. My humble request therefore to your 
Honours is that you would be pleased to consider our Condition and 
grant them a Release from their Long service. So shall you as he is in 
duty bound for your Honours prosperity pray and remain yours to serve 
in what he is able. 

James Bate. 

These sons were probably Joseph and Benjamin. Besides 
these, dishing tells us in his diary that on October 28, 1675, his 
son Theophilus was pressed for a soldier, and marched to Men- 
don, and that on December 11 lie returned home. 

In 1725 seven townships were granted to the officers and soldiers 
living, and the heirs of those deceased, who were in the war of 
1 675 ; one of these townships was Bedford, and among the grantees 
were a number from Hingham. Besides including part of the 
names already given as in the service during this eventful period, 
we find those of Joseph Thorn and Samuel Gill, then still living. 
Cornelius Cantlebury's heirs, John Arnold's heirs, and Israel 
Vickery for his father. In this connection it may be interesting 
to add that on June 6, 1733, a meeting of the proprietors of 
Bedford was held on Boston Common, and that Col. Samuel 
Thaxter presided, and that subsequently he, with others, was 
appointed on a committee to lay out the town. Including Capt. 
John Jacob, we are thus enabled to furnish the names of some 
forty-five men who served from Hingham in the war against the 
great Indian warrior. Besides these there were the six or eight 
in Captain Holbrooke's company, and doubtless very many others 
whose names the imperfect lists have failed to preserve to us. 
Indeed, if the tradition that Captain Hobart commanded a 
company in active service is well founded, the probability is 
very strong that it was largely, if not entirely, composed of 
Hingham men. 

The day after the draft for Captain Johnson's company was 
observed as a " solemn day of prayer and humiliation, to suppli- 
cate the Lord's pardoning mercy and compassion towards his 
poor people, and for success in the endeavors for repelling the 
rage of the enemy." 

On the 20th of December, after a night spent in the open air 
without covering, and a toilsome march through deep snow, 
the combined troops of Massachusetts, Plymouth, and Connecti- 
cut arrived before the great fort of the Narragansetts, near Po- 
casset, in Rhode Island. At about one o'clock the little army 
moved to the attack, the advance led by Captain Johnson, who 
was killed at the first fire, as was Captain Davenport, who fol- 
lowed him. Before gaining the final victory, six captains were 



Military History. 239 

lost, and over one hundred and ninety of the English were killed 
or wounded, of whom over one hundred belonged to Massachu- 
setts, out of a total of about rive hundred and forty. 

In the " great Narragansett fight" the men of Hingham, under 
their unfortunate captain, led the way. We must regret having 
but little record of their individual experiences. We know, how- 
ever, that the retreat from the Narragansett country was one 
series of hardship and suffering, and that besides the death of 
many ol the wounded on the way, that the unharmed nearly per- 
ished from exposure and hunger ; so that when General Winslow 
readied his headquarters four hundred of his little army, besides 
the wounded, were unfit for duty. On the 24th of February, 
Weymouth was attacked and seven houses destroyed, and by 
March the Indians had become so aggressive that Massachusetts 
ordered garrisons to be established in each town, and a select 
number of minute-men were to spread the alarm upon the first 
approach of the savages. 

That the three forts, and perhaps all of the garrison houses 
were occupied permanently at this time there can be little doubt. 
Lieutenant Smith, as has been said, is known to have commanded 
a fort, — more than probably that near his residence upon the 
Lower Plain ; while Captain Hobart, though exercising general 
supervision of all the defences, took immediate personal charge 
of the one in the cemetery, directing, we may presume, the gar- 
rison of the fortification at Fort Hill to obey the orders of Ensign 
John Thaxter, then the third officer of the company. 

The Town Records have the following : — 



'& 



•'At a meeting of the freemen of Hingham on the 18th day of October, 
1675, on complaint made against Joseph the Indian and his family, who 
were in the town contrary to the views of most of the inhabitants, and on 
suspicion that he will run away to the enemy to our prejudice, therefore 
the freemen at the said Town meeting passed a clear vote that the con- 
stable forthwith seize the said Indian and his family, and carry them up 
to Boston to be disposed of by the Governor and Council as they shall 



see cause." 



October 13, 1675, Hingham was ordered to pay ,£30 toward 
carrying on the war. Besides this tax, the selectmen's records 
show many allowances for arms lost, for money allowed the 
soldiers, and suras voted for transporting them to Boston, and 
various other military purposes, including an allowance for " lick- 
ars" for the committee having some duty connected with the war. 

In February, 1676, the selectmen forbade, under a penalty of 
twenty shillings for each offence, any person from harboring or 
entertaining any Indian within the limits of the town. 

Early in February the little army of Massachusetts returned to 
Boston, and the men were dismissed to their homes. But the 
vigorous prosecution of the campaign by Philip in the very first 



240 History of Hingham. 

days of spring, his successful attack on one place after another, 
together with the destruction of Captain Pierce, of Scituate, and 
nearly all his command, while in pursuit of a body of Indians 
near Scekonk, the burning of Marlborough, and the murders at 
Long Meadow, all on March 26th, imperatively called for the 
speedy reasscmblage of the troops, and for vigorous measures by 
the three colonies. It would not be easy to overestimate the 
anxiety and alarm at this time. Various plans were proposed, 
and among them was that of building a continuous stockade from 
Charles River to the Merrimac. This was only negatived because 
of its magnitude. In the various towns the forts and garrison 
houses were constantly occupied, and the utmost precaution taken 
against surprise. May we venture, for the sake of the better 
understanding of the time, to attempt one more sketch, outlined 
by the recorded facts and the bits of tradition, but shaded and 
filled in rather by the assistance of our general knowledge of the 
people, the times, and the situation, than by any particulars of 
the especial day ? 

It is the 16th of April, and the Sabbath-day ; a bright, crisp 
morning, but the sun is already softening the surface of the quiet 
pools thinly skimmed, perhaps for the last time in the earlier 
hours ; the frost coming out of the ground makes moist the 
paths ; the brook at the foot of the meeting-house hill is dancing 
with its swollen flood and sparkling in the sunlight, while over 
and along it the pussy-willows are already nodding, and the red 
maple's blossoms go sailing and tossing in the pools and eddies. 
A little further up the stream the ever-graceful elms are begin- 
ning to look fresh and feathery in their swelling and opening 
buds, while on the slopes rising up from the valley the blossoms 
of the wild cherry and the dogwood gleam white among the dark 
trunks and branches of the oaks and the sombre shadows of the 
evergreens. In the warm nooks the blue, and in the swampier 
meadow the white violet breathes out the same faint sweetness 
which in the same spots, two hundred years later, will delight the 
school-children of another age, while above them the red berries 
of the alder and the seed-vessels of last year's wdd roses give 
brightness and color to the shrubbery not yet awakened to its 
new life ; the bluebird, the song sparrow, and the robin twitter 
in the branches, while a great black crow lazily flaps his way 
across to the horizon ; possibly here and there, in some shaded 
and protected places, the melting remnants of a late snow linger 
yet, but in the clearings elsewhere the young grass has already 
veiled the earth in fresh green. The furrows of the planting 
fields show that the farmer has already commenced his prepara- 
tion for the spring sowing, but some of the more distant lots tell 
of the universal apprehension, for last autumn's stubble in them 
still stands unmolested. The quiet of the Puritan Sabbath has 
no fears for his highness the barnyard cock, whose clarion and 



Military History. 241 

cheery notes arc heard far and near, while faint columns and 
blue wreaths of smoke rising here and there each mark the home 
of a settler. Hours since, with the rising sun, Steven Lincoln 
has beaten the drum, and the tired and half-frozen sentry has 
been relieved and replaced by the " warde for the Lord's day ; " 
the quaint, palisaded log building, with its belfry, which had 
served so long as a house of worship, of a meeting place for pub- 
lic conference, of refuge in alarm, of storage for ammunition, of 
defence from danger, and which is getting old and must soon be 
deserted, still stands overlooking the village, its doors wide open 
for the nine o'clock service, and the clanging of its little bell 
bidding the living to " remember the Sabbath day to keep it 
holy," while to them under the little green mounds on the slope 
between the two roads it tolls a requiem. Goodman Pitts, the 
venerable sexton, still restrains with his watchful eye the small 
boy and awes him into a temporary quiet, while the people move 
decorously into their allotted places, the men and the women 
each into their own parts of the house. See them as they come 
picking out the best and dryest places between the deep ruts and 
along the paths, now two or three abreast, and now in single 
file, stretching along the ways leading to the meeting-house. 
How sturdy the men look, with their belted coats and broad- 
brimmed hats, and the inevitable musket, which each places 
against the building or some neighboring tree before entering! 
How cheery the goodwives seem, even in the midst of the gen- 
eral anxiety, as they greet each other and pause for a word of 
inquiry about the children — by no means few in number — who 
are trailing along after ; and how sweet the Puritan maidens seem 
to us as they glance shyly at the great rough lads, whom danger 
and responsibility have so quickly transformed into manly young 
soldiers. Here from the Plain comes John Bull, and his young- 
wife, Goodman Pitts's daughter, bringing perhaps a message 
and report to Captain Hobart from Lieutenant Smith, whose 
watchful care for the fort keeps him away to-day. Indeed, many 
a one is forced by the threatening peril to an unusual absence, 
and the attendance will be strangely small. Still, most of the 
people from the lower part of the town are on their way, though 
with anxious hearts, and many a thought will wander from the 
long sermon of the day to the little home, and every sound from 
without will strain again the already weary ears. There, crossing 
the bridge by the corduroy road, is John Langlee, leading his little 
daughter Sarah, and talking by the way to young Peter Barnes ; 
while close behind come Sergeant Thomas Andrews, with his wife 
and six children ; and a few rods further back we see Mr. Samuel 
Lincoln and Mrs. Lincoln, with their straight young son Samuel, 
whose title of cornet is well deserved, and who is not only the 
pride of his parents, but one of the heroes of the town for his 
gallant part in the great Narragansett fight ; there, too, are his 

VOL. I. — 16 



242 History of Hingham. 

brothers, and two or three of his little sisters, following as sol- 
emnly as youth and a bright day will permit. Just stepping out 
of his door is Benjamin Lincoln, whose wife, Sarah, with her 
little son John and six-years-old Margaret, are stopping to greet 
their uncles, John and Israel Fearing, who live next door. 
Rounding the corner of Bachelor's Row, with a brisk stride and 
erect carriage, we see Ensign John Thaxter, who has come down 
from the fort on Fort Hill, where all seems tranquil, leaving Ser- 
geant Daniel Lincoln in charge while he attends meeting and 
holds a council of war with Captain Hobart. On his way we 
presume he stopped at the garrison house at Austin's Lane to 
speak a word of warning and make a kindly inquiry for Mrs. 
Bate and the four-days-old girl ; and only a moment ago we saw 
a sterner look as he sharply inquired of the luckless inmate of 
the stocks what folly had made him a victim on this Sabbath 
morning. Near a large tree upon the hill, and against whose 
broad trunk rest half a dozen muskets, quietly awaiting Ensign 
Thaxter, stands one of Hingham's two foremost citizens, the late 
speaker of the House of Deputies and captain of the town forces. 
Captain Hobart is sixty -two years of age, and among the darker 
locks the gray hairs are thickly scattered, yet in his well-knit 
figure there is little sign of age ; a strong, able, brave, wise man, 
loaded with all the honors in the gift of his townsmen, faithful 
for many years in their service, he is crowning his work by a care 
and watchfulness which will save those whose confidence is so 
well reposed in him from the horrors which have devastated so 
many sister communities. Even now he might have been seen 
coming along the path among the trees that runs between the 
meeting-house and the central fort, the garrison of which latter 
he has in part relieved for the services of the day. 

As the soldier in long boots, short-belted coat and sword, with 
his alert military air waits, we note the similarity and yet the 
dissimilarity between him and the slightly bent and older figure 
which in long cloak and buckled shoes is rather slowly mounting 
the hill, though declining the proffered arm of Ensign Thaxter. 
It is Parson Hobart himself, ten years the senior of his distin- 
guished brother, and in disposition scarcely less a soldier. His 
long ministry is drawing near its close, but there is little diminu- 
tion in the sparkle of his eye or the vigor of his manner. We 
can almost see the grave salute with which the Captain greets 
the Elder, and the equal gravity with which it is returned ; we 
seem to hear the brief inquiry and reply, after which the one 
passes into the presence of his assembling congregation, while 
the other remains for a short interview with his subordinate. 

Within the house are the Hobarts, brothers and nephews of 
the old parson, the Beals, Dr. Cutler, Joseph Church, Daniel and 
Samuel Stodder, with numerous members of their large families, 
Joseph Joy, Samuel Thaxter, and many others. Even now we 



Military History. 243 

can almost feel the uneasy restlessness which pervades the wor- 
shippers. Many of the friends, usually so regular in their attend- 
ance, are away in the forts and garrison houses, and all through 
the sermon, probably several hours long, the thoughts of the 
listeners wander, and the strained ears catch with apprehension 
every unusual noise from without. We imagine, too, that when 
at last Captain Hobart and Ensign Thaxter enter to join in the 
service, neither will take their accustomed seats, but more likely 
will remain near the door, and where perhaps the keen eye of 
the commander can keep within view the muskets without, and oc- 
casionally catch a glimpse of the " warde," moving from one point 
of vantage to another. Meanwhile the latter, not perhaps sorry 
to be in the open air this April morning, keeps eye and ear alert 
for sign or sound of the wily foe. From the summit almost the 
whole of the lower village can be seen. Across the glassy waters 
of the inner bay, which, stretching away from his very feet, are 
broken into several shady coves and dotted with islands, he is 
following with ill-pleased attention a canoe paddled by an Indian, 
who a moment later may be seen climbing the cliffs on the eastern 
shore and losing himself in the forest paths which lead toward 
Neck Gate Hill, from behind which a faint blue smoke rises and 
fades slowly away. There on the southeastern slope, and nearly 
at the foot of the hill, are the Avigwams of the little-trusted 
countrymen of Philip who yet remain in the vicinity. This spot, 
by tradition said to have been the last camping-place of the 
Indian in Hingham, is comprehended in the property now owned 
by Mr. T. T. Bouve, and called, from the fact and the configura- 
tion of the land, " Indian Hollow." The smooth lawn of the 
present clay shows no sign, but the plow would reveal a long and 
broad line of disintegrating clam-shells, doubtless a shell-heap 
of the former inhabitants, and several implements have been 
picked up in the immediate vicinity which were formerly in 
use by them. However, beyond a mental growl of dissatisfac- 
tion at what he termed the folly of allowing the encampment 
to remain, our sentry of 1676 could do nothing ; so, turning 
towards the blue waters of the harbor, his eye falls upon the 
ship-yard of William Pitts, the first one established in Hingham. 
He watches, too, for a few moments the white sails of a West 
Indiaman as she passes between Nantasket and George's Island 
and thence towards Boston. Then he walks slowly over to the 
new fort, and carefully scans the country in every direction as 
far as the eye can reach and the forests permit. And so the 
long hours pass away until the close of the service brings the 
uneasy officers out of the meeting, first of all for a conference 
with the watch, who, however, has little to report. And now 
the worshippers are wending their way homeward, singly and in 
groups, some discussing the weather, and others, it is probable, 
commenting, like their descendants of later generations, upon 



244 History of Hingham. 

the sermon which they have just heard, while we may be sure all 
are thankful to return once more to undespoiled homes. Others, 
who come from a great distance, meet together and eat the frugal 

CJ / CD CD 

luncheon between the morning and afternoon service, while a 
few, husband and wife, mount pillion fashion the horses which 
have been awaiting the close of the services under the trees, and 
ride to their homes. 

As the rich glow of the setting sun crimsons the glassy harbor 
and turns to gold the fleecy clouds of April, while the shadows 
creep up from the valleys, the tap-tap and rattle and roll of 
Steven Lincoln's drum sings the vespers of the Puritans, and 
the Sabbath is over. Then comes the new watch, who being 
properly instructed and posted begins his hours of vigil. The 
garrisons are carefully looked to ; the orders for the night issued. 
The poor victim of the stocks, if not before released, is now given 
liberty. The restraints upon the children are relaxed, and during 
the brief period of twilight secular pursuits are resumed ; the 
cattle are seen to, the wood brought in, and the wide old-fashioned 
fireplaces blaze and crackle with the long sticks, while above the 
kettle hisses and sings and its cover rises and falls and rattles. 
Here and there the tallow dip assists in its poor faint way ' : the 
busy housewife ply her evening care," and then an hour later, the 
low thatched-roof cottages are wrapped in darkness, and the stars 
shine out upon the town at rest. Only the half-chilled, weary 
soldier on guard watches for the beacon, or listens for the signal 
guns which shall call the men of Hingham to the aid of Nan- 
tasket or Scituate or Weymouth, or awaken them to the defence 
of their own wives and children and homes. 

What a dreary duty it is, too, this waiting and fearing for the 
dreaded warwhoop of the Indian in the still and lonesome hours 
of the night. How the eye grows strained peering into the dark- 
ness and the ear weary listening, and with what a nervous start 
each new sound, each before unnoticed shadow is noted by the 
young sentry moving among the aisles of the great trees on the 
height overlooking the village ! What a relief, though all too 
brief, is the visit of Captain Hobart, whose vigilance causes many 
a restless and wakeful hour in these trying days ; and how doubly 
appalling seems the solitude as the sound of the Captain's re- 
treating steps die away in the distance, leaving the long hours until 
dawn to be counted away alone, before whose coming the sentry's 
breath shall more than once stop, while he hears the beating of 
his own heart, at the imagined creeping form of an Indian. 

The defences of Hingham and the preparation for the protection 
of her inhabitants have already been described. Even in the 
absence of other evidence, the comparative immunity of the settle- 
ment from serious loss and the total failure on the part of the 
Indians, almost constantly lurking in the vicinity, to effect any- 
thing like a general surprise, would in themselves be strong 



Military History. 245 

indications of the ability and watchfulness of those responsible 
for the safety of the town. The incidents attending the several 
attempts upon it, and the intelligent location of the forts and 
garrison houses, with their garrisons at this time made permanent, 
the mutual support which they afforded each other, and the fact 
tli at scarcely a house from Fort Hill to Broad Bridge, and thence 
to South Hingham, was beyond the range of tire of one or more of 
them, added to the vigilance which anticipated and forestalled 
panic when the hour of peril and trial at last came, furnish indu- 
bitable proof of the military instinct, knowledge, foresight, and 
faithfulness of Joshua Hobart, John Smith, and John Thaxter. 
Beyond question it is to this due that the two known attempts 
against the town met with comparative failure ; of others, con- 
templated but abandoned, owing to the thorough dispositions for 
meeting them, we of course know little. 

In this connection we recall the old tradition that Philip himself 
was at one time concealed within our borders and awaiting per- 
haps a favorable opportunity to make a descent. As the story 
runs, he lay somewhere in the region known as the swamp, which 
in those days extended with scarcely a break from Broad Bridge 
to near the Weymouth line, and included the location of Round 
Pond and the district known as Bear Swamp. The sagacious 
chief probably concluded that the chance of success was too small 
and the risk of severe loss too great to justify a movement against 
the lower part of the town, and therefore prudently withdrew. 
No amount of caution, however, could insure individual life or the 
safety of isolated farms against the silence and celerity of the 
Indian war parties. One of these, having perhaps eluded Captain 
Jacob, whose small force could hardly hope to cover the long 
frontier assigned to its care, was moderately successful at South 
Hingham in bringing the terror and horrors of the war home to 
our own firesides. 

On Wednesday, the 19th of April, young John Jacob, who, as it 
will be recalled, had served against Philip the previous autumn, 
and had seen his brave captain fall before the fort of the Narra- 
gansetts, took his gun and went out to shoot the deer that had 
been trespassing upon "a field of buckwheat near his father's house 
and not far from the site of the present Great Plain Meeting-house. 
He was a famous hunter and of a lisrhting stock, and he had been 
heard to declare that he would never be taken alive by the Indians. 
Little did he dream that spring morning that his would be the 
only blood ever shed by a public enemy upon the soil of his native 
town. 

The simple and brief accounts, with a little assistance perhaps 
of the imagination, bring like a living panorama before us the 
events, the homes, and the actors of that and the following day 
in the far away time when our prosaic town was making a part of 
the history which has become one of the romantic chapters of New 



246 History of Hingham. 

England's story. On this 10th of April, then, of the year 1676, and 
shortly after the disappearance of Jacob, the sound of a musket 
breaking the stillness and echoing against the "Teat solitary rock 
that stands like a mighty monument in the field not far from the 
travelled way, momentarily attracts the attention of the neighbors 
whose habits of industry have overcome the general prudence, and 
who had been enticed to a little early planting on the home lot. 
Beyond the fleeting thought of their friend's success in his efforts 
to chastise the mischievous destroyers of the winter wheat, the 
incident attracts no attention, and soon passes from the minds of 
the workers. With the lapse of considerable time, however, and 
the continued absence of the hunter, there arises a fcelimr of 
strained uneasiness; finally a search is made, and there beside his 
gun, which has been battered to pieces, the young soldier lies 
dead. The terrifying truth flashes across the searchers as they 
tenderly and hastily bear their neighbor to his father's home. 
The Indians are in Hingham and have been lying concealed during 
the night near the wheat-field, and almost close to the homes of 
the settlers! And now in an instant and from every side, out of 
the calm and quiet of the village street there starts the life, the 
uncontrolled excitement, the panic and terror of the community, 
above and about whom the threatening horror of the tomahawk 
and sealping-knife already seems to gleam, and before whose 
fevered imagination come all too readily pictures of cruelty and 
torture. The blanched faces of men and women alike, the cling- 
ing fear of the children, the hurrying to the nearest garrison 
houses of those not already therein, the exaggerated stories and 
rumors, the cry "The Indians! the Indians!" rising above all other 
sounds, repeated again and again, carrying consternation from 
the Great Plain to the harbor, and falling upon the startled ear of 
the farmer in the field and the wife in the kitchen, — how the 
sights and the sounds of that dav thrill us throiiG.li these passed 
centuries ! 

And soon we hear the sharp clanging of the little bell on the 
meeting-house, the beat and roll and rattle of the drum, the sharp 
reports of the three alarm muskets, and into the forts, the pali- 
saded church, and the garrison houses come the streaming, hurry- 
ing throng. We fancy we can see brave Joshua Hobart making, 
calmly and sternly, his dispositions for defence, and even person- 
ally visiting and instructing each sentry and urging to unceasing 
vigilance; or brilliant John Thaxter ably seconding his chief, and 
inspiring with confidence the garrisons at Austin's Lane and Fort 
Hill; or John Smith cheering the people as they flock into the 
protecting works on the common field. And there come be- 
fore us, too, sturdy John Tower and his sons and "one or two 
more persons," as his petition reads, holding his little fort and 
covering a long section of the river and the homes of his neigh- 
bors with his muskets, while he checks the panic with his plain, 



Military History. 247 

strong words. Nor is it possible to overlook the figure in the 
long cloak, moving more slowly, it is true, than when speaking his 
mind to the magistrates, but still with considerable vigor and the 
natural grace of a man of superior mind and strong will ; every- 
one recognizes immediately the venerable minister, and many a 
word of hope and many an admonition to duty he speaks as he 
passes among his people exerting his quieting influence upon them. 
With our knowledge of his younger days, we cannot help thinking 
that he had moments of impatience in the reflection that his age 
and calling prevented a more active participation in the move- 
ments against the enemy ; nor would it surprise us to learn that 
Parson Hobart more than once thought, and even said, that if he 
were Captain Hobart the military operations would be conducted 
with more reference to an offensive policy. Be that as it may, 
the latter's dispositions saved the town and the lives of those 
whose safety was committed to his care. 

Succeeding the first alarm there followed many weary hours 
of anxictv and waiting. The dav, with its exciting rumors and 
exaggerated stories, wore away, and a night of watchfulness, 
with a terror hanging over the people huddled together in their 
strange quarters difficult to picture, seemed interminable. Xor 
was the dawn much more reassuring, for soon the smoke from the 
burning homes of Joseph Jones and Anthony Spraguc " over the 
river," and of Israel Hobart, Nathaniel Chubbuck, and James 
Whiton rose into view from widely separated points on the south- 
ern horizon, and added fresh consternation to the anxious 
watchers. These fires, however, were the last acts of the Indians, 
who abandoned the attack. The second visit was just one month 
later, being the 20th of May. It was even more fruitless, and the 
savages soon passed into Scituate, which thev largely destroved. 

Oct. 12, 1676, the General Court ordered" " That Hingham be 
allowed and abated out of their last tax rates towards their losses 
by the enemy the sum of ten pounds." 

The soldiers from Hingham appear to have been engaged in 
some of the most arduous service of the war, for besides leading 
the van in the great Narragansett fight, as already stated, we find 
them serving under the immediate command of their old towns- 
man, the brave Captain Church, on Martha's Vineyard and the 
adjacent islands ; and it need not be said that service under that 
officer was of the most active kind. 

August the 12th Philip was killed at Mt. Hope and the war 
closed, but the military preparations of the colony rather in- 
creased than otherwise, and the towns as a necessary conse- 
quence participated in the general activity. In 1679 a petition 
for leave to form a small troop of horse in Hingham, Weymouth, 
and Hull, signed by Captain Hobart and others, was granted, and 
in June of the following year Ensign John Thaxter, whom we 
have already seen as one of Captain Hobart's company officers, 



248 History of Hingham. 

and who earlier, in 1664, had served with such distinction in the 
expedition against the Dutch in New York as to be " preferred 
for," as the phrase runs, under orders of Cromwell, was commis- 
sioned to its command, with Samuel White, probably of Wey- 
mouth, as lieutenant, and Matthew Cushing as cornet, "so as the 
said Matthew Cushing take the oath of freedom," which he 
appears to have done. The same year Jacob Nash was appointed 
quartermaster, and the new troop together with the rest of the 
military in the town was attached to a new regiment under 
Map Wm. Stoughton. 

Sergt. Jeremiah Beale was appointed ensign of the foot com- 
pany May 11, 1681, which remained under command of Captain 
Hobart until his death in 1682, when the periodical trouble which 
this company seems to have given the government whenever new 
officers were to be chosen again called forth a sharp reproof, with 
a reminder that an acknowledgment of error was expected. This 
time the difficulty was over the desire of a part of the command 
that Thomas Andrews be commissioned ensign instead of James 
Hawke. The magistrates, however, disapproved of both, and 
appointed Lieutenant Smith to be captain, Ensign Beale as 
lieutenant, and Thomas Lincoln to be ensign. 

A reminder of " The late Indian Warr," as the old State 
paper terms it, is found in a grant dated June 4, 1685, as a re- 
ward for services, to " Samuel Lvncolne and three more of Hing- 
ham, and others of other towns, of land in the Nipmuck country." 

Among the many interesting entries in Daniel Cushing's diaiy, 
from which not a little of the town's history has become known, 
is this : " 1688, Nov. 5th, soldiers pressed 11 to go against the 
Indians." These men were perhaps a part of Sir Edmund Andros's 
small army of eight hundred with which he marched to the 
Penobscot, an expedition in which, it will be remembered, little 
was accomplished of value. 

April 18, 1689, Gov. Edmund Andros was arrested by the peo- 
ple of Boston, who had risen against the tyranny and corruption 
of his government. The next day the conduct of public affairs 
was assumed by the Council of Safety, of which Bradstreet was 
chosen president. On May 8th, acting doubtless under the orders 
of this extraordinary body, the train band went to Boston where 
on the ninth were gathered the representatives of forty-three 
towns. Cushing's diary tells us that a town meeting was held 
on the 17th to choose a member of the Council. The choice fell 
upon Capt. Thomas Andrews, already distinguished in town 
affairs, and who had been a representative in 1678. It was a 
distinction wisely bestowed, and doubtless while performing the 
delicate duties of his new office in a critical period, attention was 
called to that ability which soon after gave him the distinguished 
honor of being selected as one of the twenty-one captains ap- 
pointed for duty with Sir Wm. Phips in his attempt at the reduc- 



Military History. 249 

tion of Canada. This officer, recently appointed high-sheriff of 
New England, sailed from Boston early in the spring of 1690 for 
Port Royal. The fort surrendered with hut little resistance, and 
three weeks later Sir William returned to Boston to prepare for 
the more ambitious attempt upon Quebec. August 9th, he sailed 
with upwards of thirty vessels and two thousand Massachusetts 
men, among whom were Captain Andrews, Lieutenant Chubbuck, 
and other Hingham men ; how many we do not know- 
October 5 the fleet dropped anchor beneath the castle which 
was commanded by Frontenac, an old and distinguished French 
officer. The attack commenced on the 8th, and was continued 
during; the two following davs. when the colonial troops retreated 
after suffering great loss. Sir William returned to Boston with 
the remnant of his army and fleet, arriving there November 19. 
At least one of our townsmen was killed in the attack upon 
Quebec, while another, Isaac Lasell, died a few days after, proba- 
bly uf wounds, while Paul Gilford, Samuel Judkins, Jonathan 
Burr, Daniel Tower, and Jonathan May, and " two more of the 
town " were carried off by the small pox, which broke out in the 
fleet and added its misfortunes to the disasters of the expedition. 
On the 25th of the month Captain Andrews succumbed to the 
dreaded disease : a stone m the old Granary burying-ground 
marks his last resting-place. The succeeding day Lieutenant 
Chubbuck died also. This ill-fated attempt was followed by the 
long struggle between France in the New World and New England 
and the colonies south and west, which only terminated a few years 
preceding the American Revolution. The history of the period is 
that of exasperating and wasteful incapacity, oftentimes on the 
part of British commanders in this country, of disastrous defeats, of 
glorious victories, of cruelties on both sides which we would gladly 
forget, of bravery, persistence, and enterprise by Massachusetts 
men of which we may well be proud, and of final triumph, due in 
very large measure to the arms of New England and the training 
of a soldierv under the laws of our own and the neighboring 
colonies which only made success possible. It is the history of 
Louisburg, of Fort Necessity and its gallant young commander, 
of Crown Point, Fort William Henry, Acadia and its piteous story, 
Shirley and Winslow, Wolfe and Montcalm, and the Heights of 
Abraham. During its telling we learn of Braddock's defeat, of 
Ticonderoga, of Fort Frontenac ; we become acquainted with the 
Howes, with Gage, Fraser, and a score of other English officers 
who afterwards played a part in the contest with the mother 
country. We first meet Washington and soon come to know why 
none other could have been the future American commander ; we 
see Gates and Putnam and Stark in their earlier days, while 
Franklin and Otis already are shaping the legislation and destiny 
of their respective States. During all this period, in all the wars, 
and in nearly every battle fought in the North we shall find, on 



250 History of Hingham. 

sea and on land, the sons of Hingham creditably participating. 
They are in the contest as soldiers, as officers, as councillors and 
advisers, and in numbers which seem at times almost incredible 
considering the probable population of the town. It is interest- 
ing too, to note the individual names of those concerned in the 
later French wars, and afterwards to observe the use to which so 
many put the invaluable experience and knowledge then gained, 
in the subsequent service of the Revolution. 

The extremely small scale, as compared with modern days, 
upon which financial matters were carried on by the town in 
connection with its military interests, will doubtless have been 
observed. An interesting illustration is afforded by an entry in 
the Selectmen's Records of 1691, as follows : — 

The first clay of July, 1691, then received by the Selectmen of Hing- 
ham tenn pounds in silver money of Mr. Daniell dishing. Sen., of Hing- 
ham. which hee, the said Daniell Cushimr. lend to the Country for the 
carving one the present expedition against the Common enemys of the 
Country and is to have it payd to him, his heirs, exexutors, administrators, 
or asigns, in silver money on or befor the last day of September next 
insuing the dat hearof. 

Cushing's diary, under date of July 14, 1694, says that 
" Edward Oilman was pressed to be a soldier to go out against 
the French army," and under date of October 29 of the same year 
we are informed " that Edward Oilman came home out of the 
country's service." This small draft from Hingham, if indeed it 
was all, was probably her proportion of the force raised to meet 
the barassing and incessant incursions of the Indians, incited by 
the French, which for the ten closing years of the century left 
no peace to the colony, and which had for its principal episode 
in that year the attack on Groton, July 27th. Captain John 
Smith, who died in 1695, was probably succeeded in the command 
of the company by Thomas Lincoln, who had long served as an 
officer, having been an ensitrn as earlv as 1681. At all events we 
find in the town records of 1697-98, the following : — 

The town stock of ammunition is in the hands of the 3 commanders of 
Divs. viz., Capt. Thomas Lincoln 1 bbl. of powder and 198 weight of 
bullets and 260 flints : to Lieut. David Hobart, 1 bbl. of powder and 200 
and a half of bullets, gross weight, & 260 flints : to Ensign James 
Hawks 1 bbl. powder & 190 weight of bullets, net, and 260 Hints. 

In 1702 a second company was formed in that part of Hingham 
which is now Cohasset, and which been me what was formerly 
known as the Second Precinct. 

In 1722 the colony declared war, owing to exasperating Indian 
depredations upon Ipswich and other places, and among the 
names of men serving under Captain Ward, of Scarboro', are 



Military History. 251 

those of John Murphy, a corporal, and Edmund Moorey, or 
Mooncy, both of Hingham. 

Murphy was again found serving against the French on behalf 
of Hingham in 1725, — this time upon a small vessel of which 
Lieut. Allason Brown was commander. 

Among the many conferences held with the Indians of Maine 
in the endeavor to secure the safety of the settlements, was one 
bv Governor Belcher, at Falmouth, in Casco Bay, in 1732, at 
which he was accompanied, as would appear from an account 
found in the Thaxter papers, by Col. Samuel Thaxter, Rev. 
Nathaniel Eells, and Ebenezer Gay. Colonel Thaxter was a 
very prominent and trusted citizen, was colonel of the regiment 
in which Bingham's companies were included, and held many 
important offices. Among these was that of one of his Majesty's 
Council, in which capacity probably he acted as adviser to the 
Governor. On one occasion, while moderator of a meeting, 

he was grossly insulted by Cain, who dared him to fight. 

Colonel Thaxter quietly ordered the constable to remove Cain. 
The meeting being concluded, however, Cain obtained all the 
fight he wished, for Colonel Thaxter found him, and administered 
a severe thrashing. It is probably safe to assume that, although 
frequently moderator of the town meetings, Colonel Thaxter was 
never subsequently troubled by personal challenges. This inci- 
dent recalls to mind the fact, that with the occupation of the 
new meeting-house of 1(381, there followed the uses to which the 
earlier building had been applied, and that not only were the town 
meetings held in the same place as the religious services, but 
that the military character of the old belonged, at least to a 
degree, to the new building also. We should find in searching 
the yellow and stained records of the selectmen for the year 1736, 
an account of an inquiry made by those officials into the amount 
and places of deposit of the town's ammunition, and the discovery 
that in Colonel Thaxter's hands was a barrel of powder weighing 
two hundred pounds, two hundred and sixty-three pounds of 
bullets, and a thousand Hints, besides a large amount held by 
Capt. Thomas Loring, and considerable by Mr. Jacob Cushing, 
all of which, together with other purchased by the town, " we 
removed into the ammunition house made in the meeting-house 
of the first parish in Hingham." In the absence of other infor- 
mation, this record may justify the inference that Captain Loring 
then commanded one of the Hingham companies. Of this, how- 
ever, there is no certainty. Captain Loring represented the town 
at one time in the General Court, and from his son Benjamin are 
descended some of the present Hingham Lorings. 

During the colonial period there were two expeditions, at least, 
by Great Britain against the Spanish possessions in the "West 
Indies in which Xew England actively participated, and in which, 
almost as a matter of course, men from Hingham served. The 



252 History of Hingham. 

first of these was in 1740, when Governor Belcher received orders 
to enlist a force to be sent to Cuba to the relief of Admiral Ver- 
non, who was in need of reinforcements. Among the five hundred 
soldiers recruited in Massachusetts, there is much reason to 
believe that quite a number were recruited in Ilingham. The 
rolls are, however, not only very imperfect in other respects, but 
they fail entirely to name the towns from which men served. 
We know, however, that among the officers was Lieut. Joshua 
Barker, who had declined a captaincy, and who now went as 
second in the company commanded by Captain Winslow, Lieu- 
tenant Barker was one of the very few survivors of this ill-fated 
expedition, in which, it will be recollected, was Lawrence Wash- 
ington and a Virginia contingent. The forces of Massachusetts 
and Virginia together stormed the castle of Carthagena, the prin- 
cipal town of the Spanish Main in New Granada. The place was 
not taken, however, and the expedition was a dismal failure. It 
is said that only fifty of the men from Massachusetts returned. 
Lieutenant Barker afterwards, as Captain Barker, served in nil 
the wars of his country from this time until 1762, when he was 
again engaged in the second and more successful attack upon 
the Spanish West Indies. He held a commission in the British 
service, and was a kind and able man. He resided upon the 
spot where now stands the Hingham Bank. 

There was also a Nathaniel Chubbuck in this service, who may 
have been a townsman. 

On the night of September 30, 1741, a number of the Spanish 
prisoners escaped from Boston with a large sail-boat. As they 
were armed, great fear was felt for the safety of the New Eng- 
land coasting vessels, and Capt. Adam dishing, formerly one of 
HinghanVs selectmen, and now an able officer, was ordered in 
pursuit, with special instructions to search the creeks of Hing- 
ham and Wevmouth. There remains no account of his success 
or otherwise. 

In 1740. a division of the town into the wards whose limits 
remain unchanged to this day took place, and it is interesting to 
note that this division was solely for military purposes, and that 
the ward boundaries were merely those of the several companies, 
which the town thereafter maintained. At this time Cohasset, 
which had been made the second precinct in 1702, continued to 
be so designated, while the third comprised what is now known 
as the middle ward, embracing that part of the town south of the 
town brook, as far as Cold Corner, the remainder lying in the 
former fourth, now the south ward. The first, or north ward, 
then as now, embraced the country north of the brook. The first 
powder-house in Hingham was built by the town in 1755. It 
stood a little north and nearly on the site of the New North Meet- 
ing-house. Afterwards it was removed to Powder-house Hill, near 
where Mr. Arthur Hersev's house now is, off Hersev street. 



Military History. 253 

Frequently in the archives of the State and of the various 
towns there are references to the " Old French War," to the " Ex- 
pedition to the Eastward," to the " Expedition to Cape Breton," 
and to the " Capture of Louisburg." The expressions are all 
rather misleading, because they were, and unfortunately still 
occasionally are, indiscriminately used in referring to each of the 
several attempts made at different times upon the French pos- 
sessions in the northeast provinces, or to either of the several 
wars between France and England in America subsequent to 
1700. The mischief of the expressions becomes the greater 
when leading, as it sometimes does, to historical errors. Indeed, 
it is to this cause that the accurate placing of a number of our 
own citizens, as to the time and place of service, becomes impos- 
sible. The expression "Old French War" — and indeed the 
others mentioned also — more generally and more properly relate 
to the events in North America between the years 1744 and 1748, 
during which occurred that wonderful New England military 
expedition and crusade which resulted in the capture by some 
four thousand men, assisted by the English fleet, of the strongest 
fortified city in the New World, and which was considered capable 
of resisting an army of thirty thousand. In the limits of a local 
history it is impossible to give even the outlines of this romance 
of New England's arms. We can only tell the very little of 
which we have any record concerning our own townsmen's con- 
nection with the brave Sir William Pepperell, and Commodore 
Warren, and the officers and men who sailed from Boston in 
March, 1745, and entered as victors the " Dunkirk of America" 
on the 17th of June following. It is most unfortunate that the 
rolls of these troops are lost from the State archives, and that 
such as exist in the possession of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society are not only very imperfect, but are comparatively value- 
less, from the fact that the places from which the men enlisted 
are not given. It is probably owing to this that we are enabled 
to give the names of only a few as serving from Hingham. These 
are Thomas Lewis, Ralph Smith, and Edward Ward. 

Among a number who signed a voluntary agreement to engage 
in a hazardous attempt to storm the Island battery in the harbor 
of Louisburg, we find the name of Ebenezer Beal, presumably a 
Hingham man. Israel Gilbert, who died later in the service, is 
said to have been a soldier in the " Old French War." 

Samuel Lincoln and John Stephenson were also at Louisburg 
in some capacity, and received pay for assisting in " wooding the 
garrison." The following were also soldiers at Louisburg, and 
there can be little doubt were Hingham men ■ John Lewis, 
Joshua Lasell, Thomas Jones, Samuel Gilbert, and John Wilder. 

By the terms of the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, concluded in 
1748, Louisburg was surrendered to the French, and the work of 
taking it had subsequently to be done again. 



254 History of Hingham. 

The peace was, at least in America, more nominal than real, 
and the usual encroachments of each party upon the claimed 
possessions of the other, with all the attendant barbarities of 
border war, recommenced almost with the signing of the treaty. 
Nevertheless, the fifty years' conflict between the civilization and 
aims of the Saxon and the civilization and aims of the Latin 
was drawing to its close, and the year 1754 saw the beginning of 
the end. In the South its first notes were heard in the conflict 
between the Virginians under Washington and the French on the 
Ohio ; in the North the real signal was the march of an army of 
eight hundred Massachusetts men, under Gen. John Winslow, to 
secure by forts the passes from Quebec to New England, although 
negotiations were carried on between France and England even 
months later for an amicable settlement of all disputes between 
them. General Winslow fortified several places on or near the 
Kennebec. In his regiment, in Capt. John Lane's company, were 
Sergeant Elijah Cushing, Ephraim Hall, and Isaac Larrabee, of 
Hingham. 

Engaged in this same expedition probably, was the sloop 
" Mermaid," of eighty -live tons, of which Samuel Lincoln was 
master, Samuel Johnson mate, and Charles Clapp and James 
White were sailors. Clapp's residence is unknown. The others, 
as well as the sloop, undoubtedly belonged in Hingham. Samuel 
Lincoln was styled Captain in later life. 

In the spring of the following year, negotiations having been 
broken off in December, troops and transports began to arrive 
from England, and in April Shirley and the other colonial gov- 
ernors met Braddock in consultation. The events which fol- 
lowed can be scarcely more than named. Parkman, in his 
" Montcalm and Wolfe," has related them with a charm and 
grace which give to the hard facts of history the enchantment 
of romance. 

Yet with many, perhaps nearly all, of the occurrences in 
the North and East, Hingham was so closely and intimately 
connected, through the very large number of her sons Avho 
participated in them, that some brief explanations, expanding 
occasionally into narrative of what has elsewhere been better 
told, may be allowable here. If the rolls of participants in the 
first taking of Louisburg were incomplete, and the numbers 
serving from this town were apparently meagre, the fulness of 
the former and the length of names making up the latter, which 
are to be found in the Commonwealth's papers, at once sur- 
prise and gratify, although the task of eliminating repetitions 
in the different returns, and crediting the men properly to the 
places to which they belonged, is extremely difficult. After the 
death of General Braddock, Governor Shirley, of Massachusetts, 
became for the time the commander of the British forces in 
America, and among the several expeditions planned by him was 



Military History. 



255 



one having in view the capture of Crown Point on Lake Cham- 
plain. To this end a large number of men were recruited in New 
England, New York, and New Jersey, the burden, as usual, fall- 
ing principally upon Massachusetts, which voted both troops and 
money with a liberal hand. To William Johnson, afterwards 
knighted for his services, was given the command. On Sep- 
tember 8, Baron Dieskau, with a force of French and Indians, 
attacked Johnson near the head of Lake George, but was 
defeated. The attempt upon Crown Point was however aban- 
doned for the time, and the troops went into winter quarters at 
Fort William Henry. For this expedition there was enlisted in 
Hingham a company commanded by Capt. Samuel Thaxter, and 
attached to Col. Richard Gridley's regiment. A note in Hon. 
Solomon Lincoln's private copy of the " History of Hingham " 
says that this company marched September 23, 1755, with fifty- 
live men, and that they were at Fort Edward. Besides the 
Hingham men there were undoubtedly many from Weymouth 
and other towns in the neighborhood. 



Those from Hingham were 

Samuel Thaxter, captain, 
Thomas Gill, Jr.. sergeant, 
Samuel Joy, clerk, 
Thomas Hollis, corporal, 
Lot Lincoln, corporal, 
Hosea Dunbar, corporal, 
Nehemiah Blancher, private, 
Thomas Chubbuck, 
Joseph Carrel, 
Joseph Dunbar, 
Seth French, 
Thomas Hearsey, 
Mathias Hartman, 



a 
a 



Joseph Jones, private, 
Joseph Lyon, " 

Silas Lovell, 
Geo. McLaughlin, " 
William Magnor. " 
Richard Newcoinb, " 
John Sprague, " 

Stephen Saulsbury, " 
Benjamin Tirrell, " 
Abel Wilder, 
Jonathan Whitton, " 
Samuel Trask, " 



In the mean time the expedition which finally resulted in the 
Acadian tragedy had been planned by Gov. Shirley, and sailed 
from Boston May 22, 1755. It consisted, in the main, of some 
two thousand men, under the immediate command of its lieu- 
tenant-colonel, John Winslow, Shirley himself being its nominal 
colonel. On the 1st of June the fleet and transports anchored 
off Beausejour, the French fort at the small isthmus connecting 
Nova Scotia with the main land, and on the 16th the fort and 
garrison surrendered to the English. Within a few days after, all 
of Acadia fell into British hands. Then followed the removal of 
the unhappy people of this province from their homes, and their 
dispersion among the English colonies from Massachusetts to 
Georgia. The sad story has been the subject of poetry and 
romance ; the best and most just account is to be found in Park- 
man's pages, but there are local associations with the events 
whose relation properly belongs here. One of the most inter- 



256 History of Hingham. 

esting of these is that Joseph Blake, whose father had been a 
resident of Hingham, was, although but sixteen years of age, an 
officer under Colonel Winslow, and was sent with a detachment 
of the French Neutrals, as the Acadians were called, to this 
town. 

Lieutenant Blake, who afterwards came to live here, went to 
Crown Point the next year as an officer in Major Thaxter's com- 
pany. Little is known concerning the Acadians who came here ; 
even their names are for the most part unrecorded and forgotten. 
They were, however, generally very poor, and worked at almost 
any employment obtainable. Some of them were for a time 
lodged in the old Hersey house on Summer Street, now the prop- 
erty of A. H. Hersey and Mrs. Andrew, where within a few 
years a window was preserved upon whose small panes some of 
the exiles had scratched their names or initials with the stone 
in a ring belonging to one of them. In the field near this old 
house, so tradition says, these poor unfortunates were in the 
habit of meeting, to hold, in quiet and peace, religious services 
in the faith of their youth and their homes. 

Another family occupied a part of the old dishing house at the 
foot of the Academy Hill ; and still another what is generally 
called the Welcome Lincoln residence at West Hingham. The few 
names that remain to us of these people are as follows : Joseph 
and Alexander Brow, Charles, Peter, and John Trawhaw, and 
Anthony Ferry. Beyond the inhumanity of their expatriation, 
the treatment of the Acadians by the people of New England was 
often kind, and even sympathetic. Without a country, separated 
from the neighbors and friends with whom they had spent all their 
happy days, in some cases members even of their own families 
lost to their knowledge, their sunny homes destroyed, their lands 
forfeited to the stranger, deprived of the ministrations of their 
religion, hearing always a foreign tongue, seeing always un- 
familiar faces, watched, suspected, trammelled, poor, their condi- 
tion, let us be thankful, was at least not aggravated by extreme 
bodily suffering, or by the coldness, neglect, and indifference of 
their conquerors. Indeed, many of those who reached Canada 
looked back with longing eyes towards the land of the Puritans, 
where a kinder welcome and more generous charity softened their 
hard lot than that given by their compatriots. 

The town records of Hingham contain many entries showing 
liberal disbursements for the benefit of such of these people as 
were in want ; and in the volumes devoted to the French Neutrals 
in the State archives, are several accounts allowed by the Province 
of Massachusetts Bay to the town for money expended in their 
behalf. Among these is the following in relation to a family 
which came here Nov. 29, 1755 : — 



. 




JOSEPH BLAKE. 



Military History. 257 

Province of Massachusetts Bay. 

Suffolk ss. 

To the Hon ble Josiah Willard Esq. Secretary 

In pursuance of an act of the Great and Gen 1 Court of the Province 
afor sd , the following is the account of the Selectmen of the town of Hing- 
hain in the County afor sd of their expense in the support of the French 
called Neutrals late Inhabitants of Nova Scotia sent to said town by order 
of the Committee appointed to dispose of the same, the family sent to 
sd town wei-e Anthony Ferry & wife & five small children and one single 
woman in all Eight, this accompt is from the First day of June 17.36 to 
the tenth day of Nov r 1756 for tools & provisions &c is twelve pounds 
fourteen Stirling and four pence 

£12: 11: 4 

Daniel Beal ^ Selectmen 
Enoch Lincoln V of The Town 
Joseph Thaxter ) of Hingham. 

This family was subsequently increased by the arrival of an 
aged mother and by the birth of another child. The Ferrys were 
removed to Boston in 17(30 by order of the committee. Some of 
the old diaries contain references to the employment, from time 
to time, of one or another of the Acadians, about the farm-work 
then in hand. Here are a few extracts : — 

1760 April 18 Two French boys for husking corn 

May 23 Employed the Frenchmen. Charge them with 38 lbs. Salt 

Beef Joseph Brow, Alexander Brow, Charles Trawhaw, Peter Trawhaw, 

John Trawhaw. 

Oct 28 Employ d the old Frenchman Alexander Brow and Peter 

Trawhaw also the other Brows and Trawhaws at Husking for several days 

The fate of these families is lost in the obscurity of history. 
It is probable that they entirely died off or removed from Hing- 
ham, for no descendants of any of them are known to exist. 

Among the men impressed and enlisted by Colonel Lincoln out 
of his regiment for service in Canada in 1759, were, besides 
Lieutenant Blake, Capt. Jotham Gay and Gideon Hayward, of all 
of whom he speaks as having been in the Nova Scotia expedition 
of 1755. Whether there were others or not is not known, as the 
rolls of Winslow's troops are not to be found. 

After a year of open hostility, England on the 18th of May, and 
France on the 9th of June, 1756, at last declared war. The 
capture of Crown Point was by no means abandoned, but the 
French during the interval had constructed a powerful defence at 
Ticonderoga, and this too was included in the objects of a new 
expedition planned by Shirley, who chose John Winslow for its 
leader. Before the campaign commenced Shirley was removed and 
the command was first given to General Abercromby, who arrived 
in June, and then to the Earl of Loudon, who came in July. 

VOL. I. — 17 



258 History of Hingham. 

In the mean time the raising of the new army went on, The 
method was to call for volunteers, but if the requisite number did 
not appear a draft was made, by the colonels of the militia regi- 
ments, of enough men to supply the deficiency. This will explain 
some facts to be hereafter related. A bounty of six dollars was 
offered to stimulate enlistments, and the pay of private soldiers 
was one pound and six shillings a month. If a man brought a 
gun his bounty was increased two dollars. If not, one was sup- 
plied, for which he was to account, as well as for powder-horn, 
knapsack, canteen, blanket, etc. Subsequently a coat of blue 
cloth, a soldier's hat, and breeches of red or blue were supplied. 
Probably this was the first American force of any considerable 
size wearing a uniform, although some regiments had done so 
previously ; it will be noted that the color was the same which 
has since become enshrined in the affections of the armies of the 
republic who have succeeded these troops. The regiments gen- 
erally were composed of ten companies of fifty men each. Besides 
their rations each man was promised and insisted upon having, a 
gill of rum daily. The troops mustered at Albany, and soon 
encamped a short distance up the Hudson. 

One of the regiments was commanded by Richard Gridley, 
afterwards conspicuous for his services at Bunker Hill ; its major 
was Samuel Thaxter, who, in accordance with the custom of the 
time, was also captain of a company. This latter was from Hing- 
ham. There are several rolls in existence at different periods of 
its service. The first bears date of May 4, 1756, and contains the 
following names of men from this town : — 



'» 



Samuel Thaxter, major and captain, Robert Tower, 

Joseph Blake, lieutenant, Win. Hodge, 

Jeremiah Lincoln, ensign. James Fearing, 

Jonathan Smith, Knight Sprague, Jr., 

Caleb Leavitt. Daniel Stoddard, 

George McLaughlin, Abel Wilder, 

Elijah White, Joseph Loring, 

Joshua Dunbar, George Law, 

Israel Gilbert, Joshua French. 
Thomas Slander, 

A roll of about the same time added the names of 
Thomas dishing, Zebulon Stodder. 

Another roll, bearing date Oct. 11, 1756, gives the following 
names of Hingham men, in addition to those previously mentioned : 

Noah Reals, George Lane, 

Isaac Gross, John Lincoln. 

We also learn from it that Ensign Lincoln was killed or taken : 
an account of his capture and escape is given later ; that John 



Military History. 259 

Canterbury, Joshua Dunbar, Israel Gilbert, Wm. Holbrook, George 
Ranclallwining, Thomas Slander, Josiah Tourill, Robert Tower, 
and Elijah White were already dead in the service, while Jona- 
than Smith, James Fearing, Wm. Hodge, and Wm. Jones were 
sick at Albany or elsewhere. 

The men might well be sick, if the accounts of regular British 
officers of the camps of the New England troops are not exagger- 
ated. Lieut. -Colonel Burton describes them as dirty beyond de- 
scription, especially that at Fort William Henry ; he speaks more 
favorably of the camp at Fort Edward, but says that, generally 
speaking, there were almost no sanitary arrangements, that 
kitchens, graves, and places for slaughtering cattle were all 
mixed, that the cannon and stores were in great confusion, the 
advance guard was small, and little care taken to provide against 
surprise. The several chaplains in the camp present a similar 
moral picture of the army. Meanwhile, on the 14th of August, 
Oswego surrendered to the French, and all thoughts of the 
capture of Ticonderoga or Crown Point were, for the time, 
abandoned. Of the miserable jealousies of the colonies, the dis- 
graceful failures of a campaign conducted by twelve hundred 
thousand people against eighty thousand, and the lessons it teaches 
of the superiority in military matters of an army over a mob, of 
the trained soldier over the political civilian, only the briefest 
mention can be made. The summer and autumn of 1756 fur- 
nishes a striking illustration, and perhaps an unusually pointed 
one ; for here were men, many of them, used to discipline, and 
experienced in more than one war, sacrificed to the lack of 
methods, discipline, and leadership, indispensable in the success- 
ful conduct of war. The opposite of all this was true in the 
French camps, and the results were equally different. 

Loudon had ten thousand men posted from Albany to Lake 
George. Of these about three thousand provincials were at the 
lake under Winslow, with whom was Gridley and his regiment. 
Montcalm was at Ticonderoga with an army of about five thou- 
sand regulars and Canadians. 

On the 19th September, Captain Hodges, of Gridley's command, 
and fifty men were ambushed a few miles from Fort William 
Henry by Canadians and Indians, and only six escaped. 

Bougainville, aide-de-camp to Montcalm, who was with the 
expedition says that out of fifty -three English, all but one were 
taken or killed; he adds that a mere recital of the cruelties com- 
mitted on the battle-field by the Indians made him shudder. 
Among the dead was Captain Hodges, and undoubtedly also Israel 
Gilbert, Thomas Slander, Elijah White, and Robert Tower; 
Ensign Jeremiah Lincoln, then apparently a lieutenant, was, with 
others, captured. These men all belonged to Major Thaxter's 
company. 

Mr. Lincoln, in the history of the town, says that a man named 
Lathrop, who also belonged here, was killed at the same time. 



260 History of Hingham. 

Lieutenant Lincoln was taken to Quebec, where, after spending the 
winter, he made his escape in the night with three others. Two 
of these became so exhausted that they went to surrender to the 
French at Crown Point, while Lincoln and his companion finally 
reached Fort Edward after great suffering, during which they 
were obliged to subsist upon the bark of trees. 

In November the army dispersed, leaving a small garrison at 
Lake George. The provincials returned to their homes, while the 
English regulars were billeted in different parts of the country ; 
those at Boston being sent to Castle William. 

To the lists alreadv given as servine; in the Crown Point armv, 
there should be added the following taken from a note in Mr. 
Lincoln's private copy of his history : — 

Ralph Hassell, John Blancher, 

James Hayward, Jonathan Taunt, 

Seth Stowers, Jedediah Newcomb. 
Elijah Lewis, 

Engaged also in this service was the Hingham sloop "Sea 
Flower," commanded by John Cushing, a brother-in-law of Gen- 
eral Lincoln. Here is a copy of a paper at the State House : — 

A Portledge Bill of sloop Sea Flower. Jno Cushing master and sailors 
in His Majesty's Service in the Crown Point Expedition 

1756 
Jno Cushing master Sept 30 

Jn° Burr mate 
Seth Davis pilot 
Samuel Tower sailor 
Timothy Covell " 
Isaiah Tower " 

Joseph Blake " 

To hire of Sloop Sea Flower 74 tons at 2 s per ton a month from Sept 
30 1756 to Dec 15 

On the back of this is an acknowledgment by Benjamin Lincoln 
for Capt. John Cushing of the receipt of 27 2 . 3 £. 

Captain Cushing married Olive, daughter of Colonel Lincoln, 
and resided at South Hingham. John Burr, his mate, at this time 
lived on Leavitt street. Samuel and Isaiah Tower were brothers. 
Besides all these, Isaac Joy served in Colonel Gridley's own com- 
pany, and Robert Townsend, Jr., in Captain Read's company, in 
Colonel Clapp's regiment. Mr. George Lincoln says that Nehemiah 
Joy was also in the service at Lake George. 

The next year Loudon with the best of the army sailed from 
New York for Halifax, leaving Lake George comparatively un- 
guarded, with the hope of taking Louisburg, — an expedition, by 
the way, that proved a total failure. Meanwhile Montcalm gath- 
ered an army at Ticonderoga, and by the end of July he had 



Military History. 2G1 

eight thousand French, Canadians, and savages encamped there. 
Parkman gives a wonderful picture of this army and its march 
towards Fort William Henry. On the third of August it appeared 
before the fort, which was commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Monro, a 
Scotch veteran. With him were twenty-two hundred men in- 
cluding eight hundred from Massachusetts, under Colonel Frye, 
who arrived on the first of the month. The siege began on the 
fourth, while General Webb at Fort Edward did nothing but send 
to the colonies for militia which could by no possibility arrive in 
time. They however made the attempt, even as far as from east- 
ern Massachusetts. After a brave defence the garrison surren- 
dered, and the next day, the tenth, occurred the frightful 
massacre of the prisoners, which has cast the only serious stain 
upon the character of Montcalm. 

\n the intrenched camp where they had passed the night, 
and as they were about to march under escort for Fort Ed- 
ward, the English army with many women and children were 
startled by the warwhoop of the Indians. Immediately the hor- 
rible butchery commenced. Probably towards a hundred were 
slain, and some two hundred carried into captivity. Among the 
latter was Zebulon Stodder, whom Colonel Lincoln writes of 
under date of July 25, 1758, as being heard from in Canada. 
Knight Sprague escaped after being partially stripped. In an 
account afterwards he said that fifteen out of fifty of the company 
to which he belonged were killed that day. His captain was 
stripped naked, as were many soldiers and women he passed in 
his Might towards Fort Edward. Sprague's captain was probably 
still Major Thaxter, although we have no roll of the company at 
this time. Major Thaxter was stripped of his clothing, bound to 
a tree, and about to be roasted alive, when he was saved by a 
French officer. Seth Stowers, who subsequently became a captain 
in the Revolutionary service, at the commencement of the attack 
upon the prisoners stuffed his coat with articles of clothing taken 
from the military stores, and darted into the woods. He was 
immediately pursued by a number of the Indians. As the fore- 
most got dangerously near, he would throw some of his burden as 
far as possible to one side. The greed of his pursuers for plun- 
der was so great, that they would stop to recover the abandoned 
garment, thus enabling him to gain slightly upon them. Re- 
peating the ruse as long as the articles held out finally gave him 
sufficient advantage to elude pursuit. Other Hingham men who 
• ■scaped death were Thomas Gill, Thomas Burr, and Elijah Lewis; 
there were probably many more. Thomas Burr became a lieuten- 
ant in the company commanded by Capt. Peter Cushing in the 
Revolution, and Elijah Lewis was also a soldier in that war, as 
were Lot Lincoln and Thomas Hersey, both previously named as 
on Captain Thaxter's rolls, Hersey becoming a captain in the 
service of the patriot army. 

A list of the Hingham men not included in the surrender, be- 



262 History of Hingham. 

longing to Major Thaxter's company, is as follows ; the men 
were probably on some detail away from the fort : — 

Johnson Anderson, Benjamin Joy, 

James Caunidy, Stephen Randall, 

Joseph Dwelly, Freeman Smith, 

James Hayward, Joshua Bates. 

Another account gives the name of Townsend Smith. 

To these lists there should be added a list of invalids, whom 
Lieutenant Blake reported as belonuinu; to Uimrham and able to 
march, and who were probably members of Thaxter's company. 
The date is June, 1757, and it is not unlikely that these men were 
at Fort William Henry and included in the surrender. It would 
appear from Knight Sprague's account that a large proportion of 
the company were murdered, and this may explain the fact that 
little more appears to he known concerning them. They were 
as follows : — 

George Phillips, Benjamin Sampson. 

Moses Bradbury, Reuben Donnells, 

James Bunker, Dennis Morrison, 

James Brayman, Samuel Winchester. 

Major Samuel Thaxter, scarcely less famous than his able 
grandfather Col. Samuel Thaxter, was a brave soldier as well as 
a prominent and trusted citizen in civil affairs. He was reported 
in Hingham as having lost his life in the massacre which followed 
the surrender, and a funeral sermon was preached by Dr. Gay. 
After the sermon Mr. Caleb Bates was engaged in driving his 
cows at Hockley, when whom should he meet but the Major him- 
self coming home on horseback. Throwing up both hands in 
astonishment, Mr. Bates exclaimed, " Good God, Major, is that 
you ? Why, we have just buried you ! " 

Major Thaxter was a quick-tempered and kind-hearted man. 
On one occasion he got into considerable trouble by killing some 
of his neighbors' dogs, who were worrying deer driven into the 
town by a severe storm. He had a number of children, among 
them Dr. Gridley Thaxter, doubtless named after his old colonel, 
who served with credit in the Revolutionary army. The Thaxter 
home was on North Street ; and not far from him, after the war, 
came to live his old commander, Gen. John Winslow, and his lieu- 
tenant, Joseph Blake. General Winslow resided until his death 
on Main Street, where is now the house of Mr. John Sidors. The 
church-bells tolled when his body was removed to Marshfield. Lieu- 
tenant Blake lived where the Bassett house is, opposite the Old 
Meeting-house on Main Street; his son Joshua was a lieutenant 
in the United States navy. We can imagine that these three old 
veterans spent many an hour together in the after years, recalling 
the stirring events of the last French and Indian war. 



Military History. 



203 



To General Webb's request for militia to march to the relief of 
Fort William, there was immediate response from the colonies, 
and Massachusetts especially wasted no time in getting a large 
number of men into the held. We already know the uselessness 
of the effort ; indeed, Monro had already capitulated several days 
before the troops from eastern New England started ; although 
this was of course not known until later. Upon receipt of the 
necessary orders, Col. Benjamin Lincoln commanding the third 
Suffolk regiment, at once detached from his command the com- 
pany in Hingham commanded by Ebenczcr Deal, and started it 
on the march the 15th of August. The roll of Hingham men in 
the company was as follows : — 

Ebenezer Beal, Capt., 
Daniel Lincoln, Lieut., 
Benjamin Gushing, Ensign, 



Joseph Stowers, Sergt., 
John Fearing, " 
John Blancher, " 
Obadiali Lincoln, " 
David Farrow, Corp., 
John Keen, " 

Elisha Tower, Jr., '•' 
Abijah Whiten, Drum., 
Peter Lincoln, Private, 
Obadiali Stowell, " 
Joshua Remington, 
Matthew Lincoln, 
Ezra French, 
Philip Nye, 
David Waterman, 
Ephraim Marsh, 
William Murch, 
Isaac Gross, 
Consider Jones, 
Jotham Loring, 
Isaac Burr, 
Ignatius Orcutt, 
Nath 11 Lincoln, 
Isaac Lincoln, Jun., 



Xath 11 Stodder, 
Daniel Tower, 
Solo: Dunbar, 
Sam 1 Dunbar, 
David Wilder, 
Zach Loring, 
Sam 1 Gill, Jun., 
Joseph Sprague, 
Asa Burr, 
John Wilent, 
John Wheelwright, 
John Pratt, 
Calvin dishing, 
Price Pritchart, 
Jacob Beal, 
Frederick Bate, 
Job Tower, 
Simeon Bate, 
Hosea Orcutt, 
Benjamin Beal, 
Japhet Hobart, 
Elisha Lincoln. 
Micah Nichols, 
Nehemiah Jov, 



There was also a company containing a number of Hingham 
men, under the command of ' Capt. Ebenezer Thayer of Braintree, 
in Colonel Lincoln's regiment, which marched at the same time. 
Their names were : — 

Stephen Gushing, Lieut., 

David Cushine, Cornet, 
Noah Nichols, Corporal, Joseph Gushing, Private, 

Benjamin Thaxter, " Thomas Barker, u 



204 History of Hingham. 

David Lincoln, Private, Lot Lincoln, Private, 

Thomas Lothrop, " Joseph Loring, " 

John Burr, " Caleb Joy, " 

Uriah Oakes, " Obadiah Beal, " 

Benjamin Garnet, " 

It will be recalled that soon after the termination of the war 
with Philip, permission was granted to Capt. Joshua Hobart, 
and others, to form a small troop of horse in Hingham, Wey- 
mouth, and Hull, and that John Thaxter became its first com- 
mander. With the foot companies of Hingham and other towns 
in the vicinity, this troop was attached in 1680 to a new regiment 
under Major Wm, Stoughton. It would seem that subsequently 
the troop came to be composed almost entirely of men belonging 
to Hingham and Braintree, and that was still the fact when. 
August 12th, 1757, it marched to the relief of the fort, which 
had already surrendered. By the above roll it will be seen that 
a majority of its officers were from the former place. Its service 
ended the 23d of the same month. 

In July, 1757, Pitt, who shortly before had been dismissed from 
office, became the controlling force in foreign affairs and in the 
department of war. With him there came a new light to Eng- 
land and the colonies ; the tide of defeat and disaster was checked, 
hope was reawakened, and a vigor and wisdom instilled into the 
conduct of public affairs, which eventually led to the triumph of 
the British arms and the conquest of Canada. 

Early in June, 1758, Admiral Boscawen and General Amherst, 
with eighteen frigates and fire-ships, twenty-three ships of the 
line and a fleet of transports, on board of which were eleven 
thousand six hundred soldiers, all regulars except five hundred 
provincial rangers, appeared before Louisbourg. Amherst's briga- 
diers were Whitmore, Lawrence, and Wolfe. July 27th the fort 
surrendered after a determined resistance, and over five thousand 
men became prisoners in the hands of the English. In the siege 
Jotham Gay, who commanded a company from Hingham shortly 
after and perhaps at this time also, is said to have participated. 

Among the Massachusetts regiments raised for the prosecution 
of the war was one commanded by Col. Joseph Williams. It was 
recruited early in 1758, and contained a company of Hingham 
men, commanded by Capt. Edward Ward, who had already served 
at the capture of Louisbourg in 1745. The roll of this com- 
pany was as follows : — 

Edward Ward, Captain, 
Isaac Smith, Sergt.. Nath" Bates, Private. 

Lott Lincoln, Corp., Joseph Beal, " 

James Howard, " Mordica Bates, ' ; 

James Lincoln, " Joseph Battles, Jr.. " 



Military History. 



265 



Joseph Carrell, Private, 

Primus Cobb, negro, 

Robert Dunbar, 

Seth Dunbar, 

Solomon Dunbar, Jr 

Jonathan Farrow, 

Ezra French, 

Nath u Garnet, Jr., 

Xorman Garnett, 

Isaac Gross, 

Ezra Garnett, 

Noah Humphrey, 

Japhet Hobbart 

Peter Jacob, Jr., 

Nath 1 Joy, 

Elisha Keen, 

Elijah Lewis, " 

Another roll of this company, 
earlier, contains these names, not 

Thomas Colsen, 
David Bate, 
Abner Bate, 
Beza Cushing, 



tt 
it 
11 

u 
u 
a 
a 
tt 
it 
it 
a 

l( 

u 
it 
it 



it 



u 

a 



Thomas Lothrop, Private, 
John Neal, " 

Flanders, negro, 
Micah Nichols, 
Joshua Remington, 
Obadiah Stowell, 
Nath 1 Stoddard, 
Oliver Southward, 
Jerome Stevenson, 
Solon Stevenson, 
Daniel Tower, Jr., 
Joseph Tower, Jr., 
Shad rich Tower, 
David Waterman, 
Solomon Whiton, 
Jonathan Whiton, 
Jonathan Ward, " 

probably one of a few months 
included above : — 

Calvin Cushing, 
Thomas Culson, 
James Lincoln. 






Thomas Burr also served in this regiment, but in Captain 
Parker's company, — probably with other Hingham men whose 
names are not preserved. A journal kept by him gives some par- 
ticulars of the experience of the command ; and from this and a 
return of Colonel Lincoln, in 1759, showing former service of cer- 
tain enlisted men from his regiment, we learn something of the 
part which Hingham had in the conquest of Canada. 

The fifth of July, 1758, Abercromby, with over six thousand 
regulars and nine thousand provincials, left his camp on the scene 
of Dieskau's defeat and Montcalm's victory, and embarked upon 
Lake George. The army was in nine hundred bateaux, a hun- 
dred and thirty-five whaleboats, and a number of flatboats carry- 
ing the artillery. The day was bright, and amid the romantic 
scenerv the line, six miles in length, with gorgeous uniforms and 
waving banners, presented a superb spectacle. The life of the 
army, and its real commander, was Lord Howe, a brother of the 
brave o-encral who led the Ens-lish at Bunker Hill. In the even- 
ins;, lvino; bv the side of John Stark, then an officer of Rogers' 
rangers, he inquired about the situation and best manner of at- 
tacking Ticonderoga ; and the next day while at the head of the 
column with Major Israel Putnam and two hundred rangers, he 
fell dead under the (ire of a small body of French commanded by 
Langy. The loss of Howe was the ruin of the army, and Aber- 
cromby preserved neither order nor discipline ; indeed, he was upon 



266 History of Hingham. 

the point of abandoning the expedition. Colonel Bradstreet, how- 
ever, opened the way for the array and it reluctantly followed his 
lead. In the mean time Montcalm, on the seventh, threw up a 
wonderfully strong defence, and here with thirty-six hundred men 
he awaited the English. At one o'clock on the eighth the attack 
commenced. At half-past seven the French general had won his 
great victory, and the British army, after losing two thousand men, 
was in full retreat, covered by the provincials. In this disastrous 
attempt Captain Ward's company probably participated, as Colonel 
Lincoln mentions a number of men as engaged at Lake George 
whose names occur on the above roll. He speaks also of William 
Russ as a soldier of his regiment on the same service. 

After the defeat Abercromby reoccupied and refortified the 
camp which he had left but a few days previously. Colonel Brad- 
street obtained, after much persuasion, three thousand men, mostly 
provincials, and with these and a small number of Oneidas he 
embarked, August the twenty-second, in his fleet of whaleboats 
and pushed out onto Lake Ontario. His destination was Fort 
Frontenac, and as Thomas Burr, who was in this expedition, says 
in his diary, the troops came in sight of the French works on the 
twenty-fifth., and landed about dusk, and to quote the diary, 
"pitched against the fort " on the twenty-sixth. The next day 
the garrison surrendered, together with nine armed vessels and a 
large amount of stores and ammunition. 

Forming a part of Colonel Bradstreet's command, and partici- 
pating in his triumph was Captain Ward's company of Hingham 
men, — if indeed, the whole of Colonel Williams' regiment was not 
in the expedition. Subsequently many of them were at the Great 
Carrying Place. This latter was the name of a post upon the 
Mohawk, then being fortified by General Stanwix, with whom 
Bradstreet left a thousand men on his return from his victory. 
Among them were Beza dishing, Noah Humphrey, John Neal, 
Isaac Gross, Isaac Smith. James Hay ward. David Tower, Jona- 
than Farrow. Townsend Smith, Joseph Carrel, Robert Dunbar, 
Solo. Whiten, William Garnett, and Thomas Lothrop. Not pre- 
viously named, but at Frontenac, in addition to others, were Ralph 
Hassell, and John Sprague : they would seem to have enlisted in 
other companies in Colonel Williams' regiment. 

May 4, 1750, Gov. Thomas Pownall sailed from Boston with 
a regiment commanded by himself, and constructed a fort 
upon the Penobscot. Among Colonel Pownall's captains was 
Jotham Gay, with a company from Hingham. Captain Gay's 
company seems however to have been sent to Halifax somewhat 
earlier, and a return sworn to by him indicates that it formed 
part of the garrison of that post from March until November of 
that year. Capt. Jotham Gay was born in Hingham, April 11, 
1733, and as already seen, was in the king's service from 1755 
until near the close of the last French war. Subsequently he was 
a colonel in the Continental army, and a representative from 



Military History. 



267 



Hingham in 1799 and 1800. His brother Calvin died at Quebec 
in 1765. They were sons of the Rev. Ebenezer Gay, who was 
minister of the Old Church in Hingham for sixty-nine years. 
Rev. John Brown, of that part of Hingham which is now Cohasset, 
was a chaplain in the army in 1759, and was stationed at Halifax. 
He was a friend of Dr. Gay, who corresponded with him, and in 
a characteristic letter, dated June 25, 1759, he writes to Mr. 
Drown, " I wish you may visit Jotham (captain) and minister 
good instruction to him and company, and furnish him with suit- 
able sermons in print, or in your own very legible, if not very in- 
telligible manuscripts, to read to his men, who are without a 
preacher ; in the room of one, constitute Jotham curate." Colonel 
Gay died October 16, 1802. The following is the list of the 
Hingham men in the company commanded by him in 1759 : — 

Jotham Gay, Capt., 
George Lane, Lieut., 
Thomas Lothrop, "■ 



Isaac Smith, Sergt., 
Nathaniel Bangs, " 
Samuel Joy, Corp., 
Joseph Blake, Private, 
Benjamin Beal, •' 
Issachar Bate, " 
Isaac Burr, " 

Beza dishing, " 
Calvin Gushing, " 
Jacob Dunbar, " 
Jonathan Farrow, " 
Isaac Groce, 
Noah Humphrey, 
John Hobart, 
Gedion Howard, 
Micah Humphrey, 
Ralph Haswell, 
James Ha ward, 
Joseph Jones, 
John Lincoln, 



Private. 



.. 



a 
a 



Caleb Leavitt, 
Levi Lewis, 

Elijah Lewis, " 

Urbane Lewis, " 

Israel Lincoln, " 

John Lasell, " 

Joseph Lovis, " 

Ephraim Marsh, " 

Micah Nichols, " 

John Neal, " 

Charles Riplev, " 

William Rust', " 

Luther Stephenson, " 
Jusitanus Stephenson, " 
Jerome Stephenson, "' 

John Sprague, " 

Knight Sprague, " 

Daniel Stoddard, " 

Daniel Tower, " 

Seth Wilder, « 



There is also a roll in the State archives giving the names of 
the following, and headed " A return of men Enlisted for his 
Majesty's Service for the Total Reduction of Canada, 1760 : " — 



John Stowel, 
Nath 1 Joy, 
Japhet Hobard, 
Enoch Stoddard. 
Joseph Sprague, 
Samuel Burr, 
Asa Burr, 



John Nash, 
Job Mansfield, 
Levi Lincoln, 
Abijah Hersey, 
Daniel Lincoln, 
Joseph Beal, 
Joshua Remington, 



268 History of Hingham. 

Zacheus Barber, John Garnet, 

William Lincoln, Stephen Frances, 

Richard Stodard, Seth Dunbar. 
Benj n Stowel, 

Of the particular service of these men there appears to be no 
record. The following from the papers belonging to the Com- 
monwealth indicates, however, that a number of them were with 
the army in New York : — 

" Money owed John Faye, for money paid by him to invalids 
returning from Albany, <fcc, <tc, 1760 : 

Benj. Stowell, Hingham, in Col. Thomas' regt., Capt. Bradford ; 

Richard Stoddard, " " " " « " " " 

There is a curious and interesting record in Vol. 98, page 361, 
of the rolls at the State House in connection with the invalids at 
Albany, which seems to have escaped notice elsewhere. It is an 
account of a payment " to Col. Ranslow for his Battalion of 
Negroes to carry Small Pox people to Albany." 

Wolfe had climbed the Heights of Abraham, gained the crown 
of unperishing fame, and laid down his life in the moment of 
victory, while Montcalm, his dying thoughts for Canada, slept the 
soldier's last sleep in the Convent of the Ursulines. September 
the 18th Quebec surrendered. The following spring Levis made 
a bold attempt to recapture it, but abandoned the attempt upon 
the arrival of an English Meet. On the fifteenth of July, 1760, 
Murray, with twenty-four hundred and fifty men, left Quebec and 
marched toward Montreal ; he was subsequently reinforced by 
seventeen hundred more under Lord Rollo. 

In the mean time General Haviland left Crown Point with an 
army of thirty-four hundred regulars, provincials, and Indians, 
while Amherst with ten thousand men embarked from Oswego on 
the tenth of August, followed by seven hundred Indians under Sir 
William Johnson. On the sixth of September the three armies 
encamped before Montreal. With Amherst and Haviland doubt- 
less would have been found Hingham's recruits enlisted " for the 
total reduction of Canada." September the eighth the remnants 
of the French army, consisting of about twenty-four hundred men, 
surrendered to General Amherst, who was about to open fire upon 
Montreal, besieged as it was by his force of seventeen thousand. 

If with the death of Montcalm and the surrender of Quebec, 
France in the New World died, so at Montreal was buried all hope 
of her resurrection, unless, indeed, through the medium of diplo- 
macy when peace should at last be declared. Even that hope was 
destined never to be realized, for with the signing of the articles 
at Paris in 1763 French dominion in North America became only 
a matter of history. However, during the many months and 
even years that intervened, the sea coasts had to be guarded, 
and the various military posts garrisoned. Probably engaged in 



Military History. 269 

this or similar service, we find Hingham men serving as 
follows : — 

Under Capt. Samuel Bent, from June to December, 1761 : — 

Ralph Hassell, John Neal, 

Elijah Lewis, David Stoddard. 

Levi Lewis, 
Under Capt. Ephraim Holmes, March to November, 1762 : — 

Jeremiah Chubbuck. 
Under Capt. William Barrows, November, 1762, to July, 1763 : — 

Nathan Lewis, Arthur Cain. 

Under Capt. Johnson Moulton, 1762 and 1763 : — 

Jeremiah Chubbuck, Lieut., Levi Lewis, 

Elijah Lewis, Sergt., John Neal. 

Impossible as it is to give an absolutely correct list of our 
townsmen who " went out against the French " during these long 
years of warfare, there are nevertheless preserved and here placed 
on the rolls of the brave, the names of some two hundred and 
twenty-four different individuals who fought under the king's 
colors and shared in the glory of the final triumph. 

Moreover, at least fifty of these re-enlisted, fifteen served three 
times, four four times, and one man seems to have been a recruit 
on live different occasions, so that there must be credited as serv- 
ing in Hingham's quota, during some part of the period, about 
three hundred and twenty soldiers. Among these were more than 
a dozen officers, of whom the most celebrated was Major Thaxter. 

In glancing at these old' company rolls we notice the frequent 
recurrence of certain family names having a large representa- 
tion among the present inhabitants, while others, then borne by a 
considerable number of persons, have entirely disappeared from the 
town. Of the former, the Lincolns, with seventeen names on the 
lists, easily lead, while the Cushings and Dunbars each furnish 
nine, the Burrs six, the Beals the same number, the Stoddards 
five, and the Towers four. On the other hand the Garnets, of 
whom five enlisted, have ceased to exist by that name, although 
under the not very different form of Gardner, there are still rep- 
resentatives here, while the Gays, Joys, Gilberts, Gills, and others, 
including the once numerous Stephensons, have few or none to 
preserve their names and families. 

From the close of the French wars to the opening of the Revo- 
lution, we know little about the local military. Colonel Lincoln 
continued to command the reaiment down to about the close of 
the war, but under date of January 21, 1762, a list of the com- 
missioned officers names Josiah Quincy as colonel, John Thaxter 
of Hingham as lieut. -colonel and captain of the first Hingham 
company, and Theophilus dishing, also of this town, as major and 
captain of the second Hingham company. The other officers be- 
longing here were Joseph Thaxter, — afterwards captain, — and 
Caleb Bates, lieutenants, in Lieut.-Coloncl Thaxter's company, and 



270 History of Hingham. 

Samuel Hobart his ensign ; Capt. Pyam dishing, who succeeded 
Major Gushing in the command of the company, and his lieuten- 
ant, Robert Garnet, and ensign John Jacob ; Daniel Lincoln, 
captain of the third company, with Isaac Lincoln, lieutenant, and 
David Tower, Jr., ensign. The fourth Hingham company was 
commanded by Thomas Jones, and his lieutenant was Benjamin 
Thaxter, with Ebenezer Beale, Jr., for his ensign. The troop of 
horse which still existed was officered by David Cushing, captain, 
Benjamin Hayden, lieutenant, Jonathan Bass, cornet, and Joseph 
Cushing, quartermaster. Soon after, James Humphrey became 
first major, and Benjamin Lincoln, Jr., second major of the 
regiment. 

In 1771 this old command, formed in the early days of the 
colony, and so long known as the Third Suffolk, had hecome the 
second regiment, with John Thaxter, colonel, and Benjamin Lin- 
coln, lieutenant-colonel. The companies from Hingham were 
officered as follows : 1st company. James Lincoln, captain ; Elijah 
Lincoln, lieutenant; 2d company, Enoch Whiton, Jr., captain; 
Theophilus Wilder, Jr., lieutenant ; 3d company, Isaiah Cushing, 
captain ; Peter Cushing. lieutenant : John Burr, ensign. 

There was also a train of artillery attached to this regiment, 
which evidently belonged here, as all its officers were from Hing- 
ham. They were as follows: Francis barker, Jr., captain ; Sam- 
uel Thaxter, 1st lieutenant; Jotham Loring, 2d lieutenant; and 
Levi Lincoln, lieutenant-fireworker. 

Lieut.-Colonel Lincoln was in command of the regiment at the 
opening of the Revolution, and the muster rolls of the day style 
it " Col. Lincoln's." although there is some uncertainty about his 
being so commissioned. 

In the stirring and exciting events preceding and leading up to 
the war between the colonies and Great Britain, Hingham was an 
active participant. With that of so many other towns, her history 
contributes to the familiar narrative of the great part taken by 
Massachusetts in the resistance to tyrannical and oppressive 
acts of parliament and king. The names of Hancock, Otis, and 
Lincoln have for her more even than the interest elsewhere 
surrounding them, for to the families bearing them she feels the 
affection and pride belonging to the children of the household. 
John Hancock, Major-General, President of Congress, and Gover- 
nor of Massachusetts, was the son of Mary Hawke of Hingham, 
who first married Samuel Thaxter, Jr., and then John Hancock, of 
Braintree ; while John Otis, the ancestor of the patriot, was one 
of the earliest settlers of the town and the possessor of large tracts 
of land here, and his descendants resided in Hingham for genera- 
tions. Mary Otis, daughter of James the patriot, married the 
son of General Lincoln, while other members of the family were 
connected by marriage with the Thaxters, Gays, Lincolns, and 
Herseys. The Lincolns fill the pages of local and common- 



Military History. 271 

wealth historv with the story of their services in the field, the 
town, the halls of legislation, and the council chamber, from 
the earliest days to the present time. During the French war 
we have seen Benjamin Lincoln, as colonel of his regiment, the 
historical Third Suffolk, to which the companies in Hingham had 
almost from the settlement of the town been attached, taking an' 
active part. He was also for seventeen years a member of his 
Majesty's Council, but resigned in 1770, at the time when it was 
fast becoming impossible for patriotic Americans to hold longer the 
king's commissions. Colonel Lincoln died March 1, 1771, leaving, 
among others, the son Benjamin who so worthily filled the place 
he long occupied in public estimation and usefulness. The affec- 
tion which is felt for the great President Abraham Lincoln, also 
a descendant of a Hingham family, has given a national fame to 
the name in later years. 

As early as September 21, 1768, the town, in response to a cir- 
cular from Boston, "' chose Joshua Hearsey a committee to join 
the committees from the several towns within the province to 
assemble at Boston on the 22cl of September, current, then and 
there to consult such measures as shall be necessary for the pres- 
ervation of good order and regularity in the province at this criti- 
cal conjuncture of affairs." His instructions were as follows: 
" We advise and direct you that you use your endeavors to pre- 
serve peace and good order in the province and loyalty to the king ; 
that you take every legal and constitutional method for the pres- 
ervation of our rights and liberties, and for having redressed these 
grievances we so generally complain of and so sensibly feel ; that 
all possible care be taken that the troops that should arrive have 
provision made for them, so that they be not billeted in private 
families, and at so convenient a distance as not to interrupt the 
people ; that you encourage the inhabitants to keep up military 
duty, whereby they may be in a capacity to defend themselves 
against foreign enemies ; and in case you are exposed to any 
charges in prosecuting any of the foregoing preparations, we will 
repay it, and as these instructions are for your private use, im- 
prove them for that purpose and for no other whatever." The 
instructions were drawn up by Ezekiel Hearsey, Benjamin Lin- 
coln, Jr., and Capt. Daniel Lincoln. 

In response to the circular, delegates from sixty-six towns, the 
number of whom afterwards increased to ninety-eight, met on the 
day appointed, and continued in session from day to day until 
the 29th, during which they adopted a letter to be transmitted to 
the agent of the province in London, and also voted to publish a 
result of their conference, in winch, while declaring their alle- 
giance to the king, they also declared their rights under the char- 
ter. March 5, 1770, occurred the event known in American 
history as the " Boston Massacre." Without discussing the 
events which led up to the riot and bloodshed in King Street on 



272 History of Hingham. 

that memorable occasion, the fact of Hingham's sympathy with 
the people as against the soldiers is perfectly evident from resolu- 
tions passed at the annual meeting of that year. They are not to 
be found in the town records, but are contained in the following 
letter from General Lincoln, then town clerk, to the committee of 
merchants : — 

Hingham, March 24th, 1770. 
To the Gentlemen the Committee of Merchants in Boston : 

Gentlemen, — At the annual meeting of the town of Hingham, on the 
19th day of March, a.d. 1770 : Upon a motion being made and seconded 
(though omitted in the warrant), the inhabitants, taking into consideration 
the distressed circumstances of the people in this and the neighboring 
Provinces, occasioned by the late parliamentary acts for raising a revenue 
in North America, the manner of collecting the same, and the measures 
gone into to enforce obedience to them, and judging that every society and 
every individual person are loudly called to exert the utmost of their 
ability in a constitutional way to procure a redress of those grievances, 
and to secure the privileges by charter conveyed to them, and that free- 
dom which they have a right to as men and English subjects, came to the 
following votes : — 

Voted, That we highly approve of the patriotic resolutions of the mer- 
chants of this province not to import goods from Great Britain till the re- 
peal of the aforesaid acts ; and viewing it as having a tendency to retrieve 
us from those burdens so much complained of, and so sensibly felt by us, 
we will do all in our power in a legal way to support them in carrying 
into execution so worthy an undertaking. 

Voted, That those few who have imported goods contrary to general 
agreement, and counteracted the prudent and laudable efforts of the mer- 
chants and traders aforesaid, have thereby forfeited the confidence of their 
brethren ; and therefore, we declare that we will not directly or indirectly 
have any commerce or dealings with them. 

Voted, That we will discourage the use of foreign superfluities among 
us, and encourage our own manufactures. 

Voted, That we heartily sympathize with our brethren of the town of 
Boston, in the late unhappy destruction of so many of their inhabitants, 
and we rejoice with them that there yet remains the free exercise of the 
civil authority. 

Voted, That the town clerk be ordered to transmit a copy hereof to the 
committee of merchants in Boston. 

I cheerfully comply with the above order and herewith send you a copy 
of the Votes. I am, gentlemen, with great esteem, your most obedient 
and most humble servant, 

Benjamin Lincoln, Jun'r. 

At a meeting held January 11, 1773, a committee consisting of 
Bela Lincoln, Benjamin Lincoln, Joseph Thaxter, Jacob Cushing, 
and Joshua Hearsey, was appointed to draft instructions to John 
Thaxter, the town's representative. This was done on the 13th in 
a communication urging him to use his best endeavors for the re- 
dress of the grievances under which the province was suffering. 



Military History. 273 

At three o'clock in the afternoon of December 16, 1773, 
young Josiah Quincy finished his great speech to the people in 
the Old South Meeting-house, and the people reaffirmed the vote 
of November 29, that the tea in the ships in Boston harbor 
should not be landed. Towards twilight, Mr. Roch, the owner of 
one of the vessels, returned from an interview with the Governor, 
who was at Milton, with a refusal to permit the ship to leave the 
harbor. A warwhoop rang from the gallery of the Old South ; 
it was taken up from the outside. The meeting adjourned in 
great confusion and the populace flocked toward Griffin's wharf, 
near the present Liverpool wharf. Here were moored the " Dart- 
mouth," Captain Hall ; the " Eleanor," Captain Bruce ; and the 
" Beaver," Captain Coffin. Led by some twenty persons dis- 
guised as Mohawk Indians, a party numbering some hundred and 
forty boarded the vessels, and in two hours three hundred and forty- 
two chests of tea were emptied into the harbor. Among the bold 
actors of that night were xVmos Lincoln, then twenty years of age, 
afterwards a captain in the Revolutionary Army, and a brother 
of Lieut.-Gov. Levi Lincoln ; Jared Joy, twenty-four years old, 
also a Revolutionary soldier later ; Abraham Tower, just twenty, 
subsequently a soldier in Capt. Job dishing' s company ; and 
Samuel Sprague of the same age, afterwards the father of Charles 
Spraguc the poet. 

These young men all belonged in Hingham, and their partici- 
pation was quite likely the result of an agreement among them 
to be in Boston until the question of the landing of the tea should 
be settled. It is significant that at least three of them should 
have become soldiers in the war for independence which so soon 
followed. 

The action of this lGth of December was followed by more 
papers and letters from the Boston Committee of Correspond- 
ence. To these the town responded at the annual meeting by 
resolutions declaring, — 

' ; First, That the disposal of their property is the inherent right of 
freemen, that there is no property in that which another can of right take 
from us without our consent ; that the claim of Parliament to tax America 
is, in other words, a claim of right to lay contributions on us at pleasure. 

" Secondly, That the duty imposed by Parliament upon tea landed in 
America is a tax on the Americans or levying contributions on them 
without their consent. 

" Thirdly, That the express purpose for which the tax is levied on the 
Americans, namely, for the support of government and administration of 
justice, and the defence of his Majesty's dominions in America, has a 
direct tendency to render assemblies useless, and to introduce arbitrary 
government and slavery. 

" Fourthly, That a virtuous and steady opposition to the ministerial 
plan of governing America is necessary, to preserve even a shadow of 
liberty ; and it is a duty which every freeman in America owes to his 
country, to himself, and to his posterity. 

VOL. I. — 18 



274 History of Hingham. 

" Fifthly, That the resolution lately come into by the East India Com- 
pany, to send out their teas to America subject to the payment of duties 
on its being landed here, is an open attempt to enforce the ministerial 
plan, and a violent attack on the liberties of America. 

" Sixthly, That it is the duty of every American to oppose this 
attempt. 

" Seventhly, That it affords the greatest satisfaction to the inhabitants 
of this town to find that his Majesty's subjects in the American colonies, 
and of this province in particular, are so thoroughly awakened to a sense 
of their danger, arising from encroachments made on their constitu- 
tional rights and liberties, and that so firm a union is established among 
them ; and that they will ever be ready to join their fellow subjects 
in all laudable measures for the redress of the many grievances we 
labor under." 

August 17, 1774. the town adopted the following agreement 
as reported by a committee : — 

"We the subscribers, taking into our serious consideration the present 
distressed state of America, and in particular of this devoted province, 
occasioned by several late unconstitutional acts of the British Parliament 
for taxing Americans without their consent — blocking up the port of 
Boston — vacating our charter, that solemn compact between the king 
and the people, respecting certain laws of this province, heretofore enacted 
by our general court and confirmed by his majesty and his predecessors, 
we feel ourselves bound, as we regard our inestimable constitution, and 
the dutv we owe to succeeding generations, to exert ourselves in this 
peaceable way, to recover our lost and preserve our remaining privileges, 
yet not without grief for the distresses that may hereby be brought upon 
our brethren in Great Britain. We solemnly covenant and engage to and 
with each other, viz. : 1st. That we will not import, purchase, or consume, 
nor suffer any person or persons to. by, for or under us to import, pur- 
chase, or consume in any manner whatever, any goods, wares, or mer- 
chandise which shall arrive in America, from Great Britain, from and 
after the first day of October, one thousand seven hundred and seventy- 
four, until our charter and constitutional rights shall be restored ; or until 
it shall be determined by the major part of our brethren in this and the 
neighboring colonies, that a new importation, or a new consumption 
agreement will not effect the desired end : or until it shall be apparent 
that a new importation or new consumption agreement will not be entered 
into by this and the neighboring colonies, except drugs and medicines and 
such articles, and such only, as will be absolutely necessary in carrying on 
our own manufactures. 

" 2dly, That in order to prevent, as far as in us lies, any inconveniences 
that may arise from the disuse of foreign commodities, we agree that we 
will take the most prudent care for the raising and preserving sheep, flax, 
&c, for the manufacturing all such woollen and linen cloths as shall be 
most useful and necessary ; and that we will give all possible support and 
encouragement to the manufactures of America in general." 

In September Colonel Lincoln was chosen to attend a Provin- 
cial Congress at Concord, and in October the town " recommended 



Military History. 275 

to the militia officers to assemble their men once in a week and 
instruct them in the art of war, &c." In November the collectors 
of taxes were directed to pay all moneys collected to Henry 
Gardner, Esq., of Stow, appointed treasurer by the Provincial 
Congress. 

December 26 Colonel Lincoln was again sent to the Provin- 
cial Congress to be held in Cambridge. January, 1775, the town 
chose a committee to take into consideration the state of the 
militia. The members of this committee were Colonel Lincoln, 
Enoch Lincoln, Jot ham Lincoln, Samuel Norton, Jacob Leavitt, 
Samuel Thaxter, and Seth Stowers ; almost every one of whom 
served in the army subsequently. 

May 24, 1775, Colonel Lincoln was chosen to represent the 
town in the Provincial Congress then sitting at Watertown ; and 
at the same meeting Benjamin Lincoln, Benjamin dishing, and 
David Cushing were chosen a committee to correspond with other 
towns in the province. 

July 10 Colonel Lincoln was chosen to represent the town in 
the General Court to be held at Watertown on the 19th agreeably 
to a resolve of the Continental Congress. 

The following are some of the expenditures of the town in this 
year 1775 ordered to be paid by Thomas Loring, Treasurer: — 

To Jacob Leavitt for making carriage for cannon, timber, &c. 9-0-2 
To Capt. Isaiah Cushing Company for exercising as per the 

Clerk's Role made up 4-16-4 
To Jacob Leavitt for shop candles, &c, for company 1-1-7 
To John Fearing for timber for the cannon 0-9-0 
To Capt. Jonses Company for Exercising as pr Roll 2-8-4 
To Capt. James Lincolns Company for Exercising and Allow- 
ance for house Liquor, Candles 7-6-4 
To Capt. Jotham Loring for his Company Exercising Evenings 

and the allowance for house candles, &c. 8-0-1 li- 

To Adam Stowell for 4 lb. Ball Led 47 18 lbs Cannon shot® 20 0-4-7 

To Joshua Leavitt for 38 lb. Cannon Ball (§,• 2 6-4 
To Jer h Lincoln for part Capt. Jonses Company Exercising house 

room candles, &c. 2-0-4 
To Enoch Whiton for part his Companv Exercising house room 

Candles, &c. 4-1 1-0 
To Theop. Wilder for part of Capt. Whiton Company Exercising 

house room Candles. &c. 2-9-8 

Adjoining the office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth, in 
the old part of the State House in Boston, itself the depository of 
some revered historical relics, is a long rather low alcoved room 
with several large tables, a case or two of drawers, and many 
shelves. A number of persons may always be found here : clerks, 
whose duty and pleasure it is to assist the numerous visitors, 
students, and writers of history ; men and women curious to see 
the old documents ; descendants of revolutionary and provincial 



276 History of Hingham. 

sires desirous of finding some record of their ancestors, or seek- 
ing for a glimpse or perhaps a tracing of an autograph of family 
or national celebrity. Well may this quiet apartment be the 
mecca for hundreds and thousands of those to whom the story of 
their country's settlement and early days comes like a fresh 
breeze of earnestness and purpose, of faith and devotion and 
bravery. Here such come from the East and the far West alike, 
and feel as one must, whether at Lexington or Bunker Hill or 
Plymouth, as though on sacred ground. For here the whole 
atmosphere seems to breathe of the past ; the Archives of the 
Colony, the Province, and the Commonwealth ; quaint and loved 
names of the Puritans and the Pilgrims, and quainter records of 
their doings and trials and expeditions ; votes of the deputies, 
orders of the magistrates, proclamations of the Royal Governors, 
queer old yellow and stained papers written in characters so pecu- 
liar as to require a special knowledge to decipher them ; copies or 
originals of the famous Hutchinson papers ; correspondence with 
the French authorities in Canada or the Pilgrim governor in 
Plymouth ; a treaty with some famous Indian sachem ; an account 
of a pirate ship, or an order for the hanging of its lawless chief ; 
a report of Captain Church, or a rumor of Myles Standish ; laws 
for the regulation of religion, the promotion of education, the 
encouragement of commerce ; letters of Winthrop, of Dudley, of 
Harry Vane ; appointments to the command and grants of men 
and money for the attempts against Nova Scotia and Louisburg 
and Canada ; victories and feastings and fastings ; the story of 
Acadia and the wanderers, crudely and disjointedly told in various 
papers ; more letters and signatures, but now of Washington 
and Franklin, of Knox 'and Hancock and Adams and Lincoln and 
Warren ; committees of safety and their doings ; conflicts with Brit- 
ish sailors and officials and soldiers ; preparations for the Revolu- 
tion and commissions for its officers, — all these and many more are 
to be found here, with papers whose contents are hardly yet known, 
and affording doubtless rich stores of original research and infor- 
mation for the historian. Here too are great, unwieldy volumes 
filled with the muster rolls of the officers and men who served 
their king against the French in the North, the Spaniard in the 
Main, the Indian in the forest ; who fought too, when the time 
came, the king and his redcoats from Boston to Yorktown, and 
his Hessian allies at Stillwater and Trenton and Princeton. We 
may read — sometimes in a hand, and oftentimes in a spelling, 
that almost silences criticism — the signatures of our grandfathers 
or great-grandfathers to receipts of money or supplies ; and we may 
proudly follow the record of their devoted services through year 
after year of warfare and privation in their struggle for freedom 
and nationality. Among the bound papers we should find a sur- 
prising number, filling indeed three large books, numbered 11, 12, 
13, known as the " Lexington Alarm Rolls." These contain 



Military History. 277 

not alone the names of the brave men of Lexington and Concord 
and Acton and the other towns whose sons were actually engaged 
and some of whom laid down their lives in the first battle of 
the Revolution, but also those of the equally brave from remoter 
places who hastened toward the field of conflict at the first note 
of alarm, and who rightly share in the honor and glory of the vic- 
tory of that 19th of April and the service that immediately fol- 
lowed. The rolls of these companies are very numerous, there 
being in fact several hundred of them, of which four tell the story 
of what Hingham did in the dawning of the eight years' conflict. 
Of these troops, there appear to have been three foot-companies, 
or what would now be termed infantry, and one — that com- 
manded by Captain Loring — artillery, then termed the "Train." 
Probably all were attached to Colonel Lincoln's command. 

Omitting the details of expense, pay, and some other items of 
little or no interest, an exact copy of the rolls of these companies 
is here given : — 

A true return of the travel and time of Service of the men under 
my Command in Col. Benj. Lincoln's Regiment Assembled the 
19th April, 1775: — 

Isaiah dishing, Capt. Joshua Loring, 

Jacob Leavitt, Lieut. Othniel Stodder, 

Charles Gushing, Lieut. David Wilder, 

Jacob Cushing, Jr., Serj., Caleb Brimhall, 

Isaac Sprague, Jr., " Thomas Burr, 

Shubael Fearing, " Sam Burr, 

Thos. Jones, Jr.. " Benj. Sprague. Jr., 

~"Xmos Sprague, Corp., Sam Lazell, 
David Burr, " Fearing, 

John Blossom. " Thomas King, 

John Burr. Jr., " Jos. Leavitt, 

Levi Burr, Drum, Benj. Barnes, Jr., 

Peter Hersey, " Benj. Cushing, Jr. 

John Lincoln, Jared Lane, 

Seth Briggs, Jacob Thaxter, 

Sam Leavitt. Abner Loring. 
David Sprague, 

Isaiah Cushing. 
On the back is the following : — 

Suffolk ss. 

Decern. 11, 1775. Then Capt. Isaiah Cushing Subscriber to 
this Roll personally made oath to the truth of it. 

Col. Benj. Lincoln, Jus. peace. 

Examined and compared with the original. 

Edw d Rawson / n 
Jonas Dix ( 0om - 



278 



History of Hingham. 



In Council, Apr 16th, 1776, read &, allow'd & ordered that 
a warrant be drawn on the Treasury for 11. 2. 8. in full of this 
roll. John Lowell Dpy Sec ,y S. T. 

The other rolls have similar indorsements. 

It appears also from details not here given in full, that this 
company was in service three days at this time, and travelled 
thirty-six miles. 



A true return of the travel and 
under my command in Col. Benj. 
the 19th of April, a. d. 1775. 

James Lincoln, Capt n . 
Isaac Lincoln, 1st Lieut., 
Nath Lincoln, 2d " 
Sergt., 



.1 



Corp. 



Joseph Beal, 
Knight Sprague, 
Heman Lincoln, 
Noah Hersey, 
Elijah Beal, 
Tho. Marsh, Jr., 
Isaiah Lincoln, 
Bradford Hersey, " 
Zadock Hersey, Drum 
Reub Hersey, Fife, 
Jas Lincoln, Jr., " 
Tho. Waterman, Jr., 
Tho. Marsh, 
Jacob Beal, 
Zerub Hersey, 
Abijah Hersey, 
Tho s Stoddard, 
Jacob Stoddard, 
Barn a Lincoln, 
Josh Stowell, 



time of Service of those men 
Lincoln's Regiment assembled 
James Lincoln. 

Jerc Hersey, Jr., 
Gilb Hersey, 
Step Lincoln, 
Bela Stowell, 
David Beal, Jr., 
Jesse Dunbar, 
Jona 

Benj Beal, 
Jon a Lincoln, 
liovall Lincoln, 
Jesset Bates, 
Joseph Blake, 
John Hobart, 
Isaiah Hersey, 
Nathan Stodder, 
Japhet Hobart, 
John Souther, 
John Beal, 
Levi Lincoln, 
Jere Lincoln, 
Sam Todd, 
Nat Fearing. 



Hingham, Dec. 5, 1775. Then Capt. James Lincoln made oath 

Before me Benj. Gushing, Js. peace. 



to the foregoing list. 



This company was in service thirteen days and travelled thirty- 
six miles " from and to home.'' 

A true return of the travel and time of Service of the men 
under mv Command in Col° Benj" Lincolns Regt Assembled 19 
April, 1775 : — 



Enoch Whiton, Capt , 
Theop. Wilder, Lieut., 



Josiah Lane, 2 Lieut., 
Elias Whiton, Scrg., 



Military History. 



279 



Sam Gardner, Serg., 
Jacob Sprague, Corp., 
Ezra Garnett, fif, 
Reuben Sprague, drum, 
Jon a Whiton, 
Jacob Dunbar, 
Josh Garnett, 
Theo dishing, 
Amasa Whiton, 
Sol Whiton, 
Tho 9 Cushing, 

Garnett 3d, 



Abijah Whiton, 
Benj Whiton, Jr., 
Zcnas Wilder, 
Jere Gardner, 
Heze Ripley, 
Abel Whiton, 
Ezek Whiton, 
Nat Damon, 
Melzer Dunbar, 
Daniel Wilder, 
Math Tower, 
David Loring. 

Enoch Whiton, Capt. 



Suffolk, Dec. 11, 1775. Then Capt. Enoch Whiton 
Subscriber to this roll personally made oath to the truth of it. 

Col. Benj. Lincoln, Jus. peace. 

This company was in service three days, and travelled forty-two 
miles. 

A List of the Company of Train belonging to Ilingham under 
the command of Capt. Jotham Loring, April 19, 1775 : — 



Jotham Loring, Capt. 
Seth Stowers, Lieut., 

Tho s Fearing, 2d " 
Isaac Cushing, 3d " 
David Cushing, 4 " 
Hawkes Hobart, Sergt., 
Daniel Cushing, " 
Edw d Wilder, 
Elijah Whitton, " 
Isaac Hearsey, Corp., 
Joseph Wilder, " 
Moses Sprague, " 
Edmund Hobart, " 
Josh" Tower, Private, 
Tho 3 Cushing, 
Laban Tower, 
Moses Whitton, 
Abijah Lewis, 
Jonath n Hearsey, 
Joseph Tower, 
Abijah Lewis, Jr. 
Seth Sprague, 
Joseph 
Zechariah Whitton," 

Signed 



a 



a 



u 



a 



Sam 1 Gill, Private, 

Israel Hearsey, 
Bela Tower, 
Theodore French, 
Jonathan French, 
Stephen Stoddard, 
Jesse Sprague, 
Nathan Gilbert, 
Nehemi Ripley, 
Stephen Tower, 
Elijah Lane, 
Jesse Gardner, 
John Jones, 
Nftth 1 Sprague, 
Allen Lapham, 
Benj n Joy, 
John Sprague, 
James Tower, 
Job Curtis, 
Abraham Whitton, 
Isaak Stoddard, 
Benj D Ward, 
Joseph Sprague, 
Bela Cushing. 

Jotham Loring. 



280 History of Hingham. 

This was endorsed : Capt. Jotharn Lorings Billeting Roll 

at Hinaham in 1775. 
£18. 10. 8 

These men also were in service thirteen days. 

Four companies, numbering in all one hundred and fifty-four 
men, marched from the old town on that bright April morning 
when the grass was already long enough to be waving in the soft 
spring breeze and the cherries were white in the glory of their 
blossoms. The occasion and the scene were never to be pre- 
cisely re-enacted. On the night of the 18th Revere and Dawes 
had left Boston, and commenced their famous ride, alarming the 
inhabitants to the north of that town. Messengers were sent to 
the surrounding country, and the response was so prompt that in 
the records of the killed and wounded on the 19th, names appear 
of persons from no less than twenty-three places. 

We seem to hear again the rush and clatter of the hurrying 
horseman through Weymouth and into our own streets, and the 
startling cry " To arms ! " " To arms ! " We seem to see our 
forefathers as they gather on the company training-fields at 
South Hingham, the Lower Plain, and Broad Bridge, while Levi 
Burr, Peter Hearsey, Reuben Sprague,and Zadoc Hersey wake the 
sleepers with the continual roll of their drums, and the cheerful 
notes of the fifes in the hands of Ezra Garnett and Reuben Her- 
sey sound the reveille of the period. But this is no holiday 
parade these men are engaged in, and there is little of the pageantry 
of war in the gathering of these earnest, sober country farmers 
and mechanics and sailors. The call has not been entirely unex- 
pected, however, and the companies move out for their long march 
with full ranks, their bright silk colors gleaming red in the sun- 
light, and the veterans of the Canada campaigns at their head. 
We do not forget, as we watch them leading their men, — Captain 
Loring with his artillery lumbering along the uneven roads, or 
Captain Lincoln with his large company of down-town foot, — that 
their names became familiar long ago on the rolls of those who, 
under Samuel Thaxter or Edward Ward or Ebenezer Beal or 
Joseph Blake, bravely fought in his Majesty's service ; and the 
sight of Seth Stowers recalls the sad scenes around Fort William 
Henry on the bloody morning of the terrible August day in 1757. 
When these men, and many another now again in the ranks, 
marched out of Hingham ten years earlier, the commander of the 
regiment to which they belonged was Benjamin Lincoln ; now 
too, their colonel's name is Benjamin Lincoln ; he is the son of 
their old commander, and is destined to become for all time 
Hingham's most famous citizen. 

Too remote from the field of battle to have made active par- 
ticipation in the conflict possible to her organized military, 



Military History. 281 

Hingham still has, by a fortunate circumstance, the proud dis- 
tinction of being among the towns represented on that memorable 
day. Joseph Thaxter, a great-grandson of Col. Samuel Thaxter, 
and a graduate of Harvard College, was preaching as a candidate 
for the ministry at Westford, when he heard of the approach of 
the British troops towards Lexington. Hastening to Concord on 
horseback, armed with a brace of pistols, he was among those who 
received the enemy's fire at Concord Bridge. He was subsequently 
appointed a chaplain in the army, and was attached to Colonel 
Prescott's regiment at the time of the battle at Breed's Hill, 
which is known in history as the battle of Bunker Hill, and in 
which he is said to have participated. Later he was chosen 
as a representative in the General Court from Hingham, but 
resigned for active service in the army, where we shall here- 
after meet him. Mr. Thaxter participated in the ceremonies 
of the 17th of June, 1825, at the laying of the corner-stone of 
the Bunker-Hill monument, being at that time the only surviv- 
ing chaplain of the Revolutionary army. He died at Edgartown 
in^l827. 

Althouoh but a short time in the field, the value of the ser- 
vice rendered by these and other companies which responded 
to the Lexington alarm, can scarcely be over-estimated. Com- 
paratively few were able to reach the battle-ground and partici- 
pate in the glory and renown of the victory, but its fruits were 
yet to be secured, and to the men who marched on that memor- 
able morning and then remained patiently on duty until an army 
could be raised and posted, is due much of the credit for the ulti- 
mate success. In the mean time the British were to be watched, 
and any aggressive movement on their part to be met and frus- 
trated. These companies were encamped near and about Boston, 
virtually commencing even then its siege, and effectually guard- 
ing the military stores in the towns near by. Within a very few 
days after the battle of Lexington, the Provincial Congress of 
Massachusetts met at Watertown, and took measures to raise a 
large permanent army composed of twenty-eight regiments num- 
bering between thirteen and fourteen thousand men. To each 
soldier, as a bounty, there was promised a coat upon his enlist- 
ment, and the towns were ordered to furnish thirteen thousand 
coats. In vols. 56 and 57 at the State House, and known as the 
" Coat Rolls," are to be found the names of the officers and men 
composing this force, which was enlisted for eight months, and 
served from early in May to January of the following year ; the 
enlistment of some of the companies is said to have dated from 
the 19th of April. These with a few regiments from Connecti- 
cut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire, composed the greater 
part of the army which maintained the siege of Boston. It was 
stationed at Dorchester, Roxbury, Cambridge, Watertown, and 
other places near the base of operations. General Ward was in 



282 



History of Hingham. 



command until the appointment of Washington. Among the 
regiments was the 25th, commanded by Gen. Wm. Heath, one of 
whose companies was from Hingham. The roll of this command, 
however, speaks of it as being " in ye 36th Regt. of Foot in ye 
Continental Army, Encamp'd in Fort No. 2." 
It is as follows : — 



Charles 
Elias Whiton, Lieut., 
Benjamin Beal, Ensign, 
Sam 1 Gill, Sergeant, 
John Lincoln, " 
Isaiah Hersey, " 
Moses Sprague, " 
Abijah Whiton, " 
John Burr, Corporal, 
John Blossom, " 
Chris 1 Kilby, 
Tho 8 Marsh, " 

Nath' Dill, Fife, 
Jon a Hearsey, Drum, 
Abel Barns, Private, 
James Bates, " 

Tho 9 Bangs, " 

Seth Brigs, 
Caleb Brimhall, 
Job Curtis, 
Tho 8 Chubbuck, 
James Cooke, 
Jesse Dunbar, 
Melzar Dunbar, 
Jacob Dunbar, 
John Dill, 
Josh a Dunbar, 
Jon a French, 
Jacob Gardner, 
Ezra Gardner, 
James Hayward, 



a 



u 



I. 



u 



a 



u 



a 



a 



u 



Cushing, Capt., 




Zadoc Hearsey, 


Private, 


David Hearsey, 


a 


James Hayward, 


Jr.," 


Japheth Hobart, 


u 


Daniel Hearsey, 


it 


Benf Joy, 


a 


Elisha Lane, 


U 


Urban Lewis, 


.< 


Abisha Lewis, 


a 


David Loring, 


u 


Josh a Loring, 


a 


Lot Marsh, 


a 


Hez h Ripley, 


a 


John Ripley, 


" s 


John Roberts, 


" I 


Jacob Stodder, 


a 


Othniel Stodder, 


a 


Stephen Stodder, 


a 


Josh" Stowel, 


a 


David Sprague, 


a 


Israel Stowel, 


a 


Joseph Sprague, 


it 


Reuben Stodder, 


a 


Hozea Stodder, 


a 


Allin Simmonds, 


a 


Seth Wilder, 


a 


David Wilder, 


it 


Abel Whiton, 


a 


Hozea Whiton, 


a 


David Gardner 


(( 



Scituate, 

Boston, 



The roll of another company also belonging to this command is 
here given, although its members for the most part came from 
that section of the old town which, formerly composing the 
Second Precinct, had within a few years been set off as the town 
of Cohasset. Its captain subsequently commanded a Hingham 
company, and so large a proportion of the men composing it 
afterwards served either upon Hingham's rolls or in connection 
with her recruits, that it seems desirable to incorporate their 
names in this place : — 



Military History. 



283 



Job Cushing, Capt., 
Nath" Nichols, 1st Lieut, 
Josiah Parker, 2d 

Eleazer James, Sergeant, 

Gideon Howard, " 

Isaac Burr, " 

Peter Nichols, 

Abraham Tower, Corporal, 

Adna Bates, " 

James Bates, " 

Bela Nichols, " 

Levi Tower, Drum, 

William Stodder, Fife, 

Elisha Bates, Private, 

Jonathan Bates, " 

Josiah Bates, " 

Zealous Bates, 

Ephraim Battles, 

Jared Battles, 

Joshua Beal, 

Saml Beal, 

Amos Brown, 

Calvin Cushing, 

Obed Dunbar, 

George Humphrey 

Benja Jacob, 

Jared Joy, 

Melzer Joy, 

John Kilby, 

Richard Kilby, 

John Killjy, Jr., 



a 



a 



a 



.. 



.. 



a 



a 



a 



Galen Lincoln, 
Joram Lincoln, 


private, 


Charle Luneand, 


a 


Joseph Neal, 
Caleb Nichols, 


a 
a 


Daniel Nichols, 


a 


Ebeir Orcutt, 


a 


Ephr m Orcutt, 


a 


Luke Orcutt, 


a 


Hough Orcutt, 


a 


Joshua Oakes, 


a 


Sam 1 Oakes, 


a 


Caleb Pratt, 


a 


Oliver Prichard, 


a 


Richard Prichard, 


a 


Elisha Stephenson, 
Luke Stephenson, 
John Sutton, 


a 
it 

a 


Joseph Souther, 
James Stodder, 




Benj. Stutson, 
Reuben Thorn, 


a 
a 


Jesse Tower, 


a 


Isaac Tower, 


a 


Jesse Warrick, 


it 


John Whitcomb, 


a 


Gersham Wheelwri 


ght, " 


Benja Woodward. 


a 



Mr. Lincoln, in his " Centennial Address," says that Capt. Jo- 
tham Loring and company served in Colonel Greaton's regiment 
at Roxbury, until June 22, when Lieut. Charles Cushing was ap- 
pointed captain, and that the company served until the close of 
the year. It is certain that both this and Captain Job Cushing's 
company were in General Heath's regiment as before stated, but 
it is also probable that Colonel Greaton was an earlier commander. 
Most of the company re-enlisted for a year's service from Jan- 
uary 1, 1776, and after the evacuation of Boston, it marched to 
New York, where it embarked for Albany, arriving there April 
25. May 21 it reached Montreal. General Montgomery had 
already been killed in the unsuccessful attack on Quebec, and 
soon after the American army was driven out of Canada. Mr. 
Lincoln's list of the men engaged in this unfortunate expedition 
is as follows : — 



284 History of Hingham. 

Charles Cushing, Capt., 

Benjamin Beal, Lieut., 

John Lincoln, Ensign, 

■ Moses Sprague, Thomas Marsh, 

Abijah Whiton, Joseph Sprague, 

Christopher Kilby, Israel Stowell, 

Jonathan Hearsey, Luke Hunt, 

Jacob Gardner, Daniel Sprague, 

Hosea Stodder, Joseph Whiton, 

Joshua Ripley, Abel Whiton, 

Luther Gardner, Thomas Bangs, 

Elijah Gardner, Thomas Chubbuck, Jr., 

Noah Hobart, Othnicl Stodder, 

Jesse Dunbar, Joshua Stowell, 

Lot Marsh, Peter Whiton, 

Joshua Dunbar, Joseph Lincoln, 

Reuben Stodder, Jr., Nathaniel Stodder, 

David Hersey, Joseph Hill, 

Israel Whiton, James Hayward, Jr., 

William Spooner, Daniel Cain, 

Levi Gardner, Seth Stowell, 

Obadiah Stowell, Issachar Stowell, 

and five others who received a bounty from the town, but whose 
names have not been ascertained. Mr. George Lincoln says that 
Samuel Whiten was in the Canada expedition in Capt. Charles 
Cushing's company, and it is probable that his is one of the 
missing names. Another may have been Hosea Whiton, who is 
known to have died in the attempt on Canada. After the re- 
treat of the army from Canada, Captain Cushing's company was 
probably stationed for a time at Ticonderoga, and here on the 1st 
of August Joseph Whiton, one of his privates, died. 

Capt. Charles Cushing was a descendant of one of the first 
settlers of Hingham. Besides efficient military service in the 
Revolution, he held many civil offices, and represented the town 
in both the House and the Senate. He was known later in life 
as Colonel Cushing. His home was at Hingham Centre. 

Capt. Job Cushing was a distant connection of Captain Charles, 
and commanded a company largely recruited in the second pre- 
cinct, now Cohasset, where he resided. 

Mr. George Lincoln is authority for the statement that Perez 
Gardner was with Arnold in the march through the forests of 
Maine in 1775, which had its termination in the disastrous 
r^tack and defeat of the American forces at Quebec on the 31st of 
December. 

During the siege of Boston both Hingham and Hull were gar- 
risoned posts of the American army. The troops at the former 
place during at least a portion of the time, consisted of Capt. 



Military History. 285 

James Lincoln's company, which was, it is said, posted at Crow 
Point for some eight months on its first enlistment. It was 
probably enlisted under the Coat resolves of the Provincial Con- 
gress, and served from about May, 1775, until 1776. The posi- 
tion was a commanding one and well suited to protect the town 
from any small force which the enemy might send either to de- 
stroy it, or to forage for hay or provisions. It should be stated, 
however, in this connection, that while tradition has located this 
command at Crow Point, a situation so advantageous in a military 
view as almost to carry conviction of its correctness, there is 
nearly indisputable evidence that for a time at least, the exact 
post was nearer the town, upon Broad Cove, and probably upon 
the south side where is now the Cadet Camp ground. The com- 
pany was subsequently posted at the Cove. 

In the Commonwealth's archives are the following papers : — 

To the Hon" Council Sf House of Representatives of tJte State of Mas- 
sachusetts Bay assembled at Watertown : 

Your petitioners humbly show that whereas Requisition was made of 
the selectmen of Hingham to provide Barracks sufficient for the Recep- 
tion of a Company of Soldiers employed for the Defence of this our State, 
commanded part of the time by Capt. James Lincoln & part of the time 
by Capt. Seth Stowers, your petitioners having complved with the afors' 1 
Requisition and engaged Barracks for said company the cost of which we 
have here annexed together with the cost of Building a Guardhouse, pray 
your Honors to consider of the matter and order that we may have the 
money for which we stand engaged. 

From your ever Dutiful petitioners, 

r, ^ ) Selectmen 

Benj. Cushing ( ,. 

) Hingham. 
Hin'gham, '27th August, 1776. 

The State of the Massachusetts Bay to the town of Hingham Dr. 

To Barracks for Capt Lincoln Company at Broad Cove Si- 
months 7_13_4 

To Do for said Company at the town Cove six months 8-0-0 

To 138 feet timber 350 feet Board i in Board & \ in Shingle nails 
114 in shingles carting the same 3 \ miles for a guard house 

To 300 feet Board & 300 Board nails for making Cobbins in 

the Barracks 0-17-9 



1-11-1 



Benj. Cusiiing 
Joseph Andrews 



£18 3 
) Selectmen 

f r.° f 

) Hingham. 



This account was examined, allowed, and paid, and was re- 
ceived by Enoch Lincoln on an order from the town. 
The roll of this company is as follows : — 



286 



History of Hingham. 



A Muster Roll of the Independent Company Stationed at 
Hingham Commanded by James Lincoln to the 1 January 1776 : 

Samuel Lincoln, Jr., Private, 



James Lincoln, Capt., 

Seth Stowers, Lieut., Laban Thaxter, 

Knight Sprage, 2d " Joseph Blake, Jr., 

Elijah Lewis, Sergeant, Jeremiah Hearsey, Jr., 



Noah Hearsey, 
Elijah Beal, Jun., 
Jonathan Lincoln, Jun. " 
Caleb Leavitt, Corporal, 
John Souther, " 

Joseph Wilder, « 

Thomas Stodder, '• 
Stephen Stowel, Jr., Drum, 
James Lincoln, Jr., Fifer, 
Barnabas Lincoln, Private, 
David Beal, Jun., " 

Samuel Godfrey, " 

John Marsh, Jun., " 

Nath" Stodder, Jun., " 
Jotham Lincoln, 
Jonathan Cain, 
Joseph Andrews, Jun., 
Royal Lincoln, 
Athanasius Lewis, 
Noah Hobart, 
Ste])hen Lincoln, Jun., 
John Hobart, Jun., 
Peter Hearsey, 
Bel a Stowel, 
Jesse Humphrey, 

Timothy 

Daniel Hobart. 
Joseph Basset, 



a 

u 
a 
a 
u 
a 
a 
a 

U 

ll 



ll 



Li 



LL 



Li 



LL 



LL 



LL 



LL 



Laban Stodder, 
Joseph Jones, 
Heman Lincoln, 
Daniel Cain, 
John Hearsey, 
William Lewis, 
Nath" Tower, 
Isaac Gardner, 
Obediah Stowel, 

Lab Hunt, 

Ephraim Marsh, 

Luke Bates, Kohasset, " 

Josiah Godfrey, Abbing- 

town, " 
James Hobart, " 

Peter Whiting, 
Levi Burr, 
Joshua Leavitt, 
Levi Gardner, 
Stephen Whiting, 
Israel Whiting, 
James Tower, 
William Spooner, 
Thomas Wilder, 
John Sprage, 
Stephen Tower, 
Samuel Stodder, Scituate," 
Robert Gardner. " 



Li 



Li 



Captain Lincoln's company, with additions and changes in its 
membership, also served, perhaps on a new enlistment, from 
January 1, 1776, to probably some part of July and very possibly 
for a much longer period. The rolls give only partial information. 
The Journal of the House of Representatives speaks of it as one of 
four independent companies in the service. Caleb Leavitt be- 
came 2d lieutenant in January, and was promoted to be 1st lieu- 
tenant during the month, when Noah Hearsey became 2d lieuten- 
ant ; at the same time Thomas Stodder, Ephraim Marsh, John 
Sprague, and Japheth Hobart were made sergeants, and Nathaniel 
Tower, Abner Bates of Weymouth, and Jeremiah Hearsey, cor- 
porals. The following names are those of men who served under 
the later enlistment, together with many of the earlier members : 



Military History. 



287 



u 



a 
u 



Japheth Hobart, Sergeant, 
Abner Bates, Corporal, 
Jeremiah Hearsey, 
Thomas Marsh, Private, 
Joshua Beal, " 

Ezekiel Lincoln, 
Samuel Lazel, 
Isaiah Lincoln, 
Samuel Todd, 
James Beal, 
John Stodder, 
Benjamin Barns, 
Daniel Barker, 
Stephen Mansfield, 
Samuel Leavitt, 
Moses Whiting:, 
Elijah Whiting, 
Jacob Whiting, 
Jonathan Thaxter, 
John Marsh, Jun., 
Thomas Gill, 
Frederick Lincoln, 
Athanasius Lewis, 
Elisha Bates, 
Peter Wilder, 
Joshua Gardner, 
Elijah Stowers, 



.. 



it 






Isaac Gross, 
John Hearsey, Jr., 
Nehemiah Sprague, 
Elisha Lane, 
Jeremiah Hearsey, 
Rufus Tower, 
Welcome Lincoln, 
John Hunt, 
John Barnes, 
Samuel Low, 
Joseph Hobart, 
Samuel Loring, 
Caleb Leavitt, Jr., 
Edmund Hobart, 
Benjamin Stowel, Jr 
David Loring, 
David Gardner, 
James Haward, 
Ezra Gardner, 
Jonathan Froraks, 
James Chubbuck, 
Laban Tower, 
James Bates, 
Timothy Shave, 
Peter Hobart, 
Zerubbable Hearsey, 



Private, 



U 



« 



u 
u 
u 
u 
it 
« 
« 
it 
a 
it 
it 
a 
u 



a 
a 
it 

a 

a 



also Elijah Levit and Jesse Humphrey " fifteen days after going 
to Roxbury," where they probably served in some other command. 

Capt. James Lincoln, it may be remembered, was not only a 
soldier in the last war with France, but was one of the captains 
who marched at the first call to arms at the Lexington alarm. 
He resided on South Street. Lieut. Seth Stowers, who succeeded 
to the charge of this company and commanded the post at Hing- 
ham for a while, was also a veteran, and narrowly escaped the 
massacre at Fort William Henry. Later in the Revolution Cap- 
tain Stowers was stationed with his company for many months at 
Hull, and also commanded it in one of the Rhode Island expe- 
ditions. Lieut. Knight Sprague was likewise one of the Fort 
William Henry soldiers. 

Among the few royalists or tories living in Hingham at the 
opening of the Revolution, were Capt. Joshua Barker, then an 
elderly and respected citizen who had held a commission in the 
king's army, and served many years in the wars of his sovereign, 
and who could hardly have been expected to abandon the colors 
to which the allegiance of the best part of his life had been de- 
voted, and Elisha Leavitt who occupied the stately old-fashioned 
mansion which, one of the then attractions of the town, with its 



288 History of Hingham. 

tapestries and grand tiled fireplaces, stood some twenty years 
since upon the present site of the Catholic Church. 

In this house there was a blind passage to which a secret door 
gave entrance, and here it was that Nathaniel Ray Thomas and 
other tories from Marshfield were concealed during a search made 
for them by the Committee of Safety, and from which they were 
subsequently successfully smuggled, by water, to Boston. It is 
said that a mob gathered about Leavitt's house at one time for the 
purpose of doing violence to his person, and that he diverted them 
by rolling out a barrel of rum and dispensing its contents liber- 
ally. Be this as it may, there seems to be no doubt that Leavitt 
was more than passively opposed to the cause of his countrymen, 
and that he supplied the English with hay and vegetables, and 
probably cattle. He owned or controlled Grape Island lying a 
little north of the town, about opposite to Huit's Cove and the 
point upon which Bradley's phosphate works now stand at the 
mouth of Weymouth Back River. Upon the island was a large 
quantity of hay and a number of cattle belonging undoubtedly to 
Leavitt ; and here on the morning of Sunday, May 21, 1775, came a 
body of troops from Boston, accompanied and conveyed by two 
sloops and an armed schooner. The expedition had for its object 
the hay and other supplies stored there; but its approach created 
considerable alarm in the towns in the neighborhood, where the 
fear of a descent caused the hasty loading upon wagons and carts 
of the furniture and household effects of numbers of the inhabi- 
tants preparatory to removal to places of safety. In the mean 
time the bells rang and trims were fired and a general alarm 
given. The militia rapidly gathered, and General Thomas, who 
commanded at Roxbury, ordered three companies of the troops in 
his division to the assistance of the inhabitants. The old people 
of fifty years ago, used to tell of the march of the military down 
Broad Cove Lane, now Lincoln Street, on the way to oppose the 
British landing, then momentarily expected. The troops thus 
referred to were undoubtedly militia from this and adjoining 
towns. It is probable, however, that Capt. James Lincoln's com- 
pany which was enlisted as early as the fifth of the month and 
whose camp was at or near Crow Point, was the principal organ- 
ized force on the spot. Companies immediately marched, however, 
from Weymouth, Abington, and Scituate, in addition to those from 
Hingham. From the diary of Paul Litchfield, of Scituate, we get 
the following : " May 21. Just before meeting began in morning, 
hearing the King's troops were landing near Hingham the people 
in general dispersed, so no meeting. About 100 Regulars landed 
at Grape Isl to get hay." From the point nearest the island a 
fire, which was returned from the schooner, was directed against 
the English. The distance however was too great for small arms 
to be effective, and it was not until the flood tide had covered the 
flats that the Americans were enabled to float a lighter and a 
sloop and drive off the enemy. Having done this, they landed on 



Military History. 289 

the island, burned the barn and about eighty tons of hay, and 
brought off the cattle. Mrs. John Adams, writing to her husband, 
then in the Continental Congress, of the affair says : " You in- 
quire of me who were at the engagement at Grape Island. I may 
say with truth, all of Weymouth, Braintree, Hingham, who were 
able to bear arms, and hundreds from other towns within twenty, 
thirty, forty miles of Weymouth." She adds high praise of sev- 
eral of her husband's family who were participants. This skir- 
mish may perhaps fairly give to Hingham the coveted distinction 
of beino: one of the battle-grounds of the Revolution ; for although 
the island itself lies within the jurisdiction of Weymouth, a part 
of the shores opposite, from which much of the firing undoubt- 
edly came, are in Hingham. There can be no difficulty in recog- 
nizing the beautiful point at Huit's Cove just at the mouth of 
Weymouth Back River, as the place of assembly and seat of oper- 
ations for our forefathers on that Sabbath morning in the spring 
of 1775, almost exactly a month after the fight at Lexington, 
toward which the same company under the same' commander had 
so promptly marched. It is more than likely that the main 
attack upon the English was by Hingham and Weymouth com- 
panies operating in Hingham. it is said that the Weymouth and 
Abington companies compelled Leavitt to provide entertainment 
for them during the day ; had his connection with the enemy been 
fully known at the time, it is quite certain that he would have 
fared far worse. 

If our small bit of the war was insignificant compared to the 
greater events, it still furnished one of the incidents of no little 
importance at the time in the valuable experience of meeting the 
enemy and of gaining a victory, the size of which was not suffered 
to diminish in the current reports , and it is of value to us now 
for its service in bringing our town and our people into closer 
touch with their fellow-citizens of the Revolution. There were, 
however, comparatively few of the striking events of the Revolu- 
tion, without participants from Hingham. 

It has already been said that when Colonel Prescott and his 
brave men beat back, until their powder was gone, the red ranks 
on Bunker Hill that memorable 17th of June, the chaplain of his 
regiment was our fighting parson of the engagement at Concord 
Bridge, Joseph Thaxter. But he was not the town's sole repre- 
sentative at the battle, for Jairus Lincoln and Joseph Bates also 
bore a part and shared in the glory of the day, the latter laying 
down his life upon the field, in the honored company of General 
Warren and many another hero of the great fight. 

Besides the names of men already given as serving in 1775, 
there are the following: William Owens, — a member of Capt. 
Freedom Chamberlin's Pembroke company in Gen. John Thomas's 
regiment, and who was transferred to Capt. Ezra Badlam's com- 
pany in Col. Richard Gridley's regiment of "Train," June II, — 
Benjamin Lincoln, also of Captain Chamberlin's company, and 

VOL. I. — 19 



290 History of Hingham. 

Nahum Davis, of Capt. Jonathan Bardwell's company in Col. 
David Brewer's regiment. Davis also entered the artillery in June. 

Marsh Lewis's name appears on the rolls of both Capt. Daniel 
Lothrop's company and Capt. Eleazar Hamlin's company in 
Thomas's regiment. Josiah Oakes appears as a lieutenant in 
Capt. Job Cushing's company of Heath's regiment ; he must have 
held his commission a short time only. 

On the loth of June, 1775, the Continental Congress voted to 
adopt, under the name of the Continental Army, the troops of the 
several provinces then constituting the provincial army operating 
about Boston ; and on the 16th Washington was chosen its com- 
mander-in-chief. This organization, to which reinforcements and 
new regiments were added from time to time, was quite different 
in its constitution from the force raised under a resolve of Sep- 
tember 10, 1770, known as the Continental Line. This latter 
body constituted during the remainder of the struggle the main 
reliance and hope of the Americans : it was indeed the backbone 
of the army, and corresponded to the regulars of subsequent times. 

Under the resolve, eighty -eight battalions were to be raised for 
service during the war ; of this number Massachusetts furnished 
and placed in the field no less than sixteen of infantry and one of 
artillery. — exceeding her quota, which required but fifteen. We 
shall hereafter see many Hingham names on the rolls of these 
never-to-be-forgotten regiments. 

The summer of 1775 and the succeeding winter wore away and 
still the siege of the New England town went on. The expira- 
tion of short enlistments, and the habit which seems to have pre- 
vailed among the militia belonging to at least certain of the 
provinces, of leaving the camp for home almost at will, caused 
sudden depictions in the American ranks, which were both alarm- 
ing and exasperating to Washington and to the authorities gener- 
ally. The Provincial Congress of Massachusetts during its win- 
ter session reorganized the militia of the province. Three major- 
generals were appointed, and thirteen regiments formed, of which 
ten arrived in camp early in February ; besides these there were 
several thousand minute men held in reserve and ready to march 
when called upon. By an order in council passed in February, 
the companies in Weymouth, Hingham, Cohasset, and Hull were 
organized as the Second Suffolk regiment ; thus the old regi- 
ment dating from the days of Winthrop and Dudley and which 
had been commanded by them, by Col. Wm. Stoughton, b} r Josiah 
Quincy, by our own John Thaxtcr, and both Benjamin Lincoln 
and Benjamin Lincoln, Jr., ceased to exist. The new command 
was, however, practically the same as the old, whose designation, 
it mav be recalled, had alreadv been changed from the Third 
Suffolk to the Second Suffolk, although Braintree, so long united 
with us, no longer composed a part of the regiment. Solomon 
Lovell was the new colonel, and Benjamin Lincoln, who had re- 
cently commanded the regiment, and who had been untiring in his 



Military History. 



291 



services to the country from the commencement of the war, was 
chosen brigadier-general on February 8, and major-general just 
one month later. The other regimental officers were David 
Gushing, lieut.-colonel ; Thomas Lothrop, 1st major; Isaiah dish- 
ing, 2d major. 

March 4th General Thomas with two thousand men took pos- 
session of Dorchester Heights, and immediately constructed strong 
works as laid out by Colonel Gridley. At this time the army was 
reinforced by a portion of the militia. From Hingham there 
marched three companies ; they were all from Colonel Lovell's 
command, and were placed in the works at Dorchester. The 
rolls are as follows : — 



Seth Lincoln, 
Jesse Bates, 
Joshua Lincoln. 
Ezra French, 
Sam 1 Norton. Clerk, 
Tho 3 Marsh, Jr., Corp 
John Gill, 

Jacob Deal, " 

Stephen Stodder, " 
Isaac Sprague, Drum, 
David Andrews, Fifer 
Joseph Hammond, 
Elijah Waters, jun., 
Mitchel Lincoln, 
Ezra Lincoln, 
Isaac Gardner, 
Nath 1 Fearing, 
John Hobart, Jun., 
James Hobart, 



Tho s Hearsey, Capt., 
Levi Lincoln, 1st Lieut., 
Joseph Deal, 2 ki 

Caleb Hobart, 
Daniel Hobart, 



Sergt 



Nath 1 Stodder, 
Benj. Ward, 
Tho 8 W'aterman, jun., 
Elisha Remington, jun., 
Nath 1 Lincoln, 
Bradford Hearsey, 
Nath 1 Gill, 
James Leavitt, 
John Beal, jun., 
Gilbert Hearsey, 
Joseph Stockbridge, 
Sam 1 Hobart, 
Barnabas Lincoln, 
Welcome Lincoln, 
Theodore French, 
Jon a French, Jun., 
Joseph Blake. 



Hawkes Fearing, Clerk, 
Samuel Gill, Jr., Sergt, 
Elijah Whiton. Jr., " 
Thomas Jones. Jr., " 
Amos Sprague, Corp., 
David Burr, 
John Burr, Jun., " 
John Blossom, " 
Zadoc Hearsey, Drummer, 
Sol Cushing, Fifer, 



Peter Cushing, Capt., 

Thomas Burr, Lieut., 

Thomas Fearing, " 

Shubael Fearing, 
John Jones, 
Abel Fearing, 
Benjamin Sprague, Jun 
Jacob Cushing, Jun., 
Allen Simmons, 
Thomas King, 
Nehemiah Ripley, 
Isaac Sprague, Jun., 
David Sprague, 



Private, 



u 

a 



u 
a 
a 
u 



292 



History of Hingham. 



David Sprague, Pr 

Moses Whiton, 
Jerom Ripley, 
Seth Briggs, 
Benj. Joy, 
Israel Hearsey, 
Reuben Hearsey, 
Samuel Leavitt, 
Joshua Leavitt, Jun., 
Joshua Loring, 
Ebed Cushing, 
Cashing Burr, 
Nath : Gilbert, 
Cornelius Barns, Jun., 
Ensign Barns, 



ivate, 


William Cushing, 


Private, 


a 


Benjamin Cushing, 


Jun.," 


it 


Jared Lane, 


a 


a 


David Lane, 


a 


a 


Rufus Lane, 


a 


a 


Martin Tower, 


a 


it 


Daniel Souther, 


a 


a 


Jacob Thaxter, 


a 


it 


Jacob Thaxter, 


a 


a 


Matthew Cushing, 


it 


a 


Silas Joy, Jun., 


it 


a 


Enoch Stodder, 


u 


u 


Isaach Cushing, 


it 


it 


Jonathan Loring. 


a 



Sergeant, 
a 



a 



Corporal, 



David Cushing, 

Samuel Gardner, 

Zac h Whiton, 

Edward Wilder, 

Tho 8 Cushing, 

Abraham Whiton, 

Abisha Lewis, Drummer, 

Bela Tower, Fifer, 

Job Loring, Private, 

Ebenezer dishing, " 

Samuel Whiton, Jun., " 

Zenas Wilder, 

Robert Gardner, 

Ezckiel Cushing, 

Thomas Wilder, 

Daniel Wilder, 

Joshua Hearsey, 

Isaiah Tower, 

Jonathan Whiten, 

James Tower, 

Samuel Wilder, Jan., 

Stephen Gardner, 3, 



Pyam Cushing, Capt., 
Elias Whiton, Lieut., 
Joshua Tower, " 
Theophilus Cushing, Clerk, 

Jacob Sprague, Jun., Private, 

Daniel Whiton, 

Hawkes Hobart, 



it 
a 

a 

a 
u 
u 



David Gardner, Jun., 
Seth Sprague, 
Zenas Whiton, 
Stephen Tower, 
Benjamin Whiten, 
Isaiah Stodder, 
Amasa Whiton. 
Benjamin Ward, 
Edward Bailey, 
Jeremiah Gardner, 
Jacob Dunbar, 
Laban Stodder, 
David Farrow, Jun., 
Solomon Whiton, 
Benjamin Dunbar, 
Elijah Whiton, 
Peter Hobert, 
Josiah Lane, 
Elisha Whiton. 



a 
a 
a 
a 
a 
a 
a 
a 
a 
a 
a 
a 
u 
it 
it 
a 
a 
a 
a 
a 



The first of these companies, that commanded by Capt. Thomas 
Hearsey, came from the vicinity of Broad Bridge, and was what 
would now be called, if still existing, the " down town " company. 

The company commanded by Capt. Peter Cushing, and known 
as the "Third Foot Company" was made up principally of men 
from the Lower Plain, now commonly known as Centre Hingham. 



Military History. 293 

while Capt. Pyam dishing and his men came from Glad Tidings 
Plain and vicinity, comprising the region known as South Hing- 
ham. Capt. Pyam dishing who was a brother-in-law of General 
Lincoln, died daring the ensuing summer. 

During the early days of the Revolution, it will be remembered, 
there was great difficulty in obtaining a sufficient supply of pow- 
der for the army, and its manufacture was stimulated and en- 
courged in every possible way. Hingham performed her part in 
this as in other things, and a certificate of the purity of the salt- 
petre produced is here given : — 

These may certify that the salt petre now presented for sale by Mr. 
Joseph Beal ( about 80 or 90 weight) was manufactured at Hingham by 
David & Israel Beal, Israel Lincoln, Jacob Beal, and Heman Lincoln. 

Benj. Cushing \ Selectmen 
Joseph Andrews \ of Hingham. 
Hingham, March 11, 1776. 

March 15, 1776, Capt. Peter Cushing's company was on duty at 
Hingham for sea-coast defence ; it was engaged four days at this 
time. With the exception of John Jones, David Sprague, Benj. 
Joy, Ebed Cushing, Cornelius Barns, Ensign Barns, and David 
Lane who did not serve on this occasion, the roll contains the 
same names as did that of the company when in the defences at 
Dorchester, as well as the following in addition : — 

Jacob Leavitt, Abner Loring, 

Thomas Loring, 3d, Isaiah Wilder, 

Joseph Mansfield, Jesse Sprague, 

Noah Stodder, Robert Goold, 

John Beal, Stephen Cushing, 

Joseph Leavitt, John Burr, 

Jonathan Smith, Noah Humphrey, 

Samuel Burr. Jacob Loring, 

John Fearing, Joseph Levis, 

David Lincoln. Moses Bass, 

Thomas Burr, Jr., Benj. Binney, 

Isaac Hearsev, Benj. Jones, 

Thomas Berry, Jonathan Burr, 

Joseph Loring, James Fearing, 

Thomas Cushing, Samuel Loring, 

Silas Joy, Thomas Jones, 

Caleb Beal, Jeremiah Sprague, 

Loring Bailey, Caleb Goold, 

Mark Clark, Joseph Dorson, 

Gridley Thaxter, Isaac Beal, Jr., 

Solomon Blake, Eben Lincoln, Jr., 

Thomas Leach, Thomas Lincoln. 
Daniel Souther, 



294 History of Hingham. 

It was a large company, and more than ninety men performed 
duty on this occasion. 

Not only was Hingham a military post during the siege of Bos- 
ton with a regular garrison at Broad Cove, but it was also one of 
the sea-coast towns called upon, as in the instance just noted, for 
her own defence, and very frequently too for assistance in pro- 
tecting her neighbors from threatened British descents. This 
service became so onerous that the Council appointed General 
Lincoln its agent to appeal to Washington for relief on behalf of 
a number of the towns, as appears by the following from Revolu- 
tionary Council Papers, vol. i. : — 

"In Council, March 20th, 1776. 

" On motion ordered, That Benj. Lincoln Esq r wait on his Ex y Gen. 
Washington to request of him that as the militia of the several towns of 
Hingham, Weymouth, Braintree, have for a number of days past been 
stationed on the sea coast of those towns in order to watch the motions of 
the fleet & army now in the harbor of Boston and to prevent their rava- 
ging and plundering the country, he would send a sufficient detachment 
from the army under his command to their relief." 

The General seems to have had better use for his troops, how- 
ever, both then and later; and as we shall see, until nearly the 
close of the war, Hingham continued to defend the sea-coast with 
large numbers of her men, and especially by manning the impor- 
tant works at Hull. 

Sunday, March 17th, General Howe evacuated Boston, and Gen- 
eral Putnam and General Ward entered the town. The next day 
General Heath with five regiments was ordered to New York, 
and with them went our townsmen under the two Captain Cush- 
ings. General Washington entered Boston at the head of the 
army on the *20th, and on April 4th, he left Cambridge for New 
York, General Ward with five regiments remaining for the pro- 
tection of Boston. 

But although the British army had departed, the sea-coast 
towns continued under the menace of the fleet commanded by 
Commodore Banks which lingered in the harbor, and which was 
reinforced by seven transports loaded with Highlanders. The 
people feared the return of Howe, and fortifications were thrown 
up at East Boston, Point Allerton, and elsewhere. Finally a plan 
proposed by General Lincoln, to drive the enemy from the harbor, 
received the sanction of the Council of Massachusetts, and on 
June 13th and 14th it was put in execution. General Ward sent 
a part of the Continental troops under his command to assist the 
militia who Avere ordered out for the attempt. To the old Com- 
monwealth belongs the sole credit for the success of the last act 
in the military operations around Boston. 

Like a brilliant panoramic view the scene passes again before 
our eyes, and the sound of martial music and the thunder of artil- 
lery comes once more to our ears. It is almost a year to a day 



Military History. 295 

since through the streets of the queer little New England capital, 
with its stately mansions, its gable-roofed shops, and crooked, 
sidewalklcss, cobble-paved streets, inarched out the bright red col- 
umns which under Howe and Clinton and Pigot moved up the 
sides of Bunker Hill, on whose green slopes the serried ranks 
melted away before the blaze of Prescott's muskets, and whose 
soil drank up with eager thirst the flowing life-blood of Warren 
and Pitcairn, and many another brave and gallant hero — Pro- 
vincial and British alike. And now in these same streets the drum 
is again calling men to arms, and along Cornhill, — now Washing- 
ton Street, — by the Old South, so lately a riding school for Eng- 
lish troopers, roll the guns of Craft's artillery. Here too come 
detachments from Colonel Marshall's and Colonel Whitney's regi- 
ments and the Continentals whom General Ward has detailed, 
— undoubtedly with a thrill of satisfaction as he recalls the anx- 
ious June day when he commanded at Cambridge a twelvemonth 
since. By the bookstore of Daniel Henchman where General 
Knox had been an apprentice, the troops turn into King Street 
and passing the Town House march over the spot where Captain 
Preston and the men of the 29th regiment shot down the people 
on the night of March 5, 1770, and thence to Long Wharf where 
they are to embark. 

What a flood of memories the place awakens ! It was here 
that Governor Shirley, returning in 1745 from the reduction of 
Louisburg, landed amid the acclamations of the people and the 
salutes of the shipping, and was received by the Cadets under 
Colonel Pollard, the Troops of Horse, the Chelsea company, and 
Colonel Wendell's regiment ; here too in May, 1774, the Cadets re- 
ceived General Gage, then Governor of the Province, and here on 
the 17th of June of the following year General Gage embarked 
the regiments which at Charlestown lost for England an empire, 
and in America wrote in blood one of the earliest and most mem- 
orable pages in the history of a new nation. And now like a beau- 
tiful picture, on this calm summer morning lie the blue waters of 
Boston harbor and of our own, both dotted with islands fresh in 
the bright green of early summer, and both reflecting the white 
sails which hang like the snowy wings of great gulls over them. 
Beneath some of these frown the guns, and over them floats the 
cross of St. George, while in the distance a pine tree on a white 
ground marks the anchorage of a Yankee cruiser. Meanwhile 
too, from all the towns and villages around, comes the same tap- 
tap of the drum and the cheery note of the fife, and down to the 
water side march the militia, — the militia which the frequent 
alarms of the past year, the occasional skirmish with the enemy, the 
work in the trenches at Dorchester, and the manning of the lines 
at Roxbury, have made into veteran soldiers. Now they respond 
with unusual alacrity. The hilltops are covered with eager and 
anxious spectators for miles around. With them we watch the 
embarkation, and then the long hours of the bright summer day 



296 History of Hingham. 

pass wearily ; the garrison flag at the Castle and the ensign on 
Commodore Banks' ship hang alike lifeless in the all-pervading 
calm ; the transports drift rather than sail towards their destina- 
tions. The sun sets for the last time upon the British fleet in 
Boston harbor. By the morning of the 14th all is in readiness. 
Capt. Peter dishing with his Hingham men are in the works at 
Hull, while with them are other companies from the sea-coast, and 
a part of the militia from Boston ; the whole forming a consider- 
able force, including a portion of Colonel Craft's famous train of 
artillery, — another detachment of which, with some militia, has 
been posted at Pettick's Island, adjoining. There are about six 
hundred men at each place. About the same number of militia 
from the towns near, together with a detachment of artillery, are 
distributed at Moon Island, Hof's Neck, and Point Allerton, while 
Colonel Whitcomb, with the regulars and two eighteen-pounders, 
has taken post at Long Island. The various companies from the 
vicinity are at their posts. Suddenly there is a flash followed by 
a puff of smoke, and a few seconds later, a bang from one of Col- 
onel Whitcomb's guns at Long Island ; the engagement has com- 
menced. And now the flashes and puffs and bangs come from all 
around, and the great guns of his Majesty's ships make a spirited 
reply. There goes a shot from Hull ; we may be sure that was 
from Hingham's cannon, which, as we shall see a little later, the 
selectmen paid Hawkes Fearing for carrying over to the neighbor- 
ing town. The smoke drifts lazily away, and at times almost ob- 
scures the vision. It is a grand and exciting scene that is being 
enacted. The Continentals, the Minute-men, the English, — these 
are the performers in the closing act of the siege of Boston. A 
shot from the Americans pierces the upper works of the Commo- 
dore's ship ; the contest is over. A signal, and up go the sails, out 
by Nantasket into the open sea pass the enemy's squadron, while 
with a great explosion and a dull roar the lighthouse sinks be- 
neath the waves. As the evening sun neared the horizon and 
lighted the fleecy clouds, turning them into great masses of crim- 
son and gold, and the unruffled waters became magnificent in their 
pink and gilded glow, the land breeze blew out no enemy's colors, 
and upon the harbor rested only the peaceful Yankee merchant- 
man, or the American cruiser, over which idly floated the pine-tree 
ensign, while a feeling of quiet and thanksgiving settled over a 
freed Commonwealth. 

In the useful, honorable, and distinguished life of Benjamin Lin- 
coln, there may have been greater triumphs than that which the 
successful achievement of this June day brought, but for us there 
is a homelike and personal character about the event that endears 
it especially ; and it would be difficult not to believe that the 
sturdy heart of our Hingham general beat the quicker and with a 
warmer glow as he watched the enemy's topmasts sink beneath 
the distant horizon, and felt that the freeing of the capital and of 
the homes of his neighbors and of his own home from the fear and 



Military History. 



297 



menace of the preceding months was the attainment, at least in 
part, of the men of his own town, and the companies of his own 
regiment. 

Among the companies in service on this day was that of Capt. 
Peter dishing of Hingham. The roll differs somewhat from that 
already given and is a,s follows : — 



Serg 1 
a 



.. 



Corp. 



u 



Daniel Cashing, Jr 

Thomas Jones, " 

Elijah Whiton, 

Amos Sprague, 

David Burr, 

John Burr, Jr., " 

Zadock Hearsey, Drum, 

Solomon Cashing, Fife, 

William dishing, Private, 

Joshua Loring, " 

Thomas Cashing, 

Reuben Hearsey, 

Benj. Gushing, Jr., 

Ebed dishing, 

Moses Whiton, 

Nehemiah Ripley 

Isaac Sprague, Jr., 

Benj. Barns, 

John Hunt, 



Peter Cushing, Capt., 

Thomas Burr, Lieut., 

Thomas Fearing, " 

Martin Tower, 
Isaac Hearsey, 
Joseph Mansfield, 
Daniel Souther, 
Jonathan Smith, 
Jesse Sprague, 
Samuel Lazell, 
Isaiah Hearsey, Jr., 
David Lane, 
Rufus Lane, 
Abel Fearing, 
Levi Burr, 
Matthew Cushing, 
Isaiah Wilder, 
Laban Hunt, 
Thomas Loring, Jr., 
Joshua Leavitt, 
Squire (a negro). 



u 
a 
a 
a 
u 
a 
a 



Private, 



u 



.. 



u 



u 
u 
u 
u 
a 



a 



The same company was again called into the service on June 
23d, and responded with the additional names of — 



Abner Loring, 
Jacob Thaxter, 
Elisha Gushing, Jr., 
Thomas King, 
John Barns, Jr., 
Thomas Berry, 
Benj. Joy, 
David Sprague, 
Benj. Cushing, Jr., 



Nathaniel Gilbert, 
Welcome Beal, 
Enoch Stodder, 
Reuben Simmons, 
Isaac Cushing, 
Silas Joy, Jr., 
Noah Stodder, 
Israel Stodder, 
Shubael Fearing 



On the same date, and also at Hull, we find another Hing- 
ham company in the service. Although there appears to be 
no record of the occasion, the alarm must have been pressing 
to require the presence of such a number of men. The roll is 
here given : — 



298 



History of Hingham. 



Heman Lincoln, 
Joseph Beal, 
Saml Norton, Clerk, 
Ezra French, Sergt., 
Seth Lincoln, 
Jesse Waters, 
Joshua Lincoln, 
Nath 1 Stoddard, 
Japeth Hobart, 
Gersham Lincoln, 
James Hobart, 
Nath 1 Lincoln, Jr., 
Gilbert Hearsey, 
Isaiah Lincoln, 
Tho 9 Stoddard, 



1st Lieut. 

9 « 



Abijah Stoddard, 
James Leavitt, 
William Tidmarsh, 
Caleb Hobart, 
Barnibas Lincoln, 
David Beal, Jr., 
John Hobart, 
Caleb Marsh, 
David Andrews, 
Joseph Stockbridge, 
John Hobart, Jr., 
Daniel Hobart, 
Thomas Marsh, Jr., 
Jacob Beal, 
Jacob Wbiton. 



Captain dishing was again at Hull for a number of days in the 
following December, but the roll of the 14th of that month is 
quite different from those preceding it, and is here given : — 

Peter Gushing, Capt., 

Levi Bates, Lieut., 

Jerom Stephenson, Lieut., 

Noah Stodder, 
Tho s dishing, 



Isaac dishing, Sergt., 



a 



a 



Elisha Stephenson, 

Isaiah Hearsey, Jr., 

John Burbanks, 

Timothy Gushing, Corp., 

Jesse Sprague, " 

David Burr, 

Nath Bates, 

Levi Tower, Drum r , 

Matthew Cushing, 

Daniel Souther, 

Isaiah Wilder, 

Abel Fearing, 

Benj : Sprague, Jr., 

David Burr, 

David Lane, 

Silas Joy, Jr., 

Shubael Fearing, 

Matthew Hunt, 

Samuel Burr, 

Tho 9 Berry, 

Samuel Thaxter, 

Benj. Joy, 

Ebed dishing, 

Joshua Loring, 



Nehemiah Ripley, 
Thomas King, 
Cushing Burr, 
Abel Beal, 

Lusanus Stephenson, 
Abner Bates, 
John Wilant, Jr., 
Daniel Nichols, Jr., 
Gershom Wheelwright, 
Ambross Bates, 
Zenas Lincoln, 
Jonathan dishing, Jr., 
Tho 5 Pratt, 
Eli Lane, 
Zcbulon Wilcut, 

Ur Lincoln, 

Lazarus Lincoln. 
Job Wilcut, 
Ephraim Lincoln, 
Samuel Bates, Jr., 
Jonathan Bates, 
John Pritchet, 
\bncr Bates. 



Military History. 



299 



Capt. Peter Cushing resided on East Street ; he was a brother of 
Capt. Stephen Cushing, also a soldier of the Revolution. Enoch 
Dunbar was in the Canada expedition in Captain Stephens' com- 
pany of artillery. Capt. Seth Stowers commanded a company in 
Col. Josiah Whitney's regiment, and was on duty at Hull in Octo- 
ber, 1776. His roll was as follows : — 

Seth Stowers, Capt., 
Peter Nichols, 1st Lieut., 
Elijah Beals, 2 



Sergt, 



a 
u 



Elijah Lewis, 
Joseph Wilder, 
John Gill, 
Benjamin Jacobs, " 
David Lincoln, Corp., 
Stephen Stodder, 
Joshua Beal, " 

Abisha Lewis, Drum, 
Nathl Dills, Fifer, 
Gershom Beals, 
Isaac Beals, 
John Bray, 
Elisha Bates, 
Cushing Burr, 
Joshua Beals, Jr., 
Elisha Beals, 
Benj. Barnes, 
Elisha Bates, Jr., 
Joseph Beals, 
Welcome Beals, 
Jaraus Beals, 
Timothy Clark, 
Sherediah Corthell, 
Jas Cushing, 
Rob't Gardner, 
Joshua Gardner, 
John Hearsey, 
Jesse Humphreys, 



Edmund Hobart, 
Ezekiel Horsey, 
Elisha House, 
Joseph Hudson, 
Gideon Howard, 
Abner Joy, 
Jedediah Joy, 
Lot Lincoln, Jr., 
Caleb Leavitt, 
Ephraim Lincoln, 
Joseph Marble, 
Thos Marble, 
James Marble, 
Jonathan Allen, 
James Tower, 
Elisha Merritt, 
Bela Tower, 
Stephen Mansfield, 
Jesse Tower, 
Enoch Stoddar, 
Noah Stoddar, 
Daniel Stoddar, 
Joseph Souther, 
Timothy Thayer, 
Isaac Whitten, 
Stephen Whitten, 
Joseph Wilcutt, 
Thos. Wilcutt. 



This company was on duty eight months at Nantasket. Cap- 
tain Penniman, of Braintree, commanded a company in Colonel 
Francis' regiment. It was composed of men drafted from Hing- 
hani, Dorchester, Braintree, Stoughtenham, and Milton. 

The following are the names of Hinsham men who served with it : 



Theophilus Wilder, 1st Lieut., 

John Blowson, Sergt., 

Daniel Wilder, Corp., 

Bela Tower, Fifer, 

W m Gardenner, Private, 



Laban Tower, Private, 

Jonathan Gardener, " 
David Prouty, " 

Jonathan Farer, " 



Ezekiel Cushing. 



300 History of Hingham. 

" A Pay Roll of Cap* Joseph Trufant's Company Raised for the 
Defense of ye Sea Coast within State of ye Massachusetts from the 
first of December down too the first of January, 1777," contains 
the following names of Hingham men : — 

Thos Bicknell, Sergt., 
Thos Gill, Private, 
Sam 1 Lazell. 

In still another company we find Hingham men serving in the 
year 1776 ; Capt. Abisha Brown, of Concord, commanded a com- 
pany in Col. Josiah Whitney's regiment, which served at Hull ; 
and from a roll of the men in camp there in November we get the 
following names : — 

Nehemiah Sprague, Japeth Hobart, 

Samuel Lazell, Jacob Whiton, 

Thomas Wilder, James Bates. 

September 12, a resolve passed the General Court which pro- 
vided for reinforcing the army at New York, by sending a part of 
the militia; and on the 14th the House of Representatives by a 
resolve concurred in by the Council on the 16th, chose General 
Lincoln to command the men raised for the purpose. 

The town had already sent Lieut. John Burr with fifteen men to 
Ticonderoga, where they joined a company commanded by Cap- 
tain Endicott, and now more were to be raised under the resolve 
of the legislature. During the month, September, Capt. Peter 
Cashing obtained twenty-three, who were sent to New York, and 
in December Capt. Job dishing marched for the same state 
with thirty-seven men credited to Hingham. It has not been 
possible to obtain the names of all of the above, but the roll of 
Capt. Job Cushing's company, augmented to over fifty, is here 
given. Considerable information about its service is obtainable 
from a diary kept by Thomas Burr, a lieutenant in the company, 
who had already served not only in the army of the Revolution, 
but still earlier in the last French war, in which he had also kept 
a journal, and recorded many incidents of the service of a Hing- 
ham company. The roll, which included some Cohasset names, 
was : — 

Job Cushing, Capt., 
Tho 9 Burr, " 1 Lieut., 
Joseph Beal, 2 " 
Isaac Sprague, Sergt., Nathan Gilbert, Corp., 

Jabes Wilder, " Zadock Hersey, Drum., 

Thomas Marsh, " Levi Teakes, Fifer, 

Jerom Lincoln, " Jairus Beal, Private, 

Caleb Pratt, Corp., Gershom Beal, " 

Caleb Joy, " James Bates, ". 

David Beal, " Lazarus A. Beal, " 



Military History. 



301 



Adna Bates, 
Daniel Oushing, 
James Chubbuck, 
Theodore French, 
Thomas Gill, 
Samuel Gill, 
John Gill, 
Gideon Howard, 
William Hobart, 
Caleb Hobart, 
Jeremiah Hersey, 
Hawkes Hobart, 
Edmund Hobart, 
Japheth Hobart, 
John Hunt, 
Benj. Joy, 
Israel Lincoln, 
Beza Lincoln, 



Private, 



u 



u 






a 



u 



u 



u 



« 



it 

it 



it 



Jared Lane, 
Henry Lambert, 
Micah Nichols, 
Ambrose Nichols, 
Luke Orcutt, 
Ephraim Orcutt, 
Hezekiah Ripley, 
James Stodder, 
Daniel Stodder, 
Jacob Stodder, 
Isaiah Stodder, 
Benj. Stetson, 
Stephen Tower, 
Peter Tower, 
Timothy Thayer, 
Benjamin Ward, 
Benjamin White, 
Levi Tower. 



Private, 

a 



a 

a 



a 
a 
it 
a 
it 



These men were in the army at this time from about December 
19, 1776, to April 2, 1777, and perhaps longer. Captain dish- 
ing, like Lieutenant Burr, was an experienced officer ; his com- 
pany marched from Hingham on the former of the above dates, 
through Abington, and afterwards by way of Pawtucket and Provi- 
dence, through Rhode Island and Connecticut, their long journey 
leading them to Hartford and Waterbury among other places. 
Finally they entered New York, arriving at Westchester Jan- 
uary 7th. Brief as are the records in Lieutenant Burr's diary, 
they interest us not a little, for the personal glimpses which are 
afforded by them of the marches and skirmishes and experiences 
of our own townsmen. 

Thus he says under date of Jan. 19: "One of our men killed 
by a cannon ball from the enemy." On the 21st, " Alarmed by 
the Hessians — -they driven back." 23d, "Skirmish — one Lt. 
and 1 men killed." 27th, " Lay in ambush — our cannon played 
on Fort Independence." He tells of marches to Tarrytown, where 
Andre was subsequently captured, and other places in the vicinity ; 
and at last, in February, of the entry into Morristown in New Jer- 
sey. Here were the headquarters of Washington during the win- 
ter succeeding his brilliant achievements at Trenton and Prince- 
ton. Here too our old fighting chaplain appears again, and 
Lieutenant Burr says, under date of February 12 : " Sundav Mr. 
Thaxter preached from Psalms 118-18 & 19 v." March 2d, he held 
forth to his friends and fellow soldiers from home. March 9th, 
the diary tells us that there was a " Skirmish between 2000 of the 
enemy & 1000 of our men — our men beat them back ; " and so 
on. In July Colonel Marshall's and Colonel Whitney's regiments 
were ordered to Canada. In both there were Hingham men, al- 



302 History of Hlngham. 

though there is such confusion in the rolls as to make it practi- 
cally impossible to give names and time of service. 

The town continued as earnest at home in the support of the 
patriot cause as it was active in the field. March 18, 1776, 
Theophilus Cushing, John Fearing, Thomas Loring, Israel Beal, 
and Peter Hobart were chosen a Committee of Correspondence, 
Inspection and Safety ; and May 23d, Benjamin Lincoln, Hezekiah 
Cushing, and Dea. Joshua Ilersey were appointed a committee 
to prepare instructions for the representatives, Enoch Lincoln, 
Theophilus Cushing, and John Fearing, just chosen. This they 
did in the following terms : — 



"O 



» 



To Enoclt Lincoln, Theopftilus Cusliing, and John Fearing : 

Gentlemen, — You are delegated to represent the Town of Hingham 
in the next General Court to be held in this colony ; and although we 
entertain the highest sense of your integrity, patriotism, and ability, of 
which we have given full evidence in appointing you to this weighty trust, 
yet as matters of the greatest importance relative to the freedom and 
happiness not only of this but of all of the United Colonies, on which you 
may wish to have the advice of your constituents, will come before you 
for your determination — you are instructed and directed at all times to 
give your vote and interest in support of the present struggle with Great 
Britain. We ask nothing of her but " Peace, Liberty, and Safety." You 
will never recede from that claim ; and agreeably to a resolve of the late 
House of Representatives, in case the honourable Continental Congress 
declare themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain, solemnly 
to engage in behalf of your constituents, that they will with their lives 
and fortunes support them in the measure. You will also, as soon as may 
be, endeavor to procure a more equal representation of this colony in 
General Assembly ; and that it be b} T fewer members than at present the 
several towns have a right to return ; and when this is affected you will 
give your vote for calling a new house. 

Benjamin Lincoln, Town Clerk. 

It is impossible not to notice the signature, or to avoid giving a 
thought to the man who wrote the words, " Benjamin Lincoln, 
Town Clerk," at the foot of this document. Within a period of a 
little more than a year he had as colonel of his regiment been 
hurrying his men to Lexington and to the investiture of Boston ; 
been chosen by the Council the first of the Committee, upon which 
were also Major Fuller, of Newton, Mr. Singleton, Mr. Durfee, and 
Mr. Dexter, to consider the very important matter of providing 
each of the soldiers composing the army then rapidly gathering 
around Boston with the coats which had been promised as a 
bounty to each man upon enlistment, — from which comes the 
te.m " Coat Rolls," as applied to the lists of the Massachusetts 
troops raised to besiege Lord Howe ; been sent to Washington by 
the Council upon the matter of sea-coast defence ; been promoted 
to be brigadier-general in the colonial establishment ; in May, 
1775, served as a member of the Provincial Congress, of which 



Military History. 303 

body he was also secretary, and in July represented the town in 
the General Court at Watertown, besides being a member of the 
Committee of Correspondence, — one of the most active patriots 
of the day, yet finding time to attend faithfully to the humble 
duties of clerk of his native town. Hingham has ample justifica- 
tion for her pride in Major-General Benjamin Lincoln, of the 
Army of the Revolution. Only the briefest sketch of his life can 
be here given. Born in Hingham, Jan. 24, 1733, he was the son 
of Colonel Benjamin Lincoln, commander of the third Suffolk 
regiment and a member of his Majesty's council. At twenty-one 
years of age young Benjamin was one of the six constables of the 
town, which office he held two years. In 1755 he became adju- 
tant of his father's regiment, and in 1757 was chosen town clerk, 
succeeding his father in that office, who in his turn had, in 1727, 
succeeded his father, also Benjamin Lincoln. In 1763 Mr. Lincoln 
became second major of the regiment. In 1766 he was elected 
one of the selectmen, and held this office during the next live 
years. He became Lieut.-Colonel in 1772, and was in command 
of the regiment at the opening of the Revolution. In 1772 he 
represented the town in the General Court, and was re-elected 
in 1773 and 1774. As already seen, General Lincoln was one of 
the earliest and most prominent in opposing the encroachments 
of the Crown upon the liberties of the people, serving upon the 
town's Committees of Correspondence, Safety, and Militia. His 
services in the Provincial Congress and his activity and useful- 
ness in the opening months of the Revolution have been referred 
to previously. February 8, 1776, he was commissioned brigadier- 
general by Massachusetts, and in the May following major-general. 
During the first year of the war General Lincoln rendered most 
valuable service to the army as a member of the committee on 
supplies ; and the miscellaneous papers at the State House afford 
many instances of most important orders signed by him in that 
capacity. He planned and commanded the successfully executed 
movements which finally drove the enemy from Boston harbor 
in 1776. During the same vcar he commanded the reinforce- 
ments of militia sent by the province to Washington. So urgent 
were the requests of the latter for assistance that every fifth man 
was ordered to respond, the sea-coast towns being exempted at 
this time. While in New York, General Lincoln commanded one 
of the four divisions of the army. Toward the close of the year 
he was appointed to the command of the militia raised in Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut for the defence of Rhode Island. On 
the 19th February, 1777, Stirling, St. Clair, Lincoln, Mifflin, and 
Stephen were commissioned major-generals in the Continental 
service. In the following July General Lincoln was selected by 
Washington to command the New England militia raised to aid 
the Northern army operating against Burgoyne. Gaining the rear 
of the British, Lincoln despatched Colonel Brown to attempt the 
recapture of Ticonderoga and the posts in the vicinity. The 



304 History of Hingham. 

expedition accomplished important results. On the 29th September 
General Lincoln with two thousand men joined the main army 
under Gates, and October 8 he was severely wounded in the leg 
during a skirmish. Before returning to Hingham, it became 
necessary to remove a considerable portion of the main bone, and 
under the painful operation it is said that he exhibited most un- 
common patience and fortitude. It was years before recovery 
from the wound was complete, and it occasioned lameness during 
the remainder of his life. General Lincoln reported for duty at 
the headquarters of the army in the following August, to the great 
gratification of Washington. At the request of the delegates 
from South Carolina and Georgia he was designated by Congress 
to take command of the southern department. He arrived in 
Charleston in December, 1778, and was compelled to form an 
army and raise supplies. In this he showed unconquerable energy 
and perseverance. For nearly a year he kept the English under 
Prevost below the Savannah, and being joined by D'Estaing with 
the French fleet, lie invested Savannah on September 23, 1779. 
October 9th, the combined forces in three columns and led by 
D'Estaing and Lincoln in person, made an assault on the enemy's 
works. The allies were defeated with great loss ; it was here 
that Count Pulaski was killed, with many other gallant officers. 
The siege was immediately raised and the French sailed away, 
leaving Lincoln to contend alone against the victorious army. A 
more unfortunate ending to what promised to be a brilliant cam- 
paign can hardly be conceived. The fault lay with the impatience 
of the French commander, at the necessarily deliberate approaches 
which the siege required, and his determination to abandon the 
attempt unless an immediate assault was undertaken. After the 
disastrous failure to capture the place, General Lincoln retreated 
to Charleston, where he passed the winter in vain endeavors to 
hold an army together and inspire the population with the spirit 
of patriotism and resistance. By March he had only fourteen 
hundred men left, while the town and the surrounding country 
were full of Loyalists. In April Sir Henry Clinton invested 
Charleston with five thousand men, and on May 11th after a re- 
sistance of forty days, General Lincoln surrendered with his whole 
army. His conduct of the campaign has received severe criti- 
cism ; but whatever its merits or demerits, he lost the confidence 
of neither the army nor the country, and when in the following 
spring he again reported for duty, it was to receive from Washing- 
ton an important command. In July he threatened New York, 
but finding it impracticable to attack the English there, withdrew 
under Washington's orders, and with his division marched across 
New Jersey and into Virginia, where he took part in the siege of 
Yorktown. On the 6th of October the first parallel was com- 
menced by troops commanded by General Lincoln, and on the 
19th the garrison surrendered, — Cornwallis' sword being received 
by Lincoln, who as a special honor from Washington was in charge 



Military History. 305 

of the ceremonies. A few days after Congress appointed General 
Lincoln Secretary of War, allowing, him to retain his rank in the 
army. This office he resigned two years later and retired to his 
home at Hingham, receiving most complimentary resolutions from 
Congress. In 1784 he was chosen one of the commissioners to 
make a treaty with the Penobscot Indians. He commanded the 
militia raised to suppress Shays' rebellion in 1786-1787, and by 
the exercise of great energy and tact restored order in a very short 
time. In 1787 he was elected Lieut.-Governor of Massachusetts, 
was commander of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Com- 
pany in 1788, and was a member of the convention which ratified 
the Constitution of the United States. In 1789 Washington ap- 
pointed him the first collector of the port of Boston, which office 
he held nearly twenty years. He was also a commissioner to treat 
with the Creek Indians in 1789, and to effect a treaty of peace with 
the Western Indians in 1793. General Lincoln was one of the 
first members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and 
a member of the Massachusetts Historical Society, contributing 
papers to each. He was also President of the Society of the Cin- 
cinnati from its organization until his decease. He received the 
degree of Master of Arts from Harvard University, in 1780. 

This is the outline of a life which for honorable, untiring useful- 
ness has few equals. We long to fill in the details ; to picture 
the young general of forty-three in command of one of Wash- 
ington's divisions, — the great commander himself but a little 
older ; to tell of his sending the blankets from his own home to 
cover his suffering men in the field ; to recall the spirit and fire 
with which he inspired the militia, and led it to the victory at 
Saratoga ; to follow him while he toils in the swamps of the Caro- 
linas with his handful of men ;' and finally, to witness his triumph 
at Yorktown. We would like, too, to see this pure, brave man in 
the quiet and sweetness of his home-life, among the friends with 
whom he had served in the field, and among whom he loved to 
mingle in the happy peace that followed. For the details of all 
this and much more, there is not room. . General Lincoln was of 
middle height, erect, broad-chested, and muscular, with the air of 
a soldier. He was conspicuous for his frankness, integrity, pru- 
dence, inflexibility, and strong common-sense. He was cool in 
deliberation, and prompt in execution. His private life was with- 
out a stain, and no profane word passed his lips. He was one of 
the organizers of the Third Congregational (Unitarian) Society, 
and until his death among its most active members. There was 
no room in General Lincoln's character for that smallness of 
mind which sneers at religious belief in others, or boasts its ab- 
sence in one's self. In this as in all else he was as sincere as 
modest. Never cowardly in disavowal of the great faith he had, 
and unwilling to permit his convictions to appear in doubt, he was 
also considerate and liberal regarding the opinions and beliefs of 
others. Benjamin Lincoln died May 9, 1810, and he lacked 

vol. i. — 20 



306 



History of Hingham. 




GENERAL LINCOLN'S MONUMENT. 



neither honor nor love in his own town and among his own neigh- 
bors. Not far from the first settlers' monument in the old fort, in 
the quiet part of the cemetery overlooking the town, where great 
pines sing a lullaby, and where all around are the bones and the 
tombs of those he knew and loved, lie the mortal remains of this 
soldier of the Revolution. A stone, plain and massive, of white 
marble, and worthy of the man, marks the spot. On one side are 
the words : 

BENJAMIN LINCOLN 
MAJOR-GENERAL IN THE ARMY OF THE REVOLUTION 

BORN JANUARY 24, 1733 
DIED MAY^ 9, 1810 

And on the other : 

ERECTED BY HIS DESCENDANTS 

1852 

Here on each Memorial Day the beautiful colors of the nation 
which he did so much to found, blend with the sweet flowers 
strewn in honor and memory by the brave men of a later time ; 
and they who bring the laurel and the myrtle for the young lives 
given to their country in 1861 do not forget nor pass by the hero 
who made possible the later sacrifice. 

With the war the town's expenditures increased at a rate that 
must have seemed appalling to the conservative citizens, habitu- 



Military History. 307 

ally economical, and critical of every outlay ; yet they were 
bravely met, and generous sums were voted for the care of the 
soldiers' families, in addition to the other large amounts required. 
Here are some of the items for this year : — 

At the several meetings (of the town) in July Sept. Nov r & Dec r 
[1776] the Town Voted to Raise £G15 14s Sd for the Soldiers who were 
employed in the Continental Service & raised by the Town of Hingham. 

To Hawks Fearing Transporting Cannon to Hull 0-8- 

To D° for Transporting Baggage for Capt. Peter Cushings | _ 9 

Capt Pyam Cushings & Capt. Tho 8 Hearseys Company j 

To 15 Soldiers that were hired to go with Lieut. John Burr to 

Ticonderoga 1-9-5 

To 2.'3 men that were hir'd to go to New York in Sept. Last 

with Capt. Peter Cushing 98-2-8 

To 37 men that were hir'd to go to York in Dec. Last with 

Capt. Job Cushing 316-1-4 

By order of the selectmen Caleb Loring furnished supplies to 
a company or companies from Scituate and Pembroke while at 
Hingham, and his bill, accompanied by a certificate from Benja- 
min Cushing and Joseph Andrews, we find to have been allowed 
by the State. 

The Committee of Correspondence, Inspection, and Safety, 
chosen in March, 1777, were Israel Beal, Samuel Norton, John 
Fearing, Peter Cushing, Thomas Loring, Peter Hobart, and The- 
ophilus Cushing. In June Israel Beal was appointed "to pro- 
cure evidence against such persons as are suspected of being 
inimical to this and the United States of America, in this town." 

Among the large number of vessels of all sizes and descriptions 
in the naval service during the Revolution, was the brig " Haz- 
ard," built by John Peck, of Boston, and carrying sixteen guns. 
She made three successful cruises, the first from October, 1777, to 
May, 1778, under command of Capt. Simeon Sampson; the sec- 
ond in 1778-1779, and the third in 1779, in both of which she was 
commanded by Capt. John Foster Williams. During this period 
— from 1777 to 1779 — she made many prizes, among them the 
British brig " Active," eighteen guns, after an engagement of 
thirty-five minutes. She belonged to the Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts, and was engaged in the unfortunate Penobscot expedi- 
tion in 1779, and in August of that year was burned by her crew 
to save her from falling into the hands of the enemy. Her offi- 
cers and crew were transferred to the " Protector," a fine vessel. 
Among the crew of the " Hazard," were a number of Hingham 
men. Those known are as follows : — 

Walter Hatch, 2d Lieut., Joseph Lincoln, Corporal of 

Stephen Lincoln, Armorer, Marines, 

Samuel Lincoln, Jairus Lincoln, 



308 History of Hingham. 

Royal Lincoln, Zenas Whiton, 

Ezekiel Lincoln, Peter Wilder, 

Jonathan Gushing, Abel Barnes, 

Laban Thaxter, Elias Beal. 

There is some authority for the statement that the " Hazard " 
was in commission in 1776, and that most, if not all, of the above 
were in service with her in that year. Mr. Lincoln, in the " History 
of Hingham," speaks of the four cruises of the " Hazard." 

These men also were undoubtedly on board, in 1778. In ad- 
dition, William Tidmarsh was captain's clerk in this latter year. 

Joseph Lincoln and Jonathan Cushing were captured on board 
a prize of the "Hazard's" and carried prisoners to Halifax, in 
1778 ; in 1780 dishing was a prisoner on the Jersey prison-ship. 
In 1779 Asabel Stodder was in service on the " Hazard." 

Capt. Thomas Melville commanded a company in Col. Craft's 
battalion in 177G and upon his rolls was borne the name of 
William Lewis. 

August, 1777, Isaac Wilder, then only 17 years of age, died in 
captivity at Halifax. 

Hingham had a further part in the naval service of the Revolu- 
tion ; for under date of December 16, 1776, a charter of the 
schooner " Edward," of about 70 tons, was made by Caleb Loring 
to the Board of War, and a little later, on the 8th of January, 
1777, he executed a like paper for the schooner " Hazard," of 60 
tons. He also owned the armed brig " Rising States," which was 
captured by a British frigate. 

The charters of these vessels were very elastic in tlieir provi- 
sions, and no limitations were really placed upon the uses to 
which they were to be put. 

It is extremely difficult to give anything approaching a complete 
history of the militia organizations belonging in Hingham from the 
close of 1776. It is probable that the large number of men in the 
regular service and the frequent drafts for particular expeditions 
and exigencies may have so far depleted the companies belonging 
distinctly to the town as to at last result in their complete disorgani- 
zation, or at least to work such a suspension of their activity as 
make them no longer the subject of particular mention. The last 
record of this kind that has come to notice is the following : — 

Hingham, June 10th, 1777. 
These may Certify that a legal 1 meeting of the Training band and 
alarm list of the first Company in said Town Benjamin Laphain was 
Chosen Capt of Said Company. 

Isaiah Crsmxc, Maj. 

In Council, August 7, 1777, Read and Ordered that Said Officer be 
Commissioned agreeable to his Rank. 

Jas. Avery, By. Secy. 



Military History. 309 

Indeed it may be added that much hereafter given must of neces- 
sity be fragmentary and disconnected, and will rather serve as 
hints of the part the town continued to take in the battle for free- 
dom than a full history of events. It is not possible to fix the 
time or places of service of a large proportion of the men who 
enlisted for Hingham, nor to always state accurately their com- 
panies, regiments, or date of entering the army. 

Among the unwise plans put into execution about this time, and 
which was particularly annoying to Washington and discouraging 
to the men in the regular service, was the enlistment of a force to 
serve in the New England States only. The following is interest- 
ing in this connection : — 

To the Honrable Bord of War : 

Gentlemen, — This may certify that I have Inlisted ten men into the 
Servis of the four New England States, that have past muster that Can- 
not furnish themselves with arms and acuterments. Gentlemen, pleas to 
furnish Lt. Calvin Curtis with arms and acuterments, Sufficient for the 
above Number of men, and you will oblige yours to Serve. In a Regiment 
where of John Roberson, Esq., is Col. 

Seth Stowers, Capt. 

Hingham, July y 8 22 d , 1777. 

There were several expeditions against the enemy in Rhode 
Island planned and attempted in the year 1777, none of which 
were successful, but in all of wdiich Hingham appears to have 
been represented. The first was in February, and a town record 
of a meeting in May is as follows : — 

•■ At the annual meeting in May, the Town voted to raise £ 1172 for pro- 
curing the men for the Continental Army & paying the men that were 
employed in the Rhode Island Expedition for the said town.'' 

The next attempt was in September. Three thousand men 
were raised from Plymouth, Bristol, and Barnstable Counties, 
and the southern parts of Suffolk, Middlesex, and Worcester. 
These, with Colonel Craft's regiment of State artillery and the 
militia under General Hancock, were placed under command of 
General Spencer of the Continental Army. Among these troops 
was the regiment commanded by Colonel Robinson, one of whose 
companies was that of which Seth Stowers was captain and which 
included the following from this town : — 

Seth Stowers, Capt., Isaiah Stodder, 

Joseph Wilder, . Elisha Dunbar, 

Hosea Dunbar, Jonathan Gardner 

David Lincoln, Caleb Leavitt, 

and perhaps others. 

A company in the same expedition, commanded by Capt. Moses 
French, of Weymouth, and in Col. Jonathan Titcomb's regiment 



310 



History of Hingham. 



of militia, on duty from May 15 
Hingham men upon its rolls : — 

Joshua Tower, Lieut., 
Jonathan Hearsey, Sergt., 
David Hearsey, Drummer, 
Jonathan Lewis, Private, 
David Loring, 
Thomas Wilder, 
Peleg Whiton, 
Daniel Dunbar, 
Enoch Dunbar, 



to July 15, bore the following- 



u 



a 



a 



Israel Lincoln, 
Seth Stoel, 
David Cain, 
Melzar Dunbar, 
Amos Dunbar, 
Ezekiel Lincoln, 
Caleb Lcvet, 
Nathaniel Dates, 



Private, 



it. 
it 

u 
u 
a 
u 
li 



In the early part of this year there was a company in ser- 
vice commanded by Captain Pcnniman, of Braintree. The only 
Hingham name then on the roll appears to have been that of 
Thcophilus Wilder, who was 1st Lieut. 

There is another roll, however, of a company serving under com- 
mand of Capt. Thcophilus Wilder, and composed of men from 
Hingham, Stoughton, and Braintree 
were : — 



The names from . lingham 



Thcophilus Wilder, Capt., 
Elisha Lewis, Sergt., 
Laban Tower. Corp., 
Bela Tower, Fifer, 
Ezekiel dishing, Private, 
Jona. Gardner, 
Sanrl Low, 
David Prouty, 

Fazzen, 

Joshua Hobartt, 



a 
a 
a 



Thomas Howard, Private, 

Humphreys '* 

Thomas Howard, Jr., " 

Winston, 

Enoch Dunbar, 
Laban Hunt, 

Whiton, 

Elijah Gardner, 
Thos. Colbart, 
Rufus Tower. 



u 
u 
u 

u 
u 
a 

a 



This company, like Captain Pcnniman's, was undoubtedly in 
Colonel Dike's militia regiment, and probably was in the service 
in the early part of 1777. 

Mr. Lincoln states in his history that there were thirty-three 
men with Capt. Job dishing, in New York, in 1777, but he gives 
no information as to the time of year or location of their service. 
It is much to be regretted that the numbers and names of our 
fellow townsmen who served in the great Northern Campaign of 
this eventful year, cannot be fully given. We know, however, 
that when General Lincoln received his wound at Stillwater, on the 
morning of October 8, he had with him his friends and neighbors 
who had marched at his call, as they had so many times before, both 
for his father and himself. It was at the taking of Burgoync, too, 
that Joshua Ripley, of Colonel Wigglcsworth's regiment, of the 
Continental Line, and Nchemiah Ripley, of Capt. Thcophilus Wil- 
der's company, of Col. Gill's regiment, were killed. Capt. Wilder 
had twenty-eight Hingham men with him at first, and the company 



Jeremiah Gardner, 


Private, 


Nehcmiah Hubburt, 


u 


Benjamin Joy, 


u 


Able Lincoln, 


a 


Israel Lincoln, 


u 


Seth Stowell, 


u 


Stephen Stowell, 


a 


Joshua Stowell, 


u 


Israel Stowell, 


u 


Seth Wilder, 


u 


Peter Whitton, 


u 


Abel Whitton, 


a 



Military History. 311 

was afterwards increased to fifty-two. The following names 
appear upon a roll in August, together with many others not from 
this town : — 

Theophilus Wilder, Capt., 
Abijah Whitton, Sergt., 
Nehcmiah Ripley, Corp., 
Thaddcus Bates, " 
David Harsay, " 

Peter Harsay, Drum-Major, 
Benjamin Barns, Private, 
Canterbury Barns, " 
Ambross Bates, " 

Thomas Chubbuck, " 
Sherebiah Corthwill, " 
Stephen Gardner, " 

Two items of money voted by the town in 1778, for expenses 
incurred in the previous year, are certainly suggestive, although 
there is no further evidence of the presence of Hingham men at 
General Stark's victory on August 16th. 

They are an allowance of ,£133 to Captain Wilder for travelling 
fees for one hundred and ninety miles to Bennington, and £ 7-4-6 
paid " to Tho s Chubbuck for so much due for Transporting the 
Soldiers Baggage to Bennington.'"' 

While the town was' earnestly performing its allotted part 
towards the general conduct of the war, it was not unmindful of 
its own defence, as we sec by the following requisition : — 

Hingham, August 1st, 1777. 

Sir. — Please to deliver to Mr. Israel Beal, the bearer hereof, 250 weight 

of powder, 50 weight JIusquet Ball, and 500 flints for the use of the Town 

of Hingham, & you '11 oblige yours, 

rr .i n • rt i Ben.i. Gushing, ) „ , 

lo the Commissary- General T T ( selectmen of 

. , XT , - Joshua Leavitt, ,- u- i 

at Water town. T . ( Hinqham. 

Joseph Andrews, ) J 

There is great difficulty in determining with certainty the 
names of men who enlisted into the Continental regular service 
during particular years ; the very multiplicity of rolls and lists 
with differing headings adds to the confusion. When, as is fre- 
quently the case, town and private records are really or seemingly 
at variance with these, entire accuracy becomes out of the ques- 
tion. From these and other causes it may happen that names 
deserving of honorable mention are omitted entirely, and that 
others get misplaced. The following appear to have served in 
Hingham's quota for three years, enlisting in 1777. Non-residents 
are indicated, when it is known, by the name of the town to which 
they belonged immediately following their own names ; the cap- 
tains and colonels under whom these soldiers served are also 
indicated. 



312 



History of Mingham. 





Captain 


Colonel 


Nathaniel Coit Allen, 


Marshall, 


Marshall. 


Elisha Bate, 


Alden, 


Bay ley. 


James Cook, 


Pilsbury, 


Wigglesworth. 


John Davis, 


Langdon, 


Jackson. 


George Douty, Falmouth, 


Blaisdell, 


Wigglesworth. 


William Ellery, Boston, 


Langdon, 


Jackson. 


Robert Ford, " 


u 


" (deserted) 


Joseph Falmouth, Falmouth, 


Lunt, 


Alden. 


Adam Fernando, Boston, 


Langdon, 


Jackson. 


Elisha Gardner, 


Briant, 


Crane. 


Castle Gardner, 


Light Horse. 


Jacob Gardner, 


Williams, 


Grcaton. 


Thomas Gosling, Boston, 


Allen, 


Alden. 


Samuel Green, " 


Ellis, 


Bigelow. 


Jacob Gurney, " 


Langdon, 


Jackson. 


Daniel Golden (also called 






Gould), Falmouth. 


Ellis, 


Bigelow. 


John Gray, Jr., Boston, 


Langdon, 


Jackson. 


John Griggs, " 


it 


tt 


Charles Hard man, " 


Allen, 


Alden. 


Adam Henry, " 


Langdon, 


Jackson. 


Joseph Hobart, 


Pilsbury, 


Wigglesworth. 


Thomas Hassell, 


Tuckerman, 


Patterson. 


Daniel Hearsey, 


Light Horse. 


Jesse Humphrey, 


Williams, 


Grcaton. 


James Hisket, Boston, 


Langdon, 


Jackson. 


Peter Huson, " 


tl 


u 


Thomas Kilby. u 


{.. 


U 


Bela Leavitt, 


Briant, 


Crane. 


Caleb Lincoln, 


a 


u 


Urbane Lewis, 


Allen, 


Bay ley. 


Marsh Lewis, 


a 


u 


Lot Lincoln, Jr., 


Pilsbury, 


Wigglesworth. 


Daniel Low, 


Marshall, 


Marshall. 


James Love, Boston, 


Langdon, 


Jackson. 


John Lewis, " 


n 


u 


Emmanuel Lorel, " 


« 


a 


Isaac Lane, Buxton 






William Murphy, Boston, 


Allen, 


Alden. 


Ichabod Meakum, " 


Langdon, 


Jackson. 


Plato McLean, " 


Ellis 


Bigelow. 


Wm. McCandy, Falmouth, 


Lunt, 


Alden. 


Plato McLellan 






(a negro), " 


Ellis, 


Bigelow. 


Joseph McConner, " 






Clem Pennel, " 


Ellis, 


Bigelow. 


William Palding, Hingham or 






Boston, 


Langdon, 


Jackson. 



Military History. 



313 



Smith, 


Patterson. 


Alden, 
Briant, 

u 


Wigglesworth 
Bayley. 
Crane. 


Seward, 

Williams, 

Alden, 

Allen, 

Langdon, 


u 

Greaton. 
Bayley. 
Alden. 
Jackson. 

U 


Briant, 

Allen, 

Brown, 


Crane. 
Alden. 
Jackson. 


Lane, 
Allen, 
Blasdel, 


Alden. 
Alden. 
Patterson. 



Nathan Patridge, Falmouth, 
Thomas Ruinrill, Boston, 
Joshua Ripley, 
Hezekiah Ripley, 
Nathaniel Stodder, 
William Spooner, 
Abel Sprague, 
Hosea Stoddar, 
Joseph Stockbridge, 
Jonathan Sayer, Boston, 
John Scott, " 

John Simmonds, " 
Henry Thomson, 
Henry Tibbits, Boston, 
Israel Whiton, 
John Woodman, Paxton (said 

also to be Hingham), 
Thomas Wilton, Boston, 
Mark Wilson, Falmouth, 

Among the most faithful soldiers of the Revolution was Daniel 
Hearsey. We found him first in Capt. Charles Cushing's com- 
pany besieging Boston ; afterwards he enlisted in the Continental 
service in Knox's Artificers, and subsequently his name appears 
upon the rolls of Col. William Washington's celebrated regiment 
of Light Horse, where he was a trooper for three years, having 
for a comrade his townsman Castle Gardner. Finally, he closes 
his military career as a member of " His Excellency Gen'l Wash- 
ington's Guards, commanded by Henry Collfax," according to 
the State House records. Colonel Collfax's name was, however, 
W T illiam, not Henry as stated. 

Joseph Cook aiso served in the Second Regiment, Colonel 
Greaton, and the Sixteenth, Col. Henry Jackson ; Marsh Lewis 
was subsequently in the regiment of invalids, commanded by Col- 
onel McFarland. Mark Wilson served at one time in Captain 
Smart's company of Wigglesworth's regiment. Perez Gardner, 
according to Mr. Lincoln, not only served in Colonel Yose's regi- 
ment, but was also in Captain Flint's company of Colonel John- 
son's militia regiment at the taking of Burgoyne ; was six months 
on guard in Captain Foster's company at Cambridge, took part 
in the Rhode Island campaign under the same officer, and in 
Mcintosh's regiment in 1778, and subsequently in the campaign 
in that State in 1780, under Captain Wilder of Gill's regiment ; 
was eighteen or twenty months in Captain Warner's company in 
Colonel Craft's Artillery. He was three years in the Continental 
service in Captain Hitchcock's and Captain Mills's companies. 
Though not given in the above list, Mr. Lincoln says that serving 
with Mr. Gardner in the Continental service were Joshua Tower, 



314 History of Hingham. 

killed at Morrisania ; Jack , a negro, killed also in New- 
York ; James Bates, and James Hayward, who both died at West 
Point ; Solomon Loring ; and John Daniels. 

During this year (1777) the disastrous battle at the Brandywine 
was fought. It was the 11th September, a hot, windy day, the 
air filled with dust to which clouds of smoke were soon added, 
when the American Army under Washington made its stand 
against Howe, with the hope of a victory which might save the 
capital. The mistakes of General Sullivan, the losses of Wayne, 
the skill of Green in checking the enemy, the heavy losses of the 
patriots and the final retreat to Germantown, are matters of his- 
tory. Among the troops engaged in this unfortunate affair was 
Colonel Crane's famous regiment of artillery from Massachu- 
setts, one of whose companies was commanded by David Briant, a 
brave officer, who received a mortal wound and died the next da v. 
Upon the fall of Captain Briant the command devolved upon 
Lieut. Joseph Andrews, of Hingham, who, although wounded, 
continued to serve his guns with great courage for an hour longer, 
when he, too, was mortally wounded by a cannon-ball, and died on 
November 22d following, after great suffering, aged twenty years. 
More than forty years afterwards Lafayette, who was himself 
wounded at the same time, spoke of Lieutenant Andrews's per- 
sistent bravery. Besides Lieutenant Andrews there were from 
Hingham in this company, Caleb Bates, a sergeant, also killed in 
the battle ; Levi Bicknell. wounded : Nathaniel Stoddard, Samuel 
Bicknell, Elijah Gardner, Thomas Gushing, and William Sprague, 
who were in the engagement, and Bcla Leavitt, Luther Lincoln, 
and Caleb Lincoln, then with the Northern Army. 

Following Brandywine and the later repulse at Germantown 
came the terrible winter at Valley Forge, with its sufferings and 
privations. In the bitter experiences of that encampment many 
of the Continental soldiers from Hingham participated. The his- 
tory of the Massachusetts regiments is their history, and wher- 
ever the names of the Jacksons, Greaton, Wiggiesworth, Rufus 
Putnam, Crane, Alden, Bayley, Marshall, Bigelow, and Patterson 
appear leading their commands in victory, caring for them in 
privation, cheering them in defeat, there will be found filling 
their ranks, carrying out their orders, and standing with them in 
the heat of battle, the sturdy citizens of Hingham who enlisted 
" for the war." A number of the Continental soldiers in the lists 
given were subsequently promoted and held commissions in the 
service : their names and rank will appear hereafter. 

In 1778 the Committee of Safety were Thomas Burr, Jacob 
Leavitt, Abel Hersey, Enoch Whiton, and Peter Hobart. 

The constant fear of a return of the English to Boston, and the 
necessity of providing against pillaging and foraging incursions 
into the country along the coast, required the exercise of unceas- 
ing vigilance on the part of the State and local authorities. How 



Military History. 



315 



cheerfully and faithfully Massachusetts performed her duty in 
this as in her every relation to the Revolutionary struggle is 
known to all familiar with American history, yet it may not be 
amiss to recall that when Congress voted to raise eighty-eight 
regiments, of which this State's quota was fifteen, sixteen were 
enlisted besides Crane's fine regiment of artillery, — a number 
soon after augmented by two additional regiments and Ar- 
mand's artillery legion, Congress having determined to raise six- 
teen additional battalions, — and that one half the whole burden 
of the war, as measured by the numbers of men furnished the 
Continental ranks, was borne by her. Based upon annual terms 
of service, Massachusetts had 67,907 men in the army, besides 
many thousands in her own pay for New England and purely 
local defence. Her militia was frequently in active service, and 
she was obliged to maintain constantly a force sufficient to garri- 
son the posts within her territory. Among these, as previously 
remarked, were the defences at Nantasket, aud upon Hingham 
a large part of this duty devolved throughout the war. Major 
Thomas Lothrop was in command in 1778, and under date of 
February 27 we have a roll of Capt. Peter Cushing's Company 
then on duty there. It is as follows : — 



Peter dishing, Capt. 
Noah Hearsey, Sergt. 
Thomas Jones, " 
Samuel Hobart, " 
Daniel Cushing, " 
Daniel Hobart, Corp. 
David Burr, " 

David Beal, Jun " 
Zadock Hearsev Drum, 
David Andrews, Private, 
Lot Lincoln, " 

Enoch Stodder, " 

Tho s Waterman, " 

Benj n Stowel, " 

Bradford Hearsey, " 
Wellcom Lincoln, " 
Jesse Bate, 
Job Lincoln, 
Nat h Gill, 
Jacob Beal, 
Jon a Lincoln, 
Seth Lincoln, 
Joseph Hamen, 



u 



u 



u 



u 



Nath u Fearing, Private, 

Joshua Lincoln, 

John Gill, 

Will m Hobart, 

Abel Fearing, 

Caleb Hobart, 

John Jones, 

Isaac Gardner, 

Isaiah Hearsev, 

Abijah Hearsey, 

Jeremiah Hearsey, 

Shubael Fearing, 

Benj. Jacob, 

Jeremiah Sprague, 

Benj n Joy, 

Joseph Mansfield, 

Laban Hunt, 

Noah Stodder, 

Reuben Stephenson, 

Peter Loring, 

Tho s Cushing, 

Hawkes Fearing, 



u 
u 

u 
ii 
u 

u 

u 



a 

u 
a 

a 

u 
a 
a 
a 
a 
a 



Early in this year also we find Lieut. Jabez Wilder with a num- 
ber of men forming a part of the garrison. The date is the same 



316 History of Hingham. 

as the last, February 27, and the roll terms the command a " half 
company." The names given are — 

Lt. Jabez Wilder, Theoph. Wilder, James Tower, 

Edward Wilder, Theoph. Cushing, Solomon Whiton, 

Thomas Cushing, Abel Whiton, Benj. Ward, 

David Gardner, Labin Tower, David Chubbuck, 

Zenas Wilder, Robert Gardnier, Jonathan Farron, 

John Hearsey, Zach. Whiton, Benj. Whiton. 

Seth Stowars, Bela Tower, 

Jabez Wilder, who was a brother of Capt. Theophilus Wilder, 
subsequently held the rank of captain, being commander of the 
third company of the Second Suffolk Regiment. He resided on 
Free Street, near Main, and after the war moved to Chesterfield. 

Captain Wilder's company was ordered to Hull soon after, and 
his roll in April contains the following names : — 

Theophilus Wilder, Capt. Benj. Whiton, Private, 

Theophilus Cushing, Sergt. Jona. Loring, " 

Thomas Jones, " Joseph Mansfield, " 

Elisha Marsh, " Benj. Joy, 



u 



Bela Tower, Fifer, Jona. Loring, Jr. 

Thos. Cushing, Corp. Benj. Cushing, 

Joseph Beal, " Joseph Souther, " 

David Lincoln. Private, John Wilcutt, " 

Martin Tower, lfc Mordecai Lincoln, " 

Enoch Stoddar, " John Hunt, " 

Shubael Fearing, " Zachariah Hunt, " 

Abel Fearing, " Ephraim Burrell, " 

John Jones, " Eben'r Joy, " 

Elijah Lewis, " Laban Cushing, " 

Solomon Whiton, " John Wild. " 

Although a Hingham company, a few of the above may have 
been residents of Weymouth or Cohasset. 

The following return of the selectmen tells the story of the 
manner in which quotas were sometimes filled in those days, as 
well as a good many years later. 

" A return of the men procured by the town of Hingham to 
make up their quota of the seventh part of the male inhabitants 
of said town : — 

John Murphy, May, 1778, Greaton's Reg 1 , 
Patrick Dunn, June, 1778, Col. Crane's, 
Lieney Gesbuct, " " ' " " 

Israel Beal \ 

Theo s Cushing > Selectmen of Hingham. 

Cha s Cushing ) 

David Cushing, Colo." 



Military History. 317 

The same officers make another return, showing that Nathan 
Thisining enlisted in Col. Henley's regiment in May, while in 
June, 

Jaspar Mason, Esriglolm Millery, 

Christian Rouschorn, Jonas Foughel, 

Conrad Workman, Peter Dushen, 

Frederick Gateman, Amada Bourdon, 

John Dager, Frederick Bower, 

Joseph Teot or Scot, John Rodsfell, 

John Wielele, Christopher Creigor, 

as Hingham men swore to uphold the Republic in Col. Crane's 
Artillery. It is difficult to avoid a slight suspicion that these 
men may have been a part of the deserting Hessians from Bur- 
goyne's army, whose enlistment by Massachusetts called forth 
vigorous remonstrance from Washington, and soon ceased. The 
town fathers appear to have been at least not deficient in shrewd- 
ness, however, for these recruits were en2"ao;ed for three vears 
and credited to Hingham for the long term although the period 
required under the call of Congress at that time was only nine 
months. Let us hope that these swiftly made citizens and eager 
patriots upheld the honor of the town while serving under their 
new colors. 

In July of this year, the French fleet under D'Estaing appeared 
off Newport, and the Admiral and Gen. Sullivan, who commanded 
in Rhode Island, prepared to drive the enemy from the State. 
Two Continental brigades from the main armv was sent under 
Lafayette, and the Massachusetts militia marched under John 
Hancock as Major-General, at the same time. The whole force 
numbered ten thousand men, and great hopes were entertained of 
its success. They were doomed to be disappointed, however, and 
after nearly a month of fruitless delays, the Americans evacuated 
the island after having fought one unsatisfactory battle. The 
following Hingham men took part in the attempt : — 

Benj. Jacob, Thos. Joy, 

Elijah Lewis, Japath Hobart, 

Benj. Joy, Moses Whiton, 

Kent Simmonds, Jonathan Gardner. 

They were probably members of a company of which John 
Lincoln was a lieutenant, and were paid by the town £ 122. 

Hon. Solomon Lincoln says there were nineteen other Hingham 
men engaged six weeks in Rhode Island, and also twenty -two in 
a Capt. Baxter's company for the same length of time. The 
names of the latter are here given : — 

Zachariah Whiton, 2 Lieut., Able Whiton, 

Robert Gardner, Serg't, Jonathan Farrar, 

Ambross Bates, " Levit Lane, 

Jacob Joy, Thomas Willder, 



318 History of Hingham. 

Robart Willder, Stephen Stodder, 

Isaiah Hearsey, Isaac (?) Whiton, 

Cushing Burr, Elishe Whiton, 

Ruben Hearsey, James Stodder, 

Charls Burr, Cornelus Bates, 

Canterbury Barns, Zebulon Willcutt, 

Daniel Wilder, Jacob Lincorn. 
Thomas Stodder, 

Captain Baxter was from Braintree, from which town also came 
a large part of his company. Lieut. Whiton subsequently appears 
to have become a captain, and is spoken of with distinction in 
Thacher's " Military Journal." Colonel Mcintosh commanded 
the regiment. 

The Dorchester Heights works were also garrisoned by a com- 
pany consisting of thirty -four men, under Capt. Elias Whiton for 
three months. Captain Whiton. who early in the war had also served 
as lieutenant in Capt. Pyam Cushing's company when stationed at 
Dorchester, was taken with the small-] >ox and died in the service, 
aged thirty-five years. Almost at the same time Captain Whiton's 
elder brother, Capt. Enoch Whiton, who also had commanded 
a company in the Revolution died, aged forty-five years. A third 
brother, Elijah, was a soldier in the same war. They were all 
residents of South Hingham, near Liberty Plain. The town re- 
cords show that the thirty-four men were paid out of the town trea- 
sury ,£402-2 for their services. The company belonged to Colonel 
Lyman's regiment of Guards ; its roll was - — 

Elias Whiton, Capt. Jon a Hobart, 

Zachariah Whiton, Lieut., Joshua Beals, 

Samuel Hobart, " Will m Hobart, 

John Cushing, Thomas Sprague, 

Thomas King, Samuel Leavitt, 

James Tower, Thomas Joy, 

Joshua Stowel, Abel Whiton, 

David Gardner, Jacob Dunbar, 

Ezekiel Hearsey, Peter Tower, 

John Hearsey, Jonathan Farrow, 

Thomas Chubbuck, Jeremiah Gardner, 

Jonathan Gardner, David Chubbuck, 

Caleb Leavitt, David Loring, 

David Lamman, Laban Tower, 

John Hobart, Seth Wilder, 

Benj n Stowel, Esquir Hook. 
Nehemiah Hobart, 

After the surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga, Oct. 17, 1777, 
his army was conducted to Boston, and quartered at Cambridge, 
where it remained until November, 1779. During the intervening 
period the duty of furnishing guards devolved largely upon the 
militia of Massachusetts, and of this, Hingham had a full share. 



Military History. 319 

It is not possible to give accurate lists of the men engaged in this 
and the similar service of caring for and protecting the Continen- 
tal stores at Boston and Watertown, so imperfect are the rolls. 
The town records contain items of payments to men recruited for 
these purposes. One, in 1778, would seem to indicate that there 
were seven of our townsmen with Capt. Benjamin Beal, but " a 
pay abstract of Capt. Benj. Beal company of militia and Col. Jacob 
Garish (regt) Drafted in July 1778, to Guard the Troops of Con- 
vention and the Stores In and About Boston " contains the 
following names of undoubted citizens. The regiment was Colonel 
Gerrish's. 

Benj. Beal, Capt., Moses Gardner, 

Peter Dunbar, Lieut., Joshua Stowell, 

Joshua Beal, Sergt., Jedediah Joy, 

Caleb Marsh, Corp., Seth Wilder, 

David Ilearsey, Drum, Daniel Dunbar, 

Joseph Hobbard, Hosea Dunbar, 

Stephen Mansfield, Melzer Dunbar. 

Also " Capt Benj. Lapham Compy in Col. John Reeds Regt., 
in service of the United States, at Cambridge, taken from 2 April, 
1778, to July 3, 1778," has upon its roll : — 

Jos. Tower, Sergt. James Lewes, 

Daniel Stodard, Corp., Rich d Tower. 

The town disbursements for the year contain items for the pay- 
ment of three men employed in guarding Continental stores, nearly 
three months, twenty men " for guarding Gen 1 Burgoynes army, 
at Cambridge, 4 months & 26 days," " to 11 men for Guarding 
the Continental Stores in Boston 2 months 11 days." 

At the town meeting held in February, there was a tax laid of 
.£2370 of which £ 195-7-2 was for the procuring of Continental 
soldiers, for three years ; £ 1274-12-10 for paying the men em- 
ployed in the expedition against General Burgoyne ; £300 for 
guarding General Burgoyne's army at Cambridge, and £300 for 
defraying the usual expenses of the town. Subsequently we find 
Joshua Leavitt paid for a gun lent the town, and Jacob Leavitt for 
painting the carriage and wheels of the cannon ; also David Beal for 
assisting in transporting powder from Watertown to Hingham. 
There are, besides these, payments to Capts. Benj. Lapham, Elias 
Whiton, and Peter Cushing, for serving as committees to hire 
soldiers. 

There is a roll of Captain Stowers' company showing service from 
August to November of this year; the location of its employment 
is not indicated, but its roll contains, in addition to the names 
given as members of the same command, in August, 1776, the 
following : — 



■•& 



Sam'l Stodder, Daniel Beal, 

Reuben Stodder, Thos. Lincoln, 



320 



History of Hingham. 



Job Mansfield, 
Stephen Whiton, 
Benj. Barnes, Jr., 
Luke Orcutt, 



Jacob Whiton, 
Caleb Leavitt, 
Enoch Leavitt. 



October 1, 1778, General Lafayette was in Hingham and lodged, 
with his servant, at the Anchor Tavern, then standing upon the 
present location of Mr. William 0. Lincoln's house, on South Street, 
and a favorite resort of the French officers at Nantasket. It was a 
famous hostelry in its day , and was occupied as a private dwelling by 
Governor Andrew in the early part of the Civil War. Lafayette 
was on his way to Hull, where he was going to inspect the fortifi- 
cations at that place. He was dressed in a blue coat with buff 
trimmings, the regular uniform of an American officer, and at- 
tracted much attention. Upon the news of his death many years 
after, all the bells in town were rung. 

Among other curious documents in the State House are certain 
inventories showing the amount of clothing received from the 
several towns for the public service. One, dated Dec. 17th, 1778, 
shows that Hingham furnished 128 shirts, 69 pairs of shoes, and 
102 pairs of stockings ; being much more than by any other town 
in the county with the exception of Boston. 

The great difficulty of ascertaining precisely the date of en- 
listment of many of those who entered the Continental service 
lias been intimated. In addition to the names previously given, 
the following would seem to have entered the army in 1778 : — 



Alexander Atkins, Boston, 

Gershom Bcal, 

Caesar Blake, 

Maxitinde Basasobel, Boston, 

Thomas Burke, 

Caleb Bates (killed), 

Simeon Butler, 

Wm. Booding, 

Ezekiel Bragdon, Braxton, 

Abel Cushing, 

Isaac Crosby, Waltham, 

John Carter, Boston, 

Ronald Cameron, " 

Wm. Clarke, Pownalboro, 

John Clark, 

James Dishet, 

Perez Gardner, 

Isaac Gardner, 

Jesse Humphrey, 

Joseph Hobart, 

Daniel Hearsey, 

Peter Husen, Boston, 



Captain 


Colonel 


Langdon, 


Jackson, 


Winship, 

Alden, 
Allen, 


Putnam, 

Bayley, 
Alden, 


Langdon, 


Jackson, 


Burbeck, 


Crane's Artil., 


Langdon, 


Jackson, 


Lane, 


Nixon, 


Lane, 


Shepard, 
Alden, 


Langdon, 


Jackson, 
« 


Bayley, 


u 



Vose, 

Williams, Greaton, 

Pilsbury, Wigglesworth, 

Light Horse, 
Langdon, Jackson, 



Military History. 321 

Captain Colonel 

Luther Lincoln, Briant, Crane, 

John Mansfield (dead), Bayley, 

Ebenczer Ripley, 

Caesar Scott. Alden, 

Moses Stoddar, 

Joseph Wilcott. Burbeck, Crane. 

Tn September of 1778 General Lincoln was placed in command 
of the department of the South. A brief account has already been 
given of his persistent efforts to raise an army, and of the long 
struggle for supremacy which finally terminated at Charleston, 
in May, 1780, by the surrender of the town, with the garrison, to 
Sir Henry Clinton. 

The Committee of Safety in 1779 were Samuel Norton, Dr. 
Thomas Thaxter, Capt. Theophilus Wilder, Capt. Charles Cushing, 
and Joseph Thaxter. 

The military service performed by Hingham men during this 
year was very considerable, besides that rendered by the soldiers of 
"the Continental regiments with Washington and elsewhere, but the 
records are so incomplete that but little detail can be given. The 
English evacuated Rhode Island in the autumn of 1779, but they 
had no intention of permanently abandoning the State, and the 
fear of their return necessitated the employment of a considerable 
American force for its defence until the close of the war. 

A pay roll for December, 1779, of Capt. Luke Howell's company 
in Col. Nathan Tyler's regiment, on duty in Rhode Island, contains 
the names of the following Hingham men : — 

John Lincoln, Lieut., Jonathan Farrow, Jr., Private, 

Ezekiel Hersey, Drum, Jacob Whitton, 



Elijah Lewis, Private, William Gardner, 

Elisha Beals, " Nathaniel Bates 

Jonathan Farrow, " 






In the same State there were six men in Capt. Job Cushing's 
command, and seven men for five months in the company in which 
Jacobs was a lieutenant. 

There were also four men engaged upon guard duty at Boston, 
who were probably Robert Gardner, Jonathan Gardner, Elijah 
Whiton, Jr., and James Hay ward. They certainly received pay 
from the town for service in Boston this year. 

Lieut. Elijah Beal, who resided at West Hingham and who at 
the time was about twentv-nine vcars of age, was stationed at 
Claverack, New York, with fifteen of his townsmen. Efforts to 
ascertain their names have not met with success. 

This year, too, saw Capt. Theophilus Wilder adding active 
military duty to the service he was giving his country in the 
support of the war as a civilian, and again we find him with 

VOL. I. — 21 



322 History of Hingham. 

his company, this time containing eighteen Hingham patriots, in 
the fort at Hull. This roll, like several others of 1779, has not 
been found. Hon. Solomon Lincoln states that Lieut. John Lin- 
coln commanded a company at Rhode Island in Webb's regiment 
from Sept. 1, 1779, to Jan. 1, 1780, in which were several soldiers 
from Hingham. 

The records preserve the names of only the following as enlist- 
ing in the Continental service during 1779 ; they appear to be 
re-enlistments : — 

James Cook, Capt. Bradford, Col. Bayley, 



Joseph Stockbridge 



a. 



o^? 



Jacob Gardner, Col. Greaton. 

The town appropriations for war purposes had by this time be- 
come very large, although it must not be forgotten that the}* were 
in a very much depreciated currency. 

In October it was voted to "raise £6000 for the purpose of 
paying the soldiers that went to do duty in the State of Xcw 
York." The following indicate services not otherwise recorded : 

To Zacli h Whiton for his service to Rhode Island in 1778 £41-17 

To Jothain Loriug for his service in Canada omitted £ 1 8. 

There were also payments for large amounts of beef and salt 
purchased for the soldiers, and as in every other year of the war, 
generous sums were voted for soldiers' families. We have these 
records also : — 

To Jon? Hearsev towards his service at Rhode Island £22- 0-0 

To David Hearsev for D° 39- 2-0 

To Elisha Beal for D° 35-17-0 

To Ezek 1 Hearsey for D° 44-1 8-8. 

The names of four more of Hingham's soldiers are thus indi- 
cated, although no light is thrown on the particular expedition in 
which they served. 

Perhaps no better examples can be selected to illustrate the ex- 
traordinary depreciation of the paper currency than the following: 

To Capt. Setli Stowers for 7 Bush 1 Corn for the Soldiers who 

went to Rhode Island £63-0-0 

To Bradford Hearsey for a p r shoes to Hosea Stodder £4-4-9. 

In July an expedition against the British post at Penobscot was 
fitted out by Massachusetts. Colonel Lovell, who sometime before 
had become a brigadier-general in the militia, was one of the com- 
manders, and, as already said, the brig " Hazard " which took part 
in the expedition, had a number of Hingham men in her crew. 
Upon the promotion of Colonel Lovell, which took place in 1777. 
David Gushing of Hingham became colonel ; Thomas Lothrop of 



Military History. 323 

Cohasset, lieutenant-colonel ; Isaiah Cushing of , major ; 

Samuel Ward of Hingham, second major ; and the members and 
officers of the Hingham companies were : 2d, Benjamin Laphain, 
Capt., Herman Lincoln, 1st Lieut., Joseph Beal, 2d Lieut. ; 
3d, Jabez Wilder, Capt,,Zach. Whiting, 1st Lieut., Robt. Gardner, 
Jr., 2d Lieut. ; Oth, Peter Gushing, Capt., Thos. Burr, 1st Lieut., 
Thos. Fearing, 2d Lieut. 

The following served seven months in Gazee's Rhode Island 
company of artillery ; the year is not certainly known, but it is 
probable that at least a portion of this time was included in the 
\ ear 1779 : Enoch Dunbar, Amos Dunbar, Daniel Dunbar, Melzar 
Dunbar, Luther Gardner, and Peleg Whiton. 

In 1780 the Committee of. Correspondence, Inspection, and 
Safety consisted of Israel Beal, Capt. Charles Cushing, Ebenezer 
Cushing, Joshua Leavitt, and Isaac Wilder, Jr. 

In July of this year General Heath asked for reinforcements 
for his araiy in Rhode Island, an attack on Newport being threat- 
ened by Sir Henry Clinton. Under this call Capt. Theophilus 
Wilder marched with his company, belonging to Ebenezer Thayer's 
regiment, and served three months. The roll of Hingham men 
is given below : — 

Theophilus Wilder, Capt., Jerem h Gardner, 

Thomas Venson, Lieut., Perez Gardner, 

Walter Hatch, 2d Lieut,, Elisha Whitten, 

Peter Wilder, Scrgt.-Major, Con r Barns, 

Elijah Lewis, Sergt., Isra Whitten, 

Isaiah Hearsey, " Amos Dunbar, 

Uriah Beals, ' " Sher Corthwell, 

Ezra Gardner, Corp., Abel Cushing, 

Israel Stowell, " Cushen Burr, 

Peter Hearsey, Drum, John Cushing, 

Bcla Tower, Fife, Mola h Tower, 

Jacob Canterbury, Laban Cushing, 

Be Cushing, Jerem 1 ' Hersey, 

Eliph. Ripley, Ezekel Harsey, 

Stephen Stowell, Israel Hearsey, 

John Hearsey, John Dill, 

Zedeok Harsey, Nathaniel Dill, 

Dan 1 Harsey, Joseph Jones, 

Jon Gardner, Caleb Cushen. 
Stephen Gardner, 

The urgent need of soldiers frequently induced the States to 
authorize enlistments for short terms, much against the judgment 
of Washington, and greatly to the injury of the service and the 
country. The town of Hingham supplied few men by authority of 
these acts, and, as already stated, under a nine months call, in one 



324 History of H Ingham. 

instance at least, enlisted her quota for three years. Indeed, most 
of the men joining 1 the Continental service and credited to Hing- 
ham were for the long term, and many have against their names 
the large letters " D. W.," which mean " During the War." The 
following, however, joined the army for six months, "agreeable 
to a resolve of the General Court of the fifth of June," 1780 : Lot 
Lincoln, Jesse Humphrey, James Bates, Daniel Woodward, Levi 
Gardner, Ezekiel disking, Leavitt Lane. They were sent to 
Springfield, and thence to the army under Captain Soaper, Cap- 
tain Burbank, and Lieutenant Cary, in July, August, and October. 
Mr. Lincoln says that there were also five men on duty as guards 
at Boston. 

At a town meeting held on the 13th of June it was voted to 
raise thirty thousand pounds toward paying the soldiers, and four 
thousand pounds to purchase clothing for the Continental army. 

The town records also show large sums of money paid for beef, 
blankets, wood, corn, etc., supplied the army upon requisition 
from the State. In one instance, however, the General Court 
threatened a fine of twenty per cent if a requisition was not 
promptly responded to ; and the town voted " to comply, provided 
it be not brought as a precedent in future time;" this was in the 
year 1781. 

This latter year Samuel Norton, Capt. Charles Cushing, Heman 
Lincoln, Capt. Peter Cushing, and Elisha Cushing, Jr., were 
chosen as the Committee of Correspondence. 

Under a resolve of the General Court passed December 2, the 
following enlisted into the Continental service for three years, or 
the war ; the bounties paid are also given : — 

Henry Shepperd £51 Thomas Lightfoot £60 

John Daniels 108 Reuben Wright 55-10 

Lewes Freeman GO Amos Adams 51-12 

Emmuel Busson 60 Francis Comer 63 
James Cook 61-4 

The following furnishes an illustration of the means by which 
some of these men were secui'ed : — 

Hingham, Dec. 24, 1781. 

These may certifie that I the Subscriber Hired Emmuel Bussen for the 

class whereof I am Chairman & that He passed muster the 8 th day of No- 

vemb r past, and that He engaged to Serve three years in the Continental 

Army ; also that I gave Sixty pounds for his so engaging in Hard money. 

John Thaxter. 

Others enlisting this year and receiving a bounty were — 

Isaac Gardner, Jack Freeman, 

Juba or Tuba Freeman, Benj" Jacobs, 

Absolum Davis, Caesar Blake, 



Military History. 325 

Thomas Newell, Daniel Dill, 

Jesse Humphrey, Abel Gushing, 

Lot Lincoln, James Hayward, 

Fortune Freeman, James Bates, 

Xath 1 Stoddard, Perez Gardner, 

John Dill, Benj" Ward. 

Perez Gardner was three years in Colonel Vose's regiment, and 
with him were John Tower, killed at Morrisania on a scout, James 
Bates, and James Hay ward, both of whom died in the service at 
West Point, and John Daniels, Abel dishing, and Solomon Lor- 

ing, — the latter not given in the above list, — and Jack , a 

colored man, doubtless Jack Freeman, killed at New York. 

Mr. Lincoln says there were also eleven men in Rhode Island 
four months under Capt. John Lincoln. 

The only roll discovered, however, gives in Colonel Webb's regi- 
ment in Rhode Island, Aug. 2, 1781, John Lincoln, captain ; 
Robert Corthell, sergeant ; Sherebiah Corthell, private, as be- 
longing to Hingham. The names of the others have not been 
ascertained. 

It was towards the close of the summer when the American and 
French armies, after remaining some six weeks near Dobbs' Ferry 
in New York, crossed the Hudson, and under the general com- 
mand of General Lincoln commenced the march across the Jer- 
seys, Maryland, and Virginia, which terminated in the great 
victory at Yorktown on the 19th of October following. 

The distinguished part performed by General Lincoln in the 
last great campaign of the Revolution has been already alluded 
to. The personal history of other Hingham soldiers has, with a 
few exceptions, been lost or obscured with the passing years. 
Of this we may be certain, that wherever the commands to which 
they belonged were, there they were too, serving faithfully to 
the end. Among those at Yorktown was Daniel Shute, a young 
surgeon who had graduated at Harvard College in the opening 
year of the contest, and immediately placed his talents at his 
country's service. He is said to have commanded a college com- 
pany during the siege of Boston, and soon after was commissioned 
a surgeon's mate and attached to the Hospital Department. At 
Yorktown he was the first surgeon to perform an amputation on 
a wounded soldier. At the close of the war he was surgeon of 
the 4th Massachusetts Continental Regiment, commanded by 
Colonel Shepperd. Dr. Shute resided a short time in Weymouth 
after the close of his military service, but soon removed to Hing- 
ham, where he died April 18, 1829. 

Upon the staff of General Lincoln was Major Hodijah Baylies, 
aide-de-camp, who subsequently married a daughter of the general. 
He became collector at Dighton, and held other offices. Several 
of his children were born during his residence in Hingham. 



326 History of Hingham. 

The capitulation of Cornwallis was the last great military event 
of the Revolution. Nevertheless, much of the country was still 
occupied by the British army, and besides the necessity of gain- 
ing and holding possession of those portions, there remained the 
possibility of renewed hostilities, requiring the retention of a con- 
siderable force. On the second of November the army under 
General Lincoln embarked at Yorktown and proceeded to the 
head of the Elk, from whence it went into winter quarters in 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and upon the Hudson, in New York. 

The Committee of Correspondence and Safety elected in 1782 
were Israel Beal, John Fearing, and Theophilus Cushing; they 
were re-elected in 1783. 

The probabilities of peace made the enlistment of soldiers ex- 
ceedingly difficult, and there were very few recruited after the 
close of the Virginia campaign. The only names of recruits 
known to have joined the Continental army in 1782 are Solomon 
Lavingin and Elijah Beals. 

Hon. Solomon Lincoln says that in 1783 there were twelve men 
in the service at Hull. Neither the date nor the organization to 
which they belonged have been preserved, and no list of these last 
soldiers in the Revolution from old Hingham has been found. 

There remain to be added a few names not hitherto placed, 
known to have served in the army in some capacity, but whose 
company or regiment, place, or time, have not been ascertained. 
These are — 

Jedediah Beal, Bela Lincoln, served on the " Pro- 
Daniel Dill, tector," 

Lemuel Dill, Benjamin Lincoln, 

Daniel Egrey, Noah Nichols, 

Francis Gardner, died 1780 on Moses Sprague, 

Jersey prison-ship, Jacob Sprague, carried to Halifax 
Jared Joy, and died on guard-ship, 1778, 

Benjamin Leavitt, Ebed Stodder, 

Seth Thaxter. 

Serving upon the staff of General Lincoln during the earlier 
part of the war as an aid-de-camp, and probably with the rank 
of colonel, was Nathan Rice. Colonel Rice came early to Hing- 
ham, where he resided many years. At the close of the war he 
was major in Colonel Bailey's Continental regiment, and subse- 
quently commanded a body of troops at Oxford during the threat- 
ened difficulties with France. 

From the lists of names given, it appears that Hingham fur- 
nished over one hundred and fifty different persons to the regular 
Continental service, of whom, however, it is probable that only 
about eighty were actual residents of the town. The commis- 
sioned officers, so far as known, were, — 



Military History. 327 

Major-Gen. Benjamin Lincoln. 

Col. Nathan Rice, aide-de-camp to General Lincoln. 

Lieut-Col. Jotham Loring, 3d Mass., Colonel Grcaton ; dismissed. 

Major Hodijah Baylies, aide-de-camp to General Lincoln. 

Daniel Shute, surgeon 4th Mass., Colonel Shepperd. 

Capt. -Lieut. Nath'l Coit Allen, paymaster 10th Mass., Colonel 
Tapper. 

Lieut. Hezekiah Ripley, Jr., 2d Mass., Colonel Bailey; Brigade 
Qr. in 1783. 

Lieut. Joseph Andrews, Crane's artillery ; mortally wounded at 
Brandy wine. 

Lieut. John Lincoln, 2d Mass., Colonel Bailey. 

To these should perhaps be added — 

Capt. Amos Lincoln, formerly of Hingham ; moved to Weymouth. 

Dr. Gridley Thaxter who is stated to have been a surgeon in 
the army, but in what branch of the service is unknown. 

Dr. Peter Hobart, also a surgeon, the particular record of whose 
service is lost. 

John Woodman, a private in the 7th Mass., Colonel Brooks, and 
marked " promoted." 

Possibly, also, Chaplain Joseph Thaxter, formerly of Colonel 
Prescott's militia regiment, should have his name placed upon the 
Continental rolls ; he certainly was in the army later, but the 
command is not stated. 

Another brilliant officer, who was a citizen of Hingham pre- 
ceding the division, but who by that event became an inhabitant 
of the new town of Cohassct, was Capt. James Hall. 

It is possible to make an approximation only to the number of 
men who served their country from Hingham in other than the 
regular Continental regiments during the war of the Revolution. 
Many of the rolls are entirely lost, others are incomplete, and 
some are partially worn and illegible ; the selectmen's records 
furnish valuable but very meagre information, while from private 
sources almost nothing has been obtained. From available in- 
formation, — mainly the rolls heretofore given, and which are 
literal copies of originals in the State House, — it would appear 
to be certain that some six hundred different individuals per- 
formed military duty in the several branches of the service. 
There were doubtless many more whose names were recorded 
upon the lost rolls, or whose identity cannot be determined, owing 
to the fact that oftentimes lists still exist which are nearly value- 
less from a failure to make any mention of the town to which 
the soldier belonged. There is reason to think that a number of 
men doing garrison duty at the Castle, — now Fort Indepen- 
dence, — in Capt. the Hon. Thomas Cushing's company, were 
from Hingham ; but there is an uncertainty arising from the home 



328 History of Hingham. 

or place of enlistment of the men composing it being in no case 
stated ; and the doubt in this instance is of sufficient importance 
to make it unsafe to credit the town with any of them. It is 
quite probable, too, that numbers of our citizens served in some 
of the various armed ships authorized by Congress or the Common- 
wealth, but of other than those given as upon the " Hazard " and 
" Protector," if such there were, no satisfactory records are 
known. Very many, if not most, of the soldiers from Hingham 
served on several different occasions during the war ; and not a 
few enlisted or were called out four, live, and six times, while the 
indisputable evidence furnished by existing rolls proves that 
several responded to no less than eight calls to duty in garri- 
son and camp. In a few instances the periods of service were 
short, being comprehended in a few days, but for the most part 
they extended over many months, embracing the year consumed 
in the siege of Boston, the time occupied in the campaigns in 
Canada, in the northern department against Burgoyne, in the 
operations near West Point, those around New York, the several 
Rhode Island expeditions, that to the Penobscot, a part of Wash- 
ington's first campaign in New Jersey, and the many months, 
aggregatine: several vears, of garrison dutv at Hull, besides that 
performed in Hingham itself while the town was a military post. 
It is impossible to reduce the whole to a standard of number of 
men serving; for a stated time, but if every different service had 
been performed by different individuals, the aggregate outside of 
those in the regular three-years regiments would probably exceed 
one thousand. 

As observed previously, it seems reasonable to estimate the 
different individuals as about six hundred in number : indeed, the 
preserved rolls name some five hundred and seventy. Of these, 
approximately, the Lincolns furnished forty-eight: the Cushings, 
thirty-seven ; the Beals, thirty ; the Whitons, including all the 
variations of spelling the name, thirty ; the Stoddars, Stoddcrs, 
Stoddards, Stodars, twenty-five; the Hearseys, Harscys, Hcrseys, 
twenty-four ; the Gardners, twenty-one ; the Hobarts, nineteen ; 
the Towers, sixteen ; the Lorings, fifteen ; the Batcses, fifteen ; the 
Burrs, thirteen ; the Spragues, thirteen ; the Wilders, thirteen ; 
the Dunbars, eleven ; the Leavitts, eleven ; the Lewises, eleven ; 
the Stowclls, ten ; the Joys, ten ; the Fearings, eight ; the Lanes, 
eight ; the Thaxtcrs, seven ; the Barneses, seven ; and the Marshes, 
seven. That is two dozen names of the soldiers from Hingham 
included four hundred and nine individuals. The Hingham officers 
of Continental regiments have already been named ; those in other 
branches of the service, as far as known, were — 

Major-Gen. Benjamin Lincoln (before his Continental commission), 
Capt. Benjamin Beal, Capt. Peter Gushing, 

" Charles Cushinor, " Pvam Cushiiur, 

" Job Gushing, " Isaiah Gushing, 



Military History. 



329 



.. 



u 



Capt. Thomas Hearsey, 
Benjamin Lapham, 
James Lincoln, 
John Lincoln, 
Seth Stowers, 
Job Tower, 
Theopliilus Wilder, 
Elias Whiton, 
Stephen Whiton, 
Enoch Whiton, 
Levi Bates, 
Elijah Beal, 
Joseph Beal, 
Thomas Burr, 
Isaac dishing, 
David dishing, 
Peter Dunbar, 



u 



u 



Lieut. 
2d " 
2d " 
Lieut. 
3d " 
4th " 

a 



2d Lieut. Thomas Fearing, 

" Walter Hatch, 
2d Josiah Lane, 

Jacob Leavitt, 
Heman Lincoln, 
Levi Lincoln, 
Isaac Lincoln, 
2d " Nathan Lincoln, 
" Peter Nichols, 
" Jerom Stephenson, 
" Knight Sprague, 
" Joshua Tower, 
" Thomas Vinson, 
Jabez Wilder, 
2d " Zach Whiting, prob- 
ably subsequently a 
captain. 



From official records still existing and other reliable sources of 
information, it may be safely stated that the town of Hingham 
contributed to the military service of the Revolution, including 
those in the Continental regiments and on armed vessels, nearly 
seven hundred and fifty men, of whom over fifty were commis- 
sioned officers. The number probably was really largely in excess 
of that here stated. 

It cannot but be regretted that these records of the old town's 
part in the Revolutionary contest are so largely composed of mere 
lists of names, and that there is so little of incident to brighten 
the too statistical narrative. In this connection, however, one 
little event may not be without interest. It will perhaps be 
recalled that during the last war between France and the Colonies, 
one of the chaplains was Rev. John Brown of Hingham. The 
years which had rolled by since 1759 had doubtless incapacitated 
the minister for further service in the field, but under the mac:- 
nificent elm standing opposite to the old Cashing house at Rocky 
Nook, he preached to a company of our townsmen on their march 
to the post of danger, and sent them on the way with the blessings 
and approval of the Church ringing in their ears, and, let us trust, 
consoling their hearts. 

Almost from the surrender of Yorktown the armies of the new 
republic had been melting away, and when, on the 3d of Sep- 
tember, 1783, the treaty was signed at Paris which acknowledged 
the independence of the United States, there remained with 
Washington at Newburg scarcely more than a skeleton of the vic- 
torious force which had taken a part in the grand drama enacted 
on Virginia's soil nearly two years before. November 25th the 
commander-in-chief entered New York with General Knox and 
the officers of the army eight abreast, and, at Fraunce's tavern on 



330 History of Hingham. 

the 4th of December following, Washington bid farewell to the 
comrades who for eight years had with him patiently and bravely 
endured the dangers and privations of the field and the camp. 
At about the same time General Lincoln resigned his office of 
Secretary of War and retired to private life. From the opening 
hour of the Revolution to its closing moment, the roll of Hing- 
ham's drums and the inspiring music of her fifes had echoed 
through her streets and been heard on many a weary march, 
while the rattle of musketry and the dull roar of artillery served 
by her children had testified to her unflinching and unwearying 
patriotism on land and sea. Beneath the kindly enshrouding soil 
in secluded shady and forgotten places, from Canada to the 
Potomac, rest those who laid their young lives down in the heat 
of the conflict, while many an old moss-grown stone in the town 
cemeteries marks the burial spot of some soldier who in the early 
days of the nation " shouldered his crutch and told how fields 
were won," to his children and grandchildren long after the close 
of the War for Independence. 

While with the advent of peace there doubtless came that 
reaction from interest in military matters which is common to 
all human affairs where the undivided attention has been too long 
fixed in a single direction, there was still, fortunately, enough 
patriotism left in the wearied people to listen to the urgent sug- 
gestions of Washington, and in a small regular army and the 
West Point establishment, provide a nucleus at least, around 
which might be gathered the forces for the defence of the young 
nation. Many of the statutes under which the armies were gath- 
ered and the militia governed still remained in force, and these 
derived powerful support from the dangerous and threatening con- 
dition of a number of the Indian tribes, from the menace which the 
continued occupancy in the West and North of posts and forts by 
the British constantly offered, and from the ill-concealed contempt 
felt by the empires of the world for the small, weak, and exhausted 
State in the Western Hemisphere. More than all, there was the 
internal discontent and distrust experienced by a weary and 
debt-laden people entering upon the experiment of new forms of 
government towards which many were antagonistic, and in which a 
large number had little faith. To all this must be added the bitter 
disappointment of the discharged and half-paid soldiery, who, after 
giving eight of their best years to the service of the country, 
found themselves adrift, poverty-stricken, and for a time, at least, 
neglected. Fortunately, for the most part these men were Fed- 
eralists, and believers in and supporters of their old officers, 
more particularly of Washington, and were generally friends of a 
strong government and a national spirit. Fortunately, too, the 
militia organization for the most part remained intact, and many 
a fine regiment which had seen active service during the war was 
still under the command of its old officers, and in the ranks were 



Military History. 



331 



numbers of disciplined veterans. The continued efficiency of these 
troops enabled General Lincoln, who had been commissioned 
major-general April 3, 1786, to crush the armed mobs under Shays 
with a celerity and absence of unnecessary violence which reflected 
credit alike upon the men and the officers, and furnished an 
added illustration of the tact and ability of Lincoln. Colonel Rice 
was also engaged in the service at the time, with other citizens of 
Hingham. The old town might well feel satisfied with her part 
in the termination of this small rebellion. 

In 1781 Charles dishing was colonel of the Second Regiment 
of militia ; Theophilus Cushing, captain, David Gushing, 1st 
lieutenant, and Edward Wilder, 2d lieutenant of the second 
company ; and Thomas Fearing, captain, Thomas Cushing, 1st 
lieutenant, and Elijah Whiting, 2d lieutenant of the third com- 
pany. Theophilus Cushing became colonel June 9, 1787, Thomas 
Vinson, lieutenant-colonel, and James Stodder, major, while 
Quincy Thaxter had already been commissioned adjutant on the 
8th of January previously. Colonel Cushing became brigadier- 
general Sept. 12, 1793. 

If there are anv records extant of the Hingham militia com- 
panies from the close of the Revolution until the commencement 
of the War of 1812, it is to be hoped that the meagre historical 
notes here given — for they amount to no more — may incite 
production. In musty old volumes in a small, dark room in the 
basement of the State House, may be found the names of an enor- 
mous number of persons commissioned in the militia, which was 
for many years an organized army of no small dimensions — on 
paper. Beyond the dates which these commissions bear and the 
regiments to which their holders belonged, very little informa- 
tion is sfiven. From the list have been selected the names of 
citizens of this town, but no attempt has been made to state the 
companies of which they were officers. As will be seen here- 
after, there were two companies formed later of which some 
details appear : — 



Daniel Wilder : 

Ensign . . . 

Lieutenant . . 
Thomas Thaxter: 

Quartermaster . 
Benjamin Andrews: 

Ensign . . . 

Lieutenant . 
Jedediah Lincoln: 

Ensign . . . 

Captain . . . 

Major .... 
John Fearing: 

Ensign 

Lieutenant . . 

Captain . 
Washington Cushing 

Ensign 



March 3, 1788. 
May 3, 1796. 

June 10, 1793 

March 3, 1788. 
May 23, 1792. 

May 2, 1797. 
Sept. 3, 1800. 
March 26, 1806. 

Sept 3, 1800. 
April 10, 1806 
April 1, 1809. 

April 12, 1804. 



Captain . . . 

Major . . . . 

Lieutenant-Col. 

Colonel . . . 
John Barker: 

Captain . . . 

Major . 

Lieutenant-Col. 
Robert Thaxter: 

Surgeon's-Mate . 
John Cushing, 3d: 

Captain . . 
David Cushing, Jr.: 

Captain 
Solomon Jones: 

Lieutenant . 

Captain 



March 28, 1807. 
May 3, 1813. 
June 20, 1816. 
March 28, 1818. 

Oct. 23. 1788. 
May 18, 1797 
May 25, 1801. 

Sept. 1, 1S00. 

March 3, 1788. 

March 3, 1788. 

Sept. 3, 1800. 
April 10,1806 



332 



History of Hingham. 



Levi Sprague: 




Lieutenant . 


Sept. 26, 1811. 


Ensign 


. April 10, 1806 


Captain . 


April 15, 1812. 


Lieutenant . 


. May 13, 1809. 


Major . 


June 13, 1814. 


Seth Hersey: 




Edward Wilder: 




Lieutenant . 


. April 13, 1807. 


Lieutenant . 


. March 3, 1788. 


Nehemiah Cushing : 




Captain 


. May 3. 1796. 


Lieutenant . 


. March 28, 1807 


Thomas Andrews: 




Joseph Cushing: 




Lieutenant . 


. Oct. 23, 17S8. 


Ensign 


. Sept 26, 1811. 


Francis Thaxter: 




Lieutenant . 


. April 15, 1812. 


Quartermaster 


. Sept. 16, 1799. 


Elijah Waters, Jr.: 




Ephraim Andrews: 




Ensign 


. March 3, 1788. 


Quartermaster 


. June 7, 1S02. 


Lieutenant . 


. May 2. 1797. 


Thomas Loud: 




Captain . 


. May 7, 1799. 


Quartermaster 


. Oct. 2, 1S04. 


Kufus Lane: 




John Beale- 




Ensign 


May 23, 1792. 


Adjutant . 


. June 7, 1802. 


Jonathan Cushing: 




Laban Hersey: 




Ensign 


May 3, 1796. 


Captain 


. Sept. 28, 1800. 


Lieutenant . 


Sept. 3, 1800. 


Scarlet Hudson: 




David Win ton: 




Lieutenant . 


. April 11, 1803 


Ensign 


Sept. 3, 1800. 


Edward Wilder, Jr. 




Lieutenant . 


April 12, 1804. 


Ensign 


. March 28, 1807 


Joseph Hammond: 




Moses Humphrey: 




Ensign . . 


April 11, 1803. 


Ensign . . 


April 23, 1807. 


Martin Fearing: 




Abner Hersey: 




Ensign 


Oct. 26, 1809. 


Captain . . . 


Feb. 12, 1807. 



In 1812 the Hingham Rifle Company received a charter from 
the State, and for many years it was one of the famous militia 
organizations in the Commonwealth. Its first captain was Dun- 
can McB. Thaxter, while the other officers were Jairus Sprague, 
lieutenant, and Daniel Bassett, ensign, all commissioned May 
21, 1812. It was subsequently attached to the Light Infantry 
Battalion as Company D, although a part of the Second Regiment 
until that organization was disbanded. 

Early in October the company made its first public parade in a 
uniform described in the " Boston Patriot " as " perfectly neat," 
with '• rifles lately procured from an American armory of domestic 
manufacture, with complete accoutrements." On this occasion a 
standard was presented on behalf of the ladies by Miss Mary 
Lincoln, daughter of Mr. Solomon Lincoln, and accepted by Ensign 
Daniel Bassett in a patriotic if somewhat grandiloquent speech. 

Besides this company there were at this time the three stand- 
ing militia companies belonging to the same regiment, and prob- 
ably officered respectively as follows : Moses L. Humphrey, captain. 
April 16, 1812; Samuel Hobart, lieutenant, April 16, 1812; Nathan- 
iel Wilder, ensign, April 16, 1816 ; Martin Fearing, captain, April 
15, 1812 ; Joseph Cushing, lieutenant, April 15, 1812 ; Adna 
Cushing, ensiun, April 15, 1812 ; Washington Cushing. captain, 
March 28, 1807; Joseph Wilder, ensign,' May 11, 1812. The 
regiment was the Second Infantry, of which Nehemiah Ripley 
became quartermaster March 30, 1812 : Thomas Loring, pay- 
master, March 25, 1812; Ned Cushing, adjutant. March 20, 18J2 
(he had previously been paymaster), and William Gordon, sur- 



Military History. 333 

geon, Feb. 10, 1813, while Henry Colman had been chaplain since 
July 6, 1807. In addition to these the citizens exempted by law 
from military duty formed themselves into three companies of 
infantry and one of artillery, the whole constituting a local bat- 
talion commanded by Capt. Edward Wilder. The North Ward 
company had for its officers : captain, Gen. John Barker ; lieu- 
tenant, Major Jedediah Lincoln ; ensign, Solomon Lincoln. Tin? 
Middle Ward : captain, Laban Hersey ; lieutenant, Capt. Solomon 
Jones; ensign, Lieut. John Fearing. South Ward: captain, Jona- 
than dishing ; lieutenant, Edward Wilder, Jr. ; ensign, Joseph 
W T ilder. 

The Artillery Company was commanded by Captain Thomas 
Brown, and the lieutenants were Ezra Lincoln and John 
Hersey, Jr. 

Ned Cushing was adjutant, and Ebenezer Gay paymaster of the 
battalion, and Thomas Thaxter appears also to have been an 
officer. 

The Artillery had but one gun, which was kept in the engine- 
house then standing on the land now occupied by Ford's Building. 

There is little to record of local history and military service 
during the three years in which was fought the War of 1812. 
Even the Commonwealth possesses no rolls of the men who 
served their country during this period, and neither tradition nor 
private journals have contributed greatly to supply the omission. 

John Todd is known to have been killed at Sackett's Harbor in 
1813 ; and Alexander Gardner, of the same company, was wounded 
at the time. The following also appear to have been soldiers in 
this war, and some of them received pensions : — 

Jesse Churchill, Bela Tower, 

Enoch Curtis, Walter Whiton, 

Allen Cushing, Cornelius Lincoln, 

David Stoddar, Josiah Gardner, 

Warren Stoddar, Matthew Stodder, 

Ebed Stoddar, Job S. Whiton, 

Archelaus Whiton, Peleg Dunbar, 

Samuel Stoddar, Constant Gardner, 

Luther Stoddar, Anthony Gardner, 

Enoch Dunbar, Daniel Wilder. 
David Gardner, 

Joshua Blake, born in Hingham, Sept. 27, 1778, died in Boston, 
Dec. 23, 1843, was a lieutenant in the navy, and subsequently 
served with Decatur during the trouble with Tripoli. He was a 
son of Joseph Blake, who lived in the house on the corner of 
Main and Elm streets, and who served with Major Samuel 
Thaxter in the French War. 

Charles Blake, known as Capt. Charles Blake, served upon a 
privateer during a part of the war. He was captured and con- 



334 History of Hingham. 

fined in Dartmoor Prison. Moses L. Humphrey commanded a 
company composed, at least in part, of Hingham men, and stationed 
at the Castle, now Fort Independence, in Boston harbor. Samuel 
Stodder was in his command. Walter Whiton was born Nov. 28, 
1783 ; he was a major in the United States army, and was killed 
at the battle of Bridge water ; his home was at Liberty Plain. 
Archelaus Whiton, or Whiting;, enlisted from the frigate " Con- 
stitution " to go to the Lakes, and probably died in the expedi- 
tion. Ebed Stoddar was taken prisoner and confined at Dartmoor 
Prison, whence he escaped, but was never afterwards heard from. 
Alexander Anderson was also confined at the same place. 

During the War of 1812 most of the Hingham vessels were 
hauled up in the town dock or at Broad Cove, excepting, how- 
ever, a few of the packets ; and some of these, it is said, had their 
masts and spars removed, and after being towed up Weymouth 
River, were boarded over and concealed in order to prevent their 
being seized by the British. The sloop " Washington " was 
launched when she was partly planked up, sufficiently so to float 
her, the owners fearing that she would be burnt by excursion 
parties from English ships then lying off Boston Light. At this 
time numerous depredations were committed by parties of the 
British ; one of them landed on Hog Island, in barges, and burned 
a barn full of hay ; and other property in the vicinity was 
destroyed. 

There were several vessels belonging to Hingham captured and 
destroyed by the enemy during the war ; among them was the 
" Emily," commanded by Capt. Barnabas Lincoln, and in part 
owned by him. It was a sad sight for the old sailor, who at 
another time had his vessel taken by pirates, to sec the fine 
ship, in which were the fruits of many years of toil, given to the 
flame and the sea. Captain Lincoln was well treated upon the 
English man-of-war, and was soon released and allowed to return 
home. The schooner " Sally," always called the " Old Bull " in 
Hingham, was also captured and burned by the English cruisers : 
she was commanded by Capt. Samuel Stoddar. The crew were 
all married men excepting Martin Beal, and were released. Beal, 
being single, was taken to Dartmoor Prison, but through the 
influence of Dr. Gordon's wife, who came from the vicinity, was 
soon released. 

Ebed Stoddar was in a Hingham vessel that was captured and 
burnt. He was taken to Halifax and confined in Dartmoor 
Prison, but escaped with others and took a small vessel to come 
home in. It is said that he was never heard from afterwards, 
and that the vessel was supposed to have foundered. Mr. Leavitt 
Sprague, however, is authority for the statement that Ebed Stod- 
dar afterward shipped on a privateer from New York and was 
never heard from. 

June 11. 1814, the town was alarmed by messengers with the 
statement that the English ships lying off Cohasset were about to 



Mili turn History. 



335 



land a force and commit depredations on the town. The Hing- 
ham companies were hurried to the scene with the idea of repelling 
the intended invasion. Whether because of the preparations for 
defence or otherwise, the landing was not attempted, and the 
enemy soon withdrew. The companies, or at least a portion of 
them, were detained a number of days at Cohasset, however. 
Joseph J. Whiton was commissioned captain 16 August, 1813, 
and a roll of his company which march (id to Cohasset and was 
on duty there the 11th and 12th of June. 1814, is now in posses- 
sion of Mr. Seth S. Hersey, and is as follows : — 



Musician, 



Private. 



Joseph J. Whiton. Captain, 
Seth S. Hersey, Sergt. 
Isaiah Wilder, " 
Ezekiel Fearing, " 
Bela Hobart, 
Jacob Spraguc, 
Isaiah Tower. 
Josiah Gardner, 
Hosea Dunbar. 
Charles Whiton, 
Nathaniel Hersey. 
Stephen Gardner, Jr 
Samuel Gardner, Jr. 
Silvanus Whiton. 
Joseph Whiton, 
Theophilus Whiton, 
Charles L. Smith. 
Laban Wilder, 
Charles Gardner, 
Luther Whiton, 
Hosea Whiton, 
Isaiah Whiton, 
Daniel Whiton, Jr. 
John Titterton, 
Israel Sprague, 
Henry Stoddard, 
Lazarus Bowker, 
Bela Thayer, 
Robert D. Gardner, 
Reuben Sprague, Jr. 



u 



u 



ct 






Enoch Dunbar, Jr., Private, 

Samuel Dunbar, " 

Hawkes Hobart, Jr., " 

Joshua Tower, " 

Quincy Gardner, " 

Jesse Gardner, 

Warren Gardner, 

Hosea Gai'dner, 

Constant Gardner, 

Moses Tower, 

Reuben Simmons, 

Thomas Stockbridge, 

Isaac Whiton, 

Hosea Cushing, Jr., 

Benjamin Wilder, 

Hosea Stoddard, 

Leavitt Tower, 

Thomas Humphrey, 

Jared Jernegan, 

Daniel Shute, Jr. 

Anthony Gardner, 

El)ed Hobart, 

Daniel Dill, 

Josiah Chubbuck, 

Silas Chipman, 

John Shute, 

Caleb Stoddard, Jr. 

Jeremiah Gardner, Ji 

Warren Thayer, 



u 



a 



At the time of the alarm Ned Cushing was adjutant of the 
Second Regiment ; he went into the Meeting-house during divine 
service, and gave public notice of the news from Cohasset. 



Jairus Lincoln, probably a soldier at the battle of Bunker Hill, 
was generally known as " Old Rodney." He was impressed into 
the British navv, and was under the command of Admiral Rodney 



336 



History of Hingham. 



when the fleet under that officer was engaged with the French 
fleet under the Count De Grasse. 



When peace was at last declared the rejoicings in Hingham, as 
in New England generally, were most enthusiastic. Stephen 
dishing came from Boston on horseback bringing the news. Mr. 
Royal Whiton used to tell of Mr. Samuel Simmons coming to his 
shop with a horse and sleigh, and of the two then riding through 
the town proclaiming the news. " We went to South Hingham, 
and all the way Mr. Simmons kept singing out at the top of his 
voice, ' Peace ! peace!' -he kept his voice going the whole dis- 
tance." There was a collation at Capt. Samuel Hobart's, the 
military paraded, the bells were rung, and in the evening bonfires 
were lighted on the hills and private dwellings illuminated. At 
some of the public-houses the celebration was of quite as marked, 
if different, character. It is said that Captain Hobart's House, 
especially, was the scene of a gathering composed of many of the 
leading wits and political lights of the town, and that the rejoic- 
ings, which were carried far into the night, were quite worthy of 
the great occasion. 

For a time subsequent to the war little occurred of interest in 
local military circles. The Rifles maintained their existence as 
one of the crack companies of the day, and the standing companies 
continued for a considerable period the usual existence of militia 
organizations of the time. 

The officers commissioned since 1812, excepting those already 
mentioned , were — 



William Gordon: 

Surgeon . 
Daniel Shute, 3d: 

Surgeon 's-Mate 
Joseph Cushing: 

Captain 

Major . . . . 

Lieutenant-Col. 
Perez Lincoln: 

Lieutenant . 

Captain 
Jacob Cushing, Jr. : 

Ensign 

Lieutenant . . 

Captain 
Seth S. Mersey: 

Lieutenant 

Captain 
Blossom Sprague: 

Lieutenant . 
John Thaxter: 

Ensign 

Lieutenant . 
Samuel Fearing: 

Ensign 

Lieutenant . 

Captain . . . 



Feb. 10, 1813. 

April 21, 1816. 

July 25. 1814. 
Feb. 16, 1818 
March 28, 1818. 

June 25, 1717 
May 31, 1819. 

July 25, 1814. 
March 5, 1818. 
March 22, 1820. 

May 16, 1814. 
March 5, 1818. 

March 21, 1816. 

June 25, 1816. 
May 31, 1S19. 

March 5, 1818. 
March 22, 1820. 
March 26, 1822. 



James W. Sivret: 

Lieutenant . 
Seth Cushing, Jr. : 

Ensign 
Cushing Leavitt: 

Ensign 
Joshua Tower: 

Ensign 
Joseph Richardson: 

Chaplain . 
Henry Thaxter, Jr.: 

Paymaster . . 
Jairus Sprague: 

Captain 
Samuel Hobart: 

Captain . , 

Seth S. Hersey: 

Captain . 
Adna Cushinjr : 

Captain . 
Lazarus Bowker: 

Ensign 

Lieutenant . 

Captain 
Laban Hersey, Jr. : 

Ensign 

Captain 



June 29, 1820 

March 5, 1818. 

May 2, 1S20. 

Sept. 25, 1820. 

April 20, 1816. 

Nov 7, 1817. 

March 21, 1816. 

June 25, 1817. 

March 5, 1818. 

March 5, 1818. 

May 16, 1814. 
March 5, 1S18 
June 29, 1820. 

March 21, 1816. 
April 12, 1820. 



Military History. 



337 



Lieutenant-Col. 

Colonel . . 
Charles Lane: 

Lieutenant . 

Captain 

Major . 
John Kingman: 

Ensign . . 

Captain . . 
Marshall Lincoln: 

Ensign 

Lieutenant . 
Henry Gushing: 

Ensign 

Quartermaster 
Joshua Humphrey: 

Ensign 

Lieutenant . 

Captain 
Benjamin Wilder: 

Ensign 

Lieutenant . 
Lincoln Gould: 

Ensign 
Samuel W. Loring: 

Ensign . . 

Lieutenant 
Benjamin Thomas, 

Ensign . . 

Lieutenant . 
Joshua Hersey, Jr. 

Ensign . . 

Captain . 
Caleb Gill, Jr.: 

Ensign . . 

Lieutenant 

Captain 
Alfred C Hersey: 

Lieutenant . 

Captain 
Jacob A. Nichols: 

Captain 
Robert T. P. Fiske 

Surgeon . 



Mav 21, 1823. 
. Sept. 3, 1827. 

. May 2, 1820. 
. May 31, 1S23. 
. Sept. 3, 1827. 

. May 31, 1819. 
. May 7, 1822. 

. May 2, 1820. 
. May 31, 1823. 

. Oct. 13, 1821. 
. April 12, 1822. 

. May 7, 1821. 
. Sept. 13, 1822. 
. May 3, 1825. 

. May 29, 1822. 
. Aug. 29, 1825. 

. May 3, 1825. 

. Aug. 29, 1S25. 
. July 2, 1827. 
Jr.: 

. April 20, 1826. 
. Nov. 27, 1827. 

. July 2, 1827. 
. Oct. 18, 1830. 

. Nov. 27, 1827. 
. April 15, 1820. 
. June 19, 1832. 

. June 12, 1824 
. May 21, 1827. 

. Aug. 1, 1825. 

' . Oct 1, 1827. 



John K. Corbett: 

Ensign 

Lieutenant . 

Captain . 
Charles Lincoln : 

Ensign . . . 

Lieutenant . 
James Stephenson, Jr 

Ensign 

Lieutenant . 

Captain 
Anson Nickerson: 

Ensign . . 

Lieutenant . 

Captain 
Leavitt Lane, Jr.: 

Ensign 

Lieutenant . 
Joshua D Turner: 

Lieutenant . 

Captain . . 
Enoch Lake: 

Lieutenant . . 

Captain . 
David Gushing: 

Lieutenant . 
Isaac Waters : 

Lieutenant . 
Charles Shute: 

Captain 
Luther J. Barnes : 

Paymaster . 
Samuel L Fearing: 

Ensign 

Lieutenant . 
Theophilus Gushing, 

Ensign 

Lieutenant . 

Captain . . 
Joseph Jacobs: 

Ensign 

Lieutenant . 

Captain 

Captain . 



April 15, 1830. 

June 19, 1832. 
Sept. 2, 1833. 

Sept. 13, 1822. 
May 3, 1825. 

May 13, 1823. 

April 20, 1826. 
Nov. 27, 1827. 

March 1, 1S26. 
May 21, 1827. 
April 19, 1830. 

May 21, 1827. 
April 19, 1830. 

May 30. 1S21. 
March 27, 1822. 

March 26, 1S22. 
May 15, 182-4. 

March 27, 1822. 

June 24, 1828. 

Aug. 1, 1825. 

March 12, 1824. 

April 19, 1830. 
March IS, 1834. 
2d: 

Oct. 18, 1830. 
Feb. 7, 1831. 
March 13, 1834. 

May 3, 1831. 
Dec. 25, 1833. 
April 7, 1843. 
April 17, 1844. 



In 1833 the Washington Guards were formed and received a 
charter from the State. The Hingham " Gazette " of that and sub- 
sequent years contains numerous notices of meetings, some at 
Col. Laban Hersey's Hall, at West Hingham, and some at the Old 
Colony House, at which latter place they sometimes had dinners 
with speeches. Their first meeting with muskets appears to have 
been on Nov. 1, 1833. The meeting of December 13 was called 
at Wilder's Hall, situated in Wilder's Tavern, Lincoln Street. On 
December 25 the members were notified to meet at the Old Colony 
House to choose officers ; at this meeting Edward Cazneau was 
elected captain, Joseph Jacobs, lieutenant, and Charles W. 
Seymour, ensign. The uniform adopted was to consist of scarlet 
vol. i. — 22 



338 



History of Hingham. 



coats and white trousers, similar to that worn by the Boston 
Fusileers. 

In June, 1834, the Quincy Light Infantry visited Hingham, and 
was received by the Guards at the town line and escorted to the 
Union Hotel, where the two companies dined. July 4, 1834, the 
ladies presented a flag to the company at Captain Cazneau's house, 
Miss Almira Seymour making the address. Afterwards there 
was a dinner at the Old Colony House, and it is recorded that 
twenty toasts were drunk. Oct. 9, 1834, the volunteer companies 
of the First Brigade First Division of the militia assembled at 
Milton, near the Roxbury House, for inspection and review. In 
addition to an artillery battalion, there were eight companies, 
including the Hingham Rifles and the Washington Guards, com- 
prising a regiment commanded by Colonel Spooner. At that 
time Captain Corbett commanded the Rifles and Captain Cazneau 
the Guards, between which organizations there was sharp rivalry. 
The account says they made a fine appearance. Both companies 
appear to have maintained their existence until the general dis- 
band ment in 1843, at which time they were attached to the Third 
Battalion of Light Infantry then or lately commanded by Colonel 
Seymour. Joseph Jacobs, however, received a second commission 
as Captain of the Guards, — then called Company G, — April 17, 
1844, and he was not finally discharged until Feb. 12, 1846. The 
following are additional commissions issued, generally, after the 
formation of the Guards : — 



Charles Gordon : 

Surgeon's Mate 
William White: 

Paymaster 
Charles Lane: 

Colonel 
John Stephenson : 

Ensign 

Lieutenant . 

1st Lieutenant 

Captain 
Ivery B. Gerry: 

Captain . . . 
Isaac G. Sprague - 

Ensign 

Lieutenant . 
John C. Webb: 

Ensign 
Solomon L. Damon: 

Ensign . . . 
Joshua Tower, Jr. : 

Lieutenant . 

Captain . 
Lincoln B. Sprague: 

Lieutenant . 
Enoch Whiting: 

Ensign . 
Caleb Hersey: 

Lieutenant . 

Captain . 



Sept. 27, 1830. 

Sept. 13, 1830. 

June 28, 1830. 

Sept. 2. 1833. 
June 9, 1837. 
May 18, 1840. 
March 31, 1841. 

May 3, 1838. 

June 19, 1832. 
Sept. 2, 1833. 

March 13, 1834. 

March 18, 1834. 

March 13, 1834. 
May 3, 1836. 

May 3, 1836. 

Sept. 11, 1S36. 

May 3, 1836. 
Mav 7. 1839. 



Benjamin S. Whiti 
Lieutenant . 

Thomas Corbett: 
Ensign 
Lieutenant 
Captain . . 

Elijah L. W hi ton: 
Ensign 
Lieutenant 
1st Lieutenant 

Charles Churchill: 
Ensign 
Lieutenant 

Edward Cazneau: 
Captain . 

John Todd: 

3d Lieutenant 
Quartermaster 

Rufus Lane, Jr. : 
3d Lieutenant 
Paymaster 

Joseph Sprague: 
2d Lieutenant 
Adjutant 

Joseph P. Batson: 
3d Lieutenant 
2d Lieutenant 

John C. Eldridge: 
2d Lieutenant 



ng: 
. May 7, 1839. 

. June 9, 1837. 
. Feb. 28, 1839. 
. Aug. 15, 1839. 

. June 10, 1837. 
. June 23, 1S38. 
. IS May, 1840. 

. Feb. 28, 1S39. 
. Aug. 15, 1839. 

. April 23, 1842. 

. April 5, 1841. 
. July 13, 1841 

. May 18, 1840. 
. July 13, 1S41 

. May 18, 1810 
. July 13, 1841. 

. Aug. 6. 1841. 
. April 23, 1842. 

Mav 27, 1840. 



Military History. 



339 



Joshua Hersey, Jr. : 

Major .... 
Ezra Stephenson: 

Surgeon . . . 
Joseph M. Whiting: 

Ensign . . 
Charles W. Seymour 

Ensign . . 

Lieutenant 

Captain 

Captain 

Colonel , . 
Moses Humphrey: 

Ensign . . , 
Moses L. Whiton 

3d Lieutenant . 

2d Lieutenant . 

Captain . . 



May 2, 1838. 

July 13, 1841. 

May 1, 1838. 

Dec. 25, 1833. 
June 10, 1837. 
June 23, 1838. 
April 5, 1841. 
June 17, 1841. 

June 23, 1838. 

Aug. 22, 1840. 
April 5, 1841. 
Aug 6, 1841. 



Elijah B Gill: 

2d Lieutenant May 18, 1840. 

1st Lieutenant . March 31, 1840. 
Nehemiah Ripley, Jr : 



3d Lieutenant 

2d Lieutenant . 
Elihu Thayer, Jr.: 

3d Lieutenant . 

2d Lieutenant . 
Bela S. Hersey: 

2d Lieutenant 

1st Lieutenant . 
Lincoln B. Sprague: 

3d Lieutenant . 
Henry Lincoln, 3d: 

3d Lieutenant . 
Nelson Corthell: 

1st Lieutenant . 



May 18, 1840. 
March 3, 1841. 

May 26, 1841. 
Aug. 6, 1841. 

Aug. 22, 1840 
April 5, 1841. 

March 31, 1841. 

April 23, 1842. 

May 27, 1846. 



Christopher C. Eldridge: 

4th Lieutenant . May 27, 1846. 



By a general order April 24, 1840, very many of the above 
officers who were then in office were discharged, but some of the 
number received new commissions to the same rank as those pre- 
viously held. As early as 1831 the company commanded by 
Captain Nichols was disbanded and annexed to Captain Nicker- 
son's company in the Middle Ward ; thus the two north military 
wards became one. After the historical Second Regiment was 
disbanded, there remained in Hingham only the volunteer com- 
panies, the Hingham Rifles and Washington Guards. These were 
attached to the Third Battalion of Light Infantry, and with its 
disbandmcnt March 31, 1843, the Rifles ceased to exist. The 
Guards appear to have lingered somewhat longer, for on May 27, 
1846, Nelson Corthell and Christopher C. Eldridge were commis- 
sioned lieutenants in the company. Little was heard of it there- 
after, however, and Hingham was soon without a company of 
organized militia, for the first time in some two hundred years. 



In a little one-story wooden building, slightly altered in appear- 
ance in these later days for its occupation as the intermediate school 
at Centre Hingham, and standing near Spring Street, on what was 
once a part of the Common lands, and not far from the site of the 
old fort of brave John Smith and his men, there was quartered in 
18G1 a company of the Fourth Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, 
known in military circles as the Lincoln Light Infantry, composed 
of some of the best young men of the town, and having a wide 
reputation for its discipline and efficiency. It was organized on 
the 28th of October, 1854, and January 20 of the following year 
Hawkes Fearing, Jr., was elected its first commander. The other 
officers were : Joseph T. Sprague, 1st Lieut. ; Luther Stephenson, 
Jr., 2d Lieut. ; Edwin Fearing, 3d Lieut. ; E. Waters Burr, 4th 
Lieut. Edwin Fearing died, and E. Waters Burr became 3d 



840 History of Hingham. 

Lieut., while William Fearing was chosen 4th Lieut. The two 
latter officers resigned subsequently. 

July 4, 1855, the company had its first parade ; and from that 
date to the day of its disbandment in 1862, this last of the many 
military organizations which had faithfully served the country, 
and kept bright the honor of the town, maintained the reputation 
of its predecessors. At the opening of the Rebellion its com- 
mander was Joseph T. Sprague; but its high standing was largely 
due to its first captain, who had then recently become lieutenant- 
colonel of the regiment. To the little armory where were kept 
its arms, equipments, and colors, which had been the pleasant 
gathering-place of its members and the scene of its drills and 
instructions, came with sober faces, and probably heavy hearts, 
the soldiers of the company on the afternoon of the 17th of April, 
1861. The booming of the cannon across the bay of Charleston, 
sounding the minute-guns of slavery's death-knell, left to the 
townsmen of Benjamin Lincoln no alternative ; and in the great 
march towards liberty which then commenced, the Hingham 
which nestled in her bosom the sleeping remains of the heroes of 
four wars knew no faltering. 

The voice of the great leader who had arisen was not strange 
in her ears ; and as it reached the home of his ancestors and bade 
the descendants of the Hobarts and Herseys and Cushings and 
Lincolns take up the old battle for freedom and give their lives 
that others might live, the response was as in the days of Church, 
of Wolfe, and of Washington ; and the town whose forebears had 
first settled down here at Bare Cove and given it the name of the 
English home they had left, whose firstborn had helped subdue 
Philip, whose sons " went out " against. the French, and strove 
with the Redcoats at Bunker Hill, through all the weary and sad 
and disheartening days of the long contest gave freely and gen- 
erously of her means, and honored many a southern battle-field 
with the graves of her children. The details of the story can be 
scarcely more than touched upon here ; the briefly related facts 
expand too greatly the limits of this chapter. In glancing back 
at the history of this exciting period, we cannot repress a little 
local pride in the recollection that the beloved President belonged, 
at least in a sense, to the old town, being a descendant of the 
Hingham Lincolns; that the Governor of the Commonwealth was 
our own loved fellow-citizen ; that the company which upheld the 
town's honor and continued her noble record of devotion to duty was 
named after her great general, and its commander was descends] 
from the old soldiers of the Revolution ; and that, moreover, 
many of its members bore the honored names of ancestors who had 
faced death at the cannon's mouth nearly a hundred years before, — 
while the second officer of the regiment to which it was attached 
was a grandson of the Hawkes Fearing who drew the Hingham 
cannon to Hull in 1776, and a relation of Capt. Thomas Fearing of 
the Revolutionary army. 



Military History. 



341 



On the 16th, after a meeting of the field officers of the regiments 
near Boston in the Governor's room at the State House, Lieut- 
Colonel Fearing came to Hingham and called a meeting of the 
Lincoln Light Infantry at its armory. During the day, Lieut. 
Luther Stephenson, Jr., had received a despatch from the Governor 
announcing the discharge of Captain Sprague, and ordering him 
to report with the company by the first train in Boston. 

At one o'clock p. m. of Wednesday, the 17th, the members 
assembled at the armory, and at four o'clock marched out amid 
the ringing of bells and the cheering of the multitude. Taking 
the train, Boston was reached late in the afternoon ; and the com- 
pany soon joined the Fourth Regiment, to which it belonged, at 
the State House. After receiving equipments and listening to a 
brief address from Governor Andrew, the Fourth and Sixth Regi- 
ments together marched for the depots, — the former proceeding by 
the Old Colony, and the latter by the then Worcester road. April 
20, the Fourth reached its destination, Fortress Monroe. The 
following is the roll of the Lincoln Light Infantry of April 19, 
1801 : — 



Luther Stephenson, Jr., Capt., 
Charles Sprague, 1st Lieut., 
Nathaniel French, Jr., 2d " 
Peter X. Sprague, Sergt., 
Joshua Morse, 
Henry Stephenson, Corp., 
Lyman B. Whiton, u 
Samuel Bronsdon, Fifer, 
George W. Bibby, Private, 
Jacob G. dishing, " * 

The above were members of 
following joined at the time of 

George M. Adams, Private, 
Charles H. Bassett, 
Andrew J. Clark. 
John Creswell, 
Fergus A. Easton, 
John W. Eldredge, 
George A. Grover, 
James M. Haskell, 
George E. Humphrey, 
John Q. Jacob, 
Benjamin L. Jones, 
George Miller, 



u 



Henry S. Ewer, Private, 
Levi Kenerson, " 

Josiah M. Lane, " 

George R. Reed, " 

Benjamin S. Souther, " 
James S. Sturtevant, " 
William S. Whiton, " 
Joseph N. Berry, Weymouth, Pr., 
Parker E. Lane, " " 

Daniel W. Lincoln, " " 

the company previously, but the 
its departure : — 

William T. Nelson, Private, 

Ebenezer F. Roberts, 

John S. Souther, 

William J. Stockwcll, 

Alvin Tower, 

Isaac G. Waters, 

George Wolfe, 

Elijah Prouty, Weymouth, Priv., 

Theodore Raymond, Weymouth, 

Private, 
Alfred W. Stoddard, Marshfield, 

Private. 



u 



.. 



The company, which numbered forty-two at this time, was 
increased to seventy-nine on the 22d of May by the arrival of 



the following recruits : - 



u 



342 History of Hingham. 

Henry F. Binney, Jacob Ourish, 

James B. Bryant, Albert L. Peirce, 

John W. Burr, Charles H. F. Stodder, 

Thomas A. Carver, Demerick Stodder, 

Silas H. Cobb, William Taylor, 

Charles Corbett, Charles H. Damon, W. Scituate, 

Jerry J. Corcoran, George C. Dwelly, Hanover, 

Isaac M. Dow, Hosea Dwelly, " 

Levi H. Dow, Francis W. Everson, Weymouth, 

George Dunbar, Charles A. Gardner, W. Scituate, 

George W. Fearing, Henry C. Gardner, 

Henry C. French, John D. Gardner, 

Albert S. Haynes, Herbert Graves, " 

Edwin Hersey, William B. Harlow, Hanover, 

William H. Jacob, E. A. Jacob, West Scituate, 

William H. Jones, Jr. John H. Prouty, " " 

Alfred A.Lincoln, William Prouty, Jr., " " 

Daniel S. Lincoln, Alpheus Thomas, South " 

William H. Marston, 

Two days after the departure of Lieutenant Stephenson with his 
men, a meeting of the citizens was held at the Town Hall for the 
purpose of devising means for the relief of such families of mem- 
bers of the company as might need assistance during its absence. 
Caleb Gill presided, and eight hundred dollars for the purpose was 
subscribed by persons in the hall. It was the anniversary of the 
battle of Lexington. On Sunday, the 28th, a large number of 
ladies, under the general direction of Mrs. Solomon Lincoln, met 
in Masonic Hall, in Lincoln Building, for the purpose of making 
clothing to be sent to Hingharn's company at Fortress Monroe. 
April 30, Charles W. Cushing presided over a town meeting, at 
which six thousand dollars were appropriated to furnish supplies 
to the families of those who had been, or thereafter should be, 
called into the country's service. The Fourth Massachusetts was 
stationed a portion of its time at Newport News, and a portion at 
Hampton, from which last place it returned to Fortress Monroe 
on the expiration of its term of enlistment. It reached Boston 
July 19, and went into camp at Long Island. On the 23d the 
Lincoln Light Infantry, having with the rest of the regiment been 
mustered out of service, proceeded to Hingham, where it was given 
a formal public reception. A procession consisting of a detach- 
ment of the Second Battalion of Infantry, a company of " Home 
Guards," the fire department, a cavalcade, and a large number of 
citizens, was formed upon the wharf. Subsequently Cobb's Light 
Battery headed the escort. In front of Lincoln's Building a 
service of thanksgiving was held, and addresses were made. 
At the close of the exercises the procession proceeded to the 
Town Hall amid the ringing of the church bells and the firing of 
cannon ; here a collation was served, and the men returned to the 
homes which they had left so suddenly three month? before. 



Military History. 343 

The subsequent history of this company was uneventful ; it 
may as well be briefly related here. Feb. 17, 1862, Joshua Morse 
was elected captain, vice Luther Stephenson, Jr., honorably dis- 
charged. May 26, 1862, the company, then numbering forty-two 
men, was ordered to report to Boston for active service, but was 
sent back to Hingham on the 28th. June 23, Captain Morse 
having resigned, Peter N. Sprague was elected captain. Sep- 
tember 29 of the same year, the company was disbanded. 

May 3, 1861, President Lincoln issued his first call for volun- 
teers to serve three years. Elijah B. Gill, then a resident of 
Boston, but a native of Hingham, enlisted in Company I of the 
First' Mass. Volunteers, and was made lieutenant of the company. 
Lieutenant Gill was mortally wounded July 21, and buried at 
Centreville, Va. He was the first Hingham man killed in the 
war. The following also enlisted in 1861 : — 

First Regiment. 

John William Gardner, Co. I; also in Navy. Died in service. 

George P. Kilburn, Co. I. 

John W. Chessman, Co. H. Transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Seventh Regiment. 

William Dunbar, Jr., Co. K. Born Hingham, Nov. 2, 1828. While 
a member of the 35th Infantry he was mortally wounded at 
Weldon Railroad, and died April 19, 1864, in the 36th year of 
his age. 

Eleventh Regiment. 

James J. Healey, Co. E ; also Co. K, Sergt. ; twice wounded. 

Lemuel S. Blackman, Co. K. Quota Dorchester ; former resident 
Hingham. Born Dorchester Feb. 18, 1840. Died June 13, 1870, 
from disease contracted in service. 

Daniel H. Burr, Co. K. Born Hingham Feb. 19, 1838. Wounded 
at Williamsburg May 5, 1862. Killed at Gettysburg July 2, 
1863, aged 25 years. 

James S. Dustin, Co. K. Musician. 

Nathaniel Gill, Co. K. Musician. 

William T. Barnes, Co. K. 

Charles H. Marsh, Co. K. Born Hingham July 12, 1828. Mortally 
wounded at Williamsburg May 5, 1862, and died the next day, 
asred 34 vears. 

Edwin Humphrey enlisted April 20, 1861. June 13 he became 
First Lieutenant Company G, and October 11 he was made 
Captain of Company A. Captain Humphrey was the son of 
Leavitt and Muriel Humphrey, and was born in Hingham 
Sept. 6, 1831. He was the first man to enlist for three years 
upon the town's quota. He was a brave officer, and was mor- 
tally wounded at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863 ; he died the next 
day. The Grand Army Post in Hingham is named in his 
honor. 



344 History of Hingham. 

Twelfth Regiment. 

Alexander Hitchborn, Co. F. Killed at Chancellorsville. Captain 
Hitchborn was born in Hingham in 1822, and removed to 
Brockton in 1854. After resigning from the Twelfth Massa- 
chusetts, he became Assistant Surgeon in the Seventh Regular 
Infantry, and was killed at the opening of the battle. 

George Gardner, Co. E, Corporal. 

John H. Blackmail, Co. H. Quota Wevmouth. Born Dorchester 
June 6, 1842. Killed at Fredericksburg Dec. 13, 1862. Brother 
of Lemuel S. 

Laban F. Cushing. Co. K. Quota Manchester. 

James D. Dunbar, Co H. Quota Weymouth. 

John J. Edmonds, Co. G. Transferred to V. R. Corps. 

James Fitzgerald, Co. G. Born Nova Scotia, 1841. Mortally 
wounded at Antictam, and died Nov. 6, aged 21 years. 

Jacob Gardner, Jr., Co. H. 

Samuel Spencer, Co. E. Mortally wounded at City Point, and died 
June 25, 1864, aged 20 years. 

Henry Swears, Co. H. Quota Weymouth. Killed at Fredericks- 
burg Dec. 13, 1862, aged 20 years. 

Francis Thomas, Co. H. Born Hingham, Feb. 1, 1844. Lieu- 
tenant Thomas was at the time of his enlistment but 17 years 
of aire, and the first of five brothers to enter the service. Enter- 
ing the army as sergeant-major, he became in 1862 adjutant 
of the regiment, and in January, 1863, Inspector of the Second 
Brigade, Second Division, First Army Corps ; he was killed at 
Gettysburg, July 3, 1862, aged 19 years. 

Thirteenth Regiment. 

William Wallace Sprague, Co. B. Quota Boston. Prisoner at 
Belle Isle. 

Fourteenth Regiment. 

William Carter. Transferred to 1st Heavy Artillery, 1862. 
Anton Tapp, Co. L. Transferred to 1st Heavy Artillery, 1862. 

Fifteenth Regiment. 

John E. Morse, Co. B. Quota Fitchburg. Captain in the Invalid 
Corps. Afterward in 20th Regiment. 

Sixteenth Regiment. 

Michael Fee, Co. E. Born Leitrim County, Ireland, December, 

1820. Wounded at Gettysburg, and died in service Sept. 26, 

1863, aged 43 years. 
Charles W. Blossom, Co. I, Corporal. Born Chicopee June 29, 

1840, and died at Hingham from disease contracted in service 

Aug. 26, 1862, six days after reaching home. 
Dennis Meagher, Co. A. Died or killed in service. 



Military History. 345 



Seventeenth Regiment. 



Owen Murphy, Co. C, Sergt. 

David Pettengill. Probably enlisted in 1861. 

Philip Sullivan. Probably enlisted in 1861. 

Eighteenth Regiment. 

Thomas Weston, Co. E, Middleborough, Capt. Colonel Weston 
entered the service as Captain of Company E., became Major 
Oct. 15, 1863, and Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Sept. 2, 1861. 
He was a brave and efficient officer, and was wounded at the 
second Battle of Bull Run. Has been for many years a resident 
of Hindi am, and represented the district in the legislature in 
1892. "Was Commander of Post 104, G. A. R., in 1890 and 
1891. 

Benjamin F. Meservey, Co. H, 4th M. V. M., Quincy, 2d Lieut. 
Major Meservey became Captain of Co. K, 18th Mass. and was 
wounded severely at second Bull Run. A brave officer. Brevet 
Major. 

Henry Jones, Co. E, Sergt. Quota Duxbury. Wounded at Bull 
Run, and again at Petersburg. 

William H. Jones, Jr., Co. K. First served in Lincoln Light 
Infantry. Became Sergeant in Captain Meservey's company, 
in which, also, his father served. A brave soldier. Born Wey- 
mouth Jan. 26, 1841. Died from disease while in service, Feb. 
12, 1864, aged 23 years. 

Nelson F. Corthell, Co. A, Corp. Born Hingham April 1, 1838. 
Killed at second Bull Run, Aug. 30, 1862, aged 24 years. 

Thomas Churchill, Co. A. Quota Boston. Born Hingham, Feb. 
5, 1808. Died in service, Aug. 7, 1862, aged 54 years. 

James M. Downer. 

John Q. Jacob, Co. K. Transferred to V. R. Corps. First ser- 
vice in Lincoln Light Infantry. 

William H. Jones, Co. K. Afterward Co. C, 4th Cavalry. Born 
Boston, March 23, 1816, and died in service Sept. 19, 1864, 
aged 48 years. Mr. Jones was the father of Sergt. Wm. H. 
Jones, Jr., and of Gardner Jones, both of whom also laid down 
their lives for their country. 

Samuel T. Mears. Quota Duxbury. 

William W. Robinson, Co. K. First served in Co. H. 4th Infantry, 
M. V. M. Born Hingham, April 14, 1835. Died of disease 
contracted in service. 

Jeremiah Spencer, Co. K. 

George E. Smith, Co. G. 

Edward L. Tracv, Co. K. 

Robert Tufts, Co. K. 



346 History of Hinyham. 

Nineteenth Regiment. 

Samuel Bronsdon. Musician. Also served in Lincoln Light 

Infantry, M.V.M. 
James McKay, Co. I. 

Twentieth Regiment. 

Alvin Tower, Co. A. Born Cohasset, Sept. 13, 1832. Mortally 
wounded at Fair Oaks June 1, 1862, and died June 8, aged 30 
years. First service in Lincoln Light Infantry. 

Edward 0. Graves, Co. K. Afterward in 59th and 57th. 

Twenty-first Regiment. 

George A. Grover, Co. E. Also in Lincoln Light Infantry; wounded. 
Andrew Jacob, Co. E. 

Twenty-second Regiment. 

Charles F. Alger, Co. K. Quota Boston. 

John B. Crease, Co. A. Quota Boston. Born Scotland, May 26, 

1839. Died in service May 16, 1862, aged 23 years. 
William B. Cushing, Co. D. 

Twenty-third Regiment. 

George E. Humphrey, Co. H, Sergt. Wounded. Also in Lincoln 

Light Infantry. 
Edward C. Blossom, Co. A, Corp. Also in 29th Regt. of Infantry. 
Andrew J. Clark, Co. H. Also in Lincoln Lt. Infty. 
Samuel M. Lincoln, Co. H. Born Hingham Dec. 28, 1841 ; died 

in service Oct. 2, 1864, aged 23 years. 

Twenty-fourth Regiment. 

George L. Gardner, Co. E. 

John W. Lincoln, Co. C. Quota Northborough. 

Justin A. Carver, Co. C. 

Thomas Conway, Co. F. 

Twenty-eighth Regiment. 
Peter Ready, Co. F. 

Twenty-ninth Regiment. 

Joseph H. Barnes, Co. K, Capt. Boston. Captain Barnes became 
Lieutenant-Colonel in December, 1801. Brevet Brig.-Gen. 

Waldo F. Corbett, Co. Ff, Corp. 1st Lieut. 1st U. S. Heavy Artil- 
lery (Colored). 

George Thomas, Co. A. 

Thirtieth Regiment. 

Jacob Ourish, Co. I, Sergt. Wounded. Also in Lincoln Light 

Infantry. 
Joseph C. Burr, Co. C, Corp. Also in V. R. C. 



Military History. 347 

John Brown, Co. E. 

William J. Stock well, Co. I. Also in Lincoln Light Infantry. 

Born Hingham, Feb. 24, 1842. Died in service, Aug. 9, 1863. 
John Sullivan, Co. E. 

Thirty-second Regiment. 

The Thirty-second Regiment, of which the basis was a battalion 
originally raised to garrison Fort Warren, contained many more 
men from Hingham than did any other in the service. Indeed, 
three of the companies, A, E, and F, were so largely composed of 
recruits from this town as to be regarded almost as Hingham 
organizations ; and the movements of the regiment were prob- 
ably followed with greater interest by our citizens than any other 
in the army. Its magnificent record for bravery and faithful- 
ness more than fulfilled and repaid the expectations and pride 
felt in it. Capt. Luther Stephenson, Jr., recruited and commanded 
Company A, which eventually contained twenty-four from Hing- 
ham. Captain Bumpus, of Braintree, commanded Company E, in 
which thirty-two Hingham men enlisted, and in Company F there 
were twenty-two of our fellow-townsmen ; besides these, there 
were six others scattered through other companies, — making 
eighty -four Hingham soldiers in the regiment. The names of 
those enlisting in subsequent years will be found in their proper 
places. 

Luther Stephenson, Jr., who, it will be recalled, commanded 
the Lincoln Light Infantry on the departure of the Fourth 
Regiment, M. V. M., was born in Hingham, April 25, 1830. He 
became Major of the Thirty-second Regiment Aug. 18, 1862, 
and December 29 was commissioned lieutenant-colonel. He was 
severely wounded at Gettysburg, and again on the 18th and 22d 
of June, 1864. Colonel Stephenson was a brave officer, and by 
order of General Grant was breveted colonel and brigadier- 
general March 16, 1865, for gallant services. He was chief of 
the State Detective Force from March, 1875, to July, 1878, and in 
1883 was appointed Governor of the United States Soldiers' Home 
at Togus, in Maine, with the rank of a brigadier-general in the 
army, which office he still holds. 

George R. Reed, Cos. A and I. Born Hingham, Dec. 17, 1839. 

First service in Lincoln Light Infantry. Sept. 1, 1862, became 

2d Lieut. ; 1st Lieut. Dec. 30 ; July 20, 1864, commissioned 

Captain. 
George W. Bibby, Co. A. Member Lincoln Light Infty. Aug. 21, 

1862, 2d Lieut., and 1st Lieut. Aug. 22, 1863. Killed May 20, 

1864. 
Nathaniel French, Jr., Co. A. Born Hingham, Aug. 28, 1858. 

2d Lieut. Lincoln Light Infty. April 20, 1861, and of Co. A, 

32d Regt. Nov. 16 ; 1st Lieut. March 7, 1862, and transferred 

to Co. D. Died in service, Aug. 9, 1862. 



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.th( 


3rs 


in the 


service. 



348 History of Hingham. 

Amos P. Holden, Co. A. 2d Lieut. March 26, 1862. 

Edward T. Bouve", Co. G, 1st Lieut. See 4th Cavalry. 

Lyman B. Whiton, Co. I. Born Hingham, Jan. 17, 1834. Sergt. 

in Lincoln Light Infty ; 2d Lieut. Co. I, 32d Regt. ; 1st Lieut, 

May 26, 1862; Capt. 3d Co. Heavy Artil., Dec 31, 1862: 

Major 3d Regt. Heavy Artil. Sept. 8, 1864 ; Commander Post 

104, G. A. R., 1892. 
Thomas A. Carver, Co. E, Sergt. Wounded. Trans, to V. R. C. ; 

first served in Lincoln Light Infantry. 
Charles Corbett, Co. A, Sergt. Menib. Lincoln Lt. Inftv. 

John W. Eldredge, Co. E, - Wounded. 
Henry S. Ewer, Co. A, " 
James M. Haskell, Co. A, " 

Born in Augusta, Me. ; one of six brothers 

Mortally wounded at Gettysburg. 
James McCarty, Co. A, Sergt. A very brave soldier. 
Charles S. Meade, Co. A, " Born Walpole, N. H., March 1, 1844. 

Enlisted at 17 vears of age, and died in service, March 7, 1864. 
Peter Ourish, Co.*E., Sergt. Born Buffalo, N. Y., April 15, 1845. 

Enlisted at 16 years of age. Mort. wounded; died June 8, 1864, 

aged 19 years. 
John Parrv, Co. A, Sergt. 

Nathaniel Wilder, 2d, Co. E, Sergt. Transferred to V. R. C. 
John C. Chadbourn, Co. A, Corp. Wounded. 
Silas H. Cobb, Co. E, Corp. Member Lincoln Light Infty. 
Jacob G. Cushins:, Co. D, Corp. Member Lincoln Light Infantry. 

Born Oct. 8, 1836. Mort. wounded at Laurel Hill, May 12, 1864. 
John C. Eldredge, Co. E, Corp. 
Harvev M. Pratt, Co. A, " Wounded. 

Edgar P. Stodder, Co. E, " 
Simmer A. Trask, Co. A, " 

Edwin Hersey, Co. E, Musician. Also in Lincoln Light Infty. 
Charles H. F. Stodder, Co. E, Musician. Also in Lincoln Light 

Infantry. 
Otis L. Battles, Co. E. Wounded at Cold Harbor. 
William Breen, Co. A, Corp. Died a prisoner in the service. 
Henrv F. Binnev, Co. E. Also in Lincoln Light Infantry. 
Ichabod W. Chandler, Co. E. Transferred to V. R. C. 
William Fardy, Co. E. 

George French, Jr., Co. A. Transferred to V. R. C. 
Stephen P. Gould, Co. E. 
Warren Hatch, Jr., Co. A. 
Samuel J. Henderson, Co. A. 
John Q. Hersey, Co. E. Born Hingham, Sept. 23, 1829. Died 

in the service. 
William Hersey, Jr. 
Wallace Humphrey, Co. E. Born Hingham, Sept. 2, 1836. Killed 

at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864. 
Alfred A. Lincoln, Co. E. Member Lincoln Light Infty. 



Military History. 349 

Meltiah Lorintr, Co. A. 

Frank H. Miller, Co. E. Wounded Feb. 6, 1865. 

Paul McNeil, Co. A. 

John M. Nolan, Co. A. 

Nathaniel B. Peare, Co. E. 

George M. Prouty, Co. F. 

James B. Prouty, Co. E. 

Thomas Rafferty, Jr., Co. E. 

Foster Remington, Co. E. 

William F. Riley, Co. E. 

John E. Snell, Co. E. Wounded at Gettysburg. 

Franklin A. Stodder. Transferred to V. R. C. 

Horace L. Studley, Co. E. Born Scituate, Sept. 24, 1837. Died in 

the service, April 1, 1863. 
William H. Thomas, Co. A. 
Ezra Wilder, Jr., Co. E. 
George Wilder, Co. A. 
Joshua Wilder, Co. A. 
Horatio P. Willard, Co. A. Born Ashburnham, Sept. 25, 1819. 

Died in service, Nov. 6, 1862. 
George A. Wolfe, Co. E. 

First Battery Light Artillery. 
James R. French. 



Third Battery Light Artillery. 



Geonre F. Tower, 



e 



First Cavalry. 



William A. Daggett, Co. K, Bugler. Transferred to Co. K, 4th 
Cav. First served in Co. C, 4th Regt. M. V. M. 

Charles D. Kilburn, Co. B, Corp. Born Boston, June 22, 1839. 
Mortallv wounded at Hope Church, Va., November, 1863, and 
died Jan. 4, 1864. 

William 0. Lincoln, Jr., Co. A, Commissary Sergeant. 

Nov. 15, 1861, the town voted to raise three thousand dollars in 
aid of the families of volunteers. 

March 3, 1862, at a town meeting, a committee previously 
chosen reported that they had expended for uniforms, clothing, 
caps, shoes, etc., for the Lincoln Light Infantry, $1,331.27, and 
to volunteers in other companies, $18.50. 

July 5, 1862, the town voted $5,000 for the payment of State 
aid, and $1,000 as town aid, to volunteers and their families in 
the service of the United States. 

July 11, a meeting of citizens, held in reference to raising the 
town's quota of three hundred thousand men called for by the 
President on the 2d of the same month, voted to recommend 
the payment of $75 to each man volunteering on the town's 
quota ; at a meeting four days later, the amount recommended 
for this purpose was increased to $100, and this sum was voted 
by the town at a meeting on the 19th. 



350 History of Hingham. 

Numerous meetings of citizens were held in aid of recruiting by 
the town during the summer, and on August 15, at a town meet- 
ing, it was voted to give one hundred dollars in addition to the 
sum previously voted to be paid to volunteers for three years on 
the first quota ; and at a meeting of the town on the 29th of the 
month the amount of bounty to be paid for each volunteer upon 
the second quota was increased fifty dollars. 

In the autumn of 1862, two companies of " Home Guards " 
were formed ; they paraded as a battalion on the 22d of October, 
and a second parade took place November 1. 

During the summer of 1802 the Government had called for 
three hundred thousand nine-months men, in addition to those 
already required for three years' service. On the quota for nine 
months, Hingham was required to furnish eighty-three men. Many 
of these were at the time borrowed from Plymouth, Middleborough, 
and Quincy, but were soon afterwards returned. The following 
were enlisted for nine months : — 

Fourth Regiment. 

Tilson Fuller, Co. K, Corp. 

Caleb B. Marsh, Co. A. Prisoner at Donaldsonville. 

Fifth Rkgiment. 
Jairus Lincoln, Jr., Co. E, Sergt. 

Sixth Regiment. 
George Smith, Co. F. Quota Newton. Wounded. 

Forty-second Regiment. 

Augustus Boiling, Co. C. 
Swan P. Colberg, Co. C. 
James Corcoran, Co. C. 
Patrick McCrane, Co. C. 
Michael Reardon, Co. C. 

Forty-third Regiment. 

John C. Whiton, Lieutenant-Colonel. Born Hingham, Aug. 22, 
1828. First served as Captain of the Second Battalion M. V. M., 
in garrison duty at Fort Warren, then as Captain and Lieutenant- 
Colonel in the 43d Regiment of nine-months men. Was sub- 
sequently Lieutenant-Colonel and Colonel of the 58th Regiment, 
and was wounded at Bethesda Church. 

Dexter Grose, Co. F, Sergt. Two brothers of Sergt. Grose were 
in the service. 

George W. Fearing, Co. K, Corp. Formerly in Lincoln Light 
Infantry. 

Loring H. dishing, Co. K. 

Isaac F. Goodwin, Co. K. 



Military History. 351 

Hollis Hersey, Co. K. Born Hingham, May 3, 1833. Died from 
disease contracted in service, Aug. 30, 1865, aged 31 years. 

Peter Loring, Co. K. 

Daniel McKenna, Co. K. 

Samuel C. Souther, Co. K. 

Thomas Souther, Co. K. 

Charles Tower, Co. K. 

William Waters Sprague, Co. A. 

Robert M. Cummings, Co. B. From Braintree ; served in Hing- 
ham's quota. 

Frederick W. Cotton, Co. K. 

Forty-fourth Regiment. 

Alvin Blanchard, Jr., Co. D. 

Charles H. Bailey, Co. A. 

James L. Hunt, Co. H. 

William Jones, Co. D. 

Levi Kenerson, Co. D. First service in Lincoln Light Infantry. 

John H. Litchfield, Co. D. 

John A. Reed, Co. D. 

Ezra T. C. Stephenson, Co D. 

William L. Stephenson, Co. D. 

Forty- fifth Regiment. 

Robert Burnsidc, Co. I. Of Boston. 

Ernest F. Eichborn, Co. G. 

Edwin G. Evans, Co. B. Of Dorchester. 

Jacob A. Evvell, Co. B. Of Dorchester. 

Francis Hersey, Co. G. 

Henry 0. Little, Co. G. 

William Lowry, Jr., Co. G. 

Josiah L. Marsh, Co. G. 

John R. Mayhcw, Co. G. 

Daniel W. Pendergast, Co. G. Died of disease contracted in 

service. 
James Souther, Co. G. 
Artemas Sprague, Co. G. 
Edward Trabbitts, Co. G. Of Boston. 
Hubert J. Tullev, Co. G. 
Daniel J. Wall/Co. G. 

Fiftieth Regiment. 
Charles H. Brown, Co. E. 

Eleventh Light Battery. 
Joseph M. Thomas. Lieut, in 42d Regt. 



352 History of Hingham. 

The three-years men who enlisted in 1862 were : — 

First Regiment. 

William H. Beal, Co. K. Born Hingham, Oct. 9, 1841. Severely 
wounded at Gettysburg- ; gradually failed, and died Dec. 20, 
1865. Also in 24th Regt. 

Joseph M. Poole, Co. F. 

Thomas Tinsley, Co. K. Born England, Aug. 7, 1821; died May 
11. 1863, from wounds received at Chancellorsville. 

Second Regiment. 

Isaac B. Damon, Co. I. 

Seventh Regiment. 

Ebcnezer F. Roberts, Co. A. Wounded and transferred to V.R.C. 
First served in Lincoln Light Infty. 

Ninth Regiment. 
John J. Breen, Co. K, Corp. Wounded at Spottsylvania. 

Eleventh Regiment. 
William C. Miller, Co. B. Wounded at Williamsburg, May 3, 1862. 

Thirteenth Regiment. 
George W. Stodder, Co. H. 

Twentieth Regiment. 
Daniel Daley, Co. H. Wounded at Fredericksburg. 

Twenty-fourth Regiment. 

Albert F. Barnes, Co. A. 
James Booth. 

Thirty-first Regiment. 

John G. Dawes, Co. K, Sergt. Transferred to 2d La. Volunteers, 
and commissioned 2d Lieut. 

Thirty-second Regiment. 

George M. Hudson, Co. F. 2d Lieut. Dec. 29, 1862; 1st Lieut. 

Sept. 29, 1863. Wounded at Laurel Hill, May 12, 1864. 
Thomas D. Blossom, Co. E, Sersrt. Wounded at Petersburg, June 

18, 1864. 
Leonard E. Buker. Co. F. Wounded at Gravcllv Run. 
Isaac G. Waters, Co. F. Trans, to V. R. C. First served with 

Lincoln Light Infty. 
Theophilus Cushing, Jr., Co. F, Corp. 



Military History. 353 

William L. Dawes, Co. F. Wounded Cold Harbor. 

Thomas L. French, Co. F, Corp. 

Washington I. Stodder, Co. F, Corp. Born at Hingham,Aug. 26, 

1841. Mortally wounded Spottsylvania Court House, May 12, 

1864. 
Ephraim Anderson, Co. F. 
Daniel L. Beal, Co. F. Born Cohasset, June 23, 1832. Died in 

service, July 29, 1864. 
Laban 0. Beal, Co. F. 
Patrick Callahan, Co. K. 
Rufus Churchill, Co. F. 
Gustavus T. Corthell, Co. F. 

Henry Gardner, Co. F. Transferred to V. R. C. and made Sergt. 
William H. Hersey, Co. F. 
Svlvanus H. Higgins, Co. F. 
Joshua Jacob, Jr., Co. D. 
Frank Jermyn, Co. F. 
Gardner Jones, born Boston, Jan. 10, 1843. Died June 1, 1864, 

of wounds received at Laurel Hill, aged 21 years. 
Morallus Lane, Co. F. 
Henry G. Morse, Co. F. 

John S. Souther, Co. A. First service in Lincoln Light Infantrv. 
Demerick Stodder, Co. F. Born Hingham, Nov. 23,1839. First 

served in Lincoln Light Infty. Killed at Gettysburg, Julv 2, 

1863. 
William Taylor, Co. F. First served in Lincoln Light Infantry. 

Thirty-fifth Regiment. 
Oliver Burrill, Co. H. 2d Lieut. Aug. 11, 1862; 1st Lieut. Dec. 

15, 1862. 
George M. Adams, Co. H, Sergt. Wounded. Trans, to V. R. C. 

Served in Lincoln Light Infty. 
Jason Gardner, Co. H, Musician. Quota Weymouth. 
David W. Cashing, Co. H. Born Weymouth, Dec. 8, 1831. and 

served in quota of that town. Killed at Antietam, Sept. IT. 

1862. 
Perez F. Fearing, Co. I. Born Hingham, Aug. 19, 1842. Mort. 

wounded at the Mine, July 30, 1864. 
Hiram Thomas, Co. D. Quota Waltham. 

Thirty-eighth Regiment. 

James H. Wade. Capt. Aug. 20, 1862. 

Louis T. V. Cazaire, Co. I. 2d Lieut. June 16, 1864. Subse- 
quently in 89th Regt. U. S. Colored Troops, and later on staff 
of General Can by. 

Billings Merritt, Co. D, Sergt. 

Henry Brown, Co. D. Transferred to the navy. 

Cyrus H. Chase, Co. I. 

Thomas Hervey, Co. I. Of Charlestown. Killed Aug. 13, 1863. at 
Bisland, La., aged 37 years. 

vol. i. — 23 



354 History of Hingham. 

Joshua Roach, Co. H. Died in service, June 1, 1863, aged 38 yrs. 
Cushman Rounds, Co. H. 
Peter H. Royal, Co. H. 
William Rich, Co. I. 

Thirty-ninth Regiment. 

Thaddeus Churchill, Co. D, Sergt. 2d Lieut. 3d U. S. Col'd Infty. 
John H. Prouty, Co. G, Sergt. ; 2d Lieut. First served in Lincoln 

Liffht Infty. 
John W. Bailey, Co. G, Sergt, 
Henry C. French, Co. G, Sergt. Born Hingham, June 30, 1836. 

First served in Lincoln Liedit Infantry. Murdered while a 

prisoner at Belle Isle, Va., Aug. 26, 1864, aged 28. One of 

three brothers, all of whom gave their lives for their country 

and ours. 
William H. Jacob. Co. G, Sergt. 
Charles C. Bailey, Co. G, Corp. 
Benjamin C. Lincoln, Co. G. Capt. 2d U. S. Col'd Infty., 1863; 

Major, July 20, 1864. Born Hingham, Aug. 12, 1840. Mort. 

wounded at Natural Bridge, Fla., March 8, 1865. 
Henry F. Miller, Co. G, Corp. Burn Salem, Jan. 30, 1845. Mort. 

wounded at Laurel Hill, May 8, 1864, aged 19 yrs. 
Charles C. Young, Co. G, Corp. 
Charles E. Bates, Co. G. Born Cohasset, Dec. 16, 1837. Wounded 

at Laurel Hill. Died in service, Nov. 2, 1864, aged 26 years. 
Timothy B. Chapman, Co. G. 
Eleazer Chubbuck, Jr., Co. G. 
James T. Churchill. Born Hingham, May 9, 1841. Died in 

Andersonville Prison, June 23, 1864, aged 23 years. 
John Cresswell, Co. G. First served in Lincoln Lt. Infantry. 
Andrew J. Damon, Co. G. Born Scituate, June 14, 1843. Died 

of disease contracted in service, Oct. 27, 1863, aged 20 years. 
Charles E. French, Co. G. Born Hingham, Aug. 2, 1842. Died a 

prisoner at Salisbury, N. C, Nov. 28, 1864, aged 22 years. 
George D. Gardner, Co. G. Born Boston, Aug. 27, 1828. Died 

in service, Aug. 4, 1864, aged 36 years. 
Alvin R. Glines, Co. G. 
Albert S. Haynes, Co. G. Born Hanover, Sept., 1843. First 

served in Lincoln Light Infty. Mort. wounded at Laurel Hill, 

and died June 11. 1864, aaed 21 vears. 
Albert Hersey, Co. G. 
George L. Hersey, Co. G. 

I fenry F. Hersey, Co. G. Prisoner at Libby Prison. 
Charles Leroy, Co. G. 
John S. Neal, Co. G. Born at Hebron, N. H., Nov., 1831. Died 

in prison at Salisbury, N. C, July 16, 1865, aged 33 years. 
Levi C. Newcomb, Co. G. 
Charles H. Poole, Co. G. 
Benjamin W. Prouty, Co. G. 
Elijah Prouty, Co. G. Died in service Dec. 9, 1863. Served in 

Lincoln Litrht Infant r v. 



Military History. 355 

Isaac Prouty, Co. G. Transferred to V. R. C. 

William Prouty, Jr., Co. G. Served also in Lincoln Light Infty. 

Joseph Simmons, Co. G. Born Scituate, April 11, 1829. Died 

in service March 3, 1864, aged 35 years. 
Edward A. F. Spear, Co. G. Born Norwich, Vt., March 13, 1828. 

Died in Salisbury, N. C, prison Jan. 20, 1865, aged 37 years. 
Thomas Sprague, 2d, Co. G. Born Oct. 25, 1826. Died in service 

April 24, 1864, aged 37 years. 
Scth M. Sprague, Co. G. 

Alonzo G. Stockwell, Co. G. Wounded at Weldon Railroad. 
Charles H. Tisdale, Co. G. 

Frank J. Torrey, Co. G. Wounded at Laurel Hill. 
Albert Wilder, Co. G. Born Hingham, Feb. 28, 1842. Mortally 

wounded at Laurel Hill, May 8- 1864. Died June 1, 1864, aged 

22 years. 

Fortieth Regiment. 

Jeiemiah J. Corcoran, Co. A. First served in Lincoln Light 
Infantry. Mort. wounded June 3, and died June 10, aged 
28 years. 

Ensign Lincoln, Co. I. 

At a town meeting held March 9, 1863, the sum of $9000 was 
placed at the disposal of the Selectmen for the payment of State 
aid to the families of volunteers ; it was also voted to raise 8800 
as town aid to the families of volunteers. 

Aug. 14 the town voted that $15000 be raised by the Town and 
appropriated for the aid of the wives, children, parents, brothers, 
and sisters of such as might.be drafted into the service. 

During this year numerous war meetings were held by the 
citizens for the purpose of encouraging enlistments, and strenuous 
efforts were also made to procure recruits in order to avoid the 
necessity of a draft being enforced in the town. 

These proved unavailing, however, and on July 20 a number 
of names were drawn at Taunton for the purpose of supplying 
the only deficiency that ever occurred in any of Hingham's 
quotas. So far as is known, only William K. Gould, Sewall 
Pugsley, and Don Pedro Wilson ever joined the army under the 
requisition, while fifteen others obtained exemption by the pay- 
ment of the sum required by law for commutation. 

Sewall Pugsley and Don Pedro Wilson never returned to the 
homes which they loved, both laying down their lives in the 
country's service. 

The names of the men enlisting for three years in 1863 are — 

Eleventh Regiment. 
Wallace Thomas, Co. K. 



356 History of Bingham. 

Sixteenth Regiment. 

Don Pedro Wilson, Co. A. Born at Dracat, Aug. 16, 1821. 
August, 1863, drafted into the service. Probably taken pris- 
oner Oct. 23, 1863, and never since heard from. 

Twenty-second Regiment. 

William K. Gould, Co. F. Also in 5th Battery and 32d Regt. 
Sewall Pugsley, Co. F. Born Hiram, Me., March 20, 1831. One 

of the three drafted men from Hingham ; died in service Nov. 

12, 1863, aged 32 years. 

Thirty-second Regiment. 

William K. Gould, Co. L. One of the three drafted men from 
Hingham. 

Fifty-fourth Regiment. 

David H. Champlin, Co. B. 

Louis L. Simpson, Co. G. 

Fifty-fifth Regiment. 

Alphonso Marsh. Private 21st Mass. Infty. 2d Lieut. 55th 
Infty. Aug. 21, 1863. 1st Lieut. July 9, 1864. 

Tenth Light Battery. 

Hosea 0. Barnes. Born Scituate, June 13, 1842 ; killed at Jones's 
Farm, May 30, 1864, aged 22 years. 

First Regiment Heavy Artillery. 
Webster A. Cushing, Co. D, Corp. 

Third Regiment Heavy Artillery. 

Lyman B. Whiton, Major. See 32d Reg. 

Edwin Thomas, Co. K, Captain. Born Hingham. Private 1st 

Unattached Co. Heavy Artil. ; Jan. 1863, 2d Lieut. 3 Co. : Mav 

25, 1863, 1st Lieut ; Sept. 8, 1864, Capt. Co. K., 3d Regt. 

Heavy Artil. Quota Weymouth. 
Francis K. Meade, Co. A. Qt. Sergt. 
Franz Burhenne, Co. A, Corporal. 
John B. Batchelder, Co. A, Artificer. 
Jonathan B. Ackerman, Co. A. 
Fielder Botting, Co. A. 

George A. Chubbuck, Co. A. Transferred to Navy. 
Daniel H. Miller, Co. A. 
Levi H. Dow, Co. E. Served in Lincoln Light Infty. and in Co. E, 

17 Regt. U. S. A. (Regulars). 
Joseph H. Noyes, Co. A. Also in 1st Regt. Mounted Rifles U. &. A . 

(Regulars). Refused commission in rebel army in 1861. 



Military History. 357 

George E. Richardson, Co. A. Transferred to Navy. 
Joseph Rollins. 
Charles E. Spurr, Co. A. 
Warren R. Spurr, Co. A. 
Henry Whitman, Co. A. 

Second Regiment Cavalry. 
Thomas T. Barnes,- Co. B. 

Fourth Regiment Cavalry. 

Alfred Gardner, Co. C. 

George W. Farrar, Co. B. 

Samuel Newcomb, 2d, Co. D. Transferred to Navy. 

Edward Spellman, Co. A. 

Philo C. Winslow, Co. A. 

Veteran Reserve Corps. 

The following are in addition to the men transferred to this 
corps and noted in the general lists : — 

Michael Carr, Lawrence Hicks, 

Michael Casey, John Keefe, 

John Dolan, James McGregor, 

Patrick Donnelin, Edward McLaughlin, 

Moses Fairfield. James Tettler, 

Michael Flemming, Charles Timmons, 

Thomas Foley, Henry B. Livingston. Died in 

Peter Forrester, service May 21, 186-1. 

Edward Galvin, 

Unknown. 
John Ryan. 

Under the call of the President of Oct. 27, 1863, for 300,000 
additional volunteers, the quota of Hingham was fifty. Forty-two 
men were soon obtained, and the re-enlistment of twenty-two sol- 
diers of the 32d Regiment enabled the town to have credited to it 
a considerable surplus above all previous calls. 

March 7, 1864, the annual meeting of the town was held, and 
it was voted to appropriate $800 for town aid to the families of 
volunteers, and to borrow $8,000 for the purpose of paying 
State aid. It was also voted to raise $1,000 for the expenses of 
recruiting. 

At a town meeting, held April 11 it was voted to raise $8000 
for the purpose of refunding to individuals the money contributed 
by them towards rilling the town's quotas under the calls of the 
President of Oct. 17, 1863, and Feb. 1, 1864. At this meeeting, 
too, the selectmen were requested to obtain authority from the 



358 History of Hingham. 

Legislature to defray the expenses of obtaining and interring 
the bodies of such officers and soldiers belonging to the town as 
may die in the service during the rebellion. 

The enlistments into the three-year organizations in 1864 
were — 

Seventeenth Regiment. 

Owen Murphy, Co. C. One year enlistment. 
David Pettingill, Co. C. One year enlistment. 
Philip Sullivan, Co. C. One year enlistment. 

Twentieth Regiment. 
George Gramburg. 

Twenty-sixth Regiment. 

Charles Bolster, Co. E. Corporal. 
Edwin Barr, Co. E. 
John O'Brien, Co. B. 
Nelson T. Wood, Co. E. 

Twenty-ninth Regiment. 

Caleb H. Beal, Sergt. Also served in Co. K, 35th Regt. 
John Manix, Co. I, Corporal. 

Edward C. Blossom. Also served in Co. A, 23d Regt. 
Robert Grace. 

Thirty-second Regiment. 

Hiram Newcomb, 2d, Co. E. Born Hingham, Jan., 1842. Died 
of disease contracted in army Oct. 15, 1867, aged 25 years. 

Charles E. Wilder, Co. E. Born Hingham, Aug/, 1832/ Wounded 
at Laurel Hill, May 12, 1864. Died of disease in the service, 
Dec. 23, 1864. 

Thirty-fifth Regiment. 

Charles H. Beal, Co. K. First served in 84th N. Y. Vols. After- 
ward, 2d Lieut. Co. E, 107th N. Y. Vols. Finally transferred 
to Co. I, 29th Mass., where he was a sergeant. 

Fifty-fifth Regiment. 

Peter N. Sprague, Co. A. Born Hingham, Dec. 16, 1826. First 
served in Lincoln Light Infantrv. 2d Lieut. Co. A, 55th Regt. 
Aug. 20, 1864. 1st Lieut. May*15, 1865. 

John T. Talbot, Co. B. 

Fifty-sixth Regiment. 

George Bailey, Co. I, Corporal. Killed at Petersburg, June 17, 

1864, aged about 30 years. 
George A. Clapp, Co. H. 



Military History. 359 

Fifty-seventh Regiment. 

Edward 0. Graves, Co. C. Also served in Co. K, 20th Regt., and 

Co. C, 59th Regt. A musician. 
John Welch, Co. G. Also served in 59th Regt. 

Fifty-eighth Regiment. 

John C. Whiton, Colonel. 

William M. Carter, Co. H, Sergt. Wounded ; one year enlistment . 

John McDonald, Co. A. 

James L. Litchfield, Co. D. 

Fifty-ninth Regiment. 

Alfred Tyler, Co. F, Corporal. 

Edward 0. Graves, Co. C, Musician. Transferred to 57th Regt. 

William C. Torrey, Co. G. Enlisted from Dedham. 

John Welch, Co. G. Transferred to 57th Regt. 

First Regiment Heavy Artillery. 

William Carter, Co. G. One-year enlistment. Transferred from 

14th Infantry. 
Anton Tapp, Co. L. One-year enlistment. Transferred from 14th 

Infantry. 

Third Regiment PIeavy Artillery. 

Edwin F. Tirrell, Co. B, 2d Lieut. Enlisted from Weymouth. 

Isaiah W. Loring, Co. A, Corporal. 

Joshua Crosby, Jr., Co. A. 

Francis Mayhew, Co. A. One-year enlistment. 

George Peacock, Co. A. One-year enlistment, 

Aaron D. Swan, Co. M. One-year enlistment, 

Second Regiment Cavalry. 

Eben Hart, Co. L. 
John McLaughlin. 

Fourth Regiment Cavalry. 

Edward T. Bouve, Co. G. Born Hingham, Aug. 14, 1841. 
2d Lieut. 32d Inftv. June 30, 1862; 1st Lieut. Sept. 1, 1862; 
Capt, 4th Cavalry Jan. 22, 1864 ; Major 26th N. Y. Cavalry, 
Feb. 28, 1865 ; Major 4th Mass. Cavalry. Commander of Post 
104, G. A. R., in 1877, 1878, and 1879. 

Benjamin Thomas. 2d Lieut. Dec. 1863. 1st Lieut, and Quarter- 
master 4th Cavalry Jan. 1, 1864. A. A. Q. M. Tenth Army 
Corps. 

Thomas Hickey, Co. M. Born Hingham Jan. 14, 1841. First 
served from Waltham in Co. M. 1st Regt. Cavalry in 1861. 



360 History of Hingham. 

Color-Sergt. 4th Cavalry ; 2d Lieut. Aug. 9, 1805. Prisoner at 

High Bridge Aug. 1865. Destroyed the colors to prevent their 

falling into the hands of the enemy. 
Frank H. Gilman, Co. B, Sergeant. 
Arvander Merrow, Co. B, Sergeant. 
James G. Raymond, Co. D, Corporal. From Weymouth. Died at 

Hilton Head May 24, 1864, aged 18 years. 
Thomas Cloney, Co. F, Musician. 

William A. Daggett, Musician. Also in 1st Reg. Cavalry. 
Orietes L. Bailey, Co. C. 

Charles Campbell, Co. D. Transferred to Navy. 
Cornelius Connell, Co. D. Prisoner at Florence, Ala. 
Samuel N. Corthell, Co. D. Prisoner at Florence, Ala. Also 

served in Co. K, 7th Infantry. 
William L. Cummings, Co. D. 
Charles Gardner. Enlisted from Brighton. 
James Hickey, Co. C. 
William H. Jones, Co. C. Died of wounds Sept. 19, 1864, at 

Magnolia, Fla., aged 48 years. Served also in 18th Infantry. 

Lost two sons in the service. 
Joseph S. Miller, Co. F. Wounded at Deep Bottom. Va. 
Thomas Rafferty, Jr., Co. F. 
Dennis Scully, Co. D. Born County Cork, Ireland, Sept., 1834. 

Died in service, April 26, 1864, aged 29 years. 
Frank H. Tilton, Co. C. Died in service July 12, 1864. aged 18 yrs. 

Fifth Regiment Cavalry. 

Rufus Clark, Co. B. 
Thomas Davis, Co. I. 
George Jones, Co. G. 
Matthew H. Lucas, Co. B. 
Joseph Nathan, Co. B. 

In 1864 the President called for 85,000 men to serve for 100 
days. Those enlisting for this service from Hingham were — 

Fifth Regiment. 
Robert Cushing, Co. F. 
Revere Lincoln, Co. F. 

Forty-second Regtment. 

Joseph M. Thomas, Co. A. Born Hanson, Aug. 24, 1841 : 
2d Lieut. July 14, 1864. Also served in 11th Battery. 

Fergus A. Easton, Co. E. Sergeant. First served in Lincoln 
Light Infantry ; then as Orderly-Sergt. in 6th N. Y. Cavalrv. in 
which he was' 2d Lieut. June 27, 1862, and 1st Lieut. March 22. 
1863. 



Military History. 361 

George Dunbar, Co. D, Corporal. First served in Lincoln Light 

Infantry. 2d Lieut. Co. I, 4th Mass. Vol. Militia. 
John Henry Stoddar, Co. D. 
Arthur Beale, Co. A, Commander of Post 104 G. A. R., 1893. 

Sixtieth Regiment. 
Andrew W. Gardner, Co. B. 

The following members of the Thirty-second Infantry re-enlisted 
as veteran volunteers for three years from Jan. 5, 1864. 

Ephraim Anderson, Charles S. Meade, 

Otis L. Battles, James McCarty, 

William Breen, Frank H. Miller, 

John C. Chadbourn, Peter Ourish, 

Jacob G. dishing, Harvey M. Pratt, 

William L. Dawes, William F. Riley, 

John W. Eldredge, Charles H. F. Stodder, 

Thomas L. French, Edgar P. Stodder, 

Edwin Hcrsey, Washington I. Stodder, 

Wallace Humphrey, Nathaniel Wilder, 2d, 

Gardner Jones, George A. Wolfe. 

Under the head of '• Unassigned Recruits " the following names 
occur in " Hingham in the Civil War": William Burtes, trans- 
ferred to Navy, and Charles Richardson. 

There were enlisted for one year the following-named men : — 

Sixty- first Regiment. 

John E. Wilson, Co. E, Corporal. 
William H. Allen, Co. F. 
Thomas S. Brio-ham, Co. G. 
Wakefield Carver, Co. F. 
John R. Donaven, Co. F. 
Michael Franev, Co. K. 
William Hilton, Co. F. 
Patrick J. Kelley, Co. C. 
James McNamara, Co. F. 
John A. Watson, Co. F. 

Fourth Regiment Heavy Artillery. 

James M. Cleverly, Co. G. 
John A. Farrington, Co. C. 
George J. Fearing, Co. G. 
William M. Gilman, Co. G. 
Henry Hart, Co. C. 
Charles Helms, Co. G. 
Michael Landers, Co. G. 
Michael Roach. Co. G. 



362 History of Hingham. 

Charles Shute, Co. D. Probably enlisted from Worcester. 

Melzar Vinal, Co. C. 

Henry B. Vogell, Co. G. 

Joseph N. Wall, Co. G. Also served in 23d Regt. 

On the first of December the town had to its credit twenty-six 
men above all calls, having furnished two hundred and fifteen 
soldiers to the army during the year. 

On the 29th December a meeting of citizens liable to military 
duty was held at the town hall for the purpose of forming a 
company in accordance with the provisions of an act of the Legis- 
lature approved May 14. Henry Jones, who had served in the 
18th Infantry Mass. Vols., was elected captain. The law was 
shortly after repealed, and this, the last of Hingham's militia 
companies, never met for parade or drill. 

March 6,1865. At the annual town-meeting it was voted to 
hire $9000 for the payment of State aid, and to appropriate $800 
for town aid to families of soldiers. 

There were enlisted for one year the following men in 1865 : — 

Sixty-first Regiment. 

James W. Gray, Co. K, Corporal. 
James Daley, Co. I. 
George C. Dunham, Co. I. 
John H. Hayes, Co. K. 
Joseph H. Hilton, Co. I. 
George W. R. Putnam, Co. H. 
George L. Rich, Co. H. 

Sixty-second Regiment. 
Andrew W. Gardner, Co. C. 

Regular Army. 

There enlisted in the regular army at various periods during 
the war, the following : — 

Richard J. Farrell, Co. G, 2d Regt. U. S. Artillery. Born in 

Dungarvan, Ireland, Jan. 10, 1841. Enlisted June 10, 1861. 

Wounded on the Peninsula, and died March 24, 1864, aged 23 

years. 
Dennis Mullian, 19th Infantry. Enlisted May 10, 1864. 
Joseph H. Noves, 1st Mounted Rifles. 
William Perkins, 19th Infantrv, May 10, 1864. 
Michael F. Thompson, Co. D^ 5th Regt. U. S. Artil., Sergeant. 

Born Ireland, March 9, 1840. Died of disease contracted in 

service Jan. 6, 1867, aged 27 vears. 
Joseph W. Welsh. Enlisted Sept, 24, 1864. 
James H. Williams, 19th Infantry, May 10, 1864. 



Military History. 363 

Under the title " Enlistments in other States of Natives or 

Residents of Hingham," we find in " Hingham in the Civil 

War" — 

Hawkes Fearing, Jr. Colonel Fearing was born in Hingham 
May 20, 1826, and became Captain of the Lincoln Light Infantry 
upon its organization in 1855. In 1860 he was Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the Fourth Regiment, M. V. M., in which capacity he 
first went into active service. September 24, 1861, he was com- 
missioned as Colonel of the Eighth New Hampshire Volunteers. 
April, 1863, Colonel Fearing was wounded at Bisland, in 
Louisiana. During the years 1871 and 1872 Colonel Fearing 
represented the district comprising Hingham and Hull in the 
General Court. He was one of the original members of Post 
104 of the Grand Army, and Commander in 1869 and 1870. 
Colonel Fearing has been for some years Librarian of the 
Hingham Public Library. 

James Ballentine. Born in Roscommon County, Ireland, April, 
1842. Enlisted May, 1860, in the Third Infantry, U.S.A., and 
was soon taken prisoner by the rebels. He subsequently enlisted 
in the Fifteenth Independent Volunteers, New York, and was 
killed at Weldon Railroad. 

William Barnes, Lieutenant in a New York Regiment. Prisoner 
at Andersonville. 

George Bicknell, 2d New York Infantry. Wounded at Bull Run. 

Martin dishing, in a Pennsylvania Cavalry Regiment. 

Henry H. Cushing, Captain in 88th Illinois Vols. Buried in 
Hingham Cemetery. 

David P. Eldredge, Orderly Sergt., Co. G, 7th Kansas Cavalry. 

John J. L. French, Co. E, 1st Regt., N. H. Heavy Artillery. 

Caleb B. Gill, Sergt,, Co. I, 57th Indiana Foot Volunteers ; 2d 
Lieut. April 3, 1863. Died April 24, 1867, from disease con- 
tracted in the service. 

John Gorman, Sergt., 25th N. Y. Cavalry. Wounded at Malvern 
Hill July 1, 1862 ; prisoner at Libbv Prison. 

Hosea Harden, Co. G, 40th N. Y. V. I. 

Elijah Hobart. Born Hingham Oct. 4, 1821 ; killed near Point 
of Rocks, Va., July 4, 1864. A grandson of Caleb Hobart of 
the Revolutionarv Armv. Captain of Co. B, 93d Regt. N. Y. 
Vols. 

Allen G. Jennings, Co. H, 121st Regt. N. Y. Vols. Afterwards 
pastor of Second Unitarian Church in Hingham. 

Charles B. Leavitt. Oct. 20, 1863, 1st Lieut. Co. M, 6th U. S. 
Colored Heavy Artillery. March 13, 1864, Lieut.-Col. 70th 
U. S. Colored Infantry. Twice wounded. 

Beza H. Lincoln, Quartermaster-sergeant, Co. E, 1st N. H. Heavy 
Artillery. 

John Lincoln, Jr., Co. G, 13th Conn. Vol. Infantry; Sergeant. 

Leavitt Lincoln, Sergt., Co. I, 61st Illinois Vols. Born Hing- 
ham March 2, 1823. Died in service Dec. 7, 1864. 



364 History of Hingham. 

Allyne C. Litchfield, Capt. 5th Michigan Cav. Lieut. -Col. 7th 

Michigan Cav. Prisoner at Libbv Prison. Brevet Brigadier- 

General. In 1871 Consul-Genera 1 at Calcutta. 
James Lowry, 3d District of Columbia Regt. 
Daniel Murphy. Born Boston Nov. 22, 1840. Died in Hospital at 

Washington prior to Nov. 24, 1862. Soldier in 15th N. Y. Vols. 
William L. Neal, 6th N. H. Infantry. 
Charles Remington, Lincoln Body Guard. 
John F. Rogers, Co. A, 74th Regt. Illinois Vols. 
Henry E. Spaulding, 13th N. H. Infantry. Now a physician in 

Hingham. 
Isaiah F. Tower, Captain Co. G, 93d Regt. Ohio Vol. Infantry. 

Wounded at Nashville Dec. 16, 1864. 
Benjamin S. Whiting, Lieut. 17th U. S. Infantry. 
Webster A. Whiting^ Capt. 88th Illinois Vols. 
Conrad P. Yager. Born Mergantheim, Wurtemberg. Enlisted in 

Co. F, 2d Regt., Lincoln Guard. Died in service Oct. 15, 1863, 

aged 20 years. 

The Navy. 

The natives or residents of Hingham serving in the Navy, so far 
as known, numbered thirty-seven, as follows : — 

Charles H. Loring, 3d Asst, Engineer, Feb. 26, 1851 ; 2d Asst. 
Engineer May 21, 1853 ; 1st Asst. Engineer May 9, 1857 ; Chief 
Engineer March 25, 1861. Served on the " Minnesota " and 
" Susquehanna." 

Thomas Andrews. Born Hingham June 9, 1816, and died in 
service Feb. 27, 1865, aged 48 years. Acting-Master U. S. 
Navy. Captain Andrews was a direct descendant of Capt. 
Thomas Andrews who died in Sir William Phips's expedition 
against Canada. Served on " Vermont," " Courier," " Crusa- 
der," and " Pensacola." 

Lemuel Pope, Acting Master's Mate, Sept. 10, 1862 ; Acting 
Ensign, Feb. 11, 1864; Acting Master, July 18, 1865. 

Andrew Tower, June 2, 1863, Acting-Assistant Paymaster, U.SN. 
Served on " Norfolk Packet," " C. P. Williams," " Para," and 
" Passaic." 

Franklin Nickerson, Acting-Assistant Surgeon, U. S. N. Served 
on " Shokokon " and " Brittania." 

Edward W. Halcro. Born Hamburg Jan. 24, 1836. Acting 
Ensign Dec. 15, 1863. Died in Norfolk Hospital April 5, 1867. 
Buried in Hingham. Served on " Genesee," " Ovetta," " Sarah 
Bruen," " Idaho," and " New Hampshire." 

Charles M. Fuller, Acting Master's Mate. Served on " Mace- 
donian," " Essex," and " Ozark." 

Charles A. Stewart, March 16, 1865, Acting Ensign. Prisoner at 
Charleston, S. C. Served on " Wachusett," " Southfield," 
" Underwriter," " Muscoota," and " Saco." 



Military History. 365 

John M. Trussell, Acting 3d Assistant Engineer. Served on 

"Connecticut," " Iuka," and " Clyde." 
Augustus Barnes, Captain's Clerk. Served on " Marion " and 

" Pocahontas." 
Frederick C. Blair, Master-at-Arms. Served on " W. G. Ander- 
son," the prize " Arizona," " Potomac." " Metacomet," and 

" Seluia." 
Alfred B. Whiting, Master-at-Arms. Served on " Colorado." 
Charles Campbell, Gunner's-mate. Served on " Vermont " and 

" Para ; " was also in U. S. Army. 
Henry W. Hersey, Paymaster's Steward. Prisoner. Served on 

"Sachem," "Diana," "Onondaga," and "Otsego." 
Elkanah Binney, Signal Quartermaster ; wounded in Mobile Bay. 

Served on " Oneida." 
Samuel Newcomb, 2d Signal Quartermaster. Served on " Bra- 

ziliera," and " South Carolina." 
Alden Lincoln, First-class Fireman. Served on " Genesee." 
George A. Grover, First-class Fireman. Served on " Acacia" and 

prize " Julia." 
Daniel S. Lincoln, First-class Fireman. Served in Lincoln Light 

Infantry and on " Monadnock," " Connecticut," and " Iuka." 
William Eldrcdge, Seaman on " Vincennes." 
John W. Gardner. Born Hingham, Aug. 17, 1820. Died in 

service June 24, 1863, aged 42 years. Served in Co. I, First 

Mass. Infantry, and in Co. I, 12th Maine Infantrv, and on 

" Hartford." 
George E. Richardson. Served in 3d Mass. Heavy Artillery and 

on " Massasoit." 
George A. Chubbuck. Served in 3d Unattached Co. Heavy Artil- 
lery, and on " Glaucus " and " Mather Vassar." 
William G. dishing. Served on " Gemsbok." 
Benjamin Hatchfield. Served on " Louisville." 
Daniel Stodder. Served on " Conewaugh." 
Thomas R. Murphy. Served on " Ethan Allen." 
Isaac M. Dow. Served on " Massasoit." 
Daniel Daley. 

Robert F. Fardv. Served on " Queen " and "Passaic." 
Edward Gottchell. Served on " Queen " and " Passaic." 
Benjamin L. Jones. Served on " Hetzel " and "Louisiana." 
George H. Merritt. Born Scituate Sept. 11, 1842. Died at 

Little Washington, N. C, Feb. 7, 1863, aged 20 years. Served 

on " Hetzel " and " Louisiana." 
Daniel J. Thompson. Served on " Ohio." 
Henry Trowbridge. Served on " Hetzel " and " Louisiana." 
William Burtes. 
Edwin Barnes. 

Under the heading of " Additional Enlistments in Hingham 
in the Civil War," the following names appear. Of most of them 



366 History of Hingham. 

little else is known than the fact of their being recruited, and 
that they were either natives of Hingham or served upon its quota. 

Edwin Allen, three years, Thomas Griffin, three years, 

Louis Anderson, Edward Hackett, three years, 

Calvin R. Baker, Mark Hall, 

John Baker, three years, Otis C. Hardy, three years, 
Joseph Barstow, served with Kit James Hayes, 

Carson, William Hillarston, 

George W. Boen, three years, Edward Bourne Hinckley, Clergy - 
George H. Bonney, three years, man, 

Edwin Booth, Henry A. Hitchcock, three years. 

John Brown, three years, Jeremiah Hurley, 

Melzar W. Clark, Edward Kelley, 

John Collins, three years, Joseph B. Kelsey, 

Thomas Collins, three years, Kittredge, 

William Colman, William H. Lane, three years, 

Barney Conaley, Jacob Lowe, 5th (U. S.) Artil. 

Charles Cook, three years, John C. Maguire, Co. G, 5Gth 
Henry Daggett, three years, Mass. 

Horatio M.Dallas, one year, Cap- Patrick Mahoney, 

tain in frontier service, Michael McGrane, 9 months, 

Thomas D. Dalton, three years, Charles H. Muschatt, three years, 

Albert Damon, George H. Osborn, 

James Dempsey, three years, Edwin Poiney, three years, 

Henry B. Downes, three years, Edward L. Preston, Co. A, 5th 
Josiah Edson, Cavalry, 

West D. Eldredge, three years, William Randall, 

Lenclal Hanscom Ewell, Co. H, Edward Roach, three years, 

4th Rcgt. David P. Robinson, 

Thomas M. Farrell, Albert Sawyer, 

John G. Gorman, Franklin Simmons, 

Timothy Gordon, Capt. Co. G, William T. Sprague, three years, 

4th Regt. William Thompson. 
James Gorman, 21st Regt. 

The roll of honor which Hingham cherishes with love and pride 
for its record of bravery and devotion contains the names of four 
hundred and seventy-three soldiers and sailors who served upon 
her quota, besides nineteen who marched with the Lincoln Light 
Infantry in the first days of the war and did not subsequently 
appear on the lists ; making four hundred and ninety -two different 
men furnished by the town for the defence of the country. To 
this number should be added twenty-eight Hingham men who 
joined regiments in other States, bringing the whole number up 
to five hundred and twenty. The number re-enlisting cannot 
perhaps be accurately ascertained, but the aggregate of enlist- 
ments from Hingham during the war, and not including the mem- 
bers of the Lincoln Light Infantry, is stated in " Hingham in the 



Military History. 



367 



Civil War " to have been seven hundred and five. There were 
mortally wounded or killed in battle thirty-one men and seven 
officers ; died in the. service, twenty-seven men and three officers, 
besides one man murdered and six others who died while pris- 
oners ; nine men and one officer died from disease contracted in 
the service during or soon after the war. Thus there was a loss 
of eighty-two of our townsmen, most of whom were citizens at 
the time, as a direct result of the conflict. Many more have 
passed away since, in consequence of the months and years of 
privation and exposure. In addition to the casualties above, 
there were thirty men and seven officers wounded, and seven men 
and three officers taken prisoners. 

The names and rank of the officers from Hingham, as far as 
known, are : — 



IN THE ARMY. 



BVT. BRIGADIER-GENERALS. 

Luthpr Stephenson, Jr. : wounded. 
Allyne C. Litchfield ; prisoner. 
Joseph H. Barnes. 

colonels. 

John C. Whiton, 5Sth Infty.; wounded. 
Hawkes Fearing, Sth X. H. Infty. 

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL. 

Charles B. Leavitt, 70th U. S. Infty.; 
twice wounded. 

BVT. LIEUTENANT-COLONEL. 

Thomas Weston, 18th Infty. ; wounded. 

MAJORS. 

Benjamin C. Lincoln, 2d U. S. Infty. ; 

killed in battle. 
Edward T. Bouve, 4th Cavalry. 
Lyman B. Whiton, 3d Heavy Artill'y. 

BVT. MAJOR. 

Benjamin F. Meservey, 18th Infantry; 
wounded. 

CAPTAINS. 

Edwin Humphrey, 11th Infty. ; killed. 
Alexander Hitchborn, 12th Infantry ; 

killed. 
Elijah Hobart. 93d X. Y. ; killed. 
John E. Morse. Invalid Corps. 
James H. Wade, 28th Infantry. 
Edwin Thomas, 3d Heavy Artillery. 



Henrv H. Cushing, 88th Illinois 
Webster A. Whiting, S8th Illinois. 
Isaiah F. Tower. 93d Ohio; wounded. 
Timothy Gordon. 4th Infantry. 
Horatio M. Dallas, Frontier Service. 
George R. Reed, 32d Infantry. 

FIRST LIEUTENANTS. 

Peter N. Sprague, 55th Infantry. 
Benjamin Thomas, 4th Cavalry. 
Oliver Burrill, 35th Infantry. 
Alphonso Marsh, 55th Infantry. 
George M. Hudson, 22d Infantry; 

wounded. 
Nathaniel French, Jr., 32d Infantry; 

died in service. 
Charles Sprague, 4th Infantry. 
Elijah B. Gill, Jr., 1st Infty. ; killed. 
George W. Bibby, 32d Infty. ; killed. 
Fergus A. Easton, 6th X. Y. Cavalry. 
Waldo F. Corbett, 1st U.S. Heavy Art. 
Francis Thomas, 12th Infty. ; killed. 

SECOND LIEUTENANTS. 

Amos P. Holden, 32d Infantry. 
John G. Dawes, 2d Louisiana. 
Joseph M. Thomas, 42d Infantry 
Louis T. V. Cazaire, 89th U. S. Infty. 
Thaddeus Churchill, 3d U. S. Infty. 
John H. Prouty, 39th Infantry. 
Caleb H. Beal, 107th X. Y. Infty. 
Thomas Hickey, 4th Cavalry. 
Caleb B. Gill, 57th Indiana Infty. 
Edwin F. Tirrell, 3d Heavy Artillery. 
Benjamin S. Whiting, 17th'U. S. Infty. 
William Barnes, — N. Y. ; prisoner. 



368 History of Hingham. 



IN THE NAVY. 
CHIEF ENGINEER. ACTING ASSISTANT SURGEON. 

Charles H. Lormg. Franklin Nickerson. 



"6 ' 



ACTING MASTER. 



ACTING ENSIGNS. 



Edward W. Halcro: died in service 
Thomas Andrews; died in service. Char]es M Fl(ller 

Lemuel Pope. Charles A. Stewart. 

ACTING ASSISTANT PAYMASTER. ACTING THIRD ASSISTANT ENGINEER. 

Andrew Tower. . John M. Trussed. 

Fifty -six Hingham men, who received commissions in the ser- 
vice of their country during those eventful years in which was 
fought the Civil War; fifty-six men who, like their comrades 
in the ranks, served her faithfully and bravely, and in many 
instances even unto death. 

No account of the soldiers of Massachusetts, however brief, and 
especially of those belonging to Hingham, would be complete 
without at least a reference to the loved fellow-townsman who 
within the Commonwealth was commander-in-chief during the long 
period of anxiety and sacrifice from 1861 to 1865. This is no place 
in which to eulogize John A. Andrew, and for the people of the 
town no eulogy is needed. Yet in this their book they would feel 
it amiss, if to his noble wreath no laurel leaf were to be added 
by them as a memorial to the kind words and warm-hearted deeds 
with which the great chief sped his comrades from Hingham on 
their way, cheered and sustained and cared for them in the field, 
and received and welcomed them again to the common home ; a 
leaf glistening and gleaming with the sunshine which his great 
heart carried to the waiting hearths, beside which sat the wearied 
and watching, — gold-lighted with its record of the hope his ten- 
derness brought to the sorrowing, while he gently helped lay in 
their mother earth the town's brave who had fallen asleep in her 
service. Proudly and lovingly we claim this man as one of the 
soldiers of Hingham. 



*o* 



Near the close of the record of Revolutionary services the num- 
ber of the men bearing certain of the most numerous surnames 
which occurred among those representing Hingham, and belong- 
ing undoubtedly to the twenty -four largest families, was given. 
A similar statement, but with the same selection of names, and 
taken in the same order, may not be without interest to the dwell- 
ers in this old town, which, while maintaining with little change 
so many of the customs of the olden time, has preserved also no 
inconsiderable number of the names of the early settlers in the 
families of to-day. Serving in the Union army there were six- 
teen Lincolns, eleven Cushings, live Beals, three Whitons, nine 






'■«fe' 



^ 




TATUE OF UOVERXOK ANMM'.W 



Military History. 369 

Stodders, eleven Herseys, thirteen Gardners, one Hobart, five 
Towers, four Lorings, one Bates, three Burrs, eight Spragues, six 
Wilders, three Dunbar's, one Leavitt, four Fearings, four Lanes, 
seven Barneses, four Marshes, while from our military lists the 
Lewises, Stowells, Joys, and Thaxters have entirely disappeared. 

This chapter, with aU its length, yet all too short for a satisfac- 
tory memorial to the children of the town who have cared naught 
for suffering and death when duty beckoned along the dangerous 
path, is fast drawing to its close. A few words only remain, and 
those mainly for the living. To promote Loyalty, Fidelity, Char- 
ity, there was organized, August 5, 1869, Edwin Humphrey Post, 
No. 104, of the Grand Army of the Republic. Col. Hawkes Fear- 
ing was its first commander, Major Benjamin F. Meservey, senior 
vice-commander, Capt. Peter N. Sprague, junior vice-commander, 
Lieut. George R. Reed, quartermaster, Samuel J. Henderson, 
officer of the day, William H. Jacobs, officer of the guard, and 
Henry Jones was appointed adjutant. These, together with George 
Thomas, William H. Thomas, Isaac B. Damon, Edward T. Blossom, 
William Jones, Hubert J. Tulley, John A. Reed, and William S. 
Whiton were charter members. Colonel Fearing was again 
chosen commander in 1870, and the same office has been held 
since that date by Capt. Peter N. Sprague in 1871-1874, Lemuel 
Pope in 1875, Captain Sprague again in 1876, Major Edward T. 
Bouve in 1877-1879, — during which the Post became uniformed, 
and raised a considerable charity fund, — Lieut. George R. Reed 
in 1880, Isaac F. Goodwin in 1881 and for part of 1882, resigning 
April 8 of the latter vear, William H. Thomas for the remainder 
of 1882 and in 1883, Charles H. Wakefield for 1884-1886, John 
H. Stoddar in 1887 and 1888, J. Henry Howe in 1889, Col. 
Thomas Weston in 1890 and 1891, Major Lyman B. Whiton in 
1892, and Arthur Beale in 1893. Since its organization one 
hundred and forty names have been upon the rolls of its com- 
rades. The present number is seventy-seven. Eleven comrades 
have joined the greater army which responds only to Heaven's 
trumpets ; they are Samuel J. Henderson, Thomas Murphy, Edward 
W. Marston, Samuel Bronsdon, William Hersey, John W. Gault, 
Charles Sprague, Stephen A. Hall, Octavius R. Barry, George T. 
Kilburn, William Taylor. 

In 1888 the Post," with the aid of funds raised by fairs and 
contributions of citizens, built a hall well adapted for its purposes 
at Centre Hingham, and within a short distance of the old fort 
commanded by Capt. John Smith in the days of King Philip. 
Here the members meet for business, mutual assistance, encour- 
agement, and pleasure ; and here on each Memorial Day are held 
appropriate exercises in which the Woman's Relief Corps, the 
Sons of Veterans, visiting comrades, and the citizens of the town 
kindle anew the fires of patriotism, and lay upon the altar of the 
heroic dead the flowers of memory. 

vol i — 24 



370 History of Hingham. 

To assist and encourage the Post of the Grand Army in its 
noble work, to aid its charities, and to inculcate and diffuse the 
spirit of patriotism among the children, a branch of the Woman's 
Relief Corps was organized here December 17, 1885. Its first 
president was Mrs. Mary Whiton, who held that office two years ; 
she was succeeded by Mrs. Martha C. Wakefield during the next 
three years, and by Mrs. Martha S. Litchfield, who was presi- 
dent in 1891. The next president was Mrs. Hattie M. Lowe, 
who was chosen in 1892, and again this year. There is a small 
relief fund for the benefit of the needy among soldiers' families. 
The present membership is seventy -six, and monthly meetings are 
held at Grand Army Hall, which is also the headquarters of the 
Corps. 

A cam]) of the Sons of Veterans, called the Charles S. Meade 
Camp, also meets at the hall of the Post. It was organized 
March 10, 1887, and its successive commanders have been Arthur 
L. Whiton, C. Sumner Henderson, Gustavus 0. Henderson, 
Hosea H. Batchelder, J. Arthur Batchelder, and Fred S. Wilder. 
The Camp numbers about forty -eight at this time, and the mem- 
bers materially assist in the ceremonies of Memorial Day. 

In the declining hours of the day, near the close of the beauti- 
ful spring month of May of each recurring year, when the fra- 
grance of a thousand flowers scents the air with its sweetness, 
and the bright green of the young grass and new leaves clothes 
New England in freshness, a little band of blue-coated men fast 
growing into years, and with ever feebler steps marching under 
the folds of the flag which to them has been a shield by day and 
a star by night, to the music which was once an inspiration in 
battle, which sung paeans in victory, lulled to slumber in weariness 
and death, whispered ever of home, and to this day is never heard 
without sending a thrill to the heart, enters the old cemetery, — 
the village burial-place of the fathers, — and passing beneath the 
pines which shade moss-grown stones and tombs, through wind- 
ing paths leading by sunken graves, by the first settlers' monu- 
ment, down into a quiet valley and up again to the height beyond, 
ranges itself in line before the resting place and white statue of 
their friend and comrade, the great War Governor. Here, aided by 
comrades from a Post bearing his name in the city where his 
official life was mostly spent, with a few earnest words breathing 
his spirit, and with simple and brief exercises, the Grand Army 
lays upon the grave of Andrew its annual memorial. 

A few steps farther, and around the granite pillar inscribed 
with the names of the sons who so gallantly served her, the 
people of Hingham await the ceremonies which keep bright the 
memories of those who fell to sleep in the love of their country. 
Here are the rulers of the town, the selectmen, chosen each 
March to guide its affairs through the ensuing year, the constable 
with scarcely perceptible insignia of office and inspiring little 



Military History. 



371 



awe, the ministers of the several churches and of the Old Meeting- 
House ; here are others with even better right, — an old gray- 
headed man who leans upon the arm of no stalwart son ; a 
black-robed woman who, standing by a low flower-covered mound, 
will never again hear her bright boy's "Mother;" a younger 
woman, too, but also past the meridian of life, leaning against a 
stone bearing a soldier's name, and beside which flutters a little 




SOLDIERS' AND SAILORS' MONUMENT. 
Erected by the Town; Dedicated June 17, 1870. 



flag, — a woman whose wearied face with its far-away look is full 
for a moment of the bright but never-to-be-fulfilled promise of the 
thirty years ago ; yes, and others still whose short happiness was 
almost effaced by the sorrow which time has hardly yet softened 



372 History of Hingham. 

into a sweet memory, and whose sadness is only tempered by an 
unspoken hope. They are all here, — these and the young 
maiden, the coming men, and the happy children of to-day. And 
they all gather closer as the Grand Army forms in front around 
the large semi-circle of baskets overflowing with the blossoms 
brought to mingle their brightness with the green of earth. In 
front is the monument, and to the east, upon the side of the highest 
ground in the cemetery, was the fort erected to defend the harbor 
against the Spaniards ; on an adjoining elevation northwesterly 
still stand the defences of 1676, when Philip menaced the town ; 
between the monument and the valley, and beyond it by and near 
the old general's resting-place, lie the slumbering brave of the 
Revolution ; everywhere, among the fathers, beside the old sol- 
diers, and in the new ground alike, the flags which mark the sleep- 
ing heroes of the Civil War wave gently in the soft spring breeze. 
From the band stationed near floats a hymn, — an old one, dear and 
familiar ; the chaplain hushes the assembly in prayer ; a short, 
earnest plea for country, a tender tribute to the fallen, a word of 
pride in their sacrifice, of sympathy for the sorrowing, and the 
orator — local and uncelebrated perhaps, but reverent and full of 
the occasion — is through. A word or two from the commander 
of the Post, a signal, quietly given, and the violets and the lilies 
are blooming and nodding in new places, and saying, in language 
equalled by no other, that here sleeps a soldier whom his loved 
ones, his comrades, and the great Republic have not forgotten. 
Again the music sounds; the street, full of the homes and the 
history of other days, re-echoes with the martial strains; the sun- 
light fading away from the lowly mounds gilds still the Old 
fleeting-house steeple, touches with its rays the top of the monu- 
ment, and reflected from the masses of clouds in the western 
horizon paints the harbor with the color of the rose. From the 
distance the last notes of " retreat " borne from Grand Army 
Hall come floating on the evening breeze, "old glory" flutters to 
the ground from many a staff, and Memorial Day, fitly and faith- 
fully observed in this old town of the mingled Puritans and 
Pilgrims, has come to its close. 

With the exception of the company formed under the law of 
1864, which elected Henry Jones captain, but in consequence of 
the repeal of the Act soon after, never met for drill or parade, 
there has been no strictly local military organization in Hingham 
since the disbanding of the Lincoln Light Infantry, September 
29, 1862. 

Upon rising ground stretching along Broad Cove, overlooking 
the early anchorage of many of the fleet which long years ago 
whitened Hingham's bay, — some undoubtedly built in the ship- 
yard then situated just below the bluff, but since disappeared and 
forgotten, — and directly opposite the southern slope of Otis Hill, 



Military History. 373 

lies the beautifully located military post of the First Corps of 
Cadets, and the scene of its camp in each recurring July. In 
the rear and looking toward the setting sun as it crimsons the 
placid waters which finally shrink into a little winding brook, 
the view extends across the green meadows and far up the 
valley in the direction of Weymouth Back River. On the 
opposite side and about a half-mile distant the church spires 
and roofs of the houses — themselves half hidden by the inter- 
vening hill — indicate the nearest village, while to the east the 
harbor of blue in its setting of green, with its steamers plying 
back and forth, is seen through a break in the land bordering 
Otis Street. 

Beyond its natural attractiveness there is no little historical 
interest attaching to the place as the training-field of the militia 
in the olden days, and still more, as being the probable location 
of the barracks, — certainly situated in the immediate vicinity, if 
not on the ground, — erected for the accommodation of Captain 
James Lincoln and his company when Hingham was a garrisoned 
town in the early part of the Revolution. In plain view, too, is 
the road, once called Broad Cove Lane, but now Lincoln Street, 
down which marched Captain Lincoln's command, and the other 
companies of the town, as well as those of Scituate and Weymouth, 
when hastening to drive the English from Grape Island May 21, 
1775. 

Here, in the succeeding years, come large numbers of people 
interested in the regular order and beautiful ceremonies of a 
military camp, and the snow-white streets are thronged each 
evening with listeners to the concert of the fine band. 

While having no official connection with Hingham, the posses- 
sion by the corps of these increasingly attractive grounds with 
the bright green and well-kept parade and fine rows of growing 
maples, together with the annual tour of duty performed here by 
it, the fact that no inconsiderable number of the town's young 
men have been from time to time enrolled in its ranks, as well as 
that among her citizens are three of the present officers, have 
gradually created a feeling of local ownership in the corps, which 
is now claimed and regarded, as in a sense at least belonging 
to the town, and as one of her institutions. 

The First Corps of Cadets was organized in 1741, and is the 
modern outgrowth of the famous " Governor's Company of Cadets," 
which composed a part of the militia, both before and since the 
Revolution. While commanded by Hancock, — whose mother, it 
will be recalled, was a Hingham lady, — the then company was 
disbanded by Governor Gage for its adherence to the patriotic 
cause, but was reorganized and served under General Sullivan in 
Rhode Island. At the opening of the rebellion the corps was 
sent to garrison Fort Warren, and later it furnished many officers 
to the army, and particularly for the Forty-fifth Massachusetts 
Infantry, generally known as the Cadet Regiment. 



374 History of Hingham. 

It is one of the two organizations forming a separate branch of 
the militia of the Commonwealth, and at the present time com- 
prises four companies armed as infantry, and having headquarters 
at the armory on Columbus Avenue, Boston. It is commanded 
by Lieut. -Col. Thomas F. Edmands, a distinguished officer in the 
Civil War, while Major George R. Rogers, Captains William H. 
Alline and Andrew Robeson, and Lieut. Edward E. Currier, are 
all veterans who were in active service in the Union's cause. 

Several of our present or former citizens have held commis- 
sions m the military service of the Commonwealth since 1865. 
The following is believed to be a correct list : — 



'» 



Solomon Lincoln, Jr., Colonel and Aide-de-camp to his Honor 

Lieut.-Governor Talbot, acting Governor, May 26, 1874 ; Colonel 

and Aide-de-camp to his Excellency Governor Talbot, January 

14, 1879. 
Arthur Lincoln, Captain and Judge Advocate, 2d Brigade, July 

30, 1877 
John D. Long, Governor and Commander-in-chief, 1880-1882. 
Edward T. Bouve', Colonel and Aide-de-camp to his Excellency 

Governor Long ; Cantain and Engineer on staff of Brig.-Gen. 

Nat. Wales, 1st Brigade, M. V. M., Feb. 9, 1883 ; Captain and 

Provost Marshal, 1st Brigade, May 24, 1887 ; Captain and 

Aide-de-camp, 1st Brigade, April 10, 1888. 
Elijah George, Captain and Judge Advocate, 2d Brigade, M.V.M., 

August 12, 1882. 
Charles E. Stevens, 1st Lieutenant and Quartermaster, Feb. 26, 

1868, Captain and Paymaster, Jan. 9, 1874, First Corps Cadets. 
Charles C. Melcher, 1st Lieutenant and Quartermaster, First 

Corps Cadets, Feb. 9, 1875. 
Walter L. Bouve, 1st Lieutenant, First Corps Cadets, Feb. 20, 1889. 



United States Regular Service. 

Not previously mentioned in these pages : — 

Charles H. B. Caldwell, son of Charles H. Caldwell and Susan 

Blake, born in Hingham, and died in Boston, Nov. 30, 1877, 

Commodore in U. S. Navy, June 14, 1874. 
Charles L. Corthell, graduated at West Point June 14, 1884, 2d 

Lieutenant, 4th Artillery, June 15, 1884 ; 1st Lieutenant, Apr. 

24, 1889. 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



TOWN OF HINGHAM, 

MASSACHUSETTS. 



IN THREE VOLUMES. 

Volume I. — Part II. 
HISTORICAL. 



HISTORY 



OP THE 



TOWN OF HINGHAM, 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



IN THREE VOLUMES. 

Volume I. — Part II. 
HISTORICAL. 



PUBLISHED BY THE TOWN. 

1893. 



Elmbcrsitg \?vtss : 
John Wilson and Son, Cambridge. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Volume I. — Part II. 



Ecclesiastical History . . . . 

Education 

Manufactures and Commerce 

Agriculture 

Publications 

Public Conveyances 

Fire Department 

Water Works 

Public Institutions 

Lodges and Societies 

Native and Resident Physicians 
Native and Resident Lawyers . 

Native Ministers 

Burial Grounds 

Miscellaneous Matters .... 



ju riiiicta -ii. MJinvuiii . 




a a 


83 


George Lincoln . 


155 


Edmund Hersey 


1S1 


Fearing Burr . 


193 


Francis H. Lincoln . 


211 


a a 


257 


Charles W. S. Seymour 


261 


Francis H. Lincoln . 


271 


a a 


. 289 


George Lincoln . . . 


307 


Francis H. Lincoln . 


327 


a a 


. 341 


George Lincoln . . . . 


355 


Francis H. Lincoln . 


379 



INDEX 387 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Volume I. — Part II. 



PAGE 

Old Meeting-House 1 

Portrait of Dr. Gay 24 

From a photograph by Francis II. Lincoln, from the painting. 

Old Meeting-House Pulpit 35 

Cohasset Meeting-House 37 

South Hingham Meeting-House 40 

New North Meeting-House 49 

Baptist Meeting-House 57 

From a photograph by Francis H. Lincoln. 

Methodist Episcopal Meeting-House 62 

Universalist Meeting-House 65 

Evangelical Congregational Meeting-House 67 

Free Christian Mission Chapel 69 

From a photograph- by Francis H. Lincoln. 

Episcopal Church 71 

From a photograph by Francis H. Lincoln. 

Bishop's Chair in the Episcopal Church 73 

Engraved by Wallace Corthell from a photograph by Francis H. Lincoln. 

Catholic Church 79 

From a photograph by George E. Siders. 

Hingham High School 99 

Derby Academy 116 

Portrait of Madam Derby 126 

From a photograph by Francis H. Lincoln, from the painting. 

Seal of Derby Academy 135 

Portrait of Dr. Ezekiel Hersey 138 

From a photograph by Francis H. Lincoln, from the painting. 

Hingham Public Library 145 

Engraved by Wallace Corthell. 

Portrait of Albert Fearing . 148 



viii Illustrations. 

PAOE 

Hingham Public Library 154 

From a photograph by Francis H. Lincoln. 

Hingham Harbor 170 

From a photograph by Henry F. Gdild. 

Steamer Eagle , . 244 

Steamer Lafayette . 244 

Steamer General Lincoln 245 

Steamer Mayflower 246 

Steamer Nantasket 247 

Plan of Steamboat Landings 249 

Steamer Governor Andrew 250 

Accord Pond 261 

From a photograph by Charles W. S Seymour. 

Accord Pond 269 

From a photograph by Charles W. S. Seymour. 

Loring Hall, Insurance Company, and Savings Bank 

Building 280 

"Wilder Memorial „ 2S7 

Society of Mutual Aid 304 

Portrait of Lieut. -Governor Levi Lincoln. ..... 334 

Portrait of Solomon Lincoln . 336 

Portrait of Governor Long 338 

Early Settlers' Monument, Fort Hill Cemetery . . . 362 
From a photograph by Francis H. Lincoln, 

Entrance to High Street Cemetery 364 

From a photograph by Francis II. Lincoln. 

Entrance to Hingham Cemetery 366 

From a photograph by Francis II. Lincoln. 

Tomb of Rev. Ebenezer Gay, D. D 368 

From a photograph by Francis II. Lincoln. 

Hingham Cemetery Chapel 369 

First Settlers' Monument, Hingham Cemetery .... 370 

View in Hingham Centre Cemetery . 373 

From a photograph by Francis II Lincoln. 

Town Seal - 386 

Engraved by Wallace Corthell. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

BY FRANCIS H. LINCOLN. 




THE OLD MEETING-HOUSE, HINGHAMo (ERECTED 1681.) 

FIRST PARISH. 

The first church in Hingham was formed in September, 1635. 
Rev. Peter Hobart, of Hingham, in Norfolk, England, came to 
Charlestown in June, 1635. Mr. Hobart was educated at Mag- 
dalene College, Cambridge, where he was graduated in 1625. 
He declined the invitations of several settlements to become their 
pastor, preferring to join that at Bare Cove, where many of his 
fellow-townsmen in the old country were already established. 
On the second of September, 1635, the name of Bare Cove was 
changed to Hingham ; and on the eighteenth of the same month 
Mr. Hobart and twenty-nine others drew for house-lots. Here 
Mr. Hobart gathered the church which was the twelfth in order 
of time in Massachusetts proper. 

VOL. I. 1* 



2 History of Hingham. 

During the few years immediately succeeding 1635 settlers came 
in quite respectable numbers to Hingham ; and there is every rea- 
son to suppose the church was in a prosperous condition. 

Nov. 28, 1638, Mr. Robert Peck was ordained Teacher of the 
church. In the " Peck Genealogy," by Ira G. Peck, we find the 
following account of him : — 

" Rev. Robert Peck was born at Beccles, Suffolk County, England, in 
1580. He was graduated at Magdalene College, Cambridge; the degree 
of A. B. was conferred upon him in 1599, and that of A. M. in 1G03. He 
was set apart to the ministry, and inducted over the church at Hingham, 
Norfolk County, England, Jan. 8. 1605, where he remained until 1G38, 
when he fled from the persecutions of the church to this country." 

He was a talented and influential clergyman, a zealous preacher, 
and a non-conformist to the superstitions, ceremonies, and cor- 
ruptions of the church, for which he was persecuted and driven 
from the country. Brook, in his " Lives of the Puritans," givea 
many facts of interest in relation to him. In particular, giving 
some of the offences for which he and his followers were perse- 
cuted, he says : — 

" For having catechised his family, and sung a psalm in his own house 
on a Lord's day evening, when some of his neighbors attended, his lord- 
ship (Bishop Harsnet) enjoined all who were present to do penance, 
requiring them to say, ' I confess my errors,' etc." 

Those who refused were immediately excommunicated and re- 
quired to pay heavy costs. This, Mr. Brook says, appears from 
the bishop's manuscripts under his own hands. He says : " He 
was driven from his flock, deprived of his benefice, and forced to 
seek his bread in a foreign land." 

He arrived here in 1638. In relation to his arrival the town 
clerk of Hingham here says : — 

" Mr. Robert Peck, preacher of the gospel in the town of Hingham, in 
the county of Norfolk, old England, with his wife and two children and 
two servants, came over the sea and settled in the town of Hingham ; and 
he was a Teacher of the Church." 

Mr. Hobart, of Hingham, says in his Diary that he was ordained 
here Teacher of the church, Nov. 28, 1638. His name frequently 
appears upon the records of the town. He had lands granted 
him. His family consisted of nine children. He remained here 
until the long Parliament, or until the persecutions in England 
ceased, when he returned and resumed his rectorship at Hingham. 
Mr. Hobart says he returned Oct. 27, 1641. He died at Hing- 
ham, England, and was buried in his churchyard there. 

Cotton Mather, in his " Magnalia Christi Americana," has the 
following: — 



Ecclesiastical History. 3 

'* Mr. Robert Peck. — This light, having been by the persecuting prel- 
ates ' put under a bushel,' was, by the good providence of Heaven, fetched 
away into New England, about the year 1638, where the good people of 
our Hingham did ' rejoice in the light for a season.' But within two or 
three years the invitation of his friends at Hingham in England persuaded 
him to a return unto them ; where being, though a great person for stat- 
ure, yet a greater for spirit, he was greatly serviceable for the good of the 
church." 

In " Blomefield's Norfolk " is the following : — 

•' 1605, 7 Jan. Robert Peck, A.M. Tho. Moor; by grant of Francis 
Lovell, Knt., he was ' a man of a very violent schismatical spirit ; he 
pulled down the rails and levelled the altar and the whole chancel a foot 
below the church, as it remains to this day ; but being prosecuted for it by 
Bishop Wren, he fled the kingdom and went over into New-England, with 
many of his parishioners, who sold their estates for half their value, and 
conveyed all their effects to that new plantation, erected a town and col- 
onie, by the name of Hingham, where many of their posterity are still 
remaining. He promised never to desert them ; but hearing that Bishops 
were deposed, he left them all to shift for themselves, and came back to 
Hingham in the year 1646. After 10 years' voluntary banishment he 
resumed his rectory, and died in the year 1656.' His funeral sermon was 
preached by Nathaniel Joceline, A. M., pastor of the church of Hardingham, 
and was published by him, being dedicated to Mr. John Sidley, high- 
sheriff ; Brampton- Gurdon and Mr. Day, justices of the peace ; Mr. 
Church, Mr. Barnham, and Mr. Man, aldermen and justices in the city 
of Norwich. 

" 1638, 25 Mag. Luke Skippon, A.M., was presented by Sir Thomas 
Woodhouse, Knt. and Bart., as on Peck's death, he having been absent 
about two years. And in — 

"1640, 11 April, the said Luke was reinstituted, the living being void 
by lapse, it appearing that Peck was alive since Skippon's first institution ; 
and now two years more being past, and he not appearing, it lapsed to 
the Crown, as on Peck's death. But in — 

" 1646, Peck came again, and held it to his death." 

A controversy which seriously affected the harmony of the 
church and town arose in 1644. The cause was insignificant in 
comparison with the principles it involved. Anthony Eames, 
who had been Lieutenant, was chosen Captain of the company of 
militia, and was presented to be commissioned by the Council. 
Before this was accomplished, dissatisfaction arose, and Bozoan 
Allen was selected. " Winthrop's Journal " gives a long account 
of the affair, which is quoted at length in Lincoln's " History of 
Hingham." Mr. Lincoln's comments are valuable, and he leaves 
nothing new to be gleaned. The writer of this chapter, with a 
filial respect for the opinions and industrious research of one 
whose interest in this town and its history were unceasing, pre- 
fers to insert the narrative as given by him rather than to 
attempt any description of his own. 



4 History of H Ingham. 

CONTROVERSY WITH THE MAGISTRATES. 
[From the "History of Hingkaiu," by Solomon Lincoln, 1827.] 

It does not appear that the harmony of the church or the pros- 
perity of the town was interrupted until the year when the un- 
fortunate occurrence of the military difficulties caused a serious 
injury to both. The prominent part which Mr. Hobart took in 
this unpleasant controversy rendered him less popular at home 
and obnoxious to the government. His friends, however, were 
much the most numerous and influential party in the church ; and 
his conduct in relation to the minority, although it gave rise to 
some jealousy, and in a few instances to strong dislike, does not 
appear to have diminished the attachment which a majority of the 
citizens had uniformly exhibited towards him. From the severe 
and burthensome fines and expenses to which he was subjected in 
consequence of his zeal for popular rights, he appears to have 
been relieved by the liberality of the people of his charge. 

Previously to the difficulties of 1644, we have reason to suppose 
that the town was flourishing and prosperous. The situation was 
eligible ; the facilities for fishing and for intercourse with other 
towns by water contributed to enrich it. In 1654 it is described 
by Johnson, in his " Wonder-Working Providence," in the follow- 
ing manner, viz. : — 

"A place nothing inferiour to their Neighbours for seituatiou ; and the 
people have much profited themselves by transporting Timber, Planke, 
and Mast for shipping to the town of Boston ; as also ceder and Pine- 
board to supply the wants of other townes, and also to remote parts, even 
as far as Barbadoes. They want not for fish for themselves and others 
also. This towne consisted of about sixty families. The forme is some- 
what intricate to describe, by reason of the Seas wasting crookes where 
it beats upon a mouldering shore. Yet have they compleat streetes in 
some places. The people joyned in Church covenant in this place were 
much about an hundred soules, but have been lessened by a sad, un- 
brotherly contention which fell out among them, wasting them every 
way — continued already for seven yeares' space, to the great grief of 
all other Churches." 

It is this "sad unbrotherly contention"' which first attracts 
our attention in the early history of Hingham. It is to be re- 
gretted that most of the writers of the time when these difficul- 
ties arose should have been of that class which disapproved of 
the proceedings of a majority of the citizens of the town, and 
that no statement by those opposed to them in opinion has been 
preserved ; because, by comparing opposite statements, we should 
perhaps view the conduct of those of our ancestors who were 
then considered to be acting in an unjustifiable and disorderly 



Ecclesiastical History. 5 

manner, as the result of principles more consonant to the spirit 
of the present age than to the feelings of men at the time when 
they lived. 

I am aware, however, that there is justice in the remark of 
the learned editor of Winthrop, when, in speaking of Governor 
Winthrop's account of these affairs, he says, " An unusual fairness 
for a party whose feelings had been so much engaged in the con- 
troversy is here shown by our author." These difficulties origi- 
nated among the members of the military company, gradually 
enlisted the feelings of the whole town, arrested the attention 
of the church, were taken cognizance of by the neighbouring 
churches, and at last required the interposition of the govern- 
ment. A sketcli of the rise, progress, and termination of these 
difficulties will illustrate the principles of our fathers, and give 
some indication of the spirit and asperity of controversies when 
the prejudices of religion and of politics were unfortunately 
blended together. Winthrop, in his Journal, vol. ii. p. 221, in- 
troduces the subject as follows : — 

" 1645. This court fell out a troublesome business which took up much 
time. The town of Hingham, having one Ernes their lieutenant seven 
or eight years, had lately chosen him to be their captain, and had pre- 
sented him to the standing council for allowance ; but before it was 
accomplished, the greater part of the town took some light occasion of 
offence against him, and chose one Allen to be their captain, and pre- 
sented him to the magistrates (in the time of the last general court) to be 
allowed. But the magistrates, considering the injury that would hereby 
accrue to Ernes (who had been their chief commander so many years, 
and had deserved well in his place, and that Allen had no other skill but 
what he learned from Emes), refused to allow of Allen, but willed both 
sides to return home, and every officer to keep his place until the court 
should take further order. Upon their return home, the messengers, who 
came for Allen, called a private meeting of those of their own party, and 
told them truly what answer they received from the magistrates, and soon 
after they appointed a training day (without their lieutenant's knowl- 
edge), and being assembled, the lieutenant hearing of it came to them, 
and would have exercised them, as he was wont to do, but those of the 
other party refused to follow him, except he would show them some order 
for it. He told them of the magistrates' order about it ; the others re- 
plied that authority had advised him to go home and lay down his place 
honourably. Another asked, what the magistrates had to do with them ? 
Another, that it was but three or four of the magistrates, and if they 
had all been there, it had been nothing, for Mr. Allen had brought more 
for them from the deputies, than the lieutenant had from the magistrates. 
Another of them professeth he will die at the sword's point, if he might 
not have the choice of his own officers. Another (viz. the clerk of the 
band) stands up above the people, and requires them to vote, whether 
they would bear them out in what was past and what was to come. This 
being assented unto, and the tumult continuing, one of the officers (he 
who had told them that authority had advised the lieutenant to go home 
and lay down his place) required Allen to take the captain's place; but 



6 History of Hingham. 

he not then accepting it, they put it to the vote, whether he should he 
their captain. The vote passing for it, he then told the company, it was 
now past question, and thereupon Allen accepted it, and exercised the 
company two or three days, only about a third part of them followed the 
lieutenant. He, having denied in the open field, that authority had ad- 
vised him to lay down his place, and putting (in some sort) the lie upon 
those who had so reported, was the next Lord's day called to answer it 
before the church, and he standing to maintain what he had said, five 
witnesses were produced to convince him. Some of them affirmed the 
words, the others explained their meaning to be. that one magistrate 
had so advised him. He denied both. Whereupon the pastor, one Mr. 
Hubbert, (brother to three of the principal in this sedition), was very 
forward to have excommunicated the lieutenant presently, but, upon 
some opposition, it was put off to the next day. Thereupon the lieuten- 
ant and some three or four more of the chief men of the town informed 
four of the next magistrates of these proceedings, who forthwith met at 
Boston about it, (viz. the deputy governour, the sergeant major general, 
the secretary, and Mr. Hibbins). These, considering the case, sent war- 
rant to the constable to attach some of the principal offenders (viz. three 
of the Hubbards and two more) to appear before them at Boston, to find 
sureties for their appearance at the next court, &c. Upon the day they 
came to Boston, but their said brother the minister came before them, 
and fell to expostulate with the said magistrates about the said cause, 
complaining against the complainants, as talebearers, &c, taking it very 
disdainfully that his brethren should be sent for by a constable, with other 
high speeches, which were so provoking, as some of the magistrates told 
him, that, were it not for the respect to his ministry, they would commit 
him. When his brethren and the rest were come in, the matters of the 
information were laid to their charge, which they denied for the most part. 
So they were bound over (each for other) to the next court of assistants. 
After this five others were sent for by summons (these were only for 
speaking untruths of the magistrates in the church). They came before 
the deputy governour, when he was alone, and demanded the cause of their 
sending for, and to know their accusers. The deputy told them so much 
of the cause as he could remember, and referred them to the secretary for 
a copy, and for their accusers he told them they knew both the men and 
the matter, neither was a judge bound to let a criminal offender know 
his accusers before the day of trial, but only in his own discretion, least 
the accuser might be taken off or perverted, &c. Being required to give 
bond for their appearance, &c, they refused. The deputy laboured to 
let them see their errour, and gave them time to consider of it. About 
fourteen days after, seeing two of them in the court, (which was kept 
by those four magistrates for smaller causes), the deputy required them 
again to enter bond for their appearance, &c, and upon their second 
refusal committed them in that open court. 

" The general court falling out before the court of assistants, the Hub- 
berts and the two which were committed, and others of Hingham, about 
ninety, (whereof Mr. Hubbert their minister was the first), presented a 
petition to the general court, to this effect, that whereas some of them 
had been bound over, and others committed by some of the magistrates 
for words spoken concerning the power of the general court, and their 
liberties, and the liberties of the church, &c, they craved that the court 
would hear the cause, &c. This was first presented to the deputies, who 



Ecclesiastical History. 1 

sent it to the magistrates, desiring their concurrence with them, that the 
cause might be heard, &c. The magistrates, marvelling that they would 
grant such a petition, without desiring conference first with themselves, 
whom it so much concerned, returned answer, that they were willing the 
cause should be heard, so as the petitioners would name the magistrates 
whom they intended, and the matters they would lay to their charge, 
&c. Upon this the deputies demanded of the petitioners' agents (who 
were then deputies of the court) to have satisfaction in those points, 
whereupon they singled out the deputy governour, and two of the peti- 
tioners undertook the prosecution. Then the petition was returned 
ao-ain to the magistrates for their consent, &c, who being desirous that 
the deputies might take notice, how prejudicial to authority and the 
honour of the court it would be to call a magistrate to answer crimi- 
nally in a cause, wherein nothing of that nature could be laid to his 
charge, and that without any private examination preceding, did intimate 
so much to the deputies, (though not directly, yet plainly enough), show- 
in or them that nothing criminal &c. was laid to his charge, and that the 
things objected to were the act of the court &c. yet if they would needs 
have a hearing, they would join in it. And indeed it was the desire of 
the ^puty, (knowing well how much himself and the other magistrates 
did suffer in the cause, through the slanderous reports wherewith the 
deputies and the country about had been possessed), that the cause 
might receive a public hearing. 

" The day appointed being come, the court assembled in the meeting 
house at Boston. Divers of the elders were present, and a great assembly 
of people. The deputy governour, coming in with the rest of the magis- 
trates, placed himself beneath within the bar, and so sate uncovered. 
Some question was in court about his being in that place (for many both 
of the court and the assembly were grieved at it). But the deputy tell- 
in^ them, that, being criminally accused, he might not sit as judge in 
that cause, and if he were upon the bench, it would be a great disadvan- 
tage to him, for he could not take, that liberty, to plead the cause, which 
he oucrht to be allowed at the bar, upon this the court was satisfied. 

" The petitioners having declared their grievances &c. the deputy craved 
leave to make answer, which was to this effect, viz. that he accounted it 
no disgrace, but rather an honour put upon him, to be singled out from his 
brethren in the defence of a cause so just (as he hoped to make that 
appear) and of so publick concernment. And although he might have 
pleaded to the petition, and so have demurred in law, upon three points, 

1, in that there is nothing laid to his charge, that is either criminal or unjust ; 

2, if he had been mistaken either in the law or in the state of the case, yet 
whether it were such as a judge is to be called in question for as a delin- 
quent, when it doth not appear to be wickedness or wilfulness ; for in 
England many erroneous judgments are reversed, and errours in pro- 
ceedings rectified, and yet the judges not called in question about them ; 

3, in that being thus singled out from three other of the magistrates, and 
to answer by himself for some things, which were the act of a court, he 
is deprived of the just means of his defence, for many things may be 
justified as done by four, which are not warrantable if done by one alone, 
and the records of a court are a full justification of any act, while such 
record stands in force. But he was willing to waive this plea, and to 
make answer to the particular charges, to the end that the truth of the 
case, and of all proceedings thereupon might appear to all men. 



8 History of Hingham. 

" Hereupon the court proceeded to examine the whole cause. The 
deputy justified all the particulars laid to his charge, as that upon credible 
information of such a mutinous practice, and open disturbance of the peace, 
and slighting of authority, the offenders were sent for, the principal by war- 
rant to the constable to bring them, and others by summons, and that 
some were bound over to the next court of assistants, and others that 
refused to be bound were committed ; and all this according to the 
equity of the laws here established, and the custom and laws of England, 
and our constant practice here these fifteen years. And for some 
speeches he was charged with as spoken to the delinquents, when they 
came before him at his house, when none were present with him but 
themselves, first, he appealed to the judgment of the court, whether 
delinquents may be received as competent witnesses against a magistrate 
in such a case ; then, for the words themselves, some he justified, some 
he explained so as no advantage could be taken of them, as that he 
should say, that the magistrates could try some criminal causes without 
a jury, that he knew no law of God or man, which required a judge 
to make known to the party his accusers (or rather witnesses) before 
the cause came to hearing. But two of them charged him to have said 
that it was against the law of God and man so to do, which had been 
absurd, for the deputy professed he knew no law against it, only a 
judge may sometimes, in discretion, conceal their names &c. least they 
should be tampered with, or conveyed out of the way &c. 

" Two of the magistrates and many of the deputies were of opinion that 
the magistrates exercised too much power, and that the people's liberty 
was thereby in danger ; and other of the deputies (being about half) 
and all the rest of the magistrates were of a different judgment, and that 
authority was overmuch slighted, which, if not timely remedied, would 
endanger the commonwealth, and bring us to a mere democracy. By 
occasion of this difference, there was not so orderly carriage at the hear- 
ing, as was meet, each side striving unseasonably to enforce the evidence, 
and declaring their judgments thereupon, which should have been re- 
served to a more private debate (as after it was), so as the best part of 
two days was spent in this publick agitation and examination of witnesses 
&c. This being ended, a committee was chosen of magistrates and depu- 
ties, who stated the case, as it appeared upon the whole pleading and 
evidence, though it cost much time, and with great difficulty did the com- 
mittee come to accord upon it. 

" The case being stated and agreed, the magistrates and deputies consid- 
ered it apart, first the deputies, having spent a whole day, and not attain- 
ing to any issue, sent up to the magistrates to have their thoughts about 
it, who taking it into consideration, (the deputy always withdrawing when 
that matter came into debate), agreed upon these four points chiefly; 1. 
that the petition was false and scandalous , 2. that those who were bound 
over &c. and others that were parties to the disturbance at Hingham, 
were all offenders, though in different degrees, 3. that they and the peti- 
tioners were to be censured, 4. that the deputy governour ought to be 
acquit and righted &c. This being sent down to the deputies, they spent 
divers days about it, and made two or three returns to the magistrates, 
and though they found the petition false and scandalous, and so voted it, 
yet they would not agree to any censure. The magistrates, on the other 
side, were resolved for censure, and for the deputy's full acquittal. The 
deputies being thus hard held to it. and growing weary of the court, 



Ecclesiastical History. 9 

for it began (3) 14, and brake not up (save one week) till (5) 5, were 
content they should pay the charges of the court. After, they were 
drawn to consent to some small fines, but in this they would have drawn 
in lieutenant Ernes to have been fined deeply, he being neither plaintiff 
nor defendant, but an informer only, and had made good all the points 
of his information, and no offence found in him, other than that which 
was after adjudged worthy of admonition only ; and they would have 
imposed the charges of the court upon the whole trained band at Hing- 
ham, when it was apparent, that divers were innocent, and had no hand in 
any of these proceedings. The magistrates not consenting to so manifest 
injustice, they sent to the deputies to desire them to join with them in 
calling in the help of the elders, (for they were now assembled at Cam- 
bridge from all parts of the United Colonies, and divers of them were 
present when the cause was publickly heard, and declared themselves 
much grieved to see that the deputy governour should be called forth to 
answer as a delinquent in such a case as this was, and one of them, in 
the name of the rest, had written to him to that effect, fearing lest he 
should apprehend over deeply of the injury &c.) but the deputies would 
by no means consent thereto, for they knew that many of the elders 
understood the cause, and were more careful to uphold the honour and 
power of the magistrates than themselves well liked of, and many of them 
(at the request of the elder and others of the church of Hingham during 
this court) had been at Hingham, to see if they could settle peace in the 
church there, and found the elder and others the petitioners in great 
fault &c. After this (upon motion of the deputies) it was agreed to refer 
the cause to arbitrators, according to an order of the court, when the 
magistrates and deputies cannot agree &c. The magistrates named six 
of the elders of the next towns, and left it to them to choose any three 
or four of them, and required them to name six others. The deputies 
finding themselves now at the wall, and not daring to trust the elders 
with the cause, they sent to desire that six of themselves might come and 
confer with the magistrates, which being granted, they came, and at last 
came to this agreement, viz. the chief petitioners and the rest of the 
offenders were severally fined, (all their fines not amounting to 50 
pounds), the rest of the petitioners to bear equal share to 50 pounds more 
towards the charges of the court, (two of the principal offenders were the 
deputies of the town, Joshua Hubbert and Bozone Allen, the first was 
fined 20 pounds, and the other 5 pounds), lieutenant Ernes to be under 
admonition, the deputy governour to be legally and publickly acquit of 
all that was laid to his charge. 

"According to this agreement, (5) 3, presently after the lecture the 
magistrates and deputies took their places in the meeting house, and the 
people being come together, and the deputy governour placing himself 
within* the bar, as at the time of the hearing &c. the governour read the 
sentence of the court, without speaking any more, for the deputies had 
(by importunity) obtained a promise of silence from the magistrates. 
Then was the deputy governour desired by the court to go up and 
take his place again upon the bench, which he did accordingly, and the 
court being about to arise, he desired leave for a little speech, which 
was to this effect. 

'"I suppose something may be expected from me, upon this charge that 
is befallen me, which moves me to speak now to you ; yet I intend 
not to intermeddle in the proceedings of the court, or with any of the 



10 History of Hingham. 

persons concerned therein. Only I bless God, that I see an issue of 
this troublesome business. I also acknowledge the justice of the court, 
and, for mine own part, I am well satisfied, I was publickly charged, 
and I am publickly and legally acquitted, which is all I did expect or 
desire. And though this be sufficient for my justification before men, 
yet not so before the God, who hath seen so much amiss in my dis- 
pensations (and even in this affair) as calls me to be humble. For to be 
publickly and criminally charged in this court, is matter of humiliation, 
(and I desire to make a right use of it), notwithstanding I be thus 
acquitted. If her father had spit in her face, (saith the Lord concerning 
Miriam), should she not have been ashamed seven days ? Shame had 
lien upon her. whatever the occasion had been. I am unwilling to stay 
you from your urgent affairs, yet give me leave (upon this special occa- 
sion) to speak a little more to this assembly. It may be of some good 
use, to inform and rectify the judgments of some of the people, and may 
prevent such distempers as have arisen amongst us. The great ques- 
tions that have troubled the country, are about the authority of the 
magistrates and the liberty of the people. It is yourselves who have 
called us to this office, and being called by you. we have our authority 
from God, in way of an ordinance, such as hath the image of God emi- 
nently stamped upon it, the contempt and violation whereof hath been 
vindicated with examples of divine vengeance. I entreat you to consider, 
that when you choose magistrates, you take them from among your- 
selves, men subject to like passions as you are. Therefore when you see 
infirmities in us, you should reflect upon your own, and that would make 
you bear more with us, and not be severe censurers of the failings of 
your magistrates, when you have continual experience of the like infirmi- 
ties in yourselves and others. We account him a good servant, who 
breaks not his covenant. The covenant between you and us is the oath 
you have taken of us, which is to this purpose, that we shall govern you 
and judge your causes by the rules of God's laws and our own, according 
to our best skill. When you agree with a workman to build you a ship 
or house &c. he undertakes as well for his skill as for his faithfulness, 
for it is his profession, and you pay him for both. But when you call 
one to be a magistrate, he doth not profess nor undertake to have suffi- 
cient skill for that office, nor can you furnish him with gifts &c. therefore 
you must run the hazard of his skill and ability. But if he fail in faith- 
fulness, which by his oath he is bound unto, that he must answer for. If 
it fall out that the case be clear to common apprehension, and the rule 
clear also, if he transgresses here, the errour is not in the skill, but in the 
evil of the will : it must be required of him. But if the cause be doubt- 
ful, or the rule doubtful, to men of such understanding and parts as your 
magistrates are, if your magistrates should err here, yourselves must 
bear it. 

" ' For the other point concerning liberty, I observe a great mistake in 
the country about that. There is a twofold liberty, natural (I mean as 
our nature is now corrupt) and civil or federal. The first is common to 
men with beasts and other creatures. By this, man, as he stands in rela- 
tion to man simply, hath liberty to do what he lists ; it is a liberty to evil 
as well as to good. This liberty is incompatible and inconsistent with 
authority, and cannot endure the least restraint of the most just authority. 
The exercise and maintaining of this liberty makes men grow more evil, 
and in time to be worse than brute beasts ; omnes sumus licentia deteri- 



Ecclesiastical History. 11 

ores. That is that great enemy of truth and peace, that wild beast, which 
all the ordinances of God are bent against, to restrain and subdue it. 
The other kind of liberty I call civil or federal, it may also be termed 
moral, in reference to the covenant between God and man, in the moral 
law, and the politic covenants and constitutions amongst men themselves. 
This liberty is the proper end and object of authority, and cannot subsist 
without it ; and it is a liberty to that only which is good, just, and hon- 
est. This liberty you are to stand for, with the hazard (not only of 
your goods, but) of your lives, if need be. Whatsoever crosseth this, is 
not authority, but a distemper thereof. This liberty is maintained and 
exercised in a way of subjection to authority ; it is of the same kind of 
liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free. The woman's own choice makes 
such a man her husband ; yet being so chosen, he is her lord, and she is 
to be subject to him, yet in a way of liberty, not of bondage ; and a true 
wife accounts her subjection her honour and freedom, and would not 
think her condition safe and free, but in her subjection to her husband's 
authority. Such is the liberty of the church under the authority of 
Christ, her king and husband; his yoke is easy and sweet to her as a 
bride's ornaments ; and if through frowardness or wantonness &c. she 
shake it off, at any time, she is at no rest in her spirit, until she take 
it up again; and whether her lord smiles upon her, and embraceth her 
in his arms, or whether he frowns, or rebukes, or smites her, she appre- 
hends the sweetness of his love in all, and is refreshed, supported, and 
instructed by every such dispensation of his authority over her. On the 
other side, ye know who they are that complain of this yoke and say, let 
us break their bands &c. we will not have this man to rule over us. 
Even so, brethren, it will be between you and your magistrates. If you 
stand for your natural corrupt liberties, and will do what is good in your 
own eves, you will not endure the least weight of authority, but will 
murmur, and oppose, and be always striving to shake off that yoke ; but 
if vou will be satisfied to enjoy such civil and lawful liberties, such as 
Christ allows you, then will you -quietly and cheerfully submit unto that 
authority which is set over you, in all the administrations of it, for your 
good. Wherein, if we fail at any time, we hope we shall be willing (by 
God's assistance) to hearken to good advice from any of you, or in any 
other way of God ; so shall your liberties be preserved, in upholding the 
honour and power of authority amongst you.' " 

The following notes of the proceedings of the deputies and 
magistrates in relation to this affair were collected by Mr. Savage 
and published in his edition of Winthrop : — 

" The first order of the magistrates is as follows : ' Fined the persons 
after named in such sums as hereafter are expressed, having been as mod- 
erate and gone as low as they any ways could with the holding up of 
authority in any measure, and the maintenance of justice, desiring the 
concurrence of the deputies herein, that at length an end may be put to 
this long and tedious business. 

Joshua Hubbard is fined £20 00 00 

Edmond Hubbard 5 00 00 

Thomas Hubbard 2 00 00 

Edmond Gold 1 00 00 

John Faulshame 20 00 00 



12 History of Hingham. 

John Towers £5 00 00 

Daniel Cushin 2 10 00 

William Hersey 10 00 00 

Mr. Bozon Allen 10 00 00 

Mr. Peter Hubbard, the first that subscribed the petition, 2 00 00 

All the rest of the petitioners being fined 81, out of which number are ex- 
cepted three ; viz., Mr. Peter Hubbard, John Foulshame, and John Tow- 
ers. The rest, making 78, are fined 20 shillings a piece, the sum of which 
is — £155 10. 

" ' We have also voted, that, according to the order of the general court, 
for so long time as their cause hath been in handling, the petitioners 
shall bear the charge of the general court, the sum of which costs is to be 
cast up and agreed by the court when the cause is finished.' 

" ' The House of Deputies, having issued the Hingham business before 
the judgment of our honoured magistrates upon the case came down, 
they have hereunder expressed their determinate censures upon such as 
they find delinquent in the case ; viz., — 

Joshua Hubbard is fined £20 00 00 

Anthony Eames 5 00 00 

Thomas Hubbard . 4 00 00 

Edmond Hubbard . 10 00 00 

Daniel Cushan 4 00 00 > 

William Hersey 4 00 00 

Mr. Allen, beside his proportion with the trainband . 1 00 00 
Edmond Gold 2 00 00 

" ' The rest of the trainband of Hingham. that have an equal vote 
allowed them by law for the choice of their military officers, are fined 55 
pounds, to be paid by equal proportion ; the which said sums of 50 and 
do pounds are laid upon the said delinquents for the satisfying of the 
charge of the court occasioned by the hearing of the cause, in case the 
said charge shall arise to the sum of 105 pounds. The deputies desire 
the consent of the magistrates herein.' 

" Several discordant votes passed each branch before the business was 
brought to its close." 

After giving an account of the proceedings of the court, 
Winthrop remarks as follows : — 

" I should have mentioned the Hingham case, what care and pains 
many of the elders had taken to reconcile the differences which were 
grown in that church. Mr. Hubbert, the pastor there, being of a Presby- 
terial spirit, did manage all affairs without the church's advice; which 
divers of the congregation not liking of, they were divided in two parts. 
Lieutenant Ernes, &c, having complained to the magistrates, as is before 
expressed, Mr. Hubbert, &c, would have cast him out of the church, pre- 
tending that he told a lie ; whereupon they procured the elders to write 
to the church, and so did some of the magistrates also ; whereupon they 
stayed proceeding against the lieutenant for a day or two. But he and 
some twelve more of them, perceiving he was resolved to proceed, 
and finding no way of reconciliation, they withdrew from the church, and 
openly declared it in the congregation. This course the elders did not 
approve of. But being present in the court when their petition against 
the deputy governour was heard, Mr. Hubbert, perceiving the cause was 



Ecclesiastical History. 13 

like to go against him and his party, desired the elders to go to Hingham 
to mediate a reconciliation (which he would never hearken to before, 
being earnestly sought by the other party and offered by the elders) in 
the interim of the court's adjournment for one week. They readily 
accepted the motion, and went to Hingham and spent two or three days 
there, and found the pastor and his party in great fault, but could not 
bring him to any acknowledgment. In their return by water they were 
kept twenty-four hours in the boat, and were in great danger by occasion 
of a tempest which arose in the night ; but the Lord preserved them." 

But the difficulties did not terminate here. The authority of 
government was resisted when the marshal attempted to levy the 
fines imposed on the petitioners. The following is Winthrop's 
account of the matter : — 

"1G46. 26. (1.) " The governour and council met at Boston to take 
order about a rescue which they were informed of to have been committed 
at Hingham upon the marshal, when he went to levy the fines imposed 
upon Mr. Hubberd their pastor and many others who joined with him in 
the petition against the magistrates, &c. And having taken the infor- 
mation of the marshal and others, they sent out summons for their 
appearance at another day ; at which time Mr. Hubberd came not, nor 
sent any excuse, though it was proved that he was at home and that 
the summons was left at his house. Whereupon he was sent for by 
attachment directed to the constable, who brought him at the day of the 
return. And being then charged with joining in the said rescue by ani- 
mating the offenders and discouraging the officer, questioning the au- 
thority of his warrant because it was not in the king's name, and standing 
upon his allegiance to the crown of England and exemption from such 
laws as were not agreeable to the laws of England, saying to the marshal 
that he could never know wherefore he was fined, except it were for peti- 
tioning, and, if they were so waspish that they might not be petitioned, 
he knew not what to say to it, &c. — all the answer he would give was, 
that, if he had broken any wholesome law not repugnant to the laws of 
England, he was ready to submit to censure. So he was bound over to 
the next court of assistants. 

" The court being at Boston, Mr. Hubberd appeared, and the marshal's 
information and other concurrent testimony being read to him and his 
answer demanded, he desired to know in what state he stood, and what 
offence he should be charged with, or what wholesome law of the land, 
not repugnant to the law of England, he had broken. The court told him 
that the matters he was charged with amounted to a seditious practice, 
and derogation and contempt of authority. He still pressed to know 
what law, &c. He was told that the oath which he had taken was a law 
to him; and, besides, the law of God, which we were to judge by in 
case of a defect of an express law. He said that the law of God ad- 
mitted various interpretations, &c. Then he desired to see his accusers. 
Upon that the marshal was called, who justified his information. Then 
he desired to be tried by a jury, and to have the witnesses produced viva 
voce. The secretary told him that two were pi-esent and the third was 
sworn to his examination (but in that he was mistaken, for he had not 
been sworn) ; but to satisfy him he was sent for and sworn in court. 
The matters testified against him were his speeches to the marshal before 



14 History of Hingham. 

thirty persons against our authority and government, &c. 1. That we 
were hut as a corporation in England ; 2. That by our patent (as he 
understood it), we could not put any man to death, nor do divers other 
things which we did ; 3. That he knew not wherefore the general court 
had fined them, except it were for petitioning; and if they were so wasp- 
ish (or captious) as they might not be petitioned, &c. — and other speeches 
tending to disparage our authority and proceedings. Accordingly a bill 
was drawn up, &c, and the jury found that he seemed to be ill affected to 
this government, and that his speeches tended to sedition and contempt of 
authority. Whereupon the whole court (except Mr. Bellinoham, who 
judged him to deserve no censure, and desired in open court to have his 
dissent recorded) adjudged him to pay 20 pounds fine, and to be bound to 
his good behaviour till the next court of assistants, and then farther if the 
court should see cause. At this sentence his spirit rose, and he would 
know what the good behaviour was, and desired the names of the jury 
arid a copy of all the proceedings, which was granted him ; and so he was 
dismissed at present." 

In 1646 the celebrated petition of Dr. Child and six others for 
the abolition of " the distinctions which were maintained here, 
both in civil and church estate," and that the people of this 
country might be wholly governed by the laws of England, was 
presented to the House of Deputies. Six of the petitioners were 
cited before the court and charged with great offences contained 
in this petition. They appealed to the Parliament of England, and 
offered security to abide by their sentence; but the court thought 
proper to sentence the offenders to fine and imprisonment. The 
petitioners then resolved to lay their case before Parliament , 
and Dr. Child, Mr. Vassall, and Mr. Fowle went to England for 
that purpose. 1 But it appears that they met with very ill success 
in their exertions. Their papers were published at London by 
Major John Child, brother of Dr. Robert Child, in a tract entitled 
" New England's Jonas Cast up at London," in allusion, probably, 
to the remark of Mr. Cotton in one of his sermons, " that, if any 
shall carry any writings or complaints against the people of God 
in this country to England, it would be as Jonas in the ship." 
This tract was answered by Mr. Wiuslow, who was then in 
England, in another tract, entitled " The Salamander," " wherein," 
says Winthrop, " he cleared the justice of the proceedings" of the 
government here. 

I introduced this notice of the petition of Dr. Child and others 
for the purpose of correcting an error into which Hutchinson and 
Neal have fallen in confounding this controversy with that of our 
military dispute which created so much excitement in the country. 
It is proper to mention, however, that Mr. Hobart was suspected 
of "having a hand in it," and consequently was obliged to suffer 
another of the mortifications to which the relentless spirit of per- 

1 An amusing account of the superstitious terror of some of the passengers in the 
vessel in which the petitioners went to England, and of the ill success of their petition, 
may be found in Neal's "History of New England." 



Ecclesiastical History. 15 

secution had subjected him. I give, however, Winthrop's account 
in his own words : — 

"In 1646. (9). 4. ] This court the business of Gorton, &c, and of 
the petitioners Dr. Child, &c, were taken into consideration, and it was 
thought needful to send some able men to England, with commission and 
instructions to satisfy the commissioners for plantations about those com- 
plaints ; and because it was a matter of so great and general concernment, 
such of the elders as could be had were sent for, to have their advice in 
the matter. Mr. Hubbard, of Hingham, came with the rest ; but the 
court, being informed that he had an hand in a petition which Mr. Vassall 
carried into England against the country in general, the governour pro- 
pounded that if any elder present had any such hand, &c, he would with- 
draw himself. Mr. Hubbard sitting still a good space, and no man 
speaking, one of the deputies informed the court that Mr. Hubbard was 
the man suspected ; whereupon he rose and said that he knew nothing of 
any such petition. The governour replied, that, seeing he was now named, 
he must needs deliver his mind about him ; which was, that, although 
they had no proof present about the matter of the petition, and therefore 
his denial was a sufficient clearing, &c, yet in regard he had so much 
opposed authority and offered such contempt to it, as for which he had 
been lately bound to his good behaviour, he thought he would (in dis- 
cretion) withdraw himself, &c, whereupon he went out. Then the gover- 
nour put the court in mind of a great miscarriage, in that our secretest 
counsels were presently known abroad, which could not be but by some 
among ourselves, and desired them to look at it as a matter of great 
unfaithfulness, and that our present consultations might be kept in the 
breast of the court, and not be divulged abroad, as others had been." 

Winthrop then remarks upon a special providence of God (as 
he terms it), in which he takes it for granted that Mr. Hobart, 
the people of Hingham, and Dr. Child entertained similar views, 
if they did not openly combine their efforts to promote them. 

" I must here observe a special providence of God, pointing out his dis- 
pleasure against some profane persons who took part with Dr. Child, &c, 
against the government and churches here. The court had appointed a 
general fast, to seek God (as for some other occasions, so) in the trouble 
which threatened us by the petitioners, &c. The pastor of Hingham, and 
others of hi* church (being of their party), made light of it, and some 
said they would not fast against Dr. Child and against themselves ; and 
there were two of them (one Pitt and Johnson) who, having a great raft 
of masts and planks (worth forty or fifty pounds) to tow to Boston, would 
needs set forth about noon the day before (it being impossible they could 
get to Boston before the fast ; but when they came at Castle Island there 
arose such a tempest, as carried away their raft, and forced them to cut 
their mast to save their lives. Some 6f their masts and planks they re- 
covered after, where it had been cast on shore ; but when they came with 
it to the Castle, they were forced back again, and were so oft put back 
with contrary winds, &c, as it was above a month before they could bring 
all the remainder to Boston." 

The editor of Winthrop in noticing these remarks very justly 
observes, that " unless we be always careful to consider the cause 



16 History of Hingham. 

of any special providence, we may fail in our views of the dis- 
pleasure of God ; " and notices the fact that the clergy, when 
they came to this town to reduce the church members to sobriety, 
" were kept twenty-four hours in the boat, and were in great dan- 
ger by occasion of a tempest." 

The last time at which Mr. Hobart was made to feel the dis- 
pleasure of the government was in 1647. Winthrop mentions it 
in the following manner : — 

" 4. (6). There was a great marriage to be solemnized at Boston. 
The bridegroom being of Hingham, Mr. Hubbard's church, he was pro- 
cured to preach, and came to Boston to that end. But the magistrates, 
hearing of it, sent to him to forbear. The reasons were, 1. for that his 
spirit had been discovered to be adverse to our ecclesiastical and civil 
government, and he was a bold man, and would speak his mind, 2. we 
were not willing to bring in the English custom of ministers performing 
the solemnity of marriage, which sermons at such times might induce, but 
if any minister were present, and would bestow a word of exhortation, 
&c, it was permitted." 

I have thus gleaned from Winthrop all the facts which his val- 
uable journal contains, relating in any manner to the military 
difficulties in this town, and to the conduct of the most promi- 
nent individuals concerned in them. 

The dispassionate reader, while he will give to Winthrop all 
the credit to which his impartiality entitles him, cannot fail to 
discover some circumstances which tend to extenuate the crimi- 
nality of the conduct of a large and respectable portion of the 
inhabitants of this town. The convictions which the deputy gov- 
ernor entertained of the disorderly and seditious course of Mr. 
Hobart and his friends were deep and strong ; and in some in 
stances his conduct indicated anything but a charitable spirit 
towards those whose principal error (if any) consisted in their 
attachment to more liberal views of government than those gen- 
erally entertained at that time. 

Winthrop acknowledges, that "the great questions that troubled 
the country were about the authority of the magistrates and the 
liberty of the people." " Two of the magistrates and many of 
the deputies," esteemed for piety, prudence, and justice, " were 
of opinion that the magistrates exercised too much power, and 
that the people's liberty was thereby in danger," and the ten- 
dency of their principles and conduct was (in the opinion of the 
deputy governor), to have brought the commonwealth "to a 
mere democracy." 

Thus we learn that one of the military company here pro- 
fessed " he would die at the sword's point, if he might not have 
the choice of his own officers." Some of the principles and 
privileges for which our fathers contended, were undoubtedly 
too liberal and republican for the spirit of the age in which they 
lived. They were, perhaps, injudicious and indiscreet in their 



Ecclesiastical History. 17 

endeavors to promote their views ; and probably in some instances 
might not have expressed that respect for the constituted authori- 
ties to which their character entitled them. The most superficial 
reader, however, may discover in the conduct of the deputy gov- 
ernor something of the spirit of bigotry which was, unfortunately, 
too often allowed to affect the judgments of the wisest and best 
of men at that time, and which operated very much to the injury 
of those who entertained more liberal opinions in politics and 
religion. The deputies, although conscious of the disorder which 
such principles might cause in the community, did not feel so 
strong a disregard of the motives of the people of Hiugham, 
which impelled them to the course which they pursued, as to in- 
duce them to consent to impose on them heavy fines, without 
great reluctance. 

The deputy governor appears to have been very sensitive on 
the subject of innovations upon the authority of government, and 
strongly bent, not only upon punishing, but desirous of publicly 
disgracing the " profane " people of Hingham. He seems to have 
" engulphed Bible, Testament, and all, into the common law," as 
authority for the severe measures which were taken to mortify 
their feelings and to check the spread of principles so democratic 
in their tendency, and so dangerous to the interests of the com- 
monwealth. Accordingly, we find that the magistrates sent to 
Mr. Hobart to forbear delivering a discourse on the occasion of 
the marriage of one of his church, at Boston, among other rea- 
sons, " because he was a bold man, and would speak his mind." 

The effect of this controversy does not appear to have been 
ultimately injurious to the most conspicuous individuals engaged 
in it. Mr. Hobart, the pastor of Hingham, enjoyed the esteem 
of his people, and as has been before remarked, was relieved 
from the severe penalties which he incurred, by the liberality of 
the people of the town. His brother Joshua was afterwards 
frequently a deputy, and in 1674 he was honored by an election 
to the office of Speaker to the House of Deputies. 

It is to be admitted that the excitement necessarily caused by 
the agitation of this business served to retard the growth and 
prosperity of the town ; and while the effects of the displeasure 
of the government were operating to its injury, many of the in- 
habitants removed to other places. 



The affairs of the church were apparently in a peaceable and 
prosperous condition after the conclusion of this troublesome af- 
fair. Nothing of importance occurred until the declining strength 
of the venerable pastor necessitated the settlement of a succes- 
sor in the person of Mr. John Norton, in 1678. Mr. Hobart was 
now in his seventy-fifth year, and he had served this people faith- 
fully and with marked ability for over forty-three years. 

VOL. I. — 2* 



18 History of Hingham. 



THE LIFE OP MR. PETER HOBART. 
BY COTTON MATHER. 

It was a saying of Alphonsus (whom they sir-named " the wise, King 
of Arragon,") that " among so many things as are by men possessed or 
pursued in the course of their lives, all the rest are baubles, besides old 
wood to burn, old wine to drink, old friends to converse with, and old 
books to read." Now, there having been Protestant and reformed colo- 
nies here formed, in a new world, and those colonies now growing old, it 
will certainly be no unwise thing for them to converse with some of their 
old friends, among which one was Mr. Peter Hobart, whom therefore a 
new book shall now present unto my readers. 

Mr. Peter Hobart was born at or near Hingham, a market town in the 
county of Norfolk, about the latter end of the year 1604. His parents 
were eminent for piety, and even from their youth " feared God above 
many ; " wherein their zeal was more conspicuous by the impiety of the 
neighbourhood, among whom there were but three or four in the whole 
town that minded serious religion, and these were sufficiently maligned 
by the irreligious for their Puritanism. These parents of our Hobart 
were such as had obtained each other from the God of heaven, by Isaac- 
like prayers unto him, and such as afterwards " besieged Heaven " with a 
continual importunity for a blessing upon their children, whereof the 
second was this our Peter. This their son was, like another Samuel, 
from his infancy dedicated by them unto the ministry, and in order 
thereunto, sent betimes unto a grammar school ; whereto, such was his 
desire of learning, that he went several miles on foot every morning, 
and by his early appearance there, still shamed the sloth of others. He 
went afterwards unto the free-school at Lyn, from whence, when he 
was by his master judged fit for it, he was admitted into a colledge in the 
University of Cambridge ; where he remained, studied, profited, until he 
proceeded Batchellor of Arts ; giving all along an example of sobriety, 
gravity, aversion from all vice, and inclination to the service of God. 

Retiring then from the university, he taught a grammar school ; but 
he lodged in the house of a conformist minister, who, though he were no 
friend unto Puritans, yet he employed this our young Hobart sometimes 
to preach for him ; and when asked, " What his opinion of this young 
man was? " he said, "I do highly approve his abilities ; he will make an 
able preacher, but I fear he will be too precise." When the time for it 
came he returned unto the university, and proceeded Master of Arts : but 
the rest of his time in England was attended with much unsettlement of 
his condition. He was employed here and there, as godly people could 
obtain permission from the parson of the parish, who upon any little dis- 
gust would recal that permission : and yet all this while, by the blessing 
of God upon his own diligence and discretion, and the frugality of his 
virtuous consort, he lived comfortably. The last place of his residence 
in England was in the town of Haverhil, where he was a lecturer, labori- 
ous and successful in the vineyard of our Lord. 

His parents, his brethren, his sisters, had not, without a great affliction 
to him, embarked for New-England ; but some more time after this, the 
cloud of prelatical impositions and persecutions grew so black upon him, 



Ecclesiastical History. 19 

that the solicitations of his friends obtained from him a resolution for 
New-England also, where he hoped for a more settled abode, which was 
most agreeable to his inclination. 

Accordingly, in the summer of the year 1635, he took ship, with his 
wife and four children, and after a voyage by constant sickness rendered 
very tedious to him, he arrived at Charlestown, where he found his de- 
sired relations got safe before him. Several towns now addressed him to 
become their minister ; but he chose with his father's family and some 
other Christians to form a new plantation, which they called Hingham ; 
and there gathering a church, he continued a faithful pastor and an able 
preacher for many years. And his old people at Haverhil indeed, in 
some time after, sent most importunate letters unto him, to invite his re- 
turn for England ; and he had certainly returned, if the letters had not so 
miscarried, that before his advice to them, there fell out some remarkable 
and invincible hindrances of his removal. 

Not long after this, he had (as his own expression for it was) " his heart 
rent out of his breast," by the death of his consort; but his Christian, 
patient, and submissive resignation was rewarded by his marriage to a 
second, that proved a rich blessing unto him. His house was also edified 
and beautified with many children, on whom when he looked he would say 
sometimes with much thankfulness, " Behold, thus shall the man be blessed 
that feareth the Lord ! " and for whom he employed many tears in his 
prayers to God, that they might be happy, and, like another Job, offered 
up his daily supplications. 

His love to learning made him strive hard that his hopeful sons might 
not go without a learned education ; and accordingly we find four or five 
of them wearing laurels in the catalogue of our graduates ; and several of 
them are at this day worthy preachers of the gospel in our churches. 

He was mostly a morning student, not meriting the name of Homo Lec- 
tissimus, as he in the witty epigrammatist, from his long lying a bed; and 
yet he would improve the darkness of the evening also for solemn, fixed, 
and illuminating meditations. He. was much admired for well-studied ser- 
mons ; and even in the midst of secular diversions and distractions, his 
active mind would be busie at providing materials for the composure of 
them. He much valued that rule, study standing ; and until old age and 
weakness compelled him, he rarely would study sitting. . . . And when 
he had an opportunity to hear a sermon from any other minister, he did 
it with such a diligent and reverent attention, as made it manifest that he 
worshipped God in doing of it ; and he was very careful to be present 
still, at the beginning of the exercises, counting it a recreation to sit and 
wait for the worship of God. 

Moreover, his heart was knit in a most sincere and hearty love towards 
pious men, though they were not in all things of his own perswasion. He 
would admire the grace of God in good men, though they were of senti- 
ments contrary unto his ; and he would say, u I can carry them in my 
bosome : " nor was he by them otherwise respected. 

There was deeply rooted in him a strong antipathy to all profanities, 
whereof he was a faithful reprover, both in publick and in private ; and 
when his reproofs prevailed not, he would " weep in secret places." 

Drinking to excess, and mispence of precious time in tipling or talking 
with vain persons, which he saw grown too common, was an evil so ex- 
tremely offensive to him, that he would call it " sitting at meat, in an idol's 
temple ; " and when he saw that vanity grow upon the more high profes- 



20 History of Hingham. 

sors of religion, it was yet more distasteful to him, who in his own beha- 
viour was a great example of temperance. 

Pride, expressed in a gaiety and bravery of apparel, would also cause 
him with much compassion to address the young persons with whom he 
saw it budding, and advise them to correct it, with more care to adorn 
their souls with such things as were of great price before God : and here 
likewise his own example joined handsomeness with gravity, and a moder- 
ation that could not endure a show. But there was no sort of men from 
whom he more turned away than those who, under a pretence of zeal for 
church discipline, were very pragmatical in controversies, and furiously set 
upon having all things carried their way, which they would call " the rule," 
but at the same time were most insipid creatures, destitute of the " life and 
power of godliness," and perhaps unmoral in their conversations. To 
these he would apply a saying of Mr. Cotton's, " that some men are all 
church and no Christ." 

He was a person that met with many temptations and afflictions, which 
are better forgotten than remembered, but he was internally and is now 
eternally a gainer by them. It is remarked of the Patriarch Jacob that 
when he was a very old man, and much older than the most that lived after 
him, he complained, ' l Few and evil have been the days of the years of 
myJlife," in which complaint the few is explained by the evil. His days 
were winter-days, and spent in the darkness of sore calamity. Winter- 
days are twenty-four hours long as well as other days, yea, longer, if the 
equation of time should be mathematically considered, yet we count them 
the shorter days. Thus, although our Hobart lived unto old age, he might 
call his days few, because they had been evil. But " mark this perfect 
man, and behold this upright one ; for the end of this man was peace." 
In the spring of the year 1G70, he was visited with a sickness that 
seemed the " messenger of death ; " but it was his humble desire that, by 
having his life prolonged a little further, he might see the education of 
his own younger children perfected, and bestow more labour also upon the 
conversion of the young people in his congregation. " I have travelled 
in the ministry in this place thirty-five years, and might it please God so 
far to lengthen out my days, as to make it up forty, I should not, I 
think desire any more." Now, the Lord heard this desire of his praying 
servant, and added no less than eight years more unto his days. The 
most part of which time, except the last three-quarters of a year, he was 
employed in the publick services of his ministry. 

Being recovered from his illness, he proved that he did not flatter with 
his lips in the vows that he had made for his recovery, for he now set 
himself with great fervor to gather the children of his church under the 
saving wings of the Lord Jesus Christ, and in order thereunto he preached 
many pungent sermons on Eccl. xi. 9, 10, and Eccl. xii. 1, and used 
many other successful endeavours. 

Though his labours were not without success, yet the success was not so 
general and notable but that he would complain, " Alas, for the barren- 
ness of my ministry ! " And when he found his lungs decay by old age 
and fever, he would clap his hands on his breast, and say, " The bellows are 
burnt, the founder has melted in vain ! " At length, infirmities grew so 
fast upon this painful servant of our Lord, that in the summer of the year 
1678 he seemed apace drawing on to his end, but after some revivals he 
again got abroad ; however, he seldom, if ever, preached after it, but only 
administered the sacraments. In this time his humility, and consequently 



Ecclesiastical History. 21 

all the other graces which God gives unto the humble, grew exceedingly 
and observably ; and hence he took delight in hearing the commendations 
of other men, though sometimes they were so unwisely uttered as to carry 
some diminutions unto himself, and he set himself particularly to put all 
respect and' honour upon the ministers that came in the time of his weak- 
ness to supply his place. After and under his confinement, the singing of 
psalms was an exercise wherein he took a particular delight, saying, 
" That it was the work of heaven, which he was willing to anticipate." 
But about eight weeks before his expiration, he did with his aged hand 
ordain a successor ; which, when he had performed with much solemnity, 
he did afterwards with an assembly of ministers and other Christians at 
his own house, joyfully sing the song of aged Simeon, " Thy servant now 
lettest thou depart in peace." He had now " nothing to do but to die," 
and he spent his hours accordingly in assiduous preparations, not without 
some dark intervals of temptation, but at last with "light arising in dark- 
ness "unto him. While his exteriour was decaying, his interiour was re- 
newing every day, until the twentieth day of January, 1678, when he 
quietly and silently resigned his holy soul unto its faithful Creator. 

EPITAPHIUM 

D. PETRI HOBARTI. 

Ossa sub hoc Saxo Latitant, defossa Sepulchro, Spiritus in Coelo, 

carcere, missus agit. 

Mr. Savage, the learned editor of " Winthrop's Journal," says 
of this mention of Mr. Hobart in the " Magnalia " : — 

" As usual, Mather proves his kindness more than his accuracy ; for he 
speaks of Hobart as having been a minister at Haverhill, in England, and 
without hesitation affirms that he was earnestly invited to return thither 
after he had been here some years. Hobart's own journal does not en- 
courage such a representation, and -all other old writings in our Hingham 
uniformly claim the derivation of the pastor and flock from the village of 
the same name in Norfolk. This is probably a mere blunder, for the 
ecclesiastical historian, as he has sometimes been absurdly called, has 
repeated correctly some things, — as that he was born in 1604 and died 
January, 1678-9. Mather says he took ship in the summer of 1635, 
when we know it was in April ; and he adds that, on arriving at Charles- 
town, 'he found his desired relations got safe there before him.' But his 
father had been here nearly two years, and two of his brothers, at least, 
not less than one year, so that he, no doubt, had letters from them before 
leaving home. From Mather, too, we might be in doubt whether he had 
' four, or five ' sons in the ministry, though the author had certainly in- 
quired of one of them. Such is the customary laxness of the ' Magnalia.' ' 

Rev. John Norton, the second minister, was born in Ipswich 
about 1650, and was graduated at Harvard College in 1671, Chief- 
Justice Sewall being one of his classmates. He was ordained 
colleague pastor with Mr. Hobart, Nov. 27, 1678. Of Mr. Norton 
little is known. His ministry seems to have been for the most 
part quiet and peaceable. He is described as a man of amiable 
character, fervent piety, and religious zeal, a faithful and beloved 



22 History of Hingham. 

pastor. Only one of his sermons was printed. This was an 
Election Sermon, delivered on May 26, 1708. Judge Sewall 
makes the following entry in his " Diary " : — 

" Midweek, May 26, 1708. Mr. Jno. Norton preaches a Flattering 
Sermon as to the Governour." 

" May 27. I was with a Comittee in the morn, . . . and so by God's 
good providence absent when Mr. Corwin and Cushing were order'd to 
Thank Mr. Norton for his sermon and desire a Copy." 

Praise of Governor Dudley was distasteful to Judge Sewall, 
who was opposed to the policy of the Governor. 

March 26, 1710, Judge Sewall " went to Hingham to Meeting, 
heard Mr. Norton from Psal. cxlv. 18. Setting forth the Propi- 
tiousness of God." 

Mr. Norton died Oct. 3, 1716, in the sixty-sixth year of his age, 
and the thirty-eighth year of his ministry. 

It was during the ministrv of Mr. Norton that the first meeting- 
house became too small for the growing town, and a second house 
was erected. 

The first meeting-house was built shortly after the gathering of 
the church in 1635. It was on the main street, on a hill in front 
of the present site of the Derby Academy. It was surrounded by 
a palisade erected in 1645 " to prevent any danger that may come 
into this town by any assault of the Indians," and was surmounted 
by a belfry with a bell. Around it upon the slope of the hill the 
dead were buried. The hill was removed in 1831, and the re- 
mains, which were disinterred by the removal, were buried within 
the old fort in the Hingham cemetery, and a monument erected 
over them by the town, bearing the inscription " To the first set- 
tlers of Hingham. Erected by the Town, 1839." 

The first meeting-house was undoubtedly a rude structure, but 
there are indications that it was not wholly without ornament. 
For forty-five years it was the only house for public worship in 
the town. 

Jan. 19, 1679-80, the town agreed to build a new meeting-house 
" with all convenient speed," and a committee was appointed to 
view the meeting-houses of other towns, for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the dimensions of a building necessary to accommodate the 
inhabitants, and the probable expense. This committee were to 
report to the town at the next town-meeting in May following. 

May 3, 1680, the Selectmen were directed to " carry on the 
business to effect about building a new meeting-house," and it 
was voted " to have the new meeting-house set up in the place 
where the old one doth now stand." On this last question the 
Town Records give the names of thirty-four persons voting in the 
affirmative, and eleven in the negative. 

Aug. 11, 1680, the dimensions of the house were fixed by the 
town as follows: length, 35 feet; breadth, 45 feet; and height 



Ecclesiastical History. 23 

of the posts " twenty, or one and twenty feet," with galleries on 
one side and at both ends. 

May 2, 1681, the town approved of the action of the Selectmen 
in relation to the building of the new meeting-house, and the place 
where it was to be set. Thirty-seven persons dissented from this 
vote. These transactions were brought to the notice of the Gov- 
ernor, and the authority of the magistrates interposed. 

The following are copies of papers in the State archives : — 

Boston, May 16th, 1681. 

The Governo r and Magistrates having considered the p r sent motions 
in Hingham relating to the placing of a New meeting house, and also 
perceiving by Information of the Hon d W m- Stoughton and Joseph Dud- 
ley Esq" who were desired to view the place of the present House (which 
is judged to be inconvenient by them), do therefore hereby disallow of the 
setting up of a New meeting house either in the old place or in the plaine. 
And do further order that a new meeting of all persons in the Towne 
who have right to vote in such cases be speedily ordered at which it may 
be fairly voted where to place the new meeting house, and the Selectmen 
are hereby required to make a speedy returne of the number of votes to 
the Hon rd Governo r . 

Jn°- Hull, p r order. 

Superscribed to the Selectmen 
of Hingham, to be communicated 
to the Towne. 

At a Towne meeting holden at Hingham on the 24th day of May, 1681, 
Thomas Andrews was Chosen moderator of that meeting, and at the said 
meeting the vote passed by papers, with seventy-three hands for the new 
meeting house that is now building in Hingham to be set in the conve- 
nientest place in Captaine Hobart's land, next or nearest to Samuell 
Thaxter's house. 

As Attest, Daniell Cushing, Towne Clarke. 
26 May, 1681. 

The magis* 3 having Considered the Returne of the Selectmen of Hing- 
ham in refferenc to the voate for setting the meeting house there, Doe 
Approove of said vote and Judge meete, all Circumstances considered, that 
the new meeting house be errected accordingly in the convenientest place 
in Cap| Hubbards land neerest to Samuell Thaxte r s house. 

Past by y" Council, 

Edw d Rawson, Secre 1 - 

And so, after a controversy of more than a year the location of 
the new house was settled. Immediate measures were taken to 
carry the votes of the town into effect. July 8, 1681, Capt. 
Joshua Hobart conveyed to the town by deed of gift the site for 
the meeting-house, which is the same upon which it now stands. 

The frame of the meeting-house was raised on the 26th, 27th, 
and 28th days of July, 1681, and it was opened for public wor- 
ship Jan. 8, 1681-82. It cost the town £430 and the old house, 



24 History of Hingham. 

the necessary amount being raised by a rate which had been made 
in October, 1680. 

There is a tradition that the site for the house was fixed on 
the Lower Plain, and that on the night preceding the day ap- 
pointed for the raising of the frame it was carried to the spot 
where the house now stands ; but there is no record of a vote of 
the town fixing the site on the Plain, and the story does not have 
a very plausible foundation. 

After the death of Mr. Norton the parish was without a settled 
minister for a period of