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Full text of "History of the town of Hingham, Massachusetts : in three volumes"

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HISTORY 

OF THE 

TOWN OF HINGHAM, 

MASSACHUSETTS. 



IN THREE VOLUMES. 

Volume I. — Part II. 
HISTORICAL. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

The Institute of Museum and Library Services through an Indiana State Library LSTA Grant 



http://www.archive.org/details/historyoftownofh12hing 



HISTORY 



OP THE 



TOWN OF HINGHAM, 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



IN THREE VOLUMES. 

Yolume I. — Part II. 

HISTORICAL. 



PUBLISHED BY THE TOWN. 
1893. 



2Stttbcrsttg Press : 

John Wilson and Son, Cambridge. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Volume I. — Part II. 



PAGE 

Ecclesiastical History .... Francis H. Lincoln . . 1 

Education " " . . 83 

Manufactures and Commerce . George Lincoln .... 155 

Agriculture Edmund Hersey . . . 181 

Publications Fearing Burr .... 193 

Public Conveyances Francis H. Lincoln . . 241 

Fire Department " . " . . 257 

Water Works Charles W. S. Seymour . 261 

Public Institutions Francis H. Lincoln . . 271 

Lodges and Societies " " . . 289 

Native and Resident Physicians George Lincoln .... 307 

Native and Resident Lawyers . Francis H. Lincoln . . 327 

Native Ministers " " . . 311 

Burial Grounds George Lincoln .... 355 

Miscellaneous Matters .... Francis H. Lincoln . . 379 

INDEX 387 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Volume I. — Part II. 



PAGE 

Old Meeting-House 1 

Portrait of Dr. Gay 24 

From a photograph hy Francis H. Lincoln, from the painting. 

Old Meeting-House Pulpit 35 

Cohasset Meeting-House 37 

South Hingham Meeting-House 40 

New North Meeting-House 49 

Baptist Meeting-House 57 

From a photograph by Francis H. Lincoln. 

Methodist Episcopal Meeting-House 62 

Universalist Meeting-House 65 

Evangelical Congregational Meeting-House 67 

Eree Christian Mission Chapel 69 

From a photograph by Francis H. Lincoln. 

Episcopal Church 71 

From a photograph by Francis H. Lincoln. 

Bishop's Chair in the Episcopal Church 73 

Engraved by Wallace Corthell from a photograph by Francis H. Lincoln. 

Catholic Church 79 

From a photograph by George E. Siders, 

Hingham High School 99 

Derby Academy 116 

Portrait of Madam Derby 126 

From a photograph by Francis H. Lincoln, from the painting. 

Seal of Derby Academy 135 

Portrait of Dr. Ezekiel Hersey 138 

From a photograph by Francis H. Lincoln, from the painting. 

Hingham Public Library «..,... 145 

Engraved by Wallace Corthell. 

Portrait of Albert Fearing 148 



viii Illustrations. 

PAGE 

Hingham Public Library ...... . 154 

From a photograph by Francis H. Lincoln. 

Hingham Harbor 170 

From a photograph by Henry F. Guild. 

Steamer Eagle , . 244 

Steamer Lafayette . 244 

Steamer General Lincoln 245 

Steamer Mayflower , . . 246 

Steamer Nantasket 247 

Plan of Steamboat Landings 249 

Steamer Governor Andrew 250 

Accord Pond „...,. 261 

From a photograph by Charles W. S Seymour. 

Accord Pond 269 

From a photograph by Charles W. S. Seymour. 
Loring Hall, Insurance Company, and Savings Bank 

Building 280 

Wilder Memorial . . „ 287 

Society of Mutual Aid 304 

Portrait of Lieut.-Governor Levi Lincoln. ..... 334 

Portrait of Solomon Lincoln . 336 

Portrait of Governor Long 338 

Early Settlers' Monument, Fort Hill Cemetery . . . 362 

From a photograph by Francis H. Lincoln^ 

Entrance to High Street Cemetery 364 

From a photograph by Francis H. Lincoln. 

Entrance to Hingham Cemetery 366 

From a photograph by Francis H. Lincoln. 

Tomb of Eev. Ebenezer Gay, D. D 368 

From a photograph by Francis H. Lincoln. 

Hingham Cemetery Chapel 369 

Eirst Settlers' Monument, Hingham Cemetery .... 370 

View in Hingham Centre Cemetery . 373 

From a photograph by Francis H Lincoln. 

Town Seal - 386 

Engraved by Wallace Corthell. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

BY FRANCIS H. LINCOLN. 




THE OLD MEETING-HOUSE, HINGHAM, (ERECTED 1681.) 

FIRST PARISH. 

The first church in Hingham was formed in September, 1635. 
Rev. Peter Hobart, of Hingham, in Norfolk, England, came to 
Charlestown in June, 1635. Mr. Hobart was educated at Mag- 
dalene College, Cambridge, where he was graduated in 1625. 
He declined the invitations of several settlements to become their 
pastor, preferring to join that at Bare Cove, where many of his 
fellow-townsmen in the old country were already established. 
On the second of September, 1635, the name of Bare Cove was 
changed to Hingham ; and on the eighteenth of the same month 
Mr. Hobart and twenty-nine others drew for house-lots. Here 
Mr. Hobart gathered the church which was the twelfth in order 
of time in Massachusetts proper. 

VOL. I. 1* 



2 History of Hingham. 

During the few years immediately succeeding 1635 settlers came 
in quite respectable numbers to Hingham; and there is every rea- 
son to suppose the church was in a prosperous condition. 

Nov. 28, 1638, Mr. Robert Peck was ordained Teacher of the 
church. In the " Peck Genealogy," by Ira G. Peck, we find the 
following account of him : — 

" Rev. Robert Peck was born at Beccles, Suffolk County, England, in 
1580. He was graduated at Magdalene College, Cambridge; the degree 
of A. B. was conferred upon bim in 1599, and that of A. M. in 1603. He 
was set apart to the ministry, and inducted over the church at Hingham, 
Norfolk County, England, Jan. 8, 1605, where he remained until 1638, 
when he fled from the persecutions of the church to this country." 

He was a talented and influential clergyman, a zealous preacher, 
and a non-conformist to the superstitions, ceremonies, and cor- 
ruptions of the church, for which he was persecuted and driven 
from the country. Brook, in his " Lives of the Puritans," gives 
many facts of interest in relation to him. In particular, giving 
some of the offences for which he and his followers were perse- 
cuted, he says : — 

" For having catechised his family, and sung a psalm in his own house 
on a Lord's day evening, when some of his neighbors attended, his lord- 
ship (Bishop Harsnet) enjoined all who were present to do penance, 
requiring them to say, ' I confess my errors,' etc." 

Those who refused were immediately excommunicated and re- 
quired to pay heavy costs. This, Mr. Brook says, appears from 
the bishop's manuscripts under his own hands. He says : " He 
was driven from his flock, deprived of his benefice, and forced to 
seek his bread in a foreign land." 

He arrived here in 1638. In relation to his arrival the town 
clerk of Hingham here says : — 

" Mr. Robert Peck, preacher of the gospel in the town of Hingham, in 
the county of Norfolk, old England, with his wife and two children and 
two servants, came over the sea and settled in the town of Hingham ; and 
he was a Teacher of the Church." 

Mr. Hobart, of Hingham, says in his Diary that he was ordained 
here Teacher of the church, Nov. 28, 1638. His name frequently 
appears upon the records of the town. He had lands granted 
him. His family consisted of nine children. He remained here 
until the long Parliament, or until the persecutions in England 
ceased, when he returned and resumed his rectorship at Hingham. 
Mr. Hobart says he returned Oct. 27, 1641. He died at Hing- 
ham, England, and was buried in his churchyard there. 

Cotton Mather, in his " Magnalia Christi Americana," has the 
following : — 



Ecclesiastical History. 3 

" Mr. Robert Peck. — This light, having been by the persecuting prel- 
ates ' put under a bushel,' was, by the good providence of Heaven, fetched 
away into New England, about the year 1638, where the good people of 
our Hingham did ' rejoice in the light for a season.' But within two or 
three years the invitation of his friends at Hingham in England persuaded 
him to a return unto them ; where being, though a great person for stat- 
ure, yet a greater for spirit, he was greatly serviceable for the good of the 
church." 

In " Blomefield's Norfolk " is the following : — 

" 1605, 7 Jan. Robert Peck, A. M. Tho. Moor ; by grant of Francis 
Lovell, Knt., he was ' a man of a very violent schismatical spirit ; he 
pulled down the rails and levelled the altar and the whole chancel a foot 
below the church, as it remains to this day ; but being prosecuted for it by 
Bishop Wren, he fled the kingdom and went over into New-England, with 
many of his parishioners, who sold their estates for half their value, and 
conveyed all their effects to that new plantation, erected a town and col- 
onic, by the name of Hingham, where many of their posterity are still 
remaining. He promised never to desert them ; but hearing that Bishops 
were deposed, he left them all to shift for themselves, and came back to 
Hingham in the year 1646. After 10 years' voluntary banishment he 
resumed his rectory, and died in the year 1656.' His funeral sermon was 
preached by Nathaniel Joceline, A. M., pastor of the church of Hardingham, 
and was published by him, being dedicated to Mr. John Sidley, high- 
sheriff ; Brampton- Gurdon and Mr. Day, justices of the peace ; Mr. 
Church, Mr. Barnham, and Mr. Man, aldermen and justices in the city 
of Norwich. 

" 1638, 25 May. Luke Skippon, A.M., was presented by Sir Thomas 
Woodhouse, Knt. and Bart., as on Peck's death, he having been absent 
about two years. And in — 

"1640, 11 April, the said Luke was reinstituted, the living being void 
by lapse, it appearing that Peck was alive since Skippon's first institution ; 
and now two years more being past, and he not appearing, it lapsed to 
the Crown, as on Peck's death. But iu — 

" 1646, Peck came again, and held it to his death." 

A controversy which seriously affected the harmony of the 
church and town arose in 1644. The cause was insignificant in 
comparison with the principles it involved. Anthony Eames, 
who had been Lieutenant, was chosen Captain of the company of 
militia, and was presented to be commissioned by the Council. 
Before this was accomplished, dissatisfaction arose, and Bozoan 
Allen was selected. " Winthrop's Journal " gives a long account 
of the affair, which is quoted at length in Lincoln's " History of 
Hingham." Mr. Lincoln's comments are valuable, and he leaves 
nothing new to be gleaned. The writer of this chapter, with a 
filial respect for the opinions and industrious research of one 
whose interest in this town and its history were unceasing, pre- 
fers to insert the narrative as given by him rather than to 
attempt any description of his own. 



History of Hingham. 



CONTROVERSY WITH THE MAGISTRATES. 
, [From the " History of Hingham," by Solomon Lincoln, 1827.] 

It does not appear that the harmony of the church or the pros- 
perity of the town was interrupted until the year when the un- 
fortunate occurrence of the military difficulties caused a serious 
injury to both. The prominent part which Mr. Hobart took in 
this unpleasant controversy rendered him less popular at home 
and obnoxious to the government. His friends, however, were 
much the most numerous and influential party in the church ; and 
his conduct in relation to the minority, although it gave rise to- 
some jealousy, and in a few instances to strong dislike, does not 
appear to have diminished the attachment which a majority of the 
citizens had uniformly exhibited towards him. From the severe 
and burthensome fines and expenses to which he was subjected in 
consequence of his zeal for popular rights, he appears to have 
been relieved by the liberality of the people of his charge. 

Previously to the difficulties of 1644, we have reason to suppose 
that the town was flourishing and prosperous. The situation was 
eligible ; the facilities for fishing and for intercourse with other 
towns by water contributed to enrich it. In 1654 it is described 
by Johnson, in his " Wonder- Working Providence," in the follow- 
ing manner, viz. : — 

" A place nothing inferiour to their Neighbours for scituation ; and the 
people have much profited themselves by transporting Timber, Planke, 
and Mast for shipping to the town of Boston ; as also ceder and Pine- 
board to supply the wants of other townes, and also to remote parts, even 
as far as Barbadoes. They want not for fish for themselves and others 
also. This towne consisted of about sixty families. The forme is some- 
what intricate to describe, by reason of the Seas wasting crookes where 
it beats upon a mouldering shore. Yet have they compleat streetes in 
some places. The people joyned in Church covenant in this place were 
much about an hundred soules, but have been lessened by a sad, un- 
brotherly contention which fell out among them, wasting them every 
way — continued already for seven yeares' space, to the great grief of 
all other Churches." 

It is this " sad unbrotherly contention " which first attracts 
our attention in the early history of Hingham. It is to be re- 
gretted that most of the writers of the time when these difficul- 
ties arose should have been of that class which disapproved of 
the proceedings of a majority of the citizens of the town, and 
that no statement by those opposed to them in opinion has been 
preserved ; because, by comparing opposite statements, we should 
perhaps view the conduct of those of our ancestors who were 
then considered to be acting in an unjustifiable and disorderly 



Ecclesiastical History. 5 

manner, as the result of principles more consonant to the spirit 
of the present age than to the feelings of men at the time when 
they lived. 

I am aware, however, that there is justice in the remark of 
the learned editor of Winthrop, when, in speaking of Governor 
Winthrop's account of these affairs, he says, " An unusual fairness 
for a party whose feelings had been so much engaged in the con- 
troversy is here shown by our author." These difficulties origi- 
nated among the members of the military company, gradually 
enlisted the feelings of the whole town, arrested the attention 
of the church, were taken cognizance of by the neighbouring 
churches, and at last required the interposition of the govern- 
ment. A sketcli of the rise, progress, and termination of these 
difficulties will illustrate the principles of our fathers, and give 
some indication of the spirit and asperity of controversies when 
the prejudices of religion and of politics were unfortunately 
blended together. Winthrop, in his Journal, vol. ii. p. 221, in- 
troduces the subject as follows : — 

" 1645. This court fell out a troublesome business which took up much 
time. The town of Hingham, having one Ernes their lieutenant seven 
or eight years, had lately chosen him to be their captain, and had pre- 
sented him to the standing council for allowance ; but before it was 
accomplished, the greater part of the town took some light occasion of 
offence against him, and chose one Allen to be their captain, and pre- 
sented him to the magistrates (in the time of the last general court) to be 
allowed. But the magistrates, considering the injury that would hereby 
accrue to Ernes (who had been their chief commander so many years, 
and had deserved well in his place, and that Allen had no other skill but 
what he learned from Ernes), refused to allow of Allen, but willed both 
sides to return home, and every officer to keep his place until the court 
should take further order. Upon their return home, the messengers, who 
came for Allen, called a private meeting of those of their own party, and 
told them truly what answer they received from the magistrates, and soon 
after they appointed a training day (without their lieutenant's knowl- 
edge), and being assembled, the lieutenant hearing of it came to them, 
and would have exercised them, as he was wont to do, but those of the 
other party refused to follow him, except he would show them some order 
for it. He told them of the magistrates' order about it ; the others re- 
plied that authority had advised him to go home and lay down his place 
honourably. Another asked, what the magistrates had to do with them ? 
Another, that it was but three or four of the magistrates, and if they 
had all been there, it had been nothing, for Mr. Allen had brought more 
for them from the deputies, than the lieutenant had from the magistrates. 
Another of them professeth he will die at the sword's point, if he might 
not have the choice of his own officers. Another (viz. the clerk of the 
band) stands up above the people, and requires them to vote, whether 
they would bear them out in what was past and what was to come. This 
being assented unto, and the tumult continuing, one of the officers (he 
who had told them that authority had advised the lieutenant to go home 
and lay down his place) required Allen to take the captain's place ; but 



6 History of Hingham. 

he not then accepting it, they put it to the vote, whether he should be 
their captain. The vote passing for it, he then told the company, it was 
now past question, and thereupon Allen accepted it, and exercised the 
company two or three days, only about a third part of them followed the 
lieutenant. He, having denied in the open field, that authority had ad- 
vised him to lay down his place, and putting (in some sort) the lie upon 
those who had so reported, was the next Lord's day called to answer it 
before the church, and he standing to maintain what he had said, five 
witnesses were produced to convince him. Some of them affirmed the 
words, the others explained their meaning to be, that one magistrate 
had so advised him. He denied both. Whereupon the pastor, one Mr. 
Hubbert, (brother to three of the principal in this sedition), was very 
forward to have excommunicated the lieutenant presently, but, upon 
some opposition, it was put off to the next day. Thereupon the lieuten- 
ant and some three or four more of the chief men of the town informed 
four of the next magistrates of these proceedings, who forthwith met at 
Boston about it, (viz. the deputy governour, the sergeant major general, 
the secretary, and Mr. Hibbins). These, considering the case, sent war- 
rant to the constable to attach some of the principal offenders (viz. three 
of the Hubbards and two more) to appear before them at Boston, to find 
sureties for their appearance at the next court, &c. Upon the day they 
came to Boston, but their said brother the minister came before them, 
and fell to expostulate with the said magistrates about the said cause, 
complaining against the complainants, as talebearers, &c, taking it very 
disdainfully that his brethren should be sent for by a constable, with other 
high speeches, which were so provoking, as some of the magistrates told 
him, that, were it not for the respect to his ministry, they would commit 
him. When his brethren and the rest were come in, the matters of the 
information were laid to their charge, which they denied for the most part. 
So they were bound over (each for other) to the next court of assistants. 
After this five others were sent for by summons (these were only for 
speaking untruths of the magistrates in the church). They came before 
the deputy governour, when he was alone, and demanded the cause of their 
sending for, and to know their accusers. The deputy told them so much 
of the cause as he could remember, and referred them to the secretary for 
a copy, and for their accusers he told them they knew both the men and 
the matter, neither was a judge bound to let a criminal offender know 
his accusers before the day of trial, but only in his own discretion, least 
the accuser might be taken off or perverted, &c. Being required to give 
bond for their appearance, &c, they refused. The deputy laboured to 
let them see their errour, and gave them time to consider of it. About 
fourteen days after, seeing two of them in the court, (which was kept 
by those four magistrates for smaller causes), the deputy required them 
again to enter bond for their appearance, &c, and upon their second 
refusal committed them in that open court. 

" The general court falling out before the court of assistants, the Hub- 
berts and the two which were committed, and others of Hingham, about 
ninety, (whereof Mr. Hubbert their minister was the first), presented a 
petition to the general court, to this effect, that whereas some of them 
had been bound over, and others committed by some of the magistrates 
for words spoken concerning the power of the general court, and their 
liberties, and the liberties of the church, &c, they craved that the court 
would hear the cause, &c. This was first presented to the deputies, who 



Ecclesiastical History. 7 

sent it to the magistrates, desiring their concurrence with them, that the 
cause might be heard, &c. The magistrates, marvelling that they would 
grant such a petition, without desiring conference first with themselves, 
whom it so much concerned, returned answer, that they were willing the 
cause should be heard, so as the petitioners would name the magistrates 
whom they intended, and the matters they would lay to their charge, 
&c. Upon this the deputies demanded of the petitioners' agents (who 
were then deputies of the court) to have satisfaction in those points, 
whereupon they singled out the deputy governour, and two of the peti- 
tioners undertook the prosecution. Then the petition was returned 
again to the magistrates for their consent, &c, who being desirous that 
the deputies might take notice, how prejudicial to authority and the 
honour of the court it would be to call a magistrate to answer crimi- 
nally in a cause, wherein nothing of that nature could be laid to his 
charge, and that without any private examination preceding, did intimate 
so much to the deputies, (though not directly, yet plainly enough), show- 
ing them that nothing criminal &c. was laid to his charge, and that the 
things objected to were the act of the court &c. yet if they would needs 
have a hearing, they would join in it. And indeed it was the desire of 
the deputy, (knowing well how much himself and the other magistrates 
did suffer in the cause, through the slanderous reports wherewith the 
deputies and the country about had been possessed), that the cause 
might receive a public hearing. 

" The day appointed being come, the court assembled in the meeting 
house at Boston. Divers of the elders were present, and a great assembly 
of people. The deputy governour, coming in with the rest of the magis- 
trates, placed himself beneath within the bar, and so sate uncovered. 
Some question was in court about his being in that place (for many both 
of the court and the assembly were grieved at it). But the deputy tell- 
ing them, that, being criminally accused, he might not sit as judge in 
that cause, and if he were upon the bench, it would be a great disadvan- 
tage to him, for he could not take that liberty, to plead the cause, which 
he ought to be allowed at the bar, upon this the court was satisfied. 

" The petitioners having declared their grievances &c. the deputy craved 
leave to make answer, which was to this effect, viz. that he accounted it 
no disgrace, but rather an honour put upon him, to be singled out from his 
brethren in the defence of a cause so just (as he hoped to make that 
appear) and of so publick concernment. And although he might have 
pleaded to the petition, and so have demurred in law, upon three points, 

1, in that there is nothing laid to his charge, that is either criminal or unjust ; 

2, if he had been mistaken either in the law or in the state of the case, yet 
whether it were such as a judge is to be called in question for as a delin- 
quent, when it doth not appear to be wickedness or wilfulness ; for in 
England many erroneous judgments are reversed, and errours in pro- 
ceedings rectified, and yet the judges not called in question about them ; 

3, in that being thus singled out from three other of the magistrates, and 
to answer by himself for some things, which were the act of a court, he 
is deprived of the just means of his defence, for many things may be 
justified as done by four, which are not warrantable if done by one alone, 
and the records of a court are a full justification of any act, while such 
record stands in force. But he was willing to waive this plea, and to 
make answer to the particular charges, to the end that the truth of the 
case, and of all proceedings thereupon might appear to all men. 



8 History of Hingham. 

" Hereupon the court proceeded to examine the whole cause. The 
deputy justified all the particulars laid to his charge, as that upon credible 
information of such a mutinous practice, and open disturbance of the peace, 
and slighting of authority, the offenders were sent for, the principal by war- 
rant to the constable to bring them, and others by summons, and that 
6ome were bound over to the next court of assistants, and others that 
refused to be bound were committed ; and all this according to the 
equity of the laws here established, and the custom and laws of England, 
and our constant practice here these fifteen years. And for some 
speeches he was charged with as spoken to the delinquents, when they 
came before him at his house, when none were present with him but 
themselves, first, he appealed to the judgment of the court, whether 
delinquents may be received as competent witnesses against a magistrate 
in such a case ; then, for the words themselves, some he justified, some 
he explained so as no advantage could be taken of them, as that he 
should say, that the magistrates could try some criminal causes without 
a jury, that he knew no law of God or man, which required a judge 
to make known to the party his accusers (or rather witnesses) before 
the cause came to hearing. But two of them charged him to have said 
that it was against the law of God and man so to do, which had been 
absurd, for the deputy professed he knew no law against it, only a 
judge may sometimes, in discretion, conceal their names &c. least they 
should be tampered with, or conveyed out of the way &c. 

" Two of the magistrates and many of the deputies were of opinion that 
the magistrates exercised too much power, and that the people's liberty 
was thereby in danger ; and other of the deputies (being about half) 
and all the rest of the magistrates were of a different judgment, and that 
authority was overmuch slighted, which, if not timely remedied, would 
endanger the commonwealth, and bring us to a mere democracy. By 
occasion of this difference, there was not so orderly carriage at the hear- 
ing, as was meet, each side striving unseasonably to enforce the evidence, 
and declaring their judgments thereupon, which should have been re- 
served to a more private debate (as after it was), so as the best part of 
two days was spent in this publick agitation and examination of witnesses 
&c. This being ended, a committee was chosen of magistrates and depu- 
ties, who stated the case, as it appeared upon the whole pleading and 
evidence, though it cost much time, and with great difficulty did the com- 
mittee come to accord upon it. 

" The case being stated and agreed, the magistrates and deputies consid- 
ered it apart, first the deputies, having spent a whole day, and not attain- 
ing to any issue, sent up to the magistrates to have their thoughts about 
it, who taking it into consideration, (the deputy always withdrawing when 
that matter came into debate), agreed upon these four points chiefly; 1. 
that the petition was false and scandalous , 2. that those who were bound 
over &c. and others that were parties to the disturbance at Hingham, 
were all offenders, though in different degrees, 3. that they and the peti- 
tioners were to be censured, 4. that the deputy governour ought to be 
acquit and righted &c. This being sent down to the deputies, they spent 
divers days about it, and made two or three returns to the magistrates, 
and though they found the petition false and scandalous, and so voted it, 
yet they would not agree to any censure. The magistrates, on the other 
side, were resolved for censure, and for the deputy's full acquittal. The 
deputies being thus hard held to it, and growing weary of the court, 



Ecclesiastical History. 9 

for it began (3) 14, and brake not up (save one week) till (5) 5, were 
content they should pay the charges of the court. After, they were 
drawn to consent to some small fines, but in this they would have drawn 
in lieutenant Ernes to have been fined deeply, he being neither plaintiff 
nor defendant, but an informer only, and had made good all the points 
of his information, and no offence found in him, other than that which 
was after adjudged worthy of admonition only; and they would have 
imposed the charges of the court upon the whole trained band at Hing- 
ham, when it was apparent, that divers were innocent, and had no hand in 
any of these proceedings. The magistrates not consenting to so manifest 
injustice, they sent to the deputies to desire them to join with them in 
calling in the help of the elders, (for they were now assembled at Cam- 
bridge from all parts of the United Colonies, and divers of them were 
present when the cause was publickly heard, and declared themselves 
much grieved to see that the deputy governour should be called forth to 
answer as a delinquent in such a case as this was, and one of them, in 
the name of the rest, had written to him to that effect, fearing lest he 
should apprehend over deeply of the injury &c.) but the deputies would 
by no means consent thereto, for they knew that many of the elders 
understood the cause, and were more careful to uphold the honour and 
power of the magistrates than themselves well liked of, and many of them 
(at the request of the elder and others of the church of Hingham during 
this court) had been at Hingham, to see if they could settle peace in the 
church there, and found the elder and others the petitioners in great 
fault &c. After this (upon motion of the deputies) it was agreed to refer 
the cause to arbitrators, according to an order of the court, when the 
magistrates and deputies cannot agree &c. The magistrates named six 
of the elders of the next towns, and left it to them to choose any three 
or four of them, and required them to name six others. The deputies 
finding themselves now at the wall, and not daring to trust the elders 
with the cause, they sent to desire that six of themselves might come and 
confer with the magistrates, which being granted, they came, and at last 
came to this agreement, viz. the chief petitioners and the rest of the 
offenders were severally fined, (all their fines not amounting to 50 
pounds), the rest of the petitioners to bear equal share to 50 pounds more 
towards the charges of the court, (two of the principal offenders were the 
deputies of the town, Joshua Hubbert and Bozone Allen, the first was 
fined 20 pounds, and the other 5 pounds), lieutenant Ernes to be under 
admonition, the deputy governour to be legally and publickly acquit of 
all that was laid to his charge. 

"According to this agreement, (5) 3, presently after the lecture the 
magistrates and deputies took their places in the meeting house, and the 
people being come together, and the deputy governour placing himself 
within the bar, as at the time of the hearing &c. the governour read the 
sentence of the court, without speaking any more, for the deputies had 
(by importunity) obtained a promise of silence from the magistrates. 
Then was the deputy governour desired by the court to go up and 
take his place again upon the bench, which he did accordingly, and the 
court being about to arise, he desired leave for a little speech, which 
was to this effect. 

" ' I suppose something may be expected from me, upon this charge that 
is befallen me, which moves me to speak now to you ; yet I intend 
not to intermeddle in the proceedings of the court, or with any of the 



10 History of Hingham. 

persons concerned therein. Only I bless God, that I see an issue of 
this troublesome business. I also acknowledge the justice of the court, 
and, for mine own part, I am well satisfied, I was publickly charged, 
and I am publickly and legally acquitted, which is all I did expect or 
desire. And though this be sufficient for my justification before men, 
yet not so before the God, who hath seen so much amiss in my dis- 
pensations (and even in this affair) as calls me to be humble. For to be 
publickly and criminally charged in this court, is matter of humiliation, 
(and I desire to make a right use of it), notwithstanding I be thus 
acquitted. If her father had spit in her face, (saith the Lord concerning 
Miriam), should she not have been ashamed seven days ? Shame had 
lien upon her, whatever the occasion had been. I am unwilling to stay 
you from your urgent affairs, yet give me leave (upon this special occa- 
sion) to speak a little more to this assembly. It may be of some good 
use, to inform and rectify the judgments of some of the people, and may 
prevent such distempers as have arisen amongst us. The great ques- 
tions that have troubled the country, are about the authority of the 
magistrates and the liberty of the people. It is yourselves who have 
called us to this office, and being called by you, we have our authority 
from God, in way of an ordinance, such as hath the image of God emi- 
nently stamped upon it, the contempt and violation whereof hath been 
vindicated with examples of divine vengeance. I entreat you to consider, 
that when you choose magistrates, you take them from among your- 
selves, men subject to like passions as you are. Therefore when you see 
infirmities in us, you should reflect upon your own, and that would make 
you bear more with us, and not be severe censurers of the failings of 
your magistrates, when you have continual experience of the like infirmi- 
ties in yourselves and others. We account him a good servant, who 
breaks not his covenant. The covenant between you and us is the oath 
you have taken of us, which is to this purpose, that we shall govern you 
and judge your causes by the rules of God's laws and our own, according 
to our best skill. When you agree with a workman to build you a ship 
or house &c. he undertakes as well for his skill as for his faithfulness, 
for it is his profession, and you pay him for both. But when you call 
one to be a magistrate, he doth not profess nor undertake to have suffi- 
cient skill for that office, nor can you furnish him with gifts &c. therefore 
you must run the hazard of his skill and ability. But if he fail in faith- 
fulness, which by his oath he is bound unto, that he must answer for. If 
it fall out that the case be clear to common apprehension, and the rule 
clear also, if he transgresses here, the errour is not in the skill, but in the 
evil of the will : it must be required of him. But if the cause be doubt- 
ful, or the rule doubtful, to men of such understanding and parts as your 
magistrates are, if your magistrates should err here, yourselves must 
bear it. 

" ' For the other point concerning liberty, I observe a great mistake in 
the country about that. There is a twofold liberty, natural (I mean as 
our nature is now corrupt) and civil or federal. The first is common to 
men with beasts and other creatures. By this, man, as he stands in rela- 
tion to man simply, hath liberty to do what he lists ; it is a liberty to evil 
as well as to good. This liberty is incompatible and inconsistent with 
authority, and cannot endure the least restraint of the most just authority. 
The exercise and maintaining of this liberty makes men grow more evil, 
and in time to be worse than brute beasts ; omnes sumus licentia deteri- 



Ecclesiastical History. 11 

ores. That is that great enemy of truth and peace, that wild beast, which 
all the ordinances of God are bent against, to restrain and subdue it. 
The other kind of liberty I call civil or federal, it may also be termed 
moral, in reference to the covenant between God and man, in the moral 
law, and the politic covenants and constitutions amongst men themselves. 
This liberty is the proper end and object of authority, and cannot subsist 
without it ; and it is a liberty to that only which is good, just, and hon- 
est. This liberty you are to stand for, with the hazard (not only of 
your goods, but) of your lives, if need be. Whatsoever crosseth this, is 
not authority, but a distemper thereof. This liberty is maintained and 
exercised in a way of subjection to authority ; it is of the same kind of 
liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free. The woman's own choice makes 
such a man her husband ; yet being so chosen, he is her lord, and she is 
to be subject to him, yet in a way of liberty, not of bondage ; and a true 
wife accounts her subjection her honour and freedom, and would not 
think her condition safe and free, but in her subjection to her husband's 
authority. Such is the liberty of the church under the authority of 
Christ, her king and husband ; his yoke is easy and sweet to her as a 
bride's ornaments ; and if through frowardness or wantonness &c. she 
shake it off, at any time, she is at no rest in her spirit, until she take 
it up again ; and whether her lord smiles upon her, and embraceth her 
in his arms, or whether he frowns, or rebukes, or smites her, she appre- 
hends the sweetness of his love in all, and is refreshed, supported, and 
instructed by every such dispensation of his authority over her. On the 
other side, ye know who they are that complain of this yoke and say, let 
us break their bands &c. we will not have this man to rule over us. 
Even so, brethren, it will be between you and your magistrates. If you 
stand for your natural corrupt liberties, and will do what is good in your 
own eyes, you will not endure the least weight of authority, but will 
murmur, and oppose, and be always striving to shake off that yoke ; but 
if you will be satisfied to enjoy such civil and lawful liberties, such as 
Christ allows you, then will you quietly and cheerfully submit unto that 
authority which is set over you, in all the administrations of it, for your ' 
good. Wherein, if we fail at any time, we hope we shall be willing (by 
God's assistance) to hearken to good advice from any of you, or in any 
other way of God ; so shall your liberties be preserved, in upholding the 
honour and power of authority amongst you.' " 

The following notes of the proceedings of the deputies and 
magistrates in relation to this affair were collected by Mr. Savage 
and published in his edition of Winthrop : — 

" The first order of the magistrates is as follows : ' Fined the persons 
after named in such sums as hereafter are expressed, having been as mod- 
erate and gone as low as they any ways could with the holding up of 
authority in any measure, and the maintenance of justice, desiring the 
concurrence of the deputies herein, that at length an end may be put to 
this long and tedious business. 

Joshua Hubbard is fined £20 00 00 

Edmond Hubbard 5 00 00 

Thomas Hubbard 2 00 00 

Edmond Gold 1 00 00 

John Faulshame 20 00 00 



12 History of Hingham. 

John Towers £5 00 00 

Daniel Cushin 2 10 00 

William Hersey 10 00 00 

Mr. Bozon Allen 10 00 00 

Mr. Peter Hubbard, the first that subscribed the petition, 2 00 00 

All the rest of the petitioners being fined 81, out of which number are ex- 
cepted three ; viz., Mr. Peter Hubbard, John Foulshame, and John Tow- 
ers. The rest, making 78, are fined 20 shillings a piece, the sum of which 
is — £155 10. 

" ' We have also voted, that, according to the order of the general court, 
for so long time as their cause hath been in handling, the petitioners 
shall bear the charge of the general court, the sum of which costs is to be 
cast up and agreed by the court when the cause is finished.' 

" ' The House of Deputies, having issued the Hingham business before 
the judgment of our honoured magistrates upon the case came down, 
they have hereunder expressed their determinate censures upon such as 
they find delinquent in the case ; viz., — 

Joshua Hubbard is fined £20 00 00 

Anthony Eames 5 00 00 

Thomas Hubbard . 4 00 00 

Edmond Hubbard . 10 00 00 . 

Daniel Cushan 4 00 00 > ' 

William Hersey . 4 00 00 

Mr. Allen, beside his proportion with the trainband . 1 00 00 
Edmond Gold 2 00 00 



a i 



The rest of the trainband of Hingham, that have an equal vote 
allowed them by law for the choice of their military officers, are fined 55 
pounds, to be paid by equal proportion ; the which said sums of 50 and 
55 pounds are laid upon the said delinquents for the satisfying of the 
charge of the court occasioned by the hearing of the cause, in case the 
said charge shall arise to the sum of 105 pounds. The deputies desire 
the consent of the magistrates herein.' 

" Several discordant votes passed each branch before the business was 
brought to its close." 

After giving an account of the proceedings of the court, 
Winthrop remarks as follows : — 

" I should have mentioned the Hingham case, what care and pains 
many of the elders had taken to reconcile the differences which were 
grown in that church. Mr. Hubbert, the pastor there, being of a Presby- 
terial spirit, did manage all affairs without the church's advice ; which 
divers of the congregation not liking of, they were divided in two parts. 
Lieutenant Ernes, &c, having complained to the magistrates, as is before 
expressed, Mr. Hubbert, &c, would have cast him out of the church, pre- 
tending that he told a lie ; whereupon they procured the elders to write 
to the church, and so did some of the magistrates also ; whereupon they 
stayed proceeding against the lieutenant for a day or two. But he and 
some twelve more of them, perceiving he was resolved to proceed, 
and finding no way of reconciliation, they withdrew from the church, and 
openly declared it in the congregation. This course the elders did not 
approve of. But being present in the court when their petition against 
the deputy governour was heard, Mr. Hubbert, perceiving the cause was 



Ecclesiastical History. 13 

like to go against him and his party, desired the elders to go to Hingham 
to mediate a reconciliation (which he would never hearken to before, 
being eaimestly sought by the other party and offered by the elders) in 
the interim of the court's adjournment for one week. They readily 
accepted the motion, and went to Hingham and spent two or three days 
there, and found the pastor and his party in great fault, but could not 
bring him to any acknowledgment. In their return by water they were 
kept twenty-four hours in the boat, and were in great danger by occasion 
of a tempest which arose in the night ; but the Lord preserved them." 

But the difficulties did not terminate here. The authority of 
government was resisted when the marshal attempted to levy the 
fines imposed on the petitioners. The following is Winthrop's 
account of the matter : — ■ 

" 1646. 26. (1.) ] The governour and council met at Boston to take 
order about a rescue which they were informed of to have been committed 
at Hingham upon the marshal, when he went to levy the fines imposed 
upon Mr. Hubberd their pastor and many others who joined with him in 
the petition against the magistrates, &c. And having taken the infor- 
mation of the marshal and others, they sent out summons for their 
appearance at another day ; at which time Mr. Hubberd came not, nor 
sent any excuse, though it was proved that he was at home and that 
the summons was left at his house. Whereupon he was sent for by 
attachment directed to the constable, who brought him at the day of the 
return. And being then charged with joining in the said rescue by ani- 
mating the offenders and discouraging the officer, questioning the au- 
thority of his warrant because it was not in the king's name, and standing 
upon his allegiance to the crown of England and exemption from such 
laws as were not agreeable to the laws of England, saying to the marshal 
that he could never know wherefore he was fined, except it were for peti- 
tioning, and, if they were so waspish that they might not be petitioned, 
he knew not what to say to it, &c. — all the answer he would give was, 
that, if he had broken any wholesome law not repugnant to the laws of 
England, he was ready to submit to censure. So he was bound over to 
the next court of assistants. 

" The court being at Boston, Mr. Hubberd appeared, and the marshal's 
information and other concurrent testimony being read to him and his 
answer demanded, he desired to know in what state he stood, and what 
offence he should be charged with, or what wholesome law of the land, 
not repugnant to the law of England, he had broken. The court told him 
that the matters he was charged with amounted to a seditious practice, 
and derogation and contempt of authority. He still pressed to know 
what law, &c. He was told that the oath which he had taken was a law 
to him ; and, besides, the law of God, which we were to judge by in 
case of a defect of an express law. He said that the law of God ad- 
mitted various interpretations, &c. Then he desired to see his accusers. 
Upon that the marshal was called, who justified his information. Then 
he desired to be tried by a jury, and to have the witnesses produced viva 
voce. The secretary told him that two were present and the third was 
sworn to his examination (but in that he was mistaken, for he had not 
been sworn) ; but to satisfy him he was sent for and sworn in court. 
The matters testified against him were his speeches to the marshal before 



14 History of Hingham. 

thirty persons against our authority and government, &c. 1. That we 
were but as a corporation in England ; 2. That by our patent (as he 
understood it), we could not put any man to death, nor do divers other 
things which we did ; 3. That he knew not wherefore the general court 
had fined them, except it were for petitioning ; and if they were so wasp- 
ish (or captious) as they might not be petitioned, &c. — and other speeches 
tending to disparage our authority and proceedings. Accordingly a bill 
was drawn up, &c, and the jury found that he seemed to be ill affected to 
this government, and that his speeches tended to sedition and contempt of 
authority. Whereupon the whole court (except Mr. Bellingham, who 
judged him to deserve no censure, and desired in open court to have his 
dissent recorded) adjudged him to pay 20 pounds fine, and to be bound to 
his good behaviour till the next court of assistants, and then farther if the 
court should see cause. At this sentence his spirit rose, and he would 
know what the good behaviour was, and desired the names of the jury 
and a copy of all the proceedings, which was granted him ; and so he was 
dismissed at present." 

In 1646 the celebrated petition of Dr. Child and six others for 
the abolition of " the distinctions which were maintained here, 
both in civil and church estate," and that the people of this 
country might be wholly governed by the laws of England, was 
presented to the House of Deputies. Six of the petitioners were 
cited before the court and charged with great offences contained 
in this petition. They appealed to the Parliament of England, and 
offered security to abide by their sentence ; but the court thought 
proper to sentence the offenders to fine and imprisonment. The 
petitioners then resolved to lay their case before Parliament ; 
and Dr. Child, Mr. Vassall, and Mr. Fowle went to England for 
that purpose. 1 But it appears that they met with very ill success 
in their exertions. Their papers were published at London by 
Major John Child, brother of Dr. Robert Child, in a tract entitled 
" New England's Jonas Cast up at London," in allusion, probably, 
to the remark of Mr. Cotton in one of his sermons, " that, if any 
shall carry any writings or complaints against the people of God 
in this country to England, it would be as Jonas in the ship." 
This tract was answered by Mr. Winslow, who was then in 
England, in another tract, entitled " The Salamander," " wherein," 
says Winthrop, " he cleared the justice of the proceedings" of the 
government here. 

I introduced this notice of the petition of Dr. Child and others 
for the purpose of correcting an error into which Hutchinson and 
Neal have fallen in confounding this controversy with that of our 
military dispute which created so much excitement in the country. 
It is proper to mention, however, that Mr. Hobart was suspected 
of " having a hand in it," and consequently was obliged to suffer 
another of the mortifications to which the relentless spirit of per- 

1 An amusing account of the superstitious terror of some of the passengers in the 
vessel in which the petitioners went to England, and of the ill success of their petition, 
may be found in Neal's "History of New England." 



Ecclesiastical History. 15 

secution had subjected him. I give, however, Winthrop's account 
in his own words : — 

"In 1646. (9). 4. ] This court the business of Gorton, &c, and of 
the petitioners Dr. Child, &c., were taken into consideration, and it was 
thought needful to send some able men to England, with commission and 
instructions to satisfy the commissioners for plantations about those com- 
plaints ; and because it was a matter of so great and general concernment, 
such of the elders as could be had were sent for, to have their advice in 
the matter. Mr. Hubbard, of Hingham, came with the rest ; but the 
court, being informed that he had an hand in a petition which Mr. Vassall 
carried into England against the country in general, the governour pro- 
pounded that if any elder present had any such hand, &c, he would with- 
draw himself. Mr. Hubbard sitting still a good space, and no man 
speaking, one of the deputies informed the court that Mr. Hubbard was 
the man suspected ; whereupon he rose and said that he knew nothing of 
any such petition. The governour replied, that, seeing he was now named, 
he must needs deliver his mind about him ; which was, that, although 
they had no proof present about the matter of the petition, and therefore 
his denial was a sufficient clearing, &c, yet in regard he had so much 
opposed authority and offered such contempt to it, as for which he had 
been lately bound to his good behaviour, he thought he would (in dis- 
cretion) withdraw himself, &c, whereupon he went out. Then the gover- 
nour put the court in mind of a great miscarriage, in that our secretest 
counsels were presently known abroad, which could not be but by some 
among ourselves, and desired them to look at it as a matter of great 
unfaithfulness, and that our present consultations might be kept in the 
breast of the court, and not be divulged abroad, as others had been." 

Winthrop then remarks upon a special providence of God (as 
he terms it), in which he takes it for granted that Mr. Hobart, 
the people of Hingham, and Dr. Child entertained similar views, 
if they did not openly combine their efforts to promote them. 

" I must here observe a special providence of God, pointing out his dis- 
pleasure against some profane persons who took part with Dr. Child, &c, 
against the government and churches here. The court had appointed a 
general fast, to seek God (as for some other occasions, so) in the trouble 
which threatened us by the petitioners, &c. The pastor of Hingham, and 
others of his church (being of their party), made light of it, and some 
said they would not fast against Dr. Child and against themselves ; and 
there were two of them (one Pitt and Johnson) who, having a great raft 
of masts and planks (worth forty or fifty pounds) to tow to Boston, would 
needs set forth about noon the day before (it being impossible they could 
get to Boston before the fast ; but when they came at Castle Island there 
arose such a tempest, as carried away their raft, and forced them to cut 
their mast to save their lives. Some of their masts and planks they re- 
covered after, where it had been cast on shore ; but when they came with 
it to the Castle, they were forced back again, and were so oft put back 
with contrary winds, &c, as it was above a month before they could bring 
all the remainder to Boston." 

The editor of Winthrop in noticing these remarks very justly 
observes, that " unless we be always careful to consider the cause 



16 History of Hingham. 

of any special providence, we may fail in our views of the dis- 
pleasure of God ; " and notices the fact that the clergy, when 
they came to this town to reduce the church members to sobriety, 
" were kept twenty-four hours in the boat, and were in great dan- 
ger by occasion of a tempest." 

The last time at which Mr. Hobart was made to feel the dis- 
pleasure of the government was in 1647. Winthrop mentions it 
in the following manner : — 

" 4. (6). There was a great marriage to be solemnized at Boston. 
The bridegroom being of Hingham, Mr. Hubbard's church, he was pro- 
cured to preach, and came to Boston to that end. But the magistrates, 
hearing of it, sent to him to forbear. The reasons were, 1. for that his 
spirit had been discovered to be adverse to our ecclesiastical and civil 
government, and he was a bold man, and would speak his mind, 2. we 
were not willing to bring in the English custom of ministers performing 
the solemnity of marriage, which sermons at such times might induce, but 
if any minister were present, and would bestow a word of exhortation, 
&c, it was permitted." 

I have thus gleaned from Winthrop all the facts which his val- 
uable journal contains, relating in any manner to the military 
difficulties in this town, and to the conduct of the most promi- 
nent individuals concerned in them. 

The dispassionate reader, while he will give to Winthrop all 
the credit to which his impartiality entitles him, cannot fail to 
discover some circumstances which tend to extenuate the crimi- 
nality of the conduct of a large and respectable portion of the 
inhabitants of this town. The convictions which the deputy gov- 
ernor entertained of the disorderly and seditious course of Mr. 
Hobart and his friends were deep and strong ; and in some in- 
stances his conduct indicated anything but a charitable spirit 
towards those whose principal error (if any) consisted in their 
attachment to more liberal views of government than those gen- 
erally entertained at that time. 

Winthrop acknowledges, that "the great questions that troubled 
the country were about the authority of the magistrates and the 
liberty of the people." " Two of the magistrates and many of 
the deputies," esteemed for piety, prudence, and justice, " were 
of opinion that the magistrates exercised too much power, and 
that the people's liberty was thereby in danger," and the ten- 
dency of their principles and conduct was (in the opinion of the 
deputy governor), to have brought the commonwealth "to a 
mere democracy." 

Thus we learn that one of the military company here pro- 
fessed " he would die at the sword's point, if he might not have 
the choice of his own officers." Some of the principles and 
privileges for which our fathers contended, were undoubtedly 
too liberal and republican for the spirit of the age in which they 
lived. They were, perhaps, injudicious and indiscreet in their 



Ecclesiastical History. 17 

endeavors to promote their views ; and probably in some instances 
might not have expressed that respect for the constituted authori- 
ties to which their character entitled them. The most superficial 
reader, however, may discover in the conduct of the deputy gov- 
ernor something of the spirit of bigotry which was, unfortunately, 
too often allowed to affect the judgments of the wisest and best 
of men at that time, and which operated very much to the injury 
of those who entertained more liberal opinions in politics and 
religion. The deputies, although conscious of the disorder which 
such principles might cause in the community, did not feel so 
strong a disregard of the motives of the people of Hingham, 
which impelled them to the course which they pursued, as to in- 
duce them to consent to impose on them heavy fines, without 
great reluctance. 

The deputy governor appears to have been very sensitive on 
the subject of innovations upon the authority of government, and 
strongly bent, not only upon punishing, but desirous of publicly 
disgracing the " profane " people of Hingham. He seems to have 
" engulphed Bible, Testament, and all, into the common law," as 
authority for the severe measures which were taken to mortify 
their feelings and to check the spread of principles so democratic 
in their tendency, and so dangerous to the interests of the com- 
monwealth. Accordingly, we find that the magistrates sent to 
Mr. Hobart to forbear delivering a discourse on the occasion of 
the marriage of one of his church, at Boston, among other rea- 
sons, " because he was a bold man, and would speak his mind." 

The effect of this controversy does not appear to have been 
ultimately injurious to the most conspicuous individuals engaged 
in it. Mr. Hobart, the pastor of Hingham, enjoyed the esteem 
of his people, and as has been before remarked, was relieved 
from the severe penalties which he incurred, by the liberality of 
the people of the town. His brother Joshua was afterwards 
frequently a deputy, and in 1674 he was honored by an election 
to the office of Speaker to the House of Deputies. 

It is to be admitted that the excitement necessarily caused by 
the agitation of this business served to retard the growth and 
prosperity of the town ; and while the effects of the displeasure 
of the government were operating to its injury, many of the in- 
habitants removed to other places. 



The affairs of the church were apparently in a peaceable and 
prosperous condition after the conclusion of this troublesome af- 
fair. Nothing of importance occurred until the declining strength 
of the venerable pastor necessitated the settlement of a succes- 
sor in the person of Mr. John Norton, in 1678. Mr. Hobart was 
now in his seventy-fifth year, and he had served this people faith- 
fully and with marked ability for over forty-three years. 

VOL. I. — 2* 



18 History of Hingham. 



THE LIFE OP ME. PETER HOBART. 
BY COTTON MATHER. 

It was a saying of Alphousus (whom they sir-named "the wise, King 
of Arragon,") that " among so many things as are by men possessed or 
pursued in the course of their lives, all the rest are baubles, besides old 
wood to burn, old wine to drink, old friends to converse with, and old 
books to read." Now, there having been Protestant and reformed colo- 
nies here formed, in a new world, and those colonies now growing old, it 
will certainly be no unwise thing for them to converse with some of their 
old friends, among which one was Mr. Peter Hobart, whom therefore a 
new book shall now present unto my readers. 

Mr. Peter Hobart was born at or near Hingham, a market town in the 
county of Norfolk, about the latter end of the year 1604. His parents 
were eminent for piety, and even from their youth "feared God above 
many ; " wherein their zeal was more conspicuous by the impiety of the 
neighbourhood, among whom there were but three or four in the whole 
town that minded serious religion, and these were sufficiently maligned 
by the irreligious for their Puritanism. These parents of our Hobart 
were such as had obtained each other from the God of heaven, by Isaac- 
like prayers unto him, and such as afterwards " besieged Heaven " with a 
continual importunity for a blessing upon their children, whereof the 
second was this our Peter. This their son was, like another Samuel, 
from his infancy dedicated by them unto the ministry, and in order 
thereunto, sent betimes unto a grammar school ; whereto, such was his 
desire of learning, that he went several miles on foot every morning, 
and by his early appearance there, still shamed the sloth of others. He 
went afterwards unto the free-school at Lyn, from whence, when he 
was by his master judged fit for it, he was admitted into a colledge in the 
University of Cambridge ; where he remained, studied, profited, until he 
proceeded Batchellor of Arts ; giving all along an example of sobriety, 
gravity, aversion from all vice, and inclination to the service of God. 

Retiring then from the university, he taught a grammar school ; but 
he lodged in the house of a conformist minister, who, though he were no 
friend unto Puritans, yet he employed this our young Hobart sometimes 
to preach for him ; and when asked, " What his opinion of this young 
man was? " he said, " I do highly approve his abilities ; he will make an 
able preacher, but I fear he will be too precise." When the time for it 
came he returned unto the university, and proceeded Master of Arts : but 
the rest of his time in England was attended with much unsettlement of 
his condition. He was employed here and there, as godly people could 
obtain permission from the parson of the parish, who upon any little dis- 
gust would recal that permission : and yet all this while, by the blessing 
of God upon his own diligence and discretion, and the frugality of his 
virtuous consort, he lived comfortably. The last place of his residence 
in England was in the town of Haverhil, where he was a lecturer, labori- 
ous and successful in the vineyard of our Lord. 

His parents, his brethren, his sisters, had not, without a great affliction 
to him, embarked for New-England ; but some more time after this, the 
cloud of prelatical impositions and persecutions grew so black upon him, 



Ecclesiastical History. 19 

that the solicitations of his friends obtained from him a resolution for 
New-England also, where he hoped for a more settled abode, which was 
most agreeable to his inclination. 

Accordingly, in the summer of the year 1635, he took ship, with his 
wife and four children, and after a voyage by constant sickness rendered 
very tedious to him, he arrived at Charlestown, where he found his de- 
sired relations got safe before him. Several towns now addressed him to 
become their minister ; but he chose with his father's family and some 
other Christians to form a new plantation, which they called Hingham ; 
and there gathering a church, he continued a faithful pastor and an able 
preacher for many years. And his old people at Haverhil indeed, in 
some time after, sent most importunate letters unto him, to invite his re- 
turn for England ; and he had certainly returned, if the letters had not so 
miscarried, that before his advice to them, there fell out some remarkable 
and invincible hindrances of his removal. 

Not long after this, he had (as his own expression for it was) " his heart 
rent out of his breast," by the death of his consort; but his Christian, 
patient, and submissive resignation was rewarded by his marriage to a 
second, that proved a rich blessing unto him. His house was also edified 
and beautified with many children, on whom when he looked he would say 
sometimes with much thankfulness, " Behold, thus shall the man be blessed 
that feareth the Lord ! " and for whom he employed many tears in his 
prayers to God, that they might be happy, and, like another Job, offered 
up his daily supplications. 

His love to learning made him strive hard that his hopeful sons might 
not go without a learned education ; and accordingly we find four or five 
of them wearing laurels in the catalogue of our graduates ; and several of 
them are at this day worthy preachers of the gospel in our churches. 

He was mostly a morning student, not meriting the name of Homo Lec- 
tissimus, as he in the witty epigrammatist, from his long lying a bed ; and 
yet he would improve the darkness of the evening also for solemn, fixed, 
and illuminating meditations. He was much admired for well-studied ser- 
mons ; and even in the midst of secular diversions and distractions, his 
active mind would be busie at providing materials for the composure of 
them. He much valued that rule, study standing ; and until old age and 
weakness compelled him, he rarely would study sitting. . . . And when 
he had an opportunity to hear a sermon from any other minister, he did 
it with such a diligent and reverent attention, as made it manifest that he 
worshipped God in doing of it ; and he was very careful to be present 
still, at the beginning of the exercises, counting it a recreation to sit and 
wait for the worship of God. 

Moreover, his heart was knit in a most sincere and hearty love towards 
pious men, though they were not in all things of his own perswasion. He 
would admire the grace of God in good men, though they were of senti- 
ments contrary unto his ; and he would say, " I can carry them in my 
bosome : " nor was he by them otherwise respected. 

There was deeply rooted in him a strong antipathy to all profanities, 
whereof he was a faithful reprover, both in publick and in private ; and 
when his reproofs prevailed not, he would " weep in secret places." 

Drinking to excess, and mispence of precious time in tipling or talking 
with vain persons, which he saw grown too common, was an evil so ex- 
tremely offensive to him, that he would call it " sitting at meat in an idol's 
temple ; " and when he saw that vanity grow upon the more high profes- 



20 History of Hingham. 

sors of religion, it was yet more distasteful to him, who in his own beha- 
viour was a great example of temperance. 

Pride, exju-essed in a gaiety and bravery of apparel, would also cause 
him with much compassion to address the young persons with whom he 
saw it budding, and advise them to correct it, with more care to adorn 
their souls with such things as were of great price before God : and here 
likewise his own example joined handsomeness with gravity, and a moder- 
ation that could not endure a show. But there was no sort of men from 
whom he more turned away than those who, under a pretence of zeal for 
church discipline, were very pragmatical in controversies, and furiously set 
upon having all things carried their way, which they would call " the rule," 
but at the same time were most insipid creatures, destitute of the " life and 
power of godliness," and perhaps immoral in their conversations. To 
these he would apply a saying of Mr. Cotton's, " that some men are all 
church and no Christ." 

He was a person that met with many temptations and afflictions, which 
are better forgotten than remembered, but he was internally and is now 
eternally a gainer by them. It is remarked of the Patriarch Jacob that 
when he was a very old man, and much older than the most that lived after 
him, he complained, " Few and evil have been the days of the years of 
myJlife," in which complaint the few is explained by the evil. His days 
were winter-days, and spent in the darkness of sore calamity. Winter- 
days are twenty-four hours long as well as other days, yea, longer, if the 
equation of time should be mathematically considered, yet we count them 
the shorter days. Thus, although our Hobart lived unto old age, he might 
call his days few, because they had been evil. But " mark this pei'fect 
man, and behold this upright one ; for the end of this man was peace." 
In the spring of the year 1670, he was visited with a sickness that 
seemed the " messenger of death ; " but it was his humble desire that, by 
having his life prolonged a little further, he might see the education of 
his own younger children perfected, and bestow more labour also upon the 
conversion of the young people in his congregation. " I have travelled 
in the ministry in this place thirty-five years, and might it please God so 
far to lengthen out my days, as to make it up forty, I should not, I 
think desire any more." Now, the Lord heard this desire of his praying 
servant, and added no less than eight years more unto his days. The 
most part of which time, except the last three-quarters of a year, he was 
employed in the publick services of his ministry. 

Being recovered from his illness, he proved that he did not flatter with 
his lips in the vows that he had made for his recovery, for he now set 
himself with great fervor to gather the children of his church under the 
saving wings of the Lord Jesus Christ, and in order thereunto he preached 
many pungent sermons on Eccl. xi. 9, 10, and Eccl. xii. 1, and used 
many other successful endeavours. 

Though his labours were not without success, yet the success was not so 
general and notable but that he would complain, " Alas, for the barren- 
ness of my ministry ! " And when he found his lungs decay by old age 
and fever, he would clap his hands on his breast, and say, " The bellows are 
burnt, the founder has melted in vain ! " At length, infirmities grew so 
fast upon this painful servant of our Lord, that in the summer of the year 
1678 he seemed apace drawing on to his end, but after some revivals he 
again got abroad ; however, he seldom, if ever, preached after it, but only 
administered the sacraments. In this time his humility, and consequently 



Ecclesiastical History. 21 

all the other graces which God gives unto the humble, grew exceedingly 
and observably ; and hence he took delight in hearing the commendations 
of other men, though sometimes they were so unwisely uttered as to carry 
some diminutions unto himself, and he set himself particularly to put all 
respect and honour upon the ministers that came in the time of his weak- 
ness to supply his place. After and under his confinement, the singing of 
psalms was an exercise wherein he took a particular delight, saying, 
" That it was the work of heaven, which he was willing to anticipate." 
But about eight weeks before his expiration, he did with his aged hand 
ordain a successor ; which, when he had performed with much solemnity, 
he did afterwards with an assembly of ministers and other Christians at 
his own house, joyfully sing the song of aged Simeon, " Thy servant now 
lettest thou depart in peace." He had now " nothing to do but to die," 
and he spent his hours accordingly in assiduous preparations, not without 
some dark intervals of temptation, but at last with " light arising in dark- 
ness "unto him. While his exteriour was decaying, his interiour was re- 
newing every day, until the twentieth day of January, 1678, when he 
quietly and silently resigned his holy soul unto its faithful Creator. 

EPITAPHIUM 

D. PETRI HOBARTL 

Ossa sub hoc Saxo Latitant, defossa Sepulchro, Spiritus in Coelo, 
carcere, missus agit. 

Mr. Savage, the learned editor of " Winthrop's Journal," says 
of this mention of Mr. Hobart in the " Magnalia " : — 

" As usual, Mather proves his kindness more than his accuracy ; for he 
speaks of Hobart as having been a minister at Haverhill, in England, and 
without hesitation affirms that he was earnestly invited to return thither 
after he had been here some years. Hobart's own journal does not en- 
courage such a representation, and all other old writings in our Hingham 
uniformly claim the derivation of the pastor and flock from the village of 
the same name in Norfolk. This is probably a mere blunder, for the 
ecclesiastical historian, as he has sometimes been absurdly called, has 
repeated correctly some things, — as that he was born in 1604 and died 
January, 1678-9. Mather says he took ship in the summer of 1635, 
when we know it was in April ; and he adds that, on arriving at Charles- 
town, 'he found his desired relations got safe there before him.' But his 
father had been here nearly two years, and two of his brothers, at least, 
not less than one year, so that he, no doubt, had letters from them before 
leaving home. From Mather, too, we might be in doubt whether he had 
' four, or five ' sons in the ministry, though the author had certainly in- 
quired of one of them. Such is the customary laxness of the ' Magnalia.' " 

Rev. John Norton, the second minister, was born in Ipswich 
about 1650, and was graduated at Harvard College in 1671, Chief- 
Justice Sewall being one of his classmates. He was ordained 
colleague pastor with Mr. Hobart, Nov. 27, 1678. Of Mr. Norton 
little is known. His ministry seems to have been for the most 
part quiet and peaceable. He is described as a man of amiable 
character, fervent piety, and religious zeal, a faithful and beloved 



22 History of Hingham. 

pastor. Only one of his sermons was printed. This was an 
Election Sermon, delivered on May 26, 1708. Judge Sewall 
makes the following entry in his " Diary " : — 

"Midweek, May 26, 1708. Mr. Jno. Norton preaches a Flattering 
Sermon as to the Governour." 

" May 27. I was with a Comittee in the morn, . . . and so hy God's 
good providence absent when Mr. Corwin and Cushiug were order'd to 
Thank Mr. Norton for his sermon and desire a Copy." 

Praise of Governor Dudley was distasteful to Judge Sewall, 
who was opposed to the policy of the Governor. 

March 26, 1710, Judge Sewall " went to Hingham to Meeting, 
heard Mr. Norton from Psal. cxlv. 18. Setting forth the Propi- 
tiousness of God." 

Mr. Norton died Oct. 3, 1716, in the sixty-sixth year of his age, 
and the thirty-eighth year of his ministry. 

It was during the ministry of Mr. Norton that the first meeting- 
house became too small for the growing town, and a second house 
was erected. 

The first meeting-house was built shortly after the gathering of 
the church in 1635. It was on the main street, on a hill in front 
of the present site of the Derby Academy. It was surrounded by 
a palisade erected in 1645 " to prevent any danger that may come 
into this town by any assault of the Indians," and was surmounted 
by a belfry with a bell. Around it upon the slope of the hill the 
dead were buried. The hill was removed in 1831, and the re- 
mains, which were disinterred by the removal, were buried within 
the old fort in the Hingham cemetery, and a monument erected 
over them by the town, bearing the inscription " To the first set- 
tlers of Hingham. Erected by the Town, 1839." 

The first meeting-house was undoubtedly a rude structure, but 
there are indications that it was not wholly without ornament. 
For forty-five years it was the only house for public worship in 
the town. 

Jan. 19, 1679-80, the town agreed to build a new meeting-house 
" with all convenient speed," and a committee was appointed to 
view the meeting-houses of other towns, for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the dimensions of a building necessary to accommodate the 
inhabitants, and the probable expense. This committee were to 
report to the town at the next town-meeting in May following. 

May 3, 1680, the Selectmen were directed to " carry on the 
business to effect about building a new meeting-house," and it 
was voted "to have the new meeting-house set up in the place 
where the old one doth now stand." On this last question the 
Town Records give the names of thirty-four persons voting in the 
affirmative, and eleven in the negative. 

Aug. 11, 1680, the dimensions of the house were fixed by the 
town as follows: length, 35 feet; breadth, 45 feet; and height 



Ecclesiastical History. 23 

of the posts " twenty, or one and twenty feet," with galleries on 
one side and at both ends. 

May 2, 1681, the town approved of the action of the Selectmen 
in relation to the building of the new meeting-house, and the place 
where it was to be set. Thirty-seven persons dissented from this 
vote. These transactions were brought to the notice of the Gov- 
ernor, and the authority of the magistrates interposed. 

The following are copies of papers in the State archives : — 

Boston, May 16th, 1681. 

The Governo r and Magistrates having considered the p r sent motions 
in Hingham relating to the placing of a New meeting house, and also 
perceiving by Information of the Hon d W m ' Stoughton and Joseph Dud- 
ley Esq" who were desired to view the place of the present House (which 
is judged to be inconvenient by them), do therefore hereby disallow of the 
setting up of a New meeting house either in the old place or in the plaine. 
And do further order that a new meeting of all persons in the Towne 
who have right to vote in such cases be speedily ordered at which it may 
be fairly voted where to place the new meeting house, and the Selectmen 
are hereby required to make a speedy returne of the number of votes to 
the Hon rd Governo r . 

Jn 0, Hull, p r order. 

Superscribed to the Selectmen 
of Hingham, to be communicated 
to the Towne. 

At a Towne meeting holden at Hingham on the 24th day of May, 1681, 
Thomas Andrews was Chosen moderator of that meeting, and at the said 
meeting the vote passed by papers, with seventy-three hands for the new 
meeting house that is now building in Hingham to be set in the conve- 
nientest place in Captaine Hobart's land, next or nearest to Samuell 
Thaxter's house. 

As Attest, Daniell Cushing, Towne Clarke. 
26 May, 1681. 

The magis** having Considered the Returne of the Selectmen of Hing- 
ham in refferenc to the voate for setting the meeting house there, Doe 
Approove of said vote and Judge meete, all Circumstances considered, that 
the new meeting house be errected accordingly in the convenientest place 
in Capj Hubbards land neerest to Samuell Thaxte r s house. 
Past by y* Council, 

Edw d Rawson, Secre 4 - 

And so, after a controversy of more than a year the location of 
the new house was settled. Immediate measures were taken to 
carry the votes of the town into effect. July 8, 1681, Capt. 
Joshua Hobart conveyed to the town by deed of gift the site for 
the meeting-house, which is the same upon which it now stands. 

The frame of the meeting-house was raised on the 26th, 27th, 
and 28th days of July, 1681, and it was opened for public wor- 
ship Jan. 8, 1681-82. It cost the town .£430 and the old house, 



24 History of Hingham. 

the necessary amount being raised by a rate which had been made 
in October, 1680. 

There is a tradition that the site for the house was fixed on 
the Lower Plain, and that on the night preceding the day ap- 
pointed for the raising of the frame it was carried to the spot 
where the house now stands ; but there is no record of a vote of 
the town fixing the site on the Plain, and the story does not have 
a very plausible foundation. 

After the death of Mr. Norton the parish was without a settled 
minister for a period of twenty months. During this interval 
Mr. Samuel Fisk and Mr. Thomas Prince were invited to take 
the office, but neither accepted the invitation. Towards the latter 
part of the year 1717 Mr. Ebenezer Gay preached as a candidate, 
and on Dec. 30, 1717, the church and congregation by their unani- 
mous votes invited him to become their minister. Mr. Gay ac- 
cepted the invitation, and was ordained June 11, 1718. 

Mr. Gay was born in Dedham, Aug. 26, 1696. l He was gradu- 
ated from Harvard College in 1714, being one of a class of eleven 
members, of whom four were from Hingham. 

At less than twenty-two years of age this remarkable man be- 
gan his ministry here. " He was a burning and a shining light," 
and this people did " rejoice in his light for a season ; " his min- 
istry falling short, by a few months only, of seventy years. He 
died on Sunday morning, March 8, 1787, when he was preparing 
for the services of the day, in the 91st year of his age. He re- 
ceived the degree of S. T. D. from Harvard College in 1785. 

MEMOIR OF THE REV. DR. GAY. 
BY SOLOMON LINCOLN. 

The Rev. Dr. Gay was the third minister of this my native town, and 
of the parish in which I was born and nurtured. Though he had passed 
away hefore I came upon the stage, I have had a good opportunity of 
exploring the best sources of information concerning him, and of gather- 
ing many traditionary reminiscences illustrative of his character. 

Dr. Gay outlived two generations of his parishioners ; and not one 
of those who was a member of the parish at the time of his birth, was 
living at his decease. Nor can I ascertain that a single individual who 
was an acting member at the time of his ordination survived him. More 
than three fourths of a century has elapsed since his decease, yet his mem- 
ory is preserved fresh in the traditions of the generations who knew him 
long and well. I have known many persons who recollected him in his 
old age. 

He was of about the middle size, of dignified and patriarchal appear- 
ance, and, if we can judge of his features as delineated by the pencil of 
Hazlitt, they were not particularly handsome. He had, however, in the 
recollection of those who knew him, a grave, yet benignant expression of 

1 August 15, 1696. — Dedham Records. 




'G*m/L y a H 



(4 



Ecclesiastical History. 25 

countenance. Those who loved him held him in such affection and rev- 
erence that they would not admit that Hazlitt's portrait was not a beauti- 
ful picture. 

The Hon. Alden Bradford, in his Historical Sketch of Harvard Uni- 
versity, published in the American Quarterly Register, in May, 1837, 
states that he recollected seeing three venerable and learned men, — Dr. 
Gay, Dr. Chauncy, and Dr. Appleton, — pass through the college yard 
to the Library. " Dr. Gay and Dr. Chauncy were on a visit to Dr. Ap- 
pleton, and they walked up to the chapel together, two being nearly ninety 
years old, and the other, Dr. Chauncy, about eighty-three. It excited 
great attention at the time." Great intimacy existed between these three 
patriarchs during their long and useful lives. Chauncy and Gay died 
in the same year. Appleton 's death took place about three years earlier. 
At the ordination of Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Simeon Howard, as pastor of 
the West Church, in Boston, Dr. Chauncy preached the Sermon, Dr. 
Gay gave the Charge, and Dr. Appleton presented the Fellowship of the 
Churches. They were often associated in similar services. 

The earliest sermon of Dr. Gay's which was printed was delivered at 
the ordination of Rev. Joseph Green, at Barnstable, from Acts xiv. 15, — 
" We are also men of like passions with you," — which was much ad- 
mired for its wise lessons, seasonable admonitions, and moving exhorta- 
tions. His classmate (Foxcroft) accompanied its publication with a 
Prefatory Address "To the Reader," commending the sermon in the most 
affectionate terms. Towards the close of this most impressive discourse, 
we find the following passages in Dr. Gay's peculiar vein. Speaking of 
the candidate for ordination, Joseph Green, he says : " We trust that he 
will be a Joseph unto his Brethren, whom he is to feed with the Bread 
of Life, and that God sendeth him here to preserve their Souls from 
Perishing. The Lord make him a. fruitful Bough, even a fruitful Bough 
by a well, grafted into the Tree of Life, and always Green, and flourish- 
ing in the Courts of our God" 

Dr. Gay was remarkable in the selection and application of the texts of 
his sermons. Having for a long time been unsuccessful in procuring a 
well of water on his homestead, he introduced the subject into his prayers, 
and also preached a sermon from Num. xxi. 17, "Then Israel sang 
this song, Spring up, O well, sing ye unto it." In 1728 he delivered a 
lecture in his own pulpit " to bring Lot's wife to remembrance," from the 
text in Luke xvii. 32, " Remember Lot's wife," and entitled this very 
able and interesting lecture, "A Pillar of Salt to Season a Corrupt Age." 
The text of his sermon preached at the instalment of the Rev. Ezra Car- 
penter, at Keene, in 1753, was from Zech. ii. 1, " I lift up mine eyes 
again, and looked, and behold a man with a measuring line in his hand." 

Whatever may have been the theological views entertained by Dr. Gay 
in the early part of his ministry, it is well understood that he sympathized 
with the spirit of free inquiry, which gradually wrought a change in the 
opinions of many eminent divines, commencing about the middle of the 
last century. 

In his Convention Sermon of 1746, he attributes dissensions among the 
clergy to " ministers so often choosing to insist upon the offensive pecu- 
liarities of the party they had espoused, rather than upon the more mighty 
things in which we are all agreed." 

He was opposed to creeds, or written Articles of Faith, proposed by 
men. He thus expresses himself, in 1751, in his sermon at the ordina- 



26 History of Hingham. 

tion of Rev. Jonathan Dorby, at Scituate : " And 't is pity any man, at his 
entrance into the ministry, should, in his ordination vows, get a snare to 
his soul by subscribing, or any ways engaging to preach according to an- 
other rule of faith, creed, or confession, which is merely of human prescrip- 
tion or imposition." 

He was a warm friend of the celebrated Dr. Mayhew, of Boston, whose 
biographer thinks the latter was indebted to Dr. Gay for the adoption of 
the " liberal and rational views " which he embraced. 

President John Adams, in a letter to Dr. Morse, dated May 15, 1815, 
remarks as follows : " Sixty years ago my own minister, Rev. Lemuel 
Bryant, Dr. Jonathan Mayhew, of the West Church, in Boston, Rev. Mr. 
Shute, of Hingham, Rev. John Brown, of Cohasset, and perhaps equal to 
all, if not above all, Rev. Dr. Gay, of Hingham, were Unitarians." 

By some, who fully understand the position of Dr. Gay after the mid- 
dle of the last century, he has been claimed to have been the father of 
American Unitarianism. This must be conceded, that his discourses will 
be searched in vain, after that point of time, for any discussions of contro- 
versial theology, any advocacy of the peculiar doctrine regarded as ortho- 
dox, or the expression of any opinions at variance with those of his 
distinguished successor in the same pulpit, the Rev. Dr. Ware. 

But I cannot leave Dr. Gay without adverting to his political opinions, 
for our traditionary information concerning them finely illustrates his char- 
acter. He was opposed to the measures which preceded the American 
Revolution and Declaration of Independence. His sympathies were not 
with the Whigs. Yet, such was his discretion that he maintained his po- 
sition at the head of ta large and intelligent parish, comprising all shades 
of political opinion, but in the main Whigs, without alienating the affec- 
tion of his people or impairing his usefulness. On one occasion he and 
his friend and neighbor, Dr. Shute, who was an ardent Whig, were in- 
vited to address the people in town-meeting on a political question, and 
they both s.ucceeded so well that the town gave them a vote of thanks. 
Still, Dr. Gay's political sentiments were well understood, and were a 
cause of occasional uneasiness among his parishioners during the period of 
the Revolution. We have this anecdote from an authentic source : It 
was a part of the duty of the Committee of Correspondence, Inspection, 
and Safety to call upon suspected citizens, and those known to be loyalists, 
to demand a search for arms. It was proposed that the Committee should 
call upon Dr. Gay and demand his arms, probably not because they sup- 
posed he had any of which he would make improper use against the new 
government, but because the opportunity was a good one to give him a 
sort of official admonition that he held obnoxious sentiments, in which 
some of the most influential of his people did not share. That the thing 
to be done was a little aggravating did not take away the zest of doing it ; 
it would have been ungenerous also, had there not been a very perfect 
accord between Dr. Gay and his parish, as pastor and people, on all sub- 
jects save politics. The Committee presented themselves before the Doc- 
tor, who received them in his study, standing, and with entire calmness 
and dignity, when he inquired of them, " What do you wish with me, 
gentlemen ? " 

" We have come, sir, in accordance with our duty as the Committee of 
Safety, to ask you what arms you have in the house." 

He looked at them kindly, perhaps a little reproachfully, for a moment 
or two before answering, and then said, laying his hand upon a large 



Ecclesiastical History. 27 

Bible on the table by which he stood, " There, my friends, are my arms, 
and I trust to find them ever sufficient for me." 

The Committee retired with some precipitation, discomfited by the 
dignified manner and implied rebuke of Dr. Gay, and the chairman was 
heard to say to his associates, as they passed out of the yard, " The old 
gentleman is always ready." 

Notwithstanding the political opinions entertained by Dr. Gay, he found 
among the clergy who held opposite views his most ardent friends. The 
intercourse between him and the Rev. Dr. Shute, of the Second Parish, 
who was a zealous Whig, was of the most friendly character, and he was 
on excellent terms with Mr. Smith, of Weymouth, the father of Mrs. John 
Adams, and Mr. Brown of Cohasset, who, at one time was chaplain to the 
troops in Nova Scotia, before the Revolution. 

Dr. Gay's son, Jotharn Gay, was a captain in the same department. 
The Doctor, in writing to Mr. Brown, says, " I wish you may visit Jotham 
and minister good instruction to him and his company, and furnish him 
with suitable sermons in print, or in your own very legible, if not very 
intelligible manuscripts, to read to his men, who are without a preacher, — 
in the room of one, constitute Jotham curate." 

I think I may safely say that New England could boast of few minis- 
ters during the last century who exerted a wider influence than Dr. Gay. 

Many amusing and characteristic anecdotes are told of Dr. Gay. 
The following will illustrate his ready wit and humor. 

During the Revolutionary War, a little before the time of the 
annual Thanksgiving, and when it was generally expected that 
there would be a great deficiency of the foreign fruits, as raisins, 
currants, etc., with which that festival had abounded, several Eng- 
lish vessels laden with those productions were driven by a storm 
upon our coast, captured, and brought into Boston. Dr. Gay, who 
was considered a prudent loyalist, was accustomed on Thanksgiv- 
ing Days to make mention in his prayer of the special blessings 
of the year. Such a token of Divine favor did not escape without 
due notice. Accordingly, in his Thanksgiving prayer, he grate- 
fully acknowledged the unexpected bounty somewhat after this 
sort : " Oh Lord, who art the infinite Disposer of all things, who 
rulest the winds and the waves according to thy own good pleas- 
ure, we devoutly thank thee for the gracious interposition of thy 
Providence in wafting upon our shores so many of thy rich boun- 
ties, to make glad the dwellings of thy people on this joyful oc- 
casion." Shortly after its occurrence, some one repeated the 
Doctor's ejaculation to Samuel Adams, who, with his usual 
promptness and decision, exclaimed, " That is trimming with the 
Almighty." 

Dr. Gay had, for some time, missed the hay from his barn, and 
was satisfied that it was stolen. With a view to detect the thief, 
Dr. Gay took a dark lantern and stationed himself near his barn. 
In due time a person whom he knew passed along into the barn, 
and quickly came out with as large a load of hay as he could 
carry upon his back. The Doctor, without saying a word, fol- 



28 History of Hingham. 

lowed the thief took the candle out of his dark lantern, stuck 
it into the bundle of hay, and then retreated. In a moment the 
hay was in a light blaze, and the fellow, throwing it from him 
in utter consternation, ran away from his perishing booty. The 
Doctor kept the affair a secret, even from his own family, and 
within a day or two the thief came to him in great agitation, 
and told him he wished to confess to him a grievous sin, — 
that he had been tempted to steal some of his hay, and as he 
was carrying it away the Almighty was so angry with him 
that he had sent fire from heaven, and set it to blazing upon 
his back. The Doctor agreed to forgive him on condition of his 
never repeating the offence. 

A young minister having preached his first sermon in Dr. 
Gay's pulpit, and having, as he thought, done it with considerable 
eloquence, was anxious to obtain the approbation of his learned 
brother. " Tell me sincerely what you think of this first effort 
of mine." " I think it sensible and well written," replied Dr. 
Gay, " but another text would have been more appropriate." 
" What would you have selected, sir ? " " When you preach it 
again, I would advise you to prefix this text, ' Alas, master, for 
it was borrowed.' " 

On one occasion Dr. Barnes, of Scituate, preached for Dr. Gay, 
when he was at home to hear him. The manner of Dr. Barnes 
was exceedingly drawling, and when the services were concluded, 
and the two clergymen were on their way home, Dr. Gay said : "Dr. 
Barnes, your discourse was excellent, but you spoil all you say by 
your manner. Your method of drawling out your words is so in- 
tolerable that you put nearly all my people to sleep." To which 
frank testimony Dr. Barnes then and there made no reply. Now 
it happened that Dr. Gay had an unusually large mouth. In the 
afternoon Dr. Barnes again occupied the sacred desk, and after 
going through the preliminary services, — putting the congrega- 
tion, as usual, to sleep in the long prayer, he came to the sermon. 
" My text, my brethren," he said, " may be found in the eleventh 
verse of the fourth chapter of the Book of Exodus, and is in 
these words," — he paused, and looking down over the high pul- 
pit into the pew of Dr. Gay beneath, and upon the very top of 
Dr. Gay's head, he proceeded with a drawl more pronounced than 
ever, but with a manner most emphatic, " in these words : ' Who 
— hath — made — -man's — mouth.'" Dr. Gay had no occasion 
then to complain of the drowsiness of his congregation, for they 
all woke up and audibly tittered. 

The old Arminian and Calvinistic clergy, ere the bitter contro- 
versy broke out, used to meet and criticise, in a friendly way, each 
other's theology. In the same association met Dr. Gay and Dr. 
Dunbar, — the former representing Arminianism, the latter Cal- 
vinism. It fell to the lot of Dr. Dunbar to preach before the As- 
sociation. He felt moved to be very positive, and make a very 
distinct enunciation of Calvinism. With each of the five points 



Ecclesiastical History. 29 

he would bring down his fist upon the desk, with the exclamation, 
" This is the gospel ! " First, total depravity was depicted, with 
the emphatic endorsement, " This is the gospel ! " Then election 
and reprobation, then irresistible grace, then eff ectual calling, and 
so on to the end ; and under each a tremendous sledge blow on 
the pulpit, with " This is the gospel ! " After service the minis- 
ters met, and each in turn was asked by the moderator to give 
his views of the sermon. Dr. Gay had a sly, genial humor, 
which diffused good-nature through the clerical body he belonged 
to, and kept out of it the theological odium. His turn came to 
criticise the sermon, and he delivered himself in this way : — 

" The sermon reminded me of the earliest efforts at painting. 
When the art was in its infancy, and the first rude drawings were 
made, they wrote the name of an animal under the figure which 
was drawn, so that the people could be sure to identify it. Under 
one rude figure you would see written, ' This is a horse ; ' under 
another, ' This is an ox ; ' and so on. When the art is perfected 
a little, this becomes unnecessary, and the animal is recognized 
without the underscript. I am greatly obliged to my brother 
Dunbar, in this infancy of the art, that he helped me in this way 
to identify the gospel. As I followed him through the five fig- 
ures which he sketched for us, I must confess that unless he had 
written under each one of them, in large letters, ' This is the gos- 
pel ! ' I never should have known it." 

The following is from an article in the Massachusetts Gazette, 
shortly after his decease : — 

" His prudent and obliging conduct rendered him amiable and beloved 
as a neighbour. His tender feelings for the distressed induced him to 
afford relief to the poor, according to his ability. His beneficent actions 
indicated the practical sense he had of the Lord's own words, ' It is more 
blessed to give than to receive.' The serenity of his mind and even- 
ness of his temper, under the infirmities of advanced years, made him 
agreeable to his friends, and continued to the last the happiness which 
had so long subsisted in his family ; in which he always presided with 
great tenderness and dignity." 

Dr. Gay retained his mental faculties in a remarkable degree 
of vigor to the very close of his life. In his celebrated sermon, 
entitled "The Old Man's Calendar," delivered Aug. 26, 1781, 
from the text, " And now, lo, I am this day fourscore and five 
years old" (Joshua xiv. 10), in speaking of his parishioners he 
says, " I retain a grateful sense of the kindness (injuries I re- 
member none) which I have received from them." This ser- 
mon was reprinted in England, translated into the Dutch language 
and published in Holland, and several editions were published 
in this country. 

In a note attached to Rev. Peter Hobart's Diary, written by 
Nehemiah Hobart, we read : — 



30 History of Hingham. 

" The Rev d Mr. Gay, the third pastor of the town, gave us an excel- 
lent sermon, Sept. 17th, 1735, on the conclusion of the first century, from 
1 Chron. xxix. 15." 

It was during the ministry of Dr. Gay that the East, or Second, 
Precinct was formed and a church established at Conohasset (now 
Cohasset). 

In 1713 the proprietors of the undivided lands of Hingham 
gave their consent to the erection of a meeting-house by the in- 
habitants of Conohasset "on that land called the Plain." 

At a town-meeting, March 7, 1714-15, the inhabitants of Cono- 
hasset " desired the town that they would be pleased to give their 
consent that they might be made a precinct, or that they might 
be allowed something out of the town treasury to help to main- 
tain the worship of God amongst them, or that they might be 
abated that which they pay to the minister to maintain the wor- 
ship of God at the Town ; and the vote of the town passed in the 
negative concerning all the forementioned particulars." 

This petition having been rejected, the inhabitants of Cono- 
hasset presented their case to the General Court, but the inhabit- 
ants of Hingham opposed their petition and a committee was 
chosen " to give answer to it " at the General Court in June, 
1715. 

In July, 1715, the town voted to remit to the inhabitants of 
Conohasset their ministerial taxes, on condition " that they pro- 
vide an orthodox minister among themselves, provided they cheer- 
fully accept of the same ; " but the reply was made " that they 
could not cheerfully accept thereof." 

In September, 1715, the town voted to reimburse to the inhab- 
itants of Conohasset, or to those who should afterwards inhabit 
the first and second divisions of Conohasset uplands and the sec- 
ond part of the Third Division, all their ministerial and school 
taxes so long as they should maintain an orthodox minister among 
themselves, but this did not give satisfaction ; and in March, 
1715-16, the town voted to remit to them their ministerial and 
school taxes for that year, but even this was not satisfactory. 

In November, 1716, a committee was chosen by the town to 
oppose the petition of the inhabitants of Conohasset before the 
General Court, and again in 1716-17 the town defeated a motion 
looking to an agreement with the inhabitants of Conohasset about 
a precinct. 

In May, 1717, a committee was appointed by the town to meet 
the committee of the General Court appointed to view the " lands 
and dwellings of the inhabitants of Conohasset [or Little Hing- 
ham, as it was also called] , to see if it be convenient to make 
them a precinct ; " and about this time the desired privileges of a 
separate parish, for which so long an effort had been made, were 
obtained, a house of worship was erected, and soon after a minis- 
ter was settled. 



Ecclesiastical History. 31 

In consequence of the creation of the Second Precinct, the re- 
maining inhabitants of Hingham, not included within the limits 
of Conohasset, composed the First Parish or Precinct, and or- 
ganized as such, March 6, 1720-21, succeeding to the parochial 
rights of the town. 

Still another church was formed within the original limits of 
Hingham during the ministry of Dr. Gay. A meeting-house was 
erected at what is now South Hingham in 1742. This parish was 
set off March 25, 1745-46. This church was the " Third Church " 
until the establishment of Cohasset as a separate town in 1770, 
since which time it has been styled the " Second Church." 

The second and third churches were not formed as separate 
organizations without the earnest protests of the parent church. 
Perhaps, like a fond mother, she could not bear the thought of 
trusting her children alone, separated from her protecting influ- 
ence. But she could not restrain or control the independent de- 
termination of her children, and, in spite of all her opposition, 
they forced her to accede to their wishes. 

Undoubtedly this sentimental view had much influence, but our 
ancestors were in a great degree matter-of-fact people, and there 
was a practical side to this opposition to the foundation of new 
parishes, which had more weight than any sentiment. All real 
estate within the territorial limits of a parish was in those days 
taxable for the support of preaching. Much of the real estate 
lying within the limits of the proposed Conohasset and South 
Parishes was originally granted to residents of the more thickly 
settled portion of the town, and had been inherited or purchased 
by those who would still remain residents of the First Parish ; and 
naturally enough there was strong objection to being taxed for the 
support of preaching in parishes from which no direct benefit 
would be derived. 

The fourth minister of the First Parish was Rev. Henry Ware. 
He was born in Sherborn, Mass., April 1, 1764, was graduated at 
Harvard College in 1785, and was ordained minister of the church 
and congregation Oct. 24, 1787. In 1805 he was chosen Hollis 
Professor of Divinity in Harvard University, and his request for 
a dismissal from his pastorate was granted. He delivered his 
valedictory discourse May 5, 1805, in the eighteenth year of his 
ministry. In 1806 he received the degree of S. T. D. from Har- 
vard College. Dr. Ware died July 12, 1845. He was a man of 
liberal views, admirably adapted to follow up the sentiments of 
Dr. Gay in religious matters, of logical mind, sound judgment, 
and large attainments. 

After the close of Dr. Ware's ministry, several candidates were 
heard. A majority of the Parish preferred Rev. Joseph Richard- 
son, and he was invited to become the minister. The call was not 



32 History of Hingham. 

unanimous. " Behold, there ariseth a little cloud, like a man's 
hand," and soon " the heaven was black with clouds and wind, 
and there was a great rain." There was great disaffection on 
the part of a large minority, and an eventual separation of those 
opposed to Mr. Richardson's settlement. The controversy has 
been described as the second " sad, unbrotherly contention " in 
the town ; and it is certainly to be regretted that a more con- 
ciliatory spirit was not shown on both sides. At this distant 
day, more than three quarters of a century after this unfortunate 
event, we may look calmly and without prejudice upon the jeal- 
ousies and unwise actions of our ancestors. Whether the differ- 
ing sentiments and opinions of the members of the parish 
upon matters not pertaining to their spiritual welfare would have 
ultimately found some other cause for dissension, or whether the 
season was already ripe for action, of course, it is impossible to 
say. History, however, deals with facts and not opinions, and 
the statement of the cause of this unhappy difference must be 
confined to the fact that a large number of the members of the 
church and congregation found it impossible to continue their 
connection with their ancestral religious home under the minis- 
trations of Mr. Richardson. The result was the formation of the 
" Third Congregational Society," which was incorporated Feb. 27, 
1807. The effects of this separation were of long continued dura- 
tion. The harmony of the town was disturbed in consequence of 
it. Happily the olive branch of peace was long since held out 
and accepted and we may well hope that the words of Scripture 
may find in this town no verification in " visiting the iniquity of 
the fathers upon the children, and upon the children's children, 
unto the third and to the fourth generation." 

Rev. Joseph Richardson, the fifth minister, was born in Bille- 
rica, Feb. 1, 1778. He was graduated at Dartmouth College in 
1802, and was ordained pastor July 2, 1806. During his ministry 
he filled various public offices. He was a member of the conven- 
tion for the revision of the State Constitution, in 1820-21. He 
was a member, by repeated elections, of the Senate and House of 
Representatives of Massachusetts, and was elected to Congress 
for the term commencing March 4, 1827, and was re-elected for 
the term commencing March 4, 1829. He continued to per- 
form his parochial duties until the spring of 1855, when, on ac- 
count of increasing infirmities of age, his active ministry ceased, 
and Rev. Calvin Lincoln was, with Mr. Richardson's consent and 
approval, settled as associate pastor. Mr. Richardson's official 
connection with the parish ended with his death, Sept. 25, 1871, 
in the ninety-fourth year of his age, and the sixty-sixth of his 
ministry. Appropriate services were held in commemoration of 
the completion of the fiftieth year of his ministry, on which occa- 
sion Mr. Richardson delivered a discourse ; and on Feb. 1, 1863, a 
sermon prepared by him was read by the associate pastor, from 
the text, " And now, lo, I am this day fourscore and five years 



Ecclesiastical History. 33 

old," (Josh. xiv. 10), — the same as that selected by Dr. Gay as 
the text for his " Old Man's Calendar," preached at the same age 
from the same pulpit. 

When about to build his house in Hingham, Mr. Richardson 
stipulated with the workmen that at the " raising," and during the 
building, no liquor should be used, as was the custom, agreeing 
to pay as much additional money as the cost of the liquor would 
amount to. From this incident he is spoken of by some as the 
u original prohibitionist " of the town. 

Rev. Calvin Lincoln, the sixth minister, was a native of Hing- 
ham, and was born Oct. 27, 1799. He was graduated at Harvard 
College in 1820, was ordained over the First Parish in Fitchburg 
June 30, 1824. His pastoral connection was dissolved in Fitch- 
burg May 5, 1855, and he was inducted as associate pastor of 
the First Parish in Hingham May 27, 1855. After the death of 
Mr. Richardson, Mr. Lincoln continued as sole pastor until his 
death, except during the three years 1877 to 1880, when Rev. 
Edward A. Horton was associate pastor with him. 

Mr. Lincoln was a close student, and although he cannot be 
considered a brilliant pulpit orator, his preaching was marked by 
sound common-sense, and at times, especially in extempore 
speaking, he seemed to pour out his whole soul in the earnestness 
of his appeals. He was not inclined to controversy upon new 
theological questions, preferring to consider many points as already 
settled beyond dispute, but he nevertheless kept himself well in- 
formed upon all the signs of the times in which he lived. He was 
a welcome friend to all the denominations in the town, and few of 
our ministers have possessed in as great a degree as Mr. Lincoln 
the respect of the people of Hingham, without distinction. 

Mr. Lincoln died Sept. 11, 1881, in the eighty-second year of 
his age, and the twenty-seventh of his ministry here. On Thurs- 
day, Sept. 8, 1881, the day appointed by the Governor for prayers 
for President Garfield, Mr. Lincoln, standing in front of the pul- 
pit in the meeting-house, and while in the act of praying for the 
recovery of the wounded president, was stricken with paralysis, 
and died on the following Sunday morning. 

Rev. Edward A. Horton, the seventh minister, was born in 
Springfield, Mass., Sept. 28, 1843. He was ordained at Leomin- 
ster Oct. 1, 1868, where his pastoral connection was dissolved 
Oct. 1, 1875. He was installed as associate pastor of this parish 
April 25, 1877. His pastoral connection was dissolved May 3, 
1880, and he was installed pastor of the Second Church, Boston, 
May 24, 1880. 

Rev. H. Price Collier, the eighth minister, was born in Daven- 
port, Iowa, May 25, 1860. He was graduated at the Harvard 
Divinity School in 1882, and was ordained minister of this parish 

VOL. I. — 3* 



34 



History of Hingham. 



Sept. 29, 1882. He resigned his pastorate Nov. 1, 1888, to accept 
a call from the " Church of the Savior," Brooklyn, N. Y. 

March 10, 1890, the parish voted to invite Mr. Eugene R. 
Shippen, who was graduated at Harvard College in 1887 and 
at the Harvard Divinity School in 1890, but the invitation was 
not accepted. 

Rev. John W. Day, the ninth and present minister was born 
in Woburn, Mass., June 13, 1861. He studied theology at the 
Meadville Theological School in 1881-82 and afterwards at the 
Harvard Divinity School, where he was graduated in 1885. He 
was ordained at Newport, Jan. 6, 1886, as minister of the Chan- 
ning Memorial Church, and remained there until 1887. From 
1887 until 1890 he was minister of the First Unitarian Society of 
Ithaca, N. Y. Oct. 1, 1890, he became minister of this parish, 
the services of installation taking place Oct. 8, 1890. 

Deacons of the Church of the First Parish. 



Henry Smith 
Ralph Woodward 
Thomas Loring . 
Thomas Thaxter 
Matthew Clashing 
John Fearing 
John Leavitt . 
John Smith . 
David Hobart 
Benjamin Lincoln 
Peter Jacob . . 
Joshua Hersey . 
Solomon Cushing 
Thomas Andrews 
Josiah Lincoln 
Joshua Hersey . 
Benjamin Lincoln 
Joseph Thaxter . 
Benjamin Cushing 
Isaac Cushing 
Thomas Fearing 
William Cushing 
Caleb Hobart * . 
David Lincoln 
Nehemiah Ripley 
Caleb Hobart 



chosen Jan. 29, 1640. 



Removed to Rehoboth. 
d. 1663. 



(G 



d. 1661 
d. 1654 
d. 1660 
d. 1665 
d. 1691 
d. 1695 
d. 1717 
d. 1727 
d. 1753 
d. 1740 
d. 1769 
d. 1784 
d. 1774 
d. 1784 
en.) d. 1810 
d. 1808 
d. 1812 
d. 1815 
d. 1820 
d. 1848 
d. 1846 
d. 1825 
d. 1863 
d. 1865 



set. 71 yrs. 
set. 83 yrs. 



3St. 

set. 

get. 
set. 
set. 
set. 
set. 
ast. 
set. 
set. 
set. 
set. 
set. 
set. 
set. 
set. 
set. 

Sit. 



bb yrs. 
55 yrs. 
86 yrs. 
63 yrs. 
77 yrs. 

86 yrs. 
74 yrs. 
80 yrs. 
77 yrs. 
85 yrs. 

87 yrs. 

69 yrs. 

70 yrs. 
94 yrs. 
92 yrs. 
59 yrs. 
83 yrs. 
82 yrs. 



Were the deacons when 
the new meeting-house 
was erected. 



Chosen before 1737. 



Succeeded his father. 



Chosen Feb. 15, 1769. 



Succeeded his father. 



Succeeded his father 



Succeeded Dea. Win. Cushing. 



Originally a Puritan church, under the influence of Dr. Gay, 
with his spirit for free inquiry, the opinions of the people became 
less and less Calvinistic. The Trinitaran became Unitarian. It 
cannot be said that there was any fixed date of this change ; it was 
gradual. When the Unitarians were acknowledged as a denom- 
ination, this parish was confessedly Unitarian and has continued 
as such to the present time. The same is true of the Cohasset 
and Second parishes already referred to. The Third Congrega- 
tional Society is also of the Unitarian denomination. There was. 



Ecclesiastical History. 



35 



not in this town any division of the churches on denominational 
lines, as was common in other places in the latter part of the last 
century. 

The meeting-house of the First Parish, or the " Old Meeting- 
house" as it is now called, was built in 1681. Parts of the first 
meeting-house were used in the construction of the new one. Its 
antiquity makes it one of the principal objects of interest in 
Hingham. No house for public worship exists within the original 
limits of the United States, which continues to be used for the 




OLD MEETING-HOUSE PULPIT, HINGHAM. 



purpose for which it was erected, and remaining on the same site 
where it was built, which is so old as the meeting-house of the 
First Parish in Hingham. 

In 1730 it was enlarged, and again enlarged in 1755. In the 
latter year the present pulpit was built and placed nearly in its 
present position. Dr. Gay preached from it for the first time 
after it was built from Nehemiah viii. 4 : " And Ezra the scribe 
stood upon a pulpit of wood which they had made for the pur- 
pose." In the same year the first pews were built, viz. : two rows 
of square pews all around the house, excepting the spaces occu- 
pied by the pulpit and the aisles leading from the porches. There 
was a pew in front of the pulpit known as the elders' pew or seat, 
and an enclosed seat or pew in front of the elders' pew, facing 



36 History of Hingham. 

the broad aisle, for the deacons. The two latter pews were re- 
moved in 1828. The central space or body of the house was oc- 
cupied by long oaken seats for the occupancy of males on one 
side of the broad aisle and of females on the other. These seats 
were removed from time to time, until the whole space was cov- 
ered by pews. In 1799 five pews were built in the front of each 
side gallery, and in 1804 the same number in the rear of those 
first built, making twenty in all. At subsequent dates all the 
side gallery pews were removed and new pews built in their 
places, viz. : eight in the eastern gallery in 1854, the same num- 
ber in the western gallery in 1855, and in 1857 four were built in 
the eastern, and four in the western, galleries. In 1859 four pews 
were built in the front gallery, and in 1868 four more had been 
built in the same gallery. 

In 1822 stoves were introduced for the purpose of heating the 
house. 

In 1869 the present new pews were built on the floor of the 
house, furnaces were introduced, and extensive repairs were made. 

On the occasion of the reopening of the meeting-house, Sept. 8, 
1869, appropriate services were held to commemorate the event. 

In 1867 an organ was placed in the front gallery. Previously 
to this date for many years the choir had been accompanied by a 
flute, bass-viol, and other instruments at various times. In 1869, 
at the time of the general repairs, the location of the organ was 
changed to the platform on the easterly side of the pulpit, and in 
1870 a new and larger organ was purchased. It is the one now 
in use. 

The parish seal was adopted in 1869. It consists of a picture 
of the meeting-house in the centre, surrounded by an ornamental 
circular border, which is encircled by another, leaving a space 
between the two in which is the following : — 

"LET THE WORK OF OUR FATHERS STAND, — 1681." 

In 1870 the Parish received from Hon. Albert Fearing the gift 
of a lot of land adjoining its other land on the southerly side, 
" being a part of the land granted to Robert Peck, Teacher of the 
First Church in Hingham, in the year 1638," as the deed of the 
same recites. 

Aug. 8, 1881, very interesting and impressive exercises were 
held in the meeting-house in commemoration of the 200th anni- 
versary of the building of the house. Mr. Charles Eliot Norton, 
a lineal descendant of the second minister, during whose ministry 
it was built, delivered the principal address. At this time a tab- 
let of brass, set in mahogany, was placed upon the wall on the 
westerly side of the pulpit, containing a list of the ministers, and 
a statement relating to the building of the meeting-house. 

Jan. 8, 1882, a discourse was delivered by Rev. Edward A. Hor- 
ton, on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the opening of 
the meeting-house for public worship. 



Ecclesiastical History. 



37 



The Parish House, which stands on Main Street, nearly opposite 
the meeting-house was completed and dedicated March 20, 1891. 

There being no vestry room or chapel connected with the 
meeting-house, the need had long been felt of a suitable building 
for the uses of the Sunday-school and other purposes connected 
with the religious and charitable work and social life of the 
parish. For fifteen or twenty years efforts had been made by 
those interested, with good success, to accumulate a fund suffi- 
cient for the erection of such a building. The Ladies' Benevolent 
Society connected with the parish, by means of fairs and enter- 
tainments, made substantial contributions to this fund ; Rev. 
Calvin Lincoln, by his will, left to the parish a sum of money 
which could be used for the purpose ; these with other amounts 
being invested from time to time increased by the accumulations 
of interest ; money was subscribed for the purchase of the lot ; 
and in due time this Parish House was built. Peabody & Stearns 
were the architects. 



SECOND PARISH (COHASSET). 

The difficulties at- 
tending the formation 
of this parish have al- 
ready been stated. 

In what year a meet- 
ing-house was erected 
in Conohasset does not 
appear by the records. 
It was probably in 1713, 
possibly not until after 
1717, but certainly be- 
fore 1721. Probably 
there was preaching in 
it before the settlement 
of the first pastor. Its 
dimensions were thirty- 
five by twenty-five feet, 
and it was situated on 
the Plain a little to the 
south of the present 
house. May 14, 1713, 
it was voted "that the proprietors of the undivided lands give 
their consent to the inhabitants of Conohasset to erect a meeting- 
house on that land called ' The Plain.' " 

Many facts relating to the history of the Second Parish may be 
obtained from the valuable and interesting discourses delivered by 
the Rev. Jacob Flint, on the completion of the first century of its 
existence. 




COHASSET MEETING-HOUSE. 



38 History of Hingham. 

Mr. Neheniiah Hobart, a grandson of the Rev. Peter Hobart, 
the first minister of Hingham, preached as a candidate from July 
13 to Dec. 13, 1721, on which day he was ordained pastor, the 
church having been organized the day previous. 

After his ordination, Mr. Hobart wrote in his book of records: — 

" O my soul, never dare to forget that day and the solemn charge I re- 
ceived therefrom, but be mindful of 2 Tim. iv. 1, 2, — the preacher's text, 
— that at the last day I may be able to say as in Acts xx. 26, 27. ' I take 
you to record this day, that I am pure from the blood of all men, for I 
have not shunned to declare unto you all the counsel of God.' " 

The new society was weak in numbers, and their meeting- 
house was built in accordance with their means. It was small 
and plain. 

At the formation of the church, Mr. Hobart drew up a covenant 
ending in these words : — 

" We do, in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, in the presence of God 
and the holy angels, explicitly and expressly covenant and bind ourselves 
in manner and form following, namely : We do give up ourselves to God, 
whose name alone is Jehovah, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. To God 
the Father, as our chief and only good ; and unto our Lord Jesus Christ, 
as our prophet, priest, and king, and only Mediator of the covenant of 
grace ; and unto the Spirit of God, as our only sanctifier and comforter. 
And we do give up ourselves one unto another in the Lord, covenanting 
and promising to walk together as a church of Christ, in all ways, of his 
own institution, according to the prescriptions of his holy word, promis- 
ing that with all tenderness and brotherly love, we will, with all faithful- 
ness, watch over each other's souls, and that we will freely yield up our- 
selves to the discipline and power of Christ in his church, and attend 
whatever ordinances Christ hath appointed and declared in his word ; and 
wherein we fail and come short of duty, to wait upon him for pardon and 
remission, beseeching him to make our spirits steadfast in his covenant, 
and to own us as his church and covenant people forever. Amen." 

Rev. Nehemiah Hobart was born in Hingham, April 27, 1697, 
and was graduated at Harvard College in 1714, in the same class 
with Rev. Ebenezer Gay. 

In the call, settlement, and ministry of Mr. Hobart there was 
perfect harmony. There seems to have been no opposition to him 
on the part of any one in the parish. He was a " truly devout, 
enlightened, and liberal divine." Between him and his neighbor, 
Dr. Gay, there was a warm sympathy and affection. He died 
May 31, 1740, in the forty-fourth year of his age, and the nine- 
teenth of his ministry, much lamented by his people. 

The parish, says Mr. Flint, " lost no time, after the death of Mr. 
Hobart, before they took measures suitable to fill his place with an- 
other well-educated and respectable pastor ; . . . but they did not 
immediately find one in whom they could unite." Finally, after 



Ecclesiastical History. 39 

hearing several candidates, Mr. John Fowle, of Charlestown, was 
ordained, not without a strong opposition, though with the ultimate 
consent of a number of the parish, Dec. 31, 1741. Mr. Fowle was 
graduated at Harvard College in 1732, and " was allowed, by good 
judges, to be a man of considerable genius, and handsome acquire- 
ments." He soon, unfortunately, developed " a most irritable 
nervous temperament, which rendered him unequal in his per- 
formances, and at times quite peevish and irregular." The 
number of those opposed to him increased, and his pastoral con- 
nection with the parish was dissolved in the fifth year of his 
ministry. 

At this time the parish had so increased in numbers and ma- 
terial prosperity that the need was felt of a new and more com- 
modious meeting-house. The work of building the same was 
commenced about the time of Mr. Fowle's dismissal, and in the 
ensuing year the house now standing was erected, at a cost of 
£1522 19s. 9c?. The building was sixty feet by forty-five. On 
the northerly end of the roof was a belfry, and two flights of stairs 
leading to the galleries were on the inside. The front porch and 
the steeple were added at a later date. 

Before the completion of the new meeting-house, several candi- 
dates were heard, and with great unanimity Mr. John Brown, a 
native of Haverhill, was invited to become the pastor. He was a 
graduate of Harvard College in 1741, and was ordained over the 
Second Parish Sept. 2, 1747. 

The following anecdote is told of his settlement. 

It is said there was one opposer only, whom Mr. Brown recon- 
ciled by a stroke of good humor. Calling to see the opposer, he 
inquired the cause of opposition. " I like your person and man- 
ners," said the opposer, " but your preaching, sir, I disapprove." 
" Then," said Mr. Brown, " we are agreed. My preaching 1 do 
not like very well myself ; but how great the folly for you and I 
to set up our opinion against that of the whole parish." The 
opposer felt, or thought he felt, the folly, and was no longer 
opposed. 

" The talents of Rev. John Brown were considerably more than 
ordinary. In a stately person he possessed a mind whose percep- 
tions were quick and clear, and his sentiments were generally the 
result of just reflection. He thought for himself ; and when he 
had formed his opinions, he uttered them with fearless freedom. 
Acquainted from childhood with the Holy Scriptures, from them 
he formed his religious opinions. He believed the Son of God 
when he said, ' The Father is greater than I ; ' and although he 
believed that mankind was sinful, yet he did not attribute their 
sins to his immediate act who is the Author of all good. Till 
advanced in life he was fond of social intercourse, and was able 
always to make society innocently cheerful." He served in one 
campaign as chaplain to a colonial regiment in Nova Scotia, and 



40 



History of Hingham. 



by his word and example, during the Revolutionary period, encour- 
aged his fellow-citizens to maintain the struggle for liberty. He 
died in the sixty-seventh year of his age and the forty-fifth of his 
ministry. He preached until the last Sabbath of his life, and 
was buried in Cohasset. 

It was during the ministry of Mr. Brown that Cohasset was set 
off from Hingham and incorporated as a town in 1770, and from 
that time the history of this parish ceases to be a part of the 
history of Hingham. 




THIRD (AFTERWARDS SECOND) PARISH, SOUTH 
HINGHAM. 

The Third Parish, 
in Hingham, was set 
off March 25, 1745, 
and a meeting-house 
had already been erect- 
ed in 1742. It com- 
prised the southerly 
portion of the town. 
There was much oppo- 
sition in the town to 
the setting off of this 
as a separate parish, 
and bitter controver- 
south hingham meeting-house. sies arose in conse- 

quence ; but by persist- 
ent efforts the inhabitants of the south part of the town at last 
succeeded in carrying out their wishes. 

On the church record we find : — 

" Nov. 20, 1746. The church in the south parish, in Hingham, was 
embodied by the rev*? Nathanael Eelles, of Scituate, and the rev 1 ? Wil- 
liam Smith, of Weymouth." 

And the covenant to which the members assented was the fol- 
lowing : — 

" We, whose names are hereunto subscribed, apprehending ourselves 
called of God into a sacred fellowship with one another in the profession 
and practice of the holy christian religion as a particular Church of the 
Lord Jesus Christ, do solemnly covenant with God and with one another 
as follows : — 

" In the first place, We avouch the Lord this day to be our God, yield- 
ing ourselves to him to be his servants, and chusing him to be our por- 
tion forever. 

" We give up ourselves unto that God, whose name alone is Jehovah, 
and is the Father, and the Son, and the holy Ghost, to be his people, to 



Ecclesiastical History. 41 

walk in his ways, and to keep his statutes, and his commandments and his 
judgments, and to hearken unto his voice. We declare our serious belief 
of the christian religion, as it is taught in the Bible, which we take for a 
perfect rule of faith, worship, and manners. 

" We acknowledge the Lord Jesus Christ as the head of his people in 
the covenant of grace, and accept him as our prophet, priest, and king, 
and depend on him in the way which he hath prescribed for instruction, 
pardon, and eternal life. 

" We profess our serious resolution to deny, as the grace of God teach- 
eth us, all ungodliness and worldly lusts, and to live soberly, righteously, 
and godly in this present world, to endeavor that our conversation may be 
such as becomes and adorns the gospel. 

" We promise to walk together in all ways of holy communion as 
brethren in the family of Christ and children of our Father, who is in 
heaven, to keep the faith and observe the order of the gospel, chearfully 
to support and conscientiously to attend the public worship of God in all 
the instituted duties thereof ; and to submit to the discipline of his king- 
dom, to watch over one another with christian tenderness and circumspec- 
tion, to avoid sinful stumbling blocks and contentions, and to endeavor 
our mutual edification in holiness and comfort. 

" Farthermore, We dedicate our offspring, with ourselves, unto the 
Lord, engaging to bring them up in his nurture and admonition, to serve 
him with our household, and command them to keep the way of the Lord ; 
and, as far as in us lieth, to transmit the ordinances of Christ pure and 
entire to them who shall come after us. 

" All this we do in the presence and fear of God, with a deep sense of 
our unworthiness to be admitted into covenant with him, and to enjoy the 
privilidges of the evangelical Church state, and our own insufficiency to 
perform the duties of it, and do therefore rely on and pray to the God 
of grace and peace, who brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus 
Christ, that great Shepherd of the Sheep, through the blood of the ever- 
lasting covenant, to pardon our many sins and to make us perfect in every 
good work, to do his will, working in us that which is well pleasing in his 
sight, through Jesus Christ, to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen." 

The record says : — 

" Decemb r 10 th , 1746. Daniel Shute was ordained Pastor of the third 
Church of Christ, in Hingham." 

The following letter, sent on the day before the ordination, by 
Rev. Ebenezer Gay to the Third Church in Hingham, indicates 
the state of feeling in the town towards the new parish : — 

Beloved Brethren : — 

I communicated to the Church under my pastoral care the letter you 
sent to us desiring our presence and assistance at the Ordination you are 
proceeding to. By withholding the vote of compliance with your request, 
the greater part of the Brethren by far signified their unwillingness to 
grant it : whence, and by what I can since learn, 't is plain to me that I 
cannot attend the ordination of your minister as a Delegate from the 
Church, it being the mind of the generality of them not to send any. I 
am sorry that matters are so circumstanced betwixt you and your brethren 
here that they are not free to countenance and assist you more in the set- 
tlement of the Gospel Ministry among you. I meddle not with what has 



42 History of Hingham. 

been in controversy between you and them, being of a civil nature. 
Therefore shall be ready to serve you all I can in your religious affairs 
and interest as a Christian neighbour and Gospel Minister. Tho' I now 
may not in the particular you have desired as the Messenger of a Church 
— than whom an Elder in an Ecclesiastical Council is nothing more, — 
since the important affair before you may be as well managed without as 
with us, I pray you to be content that this Church should not be active in 
it, and explicitly encouraging of it, since they have not sufficient sight 
therefor. 

I believe it seems hard to you to be refused what you have asked of 
your mother, . . . but you know it has been a day of temptation and 
provocation in the town, and angry resentments, whether just or unjust, 
are not wont soon to be quite laid aside after the strife between contend- 
ing parties is at an end, and the conquered, when they submit, are not 
presently so loving friends as afterwards they sometimes prove. 

If you patiently and silently pass over the conduct of the Church to- 
wards you, I hope there will be a comfortable harmony of affections be- 
tween you and us. On the walls of a new meeting-house were once 
engraven these words, "Build not for faction nor a Party, but for pro- 
moting Faith and Repentance in communion with all that, love our Lord 
Jesus Christ in sincerity, ." May this be verified in the House you have 
erected for Divine Worship. I wish you God's presence in it at all times, 
and especially on the morrow at the Ordination of a Pastor over you, and 
I pray God to make him a great blessing to you and to your children. 
I am your sincere and affectionate friend, 

and late unworthy Pastor, 

Hingham, Decern 9, 1746. E - Gay - 

To the Third Church of Christ 
in Hingham. 

In the face of the facts indicated by the above letter, one can 
hardly suppress a smile at the very first vote in the records of 
the first meeting of the church after the ordination of Mr. Shute, 
on Jan. 13, 1746-7, which is as follows : — 

" That the church will choose a committee to request of the First 
Church, in Hingham, some part of the furniture of their communion 
table, provided the Rev? M r Gay shall think proper to advise to it." 

It is almost needless to state that, at a meeting held on the 
twenty-fifth of the same month, the committee reported " that 
upon their application to Mr. Gay he did not advise to it." 

The principal facts concerning the formation of the Third 
Church and Parish, and Dr. Shute's ministry, are contained in an 
excellent memoir prepared by the father of the writer in 1863. 
It would be an affectation of an ability not possessed by his son to 
attempt any improvement upon, or addition to his accurate state- 
ments relating to the history of affairs in this town, or his esti- 
mate of its leading men, and it is a pleasure to be able to give his 
words as prominent a place as possible in this " History of Hing- 
ham." The accomplishment of such a work was his hope, but 
that hope, though long entertained, he was not destined to see 
fulfilled. 



Ecclesiastical History. 43 



MEMOIR OF THE REV. DR. SHUTE. 
BY SOLOMON LINCOLN. 

Daniel Shute, a son of John and Mary (Wayte) Shute, was born in 
Maiden, the residence of his parents, on the 19th of July, 1722. He 
entered Harvard College in 1739, remained there for the whole term of 
four years, and was graduated in 1743. Among his classmates were the 
Hon. Foster Hutchinson, of the Supreme Court of the Province of Mas- 
sachusetts ; Major Samuel Thaxter, of Hingham, a distinguished officer 
in the war against the French and the Indians ; the Hon. James Otis, 
father of the celebrated Revolutionary patriot and orator ; and the Rev. 
Gad Hitchcock, D.D., a distinguished divine of Pembroke. 

Mr. Shute, having chosen the profession of Divinity, was invited in 
April, 1746, to commence his professional career as a candidate in the 
South Parish of Maiden. In June of the same year he was invited to 
preach as a candidate in the recently formed Third Parish in Hingham. 
This Parish was set off from the First Parish (Dr. Gay's) in that town, 
March 25, 1745, and at that time was designated the Third, as Cohasset," 
which was the Second Precinct, had not then been incorporated as a sepa- 
rate district or town. This was done in 1770, and the Third Parish of 
Hingham has since been known as the Second Congregational Parish. 
The inhabitants composing this Parish, which embraced territorially the 
south part of the town, had contended zealously for nearly twenty years 
for sejmrate parochial privileges, which were denied to them. Some alien- 
ation of feeling naturally grew out of a controversy so long protracted. 
Confident of ultimate success in their efforts, the inhabitants of the south 
part of the town had, in 1742, erected a commodious meeting-house on 
Glad-Tidings Plain, which is now standing in a good state of preservation. 

Mr. Shute declined an invitation to settle in Maiden, and in September, 
1746, accepted the call at Hingham. In the following November a church 
was embodied by the Rev. Nathaniel Eelles, of Scituate, and the Rev. 
William Smith, of Weymouth. Mr. Shute was ordained their pastor, De- 
cember 10th, 1746. The Rev. Messrs. Eelles of Scituate, Lewis of Pem- 
broke, Emerson of Maiden, Bayley and Smith of Weymouth, were invited, 
with delegates, to form the Ordaining Council. The part performed by 
each on that occasion is not known. The exercises were not printed. 
Mr. Gay of the First Church was also invited to be present with dele- 
gates, but he declined the invitation in behalf of his church, and did not 
himself attend. He wrote a very conciliatory letter to the new church. . . . 

But a short time elapsed before the most friendly relations were estab- 
lished between the two parishes and their pastors. In May following the 
settlement of Mr. Shute, he exchanged pulpit services with Dr. Gay, and 
continued to do so until the death of the latter. Mr. Shute was a fre- 
quent guest at the hospitable table of Dr. Gay, and they enjoyed many a 
frugal repast and rich intellectual feast together. 

There was entire harmony in their religious opinions ; and it has been 
said that there was great unanimity of sentiment between all the members 
of the Association to which they belonged, of which Drs. Gay, Shute, 
Hitchcock, Barnes, Smith, Brown, Rand, and others were members. At 
a subsequent period of their lives, Gay and Shute took opposite views of 



44 History of Hingham. 

the great political questions which agitated the country, — the former 
being a moderate Tory and the latter an ardent Whig. Their political 
differences, however, caused no interruption to their friendship. During 
a severe illness of Mr. Shute, Dr. Gay manifested the most anxious 
solicitude for his recovery, and expressed the warmest feelings of attach- 
ment. The first marriage of Mr. Shute was solemnized by Dr. Gay, and 
at the funeral of the latter, Mr. Shute, in his discourse on that occasion, 
paid a most affectionate tribute to the memory of his distinguished friend. 

The ministry of this venerable man covered more than the last half of 
the last century. During that period pastors and people were severely 
tried by the French and Revolutionary wars. In both, Mr. Shute 
entered warmly into the feelings of the great body of the people, and 
used an active influence in forming and guiding public opinion. In 
1758, he was appointed by Governor Pownall chaplain of a regiment 
commanded by Col. Joseph Williams, raised " for a general invasion of 
Canada." 

In 1767 he delivered the Annual Sermon before the Ancient and Hon- 
orable Artillery Company, from the text, Ecclesiastes ix. 18 : " Wisdom 
is better than weapons of war." In 1768 he preached the Election Ser- 
mon from the text, Ezra x. 4: "Arise, for this matter belongeth unto 
thee ; he will also be with thee ; be of good courage and do it." Both 
these discourses were printed, and bear marks of careful composition, 
sound views, and strong common sense. His sermon at the funeral of his 
venerated friend, Dr. Gay, in 1787, was also published, and was a most 
impressive and fitting memorial of the character of that eminent divine, 
in whose footsteps he delighted to tread. 

No discourse of his has been published which presents any discussion 
of points of controversial theology. Indeed, tradition informs us that 
his public performances were remarked for the absence of all such topics; 
yet it is well understood that he sympathized with those who entertained 
what were termed " more liberal views " than those entertained by the 
great body of the clergy. In this respect there was great harmony of 
opinion in the whole town, and in all the parishes which it then contained. 

The sound judgment and knowledge of the human character possessed 
by him were often called into requisition on Ecclesiastical Councils. 
From his papers, which have been carefully preserved by his descendants, 
who hold his memory in veneration, he appears often to have been a 
peacemaker, and to have aided, by his moderation and discreet advice, in 
composing unhappy differences in parishes quite remote from his own, but 
to which his reputation had extended. 

His salary was a moderate one. His parish was not large, and was 
composed chiefly of substantial farmers and mechanics. To procure the 
means of a more independent support, he took scholars to prepare them 
for college and the pursuits of business. His pupils being generally sons 
of wealthy patrons, he derived a considerable income from their board 
and tuition, whereby he enlarged his library, and acquired a respectable 
amount of real estate, which is now held by his descendants. Among his 
scholars are recollected the Hon. Thomas H. Perkins and the Hon. John 
Welles of Boston, and sons of General Lincoln and Governor Hancock. 

In 1780 he was chosen by his townsmen a delegate to the convention 
to frame a Constitution for the State, — such was the confidence reposed 
in his abilities and patriotism. 

In 1788 he was associated with General Lincoln to represent the town 



Ecclesiastical History. 45 

in the Convention of Massachusetts which ratified the Constitution of the 
United States, and on this occasion voted and took an active part in favor 
of adopting the Constitution. In the brief sketches of the debates which 
have been preserved there is the substance of a speech which he deliv- 
ered on the subject of a Religious Test, which strikingly illustrates his 
liberality and good sense. It is characterized by a vigorous and manly 
tone, taking the ground that to establish such a test as a qualification for 
offices in the proposed Federal Constitution, would be attended with inju- 
rious consequences to some individuals, and with no advantage to the com- 
munity at large. 

After the close of the Revolutionary war, Mr. Shute devoted himself 
almost entirely to his parochial duties, indulging occasionally, by way of 
recreation, in agricultural pursuits. 

In 1790 he was honored with the degree of Doctor of Divinity from 
Harvard College. 

In November, 1797, on account of the infirmities of age and a failure 
of his sight, he wrote to his parish, " Whenever it shall become necessary 
for you to settle and support a colleague with me, I will relinquish my 
stipulated salary, and I will do it as soon as you shall supply the pulpit 
after I must resign preaching." In April, 1799, he renewed the proposi- 
tion in a letter to the parish, in which he remarks : "This relinquishment 
of my legal right in advanced age, in the fifty-third year of my ministry, 
I make for the Gospel's sake, — persuading myself that, this embarrass- 
ment being removed, you will proceed in the management of your reli- 
gious concerns with greater unanimity and ardor." 

Dr. Shute relinquished his public labors in March, 1799, from which 
time he retained his pastoral relation until his decease ; but gave up his 
salary, as he had proposed. The Rev. Nicholas Bowes Whitney, a native 
of Shirley and a graduate of Harvard College in 1793, was ordained as a 
colleague of Dr. Shute, January 1, 1800. Dr. Shute died August 30, 
1802, in the eighty-first year of his age and the fifty-sixth of his ministry. 
At his funeral a sermon was delivered by the Rev. Henry Ware (senior), 
the successor of Dr. Gay as pastor of the First Parish. In that sermon 
Dr. Ware represents him as having enjoyed a distinguished rank among 
his brethren for talents, respectability, and public usefulness ; as having 
possessed a quick perception and clear discernment, and been capable of 
tracing a thought in all its various relations ; as having aimed in his 
preaching at enlightening the understanding, impressing the heart, and 
improving the life ; as having framed his discourses in such a manner 
that they were level to common capacities, while yet they furnished food 
for the more reflecting and intelligent ; as having united great solemnity 
with great pertinence in his addresses at the throne of grace ; as having 
mingled with his people with great freedom and kindliness, and sought to 
promote their advantage, temporal as well as spiritual, by every means in 
his power. In short, he represents him as a fine model of a clergyman, 
and as having enjoyed in an unusual degree the confidence of the commu- 
nity in which he lived. And I may add that tradition is in full accord- 
ance with Dr. Ware's statements. 

Dr. Shute possessed an excellent constitution, and lived to the age of 
fourscore years in the enjoyment of an uncommon degree of health until 
near the close of his life. The partial loss of sight was borne with pa- 
tience and serenity, and the approach of the end of life did not deprive 
him of his usual cheerfulness. 



46 History of Hingham. . 

Rev. Nicholas Bowes Whitney, the second minister, was born in 
Shirley, March 21,1772, and was graduated at Harvard College in 
1793. He was ordained colleague pastor Jan. 1, 1800, and after 
the death of Dr. Shute continued as sole pastor until April 15, 
1833, when his connection with the parish was dissolved in the 
thirty-fourth year of his ministry. He died Nov. 26, 1835. 

Rev. Charles Brooks says of him in a funeral sermon after 
his death : — 

"Mr. Whitney had much ill health. Circumstances of constitution 
led him to struggles which few could have more valiantly sustained. With 
nerves tenderly strung, and a depression of spirits at times weighing 
mountain-heavy upon him, he was not fitted to make speedy progress 
among the sharp angles of life. He was naturally a diffident man. 
That press-forwardness which offensively pushes itself into public obser- 
vation, which has no rest till it is seen, acknowledged, and admired, was 
no part of his character. At a time when many seem striving for office 
with twice the zeal they strive for heaven, it was comforting to find 
one who courted neither place nor power. His home and his parish 
were the centre, however wide the circumference. His ideas were clear, 
natural, and practical. He loved no warfare. He was willing that others 
should venture out upon the boisterous sea of controversy and bear the pelt- 
ing of sectarian storms ; and wherever the waves of polemic strife ran high, 
we found him mooring his bark far up in some quiet haven." 

Rev. Warren Burton, a graduate of Harvard College in 1821, 
succeeded Mr. Whitney. His ministry extended from May, 1833, 
to the latter part of 1835. 

Rev. John Lewis Russell was the minister for one year, begin- 
ning in 1836 ; from May, 1842, to June, 1849 ; and rather irregu- 
larly in 1853 and 1854. Mr. Russell was born in Salem, Dec. 2, 
1808, and died there June 7, 1873. He was a graduate of Harvard 
College in 1828. He was a man of eminent talents. The various 
branches of natural history afforded him abundant scope for the 
gratification of his tastes, and he was widely known among students 
for his scientific knowledge. He was somewhat eccentric, at times 
blunt and extremely outspoken, and was distinguished more as a 
scientist than as a divine. It has been said of him in a memoir 
by Rev. Edmund B. Willson, of Salem : — 

" Mr. Russell's chosen profession was that of the ministry. Though 
he did not spend the greater part of his active years in permanent pastoral 
relations with any religious society, his heart was in this calling. He was 
interested in theological study, and marked its progress with a keen atten- 
tion. He had great respect for good learning, and never failed to pay due 
honor to true scholarship. Though his personal tastes led him persuasively 
to the study of nature, and his deep moral convictions and humane feelings 
impelled him strongly to certain forms of philanthropic discourse and action, 
he set none the less value upon patient research, sound criticism, and the 
fruits of thorough professional culture. 

" Mr. Russell showed marked fondness for botanical observation and 



Ecclesiastical History. 47 

study. Side by side with his ministerial work it held its place in his 
regard, without, however, causing his earnestness in the minister's work 
to flag. He was an earnest and uncompromising opponent of American 
slavery, at a time when slavery had many and powerful apologists in the 
Northern States. Although a ' hard hitter ' in the field of theological 
controversy, he was no sectarian." 

Under Mr. Russell's ministry in the Second Parish the follow- 
ing covenant was adopted July 7, 1844 : — 

" With a deep sense of our need of improvement and with a desire of 
performing all our religious duties through the means of grace provided 
for us in the mission of Jesus Christ, whom we receive as the Messenger 
of Truth from God, we enter into the communion of his disciples ; ear- 
nestly praying that by imitating his example, and by imbibing his spirit, 
we may walk together in the fellowship of the Gospel." 

During the interval between the first and second terms of Mr. 
Russell's ministry, Rev. Mr. Pickering was the settled minister 
from August to November, 1837, and Rev. Lyman Maynard from 
April, 1838, to May, 1842. 

Rev. John Prince was employed as minister for five months in 
1850, and Rev. B. V. Stevenson from April, 1851, to March, 1853. 

Rev. "William T. Clarke was minister for four years from 1855 to 
1859. The Church and Parish were reorganized and united under 
Mr. Clarke's administration, the following covenant being adopted: 

" Acknowledging our dependence upon the Infinite Father and the 
obligations that rest upon us as rational, moral, and immortal beings, 
earnestly desiring to perform all our duties and extend the reign of truth 
and righteousness among men, with Jesus for our teacher and guide, we 
unite with this church, that by mutual assistance and co-operation in 
spiritual things we may make that improvement and accomplish that good 
in the world which as individuals we cannot effect." 

Rev. Jedediah J. Brayton was minister for two years ending 
in 1860, Rev. Robert Hassel for three months, Rev. J. L. Hatch 
for two years, from 1862 to 1864, Rev. Mr. Sawyer for one year, 
and Rev. John Savary, a graduate of the Harvard Divinity School 
in 1860, for two years until 1868. 

Rev. Allen G. Jennings was ordained minister of the Parish June 
9, 1870, and continued in the office until 1881, a period of eleven 
years. Mr. Jennings was a faithful and energetic pastor, and was, 
during the last nine years of his ministry, the Superintendent of 
the public schools of the town. By his labors in the cause of edu- 
cation the schools of the town were much improved, and he laid 
the foundation for that further development which has brought 
them to a high rank among others in the Commonwealth. 



48 History of Hingham. 

Rev. William I. Nichols, a graduate of Harvard College in 
1874, was engaged as minister, and took charge of the parish 
Sept. 4, 1881. After a year's service he was ordained pastor 
Oct. 4, 1882, and continued as such until Oct. 7, 1883, when he 
resigned. It was his first settlement. Mr. Nichols had previously 
been the preceptor of Derby Academy. 

Rev. Alfred Cross was the minister from Nov. 1, 1883, to July 
31, 1886. 

After the pastoral relations of Mr. Cross had been dissolved, 
the parish was for four years without a settled minister. In the 
meantime the pulpit of the Third Congregational Society had 
become vacant, and arrangements were made to settle a minister, 
who should have both these parishes under his charge, services 
to be held in the New North Church on Sunday mornings and 
at South Hingham in the afternoon. This plan was satisfactory 
to the members of both parishes and Mr. Charles T. Billings 
became the minister. He was born in Fitchburg, Mass., Feb. 27, 
1863, and was graduated at Harvard College in 1884. After 
teaching two years at the Adams Academy in Quincy, Mass., and 
studying a year in Europe, he pursued his theological studies at 
the Harvard Divinity School, where he was graduated in 1890. 
He was ordained minister of the two parishes July 2, 1890, the 
ordination services being held in the New North Meeting-house. 

He is the present minister. 

The meeting-house was raised June 22, 1742, on the lot on 
Main Street, where it now stands. The parish was set off March 
25, 1745. The original front of the building was on the south- 
erly side, having an entrance there, and another entrance to the 
galleries on the westerly side. The pulpit was on the northerly 
side, with a sounding-board over it ; the floor was occupied by 
square pews, and long seats were in the galleries. 

Extensive repairs were made in 1756, but the house remained 
substantially as it was built until about 1792, when a porch was built 
on the westerly side ; a tower was built on the easterly side, and 
additional pews and seats were constructed. In 1793 a bell was 
placed on the meeting-house. Stoves were introduced in 1822. In 
1829-30 the southerly and westerly entrances were abandoned ; the 
tower was widened to the roof ; the easterly end under the tower 
became the main entrance, with two doors ; a larger bell was pur- 
chased ; the old square pews were removed and new long ones took 
their places ; the pulpit was removed to the westerly end. 

In 1869 extensive improvements and changes were made. An 
organ gallery was built in the westerly end in the rear of the 
pulpit and an organ was placed in it ; the pew doors were removed, 
and the interior was quite generally renovated. In 1881 the clock 
was placed in the tower. 

This parish is of the Unitarian denomination. 



Ecclesiastical History. 



49 



THIRD CONGREGATIONAL SOCIETY (UNITARIAN). 

4- 




THE NEW NORTH MEETING-HOUSE, HINGHAM. 

The circumstances which gave rise to the formation of the 
Third Congregational Church and Society in 1806 have already- 
been alluded to. This society was incorporated by an Act of the 
Legislature, Feb. 27, 1807. The church was organized under 
the name of the Third Church in Hingham, June 16, 1807. The 
meeting-house was built, upon the same lot of land on which it now 
stands, at the time of the formation of the society by the proprie- 
tors, who were incorporated by an Act of the Legislature under 
the name of the New North Meeting-House Corporation, and was 
dedicated June 17, 1807. The two corporations exist the same 
to-day. 

Rev. Henry Colman, the first minister, was born in Boston, 
Sept. 12, 1785, and was graduated at Dartmouth College in 1805. 
He was ordained pastor of this society June 17, 1807, and was 
dismissed, at his request, March 14, 1820, in the thirteenth year 
of his ministry. He died in Islington, England, Aug. 17, 1849. 
After leaving Hingham he opened an academy in Brookline, con- 
tinuing it for a few years, when he became the pastor of the 
Independent Church in Salem, holding that office from Feb. 16, 
1825 to Dec. 7, 1831. He then became almost exclusively a 
farmer, having purchased a farm at Deerfield, Mass. Influenced 
by this pursuit and commissioned by the State, he visited Eng- 

TOL. I. ] * 



50 History of Hingham. 

land, France, and other foreign countries, and fell ill in London, 
with a fatal disease. Mr. Colman possessed excellent abilities, 
was very fascinating in person and manners, and is said to have 
been more hospitably received by the aristocracy of England than 
any other private American citizen. In a letter in the writer's 
possession, he says : — 

" I have spent three days at the Duke of Richmond's, at Goodwood, 
and have now promised positively that I will go to Gordon Castle in 
September to spend at least a fortnight, when he says he will show me 
the whole county." 

Lord Hatherton said of him in a letter to a friend in America, 
after Mr. Colman's death : — 

" I never knew any foreigner so identified with us and our habits and 
so entirely adopted by the country. And yet there was no lack of inde- 
pendence of thought and action, and he avowed preference of most things 
both in civil and social life in his own country. Yet he was so candid 
and true and honest, and so fond of those qualities in others, and with 
great talents there was so charming a simplicity of character, that he won 
on everybody he approached. There is no exaggeration in his printed 
letters, in which he so often spoke of the innumerable solicitations he 
received from persons in every part of England to visit them. All who 
had once received him wished a repetition of the pleasure, and their report 
caused him to be courted by others." 

A monument to his memory stands in Highgate Cemetery, 
Middlesex, England, which was erected by order of and at the 
expense of Lady Byron. 

Rev. Charles Brooks, the second minister, was born in Med- 
ford, Oct. 30, 1795, and was a graduate of Harvard College in 
1816. He was ordained pastor Jan. 17, 1821. 

The following is an extract from a " Memoir of the Rev. 
Charles Brooks " by Hon. Solomon Lincoln : — 

" Upon his settlement Mr. Brooks entered at once upon active duty? 
engaging with great earnestness in all the measures which he thought 
would be useful to his parish or the community. He established a 
Sunday School in his society in 1822; a parish reading society; and, 
during the first year of his ministry, he wrote a Family Prayer Book, 
intended for his people, which was afterwards published in Hingham. 
Eighteen editions of it were issued, many having 4,000 copies each. 

" Mr. Brooks took an active interest in the Peace cause, he was an 
ardent friend of the American Colonization Society, by his influence the 
Savings Bank was established in Hingham, he was an early advocate of 
the Temperance cause in the Old Colony, he was the first person to intro- 
duce anthracite coal into Hingham, and he started the project of a line 
of steamboats between Boston and Hingham. 

" Mr. Brooks was an early and constant friend of popular education, 
serving as a member of the school committees of Hingham and Medford 
for nearly forty years, and he was also a Trustee of Derby Academy. 



Ecclesiastical History. 51 

" The various employments in which Mr. Brooks engaged with great 
readiness, and in which he worked with enthusiasm and perseverance, besides 
the discharge of his parochial duties, bore heavily upon his strength. He 
sought relief and rest by a change of scenes and occupation. He visited 
Europe in 1833, and made the acquaintance of many distinguished per- 
sons, among them Rogers, Campbell, Wordsworth, Jeffrey, Cousin, Arago, 
Schlegel, Mrs. Hemans, Miss Martineau, and many others of note. 

" It was during the voyage to Europe that he became interested in 
the Prussian system of education. His room-mate was Dr. Julius, of 
Hamburg, who was sent to this country by the King of Prussia, to collect 
information respecting our prisons, hospitals, and schools ; so that Mr. 
Brooks, in a passage of forty-one days, had a fine opportunity of becom- 
ing acquainted with the Prussian system, and of enlarging his European 
correspondence. In 1835 he addressed his people on Thanksgiving Day 
on the subject of Normal Schools ; and from that day forward, on every 
opportunity, he lectured before conventions to advance the cause into 
which he had entered with so much enthusiasm. He lectured in nearly 
one hundred different towns and cities, — in every place where he was 
invited. By invitation of the legislatures of Massachusetts, New Hamp- 
shire, Vermont, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, and Pennsyl- 
vania, he delivered to crowded assemblies, in each, two or three lectures, 
besides speaking in most of the capitals between Boston and Washington. 
The results were the establishment of Boards of Education and Normal 
Schools. A distinguished educator, who is entirely competent to judge 
in this matter, says that Mr. Brooks, for his long, disinterested, and 
unpaid labors in the cause of education, is entitled to be considered, 
more than any other individual, what he has been called, the ' Father of 
Normal Schools.' 

" The citizens of Plymouth County owe him a debt of gratitude for 
the influences which he set in motion resulting in the establishment of the 
Normal School at Bridgewater. It was in 1838 that the celebrated meet- 
ing of the ' Plymouth County Association for the Improvement of Com- 
mon Schools ' was held at Hanover, where brilliant speeches were made 
by Horace Mann, Robert Rantoul, George Putnam, John Quincy Adams, 
and Daniel Webster, and a powerful impression was made upon the 
public mind. It was on this occasion that Mr. Adams, after speaking 
of what monarchs had done to establish Normal Schools through their 
realms, exclaimed, 'Shall we be outdone by kings?' and closed a very 
eloquent speech amid the acclamations of the assembly. Mr. Webster 
spoke also, with his accustomed simplicity, directness, and power. ' If,' 
said he, ' I had as many sons as old Priam, I would send them all to the 
public schools.' 

" Mr. Brooks was present at this meeting ; took the lead in the meas- 
ures proposed, and was deferred to as the engineer of the work to be done 
to create a correct public sentiment. 

"In 1838 he was elected professor of Natural History in the University 
of the City of New York, and proposed to visit Europe to qualify himself 
for the duties of his new office. He accepted the office with the concur- 
rence of his parish, and it adopted resolutions on the dissolution of the 
connection, expressing gratitude for his past services, and wishes for his 
future success. 

" In 1839 he departed for Europe, where he remained upward of four 
years. He devoted his time to scientific studies, and such as he deemed 



52 History of Hingham. 

of importance to him in the professorship. On his return to this country 
the failure of his sight compelled him to resign his professorship, and to 
retire to private life. Always engaged in some philanthropic object, he 
turned his attention to the condition of aged and destitute clergymen. He 
collected statistics, and formed a society for their relief. It has been emi- 
nently useful, dispensing its blessing with a liberal hand. He devoted 
much of his time to Sunday-schools, and was an efficient officer of the 
Sunday-school Society. 

" Mr. Brooks was sincere in his friendship, candid in his judgment, 
genial, cheerful, and affable. He was averse to all controversy ; he 
avoided theological polemics, and was a peace-maker, adding to a life of 
practical benevolence the graces of a Christian character." 

Mr. Brooks's pastoral connection was dissolved Jan. 1, 1839, 
after a ministry of a few days less than eighteen years. He died 
in Medford, July 7, 1872. 

The following letter from Mr. Brooks in relation to the introduc- 
tion of anthracite coal into Hingham is worthy of preservation : 

To Hon. Solomon Lincoln: — 

My Friend, — Knowing you are the only person who could pardon me 
for sending a bill of coal, 1 dated Nov. 15th, 1825, I would let my expla- 
nation be my apology. 

In 1825 all anthracite coal was called Lehigh coal. The difficulty of 
igniting it gave rise to grave objections and nimble wit. One person 
proposed to bore a hole into the centre of the mine, then to creep in 
and be perfectly safe in the general conflagration. I read something 
about the coal and believed it would be just the thing for my study ; I 
therefore purchased of Messrs. Lyman & Ralston, of Boston, a sheet- 
iron pyramidical stove, lined with fire-brick, and one ton (then 2,000 lbs.) 
of coal. That good-natured captain, Peter Hersey, Jun., brought the 
stove and coal to Hingham in his packet, on the 15th day of November, 
1825, and arrived about 4 o'clock, p. m., of that day. I have the im- 
pression that this was the first piece of anthracite coal introduced into the 
town, and perhaps into the county. 

Like most strangers, on first introductions, my ton of coal met with 
some singular treatment. The passengers on board the packet interested 
themselves in handling it ; breaking it, or rather in trying to break it ; in 
guessing about its properties ; in wondering how heat could be got out of 
it ; and finally in concluding to try to burn some in the open cabin fire- 
place. The packet had a light head-wind, and therefore the curious and 

i Boston, 15th Nov. 1825. 
Mr. Chas. Brooks, 

Bought of Lyman & Ralston, 71 Broad Street. 

1 small Sheet Iron Stove $13.00 

1 ton (2,000 lbs.) Lehigh Coal 8.00 

Trucking 50 

$2i.50 

Rec'd Pay't, Lyman & Ralston, 

By S. D. L g. 

Note. — This was the first anthracite coal brought into Hingham ; and this stove 
the first one used for burning it. C. B. 



Ecclesiastical History. 53 

inquisitive passengers had time enough to try their experiment. They 
took three or four pieces and put them upon the live coals, and expected 
them to blaze very soon. Fifteen minutes passed, and the coal was as 
black and almost as cold as ever. The bellows were brought and began 
to do their best, but no signs of ignition. Another pair of old bellows 
was pressed into the service, and two strong young men began to blow. 
The fun now commenced. Out of twenty passengers, half of them at 
least proposed some new way of setting fire to the queer stuff. Every 
way that promised the least success was faithfully tried, and yet not the 
slightest appearance of fire could be discovered in the black masses ! 
The experimenters reasoned rightly about it. They said, if it was capable 
of ignition, fire would ignite it ; and as they had fire enough to melt iron, 
they could ignite that coal, and several of them resolved to work upon it 
till they arrived at the wharf ; and they did so. The fun which these 
operations produced was great indeed, and ought to have been saved by 
some historian as part of the queer triumphal entry of Lehigh coal into 
Hingham. The tardy packet at last reached its wharf in the Cove, and 
as the passengers went down to take a last look at the undisturbed black- 
ness of their inexplicable subjects, there was a general verdict against 
the wisdom of the minister, and as general a desire to see the coal burn, 
if that phenomenon could ever be witnessed. This matter became a town 
talk, and was better for Lyman & Ralston than all their advertisements. 
If those three or four pieces of irresistible Lehigh had been saved, I 
should certainly put them into the Cambridge Museum. 

On the next Monday morning, the tinman came with a few pieces of 
new funnel, and my stove was properly prepared for the great event. 
First shavings, then charcoal, then Lehigh and then a match, and the 
thing was done. In one hour I had my stove full of ignited coal, and I 
kept it replenished a week without its going out. The news spread, and 
visitors enough I had ; and such laughable exclamations and raw wonder 
as my experiment elicited were truly refreshing to me. One anxious 
friend, after examining the fire, lugubriously said, " Those red-hot stones 
may give out some heat, but I am afraid they '11 set fire to your house." 
A gentleman said, " I '11 not take any insurance on your house." Another 
asked, " Do you think you can cook with your red stones ? " A good 
neighbor said, " We shall not sleep contentedly while we know you have 
such a fire going all night." A brother minister from another town came 
to see it, and though he liked it, he could not help saying, " It is lucky for 
you that you have a good salary ; for if you hadn't, you'd find that eight 
dollars a ton for such stuff would empty your purse before April." 

Thus, my dear sir, you see what fiery trials I went through ! My 
Lehigh, in the mean time, burnt itself into popularity — and you know 
the rest. 

Hoping to see you at the next meeting of the Historical Society, I am, 
with kind regards, 

Yours, Charles Brooks. 

Medfoed, March 10th, 1862. 

Rev. Oliver Stearns, the third minister, was born in Lunenburg, 
June 3, 1807, and was graduated at Harvard College in 1826. 
Mr. Stearns was ordained at Northampton, Nov. 9, 1831, and 
after short terms of ministerial service in Northampton, New- 



54 History of Hingham. 

buryport, and Boston, was obliged to give up preaching for a 
time on account of illness. His pastoral connection with the 
Third Congregational Society in Hingham began July 1, 1839, 
under an engagement for one year, and he became the settled 
pastor April 1, 1840. On the first Sunday of April, 1840, he 
preached a sermon recognizing the permanency of his pastoral 
relation with the Society, which was the only form of his instal- 
lation in Hingham. His pastoral relation was dissolved Oct. 1, 
1856, in the eighteenth year of his ministry here. 

From the time of his leaving Hingham in 1856, to 1863, he 
was President of the Meadville Theological School, and from 
1863 to 1878 he was a Professor in the Harvard Divinity School 
at Cambridge. He received the degree of S. T. D. from Harvard 
College in 1857. He died July 18, 1885. 

Dr. Stearns was a learned divine and a fine writer. He was 
not of a rugged constitution. Lack of physical strength and 
endurance prevented him from undertaking much outside the 
lines of his pastoral and professional duty, yet by his patient 
industry and constant application he accomplished a surprisingly 
large amount of work during his long life. He was of a 
mild and amiable temperament, a man of positive convictions, 
a stanch advocate of the abolition of slavery in the United 
States, and fearless in expressing his opinions. Although the 
life of Dr. Stearns does not present as many marked charac- 
teristics for biographical notice as many others of the clergymen 
of Hingham, yet the candid critic will credit him with being one 
of the most scholarly and learned of those who have been settled 
in the town. Under his ministry the society prospered, and he 
was much respected. 

Rev. Daniel Bowen, the fourth minister, was born in Reading, 
Vt., Feb. 4, 1831, and was a graduate of the University of Roch- 
ester. His theological studies were pursued at the Theological 
Seminary of Rochester and at the Harvard Divinity School. He 
was ordained pastor of the Third Congregational Society, Dec. 21, 
1859, and this connection was dissolved Sept. 24, 1863. Mr. 
Bowen discontinued preaching in 1867, and removed to Florida. 

Rev. Joshua Young, the fifth minister, was born in Pittston, 
Maine, Sept. 29, 1823, was a graduate of Bowdoin College in 
1845, and of the Harvard Divinity School in 1848. He was 
pastor of the " New South Church " in Boston from 1849 to 1852, 
and was settled in Burlington, Vt., from 1852 to 1862. Having 
preached to the society in Hingham for a short time previously, 
he began his services under engagement as pastor in April, 1864, 
and continued in that office until Dec. 20, 1868. 

Rev. John Snyder, the sixth minister, was born in Philadelphia, 
Pa., June 14, 1842, and was graduated at the Meadville Theologi- 



Ecclesiastical History. 55 

cal School in 1869. He was settled over this parish in September, 
1869, and was ordained Jan. 20, 1870. He resigned Dec. 31, 1872, 
to accept a call from the Church of the Messiah, in St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. William G. Todd, the seventh minister, began his parochial 
connection with the parish in April, 1873, and resigned in De- 
cember, 1875. 

Rev. Henry A. Miles, D. D., was living in Hingham at the time 
of Mr. Todd's resignation, and was invited to preach on the first 
Sunday in January, 1876. He continued for the following Sun- 
days, and received a call to become the settled minister, March 13, 
1876. He was installed April 9, 1876, and resigned his active 
duties Sept. 30, 1883, but continues his parochial connection to 
the present time as pastor emeritus. 

Dr. Miles was born in Grafton, Mass., May 30, 1809. He was 
graduated at Brown University in 1829, and at the Harvard Di- 
vinity School in 1832. He was ordained at Hallowell, Me., Dec. 
14, 1832, and was settled there as minister until 1836, when he 
accepted a call from the Unitarian Society in Lowell, Mass. His 
ministry in Lowell continued from 1836 to 1853. After varied 
services in the line of his profession, but without any long con- 
tinued parochial connection with any religious society, he removed 
to Hingham, and shortly afterwards became connected with this 
society as already stated. He received the degree of D. D. from 
Brown University in 1850. 

It is not the part of the historian to be the eulogist of the 
living, yet the writer cannot forbear to say that Dr. Miles has the 
affectionate regard and universal respect of the people of his 
parish and the town. 

After the relinquishment of active duties by Dr. Miles, Rev. 
Alexander T. Bowser, born in Sackville, New Brunswick, Feb. 20, 
1848, and a graduate of Harvard College in 1877, received a call 
to become the minister. Mr. Bowser's first year in the ministry, 
after graduation from the Harvard Divinity School in 1880, was 
devoted to mission work in St. Louis, Mo. He was ordained 
there, in the Church of the Messiah, May 2, 1881, Rev. John 
Snyder, pastor of that church and a former minister of this so- 
ciety in Hingham, giving him the right hand of fellowship. 
After two years spent in Evansville, Indiana, as the representa- 
tive of the American Unitarian Association, he received the call 
from Hingham, Jan. 24, 1884. He was installed June 11, 1884, 
and continued as pastor until Jan. 2, 1887, when he resigned to 
accept the position of pastor of the First Unitarian Congregation 
of Toronto, Canada. 

Rev. Charles T. Billings, the present minister, was ordained 
minister of this society and the Second Parish, July 2, 1890, 



56 History of Hingham. 

and entered upon his pastorate at that time. A more detailed 
account of Mr. Billings and his settlement over the two parishes 
has been given in the history of the Second Parish. 

The " New North " meeting-house was erected, as has been 
stated, in 1807. No material change in the exterior of the build- 
ing has been made. New pews were placed in the galleries about 
1833, at the time of the purchase of an organ. March 18, 1833, 
John Baker, Jairus B. Lincoln, Martin Lincoln, and Jairus Lin- 
coln were chosen a committee " to purchase a church organ for 
the society, the expense of which shall not exceed the sum of 
twelve hundred dollars." This organ was formerly the property 
of the Handel and Haydn Society in Boston. In 1849 a contract 
was made with George Stevens for a new organ, to cost twelve 
hundred dollars. This latter instrument is the one in use at the 
present time. 

In 1852 the appearance of the interior was much changed by 
the removal of the draperies back of the pulpit, and the painting 
of the walls and ceilings in fresco, which included upon the wall 
over the pulpit a tablet bearing the inscription, " Sanctify them 
through thy truth." A commemorative sermon was preached by 
Rev. Oliver Stearns, Dec. 12, 1852, on reopening the meeting- 
house after these expensive repairs and alterations. 

In the spring of 1890 still further changes were made in the 
interior of the meeting-house. The fresco painting gave way to 
tinted walls and ceiling of a less ornate character, some of the 
front pews were removed to give additional open space in front 
of the pulpit, new pulpit stairs were built, a background of 
drapery was put upon the wall behind the pulpit, and the organ 
was thoroughly repaired and improved by the addition of new 
pipes and stops. 

The clock, procured by private subscription, was placed in the 
tower in 1845. 



Ecclesiastical History. 



57 



THE FIRST BAPTIST SOCIETY. 




BAPTIST MEETING-HOUSE. 



There is nothing to 
indicate that any per- 
sons professing Baptist 
sentiments lived in 
Hingham previously to 
the year 1814. In that 
year Mr. Nathaniel T. 
Davis made this town 
his place of residence, 
and he, with his wife 
and Miss Hannah Beal, 
were the only Baptists 
here for several succeeding years. A few others subsequently 
joined them in the same religious belief, and the first prayer- 
meeting was held at the house of Mr. Davis in 1818. Mr. Asa 
Wilbur, of Boston, was visiting in town, and was invited to be 
present at the meeting. He became much interested in the efforts 
of this small band of worshippers, and was afterwards often 
present at their meetings. For his earnest labors and finan- 
cial aid to the Baptists of this town, through many succeeding 
years, he is held by them in grateful remembrance. 

In this same year, 1818, the first sermon by a Baptist was 
preached in Hingham by Mr. Ensign Lincoln, and a Sunday- 
school was organized. This was the first Sunday-school in 
Hingham. Its meetings were held in the schoolhouse which 
stood on the hill in front of the Derby Academy. It was col- 
lected and organized by Nancy Studley, Polly Barnes, Betsey 
Lincoln (afterwards Mrs. Rufus Lane), and Hannah Kingman, 
and there was an attendance of ninety scholars on the first Sun- 
day. This school was not under the patronage of any religious 
society, but was an independent school. The first three named 
ladies were connected with a few Baptists who held meetings, as 
before stated, at the house of Mr. Davis. Not long afterwards, 
Rev. Mr. Richardson of the First Parish, and Rev. Mr. Column of 
the Third Congregational Society (both Unitarian), thinking the 
instruction in the school too evangelical, withdrew the children 
connected with their parishes and formed schools of their own. 
The original school continued, however, though with a diminished 
number of scholars ; and when the Baptists, in 1828, became a 
branch of the Second Baptist Church, of Boston, the school be- 
came a Baptist school, and has so continued to the present time. 

In 1820 the first baptism took place, making a strong impres- 
sion upon many of those who witnessed it. 

The early struggles of this little band to establish and main- 



58 History of Hingham. 

tain worship according to their faith were great. Services were 
held at private houses until August, 1828, when a hall was se- 
cured for the purpose in the building next south of the black- 
smith-shop on North Street, near the harbor. It was a rough 
room, in strange contrast to the elaborate churches of the present 
time. The walls were not plastered, the seats were simply boards 
nailed upon blocks of wood, which together with a small pine 
table and chair constituted the furniture. In this room meet- 
ings were held for nearly a year, and in spite of opposition and 
disturbance, both outside and inside the building during the ser- 
vices, the worshippers increased in number. 

A building was found in a more quiet location, which could be 
purchased ; but on account of the objection likely to arise if it 
should be known that it was to be sold to the Baptists, it was 
deemed prudent to obtain the assistance of some person outside 
the denomination to make the purchase, that the purpose for 
which it was to be used might not be suspected. Mr. Ebenezer 
Shute was willing to purchase the building, costing about $450, 
provided some individual could be found who would arrange the 
bargain with discretion. Capt. Laban Hersey, a Unitarian, con- 
sented to take the deed in his own name, and subsequently con- 
veyed the property to Mr. Shute. This building was the one now 
occupied by M. & A. McNeil, near Hobart's Bridge. The upper 
story was suitably arranged for meetings, and for more than two 
years afforded a convenient and pleasant place for worship. 

Up to this time the pulpit had been supplied by many different 
ministers, among them Rev. Thomas Conant, who was engaged 
to come and labor here as often as his other engagements would 
permit, Deacon Wilbur becoming personally responsible for : the 
expense thus incurred. 

As an illustration of how earnest these Baptists were in such 
days of struggle and sacrifice to maintain preaching, it is related 
that on learning late on a Saturday that the preacher expected 
from Boston was unable to come, Aunt Polly Barnes, as she was 
called, mounted her horse in the early evening and set out for 
Scituate to engage Mr. Conant for the next day's services. As 
she went on her way over a lonely road, a man suddenly sprang 
from the woods, seized her horse by the bridle and demanded her 
money. 

" You must wait until I can get it," she said, " for I have but 
one hand." (She had lost her left hand by amputation.) 

The highwayman released the bridle for a moment, thinking his 
booty now secure, when she struck her horse a sharp blow ; he 
sprang away, and the rider reached Mr. Conant's house in safety, 
engaged him to preach the next day, and rode quietly home to 
Hingham, some six miles, the same evening. 

March 9, 1828, twenty persons were publicly recognized as a 
branch of the Second Baptist Church, of Boston, Mr. Nathaniel T. 



Ecclesiastical History. 59 

Davis receiving - the right hand of fellowship in behalf of the 
Hingham society. 

In this year Deacon Caleb S. Hunt removed from Boston to 
Hingham. He organized and for many years led an efficient 
choir in this church. March 7, 1829, the society voted to pur- 
chase a bass-viol, and made an appropriation of five dollars to 
pav for it, " if a sufficient sum cannot be otherwise obtained ; " 
and May 10, 1833 it was 

" Voted, To pay arnnt of eighteen dollars for a clarionet, which had 
been previously purchased by some individual and used in the Baptist 
Meeting-house, and that the clarionet shall be the property of the church, 
and shall be under their direction." 



Sept. 21,1828, Rev. Harvey Ball was ordained as an evangelist, 
and served as pastor of this church for two years. Under his en- 
couraging ministry a house of worship was built. A day of spe- 
cial prayer was set apart that a location might be agreed upon, 
and soon after the lot upon which the meeting-house now stands, 
upon Main Street, was purchased for $500. This was conveyed 
July 1, 1829, to Asa Wilbur, of Boston, and Quincy Hersey, of 
Hingham. The meeting-house was erected, costing $ 3,300, and 
dedicated Dec. 3, 1829, amid much rejoicing. In May, 1875, the 
house and land were conveyed to the deacons of the church and 
their successors forever, in trust for the benefit of the church and 
society. 

After Mr. Ball's resignation in August, 1830, Mr. Timothy R. 
Cressey, a student at the Newton Theological Institution, often 
preached to the society. Mr. Cressey was a graduate of Amherst 
College in 1828. He was ordained pastor, May 5, 1831, and the 
church recognized as an independent body with fifty-one members. 
Mr. Cressey 's ministry continued for three years and a half, dur- 
ing which a vestry was built in the basement of the meeting-house, 
and twenty-eight were received into the church, twenty-one of 
these by baptism. 

Mr. Cressey was born at Pomfret, Conn., Sept. 18, 1800, and 
died at Des Moines, Iowa, Aug. 30, 1870. 

For the two succeeding years the church was without a pastor, 
Rev. John G. Naylor supplying the pulpit much of the time. 

Sept. 29, 1836, Mr. Waterman Burlingame was ordained pastor, 
and continued as such for nearly five years, until Aug. 5, 1840. 
During his pastorate twenty persons were received into the church, 
seventeen by baptism. 

For an interval of more than two years the church was without 
a regular pastor. Rev. Charles M. Bowers frequently preached 
and labored here during this interval. 



60 History of Hingham. 

July 22, 1842, Mr. Sereno Howe accepted a call with the under- 
standing that he was not to enter upon the full discharge of his 
duties until after the completion of his theological studies ; but in 
order that he might be qualified to administer the ordinances of 
the church, he was ordained as an evangelist at Charlestown. 
Sept. 28, 1842, he was installed as pastor of this church, and 
continued as such for nearly seven years. His resignation took 
effect July 8, 1849. During his pastorate seventy-five persons 
were received into the church, fifty-seven of them by baptism. 

Again, for a period of more than two years, the church was 
without a regular pastor, during which their spiritual needs were 
ministered to by many different clergymen and students from the 
Newton Theological Institution. Among the latter was Mr. Jona- 
than Tilson, who first preached here Dec. 22, 1850. May 3, 1851, 
he received a call to become the minister, which he accepted on 
the completion of his theological studies in the following August. 
His labors began September 28, and he was ordained November 
5, of the same year. 

During the summer of 1851, the meeting-house was moved for- 
ward eighteen feet and raised three feet, the vestry removed, and 
a larger one built with a committee room in the rear of it ; the 
interior was improved, a new pulpit took the place of the former 
one, and new furniture was procured. 

Mr. Tilson's pastorate was the longest in the history of the 
church, ending Sept. 24, 1876, after a fruitful service of a quarter 
of a century. He received into the church one hundred and fifty- 
six persons, of whom one hundred and twenty -five were by bap- 
tism. During his long period of service, Mr. Tilson interested 
himself in the affairs of the town as well as the church, and was 
much respected. 

Rev. A. Stewart McLean, of Charlestown, was installed pastor 
June 28, 1877, and resigned July 7, 1878. During his pastorate 
the house was extensively repaired, at a cost of $1,500, and the 
church received ten persons, of whom seven were by baptism. 

In December, 1878, Rev. Henry M. Dean, of Dayton, Ohio, en- 
tered upon the duties of minister, and continued until June 30, 
1887. During his pastorate twenty-seven persons were received 
into the church, of whom twenty-one were by baptism. 

In 1886, still further repairs were made upon the meeting- 
house, and colored glass substituted for the former plain glass 
windows. 

The next minister was Rev. Edward S. Ufford, a graduate of 
Bates Theological Institute, of Lewiston, Maine. He entered upon 
his pastorate Nov. 1, 1887, which continued until Nov. 1, 1889. 
During his pastorate twenty- six persons were admitted to the 
church, twelve of them by baptism. 



Ecclesiastical History. 61 

Rev. Sylvanus E. Frohock was the next minister. He was 
graduated from Brown University, in 1889. His first settlement 
was in Old Warwick, R. L, where he was ordained in 1886. He 
was pastor of this church from April 6, 1890, to Feb. 14, 1892. 
During his pastorate, in the winter of 1891-92, extensive im- 
provements were made in the interior of the meeting-house. 
New pews, a baptistery, and an organ were put in and the in- 
terior otherwise made attractive and convenient. 

Rev. Irving Eugene Usher entered upon the duties of pastor 
August 28, 1892. He was graduated at Madison (now Colgate) 
University, Hamilton, N. Y. in 1887, and took a partial course in 
the theological seminary there. He was first settled in Charles- 
ton, N. Y., where he was ordained in 1887, and remained there 
two years. From June, 1889, to June, 1892, he was at McGran- 
ville, N. Y. Since his settlement here four persons have been 
admitted to the church, two of them by baptism. 

All the settled ministers, with the exception of Mr. McLean, 
Mr. Ufford, and Mr. Usher, have been graduates of the Newton 
Theological Institution. 

A church library was established as early as 1830. 

Deacon Joshua Thayer died Feb. 26, 1874. By his will, he de- 
vised his homestead, on Elm Street, near the meeting-house, to 
the deacons of the church and their successors forever, in trust 
for the church and society, for the purposes of a parsonage. The 
first deacons to receive a deed of this property were Joseph Ripley 
and Levi Hersey. 

The first deacons were chosen in 1835. The following per- 
sons have held that office : Joshua Thayer, Nicholas Litchfield, 
Issacher Fuller, Joseph Ripley, Levi Hersey, Walton V. Mead, 
Martin T. Stoddard, and George W. Horton. 

This society has never been large, and its growth has not at 
any time in its history been rapid, yet an earnest purpose to 
adhere unswervingly to evangelical truth has always prevailed 
among its members ; and from a small beginning amid opposi- 
tion which amounted to persecution, the growth has been healthy 
and full of promise to those who have felt that they were devoutly 
" contending for the faith once for all delivered to the saints." 



62 



History of Hingham. 



METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 




METHODIST EPISCOPAL MEETING-HOUSE 



The town of Hing- 
ham was included in 
what was known as 
the Scituate circuit 
from 1807 to 1826. 
From the latter year 
until 1828 it was in- 
cluded in the Wey- 
mouth Society, and in 
1828 it became a sep- 
arate society. In 1807 
Rev. Thomas Asbury, 
on the Scituate cir- 
cuit, was the first 
Methodist minister 
who preached in Hing- 
ham. He was an 
Englishman, said to 
have been a cousin 
of the celebrated Bishop Asbury. He married Rachael Binney of 
Hull, and subsequently removed to Ohio, purchasing land on the 
present site of the city of Columbus. In 1809, Moses Tower, of 
Hingham, married Mary Binney, of Hull, who was a member of 
the Methodist Church, and their house, and that of Robert Goold, 
were opened to Methodist meetings for many years. Methodist 
ministers occasionally preached in these houses. One of the Sab- 
bath appointments for the Scituate circuit was Cohasset, where a 
house of worship was erected, and where the Methodists of Hing- 
ham worshipped until 1826, when they attended church services 
in Weymouth for about two years. 

The following ministers preached occasionally in Hingham be- 
fore 1828, when, on the formation of a separate society, a regular 
pastor was stationed here : Thomas Asbury, George Pickering, 
John Broadhead, Joseph Snelling, Joseph A. Merrill, Benjamin 
F. Lambord, Stephen Baily, Edward Hyde, Aaron Lummus, 
Richard Emery, Bradbury Clay, B. Otheman, Orin Roberts, Ben- 
jamin Hazelton, Jotham Horton, Isaac Jennison, F. Upham, 
A. D. Sargent, Stephen Puffer, Benjamin Jones, John Adams, 
Moses Sanderson, L. R. Sutherland, Samuel Norris, Jared 
Perkins. 

The first class of Methodists was formed in 1818, by Rev. Ed- 
ward T. Taylor, of Boston (Father Taylor), and consisted of 
seven members, namely : Robert Goold, Mary Goold, George 
Lincoln, Abigail Goold Tower, Jane Goold, Mary Goold Pratt,, 
and Isaiah Wilder. 



Ecclesiastical History. 



63 



The early meetings of this little band were attended with oppo- 
sition and disturbances from outside the houses in which they 
were held, but their number gradually increased. In 1828 Rev. 
Stephen Puffer, who was a local preacher residing in Hingham, 
gave funds for the erection of a meeting-house, which was dedi- 
cated July 3, 1828, and the lot and building were conveyed to a 
board of trustees. Mr. Puffer built the house at his own expense, 
and sold the pews to cover the cost of building and furnishing. 
The amount expended was $1,820. 

After the meeting-house was built Hingham became a station, 
and has been supplied by travelling and local preachers down to 
the present time. The following is a list of the ministers : — 



1828 . . 


Samuel Heath. 


1855 




Paul Townsend. 


1828 . . 


Nathan Spalding. 


1856 . . 


Lyman LefBngwell. 


1829 . . 


Selah Stocking. 


1857 . . 


Amos Binney. 


1830 . . 


Chauncey Richardson. 


1858-59 . 


F. A. Loomis. 


1831 . . 


A. U. Swinerton. 


1860-61 . 


Robert Clark. 


1832 . . 


Stephen Puffer. 


1862 . . 


Edward B. Hinckley. 


1833 . . 


Ralph W. Allen. 


1863-65 . 


William Henry Starr 


1834 . . 


P. W. Nichols. 


1866-68 . 


George E. Fuller. 


1835 . . 


Apollus Hale. 


1869-71 . 


Merritt P. Alderman 


1836 . . 


George W, Bates. 


1872-73 . 


James H. Nutting. 


1837 . . 


Daniel Wise. 


1874-75 . 


Charles Hammond. 


1838 . . 


James Madge. 


1876 . . 


James O. Thompson. 


1839 . . 


Daniel L. McGear. 


1877 




Annie Howard Shaw. 


1810 . . 


Robert Goold. 


1878 




Charles M. Comstock 


1841 . . 


William Davenport. 


1879 




George H. Huffman. 


1842 . . 


Abel Gardner. 


1880 




Henry M. Cole. 


1843-44 . 


Levi Daggett. 


1881 




Winfield W. Hall. 


1845 . . 


S. C Cook. 


1882 




Angelo Canol. 


1845 . . 


Geo.W Ilodgers (supply). 


1883 




W. F. Lawford. 


1846-47 . 


Adin H. Newton. 


1884 




Arthur Thompson. 


1848 . . 


Thomas Spilsled. 


1885 




W. D. Woodward. 


1849 . . 


J. Burleigh Hunt. 


1886 




B. F. Jackson. 


1850 . . 


Samuel Beedle. 


1887 




George B. Norton. 


1851 . . 


E F. Hinks. 


1888-89 . 


John H. Newland. 


1852-53 . 


Daniel Webb. 


1890 . . 


Samuel F. Johnson. 


1854 . . 


F. A. Loomis. 


1891-c 


)2 . 


Edwin G. Babcock. 



In 1828 the society numbered 30 members. 

1829 " " " 59 " 

1830 " " " 65 
1831-32 " " 70 " 

From 1832 to the present time, the society has waned and in- 
creased by turns. 

In 1841-42 there were 40 members. 
1860-61 « " 70 
1863 " " 53 " 

The society now numbers about seventy members. 
The first record of a Sunday-school is on July 29, 1844, when 
the school numbered a superintendent, seven teachers, and forty- 
five scholars, with three hundred and thirty books in the library. 



64 History of Hingham. 

In 1863 there were a superintendent, ten teachers, and seventy 
scholars, and over six hundred books in the library. 

In 1863 Rev. William H. Starr, the pastor, wrote an interesting 
historical sketch of the society, in which he attempts to account 
for the slow growth of Methodism in Hingham. It is chiefly a 
record of the opinions of the author, but his statement of one 
cause of weakness is so subtle and entertaining, and so compli- 
mentary to the attractions of the " devoted sisters," that it is 
quoted : — 

" One more circumstance I will mention which has taken strength from 
this society 

" The following preachers, R. W. Allen, Amos Binney, P. W. Nichols, 
Francis Messeur, J. M. Carroll, William Hambleton, and E. M. Anthony, 
in some way learned that we had talented and devoted sisters suited to 
become valuable help-mates in their ministerial labors, and have come 
once and again and taken those loved and useful sisters from the bosom 
of this society to other fields of labor and usefulness. May God bless 
and prosper them wherever they go in their work of love and self-denial. 
Their sphere of usefulness has been enlarged, and you who were so 
closely connected with them ought to thank God that you have had daugh- 
ters and sisters called, I trust, not only by man, but also by the Spirit of 
God to so glorious a work." 

Extensive alterations were made in the meeting-house in 1845, 
and in 1867 the building was moved back about thirty feet, 
raised, vestries built, and a new front and spire added, at an 
expense of nearly $4,000. 

This building stood at the corner of North Street and Marsh's 
Bridge, facing west. 

At the time of the latter extensive repairs, interesting services 
were held at the laying of the corner-stone, and a box contain- 
ing many interesting mementos was deposited beneath it. 

In 1882 the lot on the opposite side of North Street, at the 
corner of Thaxter Street, where the meeting-house now stands, 
was purchased and the building moved to the new location. 

In 1883, with the aid of gifts amounting to $1,000 from Mrs. 
Stephen Puffer, the widow of Rev. Stephen Puffer, who aided in 
the original building of the meeting-house, a parsonage was built 
upon the land belonging to the society, in the rear of the meeting- 
house, and it was furnished by the exertions of the members 
of the church. 

The record of this church is not one of large membership and 
numerous accessions, but rather that of an earnest band of Chris- 
tians, zealously striving for the cultivation and promulgation of 
those principles which, according to their faith, lead to the sal- 
vation of souls. 



Ecclesiastical History. 



65 



FIRST UNIVERSALIST SOCIETY. 




UNIVERSALIST MEETING HOUSK. 



On Nov. 1, 1823, 
there was a meeting 
of several members of 
the First Universalist 
Society, of Scituate, at 
the house of Capt. 
Charles W. Cushing, 
in Hingham. With 
them also met a num- 
ber of persons of the 
Universalist belief, 
from Hingham, and, 
under the inspiration 
of a mutual sympathy and the desire of spreading their faith, 
these latter organized as the First Universalist Society of 
Hingham. 

The following was their declaration of faith : — 

" We whose names are hereunto subscribed, being sensible of the un- 
changeable and universal love of God to mankind, exhibited in the 
Redeemer, and in humble thankfulness to Him for disposing our hearts 
to unite together in the bonds of Christian love and fellowship, think it 
our duty, as tending to the good order of society in general, and the 
improvement and edification of each other in particular, to form ourselves 
into a church of Christ, which, we conceive, consists of a number of be- 
lievers united together in the confession of faith of the gospel." 

The meeting-house was erected in 1829, and was the same 
now occupied by the society, on North Street. The corner-stone 
was laid May 18, 1829, and the house dedicated to the worship 
of God Sept. 19, 1829, on which occasion the sermon was 
preached by Rev. Hosea Ballou. 

Chapter 90 of the Acts of the Legislature of 1829 is " An 
Act to incorporate the Proprietors of the First Universalist 
Meeting-house in Hingham." " Moses L. Humphrey, Henry Nye, 
Marshall Lincoln, Ensign Barnes, Jr., Jairus Thayer and others 
who have associated or may hereafter associate with them and 
their successors " were the persons named in the Act as the 
members of the corporation. 

Among the ministers have been the following : Thomas J. 
Greenwood, Joseph P. Atkinson, Albert A. Folsom, John F. Dyer, 
Samuel A. Davis, Jeremy H. Farnsworth, Josiah W. Talbot, M. 
M. Freston, Albert Case, John D. Cargill, Emmons Partridge, 
John E. Davenport, Phebe A. Hanaford, Daniel P. Livermore, and 
S. R. H. Biggs. 



66 History of Hingham. 

Mr. Atkinson was born in Gloucester, Mass., Nov. 17, 1809, and 
died in Boston, Dec. 27, 1888. He studied theology with Rev. 
Thomas Whittemore, D. D., and was ordained in 1829. He was 
installed in Hingham April 30, 1830. His pastoral settlements 
were in Hingham, Dover, N. H., Weare, N. H., Marblehead, Mass., 
Westbrook, Me., Orleans, Mass., and Orange, Mass. During the 
last thirty-six years of his life his residence was chiefly in Laco- 
nia, N. H. After his retirement from his settled pastorates he 
administered for a time the affairs of the Universalist Publish- 
ing House in Boston with success. His funeral services took place 
in the Unitarian Church, Laconia, N. H., and were conducted by 
Rev. A. A. Miner, D. D., of Boston, assisted by several of the 
local clergymen. 

Mr. Folsom's pastorate was of about seven years' duration, 
and Mr. Livermore was the minister for eleven years. 

Mr. Biggs began to preach for the society in September, 1888, 
having charge of a parish in the neighboring town of Norwell at 
the same time. After a few months he received a call to become 
the settled pastor. His services as such began in March, 1889, 
and continued until July 1, 1891. He was a graduate from the 
Tufts Divinity School. 

From a time almost as early as the formation of the society 
the ordinance of the Lord's Supper has been administered to all 
who have felt its helpfulness, and in 1856, during the ministry 
of Rev. Mr. Cargill, a distinct church was organized, consisting 
of members who subscribed to the Winchester Confession of 
Faith. 

The installation of Mr. Atkinson, and the ordinations of Rev. 
John Nichols and Rev. Phebe A. Hanaford have taken place in 
this meeting-house. 

The Sunday-school of this society has been in a flourishing 
condition during these many years, having had at times a mem- 
bership of one hundred and twenty-five scholars. 

The Universalist denomination has not found in Hingham a 
very productive field for its growth. Enthusiasm and determina- 
tion have not been wanting among those of this faith in Hingham, 
especially in the early days of the society, but the predominant 
strength of the Unitarians, existing in the older parishes, has 
given the Universalists less opportunity for increasing their num- 
bers than might have been the case had they found themselves 
surrounded by other ecclesiastical neighbors. 



Ecclesiastical History. 



67 



EVANGELICAL CONGREGATIONAL SOCIETY. 




EVANGELICAL CONGREGATIONAL MEETING- 
HOUSE. 



The first minister of 
this church and society 
was Rev. Ebenezer Por- 
ter Dyer. Mr. Dyer was 
born in South Abing- 
ton, Aug. 15, 1813, en- 
tered Amherst College 
in 1829, where he re- 
mained one year, and 
was graduated at Brown 
University in 1833, af- 
ter which he pursued 
his theological studies 
at the Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary. He 
was licensed to preach 
in 1838, at Carlisle, and 
was ordained by the 
wayside at Stow, Sept. 
25, 1839. He was for 
a time pastor of the Evangelical Congregational Church in Stow, 
from which he was dismissed in March, 1846. He served as 
city missionary in Boston from February, 1846, to October, 
1847. While city missionary, in August, 1847, upon invitation 
of the Norfolk Conference of Churches, he visited Hingham with 
a view to establishing Evangelical Congregational preaching here. 
Religious services according to this faith had previously been 
held by Rev. Mr. Loring, in the Town Hall, and in September, 
1847, with financial aid from the Norfolk Conference, an engage- 
ment was made for Mr. Dyer to preach in the Town Hall for a 
period of one year. In October of the same year a Sunday-school 
was organized. Dec. 21, 1847, a church was formed, with eleven 
members, of which Asa H. Holden was chosen deacon. 

In 1848 the present meeting-house was erected, at the junction 
of Main and Pleasant Streets, and on Jan. 4, 1849, it was 
dedicated. 

At the close of Mr. Dyer's engagement of a year he became the 
settled minister, and his installation took place on Jan. 4, 1849, 
the day of the dedication of the meeting-house. 

Mr. Dyer was dismissed from his pastorate Nov. 17, 1863, after 
sixteen years' service, during which he served the church faith- 
fully, and he was a good citizen of the town as well. 

The ministers of this church who succeeded Mr. Dyer have been 
the following : — 

Rev. Henry W. Parker, a graduate of Amherst College and 



68 History of Hingham. 

Auburn (N. Y.) Theological Seminary, who supplied the pulpit 
for over a year, commencing in March, 1864. 

Rev. Henry W. Jones, a graduate of Amherst College and 
Hartford Theological Seminary, who was installed in May, 1866, 
and dismissed June 7, 1871. 

Rev. Austin S. Garver, educated at Pennsylvania College and 
a graduate of Andover Theological Seminary. He was ordained 
as pastor Oct. 31, 1872, and his pastorate ended in July, 1875. 

Rev. Edward C. Hood, a graduate of Princeton College and 
Union Theological Seminary, from September, 1875, to Septem- 
ber, 1882. 

Rev. Edward A. Robinson, a graduate of Harvard College in 
1879, and of Union Theological Seminary, who was ordained July 
11, 1883. His pastorate ended July 29, 1888. 

Rev. Frank L. Goodspeed, acting minister, from June 1, 1889, 
to June 1, 1890. Mr. Goodspeed was a graduate of the School of 
Theology, Boston University, and during his year of service in 
Hingham was pursuing his studies as a member of the senior 
class in Harvard College, from which he was graduated in 1890. 

Rev. Albert H. Wheelock, the present minister, a graduate of 
Bangor Theological Seminary, in 1888. He was ordained July 3, 
1888, as pastor of the Congregational Church in Topsham, Maine, 
where he remained until he came to this parish in November, 1891. 

The deacons of the church have been Asa H. Holden, Caleb 
S. Hunt, Samuel G. Bayley, Jacob 0. Sanborn, Tobias 0. Gard- 
ner, George E. Kimball, and Charles Bates. 

During the pastorate of Mr. Hood the meeting-house was ex- 
tensively repaired, . a new organ purchased and placed by the 
side of the pulpit, and a piano purchased for use in the vestry. 
Further alterations and repairs were made in the winter of 
1886-87, and stained-glass windows were put in. The clock was 
placed in the tower and started April 19, 1887. 

For about thirty years the church received financial aid from 
the Home Missionary Society. In 1878 the system of raising 
money for parish expenses by weekly offerings was adopted. 
By a vote of the parish, May 17, 1882, self-support was assumed, 
and it has been self-sustaining since that time. 

In another part of this chapter it has been stated that the 
parishes in Hingham did not divide upon denominational lines, 
as was common in the latter part of the last century. For nearly 
two centuries after the settlement of the town there were no 
other churches within its original limits, except those which be- 
came Unitarian. Doubtless the inclination of the sons to follow 
in the footsteps of their fathers in matters pertaining to religious 
faith and church allegiance will account for the fact that no 
earlier effort was made to establish an Evangelical Congregational 
Society here. The policy of this denomination in Hingham has 



Ecclesiastical History. 



69 



not been extremely aggressive, but tolerant of others' opinions, 
and it is not strange that, in a town but little subject to changes 
in the characteristics of its inhabitants, it has not grown to a 
very large membership. It should be credited, however, with an 
earnest, self-respecting, and constant devotion to the principles of 
its faith. 

THE FREE CHRISTIAN MISSION. 




FREE CHRISTIAN MISSION CHAPEL. 



This Church and So- 
ciety was organized 
Jan. 29, 1873, under 
the name of "The 
Free Christian Mis- 
sion " by those hold- 
ing the belief in the 
" Second Advent," and 
it has continued under 
the same faith to the 
present time. 

Three years before 
the organization of the 
society, a little Sunday-school and meetings were started by two 
sisters. 

Prominent among those who were instrumental in establishing 
the society, or who have contributed largely for its support, have 
been John Tuttle, Henry W. Sinclair, William H. Searles, William 
H. Crockett, Alonzo Manuel, and Joseph H. Hackett. Others also 
have aided according to their means and ability, with money and 
work, to keep alive the Christian work in the vicinity of the 
church. The society has always been self-sustaining, and an in- 
dependent body in its relations to any denomination, conference, 
or mission. 

The chapel, situated near the junction of High and Ward 
Streets, was built in 1873 with contributions of money collected! 
by a committee. The following extract from the Town Records 
will explain the manner in which a permit to build a chapel 
was obtained from the town : — 

"March 4th, 1872. Voted, That the report of the Committee to whom 
was referred the request of John Tuttle and others, to build a Chapel to 
be used for the purpose of religious worship, at the junction of High and 
Ward Streets, be amended by striking out the words 'thirty feet,' and 
' Selectmen,' and adding ' Road Commissioners,' and as amended be 
accepted. 

REPORT. 

To the inhabitants of Hingham, in Town Meeting assembled: — 

The Committee to whom was referred "the question of the town grant- 
ing consent to John Tuttle and others, to build a Chapel to be used for the 
purpose of Religious worship, on land near the junction of High and Ward 



70 History of Hingham. 

streets, with instructions to take into consideration all the facts in relation 
thereto," have given to the subject a careful examination and respectfully 
Report. The advantages which follow an attendance upon public wor- 
ship are apparent to nearly every candid and thinking person. A com- 
munity is not only improved in intelligence, virtue, and happiness thereby, 
but with these characteristics come a more earnest recognition and main- 
tenance of law and order, as well as an increased interest in the prosperity 
and general welfare of society. 

From our local history, we learn that the early settlers of the town 
were a godly and law-abiding people ; and to a considerable extent their 
characteristics have been sustained by their descendants. 

The first church in Hingham was formed in 1635. From it have 
sprung ten other religious societies, all having places for public worship 
within the original limits of the town, which included Cohasset. At the 
present time a number of our fellow citizens desire to establish another 
church. With their associates they number about one hundred persons, 
a majority of whom reside on Ward and High Streets, or in that vicinity. 
They have held meetings during the past year at their residences, and 
these meetings, we learn, have been well attended. In many instances 
the house occupied was not sufficiently large to accommodate all who were 
present. 

On account of the interest thus manifested, the erection of a Chapel is 
contemplated. To this end several hundred dollars have already been 
pledged or subscribed ; but the amount does not at present meet the 
necessary requirements. By renewed exertions, however, those interested 
in the movement expect soon to overcome this difficulty. 

The piece of land which the petitioners ask the town to permit them 
to build upon is eligibly situated and well adapted for their purpose. It 
has laid unimproved for the past fifty years without benefit to any one. 
Your committee have sought in vain for any title in the premises other 
than that of the town. 

They have corresponded and conferred with people who have been 
familiar with the locality for the past seventy years. 

They have also carefully searched the records of Suffolk County, be- 
ginning with the time when the lot was first occupied by James Hayward, 
and thus far have been unable to find any conveyance of the property, 
either by will or deed. 

In view of these circumstances, and of the benefits which the town may 
receive from an increase of taxable property in that locality, your com- 
mittee recommend : — 

First. That the town reserve thirty feet of the said lot, fronting on 
High Street, for widening and otherwise improving that street; and 

Second. That the petitioners have liberty to enclose a lot for the pur- 
poses of erecting a chapel thereon as requested, within such limits as the 
Selectmen shall fix and determine upon ; and that a plan of the same 
shall be filed in the Town Clerk's office. 

George Lincoln, ~) 
Crocker Wilder, > Committee. 
Elijah Shute, ) 
Hingham, March 4, 1872. 

The membership at the present time is thirty, and the usual 
attendance at the services has been from fifty to one hundred. 
Rev. William H. Crockett has been the minister since 1879. 



Ecclesiastical History. 



71 



PARISH OF ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST 

(PROTESTANT EPISCOPALj. 

Before the organi- 
zation of any Epis- 
copal mission or 
church in Hingham, 
there had been for 
many years inter- 
mittent services in 
the town. 

In 1824, the first 
services of the Epis- 
copal Church were 
held in Hingham, 
and continued for a 
time, with good at- 
tendance, in a hall 
Bassett, an ardent Epis- 




.. .,xfnnift%,/At. ///mil* 



EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 



fitted up for the purpose by Mr. Daniel 
copalian. 

The number of those interested for any length of time was so 
small, however, that no attempt was made to establish a church 
on a permanent foundation. 

From the Hingham Gazette we learn that Rev. Mr. Cutler 
preached on the Sunday following Christmas, 1827 ; and from a 
private letter that the Rt. Rev. Alexander Viets Griswold, S. T. D., 
Bishop of the Eastern Diocese, preached in Hingham on an even- 
ing in June, 1828, which was probably the first visitation of a 
Bishop to Hingham. 

About the year 1841 Rev. Samuel Cutler, of Hanover, held 
services in Bassett's hall, being assisted by clergymen who chanced 
to be in the vicinity during the summer season. 

The families of Daniel Bassett, Atherton Tilden, and Edward 
Wilder were the only residents of the town, so far as can be as- 
certained, at that time identified with the church. 

In 1843, services were again held in the same hall by Rev. John 
P. Robinson, of Quincy. The hall was loaned for the purpose, 
seats were put in, and prayer-books purchased, which were marked 
upon the covers, " Episcopal Church, Hingham." Some of these 
books are now in use. The services were abandoned after a short 
time, as the number interested in them was small. 

Rev. Theodore W. Snow, a missionary in 1844, " visited many 
places in the Diocese, and among others held one of more services 
in Hingham." 

May 30, 1869, an evening service was held in Loring Hall, and 
through the following summer continued regularly. The Rt. 
Rev. Manton Eastburn, S. T. D., LL.D., Bishop of Massachusetts, 



72 History of Hingham. 

preached at one of these evening services, which were conducted 
mostly by Rev. Mr. Street, of Weymouth. There were occasional 
services during the summer of 1870 and 1871. 

Finally, in 1879, a successful effort was made to establish per- 
manent Episcopal services. July 6, 1879, services were con- 
ducted, in Southworth's hall, on Broad Bridge, by Rev. Julius 
H. Ward, of Boston, and they were continued regularly through 
the summer, and as often as twice in each month in the following 
winter, under the charge of Rev. Thaddeus A. Snively, of Quincy, 
and Rev. George S. Bennett, of Dorchester. In November, 1879, 
a Sunday-school was organized. 

The apostolic rite of Confirmation was administered, for the 
first time in Hingham, by the Rt. Rev. Benjamin Henry Paddock, 
S. T. D., Bishop of Massachusetts, June 13, 1880, to six persons. 

Through the summer of 1881 the services were in charge of 
Rev. Percy C. Webber, and during the following winter, of Mr. 
Sherrard Billings, as lay reader, then a candidate for holy orders, 
and a student at the Episcopal Theological School at Cambridge. 

July 1, 1881, a lot of land on Main Street, opposite Water 
Street, was purchased for $1,000, and a fund for the erection of a 
church was started. 

At Easter, 1882, a mission was organized ; and July 1, 1882, 
Rev. Charles L. Wells was placed in charge. Mr. Wells was a 
graduate of Harvard College in 1879. 

Services continued in Southworth's hall until 1883. 

With the proceeds of a sale, the efforts of the Women's Guild, 
and amounts subscribed by generous friends, sufficient funds were 
procured to justify the building of a church on the lot already 
purchased, and ground was broken for it in November, 1882. Mr. 
Edgar A. P. Newcomb, of Boston, was the architect, and gene- 
rously contributed his services. The church was finished and 
consecrated June 5, 1883, by the Rt. Rev. Benjamin Henry Pad- 
dock, S. T. D., Bishop of Massachusetts. The occasion was one of 
much interest. Over two hundred persons were present at the 
services of consecration, in which about thirty clergymen assisted. 

The dimensions of the church are sixty-four by twenty-four feet, 
and it has a seating capacity for about one hundred and fifty. 
Its cost was about $3,000. 

The chancel window was the gift of Miss Blanche Shimmin 
in memory of her grandmother, Mary George Parkman. The 
large window in the west end of the church was the gift of Mrs. 
George S. Glover and Governor John D. Long in memory of 
Mary Woodward Long, the daughter of Mrs. Glover and wife 
of Governor Long. 

The chancel furniture and font were gifts as well as the 
organ, the latter presented by St. Paul's Church, of Stock- 
bridge, Mass. 

The brass jewelled receiving basin came from London, England, 
and was also a arift. 



Ecclesiastical History. 



73 



The chalice and pa- 
ten of silver and gilt, 
engraved and in- 
scribed, enclosed in a 
case of polished oak, 
were sent from St. 
Andrew's Church, of 
Hingham, England, 
and still further gifts 
of a lectern and bish- 
op's chair, of oak, 
massive and elabo- 
rately carved, which 
had been in use in 
that ancient church, 
were sent across the 
ocean and presented 
as a sign of Christian 
brotherhood and in- 
timate church rela- 
tionship between the 
old and the new Hing- 
ham. The following 
extracts from " The 
Hingham Deanery 
Magazine," of April, 
1883, are interesting 
in connection with 
these latter gifts from 
St. Andrew's Church, 
of Hingham, Eng- 
land : — 

" Hingham in Amer- 
ica. — The Rector has 
received a, letter from 
New York from an 
American lady, who vis- 
ited our parish last sum- 
mer, in the hope of gain- 
ing some information 
concerning an ancestor, 

Thomas Joy, ' who left Hingham, England, with a band of Puritans about 
the year 1630, and after a short stay in Boston, Massachusetts, founded 
a town near by, which they named Hingham, in tender memory of their 
English home.' The lady's letter enclosed a letter addressed to herself 
by the ' Minister in charge of the Mission of St. John the Evangelist,' 
dated Hingham, March 5, 1883. He gives an account of a small church 
which is in course of building there, and which it is hoped to open for 
Divine service in the beginning of May. This church is to cost about 
£600, and there seems little doubt of the money being forthcoming. 




bishop's chair in the episcopal church. 



74 History of Hingham. 

Alluding to a request for aid which he had heard of having been made 
a year ago to the Rector of our Hingham, the Minister says : ' I should 
prefer not to receive money from there, even if he were able and in- 
clined to send it. I will say, however, that a book, or window, or some 
article of church furniture (if possible something that had been used 
there) would be a pleasant memorial of our Mother Church. ... I do 
not think we ought to receive aid from Hingham, but some token of 
Christian brotherhood and Church relations would be of inestimable value.' 
The wish thus expressed will surely find a response. A committee has 
been formed of three ladies, to consider in what way the Church people 
of Hingham, Norfolk, can best manifest their sympathy with the Church 
builders and worshippers of Hingham, Massachusetts." 



Hingham Rectory, 
Attleborough, March 21, 1883. 
Dear Sir, — I have lately received and read with much interest and 
pleasure a letter of yours to Mrs. Dyer, in which you give her an ac- 
count of Church work at Hingham, Mass. I read your letter to-day to 
a working party of ladies who are employed much in the same way as 
the Guild that you write of. They will be much pleased to carry out 
your suggestion and to make some present to your Church which may 
be a token to you and your people of the interest felt for them by the 
parishioners of Old Hingham. . . . There is a fine old chair which has 
stood in our Church a long time, which, if you have room for it, I 
think we might send you to represent your Bishop's "cathedra." 

Yours faithfully, 

Maynard W. Currie. 
To Rev. Charles L. Wells. 



Hingham Rectory, 
Attleborough, April 12, 1883. 
My dear Sir, — ... I think our means would suffice to procure a 
chalice and paten suitable for your little church, — if that is what your 
congregation would like. The chair which I offered is large and rather 
unwieldy, but if you think it worth being carried across the Atlantic, I 
am sure the church-wardens would be willing to send it. There is a 
lectern of proportions suitable, I should think, to your church and made 
of old oak, which would be much at your service. Let me assure you 
of my appreciation of the sentiments expressed in your letter to Mrs. 
Dyer, and of the sympathy of the Church people of Old Hingham with 
you and your people of the new. 

I am, my dear sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

Maynard W. Currie. 
To Rev. Charles L. Wells. 



Hingham, Attleboro', July 27, 1883. 
My dear Sir, — ... The committee of ladies of which I told you 
have made a collection among their friends here, to which I hope to be 



Ecclesiastical History. 75 

allowed to make an addition, and I may say that we thus have a sum of 
£20 (twenty pounds) to be devoted to the procuring of something for 
your church which would be acceptable to you and your congregation as 
a token of the sympathy and brotherly regard felt by the Church people 
of the Old Hingham for the Church people of the new. It occurs to me 
that a silver chalice and paten would be an appropriate gift to your 
church, and a durable memorial of the regard which we wish to express. 
... I have not forgotten the wish you expressed to have some furniture 
that had been in use in the old church. ... I will write you again about 
the chair, and if it is not too big for you and you wish to have it, I feel 
sure our church-wardens will offer no objection to my sending it. . . . 

Yours very faithfully, 

Maynard W. Currie. 
To Rev. Charles L. Wells. 



Hingham, Massachusetts, 
August 11th, 1883. 

Rev. and dear Sir, — Your favor of the 27th ult. is at hand, and I 
thank you heartily for the kind and cordial feeling which it expresses. 
We are delighted with the exceedingly generous expressions which it 
promises us of the brotherly regard of the Church-people of Old Hingham 
for us of the New. Above all, we thank you for your interest in bring- 
ing about a happy result ; it will be a joy and an inspiration to us for 
many years to come. Nor can we conceive of a more desirable, more 
acceptable, or more appropriate form in which to express the Christian 
love and Church brotherhood than that which you suggest. 

The Chalice and the Paten used in celebrating the memorial of the 
redeeming Passion of our common Lord will thus serve not only to bring 
before us our communion with Him and with each Other, but also to re- 
mind us, continually, in a beautiful and significant manner of our com- 
munion with our Mother Church across the sea, " to which," as the pre- 
face to our own Prayer Book so truly and so beautifully says, " the Church 
in these States is indebted under God for her first foundation and long con- 
tinuance of nursing care and protection." May the union be strong and 
lasting, ministering to the glory of God and to the prosperity of His 
Church. . . . Believe me, with the greatest respect and esteem, 

Very faithfully yours, 

Charles L. Wells. 

To Rev. Maynard W. Currie. 



The silver chalice and paten were ordered from Messrs. Keith 
& Son, Denmark Street, Soho, with the following inscription : 
" Presented by the Church-people of Hingham, England, to the 
Church of St. John the Evangelist, Hingham, Massachusetts, 
U. S. A.," engraved on the under side. On the paten is added 
the text, " We being many are One Bread and One Body." 



76 History of Hingham. 

April 24, 1883. 
My dear Sir, — Before leaving home for a few weeks I ordered the 
chair and lectern, both of which have stood in our old Parish Church, 
to be sent to you. . . . 

Yours very truly, 

Maynard W. Currie. 
To Rev. Charles L. Wells. 



Hingham Rectory, Attleboroug-h. 
St. Luke's Day, 1883. 
My dear Sir, — The enclosed extract from our " Deanery Magazine " 
will show you that we have acted on your acceptance of the proposal 
contained in my last letter. 

The Chalice and Paten have been on view for the last ten days. It 
has been suggested that your congregation would like to think that they 
had been used in the Mother Church, and I propose to use them on 
Sunday next in the celebration of the Holy Communion. The vessels, in 
their box, shall then be sent up to London for transmission to Boston. I 
trust that they will arrive safely, and I know that your people will re- 
ceive our gift as a token of the brotherly love which we entertain for 
our kinsmen across the ocean. . . . 

I am with kind regard, 

Yours faithfully, 

Maynard W. Currie. 
To Rev. Charles L. Wells. 



Mr. Wells resigned in the autumn of 1884, and during the fol- 
lowing winter the Mission was in charge of Mr. Walter E. C. 
Smith, a candidate for Holy Orders in the Episcopal Theological 
School, at Cambridge. 

Rev. James I. T. Coolidge, D. D., was in charge from 1885 to 
Nov. 1, 1888, his first sermon being on Whitsunday, 1885. He 
was graduated at Harvard College in 1888, and received the 
degree of Doctor of Divinity from Hobart College in 1870. 

Rev. Alsop Leffingwell, the present rector, was born July 23, 
1858, in Fairfield, Conn. He was graduated at Wesleyan Univer- 
sity in 1880 ; entered Berkeley Divinity School, Middletown, 
Conn., in 1886, from which institution he was graduated, in 1889. 
He was temporarily connected with the parish from June to Octo- 
ber, 1889, and since that time he has been regularly in charge. 

The organization as a parish took place in June, 1885. 



Ecclesiastical History. 77 



UNITED SOCIAL SOCIETY OF SOUTH HINGHAM. 

In the extreme southerly part of the town religious meetings 
had been held occasionally but not regularly for some years pre- 
viously to 1890. In the vicinity of Gardner and Whiting Streets 
there is quite a village. In the spring of 1890, there being no 
place near enough to that village to enable the inhabitants to 
attend church, or the children to go to Sunday-school, it occurred 
to Mrs. Annie Belcher and her sister, Mrs. Sarah Chubbuck, of 
Gardner Street, that a Sunday-school could be established there. 
They consulted with the families in the neighborhood, and finding 
them all in favor of the undertaking, and willing to assist, not 
only in the formation of a Sunday-school, but also in establish- 
ing regular Sunday services, a room was engaged in a building 
erected by Leonard Gardner for a wooden-ware manufactory, 
situated on Gardner Street, and the first meeting was held and 
a Sunday-school organized on the first Sunday in May, 1890, 
Rev. Jacob Baker, of South Weymouth, officiating, and I. Wilbur 
Lincoln being Superintendent of the Sunday-school. The meet- 
ings continued with unabated interest during the summer and 
autumn of 1890, the attendance increased, and during the summer 
fifteen persons were baptized. Upon the approach of winter the 
meetings were discontinued, as there was no means of heating 
the room in Mr. Gardner's building, but the Sunday-school was 
held in different houses during the winter. The enthusiasm 
which first prompted and had so successfully carried on the 
good work during the season continued to increase, and the 
project was then conceived of erecting a building suitable for 
the wants of the society. In the autumn of 1890 twenty-two 
persons formed an incorporated organization under the name of 
the " United Social Society of South Hingham," with the following 
officers : — 

J. Fremont Belcher, President. 
Miss Clara J. Gardner, Secretary. 
Mrs. Lloyd Raymond, Treasurer. 
Charles A. Gardner, ^ 
Mrs. Charles A. Gardner, ~ ,. 
Mrs. J.Fremont Belcher, > landing 
I. Wilbur Lincoln, | ^mtoe. 

Mrs. Charles M. Clark, J 



It was decided to proceed at once to the erection of a chapel ; 
a building committee was chosen ; a lot of land at the junction of 
Gardner and Derby streets was given to the society by Lewis 
Gardner, and work upon the building was immediately begun. 
Owing to the cold winter,, however, it was not completed until 



78 History of Hingham. 

the following spring. It is a tasteful building, twenty-two by 
forty feet, with an alcove for the minister and choir. The total 
cost, exclusive of labor perforhied by various members of the 
society, was over $800. To a small society of twenty-two mem- 
bers the erection of this chapel seemed quite an undertaking; but 
friends from Hingham and adjoining towns gave encouragement 
and substantial aid, which, combined with the persistency and 
faith of the members of the society from its commencement, 
completed a building which exceeded the expectations of those 
directly interested in its construction, and which would be a 
credit to any community. The chapel was dedicated Sunday, 
May 16, 1891, with appropriate exercises. At the exercise of 
dedication an appeal was made to the congregation by one of 
the visiting speakers, for aid to reduce the debt incurred in 
building the chapel, and $151 were contributed. The society is 
now free from debt. The organ, chairs, and some other furni- 
ture were the gift of the sewing society. Services are held every 
Sunday. There is no settled minister, but clergymen from 
Hingham and adjoining towns officiate at the services. This 
society is doing a good work. 

Although the original limits of the South Parish extend to the 
southern boundary line of the town, yet the natural boundary line 
of Liberty Pole Hill marks the division between Glad Tidings 
Plain and Liberty Plain and the adjacent country. The thickly 
settled portion of extreme South Hingham forms a village quite a 
distance from the Meeting-house, and partly from this cause and 
perhaps also from a diversity of opinion there has been a demand 
for a nearer place of worship. 

As has been previously stated there had been occasional relig- 
ious meetings and Sunday-schools through many years in this 
part of the town. Beginning some forty years or more before 
the formation of this society, meetings were held regularly for a 
number of years in the schoolhouse, which brought together on 
Sundays a large congregation, not only from this immediate 
vicinity, but also from Scituate and Hanover. Rev. George 
Lincoln preached. There was a large Sunday-school connected 
with these meetings. In 1859-60 there were religious services 
in Liberty Hall, at which Rev. J. F. Dyer preached. 

The formation of the United Social Society of South Hingham 
is the natural outcome of these earlier efforts to maintain regular 
religious services. 



Ecclesiastical History. 



79 



CHURCH OP ST. PAUL 
(ROMAN CATHOLIC). 

At the time when 
services of the Ro- 
man Catholic 
Church were first 
held in Hingham, 
the town was with- 
in the limits of the 
Q u i n c y parish. 
This was soon after 
1850. Afterwards 
it was attended 
from Randolph, 
then from Alding- 
ton, until 1867, at 
which time Wey- 
mouth became a 
separate parish. 
Hingham was then 
attached to the 
Weymouth parish 
and so continued 
until it was itself 
made a separate parish in 1876. The first organization of Cath- 
olics in Hingham was in 1850, when the "Hingham Catholic 
Association " announced a course of eight weekly lectures, be- 
ginning Feb. 5, 1850, upon subjects connected with the history of 
the Roman Catholic Church, by Rev. Mr. Roddan, of Quincy, " in 
the Society's rooms near the depot," These lectures were favor- 
ably noticed in the " Hingham Journal." 

For about twenty years after the first services here, the Cath- 
olics of Hingham felt the great need of a suitable edifice in which 
to worship God after the form of their own religion. During that 
time their religious services had been held in the Town Hall. 
Efforts had been made from time to time to erect a church, 
but no progress was made in that direction until Rev. Hugh P. 
Smyth, the pastor of the Weymouth parish, which included Hing- 
ham, took the matter in hand. Father Smyth determined to 
have a church in Hingham. He bought a site for it in the 
commanding position on North Street, opposite Broad Bridge. 
He labored indefatigably to build a church for his congregation, 
and on June 12, 1870, the corner-stone was laid with impressive 
ceremonies. In the absence of the Bishop the Very Rev. P. F. 
Lyndon, V. G., officiated as celebrant. The dedication sermon 




CATHOLIC CHUKCH. 



80 History of Hingham. 

was preached by Rev. Charles Lynch, of North Adams, Mass. 
The following clergymen also took a part in the ceremonies : 
Rev. M. Moran, Abington ; Rev. Thomas McNulty, North Bridge- 
water ; Rev. James Sullivan, Quincy ; Rev. Michael Supple, 
Charlestown ; Rev. Michael Lane, and Rev. F. Dolan, South Bos- 
ton. The services were conducted in the presence of a large con- 
gregation. 

The energy of Father Smyth was unceasing in urging on the 
completion of the church, and it was so far finished as to be dedi- 
cated July 23, 1872, a testimony at once of the pastor's zeal and 
the people's earnestness. 

Among the clergymen present at the dedication were the 
Right Rev. John J. Williams, Bishop of Boston ; Rev. James A. 
Healey, St. James Church, Boston; Rev. Sherwood Healey, rector 
of the Cathedral ; and Rev. Peter A. McKenna, of Marlboro'. A 
choir under the direction of Mr. Lloyd, of St. James Church, 
Boston, sang with good effect. The ceremony of dedication was 
performed by the Right Rev. Bishop according to the ritual, which 
was followed by the Mass, at which Rev. Sherwood Healey offici- 
ated. The sermon was preached by Rev. Peter A. McKenna, 
of Marlboro'. 

The church is of wood and its dimensions are one hundred and 
eleven by fifty-six feet, with a tower and spire one hundred and 
twenty-eight feet high. In the basement is a spacious vestry 
with a number of anterooms connected with it. The interior 
has a finish of chestnut capped with black walnut. The architect 
was P. C. Kelley, of Brooklyn, N. Y. It has numerous windows 
of stained glass, which were contributed by devoted members of 
the parish. 

For some time the pastor, Father Smyth, was assisted in his 
parish work by Rev. Peter J. Leddy. When Hingham was made 
a separate parish, Father Leddy was appointed pastor. He was 
an affable and genial man, respected in the town. He died 
here, much lamented, Jan. 15, 1880. 

Father Leddy was followed by Rev. Gerald Fagan, the present 
pastor. 

During a portion of the time Father Fagan was assisted by 
Rev. Hugh J. Mulligan. 

The church is dedicated to Saint Paul. 

This church has a larger membership than any other in the 
town, and is active in all matters relating to the work of the 
Roman Catholics. 



In reviewing the ecclesiastical history of New England much 
has been written about the intolerance of our Puritan ancestors, — 
those " holy and humble men of heart " by whom our Colonies 
were planted. Mr. Winthrop speaks of them as " sublime exam- 



Ecclesiastical History. 81 

pies of piety, endurance, and heroic valor," and says, " We some- 
times assume to sit in judgment on their doings. We often 
criticise their faults and failings. There is a special proneness 
of late to deride their superstitions and denounce their intoler- 
ance." The church in Hingham began its existence under the 
spiritual guidance of Rev. Peter Hobart, who was a man of too 
large and liberal views to be a bigot in religious matters. Quoting 
again from Mather, " his heart was knit in a most sincere and 
hearty love towards pious men though they were not in all things 
of his own persuasion, saying, ' I can carry them in my bosome.' " 
Under the lead of such a man there appears to have been no 
unusual intolerance here. Possibly the discipline of the church 
was no less severe in Hingham than in the neighboring towns, 
but he who searches our early church records will find no mention 
of such cases of discipline as are found in the records of many 
churches. 

It may be that the ecclesiastical history of Hingham is very 
much like that of many other New England towns, but we cannot 
study it closely without being impressed with one central and 
pervading principle, — not that of intolerance, but of independence. 

That independent spirit which gave the people of this town the 
courage born of their convictions, the boldness to assert their 
opinions, the determination to establish and maintain their faith, 
and the resolute adherence to the right of search after truth 
according to the dictates of conscience, is manifest throughout 
all their history. 

That independent spirit is seen in our Puritan ancestors, who 
left their homes, crossed the sea, and settled here to escape per- 
secution ; in Peter Hobart, the bold, fearless, resolute man, in his 
controversy with the magistrates ; in Ebenezer Gay, who dared 
to promulgate broader and more progressive opinions than most 
of his contemporaries ; in the inhabitants of the Second Precinct 
and South Parish in their determined efforts to secure for them- 
selves independent churches ; in the founders of the Third Con- 
gregational Society ; in the Baptists and Methodists, who struggled 
and persisted in establishing churches of their own faiths, over- 
coming opposition amounting almost to persecution ; and in the 
more peaceful, yet none the less loyal efforts of those of other 
churches, whose history lias been told. 

Out of all this independence has come logically a spirit of toler- 
ation. There can hardly be found in New England a community 
in which there is so much liberty of religious opinion as in Hing- 
ham. Ministers of the various churches have been accustomed to 
stand in each others' pulpits and deliver their holy messages to 
appreciative and sympathizing congregations, and in the spirit of 
true Christianity are always ready to lend a helping hand and 
speak a consoling word to any who are in trouble, regardless of 
denominational affiliations. Happily for the welfare of the town, 



82 History of Hingham. 

the members of all churches are at peace with each other. They 
differ without acrimony, each in his own way endeavoring to 
" worship the Father in spirit and in truth, for the Father seeketh 
such to worship Him." 

" In pleasant lands have fallen the lines 
That bound our goodly heritage ; 
And safe beneath our sheltering vines 

Our youth is blessed, and soothed our age. 

" What thanks, O God, to thee are due, 
That thou didst plant our fathers here, 
And watch and guard them as they grew, 
A vineyard to the Planter dear. 

" Thy kindness to our fathers shown, 

In weal and woe, through all the past, 
Their grateful sons, O God ! shall own, 
While here their name and race shall last." 



EDUCATION. 

BY FRANCIS H. LINCOLN. 



Where schools are not vigorously and honourably encouraged, whole colonies 
will sink apace into a degenerate and contemptible condition, and at last become 
horribly barbarous ; and the first instance of their barbarity will be, that they will be 
undone for want of men, but not see and own what it is that undid them. 

Mather's Magnolia. 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

It is impossible to determine accurately at what date a school 
was first kept in Hingham. That one existed very early is certain, 
for in 1661-62 we find an item in the Selectmen's Records for 
money " paid to John Stodder and Joseph Church for worke done 
about the Schoole house." In another place an account will be 
given of the several schoolhouses built by the town, and it will be 
shown that the site of the earliest buildings was on the hill for- 
merly in front of the Academy. It was on this hill that the first 
meeting-house was erected, as we know, but there is no evidence 
of the date of its erection, as there is none of the erection of a 
schoolhouse prior to 1661-62. It is natural to suppose that 
Church and School early received the attention of the first 
settlers. By a law of 1642 " respecting children and youth," 
it was ordered : — 

" Forasmuch as the good education of children is of singular behoof and 
benefit to any commonwealth, and whereas many parents and masters are 
too indulgent and negligent of their duty in that kind u 

" It is ordered, that the selectmen of every town, in the several precincts 
and quarters where they dwell, shall have a vigilant eye over their breth- 
ren and neighbors, to see, first that none of them shall suffer so much 
barbarism in any of their families, as not to endeavor to teach, by them- 
selves or others, their children and apprentices, so much learning, as may 
enable them perfectly to read the English tongue, and knowledge of the 
capital laws : upon penalty of twenty shillings for each neglect therein." 

In 1647 towns were required by law to maintain a school. The 
Massachusetts system dates from this act, which was as follows : 



84 History of Hingham. 

"It being one chief project of that old deluder, Satan, to keep men 
from the knowledge of the scripture, as in former times keeping them in 
unknown tongues, so in these latter times by persuading from the use of 
tongues, so that at least the true sense and meaning of the original might 
be clouded and corrupted with false glosses of deceivers ; to the end that 
learning may not be buried in the graves of our forefathers, in church and 
commonwealth, the Lord assisting our endeavours ; 

" It is therefore ordered by this Court and authority thereof ; that every 
township within this jurisdiction, after the Lord hath increased them to the 
number of fifty householders, shall then forthwith appoint one within 
their towns to teach all such children as shall resort to him to write and 
read, whose wages shall be paid either by the parents or masters of such 
children or by the inhabitants in general, by way of supply, as the major 
part of those that order the prudentials of the town shall appoint : pro- 
vided that those who send their children be not oppressed by paying more 
than they can have them taught for in other towns. 

" And it is further ordered that where any town shall increase to the 
number of one hundred families or householders, they shall set up a 
grammar school, the master thereof being able to instruct youth so far as 
they may be fitted for the university : and if any town neglect the per- 
formance hereof above one year, then every such town shall pay five 
pounds per annum to the next such school, till they shall perform this 
order." 

The best evidence which can be gathered confirms the belief 
that the meeting-house and schoolhouse stood side by side ; that 
the inhabitants of Hingham waited for no law to compel them to 
regard the education of their youth ; but that from the beginning 
of the settlement, their common-sense led them to see the neces- 
sity of "so much learning as may enable them perfectly to read 
the English tongue." 

" It was then," says Mr. Horace Mann, " amid all their pri- 
vations and dangers, that the Pilgrim Fathers conceived the 
magnificent idea of a Free and Universal Education of the 
People ; and amid all their poverty, they stinted themselves 
to a still scantier pittance ; amid all their toils, they imposed 
upon themselves still more burdensome labors ; amid all their 
perils they braved still greater dangers, that they might find 
the time and the means to reduce their grand conception to 
practice. 

"Two divine ideas filled their great hearts, — their duty to God 
and to posterity. For the one, they built the church ; for the 
other, they opened the school." 

From 1668 to the present time we have definite records which 
show clearly and distinctly the steady progress and growth of the 
public schools in this town. Numerous items in the Selectmen's 
Records show the amounts paid for building a schoolhouse and for 
wages of teachers ; and in many cases the contracts with the 
teachers are entered in full upon the records. It is interesting 
to recall the method of making these contracts. We find the 
following in 1670: — 



Education. 85 

This Memorandum is to certifie those whom it may Concern, That the 
Selectmen of Hingham have indented with Henry Smith as followeth ; 
The said Henry Smith engageth that with care and dilligence he will 
teach and instruct, until a year be expired, in Latin, Greek, & English, in 
Writting and Arithmetick, such youths of the Inhabitants of Hingham, as 
shall, for the fore mentioned Sciences, be sent unto their Schooll. And 
the said Selectmen whose names are subscribed, doe on the behalfe of the 
Towne of Hingham Promise and Ingage that the fore said Henry Smith 
for his encouragement & pains, shall have 24 Pounds proportionally paid 
him at the end of each Quarter of the fore said annual Term, in good mer- 
chantable Corne at Price currant. The species are Wheat, Rye, Barley, 
Pease, & Indian, Whereof a Third or Second is to be indian Corn ; The 
fore said year is to begin on the first of February 1 670 & to end on the 
Last of January @ 1671. The said Henry Smith is to have a fortnight 
Time a lowed him for a Jorney out of the year above said; in witness 
whereof Both Parties have Interchangably set to our Hands This 12th of 
January @ 1670. 

Henry Smith. 

Selectmen: Joshua Hobart, 
John Smith, 
John Thaxter, 
Mathew Cushing, 
Thomas Andrews. 

This is a true Copy of the above written agreement, 

as attest, John Smith, Clerk. 

From the beginning until 1752 only one school was kept in the 
town, and until 1709 there appears to have been no attempt to 
change the place of keeping it from the north part of the town. 
The first mention of a free school is found in a vote of the town 
in 1709, when it was voted, " that it should be a free school this 
present year." Before that time the schoolmaster's salary was 
often paid by those who sent their children to school. We 
find the rate stated explicitly in a vote passed in 1687 : " And it 
[the salary] is to be paid by those persons in the town, that send 
their children or servants to the said school, to be taught, who are 
to pay for every boy that learns Latin, four pence per week, and 
such as learn English two pence per week, and such as learn to 
write and cypher, to pay three pence per week." If the scholars 
did not pay enough to make up the required amount, what was 
lacking was to be made up by a town rate upon the whole number 
of inhabitants* 

Public sentiment seemed to look with little favor upon marriage 
as a qualification for a teacher in those early days. In 1690 it 
was voted, " that the Selectmen of the town shall have a school- 
master as cheap as they can get one, provided they shall hire a 
single man, and not a man that have a family." 

With the increase and spreading out of the inhabitants it is not 
strange that many became dissatisfied with a never-changing loca- 
tion, and the necessity of sending their children a long distance to 



86 History of Hingham. 

attend school. We find in 1708 a vote " that the grammar school 
should be removed from that place where it have been of late 
kept," but as it was left with the Selectmen "to appoint the places 
in said Hingham where the said school shall be kept and how long 
the said school shall be kept at a place," it is not certain that 
they adopted any change of location, for in 1709 it was voted 
" that the said school shall be kept at the usiall place the presant 
year." 

It was not until 1721 that a change appears to have been 
brought about. With the building of a new schoolhouse on the 
plain " near to Peter Ripley's," i't was voted, " that the school 
should be kept by Peter Ripley six months in one year." 

The inhabitants of the Second Precinct, [Cohasset], now began 
to assert themselves, and in this same year, 1721, they had their 
proportion of a tax of £40, the amount appropriated for the 
school, allowed them. Whether they set up a school of their 
own at this time is not certain, as may appear from later votes, 
but they were beginning to show a feeling of restlessness which, 
from this and other causes, culminated in the setting off 
of Cohasset, some fifty years later, as a separate town. The 
following vote in the precinct records is of interest in this 
connection : — 

"March 31, 1721, John Farrow, Obediah Lincoln, and Joseph Bate are 
chosen to take care concerning the school, and to take the money from 
the town of Hingham and to dispose of it as followeth : one third part 
of it to be paid to a school dame for teaching the children to read, and 
two thirds of the money to be disposed of to teach the children to write 
and to cipher." 

For several years after 1721 the school seems to have been 
kept, one half the time at the schoolhouse in " the town," as the 
north part was called in distinction from other parts, and one 
half the time in the schoolhouse near Peter Ripley's on " the 
plain." March 31, 1724, the Second Precinct voted that "the 
money that came from the town which is in the hands of John 
Farrow, Obediah Lincoln and Joseph Bate, should be disposed of 
to learn the children to read and write in this precinct." 

In 1726 the town refused to have the school kept any part of 
the year in Cohasset ; and again, in 1727, the petition of Cohasset 
to have the school one third of the year, or the proportion of 
money its inhabitants paid for the school, was refused. In 1728, 
however, the just demands of the outlying districts seem to have 
been recognized, and another step in the growth of the system 
was taken. Cohasset and Great Plain were allowed to draw out 
of the town treasury their proportion of what they paid towards 
the .£80 raised for the support of schools, provided they "imploy 
the same for and towards the support of a school among them- 
selves and for no other use ; " and Great Plain was permitted to 



Education. 87 

remove the schoolhouse near Peter Ripley's where it should best 
accommodate them, provided they did it at their own expense. 

The further demands of Cohasset received recognition in 1730, 
for although the town refused to build a schoolhouse there, it 
allowed Cohasset to draw out of the town treasury the whole of 
what it paid towards the building of a schoolhouse in 1721-22 
(the one near Peter Ripley's, now removed to Great Plain), pro- 
vided the same should be applied to building a schoolhouse in 
Cohasset ; and in 1734 £10 additional for this purpose was 
granted to Cohasset. 

For a few years following 1730 Cohasset and Great Plain were 
allowed to draw out their proportion of the school money, but the 
town did not settle upon a definite arrangement for the keeping 
of "the school in different portions of the town " until 1734, at 
the time of the grant of the additional £10 just mentioned to 
Cohasset. In 1734 it was voted, " to have a school the year en- 
suing, and but one," and " that the school should be kept in three 
places in said town the year ensuing, viz. : — at the school-house 
in the town part so called ; at the school-house in the Great 
Plain ; and in the precinct of Cohasset ; and the time the school 
shall be kept in each of those places shall be proportioned ac- 
cording to what the inhabitants and estates in each of those parts 
pay towards the support of the same." This arrangement con- 
tinued without essential variation until 1752, the town having 
refused, in 1738, to have two schools. 

In 1752 a still further growth must be noted. Now for the 
first time two schools were established. It was voted, "to have 
one grammar and one writing and reading school within the town 
the year ensuing. The grammar school to be kept in the North 
school-house the whole of the year, and the writing and reading 
school to be kept seven months within the said year in the school- 
house in the east precinct [Cohasset] and four months in the 
school-house in the south parish." 

Continuing upon this plan through this and the three succeed- 
ing years, in 1756 Cohasset was permitted " to draw their full 
proportion of the money raised for the support of schools in lieu 
of the seven months' time" above-mentioned; and in 1757 the 
arrangement was further modified by a vote that the schools 
should be regulated the same as in 1752, " only that there be one 
kept 5 months in the year on the plain in the north parish, and 
that each precinct draw their just proportion of money raised for 
the support of the schools." 

No further change from this modified plan was made until 
1763, when the following vote was passed : — 

" Voted, that the inhabitants of each parish should draw their just pro- 
portion of money raised the year ensuing for the use of the schools and 
improve the same as they shall determine by a major vote of their inhabi- 
tants aforesaid, and that the Grammar school should be kept in the north 
parish." 



88 History of Hingham. 

No further change seems to have been made in this arrange- 
ment until 1781, although the records make it somewhat doubtful 
whether any money was raised for the support of schools for the 
single year of 1779. It should also be borne in mind at this 
point that Cohasset was set off and incorporated as a separate 
town in 1770, at which time of course she dropped out of our 
school system. 

It may also be noted that in 1767 appears the first mention 
on the records of a school for girls. In that year the town voted 
to build a schoolhouse " on their land near the North School- 
house, to be used for keeping a female school." There is no 
authentic evidence that such a schoolhouse was built at that 
time, although the school itself may have been established in 
some room hired for the purpose. Female teachers are mentioned 
in the Second Precinct records in 1768 and 1769. 

1781 marks another point in the history of our public schools. 
Apparently there was not entire satisfaction with the existing 
arrangement. At the March meeting a committee was appointed 
to " strike out a plan for the regulation of the town schools the 
year ensuing, to report next May meeting." The committee's- 
report, which was accepted, was as follows : — 

" That the town raise a sufficient sum of money to keep three schools 
the year through, to teach Reading, Writing, and Arithmetick. — One 
school to be kept in the center of the North Parish the year through ; 
the west end of the North Parish to have six months schooling, and the 
Plain to have six months schooling ; the South Parish to have a school 
the year through, and to [be] shifted so as to accommodate the Parish, 
with liberty for the Inhabitants to send their children to either of the 
schools as shall best accommodate them." 

The grammar school, for which an appropriation was refused 
in 1779 appears not to have been maintained as such from that 
time until 1782, when it was again provided for. 

In 1786 it was voted to keep four schools the year through, — 
one grammar, and three for reading, writing, and arithmetic. 

In 1787 Samuel Norton, Caleb Thaxter, Col. Charles Cushing, 
and Jacob Leavitt were chosen a committee to assist the Select- 
men in taking care of and providing for the schools. This was 
the first move towards the election of a School Committee, but 
it does not appear to have been followed up annually thereafter 
until 1794. From and after that date, however, the town con- 
tinued annually to elect a School Committee to assist the Select- 
men, until the passage of the law in March 1827 (Acts of 1826, 
chap. 143), by which towns were first required to elect a School 
Committee with new powers. The records of the School Commit- 
tee of Hingham begin in 1794, and are unbroken down to the 
present time. 

No further change occurred in the general arrangement until 
1794, except that in 1791, 1792, and 1793, the grammar school was 



Education. 89 

transferred to the Plain and the school formerly on the Plain was 
transferred to " the center of the North Parish," and wood 
was provided for by a general tax. Up to this time each scholar 
had been required to furnish his share of firewood. 

With the election of a School Committee in 1794 new life was 
instilled into the school system. 

The whole history of our public schools may easily be divided 
into periods. 

The first period, which has now been covered, extends from the 
beginning to 1794. 

The second period begins in 1794 with an elaborate report of 
a committee appointed to consult about the regulation of the 
schools, which was accepted in May, 1794, the principal items of 
which follow : — 

" 1. The Grammar School shall be kept on the Plain. 

" 2. The several masters to be employed in the town schools shall be 
capable of instructing the English Grammar, — one school to be kept in 
the center of the North Parish, — one at the west end of the North 
Parish — and one and one half in the South Parish. 

" There shall be five female schools for six months, viz. : — one at the 
west end of the North Parish ; one in the center of said Parish ; one on 
the Plain ; half an one at Rocky Nook ; and one and one half in the 
South Parish." 

Reading, Spelling, Writing, and Needle-work were the branches 
to be taught in the female schools. 

The masters were to keep three hours in the forenoon and three 
in the afternoon each day in the week except Saturdays in the 
afternoon ; and were allowed one day at annual March meeting, 
one half-day at the Derby Lecture, one half-day at annual April 
meeting, election day, two days for trainings, and four days more 
at their election. 

The second period extends to 1828, when the number of schools 
had increased to five male and eight female. It is not necessary 
to follow all the details through these thirty-four years, but it 
is interesting to notice that the principal feature was the con- 
stantly increasing attention paid to the education of girls. With 
the beginning of this period we have the names of " male " and 
" female " schools. This designation continued in use until 1849. 
These names were first adopted to indicate the sex of the scholars, 
and not of the teachers. As early as 1800, however, girls of 
twelve years of age and upwards were permitted to attend certain 
of the "male" schools in the winter months, and boys under 
nine were permitted to attend certain " female " schools in the 
summer months. These ages were changed somewhat in subse- 
quent years, the age for the winter privileges for girls being- 
reduced to ten years. It was during this period also that mis- 
tresses as well as masters were first employed. In many respects 
these were years of growth, — but the system was faulty and 



90 History of Hingham. 

inconsistent with the full development of universal education. 
In these later days, when girls and boys are entitled to equal 
privileges and are held up to equal requirements in education, it 
seems humiliating to think that the girls were held in such low 
esteem by our ancestors, although Hingham was not peculiar in 
this respect. It is a pleasure to know that they began, in this 
second period of our school history, to receive some measure of 
justice, however inadequate and tardy it seems to have been. 

When it is stated that " female schools " were first established 
by the new regulations of 1794, it must not be understood that 
girls were first educated at public expense at that time. It was 
then that distinct and special education of girls was first pro- 
vided for. There is satisfactory evidence that girls received in- 
struction at the public expense in the masters' schools with the 
boys, but not at so early an age as the boys. 

To understand our school system, its growth and development, 
we must know exactly what was aimed at. It should be kept in 
mind always that, from the earliest settlement, the object of the 
school was to fit boys for college, and to give those who could not 
go to college instruction in the rudiments only ; and all that it 
was proposed to teach the girls was to enable them to read and 
write. Early instruction in the art of reading was generally 
begun by the girls at home or in the numerous private schools 
taught by elderly women and known as the " dame schools." 
When they were sufficiently advanced, they were sent to the 
master, by whom they were taught to write, something of gram- 
mar, but rarely anything in geography or arithmetic. The girls' 
schools were first established, not so much to give additional 
advantages in these branches as to give instruction in needlework 
and knitting, which useful branches of learning were outside of 
the qualifications of the master to teach. The order of instruction 
and discipline in one of these schools has been described by one 
of its scholars : " The children were seated on benches around 
three sides of the room, the teacher occupying a position near the 
other side. The order of exercises was reading, then sewing, 
with an allotted task to complete before the close of the school, 
which was ended with an exercise in spelling." 

The close of this period, in 1828, found our schools badly 
arranged, uncomfortably crowded in many cases, and not satis- 
fying the demands of an intelligent and generous community. 
We can hardly realize how even the first elements of knowledge 
could have been forced into the minds of the children, — for they 
certainly did learn much, — when we consider that large numbers 
were crowded into small rooms, and a large proportion of the 
girls were deprived of the advantages of the schools for many 
months in the year. It is not strange that public-spirited men 
were found in this town who had the courage to grapple with 
the problem and insist upon a radical change in a system so full 
of evils. 



Education. 91 

In 1808 there occurred an event which is thus recorded by the 
School Committee : — 

" Oct. 23. Met for the purpose of making some arrangements for a pro- 
cession of the scholars of the town to the Meeting-house of the First 
Parish on Wednesday the 26th inst. at 2 o'clock p. m., to attend a 
Lecture to be delivered to the Youth of the town by the Rev. Joseph 
Richardson. 

" Six marshals were chosen and the singers of the town were requested 
to attend the Lecture ' and that those who play on instruments be re- 
quested to attend the procession as well as Lecture.' " 

On the appointed day upwards of two hundred and eighty 
scholars of both sexes formed in procession and marched to the 
meeting-house, where " a well-adapted and highly pertinent dis- 
course was pronounced to them and a crowded auditory by the 
Rev. Mr. Richardson, from the 4th chapter of Proverbs, and 
13th verse : ' Take fast hold of Instruction : let her not go : keep 
her : for she is thy life.' " 

Similar " Lectures " were delivered in the same place by Rev. 
Mr. Richardson in 1809 and 1810. 

Before leaving this second period, some of the votes passed by 
the School Committee will be found interesting : — 

1796. "The masters are to observe a uniform system of government 
in their schools and inculcate in their scholars a decent and respectful de- 
portment towards their superiors out of school and in particular to instruct 
them not to enter the Gardens, Orchards, or other enclosures of the In- 
habitants or in any measure to injure or rob the same." 

1797. "Voted, that the Masters and Mistresses of the several schools 
be directed to read a chapter in the Bible every morning to their scholars 
and that those of them, who are far enough advanced in reading, use the 
Bible as their school book on Saturdays." 

1800. "Voted that the Instructors of the several schools be directed to 
see that the scholars be each furnished with suitable books, that they be 
kept clean, that the scholars have clean face and hands and their hair 
combed when attending school." 

1809. List of Books adopted : — 

Primer — Columbian Orthographer. Morse's Geography. 

Child's Assistant. Bible. 

'American Reader. 1 Judson's Grammar. 

Juvenile Instructor. Perry's Dictionary. 

Beauties of the Bible. Adams's Arithmetic. 
Constitutions of Massachusetts, United 
States, &c. 

The following votes of the town relating to the heating of the 
schoolhouses indicate the course of popular opinion upon the 
subject : — 

1 This was the first school reader published which consisted wholly of selections 
tr c on ? American authors ; and was compiled by Rev. Joseph Richardson, the minister 
ot the First Parish in Hingham. 



92 History of Hingham. 

1799. "Voted to have one stove in one of the school-houses and the 
selectmen procure it." 

1800. " Voted that the article which respects procuring stoves for the 
schools be left to the judgment of the School Committee." 

1806. "Voted that the Selectmen and School Committee be a com- 
mittee to look into the expediency of removing the stoves in school- 
houses and report at April meeting." 

The report was as follows : — 

" Your committee appointed to look into the expediency of removing 
the stoves in the schoolhouses, report as follows, that they would recom- 
mend the use of dry hard wood and the use of an iron dish of water on 
the stoves. And would further recommend to the Instructors to pay 
attention to their tires in stoves and see they are not kindled too early in 
the morning, and admit of fresh air from the upper sashes of the windows." 

Report agreed to. 

From the fact that a change in the school system was insisted 
upon, it must not be assumed that public opinion in Hingham 
differed from that of other towns in Massachusetts. Undoubt- 
edly evils which attracted attention here existed as well else- 
where ; and fortunately for the cause of education, the law of 1826, 
before alluded to, made some changes a necessity. That law was 
the first to require towns to elect a School Committee who should 
have "the general charge and superintendence of the public 
schools." The members of the committee were to be satisfied 
with the character and qualifications of the teachers, to visit the 
schools at stated times for the purposes of examination, of seeing 
to the proper supply of schoolbooks, and of acquainting them- 
selves with the regulation and discipline. They were to direct 
and determine the books to be used, which were paid for by the 
parents unless the town assessors were of opinion that any par- 
ents were not able to pay for them, in which case a part or 
the whole of the cost of the same might be abated. A penalty 
was imposed upon towns neglecting to elect a School Committee. 
The committee were required to report annually to the Secre- 
tary of the Commonwealth the cost of the schools, the number of 
scholars, and other facts, according to blanks furnished for the 
purpose. 

This law also allowed towns to form within their limits school 
districts ; and the " district system " was in existence in many 
towns. The district system was never adopted by Hingham, be 
it said to her credit, so that there is no necessity of entering upon 
any discussion of this iniquitous feature of the Massachusetts plan. 
Fortunately, the laws of the Commonwealth have now abolished 
it. Horace Mann said of it in 1847 : " I consider the law of 1789, 
the germ of which may be found in the Province Law of 8 Geo. 
I., ch. 1 (Anc. Ch., p. 666), authorizing towns to divide themselves 
into districts, the most unfortunate law on the subject of com- 
mon schools ever enacted in the State." 



Education. 93 

And so those who felt the necessity of a change in this town 
were stimulated by the law of 1826 (passed March 10, 1827), into 
action. At the town-meeting on March 10, 1828, the Report of 
the School Committee was read and accepted, which contained a 
recommendation of the committee " that the town should choose 
a committee to take into consideration the subject of an alteration 
in our present system of schools, agreeable to the present law." 
That committee presented the following report to the town, which 
was accepted, and which is given in full because it clearly states 
the necessities of the case as recognized by those who were thor- 
oughly interested in the schools. 

REPORT. 

The Committee chosen by the Town in March last to prepare and re- 
port a System for the regulation of the Schools have given to the subject 
a mature and deliberate consideration, and ask leave respectfully to re- 
port, that from an examination of our present school system and also of 
the Law of the Commonwealth passed March 10, 1827, "to provide for 
the instruction of youth," the Committee think some alteration and im- 
provements of the present arrangement of the Schools are indispensably 
necessary to advance the cause of good education among us, as well as to 
comply with the provisions of the law. 

The most obvious defects of our present system are too large a number 
of pupils in our male schools, and their admission to those schools at too 
early an age, and at a period when female instruction would be more val- 
uable to them and expedient for the town, both on considerations of econ- 
omy and practical utility. A large number of females are also deprived 
of the privileges of our free schools for a considerable portion of the 
year. 

The Act before referred to will require this town to be provided with 
a teacher competent to instruct, in addition to the branches usually taught 
in our town schools, the History of the United States, book-keeping by 
single entry, geometry, surveying, and algebra. 

To remedy existing evils and to comply with the provisions of the law, 
the committee are unanimously of opinion that an increase of expenditure 
for the support of schools is unavoidable. 

After much deliberation the committee have voted to recommend to the 
town the adoption of the following system for the regulation of their 
schools for the ensuing year, viz. : — 

There shall be in the West District, one male school of twelve months', 
and one female school of twelve months' duration. 

In the North District, one male school of twelve months, and one female 
school of twelve months. 

In the Middle District, one male school of twelve months, and one fe- 
male school of twelve months on the Lower Plain, and one female school 
of six months at Rocky Neck. 

In the North District of the South Ward, one male school of ten 
months (exclusive of vacations), and one female school of twelve months, 
— and in the South District of said Ward, one male school of six months 
and one female school of six mouths, and in addition to the foregoing, if 
the School Committee shall determine them to be necessary, another 



94 History of Hingham. 

female school in the North Ward and another in the Middle Ward, at such 
seasons and for such term of time (not to exceed six months to each) as 
they may deem expedient and proper. 

And in order to comply with the law before referred to, the Committee 
recommend to the town to authorize and direct the School Committee to 
provide teachers for the male schools in the West, North, and Middle 
School Districts, and in the North District of the South Ward, who are 
competent to instruct in addition to the branches usually taught in our 
town schools, the History of the United States, book-keeping by single 
entry, geometry, surveying, and algebra, — the school in the North Dis- 
trict of the South Ward to be for the benefit of all such children of said 
Ward, as the School Committee shall direct. 

The ages and qualifications for admission to the male schools to be 
fixed and determined by the School Committee. 

The Committee estimate the sum necessary to be raised by the town to 
pay the teachers' salaries under the proposed system, provided all the ad- 
ditional female schools are established, and also to provide for any prob- 
able increase of the salaries of the male teachers, to be $2193. 

The amount paid for salaries of teachers in the past year was $1686* 
and in the year previous $1856. 

All of which is respectfully submitted by order of the Committee. 

Solomon Lincoln, Jr., 

Hingham, April 7th, 1828. Chairman. 

The following rules and regulations were adopted by the School 
Committee : — 

" In the West, North, and Lower Plain Districts no males shall be ad- 
mitted to the male schools until they are seven years of age ; and females 
may be admitted to those schools at the age of ten years. In the female 
schools in said districts, no males or females shall be admitted until they 
are four years of age, and the males shall not be permitted to attend them 
after they are seven years of age. 

" In Rocky Neck District, males and females shall be admitted to the 
school when four years of age ; and males when seven, and females when 
ten years of age, belonging to said district, may be admitted to the male 
school on the Lower Plain, on making application for the privilege. 

" In the North District of the South Ward, males shall be admitted to 
the male school of ten months' duration in said ward, at the age of seven 
years, and females may be admitted at the age of ten years. The regula- 
tions for the admission of scholars to the female school in this district 
shall be the same as in the West, North, and Lower Plain Districts. 

" In the South District of the South Ward, males and females shall be 
admitted to the female school in the district, when four years of age ; but 
males when seven and females when ten years of age, shall enjoy the 
privilege of attending the male school for the ward, whenever they wish 
to exercise it. 

"The schools shall be kept three hours in the forenoon and three m the 
afternoon of each day in the week (Sundays and Saturdays, in the after- 
noon, excepted) allowing five minutes, and no more, each half-day, for an 
intermission. 

"There shall be vacations in all the schools, as follows, viz. : — The 
first week in July ; one week at the annual Thanksgiving ; one day at the 



Education. 95 

annual Town Meeting in March ; one day at the annual April Meet- 
ing, and one day at the General Election ; also four days at the election 
of the Instructors of the Annual schools, and two days at the election of 
the Instructors of the Semi-annual schools. 

"The studies pursued in the male schools shall be Orthography, Read- 
ing, Writing, English Grammar, Geography, Arithmetic, History of the 
United States, Book-keeping by single entry, Geometry, Surveying, and 
Algebra. 

" The Instructors of the female schools shall teach Orthography, Read- 
ing, Writing, English Grammar, Geography, Arithmetic, and Needle-work." 

There were numerous other regulations concerning morality 
and discipline. 

School districts to regulate the attendance of scholars at the 
several schools were adopted, and these have been practically 
unchanged to the present time. 

The education of the girls was the principal feature of the 
second period. The same is true of the third period, beginning in 
1828, though in a greater degree. Now for the first time many 
of the female schools were kept all the year, and the time was 
fast approaching when girls should have privileges of education 
on an equality with boys. The only difference at this time was 
that girls could not go to the masters' schools until they were ten 
years of age, while boys could attend them at seven. The times 
were not yet ripe for perfect equality, but it is gratifying to know 
that public opinion was preparing to recognize women as the 
intellectual peers of men. 

A better equalization of the schools, so far as the number of 
pupils was concerned, must also be mentioned as a distinguishing 
characteristic of this period. 

The system thus established continued in favor with the School 
Committee and the town until 1841 without change. The schools 
kept pace with the demands of the time. The need of a better 
organization of the educational interests of the Commonwealth 
brought about, in 1837 (Acts of 1837, chap. 241), the establish- 
ment of the Board of Education, " to the end that all children in 
this Commonwealth, who depend upon common schools for in- 
struction, may have the best education which these schools can 
be made to impart." 

Interest in the cause of education was active throughout the 
State ; and, as in all times of her history, Hingham was mindful 
of the needs of her children. 

In 1841 a modification of the system was adopted, by which the 
"female schools" in various parts of the town were more carefully 
graded, and in that year we find for the first time " Primary 
Schools" established in the West, North, and Middle Districts, 
and the North District of the South Ward, for the benefit of the 
youngest children, — the female schools still existing, however, 
and designated as the " elder " schools in the School Committee's 
records. 



96 History of Hingham. 

The third period may be considered as ending in 1849, the 
schools having been conducted upon the system adopted, in its 
most important parts, in 1828, and with the close of this third 
period the designation of " male " and " female " schools disap- 
pears from our records. 

To say that the times had grown to the necessity of another 
change detracts nothing from the praise justly due to those who 
inaugurated the system which went into operation in 1828. It 
was a great advance on that which had preceded it, as that, in its 
day and generation, was an improvement on the former one. 
" Tempora mutantur et nos in illis mutamur." 

The following extract from a letter signed " A." (supposed to 
be from Mr. A. B. Alcott) to the " Hingham Patriot," July 16, 
1847, gives an impression made by our schools at that time : — 

"With the schools in Hingham, both public and private, as a whole, I 
am much pleased. In the first place, I find, with hardly a solitary excep- 
tion, good schoolhouses. They have been recently built and are spacious, 
airy, and convenient. 

" In teaching, superintending, and visiting schools for about thirty 
years, I have always taken great pleasure in finding the laws of cleanli- 
ness duly regarded. I love to see cleanliness of person, dress, books, 
furniture, walls, and floors. These I love because they are exceedingly 
rare — almost as rare as diamonds. They are valuable, moreover, just as 
diamonds are, in proportion to their scarcity. 

" But these precious jewels to which I have alluded abound in Hing- 
ham, and I take great pleasure in saying so. I do not indeed, by this 
affirmation, mean to set the inhabitants of this place over all their neigh- 
bors. Many, taking the whole of New England together, are beginning 
to act nobly in this particular. At present, however, I must say, for 
truth compels me, I do not recollect to have seen anywhere else such 
clean schoolhouse walls and floors as in this region." 

The fourth period began in 1849. The systematic grading of the 
schools, which in all its essential details is the plan of to-day, was 
adopted, and we find in the annual report of the School Commit- 
tee made in March, 1850, that there were twelve schools supported 
by the town, viz. : two Primary, four Intermediate, four Gram- 
mar, and two Mixed schools. To-day there are three additional 
Primary schools, which were introduced in those districts where 
the Intermediate schools had grown uncomfortably large ; but no 
new districts have been formed. The High school has also been 
added to the number of schools, — making sixteen in all. 

As in the former periods, so in this, the town, through its 
School Committee, has been alive to the best ideas of the best 
educators; and while a proper spirit of conservatism has always 
tended to the maintenance of what has been found valuable, by 
long experience, in methods of teaching, yet with a progressive 
spirit, the new methods have received their just and adequate 
consideration. Never a town to be led away by the gloss of " the 
new " solely because of its newness, it has always been ready to 



Education. 97 

adopt whatever reason dictated as valuable in modern thought. 
Uniformly liberal in its appropriations, it has always shown a true 
appreciation of universal education as the strong foundation of 
our institutions. It has elected upon its School Committee the 
men in whom it had confidence, and that confidence has been 
shown by the annual vote for years past " that the regulation of 
the schools be referred to the School Committee." Nor has that 
confidence been abused. With a zealous desire to work for the 
general good, the members of the School Committee have uni- 
formly endeavored to make the schools an honor to the town. 

The past twenty years have been years of great activity in edu- 
cational matters. Their history is too recent for extended com- 
ment, and what has been accomplished for the Hingham schools 
can be readily ascertained from the printed reports of the School 
Committee. Posterity must judge of the effects. 

Two causes may be mentioned as having a stimulating effect 
upon the work in our schools during these later years : The es- 
tablishment of the High School caused increased activity in the 
lower grades ; the appointment of a School Superintendent en- 
abled the committee to carry on the work in all the schools on a 
more systematic and efficient plan. 

For comparison with previous regulations, the hours of school 
sessions and vacations at the present time are here given. 

The school year begins on the first Monday of September and 
embraces forty weeks of school-keeping. 

There are two sessions daily in all the schools except the High 
School, viz. : from 9 to 12, with a recess of fifteen minutes, and 
from 1.30 to 3.30, without a recess. There is one session in the 
High School, from 9 to 2 o'clock. 

The vacations are : Thanksgiving Day and the day following ; 
a week at Christmas ; Fast Day week ; a summer vacation of ten 
weeks. The holidays are : Saturday of each week ; the twenty- 
second of February ; Annual March-Meeting Day ; Decoration 
Day ; Labor Day ; two days of the Agricultural Fair. 



School Superintendents. 

The School Committee in their Annual Report to the town in 
March, 1872, made the following statement : — 

" Your committee have come to the deliberate conclusion, after giving 
much thought and discussion to the subject, that the school system of 
Hingham can never reach its highest efficiency and success without a 
faithful Superintendent. No one member of the committee can afford to 
give the time and attention to school matters which they constantly de- 
mand ; and it is a work which can be more advantageously attended to by 
a, single person than when divided among several." 

VOL. I. 7 * 



98 History of Hingham. 

They therefore recommended the appointment of a Public School 
Superintendent, who should be the executive officer of the School 
Committee, acting under their direction, and directly responsible 
to them in all school matters. The School Committee would 
then, under the statutes, be simply a prudential committee, hav- 
ing the charge of the school property, and an advisory board, serv- 
ing without pecuniary compensation. 

The town adopted the recommendation and chose a School 
Committee of twelve with authority to employ a superintendent. 
The following have been elected to that office : — 

Rev. John Snyder 1872-1872 

Rev. Allen G. Jennings 1872-1881 

John F. Turgeon 1881-1882 

William C. Bates 1882-1884 

Allen P. Soule 1884-1887 

Louis P. Nash 1887- 



The High School. 

The term " High School " does not appear in our statutes from 
the earliest time until the publication of the Public Statutes in 
1882, but for many years, by common usage, it has been the des- 
ignation of those schools which the statutes required to be " kept 
for the benefit of the whole town." 

The act of 1647 required every township of one hundred fami- 
lies to maintain a grammar school, whose master should be qual- 
ified to fit boys for the University. 

In 1692 the master of this school was to be " well instructed in 
the tongues." 

In 1789 such a school was to be maintained by towns having 
two hundred families, the master of which was to be " well in- 
structed in the Latin, Greek, and English languages." 

The grammar school of those days must not be confounded with 
those of the same name at the present time. They were under- 
stood to be the schools in which Latin and Greek were taught. 
The grammar school was the head of the system of gradation in 
the town-schools, and therefore the type of the High School of 
to-day. 

The act of 1826 established our present system of High Schools. 
Towns of five hundred families were required to maintain one 
school of the higher grade, but Latin and Greek were not required 
to be taught until towns had a population of 4000. The increased 
number of Academies throughout the Commonwealth afforded 
facilities for classical instruction, and undoubtedly had the effect 
of eliminating Latin and Greek from the list of required studies 
in the advanced schools of the smaller towns. 

In 1857 (Acts of 1857, chap. 206) the list of studies required 
to be taught in all the public schools was revised. Latin and seve- 



Education. 



99 



ral of the sciences were included in those required in the school 
" for the benefit of the whole town," in towns of 4000 inhabitants. 
Hingham had grown to this required population, and from this 
time until the establishment of our High School in 1872, the legal 
requirements were not carried out. 

That no such school, in accordance with the requirements of 
the later statute, was kept in Hingham until 1872 must not be at- 
tributed to any desire of the town to avoid the law. The princi- 
pal reason for this neglect arose probably from the fact that the 
branches usually taught in High Schools were taught in the Derby 




THE HINGHAM HIGH SCHOOL. 



Academy, and in great measure the children of the town were 
furnished with such instruction as to comply with the spirit of the 
law. Two unsuccessful efforts were made by the town to make the 
Academy serve the purpose contemplated by the statute, a more 
particular account of which will be found in the history of the 
Academy. But the Academy was not recognized by the Common- 
wealth as a High School, and the town's portion of the Massa- 
chusetts School Fund was consequently withheld. There was no 
choice for the town. Any inhabitant could demand a free edu- 
cation for his child, such as the law made provision for. 

All hope of utilizing the Academy as a High School having dis- 
appeared, the town took the necessary action, and in 1872 the 
Hingham High School became a reality. The school has main- 
tained a high rank from the beginning. Mr. Jacob 0. Sanborn 
has been its principal teacher from the opening of the school to 



100 History of Hingham. 

the present time. To say that this has been fortunate for the 
town is small measure of praise for one " who has impressed him- 
self upon the youth of the town," in its higher education, with an 
unfailing attachment of pupils and parents alike. 

The school has constantly increased in its annual member- 
ship. Beginning with two regular teachers, their number has 
been increased to four. 

The number in attendance at the opening of the school in 1872 was 39 
The number in attendance in September, 1891, was 106 

The whole course is four years, and the studies are arranged so 
that a Classical or English course may be pursued at the election 
of the pupil. There is also a special course arranged for those 
who desire to fit themselves for college or the higher educational 
institutions. 

For twelve years or more, under the energetic superintendence 
of Mr. Sanborn, there was an organization of the scholars called 
the " High School Industrial Society." The sweeping of the 
schoolrooms was done by the members of this society, for which 
they were paid by the town. With the money thus earned many 
articles for the permanent benefit of the school were purchased, 
and it is largely due to the voluntary exertions of this society 
that our High School has an excellent and valuable collection of 
chemical and philosophical apparatus. 

Rev. John Lewis Russell, who died in Salem, Mass., June 7, 
1873, and who was once the minister of the Second Parish in this 
town, by his will gave " to the Town of Hingham one thousand 
dollars as a fund to aid in the support of a public High School in 
that town." This legacy was to be paid after the decease of his 
wife and his sister, and became available in the latter part of 
1889. At the annual meeting, March 3, 1890, the town passed 
the following vote : — 

Voted, That the legacy from the late Rev. John Lewis Russell be 
accepted by the town ; that the investment and management thereof be 
entrusted to a board of three, to be known as the Trustees of the John 
Lewis Russell Fund, said board to consist of the town treasurer, ex officio, 
and two citizens to be chosen annually by the town ; the income of said 
fund to be held at the disposal of the school committee, to be expended 
by it for the benefit of the High School. 



Cost of the Public Schools. 

The following table shows the comparative cost of the public 
schools. It does not include the amounts paid for the erection of 
schoolhouses. It must be borne in mind that a considerable 
number of children in town have always been educated in 
private schools at private expense, which of course is not included 
in the table. The amounts have varied somewhat, but dates 



Education, 



101 



1670 . . 


£24. 


1855 . . 


1695 . . 


35. 


1870 . . 


1715 . . 


40. 


1871 . . . 


1728 . . 


80. 




1760 . . 


90. 


1872 . . 


1765 . . 


100. 




1781 . . 


130. 


1873 . . 


1783 . . 


144. 




1786 . . 


200. 


1874-1878 


1793 . . 


300. 


1884 . . 


1828 |2,0 


76.00. 




1832 . 2,5 


24.78. 


1891 . . 


1848 . 3,5 


31.84. 





are selected to show the tendency of a steadily increasing cost. 
Spasms of economy occasionally reduced the amount for a year 
or two .' — 

$5,212.50. 
8,845.33. 
11,944.10, including music teacher, 

$1,000. 
. 13,961.23, including High School 
one half-year. 
15,373.25, including High School 

whole year. 
12,710.78, lowest, $15,028.22, high- 
est. 
15,115.69, including schoolbooks 

one half-year. 
15,820.72, including schoolbooks 
whole year. 

Numbers of Pupils. 

The statute of 1826 was the first to require returns to be made 
by School Committees to the Commonwealth. 

For some ten years previously, the School Committee's records 
give the numbers on the lists at the several visitations of the 
Committee during the year. The October visitations show the 
largest numbers ; and in that month, from 1817 to 1827 inclusive, 
the numbers vary from 457 to 537. 

To show how unequally the schools were arranged previously to 
the new system adopted in 1828, and how impossible it was for a 
single teacher to accomplish good results, I give the numbers on 
the lists of a few of the male schools ; and it must be remembered 
that the schoolrooms were much smaller than the smallest in use 
at the present time. 

In 1828 one school had 109 pupils on its list; in 1825 two 
schools had 87 pupils each ; in 1826 five schools had 77, 77, 90, 

93, and 99 pupils respectively ; in 1827, five schools had 60, 38, 

94, 103, and 105 pupils respectively. 

The annual returns to the Commonwealth give the following as 
the numbers belonging to the Public Schools : — 

1829 . . . 610. 1870 . . . 640. 

1830 . . . 642. 1880 . . . 775. 

1849 . . . 664. 1890 . . . 741. 
1860 . . . 686. 

In 1890 the average membership of all the schools was 648.7. 
The per cent of attendance, based on the average number belong- 
ing, was 90.6. 

Census of children in town May 1, between five and fifteen 
years : — 

1828 . . . 879. 

1838 . . . 995. 

1848 . . . 864. 

1850 . . . 747. 



1860 . 


. 837. 


1870 . 


. 784. 


1880 . 


. 696. 


1890 . 


. 559. 



102 History of Hingham. 



The Poor and School Fund. 

The following is from the report of the Auditors to the town, 
April 30, 1879 : — 

" The foundation of the Poor and School Fund was laid in the action of 
the proprietors of the undivided lands in Hingham, who, at a meeting held 
April 9, 1788, 

" ' Voted, That all the Proprietors' ways and undivided lands be given up 
to the town for their use and benefit forever, on the conditions following, viz.: 
That a highway be laid out, beginning at the Northerly end of the road 
leading from Thomas Cushing's house, to extend North 27 degrees West, 
and four rods in width, till it comes into the town road leading from 
Great Plain. Also that a road be laid out, beginning at the Northwest 
corner of the road leading from Elisha Lane's shop, to extend North 49 
degrees West, three rods in width, till it comes into the aforesaid road, and 
that the land between the two roads aforesaid be reserved for a Burying- 
place, and that no building be erected upon the said Training-field or 
Burying-ground. 

" ' That the town accept the aforesaid roads and all the Proprietors' 
ways, and repair them as other Public roads, if necessary.' 

"These lands were held by the town, no part being sold until 1818, 
when, by a special act of the Legislature, entitled ' an act to authorize the 
town of Hingham to sell real estate,' the inhabitants were empowered at 
any legal meeting to appoint ' a committee of three discreet freeholders,' 
who should have power to sell and pass deeds of any and all parcels of 
land held by said inhabitants. The second section of this act is as follows, 
viz. : — 

" e Be it further enacted that the money which shall be received for the 
sale of said lands, after deducting all expenses which shall be incurred in 
the transaction of the business, shall constitute a fund, the interest of 
which shall be applied exclusively to the support of the Public Schools 
and the maintenance of the poor of said town. And the Selectmen and 
Treasurer of said town for the time being shall be trustees of said fund 
and place the same at interest and apply said interest, as received, to the 
purposes aforesaid.' 

" By an act passed in January, 1819, the provisions of the above-named 
act were extended ' to all lands within the said town of Hingham held 
by the original proprietors in common and undivided,' and given to the 
town by the vote above quoted. The last sale was made in 1864, and 
the amount received for lands sold to that date, after deducting expenses, 
appears to be $9,738.70. This sum has been loaned to the town, the 
trustees holding the Treasurer's note for the amount, the same bearing 
interest at 5 per cent." 

There never was a strict compliance with the provisions of the 
act in devoting the interest directly to the support of the schools 
and the poor, except in the last year of the existence of the fund, 
although the town apparently had the benefit of an annual amount 
of interest credited to the fund. The fact that this interest was 
annually credited as money received for the purposes named in the 
act probably did not affect the amount of appropriations for the 



Education. 103 

schools or poor one way or the other. The fund and its interest 
were merged into the other money of the town, and the whole 
affair resolved itself into a matter of book-keeping. 

By chapter 11 of the Acts of 1880 the previous acts were abol- 
ished, the fund ordered to be paid into the town treasury, and all 
money received for land sold after the passage of this act was to 
be paid into the treasury of the town for town purposes. The 
town accepted this last act March 1, 1880. 

Rev. Charles Brooks. 

The history of education in Hingham would be incomplete were 
not some mention made of the services and influence of Rev. 
Charles Brooks, the minister of the Third Congregational Society 
from 1821- to 1838 inclusive. His efforts to promote the cause 
of education, and especially his success in establishing Normal 
Schools are so much a part of his life that a more extended no- 
tice of him in this connection will be found in the chapter on 
Ecclesiastical History. 

SCHOOLHOUSES. 

The erection of a schoolhouse in Hingham at a given date does 
not necessarily imply that a school was established at the same 
time. In many cases schools were kept in rooms or buildings not 
owned by the town, for which rent was paid. Especially was 
this the case with the early " female " schools, and the records 
show that an allowance was often made to the teacher for rent 
in addition to the regular salary. 

The chronological order in which the various schoolhouses in 
all parts of the town collectively were built, is not followed, as 
the subject can be presented more clearly if the districts are 
treated separately. 

Let it be remembered that in the earliest days there was the 
town ; later we have the First, Second (Cohasset), and Third 
(South Hingham) Parishes; and later still, the North, Middle, 
and South Wards. These divisions were subdivided from time 
to time. 

For the sake of clearness the town is divided into the districts, 
which are most familiar at the present time, viz. : (1) North, 
(2) West, (3) Middle, (4) Rocky Nook, (5) North district of 
the South Ward, and (6) South district of the South Ward. 

1. North District. 

From the beginning until 1720-21 the only schoolhouse for the 
whole town was within the limits of the present North District. 
It has been previously stated that the site of the earliest build- 
ings was on the hill formerly in front of the Academy. The 
evidence for this is as follows : The schoolhouse built in 1806 
is well remembered by many now living as the one standing 



104 History of Hingham. 

on this hill and removed in 1830. This was " set where the old 
one now stands " (1806). The " old one " referred to was built in 
1743, and was " erected at the north end of the town where the 
old one now stands " (1743). That " old one " was built in 1668, 
" in the place where the old Pound did stand." Also, there is a 
record of the appointment of a committee by the town in 1769 " to 
see whether the old house should be repaired or a new one built," 
and that committee recommended the building " another upon the 
hill near to where this house now stands" 

That a schoolhouse was standing at an early date is evident 
from an item in the Selectmen's Records for money paid " for 
worke done about the schoole house " in 1661-2. The date of its 
erection, and whether it was built at public expense, cannot be 
ascertained. 

In 1668 the town " agreed that there should be a schoolhouse 
built." Many items in the Selectmen's Records show payments 
in 1668, 1669, and 1670, for work and materials for the school- 
house. That the house was actually built in 1668 there can be 
no doubt if we consider the custom of the day ; for one item in 
the records of that year is for a sum of money paid " for 
drinks to them that helped to rayse the school house." What 
became of that building is not known. It served its purpose for 
seventy-five years, — a worthy record of honest work. In 1743 a 
new house was built. This continued in use until 1806. 
In 1769 a committee reported to the town that it was very 
much out of repair, and that the expense of putting it 
in proper condition would be fourteen or fifteen pounds ; 
that it was " too streight for the comfortable reception of 
the children usually attending this school ; " that it " has always 
been supposed to contain the Grammar scholars, and conse- 
quently the inhabitants of the other parts of the town have a 
right to improve it as such;" and that there was a necessity for its 
being enlarged. The committee recommended its sale to the 
"highest bidder," and "that .£20 be granted by the town, 
which, together with the money arising from the sale of the old 
house " should be used for building a new one, 20 X 22 feet. 

This report was not accepted, but £10 were granted for the 
repair of the old house, and in 1770 £6 additional " towards the 
schoolhouse in the North Parish " were granted ; but in 1771 this 
last grant of <£6 was reconsidered and the town " refused to 
grant anything additional to what was formerly granted towards 
the expense of the North School House." 

After the building of a new one in 1806, this house, built in 
1743, was removed, and now forms the rear part of the store of 
George Hersey & Co., at West Hingham. 

In 1806 another house was built " where the old one now 
stands " similar to the one lately built in the South Parish near 
Wilder's Bridge (1801). 

In 1819 a house for the "female school " was built. This build- 
ing is the one now occupied by William Lane & Son as a paint 



Education. 105 

shop on South Street, and it stands upon its original lot. It 
continued to be used for the " female school " until the house on 
Elm Street was enlarged in 1849. In 1840 it was enlarged by 
an addition of eleven feet to its length. After it was abandoned 
for the use of a schoolhouse it was let by the town for business 
purposes, and was finally sold in 1863. It was originally a one- 
story building. 

In 1829 the town voted to build four new schoolhouses. for the 
"male schools." They were similar in style, the one in North Dis- 
trict being larger than the others. The dimensions of the one in 
this district were 31 X 40 feet, and 13 feet in height, with accom- 
modations for 125 scholars. This building was opened for a 
school, July 12, 1830, with appropriate exercises, including an 
address by Rev. Joseph Richardson. 

In 1830 the hill in front of the Academy was removed. The 
house standing thereon, which was the one built in 1806, was re- 
moved to the West District, and fitted up for the " female school." 
Its subsequent history will be found in that district. 

In 1848 the town voted to make an addition to the length of 
the house in Elm Street (built in 1829-30) and to add another 
story to its height. This house was rededicated in 1849, Rev. 
Henry Hersey making an appropriate address on the occasion. It 
is the large schoolhouse which is now in use there. 

In 1878 a new one-story house was built for the Intermediate 
School upon a lot adjoining the other schoolhouse lot on Elm 
Street, and is now in use for that purpose. 

2. West District. 

The question of building a schoolhouse at the west end of the 
town for the accommodation of the school came before the town, 
according to the records, as early as 1774, and again in 1784. 
But it was not until 1795 that a disposition was shown to supply 
the want of that section. In 1795 it was voted to build a school- 
house at the west end of the North Parish. The inhabitants of 
that district, however, could not agree upon a suitable location. 
For nearly a year there was controversy upon the subject. One 
committee after another was appointed to " appoint a spot " and 
report to the town; and it was not until a committee was appointed 
in 1796 to confer with the inhabitants of the west part of the 
town and agree with them, if possible, upon a location, and " if 
not, to set it where they think proper," that the matter was decided. 
It was located in the square near Marsh's Bridge, about where the 
reservoir now is, upon what was then a slight elevation. In 1815 it 
was moved to the lot near by, just west of where George Hersey 
& Co.'s store now stands, backing upon the brook. The people 
of the district had a cupola built upon its roof, and furnished 
it with a bell, which was regularly rung for school and at other 
times until about 1822, when it became cracked. The building 
was of poor material and was sold in 1829 for $15. Being unfit for 
removal, it was demolished. Its dimensions were 19 x 25 feet. 



106 History of Hingham. 

In 1829 one of the four schoolhouses voted to be built was 
located in the West District. Its dimensions were 31 X 34| feet, 
and 12 feet high, with accommodations for 100 scholars. It was 
built upon the lot on South Street, where the West Intermediate 
School now stands, and was for the " male school." It was 
opened with appropriate exercises Nov. 23, 1829, which included 
an address by Caleb Gill, Jr. 

The present West Intermediate School is the same building, 
enlarged at a later date. 

In 1830 the " male-school " house on the hill in front of the 
Academy was removed to this same lot in the West District, and 
fitted up for the " female school." In 1841 it was enlarged by an 
addition of 10 feet to its length. It was sold in 1857, removed to 
Thaxter Street, and converted into a dwelling-house, where it now 
stands, owned by Edward Shea. 

In 1857 the present two-story schoolhouse on Thaxter Street 
was built for the accommodation of the Grammar and Primary 
Schools. It was dedicated Nov. 5, 1857, an address being 
delivered by Rev. Calvin Lincoln. In the same year the house on 
South Street (built in 1829) was entirely remodelled inside for 
the use of the Intermediate School, though not enlarged at this 
time, but 15 feet were added to its length in 1882. 

At Fort Hill the schoolhouse was built in 1850, and dedicated 
on the 4th of October in that year. Nathaniel P. Banks delivered 
an address on that occasion. This is the only schoolhouse which 
has been built by the town in that part of the West District. 

3. Middle District. 

In 1721 a schoolhouse was erected " near to Peter Ripley's." 
This was in the vicinity of the junction of Main and Pond Streets. 
This house was removed in 1728 to " Great Plain," and its sub- 
sequent history will be found in the South District. 

There appears to have been no other schoolhouse " on the plain " 
until 1758. The distance was not great to the school in " the town " 
and it was no great hardship for those who thirsted for knowledge 
to " resort to " that school. In 1758 a committee appointed for 
the purpose fixed upon a site for a new schoolhouse in the south- 
east part of the First Precinct as follows : " A spot of ground in 
the west part of Daniel Waters' Home lot, near to Jonathan 
Burr's house in the highway leading to Isaac Lane's." The town 
accepted the site, but whether the schoolhouse was actually built 
there is not certain. The site would be very near the entrance to 
the Cemetery, where Short Street intersects School Street, within 
the present Cemetery grounds. This building stood on the south 
side of the Common, near to or upon the site of Mr. John Leavitt's 
house before 1799. Possibly it was moved there in 1797, for the 
town voted to build a new schoolhouse " on the Plain in the 
North Parish," and the School Committee were directed to re- 
move the old schoolhouse and dispose of it to the best advan- 



Education. 107 

tage after the new one was built. It was not sold at this time. 
This building seems never to have rested in one place very long. 
It had found its way, before 1818, to another spot ; for the town 
voted in that year that " the old schoolhouse that stands near 
the old Alms House, be removed to some suitable place and put 
in sufficient repair to keep the female school in." It found its 
way to a point near the present Grammar-school house, though 
somewhat north of it, within the present limits of the Cemetery. 
In 1829 it was sold, removed first to Middle Street, then near 
the steamboat landing, and finally to Cobb's Bank (Green Street), 
where it was converted into a dwelling-house, and is still standing. 

The house built in 1797 for the " male school " stood on the 
site above described as the " west part of Daniel Waters' Home 
lot." Its dimensions were 19 X 27 feet. In 1829 it was removed 
to the site of the old " female-school " house, sold in the year 
above-mentioned, and occupied by the " female school." In this 
same year, 1829, another of the four new schoolhouses in the 
town was built in the Middle District, upon the spot where the 
previous house had stood. Its dimensions were 31 x 34| feet and 
12 feet high, with accommodations for 100 scholars. It was 
opened with appropriate exercises, including an address by Solo- 
mon Lincoln, Jr., Nov. 24, 1829, and was for the " male school." 

In 1848 both schoolhouses, being within the burial-ground, 
were removed to the lot upon which the houses now stand, the 
" male-school " house (1829) being put upon the site of the present 
Grammar-school house and the " female-school " house (1797) in 
the rear. 

In 1857 the house built in 1797, which had been enlarged in 
1840 by an addition of 10 feet in length, was sold at public 
auction and removed in two parts to Hobart Street, nearly 
opposite the Pound, and converted into two small dwelling-houses, 
which are now standing. The house built in 1829 was moved 
farther back upon the lot, and subsequently occupied as an ar- 
mory by the Lincoln Light Infantry. 

In this same year, 1857, the present two-story schoolhouse 
was built for the accommodation of two schools. It was dedi- 
cated Nov. 9, 1857, an address being delivered by Henry Edson 
Hersey. 

In 1875 the "Armory" was fitted up for the Intermediate 
School, and in 1883 it was again altered and enlarged. 

4. Rocky Nook. 

The earliest date at which a schoolhouse in this district was 
the property of the town was 1821. A school of some description 
had been kept there many years before, according to the Town 
Records ; for in 1768 " the question was put whether the town 
would keep the schoolhouse in repair at Rocky Nook ; passed in 
the negative." Provision was also made for a school there in the 
new arrangement of 1794. 



108 History of Hingham. 

In 1821 the School Committee, under instruction from the 
town to consider the subject of " a schoolhouse at Rocky Nook," 
reported the following : — 

" The building which has been for some time past used as a school- 
house is now very much out of repair. It can be purchased for twenty 
dollars. The probable expense of purchasing, repairing, and moving it to 
some more central situation for the district would amount to sixty dollars. 
It would be for the interest of the town to purchase, repair, and move to 
some more convenient situation the building alluded to than to build a 
new one." 

The report was accepted and the Selectmen directed to carry 
the same into effect. 

The location of this house was in a bend of the road on Weir 
Street, not far from East Street. It was a small building about 
twelve or fourteen feet square. After it ceased to be used for a 
school in 1841, it was sold, removed to the other end of Weir 
Street, and made into a dwelling-house. A few years after 1850 
it disappeared altogether. 

In 1841 a new house was built on Hull Street, near the present 
North Cohasset railroad station. The house and lot were sold in 
1859 to James Beal, who with additions converted it into the 
dwelling-house in which he now resides. It stands on its original 
location. 

In 1857 the town voted to build a new schoolhouse similar to 
the one at Fort Hill. Its location was the subject of much dis- 
cussion in town-meeting for nearly a year. It was dedicated 
May 2, 1859, and was situated on Canterbury Street, named in 
honor of Cornelius Canterbury, the earliest settler in that part of 
the town, and an extensive landholder there. The lot contains 
an acre, which, together with that portion of the street which is 
between the schoolhouse lot and Hull Street, was presented to 
the town by David A. Simmons of Roxbury. Rev. Henry Hersey 
delivered the address at the dedication. It is the same house 
which is now occupied by the mixed school of that district. 

5. North District op the South Ward. 

In 1728 the town voted " that Great Plain should have liberty 
to remove the schoolhouse (near Peter Ripley's) where it shall 
best accommodate them, provided they do the same at their own 
cost and charge." 

This house was moved from the Middle District to " near 
Theophilus Cushing's," as it is described in 1730. In 1752 
allusion is made to it as standing " in the front of Mr. Shute's 
land," when liberty was granted to remove it " to some more 
convenient place." The location above mentioned was in the 
highway near the junction of Main and South Pleasant streets. 
In 1830 this house was sold and moved to a lot on Main Street 
a few rods north of High Street, where it became an addition to 
the rear of a dwelling-house, known as the Isaac Tower house, 



Education. 109 

lately owned by the High Street Cemetery Association, but now 
demolished. 

In 1801 a new schoolhouse was built on land of Captain 
Edward Wilder on Friend Street, near to Main Street. In 1830 
this house was removed to the lot on Main Street on which " the 
new schoolhouse now stands," just south of the present school- 
house lot. 

One of the four new schoolhouses ordered to be built in 1829 
was in this district. It was 31 X 34| feet and 12 feet in height, 
with accommodations for 100 scholars. Its location was, as just 
stated, on Main Street. It was opened with appropriate exercises, 
including an address by Rev. Charles Brooks, Aug. 2, 1830. 

These two houses, built in 1801 and 1830 respectively, were 
sold, after the building of a new one in 1848, to Joseph Jacobs, 
and converted into dwelling-houses. The earlier one (1801) was 
subsequently sold and removed to Whiting Street, Hanover, near 
the line of Rockland, where it now stands, belonging to John 
Damon. The later one (1830) still stands just south of the 
present schoolhouse, on its original site, the property of Mrs. 
Joshua Leavitt. 

In 1848 the present house was built. It was the first two-story 
schoolhouse built in the town, and was originally for the accom- 
modation of two schools. In 1874 it was enlarged for the accom- 
modation of three schools. 

6. South District of the South Ward. 

In 1781 a schoolhouse was built on the east side of Main Street, 
where the Widow Solomon Gardner's house now stands. At 
some time later than 1796 it was sold and moved farther south 
to the opposite side of Main Street, where it was attached to the 
dwelling-house now known as the Howard Gardner house, and 
used as some kind of a workshop. 

In 1796 a house was built on the corner of Scotland and Main 
streets. This house was 19 X 25 feet. It was sold in 1843 and 
is now standing and occupied as a dwelling-house on the Isaac 
Burrill estate at South Hingham. 

In 1822 there is mention of " the female school in the South 
Parish near the Turnpike," and in 1823 the Selectmen agreed 
with Jeremiah Gardner for the purchase of the " west schoolhouse 
near the Turnpike for $85." This was on Gardner Street. 

In 1826 the Scotland-Street house was thoroughly repaired. 
At this time the Gardner-Street house was abandoned for school 
purposes, and in 1830 it was sold and removed to West Scituate 
to be made into a dwelling-house. 

In 1843 the present schoolhouse on the east side of Main Street 
at Liberty Plain was built and is occupied by the South Mixed 
School. It was dedicated Oct. 31, 1843, an address being delivered 
by Rev. John L. Russell. 



110 



History of Hingham. 



COHASSET. 
SECOND OR EAST PRECINCT. 

It is probable that a schoolhouse was first erected in Cohasset 
soon after 1730. In that year the town refused to build a school- 
house there, but it 

" Voted, That the Inhabitants of the East Precinct be hereby allowed to 
draw out of the Town Treasury y e whole of what was by them paid 
towards the building of a schoolhouse in the year 1721-22, and now 
stands near Theophilus Cushing's, provided the same is by them improved 
towards the building a schoolhouse in s d Precinct." 

In 1734 <£10 were granted to Cohasset, over and above what 
had already been granted it towards the erecting a schoolhouse in 
" s d Precinct." 

Money was paid from the town treasury in 1743 and in 1753 
for repairs on the schoolhouse in this district. 

Cohasset was incorporated as a separate town in 1770. 

The following Second Precinct records confirm the above 
records of the town: — 

"Dec. 30, 1731 : It was voted to build a schoolhouse in the second 
precinct." 

That a schoolhouse was begun but not finished would seem 
probable, as we find — 

"Oct. 7, 1734: Voted, To proceed in building a schoolhouse, and that 
the frame now raised should be continued and finished." 

It is probable, therefore, that 1734 is the year which must be 
accepted as that in which the first schoolhouse in this precinct 
was built. It stood on the Plain, according to the Report of the 
School Committee of Cohasset for 1876-77, " between where the 
houses of Captain Samuel Hall and Mr. Zenas Lincoln are now 
located." There was only one schoolhouse there until 1792. 

Teachers. 

The following list of teachers in the public schools of Hingham 
contains the names of all those found upon our records. Dates 
are given to indicate the beginning and end of service, but they 
must not, in many cases, be understood to be years of continuous 
service. The earlier records fail to give the names of all the 
teachers, but from the beginning of the records of the School Com- 
mittee, in 1794, the list is believed to be very nearly complete. 



1670 


Henry Smith . . . 


. 1672 


1685 


Thomas Palmer . . 


. . 1687 


1673 


James Bate, Sr. . . 


. 1678 


1688 


Samuel Shepard . . 


. . 1690 


1674 


Joseph Andrews 


. 1675 


1690 


Richard Henchman . 


. . 1692 


1676 


Benjamin Bate . . 


. 1676 


1693 


Joseph Estabrook . 


. . 1705 


1679 


Matthew Hawke 


. . 1679 


1697 


Jedidiah Andrews . 


. . 1697 



1697 John Norton . . 

1705 John Odlin . . 

1706 Joseph Marsh . 
1708 Daniel Lewis 
1712 Jonathan Cushing 
1714 Job Cnshing . . 
1717 Samuel Thaxter 
1717 Adam Cushing . 

1717 Mr. Allen . . . 

1718 Cornelius Nye . 

1734 Richard Rand . 

1735 Samuel Holbrook 
1737 Benjamin Pratt . 
1737 Mr. Jommings . 
1742 Isaac Lincoln . 
1745 James Humphrey 
1747 Ambrose Low . 

1747 Jonathan Darby . 

1748 Dea. Lazarus Beal's 

1749 Matthew Cushin 

1749 Cotton Tufts . 

1750 Samuel Trench 
1752 Thomas Brown 

1752 Jonathan Vinal 

1753 Samuel Cushing 

1753 Theophilus Cushing 

1754 Samuel Foxcroft 

1755 Joseph Stockbridge 

1756 Jonathan Gay 

1758 Mr. Bowman 

1759 Jotham Gay . 
1759 Jotham Lincoln 

1759 David Lincoln 

1760 Simeon Howard 

1761 Joseph Lewis 

1762 Paul Lewis . 

1763 Thomas Phipps 
1766 Thomas Loring, Jr. 
1768 Asa Dunbar . 
1768 Jacob Cushing 
1768 Joseph Thaxter 

1770 Mr. Fisher . 

1771 Hawke Fearing, Jr 

1772 Joshua Barker, Jr. 

1773 Nathan Rice 
1781 Bezaliel Howard 

1781 Caleb Marsh . . 
J781 James Lincoln . 

1782 Thomas Loring, 4th 
1782 Heman Lincoln 
1782 Thomas Hutchinson 

1782 John Andrews . 

1783 Thomas Loring . 

1783 Samuel Gardner . 

1784 Ebenezer Bowman 

1785 William Cushing 

1785 Samuel Marsh . 

1786 George Lane . . 
1786 Henry Lincoln . 
1786 Jairus Beal . . 



Education. 




111 


1713 


1787 


Molly Loring . . 


. 1787 


1706 


1787 


Mary Gardner . . 


. 1787 


1707 


1788 


Thomas Loring, 3d 


. 1788 


1712 


1788 


Levi Lincoln . 


. 1788 


1713 


1788 


Abner Lincoln . . 


. 1788 


1718 


1788 


James Smith . . . 


. 178S 


1717 


1788 


Peter Jacob . . . 


. 1788 


1720 


1794 


Polly Cushing . . 


. 1796 


1718 


1794 


Hannah Cushing 


. 1794 


1745 


1794 


Mrs. Joseph Loring 


. 1794 


1734 


1794 


Rebeckah Hearsey . 


. 1796 


1735 


1794 


Jenny Cushing . . 


. 1794 


1737 


1794 


James "Warren . . 


. 1794 


1737 


1794 


Mr. Goold . . . 


. 1794 


1757 


1794 


Crocker Wilder . . 


. 1819 


1747 


1794 


Joseph Jacob . . . 


. 1798 


1758 


1794 


John Morse . . . 


. 1798 


1749 


1794 


Mr. Collier . . . 


. 1794 


1748 


1796 


Polly Simmons . . 


. 1796 


1749 


1796 


Patty Whiton . . 


. 1819 


1751 


1796 


Lydia Cushing . . 


. 1796 


1751 


1796 


William Cushing 


. 1798 


1752 


1796 


Jerusha Lincoln 


. 1796 


1754 


1796 


Elijah Whiton . . 


. 1796 


1754 


1796 


Joseph Stockbridge 


. 1796 


1753 


1796 


Gael Tower . . . 


. 1796 


1754 


1796 


William Norton . . 


. 1796 


1755 


1798 


Doct. Marsh . . . 


. 1798 


1756 


1798 


Mr. Lincoln . . . 


. 1798 


1759 


1801 


Samuel Heath . . 


. 1801 


1759 


1805 


Abel Cushing . . 


. 1812 


1759 


1805 


Jotham Lincoln . . 


. 1806 


1782 


1805 


Martin Thaxter . . 


. 1806 


1762 


1805 


Mr. Studley ". . . 


. 1806 


1778 


1809 


Artemus Hale . . 


. 1814 


1776 


1811 


Mary Lincoln . . 


. 1813 


1768 


1811 


Martha Marshall . 


. 1811 


1778 


1811 


Emma Jacob . . . 


. 1811 


1768 


1811 


Polly Barnes . . . 


. 1815 


1772 


1811 


Ann Hersey . . . 


. 1811 


1778 


1811 


Christiana Cushing . 


. 1820 


1771 


1811 


Cynthia Gardner 


. 1811 


1772 


1811 


William Brown . • 


. 1811 


1772 


1811 


Josiah Bowers 


. 1811 


1773 


1811 


Artemus Brown . . 


. 1811 


1782 


1811 


William Gragg . . 


. . 1S11 


1788 


1811 


Silers Armsby . . 


. 1811 


1782 


1S11 


Jerom Loring . . 


. 1821 


1787 


1812 


Abel Wilder . . . 


. . 1812 


17S3 


1813 


John Milton Reed . 


. 1813 


1782 


1813 


Duncan McB. Thaxter 


. 1817 


1782 


1813 


Lydia Gill . . . 


. 1814 


1783 


1813 


Sally Tower . . . 


. 1S14 


1784 


1813 


Roxanna Wilder 


. 1815 


1784 


1813 


Ruth Marsh . . . ■ 


. . 1813 


1785 


1813 


Hannah R. Jacobs . 


. 1815 


1785 


1813 


John Chase . . . 


. . 1813 


1788 


1814 


Benjamin Chamberlain 


. 1815 


1787 


1814 


Lydia Souther . . 


. 1815 


1786 


1814 


Joana Whiton (Whitin 


g). 1815 



112 



History of Hingham. 



1815 Mr. Loring 1815 

1815 MelzarFlagg .... 1818 

1815 Joseph Wilder, Jr. . . . 1828 

1815 Martha Whiton (Whiting) 1822 

1815 Lucy Lane 1815 

1815 Harriet Wilder .... 1815 

1817 Henry Hersey .... 1817 

1817 John Sargent .... 1817 

1817 Thomas Hobart . . . . 1818 

1817 Deborah Todd .... 1819 

1817 Ophelia Davis .... 1817 

1817 MaryHapgood .... 1827 

1817 Joanna Wilder .... 1819 

1817 Abigail B. Whiting . . 1817 

1818 Ivory H. Lucas .... 1821 
1818 Nathaniel Clark .... 1827 
1818 Joshua Studley .... 1818 
1818 Abigail T. Bowers . . . 1821 
1818 Martha C. Wilder . . . 1818 
1818 Deborah Wilder .... 1819 

1818 Elizabeth Hersey . . . 1818 

1819 Seth Gardner, Jr. . . . 1819 

1819 Lucy Jones 1822 

1819 Mary Whiting .... 1824 

1819 Sabby Woodworth . . . 1819 

1820 Susan Harris 1820 

1820 Hannah H. Wilder . . . 1831 

1820 Caroline Whiting . . . 1821 

1821 Winslow Turner . . . 1827 
1821 P. Southworth .... 1821 
1821 Susan Waterman . . . 1821 
1821 Susan Lincoln .... 1826 
1821 Ann C. A. Whitney . . 1821 

1821 Bethia Whiting .... 1821 

1822 Joseph S. Clark .... 1822 
1822 Joshua Flagg .... 1822 
1822 Mary Waterman . . . 1822 
1822 Harriet T. Bowers . . . 1824 
1822 Matilda Wilder .... 1822 
1822 Harriet Lincoln . . . . 1822 

1822 Lavinia Whiton . . . . 1822 

1823 Seth Gardner .... 1826 

1823 James S. Lewis .... 1846 

1824 Wealthy B. Jones . . . 1832 
1824 Clorina Adams .... 1824 
1824 Lydia B. Whitney . . . 1830 
1824 Sarah Bailey 1825 

1824 Israel Clark 1825 

1825 Capt. Malbon .... 1827 

(See Micajah Malbon) 

1825 Miss Shute 1825 

1827 Theophilus Cushing . . 1832 

1827 Lydia M. Hobart . . . 1831 

1827 Catherine Beal .... 1833 

1827 Mary Wilder 1828 

1827 Miss L. Whiton .... 1827 

1827 Miss L. Bates .... 1827 

1828 William C. Grout . . . 1828 
1828 John Maynard .... 1829 
1828 Abijah W. Draper . . . 1830 



1828 


Charles Gordon . . 


• . 1829 


1829 


Sarah Wilder . . . 


. 1833 


1829 


Rachel Hersey . . 


. 1829 


1829 


Joseph Tilson . . 


. 1832 


1829 


I. Pierce .... 


. 1830 


1830 


J. Sprague . . . 


. 1830 


1830 


James S. Russell 


. 1831 


1830 


Susan B. Hersey 


. 1840 


1S30 


T.N.Keith . . . 


. 1831 


1831 


Emebne Cushing 


. 1832 


1831 


Abigail Gardner . . 


. 1831 


1831 


Thomas P. Ryder . 


. 1832 


1831 


Mary F. Hobart . 


. 1832 


1831 


Olive Stephenson 

(See Olive Corbett) 


. 1840 


1831 


J. P. Washburn . . 


. 1832 


1832 


Emily N. Gray . . 


. 1832 


1832 


Jason Reed . 


. 1832 


1832 


Esther E. Sturgis . 


. 1832 


1S32 


Thomas S. Harlow . 


. 1833 


1832 


Oliver March 


. 1832 


1832 


Mary Miles . . . 


. 1833 


1832 


George W. Brown . 


. 1833 


1832 


Charles Harris, Jr. . 


. 1833 


1832 


Ira Warren . . . 


. 1835 


1833 


Jairus Lincoln . 


. 1835 


1833 


Catherine Gates . . 


. 1834 


1833 


Almira S. Seymour . 


. 1834 


1833 


Frederick Kingman 


. 1835 


1833 


Daniel S. Smalley . 


. 1S36 


1833 


Mary Hersey • • . 


. 1833 


1833 


Abigail G. Wilder . 


. 1840 


1833 


Hiram Perkins . 


. 1834 


1834 


Mary L. Hobart 


. 1834 


1834 


Susan L. Thaxter . 


. 1836 


1834 


Bertha L. Hobart . 


. 1842 


1834 


Benjamin F. Spaulding 


. 1836 


1835 


Daniel French . . 


. 1836 


1835 


Adeline Whiton . . 


. 1839 


1835 


Mary F. Wilder . . 


. 1849 


1835 


Quincy Bicknell, Jr. 


. 1840 


1835 


Clark H. Obear . . 


. 1836 


1836 


I. F. Moore . . . 


. 1837 


1836 


Susan M. Lincoln . 


. 1836 


1836 


Angelina H. Tower 


. 1838 


1836 


Benjamin S. Whiting 


. 1844 


1836 


John E. Dix . . . 


. 1837 


1837 


Timothy D. Lincoln 


. 1838 


1837 


Frederick D. Lincoln 


. 183S 


1837 


Ephraim Capen . . 


. 1838 


183S 


Edwin W. Peirce . 


. 1839 


1838 


Joseph D. Peirce 


. 1839 


1839 


Mary L. Gardner 


1843 


1839 


Joel Pierce . . . 


. 1839 


1839 


William F. Dow . 


. 1840 


1839 


Hosea H. Lincoln . 


. 1843 


1839 


Davis J. Whiting . 


1840 


1840 


Darius A. Dow . . 


. 1842 


1840 


Jotham Lincoln, Jr. 


. 1841 


1840 


Jane S. Hobart . . 


. 1843 



Education. 



113 



1S40 
1840 
1841 
1841 
1841 
1S41 
1S41 

1841 
1842 
1842 
1842 
1842 
1843 
1843 
1843 
1843 
1843 

1843 

1844 
1844 
1844 

1845 

1845 
1845 
1845 
1845 
1846 
1846 
1847 
1847 
1847 
1818 
1848 
1848 
184S 
1848 
1849 
1849 

1849 
1849 
1849 
1849 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1851 
1851 
1851 
1851 
1851 
1851 
1852 
1852 



Helen E. Cushing . . 


1847 


1852 


Sidney Sprague . . . 


1843 


1852 


Mary F. Hobart . . . 


1841 


1852 


Susan F. Wilder 


1S47 


1852 


Mary B. Ripley . . . 


1843 


1S52 


Mary R. Tower . . . 


1843 


1852 


Betsey L. Seymour 


1850 


1852 


(See Elizabeth L. Rogers.) 




1852 


Nathaniel Wales . . 


1843 


1852 


Mary J. Tower . . . 


1842 


1853 


Hannah M. Lincoln 


1846 


1853 


John Kneeland . . 


1847 


1S53 


Nathan Liu coin . . . 


1843 


1853 


Elizabeth S. Cushing . 


1844 


1853 


Betsey Shute . . . 


1844 


1853 


Sarah A. Howard . . 


1843 


1854 


William B. Tower . . 


1844 


1854 


Micajah Malbon . . . 


1845 


1854 


(See Capt. Malbon.) 




1854 


Mary R. Wliiton . . 


1844 


1854 


George W. Beal . . . 


1849 


1854 


Richard Edwards, Jr. . 


1846 


1S55 


Olive Corbett . . . 


1849 


1855 


(See Olive Stephenson.) 




1855 


Hannah B. Guild . . 


1846 


1855 


Thomas B. Norton . . 


1845 


1855 


Alson A. Gilmore . . 


1845 


1855 


John A. Goodwin . . 


1846 


1856 


G. S. Chapin .... 


1846 


1856 


H. Chapin .... 


1849 


1856 


William P. Hay-ward . 


1850 


1856 


Mr. Gilmore .... 


1847 


1856 


Sylvander Hutchinson . 


1852 


1856 


Mary E. Nash . . . 


1860 


1857 


Anna H. Tower . . . 


1850 


1857 


Mr. Kingman . . . 


184S 


1857 


Rebecca D. Corbett 


1851 


1857 


Julia A. Muzzey . . 


1852 


1857 


George R. Dwelley 


1849 


1857 


Susan H. Cushing . . 


1860 


1857 


Paul B. Merritt . . . 


1855 


1857 


and 1871 to 1879 




1857 


Perez Turner, 2d . . 


1850 


1858 


Mary E. Riddle . . . 


1886 


1858 


Miss A. Waters . . . 


1851 


1858 


Mr. A. G. Boyden . . 


1850 


1858 


G. C. Smith .... 


1851 


1859 


Miss I. W. Clark . . 


1851 


1859 


Mr. H. A. Pratt . . 


1850 


1859 


Ann C. Sprague . . . 


1853 


1859 


Samuel Paul .... 


1855 


1859 


Ira Moore .... 


1850 


1860 


Catherine H. Hobart . 


1881 


1860 


Grace L. Sprague . . 


1853 


1860 


Bradford Tucker . . 


1854 


1860 


Almira G. Paul . . . 


1851 


1860 


Thomas H. Barnes . . 


1852 


1860 


Ellen McKendry . . 


1852 


1S60 


Susan G. Hedge . • 


1855 




L. L. Paine .... 


1852 


1860 



Elizabeth Hill .... 1852 

George Pratt 1853 

Miss M. L. Prentiss . . 1854 

Augusta C. Litchfield . . 1853 

Samuel A. W. Parker, Jr. 1852 

William A. Webster . . 1853 

Andrew E. Thayer . . . 1853 

DeWitt C. Bates . . . 1869 

F. A. French 1853 

Francis W. Goodale . . 1853 

Frederick W. Wing . . 1855 

Thomas F. Leonard . . 1853 

Hannah E. Emerson . . 1854 

George Chapin .... 1854 

Maria A. Clapp .... 1854 

Lemuel C Grosvenor . . 1855 

Mary S. Litchfield . . . 1854 

Joanna K. Howard . . . 1S57 

Sarah L. Cushing . . . 1854 

Franklin Jacobs (1864-65) 1855 

Elizabeth T. Bailey . . 1856 

Francis M. Hodges . . . 1856 

Daniel E. Damon . . . 1858 

Henry J. Boyd . . . . 1856 

Mrs. A. S. Wakefield . . 1856 

George Bowers . . . . 1856 

James B. Everett . . . 1856 

Ann S. Snow .... 1857 

John W. Willis .... 1857 

Lois M. Newcomb . . . 1856 

William H. Mayhew . . 1858 

Joseph B. Read .... 1857 

Mary H. Tower .... 1863 

Olive M. Hobart . . . 1870 

Annie L. White . . . . 1858 

Susan P. Adams . . . 1858 

Adeline V. Wood . . . 1857 

Ellen M. Davis .... 1864 

George Farwell .... 1858 

David G. Grosvenor . . 1857 

Mr. G. S. Webster . . . 1857 

Emma C Webster . . . 1859 

Emily J. Tucker . . . 1862 

Edmund Cottle .... 1860 

Wales B. Thayer . . . 1860 

Benjamin C. Vose . . . 1859 

Harriet J. Gardner . . . 1868 

Laura D. Loring . . . 1859 

Susan P. Adams . . . 1859 

George B. Hanna . . . 1860 

Soreno E. D. Currier . . 1860 

Mary E. Hobart . . . 1860 

Ellen Williams .... 1861 

Mr. J. W. Josselyn . . 1860 

William E. Endicott . . 1860 

Pliny S. Boyd .... 1862 

Martha B. Corthell . . . 1868 

Elizabeth L. Rogers . . 1871 

(See Betsey Seymour.) 

Sarah J. Hersev, 1860, 1864, 1865 



114 



History of Hingham. 



1860 


Susan L. Hersey 


. . 1879 


1879 


Emma I. Brown 


. 1889 


1860 


Alfred Bunker . . 


. 1863 


1879 


Lucy W. Cain . . 


. 1882 


1861 


Eben H. Davis . . 


. . 1862 


1879 


Alice M. Merrill . 


. . 1880 


1862 


Margaret E. Lefler . 


. 1862 


1879 


Edith E. Taggart . 


. . 1883 


1862 


Mary A. Bates . . 


. 1862 


1879 


Edgar R. Downs . 


1879 


1862 


Ellen Lincoln . . 


. 1875 


1879 


Viola M. White . . 


. 1879 


1862 


Byron Groce . 


. 1865 


1880 


Nelson Freeman 


. 1883 


1862 


William H. Gurney 


. 1863 


1880 


Alice Shepard . . 


. 1880 


1863 


Hosah G. Goodrich 


. 1879 


1880 


John F. Turgeon . 


. 1881 


1863 


F. Josephine Randall 


. 1863 




(Appointed Superintendent.) 


1863 


Arthur S. Lake . . 


. 1864 


1881 


Gustavus F. Guild . 


. . 1883 


1864 


Mary A. Bates . . 


. 1864 


1881 


Lizzie H. Powers . 


. 1881 


1864 


James E. Parker 


. 1864 


1881 


Mary A. Gage . . 


. 1882 


1864 


Jacob O. Sanborn, 1865 


; and 


18S1 


Mrs. Wallace Corthell 


. 1886 




after 1872, High School. 


1882 


John S. Emerson . 


. . 1885 


1865 


Mary S. Stoddard . 


. 1866 


1882 


Charles H. Morse . 


. 18S3 


1865 


Mehi table W. Seymoui 


• . 1874 


1882 


Susan E. Barker 


. 1883 


1865 


Alonzo Meserve . . 


. 1865 


1882 


Irene I. Lincoln 


. 1885 


1866 


Charles M. Tucker . 


. 1866 


1882 


Harriet N. Sands . 


. 18S3- 


1866 


Nathan T. Soule . . 


. 1874 


1883 


Willard S. Jones 


. . 1885 


1866 


John G. Knight . . 


. 1869 


1883 


James H. Burdett . 


. 1885 


1867 


Abby G. Hersey 


. 1871 


1883 


Arthur Stanley . 


. . 18S4 


1868 


Mary E. Hobart 


. 1876 


1883 


Adair F. Bonney 


. . 1890 


1868 


L. Webster Bates . 


. 1869 


1883 


Mai'y I. Longfellow 


. 1883 


1868 


Elizabeth L. Stodder 


. 1886 


1883 


Charlotte B. Harden 


. . 1885 


1868 


George T. Chandler 


. 1S82 


1883 


Emma L. Thayer 


. . 1890 


1869 


Joseph O. Burdett . 


. 1869 


1883 


Martha B. Beale . 


. . 1888 


1869 


Simeon J. Dunbar . 


. 1870 


1884 


Agnes Peirce 


. 18S6 


1870 


Thomas H. Treadway 


. 1871 


1884 


William H. Furber . 


. . 1886 


1870 


M. Anna Hobart . 


. 1876 


1885 


Lucy M. Adams 


. 1S85 


1870 


Lydia A. LeBaron . 


. 1874 


1885 


E. Harriot Curtis . 


. 1889 


1871 


Elisha C. Sprague . 


. 1879 


1885 


Edwin H. Holmes . 


. . 1888 


1871 


Esther J. Cushing . 


. 1872 


1885 


Hugh J. Molloy . . 


. 18S7 


1871 


J. M. W. Pratt . . 


. 1871 


1885 


Louis P. Nash . 


. 1887 


1871 


Cassia M. Barrows . 


. 1871 




(Appointed Superintendent.) 


1871 


Anna P. Lane . . 


. 1873 


1885 


Lilian M. Hobart . 


. 18S9 


1871 


Leonard B.Marshall (m 


usic) 1874 


1885 


Mary W. Bates . . 


. 1889 


1872 


Ella J. Corthell . . 


. 1873 


1886 


Gracia E. Read . . 


. 1888 


1873 


Martha F. Bailey . 


. 1875 


1886 


Henry H. Williams 


. 1SS7 


1873 


Lydia A. Whiton . 


. 1876 


18S6 


Maud E. Roberts . 


. 1891 


1874 


Sara A. Hammett . 


. 1875 


1886 


Ida F. Spear . . . 


1889 


1874 


Joanna W. Penniman 


. 1876 


1887 


George W. Winslow 


. . 1889 


1874 


Mary A. Shea . . 


. 1876 


1887 


James S. Perkins . 


. 18S8 


1874 


Orra B. Hersey . . 


. 1882 


1887 


David B. Chamberlain 


. 1888 


1874 


Alfred H. Bissell (mus 


ic) 1886 


1887 


S. Elizabeth Bates. 




1S75 


Harriet L. Gardner 


. 1876 


1887 


A. E. Bradford (music 


)• 


1875 


Fannie 0. Cashing. 




1887 


Helen Howard. 




1875 


Katharine W. Cushing 


. 1879 


1888 


Harry N. Andrews . 


. 1890 


1876 


Hannah K. Harden 


. 1879 


1888 


E. Marion Williams 


. 1889 


1876 


Tilson A. Mead . . 


. 1878 


1888 


David Bentley . . 


. 1888 


1876 


Mary A. Crowe. 




1888 


Henry B. Winslow . 


. 1889 


1877 


Mary F. Andrews. 




1889 


Alvan R. Lewis . . 


. 1890 


1877 


Helen Whiton . . 


. 1883 


1889 


Alice M. Ryan . . 


. 1890 


1877 


Lena C. Partridge . 


. 1877 


1889 


Ernest H. Leavitt. 




1878 


William C. Bates . 


. 1882 


1889 


Charles G. Wetherbee 


. 1890 




(Appointed Superintenden 


t.) 


1889 


Annie Sawyer . . 


. 1890 


1878 


Abbie G. Gould . . 


. 1878 


1889 


Annie C. Lawrence 


. 1890 


1879 


Evelyn Smalley . . 


. 1884 


1889 


Murray H. Ballou . 


. 1892 


1879 


Philander A. Gay . 


. 1882 


1889 


Priscil'la Whiton 


. 1891 







Education. 




115 


1890 


J. Quinsy Litchfield. 




1891 


Alice S. Hatch. 




1890 


Julian L. Noyes. 




1891 


Lucy W. Harden. 




1890 


Katherine D. Jones 


. 1891 


1891 


Edith L. Easterbrook . 


. 1892 


1890 


Edward H. Delano . . 


. 1891 


1891 


Ellen B. Marsh. 




1890 


Mabel S. Bobbins. 




1892 


Edith H. Wdder. 




1890 


Lillian M. Kennedy 


. 1891 


1892 


Edgar W. Farwell . . 


. 1892 


1891 


Hannah E. Coughlan. 




1892 


Charles A. Jenney. 




1891 


Margaret Hickey. 




1893 


Gertrude W. Groce. 




1891 


Helen Peirce. 











DERBY ACADEMY. 



Sarah Langlee (the name being the same as Langle, Langley, 
Longly, and Longle, on our records), the daughter of John 
Langlee and Hannah, his wife, was born April 18, 1714. 

She is described as being possessed of great beauty, and with- 
out the advantages of early education. She was doubtless illiter- 
ate, but her lack of education has been exaggerated. It has been 
said that she could not write her own name. This is not true, 
for she wrote many letters and signed her own name to them. 
Her signature may be seen on her will and other papers in the 
Suffolk County Registry of Probate. Many amusing anecdotes 
are told to illustrate her peculiarities, but they are founded upon 
no stronger evidence than tradition and ought not to be related 
as facts in history. It seems sufficiently evident, however, that 
it was her beauty which attracted the attention of Dr. Ezekiel 
Hersey, — a graduate of Harvard College in 1728, and an eminent 
physician in his native town of Hingham, where he practised his 
profession for many years, — for she was married to him July 30, 
1738. Dr. Hersey died Dec. 9, 1770, and his wife survived him. 
We can well believe that she was comely, for, although she had 
reached the age of fifty-seven, another admirer presented himself, 
and she was married to Richard Derby, of Salem, Oct. 16, 1771. 
Mr. Derby died Nov. 9, 1783, his wife surviving him. Mrs. Derby 
died in Hingham June 17, 1790, aged seventy-six, and was buried 
in Dr. Gay's tomb in the cemetery back of the meeting-house of 
the First Parish. 

Dr. Ezekiel Hersey was a man of means and charitable. It 
has been said that the Derby Academy was first established by 
him and placed on a firm foundation by Madam Derby at her 
death. There is no evidence of such a fact. It is undoubtedly 
true that the property which enabled Madam Derby to establish 
the institution was derived from Dr. Hersey, and it would have 
been a delicate acknowledgment of the fact had she given it the 
name of " Hersey School ; " but there is no substantial evidence to 
show that the idea originated in any mind but her own. It is 
fair to presume that the charitable character and education of 
Dr. Hersey would have led him to suggest to his wife such a dis- 
position of his property after she was done with it. It is quite 
as probable that Madam Derby, sensible of her own lack of early 
education, with a worthy motive to relieve others from an experi- 



116 



History of Hingham. 



ence like her own in this respect, might herself have conceived of 
this charity. 

Dr. Hersey, by his last will, dated Nov. 29, 1770, gave his wife 
all his estate on the condition of her paying one thousand pounds 
to Harvard College, the income of which was to be appropriated 
towards the support of a Professor of Anatomy and Physics, and 
thirty-six pounds to the three daughters of Dr. Gay. He made 
his wife sole executrix, but as no inventory was filed, there is no 
means of ascertaining the amount of his property. He made no 
provision for any school by this or any other will. In a prior 
will, made in 1756, which was in existence many years after his 
death, but which was revoked by his last will, he devised the lot 
of land on which the Academy now stands to the town of Hing- 




THE DERBY ACADEMY, HINGHAM. 

ham, and directed that his executrix should pay to the town two 
hundred and twenty pounds lawful money for the erection of a 
workhouse or a house for the use of the poor of the town. This 
perhaps gave the hint to Madam Derby to appropriate the same 
lot for public use in another way ; but there is nothing else to 
show cause for her doing it, so far as Dr. Hersey is concerned. 
From a careful examination of Madam Derby's will it would seem 
that she intended to leave so much of her property, at her death, 
as was acquired from her second husband, to his family connec- 
tions. It can therefore be repeated, with truth, that the Acad- 
emy was established with property acquired from Dr. Hersey. 

The first formal act of Madam Derby for the establishment of 
a school was the execution by her of a Deed of Bargain and Sale, 
dated Oct. 20, 1784, and a Deed of Lease and Release, dated Oct. 
21, 1784. 



Education. 117 



Deed of Babgajn and Sale. 

This Indenture made this twentieth day of October in the year 
of our Lord seventeen hundred and eighty-four and in the eighth year of 
the Independence of the United States of America by and between Sarah 
Derby of Hingham in the County of Suffolk & Commonwealth of Mas- 
sachusetts on the one part and Ebenezer Gay and Daniel Shute 
Clerks and John Thaxter and Benjamin Lincoln Esquires all of said 
Hingham and Cotton Tufts of Weymouth and Richard Cranch of 
Braintree both in the County aforesaid Esquires and William Cushing 
and Nathan Cushing both of Situate in the County of Plymouth & 
Commonwealth aforesaid Esquires and John Thaxter of Haverhill in 
the County of Essex Esquire and Benjamin Lincoln of Boston in the 
said County of Suffolk Gentleman on the other part Witnesseth that 
the said Sarah for and in consideration of the sum of five shillings paid 
her by the said Ebenezer, Daniel, John, Benjamin, Cotton, Richard, 
William, Nathan, John & Benjamin and divers other good causes 
her thereunto moving hath granted bargained & sold and by these pres- 
ents doth grant, bargain and sell unto the said Ebenezer, Daniel, John, 
Benjamin, Cotton, Richard, William, Nathan, John and Benja- 
min, their executors or administrators a certain piece of land lying in the 
north parish of said Hingham containing by estimation one quarter of an 
acre more or less bounded westerly on the Highway, southerly on land 
late of Benjamin Loring of said Boston deceased, eastwardly on land of 
Elisha Leavitt of said Hingham, northerly on other land of said Sarah 
and separated therefrom by a picked fence with all the buildings standing 
on the same with all the priviledges, easements & appurtenances to the 
said land and the buildings belonging, To have and to hold the same 
to the said Ebenezer, Daniel, John, Benjamin, Cotton, Richard, 
William, Nathan, John and Benjamin their Executors or administra- 
tors for and during the term of one year next ensuing the date of these 
presents and then to be fully complete and ended Yielding and Paying 
therefor the rent of one barley corn at the expiration of said term should 
it be lawfully demanded. To the end that by virtue of these presents 
and by force of the Statute for transferring uses into possession the said 
Ebenezer, Daniel, John, Benjamin, Cotton, Richard, William, 
Nathan, John and Benjamin may be in the actual possession of the 
land and buildings aforesaid with their priviledges and appurtenances and 
be thereby enabled to take a grant and release of the inheritance thereof 
to their heirs and assigns forever. To and for the uses, trusts, intents 
and purposes intended to be limited and declared in a certain indenture 
of Release intended to bear date the day next after the date hereof and 
made between the same parties as are parties to these presents. In Wit- 
ness whereof the abovenamed parties to these presents have hereunto 
interchangeably set their hands and seals the day and year first above 
written. 

Signed, Sealed and Delivered 

in presence of us. Sarah Derby. (Seal.) 

Benj* Cushing. 

William Cushing. 



118 History of Hingham. 



Deed of Lease and Release. 

This Indenture made this twenty-first day of October, in the year of 
our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-four, and in the eighth 
year of the Independence of the United States of America, by and between 
Sarah Derby of Hingham, in the County of Suffolk and Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts, Widow, on the one part; and Ebenezer Gat, and 
Daniel Shute, Clerks, and John Thaxter and Benjamin Ulncoln, 
Esquires, all of said Hingham ; Cotton Tufts of Weymouth, and 
Richard Cranch, of Braintree, Esquires both in said County of Suffolk ; 
William Cushing and Nathan Cushing, both of Scituate in the county 
of Plymouth and Commonwealth aforesaid, Esquires ; John Thaxter of 
Haverhill, in the County of Essex and Commonwealth aforesaid, Esquire, 
and Benjamin Lincoln of Boston in the County of Suffolk, Gentleman, 
on the other part, witnesseth, that the said Sarah, for and in con- 
sideration of the sum of five shillings, lawful money of the Commonwealth 
aforesaid, paid her by the said Ebenezer, Daniel, John, Benjamin, 
Cotton, Richard, William, Nathan, John and Benjamin, and divers 
other good causes her thereunto moving, hath sold, released and con- 
firmed, and by these presents doth sell, release and confirm to the said 
Ebenezer, Daniel, John, Benjamin, Cotton, Richard, William, 
Nathan, John and Benjamin, their heirs and assigns, a certain piece 
of land lying in the north parish of said Hingham, containing by estima- 
tion one quarter of an acre, more or less, bounded westerly on the high- 
way, southerly, on laud late of Benjamin Loring, of said Boston, de- 
ceased, eastwardly on land of Elisha Leavitt of said Hingham, north- 
erly on other land of said Sarah and separated therefrom by a picked 
fence ; with all the buildings standing on the same, with all the privileges, 
easements and appurtenances to the said land and buildings belonging ; 
which said land and buildings are now in the actual possession of them 
the said Ebenezer, Daniel, John, Benjamin, Cotton, Richard, 
William, Nathan, John and Benjamin by virtue of a bargain and 
sale to them thereof made by the said Sarah, for the term of one year, 
in consideration of five shillings, by Indentures bearing date the day next 
before the day of the date of these presents, made between the same 
parties, as are parties to these presents and by force of the statute for 
transferring uses into possession. 

To have and to hold the said land and buildings with all the privileges, 
easements and appurtenances thereto belonging, to them the said Ebene- 
zer, Daniel, John, Benjamin, Cotton, Richard, William, Nathan, 
John and Benjamin, their heirs and assigns forever to the use of the 
said Sarah during her life, and from and after her decease, then to the 
use of the said Ebenezer, Daniel, John, Benjamin, Cotton, Richard, 
William, Nathan, John and Benjamin, their heirs and assigns forever, 
upon such trusts, nevertheless, and to and for such intents and purposes 
as are hereinafter mentioned, expressed and declared of and concerning 
the said premises, that is to say : 

Upon trust and to the intent and purpose that the said Ebenezer, 
Daniel, John, Benjamin, Cotton, Richard, William, Nathan, John 
and Benjamin, as soon as may be after said Sarah's decease, lease out 
and improve to the best advantage, the said land and buildings, except 
such parts thereof as are hereafter otherwise appropriated, and appropri- 



Education. 119 

ate the rents and profits arising therefrom, for and towards the main- 
tenance and support of a School for the teaching of the Youth of the 
aforesaid north parish of Hingham and others, and all of the age and 
description hereinafter mentioned, in such arts and branches of literature 
as are also hereinafter set forth : said School to be subject to such rules, 
orders and regulations, as the said Trustees, their survivors, or successors 
may think fit from time to time to prescribe, that is to say : 

The said School is to be maintained and supported as aforesaid, for the 
instruction of all such males as shall be admitted therein, in the Latin, 
'Greek, English and French languages, and in the sciences of the Mathe- 
matics and Geography : and all such females as shall be admitted therein, 
in writing and in the English and French languages, arithmetic, and the 
art of needlework in general. 

And this grant, release and confirmation, is on this further trust, that 
the said Trustees, their survivors or successors, immediately after said 
Sarah's decease, elect and appoint a Preceptor for the said School, 
skilled in the art of writing, in the sciences aforesaid, and in the Latin, 
Greek and English languages, and the sciences of mathematics and geog- 
raphy, whose business it shall be to teach the females aforesaid, the art of 
writing ; also, the English language and the science of Mathematics ; and 
the males aforesaid, in the Latin, Greek and English languages. And 
shall also, as soon as may be after said Sarah's decease, elect and appoint 
a sensible, discreet woman skilled in the art of needle work, whose busi- 
ness it shall be to instruct therein the females that shall be admitted as 
aforesaid. 

And the aforesaid grant, release and confirmation is on this further 
trust, that the said Trustees, their survivors or successors, admit into the 
said School all such males of the said north parish from twelve years old 
and upwards, and all such females from nine years old and upwards, 
whose parents, guardians or patrons, may desire the same. And at an age 
under twelve years, when any male is intended for an admission to Har- 
vard College, at the discretion of the said Trustees, their survivors or 
successors, subject however to the following condition ; that is to say, no 
scholar of either sex or of any description, shall be admitted to any of the 
advantages of the said School, unless he or she supply for the use thereof, 
such a proportion of fire-wood, and at such seasons as the said Trustees, 
their survivors or successors, shall direct. And further, each individual 
of the said Trustees or their successors, shall forever have a right of send- 
ing two scholars to the said School, one of each sex. And this grant, 
release and confirmation, is also on this trust, that they, their survivors or 
successors, admit to the said School, such scholars so nominated and sent, 
provided they be of the age or description mentioned and made of those 
to be admitted from the parish aforesaid. And also all such males from 
the south parish of said Hingham, intended for an admission to the Col- 
lege aforesaid, under the age of twelve years, at the discretion of the 
said Trustees, their survivors or successors, whose parents, guardians or 
patrons, may desire the same. And also all such males from the said 
south parish, above twelve years old, as desire to be instructed in the art 
of surveying, navigation and their attendant branches of the mathematics, 
at the request of their parents, guardians or patrons. 

Provided, however, that such last mentioned scholars and all others 
that shall ever be admitted to the said School, be subject to the condition 
above mentioned, with respect to their proportionable supply of firewood. 



120 History of Hingham. 

And no persons except such as are above mentioned and described, shall 
on any pretence be ever admitted to the said School, unless the number 
of female scholars in the said School be less than thirty, or the number 
of males less than forty, in either of which cases, the said Trustees, their 
survivors or successors, may admit such a number as shall increase the 
number of female scholars to thirty, and the number of male to forty ; 
preference forever to be given to such poor Orphans whose guardians or 
patrons shall request their admittance. 

And the aforesaid grant, release and confirmation is on this further 
trust, that the said Trustees, their survivors or successors, appropriate to 
the use of the scholars aforesaid, the two largest rooms in the dwelling- 
house standing on the land aforesaid, fronting westerly on the road ; the 
lower room for the use of the males, the upper for the use of the females. 
But if the said rooms or either, at the time of the said Sarah's decease,, 
shall be unfit or shall afterwards become so through age or any accidents, 
or shall be totally destroyed, they shall out of the rents and profits afore- 
said, rebuild or repair the same, as the case may be, upon the same place 
if possible, and if not, then they shall provide some other convenient 
place, provided the same be always central to the said north parish, as 
near as may be. 

And the aforesaid grant, release and confirmation is on this further trust, 
that the said Trustees, their survivors or successors, annually, after said 
Sarah's decease, appoint some able minister of the Gospel to deliver in 
the said north parish, a sermon to the said scholars, for the purpose of 
inculcating such principles as are suited to form the mind to virtue ; for 
which, from the rents and profits aforesaid, he shall receive the sum of 
six pounds lawful money. 

And the aforesaid grant, release and confirmation is on this further 
trust, that out of the rents and profits aforesaid, the said Trustees, their 
survivors or successors, always keep the buildings aforesaid and the fences 
on the land in good repair, and discharge all taxes that may be assessed 
thereon ; and after such repairs are made, taxes discharged, and all 
charges that may accrue in the execution of the several trusts aforesaid 
are paid, the said Trustees, their survivors or successors, shall pay the 
residue, if the whole should be found necessary, to the Preceptor and 
Mistress aforesaid, at such times, and in such proportion to each, as said 
Trustees, their survivors or successors, shall find necessary and con- 
venient ; and if any money shall then be found remaining from the rents 
and profits aforesaid, the same are to be loaned on interest upon good 
security, at the discretion of the said Trustees, their survivors or success- 
ors, and the interest thereof appropriated to such uses and purposes, as in 
the opinion of said Trustees, their survivors or successors, will most con- 
tribute to the interest and most promote the end and design of instituting 
and founding the School aforesaid. 

And further, it shall forever be the duty of said Trustees, their sur- 
vivors or successors, in case either the said Preceptor or the said Mistress 
misbehave in the aforesaid employments, or become unequal to their dis- 
charge through age, sickness or any infirmity of body or mind, to remove 
them or either of them, and appoint others in their stead, and so do from 
time to time, as often as any Preceptor or Mistress shall decease, mis- 
behave, or become unfit as aforesaid ; and also dismiss any scholar of 
either sex from said School who shall conduct him or herself with im- 
propriety so as to infringe the rules of the School. 



Education. 121 

And the aforesaid grant, release and confirmation is on this further 
trust, that whenever one of the said Trustees shall decease, that then the 
survivors of them shall convey the premises to a new Trustee, such as 
they shall elect, to hold to him and his heirs, to the use of such new 
Trustee and the surviving Trustees, their heirs and assigns upon the trusts 
before mentioned ; and so from time to time as often as any one Trustee 
shall decease. 

Provided, however, that never more than four of said Trustees belong 
to, or be inhabitants of said Hingham. And provided also, that in case 
either of the aforenamed Trustees should decease before the said Sarah, 
that then the said uses to the new Trustee, and surviving Trustees be 
limited to take place not until, but immediately after the decease of the 
said Sarah. 

It is however further agreed by all the parties to these presents, that in 
case the said Sarah should, in her life time, release to the said Trustees 
her estate for life in the premises, that then the said Trustees shall be 
immediately seized thereof to the uses, trusts, intents and purposes afore- 
said, in as full and as ample a manner as if the said Sarah had in fact 
deceased. 

And to the intent that the trusts aforesaid may the more effectually be 
carried into execution, and that the said School and its funds, of which 
it may now or hereafter be possessed, may be placed upon a firmer basis, 
it is further agreed by and between all the parties to these presents, and 
the aforesaid grant, release and confirmation is also on this further trust 
and confidence, that the said Trustees, their survivors or successors, shall, 
within one year from the day of the date of these presents, apply to and 
obtain from the Legislature of this said Commonwealth, an act, incor- 
porating them, or their survivors or successors, to be appointed as afore- 
said, into a body politic by the name of the Trustees of Derby School, 
whereby all the lands and buildings aforesaid, with all their privileges, 
easements and appurtenances, shall be confirmed to the said Trustees in 
their corporate capacity, and to their successors in trust forever, for the 
use and purposes, and upon the trusts, which in this said Deed of Lease 
and Release are mentioned, expressed and declared ; and also enabling 
them, the said Trustees, to receive by gift, grant, bequest or otherwise, 
any other lands, tenements or other estate, real or personal, to be appro- 
priated according to trusts, intent and design herein before expressed, and 
further, to do everything whatsoever necessary to carry the trusts afore- 
said into execution, according to the true meaning of the same. 

Provided always, nevertheless, and it is hereby declared and agreed, by 
and between all the parties to these presents, and it is their true intent 
and meaning that it shall and may be lawful for the said Sarah on this 
condition, but on this only ; that if the aforesaid Trustees, their survivors 
or successors, do not, within the term aforesaid, obtain an Act of Incor- 
poration as aforesaid, at any time during her natural life, at her free will 
and pleasure, by any writing or writings under her hand and seal, attested 
by two or more credible witnesses, or by her last will and testament in 
writing, to be by her signed, sealed and published in the presence of three 
or more credible witnesses, to revoke, alter, or make void, all and every, 
and any of the use or uses, estate or estates, trust or trusts hereinbefore 
limited or declared of or concerning the land and buildings aforesaid, and 
by the same or any other writing or writings to limit, declare or appoint 
any new use or uses, trust or trusts of and concerning the same or any 



122 History of Hingham. 

parts thereof, whereof such revocations shall be made : and so from time 
to time as often as she shall think fit, anything herein contained to the 
contrary notwithstanding. 

In Witness whereof, the parties to these presents have hereunto inter- 
changeably set their hands and seals, the day and year first above 
written. 

Signed, sealed and delivered 

in presence of us. Sarah Derby. (Seal.) 

Benjamin Cushing. 
William Cushing. 

In accordance with the condition in the foregoing deed, the 
Trustees obtained from the General Court the following Act, 
which was passed Nov. 11, 1784: — 

Acts of 1784, Chap. 32. Passed Nov. 11, 1784. 

An Act for establishing a School in the North Parish of Hingham, by 
the name of the Derby School, and for appointing and incorporating 
Trustees of the said School. 

WHEREAS the education of youth has ever been considered by the wise 
and good as an object of the highest consequence to the safety and happi- 
ness of a free people : — And whereas Sarah Derby of Hingham, in 
the county of Suffolk, Widow, on the 21st of October last past, by a Deed 
of Lease and Release of that date, legally executed, gave, granted and 
conveyed to the Rev. Ebenezer Gay, and others therein named, and to 
their heirs, a certain piece of land with the buildings thereon, situate in 
the north parish of the said Hingham, and in the said Deed described, to 
the use and upon the trust, that the rents and profits thereon be appropri- 
ated forever to the support of a School in the said north parish of Hingham, 
for the instruction of such youth in such arts, languages and branches of 
science as are particularly mentioned, enumerated and described in the 
said Deed : — And whereas the execution of the generous and important 
design of instituting the said School will be attended with great embarrass- 
ments, unless, by an act of incorporation, the Trustees mentioned in the 
said Deed, and their successors, shall be authorized to commence and 
prosecute actions at law, and transact such other matters in their corporate 
capacity as the interest of the said School shall require : 

Sec. 1. Be it therefore enacted, by the Senate and House of Represen- 
tatives in General Court assembled, and by the authority of the same, that 
there be, and there hereby is established, in the north parish of Hingham, 
in the county of Suffolk, a School by the name of Derby School, for the 
promotion of virtue and instruction of such youth of each sex in such arts, 
languages and branches of science, as are respectively and severally men- 
tioned, enumerated and described by a Deed of Lease and Release, made 
and executed on the twenty-first day of October last past, by and between 
Sarah Derby, of Hingham aforesaid, Widow, on the one part, and the 
Rev. Ebenezer Gay, the Rev. Daniel Shute, John Thaxter, Esq., 
the Hon. Benjamin Lincoln, Esq., all of the said Hingham ; the Hon. 
Cotton Tufts, of Weymouth and the Hon. Richard Cranch, of Brain- 
tree, both in the said county of Suffolk, Esqrs. ; the Hon. William 



Education. 123 

Cushing and the Hon. Nathan Cdshing, both of Scituate, in the 
county of Plymouth, Esqrs. ; John Thaxter, of Haverhill, in the County 
of Essex, Esq. ; and Benjamin Lincoln, of Boston, in the said county 
of Suffolk, Gentleman, on the other part. 

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the afore- 
mentioned Ebenezer Gat, Daniel Shute, John Thaxter, Benjamin 
Lincoln, Cotton Tcfts, Richard Cranch, William Cushing, Na- 
than Cushing, John Thaxter, and Benjamin Lincoln, be, and they 
hereby are nominated and appointed Trustees of the said School, and they 
are hereby incorporated into a body politic, by the name of The Trustees 
of Derby School, and they and their successors shall be and continue a 
body politic and corporate, by the same name forever. 

Sec. 3. Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That all the 
lands and buildings which by the afore-mentioned Deed of Lease and Re- 
lease, were given, granted and conveyed by the afore-mentioned Sarah 
Derby, unto the said Ebenezer Gay, Daniel Shute, John Thaxter, 
Benjamin Lincoln, Cotton Tufts, Richard Cranch, William 
Cushing, Nathan Cushing, John Thaxter and Benjamin Lincoln, 
and to their heirs, be, and they hereby are confirmed to the said Ebene- 
zer Gay and others last named and to their successors, as Trustees of 
Derby School forever, for the uses, intents and purposes, and upon the 
trusts which in the said Deed of Lease and Release, are expressed ; and 
the Trustees aforesaid, their successors, and the officers of the said School, 
are hereby required, in conducting the concerns thereof, and in all matters 
relating thereto, to regulate themselves comformably to the true design 
and intention of the said Sarah Derby, as expressed in the Deed above- 
mentioned. 

Sec. 4. Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the said 
Trustees and their successors shall have one common Seal, which they 
may make use of in any cause or business that relates to the said office of 
Trustees of the said School ; and they shall have power and authority to 
break, change and renew the said Seal from time to time, as they shall 
see fit, and they may sue, and be sued in all actions real, personal and 
mixed, and prosecute and defend the same to final judgment and execu- 
tion, by tbe name of the Trustees of Derby School. 

Sec. 5. Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the said 
Ebenezer Gay and others, the Trustees aforesaid, and their successors, 
the longest livers and survivors of them, be the true and sole visitors, 
Trustees, and governors of the said Derby School, in perpetual succession 
forever to be continued in the way and manner hereafter specified, with 
full power and authority to elect a President, Secretary and Treasurer, 
and such officers of the said School as they shall judge necessary and 
convenient ; and to make and ordain such laws, rules and orders, for the 
good government of the said School, as to them, the Trustees, governors, 
and visitors aforesaid, and their successors, shall from time to time, ac- 
cording to the various occasions and circumstances, seem most fit and req- 
uisite ; all of which shall be observed by the officers, scholars and servants 
of the said School, upon the penalties therein contained. 

Provided, notwithstanding, that the said rules, laws and orders, be no 
ways contrary to the laws of this Commonwealth. 

Sec. 6. Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the number 
of the said Trustees and their successors, shall not at any one time, be 
more than eleven nor less than nine, five of whom shall constitute a quorum 



124 History of Hingham. 

for transacting business ; and a major part of the members present shall 
decide all questions that shall come before them ; that the principal Precep- 
tor for the time being shall be ever one of them ; that a major part shall be 
laymen and respectable freeholders of this Commonwealth, and never more 
than four of the Trustees or their successors shall belong to, or be inhabi- 
tants of, the town of Hingham afore-mentioned. 

And to perpetuate the succession of the said Trustees: 

Sec. 7. Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That as often 
as one or more of the Trustees of Derby School shall die or resign, or, in 
the judgment of the major part of the said Trustees, be rendered, by age 
or otherwise, incapable of discharging the duties of his office, then and so 
often, the Trustees then surviving and remaining, or the major part of 
them, shall elect one or more persons to supply the vacancy or vacancies. 

Sec. 8. Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the 
Trustees aforesaid, and their successors be, and they hereby are, rendered 
capable in law to take and receive by gift, grant, devise, bequest, or other- 
wise, any lands, tenements, or other estate real and personal, provided 
that the annual income of the said real estate shall not exceed the sum of 
three hundred pounds, and the annual income of the said personal estate 
shall not exceed the sum of seven hundred pounds ; both sums to be 
valued in silver at the rate of six shillings and eight pence by the ounce ; 
to have and to hold the same to them, the said Trustees and their succes- 
sors, on such terms, and under such provisions and limitations, as may be 
expressed in any deed or instrument of conveyance to them made. Pro- 
vided always, that neither the said Trustees nor their successors, shall 
ever hereafter receive any grant or donation, the condition whereof shall 
require them or any others concerned, to act in any respect counter to the 
design of the afore-mentioned Sarah Derby, as expressed in the afore- 
mentioned Deed, or any prior donation ; and all Deeds and instruments 
which the said Trustees may lawfully make, shall, when made in the 
name of the said Trustees, and signed and delivered by the Treasurer and 
sealed with the common seal, bind the said Trustees and their successors, 
and be valid in law. 

Sec. 9. Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the 
aforesaid Trustees shall have full power and authority to determine at 
what times and places their meetings shall be holden ; and upon the 
manner of notifying the Trustees to convene at such meetings ; and also 
upon the method of electing or removing Trustees ; and the said Trustees 
shall have full power and authority to ascertain and prescribe, from time 
to time, the powers and duties of their several officers, and to fix and 
ascertain the tenures of their respective offices. 

Sec. 10. Be it, further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That Samuel 
Niles, Esq., be, and he hereby is authorized and empowered to fix the 
time and place for holding the first meeting of the said Trustees, and to 
certify them thereof. 

Madam Derby's will was dated June 30, 1789, and a codicil to 
the same was dated June 4, 1790. She died, as is previously 
stated, June 17, 1790. The portions of the will and codicil re- 
lating to the Derby School are here given : — 



Education. 125 



That part of Sarah Derby's Will which relates to the 
Derby School. 

I, Sarah Derby, of Hingham, in the county of Suffolk, Widow, this 
thirtieth day of June, in the year of our Lord seventeen hundred and 
eighty-nine, do make and ordain this my last will and testament. . . . 

Thirdly. — I bequeath to the Trustees of Derby School twenty-five 
hundred pounds, in Massachusetts State Notes, in trust however, that they 
forever appropriate the interest thereof to the use of the Preceptor of the 
said School for the time being. 

And I bequeath to the said Trustees the sum of seven hundred pounds 
in silver money, in trust, that they rest the same in such good securities 
on interest, as they shall determine best, and forever appropriate the 
interest thereof to the use of the Mistress of said School for the time 
being. . . . 

Sevenieenthly. — It is my will that my picture and my new clock be 
placed in the Derby School. . . . 

Nineteenthly. — I bequeath to the Trustees of Derby School one hun- 
dred pounds in trust, that they rest the same in such good securities on 
interest as they shall determine best, and forever appropriate the interest 
thereof to the use and benefit of the Minister of the First Parish in Hing- 
ham, in consideration of his preaching a Lecture every year in the month 
of April, suitable for the youth. 

Twentiethly. — The residue of my estate real and personal, I give to the 
Trustees of Derby School, in trust, that they rest the same in such good 
securities, on interest, as they shall determine best ; the income of which 
is to be appropriated to the following purposes. In the first place, to the 
support of Phebe, a negro woman now living with me, during her natural 
life. The care of said Phebe I recommend to the Rev. Daniel Shute, 
and it is my will that the said Daniel shall receive, from time to time, 
such sum or sums of the aforesaid income, as he and two others of the 
Trustees shall judge necessary for her comfortable support. And the 
remainder of said income to be appropriated forever to the repairs of the 
buildings and fences thereon, to clothing and supplying with school books, 
such poor scholars in this town, as shall be admitted into said School, as 
the Trustees in their wisdom shall think fit objects of this charity ; and 
also for the promotion of the good of said School in the manner they shall 
determine. 

Twenty-first. — It is my desire that Abner Lincoln be appointed 
Preceptor to the Derby School as soon as it shall be opened. 

Twenty-second. — I hereby constitute Joseph Andrews and Caleb 
Thaxter, both of Hingham aforesaid, Executors of this my last will and 
testament, to which I have set my hand and seal the day and year first 
above mentioned. 

Signed, sealed and declared by the said Sarah 
to be her last will and testament in presence of Sarah Derby 

us, who signed our names in presence of the and Seal. 

Testatrix and of each other. 

Joseph Thaxter. 
Benjamin Cushing. 
Joshua Thaxter. 



126 History of Hingham. 



Codicil to the above Will. 

Be it known to all men by these presents, that I, Sarah Derby, of 
Hingham, in the county of Suffolk, Widow, have made and declared my 
last will and testament in writing, bearing date June the thirtieth, in the 
year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine. I, the 
said Sarah, by this Codicil, do ratify and confirm my said last will and 
testament with the following provisions, viz : 

First. — That whereas, in the Deed of Lease and Release given to the 
Trustees of Derby School, I have made provision for a sermon to be 
preached annually to the youth of said School, it is my will that the 
nineteenth article of the above will and testament, inasmuch as it is 
superseded by said provision, be null and void. 

Secondly. — That all the estate, real and personal, which in the above 
will I have given to the Trustees of Derby School, to be by them appro- 
priated to various purposes therein mentioned, be on this condition, viz : 
That said Trustees shall within one year after my decease, in their cor- 
porate capacities, make application to the Legislature of this Common- 
wealth, that they may have the liberty, in future, of filling up such 
vacancies as shall from time to time take place in their body, from any 
part of this State without limitation or restriction. But if they should 
neglect to comply with this condition ; or if the rents and incomes of said 
funds or estate shall ever for the space of two years together, cease to be 
appropriated to the purposes for which they were intended, then it is my 
will that said funds or estate go to the President and Fellows of Harvard 
College, in trust however, that they forever appropriate the interest 
thereof to the support of the Professor of Anatomy and Physic. 

Thirdly. — It is my will that, from the income of the aforesaid funds, 
proper entertainment be made for the Trustees at their several meetings. 

It is my will that said Trustees do forever relinquish the privilege 
which by virtue of the Deed of Lease and Release, they possess as 
Trustees, of sending each of them two scholars, one of each sex to Derby 
School ; and my will is that this Codicil be considered as part of my last 
will and testament, and that all things therein contained be faithfully per- 
formed, and as fully in every respect as if the same were so declared in 
my said last will and testament. In testimony whereof, I have hereunto 
set my hand and seal this fourth day of June, in the year of our Lord 
seventeen hundred and ninety. 

Signed, sealed and declared by the Sarah Derby, 

said Sarah to be a Codicil to her last and Seal. 

Will and Testament in presence of us, 
who signed our names in presence of 
the Testatrix and of each other ; the 
interlineation of the word " School " 
being first made, and the word "to- 
gether." 

Joseph Thaxter. 

Benjamin Cushing. 

Joshua Thaxter. 




<As*Jl S^ei^^u 



Education. 127 

The legacies were promptly paid, as the following receipts for 
the same attest : — 

, Hingham, Septemb' 17, 1790. 

Received of Mess r ." Joseph Andrews & Caleb Thaxter, Executors of 
the Last Will & Testament of Mrs. Sarah Derby deceased, the follow- 
ing securities for the purposes specified in said Will : — 

Massachusetts State notes — twenty-six hundred and twenty-seven 
pounds, fourteen shillings and three pence — twenty-five hundred, the 
interest therefrom, to be for the support of the Preceptor of Derby School, 
the interest of said notes paid up to August l Bt 1788. 

Continental Loan Office Certificates — seven hundred dollars, the interest 
paid up to December 31 st 1784. Eight hundred and twenty-five dollars 
in Hardy's Indents. Two thousand three pounds, five shillings & ten 
pence in private notes of hand, seven hundred pounds, the interest arising 
therefrom to be for the support of the Preceptress of Derby School, fifty- 
eight pounds, nine shillings & seven pence interest due on said notes. Also 
a clock for the use of said school, with the picture of said deceased, and 
sundry articles of furniture found in said House designed for the School 
House, the whole by appraisement thirty-one pounds, eight shillings. I do 
hereby acknowledge that I have received the foregoing securities and ar- 
ticles, and that I have received for the Trustees the possession of the Real 
Estate, consisting of about half an acre of Land, more or less, bounded 
southerly on the land conveyed to the Trustees of Derby School, westerly 
& northerly on the highway, easterly on the land of the Heirs of Elisha 
Leavitt, deceased, with all the buildings thereon, consisting of two dwelling- 
houses, a shop, and outhouses, also a small Barn standing on the Town's 
land, separated from the land aforesaid by the highway in the northerly 
bounds thereof; all which the said Sarah Derby gave to the Trustees 
of Derby School as Residuary Legatees for the purposes specified in said 
Will. 

John Thaxter, 
Treas r to the Trustees of Derby School. 

Witnesses : 

Anna Thaxter. 
Quincy Thaxter. 

Hingham, Decemb r 23, 1790. 

Further received of Mess™ Joseph Andrews & Caleb Thaxter, Ex- 
ecutors of the last Will and Testament of Mr! Sarah Derby deceased, 
four hundred and twenty-three pounds twelve shillings and one penny in 
private notes of hand the interest included. Also two hundred and twenty- 
five dollars in old Continental money. 

John Thaxter, 
Treas r to the Trustees of Derby School . 
Witnesses : 

Anna Thaxter. 
Quincy Thaxter. 

All was now prepared to carry out the trusts and wishes of 
Madam Derby. 

Before entering upon the story of the school itself, it may be 
interesting to recall the situation and general appearance of the 
buildings. 



128 History of Hingham. 

By the deed of Madam Derby the trustees acquired about one 
quarter of an acre of land which lay south of " other land of said 
Sarah, and separated therefrom by a picked fence," and as residu- 
ary legatees under her will, about half an acre lying between the 
former piece and the highway, now known as South Street. Upon 
the quarter-acre lot was a large dwelling-house, standing upon 
the same spot as that upon which the present Academy building 
stands, and it was in this that the school was first kept. This 
building was taken down in 1818. In the rear of the lot against 
the bank, which is in the line of the Cemetery, stood another 
building, occupied by several families. It was two stories in 
front and one in the rear. This building was subsequently sold, 
and moved to the street now known as West Street, but is not now 
standing. The buildings upon the half-acre lot and across South 
Street are described in the foregoing receipt of the treasurer of 
the Trustees. These, with the land, were sold in several different 
parcels at different times between 1800 and 1818. 

It must be borne in mind that the street in front of the Academy 
was very much changed in 1831. Previously to this date, the 
street separated into two ways, one " over the hill " on the side of 
the Academy grounds, and one " under the hill " in front of the 
land now owned by Mr. Henry C. Harding, the westerly line of the 
street being much nearer Mr. Harding's house than at present. 
Between these two ways were buildings, and it was upon this de- 
clivity that the first meeting-house was erected and the early 
settlers were buried. 

The following description is given by a correspondent in the 
" Hingham Journal " in the paper of Sept. 17, 1858 : — 

" I can just remember the old Academy building. . . . The new edifice 
was erected in 1818, and before it was a row of flourishing sycamores, or 
buttonwood-trees, shutting out with their thick and lofty branches the view 
of the street and forming no mean academic grove. They were said to 
have been planted and nurtured by Madam Derby's own hand. Little 
could she have dreamed of the early fate that was to overtake these fine 
trees, struck suddenly down by an epidemic disease, the origin of which 
is still disputed, and still remains in doubt, though considered by many 
as the work of an insect. . . . None of the present race of scholars can 
remember the hill directly in front of the Academy, on which, at that 
time, stood two small one-story buildings. One of them was the town 
schoolhouse, very different, both externally and internally, from the 
commodious structures of the present day. . . . It was located in danger- 
ous proximity to another school, so that, as might be expected, the two 
were in almost a perpetual state of war, especially during snowballing 
time, when pitched battles were of daily occurrence. . . . The other 
building was occupied by Mr. Thomas Loud, as a hatter's shop and post- 
office, and by Mr. Samuel Norton, as a watchmaker's shop. The window 
at which he sat for so many years looked out upon the Broad Bridge, or 
down town, and before it stood a large Balm-of-Gilead tree. A high rail- 
ing separated Mr. Norton from the intruding boys, who were fond of going 
in and enjoying his witticisms, shrewd remarks, and questions, which they 



Education. 129 

were often puzzled to answer. The distance from the shop to his father's 
house, at the foot of the hill, was the extent of Mr. Norton's travels, and 
no man probably ever pursued a more unvaried, noiseless, and peaceful 
life. He was a man of uncommon natural ability, and had he enjoyed the 
same advantages, it was thought he would have been as distinguished as 
his brother, the late Professor Andrews Norton, who, as a Biblical scholar, 
ranked second to none the country has ever produced. . . . The hill was 
soon after dug down and levelled to its present condition. The workmen 
found a large quantity of bones, the remains of the early settlers of the 
town, who had been buried there. . . . Another building still standing is 
intimately associated with the history of the Academy, and was one of the 
institutions of that day. This was Mr. Theodore Cushing's shop, which 
supplied more than one generation with pencils, pens, writing-books, nuts, 
candy, and gingerbread. Another small shop was kept in the end of Mr. 
Elisha Cushing's house, nearest to the Academy, by Miss Abigail Thaxter, 
and another by Miss Lydia Loring, in the house now occupied by Mr. 
Caleb B. Marsh. Such was the Academy and its surroundings, when I 
first knew it, say from thirty to thirty -five years ago." 

Another person, who, when a boy, attended school in the old 
building, has given the writer his personal recollections, as 
follows : — 

" The foundation of the building was about five feet above the level of 
the street, with a dilapidated fence on a line with it on the upper edge of 
a grass bank, inside of which was a row of large buttonwood-trees. The 
great change in front, since that time, by taking down the hill, makes a 
vast difference in appearance." 

The first meeting of the Trustees was held, according to the 
records, Dec. 22, 1784. The first business transacted was the 
•choice of officers. William Cushing was chosen President, Ben- 
jamin Lincoln, Jr., Secretary, and John Thaxter, Treasurer. 

Meetings were held from time to time at which no business 
of great importance was transacted further than to keep the 
organization alive, and for the election of Trustees to fill 
vacancies, until after the death of Madam Derby in 1790. 

Aug. 26, 1790, a committee of the Trustees was appointed to 
draw up a petition to be presented to the General Court at its 
next session, agreeably to a requisition in the codicil of the late 
Mrs. Derby's will. 

The Trustees, having received their legacies from Madam 
Derby's executor, took the preliminary steps towards opening the 
school by passing the following votes : — 

" Dec. 20, 1790, Voted, To come to the choice of a principal preceptor 
for Derby School, and Mr. Abner Lincoln was unanimously chosen. 

" Voted, That Mr. Lincoln be paid one hundred pounds lawful money as 
his salary, for the services of the first year, his salary to commence at the 
time of the opening of the school. 

" Voted, That the school shall be opened on the first Tuesday in April 
next. 

VOL. i. — 9* 



130 History of Hingham. 

" Voted, To choose by ballot a person to preach a sermon before the 
trustees and the school on the first Tuesday in April next, at half-past 
two o'clock p.m. ; and the Rev. Dr. Shute was chosen." 

April 5, 1791, a sermon was preached by Dr. Shute ; the school 
was formally opened, and at a meeting later in the same month a 
preceptress was chosen. 

The accounts of the treasurer show that Dr. Shute was paid <£6 
" for preaching a sermon at the opening of the school;" The pre- 
ceptor and preceptress were each paid their salaries for the quarter 
beginning in April, 1791. 

The school may be considered as established by Madam Derby's 
deed of Oct. 21, 1784. It was opened April 5, 1791. 

There is no satisfactory information as to the number of scholars 
at the opening of the school, for it was not until 1831 that the 
Trustees required the teachers to keep a list of scholars. A list 
of male scholars from 1793 to 1797 gives 115 names. An- 
other list of male scholars, from 1810 to 1826, gives 272 names. 
The larger portion of these were from Hingham, but many were 
from other towns in Massachusetts and other States. There were 
also several Spaniards, probably from Cuba, among the number. 
It is not important to give the exact number of pupils in attend- 
ance during the many years of the existence of the school. The 
membership has varied with the varying popularity of the teachers 
from about thirty to eighty, both males and females being included 
in this enumeration. 

The long delay of the town in establishing a High School, which 
was opened in 1872, caused this school to be the one where, up to 
that time, almost every boy who was fitted for college in Hingham 
received much of his classical education, and where nearly all who 
received any other education than the common schools could give 
them obtained it. Practically a free school to those from Hing- 
ham, who can doubt that Madam Derby, in establishing it, is to be 
reckoned as one of the benefactors of the town ? Undoubtedly, the 
fact that the town had the benefit of this school delayed a com- 
pliance with the law requiring a High School to be kept, and 
several unsuccessful attempts were made to devise some plan by 
which the Academy should serve such a purpose ; but whether 
this delay was wise or not, it is a fact of history that for over 
eighty years the town enjoyed the benefits of a higher education 
through the munificence of Madam Derby. Let that just tribute 
•be paid to her memory. Whatever the future of the school may 
be, the past is secure, and many a generation will owe its inherited 
intellectual advancement to the seed sown in the minds of its an- 
cestors within the walls of Derby Academy. 

Besides obtaining the Act of Incorporation, the Trustees had 
occasion to present petitions to the General Court for further 
legislation, and all further Acts and Resolves relating to the 
institution are here 2,iven. 



Education. 131 

Sept. 15, 1790, in the Senate. " Petition of the Trustees of the Derby 
School for authority to fill such vacancies as may from time to time take 
place in their body from any part of the State, without limitation or 
restriction. 

" Read and ordered to be referred to the next session of the General 
Court." 

This application being made, the terms of the codicil were 
complied with, but there seems to have been no further action at 
the next session of the General Court. 

Resolves, March, 1793. CLXVII. 

Resolve on the petition of Benjamin Lincoln and Christopher Gore, 
Esquires, Trustees of Derby School in Hingham, March 28, 1793. 

On the petition of Benjamin Lincoln, Esq., and Christopher Gore, Esq., 
two of the Trustees of the Derby School in Hingham ; and it appearing 
that the estate hereinafter mentioned is not returned for the valuation of 
that town : — 

Resolved, That all and singular the lands, buildings, and personal es- 
tate, within the said town of Hingham, the income whereof is by a certain 
deed, and by the last will of the late Mrs. Sarah Derby, appropriated to 
the use and support of said Derby School, are, and shall remain, during 
such appropriation, wholly discharged of all public taxes : and the as- 
sessors of the said town shall govern themselves accordingly. 

The Massachusetts policy of incorporated academies is set forth 
in the following document : — 

" At the General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts held 
on the twenty-fifth day of January, 1797. 

" Ordered, That the secretary be, and hereby is, directed to cause the 
report of a committee of both houses on the subject of grants of land to 
sundry academies within this Commonwealth, to be printed with the 
resolves which shall pass the General Court at the present session. 

" And be it further ordered, That the grants of land specified in said 
report shall be made to the trustees of any association within the respec- 
tive counties mentioned in said report, where there is no academy at 
present instituted, who shall first make application to the General Court 
for that purpose ; provided, they produce evidence that the sum required 
in said report is secured to the use of such institution ; and provided, that 
the place contemplated for the situation of the academy be approved of 
by the legislature." 

The " Report on the Subject of Academies at Large, Feb. 
27, 1797," speaks of " Derby School, which serves all the general 
purposes of an academy." This report, said to have been written 
by Nathan Dane, of Beverly, recommends " half a township of six 
miles square, of the unappropriated lands in the district of Maine, 
to be granted to each academy having secured to it the private 
funds of towns and individual donors." 

Manifestly the Trustees deemed it for the pecuniary advantage 



132 History of Hingham. 

of the school to have it an incorporated academy, which might 
secure a grant of land in Maine. Accordingly we find them with 
commendable promptness, voting on April 4, 1797, " that General 
Lincoln be appointed a committee to apply to the General Court 
in behalf of the trustees, that the style of the Derby School may 
be changed to that of the Derby Academy, and that it may be 
entitled to all the privileges which are granted to academies." 



Acts of 1797, Chap. 9. Passed June 17, 1797. 

An Act to erect Derby School, in the North Parish in Hingham, into an 
Academy, by the name of Derby Academy. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in General 
Court assembled, and by the authority of the same, that the School estab- 
lished in the North Parish in Hingham, by the name of Derby School, 
by an Act entitled " An Act for establishing a School in the North 
Parish in Hingham, by the name of Derby School, and for appointing 
and incorporating Trustees of said School," passed the eleventh day of 
November, in the year of our Lord seventeen hundred and eighty-four, 
be, and hereby is made and erected into an Academy ; and the Trustees 
named and incorporated in the Act aforesaid, and their successors forever, 
shall be bound to perform all the duties required in said Act, of the Trus- 
tees of Derby School, and may sue and be sued, and shall hold, enjoy, 
and exercise all the interests, rights, privileges, and immunities which 
were, or might have been held, enjoyed, and exercised by, and were 
secured to, the Trustees of the said School by the aforesaid Act, in the 
same manner, and to all intents and purposes as they would have, had not 
the said School been erected into an Academy. 

The desired benefit was secured a few years later. 



Resolves, June, 1803. XXIX. 

Resolve on the petition of Benjamin Lincoln, Esq., granting half 
township of land to Derby Academy at Hingham, June 18, 1803. 

On the petition of Benjamin Lincoln, Esq., in behalf of the Trustees 
of the Derby Academy, in the town of Hingham, praying for the grant 
of a township of land for the use of said Academy. 

Resolved, That there be, and hereby is granted to the Trustees of the 
Derby Academy, in the town of Hingham, and their successors, one half 
township of land of six miles square, for said Academy, to be laid out or 
assigned by the agents or committee for the sale of Eastern lands, in some 
of the unappropriated lands in the district of Maine, belonging to this 
Commonwealth, excepting the ten townships lately purchased of the 
Penobscot Indians, with the reservations and conditions of settlement 
which have been usually made in cases of similar grants, which tract 
the said Trustees are hereby empowered to use, sell, or dispose of as they 
may think most for the interest and benefit of that institution. 



Education. 133 



Acts of 1826, Chap. 16. Passed June 20, 1826. 

An Act in addition to an Act, entitled, "An Act to erect Derby School 
in the North Parish of Hingham, into an Academy, by the name of Derby 
Academy." 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives, in General 
Court assembled, and by authority of the same, That so much of the sixth 
section of an act, passed on the eleventh day of November, in the year 
of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-four, entitled " An 
Act for establishing a School in the North Parish of Hingham, by the 
name of the Derby School," and for appointing and incorporating Trus- 
tees of the said school, as provides that the principal preceptor of the 
said school, for the time being, shall always be one of the said Trustees, 
be, and the same is hereby repealed. 

Following the records of the Trustees, we are reminded that 
physical grace, as well as development of the mind, was recog- 
nized as a feature in society to be cultivated ; for on April 1, 1794, 
it was 

" Voted, That the Preceptor be authorized to dispense with the attend- 
ance at the school, two hours in each week, of such children, whose 
parents or guardians may desire it in writing, that they may learn the 
art of dancing, provided, that such absence from the Derby School does 
not interrupt their improvement there, and so long as this indulgence shall 
not interfere with the general welfare of the school." 

For many years after the opening of the school the male and 
female departments were entirely distinct. The first building 
was said to have been built under the supervision of Madam 
Derby, but whether it was for this express purpose is not known. 
As early as 1805 the Trustees took action looking towards the 
erection of a new building " as soon as the state of the funds 
will admit," and Nov. 12, 1817, it was 

" Voted, That a new Academy be built the next season." 

A committee was chosen to carry the above vote into effect, 
and it was 

" Voted, That the committee be instructed to build the new Academy 
near the place of the present, and nearly on the plan which has been 
exhibited to the Trustees ; that they study economy, and make such varia- 
tions and improvements as they, after due deliberation, and consulting 
disinterested gentlemen, may think proper. 

"May 20, 1818, Voted, That all the buildings now owned by the Trus- 
tees of the Derby Academy be taken down and the materials disposed of 
to the best advantage of said Trustees. 

" Voted, That the committee for the erection of the new Academy be 
empowered to make a passage on the south front of the Academy, for 
entrance into the school, or any other arrangement which they shall think 
proper. 



134 History of Hingham. 

" Voted, That the projection of the new Academy be so constructed that 
a bell may be placed in it, and that said Academy be painted once and 
the trimmings twice." 

The amount expended for the erection of the new Academy 
was -$3,930.10. 

"Nov. 8, 1820, Voted, That Martin Lincoln, Esq., be empowered to 
procure a bell, weighing about one hundred and fifty pounds, and cause 
the same to be hung on the Academy. 

"Nov. 10, 1841, Voted, That the female department be suspended until 
March 1, for the purpose of making the above alterations [new seats and 
a new floor]. 

"November, 1843, Voted, That on and after the 1st of June next the 
male school be discontinued to Dec. 1, and that the treasurer be author- 
ized to make arrangements for the necessary repairs on and about the 
building. 

"June 4, 1849, Voted, That the present vacation be extended to Mon- 
day, the 11th instant, in order that a doorway uniting the two schools may 
be opened in the partition-wall dividing them." 

The above vote seems to have been the first definite move 
towards uniting the two departments into one school, which it 
will appear was effected not long afterwards. 

"May 19, 1852, Voted, That the schools be closed for one quarter, in 
order that the following repairs and alterations in the building be made, 
viz. : Throwing the two school-rooms into one and enlarged by including 
the back entries therein ; enlarging the lower entries so as to give more 
room for the garments of the scholars to be hung, and for other need- 
ful improvements ; and placing a furnace in the cellar for warming the 
school-rooms ; and any other incidental improvements that may suggest 
themselves to the standing committee. 

"Aug. 1, 1860, Voted, To accept the Report proposing to prepare reci- 
tation-rooms in the hall. 

" May 30, 1863, Voted, That a piano be hired for the ensuing year. 

" May 18, 1864, Voted, That the treasurer be authorized to purchase 
of Messrs. Chickering, on the terms proposed by them, the piano now in 
use in the Academy. 

" Dec. 20, 1882, Voted, That the Treasurer be authorized to fit up the 
upper room to make it comfortable for a recitation-room." 

This last vote marks the date of a new departure in the Acad- 
emy ; for, at the meeting of June 20, 1883, the matter of a pre- 
paratory department was referred to a committee, with power to 
establish the same if they thought proper. This department was 
established and it was designed to receive, under the supervision 
of the Trustees and the Preceptor, pupils at a younger age than 
could be admitted to the Academy itself, upon payment of a tui- 
tion fee. After passing satisfactory examinations the scholars 
in this department are admitted to the Academy. At the begin- 
ning of the fall term of 1885 still younger pupils were received, 
and the school is virtually a primary school connected with the 



Education. 135 

Academy, although debarred from the benefits of Madam Derby's 
bequests in many respects. 

The above votes mark all the substantial alterations which 
have been made in the school-buildings, and indicate many of 
the changes in the school itself. 

On April 5, 1791, the day of the opening of the school, the 
Trustees appointed Hon. Richard Couch and Hon. Cotton Tufts 
a committee for the purpose of providing a seal for the Trustees. 




SEAL OF DERBY ACADEMY, HINGHAM. 

The absence of any public halls for public meetings of all 
kinds, until recent years, called the Academy into use frequently, 
— both the old building and the new. More than one religious 
society held meetings there before the erection of their meeting- 
houses. The building erected in 1818 gave the north part of the 
town the only hall of any considerable size until the erection of 
Loring Hall, in 1852, and it was the usual place for lectures, 
meetings, and social gatherings. 

The Trustees, in 1821, voted to let the hall of the Academy to 
the town of Hingham for the purpose of holding town-meetings 
at $8.00 a meeting, or at $30.00 a year, the town making good 
all extra damage. Previously the town-meetings had most fre- 
quently been held in the meeting-house of the First Parish. 
Several private schools were kept in the lower story of the Acad- 
emy at different times, and in more recent years a room has been 
occupied by the Second Social Library. 

The Derby School and Academy have at times occupied a 
prominent place in the discussions of the town-meetings, and 
on more than one occasion action has been taken by the town 
leading to conferences with the trustees, sometimes of a friendly 
character, and sometimes, more especially in the earlier years, 
tempered with ill-feeling. 

As early as the March meeting of 1794, a committee was ap- 
pointed by the town to " examine the privileges the town and 
parish are entitled to in the Derby School, and whether they are 
deprived of any privilege which by Mrs. Derby's will, lease, or 



136 History of Hingham. 

charter they are entitled to in said school ; and they are to con- 
sider what further steps are necessary to be taken respecting the 
matter." This committee made a report at the following " April 
meeting." The report recites at length the privileges to which 
the parish and town are entitled, and states that the " parish and 
town have not had the benefit that was designed them by the 
donor of said school." The reasons for the above conclusion are 
given, which amount in substance to the impression that, while 
the school was designed as a charity for the benefit of the poor,, 
it was really being conducted in such a manner as to deter poor 
people from sending their children to it, and that the regulations 
adopted by the trustees served " only those in affluence and ob- 
jects of trustee charity, to the exclusion of those in moderate 
circumstances." The same committee was appointed " to wait 
upon the Trustees and confer with them about the regulations " 
of the school. The Trustees made answer and the whole matter 
was disposed of at the March meeting of 1795, when it was 
voted to dismiss the article in the warrant respecting the report 
of the committee on the Derby School. 

In 1821 a complaint to the Trustees was made by a committee 
of the town concerning the teachers and the place in which the 
annual lecture was delivered. There was a reply by the Trus- 
tees, in which they defended themselves and the teachers. This 
called forth a spirited rejoinder from the town's committee, and 
the controversy was terminated by the Trustees voting to take no 
further action. This discussion was so much flavored with the 
heated prejudices of the time that it would serve no good purpose 
of history to dwell at length upon it, and it is only alluded to for 
a record of the fact. The later intercourse between the town 
and the Trustees was of a more amicable nature. 

The town being required to maintain a High School, two un- 
successful attempts were made to devise some plan by which the 
Academy should serve this purpose and thus, in the interest of 
economy, secure to the town the advantage of its funds. 

The first attempt was made in 1855, when, at a town-meeting 
in April, the whole subject of the schools in Hingham was re- 
ferred to a committee, authorizing them " to confer with the 
Trustees of Derby Academy with a view to ascertain whether 
that institution can be made in any way to answer the purpose 
of a High School for the town." The Trustees were desirous of 
meeting the wishes of the town so far as it was in their power to 
do so. " They did not feel authorized, however, to make such a 
change in the character and ^management of the institution as 
that proposed, without first obtaining the opinion of counsel, 
learned in the law, respecting their legal powers and duties under 
the deed of trust and will of Mrs. Derby and the act of the legis- 
lature by which they were incorporated. They therefore con- 
sulted Hon. John M. Williams, and obtained from him a written 
opinion, the substance of which is as follows. The question pro- 



Education. 137 

posed to Judge Williams was this : ' Can the Trustees either by 
their own authority, or by virtue of any judicial or legislative in- 
terference, depart from the specified directions of the trust, so far 
as to accommodate the Academy to the requisitions of the law 
respecting a High School ? ' The question was thoroughly inves- 
tigated and an elaborate opinion was given. [This opinion was 
printed by the Trustees.] The conclusion arrived at was, that 
the Trustees cannot, either by their own authority, or aided by 
judicial or legislative interposition, lawfully depart from the 
specified directions of the trust. The result is, therefore, that 
the Trustees cannot relinquish the control of the institution to 
the town, or delegate their powers to the school committee or any 
other body of men. The Academy must continue to be managed 
by a board of Trustees, chosen, as vacancies occur, by the remain- 
ing members thereof." A report by the committee was submit- 
ted to the town in March, 1856, and this attempt to utilize the 
Academy failed. 

A second effort to accomplish the same object, in a somewhat 
different way, was made in 1870. The Trustees met the town 
authorities in a friendly and liberal spirit, and were desirous of 
taking any consistent action which would bring the Academy 
into " harmony and concert with the town schools." An elabo- 
rate report was made to the town in March, 1871, but this second 
attempt also failed. 

In justice to the Trustees, it must be said that they placed no 
further obstacles in the way of securing to the town the direct 
benefit of their trust-funds than the legal restrictions imposed 
upon them compelled. Whether we look at the question from 
the standpoint of the Academy or the town, we are forced to the 
conclusion that it is a public misfortune that no successful result 
followed these attempts, which engaged the careful thought of 
many of our most intelligent citizens. 

The annual sermon to the scholars, for which Madam Derby 
made provision in her deed of lease and release, has been deliv- 
ered annually since the opening of the school. It soon became 
known as the " Derby Lecture." The day of its delivery has also 
been the occasion of the annual exhibition of the scholars. For 
many years it was a gala day in the annals of the town. The 
scholars, teachers, and trustees marched in procession to the place 
of the delivery of the lecture, and many will recall the white dresses 
of the girls and the white trousers of the boys, which was the uni- 
form dress until quite recent years. Throngs of people lined the 
streets as the procession passed. The Rev. Jacob Norton, of Wey- 
mouth, in his diary, under date of April 2, 1793, on which day he 
delivered the lecture, says, " Between eighty and ninety youth be- 
longing to the school, of both sexes, preceded the trustees, in pro- 
cession to the meeting-house." The services were held in the 
meeting-house of the First Parish from the beginning until 1807. 
In that year, owing to the unhappy differences which had arisen 



138 History of Hingham. 

between the religious societies in the north part of the town, the 
Trustees voted " that the lecture, the present year, be held in the 
Academy: " and in 1808 they voted " that the lecture be held in 
the New North Meeting-House," since which time the services 
have been held in that house, except in the year 1890 when they 
were held in the Meeting-House of the First Parish, as the New 
North Meeting-House was then undergoing repairs. 

Whatever became of the original portrait of Madam Derby, 
which she desired by her will should be placed in the Derby 
School, no one can tell. The portrait now in the Academy is 
a copy. The following extracts from the " Hingham Gazette " 
show by what means it was obtained. In the paper of May 22, 
1835, it is stated that " after the Derby lecture on Wednesday the 
pupils of the Academy held a fair in the hall ; the object of which 
was to procure funds to enable them to obtain a copy of the por- 
trait of Madam Derby, the founder of the institution. The re- 
ceipts were $124.80." And in the paper of June 12, 1835, " We 
learn that the young ladies of Derby Academy have determined 
to apply the proceeds of their late fair to obtain a copy of the 
portrait of the founder of the institution, and we are pleased also 
that they have selected so accomplished an artist as Mr. Osgood to 
execute the work." The artist was Samuel Stillman Osgood. 

The portrait of Dr. Hersey, now in the Academy, is also a copy. 
The " Hingham Patriot " in its issue of May 14, 1847, contains a 
notice of a social meeting on the evening of Lecture Day, and 
says, " The surplus funds are to be devoted to obtain a full por- 
trait of Dr. Hersey, the real founder of the Academy." On May 
24, 1848, the Trustees " Voted, That the original painting of Dr. 
Hersey be presented to Widow Jonathan R. Russell, of Milton, a 
copy thereof being now in the possession of the Trustees." 

The Preceptors of the Derby School and Academy have gen- 
erally been gentlemen of scholarly attainments and of classical 
training. It is difficult to make special mention of individuals, 
but as Academies were more marked institutions in the early 
part of the century than in the latter years, so the Preceptors were 
more marked men. Their terms of service were as a rule longer 
than now. For the past forty years they have usually been young 
men spending a few years after their college graduation in acquir- 
ing means for pursuing professional studies, although in some 
instances they have been men who have made teaching their 
profession. 

The first Preceptor, Mr. Abner Lincoln, selected by Madam 
Derby herself, was a man admirably adapted to the position. It 
has been said of him, " Many of his pupils recollect with grateful 
feelings the amiable qualities, the happy faculty of teaching, and 
the perseverance with which he devoted himself to the promotion 
of their good. The connection of teacher and pupil is often pro- 
ductive of agreeable associations in after life, and frequently a tie 




&ze4t^A0rz& 



Education. 



139 



of friendship is formed between them, which is separated only by- 
death. Mr. Lincoln could number among his numerous pupils 
many who retained a strong feeling of personal regard for him, 
and from whom he received the most friendly memorials of their 
esteem." He continued in the office for fifteen years. 

For Rev. Daniel Kimball, who for seventeen years and a half 
taught the school, his pupils retained an amount of veneration and 
respect which mark him as a successful preceptor. 

Mr. Increase S. Smith was Preceptor for a longer term than 
any other on the list, filling the office for eighteen years. 

On Dec. 23, 1790, the final payment was made by the executors 
of the will of Madam Derby to the Trustees ; and on July 1, 1791, 
a committee reported that the personal property in the hands of 
the treasurer was as follows : — 

Whole stock £6,073 8 11. 

Productive stock 5,325 16 4. 

After the sale of a portion of the real estate, a statement, 
in July, 1800, shows the amount of personal property to have 
been $23,741.29. The sale of lands in Maine, granted to the 
Trustees in 1803, still further increased the personal property. 



In July, 1810, 
In 1820 
In 1830 
In 1840 
In 1850 
In 1860 
In 1870 
In 1880 
In 1890 



it was valued at 836, 336.25 

23,905.44 

" 25,528.10 

" 26,478.20 

26,258.00 

" " 28,850.00 

" " 31,729.30 

29,653.21 

29,204.68 



TKUSTEES. 



1784 

1784 

1784 

1784 



Rev. Ebenezer Gay, D.D., 

Hingham 1787 

Rev. Daniel Shute, D.D. 

Hingham . ... 1801 

John Thaxter, Hingham 1793 

Benjamin Lincoln " . . 1809 



1784 Cotton Tufts, Weymouth 1815 

1784 Richard Cranch, Braintree 1797 

1784 William Cushing, Scituate 1805 

1784 Nathan Cushing " 

1784 John Thaxter, Haverhill 1791 

1784 Benjamin Lincoln, Boston 1788 



The above were appointed in the deed from Madam Derby. 



1790 Rev. Henry Ware, Hingham 

1790 Rev. Jacob Norton, Wey- 

mouth 1825 

1791 Christopher Gore . . . 1796 
1794 John Lowell ... 1802 

1796 Rev. Thaddeus Mason Har- 

ris 1808 

1797 George R. Minot . . . 1801 
1801 Rev. Nicholas Bowes Whit- 
ney 1835 



1801 John Davis 1804 

1803 Rev. John Allyn , Duxbury 1829 

1804 Thomas Boylston Adams 1818 

1805 Daniel Shute .... 1818 

1808 Rev. Jacob Flint, Cohasset 1835 

1809 Rev. Henry Colman, Hing- 

ham 1811 

1810 Robert Thaxter, M.D., Dor- 

chester 1842 

1811 Levi Lincoln, M.D. . . 1829 



140 



History of Hingham. 



1813 Rev. Peter Whitney, Quincy 1837 
1815 John Winslow, Hanover 1819 
1818 Martin Lincoln, Hingham 1837 

1818 Gushing Otis, M.D., Scitu- 

ate 1837 

1819 James Savage, Boston . 1844 
1825 Ezra W. Sampson, Brain- 
tree 1829 

1827 Rev. Charles Brooks, Hing- 
ham 1840 

1829 Rev. Samuel Deane, Scitu- 

ate 1834 

1829 Ebenezer Gay, Hingham 1832 

1829 Abel Cushing, Dorchester 1850 

1832 Robert Treat Paine Fiske, 

M.D., Hingham . . 1866 

1834 Rev. Edmund Quincy 

Sewall, Scituate . . 1848 

1836 Rev. Harrison Gray Otis 

Phipps, Cohasset . . 1841 

1836 Daniel Shute, M.D., Hing- 

ham 1838 

1837 Edward Thaxter, Hingham 1841 
1837 Rev. Samuel J. May, 

Scituate 1842 

1 837 Gen . Appleton Howe , M. D., 

Weymouth .... 1849 

1838 Jairus Lincoln, Hingham 1857 

1840 Rev. Oliver Stearns, Hing- 

ham 1857 

1841 Rev. William P. Lunt, 

Quincy 1857 

1842 Francis Thomas, M.D., 

Scituate 

1842 Rev. Joseph Osgood, Co- 
hasset 

1844 Ebenezer Gay, Hingham 1867 

1848 Rev. John Lewis Russell, 

Hingham 

1849 Increase 8. Smith . . . 1866 

1850 Charles Francis Adams . 1861 

1850 Andrew L. Russell . . 

1853 Rev. Caleb Stetson, South . 

Scituate 1862 



1854 Henry Edson Hersey, Hing- 
ham 1863 

1857 Rev. Calvin Lincoln, Hing- 
ham 1877 

1857 Benjamin Cushing, M.D., 

Dorchester .... 1871 
1857 Rev. George Leonard, 

Marshfield . . . . 1866 

1861 John A Andrew . . . 

1861 John Quincy Adams, Quin- 
cy 1869 

1863 Solomon Lincoln, Jr., Salem 
1863 Henry A. Clapp, Dorchester 1869 
1866 Henry C. Harding, Hing- 
ham 

1866 Rev. Joshua Young, Hing- 
ham 1873 

1866 Charles C. Tower, M.D., 

Weymouth .... 1876 
1869 Thomas T. Bouve, Boston 1873 
1869 Levi N. Bates, Cohasset 1884 
1871 John D. Long, Hingham 
1871 Arthur Lincoln " 
1873 Rev. William L. Chaffin, 

North Easton . . . 1875 

1875 Hosea H. Lincoln, Boston 

1876 James H. Wilder » 1879 

1877 Rev. Edward A. Horton, 

Hingham 

1877 William I. Nichols, Cam- 
bridge 1891 

1877 Rev. William H. Fish, 

South Scituate . . . 1878 

1879 Rev. Edmund Q. S. Osgood, 

Plymouth .... 1887 

1879 Rev. Frederick Frothing- 

ham, Milton .... 1891 

18S4 J. Winthrop Spooner, M.D., 
Hingham .... 

1889 AVilliam C. Bates, Canton 

1891 James E. Thomas, Rock- 
land 

1891 Rev. Henry F. Jenks, Canton 



OFFICERS OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 



1784 
1804 
1815 

1828 
1837 



William Cushing. 
Cotton Tufts. 
John Allyn. 
Peter Whitney. 
Robert Thaxter. 



Presidents. 



1842 Abel Cushing. 

1850 William P. Lunt. 

1856 Charles Francis Adams. 

1859 Increase S. Smith. 

1866 Joseph Osgood. 



Secretaries. 



1784 Benjamin Lincoln, Jr. 

1790 Henry Ware. 

1805 Nicholas B. Whitney. 

1835 Charles Brooks. 



1838 
1844 
1867 
1872 



Jairus Lincoln. 
Ebenezer Gay. 
Calvin Lincoln. 
Arthur Lincoln. 



Education. 



141 



1784 John Thaxter. 

1793 Daniel Shute. 

1796 Benjamin Lincoln. 

1807 Levi Lincoln, Jr. 



Treasurers. 

1827 Martin Lincoln. 

1837 Edward Thaxter. 

1841 Robert T. P. Fiske. 

1866 Henry C. Harding. 



PRECEPTORS. 



1790 Abner Lincoln 

1806 Andrews Norton 

1806 James Day . 

1807 Samuel Merrill 

1808 Daniel Kimball 
1826 Increase S. Smith . 

Thomas Snow acted for one month 

1844 Luther B. Lincoln . 

1847 James Waldock . . 

1849 John S. Brown . . 

1850 Thomas M. Stetson . 

1852 Ezra W. Gale . . . 

1853 James I. H. Gregory 
1855 Joseph Willard, Jr. . 
1855 James M. Cassety 



1791 Peter Whitney . 

1794 Timothy Alden . 

1795 Henry Cummings 



1791 
1796 
1804 
1810 
1812 
1816 
1817 
1818 
1822 
1822 
1824 
1830 
1836 
1839 
1843 
1844 



1815 
1822 
1823 
1824 
1824 



1882 
1885 



1805 
1806 



1826 
1844 
in 1826. 
1847 
1849 
1850 
1852 
1853 
1855 
1855 
1859 



1859 
1867 
1870 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1872 
1874 
1S77 
1878 
1878 
1880 
1885 
1891 



Henry F. Munroe 
Lewis F. Dupee . 
J. Willard Brown 
Thomas J. Emery 
Frank J. Marsh . 
Augustine Simmons 
J. B. Atwood . . 
William I. Nichols 
Nathan H. Dole . 
Harold Wilder . . 
Edward Higginson 
James E. Thomas 
Henry M. Wright . 
G. Herbert Chittenden 



1867 
1870 
1870 
1871 

1872 
1872 
1874 
1876 
1878 
1878 
1880 
1885 
1891 



Assistants. 



1794 



1797 
1799 
1845 



Elisha Clap . . . 
Jotham Waterman 
Nathan Lincoln . 



PRECEPTRESSES. 



Lucy Lane 1796 

Elizabeth Dawes . . . 1804 

Betsey Cushing . . . 1810 

Eliza Robbins .... 1811 

Abigail Frothingham . 1816 

Sophia Webber . . . 1817 
Helen Lincoln (acting) . 

Mary Tillinghast . . . 1822 
Susan Waterman (acting) 

Ann Heaney .... 1824 

Susan Waterman . . . 1830 

Elizabeth C. Norton . . 1836 

Caroline E. LeBaron . 1839 

Mary H. Lincoln . . . 1843 

Mary L. Gardner . . . 1844 

Hannan B. Ripley . . 1852 
Miss Tarr, six months 1851. 



1852 Mary E. Kendall . . . 
Mary Young, three months 1853 

1855 Harriet A. Green . 

1857 Sarah R. Pearson . 

1859 Mary Stearns . . 

1860 Lydia C. Dodge . 

1865 Sarah A. Brown . 

1866 Elizabeth Andrews 
1872 Elizabeth Osgood . 
1875 Mary S. Cleveland 
1881 Esther R. Whiton 

1887 Lucy M. Adams . 

1888 N. Jennie Fuller . 
1891 Bertha I. Barker . 



1855 

1857 
1859 
1860 
1865 
1866 
1872 
1875 
1880 
1887 
1888 
1891 



Helen Lincoln . 
Susan Waterman . 
Charlotte H. Green 
Susan Waterman . 
Elizabeth C. Norton 



Assistants. 

1830 
1833 
1835 
1839 
1844 



Elizabeth L. Waterman 
Mary R. Whiton . . 
Sophia K. Marshall . 
Adeline Whiton . . 
Mary L. Gardner . 



Primary Department. 



M. Nellie Nye . . . 
Caroline R. Leverett 



1885 

1886 



1886 
1891 



Irene I. Lincoln 
Mary Cutler . 



1833 
1835 
1838 
1843 
1847 



1891 



142 



History of Hingham. 



DERBY LECTURE. 



The annual " Lecture " has been delivered by the following 
clergymen : — 

1S42 " Oliver Steams. 

1843 " Edward B. Hall. 

1844 " George W. Briggs. 

1845 " Joseph Osgood. 

1846 " Caleb Stetson. 

1847 " William H. Furness. 

1848 " John L. Russell. 

1849 " Ezra S. Gannett, D.D. 

1850 " Barnas Sears, D.D. 

1851 " Andrew P. Peabody. 

1852 " Theodore Parker. 

1853 " Samuel Johnson. 

1854 " James Freeman Clarke. 

1855 " E. Porter Dyer. 

1856 " Frederick D. Huntington, 
D.D. 

1857 " Cyrus A. Bartol. 

1858 " Stephen G. Bulfinch. 

1859 " Frederick H. Hedge, D.D. 

1860 " John H. Morrison, D.D. 

1861 " Jonathan Tilson 

1862 " Nathaniel Hall. 

1863 " Chandler Robbins, D.D. 

1864 " Daniel Bowen. 

1865 " William P. Tilden. 

1866 " Joshua Young. 

1867 " Joseph B. Marvin. 

1868 " Henry W. Jones. 

1869 " Rufus Ellis. 

1870 " John D. Wells. 

1871 " Edward E. Hale. 

1872 " John Snyder. 

1873 " Henry W. Foote. 

1874 " Edmund B. Willson. 

1875 " William G. Todd. 

1876 " William L. Chaffin. 

1877 " Henry A. Miles, D.D. 

1878 " Edward A. Horton. 

1879 " Allen G. Jennings. 

1880 " Frederick Frothingham. 

1881 " Howard N. Brown. 

1882 " William I. Nichols. 

1883 " Edmund Q. S. Osgood. 

1884 " H. Price Collier 

1885 " George M. Bodge. 

1886 " Alexander T. Bowser. 

1887 " Christopher R. Eliot. 

1888 " Brooke Herford. 

1889 " Charles F. Dole. 

1890 " Henry F. Jenks. 

1891 " Hosea H. Lincoln. 

1892 " Austin S. Garver. 



1791 Rev. Daniel Shute, D.D. 


1792 ' 


' Henry Ware. 


1793 < 


' Jacob Norton. 


1794 ' 


' Simeon Howard, D.D. 


1795 < 


< Gad Hitchcock, D.D. 


1796 ' 


4 David Barnes. 


1797 ' 


' Jeremy Belknap, D.D. 


1798 « 


' Thaddeus M. Harris. 


1799 « 


' John Allyn. 


1800 ' 


' Joseph Thaxter. 


1801 ' 


' John Andrews. 


1802 ' 


' Henry Lincoln. 


1803 « 


' Nicholas Bowes Whitney. 


1804 « 


* John Thornton Kirkland, 




D.D. 


1805 « 


4 Peter Whitney. 


1806 ' 


' Jacob Flint. 


1807 ' 


' Edward Richmond. 


1808 « 


' Perez Lincoln. 


1809 ' 


' William Shaw. 


1810 ' 


' Henry Colman. 


1811 < 


' Zephaniah Willis. 


1812 ' 


' Peter Eaton. 


1813 « 


' Nicholas Bowes Whitney. 


1814 « 


' James Kendall. 


1815 « 


' Eliphalet Porter, D.D. 


1816 ' 


4 James Freeman, D.D. 


1817 ' 


' John Pierce. 


1818 P 


rof. Andrews Norton. 


1819 R 


ev. Daniel Kimball. 


1820 ' 


' Henry Ware, Jr. 


1821 ' 


4 Samuel Deane, D.D. 


1822 « 


' Joseph Tuckerman. 


1823 « 


4 Charles Brooks. 


1824 < 


4 Henry Ware, D.D. 


1825 ' 


4 James Bowers. 


1826 « 


' Nathaniel L. Frothingham. 


1827 ' 


4 James Walker. 


1828 « 


4 Convers Francis. 


1829 ' 


' Francis W. P. Greenwood. 


1830 « 


4 Morill Allen. 


1831 ' 


' John Brazer. 


1832 « 


' Orville Dewey. 


1833 « 


' John G. Palfrey. 


1834 ' 


' Samuel J. May. 


1835 « 


' Calvin Lincoln. 


1836 « 


' Joseph Allen. 


1837 « 


1 Edmund Quincy Sewall. 


1838 ' 


' George Putnam. 


1839 « 


' Harrison Gray Otis Phipps. 


1840 « 


' Thomas B. Fox. 


1841 ' 


' William P. Lunt. 



Education. 143 



PRIVATE SCHOOLS. 

Any enumeration of the private schools in Hingham would be 
very imperfect, since they have been subjects only of incidental 
record or personal recollection. 

Among the buildings of the town, however, well known and 
often spoken of, was Willard Academy. This was upon Main 
Street, between the Old Meeting-house and the present dwelling- 
house of Mr. Henry Siders. It was built in 1831 by an associa- 
tion of thirteen gentlemen for the special purpose of providing 
accommodations for the private school kept by Rev. Samuel Wil- 
lard, D. D., and Mr. Luther B. Lincoln. The building may be 
seen at the left of one of the engravings of the Old Meeting-house 
drawn by Mr. William Hudson. According to the records of the 
proprietors, it seems to have been occupied for private schools 
some six or seven years, after which it was occupied for mechan- 
ical and mercantile purposes. The records of the proprietors end 
in 1841. The Hingham Patriot gives the following account of the 
burning of the building : — 

"Last Monday evening [Jan. 18, 1847], at 10 o'clock p. m., Willard 
Hall was burned. It was owned by J. Baker & Sons and Capt. Barnabas 
Lincoln, and was occupied, in the lower story as a box factory, planing, 
sawing, and turning steam-mill, by Capt. Job S. Whiton, and in the upper 
as a weaving-room connected with the establishment of Baker & Sons. 
The building in the rear, owned and occupied by J. Baker & Sons, used 
to twist their long cords in, was also consumed. The houses of Mr. 
Siders and Mr. Marsh were in great danger, also the Old Meeting-house." 

Some of the persons who kept schools in this building were 
Messrs. Willard and Lincoln, Mr. Claudius Bradford, Miss Har- 
riet Topliff, Misses Martha Ann and Mary H. Lincoln, and Miss 
Deborah H. Wilder. 

The building originally built for an engine house on South Street, 
a few rods west of Thaxter's Bridge, was occupied for some thirty 
years, beginning about 1851, for a private school, and the number 
of children who began their education there is very large. The 
ladies who taught there or in the immediate vicinity successfully 
and successively were Lucy P. Scarborough, M. Adelaide Price, 
Adeline Whiton, and Elizabeth D. Bronsdon. 

Among others who have kept private schools in Hingham may 
be mentioned as worthy of notice, Mrs. Butler, from about 1797 to 
1800 ; Misses Elizabeth and Margaret Cushing, for many years in 
the early part of this century, their school being a boarding-school 
of considerable renown, for young ladies from out of town ; Mr. 
Winslow Turner, about 1827 to 1828 ; Miss Sophia Cushing about 
1830 and later ; and in more recent years, Miss Mabel Hobart, in 
the north part of the town ; Miss Mary W. Bates at Hingham 
Centre ; and Mrs. J. W. Dukes of the " Keble School." 



144 History of Hingham. 

Many others are equally worthy of notice, but the writer is 
unable to gather anything more than scattered and fragmentary 
accounts of them, and they must live in the memories and tradi- 
tions of the town only. 

The influence of these private schools must not be underesti- 
mated. They have played an important part in the early educa- 
tion of our children, and it is a matter of regret that no perfect 
record of them can be handed down. 



LIBRARIES. 

Benjamin Franklin says that the Philadelphia Library Com- 
pany, which he was largely instrumental in founding in 1730, was 
the " mother of all the North American subscription libraries. 
These libraries have improved the general conversation of the 
Americans, made the common tradesmen and farmers as intelli- 
gent as most gentlemen from other countries, and perhaps have 
contributed in some degree to the stand so generally made 
throughout the colonies in defence of their privileges." 

Aside from the college libraries and those connected with in- 
stitutions of learning and instruction, the chief means of literary 
culture open to our people in Massachusetts a hundred or more 
years ago were a social library at Salem, one at Leominster, two 
at Hingham, and one at Andover. 

The object of these social or association libraries was to procure 
for each member the advantage of a number of books such as only 
the owners of large private libraries could enjoy. 

The establishment of free public libraries has in many towns 
diminished the need for the social libraries, and Hingham is no 
exception to the prevailing tendency of recent years, when " many 
social libraries which had sometimes been flourishing, but more 
frequently had languished, were merged into the new, more per- 
manent town libraries, where private benevolence co-operated 
with town legislation to make a substantial basis for these popular 
institutions." 

Among the earliest of the social libraries in Massachusetts 
were two in Hingham. 

The First Social Library was formed in 1771, and was located 
at Hingham Centre. It continued in operation until the opening 
of the Hingham Public Library in 1869. The proprietors then 
gave their collection of books to the Public Library, and most of 
them, together with the records, were burned in the fire of 
Jan. 3, 1879. 

The Second Social Library was formed in 1773. According to 
the first page of its records, which are presumed to be from its 
foundation, it was established " for the Promotion of Knowledge, 
Religion, and Virtue, — the three grand Ornaments of human 



Education. 



145 



Nature." It continued in operation until 1891, when the pro- 
prietors gave their books to the Hingham Public Library. 

Both of these libraries were small as compared with collections 
of the present day, but the books were well selected for the pur- 
poses of miscellaneous reading rather than for reference. 

Other small libraries have existed in town from time to time, 
such as masonic, circulating, agricultural, and Sunday School 
libraries, and all have served to elevate the tone of Society and 
disseminate information. They have been valuable aids to the 
general education of the community through many generations. 




THE HINGHAM PUBLIC LIBRARY. 

Destroyed by fire, Jan. 3, 1879. 

But valuable as these early and smaller libraries were in their 
day and generation, the founding of the Hingham Public Library 
presents itself to our notice as a more important and permanent 
benefit to the town. Its history has been told in two printed 
pamphlets and there is little need of extended remarks upon its 
usefulness beyond a record of the facts herewith presented. 

At the annual town-meeting held March 7, 1870, the follow- 
ing communication was presented to the town by order of the 
Trustees : — 

To the Inhabitants of Hingham, in Town Meeting assembled : 

The Trustees of the Hingham Public Library avail themselves of the 
first annual meeting for the transaction of business relating to Town 

VOL. I. — 10 * 



146 History of Hingham. 

affairs held since the establishment of the Library, to make an official 
statement of its history for the information of the Town. 

In pursuance of a design long entertained by Hon. Albert Fearing of 
establishing a Free Library for the use of the inhabitants of his native 
town, he purchased, in 1868, two adjoining lots of land situated on Main 
street, which were deemed by him eligible for a suitable location for the 
Library, and caused to be erected thereon a beautiful and commodious 
edifice for its reception, and conveniently furnished for the purposes of 
such an institution. He also made provision for opening the Library to 
the public as soon as practicable, paying the salary of the Librarian to 
March 1, 1870, and providing a fund for its maintenance of five thousand 
dollars. The aggregate of expenditures by Mr. Fearing, for the purposes- 
before mentioned, exceed the sum of twenty-one thousand dollars. 

On the Fourth (Fifth) of July, 1869, the building for the Library was 
publicly dedicated to the objects of its erection by an eloquent address 
delivered by Hon. Thomas Russell, and other appropriate ceremonies, 
with strong demonstrations of public interest. 

On the same day, a deed of the property was delivered by Mr. Fearing 
to Trustees selected by him to carry out his designs. The following were 
the Trustees then selected, viz. : Calvin Lincoln, Solomon Lincoln, Ezra 
Stephenson, Fearing Burr, Jonathan Tilson, Henry W. Jones, Quincy 
Bicknell, George Hersey, Junior, Elijah Shute, Amasa Whiting, William 
Fearing 2d, Arthur Lincoln, and Lincoln Fearing, all of Hingham, and 
David Whiton and Thomas T. Bouve, of Boston. 

The persons thus selected, it will be seen, are located in different sec- 
tions of the town, and represent various callings in the community. 

The deed is in trust, for the purpose of carrying into effect the designs 
of the founder of the Library, as set forth in indentures which accom- 
panied it, and which were duly executed by the parties thereto, and by 
which the several persons named as Trustees accepted the trust. 

The Deed and Indentures are laid before the town herewith for in- 
formation. Authentic copies of both instruments will be lodged with the 
Town Clerk as soon as they are printed. 

Books for the Library were contributed by the proprietors of other 
social libraries, associations, institutions, and individuals, including the 
founder. The Library now contains upwards of four thousand volumes 
of books in the various departments of science, history, art, and literature, 
with many works for consultation and reference, which are regarded as of 
great value to the community. Since the Library was opened, it has 
been enriched by numerous and valuable donations of books and works of 
art. The Smithsonian Institution has honored us by the gift of the entire 
series of their publications for the Library. And we have the assurance 
of other donations of books from persons, not residents of the Town, but 
who take a deep interest in its welfare. 

It is a subject of congratulation that the value of the Library has been 
justly appreciated by the citizens who have availed themselves of its 
privileges. Hundreds have taken tickets for books, from all sections of 
the town, even from the most extreme parts. The exact number of 
tickets taken during the eight months for which the Library has been 
opened, has been six hundred and seventy, and the number of volumes 
taken from the Library during the same period, has been nine thousand 
five hundred. 

The Trustees respectfully submit this brief history of the Library from 



Education. 147 

its origin for the information of the inhabitants, and that a proper record 
may be made of this noble benefaction, and such other action be had 
thereon as the Town may think appropriate upon a transaction which 
constitutes so interesting a feature in its history. 

All which is respectfully submitted, by order of the Trustees, 

Solomon Lincoln, 

President. 
Hingham, March 7, 1870. 

Upon the presentation of the foregoing paper, the following 
resolutions were adopted : — 

Whereas a communication has this day been received by the inhab- 
itants of the Town of Hingham, in town-meeting assembled, from the 
Trustees of the Public Library, founded by the Honorable Albert 
Fearing for the use and benefit of the inhabitants of said town, therefore, 

Resolved, That in this munificent gift, the inhabitants of the Town of 
Hingham recognize another instance of the repeated acts of liberality of 
Mr. Fearing to contribute of his means for the improvement and benefit 
of the community in which he was born, and where his earlier years 
were spent, and where in his advanced life he has again taken up his 
residence, bringing the labors of an industrious and successful life to share 
the cares and burdens of our civil community with his fellow-townsmen ; 
and in accepting this gift we gratefully tender our thanks to Mr. Fearing 
for this generous benefaction to his fellow-citizens, cherishing the belief 
that this is but the commencement of an institution which will confer in- 
calculable advantages, not only upon the present but upon all future 
generations. 

Resolved, That the communication of the Trustees be entered on the 
records of the Town, and that a copy of these resolutions be sent to Mr. 
Fearing and the Trustees. 

The following communication was also presented to the town 
at the same meeting : — 

To the Inhabitants of Hingham, in Town Meeting assembled: 

The Trustees of the Hingham Public Library respectfully represent 
that in order to give to the citizens of the Town the greatest advantages 
of the Library, and to maintain it in full efficiency according to the design 
of its founder, an appropriation of five hundred dollars would be eminently 
useful, and indispensable in order to make its advantages as available as 
'the highest interests of the community require. 

The facts connected with the history of the Library have been laid 
before the Town and the Trustees beg leave to refer to them as evidence 
of the character and objects of the institution. The Trustees therefore 
ask the Town to make such an appropriation for the maintenance and 
support of the Public Library as may increase its efficiency and 
usefulness. 

By order of the Trustees, 

Solomon Lincoln, 

President. 
Hingham, March 7, 1870. 



148 History of Hingham. 

At said meeting, after the foregoing communication had been 
read, it was voted that the sum of five hundred dollars be granted 
to the Trustees for the purposes set forth in their communication. 

A similar appropriation of five hundred dollars was made by 
the town in 1871. 

DEED 

From the Hon. Albert Fearing to the Trustees of the Hingham 
Public Library, of the land and building. 

Know all Men by these Presents, that I, Albert Fearing, of 
Hingham, in the County of Plymouth, and Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts, Merchant, 

In consideration of one dollar and other good and valuable consider- 
ations to me paid by Calvin Lincoln, Solomon Lincoln, Ezra Stephenson, 
Fearing Burr, Jonathan Tilson, Henry W. Jones, Quincy Bicknell, 
George Hersey, Junior, Elijah Shute, Amasa Whiting, William Fearing 
2d, Arthur Lincoln, and Lincoln Fearing, all of said Hingham, and David 
Whiton and Thomas T. Bouve, both of Boston, in the County of Suffolk 
and Commonwealth aforesaid, Trustees under an Indenture made by 
and between the parties hereto and of even date herewith, the receipt 
whereof is hereby acknowledged, do hereby convey, remise, release and 
forever quit claim unto the said Calvin Lincoln, Solomon Lincoln, Ezra 
Stephenson, Fearing Burr, Jonathan Tilson, Henry W. Jones, Quincy 
Bicknell, George Hersey, Junior, Elijah Shute, Amasa Whiting, William 
Fearing 2d, Arthur Lincoln, Lincoln Fearing, David Whiton, and Thomas 
T. Bouve, Trustees as aforesaid, the following described real estate 
situated on Main street, in said Hingham, and bounded and described as 
follows, viz. : — 

Beginning at a point on the Easterly side of Main Street, bearing North 
nine degrees West from the North-Westerly corner of the underpinning of 
the dwelling-house of Abner L. Leavitt, and distant therefrom two rods 
twenty-one and one-fourth links, thence from said point running North- 
erly on Main Street seven rods sixteen and a half links, then turning 
and running Easterly on the highway one rod and three links, then turn- 
ing and running on Middle Street seven rods four links and a half to 
a way forty feet wide, then turning and running Westerly on said way 
four rods and eight links to the point of departure on Main Street, 
with the Building thereon ; the premises being the same which were con- 
veyed to the said Albert Fearing in two parts, viz. : one part thereof by 
John Leavitt, by deed dated June 2, 1868, and recorded in the Plymouth 
Registry of Deeds, Book 352, page 84, and the other part thereof by Ab- 
ner L. Leavitt, by deed dated July 18, 1868, and recorded as aforesaid, 
Book 352, pages 84 and 85. 

To have and to hold the above released premises, with all the privi- 
leges and appurtenances to the same belonging, to the said Calvin Lin- 
coln, Solomon Lincoln, Ezra Stephenson, Fearing Burr, Jonathan Tilson, 
Henry W. Jones, Quincy Bicknell, George Hersey, Junior, Elijah Shute, 
Amasa Whiting, William Fearing, 2d, Arthur Lincoln, and Lincoln Fear- 
ing, David Whiton, and Thomas T. Bouve, and the survivors and the sur- 
vivor of them, and the heirs and assigns of such survivor, but to the uses 
and upon the trusts as in said Indenture is set forth. 





J. ff. Daniel? Pr. 



Education. 149 

And I, the said Albert Fearing, for myself and my heirs, executors, and 
administrators, do covenant with the said Calvin Lincoln, Solomon Lincoln, 
Ezra Stephenson, Fearing Burr, Jonathan Tilson, Henry W. Jones, Quincy 
Bicknell, George Hersey, Junior, Elijah Shute, Amasa Whiting, William 
Fearing, 2d, Arthur Lincoln, Lincoln Fearing, David Whiton and Thomas 
T. Bouve, their heirs and assigns that the premises are free from all in- 
cumbrances made or suffered by me, and that I will, and my heirs, execu- 
tors, and administrators shall warrant and defend the same to the said 
Calvin Lincoln, Solomon Lincoln, Ezra Stephenson, Fearing Burr, Jona- 
than Tilson, Henry W. Jones, Quincy Bicknell, George Hersey, Junior, 
Elijah Shute, Amasa Whiting, William Fearing, 2d, Arthur Lincoln, Lin- 
coln Fearing, David Whiton, and Thomas T. Bouve, their heirs and as- 
signs forever, against the lawful claims and demands of all persons claiming 
by, through, or under me, but against none other. 

In witness whereof, I, the said Albert Fearing and Catharine C. 
Fearing, wife of said Albert Fearing, who joins in this deed in token of 
her release of all right and title of or to both dower and homestead in 
the granted premises, have hereunto set our hands and seals this fifteenth 
day of June, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and 
sixty-nine. 

Albert Fearing, [l.s.] 

Catharine C. Fearing, [l.s.] 
Signed, sealed, and delivered * 
in presence of 
Jennie Donegie, 
Annie Donegie. 



Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

Plymouth ss. June 15th, 1869. 

Then personally appeared the above named Albert Fearing, and ac- 
knowledged the foregoing instrument to be his free act and deed, 

Before me, 

Charles W. Seymour, 

Justice of the Peace. 

INDENTURE 

Between the Hon. Albert Fearing and the Trustees of the 
Library, setting forth the terms and conditions of the Trust. 

This Indenture, in two parts, made this fifteenth day of June, in the 
year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine, by and be- 
tween Albert Fearing, of Hingham, in the County of Plymouth, and 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Merchant, of the first part, and Calvin 
Lincoln, Solomon Lincoln, Ezra Stephenson, Fearing Burr, Jonathan 
Tilson, Henry W. Jones, Quincy Bicknell, George Hersey, Junior, Elijah 
Shute, Amasa Whiting, William Fearing, 2d, Arthur Lincoln, and Lin- 
coln Fearing, all of said Hingham, and David Whiton and Thomas T. 
Bouve, both of Boston, in the County of Suffolk, and Commonwealth 
aforesaid, of the second part, 

Witnesseth, That whereas the said Albert Fearing is desirous of found- 
ing a Library for the use of the inhabitants of the said Town of Hingham, 



150 History of Hingham. 

to be called the Hingham Public Library, and has requested the persons, 
parties of the second part, to act as Trustees thereof, and has by his deed 
of even date herewith conveyed to them certain land situated in said Hing- 
ham, with the building which he has caused to be erected thereon, and has 
also transferred and paid over to them five six per cent first mortgage 
bonds of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, of one thousand dollars 
each, interest and principal payable in gold* ($5,000) to have and to hold 
to them and their successors to and for the following uses and pur- 
poses, viz. : — 

First. To collect the income of said personal estate and also of the 
real estate if any part of the same is leased or occupied so as to produce 
any income, and after paying the necessary expenses, to apply said income 
as hereinafter provided. 

Second. To apply the income aforesaid to the repair and preservation 
of the Library Building, to the enlargement and rebuilding of the same, if 
deemed necessary by the Trustees, to the care of the grounds about the 
same, to the payment of premiums of insurance on said Building, Library, 
and Furniture therein, to the purchase of furniture for the same and repairs 
thereof, to the purchase of such books, maps, charts, pamphlets, periodi- 
cals, and other publications as the trustees may think proper for the 
Library, and to any other expenditures which they may deem a proper 
charge upon the fund. 

Third. The said Trustees shall have full power to make by-laws for 
their own government, and also such Rules and Regulations for the use, 
management, preservation, and increase of the Library as they may deem 
suitable, and to change the same from time to time, also to appoint a Libra- 
rian and such other officers and agents as they may think best. 

Fourth. Upon the death or resignation of any one of the Trustees, a 
majority of the surviving Trustees shall elect some suitable person to fill 
the vacancy, and the person so elected shall be a Trustee with all the 
powers of trustees hereinbefore named. If, however, upon the death or 
resignation of any Trustee, a majority of the surviving Trustees shall vote 
that it is inexpedient to fill such vacancy, they may omit to do so, but 
may at any time afterwards reconsider such vote and fill such vacancy ; 
provided, however, that in no case shall the number of Trustees be less 
than ten nor more than fifteen. 

Fifth. The said Trustees may, at any time they see fit, and if they 
deem it expedient, apply to the legislature for an act of incorporation and 
may transfer to said corporation the real and personal estate of which the 
fund may then consist, including the Library and Furniture. The Trus- 
tees shall be under no obligation to apply for such an act, and neither the 
Trustees nor such corporation, if established, shall sell the said real estate, 
nor purchase nor erect a building elsewhere, unless the same becomes ab- 
solutely necessary in the judgment of and by a formal vote of not less than 
three-fourths of the whole number of Trustees. 

Sixth. It shall be the duty of the Trustees to keep the funds committed 
to them safely invested, and they shall have the power to change the in- 
vestments thereof from time to time as they may deem expedient. 

Now, in consideration of the premises, the said persons, parties of the 
second part, hereby signify and declare their acceptance of the real and 

* On the delivery of the deed and indenture, Mr. Fearing paid to the Trustees Five 
Thousand Dollars in cash, which was accepted in lieu of the Bonds before mentioned. 



Education. 



151 



personal estate aforesaid, including the Library and Furniture, and do 
hereby engage to hold and manage the same upon the trusts and for the 
uses hereinbefore mentioned. 

In witness whereof, the parties hereto have hereunto set our hands 
and seals interchangeably the day and year first above written. 



Signed, sealed, and delivered 
in presence of 
Henry Siders. 



[Stamp, cancelled.] 



[L. S.] 



Albert Fearing. 
Calvin Lincoln. 

Solomon Lincoln. " 

Ezra Stephenson. " 

Fearing Burr. " 

Jonathan Tilson. " 

Henry W. Jones. " 

Quincy Bic knell. " 
George Hersey, Jr. " 

Elijah Shute. " 

Amasa Whiting. " 
"William Fearing, 2d. " 

Arthur Lincoln. " 

Lincoln Fearing. " 

David Whiton. u 

Thos. T. Bouve. " 



GIFT OF $10,000. 



At a special meeting of the Trustees, held May 10, 1871, a com- 
munication was received from Hon. Albert Fearing, announcing a 
Gift, in addition to his previous donations, of the sum of Ten 
Thousand Dollars, to be added to the Trust Funds of the Library, 
for the purpose of enlarging its usefulness, and upon the terms 
set forth in his communication, which was as follows : — 



HINGHAM PUBLIC LIBRARY. 

Whereas, I Albert Fearing, of Hingham, in the County of Plymouth, 
and Commonwealth of Massachusetts, by my deed, dated the fifteenth day 
of June, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine, conveyed 
certain land and the building thereon, situated in said Hingham, and more 
particularly described in said deed, to Calvin Lincoln and others, Trustees 
therein named, for the purposes of a Library for the Inhabitants of said 
Hingham, to be called the Hingham Public Library ; and whereas, I, the 
said Albert Fearing, paid to said Trustees the sum of Five Thousand Dol- 
lars in money, in addition to the gift of land and building, for the uses, 
support and maintenance of said Library, according to the provisions of 
Indentures between the said Fearing and Calvin Lincoln and others, Trus- 
tees therein named, which Indentures bear even date with said deed and 
are to be construed in connection therewith ; and now being desirous of 
increasing the means of said Trustees for enlarging the usefulness of said 
Library, I have this day paid to William Fearing, 2d, Treasurer of said 
Trustees, the sum of Ten Thousand Dollars, to be by them used and applied 
for the same purposes to which, by the Indentures aforesaid, my original 



152 History of Hingham. 

gift of the sum of Five Thousand Dollars was required to be used and ap- 
plied by them, and also upon these further requests and considerations. 

The town of Hingham having granted the sum of Five Hundred Dollars 
for two successive years for the maintenance and support of the Library, 
and the Inhabitants of said town having, in town meeting assembled, ex- 
pressed by formal vote their approval of the objects which I had in view 
in the establishment of a Library for their use, I request as follows : — 

First. That the Trustees in filling any future vacancy or vacancies in 
the Board of Trustees, shall, at their discretion, select for such vacancy or 
vacancies whenever they determine to fill the same, ^according to the pro- 
visions of the Indentures aforesaid, the person or persons who may at the 
time of filling the said vacancy or vacancies, be Town Clerk or Town 
Treasurer of Hingham, if either or both of them are not at the time mem- 
bers of the Board of Trustees. 

Second. I also request the Trustees to permit as an act of courtesy and 
good neighborhood, the Inhabitants of the adjoining towns of Hull, Co- 
hasset, Scituate, South Scituate, Abington, and Weymouth, to visit the 
Library for the purposes of reference, reading, study, and consultation of 
the books therein, in conformity to the rules and regulations of the Trus- 
tees. I make this request with the hope that the value of Public Libra- 
ries may be better known and appreciated, and especially that their useful 
influence may be extended to all those towns with which the inhabitants 
of Hingham have the most friendly associations. 

Third. I request the Trustees by a formal vote to act upon the accept- 
ance of this additional gift and the trust hereby created. 

Dated at Hingham, this eighth day of May, 1871. 

Albert Fearing. 
Executed in presence of 

Chas. L. Riddle, 
Chas. H. Fletcher. 

Upon the reading of the foregoing communication, it was 

Voted, That the Trustees accept with gratitude the munificent gift of 
the sum of Ten Thousand Dollars by Hon. Albert Fearing, to be added 
to their funds for the purposes and upon the conditions set forth in his 
communication ; and that it will be their desire and intention so to admin- 
ister the affairs of the Library as to conform to his wishes, and to promote 
the highest interests of the community for whose benefit this noble bene- 
faction was conferred. 

Voted, That the Secretary be directed to communicate a copy of the 
foregoing vote to Hon. Mr. Fearing, and to express the grateful acknowl- 
edgments of the Trustees for his numerous and large donations and ex- 
penditures to establish and improve the Library, which in the aggregate 
exceed the sum of Thirty-one Thousand Dollars. 

In addition to his previous gifts, Mr. Fearing made further pro- 
vision for the uses of the Library, at his death in 1875, by a 
legacy in his will of $10,000, making the entire amount of his 
expenditures and donations exceed the sum of $41,000. 



Education. 153 

<£omm0nfoealtfj of iffitoadjusetts. 

In the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-two. 

AN ACT 

TO INCORPORATE THE HINGHAM PUBLIC LIBRARY. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives, in General 
Court assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows : 

Section 1. Calvin Lincoln, Solomon Lincoln, Ezra Stephen- 
son, Fearing Burr, Jonathan Tilson, Quincy Bicknell, George 
Hersey, William Fearing, 2d, Elijah Shute, Amasa Whiting, 
David Whiton, Arthur Lincoln, Thomas S. [T.] Bouve, Albert 
Fearing, Lincoln Fearing, their associates and successors, are hereby 
made a corporation by the name of the Hingham Public Library, for the 
purpose of maintaining a public library in Hingham ; with all the powers 
and privileges, and subject to all the duties, restrictions and liabilities set 
forth in all general laws which now are or hereafter may be in force 
applicable to such corporations. 

Sect. 2. Said corporation may hold real and personal estate for the 
purposes aforesaid to an amount not exceeding one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars, exclusive of books, papers, collections in natural history, 
and works of art. 

Sect. 3. The members of said corporation shall not be less than ten or 
more than fifteen in number, and all vacancies occurring therein may be 
filled at such times and in such manner as the corporation may determine. 

Sect. 4. Said corporation may receive and hold for the purposes 
aforesaid, any grants, donations, or bequests, under such conditions and 
rules as may be prescribed in such grants, donations, or bequests ; provided, 
the same are not inconsistent with the provisions of law. 

Sect. 5. Said corporation shall have power to adopt proper regulations 
for the use and management of the Library, and so long as it shall allow 
the inhabitants of Hingham free access to and use of its library, said town 
may annually appropriate and pay to said corporation money to aid in 
supporting the same. 

Sect. 6. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

From the purchase of books through the gift of Mr. Fearing, 
and from donations by other public-spirited citizens several thou- 
sand volumes were collected together. The building and its con- 
tents, including the early records of the Trustees, were totally 
destroyed by fire January 3, 1879. The present more commodious 
building was immediately erected upon the same site, and opened 
to the public April 5, 1880. Its shelves are well filled with stand- 
ard literature, books of reference, and popular works. 

Among other valuable donations to the library, since the erec- 
tion of the new building, may be mentioned one of one thousand 



154 



History of Hingham. 



dollars for the purchase of books, by Ebed L. Ripley, E. Waters 
Burr, John R. Brewer, and Charles B. Barnes ; the fitting and 
furnishing of an art gallery by the late Aniasa Whiting ; a miner- 
alogical collection, consisting of a general collection of minerals 




THE NEW PUBLIC LIBRARY, HINGHAM. 

of the world, a geological collection, embracing specimens of all 
the rocks of Hingham, and a paleontological collection, all by 
Thomas T. Bouve\ 

The present number of volumes is about 7,000. 

The architect of the first Public Library building was Nathaniel 
J. Bradlee, and of the second, Carl Fehmer. Both buildings were 
built by Justin Ripley. 



TRUSTEES. 



Calvin Lincoln.* 
Solomon Lincoln.* 
Ezra Stephenson.* 
Fearing Burr. 
Jonathan Tilson.* 
Henry W. Jones.* 

QUINCY BlCKNELL. 

George Hersey, Jr.* 
Elijah Shute. 
Amasa Whiting.* 
William Fearing, 2d. 
Arthur Lincoln. 
Lincoln Fearing. 



David Whiton.* 
Thomas T. Bouve. 
Albert Fearing.* 
Austin S. Garver.* 
Hawkes Fearing. 
John D. Long. 
E. Waters Burr. 
Edward C. Hood.* 
Ebed L. Ripley. 
J. Winthrop Spooner. 
Jacob 0. Sanborn. 
Frederic M. Hersey. 
Henry W. Cushing. 



* Deceased or resigned. 



LIBRARIANS. 



1869 Henry Siders 



1875 



1874 1875 Daniel Wing 
Hawkes Fearing. 



1875 



MANUFACTURES AND COMMERCE. 

BY GEORGE LINCOLN. 



The first notice of the establishment of a corn-mill in Hingham 
is in 1643, when on June 12 of that year Anthony Eames, Samuel 
Ward, and Bozoan Allen had leave from the town to set up a corn- 
mill near the cove. In November, 1645, Gowan Wilson was re- 
moved from the office of miller. There are on record numerous 
conveyances of mill sites and privileges near the cove, the dates of 
which extend from the early days of the settlement of the town to 
recent years. The present mill at the Cove, operated by Ben- 
jamin Andrews, represents the location of one of these mills ; the 
other stood nearly in the rear of the blacksmith's shop now occu- 
pied by Daniel Hickey, on North Street, near the Mill Pond. 

Mills were undoubtedly erected at Strait's Pond soon after 1679, 
when on the 17th of May of that year permission was " granted to 
certain petitioners, inhabitants of Hull, and others of Hingham, as 
may see fit to join them, to erect a Dam and Mill at the Straits 
Pond." From 1700 to 1725 there were many transfers of owner- 
ship among the dishing families in Hingham of " the Grist Mill 
and Saw Mill, with the upland, meadow, and housing thereunto 
belonging, lying partly in Hingham and partly in Hull." These 
mills passed through various ownerships, and tradition says that 
the grist-mill at Strait's Pond was in operation until it was de- 
stroyed by fire about 1800, and that the mill house, which stood 
at the corner of Jerusalem Road and Hull Street, was removed 
soon after the fire, and became the westerly end of the old Lincoln 
House on Jerusalem Road. 

There was formerly a small mill for grinding corn on the stream 
above Cushing's Bridge, which had a history dating back before the 
Revolution, and covering a period of some sixty years or more. It 
was erected by Captains Stephen and Peter Cushing, and at the 
close of its career was owned by the late Deacon Ned Cushing, 
the youngest son of Captain Peter. It was for many years in 
charge of Daniel Burrell, a well-known "miller" and resident of 
this locality. The last person employed at this mill was the late 
Cornelius Lincoln, Sr., who died in 1883 at the age of ninety- 
three years. It was demolished prior to 1820. 



156 History of Hingham. 

Thomas Andrews and Joshua Bate were the proprietors of a 
saw-mill in the second precinct of the town (Cohasset), probably 
at or near Gannett's Corner. The tax lists for the year 1737 
show that Thomas Andrews and Joshua Bate were each taxed for 
one half a saw-mill, and Aaron Pratt was afterwards the proprietor 
of one half a saw-mill in this locality. In 1737 Isaac Lincoln was 
taxed for one half a corn-mill at Cohasset, and in 1754 Isaac Lin- 
coln and his brother Jacob were taxed as the owners of this mill. 
Twenty-five years previously it was taxed to Mordecai Lincoln, 
the father of Isaac and Jacob. 

There was a saw-mill at Saw-mill Pond (now known as Trip- 
hammer Pond) at the commencement of the last century. The 
exact date of its erection, however, is uncertain ; but as Matthew 
Cushing, the original proprietor, who was born 1665 and died 1715, 
was the owner of a large estate, I conclude that the mill was estab- 
lished shortly before 1700. Boards, clapboards, and shingles were 
prepared here for market from trees grown in the vicinity, and 
the property was improved for the same or similar purposes, and 
in the same locality, for many years. Jacob Cushing, the oldest son 
of Matthew, came next into possession, and in the town rates for 
1737 he is taxed for "1 sawmill, £ 6-00-00." His son Jacob and 
grandson Jacob were probably the successive owners or part own- 
ers of this mill, which was destroyed by fire about the year 1823. 
A new mill was afterwards erected on the same spot, probably by 
Benjamin Thomas, Sr., for the manufacture of ship-chandlery work, 
including windlasses, etc. Reuben Thomas and Moses Jones car- 
ried on the business, and to facilitate production a trip-hammer was 
purchased for the mill ; hence the present name of " Trip-hammer 
Pond," from which source the power for this industry was ac- 
quired. The mill building has since been sold and removed. It 
is now a farm building on Union Street. 

The mill at Shingle-mill Pond (next above Trip-hammer Pond) 
was probably erected by Isaac Cushing at or about 1800. It i& 
recorded in Suffolk Deeds, vol. cxcii., p. 253, that, Oct. 8, 1799, 
Charles Cushing sold to his brother Isaac his privilege in the old 
mill stream, etc. Charles and Isaac were sons of Jacob and grand- 
sons of Matthew, previously mentioned as the early proprietor of 
the mill at Saw-mill Pond. John Leavitt, who married Isaac Cush- 
ing's daughter Sally, afterwards occupied the older part of this 
mill as a grist-mill : but at the time box-making was a prominent 
industry here, the work at the mill was principally sawing shingles, 
box-bottoms, and headings for hoop-boxes. More recently, John 
and Thomas Leavitt, sons of John, manufactured ships' pumps 
and other articles of marine merchandise. Thomas J. Leavitt, 
the present occupant of the old mill, is still engaged in the pur- 
suits followed by his father and grandfather. 

A saw- mill, formerly known as the Stockbridge Mill, on or near 
Union Street, is still in working order near the boundary line be- 
tween Hingham and Norwell. 



Manufactures and Commerce. 157 

Capt. John Jacob was the owner of a saw-mill and a fulling-mill 
on Crooked Meadow River, South Hingham, at a very early period 
of our history. At his decease, in 1693, his sons Peter and Sam- 
uel came into possession ; but another change of ownership took 
place shortly after, owing to the decease of Samuel in 1695. Capt. 
Theophilus dishing followed the Jacobs as proprietor of the saw- 
mill, and afterwards added to his purchase by erecting a grist-mill 
on his ten-acre lot at what is now Cushing's Pond. His tax on 
the saw-mill in 1737 was <£10 ; in 1752 it was for a saw-mill £2, 
for a grist-mill X10. These mills at Cushing's Pond continued in 
the ownership of the last-named family until about 1850, and 
were owned successively by Captain Theophilus, Brigadier-General 
Theophilus, and Colonel Washington Cushing. Robert D. Gardner 
was the last person permanently employed here as " miller." 

Early in the last century Capt. Abel Cushing was the owner 
of a fulling-mill and other buildings connected therewith for the 
fulling and dyeing of cloth at " Fulling-mill Pond," on South 
Pleasant Street. He was an older brother of Capt. Theophilus 
Cushing, previously mentioned as the proprietor of a saw-mill 
and grist-mill. Abel served an apprenticeship with Peter Jacob, 
the clothier and fuller, and subsequently married his daugh- 
ter Mary, so that the mill business at the south part of the 
town was, for a while, virtually controlled by the members of 
one family. Abel died in 1750, and was succeeded by his son 
Abel, who, however, survived his father but a few years. In 1764 
Benjamin Lincoln, Jr., as guardian of Hannah, daughter of the 
late Abel Cushing, made a transfer of her portion of this property. 
May 23, 1778, Hannah Cushing, widow, conveyed to Colonel David 
Cushing her interest in the fulling-mill and pond, with half an 
acre of land. Among the later transfers are the following : 
Oct. 7, 1785, David Cushing, of Hingham, "gentleman," conveys 
to " my son David Cushing, Jr., clothier, my clothiers shop and 
all the tools thereunto belonging, with the Fulling Mill and pond 
and Dam, with all the land it flows round or over when it is full 
of water, and the brook below running from the said mill. Also 
the fulling mill standing at Beechwood River so called, with the 
whole stream through my land, and a privilege to pass to and 
from said mill over my land with teams." In 1792, David Cush- 
ing, Jr., makes a conveyance of his mills to his brother Hosea 
Cushing. 

Laban Cushing, a son of Hosea, was the last owner and occu- 
pant of the one prominent building left of this mill property to 
carry on the business for which it was originally intended. It 
finally became a factory for the manufacture of shoe-pegs, and 
was destroyed by fire March 7, 1845. 

Iron works were established in Hingham at an early date, as 
the following abstracts of agreements show : — 



158 History of Hingham. 

May 27, 1703. Agreement by Thomas Andrews, Daniel Lin- 
coln, Aaron Pratt, Gershom Ewell, Mordecai Lincoln, Josiah Litch- 
field, Jr., and Thomas James, reciting that they had entered into 
an agreement to set up a forge or iron works upon a stream in 
Thomas Andrews's lot in the third division in Conahasset ; and, 
sensible that they shall have occasion to make use of some of his- 
land, do appoint Captain Chitenton and Lieutenant Briggs, both 
of Scituate, and Samuel Thaxter, of Hingham, to award the dif- 
ference in value of said Andrews's land that the referees have 
viewed upon the day of the date hereof, being Gershom Ewell's- 
and Daniel Lincoln's land lying adjoining said Andrews's on the 
southeast side of the said stream or river, called " Ganits River," 
in the third division, etc. There were also iron works on the 
stream above Pratt's mill in Cohasset. 

Jan. 13, 1703-1. Agreement reciting that Thomas Andrews, 
Daniel Lincoln, Thomas James, Aaron Pratt, all of Hingham, and 
Mordecai Lincoln, Gershom Ewell, and Josiah Litchfield, Jr., of 
Scituate, have a piece of land in common amongst them in the 
third division upon which they have erected a dam across a stream 
in the same ; also iron works and other buildings, also a dwell- 
ing-house on a piece of land Mordecai Lincoln aforesaid gave to< 
the owners of said works, to be held in joint tenancy for twenty 
years, to do what the major part of the said owners of the prop- 
erty shall think fit, etc. The iron works here referred to appear 
to have been taxed in Hingham for a number of years after the 
elates previously given. 

In December, 1828, the building at Thomas's Pond, in Weir 
River, containing the furnace for the casting of iron ware, be- 
longing to Benjamin Thomas, was consumed by fire. The build- 
ing was nearly new, having been built but a few years (after 
1824), and the loss was a serious one to the owner as well as to 
the town. Another and much larger building was erected in the 
same locality soon after by Mr. Thomas, and the business was 
greatly increased. 

The Hingham Malleable Iron Company erected a brick building* 
on the foundry lot, near the pond, about 1840 ; and during the 
few years of its existence as a corporation, its projectors held an 
interest in the foundry plant. Among its officers connected with 
Hingham were Albert Fearing, Benjamin Thomas, Luther Stephen- 
son, Charles Howard, and Reuben Thomas ; Asa H. Holden was 
its superintendent. The malleable iron business did not prove to 
be a success, and the foundry again came into the sole control of 
Mr. Thomas. He was succeeded by his sons Reuben and David. 
After the decease of the latter, in 1869, there were several impor- 
tant changes in the management within a few years. William 
Thomas was the next person to carry on the business. He soon 
admitted Col. Thomas Weston into a partnership, and they were 
succeeded by the firm of Weston & Walker. This connection was 



Manufactures and Commerce. 159 

of short duration, and Colonel Weston continued as sole proprietor 
until the second fire occurred on this spot, which was on the morn- 
ing of Sept. 8, 1876, when the large foundry building, with the- 
carpenter's shop and pattern-shop, were all destroyed. Colonel 
Weston afterwards erected another large building upon the same 
spot, 95 feet by 45, with an annex 25 feet square, which on May 16, 
1888, met the fate of its predecessors. It was occupied at the 
time by J. E. Sherry & Co. for the purpose of scouring and cleans- 
ing wool, and with its valuable contents of stock and machinery 
was totally destroyed. The business was then giving employment 
to about twenty-five men. 

On Friday evening, Feb. 20, 1846, the Eagle Iron Foundry y 
situated on Summer Street, at the harbor, was entirely consumed 
by fire with its contents, consisting of the steam-engine, castings, 
moulds, patterns, tools, etc. The loss was estimated at about 
$6,000, which was partly covered by insurance. The foundry was 
owned and occupied by Asa H. Holden & Co., — Charles Howard, 
Sr., James and Luther Stephenson, with Mr. Holden constituting 
the firm, — and was erected in the autumn and spring of 1844-45. 
By this occurrence from twenty to thirty hands were thrown out 
of employment. 

The enterprising proprietors immediately commenced the work 
of rebuilding the foundry, which is the present structure. 

Since February, 1853, the foundry building, pattern shop, smith 
shop, and sheds have been owned by Charles Howard, who for 
many years made castings for furnaces, window-weights, caboose- 
stoves, etc. Owing to competition in the business, and to unsatis- 
factory prices, the buildings have been closed, and the manufacture 
discontinued for several years. 

Joseph Jacobs commenced the manufacture of hammers in the 
rear of his residence on Main Street, South Hingham, about the 
year 1836, the work being then done principally by hand. During 
the year following, however, horse-power was introduced, both to 
facilitate production and to improve the manufacture by the pro- 
cess of grinding and polishing. Some eight or ten years later 
(about 1846), a steam engine was purchased to take the place of 
horse-power, and the business was extended so as to include the 
manufacture of hatchets and other edge-tools. In 1850 the busi- 
ness had increased to such an extent that it was found necessary 
to procure a larger engine, and to employ from twenty-five to 
thirty hands. The manufactured goods, which at first were sold 
only in Boston and New York, soon found a ready market in all 
the principal cities of the United States, and also in Australia and 
South America. 

In 1860 Joseph Jacobs, Jr., became a partner with his father, 
and the works were removed to Wilder's mill at Cushing's Pond, 
where additional facilities and power were furnished. Mr. Jacobs, 
the founder of the industry in Hingham, retired in 1875, and the 
business was continued by his two sons, Joseph, Jr., and Freder- 



160 History of Hingham. 

ick S., under the firm name of Joseph Jacobs' Sons. Upon the 
withdrawal of Joseph, Jr., from the firm in 1878, his younger 
brother, Frederick S., assumed the control of the business as man- 
ager and proprietor until 1883, when he sold the entire plant to 
the Underbill Edge Tool Company of Nashua, N. H., and the 
business was removed from Hingham. 

Charles Whiting manufactured axes and hatchets at Accord 
Pond for a number of years, commencing about 1845, giving 
steady employment to eight or ten hands. The product of 
his factory was sold principally in Boston. His successor was 
Amasa Whiting, who afterwards sold out to John Hart and John 
Scully. The hatchet factory at Accord Pond was destroyed by 
fire in January, 1870. 

The establishment of a copper and brass foundry in Hingham 
was among the possibilities of the year 1827. The industry was 
commenced on North Street, near the harbor, during the summer 
of that year, with Moses Pattingall as superintendent, who an- 
nounced through the columns of the " Hingham Gazette," that he 
would furnish " rudder-braces, hinges, spikes, and all kinds of 
ship-work of the best quality and upon the most reasonable terms." 
Owing to insufficient patronage the project was soon abandoned. 

Nails were manufactured several years in Hingham near the 
Weymouth line, on Fort Hill Street, by the Weymouth Iron 
Company. For the year ending June 1, 1855, the product was 
240,000 lbs., the value of which was 110,000. The machines in 
use gave employment to eight hands. In July, 1868, the water 
privilege, land, and buildings, including a blacksmith's-shop in 
Hingham, near the Weymouth line, were advertised for sale. . 

Wrought spikes were made in a building previously occupied as 
a cooper's-shop, at the head of Long Wharf, by William Thomas, 
before 1850, and for a few years afterwards. 

Guns or fowling-pieces were manufactured by Benjamin Thomas, 
Jr., at his shop on Leavitt, near Main Street. The number manu- 
factured during the year ending April 1, 1845, was fifty. 

Scales and balances were manufactured on Main Street, Hing- 
ham Centre, by Stephenson, Howard, & Davis, and afterwards by 
L. Stephenson & Co. They manufactured the " Dearborn Patent 
Balance," well and favorably known throughout the country, 
especially in the cotton districts. The business continued for 
many years, Henry Stephenson being the last of the family, so 
long identified with it, to manage it. After the death of Mr. 
Stephenson, in 1887, George A. Loring carried on the business for 
a short time. The shop stood nearly opposite the Public Library. 

Shortly after the close of the Revolution, Gen. Benjamin Lin- 
coln and his son Theodore established a flour and grain mill at 
Weir River. Wheat and corn were ground here, then put into 
barrels and shipped in vessels to Boston and other markets. The 
mill was located at or near what is now the westerly terminus of 



Manufactures and Commerce. 161 

"Weir Street. Connected with it was a cooper's-shop, a snrith's- 
sho-p and other buildings. Upon the removal of Theodore Lin- 
coln to the State of Maine, Martin Lincoln, another son of the 
general, accepted the vacant position, and the firm name of Ben- 
jamin Lincoln & Son was continued. The head miller employed 
by the firm for a number of years was Isaac Smith. Some idea 
of the nature of the business carried on at this establishment 
may be gained by an entry copied from the day book of Messrs. 
Leavitt & Rice, merchants of Hingham, as follows: u 1785. Benj. 
Lincoln & Son Cr. by 128 bbls. Flour, and 4 bbls. Naval Stores." 

After the death of General Lincoln in 1810, the main building 
was converted into a woollen factory, and in 1812 a company was 
formed, with David Andrews, Jr., as agent. James Hall was em- 
ployed to superintend the manufacture. At the annual meeting 
of the proprietors, held April 20, 1813, Ebenezer Gay, Martin Lin- 
coln, Thomas Thaxter, 3d, Henry Sigourney, and John Souther 
were chosen directors. The business was continued under the 
same management until April, 1816, after which Henry Hapgood 
became the proprietor and manager. Improved machinery was 
introduced for the manfacture of cassi meres and satinets ; a dye- 
house was established, and there was a ready sale for the goods 
in Boston and New York. Mr. Hall remained as superintendent 
of the mill, and the business was said to be prosperous. On Satur- 
day night, May 16, 1829, the woollen factory, dwelling-house, and 
outbuildings of Henry Hapgood at Weir River were destroyed by 
fire. It was the most destructive fire in Hingham for many years. 

The manufacture of upholstery trimmings, cords, tassels, etc., 
was begun in Hingham in 1836 at the corner of North and Main 
streets (now Thayer's Building) by John Baker and Barnabas 
Lincoln. Nov. 13, 1841, Abner L. Baker was admitted a member of 
the firm, which continued under the name of Baker, Lincoln, & Co. 
until 1846, when Captain Lincoln withdrew. Other changes of 
membership in the firm and location of the business took place 
prior to or soon after the date last mentioned. Willard Hall, 
which was owned by J. Baker & Son and Capt. Barnabas Lincoln, 
was destroyed by fire Jan. 17, 1847, as also was the long building 
in the rear, which was used for making cord. The second story of 
Willard Hall was occupied by the Bakers for their weaving rooms. 
These buildings were soon replaced by two others, one being 
erected in the same lot, and the other on the opposite side of the 
street. E. Waters Burr of Hingham and Benj. F. Brown of Bos- 
ton became partners in the firm, January 1, 1853. 

On Oct. 1, 1855, the firm of J. Baker & Son, consisting of John 
Baker, James L. Baker, John 0. Baker, E. Waters Burr, and 
Benj. F. Brown, was dissolved by mutual consent. A copartner- 
ship was then formed by James L. Baker, E. Waters Burr, Benj. 
F. Brown, and Edwin Fearing, " under the style of Burr, Brown, 
& Co., for the purpose of manufacturing upholstery, carriage and 

VOL. I. — 11* 



162 History of Hingham. 

military trimmings, and to carry on the same business as pursued 
by the late firm of J. Baker & Son." 

Messrs. Baker and Fearing have since deceased, and John 0. 
Remington has become a member of the firm. The firm name re- 
mains the same. The spacious structure which the firm now 
occupy on Cottage Street was erected in 1865, and was dedicated 
Jan. 15, 1866. 

The establishment of this industry in Hingham has been a pub- 
lic benefit from its inception. Its continuance through more than 
half a century has given steady employment to a host of opera- 
tives, and many deserving families have been assisted thereby. 
It would have been well for the town if other manufacturing inter- 
ests in times past had been as firmly established as the one here 
referred to. 

A manufactory of silk and worsted fringes, gimps, cords, tassels, 
etc. was commenced about 1846 in the Welcome Lincoln Building, 
lately David Cain's, on South Street, by the new firm of Lincoln, 
Bampton & Co., which, upon the retirement of Mr. Bampton was 
succeeded, May 31, 1847, by Lincoln, Leavitt, & Mayhew. After 
the dissolution of this copartnership, the firms which followed 
were Lincoln & Leavitt, and Lincoln, Wilder, & Co. Shortly after 
the death of Capt. Barnabas Lincoln, May 13, 1850, the business 
was removed to Cazneau's Building, and on Dec. 6, 1850, the re- 
maining members of the firm of Lincoln, Wilder, & Co. dissolved 
their copartnership. Farrar & Company, of Boston, were the next 
proprietors. They sold out to J. Sprague & Co., who were located 
on the original site of the industry at the corner of North and Main 
streets. Their successors were Leach & Nesniith. The business 
was afterwards disposed of to Messrs. Burr, Brown, & Co., and the 
industry, which at first looked so promising as an activity for the 
west part of the town, entered into the history of the past. 

R. & W. Bampton were manufacturers of silk fringes and ladies' 
dress-trimmings in the Thaxter (now Thayer) Building at the 
corner of North and Main streets in 1857. As a firm, they re- 
mained in Hingham but a short time. 

Sewing-silk was manufactured at Hingham Centre in 1843, and 
perhaps later, by Lincoln Jacob. It was spun from cocoons which 
Mr. Jacob raised. His plantation of mulberry trees from which 
the worms were fed, was on the northerly side of Main near Pleas- 
ant Street, and the silk which he produced was said to be fully 
equal to the imported article. Owing to the uncertainty of the 
mulberry tree in this locality, and the limited encouragement 
which the industry received, the project here as well as elsewhere 
throughout New England was abandoned. 

A manufactory of woollen and knit goods was commenced in 
December, 1868, by Washington Brown and Frederick Long, in the 
building owned by George Bassett, which had formerly been one 
of the factory buildings of J. Baker & Son, and afterwards of 



Manufactures and Commerce. 163 

Burr, Brown, & Co. on the southerly side of Main Street. This 
•copartnership, under the firm name of Frederick Long & Co., con- 
tinued until March 22, 1870, when Mr. Brown withdrew. Mr. 
Long subsequently carried on the business here until his new fac- 
tory building on Elm Street was completed, which was in the 
spring of 1873. Feb. 9, 1874, the business was organized as the 
Hingham Manufacturing Co., with David Whiton as its president, 
and Andrew C. dishing as treasurer. This company had but a 
brief existence. Dec. 30, 1875, the factory building belonging to 
the " Hingham Woollen Co." on Elm Street, occupied by Frederick 
Long, was sold at auction to Whittemore, Cabot, & Co., of Boston. 
The purchasing firm dealt largely in wool and knit-wool goods, so 
that the product of the Hingham factory, which they carried on 
for a while, was in their line of business. A few years later, how- 
ever, the building was again closed. Subsequently Charles E. 
Stevens bought the factory and rented it to Henry C. Lahee, and 
afterwards to Lahee & Eacly. They adopted the name of " South 
Shore Mills," introduced new machinery, and manufactured cardi- 
gan jackets, leggins, and underwear. This firm gave up business 
in 1888, and the machinery was sold. 

The factory remained vacant again until August, 1891. At 
that time the Shawmut Manufacturing Company, manufacturers 
of leatherette, moved its machinery to Hingham, and established 
its works in this building. This company had been for fifteen 
years in business at Turner's Falls, Mass., before moving to Hing- 
ham. It continues here at the present time (1893). 

For more than two centuries after Hingham was first settled, 
the products of its various coopering industries were widely known 
and extensively used. As a local specialty the business in its 
different departments gave employment to a larger number of per- 
sons than did any other mechanical pursuit in the town. The 
ware was usually collected by our local traders and shipped by 
them, in the small vessels belonging here, to Boston, or other dis- 
tributing points along the seaboard, even as far south sometimes 
as the West India Islands. Not infrequently the small trader or 
producer made an occasional land trip to Boston with a load of 
ware, especially in the winter season, when his stock was accu- 
mulating too rapidly. It was frequently disposed of, however, 
along the road in exchange for corn, flour, and other staple com- 
modities which were salable at home. In fact, the " Hingham 
Bucket " was a necessity throughout New England. So also were 
the large and small tubs, the hoop and nest boxes, the dumb- 
bettys, wash-tubs, keelers, piggins, etc. It was not until about 
1840 that these were sold in unbroken lots at the wholesale stores 
in Boston. Previously, for nearly forty years, purchases at whole- 
sale as well as at retail were made from on board the Hingham 
Station Packets at Long Wharf, and this in a great measure su- 
perseded the earlier plan of shipment. To give a full account of 



164 History of Hingham. 

this industry, of those who were engaged in it, and of the many- 
little workshops once so plentifully scattered through the town< 
would fill a volume. 

Among the persons early engaged in this pursuit, were Thomas 
Lincoln the " Cooper " and his grandson John, Cornelius Cantle- 
bury, Edward Gold, " pail-maker," Josiah Leavitt and his son 
Josiah, John Leavitt, " set-work cooper," and his son John, 
John Smith, Samuel Tower, Jacob Stodder, Matthew Whiton, and 
his son Isaac, Abraham Leavitt, Elisha Burr, Isaiah Stodder, " pail- 
maker." 

With the exception of barrel coopers, who are noticed under the 
head of Fisheries, some of the larger manufacturers of this ware 
since 1830 have been Crocker Wilder, Si\, on Friend near Main 
Street ; C. & A. Wilder, also at South Hingham, who made the first 
pails with brass hoops and a brass bail (probably about 1884) ; and 
C. Wilder & Son and Anthony J. Sprague at Cushing's Pond. 
Peter Hobart and Jacob Hersey were copartners and manufac- 
turers of buckets and boxes for many years on Main near Hersey 
Street. Elijah Whiton manufactured buckets for a few years at 
the entrance of Hersey, near Hobart Street. His factory was 
destroyed by fire Oct. 23, 1855. Edmund Hersey commenced the 
manufacture of boxes on Hersey Street in 1850, by hand. Steam 
was afterwards introduced, and from machinery of his own in- 
vention he has prepared and sent to market a million and a half 
of strawberry, salt, and fig boxes in a single year. Mr. Hersey 
was succeeded by Seymour & Cain. Cotton Hersey was a manu- 
facturer of wooden toy ware on Hersey Street, and Samuel Hersey 
now follows this pursuit on the same street. William S. Tower 
carries on quite an extensive business in the manufacture of 
wooden toy ware at his factory near Cushing's Pond. Nelson 
Corthell also manufactures tubs, pails, etc., on Hersey Street. 

The coopering industry, however, as a local pursuit in Hing- 
ham, seems to be rapidly declining in importance from year to 
year, and the prospect of its future continuance is far from prom- 
ising. What it has been in the past is shown by the following : 
Value of all wooden ware manufactured in Hingham for the year 
ending April 1, 1837, $30,000 ; number of hands employed eighty. 
For the year ending April 1, 1845, value 125,066 ; employed, eighty- 
four. For the year ending June 1, 1855, value $35,100 ; em- 
ployed, sixty-five. 

Until the present century, the conveniences which are now en- 
joyed in the department of housekeeping, known as cabinet ware, 
were quite limited. Most families in comfortable circumstances, 
however, had their hand-made chairs, tables, bureaus, chests of 
drawers, etc., of hard wood, which in man}* instances are still held 
as heirlooms by their descendants. These were manufactured by 
the local cabinet or chair makers who made a specialty of this 
kind of work. They were skilfully wrought, and not infrequently 



Manufactures and Commerce. 165 

of elaborate design. Among the persons who followed this pur- 
suit in Hingham before the introduction of modern machinery, 
were Caleb Andrews, Jacob Beal, John Beal, Elisha Cushing and 
his son Theodore, Jerom Cushing, Ned Cushing, Abner Hersey, 
Caleb Hobart, Seth Kingman, Caleb Lincoln, Lot Lincoln, Peter 
Lincoln, Jared Jernegan, Joshua Thayer, and probably others. 

After improved methods and power were introduced, and the 
furniture dealers of Boston became wholesale purchasers, enabling 
them to supply distant markets, the demand for a greater pro- 
duction increased, and several manufactories were established 
here. The best known of these were carried on by Caleb Hobart, 
Jr. and his son Seth L. Hobart, on South Street, West Hingham ; 
Nehemiah Ripley, Jr., afterwards N. Ripley, Jr., & Co., on South 
Street near Thaxter's Bridge, and later on Fountain Square ; 
Mead & Vose, at the corner of North and Main Streets ; Ripley & 
Newhall, near Hobart's Bridge ; Abner L. Leavitt, at Hingham 
Centre ; Samuel Bronsdon, at Hobart's Bridge ; George Studley, 
Josiah L. Goold, and Augustus L. Hudson. 

In 1837, Hingham had three manufactories of chairs and cabinet 
ware. In 1845 there were four, and in 1855 but two. The latter, 
however, gave employment to thirty-four persons. Manufacturing 
in this line, to any extent, is now among the past industries of the 
town. 

Doors, blinds, and sashes were manufactured for more than 
thirty years at the sawing, turning, and mortising mill of Benja- 
min Parker on South Street, near Thaxter's Bridge. Mr. Par- 
ker's sons Benjamin and Rufus L. succeeded to the business, which 
was quite a successful industry before their removal from town. 
The mill was supplied with steam power, and from six to eight 
hands were employed. 

The business of planing, sawing, and turning was carried on for 
a while in the building formerly known as the Willard Academy 
on Main Street near the Old Meeting-house, by Walton V. Mead, 
by Jesse Churchill, and afterwards by Job S. Whiton. This was 
between 1843 and 1847. 

Thomas J. Leavitt has also followed this pursuit for many years 
at Shingle-mill Pond. 

Carriages and chaises were imported from the mother country 
before the Revolution, and but little was done here in the way of 
manufacturing in this line of business, until a more recent period, 
except, perhaps, in the making of horse and ox carts, sleighs, and 
sleds. In 1749 there were three residents of the town who owned 
vehicles called chairs. They were Capt. Ebenezer Beal, Dr. 
Ezekiel Hersey, and Major Samuel Thaxter. Two chaises were 
also owned at the same time, probably with square tops and 
wooden springs ; one by Col. Benjamin Lincoln, the other by 
Dr. Hersey. There is a tradition which says Rev. Henry Colman 
•owned the first four-wheel wagon in Hingham, which he after- 



166 History of Hingham. 

wards sold to Hawkes Fearing; and that Mr. Fearing subse- 
quently bought another, which was the second four-wheel wagon 
in the town. 

Wheelwrights, however, are known to have pursued their voca- 
tion here soon after the first settlement in 1635 ; and among those 
who followed this early industry were Matthew Cushing and his 
nephew Matthew Cushing, John Low, Andrew Lane, and Stephen 
Stodder of the second precinct. Then came Jacob Leavitt and 
his son Ezra Leavitt ; Bela Cushing at South Hingham ; and later 
still, Charles Howard. Carriage-makers frequently do the work 
of wheelwrights, and are included among the following : C. & L. 
Hunt, William Sprague, Bela H. Whiton, Demerick Marble, 
George A. Tower, James A. Robertson, Our & Stodder. 

For the year ending April 1, 1845, there were in Hingham three 
establishments for the manufacture of carriages ; hands employed, 
seven. In 1855 there was but one ; hands employed, four. 

It was not until, the present century that any considerable 
amount of business was carried on here in the manufacture of 
leather, or in any of its dependent branches. Tanning and cur- 
rying as an individual industry to supply the demand of the local 
cordwainer, was generally done in connection with some other 
pursuit. It was necessarily confined to the number of hides and 
skins which the near-by farmer or butcher could supply ; and not 
until a comparatively recent date were these imported, or steam 
and improved machinery introduced. Among those who have car- 
ried on tanning and currying in Hingham were George Bramhall 
and his son Joshua, John Leavitt, 1 Solomon Cushing, his son Jo- 
seph, and grandson Joseph, John Wheelwright, Thomas Hersey, 
his son Laban, and grandson Laban, David Hobart and his son 
David, Job Loring, his sons Job and Elpalet, and grandson Alfred, 2 
John and Abel Fearing, " over the river," Seth Lincoln, Nehemiah 
Cushing, 3 Laban Stodder, and perhaps others. 

Henry Thaxter was known in early life as a " leather dresser."' 
His tan vats were on the easterly side of the town brook, near 
Broad Bridge. He also was a copartner with Abner Loring. They 
were manufacturers of leather breeches, which were extensively 
worn here before the present century. Silas H. Sherman was for 
several years, and until quite recently, a manufacturer of shoe stock 
on Gardner Street ; so also was William Cooper, on French Street. 

Currying, as a specialty, was carried on by Benjamin King, 
Jerom Leavitt, and Daniel Sprague, in the Middle Ward ; also for 

1 Hingham valuations for tlie year 1754 show that " 18 acres of land by Leavitt's 
Tan Yard " were taxed by the assessors. 

2 The last and by far the most extensive of these establishments was that of Alfred 
Loring, on Main Street, South Hingham. Here all the modern improvements for 
hastening production were in use, and the industry in its different departments, in- 
cluding currying, gave employment to about twenty men. 

3 Nehemiah Cushing's tannery was located over Liberty Pole Hill. He was suc- 
ceeded by Laban Stodder, who afterwards removed his business to the old Lewis- 
place on Main Street, near Tower's Bridge. 



Manufactures and Commerce. 167 

several years by Robert W. Lincoln & Co., in the brick building 
on West Street ; and by Douglas Easton, in the store formerly oc- 
cupied by Capt. Seth S. Hersey, on Main Street, South Hingham. 

The manufacture of boots and shoes has never proved to be 
a successful industry in Hingham. It may have been from a want 
of local encouragement, or from various other causes known to 
those who have had experience in the business. No citizen of the 
town, however, who has its welfare and prosperity in view, can 
regret this more than the permanent resident, whether he be a 
mechanic, trader, landowner, or laborer ; for it is to the credit of 
this industry that other local pursuits are benefited wherever it is 
established ; that houses and lands which have diminished in value 
return to their former or increased rates ; and that to the rising 
generation it offers greater opportunities for employment. It also 
stimulates to new growth and activity in every community where 
it is permanently located. 

There have been many enterprising residents of the town since 
its settlement in 1635 who were known in olden times as " cord- 
wainers." Their names, with their occupation given in most in- 
stances, appear in Volumes II. and III. of this history. 

Of those who were manufacturers for Boston, New York, and 
more distant markets, the first firm in the North Ward was Hudson 
& Humphrey, located on South Street, West Hingham. They were 
in the business about seventeen years, but were obliged to yield 
to the pressure of the hard times in 1837, and the year following 
their factory and store was closed. Mr. Hudson afterwards fol- 
lowed the pursuit for a while in the same locality. Other persons 
and firms whose manufactories were at West Hingham were L. & 
W. D. Stodder, Brant & Lincoln, James S. Lincoln, Martin Wilder, 
Melzar and Martin Stodder, Robert Clark, E. F. Tirrell, George 
Adams, and Mead & Whiton. Whiton & Bullard and Alfred Hill 
& Co. were in the building next north of the Universalist Church. 
John A. Hollis was also a manufacturer of boots in this locality. 
George A. Wolfe was in the business for several years on Lincoln 
Street. Gardner & Abbott were manufacturers of ladies' and chil- 
dren's boots and shoes at No. 7 Central Row, Broad Bridge (near 
the corner of Main and South streets). After this copartnership 
was dissolved, Mr. Abbott continued the pursuit in the same build- 
ing in connection with other business. 

At Hingham Centre, William 0. Nash, of Weymouth, and Wil- 
liam Whiton, of Hingham, commenced manufacturing boots and 
shoes on Main Street, in 1841, under the firm name of Whiton & 
Nash, which continued until 1848, when Mr. Whiton withdrew, 
and a new firm consisting of Mr. Nash and Joseph H. French was 
formed, under the style of Nash, French, & Co. In 1854 the busi- 
ness was sold to George H. French, who carried on the manufac- 
ture until his decease in 1869. Others who were in the same 
business at the Centre were George H. Pratt, Wight & Sprague, 
Sprague, Dayton, & Co., Hutchings & Cloudman from 1861 to 1870, 



168 History of Hingham. 

followed by M. C. Cloudman, who afterwards sold out to Peter N. 
Sprague. John M. Mayhew manufactured boots and shoes for a 
while on Hersey Street. 

In the South Ward there were engaged in this industry as man- 
ufacturers, Hersey & Lane, Hersey & Cushing, Caleb Hersey, at 

Queen Ann's Corner; Aaron Swan, Solomon Gardner, Belcher, 

on Gardner Street ; Whitcomb & Bates, who were on Friend, near 
Main Street, ten years. They were succeeded by Whitman, Whit- 
comb, & Co. Edmund French also carried on the business to 
some extent in connection with other pursuits. 

Among those who have been engaged in the manufacture of 
saddlery, harnesses, and trunks in Hingham were Thomas Loring 
and his grandson Thomas, both of whom were known as saddlers. 
They were located where now stands Agricultural Hall, at the 
corner of East and Leavitt streets. Joshua Loring, son of the 
last-named Thomas, was a harness maker; and Zenas Loring, a 
son of Joshua, was best known as a saddler, although he probably 
followed to some extent the special vocation of his father. Joshua 
Sprague, who lived on Main Street, nearly opposite the spot where 
stands the Public Library, was a chaise and harness maker. Josiah 
Siders was a manufacturer of trunks in the North Ward ; he also 
repaired harnesses and other leather goods. David A. Hersey 
made a specialty of the manufacture of harnesses at his shop on 
Main Street, Hingham Centre, following the pursuit for more than 
sixty years. William D. Stodder carried on this industry on Fort 
Hill Street, as did Isaiah G. Tower, and Reuben Tower, Jr., near 
Hobart's Bridge. 

At the present time (1893) Henry Cushing, on Main Street, 
near Pear Tree Hill, and James Nelson, on Water Street, near 
the harbor, are the only practical manufacturers and repairers of 
saddlery and harnesses in town. 

According to the statistics of Massachusetts for the year ending 
June 1, 1855, there were tanneries in Hingham, 2 ; hides tanned, 
10,100 ; value, $47,000. Currying establishments, 3 ; value of 
leather curried, $86,000 ; hands employed, 19. Boots made, 300 
pairs; shoes made, 69,317 pairs; value of boots and shoes made, 
$95,480 ; males employed, 205 ; females, 31. Manufacturers of 
saddles, harnesses, and trunks, 4 ; hands employed, 7. 

Hingham records furnish but little concerning the early history 
of ship building ; but from this source, from old diaries and pri- 
vate account-books, the following is gathered : — 

Thomas Turner probably built vessels on land granted him by 
the town in 1637, at Goose Point, on the westerly side of the 
harbor. He removed to Boston about ten years after, where, in 
1650, he completed a contract for building a " barke." 

William Pitt had liberty to build ships here as early as 1675. 

The selectmen of the town under date of May 3, 1680, voted to 
allow Joshua Hobart, of Hingham, mariner, an abatement on his 



Manufactures and Commerce. 169 

tax, " out of y e 4 single Country rates as his part, to be repaid him 
for the rating of his Shippe." 

In 1693, Joseph Blaney was granted permission to build a vessel 
or two near the mill at the cove. That he accepted the grant 
is shown by the following : — 

Sept. 7, 169G. Ephraim Marsh of Hingham conveys to Ephraim Lin- 
coln of Hingham, for £30 - a \ part of my sloop Tryall of Hingham, 
lately built by Joseph Blaney, together with \ of her mast, boom, boltsprit, 
sailes, Iliggin, cables, Ankors, connoo taikling and Apparrell, and all other 
Appurtinanees whatsoeuer to the s d quarter part Belonging, etc. 



Witnesses : ( si § ned ) EpHRAIM Mar «h 

Samuel Eells. 
John Beale. 

Ebenezer Orton, whose death by drowning on the 7th of August, 
1694, is mentioned on the records of the town, had that morning 
signed a contract at Boston for building a " barque" in Hingham. 

June 7, 1708, " A committee was chosen by the Town to ap- 
point a place where Joseph Souter may build a vessel at Ship 
Cove, in Conahasset," which was then the Second Precinct of 
Hingham. 

James Stetson and James Hall were also early shipwrights of 
the Second Precinct. 

John Langlee and his son John were early engaged in this 
business near the mill at the harbor, in connection with other 
pursuits. 

During the middle and latter part of the last century, Capt. 
Francis Barker, and, afterwards, his son Capt. Francis, built ves- 
sels at the foot of Ship Street. Capt. Francis, last named, was 
succeeded by John Souther, whose sons, John and Leavitt, also 
built square-rigged vessels as well as schooners and sloops in this 
locality. Following the Southers in succession at this yard were 
Curtis & Barstow, Barnes & Litchfield, William Hall, who subse- 
quently removed to the easterly side of the harbor, and George 
Bassett, who was the last occupant of this yard and built his last 
vessel, the schooner " Northern Light," here. 

Early in the last century Jeremiah Stodder was a master ship- 
wright. He was located on Weir River, at Canterbury's Island, 
and also on the bend of the river, near what is now Rockland 
Street. He was succeeded by his son Jeremiah. James, another 
member of the family, was established in the same business at Co- 
hasset, when it was known as the Second Precinct of Hingham. 
On Nov. 10, 1859, A. Hodgman & Co. launched the ship " Solfe- 
rino " from their yard near the Wheelock place, at Weir River. 
She was of 775 tons burden, and the largest ship ever launched 
here. 

Otis Lincoln built vessels at Broad Cove prior to 1800. His 
workshop was on " Crow Point Lane," now Lincoln Street. 

Capt. Joseph Bassett established a shipyard at what is now 



170 History of Hmgham. 

Bassett's Wharf, on " Cove Street," soon after the Revolution. 
His launching ways were attached to the wharf, or slip, and when 
all was ready the vessel was pulled off by two lines, and dropped 
into the water. Captain Bassett was succeeded by his son Daniel. 

From 1832 to 1836 inclusive, there was a shipyard on the west- 
erly side of the cove, within a short distance from the spot where 
Hon. John D. Long resides. It was occupied by Charles Keen for 
about two years, and afterwards by Barnes & Jenkins. Before 
commencing work at this place, Keen had built the schooners 
" Henry Clay" and u Banner" at Davis's, near Commercial Wharf, 
on Summer Street. Lawler, of Chelsea, also built a clipper yacht 
at Davis's, which was launched May 1, 1853. She was afterwards 
known as the " Olata." 

William Hall, previously mentioned, carried on a large business 
at shipbuilding on the easterly side of the harbor, about midway 
between Barnes's Rocks and the present steamboat landing. The 
" Waldron," built by Mr. Hall in 1844, was the largest ship ever 
launched in Hingham harbor. 

The early settlers of Hingham were principally farmers and 
mechanics. Their former homes in Norfolk County, England,, 
were more than thirty miles from the sea, and in the midst of an 
agricultural community. Upon their arrival in the Massachusetts 
Bay, there were but eleven places that preceded the one which 
was to be their new home. These were all within a comparatively 
short distance from Boston ; hence the settlement at Bare Cove 
was not on account of its nearness to the fishing grounds, but 
rather from its easy approach by water to the port of entry and 
large market place, Boston. 

For more than a century after the town was incorporated, fish- 
ing, except around the islands and inlets lying between Hingham 
and Hull, or from the more venturesome haunts which skirt the 
rocky coast from Nantasket to the Glades, was, in most instances,. 
a pastime rather than a permanent occupation. This is shown 
by wills and conveyances as well as by our local records. 

At the expiration of a century, which usually covers about 
three generations, Hingham valuations give the tonnage of ves- 
sels and the names of their owners, as follows : — 

1737 : Y e burden of sundry vessels, viz. — Tons. 

John Stephens 1 24 

Canterbury Stodder 18 

Rodger nichols 15 

Thos Humphry 80 

David Bate 7 

Nathaniel nichols 4 

Jeremiah Stodder, Junr., one 16 

another 12 

1 Should probably read " Stephenson." 



Manufactures and Commerce. 171 

John Chubbuck, Junr. 6 

John Stowel 15 

Samuel Thaxter, Esqu>". 18 

Joseph Lewis 12 

ElishaBeal 09 

William Humphrey 09 

The ratable estate of Hingham, taken by Act of the General 
Court, March 28, 1749, gives the following : — 

" Tons of vessels engaged in foreign trade, 240 ; otherwise, 116 
tons of decked vessels, 107 tons of open-decked vessels." 

It will be seen by the foregoing that the amount of tonnage en- 
gaged in foreign trade had increased in a greater ratio than did 
that of the smaller or fishing craft, and this comparative difference 
continued for some years. 

According to old account-books, it was seldom that any one 
dealer in town recorded the sale of more than five or ten barrels 
of mackerel in a season before the middle of the last century. 

After Capt. Francis Barker came to Hingham (about 1750) and 
established a shipyard at the foot of Ship Street, the fishing busi- 
ness began to assume some importance. In 1753 Hezekiah Leavitt 
built a warehouse near the shipyard for the convenience of his 
lumber, shipping, and fishing business. Deacon Solomon dishing 
also owned another warehouse, and tradition says that Major 
Samuel Thaxter soon after erected another at or near his wharf 
at Broad Cove. March 16, 1752, a fishing company was formed, 
consisting of Capt. John Thaxter, Dr. Ezekiel Hersey, Elisha 
Leavitt, Capt. Francis Barker, and Deacon Solomon Cushing. 
The " shallop " and " dog's body " were to some extent soon su- 
perseded by larger craft, and the business probably gave satisfac- 
tory returns until it was brought to a close by the war of the 
Revolution. In 1768 there were 30 vessels owned in the Second 
Precinct (Cohasset), aggregating 305 tons; the smallest of these 
was 4 tons, and the largest 35 tons burden. 

When peace was restored the fishing industry was again revived. 
At this period, the firm of Leavitt & Rice appear as large owners 
of vessels engaged in the cod, hake, and mackerel fisheries. 
Among their fleet of new schooners built between 1783 and 1788, 
were the " Betsey," " Two Friends," " Hingham," " Good Hope," 
" Atlantic," " Greyhound," " Success," and " Phoenix." Thomas 
Loring owned the new schooners "Fox," "Junior," "Ranger," 
and " Sophia," also the sloop " Friendship." Other owners of 
vessels from 1788 to 1812 were Peter Cushing, Jacob Leavitt, Mar- 
tin Lincoln, Ezra Hudson, Joseph Lovis, Luther Lincoln, Reuben 
Stoddard, John Souther, Thomas Thaxter, Wilson Whiton, Elijah 
Lewis, Joseph Bassett, Jotham Lincoln, Elijah Whiton, Benjamin 
Jones, Moses Whiton, Jr., Abel Lincoln, Matthew Burr & Co., and 
Elijah Beal. 

During the last war with England several Hingham vessels .V3i'e 
captured and burned ; but nearly all those which hailed from here 



172 History of Hingham. 

were either hauled up in the town dock or safely moored out of 
the enemy's reach at Broad Cove. Owing to frequent excursion 
parties from the enemy's cruisers, which lay just outside of Boston 
Light, there was but little traffic between here and Boston by 
water. Occasionally, however, when a favoring breeze offered, 
one or two of our fast-sailing packets would accept these chances, 
and they were always successful. The new sloop " Washington," 
afterwards a packet, was hauled off the ways before being com- 
pleted for fear of what might happen. She was taken up Wey- 
mouth Back River after dark and concealed in one of its numerous 
inlets. 

After the contention for " Free Trade and Sailors' Rights " with 
the mother country had been satisfactorily adjusted, the fishing 
business again received attention ; and from the fourteen vessels 
employed here during the year 1815 the number was increased in 
1830 to sixty-five. During the latter year, 45,376^ barrels of 
mackerel were packed; but in 1831, with sixty-one vessels, the 
catch was 52,663^ barrels. From this time the business began 
slowly to decline. The small high quarter-deck and pink stem 
schooners with three sails, and carrying from eight to ten hands, 
were gradually replaced by more modern-built vessels having five 
or six sails, and crews of from twelve to sixteen men. This of 
itself, however, had but little to do with the decline, which, it is 
more than probable, resulted from the decease of those Who had 
for years been prominent in the business ; also from the larger 
amount of capital required in comparison with former periods, 
and from the greater risks and uncertainties attending the 
pursuit. 

In 1836, fifty vessels, aggregating 2,984 tons, took 14,436 bar- 
rels of mackerel and 2,900 quintals of codfish; 450 men were 
employed. For 1841, the catch of mackerel was 7,130 barrels. 
In 1844, twenty-eight vessels, aggregating 1,639 tons and em- 
ploying 311 men, packed 9,341 barrels of mackerel. Thirty-four 
vessels were engaged in the pursuit in 1847, landing 19,931^ bar- 
rels of mackerel. For 1852, thirty-seven vessels were employed. 
In 1854, twenty vessels took of mackerel 5,415 barrels, and of 
codfish 1,250 quintals ; the tonnage of these vessels was 1,495, 
and the number of hands employed 264. In 1858, there was a 
gain in the catch, 7,920| barrels having been packed at the 
harbor. 

After 1814, and until the business was discontinued, the persons 
and firms most prominently interested in the fisheries were, Beal 
& Thaxter ; Lincoln & Gardner ; Thomas Loring & Son ; Ensign 
Barnes; Scarlet Hudson ; Gardner & Sprague ; John Bassett ; Ezra 
Whiton; Whiton & Fearing; Moses L. Humphrey ; Whittemore & 
Loring ; Lincoln & Souther ; Francis G. Ford ; E. & L. J. Barnes ; 
L. J. & I. Barnes ; Lincoln & Whiton ; Ford, Bassett, & Nye ; 
H. & J. Nye; R. & C. Lane; Ford & Thomas; Ford, Thomas, & 
Hobart; George Lincoln; Nye, Beal, & Bassett; Marsh & May- 



Manufactures and Commerce. 173 

hew ; Caleb B. Marsh ; Rufus Lane, Jr. ; Peter L. Whiton ; At- 
kinson Nye. 

Fish-flakes for " curing " cod and hake were established at 
Major's Wharf ; also nearly opposite the Hingham landing or load- 
ing place, which was in the vicinity, and west of the present Steam- 
boat Wharf. 

There are records in Hingham which show that some of the 
residents of this town were interested in the whaling business 
during the last century. Very little, however, is known about the 
industry here, either as to how many persons there were who fol- 
lowed the pursuit, or who gave financial encouragement to it. 
Two illustrations given below will throw some light upon the 
subject : — 

" Apr : 1738. Jno : Marble of this Place Died suddenly att Cape 
Cod a Whaling-, anno iEtatis 4-? " (Record of Rev. Nehemiah 
Hobart, of the Second Precinct.) 

[Abstract.] "Isral" Nichols, mariner, Thomas Andrews, yeo- 
man, and Elisha Leavitt, blacksmith, all of Hingham, charter " the 
sloop ' Betty & Ruth,' of 50 tons burden, as she now lyes in Bos- 
ton, for a Whaling Voyage on the Banks to the Southward for to 
catch Whales for three or four months more or less." This agree- 
ment, which was dated Feb. 17, 17-43-44, permits the vessel " to 
go into Cape Cod or any other harbor suitable to try out oyle 
which they may gett on the voyage." The " Betty & Ruth " be- 
longed to "Israel Nichols & Comp'y," — Timothy and Ebenezer 
Prout, of Boston, being part owners. 

Masts and spars were made in Hingham, up to 1820 and after, 
by the local shipwrights, principally from trees grown in this 
town, or its vicinity. 

The pump and block business was also a local industry, John 
Leavitt having been engaged in the pursuit at Hingham Centre 
before the close of the last century. Other workers of wood, 
wheelwrights, coopers, etc., had previously made this specialty 
a part of their employment. 

William Davis came here in 1829 and located as a manufacturer 
of masts and spars as well as of pumps and blocks. His wharf and 
shop were on Summer Street. 

Charles Howard manufactured bait-mills at Hingham Centre. 
He was succeeded by his brother, Waters Howard. 

Abner L. Leavitt also manufactured ships' wheels for Boston 
market on Main Street, Hingham Centre. 

Barrel-coopering was carried on principally at the head of, or 
near all the wharves at the cove where mackerel were landed and 
packed. It was carried on with but few exceptions for the special 
accommodation of those who owned or occupied the wharves. 
As a pursuit, it was dependent somewhat upon the success of the 
fisheries ; but from fifteen to twenty hands were usually given 
steady employment in the shops during the greater part of the 



174 History of Hingham. 

year. 1 M. L. & C. Humphrey, in addition to barrel-coopering, 
were also large manufacturers of fish-kits. This industry, which 
was commenced at the harbor about 1840, was afterwards removed 
to Concord, N. H. 

Sail-making, as an industry connected with the maritime inter- 
ests of the town, has an interesting history covering a period of 
more than a century. In addition to the local demand, there 
were frequent calls at the lofts to have sails made or repaired for 
vessels belonging in Boston, Weymouth, Hull, and elsewhere. 
Among those who have been prominently engaged in this pursuit 
at the harbor, were William Lovis, Melzar Gardner, George Lin- 
coln, Caleb B. Marsh, Leavitt Hobart, John M. Mayhew, Benja- 
min F. Palmer, and Henry Nye. 

In 1748 there were eighteen hundred superficial feet of wharf 
owned in Hingham. The owners of this property were taxed in 
1754 as follows : — 

Hezekiah Leavitt, 1 wharf £9-00-00 

Samuel Bate, of the second precinct, 1 wharf £3-00-00 

Elisha Leavitt, ^ a wharf £3-00-00 

Capt. Francis Barker, ^ a wharf £3-00-00 

Several persons were also taxed about this time for a right in 
the flats. 

In 1792 Loring & Thaxter, " merchants," and Jacob Leavitt, 
and the company of Andrews & Loring, " merchants," and Jotham 
Lincoln, " mariner," and Beza Lincoln, " mariner," and Reuben 
Stodder, Jr., " shipwright," and Elijah Waters, Jr., " gentleman," 
enjoy in common a certain wharf at the town cove known by the 
name of the netv wharf, which ownership they agree among 
themselves to divide. Said wharf is bounded S.E. on the road ; 
N.E. on the cove ; N.W. by Jairus Leavitt's wharf partly, and 
partly by the cove ; S.W. on land belonging to heirs of Elisha 
Leavitt. 

Down to 1850 the wharves in Hingham, other than those pre- 
viously mentioned, were known as Major's, 2 Souther's, 2 Long, 2 
Nye's, 2 Bassett's, Humphrey's, Union (or Barnes's), Central, 
Packet, Mill (or Town), Jackson, Commercial, Davis's, Foundry, 
Lane's, and Hersey's ; also the steamboat piers at Barnes's Rocks ; 2 
and at Loring' s 2 near the entrance to Mansfield's cove. 

The manufacture of salt in Hingham was commenced by R. & C. 
Lane at Broad Cove, near " Major's Wharf," probably soon after 
the close of the last war with England. In 1825 the fishing busi- 
ness had so far increased in importance that other works were 

1 The names of the master workmen who followed barrel-coopering as an occu- 
pation are given in Vols. II. and III. of this History. 

2 Since gone to decay. 



Manufactures and Commerce. 175 

erected by M. & F. Burr upon their land on the northerly side of 
Mansfield's Cove, nearly opposite the old steamboat landing. Sub- 
sequently other works were built by Scarlet Hudson on the west- 
erly side of the harbor, between Goose Point and the entrance to 
Broad Cove. Hudson's salt works were afterwards sold to Orin 
Sears, who was the last person engaged in the manufacture of 
salt here. The product of the three establishments in 1836 was 
20,077 bushels ; but owing to the subsequent decline of the fish- 
eries and the increased importation of salt, the two which re- 
mained in 1854 produced only 1,500 bushels. 

The manufacture of cordage in Hingham was commenced be- 
fore the close of the last century by Hawkes Fearing. A vessel 
from Copenhagen loaded with hemp had been wrecked on Long 
Beach (Nantasket), and as the cargo came ashore in fair condition 
it was sold, as it was landed, to Mr. Fearing. The venture proved 
to be a successful one, and was the prime cause of establishing 
this industry in Hingham Centre. At first the process of work- 
ing this hemp into cordage was performed in the open air. Mr. 
Fearing's journal, however, shows the exact date in which he 
erected the first building for manufacturing cordage here as 
follows : « 1794, October 11. Raised 50 feet of my Rope Walk." 

After Mr. Fearing's decease the business was carried on by his 
sons, Hawkes, David, Morris, and Albert; other additions were 
afterwards made to the buildings, and the production was greatly 
increased. The statistics of Massachusetts for the year ending 
April 1, 1845, show that there was one manufactory of cordage 
in Hingham ; that its product was 150 tons, valued at $28,000, 
and that the amount of capital invested in the pursuit was 
$10,000 ; the number of hands employed was twenty-two. 

The Hingham Cordage Company was incorporated May 25, 
1853, its principal stockholders being members of the Fearing 
and Whiton families of this town, who had previously been inter- 
ested in the business here. The continued prosperity of the com- 
pany down to the present time is owing to the foresight, business 
energy, and enterprise of the late David Whiton, who was for 
many years its president. 

On Sunday, June 4, 1865, the works of the Hingham Cordage 
Company, embracing the rope-walk, about one thousand feet long, 
together with the storehouse containing a large quantity of Manilla 
hemp, was entirely destroyed by fire. The brick building, con- 
taining the spinning and engine rooms, and most of the machin- 
ery, however, was but partially burned. In the storehouse there 
was hemp valued at over $30,000, which was all consumed. About 
one hundred barrels of tar were destroyed. The buildings, stock, 
and machinery were insured for about $70,000, but this amount 
did not cover the whole loss. About eighty hands were thrown 
out of employment. A new ropewalk was soon erected where 
the former one stood, and for some years afterwards the steam- 



176 History of Hingham. 

whistle sounded its daily call to work, and the hustle and hum 
of business activity was again established. For the past ten 
years the factory has not been in active operation, owing to the 
peculiar condition of affairs in the cordage manufacturing busi- 
ness, but the buildings have been kept in good repair and the 
machinery in perfect order, ready at any moment to be started 
again whenever the business conditions make it expedient. 

The goods manufactured by this company have always been of 
the best quality, and the selling agents from the incorporation of 
the company have been the successive firms doing business in 
Boston with which the Whitons of this town have been connected, 
the present firm being M. F. Whiton & Co. 

Other manufacturers of twine and cordage on a smaller scale 
have been Nicholas Wall, Henry Wall, James Dower, and James 
Graham, all of whom obtained much of their experience in the 
employ of the Hingham Cordage Company, and then established 
small ropewalks of their own. 

i • 

The Hingham Jute and Bagging Company was incorporated 
Oct. 28, 1869, with a capital of $25,000, afterwards increased to 
$27,000, for the purpose, according to the Articles of Agreement, 
" of manufacturing cordage, bagging, and other textile fabrics " 
in the town of Hingham. The articles were signed by David 
Whiton, Thomas F. Whiton, Albert Fearing, Morris Fearing, John 
Rider, L. C. Whiton, and Lincoln Fearing. The company pur- 
chased land at Hingham Centre, near the Hingham Cordage Com- 
pany's rope-walk, in the rear of Main Street, and also one of the 
factory buildings formerly occupied by Burr, Brown, & Co., which 
was removed to Hingham Centre, and with additions became the 
factory of this company. Here the manufacture of jute bagging- 
was carried on for a few years, but was soon given up. The cor- 
poration was legally dissolved in May, 1879. 

The manufacture of umbrellas and parasols was established in 
Hingham prior to 1818 by Benjamin S. Williams, on South Street 
near Hobart's Bridge, and gave steady employment to a large 
number of hands. It was incorporated as the Hingham Umbrella 
Manufacturing Company in 1825. The manufactured stock was 
sold principally in Boston. 

Edward Cazneau succeeded Mr. Williams as the proprietor, and 
on June 13, 1828, gave public notice, by an advertisement in the 
" Hingham Gazette," that " all Umbrellas or Parasols sold here 
by retail will be kept in repair twelve months, gratis." The cov- 
erings used in the manufacture were of silk, oiled linen, and Eng- 
lish ginghams, in brown, blue, and green. There are several 
umbrellas now (1893) in use which were made at this manufac- 
tory, all of seventy years ago. The industry was discontinued 
here in 1842. For the year ending April 1, 1837, the number of 



Manufactures and Commerce. Ill 

umbrellas and parasols manufactured was 18,600 ; these were 
valued at $39,500. The number of hands employed was, males, 
twenty ; females, fifty-three. 

The first clock of Hingham manufacture of which there is any 
record was made by Dr. Josiah Leavitt. It was placed in the 
attic story of the Old Meeting-House in 1772 or 1773, and the dial 
appeared in the dormer-window facing the street, so that it was 
visible to the public. Dr. Leavitt afterwards removed to Boston, 
where he became somewhat noted as an organ-builder. 

Capt. Joseph Lovis was a clock and watch maker or repairer 
and buckle-maker, on South Street, near where the Water-works 
building stands. 

There is a clock at Hingham Centre which has in the back of 
the case the following inscription : — 

This Clock was 

MADE IN 
1808. 

The running parts 

WERE MADE [iN F. BuRR 

& Go's Store] by 

Joseph Bayley. 

The case was made by 

Theodore Cushing, 

1808. 

The Joseph Bayley referred to was probably from Hanover, 
where some of this family were well-known clock-makers. Sev- 
eral of the tall, old-fashioned timekeepers made by John and Cal- 
vin Bailey, with a full-moon or swinging ship on the face, are still 
seen in the dwellings of some of the older families in Hingham. 

Joshua Wilder (known as Quaker Wilder) manufactured and 
repaired clocks, timepieces, and watches for many years on Main 
Street, near Wilder's Bridge, South Hingham. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Ezra. Reuben Tower was also in the same 
line of business on Main, near High Street. There are several 
repairers of clocks and watches in Hingham at the present time, 
but none that manufacture. 

Loring Bailey, a native of Hull, came to Hingham about 1780 
or soon after, and located as a silversmith and buckle-maker at 
" Broad Bridge." The silverware, spoons, etc., which he manu- 
factured had his name stamped upon them. He died in Hingham, 
Jan. 3, 1814, aged seventy-four years. Among his apprentices 
were Caleb Gill, Leavitt Gill, and Samuel Norton, both of whom 
were clock and watch repairers, as well as silversmiths. The 
Messrs. Gill established their business on South Street, at the 
west part of the town. Mr. Norton's shop was on the rising 
ground, about where the middle of the road is now, in front of 
the Derby Academy. Elijah Lincoln, who served an apprentice- 
ship in Boston at the trade of silversmith, returned to Hingham 

VOL. I. — 12* 



178 History of Hingham. 

about 1818, and established himself at his trade on South Street, 
about where the northerly corner of the West Schoolhouse yard 
is now. He followed the business until about 1833. Joseph B. 
Thaxter was the last person who carried on this pursuit here. 
He continued in it for a longer time than did any of his pre- 
decessors. His shop was on the northwesterly side of South 
Street, between Broad Bridge and Magoon's Bridge. His specialty 
was in the manufacture of spectacles for the Boston market. Sil- 
ver spoons, of various sizes, made by Mr. Thaxter, and having his 
name stamped upon them, are still in use here. A large propor- 
tion of these bear the inscription, " Pure coin." 

Hat-manufacturers in olden times were usually called "felt- 
makers," and their business, being principally local, was carried 
on without much outside help. They felted the material used, 
and shaped the bodies over blocks in accordance with the prevail- 
ing fashion of the day. After the last war with England the 
business of hat-making in Hingham began to assume some im- 
portance. It was carried on quite extensively in the north part 
of the town by Thomas Loud, and later by Atherton Tilden and 
Elijah L. Whiton ; and in South Hingham by Andrew and Laban 
Cushing, at the corner of Main and Friend streets. The statis- 
tical tables relating to this industry in Hingham for the year 
ending April 1, 1837, furnish the following : number of hat- 
manufactories, 4 ; number of hats manufactured, 3,422 ; males 
employed, 7 ; females employed, 5. In 1845 there were three 
manufactories, employing twenty-three hands. The number of 
hats and caps made was 11,916, valued at $26,500. This indus- 
try was discontinued here more than twenty years ago. 

In the early history of the country the limited number of books 
in circulation were bound principally in London, England. The 
covers were of wood covered with paper, or pasteboard covered 
with leather. A majority of those published in the present cen- 
tury are cloth-covered. The business of book-binding in Hingham 
was carried on to a considerable extent between 1800 and 1870: 
first by John Cushing, on South Street ; then by Elisha Cushing, 
at the corner of Main and South streets ; and afterwards by Caleb 
Gill (1827), on Main Street at Broad Bridge, who was succeeded 
by C. and E. B. Gill (1829) ; afterwards by Elijah B. Gill (1839), 
in Tilden's Building, opposite the post-office ; and lastly by Dixon 
L. Gill at the corner of South Street and Central Row. 

On April 13, 1827, Caleb Beal announced through the columns 
of the " Hingham Gazette " that he " has taken the stand for- 
merly occupied by T. A. Davis, near the harbor, where he intends 
to manufacture and keep constantly on hand a complete assort- 
ment of Tin Ware. Also Sheet Iron Stoves and Funnel manufac- 
tured to order," etc. At a later period Enos Loring was taken in 



Manufactures and Commerce. 179 

copartnership, and the firm name was Beal & Loring. The per- 
sons and firms who have since been manufacturers of tin-ware 
here in connection with the stove business are as follows : Enos 
Loring, Wilder & Stodder, Charles Gill, E. & I. W. Loring, Isaiah 
VV. Loring, Rich & Marble. 

Ploughs were manufactured by Charles Howard at Hingham 
Centre for about twenty-five years. At first they were of wood, 
but afterwards of cast-iron. That they were regarded as an im- 
provement over other ploughs at the time they were in use, both 
as to the quality of work performed and to the saving of manual 
and team labor, is shown by the numerous published notices relat- 
ing thereto, and especially to the improvements Mr. Howard 
afterwards made on his own early invention. At the ploughing 
match of the Plymouth County Cattle Show, held Oct, 2, 1833, 
when but four premiums were awarded, the first was to Charles 
Howard of Hingham for his plough, — Charles Fearing, plough- 
man ; Joseph Cushing, driver. Also the second to Charles Howard 
of Hingham for his self-governing plough, — Nehemiah Ripley, 
ploughman and driver. The statistical tables of the State show 
that for the year ending April 1, 1837, the number of ploughs 
manufactured here was eight hundred ; the value of these was 
estimated at $10,000. Pour hands were employed. 

After 1840 the business began to decrease, and in 1854 the 
number manufactured was but twenty-five. 

The early settlers of Hingham had obtained a good education 
before leaving the mother country. They were a well-to-do people, 
for that period, and upon their arrival here were in comfortable 
circumstances. They were industrious, persevering, frugal ; and 
these traits were inherited in a great measure by their descend- 
ants. They brought with them from their former inland homes 
in Hingham, England, and its vicinity, a practical knowledge of 
agriculture and the mechanical arts. In many instances both 
callings were followed in the same family. As the population 
became greater the demand for skilled labor in the workshop in- 
creased, and special departments of industry came into prominence. 
And so for two centuries or more after the settlement of the town 
its manufacturing interests were not unlike those of other towns 
similarly situated and having about the same number of inhabi- 
tants. Its artisans were skilful and progressive, nor was capital 
wanting to encourage every worthy enterprise. Although the 
colonists were hampered by the restrictions of the home gov- 
ernment upon the export of manufactured articles, the establish- 
ment of the independent government of the United States changed 
the laws of trade and commerce, and after the Revolution, even 
before the commencement of the present century, a more ex- 
tended and flourishing business was inaugurated. 



180 History of Sing ham. 

The preceding pages will indicate the many branches of manu- 
factures and commerce which have had a substantial footing in 
Hingham in former years. Fate seems to have put her seal of 
disapproval, however, upon the town as a permanent manufactur- 
ing or commercial centre. The past fifty years have witnessed 
a decline and discontinuance of nearly all those interests, and 
Hingham seems destined to be a residential suburb of the neigh- 
boring city. Efforts have been made from time to time to en- 
courage the introduction of manufactories, and committees have 
been appointed by the town to see what measures could be taken 
to establish them here, without substantial success. There seems 
to be nothing wanting in the situation of the town to render it a 
favorable spot for manufacturing industries. The means of trans- 
portation by land and water are good, yet only a few factories 
remain. When and by what means encouragement shall come 
to the manufacturer to settle again in Hingham cannot be fore- 
told. Let us hope the future historian may look back with that 
satisfaction and pride upon a period of honest work by honest 
hands, in larger measure, with which we look back upon what 
was accomplished in the days of smaller things. 



AGKICULTURE. 

BY EDMUND HERSEY 



APPEARANCE OF THE COUNTRY WHEN FIRST SETTLED. 

The first settlers of Eastern Massachusetts did not find the 
country covered with an unbroken forest ; but from early writers 
we learn that there were large tracts of land entirely clear of 
trees and bushes, and that on the high lands, where any trees 
grew, in many places they stood at such distances apart that the 
grass grew very luxuriantly between them. 

Mr. Grus, of Salem, wrote in 1627, " The country is very beau- 
tiful. Open lands, mixed in goodly woods, and again open 
plains, in some places five hundred acres, some more and some 
less. . . . Not much troublesome to clear for the plough. The 
grass and weeds grow up to a man's face. In the low lands, and 
by fresh rivers, there are large meadows without a tree or bush." 

The burning of the grass and leaves by the Indians is men- 
tioned by Morton in 1632. He says: "The savages burn over 
the country that it may not be overgrown with underwood." He 
also says : " It scorches the older trees, and hinders their growth. 
The trees grow here and there, as in English parks, and make the 
country very beautiful." 

Wood, in 1634, said : " In many places divers acres are cleared, 
so that one may ride a hunting in most places of the land. There 
is no underwood, — save in the swamps and low grounds, — for 
it being the custom of the Indians to burn the woods in Novem- 
ber, when the grass is withered and leaves dried." He also says : 
*' There is good fodder in the woods where the trees are thin ; 
and in the spring grass grows rapidly on the burnt land." 

Thus it is evident that the first settlers of this town did not 
have to cut down the forest to clear the land before they could 
plant their crops ; but they evidently found enough cleared to 
plant as many acres as they desired, and have enough left for 
pastures and mowing-fields. 



182 History of Hingham. 



CROPS GROWN. 

The first settlers, copying from the Indians, planted as their 
principal crop, Indian corn. Wood says, " The first planters, for 
want of oxen, were compelled to dig up the land with the hoe." 
At a very early period it was found necessary to grow other crops 
besides Indian corn. Pumpkins were among the first of garden 
crops ; these were followed by the parsnip, carrot, turnip, onion, 
beet, and cabbage. Potatoes were not introduced into New Eng- 
land until 1719; so the early settlers had to eat their meat and 
make their clam chowders without potatoes. It was not until a 
trifle more than a hundred years ago that the potato came into 
general use. Indian corn was the leading crop until the early 
part of the present century. In 1749 the number of bushels of 
corn grown in town was 11,693. One farmer raised 225 bushels, 
another 200, and there were twenty-six farmers that produced a 
hundred bushels or more each. 

Other field crops grown were wheat, rye, oats, barley, beans, 
flax, and hemp. The two last named were grown and used for 
making clothing for the family for nearly two hundred years. 

Apples were introduced at a very early period ; large orchards 
existed as early as 1675. This fruit was not grown for the table, 
but for cider, which for more than a century and a half appears 
to have been the favorite beverage of all classes, — a single family 
often consuming a dozen barrels of cider in a year. Pear-trees 
were introduced soon after the town was settled ; but most of 
the fruit was unfit to eat, and it was carried to the cider-mill, 
where the juice was pressed out, and permitted to ferment. This 
made a drink that many preferred to the best of cider. 

Early in the present century peaches were grown in conside- 
rable quantities and quite successfully ; the trees being grown 
from the seed, and not budded, became quite hardy. But when 
the practice of budding from choice fruit became general, the 
trees became less hardy, the blossom-buds were winter-killed, and 
many of the trees died of the yellows. During the past twenty- 
five years it has been very difficult to grow the peach in this 
town, except under the most favorable conditions. 

The cultivation of improved varieties of the grape was not com- 
menced until the beginning of the second quarter of the present 
century ; but our ancestors found the native grape growing in 
great abundance, some varieties of which were very palatable. 

The cultivation of the strawberry was commenced nearly a 
hundred years ago; but for a period of fifty years it found its 
way in but very few gardens, and in those few to only a limited 
extent. Since that period it has been more generally cultivated ; 
a few cultivators have grown it for the market, but, with the ex- 
ception of one or two years, not to an extent sufficient to supply 
the home market. 



Agriculture. 183 

The tomato was introduced about fifty years ago under the 
name of the " love apple," and as a curiosity, rather than as an 
article of food. 

One of the most important crops grown by the farmer from the 
settlement of the town to the present period (1893) has been the 
hay crop. At first, nearly all the hay that the farmer had to feed 
to his stock was salt hay and fresh meadow hay ; and this was 
harvested so late in the season that its quality was very poor, 
compared with what it is to-day, so the stock came out in the 
spring very thin in flesh. 

In the year 1773 there were grown 1,735 pounds of flax in 
town, and there were kept 177 yoke of oxen, 836 cows, 179 
horses ; there were 670 acres of land under tillage, 2,051 acres 
of mowing land, and 7,313 acres of pasture land. In 1749 there 
were kept in town 3,162 sheep. 



PREPARATION OF THE SOIL AND CULTIVATION OF CROPS. 

The Indians in preparing the soil for a crop of Indian corn dug 
it up a few inches deep, and fertilized it by placing in each hill 
three little fishes (probably herring). This practice they taught 
the first settlers, who followed it until oxen were introduced, 
when the plough and ox labor were used instead of the hoe and 
hand labor, and the manure of the cattle was used instead 
of fish. 

For two centuries the farmers prepared the soil for hoed crops 
by ploughing in the coarser portion of the barn-yard manure, 
and using the finer portion in the hills, where the seed-corn 
was dropped. Within fifty years it was almost the universal 
custom to plant all annual crops that were grown in hills on land 
in the same condition as the plough left it, except that a single 
furrow was made every four feet with a small one-horse plough ; 
in this furrow, at distances of about four feet, was dropped the 
fine manure, upon which the seed was planted. Thus the crop, 
as it started to grow, was surrounded by earth that was hard and 
unfertilized, except what was at the bottom of the furrow. Under 
such unfavorable circumstances it is not surprising that the crops 
were small, when compared with those grown at the present day. 

About fifty years ago some of the more intelligent farmers be- 
gan to prepare the land for the growth of crops by spreading the 
manure broadcast, and mixing it with the soil by harrowing the 
surface until it became loose and fine ; this was found to secure 
better crops than the old practice of ploughing in a portion and 
placing the remainder in the hill. 

In the year 1840 a small quantity of guano was brought into 
this town, and being of a good quality, it was found to produce 
wonderful results when used in small quantities ; but in a few 
years the quality deteriorated so much that the farmers bought 



184 History of Hingham. 

very little. About this time coarse ground bone was introduced 
and carefully tried, to test its value ; for rye it was found to be 
better than barn manure. But commercial fertilizers were used 
very sparingly by the farmers of this town until within a period 
of twenty years. -To-day they are very generally used by both 
the large and small gardeners. 

The old method of cultivation was quite different from the 
present. Formerly the horse plough and hand hoe were the only 
implements used for cultivating hoed crops : but now the har- 
row and cultivator, with the aid of the horse, are made to do 
nearly all of the work of cultivating most of the annual crops. 
The old method of hilling up corn and potatoes has been almost 
entirely abandoned and level culture adopted ; and the more in- 
telligent cultivators stir the surface of the soil often to keep it 
not only free from weeds, but loose and light, especially in dry 
weather, as it is found that if an inch of the surface be kept loose 
and fine it will prevent the crop on most soils from suffering from 
drought. 

THE PRICE OF PRODUCE. 

It is very difficult to ascertain the real casli value of farm pro- 
duce during the first century after the town was settled. There 
was so little money in circulation that one article was exchanged 
for another ; and it is not much more than a century ago that if 
the farmer wanted a box or a bucket, he paid for the box or 
bucket by filling it with corn, that being considered a fair price 
for it. Whatever the farmer wanted at the country store was 
paid for in corn, wheat, butter, eggs, etc. 

In the year 1688 the State Treasurer issued to the constables 
of this town a warrant for the collection of taxes, which he stated 
could be paid in current money, or grain at the following prices : 
wheat, two shillings ninepence per bushel ; rye, two shillings ; 
oats, tenpence ; malt and barley, two shillings sixpence ; Indian 
corn, fourteenpence per bushel. 

These prices may be considered as a fair cash value of these 
products at that time. 

THE PRICE OF LAND. 

The prices of land have varied so much in different parts of 
the town, and at different periods, that it is difficult, if not impos- 
sible, to make any brief statement that will give a clear under- 
standing of the subject ; but from careful reading of the old wills 
and deeds, it is evident that farm lands were not very valuable 
until after the close of the second war with England. 

From 1815 to 1825 there was a constantly increasing demand 
for tillage land, and also wood land. This raised the price to 
such a point that in some instances common tillage land was sold 



Agriculture. 185 

for more than a hundred dollars per acre ; and fifty dollars was 
not considered an exorbitant price for tillage land near home, 
and thirty-five to forty dollars for pasture land several miles 
from home. 

Wood land was much sought for during the last quarter of the 
eighteenth century and the first quarter of the nineteenth, and 
commanded a price much above what it will now bring. 



THE FARMER'S HOME. 

During a period of more than a hundred years after the town 
was incorporated the records of the doings of the farmers are so 
meagre that it is impossible to give more than a faint idea of 
their everyday life, and the condition of their homes, without 
drawing too much on the imagination ; but by picking up here 
and there historical facts, and carefully considering them, indi- 
vidually and collectively, we may draw conclusions that will give 
some idea of the lives of the early settlers. 

For more than a hundred and fifty years the farm-houses were 
unpainted, both outside and in ; the floors were uncarpeted, and 
in many houses the walls were unplastered, and a fire in an open 
fireplace was the only means of heating the cold, uninviting 
rooms occupied by the farmer's family. The windows were 
small, and few in number ; the furniture, most of it of rude 
structure, was made by the farmer himself. Some of the farm- 
ers, whose condition would permit it, imported furniture from 
the old country ; and nearly all had a few pieces bought of some 
one who had become an expert in the business, or inherited from 
their ancestors. 

For more than a hundred and fifty years after the settlement 
of the town every farm-house was a manufactory, and almost 
every manufactory was a farm-house. The farmer's wife and 
daughters carded the wool, prepared the flax and hemp, spun the 
yarn, wove the cloth, and made it into clothing to clothe the 
inmates of the household. 

The farmer built his farm buildings, and made and repaired most 
of his farm implements ; he also made and repaired the shoes for 
his family. Thus the farmer's family was fed and clothed with- 
out going beyond his own farm, except for a very few things. 
In years of good crops he had an abundance of food ; but when 
the crops failed, as they sometimes did, want, if not starvation, 
stared him in the face. Very few of them had any money to buy 
food ; and if they had, so small a portion of the country was set- 
tled that when crops were short in one part of the country they 
were in all other parts. Fear of a famine was so firmly implanted 
in the mirMs of the early settlers that it was handed down from 
parents to children to a period of less than fifty years ago. 



186 History of Hingham. 



FARM IMPROVEMENTS. 

It is doubtful if any great improvements were made on the 
farms during the first fifty or seventy-five years ; but when the an- 
nual Indian fires were stopped, the whole country rapidly became 
covered with bushes, and in a few years with trees, except where 
cultivation was maintained ; so quite early in the eighteenth cen- 
tury the farmer was compelled to enter in earnest upon the work 
of clearing the land. When the trees were removed, he found 
it necessary to dig out the rocks, and inclose each field cleared 
with a stone wall. Most of the stone walls that are now seen in 
the eastern and southern and a portion of the western part of the 
town were probably built between 1725 and 1825. Many of 
the farmers who lived during this period had what at that 
time were considered comfortable homes, and kept a large stock 
of cattle ; so they were in a condition to improve their farms by 
clearing them of trees and rocks, and inclosing them with stone 
walls. During the latter part of the last century and the first 
part of the present, the work of draining some of the low lands 
commenced. This work was done on small meadows by indi- 
vidual efforts, and on large meadows, where there were many 
owners, by organized efforts. 

FARM IMPLEMENTS. 

Very few realize how rudely constructed were the farm imple- 
ments which the first settlers had to use. The hoe was a heavy 
piece of iron, roughly forged out, and probably weighed as much 
as four of the hoes used at the present time. The shovel and 
spade were forged out of iron with, in some cases, a small piece 
of steel welded to the cutting edge. The manure-fork had tines 
much heavier than the tines of our present garden-forks, and the 
pitchforks had short tines, almost as large as one's finger. The 
old scythe used by the first settlers was forged out of iron, with 
a strip of steel welded on the edge ; but as early as 1649 Joseph 
Jenks invented a new form of scythe by welding a thick piece of 
iron to a thin piece of steel, and in 1656 got a patent for it. But 
for nearly two hundred years the scythe was a heavy and a rudely 
constructed implement, weighing from two to three times what 
it will weigh to-day. The scythe-snath was little more than a 
crooked stick, cut in the woods by the farmer, and smoothed by 
taking the bark off. The rake was made by the farmer, and was 
twice as heavy as the hand-rakes of the present time. The axe 
was heavy and roughly forged. 

The plough was but little more than a crooked stick, with an 
iron on the point, for nearly two hundred years after the town was 
settled. The first cast-iron ploughs were unknown to the Hing- 
ham farmer until the beginning of the present century. Four- 



Agriculture. 187 

wheeled wagons did not come into use by the farmers of this town 
until after the beginning of the present century ; before that 
period the crops were moved on rudely constructed two-wheel 
carts, which, with the exception of the wheels and axles, were 
made on the farm by the farmer himself, who sometimes called 
to his assistance a neighbor more expert with mechanical tools 
than the average farmer. The corn was carried to mill on the 
backs of horses, and the farmer and his wife, having no carriage, 
rode on the same horse to market, or to church. 

Not only has there been a wonderful improvement in the struc- 
ture of the hand-tools of the farm, but there has been a wonderful 
improvement in the method of doing farm-work. Now, instead 
of doing the work with his own muscular power, the farmer has 
improved machines by which he can do the work with his horses, 
while he rides on the machines to guide them. Farming one 
or two centuries ago meant hard muscular labor, with tools ill 
adapted to the work required of them, while the farming of to- 
day, if success is to be attained, means high intelligence to keep 
in order and guide the machines that have been carefully con- 
structed on principles best adapted to perform the work required 
of them. 

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 

In February, 1813, the Massachusetts Society for the Promo- 
tion of Agriculture sent out circulars recommending as the best 
means for receiving and communicating information on affairs of 
husbandry, that the inhabitants of one or two of the neighboring 
towns should form themselves into a society for improvement in 
agriculture. One of these circulars was laid before the town at a 
meeting held in May following, and a committee of sixteen persons 
was chosen to consider the subject, and report at a future meeting. 

At a meeting held in March, 1814, the committee reported, 
recommending the formation of a society to be called " Agricul- 
tural Society of Hingham," and that seventeen persons be chosen 
by the town to act as its first members. The following persons 
were chosen : — 

Samuel Norton, Esq. Dr. Daniel Shute. 

Hawkes Fearing, Esq. Dr. Levi Lincoln. 

Thomas Fearing. Perez Whiton. 

Solomon Lincoln. Job Loring. 

Martin Lincoln. Solomon Jones, Esq. 

Charles W. Cushing. Thomas Andrews. 

Benjamin Thomas. Laban Hersey- 

James Stephenson. Jerome Cushing. 
Joseph Cushing. 

The first officers of the society were Samuel Norton, Esq., 
President; Hawkes Fearing, Esq., Vice-President ; Jerome Cush- 
ing, Secretary ; Solomon Jones, Treasurer. 



188 History of Hingham. 

The society held meetings once in three months. The records 
do not show that any lectures were given at the meetings, or any 
discussions on agricultural subjects maintained ; but the principal 
business appears by the records to have been the letting out of 
the books of the society to the highest bidder. It is fair to pre- 
sume that such intelligent men as were members of this society 
could not have regularly met together without entering into some 
discussion on farm topics in at least an informal way, thus 
gaining something beyond what they obtained from the books 
let out. 

The following copy of the record of one of the meetings is a 
fair sample of the others found in the record book : — 

Hingham, June 25, 1819. 
Voted, That the fine for not returning pamphlets shall be no more than 
ten cents. 

The books were let out as follows : — 

Agricultural Repository, Vol. 1, Benjamin Thomas . 6 cents. 



2, James Stephenson 

" 3, Ezra Leavitt 

" " " 4, John Beal 

Foresythe on Fruit Trees, Ezra Leavitt . . 

Lowels' Address, Jerome Cushing .... 

JSinclares Code of Agriculture, Joseph Cushing 



6 

10 

10 

2 

2 

21 

57 



The last meeting of the society was held March 31, 1831. It 
existed seventeen years and held fifty-four meetings. Eighteen 
new members were by vote added to the seventeen original 
members. 

The record book of the society is chiefly in the handwriting 
of John Beal, who was secretary during most of the time the 
society existed. This book was given by his son John to the 
Hingham Agricultural and Horticultural Society, and is now de- 
posited in the library of the society. It was from this book that 
the above information was obtained. 

THE HINGHAM AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL 

SOCIETY 

On the 12th of October, 1858, about twenty friends of agricul- 
ture met in the Town Hall in answer to a public notice given for 
a meeting to consider the expediency of forming an agricultural 
society. James S. Lewis, Esq., called the meeting to order, 
Charles W. Cushing, Esq., was chosen chairman, and Edmund 
Hersey secretary. 

Fearing Burr, Jr., stated the object of the meeting, and after 
a, full discussion a committee was chosen to make the necessary 
arrangements for organizing a society. 

November 10 a society under the name of "The Hingham 



Agriculture. 189 

Agricultural and Horticultural Society " was fully organized. The 
following is a list of the first officers : — 

President Albert Fearing. 

j Solomon Lincoln, 
Vice-Presidents .... < Charles W. Gushing, 

( David Whiton. 
Recording Secretary .... Edmund Hersey. 
Corresponding Secretary . . Thomas T. Bouve. 
Treasurer Joseph H. French. 

Directors. 

Albert Whiton, Elijah Leavitt, John Lincoln, 

Seth Sprague, Henry Ripley, Warren A. Hersey, 

Henry Cushing, Morris Fearing, John R. Brewer, 

John Stephenson, Amos Bates, Thomas Wbiton. 

During the first year after the society was organized meetings 
were held in different parts of the town ; but before the close of 
the year the armory of the Lincoln Light Infantry was hired as 
a permanent place for holding the meetings. In this building 
most of the meetings of the society were held until the present 
Agricultural Hall was built, where they have since held their 
meetings. 

The meetings of this society from its organization to the pres- 
ent time (1893) have been held for lectures and discussions on 
subjects relating to the cultivation of crops and the improve- 
ment of the home, and for the exhibition of the products of the 
orchard and garden, so that those who attended them might have 
an opportunity of seejng the best products grown, and of learning 
from the growers their methods of culture. 

The lectures and discussions, together with the exhibitions at 
the meetings, have done much to improve the condition of the 
growers of fruit, flowers, and vegetables. 

The first annual exhibition of the society was held September 
28 and 29, 1859. The cattle were exhibited on the land of 
Royal Whiton and Thomas D. Blossom, on Main Street, near the 
present residence of William Fearing, 2d ; and the fruits, flowers, 
and vegetables, in the Town Hall, which was located on Main 
Street, on land where now stands the residence of George Bayley. 

For the exhibition of cattle the second year several acres of 
land were rented of Moses Whiton, located in the rear of the 
present residence of Hon. Starkes Whiton ; and this land con- 
tinued to be used for the exhibition of cattle, and the Town Hall 
for the exhibition of fruits, flowers, and fancy articles, until the 
present exhibition grounds were purchased. The vegetables were 
exhibited in an annex built on the south side of the Town Hall ; 
this being principally of canvas was kept up only during exhibi- 
tion week. 



190 History of Hingham. 

In the year 1864 the success of the society had become so fully 
established that it was deemed expedient to form a corporation 
under the provision of the General Statutes ; this was done No- 
vember 2. Under the direction of this organization a committee 
solicited stock subscriptions to raise money to purchase grounds, 
and to build suitable buildings to accommodate the annual exhi- 
bitions. More than fifteen thousand dollars were subscribed, — 
the three largest subscribers being Albert Fearing, David Whiton, 
and John R. Brewer. 

To secure to the society all the advantages given by the State 
to incorporated agricultural societies, and to obtain authority to 
hold the desired amount of real and personal estate, a special act 
of incorporation was petitioned for, and was granted by the Legis- 
lature March 27, 1867. Under this act the society has continued 
its work to the present time (1890). 

During the early part of the year 1867 a lot of land, corner of 
East and Leavitt Streets, containing about sixteen acres, was pur- 
chased, which has proved to be admirably adapted for the uses of 
the society. Upon this lot a spacious building was erected, which 
measures one hundred feet in length by sixty in width, contain- 
ing a cook-room in the basement, a large exhibition-hall on the 
first floor ; also a dining-room of the same size on the second 
floor. In this five hundred persons can be seated at the tables. 
A fire-proof room has recently been built on the northwest corner 
of the building for the safe keeping of the town books. The 
building is well finished and furnished. Hon. Albert Fearing 
presented to the society sufficient crockeryware to dine six 
hundred persons ; also plates enough in which to exhibit the 
fruit. 

The grounds are well graded, and ornamented with shade- 
trees. The plan adopted was to let each member, who desired 
to, set one tree, and see that it was well cared for, — each tree 
being numbered and recorded on a plan, together with the name 
of the person who set it. 

The land, buildings, cattle-pens, and other property of the soci- 
ety, have cost upwards of thirty thousand dollars ; all of which 
has been paid for — except about two thousand dollars, which the 
society now owes — by stock subscriptions, profits of a fair, lec- 
tures, annual exhibitions, rent of hall, and voluntary subscriptions 
of money. 

The annual exhibitions and the monthly meetings of the soci- 
ety have brought together those living in different sections of the 
town, making them better acquainted with each other, and better 
friends. Regular monthly, and often semi-monthly, meetings have 
been held since the society was organized. At these meetings 
papers have been read touching various agricultural subjects, 
followed by discussions which were often highly interesting and 
instructive. 

During the summer season prizes have sometimes been offered 



Agriculture. 191 

for meritorious exhibits of fruits, flowers, and vegetables. These 
displays have often been quite large, and of a high order. 

When the society was first organized the price of life member- 
ship was fixed at five dollars, and annual membership at one 
dollar. A few years after the price of life membership was 
raised to ten dollars, but in 1890 it was reduced to the price 
first established. 

The membership of the society has, from its organization to the 
present time, been quite large, being composed of men, women, 
and children. 

The meetings of the society have always been very harmonious, 
and the officers have usually been chosen by unanimous votes. 

Albert Fearing, the first President, occupied the position seven- 
teen years, until his death, when Solomon Lincoln was chosen. 
After serving one year failing health compelled Mr. Lincoln to 
resign, and Edmund Hersey was chosen. Mr. Hersey occupied 
the position five years, and declined re-election. Ebed L. Ripley 
was then chosen, and still holds the position. 

At the annual exhibitions the cattle-pens have been filled with 
cattle equal to any exhibited in any portion of the State ; and the 
exhibition in the hall of fruit, flowers, vegetables, useful and 
fancy articles, and works of art, have not only been of a quality 
to secure the highest praise from the visitors, but they have been 
so well arranged by the committees that the society has become 
noted for its good order and good management. 

The outside entertainments have been of a character to meet 
the approbation of every friend to good order and pure morals. 



THE PAST AND PRESENT. 

The life of the farmer has been so gradually changed for the 
better that very few realize how great has been the improvement. 
Not only are he and his family better housed, better clothed, better 
fed, and better educated, but his labors on the farm have been 
very much lightened by the introduction of improved machinery, 
the markets for his produce have been greatly extended, and 
the returns for the same are in money instead of store-goods. 
The farmer's wife and daughters no longer have to work from 
early morn until late at night to manufacture the wool, flax, 
and hemp into cloth for clothing to keep the family warm, but 
the spinning-jenny, the power-loom, and the co-operative butter 
aud cheese factories have lifted them out of daily toils but little 
better than slavery. 

The farmer's sons no longer have to be kept from school and 
put to hard labor on the farm to help feed and clothe the family, 
but many of them receive just as good education as those who 
are to follow other occupations, — the State having established 
an agricultural college with eighty free scholarships. 



192 History of Hingham. 

A portion of the above history has been gathered from books 
of history and records in the State Library, the Hingham Public 
Library, the library of the Hingham Agricultural Society, town 
records, aud from papers read before the Hingham Agricultu- 
ral and Horticultural Society by Quincy Bicknell and George 
Lincoln. 



PUBLICATIONS. 

BY FEARING BURR. 



In presenting the following notices relating to the authors and 
publications connected with the History of Hingham, it may be 
proper to state that no merit for completeness or originality is 
claimed. 

The field for research in this direction is one which has not 
hitherto had the attention of the historian, and it has been found 
necessary to devote much time and careful examination to the 
subject. The prominent libraries of the city of Boston have been 
visited, and collectors of rare books interviewed with the hope of 
adding to the interest and perfection of the chapter. The earlier 
publications from which quotations of title-pages are given have 
received personal examination, and notices of those of more recent 
date have in many instances had their authors' approval. 

The literary labors of those who by virtue of long-continued 
residence in Hingham have gained citizenship here have been 
justly added in full. The occasional addresses, orations, and 
published discourses given by those neither residents nor natives 
of the town could not be set aside, including as they do many valu- 
able facts immediately connected with our local history. A few 
notes and brief biographical sketches have been added where it 
was thought they would afford information concerning the per- 
sonal history of an author, thereby enhancing the value and use- 
fulness of the work. Biographical notices of native or resident 
clergymen, lawyers, and physicians will be found in the Ecclesias- 
tical History, and chapters having special reference to their pro- 
fessions. Should important omissions be discovered, no one will 
regret their occurrence more than the writer. 

John G. Adams. 

Sermon at the Ordination and Installation of Rev. Phebe A. Hanaford, 

as Pastor of the First Universalist Church in Hingham, Mass., Feb. 

19, 1868. Published with services of the occasion. Boston. C. C. 

Roberts, Printer, 1870. 12mo. cloth, pp. 71. (See Olympia Brown.) 

vol. i. — 13 * 



194 History of Hingham. 

John Albion Andeew. 

Oration delivered before the Athenaean Society of Bowdoin College, Sep- 
tember, 1844. pp. 27. (See Memoirs and Reminiscences of Governor 
Andrew, by Peleg W. Chandler.) 

Address at the close of the School Year of the Maine Female Seminary. 
Gorham, July, 1859. pp. 40. (See Memoirs and Reminiscences of 
Governor Andrew, by Peleg W. Chandler.) 

Argument on behalf of Thaddeus Hyatt, brought before the Senate of 
the United States on a charge of Contempt for refusing to appear as a 
witness before the Harper's Ferry Committee. Samuel E. Sewall and 
John A. Andrew, counsel. Pamphlet, pp.20. (Not dated) 1860 ? 

Speeches at Hingham and Boston, with his testimony before the Harper's 
Ferry Committee of the Senate in relation to John Brown, Sept. 24, 

1860. Pamphlet. 8vo. pp. 16. Boston. 1860. 

Address of His Excellency John A. Andrew to the Two Branches of the 
Legislature of Massachusetts, Jan. 5, 1861. Boston. William White, 
Printer to the State, pp. 48. (Senate Doc, No. 2.) 

The Blue Book containing the Acts and Resolves passed by the General 
Court of Massachusetts, published by the Secretary of the Commonwealth, 
has in addition to the Inaugural Address of Jan.* 5, 1861, an Address to 
the Senate and House of Representatives in Convention, dated Jan. 26, 

1861, on the reception by His Excellency of two Revolutionary fire- 
arms from the executors of the will of the late Rev. Theodore Parker. 
pp. 7. 

Special Messages contained in the Acts and Resolves during the Session 

ending April 11, 1861. pp. 15. 
Address at the extra session, ending May 14, 1861. 8vo. pp. 24. 

(Senate Doc, No. 1.) 
Address at the second session, approved May 23, 1861. pp. 14. 
Address upon " the Grave Responsibilities which have fallen, in the Provi- 
dence of God, upon the Government and the People." May 25, 1861. 

pp. 14. 
Thanksgiving Proclamation (Broadside), Nov. 21, 1861. 
Annual Address before the Legislature, Jan. 3, 1862. pp. 42. 
Special Messages, from Jan. 18 to April 22, inc., 1862. pp. 39. 
Correspondence between Governor Andrew and Major-General Butler. 

Boston. Published by John J. Dyer. 1862. 8vo. pp. 86. 
Speech of Governor Andrew (and others), delivered at a Mass Meeting 

in aid of recruiting, held on the Common under the auspices of the 

committee of one hundred and fifty, on Wednesday, Aug. 27, 1862. 

Printed in a pamphlet with other Addresses. Boston. J. E. Farwell, 

and Company, City Printers, No. 27 Congress Street. 
Fast Proclamation, dated March 11, 1862. 
Thanksgiving Proclamation, dated Oct. 27, 1862. 
Annual Address of His Excellency John A. Andrew to the Two Branches 

of the Legislature, Jan. 9, 1863. Boston. Wright and Potter, State 

Printers, No. 4 Spring Lane. 
Special Messages to the Legislature, January 20 to April 10, 1863. 
Letter to S. F. Wetmore, Esq., Indianapolis, Indiana : on the number of 

soldiers furnished by Massachusetts. Executive Department, Boston, 

Feb. 3, 1863. 8vo. pp. 8. 
Address at the Inauguration of Thomas Hill, as President of Harvard 



Publications. 195 

College, "Wednesday, March 4, 1863. Cambridge. Sever and Francis, 
Booksellers to the University. 

Special Message to the Legislature, Nov. 11, 1863. Extra Session. 8vo. 
pp. 24. 

Proclamation relating to Bounties, Nov. 18, 1863. 8vo. pp. 11. 

Fast Proclamation, appointing April 30, 1863. 

Thanksgiving Proclamation, dated Oct. 1, 1863. 

Annual Address to the Legislature of Massachusetts, together with accom- 
panying documents, Jan. 8, 1864. Wright and Potter, State Printers. 
pp. 110. 

An Address to the Graduating Class of the Medical School in the Uni- 
versity at Cambridge, on Wednesday, March 9, 1864. By John A. 
Andrew, LL.D., President (ex officio) of the Board of Overseers. 
Boston. Ticknor and Fields. 1864. Pamphlet, pp. 28. 

Letter to the President of the United States on the payment of colored 
soldiers. Broadside. May 13, 1864. 

Address before the New England Agricultural Society at Springfield, 
September 9, 1864. 

Fast Proclamation, dated July 28, 1864. 

Thanksgiving Proclamation, dated Oct. 31, 1864. 

Annual Address before the Legislature, Jan. 6, 1865. pp. 53. 

Special Messages, Jan. 9, to May 17, 1865, inclusive, pp. 32. 

The importance of relying on the efforts of the People, instead of the ma- 
chinery of a Bureau. Correspondence concerning the System of 
recruiting volunteers now prescribed by the U. S. Provost-Marshal- 
General. Boston. Wright and Potter, Printers. 1865. 8vo. pp. 23. 

Address to the Legislature on the Reception of the News of the Occupa- 
tion of Richmond by General Grant. April 4, 1865. Boston. 1865. 
8vo. pp. 3 (Senate Doc, No. 173) 

An Address on the occasion of Dedicating the Monument to Ladd and 
Whitney, members of the Sixth Regiment M. V. M., killed at Balti- 
more, Maryland, April 19, 1861, delivered at Lowell, Massachusetts, 
June 17, 1865. By John A. Andrew, Governor of the Commonwealth. 
Boston. Wright and Potter, State Printers, No. 4 Spring Lane. 1865. 
Pamphlet, pp. 31. 

Two Letters to Rev. Edward E. Hale, dated Oct. 7 and 11, declining the 
Presidency of Antioch College. Boston. 1865. 16mo. pp. 3. 

Opinion in the case of Edward W. Green. 1865. 4to. pp. 20. 

Fast Proclamation. Broadside. Dated March 1, 1865. 

Fast Proclamation. Special. Dated May 5, 1865. 

Thanksgiving Proclamation, dated Nov. 8, 1865. 

Special Message, Jan. 3, 1866, with accompanying documents, pp. 34. 

Special Messages to the Senate, January 3, to January 5, 1866, inc. pp. 
19. [Blue Book.] 

Valedictory Address of His Excellency, John A. Andrew, to the Two 
Branches of the Legislature of Massachusetts, upon retiring from the 
office of Governor of the Commonwealth, Jan. 4, 1866. (Senate Doc, 
No. 2.) pp. 21. (See also Memoir of Governor Andrew, by Peleg W. 
Chandler.) 

An Address delivered at Brattleborough, Vermont, by invitation of the 
Agricultural Society of Vermont, at the Fair held by that Society and 
the Agricultural Society of New England, Sept. 7, 1866. Boston. 
Wright and Potter, Printers, No. 4 Spring Lane. Pamphlet, pp. 44. 



196 History of Hingham. 

The Errors of Prohibition. An argument delivered in the Represen- 
tative's Hall, Boston, April 3, 1867. Before a Joint Special Committee 
of the General Court of Massachusetts. Boston. Ticknor and Fields. 
1867. Pamphlet, pp. 148. 

An Address delivered before the New England Historic-Genealogical 
Society, at the annual meeting held in Boston, Mass., Jan. 2, 1867. By- 
John A. Andrew, LL.D., President of the Society. To which is added 
a report of the proceedings of said meeting. Printed by David Clapp 
and Son. 1867. Pamphlet, pp. 12. 

The Election Sermon of Rev. Dr. A. H. Quint, in January, 1866, contains 
many eloquent references to the five years' term of service of John A. 
Andrew as Governor of Massachusetts. He says : " In such a term of 
service there is manifest completeness. It began when the clouds were 
lowering, it ends with the skies clear. The work accomplished was 
one work ; it covers a great period in history." 

References to the life and quotations from the literary work of 
Governor Andrew are found in nearly all the prominent libraries 
of Boston. From such of these publications as have come to the 
notice of the writer the subjoined extracts are made : — 

A conspiracy to defame John A. Andrew, being a review of the proceed- 
ings of Joel Parker, Linus Child, and Leverett Saltonstall, at the 
People's Convention (so-called), held in Boston, Oct. 7, 1862. By 
"Warrington." (See Pen Portraits by Mrs. W. L. Robinson.) Bos- 
ton. Wright and Potter, Printers, 4 Spring Lane. 1862. Pamphlet, 
pp. 16. 

Circular, dated Feb. 6, 1865, proposing Gov. Andrew for a seat in the 
Cabinet, by G. L. Stearns. Boston. 1865. 

Eulogy on John Albion Andrew delivered by Edwin P. Whipple, with an 
appendix containing the Proceedings of the City Council, and an account 
of the Proceedings in Music Hall, Boston. Alfred Mudge and Son, City 
Printers, 34 School Street. 1867. pp. 36. 

Success and its conditions. By E. P. Whipple. Quotations from the 
address before the City Council of Boston. Nov. 26, 1867. 

Union League Club of New York. Proceedings in reference to the 
death of Governor John A. Andrew, Nov. 11, 1867. Club House, 
Union Square, No. 29 East Seventeenth Street, 1867. Pamphlet, 
pp. 36. 

Reference to the death of John Albion Andrew in the Annual Address of 
His Excellency, Alexander H. Bullock, Jan. 3, 1868. 

Discourse delivered before the New-England Historic-Genealogical Society, 
Boston, April 2, 1868, on the Life and Character of the Hon. John 
Albion Andrew, LL.D., late president of the Society, with proceedings 
and appendix. By Rev. Elias Nason, M.A., member of the Society. 
Boston, New England Historic-Genealogical Society, MDCCCLX VIII. 
Bound vol., 76 pp. 8vo. Geo. C. Rand and Avery, Printers. 

Sketch of the official life of John A. Andrew as Governor of Massachu- 
setts, to which is added the Valedictory Address of Governor Andrew, 
delivered upon retiring from office, Jan. 5, 1866, on the subject of 
reconstruction of the States recently in rebellion. New York. Pub- 
lished by Hurd and Houghton, Cambridge: Riverside Press, 1868. 
Entered according to Act of Congress, etc., 1868, by A. G. Browne, Jr. 



Publications. 197 

A History of Massachusetts in the Civil War, by William Schouler, late 
adjutant-general of the Commonwealth. Boston. E. P. Dutton & Co., 
publishers, 135 Washington Street. 1868. Quotations from the official 
addresses, correspondence, etc., of Governor Andrew. 

New England Historical and Genealogical Register. January, 1869. 
Tribute to the memory of John Albion Andrew, by Samuel Burnham, 
A.M. pp. 1 to 12, inc. 

Ceremonials at the unveiling of the statue of Gov. John A. Andrew, at the 
State House, Tuesday, Feb. 14, 1871. Boston. Wright and Potter, 
State Printers, 79 Milk Street. 1871. Pamphlet. 29 pp. 

Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe has a sketch of Governor Andrew, occupying 
20 pages in her " Lives and Deeds of our Self-made men." Bound vol- 
ume, 1872. 

" Warrington " Pen Portraits : a collection of Personal and Political Rem- 
iniscences from 1848 to 1876, from the writings of William S. Robin- 
son, with memoir and extracts from Diary and Letters never before 
published. Boston. Edited and Published by Mrs. W. S. Robinson, 
41-45 Franklin Street, Boston. References to Governor Andrew occur 
on pp. 93, 94, 95, 110, 230, 274, 339, 340, 406, and 521. 

The Town of Hingham in the late Civil War. Prepared by Fearing Burr 
and George Lincoln. 8vo. pp. 455. Published by order of the town, 
1876. For Biographical sketch of John Albion Andrew, see pp. 317- 
321, inc., communicated by John D. Long. 

A Memorial Volume containing the exercises at the Dedication of the 
Statue of John A. Andrew at Hingham, Oct. 8, 1875, together with an 
account of the organization and proceedings of the John A. Andrew 
Monument Association. Boston. Published by the Association, 
MDCCCLXXVIII. Quarto. 55 pp. 

Memorial and Biographical Sketches of John Albion Andrew. By James 
Freeman Clarke. Boston. Houghton, Osgood, and Company. The 
Riverside Press, Cambridge. 1878. pp. 65. 

History of the Flag of the United States of America. By Geo. Henry 
Preble, rear admiral U. S. N. Published by A. Williams and Company, 
Boston, 1880. Extracts from the Addresses, etc. of Governor Andrew. 
See pp. 465, 466, 545-548, 554, 556, 579. Also his speech on receiv- 
ing the flags of the Massachusetts regiments, pp. 547, 548. 

Memoir of the Hon. John Albion Andrew, LL.D. By Peleg W. 
Chandler, reprinted from the proceedings of the Massachusetts Histori- 
cal Society for April, 1880. Cambridge, John Wilson and Son, Univer- 
sity Press. 1880. Pamphlet. 32 pp. 

Memoir of Governor Andrew, with personal reminiscences, by Peleg W. 
Chandler, to which are added two hitherto unpublished Literary Dis- 
courses and the Valedictory Address. Boston. Roberts Brothers, 1880. 
University Press, John Wilson and Son, Cambridge. Bound volume, 
pp. 298. 

The Eve of War. From Governor Andrew's Address to the Legislature 
of Massachusetts, Jan. 5, 1861. pp. 8. The Old South Leaflets, Second 
Series, 1884, No. 8. 

Cathaeine No Badgee. 

Martha Whiting was a daughter of Enoch and Martha Whiting, 
and was born in Hing-ham, Feb. 27, 1795. She commenced teach- 



198 History of Hingham. 

ing here when seventeen or eighteen years of age, and had charge 
of one of the schools in the Centre District for nearly ten years. 

In 1823 Miss Whiting left Hingham for Charlestown, Mass., 
where she established a private school, and where, in May, 1831, 
she became the founder of the Charlestown Female Seminary, a 
school in the interest of the Baptists, of which denomination she 
was a devoted and conscientious member. She died in Hingham, 
Aug. 22, 1853, aged 58 years and 6 months. 

The Teacher's last Lesson ; a Memoir of Martha Whiting, late of the 
Charlestown Female Seminary. Consisting chiefly of Extracts from 
her Journal, interspersed with Reminiscences and suggestive Reflections, 
by Catharine N. Badger, an associate Teacher. 284 pp. 12mo, with 
portrait. Boston. Gould and Lincoln. 1855. 

James Loring Baker. 

The Washingtonian Reform. An Address delivered before the Hingham 
Total Abstinence Society, June 16, 1844. Hingham. Jedidiah Farmer, 
Printer. 

A Review of the Tariff of 1846, in its effects upon the business and in- 
dustry of the country, in a series of articles contributed to the Evening 
Transcript over the signature of " Profit and Loss," with a Table show- 
ing the annual amount of our foreign imports and exports for the last 
ten years. Boston. Redding and Company, 1855. Pamphlet. 

Men and Things, or Short Essays on various subjects, including Free 
Trade. Boston. Crosby, Nichols, and Company. 1858. Bound vol. 
12mo. 

Exports and Imports, as showing the Relative Advancement of Every 
Nation in Wealth, Strength, and Independence. [In a series of articles 
contributed to the Boston Transcript.] Printed by order of the com- 
mittee of correspondence appointed under the resolutions of a meeting 
on the 15th of June, 1858, of the friends of protection to domestic 
industry. Philadelphia. 1859. Pamphlet. 

Slavery, by the author of " Exports and Imports," " Men and Things," etc. 
Philadelphia. John A. Norton. 1860. Pamphlet. 

David Barnes. 

A Discourse on Education, delivered before the Trustees of the Derby 
Academy, at Hingham, April 5, 1796. Also at the South Parish in 
Scituate. " Education forms the common mind." Published by desire. 
Boston. Printed by Manning and Loring. 1803. 

Solomon J. Beal. 

John Beal of Hingham and One Line of His Descendants. Genealogical. 
Pamphlet, pp. 16. Boston. Wright and Potter, printers, No. 4 
Spring Lane. 1867. 

William Bentley. 

Pastor of the Second Church in Salem. 

A Sermon delivered July 2, 1806, at the Ordination of Mr. Joseph Rich- 
ardson, A.M., to the pastoral care of the Church and Congregation of 
the First Parish in Hingham. Boston. Printed by Hosea Sprague. 



Publications. 199 

QUINCY BlCKNELL. 

A brief family story. By Quincy Bicknell. Family Historian. From 
" The Bicknells and the Family Reunion at Weymouth, Massachusetts, 
September 22, 1880." pp. 26-36, inc. Boston. , New England Pub- 
lishing Co., Printers. 1880. 

Sketch By a Parishioner. See pp. 53-66, inc., in the pamphlet hav- 
ing upon its title-page " Reverend Calvin Lincoln. Sermon preached 
in the Old Meeting-House, Hiugham, Sunday, September 18, 1881. 
By Rev. Rufus P. Stebbins, D.D., also Services at the Funeral, and 
Sketch by a Parishioner." 

Mr. Bicknell recently published a very full and carefully pre- 
pared history of John Tower, Senior, of Hingham, and his 
descendants. The work will furnish much valuable information 
concerning the families belonging to Hingham and Cohasset, as 
well as a complete record of those who bear the surname " Tower " 
throughout the United States ; and its value in an historical, 
genealogical way cannot be overestimated. 

Amos Binney. 

Mr. Binney was for two years pastor of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church in Hingham. He married here for his first wife, 
July 14, 1824, Caroline, daughter of Isaiah and Susa (Leavitt) 
Wilder. Some years ago he published a " Theological Compend," 
which has been translated into nearly every language by mission- 
aries, and just before his decease, in 1878, he completed his last 
work, entitled " The People's Commentary." He was a native 
of Hull. 

Poetic Essays to aid the Devotions of Pious People. Boston. Printed by 
Lincoln and Edmands. 1822. Pamphlet, pp. 48. 

Thomas Tracy Bouve\ 

Notes on Gems. From the Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural 
History, Vol. XXIIL, Jan. 2, 1884. Monograph pamphlet. 

Historical Sketch of the Boston Society of Natural History, with a Notice 
of the Linnsean Society which preceded it. Published by the Society. 
1880. Quarto, pp. 250, with Portraits. 

Daniel Bowen. 

Assumed Authority. A Review of Rev. Dr. Hedge's Address, entitled 
" Anti-Supernaturalism in the Pulpit." Boston. Walker, Wise, and 
Company. 1864. Pamphlet. 

Jedediah J. Brayton. 

Our Duty in relation to Southern Slavery. A Discourse delivered at 
South Hingham, Jan. 29, 1860. Boston. Printed by Prentiss and 
Sawyer, No. 19 Water Street. 1860. Pamphlet. 8vo. pp. 16. 



200 History of Hingham. 

J. M. Brewster. 

Fidelity and Usefulness. Life of William Burr, Dover, N. H. F. Baptist 
Printing establishment. Boston. D. Lothrop & Co. 1871. 208 pp. 
12mo. cloth, with portrait. 

Charles Brooks. 

A Family Prayer-book: containing Forms of morning and evening 
Prayers for a fortnight. "With those for Religious Societies and In- 
dividuals. Cambridge. Printed by Hilliard and Metcalf. 1821. 

The name of the author does not appear in any part of the 
volume. In a preparatory note it is addressed as follows : — 

To the Families composing the Third Church and Society in Hingham: 

My Friends and People. — It is equally the dictate of duty and 
inclination, in your Pastor, to dedicate to you the volume of prayers com- 
posed and selected for your benefit. As I have prepared it during the last 
month, amidst all the duties of my office, I must ask from you that candour 
on which I have so often relied. Accept it as a part of my ministerial 
labours, and as an expression of my earnest wish to advance the spirit of 
true devotion and pure Christianity. 

Hingham, August, 1821. 

Solomon Lincoln, in his " Memoir " of Mr. Brooks, says, — 

" During the first year of his ministry (1821) he wrote a Family 
Prayer Book, intended for his people, which was afterwards published in 
Hingham. It soon went to a second edition, and the demand for it was so 
great that in 1833 he rewrote the whole work, made a large addition to it, 
and the first stereotype edition was published. Eighteen editions have 
been issued, many having 4,000 copies each. A wealthy merchant of 
Boston gave away 20,000 copies, for which he paid Mr. Brooks a liberal 
price." 

A Discourse delivered in Cohasset, on Tuesday, Oct. 13, 1835. At the 
Interment of the Rev. Jacob Flint, Pastor of the First Church in that 
Town. Published by request of the hearers. Hingham. Jedidiah 
Farmer. 1835. 

Mr. Brooks also published a " History of Medford," " The Daily 
Monitor," and a large number of other books and pamphlets. 
" He was quite a voluminous writer." 

John Brown. 

In what Sense the Heart is Deceitful and Wicked. A Discourse from 
Jer. xvii. 9. By John Brown, A.M., Pastor of the Second Church in 
Hingham. Published at the General Request and Expense of his 
Parishioners. 12mo. pp. 22. "Boston. Printed by Fowle in Queen 
Street. 1754." 

A Discourse delivered at the West-Church in Boston, Aug. 24, 1766, six 
weeks after the death of the Reverend Dr. Mayhew. By John Brown, 
A.M., Pastor of the Second Church in Hingham. " The Lord Reigneth." 



Publications. 201 

King David. " None can stay his Hand, or say unto Him, What dost 
Thou ? " Prophet Daniel. Boston. Printed by R. and S. Draper, in 
Newbury-Street ; Edes and Gill in Queen-Street ; and T. and J. Fleet 
in Cornhill. 1766. 
A Discourse delivered on the Day of the Annual Provincial Thanksgiving, 
Dec. 6, 1770. By John Brown, A.M., Pastor of the Church in 
Cohasset. 12mo. pp. 15. Boston, New England. Printed by 
Thomas Fleet, MDCCLXXI. 

Olympia Brown. 

Sermon at the Ordination and Installation of Rev. Phebe A. Hanaford as 
Pastor of the First Universalist Church in Hingham, Mass., Feb. 19, 
1868. Published with services of the occasion. Boston. C. C. Roberts, 
Printer. 1870. 12mo. 71 pp. See John G. Adams. 

Stephen G. Bulfhstch. 
A Good Old Age. A Sermon preached at the Church at Harrison Square, 
Dorchester, on Sunday, Feb. 2, 1862, on occasion of the decease of Mrs. 
Sarah Gushing, wife of Hon. Abel Cushing. Samuel P. Brown, Printer. 
Randolph Book Office. 1862. 

" The lady whose decease occasioned this sermon was the daughter of 
Moses and Martha (Lincoln) Whiton, and was born in Hingham, Jan. 11, 
1783. In 1811 she became the wife of Hon. Abel Cushing, who with 
their four sons, survives her. She died at her home in Dorchester, Jan. 
27, 1862. This tribute to her worth is printed, by request of her family, 
for private distribution." 

Fearing Burr, Jr. 
The Field and Garden Vegetables of America. Illustrated. 674 pp. 

8vo. Boston. Crosby and Nichols. 1863. A second edition, with 

additional illustrations, was published in 1865, by J. E. Tilton and 

Company. Boston. Now out of print. 
Garden Vegetables, and how to cultivate them. Illustrated. 12mo. Boston. 

J. E. Tilton and Company. 1865. 

By Fearing Burr and George Lincoln, associates : — 
The Town of Hingham in the late Civil War, with sketches of its Soldiers 
and Sailors. Also the Address and other Exercises at the Dedication 
of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument. Published by order of the 
Town. 1876. 455 pp. 8vo. 

H. Price Collier. 

Doubtful Experiments in Rhyme. By the author of " Better things than 

these, etc." Hingham. Press of Fred. H. Miller. 1888. 
Sermons. New York. E. P. Dutton & Co. 1892. 

Included in this volume are eighteen of the author's prominent 
discourses, one of which was preached to the First Corps of 
Cadets, Sunday, July 14, 1892, while in camp in Hingham. 

Henry Colman. 

Some of his published works as a minister, which have a local 
interest, are : — 
A Discourse delivered in the Chapel Church, Boston, before the Humane 

Society of Massachusetts, 9 June, 1812. Published by request of 



202 History of Hingham. 

the Society. Boston. Printed by John Eliot, Jan. 1812, with an 
Appendix. 

The Divine Providence. A sermon preached in Hingham and Quincy 
20th August, 1812, the day of the National Fast on account of the War 
with Great Britain. Boston. Printed by Joshua Belcher. 1812. 

A Discourse addressed to the Plymouth and Norfolk Bible Society, at 
their First Annual Meeting in Hanover, 11 September, 1816. Pub- 
lished by request. Boston. Printed by John Eliot. 1816. 

Catechisms for Children and Young Persons. In two parts: Part L, 
containing a Catechism for Children ; Part II., containing a Catechism for 
Young Persons. Boston. Printed by John Eliot. 1817. Pamphlet. 

A Sermon preached in Hingham 17 December, 1817, at the Ordination of 
the Rev. Daniel Kimball, A.M., Preceptor of Derby Academy, as an 
Evangelist. Published by request. Boston. Printed by John Eliot. 
1818. 

A Discourse delivered before the Ancient and Honourable Artillery Com- 
pany in Boston, 1 June, 1818. Published by request of the Company. 
Boston. Printed by John Eliot. 1818. 

A Sermon preached at the Installation of the Rev. James Flint in the 

East Church in Salem. Boston. Published by Thomas B. Wait. 1821. 

(In an appended note it is stated that the Installation took place on the 

20th September, a.d. 1821. The exercises on the occasion are briefly 

given.) 

A Discourse on Pastoral Duty, addressed to the Ministers of the Bay 
Association at their Meeting in Hingham, August 21, 1822. Published 
at the request of the Association. Boston. Published by Cummings 
and Hilliard. 1822. 

Discourse at the Opening of the Independent Congregational Church in 
Barton Square, Salem, 7 Dec, 1824. 8vo. 

In addition to his Reports on the Agriculture of Massachusetts, 
his larger published works include, — 

The Agriculture and Rural Economy of France. Belgium, Holland, and 
Switzerland ; from personal observation. Boston, Mass. Arthur D. 
Phelps. 1848. 304 pp. 8vo. cloth. 

European Life and Manners. 1849. 2 vols. 12mo. 

European Agriculture and Rural Economy. 2 vols. 8vo. 4th edition. 
1851. 

Ward Cotton. 

" Ministers must make Full Proof of their Ministry." A sermon preached 
at the Ordination of the Reverend Mr. John Brown, Pastor of the 
Second Church of Christ in Hingham. By Ward Cotton, A.M., Pastor 
of the first Church of Christ in Hampton, in the Province of New 
Hampshire. " Published at the Desire and Expence of the Reverend 
Ministers and other Gentlemen who heard it." Col. iv. 17. " And 
say to Archippus, Take Heed to the Ministry which thou hast received 
in the Lord that thou fulfill it." 12mo. pp. 30. Boston. Printed 
for D. Gookin, over against the Old South Meeting- House. 1747. 

Abel Cushing. 

Historical Letters on the First Charter of Massachusetts Government. 
1839. Small 12mo. 204 pp. cloth. Originally written for a news- 



Publications. 203 

paper, and afterwards published in the volume above described for pri- 
vate distribution. 

He also wrote many political essays. 

Samuel Downer. 

Address delivered in the Pavilion at Downer Landing, Sunday, Aug. 14, 
1881. Hingham. Printed by request. 1881. 

Samuel Dunbar. 

True Faith makes the best Soldier. A Sermon Preached before the 
Ancient and Honourable Artillery- Company, on their Anniversary 
Meeting, for the Election of Officers, June 6, 1748. Boston. Printed 
for D. Henchman, in Cornhill. 1748. 

Brotherly Love the Duty and Mark of Christians. A sermon at Medfield, 
Nov. 6, 1748, after the sitting of a Council there. 8vo. pp. 28. Boston. 
1749. 

Righteousness by the Law subversive of Christianity. Sermon at Thurs- 
day Lecture, Boston, May 9, 1751. 8vo. pp. 27. Boston. 1751. 

Duty of Ministers to testify the Gospel of the Grace of God, a sermon at 
Braintree, Dec. 13, 1753, a day for Humiliation and Prayer for Divine 
Direction in the Choice of a Minister. 8vo. pp.20. Boston. 1754. 

The Presence of God with his People, their only Safety and Happiness. 
Election Sermon, May 28, 1760. Text, 2 Chronicles xv. 1, 2. 8vo. 
pp. 37. Boston. 1760. 

The Ministers of Christ should be careful that they do not in their ministry 
corrupt the word of God. Sermon preached in Scituate, April 20, 
1763, at the ordination of Rev. Ebenezer Grosvenor. pp. 27. Boston. 
1763. 

The Duty of Christ's Ministers to be Spiritual Laborers. Sermon at 
Dorchester, April 29, 1774. A day set apart by the Church and Con- 
gregation there for Solemn Humiliation, pp. 28. Boston. 1775. 

E. Porter Dyer. 

Oration delivered at the Celebration of the one hundred and fiftieth An- 
niversary of the Incorporation of Abington, Massachusetts, June 10, 
1862, and published in connection with other exercises of the occasion. 
Boston. Wright and Potter. 1862. 

Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress in verse. 12mo. pp. 290. Boston. Lee 
and Shepard. 1869. 

Convers Francis. 

Errors in Education. A Discourse delivered at the Anniversary of the 
Derby Academy in Hingham, May 21, 1828. Luke i. 66. "What 
manner of child shall this be." Published by request. Hingham. 
Farmer and Brown. 1828. 

William H. Furness. 

Doing before Believing. A Discourse delivered at the Anniversary of the 
Derby Academy, in Hingham, May 19, 1847. Published by request. 
New York. W. S. Dorr, Printer. 1847. 



204 History of Hingham. 



Ebenezer Gay. 

Ministers Men of like Passions with Others. From Acts xiv. 15. " We 
also are men of like passions with you." Preached at Barnstable, at 
the Ordination of the Rev. Joseph Green, 1725. 

The Transcendent Glory of the Gospel. 2 Cor. iii. 10. " For even that 
which was made glorious had no glory in this respect, by reason of the 
glory that excelleth." Preached at the Lecture in Hingham, 1728. 

A Pillar of Salt to season a Corrupt Age. Luke xxii. 32. " Remember 
Lot's wife." Lecture in Hingham, 1728. 

Zechariah's Vision of Christ's Martial Glory. Zech. i. 8. " I saw by 
night, and, behold, a man riding upon a red horse, and he stood among 
the myrtle trees that were in the bottom ; and behind him there were 
red horses, speckled, and white." Before the Ancient and Honourable 
Artillery Company, 1728. 

The Duty of People to Pray for and Praise their Rulers. Ps. lxxii. 15. 
" Prayer also shall be made for him continually, and daily shall he 
be praised." Lecture in Hingham, on occasion of the arrival of His 
Excellency, Jonathan Belcher, Esq., to his government, 1730. 

Well-accomplished Soldiers a Glory to their King, and Defence to their 
Country. 2 Chron. xvii. 18. " And next him was Jehozabad, and 
with him an hundred and fourscore thousand, ready prepared for war." 
Before several Military Companies in Hingham, 1738. 

Ministers' Insufficiency for their Important and Difficult Work. 2 Cor. 
ii. 16. " To the one we are the savour of death unto death, and to the 
other the savour of life unto life ; and who is sufficient for these things." 
At Suffield, at the Ordination of the Rev. Ebenezer Gay, Jan. 
1741-42. 

The untimely Death of a Man of God lamented. 1 Kings xiii. 30. "And 
they mourned over him, saying, Alas, my brother." At the Funeral of 
the Rev. John Hancock, Braintree, 1744. 

The Character and Work of a Good Ruler, and the Duty of an Obliged 
People. 2 Sam. xxi. 17. " Then the men of David sware unto him, 
saying, Thou shalt go no more out with us to battle, that thou quench 
not the light of Israel." An Election Sermon, 1745. 

The true Spirit of a Gospel Minister. John i. 32. " And John bare 
record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and 
it abode upon him." At the Annual Convention in Boston, 1746. 

The Alienation of Affections from Ministers. Gal. iv. 13, 14, 15, 16. 
" Ye know how through infirmity of the flesh I preached the gospel unto 
you at the first. And my temptation which was in the flesh ye despised 
not, nor rejected ; but received me as an angel of God, even as Christ 
Jesus. When is then the blessedness ye spake of? For I bear you 
record, that if it had been possible, ye would have plucked out your 
own eyes, and have given them to me. Am I therefore become your 
enemy because I tell you the truth ? " In Boston at the Ordination of 
the Rev. Jonathan Mayhew, 1747. 

The Mystery of the Seven Stars in Christ's Right Hand. Rev. i. 16. 
" And he had in his right hand seven stars." In Scituate at the Ordina- 
tion of the Rev. John [Jonathan] Dorby, 1751. 

Jesus Christ the wise Master Builder of his Church. Zech. ii. 1. "I 
lifted up mine eyes again, and looked, and, behold a man with a measur- 



Publications. 205 

ing line in his hand." In Keene, at the Installment of the Rev. Ezra 
Carpenter, 1753. 

The Levite not to be forsaken. Deut. xii. 19. "Take heed to thyself, 
that thou forsake not the Levite, as long as thou livest upon the earth." 
In Yarmouth, at the Installment of the Rev. Grindall Rawson, 1755. 

Natural Religion as distinguished from Revealed. Rom. ii. 14, 15. "For 
when the gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things con- 
tained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves," 
etc. At the Dudleian Lecture, 1759. 

A beloved Disciple of Jesus Christ characterized. John xxi. 20. " The 
Disciple whom Jesus loved." On the decease of the Rev. Dr. Mayhew, 
of Boston, 1766. 

St. John's VisioD of the Woman clothed with the Sun, etc. Rev. xii. 1-5. 
" And there appeared a great wonder in heaven, a woman clothed with 
the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve 
stars," etc. In Boston, on the decease of the Rev. Dr. Mayhew, 1766. 

A Call from Macedonia. Acts xvi. 9, 10. "And a vision appeared to 
Paul in the night ; there stood a man of Macedonia, and prayed him, 
saying, come over into Macedonia, and help us. And after he had seen 
the vision, immediately we endeavored to go into Macedonia, assuredly 
gathering that the Lord had called us for to preach the Gospel unto 
them." In Hingham, at the Ordination of the Rev. Caleb Gannett 
over a church in Nova Scotia, 1768. 

The Devotions of God's People adjusted to the Dispensations of his Provi- 
dence. Jer. xxxi. 7. " For thus saith the Lord, sing with gladness for 
Jacob, and shout among the chief of the nations : publish ye, praise ye, 
and say, O Lord, save thy people, and the remnant of Israel." Thanks- 
giving sermon, Hingham, 1770. 

The Old Man's Calendar. A discourse delivered in Hingham, Aug. 26, 
1781, the birth-day of the author. Joshua, xiv. 10. "And now, lo, I 
am this day fourscore and five years old." Boston. Printed by John 
Boyle in Marlborough Street, MDCCLXXXI. 

This discourse has been twice reprinted, first at Salem, Mass., 
by John D. dishing and Brothers, in 1822 ; and again in Hingham 
by Jedidiah Farmer, in May, 1846. In a prefatory note to the 
edition published at Salem it is said that the Discourse " met with 
so much favor from the public, that it was reprinted not only in 
this country, but also in England and Holland, being translated 
into the Dutch language." 

Copies of the Discourses of Dr. Gay are all scarce and desirable. 
No one of the number can be considered as being abundant. 
Though specimens of each have severally been examined in the 
preparation of the list, a complete series has been found but in 
two or three instances, and these in public institutions. The 
number of private individuals in possession of an unbroken col- 
lection must be very limited. 

Sydney Howard Gay. 

Born in Hingham, May 22, 1814 ; educated at Derby Academy 
and Harvard College ; lecturing-agent of the American Anti-Slavery 



206 History of Hingham. 

Society, 1843-44 ; editor of " The National Anti-Slavery Standard," 
New York, from 1844 to 1858 ; editorial writer on " The New 
York Tribune," 1858-62; managing-editor of "The New York 
Tribune," 1862-66 ; managing-editor of " The Chicago Tribune," 
1868-71 ; on the editorial staff of " The New York Evening Post," 
1872-74. Contributed articles and reviews to the " New York 
Critic," " New York Times," " London Spectator," " Atlantic 
Monthly," and other standard periodicals, chiefly of late years 
on historical subjects ; also to our local newspaper in 1842-43. 
Besides his anti-slavery speeches Mr. Gay delivered several lec- 
tures, among them one on Toussaint I/Ouverture, and one on 
Landscape Gardening. Died in New Brighton, Staten Island* 
June 25, 1888. 

His published works include, — 

Our Old Burial Grounds. 

A church-yard 
Besprinkled o'er with green and countless graves 
And mossy tombs of unambitious pomp, 
Decaying into dust again. — R. Montgomery. 

Hingham. Published for the Cemetery Fair, held Wednesday, Aug. 17, 
1842. S. N. Dickinson, Printer, Washington Street, Boston. Con- 
tains Plan of the Burying Place sold by Joshua Tucker to persons 
therein named. (Copies are rare.) 

During the winter, after the great fire of October, 1871, Mr. 
Gay acted with the Chicago Relief Committee and in the follow- 
ing spring wrote a report of their great work of the preceding six 
months, which with certain additions by another hand bringing 
it up to date, formed the octavo volume entitled, — 
Report of the Chicago Relief and Aid Society of the disbursement of Con- 
tributions for the Sufferers by the Chicago Fire. Printed for the Chicago 
Aid and Relief Society, at the Riverside Press. 1874. 
A Popular History of the United States, from the first discovery of the 
Western Hemisphere by the Northmen to the end of the Civil War. 
Preceded by a sketch of the Pre-historic Period and the Age of the 
Mound- Builders. By William Cullen Bryant and Sydney Howard Gay. 
New York. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1881. 4 vols. Royal octavo. 
Fully illustrated. 

Mr. Gay was invited to undertake this work at the request of 
Mr. Bryant, who gave it the sanction of his name and his careful 
perusal before publication, besides contributing the " Introduc- 
tion " to Vol. I. He died after the completion of Vol. II., and 
Mr. Gay became thereafter solely responsible for the book. He 
received able assistance from well-known writers whom he men- 
tions in his " Preface " to Vol. II. and his " Introductory " to 
Vol. IV. ; but the authorship was mainly his, and he edited the 
whole. 

James Madison. For the American Statesman Series, edited by John T. 
Morse, Jr. Boston. Houghton, Mifflin, and Company. New York. 
The Riverside Press, Cambridge. 1884. 



Publications. 207 

Chapter on Amerigo Vespucci for Vol. II. (copyright 1886) of the Nar- 
rative and Critical History of America ; edited by Justin Winsor, 
Librarian of Harvard University, Corresponding Secretary Massachu- 
setts Historical Society. Boston and New York. Houghton, Mifflin, 
and Company. The Riverside Press, Cambridge. 1889. In seven 
volumes, royal octavo. 

Mr. Gay wrote constantly for the press for nearly forty years. 
To this work he brought good judgment, delicate discrimination, 
and nice taste, giving a high literary quality to his articles not dis- 
tinctively journalistic. The same conscientiousness which formed 
the manner decided the matter of his writings. Their moral 
purpose was the service he did for his day and generation. 
Debarred from pursuing his chosen profession, that of the law, 
from his unwillingness to take the oath supporting a Constitution 
which recognized slavery, he threw himself with enthusiasm, 
while still young, into the anti-slavery cause under the leadership 
of Garrison. The love of freedom and moral courage which in- 
duced this step directed his course later as managing editor of 
" The New York Tribune." Henry Wilson said of him, " The 
man deserved well of his country who kept ' The Tribune ' a war 
paper in spite of Greeley." 

Mr. Gay came naturally by his radical turn of thought, by his 
independence, courage, strong moral convictions, and good fight- 
ing qualities ; for in his veins ran the blood of John Cotton and 
the Mathers, Nehemiah Walter and Ebenezer Gay, among the 
divines of Colonial New England, and Governor Bradford and 
James Otis among those who shaped her political fortunes. 



Martin Gay. 

He was born in Boston, Feb. 11, 1803. His father, Hon. 
Ebenezer Gay, moved to Hingham when Martin was very young, 
and many years of his life were spent in Hingham. He was dis- 
tinguished as a chemist, and his reputation was established in 
Europe as well as in this country. The family have in their 
possession a genuine Etruscan vase which was presented to him 
by the Pope's librarian, Medici Spada. Dr. Gay died in Bos- 
ton, May 15, 1850. 

A Statement of the Claims of Charles T. Jackson to the Discovery of the 
Applicability of Sulphuric Ether to the Prevention of pain in Surgical 
Operations. Boston. Printed by David Clapp. 1847. Pamphlet. 
29 pp. and an Appendix. 

Benjamin Gleason. 

An Oration pronounced before the Republican Citizens of the Town of 
Hingham, in commemoration of American Independence, July 4, 1807. 
Boston. Printed by Hosea Sprague. 1807. (Copies are rare.) 



208 History of Hingliam. 



Edward Everett Hale. 

Sermon at the Installation of Rev. Edward Augustus Horton as associate 
Pastor with Rev. Calvin Lincoln, of the First Parish in Hingham, 
April 25, 1877. Included in the pamphlet, "Services at the Installa- 
tion." Hingham. Published by the Parish. 1877. 

James Hall. 

Born in Hingham, September 12, 1811, and attended the gram- 
mar school at Hingham Centre, James S. Lewis being at the time 
teacher. The course of action pursued by the young scholar 
foreshadowed the man. His only way to success was through 
personal effort. During one of the winters an evening school 
was established in the village, which he obtained the means to 
attend by manual labor between school hours and on Satur- 
day afternoons. Determined on an education, he went to Troy, 
N. Y., and there entered the Rensselaer school, graduating in 1832. 
He remained in this institution as assistant professor of chemistry 
and natural science until 1836, when he was made professor of 
geology. The same year he was appointed assistant geologist for 
the survey of the second district of the State of New York, and 
in 1837 was made State geologist in charge of the fourth district. 
Retaining the title of State geologist, he was placed in charge of 
the palaeontological part of the work. His results have been em- 
bodied in five volumes, which were given to the public, 1847-79. 
His researches have been extended westward to the Rocky Moun- 
tains. Professor Hall also held the appointments of State geologist 
of Iowa in 1855 and of Wisconsin in 1857. The examination and 
description of the specimens collected for the government have 
been frequently assigned to him. In 1866 he was appointed 
director of the New York State Museum, which place, in addi- 
tion to that of State geologist, he still holds. In connection with 
this office he has made each year in his annual reports valuable 
contributions to science. 

He received the degree of A. M. from Union and that of LL.D. 
from Hamilton in 1863, and from McGill in 1884, and from Har- 
vard in 1886. Professor Hall received the quinquennial grand 
prize of 11,000 awarded in 1884 by the Boston Society of Natural 
History. In 1856 he was elected president of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, and in 1878 was one of 
the vice-presidents of the international congress of geologists held 
in Paris ; also at Bologna in 1881 and in Berlin in 1885. He was 
elected one of the fifty foreign members of the Geological Society 
of London in 1848, and in 1858 was awarded the Wollaston medal. 
In 1884 he was elected correspondent of the Academy of Sciences 
in Paris. He also is a member of many other scientific societies 
at home and abroad. 

His more prominent publications include, — 



Publications. 209 

Geology of New York. Part IV., comprising the survey of the Fourth 
Geological District, pp. 682. Maps and plates. Albany. 1843. 4to. 

Fremont's Exploring Expedition. Appendix A. Geological formations, 
pp. 295-303. B. Organic Remains, pp. 304-310. 4 Plates. Wash- 
ington. 1845. 8vo. 

Palaeontology of New York. Vol.1, pp. xxiii, 338. Plates, 100. Albany. 
1847. 4to. 

Report on the Geology of the Lake Superior Land District. By J. W. 
Foster and J. D. Whitney. Lower Silurian System. Chapter 9. pp. 
140-151. Washington. 1851. 8vo. Upper Silurian and Devonian 
Series. Ibid. Chapter 10. pp. 152-166. Descriptions of New and 
Rare Species of Fossils from the Palaeozoic Series. Ibid. Chap- 
ter 13. pp. 203-231. Parallelism of the Palaeozoic Deposits of Europe 
and America. Ibid. Chapter 18. pp. 285-318. 

Stansbury's Expedition to the Great Salt Lake. Geology and Palaeon- 
tology, pp. 401-414. Philadelphia. 1852. 8vo. 

Palaeontology of New York. Vol.11, pp. viii, 362. 104 plates. Albany. 
1852. 4to. 

United States and Mexican Boundary Survey (Emory). Geology and 
Palaeontology of the Boundary, pp. 103, 140. 20 plates. Washing- 
ton. 1857. 4to. Also published in American Journal of Science, 2d 
Ser. See vol. 24. pp. 72-86. New Haven. 1857. 

Geological Survey of the State of Iowa. Vol. I., Part I. Hall and Whit- 
ney. General Geology. Chapter II. pp. 35-44. 

Geology of Iowa. General Reconnoissance. Chapter III. pp. 45, 46. 
Part II. Palaeontology of Iowa. Chapter VIII. pp. 473-724. 29 
plates. Albany. 1858. 4to. 

Contributions to the Palaeontology of Iowa, being descriptions of new 
species of Crinoidea and other fossils (supplement to Vol I., Part II. 
of the Geological Report of Iowa), pp. 1-92. 3 plates. Albany. 
1859. 

Iowa Geological Survey. Supplement to Vol. I., Part II. pp. 1-4. 
1859. 4to. 

Palaeontology of New York. Vol. III., Part I., text. pp. xii, 522. 
Albany. 1859. 4to. 

Supplement to Vol. I. Published in Palaeontology of New York. Vol. 
III. pp. 495-529. Albany. 1859. 4to. 

Palaeontology of New York. Vol. III., Part II. 141 plates, and ex- 
planations. Albany. 1861. 4to. 

Report on the Geological Survey of the State of Wisconsin. Vol. I. 
James Hall and J. D. Whitney. Madison. 1862. 8vo. Chapter I. 
Physical Geography and General Geology, pp. 1-72. Chapter IX. 
Palaeontology of Wisconsin, pp. 425-448. 

Geological Survey of Canada. Figures and Descriptions of Canadian Or- 
ganic Remains. Decade II. Graptolites of the Quebec Group. 151 
pages. 23 plates. Montreal. 1865. 8vo. and 4to. 

Palaeontology of New York. Vol. IV., Part I. pp. xi, 428. 69 plates. 
Albany. 1867. 4to. 

Geological Survey of the State of Wisconsin, 1859-1863. Palaeontology. 
Part III. Organic Remains of the Niagara Group and Associated Lime- 
stones, pp. 1-94. 18 plates. Albany. 1871. 4to. 

Geological Survey of Ohio. Vol. II. Geology and Palaeontology. Part 
II. Palaeontology. Columbus. 1875. 8vo. 
vol. i. — 14* 



210 History of Hingham. 

Descriptions of Silurian Fossils. James Hall and R. P. Whitfield. Ibid, 
pp. 65-161. Descriptions of Crinoidea from the Waverly Group. 
James Hall and R. P. Whitfield. Ibid. pp. 162-179. 

Illustrations of Devonian Fossils. 7 pages. 133 plates, with interleaved 
descriptions. Albany. 1876. 4to. 

United States Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel. Clarence 
King. Vol. IV. Ornithology and Palaeontology. Part II. Palaeon- 
tology. James Hall and R. P. Whitfield, pp. 199-302. 7 plates. 
Washington. 1877. 4to. 

Palaeontology of New York. Vol. V., Part II. Text, pp. xx, 492. 
Plates 120. Albany. 1879. 4to. 

In addition to these volumes, more than two hundred and fifty 
scientific papers have been published in reports, transactions of 
societies, journals, and magazines by this distinguished author, — 
an amount of scientific labor believed to be unparalleled, if equalled, 
by any other American scientist. A vigorous constitution, long 
life, strict economy of time, and persistent effort have won for 
him a degree of success and worthy distinction, for the attain- 
ing of which every citizen of his native town will join in cordial 
congratulation. 

Phebe A. Hanaford. 

The Reciprocal Duties of Pastor and People. Sermon delivered in the 
First Universalist Church, Hingham, Mass., March 10, 1867. Pub- 
lished by request. Boston. Printed by S. O. Thayer. 1867. 

Alonzo Htll. 

A Discourse delivered in the ancient Meeting-house of the First Con- 
gregational Society in Hingham, on Sunday, Sept. 8, 1850. Boston. 
William Crosby and H. P. Nichols. 1850. 

Timothy Hilliard. 

Pastor of the First Church in Cambridge, Mass. 

A Sermon preached Oct. 24, 1787, at the Ordination of the Rev. Henry 
Ware to the Pastoral Care of the First Church in Hingham, including 
" the Charge, by the Rev. Mr. Brown, of Cohasset, and the Right 
Hand of Fellowship, by the Rev. Mr. Shute, of Hingham." Salem. 
Printed by Dabney and Cushing. 1788. 

Noah Hobart. 

A Sermon delivered at the ordination of the Rev. Mr. Noah Welles at 
Stanford, Dec. 31, 1746. Printed at Boston. 1747. 

There is authority for other published discourses and addresses. 

Edward C. Hood. 

Christmas Sermon preached in the Congregational Church, Hingham Cen- 
tre, Dec. 26, 1880. Text. Matthew ii. 9. " And lo, the star which they 
saw in the east went before them, till it came and stood over where 
the young child was." 



Publications. 211 



Edward Augustus Horton. 

Services at the Installation of Rev. Edward Augustus Horton as Associate 
Pastor with Rev. Calvin Lincoln, of the First Parish in Hingbam, 
April 25, 1877. With sermon of Rev. Edward Everett Hale. Hingham. 
Published by the Parish, 1877. 

Sermon before the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massa- 
chusetts, by Rev. Edward A. Horton of Hingham, June 2, 1879. " The 
Law of Fulfilment : " "I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil." Matt, 
v. 17. Published with the Anniversary Proceedings, and the Two Hun- 
dred and Forty-first annual record of the company. 1878-79. 

Address of Rev. Edward A. Horton of the Second Church in Boston at 
the commemorative services of the First Parish in Hingham on the Two 
Hundredth Anniversary of The Building of its Meeting-House, Monday, 
Aug. 8, 1881. pp. 67 to 68, incl. Hingham. Published by the 
Parish. 1882. 

Address at the Funeral Services of Rev. Calvin Lincoln, Sept. 18, 1881. 

Our Martyred President. Lessons from the Life of James A. Garfield. 
A sermon preached in the Second Church, Boston, Sunday, Sept. 25, 
1881, by the Minister, Rev. Edward A. Horton. 

Discourse delivered to the First Parish in Hingham on the Two Hun- 
dredth Anniversary of the opening of its Meeting-house for Public 
Worship. Sunday, Jan. 8, 1882. By Rev. Edward Augustus Horton. 
With an Appendix. Hingham. Published by the Parish. 1882. 

The following sermons and addresses by Mr. Horton were 
delivered prior to his settlement in Hingham : — 

From Shore to Shore. A Sermon preached at the First Congregational 
(Unitarian) Church. Leominster, Feb. 27, 1870. By Edward A. 
Horton, Minister of the Society. Printed by request. Fitchburg. 
1870. 

Discourse preached at the Funeral Services of Captain Lucien A. Cook, 
Co. K Leominster Light Infantry. On Sunday, March 16, 1873, at 
Leominster, Mass. Printed at Fitchburg. 

Address delivered by Rev. E. A. Horton, of Leominster, at Brookfield, 
Memorial Day, May 30, 1873. Springfield, Mass. 

An Historical Address. Commemorating the Semi-Centennial Anniver- 
sary of the Dedication of the First Congregational Meeting-House, in 
Leominster. Delivered Wednesday, Oct. 15, 1873. By E. A. Horton, 
Pastor of the First Congregational (Unitarian) Society. Published by 
a vote of the Parish. 

Seven Years in Leominster. A Sermon commemorating the termination 
of a seven years' Pastorate Oct. 1, 1875, over the Unitarian Church 
(First Parish) in Leominster, most affectionately dedicated to his former 
Parishioners, whose unfailing kindness the following tribute but partially 
recognizes. By E. A. Horton. Published by request. 

Sereno Howe. 

View of Zion. A Sermon preached on the last Sabbath of his Pastoral 
Connection with the First Baptist Church and Society in Hingham, 
Mass. Published by request. Boston. J. Howe, Printer. 1850. 



212 History of Hingham. 

William Asbury Kenyon. 

William A. Kenyon was a son of John Kingman. He died at 
South Hingham, Jan. 25, 1862, a?t. 44 years. The adopted name 
was sanctioned by legal enactment. 

Poetry of Observation and other Poems. Boston. Wm. Crosby and H. 

P. Nichols. 1851. 104 pp. 12mo. 
The Poetry of Observation. Part Second, and other Poems. By William 

Asbury Kenvon, a Massachusetts Mechanic. Boston. Wm. Crosby 

and H. P. Nichols. 1853. 12mo. 104 pp. 

Daniel Kimball. 

A Sermon delivered before the Hingham Peace Society, Dec. 2, 1819. 

Pamphlet. 8vo. pp. 12. Boston. 1819. 
Thoughts on Unitarian Christianity. A Sermon preached Sept. 27, 1829. 

before the First Unitarian Society in Milton. Pamphlet. 8vo. pp. 16. 

Dedham. 1829. See Henry Colman. 

John Kingman. 

Letters written while on a Tour to Illinois and Wisconsin in the summer 
of 1838. Hingham. Jedidiah Farmer, Printer. 1842. Pamphlet. 
48 pp. 

S. R. KOEHLER. 

Biographical Memoir of the late Mr. Joseph Andrews, Engraver. Pub- 
lished by the Boston Art Club, May 17, 1873. Pamphlet. 8vo. 
pp. 21. 

Daniel Lewis. 

Among his published discourses are the two following : — 

Of taking Heed to and Fulfilling the Ministry. Sermon preached in Ply- 
mouth, Nov. 2, 1720, at the Ordination of Rev. Joseph Stacy. [Pre- 
face by Rev. Ephraim Little.] pp. 32. Boston. 1720. 

Good Rulers the Fathers of their People. Election Sermon, 1748. 
Text, Isaiah xxii. 21. pp. 29. Boston. 1748. 

Barnabas Lincoln. 

Narrative of the Capture, Suffering, and Escape of Captain Barnabas 
Lincoln and his crew, who were taken by a piratical schooner, December, 
1821, off Key Largo, together with Facts illustrating the character of 
those piratical cruisers. Written by himself. Boston. Printed by Ezra 
Lincoln, No. 4 Suffolk Building, Congress Street. 1822. Pamphlet, 
pp. 40. (Scarce.) 

Major-General Benjamin Lincoln. 

Journal of a Treaty held in 1793 with the Indian Tribes northwest of 
the Ohio. Mass. Historical Collection Vol. V. 3d Series. Also same, 
Vol. IV. 1st Series ; and Vol. III. 2d Series. 

General Lincoln also wrote several articles for periodicals, 
which were printed. 



Publications. 213 

Calvin Lincoln. 

A Sermon preached on the morning of the Annual Fast, April 3, 1834. 
Published by request. 

A Sermon to Young Men, delivered at Fitchburg, Feb. 22, 1835. Pub- 
lished by request. 

Evils of Sectarianism. A Sermon preached at Fitchburg, Sunday April 
9, 1843. Printed by request. Fitchburg. Published by Charles 
Shepley. 1843. 

A Sermon preached in the Meeting-house of the First Parish in Hingham, 
Jan. 8, 1865, the Sunday after the Funeral of Mrs. Elizabeth Andrews 
Harding. Hingham. Blossom and Easterbrook. 1865. N. B. The 
deceased was an only daughter of the Pastor. 

A Discourse on the Life and Character of Rev. Ezra Stiles Gannett, D.D., 
delivered in the Meeting-house of the First Parish in Hingham, on 
Sunday, Sept. 3, 1871. Printed by request. Boston. 1871. Barker, 
Cotter & Co., Printers, 

Discourse delivered to the First Parish in Hingham, Sept. 8, 1869, on the 
Re-opening of their Meeting-house, with an Appendix. Hingham. 
Published by the Parish. 1873. 

George Lincoln (born 1797). 

The Pilgrims' Songs in the Wilderness. A book of Hymns. By George 
Lincoln, Jr. Published for the author, April, 1821. 16mo. pp. 32. 
Copies are rare. 

George Lincoln (born 1822). 

A Genealogical Record of the Families of Hingham, beginning with the 
settlement of the town, Sept. 2, 1635. In two volumes. 8vo. (Vol- 
umes II. and III. of this History.) 

By George Lincoln and Fearing Burr, associates : — 

The Town of Hingham in the late Civil War, with Sketches of its Soldiers 
and Sailors. Also the Address and other Exercises at the Dedication 
of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument. Published by order of the 
Town. 1876. 8vo. pp. 455. 

Henry Lincoln. 

A Sermon preached at the Ordination of the Rev. Nymphas Hatch to the 
Pastoral Care of the First Church and Society in Tisbury (Martha's 
Vineyard), Oct. 7, 1801. Boston. January, 1802. 

A Sermon delivered, Sept. 14, 1806, at the Interment of Mrs. Rachel 
Smith. 8vo. pp. 19. Boston. 1806. 

Levi Lincoln. 

A son of Enoch and Rachel (Fearing) Lincoln. He was born in 
Hingham, May 15, 1749. After graduating at Harvard College, in 
1772, he settled at Worcester, Mass., where he soon became dis- 
tinguished as a lawyer and judge ; was later a member of Con- 
gress, acting Governor, etc. "A Farmer's Letters," written by 
him, and published in 1800 and 1801, were widely circulated, and 



214 History of Hingham. 

busied the press of that period with efforts to answer their argu- 
ments. Addressed " To The People," and issued by numbers, 
with prefatory remarks, but without the author's name. 

Solomon Lincoln (born 1804). 

Solomon Lincoln, Jr. (born in Hingham, Feb. 28, 1804) was a 
son of Solomon, who died Dec. 21,1831. The "junior" there- 
fore was discontinued after the last-named date. Mr. Lincoln 
was a man of large mental endowments, and a ready writer. For 
many years he made valuable contributions to the columns of our 
local newspaper, and during its earlier years was the real editor. 
His interest in this direction was maintained to the last of his 
life. He died Dec. 1, 1881. 

As a historian and genealogist he was regarded as the highest 
authority. His numerous obituary notices, especially, bear testi- 
mony to a degree of biographical information possessed by few 
individuals. 

An Oration delivered before the Citizens of Hingham, on the Fourth of 
July, 1826. By Solomon Lincoln, Jr. Hingham. Published by Caleb 
Gill, Jr., Crocker and Brewster, Printers. 1826. 

History of the Town of Hingham, Plymouth County, Mass. By Solo- 
mon Lincoln, Jr. Hingham. Caleb Gill, Jr., and Farmer and Brown. 
1827. (Long out of print and valuable.) 

Sketch of Nantasket (now called Hull), in the County of Plymouth. 
16mo. pp. 16. Hingham. 1830. 

An Oration pronounced at Plymouth at the request of the Young Men 
of that town on the Centennial Anniversary of the Birth Day of George 
Washington. Plymouth, Mass. Printed by Allen Danforth. 1832. 

An Oration delivered before the Citizens of the town of Quincy, on the 
Fourth of July, 1835, the fifty-ninth anniversary of the Independence 
of the United States of America. Hingham. Jedidiah Farmer. 1835. 

An Address delivered before the Citizens of the Town of Hingham, on the 
28th of September, 1835, being the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the 
Settlement of the Town. Hingham. Jedidiah Farmer. 1835. Pam- 
phlet. 63 pp. Supplement, with valuable Historical Notes, and an 
Appendix, containing the names of Committees, Marshals, and other 
particulars connected with the occasion. (Copies are rare.) 

Notes of the Lincoln Families of Massachusetts, with some account of the 
Family of Abraham Lincoln, late President of the United States. Re- 
print from the Historical and Genealogical Register for October, 1865. 
Boston. David Clapp and Son, printers. Pamphlet. 

Memoir of the Rev. Charles Brooks. Reprinted from the Proceedings 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society. [With portrait.] 1880. 
Cambridge. John Wilson and Son. University Press. 

Solomon Lincoln (born 1838). 

Oration delivered at the Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the 
settlement of the Town of Hingham, Mass., Sept. 15, 1885. pp. 40 
to 72, inclusive. Published with the Exercises of the occasion by the 
Committee of Arrangements. Hingham. 1885. 8vo. pp.134. 



Publications. 215 



Henry Maurice Lisle. 



An Oration delivered at Hingham in compliance with the request of a 
number of the inhabitants, on Saturday, Feb. 22, 1800, the anniversary 
of the birth, and the day appointed by the Government of the United 
States for Public National Mourning for the death of the father of 
his country and friend of mankind, General George Washington. Bos- 
ten. Printed by John Russell. 1800. This oration was delivered in 
Derby Hall, and was addressed to " My much respected friends and 
fellow-townsmen." Pamphlet, pp. 22. 8vo. It contains three ap- 
propriate illustrations. (Scarce.) 

An oration before the Union Lodge, Dorchester, June 24, 1807. Pam- 
phlet, pp. 15. 

An Address delivered before the Roxbury Charitable Societies, Sept. 19, 
1808. Pamphlet, pp. 18. 

John Davis Long. 

" Bites of a Cherry." Boston. Lee and Shepard. 1872. 12mo. pp. 74. 

Poems. Published for private distribution. 
The Aeneid of Virgil. Translated into English. Boston. Lockwood, 

Brooks & Co. 1879. And a second edition, 1881. pp. 431. 
Address of His Excellency, John D. Long, to the Two Branches of the 

Legislature of Massachusetts, Jan. 7, 1880. Boston. Rand, Avery, & 

Co., Printers to the Commonwealth, 117 Franklin Street. 1880. 8vo. 

pp. 40. (Senate Doc. No. 1.) 
Annual Address before the Legislature of Massachusetts, Jan. 6. 1881. 

8vo. pp. 58. Rand, Avery, & Co., Printers. (Senate Doc. No. 1.) 
Oration of Gov. John D. Long before the Grand Army Posts of Suffolk 

County, at Tremont Temple, Memorial Day, May 30, 1881. With Ode 

by Col. Thomas W. Higginson. Boston. Lockwood, Brooks, & Co. 

1881. 8vo. pp. 28. 

Annual Address before the Legislature, Jan. 5, 1882. 8vo. pp. 36. 

Rand, Avery, & Co., Printers. (Senate Doc. No. 1.) 
Memorial Day Exercises at Riverside Cemetery, Winchendon, including 

the Oration of His Excellency John D. Long, May 30, 1882. 8vo. 

pp. 25. 
Oration delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston, July 4, 

1882. By His Excellency, John D. Long. Boston. Printed by order 
of the City Council. MDCCCLXXXII. 8vo. pp. 43. 

" The Whiskey Tax." Speech by Hon. John D. Long, of Massachusetts, in 

the House of Representatives at Washington, D. C, Tuesday, March 25, 

1884. Pamphlet. 8vo. pp. 8. 
" Interstate Commerce." Speech of Hon. John D. Long of Massachusetts 

in the House of Representatives, Dec. 3, 1884. Washington, D. C. 

1884. Pamphlet. 8vo. pp. 16. 
" Songs of the Pilgrims." Speech of Hon. John D. Long (and others) at 

the sixty-ninth Annual Festival of the New England Society of New 

York, Monday evening, Dec. 22, 1884, at Delmonico's, Madison Square. 

8vo. pp. 23 to 32, inclusive. 
Address at the Dedication of the Wallace Library and Art Building, July 

1, 1885, Fitchburg, Mass. Bound volume. 
Address of Hon. John D. Long, President, at the Celebration of the Two 



216 History of Hingham. 

Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Settlement of the Town of 
Hingham, Mass., Sept. 15, 1885. Published by the Committee of 
Arrangements, pp. 76 to 82, inclusive. 

Oration delivered in the Methodist Episcopal Church, Maiden, at the Dedi- 
cation of the Converse Memorial Building, Oct. 1, 1885, with other 
Exercises. Boston. Alfred Mudge and Son, Printers, 24 Franklin 
Street. 1886. 8vo. 

" No Distinction of Sex in the Right to Vote." Address delivered at Mel* 
rose, Oct. 20, 1885. Pamphlet, pp. 4. Double column. 

Address at Middletown, Conn., Oct. 22, 1885. 

Speech on Silver Coinage, delivered in the House of Representatives by 
Hon. John D. Long of Massachusetts. Washington, D. C, March 27, 
1886. Government Printing Office. 1886. 8vo. pp. 10. 

"Use and Abuse of the Veto Power." The Forum. Nov. 1887. 

Address on presentation of the portraits of ex-Speakers Sedgwick, Varnum, 
and Banks in the House of Representatives, Washington, D. C, Jan. 
19, 1888. Published by order of Congress. 

Young People's History of the United States. For chapters written by 
Hon. John D. Long, see John Adams, Rutherford Hayes, and Mil- 
lard Filmore. 1888. 

Speech on the French Spoliation Claim in the House of Representatives 
at Washington, Aug. 4, 1888. By Hon. John D. Long, of Massachusetts. 

Address of Hon. John D. Long, President of the Republican State Con- 
vention of Massachusetts, at Tremont Temple, Boston, Wednesday, 
Sept. 12, 1888. Boston. Press of Emery and Hughes, 146 Oliver 
Street. Pamphlet. 8vo. pp. 15. 

Address at the Harvard Republican meeting, held at Tremont Temple, 
Boston, Friday evening, Nov. 2, 1888. 

Address of Hon. John D. Long, ex-Governor of Massachusetts, M. C, at 
the Eighth Annual Meeting of the Law and Order Society of the city 
of Philadelphia, held in the Academy of Music, Feb. 21, 1889. 

Mr. Long has delivered a great number of addresses, orations, 
and speeches which are not included among the foregoing, besides 
being a frequent contributor to the psess upon topics of national 
interest, or of political or local importance. 

Jerome Loring. 

Jerome Loring, son of Jonathan, was born in Hingham, Oct. 
20, 1792, and graduated at Brown University in 1813. He taught 
in one of the schools at Hingham Centre for some years, about 
1820, and afterwards went South, — Mr. Lincoln, in his History 
of Hingham, says to Delaware, — and died early. As a teacher, 
he was eminently successful, and greatly esteemed. 

An Oration pronounced at Hingham, July 4, 1815, in Commemoration of 
American Independence. Boston. Printed by Rowe and Hooper at the 
Yankee Office. 1815. (Rare.) 

An Address delivered in Hingham, Jan. 12, A. L. 5821, at the Installation 
of the Officers of Old Colony Lodge. 

In Faith and Hope the world will disagree ; 
But all mankind's concern is charity. 



Publications. 217 

Published at the request of the Lodge. Boston : Printed by J. T. 
Buckingham. 1821. (Rare.) 



Thomas Loring. 

Speech in the House of Representatives of Massachusetts, March 20, 1839, 
upon the Bill granting further aid in the construction of the Western 
Railroad. Published by request of the Committee of the Stockholders 
of the Western Railroad. Boston. Printed by Ezra Lincoln. 1839. 



Samuel J. May. 

Minister of the Second Parish in Scituate, Mass. 

A Sermon preached at Hingham, March 19, 1837, being the Sunday after 
the death of Mrs. Cecilia Brooks. Printed by request, not published. 
Hingham. Press of J. Farmer. 1837. A prefatory note states that 
" this sermon is not published. Its author and Mr. Brooks have con- 
sented, not without great hesitation, to the printing of a few copies." 

The deceased was wife of the Rev. Charles Brooks, Pastor of 
the Third Congregational Society in Hingham. A brief sketch 
of her family history is appended. (Rare.) 

Henky Adolphus Miles. 

Natural theology as a Study in Schools. (Amer. Inst, of Instruction. 

Lectures.) 1839. 
Fidelity to our political idea our best national defence. Discourse before 

the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, June 5, 1843. Boston. 

1843. 8vo. pp. 24. 
A Thanksgiving Discourse preached in the South Congregational Church, 

Lowell, Nov. 30, 1843. 
Lowell as it was and as it is. pp. 234. 16mo. Lowell. 1845. 
God's Commandments and Man's Tradition. 1846. 
Ireland's Wants. A Sermon preached at Lowell, Feb. 21, 1847. 
The Gospel Narratives. Their Origin, Peculiarities, and Transmission. 

Boston. 1848. 12mo. pp. 118." 
Life and Character of Rev. Joseph C. Smith. A Discourse delivered in 

Channing Church, Newton, Sunday, March 28, 1858. 
Traces of Picture Writing in the Bible. 1870. pp. 185. 12mo. Cloth. 
Grains of Gold. Compiled from Dr. Bartol's writings. 
Words of a Friend, on the Foundation, Difficulties, Helps, and Triumphs 

of a Religious Life. 1870. 12mo. pp. 210. Boston. Nichols and 

Noyes. A collection of twenty sermons. 
Birth of Jesus. 12mo. pp. 211. Boston. Lockwood and Company. 

1878. 
Thoughts Selected from the Writings of the Rev„ William E. Channing, 

D.D. Boston. Fourteenth thousand. 1880. 
Altar at Home, 



218 History of Hingham. 

Mary Miles. 

" Charles Liston, or Self Denial. A Tale for Youth." Hingham. C. and 
E. B. Gill. 1834. Jedidiah Farmer, Printer. 12mo. pp. 36. The 
author's name does not appear on the title-page. See notice in the 
" Hingham Gazette " of May 9, 1334. 

John F. Moors. 

A Discourse preached at the funeral of Mr. Luther B. Lincoln in the 
Unitarian Church in Deerfield, May 13, 1855. By John F. Moors, 
Pastor. 

Andrews Norton. 

His published works are numerous and important, and in- 
clude : — 

A Discourse on Religious Education, at Derby Academy, Hingham, 1818. 
Inaugural Address delivered before the University in Cambridge, Aug. 10, 

1819. 
Thoughts on True and False Religion, 1820. 
Address at the funeral of Levi Frisbie, 1822. 
Memoir of Levi Frisbie, 1823. 
Review of Trustees' Address, 1823. 
Speech before the Overseers of Harvard College, 1825, and others. 

He edited the " Miscellaneous Writings of Charles Eliot," 1814 ; 
" The Poems of Mrs. Hemans," 1826 ; and " The General Reposi- 
tory and Review," 1812-13, four volumes in all. He was also con- 
nected with the " Select Journal of Foreign Periodical Litera- 
ture," and a contributor to the i! Literary Miscellany," Cambridge, 
1804-05, "Monthly Anthology," "Christian Disciple," "North 
American Review," and " Christian Examiner." 

A Statement of Reasons for not believing the Doctrines of Trinitarians 
concerning the Nature of God, and the Person of Christ. 1833. First 
edition. 

The thirteenth edition, with Additions and a Biographical 
Notice of the author was published, in 1882, by the American 
Unitarian Association. 

The Evidences of the Genuineness of the Gospels. First volume issued 
in 1837. 

In 1844 appeared the second and third volumes of this great 
work, " completing the important and laborious investigation 
which had occupied him for many years." 

" With the exception of his volume ' Tracts on Christianity,' 
composed chiefly of the larger essays and discourses which had 
before appeared in a separate form, this was his last published 
book." 

An abridged edition of " The Evidences of the Genuineness of the Gos- 
pels," in one volume, was published in 1880, by the American Unitarian 
Association. 12mo. cloth, pp. 584. 



Publications. 219 

This work was pronounced " a magnificent monument of erudi- 
tion, logic, and taste ; one of the noblest specimens of scholarship 
and elegance of composition to be found in our youthful litera- 
ture." An edition was also published in London. 

On the Latest Forms of Infidelity, Annual Discourse before the Alumni 
of the Divinity School, Cambridge, 1839. 

Tracts Concerning Christianity. 8vo. Cambridge. 1852. 

A Translation of the Gospels, with Notes. 1855. 2 vols. 8vo. Posthu- 
mous. Edited from the Author's Manuscript by his son. 

The Internal Evidence of the Genuineness of the Gospels ; in two parts. 
Part Second: Portions of an unfinished work. Boston. 1855. 8vo. 
Posthumous. 

He was also the author of the well-known " Lines written after 
a Summer Shower," which have been pronounced among the most 
beautiful in the language, " and of several hymns, favorites in 
our churches, among which may be mentioned the hymn of res- 
ignation, beginning with the words, — 

' My God ! I thank thee ; may no thought 
E'er deem thy chastisements severe,' 

and another, to a friend in bereavement, beginning, — 

' O, stay thy tears ; for they are blest 
Whose days are passed, whose toil is done,' 

in a like spirit, and similar beauty." 

" The few poems of Mr. Norton, in point of exquisite finish, are 
unsurpassed and almost unequalled." 

Charles Eliot Norton. 

Address at the Commemoration of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the 
building of the Meeting-house of the First Parish in Hingham, Monday, 
Aug. 8, 1881. See published volume Commemorative Services. 

John Norton. 

An Essay Tending to Promote Reformation, By a Brief Sermon Preached 
before His Excellency the Governour, the Honorable Council, & Re- 
presentatives of the Province of the Massachusetts-Bay in N. E. On 
May 26, 1708, which was the Anniversary for election of Her Majesties 
Council of this province. By John Norton, Pastor of the Church of Christ 
in Hingham. Jer. xiii. 15, 16. Hear ye, and give ear be not proud ; 
for the Lord hath spoken. Give glory to the Lord your God, before he 
cause darkness, and before your feet stumble upon the dark mountains, 
and, while ye look for light, he turn it into the shadow oi death, and 
make it gross darkness. Jer. hi. 1, 7, 12. Thou hast played the harlot 
with many lovers ; yet return to me, saith the Lord. And I said after 
she had done all these things, Turn thou unto me. But she returned 
not. And her treacherous sister saw it. Go and proclaim these words 
toward the north, and say, Return, thou backsliding Israel, saith the 
Lord ; and I will not cause mine anger to fall upon you : for I am mer- 
ciful. Mai. hi. 7. Return unto me, and I will return unto you, saith 
the Lord of hosts. But ye said, Wherein shall we return ? Boston. 



220 History of Hingham. 

Printed by B. Green. Sold by Benj. Eliot at his Shop under the 
Town-House. 1708. Pamphlet, pp. 29. 

Extremely rare. Indeed, copies of this early election sermon 
are among those which are the most difficult to obtain, as not 
more than one or two issues are found in the libraries of Boston. 

John G. Palfrey. 

A Discourse on the Life and Character of the Reverend Henry Ware, 
D.D., A. A. S., late Hollis Professor of Divinity in the University of 
Cambridge ; pronounced in the First Church in Cambridge, Sept. 28, 
1845, with an Appendix. Boston. Wm, Crosby and H. P. Nichols, 
January, 1846. 

The discourse contains a biographical sketch, and interesting 
particulars relating to Dr. Ware's pastorate in Hingham. 

Samuel Presbury. 

A Sketch of the Evils of Intemperance. A Discourse delivered before the 
First Parish in Hingham, on Thursday, April 8, 1830, the Day of 
Public Fast. Hingham. C. and E. B. Gill. 1830. 

Rev. Samuel Presbury was supplying the pulpit during the 
temporary absence of the pastor. 

Joseph Richardson. 

A Discourse addressed to the First Parish in Hingham on the Day of 
Fasting, April 5, 1810. Published at the request of the Hearers. 
Boston. Printed for Ebenezer French. 1810. 

The American Reader. A Selection of Lessons for Reading and Speak- 
ing, wholly from American Authors. Designed for the Use of Schools, 
pp. 192. 12mo. Boston. 1811. 

A second edition followed, and in 1823 a third. The last was 
printed and published in Boston by Lincoln and Edmands. 

The Young Ladies' Selection of Elegant Extracts from the writings of 
Illustrious Females and some of the best Authors of the other sex. 
Designed for Academies and Schools. Boston. Printed by John Eliot, 
Jr. 1811. pp.204. 12mo. One edition only. 

An Oration pronounced July 4, 1812, before the citizens of the County of 
Plymouth, on the Anniversary of American Independence. Boston. 
True and Rowe, Printers. (Delivered at Hanover, Mass.) 

The Christian Patriot Encouraged. A Discourse delivered before the 
First Parish in Hingham, on Fast Day, April 8, 1813. Boston. Pub- 
lished by Joshua Belcher. 1813. 

Christian Catechism for Children and Young Persons. Boston. Lincoln 
and Edmands. 1818. Small pamphlet. 

A Discourse delivered April 3, 1814, occasioned by the death of Mrs. 
Hannah Gill. Boston. Printed by Lincoln and Edmands. 

The Progress of Christianity retarded by its Friends. A Sermon de- 
livered to the First Parish in Hingham, Lord's Day, Aug. 1, 1824. 
Part Second delivered Oct. 17, 1824. Two Sermons, one pamphlet. 
Published by request. Boston. J. P. Orcutt. 1824. 



Publications. 221 

An Oration delivered in the South Parish in Weymouth, July 4, 1828, 
being the Fifty-second Anniversary of American Independence. Pub- 
lished by request of the Committee of Arrangements. Hingham. Press 
of Farmer and Brown. 1828. 

A Sermon on Conversion, delivered to the First Parish in Hingham, 
Lord's Day, July 20, 1828. Published by request. Hingham. Caleb 
Gill, Jr. 1828. 

The Christian Catechism, containing Answers in Scripture Language to 
many Important Questions ; with Prayers and Hymns for Sunday 
Schools. By a Friend to Youth. Hingham. Farmer and Brown, 
Printers. 1829. Small pamphlet. 

A Complaint against the Clergy of the Bay Association, Plymouth County, 
Massachusetts. Boston. Printed by Parmenter and Norton. 1818. 

A Discourse delivered at Dedham before Constellation Lodge at the 
Festival of St. John the Baptist, June 24, A. L. 5820. Dedham. 
Printed by H. and W. H. Mann. 1820. 

An Address delivered at the Consecration and Installation of Mount Zion 
Royal Arch Chapter, in Stoughton, Mass., August 22, A. L. 5821. 
Boston. True and Green. 1821. 

A Sermon on the Manifestation of God ; delivered on Lord's Day, Dec. 8, 
1822, in the First Parish in Hingham. Published by request. Boston. 
Printed by Ezra Lincoln. 1823. 

A Sermon on the Duty and Dignity of Woman ; delivered April 22, 1832. 
Hingham. Jedidiah Farmer, Printer. 1833. 

Duty of Minister and People. A Sermon delivered March 6, 1836, to 
the First Parish in Hingham. Published by request. Hingham. Press 
of J. Farmer. 1836. 

A Sermon preached in Hingham, Mass., May 14, 1841, the Day of the 
National Fast, occasioned by the Death of William Henry Harrison, 
President of the United States. Published by request. Hingham. 
Jedidiah Farmer, Printer. 1841. 

Letter of Rev. Joseph Richardson, Pastor of the First Parish in Hingham, 
to his Parish, on the subject of Exchanges of Pulpit Services with the 
Ministers of the other Religious Societies in said town. The Reports 
of a Committee and the record of the votes of the First Parish thereon ; 
and a Correspondence with four of the other Religious Societies in said 
Town. Printed for the use of the First Parish. Hingham. Jedidiah 
Farmer, Printer. 1847. 

Christian Obedience to Civil Government. A Sermon, preached in the 
First Parish Church, in Hingham, Feb. 2, 1851. Published by request. 
J. Farmer, Printer. 1851. 

Address at the Celebration of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the In- 
corporation of Billerica, Massachusetts, May 29, 1855. Published in 
Proceedings of Jie occasion. 1855. 

A Sermon, in Two Parts, delivered on the Sabbath, June 28, 1856. The 
close of the Fiftieth year of his Ministry, as Pastor of the First Church 
and Parish in Hingham. Published by request. Hingham. J. Farmer, 
Printer. 1856. 

A Sermon, Feb. 1, 1863, on his Eighty -sixth Birthday, by the Senior 
Pastor of the First Parish in Hingham, Joseph Richardson. Joshua 
xiv. 1 0. " And now, lo, I am this day four score and five years old." 

This sermon was written by the author, senior pastor of the 
First Parish in Hingham, Mass., in the last week of his eighty- 



222 History of Hingham. 

fifth year. In consequence of the failure of sight, at his request 
it was read to the congregation, in a very impressive manner, by 
the junior pastor, Rev. Calvin Lincoln. 

Edward Richmond. 
Minister of Stoughton. 
A Sermon preached April 15, 1807, to the Scholars of Derby Academy 
in Hingham at a Lecture founded by Madam Derby. Boston. Printed 
by Munroe and Francis. 1807. 

Chandler Robbins. 
"A sermon preached after the funeral of Noah Lincoln, who died in Boston 
July 31, 1856, aged eighty-four," with added " Genealogical and Bio- 
graphical Notes." Boston. Printed by John Wilson and Son, 22 
School Street. 1856. 8vo. pp. 49. 

Noah Lincoln was a son of David and Elizabeth (Fearing) 
Lincoln, and born in Hingham, Aug. 23, 1772. 

James Henry Robbins. 

Address before the Massachusetts Medical Society at the Annual Meet- 
ing, June 14, 1882, on "American Dyspepsia." 

Mary Caroline Robbins. 

Romance of an Honest Woman, by Victor Cherbuliez. Translation. 

The Old Masters of Belgium and Holland, by Eugene Fromentin. Trans- 
lation. 

Eugene Fromentin, Painter and Writer, by M. Louis Gonse, editor of the 
" Gazette des Beaux Arts." Translation. Boston. James R. Osgood 
and Company. 1883. Small quarto, pp. 280, with illustrations. 

Count Xavier, by Henry Greville. Translation. Boston. Ticknor and 
Company. 1887. 12mo. pp. 278. 

The Rescue of an Old Place. Boston and New York. Houghton, Mifflin, 
and Company. 1892. 12mo. pp. 289. 

Also the author of several short tales and poems published in 
" Harper's Magazine," the " Atlantic Monthly," " Lippincott's 
Magazine," and " Putnam's Magazine." 

John Lewis Russell. 
Address before the Essex Agricultural Society. Published by order of the 
Society, December, 1860. 

Thomas Russell. 

Oration at the Centennial Anniversary of the Town of Cohasset, May 7, 

1870, with other proceedings. Pamphlet. Boston. Wright and Potter, 

Printers, 79 Milk Street. 1870. pp. 69. 
Address delivered at the Dedication of the Hingham Public Library, July 

5, 1869, with an Appendix. Hingham. Published by the Trustees of 

the Library. 1871. 

Almira Seymour. 
Home the Basis of the State, pp. 95. 12mo. Boston. A. Williams 
and Company. 



Publications. 223 

" Miss Seymour was long and favorably known as a teacher in 
Boston, and has written hymns and poems for various occasions, 
which entitle her to be numbered among the women poets of 
the century." 

Daniel Shute. 

A Sermon preached to the Ancient and Honorable Company in Boston, 
New-England, June 1, 1767. Being the Anniversary of their Election 
of Officers. Boston, N. E. Printed and Sold by Edes and Gill in 
Queen-Street. MDCCLXVII. 

A Sermon preached before his Excellency Francis Bernard, Esqr., Gov- 
ernor, His Honor Thomas Hutchinson, Esqr., Lieutenant-Governor, the 
Honourable His Majesty's Council, and the Honourable House of Repre- 
sentatives of the Province of the Massachusetts-Bay, in New England, 
May 25th, 1768. Being the Anniversary for the Election of His Ma- 
jesty's Council for said Province. Boston, New-England. Printed by 
Richard Draper, Printer to His Excellency the Governor, and the 
Honourable His Majesty's Council. MDCCLXVIII. (Very scarce.) 

A Sermon delivered at the Meeting-house in the First Parish in Hingham, 
March 23, 1787, at the Interment of the Rev. Ebenezer Gay, D. D., 
Pastor of the First Church in Hingham, who died March 18, 1787. 
Numbers xxiii. 10. " Let me die the death of the Righteous, and let 
my last end be like his." Salem. Printed by Dabney and Cushing. 
MDCCLXXXVIII. 

By Daniel Shute and Henry Ware, associates : — 

A Compendious and Plain Catechism, designed for the Benefit of the 
Rising Generation, and Recommended to the attentive Use of Heads 
of Families in the Education of their Children, as adapted to improve 
them in Piety and Virtue. Printed by Samuel Hall, No. 53 Cornhill, 
Boston. 1794. Addressed " to the Respectable Inhabitants of Hing- 
ham." Preface signed by Daniel Shute and Henry Ware. 

John Snyder. 

Christian and Worldly Contentment. A Sermon delivered in the church 
of the Third Parish in Hingham on the Sunday following the Death of 
Mr. Thomas F. Whiton, June 9, 1872, by the Pastor. Printed for 
private distribution only. Hingham. Joseph Easterbrook. 1872. 

Henry E. Spalding. 

Homoeopathy as we see it, as the public sees it, as allopathy sees and uses 
it. President's Address to the Massachusetts Homoeopathic Medical 
Society, April, 1884. Reprinted from the Society's Transactions. 
Boston. Franklin Press. Rand, Avery, and Company. 1885. 

John Winthrop Spooner. 

Address before the Plymouth District Medical Society, at the Annual 
Meeting, 1882. " The Relation of the Members of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society to Homoeopathy and the Homoeopaths." Boston Medi- 
cal and Surgical Journal, Vol. CVII. No. 4. 



224 History of Hingham, 



Hosea Sprague. 

The Genealogy of the Spragues in Hingham, arranged in Chronological 
order, to the Fourth Generation, counting from William Sprague, one 
of the first Planters in Massachusetts, who arrived at Naumekeag from 
England, in the year 1628. To which is prefixed a short account of the 
first settlement of this country before the arrival of the Old Charter in 
1630. Hingham. Published by Hosea Sprague. 1828. Additions to 
the first edition: Ralph Sprague, in Charlestown in 1628, and his 
four sons, John, Richard, Phineas, and Samuel, and his daughter Mary. 
(Scarce.) 

Register and Meteorological Journal in Hingham, Massachusetts, 1830 
to 1837, inclusive. Printed at Hingham. Published 1837. Small 
pamphlet. 

" Hosea Sprague's Chronicle." A small newspaper. Nos. 1 to 5. inclusive. 
1842 and 1843. (Complete sets are rare.) 



Isaac Sprague. 

Son of Isaac and Mary (Burr) Sprague, was born in Hingham, 
Sept. 5, 1811. He early displayed a decided taste and talent for 
drawing, and attracted the notice of Audubon the naturalist, who 
availed himself of his services in the preparation of his great work. 

Afterwards associated with Prof. Asa Gray, he furnished to a 
large extent the sketches for the numerous plates and wood-cuts 
which appear in his several botanical publications. Many of the 
plants selected as specimens for illustration were gathered in 
Hingham. In some instances not only were the drawings made, 
but the plates were cut by his own hands. 

The plates illustrating the two large octavo volumes of " The 
Genera of the Plants of the United States " were all sketched 
from Nature by Mr. Sprague, and are models of neatness and 
scientific accuracy. 

George B. Emerson, in his introduction to the third edition of 
his " Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts," illustrated with colored 
plates, says that the success of the edition, if it should succeed, 
would be at least as much due to the artistic skill and exquisite 
taste of his friend Isaac Sprague as to anything he himself had 
done. 

His published works include, — 

The Genera of the Plants of the United States. Illustrated by Figures 
and Analyses from Nature by Isaac Sprague, member of the Boston 
Natural History Society. Superintended, and with Descriptions, &c, 
by Asa Gray, M.D. Two volumes. Royal 8vo. With numerous 
Plates. Boston. James Munroe and Company. New York and Lon- 
don. John Wiley. 1848. 

The plates were destroyed by fire before the edition was all 
struck off, and the work is now rare and valuable. 



Publications. 225 

Wild Flowers of America, with Fifty colored Plates from original Draw- 
ings by Isaac Sprague. Text by George L. Goodale, M.D., Professor 
of Botany in Harvard University. Boston. S. E. Cassino, Publisher. 
1882. Large quarto, pp. 210. 

Flowers of the Field and Forest, from original Water-color Drawings 
after Nature, by Isaac Sprague. Descriptive text by Rev. A. B. 
Hervey, with extracts from Longfellow, Lowell, Bryant, Emerson, 
and others. Boston. S. E. Cassino and D. Lothrop & Co. 1882. 
Large quarto, pp. 154. 

Beautiful Wild Flowers of America, from original Water-color Drawings 
after Nature, by Isaac Sprague. Descriptive text by Rev. A. B. Her- 
vey, with extracts from Longfellow, Whittier, Bryant, Holmes, and 
others. Boston. S. E. Cassino, Publisher. 1882. pp. 156. Large 
quarto. 

Oliver Stearns. 

The Duty of Moral Reflection with particular reference to the Texas 
Question. A Sermon preached to the Third Congregational Society 
of Hingham, on Sunday, Nov. 16, 1845. Hingham. J. Farmer. 
1845. 

Peace through Conflict. A Sermon. Boston. Leonard C. Bowles. 1851. 

The Gospel applied to the Fugitive Slave Law. A Sermon preached to 
the Third Congregational Society of Hingham, on Sunday, March 2, 
1851. Published by request. Boston. Wm. Crosby and H. P. Nichols. 
1851. 

Knowledge : Its Relation to the Progress of Mankind. An Address de- 
livered at the Dedication of Loring Hall, in Hingham, Thursday, Oct. 
14, 1852. Hingham. Published by Jedidiah Farmer. 1852. 

The House of the Lord. A Sermon preached to the Third Congregational 
Society in Hingham, Sunday, Dec. 12, 1852, on re-opening their Meet- 
ing-house. Boston. Leonard C. Bowles. 1853. Printed by John 
Wilson and Son. 

The Incarnation. A Sermon preached at the Ordination of Rev. Calvin 
S. Locke over the Unitarian Church and Society in West Dedham, 
Wednesday, Dec. 6, 1854. With the Charge, Right Hand of Fellow- 
ship, and Address to the People. Boston. Crosby, Nichols, and Com- 
pany. 1855. 

The Preacher. A Sermon preached at the Ordination of Frederick Froth- 
ingham as Pastor of the Park Street Church in Portland, Me., April 
9, 1856. Published by George R. Davis. 

A Farewell Sermon preached Sept. 28, 1856. Printed for the Use of the 
Society. Boston. Leonard C. Bowles. 1856. 

Rationalism in Religion, an Address delivered before the Alumni of the 
Theological School, Cambridge, July 19, 1853, and The Written Word, 
or the Christian Consciousness, an Address delivered before the Min- 
isterial Conference in Bedford Street Chapel, May 28, 1855, were 
published in the " Christian Examiner." 

A Lecture on the " Aim and Hope of Jesus," — being one of a course on 
" Christianity and Modern Thought," — delivered in the Hollis Street 
Church and King's Chapel, December, 1871. Published by the Amer- 
ican Unitarian Association in a volume with the above title. 

A Brief History of the Harvard Divinity School, its past Professors, 
was published in the " Harvard Book." 
vol. i. — 15* 



226 History of Hingham. 



Rufus P. Stebbins. 

Reverend Calvin Lincoln. Sermon preached in the Old Meeting-house,. 
Hingham, Sunday, Sept. 18, 1881. Also Services at the Funeral, and 
Sketch by Quincy Bicknell, a Parishioner. Hingham. Published by 
the Parish. 1882. 

Lutheb Stephenson, Jr. 

Report of the Chief Detective of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for 

the year ending Dec. 8.1, 1876, including the result of the Inspection of 

Factories and Public Buildings. 
Report of the Chief of State Detective Force of the Commonwealth of 

Massachusetts for the year ending Dec. 31, 1877. 
Addresses and Papers. Printed for Private use. Togus, Me. 1885. 

pp. 71. 8vo. 

Richard Henry Stoddard. 

Born in Hingham, 1 825. Early moved to New York, where he 
has since resided. A favorite American poet. 

His published works are numerous, and include, — 

Foot-prints, a volume of verse. 1849. 

Poems. 1852. 

Adventures in Fairy Land. 1853. 

Songs of Summer. 1857. 

Town and Country. 1857. 

Life of Alexander Von Humboldt. 1859. 

Loves and Heroines of the Poets. 1860. 

The King's Bell. 1863. 

The Story of Little Red Riding Hood. 1864. 

Under Green Leaves. 1865. 

Late English Poets. 1865. 

Melodies and Madrigals, mostly from the Old English Poets. 1865. 

The Children in the Wood. 1866. 

Putnam, the Brave. 1869. 

The Book of the East, and other Poems. 1871. 

Memoir of Edgar Allan Poe. 1875. 

Poems. 1880. 

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. 1882. 

In addition to his original works, Mr. Stoddard edited new edi- 
tions of Griswold's Male and Female Poets of America, 1873 and 
1874 ; The Bric-a-Brac, and Sans Souci Series, 1874 and 1875 ; 
A Century After, Picturesque Glimpses of Philadelphia and 
Pennsylvania, 1876 ; and more recently a number of volumes 
relating to English literary history and memorabilia. He was 
more recently the literary editor of the " New York Mail and 
Express." 

Mr. Stoddard has been styled " one of the poets of whom 
America may well be proud." Among the best known of his 



Publications. 227 

poems are, " A Hymn to the Beautiful ; " "A Household Dirge ; " 
" Leonatus ; " " The Burden of Unrest; " " Invocation to Sleep ; " 
" Spring ; " " Autumn ; " and " The Two Brides." 

" The volume on which his fame will rest is his ' Poetical 
Works.' It contains some of the most beautiful lyrics and blank- 
verse ever written in America, — some of the most beautiful writ- 
ten anywhere during the poet's lifetime." 

Chaeles W. Upham. 

Junior pastor of the First Church in Salem. 

A Discourse delivered on the anniversary of the Association of the First 
Parish in Hingham, auxiliary to the American Unitarian Association, 
July 8, 1832. Pamphlet, pp. 22. Hingham. Jedidiah Farmer, 
Printer. 1832. 

Henry Ware (born 1764). 

Letters to Trinitarians and Calvinists. Occasioned by Dr. Leonard Woods' 

Letters to Unitarians. 3 ed. 1820. 12mo. 
Answer to Dr. Woods' Reply. Cambridge. 1822. 8vo. Postscript to 

Answer. 1823. 8vo. 
Inquiry into the Foundation, Evidences, and Truth of Religion. 1842. 

2 vol. 8vo. London, 1842. 2 vol. 12mo. And others. 

His printed discourses, which are numerous, include the follow- 
ing, viz. : — 

The Continuance of Peace and increasing Prosperity a Source of Consola- 
tion and just Cause of Gratitude to the Inhabitants of the United States. 
A Sermon, delivered Feb. 19, 1795, being a day set apart by the Presi- 
dent for Thanksgiving and Prayer through the United States. Printed 
by Samuel Hall, Boston. 1795. 

A Sermon Occasioned by the Death of George Washington, Supreme 
Commander of the American Forces during the Revolutionary War ; 
First President, and late Lieutenant- General and Commander-in-Chief 
of the Armies of the United States of America ; who departed this Life 
at Mount Vernon, Dec. 14, 1799, in the 68th Year of his Age. De- 
livered in Hingham, by Request of the Inhabitants, Jan. 6, 1800. " And 
Elijah went up into Heaven." 2 Kings ii. 11. "The spirit of Elijah 
doth rest on Elisha." Ibid. 15. Printed by Samuel Hall, No. 53 Corn- 
hill, Boston. 1800. / 

A Sermon delivered Wednesday, Sept. 1, 1802, at the Interment of the 
Rev. Daniel Shute, D.D., senior Pastor of the Second Church in Hing- 
ham, who departed this Life Aug. 30, 1802, in the 81st year of his Age, 
and the 56th of his Ministry. Published by request of the Parish. Bos- 
ton. Printed by E. Lincoln, Water Street. 1802. 

The Service of God, as inculcated in the Bible, our reasonable Choice. A 
Sermon, delivered at Scituate, Oct. 31, 1804. Published by request. 
Boston. Printed by E. Lincoln, Water Street. 1804. 

A Sermon delivered at Hingham, Lord's day, May 5, 1805. Occasioned 
by the Dissolution of his Pastoral Relation to the First Church of Christ 



228 History of Hingham. 

in Hingham and Removal to the Office of Professor of Divinity in the 
University at Cambridge. Together with an Address from the Church 
on the occasion, and his Answer. The whole printed by the General 
Request of the Society. Boston. Printed by E. Lincoln, Water Street. 
1805. 

An Eulogy pronounced July 20, 1810, at the Interment of the Rev. Samuel 
Webber, D.D., President of Harvard University, who expired suddenly 
on the evening of July 17, in the fifty-first year of his age. Cambridge. 
Printed by Hollis and Metcalf. 1810. 

A Sermon delivered before the Convention of Congregational Ministers 
of Massachusetts at their Annual Meeting in Boston, May 28, 1818. 
Boston. Printed by Wells and Lilly. 1818. 

A Sermon delivered Oct. 12, 1820, at the Ordination of the Rev. William 
B. O. Peabody to the Pastoral Charge of the Third Congregational 
Church in Springfield. Springfield. A. G. Tannatt & Co., Printers. 
1820. 

A Sermon delivered Jan. 17, 1821, at the Ordination of the Rev. Charles 
Brooks to the Pastoral Charge of the Third Church and Parish in 
Hingham. Boston. Printed by Ezra Lincoln. 1821. 

A Sermon delivered Dec. 13, 1821, at the Ordination of the Rev. William 
Ware to the Pastoral Charge of the First Congregational Church in 
New York, by his father, Henry Ware, D.D., Hollis Professor of 
Divinity in the University in Cambridge, Mass., together with the 
Charge and Right Hand of Fellowship. Published at the request 
of the Congregation by the Library and Tract Society of the First 
Congregational Church. 1821. 

Use and Meaning of the Phrase " Holy Spirit." 

By Henry Ware and Daniel Shute, associates : — 

A Compendious and Plain Catechism, designed for the Benefit of the 
Rising Generation, and Recommended to the attentive Use of Heads 
of Families in the Education of their Children, as adapted to improve 
them in Piety and Virtue. Printed by Samuel Hall, No. 53 Cornhill, 
Boston. 1794. Addressed " to the Respectable Inhabitants of Hing- 
ham." Preface signed by Daniel Shute and Henry Ware. 



Henry Ware, Jr. (born 1794). 

His published works, which are numerous, include, — 

A Poem on the Celebration of Peace. Cambridge. 1815. 8vo. 

The Vision of Liberty ; recited before the Phi Beta Kappa Society at 
Harvard University, Aug. 27, 1824. Published by request. Boston. 
Oliver Everett, 13 Cornhill. 1824. In a brief prefatory note the 
author says that the poem is not a poetical invention, but is based on an 
experience given by an English lady who resided in Hingham about the 
year 1794. (A scarce pamphlet.) 

Hints on Extemporaneous Preaching. 1824. 18mo. Published in Lon- 
don, 1830, and iu Edinburgh, 1836. 

Recollections of Jotham Anderson. 1824. 

Discourses on the Offices and Character of Jesus Christ. Boston. 1825. 
12mo. Second edition. 1826. London. 1831. 



Publications. 229 

Sermons on Small Sins. Boston. 1827. 12mo. 

On the Formation of Christian Character. Cambridge. 1831. 12mo. 
Numerous editions in America and Great Britain. One American 
edition with the Progress of the Christian Life in one volume. This 
work has had a wide circulation. 

The Life of the Saviour. 1832. The seventh edition was published in 
1884 by the American Unitarian Association, pp. 271. 12mo. Pub- 
lished also in London. 

The Feast of the Tabernacle. A Poem. Cambridge. 1837. 

Scenes and Characters Illustrating Christian Truth. Edited. Boston. 
18mo. Published also in London in 2 vols. 

The Life of Noah Worcester, D.D. 12mo. Boston. Munroe and 
Company. 

Life of Joseph Priestley, LL.D. 12mo. Boston. Munroe and Company. 

Memoir of Oberlin. 16mo. Boston. Munroe and Company. 

Memoirs of the Rev. Noah Worcester, D.D., with a Preface, Notes, and a 
concluding Chapter, by Samuel Worcester. Boston. James Munroe and 
Company. 1844. 1 vol. 8vo. pp. 155. 

The Duty of promoting Christianity by the circulation of Books. Boston. 
James Munroe & Co. July, 1838. Printed for the American Unitarian 
Association. 

How to Spend a day. In two Chapters. Boston. James Munroe & Co. 
October, 1839. 

A Sermon delivered at Dorchester, before the Evangelical Missionary 
Society in Massachusetts, at their Annual Meeting, June 7, 1820. Bos- 
ton. Published by J. W. Burditt. 

Outline of the Testimony of Scripture against the Trinity. Boston. Taken 
from an Address delivered in 1827, before the Unitarian Association of 
York County, Me. 

The Law Of Honor. A Discourse occasioned by the recent Duel in Wash- 
ington ; delivered March 4, 1838, in the Chapel of Harvard University, 
and in the West Church, Boston. Published by request. Cambridge. 
Folsom, Wells, and Thurston, Printers to the University. 1838. 

Additional publications, most of them in pamphlet form, are as 
follows : — 

The Faith once delivered to the Saints. 
Three Important Questions answered. 
Sober Thoughts on the State of the Times. 
Nature, Reality, and Power of Christian Faith. 
Thoughts for the New Year. 
How to Spend Holy Time. 

A Selection from his works was published by Chandler Robbins. Boston. 
1846, 47. 4 vols. 8vo. 

John Waee. 

Born in Hingham, 1795. Graduated at Harvard College 1813, 
and M.D. 1816. Became adjunct professor 1832, and professor, 
1836, of the Theory and Practice of Medicine in Harvard College. 
Resigned 1858 ; died 1864. 

His published works relating to the Science of Medicine are 
numerous and " regarded as standard authority." A volume en- 



230 History of Hingham. 

titled " Discourses on Medical Education and on the Medical Pro- 
fession," 8vo., was issued in 1847. 

Success in the Medical Profession, 8vo., 1851, and others of a 
more strictly professional character were issued prior and subse- 
quently to this time. He gave occasional medical lectures and 
addresses, reports, &c, on Peace, Temperance, and incidental 
subjects. 

He edited the " New England Medical Journal," and contrib- 
uted to the " American Journal of Medical Science " and other 
periodicals, including the " North American Review," in which 
was published his Phi Beta Kappa Poem. 

He also wrote a biography of his brother, Henry Ware, Jr. 



William Ware. 

Letters of Lucius M. Piso, from Palmyra, to his Friend Marcus Curtius, 
at Rome. New York, 1837. 2 vols. 12mo. Also London. Zenobia, 
or the Fall of Palmyra, was the title afterwards adopted by the author, 
and under this name a number of editions were printed in New York 
and London. A historical romance. 

Probus ; or Rome in the Third Century ; in Letters from Lucius M. Piso, 
from Rome, to Fausta, the Daughter of Gracchus, at Palmyra. New 
York. 1838. 2 vols. 12mo. A sequel to Zenobia. It was subsequently 
republished in London, also in New York as Aurelian ; or Rome in the 
the Third Century. Rome and the Early Christians. 1868. 8vo. 

Julian ; or Scenes in Judea. New York. 1841. 2 vols. 12mo. Also 
London. 1842. Third edition. New York. 1856. 

" These romances of Mr. Ware have passed through many edi- 
tions in Great Britain, and have been translated into German and 
other languages on the continent." 

Sketches of European Capitals. Boston. 1851. 12mo. Also London. 

8vo. Published again as Pictures of European Capitals. 1852. 12mo. 
Lectures on the Works and Genius of Washington Allston. Boston. 

1852. 12mo. pp. 162. 

" He published some occasional sermons and four numbers of a 
religious miscellany called ' The Unitarian ; ' contributed a Memoir 
of Nathaniel Bacon to Sparks's ' American Biography,' and papers 
to other standard periodicals. Delivered lectures on Art and Lit- 
erary Topics, and edited the ' American Unitarian Biography ; ' 
also 'Memoirs of Individuals who have been distinguished by 
their Writings, Character, and Efforts in the Cause of Liberal 
Christianity.' " Boston. 1850. 2 vols. 12mo. 



Robert C. Waterston. 

Remarks on the life and character of Joseph Andrews at the memorial 
meeting of the Boston Art Club, May 17, 1873. Published in connec- 
tion with the Proceedings of the meeting. 



Publications. 231 

Henry Austin Whitney. 

Early Settlers of Hingharn, New England ; including extracts from the 
minutes of Daniel Gushing of Hingham, with a photograph of his manu- 
script. Printed for private distribution. Boston. Press of John Wilson 
and Son. 1865. Large quarto pamphlet. Only fifty copies published. 

Nicholas Bowes Whitney. 

A Sermon delivered Sept. 16, 1821; occasioned by the death of Josiah 
Lane, Jun., in the nineteenth year of his age, who was drowned from on 
board the schooner " Ida." Boston. Printed by Ezra Lincoln. 1821. 

Peter Whitney. 

Sermon at the Ordination of Rev. Perez Lincoln, Gloucester, Aug. 7, 1805. 
8vo. pp. 30. Boston. 1805. The pamphlet also includes the Charge 
by Rev. Manasseh Cutler, D.D., and the Right Hand of Fellowship by 
Rev. Abiel Abbot, D.D. 

Rev. Perez Lincoln was a native of Hingham. 

Phineas Whitney. 

A Sermon delivered Jan. 1, 1800, at the Ordination of his Son, the Rev. 
Nicholas Bowes Whitney, to the care of the Second Church and Society 
in Hingham, as a Colleague Pastor with the Rev. Daniel Shute, D.D. 
Boston. Printed by Manning and Loring, near the Old South Meet- 
ing-house. 1800. The pamphlet also includes the Charge by Rev. 
David Barnes, D.D., of Scituate, and the Right Hand of Fellowship, by 
Rev. Henry Ware, of Hingham. 

James Humphrey Wilder. 

An Oration delivered at the request of the young men of Hingham, on the 
Fourth of July, 1832. Hingham. Jedidiah Farmer. 1832. 

An Address delivered before the Sunday School of the First Parish, in 
Forest Sanctuary, Hingham, Aug. 25, 1840. Hingham. J. Farmer, 
Printer. Small pamphlet. 

Joshua Wilder. 

A Plea for Liberty of Conscience and Personal Freedom from Military 
Conscription. In Letters to Thomas Loring, Esqr. A place for every 
member in the body, and also in the body politic — and every member 
in its place. Hingham. Printed by J. Farmer. 1840. Small pamphlet. 
(Scarce.) 

Samuel Willard. 

Collection of Hymns, adopted, while in manuscript, by the Third Congre- 
gational Society in Hingham. Boston. Leonard C. Bowles. 1830. 
Press of Minot Pratt, Hingham. Bound volume, pp. 360. 

Rhetoric, or the principles of Elocution, by Samuel Willard, D.D., A. A.S. 
Boston. Leonard C. Bowles. 1830. Hingham. Press of Minot Pratt. 
Bound volume. lOmo. pp. 198. 

Edward J. Young. 

The Early Religious Customs of New England. An Address delivered at 
the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the building of the Meeting-house in 
Hingham, Mass., Aug. 8, 1881. Cambridge. University Press. 1882. 



232 History of Hingham. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

" A Narrative of the Proceedings in the North Parish of Hingham, from 
the time of Rev. Dr. "Ware's leaving it to the Ordination of the Rev. 
Joseph Richardson over the First Church and Congregation, and of Mr. 
Henry Colman over the Third Church and Society in the North Parish. 
By an Inhabitant." pp. 85. 1807. Signed, Thomas Thaxter. 

An Appendix of fifty pages follows, in reply to a pamphlet entitled 
" A Vindication," which the publication of the " Narrative " called out. 
This supplement has the signatures of Benj. Lincoln, Nathan Rice, 
Samuel Norton, Thomas Loring, Abner Lincoln, Levi Lincoln, Robert 
Thaxter, Jerom Cushing, and William Cushing. Printed at Salem by 
Joshua Cushing. (Copies are extremely rare.) 

"A Vindication of the Proceedings of the First Church and Parish in 
Hingham in settling the Rev. Joseph Richardson, A.M., as their Gospel 
Minister." Signed, Jacob Beal, Isaac Cushing, M. Fearing, Joseph 
Basset, Seth Lincoln, Caleb Hobart, Jotham Lincoln, Jacob Leavitt, 
Hawkes Fearing, Laban Hersey, Solomon Jones, Charles Lincoln, 
Jedediah Lincoln, Solomon Lincoln, Duncan M'B. Thaxter, and James 
Stephenson, Committee, pp. 80. Printed at Boston. 1807. 

This pamphlet was published in reply to the " Narrative of the 
Proceedings in the North Parish," which was issued the same 
year. Copies in good condition will be found, like specimens of 
the " Narrative," extremely rare. 

Discourse delivered to the First Parish in Hingham, Sept. 8, 1869, on the 
Re-opening of their Meeting-house, by Rev. Calvin Lincoln, Sixth 
Pastor of the Parish, with an Appendix. Hingham. Published by the 
Parish, 1873. 

The Appendix, which occupies the larger part of this publication, 
contains a great amount of valuable historical matter relating to the his- 
tory of the meeting-house. 

The Commemorative Services of the First Parish in Hingham on the Two 
Hundredth Anniversary of the Building of its Meeting-house, with the 
Address of Mr. Charles Eliot Norton, Monday, Aug. 8, 1881. 8vo. 
Cloth, pp. 169. Hingham. Published by the Parish. 1882. 

Discourse delivered to the First Parish in Hingham on the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of the Opening of its Meeting-House for Public Worship, 
Sunday, Jan. 8, 1882. By Rev. Edward Augustus Horton. With an 
Appendix. Hingham. Published by the Parish. 1882. Appendix 
includes Order of Services ; description of the Church in Hingham, 
England ; biographical sketch of Robert Peck ; and the articles com- 
prising the Communion Service, when and by whom donated. 8vo. 
pp. 58. 

Declaration and Covenant of the Baptist Church, Hingham, Mass. 1853. 
Small pamphlet. 

Services at the Ordination and Installation of Rev. Phebe A. Hanaford as 
Pastor of the First Universalist Church in Hingham, Mass., Feb. 19, 
1868. Sermons by Rev. John G. Adams and Rev. Olympia Brown. 
Printed at Boston. 1870. Contains Historical Sketch of the Society* 
8vo. Cloth, pp. 71. 



Publications. 233 

Jefferson Debating Society. The Inaugural Address of President Jeffer- 
son, Constitution and Rules of the Jefferson Debating Society, and the 
Names of the Members. Hiugham. Farmer and Brown, Printers. 
1828. Small pamphlet, pp. 23. 

Report made to the Stockholders of the Hingham Bank, July 2, 1 842, by 
a committee appointed to examine the state of the Bank, &c. Signed, 
Solomon Lincoln, William James, Edward P. Little, David Harding, 
Abraham H. Tower. Pamphlet. 8vo. pp. 16. Hingham. Jedidiah 
Farmer, Printer. 1842. 

Derby Academy. Rules and Regulations established by the Trustees of 
the Derby Academy*; also the Deed of Lease and Release from Sarah 
Derby to the said Trustees. Also her Will and the Codicil thereto ; 
the Act of Incorporation ; and the Act for erecting the Derby School 
into an Academy. Also the professional Opinion of the Hon. John M. 
Williams. Hingham. J. Farmer, Printer. 1856. Pamphlet, pp. 36. 

Annual Catalogue and Circular of Derby Academy, Hingham, Mass. 1869. 
J. Frank Farmer, Printer, 18 Exchange Street, Boston. Pamphlet, 
pp. 8. 

The Celebration of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Settlement of 
the Town of Hingham, Sept. 28, 1835, containing the Address of Mr. 
Solomon Lincoln and valuable Historical Notes. Pamphlet, pp. 63. 
Hingham. Jedidiah Farmer. 1835. 

The Celebration of the Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the 
Settlement of the Town of Hingham, Mass., Sept. 15, 1885, including 
Oration by Mr. Solomon Lincoln. 8vo. Cloth, pp. 134. Published 
by the Committee of Arrangements, and prepared for publication by 
Francis H. Lincoln. 1885. 



HINGHAM PUBLIC LIBRARY. 

Address delivered at the Dedication of the Hingham Public Library, July 
5, 1869, by the Hon. Thomas Russell. With an Appendix. Hingham. 
Published by the Trustees of the Library. 1871. 8vo. pp. 37. 
Annual Reports of the Trustees to the Town of Hingham for the years 
. 1871, 1872, and 1873 ; Declaration of Trust by Hon. Albert Fearing 
on presenting an additional sum to the fund of ten thousand dollars ; 
By-laws of the Trustees ; Rules and Regulations for the use of the 
Library, and list of its officers. 1873. Hingham. Published by the 
Trustees. One pamphlet. 

The foregoing are the only publications relating to the Public Library 
issued prior to 1885. Both of the editions were small. Copies had been 
given out in a limited way, and only such have been preserved. The 
remainder, and the larger portion, were lost in the burning of the build- 
ing. These pamphlets are, and must continue to be rare. 



HINGHAM AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL 

SOCIETY. 

This society was organized in 1858, and its first annual exhibition was 
held in the autumn of 1859. The first of the " Transactions " was pub- 
lished in 1861. The volume was compiled by Rev. E. Porter Dyer, 



234 History of Hingham. 

and includes the History of the formation of the Society, By-laws, Re- 
ports of the various Committees at the Annual Exhibitions, and List of 
Members, from October, 1858, to March, 1861. 8vo. pp. 192. Bos- 
ton. Wright and Potter, Printers. 1861. 

The next issue bears date of 1868, giving the Transactions of the 
Society for 1867, with full Reports of the Committees on the Annual 
Exhibition of that year, also a list of " The Native Trees and Shrubs 
of Hingham," prepared by James S. Lewis and Fearing Burr. 

The Introduction contains a brief history of the Society up to 1868. 
Prepared for publication by Solomon Lincoln. Hingham. Blossom and 
Easterbrook, Printers, pp. 95. This number has especial interest from 
the fact that it contains a Description of the new Hall, Exercises at the 
Dedication, Articles deposited under the corner-stone, etc. 

During the time of the Civil War — 1861 to 1866 — the publication 
of the " Transactions " in pamphlet form was suspended. The Reports 
of Committees at the Annual Exhibitions, with the doings of the Society 
at the regular meetings for these years, were prepared for the press by 
the Secretary, Edmund Hersey, and will be found in the columns of our 
local newspaper. 

The third number of the Transactions was issued in 1869 for the year 
1868. Prepared for publication by Fearing Burr. pp. 101. Hingham. 
Blossom and Easterbrook, Printers. 
For 1869. Contains Dr. Thomas M. Brewer's paper on "The Value of 
Birds." Prepared for the press by Fearing Burr and George Lincoln, 
pp. 72. Hingham. Blossom and Easterbrook, Printers. 1870. 
For 1870. Contains list of members. Prepared for publication by Fear- 
ing Burr. pp. 65. Hingham. Blossom and Easterbrook, Printers. 
1871. 
For 1871. Contains list of members. Prepared for the press by George 
Lincoln, pp. 85. Hingham. Blossom and Easterbrook, Printers. 
1872. 
For 1872. Contains an Essay on " Education and Agriculture," read be- 
fore the Society by Hosah G. Goodrich. Also list of members and the 
By-laws as amended in November, 1872. Prepared for the press by 
Solomon Lincoln, pp. 73. Hingham. Joseph Easterbrook, Printer. 
1878. (Copies are rare.) 
For 1873. pp. 66. Hingham. Joseph Easterbrook, Printer. 1874. 
For 1874. Title-page illustrated for the first time by an engraving, — a 
gleaner bearing a sheaf upon her head. Hingham. Prepared for the 
press by George Lincoln, pp.63. Joseph Easterbrook, Printer. 1875. 
For 1875. Prepared for publication by Hosah G. Goodrich, pp. 55. 

Joseph Easterbrook, Printer. 1876. 
For 1876. Prepared for the press by Hosah G. Goodrich. Hingham. 
Joseph Easterbrook, Printer. 1877. 

A new feature in the form of a " Centennial Department " was added 
to the attractions of the annual exhibition in September of this year, 
and a pamphlet entitled " Catalogue of Antique Articles shown in the 
Centennial Department at the eighteenth Annual Exhibition " was pub- 
lished by the Society. This was prepared for the press by George 
Lincoln. It is neatly printed on fine paper, and was intended more 
especially for distribution among those who were contributors, and was 
given as a substitute for the amount usually awarded in prizes or gra- 
tuities. The historian and antiquary will find the volume of peculiar 



Publications. 235 

value and interest, pp. 23. Limited edition. Hingham. Joseph 
Easterbrook, Printer. 1876. (Scarce.) 

For 1877. Contains List of Members and reprint of the By-laws as 
amended March 22, 1875. Partially illustrated. Prepared for the 
press by Hosah G. Goodrich. Hingham. Joseph Easterbrook, Printer. 
1878. pp. 68. 

For 1878. Prepared for the press by Hosah G. Goodrich. Hingham. 
Joseph Easterbrook, Printer. 1879. pp. 44. 

For 1879. Prepared for the press by Francis H. Lincoln, Corresponding 
Secretary of the Society. Hingham. Fred H. Miller, Printer. 1880. 
pp. 44. 

For 1880. Prepared for the press by Francis H. Lincoln, Corresponding 
Secretary of the Society, pp. 38. Fred H. Miller, Printer. 1881. 

For 1881. Contains abstracts from Lectures before the Society by George 
P. Chapin, Luther Stephenson, George Lincoln, Israel Whitcomb, Fear- 
ing Burr, and Melzar W. Clark. pp. 108. Fred H. Miller, Printer. 
1882. Prepared for the press by Francis H. Lincoln, Corresponding 
Secretary of the Society. 

For 1882. Contains Lectures before the Society by James E. Thomas, 
Jacob O. Sanborn, and Gustavus L. Simmons, M.D., of Sacramento, 
Cal. Prepared for the press by Francis H. Lincoln, Corresponding 
Secretary of the Society, pp. 88. Press of Alfred Mudge and Son, 
Boston. 1883. 

For 1883. Contains Lectures by Edward T. Bouve on " The Oaks of 
Hingham," and Luther Stephenson on " Forests." Also a List of Mem- 
bers. Prepared for the press by William C. Bates, pp. 91. Press of 
Alfred Mudge and Son, Boston. 1884. 

For 1884. Contains Lectures by Israel Whitcomb, Francis W. Brewer, 
George Lincoln, and J. H. Robbins. Prepared for the press by Francis 
H. Lincoln, Corresponding Secretary of the Society, pp. 97. Press of 
Alfred Mudge and Son, Boston. 1885. 

For 1885. Includes Lectures by Allen P. Soule and Louis P. Nash. 
Edited for the press of Alfred Mudge and Sou, by Marshall Cushing. 
pp. 63. 

For 1886. Contains Lectures by J. 0. Sanborn, on " The Value of For- 
ests," and by Arthur W. Young on " Commercial Floriculture." 
Edited for the press of Fred H. Miller, by Marshall Cushing. pp. 86. 

For 1887. Includes a Lecture by Edmund Hersey on "The Intelligent 
Use of Commercial Fertilisers." Edited for the press of Fred H. Miller, 
by Louis P. Nash. pp. 78. 

For 1888. Contains Lectures by J. O. Sanborn on '' Home and its 
Surroundings," and Samuel L. Pratt on " The Importance of Agricul- 
ture." Also List of Members. Edited for the press of Fred H. Miller, 
by Louis P. Nash. pp. 100. 

For 1889. Contains Lectures by M. B. Faxon on " Garden Vegetables," 
and by Starkes Whiton on " Poultry." Edited for the press of Fred 
H. Miller, by Louis P. Nash. pp. 92. 

For 1890. Edited for the press of Fred H. Miller, by Louis P. Nash, 
pp. 70. 

For 1891. Contains a Lecture by J. Quinsy Litchfield on "The Gypsy 
Moth." Edited for the press of Fred H. Miller, by J. Quinsy Litch- 
field, pp. 78. 

For 1892. Contains a List of Members. Edited for the press of Fred 
H. Miller, by J. Quinsy Litchfield, pp. 90. 



236 History of Hingham. 



TOWN REPORTS. 

1833. The first of the " Town Reports " was issued in 1833. At the 
Annual Meeting in March of this year it was voted, " To commit the 
Report of the Selectmen respecting the Receipts and Expenditures of 
the Town, the past year ; the Report of the Overseers of the Poor, in 
regard to Pauper Expenses ; the Report of the Trustees of the Hing- 
ham Poor and School Fund ; the Report of the Almshouse Building 
Committee, etc., to a Committee whose duty it shall be to examine the 
same, to classify and arrange the various receipts and expenditures of 
the last year, for all purposes, with an exhibit of the present Debt and 
resources of the Town." . . . Jedediah Lincoln, Solomon Lincoln, and 
Thomas Loring, were chosen to carry the vote of the town into effect. 
The pamphlet embraces 28 pages, and was printed in Hingham by 
Jedidiah Farmer. Copies in good condition are rare. 

1844. Nothing further was published by the town until this year, when a 
small pamphlet of sixteen pages was printed, entitled " Contract and 
Specifications for building a Town Hall for the Inhabitants of the Town 
of Hingham," a.d. 1844. Jedidiah Farmer, Printer. Signed Samuel G. 
Bayley, contractor ; James S. Lewis, John Leavitt, on the part of the 
town. The number of copies issued must have been small, and they 
are extremely rare, though now of little interest. 

1849. For the year ending February 1. The Second of the Financial 
Reports of the Town was published this year. It was prepared for the 
press under the direction of Ned Cushing, Hosea J. Gardner, Oliver 
Cushing, and Solomon Lincoln, whose names are appended. In addi- 
tion to the Financial Report, the Report of the School Committee; 
List of Town Property ; Proceedings of the Annual March meeting ; 
Highway Districts; Names of Streets, Lanes, Plains, and Bridges, and 
a list of Town Officers are embraced. pp. 47. Jedidiah Farmer, 
Printer. 1849. Rare and valuable. 

1850. The Report of the School Committee is the only publication of the 
town for 1850. Made March 4. Henry Hersey, Chairman. J. Farmer, 
Printer, pp. 8. 

1850-53. From 1850 to 1853, inclusive, the Report of the School Com- 
mittee was published annually. Henry Hersey, Chairman. No finan- 
cial report was issued for four years. Copies of these School Committee 
reports are scarce. In some instances they are more difficult to obtain 
than the Financial reports immediately preceding or following. 

1854. Report of the Committee on the Financial Affairs of the Town 
for the year ending February 1, 1854, including the Report of the 
School Committee. Prepared by the Selectmen, Town Treasurer, and 
Chairman of the School Committee. J. Farmer, Printer, pp. 32. 

1855. Report of the School Committee, made March 5, 1855. Henry 
Hersey, Chairman, pp. 23. No financial report this year. 

1856. The publications of the town for 1856 were — 

First, the Financial Report of the Selectmen for the year ending Feb- 
ruary 1. J. Farmer, Printer, pp. 24. 

Second, Report of the School Committee, submitted March 3. Pre- 
pared by E. Porter Dyer. Blossom and Easterbrook, Printers, pp. 15. 

Third, Report of the Committee chosen at the town meeting in April, 
1855, to whom was referred the subject of the Schools, submitted at 
the Annual Town Meeting held March 3, 1856. J. Farmer, Printer, 
pp. 16. 



Publications. 237 

1857. Report of the Selectmen on the Financial affairs of the Town for 
the year ending Feb. 2, 1857, including the report of the School Com- 
mittee. First publication of marriages and deaths. Davis and Farmer, 
Printers, 18 Exchange Street, Boston, pp. 54. 

1858. The same. Bazin and Chandler, Printers, 37 Cornhill, Boston, 
pp. 55. 

1859. The same. Davis and Farmer, Printers. Boston, pp. 46. 
1860-67, inclusive. Financial Report of the Selectmen, embracing Report 

of the School Committee, published annually, in one pamphlet. Blossom 
and Easterbrook, Printers. 

1868. Same as last year, with addition of Births in 1867, to records of 
Marriages and Deaths, pp. 62. 

1869. The same. pp. 54. 

1870. Same, with names of parents given with the births of children, 
pp. 64. 

1871. The same. Includes the Report of the Committee chosen to con- 
sider the School System of the town. 

1872. Financial and School Committee. Joseph Easterbrook, Printer. 

1873. The same, with Report of Road Commissioners. 

1874. Financial and School Committee. Includes the names of Streets, 
Lanes, Plains, and Bridges as established by the Town May 7, 1827, 
and since that time ; also Schedule of the Town's property. 

1875. Financial and School Committee. Copies of the Annual Report 
of the School Committee for 1875 and each subsequent year have been 
issued in separate pamphlets. 

1876. The same. One pamphlet. Contains the number of polls and 
valuation of Real and Personal Estates from 1834 to 1875, inclusive. 
Also Report of the Committee on Hingham Water Works, together 
with the Report of William Wheeler, Engineer of the same. pp. 146. 
Joseph Easterbrook. Printer. 

1877. Financial and School Committee. One pamphlet. Auditor's Re- 
port. Year ending February 1. 

1878. 1879. The same. J. Easterbrook, Printer. 

1880. The same. Includes the names of Streets, Lanes, and Bridges, 
Report of the Chief Engineer of the Fire Department, and Auditor's 
Report for the year ending February 2. pp. 139. Fred H. Miller, 
Printer. 

1881. Financial and School Committee. Financial Year ending Dec. 
31, 1881. 

1882. 1883. The same. 

1884. The same, with the " Names of the Legal Voters of the Town of 
Hingham, as contained on the Voting-list for the Election in November, 
1884." 

1885. Financial and School Committee, with High School Course of 
Study. 

1886. Financial and School Committee, with Course of Study pursued in 
the Public Schools. The births, marriages, and deaths in this number 
follow the proceedings at Town meetings, instead of the Town Clerk's 
Report, as heretofore given, and the Title page is illustrated for the first 
time with an engraving of the Town Seal. pp. 144. 

1887. Same. pp. 135. 

1888. Same. With alphabetical list of persons qualified to vote in the 
November Election, as made out by the registrars, third of October, 1888. 
pp. 172. 



238 History of Hingham. 

1889. Financial and School Committee, with Course of Study in the 
Public Schools, pp. 200. 

1890. Valuation of Real Estate in the Town of Hingham, as assessed 
for the year 1890. pp.241. 

1890, 1891. Financial and School Committee. 

1892. The same, with Names of the Legal Voters of the Town of Hing- 
ham as contained on the Voting-list for the Election in November, 
1892, and Reports of Committees on Electric Lighting and School- 
houses, pp. 234. 

Copies of the early Town Reports are becoming scarce. This is es- 
pecially true with regard to such as are in a good state of preservation. 
The Reports of our School Committee for the years 1850 to 1853, in- 
clusive, seem to have been esteemed of little importance, and have not 
been generally preserved. Those for the year 1850 are particularly 
rare. A complete series of these publications, in good condition, is some- 
thing which the possessor may well prize. Such collections, though 
found in the hands of some of our citizens, are limited in number, and 
are yearly becoming more difficult to obtain. Of their value it is unne- 
cessary to speak. Our local historians and genealogists, however, find 
them almost indispensable as a convenient source for reference concern- 
ing the various proceedings of the town and the action of its committees 
during the past thirty or forty years. 

LOCAL NEWSPAPERS. 

"Hingham Gazette." 

The " Hingham Gazette " was the first newspaper printed in Hingham. 
It contained twenty columns, and was published weekly every Friday 
morning, at Loring's Building, corner of Main and South streets, now 
the site of Lincoln's Building, with the motto, " Let all the ends thou 
aimest at be thy Country's, thy God's, and Truth's." Jedidiah Farmer 
and Simon Brown, under the firm of Farmer and Brown, were editors 
and proprietors. In their address to patrons they state that "the 
Gazette will be devoted to Political Intelligence, Literature, Religion, 
Agricultural and Scientific Improvements . . . Free from the political 
shackles of party feeling, its aim shall constantly be, Publick Good — 
not men nor measures." The first number was issued January 5, 1827. 

1828. No change. 

1829. April 10. With this number the motto, " the Liberty of the Press 
and the Liberty of the People must stand or fall together," was substi- 
tuted in place of the original. September 25th, notice was given that 
Simon Brown had transferred his interest in this paper to Jedidiah 
Farmer, who assumed the management, and was announced as publisher. 

1830. No change. 

1831. The title heretofore in Roman letters appeared in German text. 
The motto was stricken out. In other respects the same. 

1832 to 1835, inclusive, no changes. 

1835, October 2. An Extra was issued in the form of a "broadside," ex- 
clusively devoted to the Exercises connected with the celebration of the 
Two Hundredth Anniversary of the settlement of the town, on Monday, 
September 28th. Copies are scarce. 

1836. Removed to Ford's Building, North Street. 



Publications. 239 

1837. Printed by Thomas D. Blossom. 

1838. Published by Thomas D. Blossom. With the last number in 
March the publication of the " Hingham Gazette " was discontinued. 

" Hingham Patriot." 

The first number of the "Hingham Patriot" appeared July 2, 1838, and 
from this time to Oct. 18, 1839, there were two weekly newspapers 
published in Hingham: the "Hingham Patriot," and the "Gospel Wit- 
ness and Old Colony Reporter." 

The " Hingham Patriot " was but the " Hingham Gazette " continued, with 
change of title, and enlarged columns. Jedidiah Farmer was publisher, 
and it was issued on Saturdays from Ford's Building. 

From 1838 to 1840, inclusive, no change. 

In 1841, with the commencement of the volume in July, Jedidiah Farmer 
transferred his interest in the paper to William W. Wilder and John 
Gill, and the publication was continued by them under the firm of 
Wilder and Gill. 

1842. With the expiration of the volume, June 25, John Gill retired 
and William W Wilder assumed the management. Issued on Saturdays. 

1843. Same as last year up to July, when the time of publication was 
changed to Friday evening. Styled "A Family Paper, devoted to 
Politics, Agriculture, Literature, and News." 

1844. At the close of the volume in Juue, William W. Wilder retired. 
After omitting the issue of one week, John Gill became editor and 
publisher. 

1845 and 1846, inclusive, no changes. 

1847. Same as last year to the close of the volume in June. July 2 the 
paper was enlarged by the addition of another column to the page. 
New type throughout, and a new press with modern improvements, fol- 
lowed a change of proprietorship, J. Franklin Farmer becoming asso- 
ciate with John Gill. 

1848. Published every Friday evening at Ford's Building, North Street. 
J. Franklin Farmer and John Gill, proprietors. John Gill, editor. 
At the close of the year, Mr. Gill withdrew from the paper in conse- 
quence of ill health, and Mr. Farmer not being disposed to assume the 
responsibility of publisher, it was suspended. 

1849. No paper was published in town. 

" Hingham Journal and South Shore Advertiser." 

1850. With the commencement of this year, our local paper appeared 
under a double title and new management, — James H. Wilder being 
editor and proprietor ; Thomas D. Blossom and Albert Whiton, printers. 
Published Friday afternoons at Ford's Building. 

1851. The same. No number issued the first week in January. Year 
commences January 10. 

1852. Again change of management. Joseph D. Clark associated with 
Thomas D. Blossom, publishers, under the firm of Blossom and Clark. 

1853. No change. 

1854. Paper enlarged. With the commencement of the year Mr. Clark 
retired. Joseph Easterbrook formed a connection with Mr. Blossom, 
and the firm of Blossom and Easterbrook became editors and proprie- 
tors. New type, and new press. Ford's Building. Issued Friday 



240 History of Hingham. 

afternoons. " A neutral paper, devoted to Morals, Education, Agri- 
culture, News, and General Intelligence." 

1855. The same. No change, except the withdrawal from the head of 
the sheet that the paper is " neutral." 

1856-58, inclusive. No changes. 

1859. Published Friday mornings. Typographical change in heading. 

1860-63, inclusive. No changes. 

1864. No change, except in terms of subscription, which was advanced 
in September from $2.00 to $2.50 per annum. 

1865-68. No changes. 

1869. New type, and paper much enlarged. 

1870. No change. 

1871. The same, until April 28, when Mr. Blossom retired, and Joseph 
Easterbrook became publisher. 

1872-78. No important alterations. 

1879. Mr. Easterbrook died on the 8th of May, and the paper was pub- 
lished for the proprietors by Fred H. Miller from May 9 until August 29, 
when he assumed the sole management. 

1893. With the exception of the months of April, May, and June, 
1838, and the year 1849, our local newspaper has been regularly printed 
from the time it was established, in January, 1827, to the present time, 
1893, a total of more than sixty years, including an aggregate of 3,500 
copies. Complete files are indeed rare. A bound series, in fine condi- 
tion, was lost at the burning of the Public Library in 1879. Copies of 
volumes have from time to time been contributed by our citizens, and the 
set has been nearly restored. Four or five additional full collections are 
all that are now known to remain, and the loss of one must necessarily 
add value to the already limited and diminishing list. These volumes 
include a vast amount of facts pertaining to our town's history not to be 
found elsewhere, and they must increase in interest and importance with 
the progress of time. 



" Gospel Witness and Old Colony Reporter." 

Immediately following the withdrawal of the " Gazette" in March, 1838, 
appeared the " Gospel Witness and Old Colony Reporter." It was 
published weekly, on Fridays, from the old office in Ford's Building. 
The first number bears date of April 6, 1838. Thomas D. Blossom, 
proprietor. Albert A. Folsom, editor. 

This paper was printed in the interest of the Old Colony Association 
of Universalists, and devoted to the welfare of the " cause of heavenly 
truth " in the territory over which this body held jurisdiction ; " a publi- 
cation which the Association could properly call its own, the religious 
matter being of the character everywhere distinguished by the name of 
* Universalism.' " 

A department of the newly established paper, bearing the title " Hing- 
ham Gazette," was devoted to town topics of intelligence and general 
interest. The " Gospel Witness " was published for one year and about 
six months, or until Oct. 18, 1839, when it was discontinued. Copies 
do not appear to have been generally preserved, and unbroken files are 
exceedingly rare. 



PUBLIC CONVEYANCES. 

BY FRANCIS H. LINCOLN. 



The avenues for transportation of people and merchandise 
from Hingham to the neighboring country have been two-fold. 
The boat by water and the beast by land have conveyed to the 
desired destination the inhabitants and the products of their in- 
dustry. By water, first shallops, then the larger packets, and 
finally the steamboats ; by land, oxen, horses with the saddle and 
pillion, then wagons and stage-coaches, and finally the railroad, 
represent the evolution. 

Public highways were established as increasing necessity for 
communication between towns required them. Other roads were 
made and streams bridged over by private enterprise when public 
works did not supply the need of short routes. These were the 
turnpike roads. 

The establishment of stage lines for public travel came about 
gradually. In the early days the people travelled as they could ; 
then the more affluent neighbor's horse and chaise were bor- 
rowed or hired, until the increasing desire to go abroad demand- 
ed greater accommodation, and better roads made it possible to 
travel with heavier vehicles and larger loads. 

In a work entitled " Wonder Working Providence of Sion's 
Saviour, in New-England," published in London, 1634, said to 
have been written by Capt. Edward Johnson, Hingham is de- 
scribed as " a place nothing inferiour to their Neighbours for sit- 
uation, and the people have much profited themselves by transport- 
ing Timber, Planke and Mast for shipping to the Town of Boston, 
as also ceder and Pine-board to supply the wants of other townes, 
and also to remote parts, even as far as Barbadoes." Naturally, 
as the town was on the sea-coast and there were no roads, the 
earliest method of transportation for people and merchandise was 
by water. Rev. Peter Hobart, the first minister, came to Hing- 
ham by water, and landed where Ship Street now joins North 
Street, probably coming into the cove as far as the depth of water 
made it navigable. In considering the means of transportation, 
therefore, we take first in order the water routes. 

VOL. I. — 16* 



242 History of Hingham. 



PACKETS. 

It is of course very difficult to ascertain when the first vessels 
were in service as public conveyances ; in fact, it is doubtful if there 
were any regular lines of packets until the latter part of the last 
century. 

There is an entry of money paid by the town to Sergt. Daniel 
Lincoln and Nathaniel Beal " for carrying soldiers to Boston " in 
1671 ; but this service was probably performed with the private 
boats which the thrifty owners were willing to use for turning an 
" honest penny." 

About the middle of the last century Capt. Andrew Todd was 
master of the sloop " Susanna," which was a packet, and in 1754 
the " Sharp-pen " was here as a packet. 

All the packets hereafter mentioned, except one, were sloops- 
of from 30 to 45 tons. In 1790 the " Hingham Packet," Capt. 
Jotham Lincoln, was the only regular packet running between 
Hingham and Boston. The " Lincoln " was soon afterwards 
built, probably in 1793 ; " Fairplay " in 1794 ; " Union " in 1797 ; 
"Harmony" in 1800, and "Friendship" in 1801, for Matthew 
Burr and others. All these were built in Hingham, and all by 
John Souther, except the " Hingham Packet," which was built 
by Joseph Bassett. In 1802 there were five or six packets run- 
ning regularly, and in 1815 seven or eight. 

In the early part of this century, when political party feelings 
ran to extremes, there were two lines of packets, known as the 
Republican and Federal lines. 

Republican Line. 

Harmony Capt. Matthew Burr. 

Friendship . . . . „ . . Capt. John Lincoln. 

Fairplay Capt. Elijah Lewis. 

Russell Capt. Hubbard Smith £ 

Federal Line. 

Experiment . Capt. Wilson Whiton. 

Liberty Capt. Caleb Sprague. 

Industry Capt. Elijah Whiton. 

Traveller Capt. David Whiton. 

Probably these packets did not run here at one time, as the 
" Traveller " was not built until 1805. She was commanded 
shortly afterwards by Capt. Elijah Whiton, and the " Liberty " 
closed her career about 1810. The " Experiment " was built at 
the " Lime Kiln," Weir River. The " Rapid " was built by Daniel 
Bassett, in 1811, for Caleb Sprague, and launched off Bassett' s 
Wharf. She was the first vessel built by Mr. Bassett. When 
Captain Sprague was asked what color she should be painted, he 



Public Conveyances. • 243 

answered very forcibly, " True blue." Her captains were Caleb 
Sprague, Calvin Gardner, Isaiah Wkiton, and Nathaniel French. 
The "Washington" was built by John Souther, in 1812. Her 
captains were Wilson Whiton, Ezra Whiton, George Thaxter, and 
Peter Hersey. The " Brilliant " was built at Middletown, Conn., 
in 1820. Her captains were John Lincoln, Leavitt Lincoln, and 
Elijah Beal. The " Rapid " and " Brilliant " ran on the Repub- 
lican line, and the "Traveller" and "Washington" on the Fed- 
eral line. The " Escort " was built at Piermont, N. Y., in 1819. 
Her captains were Elijah Beal, William Beal, Alexander G. 
Rich and Alexander Olson. 

Long after the names " Republican " and " Federal " had 
ceased to be the designations of the lines the " Washington " 
and " Escort " continued as packets. The " Washington " was 
broken up in October, 1872, and the " Escort," the last of the 
Hingham packets, was sold in November, 1881. 

The schooner " Bell," Capt. Joshua Higgins, ran about the 
time of the " Washington " and " Escort," for one season, from 
Nye's Wharf. 

The packets were occasionally in the coasting trade, and made 
trips here and there as freights offered. For many years they 
were the favorite means of transportation to Boston. Passengers 
and freight came from the neighboring inland towns, as well as 
from Hingham, and competition was often very active. Represen- 
tatives of the Republican and Federal lines would station them- 
selves on Broad Bridge and solicit patronage from the wagons as 
they came into town with their passengers and merchandise from 
the neighboring towns. 

The trips were sometimes long, when there was a calm, and 
sociability was a distinguishing feature of them. Timorous old 
ladies thought it necessary to be seasick when crossing " Bran- 
try " Bay, and were much disappointed when the captain omitted 
to tell them that they were in that dreaded locality. Often at low 
tide the passengers were landed at Crow Point, necessitating a 
long tramp home. 

The Hingham " Station Packets," which lay on the south side 
of Long Wharf, at the head of the dock, where State Street Block 
now stands, were for many years a well-known institution. They 
were usually old vessels, housed over, kept as a sort of consign- 
ment station for buckets, eggs, knit woollen stockings, and other 
products of the industry of residents of the South Shore. Berths 
were let and frequently occupied by South-Shore people who re- 
mained in Boston over night, and meals were furnished to packet- 
men and others. In short, they were a sort of floating hotel. The 
Republican and Federal lines both had " Station Packets." The 
" Friendship" and " Russell," and afterwards a schooner, "John 
Moulton," were used for a number of years for this purpose. The 
" Genet " was the last of the station packets. She lay latterly 
at the foot of State Street Block. She was formerly a sloop, 



244 



History of Hingham. 



commanded by Capt. Barnabas Lincoln, in the coasting trade, 
carrying passengers and freight. She was larger than the others, 
and had a large cabin and good accommodations. She was finally 
towed to South Boston flats, where she sunk. 

The schooner " General Lincoln " was once used for this pur- 
pose. There were two " Station Packets " before the war of 
1812. 

STEAMBOATS. 




The " Eagle " was the first steamboat which ran between Bos- 
ton and Hingham. She made a number of excursion trips to 

Hingham in 1818, but in 
1819 and 1820 she ran reg- 
ular trips, when she was 
commanded by Capt. Clark 
and Capt. James Moorfield, 
and afterwards by Capt. 
Barnabas Lincoln. She was 
a sidewheel boat, with 
" comfortable accommoda- 
tions for about two hundred passengers." Between the morning 
and evening trips to and from Boston she made regular trips to 
Nahant and other places, during a portion of the time in which 
she was on the Hingham route. Her passengers were landed 
at Union Wharf at high tide, and sometimes up by Souther's 
ship-yard, but at Barnes's Rocks at low tide, where at one time 
there was a wire bridge, which was blown over and destroyed in 
1819. For one winter at least this boat was hauled up in the 
creek at Broad Cove. In 1821 the " Eagle " was probably taken 
off the Hingham route, as no reference to her occurs in any 
advertisements, although she was advertised to run to Salem. 
The "Eagle " was a sufficiently large and stanch boat to make 
occasional outside trips to Portland and elsewhere. 

In 1822 there are no 
notices or advertisements 
of steamboats. 

In the early days of 
steamboats excursion 
trips were made here by 
the " Tom Thumb," 
" Connecticut," " Mas- 
sachusetts," and proba- 
bly others. 

The " Lafayette," for- 
merly called " Hamil- 
ton," which name always remained on her stern, made her first 
trips between Hingham and Boston in the autumn of 1829. Capt. 
George Thaxter commanded her until August, 1830, when Capt. 




Public Conveyances. 245 

George Beal took charge, and so continued until she was sold in 
the spring of 1832 to go to Eastport, Me. She was a much smaller 
boat than the " Eagle," with but one deck, the after part of which 
was raised. Her engine was " on the low-pressure principle," and 
she made the passage in about two hours. With a good stiff 
breeze the sailing sloop packets from Hingham could sail faster 
than this steamboat. On one occasion when she had gone as far 
as the Castle a fresh " nor'wester " set in, and Capt. Thaxter had 
to put her about and return to Hingham. The fare for the trip 
was 37|- cents. An advertisement in the Hingham Gazette, May 
21, 1830, states that " the proprietors have erected a pier at Barnes's 
Rocks, from which the boat can start any time of tide." 

The Boston and Hingham Steam Boat Company was incorpo- 
rated June 10, 1831, and early steps were taken towards building 
a new boat and erecting a hotel in Hingham. The boat was built 
and named " General Lincoln," making her first trip to Boston 
June 16, 1832, under 
the command of Capt. 
George Beal, who was 
her only commander 
during her service on 
this route. This boat 
was built in Philadel- 
phia. She had two 
boilers and two en- 
gines, burnt wood, like her predecessors, and made the trip to 
Boston in an hour and a half. The fare was 37|- cents until 
1844, when it was reduced to 25 cents. This has been the usual 
fare ever since. She was advertised as " ready to tow vessels in 
Boston Harbor between her regular trips." This boat was sold 
early in 1845, and the " Danin " took her place on the route for 
a short time before the " Mayflower " arrived here. 

The hotel which the company decided to build was the Old 
Colony House. It was opened June 4, 1832, and was built on 
" Neck Gate Hill." The hill then became known as " Old Colony 
Hill." 

The house was an unprofitable investment, and in 1837 the 
Company voted to sell the whole property, — steamboat and Old 
Colony House. This was done March 28, 1837. A new company 
with new by-laws was subsequently formed under the same name, 
and the steamboat continued to be one of Hingham's institutions. 
The hotel subsequently passed into private ownership, and after 
varying fortunes as a summer resort was burned Oct. 7, 1872. 

In connection with the Steamboat Company and Old Colony 
House was the Old Colony Grove on Summer Street, southeast of 
the hotel, which was for many years used as a place of resort for 
picnics and excursions by steamer. 

After the Steamboat Company had driven piles for a wharf op- 
posite the bend in the channel, about 1832, they intended to make 




246 History of Hingham. 

a short route for foot-passengers across Mansfield's Cove to the 
road which Capt. Laban Hersey laid out at Barnes's Rocks, by 
building a floating bridge and securing it to each shore. 

The wharf for which piles were driven could be approached 
by carriages only by way of Martin's Lane, and foot passengers 
would have to make quite a circuit to shorten the distance. The 
owners of the land on the south side of the cove objected to hav- 
ing the floating bridge secured to their land, and an entry in the 
day-book of Capt. Laban Hersey, June 21, 1832, states that he 
forbade anything being put across from his premises to Mr. 
Burr's, " Capt. James Harris & Capt. Charles Shute, witnesses." 

The floating bridge was built, however, and secured as had been 
proposed. A watch was kept over it night and day by employees 
of the Steamboat Company, but it was cut adrift one night and 
floated off near Pine Hill. Large quantities of pine wood used to 
be piled on this wharf and up to the wind-mill near by, which was 
used for pumping water. The " General Lincoln " used to take 
in wood and water here. The floating bridge was never brought 
back to connect this wharf with the passageway leading to 
Barnes's Rocks. 

The " Mayflower " was built in New York expressly for this 
company, and arrived in Hingham July 5, 1845, when she began 

her regular trips for the 
season. Her commanders 
were Capt. George Beal, 
1845-50; Capt. Elijah 
Beal, 1851-1855; Capt. 
Alfred L. Rouell, 1856. 
Her average time in mak- 
ing the trip to Boston was 
an hour and a quarter. 
The (Nahant) steamer " Nelly Baker," Capt. Rouell, took the 
place of the " Mayflower " for a few days in June, 1854. 

The company having decided to build a new boat, the " May- 
flower " was sold, to go to New York, and made her last trip from 
Hingham Dec. 3, 1856. 

Capt. George Beal was pilot for the boats of the company for 
many years after he ceased to be in command. His steamboat 
service on Hingham boats dates from the days of the " Eagle " to 
the "Rose Standish," a period of over fifty years. His reputation 
as a pilot was so great that many passengers would have consid- 
ered it unsafe to make the trip unless he was at the wheel. 

In 1846 a new pier was built on Beach Street on the same site 
which has continued to be the steamboat-landing to the present 
time (1893). 

In 1857 the " Nantasket " succeeded the " Mayflower," mak- 
ing her first trip May 21, 1857. She was built for the company 
in New York under the supervision of Capt. Alfred L. Rouell, 
who commanded her while she ran here. Her average time on 





Public Conveyances. 217 

the trip was one hour, and she was considered the fastest boat 
in Boston Harbor. The rivalry between the " Nantasket " and 
" Nelly Baker," the 
Nahant boat, was very 
great. Both boats left 
on their afternoon trip 
at the same hour 
through the summer 
months, and brushes 
between these boats, 

as far as Deer Island, were frequent. The writer, on one occa- 
sion, was on board the " Nantasket " when she was running so 
closely alongside the " Nelly Baker," both boats being at full 
speed, that a deck-hand of the "Nantasket" jumped aboard the 
" Nelly Baker " and back again. Those who deprecate racing in 
these later days hardly realize how spirited were the contests then. 

In the " Mayflower " and " Nantasket " days there was much 
sociability and enjoyment on the trips among the passengers. It 
was a daily meeting of intimate acquaintances and friends. The 
merry jest went round and stories were told, giving life and ani- 
mation to the trip. In later days, with more people and more 
boats, each one feels less obligation to his neighbor, and it is 
more common to see the man of business absorbed in his daily 
newspaper. 

The landing in Hingham, until 1869, was the common centre 
for all the neighboring towns, as well as Hingham, and it was 
no uncommon sight, on the arrival of the boat, to see the pier 
crowded with vehicles, which stretched away almost up to the head 
of the wharf. The bustle was great as the South Scituate and 
Rockland House stages and the other public and private carriages 
rolled off, loaded with their merry companies o^ passengers. 

In 1862 the " Nantasket " was in government employ in the 
South, and during a part of that season the company put upon the 
route the steamers " Gilpin " and " Halifax," the latter a " stern- 
wheeler." The " Nantasket " resumed her trips in the autumn 
of 1862, for a short time, when she was sold to the United States, 
to be used as a transport steamer during the war of the Rebellion. 
Another new boat was then built for the company, at Brooklyn, 
N. Y., and named " Rose Standish." She had a saloon on the 
upper deck, where her predecessors had been open. She arrived 
in Hingham July 11, 1863, and began her regular trips July 13. 
She was commanded by the following : — 

1863 — Capt. Alfred L. Rouell. 

1864 — Capt. A. W. Calden. 

Capt. H. C. Mapes. 

1865 — Capt. Samuel Easterbrook. 

1866 — Capt. George F. Brown. 
1867-68 — Capt. Charles E. Good. 
And others in later years. 



248 History of Hingham. 

July 10, 1864, she was impressed into the United States gov- 
ernment service for about twelve days, for war purposes, when 
she made a trip to Alexandria, Va. 

In 1869 the company established a route to Nantasket Beach, 
and after that time the fleet of boats belonging to the company 
gradually increased. For several seasons the " Rose Standish " 
made the spring and fall trips from Hingham. Later on she was 
rebuilt and finally sold for service in the vicinity of Eastport, Me. 

For thirty-six years — from 1831 to 1867 — the Boston and 
Hingham Steam Boat Company was the only one running boats 
between Hingham and Boston. This company was the child of 
Hingham enterprise, and largely of Hingham capital, and it is 
not to be wondered at that any invasion of its territory 
should be looked upon with uneasy feelings by its managers and 
stockholders. 

In 1867 the " People's Independent Line " advertised to ru'n 
steamboats between Hingham and Boston. This company was 
under the management of Harvey T. Litchfield, who had pur- 
chased the wharf next west of the old company's pier, in 
Hingham, formerly occupied as a lumber wharf and known as 
Cushing's Wharf. A pier was extended from this wharf, and a 
channel dredged to it. The steamer " Emeline," formerly the 
" Nantasket " already spoken of, began her trips for this com- 
pany, under command of Capt. Alfred L. Rouell, June 24, 1867. 
In the same month the " Wm. Harrison," Capt. Rouell, came to 
the route, the " Emeline " being transferred to a route between 
Boston, Hull, and Strawberry Hill, where a wharf had been built. 
It may be mentioned that Hull had always been an intermediate 
landing for boats of the old company. 

The " Wm. Harrison " was built in Keyport, N. Y., in 1865. 
The fare on both lines during the season of 1867 was 25 cents, 
except for a short time in the beginning of the season, when it 
was 30 cents on the old line. 

In 1868 the " Rose Standish " ran from Hingham for the Bos- 
ton and Hingham Steam Boat Company, and the " Wm. Harrison," 
Capt. E. S. Young, with the " Emeline," Capt. A. F. Doane, a part 
of the summer, for the People's Line, with the fare at 25 cents. 

In 1869 the Boston and Hingham Steam Boat Company pur- 
chased the very fast steamer " John Romer " in New York, and 
she made her first trip May 20. She was commanded by Capt. 
Charles E. Good. Fares on this line were reduced to ten cents 
during a portion of the season. The " Rose Standish " was put 
upon the beach route. The " Wm. Harrison," Capt. E. S. Young, 
was the boat of the People's Line, with fares at twenty-five, ten,, 
and five cents, as competition increased and excitement ran high. 
In this year Litchfield's Grove was opened for picnics and pleasure 
parties in connection with the People's Line. This grove was 
southeast of the Old Colony House station of the railroad, on 
Summer Street. 



PLA N 

STEAMBOAT LANDINGS 

AT VARIOUS TIMES. 




Compi/ed 

from the 

most authentic sources. 

by 

Framc/s //. L/a/coim 

/8P0. 



250 History of Hingham. 

1870 was another exciting year in steamboat matters. Fares 
on both lines were ten cents the greater part of the season. 
October 1st the " Wm. Harrison " was taken off the route for 
the season, when the fare on the old line was raised to 25 cents. 
This brought out the " Wm. Harrison " again on October 18th, 
with a ten-cent fare, and from this time until the " Wm. Har- 
rison" was withdrawn for the season (October 31st) the old 
line carried passengers free of charge, then restoring the fare 
to 25 cents for the month of November, and closing the season 
December 1. 

During 1871 and 1872 competition continued, fares varied from 
10 to 25 cents, and there was no change in boats, Capt. Wesley 
Collins being commander of the " John Romer." After 1872 
the People's Line seems to have abandoned Hingham and given 
its entire attention to the Strawberry Hill route. This line 
having passed into new hands, became absorbed into the Boston 
and Hingham Steam Boat Company in 1888. 

The large tract of land known as " Crow Point " had been for 
some years owned by Mr. Samuel Downer and others. It was 
Mr. Downer's original intention to establish his oil-works there, 
but later he conceived the idea of making it a summer resort. 
The result was that " Crow Point " was transformed into "Down- 
er Landing." Mr. Downer put a large amount of capital into the 
enterprise, and, what was equally essential, a large amount of 
energy. He laid out house-lots, made roads, and built a number 
of summer cottages and other buildings, including a hotel, the 
" Rose Standish House." He also opened pleasure grounds well 
fitted with all the necessary accessories for the amusement of 
picnic and pleasure parties during the summer season, to which 
he gave the name of " Melville Gardens." He also built a wharf 
for a steamboat landing. The whole transformation was rapid 
and wonderful. All this was in 1871. The " Wm. Harrison," of 
the People's Line, had the sole privilege of landing there during 
this season. In 1872 Mr. Downer had built two additional 
wharves, one for freight vessels and one for the landing of the 
boats of the Boston and Hingham Steam Boat Company. This 

has since been one of the 

j*l§j§g|j^^TP landing-places for the boats 

/ /l\ M\ \ on their trips to and from 

_ '_ / i- j ^^|^^ ^^^^^^E ' ' u ^14: the steamer " Gov, 

^^ m W ^^^^^lTJ^M " W Andrew" was built for the 

"SHI^WSPwP^SSMWP Boat Company, and made 

her first trip June 30, 1874. 
Capt. George F. Brown was her commander for this and many 
succeeding seasons. 

The People's Line having abandoned the Hingham route, the 
field was occupied without competition, and the " Gov. Andrew " 



Public Conveyances. 251 

was the Hingham boat, and so continued for a series of years. 
The fleet of the Boston and Hingham Steam Boat Company had 
been increased to three boats. A fourth, the new " Nantasket," 
built for the company in Chelsea in 1878, was added in that year. 

In 1881 the control of the company passed from its former 
owners, and the new management gave its special attention to the 
accommodation of travel to Nantasket Beach. Intimately con- 
nected with the boats was the Nantasket Beach Railroad, which 
had been opened in 1880. In this _year the Old Colony and Hing- 
ham Steamboat Company was incorporated under the general 
law. Its stockholders were principally those who had formerly 
been in control of the Boston and Hingham Steam Boat Com- 
pany. They sold their interest in the old company and purchased 
the steamer " Gov. Andrew," with certain privileges of landing 
at Hull, Downer Landing, and Hingham. The " Gov. Andrew " 
continued her regular trips to Hingham, and the Boston and 
Hingham Steam Boat Company discontinued trips to Hingham. 
The name of the Old Colony and Hingham Steamboat Com- 
pany was changed by an Act of the Legislature, March 16, 
1882, to the Hingham, Hull, and Downer Landing Steamboat 
Company. 

In 1884 the Hingham, Hull, and Downer Landing Steamboat 
Company purchased the steamer ' Nahant," built in Chelsea in 
1878, made improvements upon her and changed her name to 
** Gen. Lincoln," and placed Capt. Charles E. Good in command 
of her. These two boats — the " Gov.- Andrew" and "Gen. 
Lincoln " — continued to be the boats for Hingham for several 
succeeding years. 

In 1888 the Hingham, Hull, and Downer Landing Steamboat 
Company increased its capital, bought the property and franchises 
of the Boston and Hingham Steam Boat Company, and the former 
owners again regained control of all the routes between Boston, 
Hull, Strawberry Hill, Nantasket Beach, Downer Landing, and 
Hingham. 

In 1890 the name of the company was changed to the Nan- 
tasket Beach Steamboat Company. 

In 1891 the steamer " Mayflower " was built in Chelsea for 
this company, and made her first trip June 27th, with Capt. 
George F. Brown as her commander. Her capacity is for two 
thousand passengers. 

In the foregoing account of the steamboats no attempt has 
been made to give a history of the steamboat companies or boats 
except as they have been connected with Hingham. 



STAGE-COACHES. 

There was no regular stage communication between Hingham 
and Boston until near the close of the last century. The " Mas- 
sachusetts Register" publishes for the first time in 1802 a list of 



252 History of Hingham. 

stage-lines running out of Boston. It states that the Plymouth 
stage started from King's Inn, and adds the following note : 
"N. B. Plymouth stage passes through Bridgewater every 
Wednesday and Thursday, and through Hingham all the other 
regular days." There are similar notes in 1803 and 1804. The 
time of leaving was five or six o'clock in the morning, according 
to the season of the year. In 1805 the announcement is, " Ply- 
mouth mail stage (through Hingham and Hanover) sets off from 
Mrs. King's Inn every Tuesday and Friday at 5 o'clock in the 
morning. Leaves Plymouth every Monday and Thursday." The 
Plymouth stage continued for many years to run through Hing- 
ham certain days in the week, and was the regular afternoon 
stage to Boston, and the morning stage from Boston. 

Hingham as a line by itself first appears in the " Register " in 
1815, when the stages were announced to leave Boston " from 
Boyden's, Dock Square, Mon. Thur. Sat. 4 P. M." 

Three days in the week was the arrangement until 1826, when 
it ran five days, and in 1827 Abiel Wilder advertised that his stage 
would leave his house every day, except Sundays, at 6 o'clock 
A. M., and Capt. Riley's, No. 9 Elm Street, Boston, at 4 o'clock 
P. M. Mr. Wilder's was the regular Hingham stage, apparently 
without competition, until the autumn of 1828. 

The following list of stage lines and proprietors, which is as 
complete as can be ascertained, will show the stage arrangements 
in and after 1828 in a convenient form. Possibly the list is in- 
complete, but there continued to be a regular stage to Boston 
until about the time of the opening of the railroad in 1849. 

1828. Abiel Wilder. Scituate & Boston Accommodation, Amos H. 
Hunt. Marshfield, Scituate, Cohasset, and Hingham Mail, Jedediah 
Little and Co., through Hingham three times a week. 

1828-1832. Little & Morey. 

1882. Moses Pattangall — winter of 1832-33. 

1833. A. & B. Wilder. Little & Morey. 

1834. A. & B. Wilder. 

1835. A. Wilder, Agt. 

1836. A. Wilder, Agt. 
1836-1842. Little & Morey. 
1842-1843. Hersey & Hichborn. 

1844. Warren A. Hersey, proprietor ; Wm. Hichborn, driver. J. W. 
Thayer, winter of 1844-45. 

1845. W. Hichborn, driver. 

1846. "Railroad Line," connecting with Old Colony Railroad at 
Quincy ; Wm. Hichborn, driver. " Old Line," Reuben Gardner, — Hing- 
ham to Boston. 

1847-48. P. Jones & Co. "will run a stage through Hingham." 

The last insertion of the stage-coach advertisement was in the 
" Hingham Patriot," Aug. 11, 1848. 

The fare was at first 11.00. In 1830 Little and Morey reduced 
it to 75 cents, and in 1841 to 50 cents. Other lines adopted the 
same rate. 



Public Conveyances. 253 

It is no fancy of memory to say that the teams were of the 
very best. The crack of the whip and dash of the horse was 
not wanting, and the same pride on the part of the drivers to 
come into town in good style, which is the tradition of old stag- 
ing days, was felt here in Hingham as elsewhere. There are 
many anecdotes of the brilliant exhibitions of the drivers' skill. 
One venerable resident has told the writer how well he remem- 
bers the usual sight as the Plymouth stage came down by the Old 
Meeting-house, where the driver would crack his whip, the horses 
dash into a full gallop, and be brought gracefully to a full stop at 
the Post Office, which, in those days, stood on the hill in front of 
the Academy ; and also the ringing sound of the horn in the 
west part of the town in the early morning, announcing the arri- 
val of the mail in town, hurrying the postmaster to his station to 
receive it. 

Among the popular drivers " Ben " Bates and " Jake " Sprague, 
of the Plymouth line ; " Bill " Furgerson, of the Scituate line ; 
and " Tom " Morey and " Bill " Hichborn, of the Hingham line, 
are well remembered by the older residents and patrons. 

The team was usually four horses, and a stop was made on the 
way at Quincy, for rest and " refreshment." 

The steamboat landing was for many years the terminus of 
lines from the neighboring towns, and there has been no lack 
of local accommodation in later years. The fine four-horse 
" Steamboat Coach," owned and driven by Joseph Haskell, to con- 
nect with the steamer " Gen. Lincoln," in 1834, and other years 
about that time, was the admiration of the town. It was for local 
accommodation. 

RAILROADS. 

The Old Colony Railroad was opened from Boston to Plymouth 
Nov. 10, 1845. The route was through Quincy, Braintree, and 
Abington. The distance from Hingham to Quincy was about six 
miles, and to Braintree about ten miles. Naturally the question 
of a railroad through Hingham to connect with the Old Colony 
soon began to be agitated. There was much discussion about the 
location of the road, opinions differing widely as to the most de- 
sirable route ; but it was settled by the charter of the South Shore 
Railroad Company, which was granted March 26, 1846, the loca- 
tion being somewhat changed by a subsequent Act. This road was 
a branch from the Old Colony from North Braintree to Cohasset, 
passing through Hingham between North and South streets. 
The road was opened for travel Jan. 1, 1849, with stations in 
Hingham at the corner of West and South streets, called " West 
Hingham ; " on North Street between Thaxter's Bridge and 
Broad Bridge, called " Hingham ; " on Summer Street, called 
" Old Colony House ; " and on East Street, near the Cohasset line, 
called " Nantasket," and afterwards " North Cohasset." 

Until Oct. 1, 1852, the road was leased and operated by the 



254 History of Hiyigham. 

Old Colony. For a number of years after that date it had its own 
equipment of engines and cars, the engines running to Braintree 
only, where the cars were attached to trains on the main line. 
In September, 1871, the Old Colony bought the controlling inter- 
est in the South Shore, and Oct. 1, 1876, it was consolidated with 
the Old Colony. 

It was largely owing to the enterprise and energy of Mr. Alfred 
C. Hersey, a native of Hingham, that the South Shore railroad 
was established, and he was elected its first president. There 
was great rejoicing in Hingham, as well as in the other towns 
on the route, on the day of opening the road, and a salute was 
fired from Powder House Hill. 

The following account of the opening day's proceedings ap- 
peared in " The Chronotype," a Boston daily paper, edited by 
Elizur Wright, in the issue of Jan. 2, 1849 : — 

South-Shore Railroad. 

After infinite palaver, as Carlyle would say, the South-Shore Road 
has got itself located and opened. Is not this a proof of the feasibility 
of republics ? The people in the one hundred and one coves and inlets of 
our many-sided Boston Harbor are somewhat like frogs, — the grant 
of a railroad for them caused any amount of clack. Should it be here, 
or there ? One would have said, with such pulling and hauling, it would 
be nowhere. We can testify it is there. 

Yesterday was one of the brightest possible winter days, and at 12 
o'clock an immense, long train waited half an hour for the City Govern- 
ment, and then started, rolled on over the Calf Pasture by Dorchester, 
Neponset, Quincy, and Braintree, and gracefully curved off upon the 
new road, which the glorious amphibious people of North Braintree, 
Weymouth, Hingham, and Cohasset have built for themselves. 

It passes through a j^opulous and thriving country, where the children 
are abundant, living off from both the land and the sea. They seem to 
have curved the road a good deal, to suit as many as possible. Passing 
through the ancient hive of Hingham, the folks made us promise to come 
back and take supper. Arrived at Cohasset about half-past-two. 

Cohasset is of itself no small place. It has considerable ground to stand 
upon, besides the water beyond it. We saw two churches, many snug 
houses, multitudes of people. Probably some, by permission of their 
mothers, came from Hull. 

At Cohasset is a spacious Car House, some two or three hundred feet 
long, the whole of which was converted into a summery sort of bower, 
with evergreens for foliage and red and white bunting for blossoms. Two 
long tables were bountifully spread, and the crowd passed in without let 
or hindrance. We should guess there were at least one thousand, per- 
haps more. After an air from the fine Weymouth Brass Band and the 
invocation of a blessing, the eatables were attended to. 

We must not forget to mention that besides a most bountiful and 
various cold collation, with hot coffee, there was a hogshead or two of 
chowder, piping hot, ladled out. As Daniel Webster was not on hand for 
the responsible service of superintending the chowder-pot, our friend John 
Wright, of Exchange Street, had performed that duty. This does not 



Public Conveyances. 255 

argue that Cohasset people do not themselves make chowder. They look 
as if they did. 

The President of the road, Mr. Alfred C. Hersey, opened the speech- 
making very handsomely in a brief address, and Mr. Johnson read the 
first toast to the Old Colony Eoad, which called forth Mr. Derby, its 
President. He complimented very justly the ladies of Cohasset for the 
fine appearance of the Hall, and the bountiful supply of the tables, and 
ended with a toast for Boston, which was responded to by three cheers 
for Ex-Mayor Quincy. 

A toast to the good old Commonweath of Massachusetts was responded 
to by Mr. Amasa Walker, who is truly as much the embodiment of Massa- 
chusetts spirit as any man. He gave in few words a striking view 'of 
what Massachusetts has done for railroads, and what they have done for 
her. 

Mr. Degrand, of Boston, in his inimitable manner, demonstrated that the 
South-Shore Railroad had cost $100,000 less than nothing. It had raised 
the value of land for a mile on each side of it on an average $50 an acre. 
Sic vos non vobis, the stockholders might say, but Mr. Degrand did not 
mind that. He went on to advocate a road to San Francisco, and to prove 
in the same way that it would cost less than nothing. 

When the City Government was toasted, our friends Kimball and Wood- 
man did the honors, with an unction which showed how well they deserve 
their seats in that honorable body. Moses related how a certain roaring 
" Bull of Bashan " opposed the mortgaging of the State for the Worces- 
ter Railroad, and how another common but dangerous bull of Worcester 
County opposed to his cost the progress of the first locomotive which trav- 
ersed that county. And then he drew a parallel, which brought down the 
house, between the one bull and the other ; at last letting the ignorant know 
that the Bull of Bashan was B. F. Hallett. 

The Press being toasted, unfortunately the only thing in the shape of 
an editor was the Ishmaelite of the Chronotype, who, alluding to the re- 
markable fact that though Hull belonged exclusively to the Courier he 
had some interest in Cohasset, having partly educated one of its Parsons, 
and gave for a toast : " The People of Cohasset. From the liberty with 
which they have used their ladles to-day, they deserve to dwell on the brim 
of the gi'eat chowder-pot of the world." 

Time would fail us even to name all the good things that were said and 
toasted. At the hour of four the immense throng piled themselves into 
the cars, and returned to Hingham, where, in one of the most beautiful 
station buildings in the country, they were invited to another " light repast." 
It was light in regard to the illumination, but cmite substantial as to the 
amount of sponge cake and coffee, — nothing stronger. Indeed the whole 
jollification was on temperance principles, and the very wittiest men used 
nothing but cold water. At seven o'clock, the whole party having enjoyed 
the best possible time of it, — a brand new edition of toasts, jokes, and 
compliments being got out at Hingham, — returned to Boston by eight. 

It was a capital sentiment offered by Mr. David Kimball, brother of the 
Museum man : " The improvement of travelling and collations, — the former 
with steam and the latter without." Such grand railroad doings without 
liquor speak well for Massachusetts. God bless her ! 

The Duxbury and Cohasset Railroad, chartered in 1867, and an 
extension of the South Shore, running from Cohasset through 



256 History of Hingham. 

Scituate and Marshfield to Duxbuiy, was opened in the summer 
of 1871. This road was extended to Kingston, where it connected 
with the Old Colony, and opened June 21, 1874. Thus Hingham 
came into more direct communication with the shire town of its 
county. The Duxbury and Cohasset Road was consolidated with 
the Old Colony Oct. 1, 1878. 

The Nantasket Beach railroad was chartered and opened in 
1880. This road connected with the Old Colony at " Old Colony 
House " Station, and ran to the head of Nantasket Beach, in Hull, 
and thence to Windmill Point, just beyond Hull Village, making 
close connection with the steamboats at Nantasket Beach and 
Hull. After several seasons of experience in running as an inde- 
pendent road, it was finally leased to the Old Colony in 1888, 
on such terms as to make it virtually a part of that road. 



FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

BY FRANCIS H. LINCOLN. 



Our ancestors early endeavored to protect themselves from 
losses by fire. In the Selectmen's First Book of Records are 
the following orders : — 

Hingham, 1662. It is ordered by the Selectmen of this Town that 
Euery house holder shall have a sufficient Ladder proportionable to ye 
height of his house always in Redyness in case of Danger & such as are 
found defective herein or weake after the publication of this order shall 
pay hue shillings for Euery weeke that he or they continue in this Defect 
as a fine to ye vse of ye towne and any one of the Selectmen are hereby 
impowered to execute this order. 

Hinghak, 1663. It is ordered by the Selectmen that if any person 
shall take away the Ladder belonging vnto the Meeting-house except it be 
in case of present Danger of fire, and then not to keepe it above four and 
twenty houers, shall pay as a fine to the vse of the Town the sum 'of ten 
shillings. Edmund Pitts is to execute this order. 

Regulations of a like nature to the above were made, according 
to the records, at later dates. 

There is little of interest relating to the means of putting out 
fires for many years. Fire Wards were appointed according to 
law, whose badge of office was a red staff surmounted with a 
brass spike or spear, and such precautions as naturally suggested 
themselves were taken by private individuals. 

At the beginning of the present century there was a movement 
to procure fire-engines. They were not purchased and owned by 
the town, but by private individuals as " proprietors." The town 
provided houses to keep them in, and in 1802 one hundred and 
sixty dollars were paid by the Selectmen " for building 2 Engine 
Houses." These were for the " Precedent, No. 1," and " Centre, 
No. 2." There was a rivalry — when was there not rivalry in 
fire-engine matters ? — between those inhabitants " on the Plain " 
and those " down town," who had decided to procure these en- 
gines, as to which should be completed first. The one for " the 
Plain " was built there with the exception of the copper work, 
which was done by Hunneman & Co. of Boston. James Stephen- 
son and Benjamin Thomas did the iron work. Peter Sprague 

VOL. I. — 17 * 



258 History of Hingham. 

built the tub and Ezra Leavitt made the wheels. The one for 
" down town " was made by Hunneman & Co. of Boston. 

The engine for " the Plain " was completed first, and for that 
reason was named the " Precedent." It was located about where 
the public scales now are (1893), adjoining the Hingham Centre 
Post Office. The earliest records are dated May 4, 1819, and 
show Moses Sprague to have been elected Master or Director. 
The records continue through 1841. 

The other engine was called the " Centre." Both were com- 
pleted in 1802, and were "bucket tubs" without suction attach- 
ments, and had to be filled by hand. The water was then forced 
through the hose and pipe. 

If one were to imagine a fire in those days he would see a com- 
pany of perhaps fifteen men at work upon the brakes and attend- 
ing to the hose and pipe, while a line of men and women stretched 
away to the nearest water, which they passed from hand to hand 
in buckets, emptying it into the tub, passing the empty buckets 
back by another line to be filled again. 

The house for the "Centre" stood at first about where the North 
Street end of Ford's Building now is (1893). It was afterwards 
moved to Thaxter's Bridge on the southerly side of the Town 
Brook, where the Anthes Building now stands. Here the old 
" Centre" remained until she ceased to be used, except for the last 
few years of her stay in Hingham, when she was kept in the barns 
of Norton Q. Thaxter and Thomas L. Hobart. When her former 
owners had all passed away, deserted, and no longer fit for duty, 
she was taken to Crow Point and put on board a vessel bound 
for Miramichi. A list of the original proprietors of the " Centre " 
engine, dated Feb. 20, 1802, gives 124 names, of which 12 were 
women. Dea. David Lincoln was the first captain of the " Centre." 
A meeting of the proprietors was called for April 5, 1851, " to see 
what disposition they will make of the engine," which will give 
some indication of how long she remained in town. 

After the " Precedent, No. 1," and " Centre, No. 2," came the 
" Constitution, No. 3." She was located near the Meeting-house 
at South Hingham, and was owned, like the others, by proprietors. 
The town paid for the building in which she was kept, according 
to the Selectmen's Records : " 1805, Paid for building an Engine 
House in the South Parish, 195." She was also a bucket tub, 
smaller than No. 1 and No. 2. Her brakes ran " athwartships," 
and not " fore and aft," as was the later fashion. 

The " Torrent, No. 4," was purchased by citizens of West 
Hingham in 1826. Isaac Little was elected the first captain Feb. 
21, 1826. The town paid for her house $141. 

June 16, 1830, the first suction engine, " Hingham, No. 5," 
was brought into town, being built by Stephen Thayer of Boston, 
and purchased like her predecessors by citizens of the lower part 
of the town, more especially around the harbor, at a cost of about 
$600. Luther J. Barnes was her first foreman. In addition to 



Fire Department. 259 

the private subscription the town paid $100 for a suction appara- 
tus and $40 for a hose carriage, and built a new engine-house 
which cost $185.75. 

Sept. 13, 1826, there was a grand parade of the Fire Companies 
of Hingham with their engines, for exercise and practice. This 
was the first exhibition of fire companies in Hingham. 

At a town-meeting Nov. 14, 1843, an article in the warrant, 
" Will the town adopt any measures for the formation of regular 
companies for the several engines in town ? " was referred to a 
committee, which reported at a meeting Nov. 27, 1843, as follows : 
" Your Committee recommend that companies consisting of 20 
members each be raised and attached to engines No. 1, ' Prece- 
dent ; ' No. 2, ' Centre ; ' No. 3, ' Torrent ; ' and No. 4, ' Con- 
stitution ; ' and a company of 40 members for Engine No. 5, 
' Hingham ; ' and that individuals composing said companies 
be allowed the amount of their poll tax." Companies were very 
soon formed for the several engines. 

At the annual town meeting in 1846, a committee was chosen 
to see what could be done to secure better protection to the 
property of the town from fire. This committee reported at the 
April meeting, recommending that the town purchase four new 
suction engines, one to be the " Hingham, No. 5," if satisfactory 
arrangements could be made with the proprietors. This the town 
voted to do, and appointed a committee to purchase the engines, 
stipulating that they should be all alike, to avoid rivalry. This 
committee purchased the " Hingham " of its proprietors, and 
three new ones of Hunneman & Co. The " Hingham " remained 
at the harbor, and was called No. 1. No. 2 was stationed at West 
Hingham, and like the former one was named " Torrent." No. 3 
was stationed at Hingham Centre, and named "Niagara," and 
No. 4 was stationed at South Hingham, and named for her prede- 
cessor, " Constitution." These engines were manned by volun- 
teer companies, without pay, and the fire department has been 
so made up to the present time. The first foremen for the new 
engines were the following : — 

Torrent — William Jones. 
Niagara — John Lincoln. 
Constitution — Joseph Jacobs. 

In February, 1852, the town purchased a new engine of Howard 
and Davis, to take the place of the " Hingham," which had proved 
unsatisfactory, and located it at the harbor. This engine was 
named " Extinguisher, No. 1," and her first foreman was John K. 
Corbett. 

In 1874 a hook and ladder truck was built for the town by 
Whiton and Marble, of Hingham, which was stationed at Hing- 
ham Centre, in the house with Engine No. 3. A company was 
organized March 21, 1874, of which J. Edwards Ripley was the 
foreman. 



260 History of Hingham. 

In 1879 the town voted to place the Fire Department in charge 
of a Board of Engineers, who took control May 1, 1879. George 
dishing was elected chief engineer, and has continued in that 
office to the present time (1893). After the introduction of 
Accord Pond water there was gravity pressure enough to throw 
water over the highest buildings. There was no further need of 
engines, except perhaps at the south and west parts of the town, 
in streets to which the water pipes did not extend. The town 
voted to take water from the Hingham Water Company and set 
fifty hydrants, — which number has since been increased, — and 
purchased a new horse hose-carriage, capable of carrying 1200 
feet of hose, which was stationed at the junction of North and 
South streets, and named " Isaac Little." It was built by Abbott, 
Downing, & Co., of Concord, N. H., and cost the town $670. 
Hiram Howard was chosen foreman. 

In 1881 Engines 1 and 3 were put out of commission and the 
companies disbanded. Hose companies were formed to have 
charge of the hose-carriages belonging to those engines. A 
new four-wheeled hand hose-carriage was purchased, with a 
capacity for 850 feet of hose, which was placed in the house of 
Engine No. 3, at Hingham Centre. Its cost was $550, and it was 
named for the engine " Niagara." 

In 1883 a new four-wheeled hose-carriage was purchased, at a 
cost of $585, which was placed in the house of Engine No. 4, 
at South Hingham, — the engine being still retained, ready for 
use, but out of commission. 

In this same year " Extinguisher," Engine No. 1, was sold to 
the town of Proctorsville, Vt., for $245, and her hose company 
was disbanded. 

In 1884 " Niagara," Engine No. 3, was sold to the town of 
Needham, Mass., for $250. 

In 1887 the hook-and-ladder truck, being much out of repair, 
was sold for $25, and a new one purchased of Abbott, Downing, 
& Co. for $1000. It was named " Volunteer." 

In 1889 the Gamewell System of Fire Alarm Telegraph was 
introduced into the town, at a cost of $3000, and first put into 
use on the evening of Oct. 27, 1889. 

In 1891 a wagon known as " Hose 2 " was purchased. It was 
built in Concord, N. H., and cost $500. It is equipped with all 
the modern appliances, can be run by hand or horses, and has 
a capacity for one thousand feet of hose. 

In 1892 the two carriages formerly attached to "Torrent" and 
" Constitution " were placed at the harbor and East Hingham, 
and designated as " Hose A " and " Hose B." 

The force of the Department in 1893 consists of a Chief Engin- 
eer ; four Assistant-Engineers ; Superintendent of Fire Alarm ; 
Hose Companies 1, 2, 3, and 4, fifteen men each ; Hook and 
Ladder Company, No. 1, twenty men. 



WATER-WORKS. 

BY CHARLES W. S. SEYMOUR. 



The Hingham Water Company, although a private corporation, 
is so essentially a Hingham institution that the history of the 
town would be incomplete without an account of the formation of 
the company and the building of the works, — an undertaking which 
has resulted in the promotion of the health and consequent hap- 
piness of the citizens of the town, in the preservation of public and 
private grounds from the effects of drought, and in the protection 
•of property from destruction by fire. 




ACCORD POND. 



The idea of introducing a supply of pure soft water for domes- 
tic and other purposes into the town, from Accord Pond, began to 
impress the minds of some of the progressive citizens of Hing- 
ham early in the year 1870. At this time Plymouth was the 
only town in the county that had introduced water, and the 
success of the works in that place greatly encouraged the first 
movers for a similar system in Hingham ; and at a town meeting 



262 History of Hingham. 

held Nov. 7, 1871, a committee consisting of Quincy Bicknell^ 
George P. Hayward, Alfred Loring, Alden Wilder, and Edmund 
Hersey, was chosen " to cause a survey of Accord Pond to ascer- 
tain its capacity for supplying the inhabitants of Hingham with 
water ; also to cause estimates to be made of the probable cost 
of laying pipes, &c, and report thereon at some future meeting." 

Mr. Bicknell, for the committee, presented an able report at the 
annual town-meeting, March 8, 1875, in which he says : — 

A free and ready supply of pure water has of late years attracted more 
or less of public attention in our various municipalities, not only as a 
luxury and comfort, but as an essential element in the maintenance of the 
public health, and this supply has been sought for and found beyond their 
own limits. 

It is matter of tradition that the fathers made their first settlement here 
with reference to a ready supply of pure water, which they found in the 
springs where the upland met the meadow. But as the town has ex- 
tended itself by growth in various directions out of this valley, it has 
been found difficult in many localities to procure a sufficient supply of 
water, and in seasons of drought serious inconvenience, if not suffering, 
has attended the scarcity of water. 

The means of supplying the house with water are either the open 
well or the well furnished with a pump, the tubular well — a late 
invention — being used to a limited extent. These wells are liable to 
be affected by the various causes in operation in growing and compact 
villages, and by the presence of barnj^rds and stables in close prox- 
imity to the wells, and by the quite too general neglect of suitable 
drainage around our houses. The very means we employ to make our 
homesteads attractive, by enriching the soil, tend to unfit that soil for 
properly filtrating the surface water which falls upon it, and which finally, 
permeating the earth, finds passage to the well. 

That the scarcity of water, and at times its impurity, affect and often 
determine the condition of the health of a community, and affect the 
longevity of the people, have been made so apparent as to remain unques- 
tioned ; but whether our condition is very much as yet affected by these 
circumstances cannot so readily be determined. We cannot, however, 
take ourselves out of the operation of general laws, and so long as any 
of the causes exist which are detrimental to health and longevity, we must 
either endure the penalty or remove the cause. No one doubts that in 
cities and compact villages the introduction of pure and abundant water 
has tended to add to the length of human life, and to make that life 
more efficient during its existence ; but what the exact money value of 
the added and more efficient years may be is not so readily determined. 

We may, however, suppose for illustration that in an average life of 
forty years one year may be added to each life, and that added year 
would be the most efficient one of the whole life ; and taking the average 
production of men and women at the most efficient year of a life of labor, 
we may assume that this year is worth in productive capacity at least five 
hundred dollars to each one. Apply the result to a community of four 
thousand and five hundred lives, and you have a gain in a period of forty 
years of $2,225,000, — more than sufficient to pay the cost of our pro- 
posed water-works, with all the interest thereon compounded for the whole 
forty years. 



Water-works. 263 

These water-works have other elements of value in the saving of 
labor which is now spent in the raising of the water from the well and, 
in many cases, in the transportation of it, which considered in the sev- 
eral individual instances are comparatively insignificant, but from their 
incessant repetition aggregate in time and in expenditure of force to no 
trifling amount. We will suppose that, for the one thousand families 
or thereabout in town, it requires for this service, daily, on an average, 
fifteen minutes to each family ; this would give two hundred and fifty 
hours' work each day, or 91,250 hours for each year; and estimating the 
value of this service at ten cents per hour, it amounts to $9,125, a sum 
sufficient' to pay the annual interest on the whole outlay for the pro- 
posed works. 

Other elements of value will be seen when we come to consider these 
proposed works in their use in the extinguishing of fires. In this respect 
their value is too obvious to need anything more than the statement. 
More than once the more thickly settled portions of our town have 
been in imminent peril from a spreading conflagration arising from a 
scarcity of water. With engines and other apparatus more numerous 
and costly than most towns of our population and wealth, and with a 
department and companies well organized and competent, yet we fail to 
derive the full value of this large expenditure and organization by our 
constant neglect to make proper provision for a sufficient supply of water. 

These proposed works have a value in their relation to insurance, and 
would tend to reduce the present rates or to prevent an increase in those 
rates. Many other considerations could readily be presented to show 
how these works could be made to subserve the material interests of the 
town and its inhabitants in other directions ; and outside of any direct 
pecuniary gain, they would also add to the comfort and enjoyment of all 
the people, beautifying and adorning our commons and squares with 
fountains, and making our old town more attractive to those seeking 
desirable homes. 

The committee employed Messrs. Walter L. Bouve, of Hingham, 
and Henry M. Wightman, of Boston, to make preliminary surveys 
and furnish approximate estimates of the cost of building works 
of sufficient capacity to supply the town. Mr. Bouve reported 
that an analysis of the water of Accord Pond by Prof. William R. 
Nichols, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, showed it 
to be unusually free from animal contamination, and remark- 
ably pure. Mr. Wightman also reported that in his opinion the 
pond " could be safely relied upon as a source of supply for 
Hingham." In concluding their report to the town the committee 
say : — 

The capacity of the pond to afford an adequate supply both for the 
present and the future probable wants of the town, is shown, so far as 
the character of the examination would allow, to be ample. . . . The 
estimated cost for suitable works is about $131,000. 

With this statement of the facts in the case, the question presents itself 
to the consideration of the inhabitants of the town whether their neces- 
sities or the advantages to be gained, or both, are of sufficient magnitude 
to warrant so large an expenditure. 



264 History of Hingham. 

Are we ready to tax ourselves to the extent of some $8,000 or $9,000 
per year, in addition to our already large annual taxation, and hand down 
to a succeeding generation so large a burden of debt? Already is the 
question agitating our legislators whether some limit shall not be assigned 
beyond which city and town may not go in assuming obligations in the 
future ; and as wise and reasonable citizens we should carefully consider 
and be able to fix a limit for ourselves, independent of any legislative 
coercion. 

As was to have been expected in a conservative community like 
Hingham, the report created considerable adverse feeling. 

The statement and estimates submitted were severely criti- 
cised. It was doubted if the water could be made to flow over 
Liberty Pole Hill, or if there was water enough to fill the main 
pipes, if they should ever be laid : the water was full of snakes 
and all kinds of impurities, and the pond was so shallow that a 
two-inch pipe would drain it in a very short time if allowed to 
run continually. 

These, and other doubts and objections to the scheme, were met 
by Mr. George P. Hayward in an able address, in which he re- 
viewed the report of the committee, and read communications 
from gentlemen connected with the Plymouth Water Works giv- 
ing the practical working of the scheme in that place since the 
the building of the works in 1854. 

The report was duly accepted, and the committee discharged. 
Hon. Solomon Lincoln then moved — 

That a new committee be chosen, to cause an estimate to be made of 
the expense of procuring water from Accord Pond for the use of the in- 
habitants of the town, and to recommend in what streets the pipes should 
be laid ; that the committee cause a thorough and accurate survey to be 
made, by a competent engineer, of the pond and of the limits to be sup- 
plied, and to report to the town at a future meeting; also, that the com- 
mittee be instructed to petition the Legislature for authority to take water 
from Accord Pond for the use of the inhabitants of the town. 

Mr. Luther Stephenson seconded the motion, and moved as an 
amendment that the committee be appointed by the moderator, 
Hon. John D. Long. E. Waters Burr, Andrew C. Cushing, Ebed 
L. Ripley, Geo. P. Hayward, Arthur Lincoln, Luther Stephenson, 
Jr., and Walter L. Bouve* were appointed the committee, to which 
Mr. Long was added. 

This committee procured the passage of an act by the Legisla- 
ture of 1876, authorizing the town of Hingham to take and hold 
the waters of Accord Pond and the waters that flow into and from 
the same, for the purpose of supplying itself and its inhabitants 
with pure water for domestic and other uses ; and their report to 
the town, made September 12, 1876, concludes as follows : — 

Therefore, believing no town ever had so favorable an opportunity as 
that now offered to us for a full and free supply of water, having the 



Water-works. 265 

experience of many towns to guide us, and as material, labor, and money- 
can now be obtained at unusually low. rates, we earnestly recommend the 
adoption of such means as will with judicious economy carry on to com- 
pletion the proposed water-works, thus furnishing three fourths of our 
citizens with a constant flow of pure water, and be a means of protecting 
our town from the devastating effects of fire and drought. 

The report was accepted, and the thanks of the town were ten- 
dered to the committee for the able manner in which the duties 
assigned them had been performed. 

Upon a vote being taken, the meeting refused to accept the 
provisions of the act entitled " An Act to supply the town of 
Hingham with pure water," — one hundred and thirty voting in 
the affirmative, and one hundred and forty-one in the negative. 

A second meeting was called, October 3, 1876. At this meeting 
the question was again decided in the negative, written ballots 
and the check-list being used, with a result of one hundred and 
forty-three yeas and one hundred and sixty-six nays. 

At the annual town meeting, March 5, 1877, action on the 
same question was " indefinitely postponed." 

The question was twice submitted to the people in the year 
1878, with the following results : on August 19, nays, two hundred 
and eighty-five ; yeas, two hundred and forty-nine ; and on Sep- 
tember 2, nays, three hundred and twenty-three ; yeas, one hun- 
dred and eighty-two. 

This concluded the efforts of those interested to induce the 
voters of the town to avail themselves of the privileges of an 
act which would give them control of one of the finest sources 
of water supply in the State, and which would have secured to 
them, and their successors for all time, an ample supply of pure 
water. Subsequent events have proved the estimates of the engi- 
neers, and the conclusions of those who advocated the scheme, to 
be practically correct, and that the citizens of the town made a 
mistake when they so persistently refused what experience has 
shown to be a blessing. 

The Hingham Water Company was incorporated by act of the 
Legislature, approved March 21, 1879, the corporate members 
being John D. Long, Samuel Downer, Charles B. Barnes, E. Waters 
Burr, David Cushing, Junior, William J. Nelson, George P. Hay- 
ward, Ebed L. Ripley, Starkes Whiton, Elijah Shute, Edmund 
Hersey, and George Cushing. 

The act of incorporation gave the company the right to take 
and hold the waters of Accord Pond and the waters which flow 
into and from the same, with any water rights connected there- 
with, to convey said waters into and through the town of Hing- 
ham, or any part thereof, and to supply that part of Hull called 
Nantasket and Nantasket Beach, whenever the voters of Hull 
should accept the provisions of the act applicable to them. 



266 History of Hingham. 

Provision was also made for the taking and holding of neces- 
sary real estate, for the settlement of land and water damages 
and for the purchase by the town, at any time, of the corporate 
property, and all the rights and privileges of the company at the 
actual cost of the same, with interest not exceeding 10 % per 
annum, said cost to include all actual loss or damage paid or suf- 
fered by said company for injury to persons or property, deduct- 
ing from said cost any and all dividends which may have been 
paid by the corporation. 

Authority was given the corporation to make sale, and the town 
to purchase, on condition that the same is assented to by a two- 
thirds vote at any legal meeting of the town called for the 
purpose. 

The first meeting of the persons named in the act was held at 
Loring Hall, on Saturday evening, August 9, 1879. Hon. John 
D. Long presided, and Mr. Starkes Whiton was chosen Secretary. 
The act of incorporation was read and accepted and a committee 
chosen to draft by-laws, nominate a board of directors and other 
officers, and solicit subscriptions to the capital stock, which was 
fixed at 180,000. 

A communication was read from Messrs. Goodhue and Birnie, 
of Springfield, in which they agreed to build the proposed works 
for the sum of $70,000, and Mr. Goodhue being present explained 
the manner of making and laying the pipes, and other matters 
of interest. 

The first share of stock paid for was disposed of at a church 
fair, in one dollar subscriptions, and was awarded by lot, to one 
of the summer residents of the town. Subscriptions came in 
quite rapidly, and at an adjourned meeting held August 16, at 
which Mr. Ebed L. Ripley presided, it was announced that about 
$37,000 of the stock had been subscribed for, which, with what 
Messrs. Goodhue and Birnie had agreed to take, left only about 
$8,000 to be placed. 

The original subscribers for stock were as follows : — 



SHARES. 

Goodhue & Birnie 250 

Charles B. Barnes ...... 50 

Ebed L. Ripley 50 

Samuel Downer 50 

Hingham Mutual Fire Ins. Co. . 50 

Henry L. Dalton 30 

Charles Blake 25 

Burr, Brown, & Co 25 

Charles F. Shimmin .... 25 

John R. Brewer 20 

William B. Merrill 20 



SHARES. 

Morris F. Whiton 10 

John P. Spaulding, Boston . . 10 

Charles Siders 10 

John De Wolf, Brookline . . . lit 

Herbert C. Nash, Boston ... 10 

Starkes Whiton 5 

Wm. Fearing, 2d 5 

Arthur Lincoln 5 

H. M. Clark 5 

E. J. Andrews 5 

J. A. Ordway 5 



James S. Hay ward, Boston . . 20 i Henry C. Harding 5 

Andrew S. Briggs " . . . 20 E. W. Hayward 5 

John S. Hooper . . . •. . . 10 j J. F. Clement 5 

George P. Hayward 10 j Martin Hayes 5 

Francis W. Brewer ..... 10 [ David Cushing, 2d 5 



Water-works. 



267 



John D. Long 

Penelope R. Walbach, Boston 
Sarah C. Williams . . . 
C. H. Alden ..... 
Fannie M. Pray, Boston 
Charles Howard .... 
Benjamin Andrews . . . 
Fearing Burr & Co. . . . 
Francis Overton .... 
Edmund Hersey, 2d . . . 
Charles A. Lovett .... 



SHARES. 

. 3 
3 
3 





SHARES. 
. . . 1 




. . . 1 




. . . 1 


William C. Wilder . . 


. . . 1 




. . . 1 




. . . 1 




. . . 1 




. . . 1 




. . . 1 




. . . 1 




. . . 1 



The Company was organized Saturday, August 23, 1879, by 
the choice of the following officers : Clerk, Starkes Whiton. 
Directors : Ebed L. Ripley, Starkes Whiton, George P. Hayward, 
Charles B. Barnes, E. Waters Burr, Samuel Downer, Charles L. 
Goodhue, Arthur Lincoln, and William J. Nelson. Auditors : 
Henry C. Harding, Charles Siders. 

At a subsequent meeting of the Board of Directors Ebed L. 
Ripley was elected President, and Starkes Whiton, Treasurer. 

A Building Committee, consisting of the President and Treas- 
urer, with Messrs. George P. Hayward and William J. Nelson, was 
afterwards chosen. 

On the following Monday Messrs. Ripley and Hayward met 
Messrs. Goodhue and Birnie, water- works contractors of Spring- 
field, Mass., at the office of Charles B. Barnes, in Boston, to confer 
with them in regard to material and method of construction. 

The result of this conference was the acceptance of an offer 
made by them to construct and complete the works on or before 
July 4, 1880. Telegraphic orders were at once forwarded for 
shipment of material, and thus the work was practically com- 
menced within forty-eight hours after the organization of the 
company. This action was afterwards confirmed by the Building 
Committee, and a contract was made by them with Messrs. Good- 
hue and Birnie to build the works according to specifications 
drawn by Mr. M. M. Tidd of Boston, who was employed as 
engineer. 

On the morning of Wednesday, Sept. 10, 1879, work was com- 
menced on Otis Street, in front of the residence of Hon. John D. 
Long, then Lieut.-Governor of the State, who with others was 
present at the ceremony of breaking ground, which at the request 
of Mr. Goodhue was performed by Mr. George P. Hayward, whose 
enthusiasm on the water question, and whose untiring efforts to 
push the undertaking to a satisfactory conclusion made it partic- 
ularly fitting that he should commence the actual work which was 
to crown those efforts with success. 

On receiving the proper tools Mr. Hayward said : — 

I congratulate you, kind friends, on the commencement of measures 
for furnishing you with an abundant supply of pure water. I congratu- 
late the workingmen of Hingham, who have been selected by special 



268 History of Hingham. 

agreement to assist in the construction of these works, that they are to 
have steady employment for many weeks. Mr. Goodhue is a working- 
man, and he will expect you to do your part faithfully. God speed and 
bless this good work. 

Mr. Hay ward then removed his coat and closed the exercises 
with a short but vigorous use of the pick and shovel. 

At night six hundred feet of trench had been dug. The work 
was rapidly forwarded, and the first pipe was laid on Otis Street 
on Saturday, Sept. 13, 1879. 

Near the junction of Otis Street and Downer Avenue a ledge 
was encountered, and at this point occurred the only serious acci- 
dent which happened during the building of the works, — Dennis 
Scully, a ledgeman engaged in blasting, being instantly killed by 
a flying stone. 

Work was commenced at the Pond, Oct. 9, 1879. A temporary 
dam of earth and wood nearly one hundred feet long was thrown 
across the little bay at the north end, the water was drawn out 
through the old mill-flume, and a sixteen-inch conduit laid into the 
pond some seventy feet from the gate-chamber, which was built 
just within the old dam. The last pipe was laid, November 25, 
during a heavy southwest gale which threw the spray over the 
coffer dam, drenching the workmen and giving rise to serious 
apprehensions as to the safety of the temporary structure. No 
accident occurred, however, and the conduit was finished, the 
temporary dam removed, and the permanent one repaired and 
strengthened by a core wall of concrete, which was subsequently 
extended easterly along the base of the ridge five hundred feet to 
cut off leakage. 

Work was suspended during the winter, and commenced again 
in April, 1880 ; and on June 23, at eight o'clock in the evening, 
the main gate in the screen well at Accord Pond was partly 
opened by the gentleman who had so enthusiastically broken 
ground for the commencement of the work some nine months 
before ; and in about two hours the fourteen-inch main was filled 
as far as the gate opposite Liberty Hall. On the evening of June 
25 the pipes were filled to the gate opposite the South Meeting- 
House. Mr. John Gushing was the first customer to receive water 
from his house faucet, and the first fire stream was thrown from 
the hydrant near his house about ten o'clock. 

The remainder of the twelve-inch pipe was slowly filled. Sev- 
eral hydrants proved defective, and one leak was caused by the 
failure of a plug in the branch for Pleasant Street. These repairs 
delayed the work of letting on the water until June 30, when at 
two o'clock in the morning the first stream was thrown from the 
hydrant near the Railroad Station. 

On the following Monday, July 5, the hydrant service was tested 
by the fire department, and seven effective streams were thrown 
at the same time in the vicinity of Broad Bridge. 



Water-works. 



269 




ACCORD POND. 



In 1881 the Company, under authority of an act of the Legis- 
lature, extended the pipes to Nantasket Beach and along the 
Jerusalem Road in Cohasset, and in 1882 to Hull village. An 
iron stand-pipe forty feet in diameter and forty-two feet in height 
was erected on Strawberry Hill on land given for the purpose by 
the owners of the premises. 

The supply by gravity proving insufficient for the demand of 
the high service in Hull and on the Jerusalem Road, a pumping 
station was erected at Weir River, on land purchased of Celia B. 
Barnes, in 1884, and a Deane pumping-engine with a capacity of 
a million gallons in twenty-four hours was connected with the 
Rockland Street main to increase the pressure on the Hull and 
Cohasset systems. A conduit was also laid from the Foundry 
Pond, on land of Thomas Weston, to the pumping station as aa 
auxiliary supply in case of emergency. 

In 1886 the consumption at the seashore having increased to 
such an extent as to seriously affect the pressure on the Hingham 
system, and the supply from the Foundry Pond being at times 
objectionable, the Company purchased the Fulling Mill Pond on 
South Pleasant Street, under authority of an act of the Legisla- 
ture passed March 22, 1866, and a twelve-inch conduit was laid 
by Messrs. Goodhue and Birnie from this pond through private 
lands to the pumping station, thus furnishing an independent 
supply for the pump, and greatly increasing the efficiency of the 
whole plant. 

The cost of the works to July 1, 1891, including land and water 
dainages, was $276,930. The main pipes extend from Fulling 
Mill Pond to the pumping station, and from Accord Pond through 



270 History of Hingham. 

the principal streets to Downer Landing, to Windmill Point in 
Hull, and to Pleasant Beach in Cohasset, — a total length of 43 
miles. Protection from fire is given by 187 hydrants, and water is 
supplied to 1,336 customers, including all the hotels, steamboats, 
railroads, street-watering carts, and public drinking-fountains, as 
well as private dwellings for domestic, lawn, and other uses. 

It is fortunate for those who are thus benefited that prompt 
measures were taken to secure Accord Pond to Hingham, there 
being no other available source of supply within the limits of the 
town. The increase in the assessed valuation of property in 
Hingham for the 10 years preceding the introduction of water was 
$ 193,342 ; the increase for the same number of years since the 
works were constructed has been, as shown by the Assessors' 
books, $542,573. 

The present government of the company is as follows : — 

Ebed L. Ripley, President ; Starkes Whiton, Secretary and Treasurer ; 
Geo. P. Hayward, E. Waters Burr, Ebed L. Ripley, Starkes Whiton, 
Charles B. Barnes, William J. Nelson, Arthur Lincoln, Morris F. Whiton, 
and Charles L. Goodhue, Directors ; Charles W. S. Seymour, Superin- 
tendent. 

The Board of Directors are nearly all Hingham men. With 
the exception of a small part of the capital stock which was taken 
by the contractors to show their confidence in the enterprise, 
both capital stock and bonds were subscribed for and are now 
held by residents of Hingham and their immediate personal 
friends, and the citizens of the town may be congratulated on the 
success of an undertaking so closely identified with Hingham 
interests. 



PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS. 

BY FRANCIS H. LINCOLN. 



HINGIIAM MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 

The Hingham Mutual Fire Insurance Company was incorpo- 
rated March 4, 1826. By the Act of Incorporation the persons 
named therein and their associates were made a corporation for 
twenty-eight years, with authority, when the sum subscribed by 
the associates to be insured should amount to fifty thousand dol- 
lars, " to insure for the term of one to seven years, any dwelling- 
house or other building in the town of Hingham." 

The first meeting of the Corporation was held April 12, 1826, 
when officers were elected and a committee chosen to " report a 
code of By-Laws," which were adopted May 16, 1826. 

The objects of the Company are thus stated : — 

We, the subscribers, owners of Buildings within the town of Hing- 
ham, anticipating the advantages which may arise to us from having our 
Houses and Buildings secured against Fire, upon the only just princijDles 
of Insurance ; and as an Act of the General Court has been passed, in- 
corporating a Company by the name of the " Hingham Mutual Fire In- 
surance Company," which provides that funds shall be raised from 
among the members, to be distributed among those whose Houses or 
Buildings should be consumed or injured by Fire, originating in any other 
cause except that of design in the Insured, do hereby subscribe our 
names as members of the same, and do bind ourselves, our Heirs, and 
assigns, to observe the following articles, and such other Rules as may be 
adopted by said Company. 

The By-Laws provided that " each policy shall be for the term 
of seven years." By an additional Act passed Feb. 3, 1827, the 
Company was " authorized to insure for any term of time not less 
than one year, nor more than seven years, on any dwelling-house 
or other building, and on household furniture in the County of 
Plymouth," which was accepted by the Company " so far as re- 
gards buildings." 

An additional Act was passed June 8, 1831, granting permission 
to insure " in any part of the Commonwealth." April 4, 1833, 
the Directors voted to insure household furniture as well as build- 
ings, and in the same year " that no one risk be taken which shall 
exceed $3500, on any building, including furniture." This limit 



272 History of Hingham. 

was increased to $5000 in 1866, which amount has continued to be 
the limit on any one risk to the present time (1893). 

By additional Acts of the Legislature March 23, 1847, the char- 
ter was renewed for twenty-eight years from 1854 ; and Feb. 5, 
1875, the charter was extended indefinitely. 

In 1881 the By laws were amended so that each policy should 
be written for a period of five years, and in 1889, so that policies 
could be written for periods or terms not exceeding five years. In 
1888 the By-Laws were further amended so that the Directors, 
who had previously all been chosen annually, should be chosen 
for terms of one, two, and three years, and thereafter for three 
years, one third of the Board being chosen each year. 

Good fortune has favored the Company from the beginning of 
its history. Eighty-six policies had been written on April 1,1827, 
insuring property to the amount of $78,533. No losses occurred 
under policies issued by the Company for nine years from its be- 
ginning. The first losses occurred in April and July, 1835, one 
in East Bridgewater and one in North Bridge water, together 
amounting to $1100. The first loss in Hingham occurred Oct. 
29, 1842, when Mr. Quincy Bicknell's barn was burned, making 
a loss of $187. 

The management has always been conservative, and the prop- 
erty insured has been confined, in the words of the By-Laws now 
in force, to " dwelling-houses and other buildings not considered 
by the Directors extra hazardous. They may also insure house- 
hold furniture, wearing apparel, books, and such other articles 
as are kept in dwelling-houses for the pleasure and comfort of 
domestic life." 

Its standing is, as it always has been, among the very best of 
the Mutual Companies in the State. To the prudent, careful man- 
agement of Mr. David Harding, the first Secretary, who held 
that office for nearly forty-eight years, much of the success of the 
Company is clue. Supported by safe advisers, his administration 
of the Company's business leaves a record worthy of all praise. 

It should be remembered that fire insurance was not so com- 
mon a thing in the early days of the Company as now, and Mr. 
Harding saw the business increase to the amount of $18,120,211.00 
at risk, while he was Secretary. The amount at risk April 1, 1&92, 
was $25,457,628.00. 

Mr. Harding's place of business, when the Company was started, 
was on North Street, near the harbor, and the office of the Com- 
pany, in its early years, was in the same place. During the first 
year the meetings of the Company were held at the " Selectmen's 
Room," " at the Schoolhouse near the Post Office," and " at the 
Schoolhouse on the Plain." The Directors' meetings were held at 
the Selectmen's Room, Whiton and Fearing's store, and J. Lincoln's 
store. April 7, 1827, the Directors "met at office." 

At the beginning of 1844, the offices of the Insurance Company 
and the Savings Institution, of which Mr. Harding was treasurer, 
were moved to the second floor of the building at the junction 



Public Institutions. 



273 



of North and South streets, where the Isaac Little Hose Company 
is now located. 

In 1859 a committee was appointed to confer with the Savings 
Institution, in reference to the purchase of a lot and the erection 
of a building for offices. 

The lot on Main Street where the building now stands was pur- 
chased, and a contract made with Mr. David Leavitt, of Hingham, 
for the building, which was completed, accepted, and occupied 
Sept. 4, 1860. 

The officers of the Company have been the following : ■ — 



Presidents. 



1826 Jotham Lincoln . 
1842 JohnBeal . . 
1846 Solomon Lincoln 



1864 
1871 



1826 
1874 

1826 
1833 
1840 
1842 

1826 
1826 
1826 
1826 
1826 
1S26 
1827 
1827 
1832 
1832 
1S32 
1832 

1833 
1833 
1839 
1839 
1842 
1S42 
1855 
1S56 



David Harding . 
Henry C. .Harding 

David Whiton . 
Jotham Lincoln 
Francis G. Ford 
Rufus Lane . . 



1842 
1846 
1864 

Secretaries. 
187411874 
1874 1 1877 

Treasurers. 



Seth S. Hersey 
Amos Bates . 



1833 

1840 
1842 
1S60 



1860 
1867 

1874 
1874 



Calvin A. Lincoln 
Henry W. Gushing 

John Leavitt . . 
David Harding . . 
Henry C. Harding 
Sidney Sprague . . 



1871 



1877 



1867 
1874 
1874 



Directors. 



Elijah D. Wild . . 
Thomas Loud . 
Moses Sprague, Jr. 
Benjamin Thomas . 
Seth dishing 
Edward Wilder 
Ezekiel Fearing 
John Beal . . . 
Francis G. Ford . 
Anson Robbins, Scituate 
David Oldham, Jr., Pembroke 
Benjamin Kingman, North 
Bridgewater .... 
Solomon Lincoln . . . 
David Whiton .... 
Jacob H. Loud, Plymouth 
Seth S. Hersey . . . 
Charles Gill .'.... 

Rufus Lane 

John Leavitt 

William Foster .... 



1832 
1833 
1832 
1833 
1827 
1827 
1839 
1855 
1842 
1867 
1841 

1870 
1S64 
1843 
1880 
1871 
1856 
I860 
1871 
1871 



1857 
1860 
1863 
1867 
1870 
1871 
1S71 
1871 
1871 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1S76 

1876 

1876 
1877 
1884 
1885 
1891 



Caleb Gill 1870 

Amos Bates ..... 
Atherton Tilden . . . 1867 
Crocker Wilder . . . 1876 
Warren A. Hersey . . 1880 
Demerick Marble . . . 
Quiucy Bicknell . . . 1876 
Joshua Tower .... 1S84 
Rufus P Kingman, Brockton 
Enos Loring .... 
Alonzo dishing . . 

Eliel Bates 1885 

Ebenezer T. Fogg, South 

Scituate 1885 

Geo. W. Merritt, Scituate 1877 
Arthur Lincoln . . . 
Henry C. Harding . . 
William Fearing, 2d . . 
William C. Wilder . . . 1891 
Edmund Hersey, 2d . . 



HINGHAM BANK. 

March 25, 1833, David Whiton, Leavitt Souther, Luther J. 
Barnes, Nathaniel Whittemore, and Moses L. Humphrev, their 
associates, successors, and assigns were created a corporation by 
the name of " The President, Directors, and Company of the 
Hingham Bank," to be established in Hingham, and to continue 
until Oct. 1, 1851, with a capital of -$100,000, divided into shares 
of $100 each. 

The first meeting was held April 12, 1833, at the Old Colony 

VOL. I. — 18* 



274 



History of Hingham. 



House. Ebenezer Gay was chosen president, and John 0. Lov- 
ett, cashier. The bank went into operation the same year, having 
its office in the Derby Academy. 

March 31,1836, an increase of the capital to $150,000, in shares 
of $100 each, and Feb. 19, 1844, a reduction to $105,000 by 
changing the par value of the shares from $100 to $70, and re- 
funding the difference to shareholders, were authorized by the 
Legislature. 

May 2, 1849, the charter was renewed until Jan. 1, 1875, and 
May 25, 1853, the Legislature authorized an addition to the capital 
of $35,000, in shares of $70 each. The bank continued as a State 
bank until 1865. 

The Act of Congress authorizing the establishment of national 
banks was passed in 1864, and April 25, 1865, the " Hingham 
National Bank" was chartered with a capital of $200,000 in 
shares of $100 each. 

In October, 1873, the capital was reduced to $140,000 by chang- 
ing the par value of the shares from $100 to $70. The charter 
has been extended to April 24, 1905. 



Presidents, 



1833 


Ebenezer Gay . . . 


1842 


1875 


1842 


Nathaniel Richards 


1S62 


1876 


1862 


David Lincoln . . . 


1867 


1876 


1867 


Crocker Wilder . . . 


1875 








Cash 


iers. 


1833 


John O. Lovett * . 


1S73I 


1883 


1873 


James S. Tileston . . . 


1883 


18S5 






Diret 


rtors. 


1833 


David Whiton . . . 


1843 


1843 


1S33 


Ebenezer Gay • 


1842 


1844 


1S33 


linfus Lane .... 


1834 


1844 


1S33 


Luther J. Barnes . 


1855 


1845 


1333 


Benjamin Thomas . 


1834 


1845 


1833 


Nathaniel Whittemore 


1835 


1847 


1833 


Seth S. Hersey . . 


1S35 


1849 


1833 


Erancis G. Eord 


1842 


1855 


1S33 


Leavitt Souther 


1834 


1855 


1833 


Thomas Hobart, Hanson 


1S36 


1S61 


1833 


James C. Doane, Cobasse 


s 1844 


1861 


1833 


John Beal, Scituate 


1844 


1862 


1834 


Ebenezer T. Fogg, Scituate 


i 1838 


1866 


1S34 


Edward Cazneau . 


1837 


1867 


1834 


David Fearing . 


1S45 


1868 


1835 


Edward Thaxter 


1841 


1870 


1836 


Thomas Loring 


1841 


1870 


1S36 


Caleb Gill, Jr. . . . 


1837 


1871 


1837 


George Lincoln 


1867 


1872 


1837 


Nathaniel Richards 


1862 


1873 


1S38 


Henry Hersey . 


1842 


1874 


1841 


Rufus Lane, re-elected 


1844 


1S74 


1841 


Thomas Loud . . . 


1855 


1S74 


1842 


Royal Whiton ■ . . 


1S66 


1875 


1842 


William James, Scituate 


1S44 


1876 


1S42 


Abraham H. Tower, Cohas 


set 1 844 


1875 



Daniel Bassctt, pro tern. 
Charles Skiers . 
Joseph Jacobs, Jr. 



Frank R. Hilliard . . 
Benj. Arthur Robinson 



1876 
1876 



1885 



Robert T. P. Fiske . . 1S66 

Daniel Bassett . . „ . 1845 

Ebenezer Gay .... 1861 

David Lincoln . . . . 1867 

Jedediah Lincoln . . . 1847 

Barnabas Lincoln . . . 1849 

Rufus Lane, Jr. . . . 1861 

Alfred Loring .... 1875 

Crocker Wilder . . . 1875 

Peter L. Whiton . . . 1870 

Thomas F. Whiton . . 1868 

William Fearing, 2d . . 1S72 

E. Waters Burr . . . 1S70 

Ephraim Snow, Cohasset . 1873 

Enos Loring .... 1871 

William Whiton . . . 1875 

Atkinson Nye .... 1874 

Peter L. Whiton, re-elected 1874 

Charles Howard . . . 1874 
Abraham H. Tower, Jr., Cohasset 
Charles Siders .... 
Joseph Jacobs, Jr. 

Daniel Bassett .... 1890 
Edmund Hersey, 2d . . 
Atkinson Nve, re-elected 

William C Wilder . . 1891 



Public Institutions. 275 



HINGHAM INSTITUTION FOR SAVINGS. 

This institution was incorporated April 2, 1834, its object be- 
ing, as stated in the by-laws, " to receive and securely invest the 
savings of persons in moderate circumstances, who have not the 
means or opportunity of making investments for themselves." 

The institution was organized Nov. 8, 1834, when by-laws were 
adopted and the following officers elected : — 

David Whiton, President. 

Benjamin Thomas, ) T/r - t> j * 
t?a a rri <- r ' ice "residents. 
Edward Ihaxter, \ 

David Harding, Treasurer. 

Trustees. 

David Andrews, Jr. Caleb Gill, Jr., 

Thomas Loring, Ezekiel Fearing, 

Charles Lane, Daniel Bassett, 

Marshall Lincoln, Zadock Hersey, 

William Hudson, George Lincoln, 

James C. Doane, Cohasset, John Beal, Scituate 

One dollar was the smallest deposit received, and five dollars the 
lowest sum put upon interest. 

A notice of the organization in the Hingham Gazette of Dec. 19, 
1834, says : — 

We believe that savings institutions are admitted to be among the most 
useful which have been devised for the protection of the interests of the fru- 
gal and industrious who wish to make provision for times of need. Par- 
ents, by making their children depositors, can teach them the advantages of 
saving habits, and inculcate lessons of economy which may be remembered 
through life. Seamen particularly, who wish to invest their earnings where 
they will be secure in their absence, will find a great advantage in institu- 
tions of this kind. We believe that the gentlemen who have consented to 
manage the affairs of the institution here, from their practical experience 
and knowledge of the affairs of our community, are exceedingly well 
qualified to discharge their trust in a manner which will be highly satis- 
factory to all who are interested. 

How well this prophecy has been verified the history of the 
institution testifies. The first deposit was received Dec. 24, 1834. 
The amount of deposits, at the end of the first year, Jan. 1, 1836, 
was 130,113.54. Of the 57 deposits received to draw interest from 
Jan. 1, 1835, three remained in 1893, and of the 264 accounts 
opened during the first year, eleven were still open in 1893. 

The growth of the institution has doubtless exceeded the 
anticipation of its founders, and its usefulness has been fully 
proven. A single example will serve as an illustration. 

One hundred dollars deposited at the opening of the institution 
would have amounted, at the end of fifty years (1885), to 81,708.64, 
showing an average annual gain of 832.17. 



276 History of Hingham. 

The following list of deposits serves to show the steady growth 
of the institution : — 

Jan. 



1840. 


$101,999.79. 


Jan. 1870. 


983,236.37. 


1845. 


179,041.91. 


1875. 


1,409,583.85. 


1850. 


243,220.51. 


1880. 


1,563,347-05. 


1S55. 


419,032.77. 


1885. 


1,782,021.40. 


18(50. 


558,140.14. 


1890. 


1,970,022.15. 


1865. 


795,347-20. 







To the faithful services of those who have been intrusted with 
the interests of the depositors, the success of the institution is due. 
Mr. David Harding, the father, and Mr. Henry C. Harding, the 
son, have been the only treasurers from the beginning. For over 
twenty-eight years Mr. David Harding performed his duties with 
such integrity as to inspire universal confidence, and much of the 
early prosperity of the institution was due to his care and faithful- 
ness. He laid the foundation upon which the structure grew. On 
the occasion of his retirement in 1863, he was presented by the 
Trustees with a valuable piece of plate, appropriately inscribed, as 
a testimonial to the value of his services. 

It is but simple justice to say, also, that the interests of the de- 
positors have been promoted by vigilant Trustees and careful and 
judicious Boards of Investment. 

The following announcement is in the " Hingham Gazette " of 
Dec. 19,1834: — 

Hingham Institution for Savings. 

The organization of the above Institution having been completed, notice 
is hereby given that the Treasurer will attend at the Hingham Bank on the 
last Saturday of every month, between the hours of 10 and 12 o'clock, to 
receive deposits, and transact other business. Persons wishing to make 
deposits on any other day can do so by calling on the Treasurer at the 
office of the Insurance Company. 

The office was on North Street, near the harbor. The annual 
meetings were held at the Hingham Bank until January, 1845, 
and afterwards at the Treasurer's office. The first meeting of the 
Trustees was held at the Hingham Bank, Nov. 24, 1834, and their 
meetings continued to be held there until January, 1838. After 
that date the January meetings only were held at that place. 

January, 1836, it was " Voted, That the Board of Investment 
provide an office for the use of the Institution which shall be the 
place for transacting business on the regular deposit days." This 
office was with that of the Insurance Company on North Street, 
near the harbor, until both were moved in January, 1824, to the 
second floor of the building at the junction of North and South 
streets, now occupied (1893) by the Isaac Little Hose Company. 

Sept. 4, 1860, the office was moved to the new building on Main 
Street, which had been built for the purpose, in connection with 
the Insurance Company, where it has since remained. The fol- 
lowing have been the officers of the Institution : — 



Public Institutions. 



277 







Presi 


dents. 






1834 


David Whiton . . . 


. 1843 


1868 




1873 


1843 


Daniel Bassett . . . 


. 1848 


1873 


Daniel Bassett . 


1890 


1819 


David Fearing . . . 


. 1863 


1890 


Joseph Sprague . . . 


. 1893 


1S63 


Atherton Tilden . . . 


. 1868 


1893 










Treasurers. 






1834 


David Harding . . . 


1863 | 1863 
Trustees. 


Henry C Harding . . 




1834 


David Andrews, Jr. 


1839 


1856 


Charles B. W. Lane . 


1888 


1834 


Caleb Gill, Jr. . . . 


1837 


1857 


David H. Abbott . . 


1860 


1834 


Thomas Loring . . . 


1846 


1859 


Caleb Gill, re-elected . 


1869 


1834 


Ezekiel Fearing . . . 


1844 


1860 


Norton Q. Thaxter . . 


1861 


1S34 


Charles Lane • . . . 


1854 


1861 


John Leavitt .... 


1870 


1834 


Daniel Bassett . . . 


1848 


1862 


Anson Nickerson . . 


1876 


1834 


Marshal Lincoln . . 


1844 


1863 


Enos Loring .... 




1834 


Zadock Hersey . . . 


1852 


1867 


Joseph Jacobs, Jr. . . 


1889 


1834 


William Hudson . . 


1837 


1867 


Elijah Shute .... 




1834 


George Lincoln . . . 


1867 


1868 


Joseph Sprague . . . 


1893 


1834 


James C. Doane . . 


1840 


1870 


William Whiton . . 


1876 


1834 


John Beal .... 


1840 


1870 


Calvin A. Lincoln . . . 


1877 


183S 


Royal Whiton . . . 


1873 


1873 


Edmund Hersey, 2d . 




183S 


Caleb Bailey .... 


1851 


1874 


Charles Siders . . . 




1839 


Rufus Lane .... 


1859 


1875 


John Todd .... 




1840 


Atherton Tilden, Jr. . 


1868 


1876 


Joseph Ripley . . . 




1840 


Isaac Barnes .... 


1873 


1877 


Demerick Marble . . 




1842 


David Fearing . . . 


1863 


1878 


Edmund Hersey . . 


1 1888 


1843 


Martin Fearing . . . 


1862 


1883 


Charles W. S. Seymour 


1884 


1844 


David Lincoln . . . 


1867 


1884 


Francis W. Brewer 




1844 


Caleb B. Marsh . . . 


1875 


1888 


John C. Hollis . . . 


1889 


1846 


John Baker .... 


1852 


1888 


J. Winthrop Spooner . 




1849 


Daniel Bassett . 


1890 


1889 


Josiah Lane .... 




1851 


Welcome Lincoln . . 


1857 


1889 


William Fearing, 2d . 




1852 


Nathaniel Whittemore 


1855 


1890 


Walter W. Hersey . . 




1852 


Rufus Lane, Jr. . . 


1889 


1891 


Alonzo Cushing . . . 




1855 


Amos Bates .... 


1883 


1893 


Francis H. Lincoln 





HINGHAM CO-OPERATIVE BANK. 



In the spring of 1889, a number of young men of Hingham, 
learning of the success of the Massachusetts co-operative banks, 
their almost absolute safety for depositors, the advantage of and 
encouragement to saving offered by their system of monthly de- 
posits, ranging from one dollar to twenty-five, according to the 
desire of each shareholder, the immediate participation of every 
dollar, as soon as paid, in an equal share of the profits of the in- 
stitution with every other dollar, their advantage to borrowers by 
giving them the opportunity to repay their loan in regular monthly 
payments together with a small ultimate cost for interest, and. 



278 History of Hingham. 

their benefit to the community where located by encouraging 
saving, home-building, and home-owning, — determined to organize 
one here and call it the Hingham Co-operative Bank. 

The interest of some older men, who are always ready to en- 
courage any project for the good of the town and its people, was 
secured, and on Wednesday evening, April 17, 1889, a public 
meeting was held at Grand Army Memorial Hall, when Hon. 
Starkes Whiton delivered an address on " The advantage of a co- 
operative bank to a community and their business methods." 
Mr. Whiton, whose duties as one of the commissioners of Savings 
Banks for the Commonwealth had made him familiar with the 
co-operative bank system, also delivered the address at a public 
meeting, preliminary to organization, at Loring Hall, Saturdav 
evening, April 20, 1889. 

On Tuesday evening, May 28, 1889, a meeting for organization 
was held at Grand Army Memorial Hall. By-laws were adopted 
and the following officers elected : — 

President — Ebed L. Ripley. 
Vice President — Arthur L. Jacob. 
Secretary — Walter B. Poster. 
Treasurer — William B. Bearing. 

Directors. 
E. Waters Burr, Wm. Bearing, 2d, 

Edmund Hersey, Thomas Howe, 

Edward W. Ba'rtlett, Erancis M. Ripley, 

George Brice, Edward G. Tinsley, 

Edgar M. Lane, Harry N. Andrews, 

Charles W. Burr, Waite W. Simmons, 

C. Sumner Henderson, Eugene B. Skinner, 

Arthur M. Bibby. 
Auditors — William L. Boster, David Breen, Jr., Edward B. Bratt. 

June 1, 1889, The Hingham Co-operative Bank was granted a 
charter by the Commonwealth, and on the evening of the fifth 
was opened for business in Loring Hall. 

Lieut. Governor Brackett, who was to have made the opening 
address, being unable to be present, the address was delivered by 
Horace G. Wadlin, Chief of the Massachusetts Bureau of Labor 
Statistics. D. Eldredge, the Secretary and Treasurer of the 
Pioneer Co-operative Bank of Boston, — the first co-operative bank 
organized under the laws of Massachusetts, — also of the Home- 
stead and Guardian Co-operative Banks of Boston, followed Mr. 
Wadlin, and explained the system. Four hundred and seven 
shares were sold at this meeting, and $400 was sold to a bor- 
rower at five cents premium. Joseph 0. Burdett was appointed 
the bank's attorney at this meeting. 

On the 31st of December, 1892, there had been 2,790 shares 
issued in eight series, of which 2,517 shares are now in force. 
The real estate loans amount to $55,050.00 ; the share loans 



Public Institutions. 279 

amount to $2,850.00 ; and the total assets amount to $59,493.43. 
Since organization there had been paid to withdrawing share- 
holders $4,074.25. Forty-one of the members are now paying 
for their homes through the bank. 

The present officers of the bank are : — 

President — Ebed L. Ripley. 

Vice-President — C Sumner disking. 

Secretary and Treasurer — Walter B. Foster. 

Finance Committee — Win. Fearing, 2d, George Price, Eugene F. Skinner. 

Security Committee — E. Waters Burr, Edward W. Bartlett, Francis M. Ripley, 
C. Sumner Gushing, Stetson Foster. 

Directors. 

The above named officers and committees and 

Thomas Howe, Arthur M. Bibby, 

Waite W. Simmons, John C. Hollis, 

Edward G. Tinsley, Edwin J. Pierce, 

C. Sumner Henderson, George R. Turner. 

Auditors — William H. Thomas, Charles W. S. Seymour, Louis P. Nash. 

Attorney — Edward B. Pratt. 



LOSING HALL. 

In May, 1845, a public meeting of ladies was held for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining how many were disposed to co-operate in 
" a vigorous effort " to supply the want of " a commodious and 
suitable building for Lectures, Picnics, and Social Meetings of all 
kinds." At this meeting it was determined by the ladies to hold 
" a fair to aid in building a Lyceum Hall," and a committee was 
appointed to make the necessary arrangements for the attain- 
ment of the object. The ladies composing this committee, and 
who persevered to the end, were — 

Mrs. Rufus W. Lincoln, Mrs. David Harding, 

" Caleb B. Marsh, " Joseph Sprague, 

" Job S. Whiton, " John P. Hersev, 

" Royal Whiton, " John Gill, 

Miss Susan Lincoln. 

By means of a Fair, a Concert, a Social Party, etc., the com- 
mittee, with the aid of many others who felt an interest in 
the undertaking, succeeded in obtaining the sum of $659.56, 
which was deposited in the Hingham Institution for Savings, 
until withdrawn to be applied to the object for which it was 
designed. The fund had accumulated, when thus applied, to the 
amount of $926.77. 

In 1851, by the kind suggestion of a lady who took a deep 
interest in the project, the wants of this community were made 
known to Col. Benjamin Loring, of Boston. He immediately 
offered to supply the funds necessary for the erection of a suitable 
building;. 



280 



History of Hingham. 



Col. Benjamin Loring 1 was born in Hingham, Dec. 17, 1775, 
and died in Boston, Dec. 24, 1859. His affection for his native 




Loring Hall ; Insurance Company and Savings-Bank Building. 

town had caused in him a desire to do something which might 
be a permanent memorial of that sentiment, and this project 
seemed to afford him such an opportunity. 

In July, 1851, the committee of ladies had appointed Robert T. 
P. Fiske, Caleb B. Marsh, Ebenezer Gay, and Solomon Lincoln to 
purchase a site for the Hall. A lot was purchased of Thomas 
Loring, situated on Main Street, near the Old Meeting-house, and 
the funds of the ladies were expended in paying for the lot and in 
preparing a foundation for the Hall. 

To carry his design into effect, Colonel Loring appointed a 
building committee, which as finally constituted consisted of the 
following persons : — 

Solomon Lincoln, Robert T. P. Fiske, 

Marshall Lincoln, Caleb B. Marsh, 

Hersey Stowell, Atherton Tilden, 

Joseph Sprague. 

The ladies appointed the same committee to cause the lot to be 
prepared and the foundation to be laid. 

The plans, drawings, and specifications for the building were 
made by Ammi B. Young, of Boston. A contract for its erection 
was made Oct. 31, 1851, with Samuel Virgin, of Boston. 



1 See Vol. III. p. 35. 



Public Institutions. 281 

The building was built with reference to commodiousness and 
utility, and contains on the lower floor a hall, kitchen, and 
dressing-rooms, and on the main floor a hall with a seating capa- 
city of from four to five hundred persons. The dimensions of 
the building are 45 by 68 feet. 

Upon the completion of the building, Mrs. Elijah Loring, of 
Boston, and her daughters, Miss Abby M. Loring and Mrs. Cor- 
nelia W. Thompson, generously contributed the means for pur- 
chasing settees, chandeliers, lamps, mirrors, sofa, tables, carpets, 
chairs, and other appropriate furniture for the various rooms, at 
an expense of 8619.93. Col. Loring also contributed a further 
sum of -1372.77, for the cost of a furnace, extra work, etc., making 
the amount expended by him as follows : — 

Cost of superstructure . $4,062.80 

Furnace, etc., 372.77 



$4,435.57 



Mrs. Thomas Wiggles worth, of Boston, also gave $25, which 
was expended in grading the lot. 
The money contributed was — 

Lyceum Hall (Ladies) Committee . . $984.24 

Col. Benjamin Loring 4,435.57 

Mrs. Elijah Loring and daughters . . 619.93 

Mrs. Thomas Wigglesworth .... 25.00 



5,064.74 



The building was dedicated by appropriate services Oct. 14, 
1852. On that occasion there were remarks by Solomon Lincoln, 
who gave a brief history of the undertaking, and read Colonel 
Loring's deed of trust, and by Colonel Loring, who addressed 
the audience at considerable length, giving an interesting sketch 
of his early life, a concise statement of his motives in causing 
the hall to be built, and an explanation of the trust deed. At 
the close of his remarks he delivered the deed to Marshall 
Lincoln, who received it in behalf of the Trustees, and stated 
that it would be their endeavor to fulfil the wishes of the generous 
donor in accordance with the spirit and letter of the deed ; and 
that the Trustees had voted at their first meeting to give to the 
edifice the name of Loring Hall. After singing, an appropriate 
prayer was offered by Rev. Joseph Richardson ; then a Hymn 
of Dedication, composed for the occasion by James Humphrey 
Wilder, was read by Rev. Albert Case, and sung with fine effect. 

An address was delivered by Rev. Oliver Stearns, of which the 
subject was " Knowledge : Its Relation to the Progress of Man- 
kind ; " and the exercises were closed by singing. 

The singing was acceptably performed by a select choir, under 
the direction of Nathan Lincoln. 



282 History of Hingham. 

After the conclusion of the services, Col. Loring and his friends 
and other invited guests, together with the several committees of 
ladies and gentlemen who had been concerned in the preparatory 
arrangements for the occasion, repaired to the lower hall, where 
they partook of an elegant and bountiful repast, and passed an 
hour or more very agreeably in the interchange of congratulations 
and other pleasant social intercourse. 

Solomon Lincoln presided at the entertainment. He called 
upon George S. Hillard and Joseph Andrews of Boston (the 
former once a resident and the latter a native of Hingham), both 
of whom responded in very interesting and agreeable speeches. 
Thomas Loring also favored the assembly with a sketch of the 
fortunes of the brothers Loring, and of their eminent success 
in life. 

The festivities of the occasion were closed by a ball in the 
evening, which was attended by several hundred ladies and gen- 
tlemen. Col. Loring visited the hall in the evening, and was re- 
ceived by the managers in presence of the large company in a 
manner expressive of their deep sense of his munificence to the 
inhabitants of Hingharn. 



DEED OF TRUST. 

To all Men to whom these Presents shall come, Benjamin Loring, 
of Boston, in the county of Suffolk and State of Massachusetts, stationer, 
sends greeting : 

Whereas a certain lot of land, hereinafter described, in the town of 
Hingham, in the county of Plymouth and State of Massachusetts, was 
heretofore purchased for the sum of five hundred dollars by certain ladies 
of the said town of Hingham, and the foundation for a hall was built there- 
upon by them ; and whereas the said lot of land, with the said foundation, 
was conveyed to me by Thomas Loring, of said Hingham, by deed dated 
August 14th, A. D. 1851, and recorded with the records of deeds in 
Plymouth county, Lib. 245, fol. 264, with the understanding and agree- 
ment that I should cause to be erected thereupon, at my own charge, a 
building or hall, to be used for the purposes hereinafter set forth ; and 
whereas the said hall has been built and I am now desirous of making such 
conveyance of the said premises as shall carry into effect my purposes and 
wishes in the erection of said hall ; 

Now know ye that I, the said Benjamin Loring, in consideration of 
the premises, hereby give, grant, release and assign unto Marshal Lincoln, 
mason, Robert Treat Paine Fiske, physician, Joseph Sprague, merchant, Jos- 
eph B. Thaxter, jun., optician, Solomon Lincoln, Esquire, Caleb B. Marsh, 
sail-maker, and George Studley, cabinet-maker, all of Hingham aforesaid, 
a lot of land, with the building thereon, lying on Main street in said Hing- 
ham, bounded and described as follows : Beginning at the easterly corner 
thereof, against land of John Baker, and running south forty-one degrees 
west, one hundred and seven feet and nine inches ; then turning and run- 
ning north forty-nine degrees west, seventy-one feet ; then turning and 
running north forty-one degrees east, one hundred and four feet and nine 



Public Institutions. 283 

inches to Main street ; and then southeasterly by Main street to the 
corner first started from. With all rights and privileges to the premises 
belonging. 

To have and to hold the aforegranted premises to them the said Marshal 
Lincoln, Robert Treat Paine Fiske, Joseph Sprague, Joseph B. Thaxter, 
jun., Solomon Lincoln, Caleb B. Marsh and George Studley, and to the 
survivor of them and to the heirs and assigns of such survivor forever, as 
joint-tenants and not as tenants in common, but to the uses and upon the 
special trust and confidence as hereinafter provided, and none other. 

This conveyance is made in token of my interest in my native town, 
and my wish to promote the happiness and improvement of its inhabitants, 
and is made upon the trust that the aforesaid trustees and their succes- 
sors forever, shall hold the said premises for the specific use and benefit of 
the inhabitants of that part of Hingham which was comprised in the terri- 
tory of the Old North parish of the said town ; not intending hereby to 
exclude the inhabitants of the other parts of Hingham from such benefit 
of this grant as may be consistent with the special use herein before 
declared. 

The said Trustees and their successors shall allow the said hall to be 
used and opened for religious, moral, philanthropic, literary, scientific and 
political meetings and discussions, and also for social entertainments and 
all forms of lawful amusement, at such times, upon such conditions, under 
such regulations and upon such terms, as the said trustees and their succes- 
sors shall in their discretion prescribe. 

The said Trustees shall always be seven in number, and shall be chosen 
from the inhabitants of the said parochial territory of North Hingham ; 
and in case that any trustee shall remove his residence from said parochial 
territory, such removal shall vacate his said office of trustee. And in case 
of the death, resignation, or removal of any trustee, the remaining or sur- 
viving trustees shall forthwith, by a majority of votes of their whole num- 
ber, elect a new trustee , and the said surviving trustees, in case the said 
vacancy shall have happened by death, or the resigning or removing trus- 
tee in case the said vacancy shall have happened by resignation or removal, 
shall make and deliver to the newly-elected trustee, such conveyance as 
shall vest in him a legal title to one undivided seventh part of the said 
estate. And I impose no restrictions on the said trustees as to the election 
of their successors, but it is my desire that they shall discharge this trust 
in a conscientious manner, and choose worthy, discreet and upright men, 
and not be swayed by prejudice or partiality, having regard to the spirit 
of their trust and the good of all concerned. 

The said trustees shall keep the premises hereby conveyed insured 
against fire, in good condition and proper repair, and shall provide for 
their due superintendence, oversight, and care ; and for these purposes, 
they are and shall be authorized to charge such amount for the use of 
the same or any part thereof as shall defray the expenses requisite for the 
aforesaid purposes, and all taxes lawfully assessed on said estate ; and 
they may in their discretion charge such further sum therefor as shall de- 
fray, in whole or in part, the expenses of any course of lectures which they 
may deem it advisable to have delivered in the hall. 

And in case the conditions of this trust shall not be complied with, this 
gift shall be void, and the property shall be disposed of in such a manner as 
may be ordered in my last will and testament. 



284 History of Hingham. 

In witness whereof, I the said Benjamin Loring have hereunto set my 
hand and seal this seventh day of June, in the year of our Lord one thou- 
sand eight hundred and fifty-two. 

BENJAMIN LORING. [Seal.] 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, ) 
Suffolk, ss. Boston, June 7, 1852. \ 

Personally appeared the above-named Benjamin Loring, and ackuowedged the foregoing 
instrument by him subscribed to be his free act and deed. 

Before me, GEORGE S. HILLARD, 

Justice of the Peace. 

In addition to the amount expended, as stated above, by Col. 
Loring, he gave by his will " to the Trustees of 'the Loring Hall,' 
in Hingham, the sum of one thousand dollars, to be kept invested, 
on interest, and the income applied to the upholding, repairing, 
and embellishing the building." 

Having made a provision in the deed of trust that in case the 
conditions of the trust should not be complied with, the said grant 
and gift should be void, he made further provision in his will in 
case of such a violation of the conditions, as follows : — 

I do devise and bequeath to the Corporation known as " Derby Acad- 
emy," in said Hingham, and to their successors forever all my right, title, 
and interest in the lands, Hall, and premises described and referred to in 
said Deed of Trust. 

The following persons have been trustees : — 

Marshall Lincoln,* Robert T. P. Fiske,* 

Joseph Sprague,* Joseph B. Thaxter, 

Solomon Lincoln,* Caleb B. Marsh,* 

George Studley,t Levi Hersey,t 

Caleb S. Hersey, Isaac Hersey,* 

Benjamin Andrews, Francis H. Lincoln, 

Charles W. S. Seymour, Morris F. Whiton. 

In 1887 Mr. Charles Loring Young, of Boston, gave to the 
Trustees a portrait of Colonel Loring, his great-uncle, in trust, to 
be placed and kept in the hall. It is an excellent copy, by Otto 
Grundman, of the original, in Mr. Young's possession, painted by 
Chester Harding. 

* Deceased. t Removed from Hingham. } Resigned. 



Public Institutions. 285 



WILDER MEMORIAL. 

Martin Wilder 1 was born in Hingham Nov. 16, 1790, and died 
in Boston March 26, 1854. He was a descendant of Edward 
Wilder, who settled in Hingham in 1637. Martin was one of that 
remarkable family of twenty-one brothers and sisters, seventeen of 
whom lived to maturity, fifteen of them being married^ He was a 
" carriage-smith by profession," as his will states, and early in life 
he moved away from his native town, but always retained a strong 
affection for it. In his will, which was admitted to probate in Suf- 
folk County, April 24, 1854, are several legacies, among them one 
giving to the " shareholders of the Third or Social Library, so called, 
in Hingham, situated in the South Parish thereof, my library . . . 
and book-case in which said books are deposited." The " residue " 
of his property, both real and personal, he gave to Crocker Wilder, 
James S. Beal, and Andrew Cushing, in trust, to form and estab- 
lish a fund to be called " The Wilder Charitable Fund," for the 
purpose of making loans of money from $100 to $300, to such 
young men, residents of the South Parish, in Hingham, as had 
served a regular apprenticeship at some mechanical business, with 
which to purchase tools and stock, when they commenced business 
for themselves ; to maintain an evening school for boys in said 
South Parish ; and to purchase wood and coal for the comfort of 
the poor and destitute in said South Parish, — all under certain 
conditions imposed by the testator. 

The amount received by the trustees, according to the inventory, 
Aug. 20, 1855, was $8,357.50, in real and personal property. 

The trustees, finding it undesirable and impracticable to carry 
out all the wishes of Mr. Wilder in the manner prescribed by the 
will, especially those relating to the maintenance of an evening 
school, sought relief from the Supreme Judicial Court, and the 
cause being heard, a decree was issued by Mr. Justice Endicott,, 
in 1878, which contains certain orders relating to the Fund, one 
clause of which is the following : — 

Third. That this cause be referred to Jonathan White, of Brockton, 
in the County of Plymouth, Counsellor at Law, as a special master, to hear 
the parties and such evidence as may be offered and report to this Court a 
scheme by which the residue of the income of said Trust property, includ- 
ing one-half of the income of said fund of one thousand dollars, and the 
surplus of income now in the hands of said Trustees not herein designated 
to be applied to the poor, can be used for educational purposes under the 
will aforesaid, in a manner most beneficial to the inhabitants within the 
precincts named in the will. 

Testimony was taken, the matter was considered by Mr. White, 
and his report was filed Nov. 20, 1878, whereupon the following- 
decree was issued : — 

1 See Vol. III. p. 317. 



286 History of Hingham. 

Plymouth ss. 

Supreme Judicial Court 
At Chambers, Boston, April 15th, 1879. 

James S. Beal et al vs. Roxanna Gross et als. 

DECREE. 

The report of the master to whom it was referred, by a decree entered 
in this cause, to report a scheme, by which a certain fund, being the ac- 
cumulation of income referred to in the will, and held by the plaintiffs as 
Trustees, under the will of Martin Wilder, late of Hingham, deceased, can 
be used for educational purposes, under tbe will, in a manner most bene- 
ficial to the inhabitants of that portion of the town of Hingham, designated 
in the will, as the South Parish, and in a manner not inconsistent with the 
objects named in said will, having come in and been filed in this cause, 
November 20th, 1878, and no exception having been taken thereto, 

It is ordered, adjudged, and decreed, that the plaintiffs, Trustees as 
aforesaid, shall appropriate and expend from out the said fund, together 
with additions thereto, from accruing income mentioned in the third clause 
of the former decree entered in this cause, and from accruing income from 
the same source, within one year from the filing of this decree, a sum not 
exceeding six thousand dollars, in the erection of a building in the vicinity 
of the Meeting-house in said Parish, for the use and benefit of the inhabi- 
tants aforesaid, under such rules and regulations as the Trustees shall from 
time to time establish under the authority conferred by this decree. 

And the said Trustees may upon the erection and completion of said 
building, expend from year to year, all that portion of the annual income, 
after the expiration of one year from the entry of this decree, accruing to 
them from the trust fund, applicable to educational purposes, and any such 
sums received for the use of the Lecture-Room, as hereinafter provided, in 
keeping said building insured and in proper repair, and in furnishing, heat- 
ing, and taking proper care of the same, and also in providing books and 
papers for the Heading-Room and Library, and in procuring from time 
to time lectures to be given on such literary, scientific, or historical sub- 
jects, as shall be best adapted to the instruction and improvement of such 
inhabitants. 

The said Trustees may, under the rules and regulations to be established 
by them, allow the Lecture-Room to be used by other persons for hire or 
gratuitously, as the Trustees may determine in each case, for educational 
and other purposes, not inconsistent with the terms and objects intended 
to be accomplished by this decree. 

Provided however, if at any time it shall be necessary or expedient to 
establish such schools as provided for in the will, it shall be the duty of the 
Trustees to establish the same, and conduct them in the building aforesaid, 
and defray the expense of the same from the income of the said fund ap- 
plicable to educational purposes, before any of said income shall be ap- 
propriated to papers, books, and lectures, for the use and benefit of said 
inhabitants, as hereinbefore provided. 

Wm. C. Endicott, Justice. 

Acting under the authority thus obtained, the trustees caused a 
building to be erected on the easterly side of Main Street, near the 



Public Institutions. 



287 



Meeting-house of the South Parish, to which they gave the name 
of Wilder Memorial. It was completed and dedicated Dec. 18, 
1879. The exercises of dedication consisted of singing; a short 
historical account of Martin Wilder, by Rev. Allen G. Jennings ; 
a prayer by Rev. Henry A. Miles, D. D. ; an address by Rev. 
Edward A. Horton, upon the spirit of our New England institu- 
tions, which produced such men as Martin Wilder ; and other ad- 
dresses by prominent citizens and clergymen. 




Wilder Memorial. 

The building contains a dining-room, kitchen, reading-room, 
and ante-rooms on the first floor ; and a large hall on the second 
floor. It is conveniently planned and admirably adapted to the 
purposes for which it is designed to be used, — an ornament to the 
town and a fitting memorial of the liberality of its founder. 



Public halls for meetings, lectures, and other purposes con- 
nected with the social life of a community are a necessity. Lor- 
ing Hall and Wilder Memorial afford good accommodation to 
those sections of the town in which they stand. To the gener- 
osity of their donors the people of Hingham owe many an hour of 
pleasure and profit; and they may well serve the purpose of 



288 History of Hingham. 

suggesting future gifts for the promotion of the intellectual and 
social welfare of the town. 

In this connection it may be interesting to mention other build- 
ings which have been used for similar purposes. 

Before the erection of Loring Hall in the north part of the 
town, the hall of the Derby Academy was frequently used for 
gatherings of various kinds. Wilder's Hall on Lincoln Street, 
Little's Hall in the Union Hotel, and Willard Hall on Main 
Street, were also the scenes of many meetings and social gath- 
erings. In later years Agricultural Hall, at Hingham Centre, has 
been the largest public hall in Hingham, and the Grand Army 
Hall and Niagara Hall, both at Hingham Centre, afford accommo- 
dation for that section of the town. The Town Hall, which was 
also at Hingham Centre, was the largest hall in town before the 
erection of Loring Hall, and for ten or fifteen years was often 
used ; but after Loring Hall was built it was seldom used for 
any purpose except town-meetings. 



LODGES AND SOCIETIES. 

BY FRANCIS H. LINCOLN. 



It would be impossible to give a complete list of all the social 
organizations which have existed in Hingham. Many have been 
short lived and confined to limited circles, and it is difficult 
to estimate their influence in the community. The present age 
seems especially productive of a spirit for organization, and al- 
most every department of social and industrial life has its central 
body for the promotion of its peculiar interests. The most that 
can be undertaken is to call attention to some which have been 
specially prominent in the town's history, with an incidental 
mention of others which have come to the writer's notice. If any 
are omitted which should have been mentioned it is not because 
their importance has been underestimated, but because of the 
great difficulty in obtaining knowledge of records which are either 
lost or carefully hidden from view in the security of private pos- 
session. 



OLD COLONY LODGE OP ANCIENT FREE AND 
ACCEPTED MASONS. 

Upon the petition of John Young, Adams Bailey, George Little, 
James Lewis, Charles Turner, Jr., David Jacobs, Jr., and William 
Curtis, Jr., all Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, the Grand 
Lodge of Massachusetts granted a charter to them to hold meet- 
ings and work in the town of Hanover, Mass. This charter was 
issued Dec. 10, 1792, and was signed by the following named 
Grand Officers : John Cutler, Grand Master, Josiah Bartlett, *S'. 
G. Warden, Mungo Mackey, J. G-. Warden, Thomas Parrington, 
Grand Secretary. 

The first regular communication of the lodge was held Dec. 24, 
1792, at the house of Atherton Wales, innholder, in the town of 
Hanover. The weather being unfavorable, there were only three 
brethren present, and the meeting was adjourned to Thursday, 

VOL. I. 19* 



290 History of Hingham. 

Dec. 27, at four o'clock p. m. At this meeting John Young was 
chosen W. Master, William Curtis, Jr. S. Warden, George Little, 
J. Warden, Adams Bailey, Treasurer, Charles Turner, Jr., Secre- 
tary. David Jacobs, Jr., served as Tyler. At this meeting Ath- 
erton "Wales was made an entered apprentice, and was the first 
person to receive this degree of Masonry in Old Colony Lodge. 
Charles Turner, Jr., was the first person raised to the sublime 
degree of Master Mason. 

The Lodge agreed with Bro. Wales to give him 1 s. 6 d. per night 
for the use of his room, adjacent room and closet, for one quarter, 
and also agreed with him to procure firewood and candles. 

On the 3d Monday in January, 1793, it was voted that " in consid- 
eration of the service performed for the Lodge by Brothers Charles 
Turner, Jr. and David Jacobs, Jr., the Lodge will not exact of 
them the usual compensation fixed on by the by-laws for being 
raised to Master Masons." On the 3d Monday in March, 1793, 
Samuel Barker was chosen S. Deacon, Seth Foster J. Deacon, and 
David Jacobs, Jr., Steward. On the 3d Monday in June, 1793, 
Charles Turner was chosen and installed W. Master. 

June 24, 1793, St. John's day, was observed by services held in 
Rev. John Mellen's meeting-house, " he delivering a well adapted 
Discourse," which was followed by a Masonic oration given by 
Bro. Josiah Hussey, after which a dinner was served by Bro. 
Atherton Wales. There were present the following named breth- 
ren : Charles Turner, Jr., W. M. : Samuel Barker, S. W. ; George 
Little, J. W. ; Adams Bailey, Treas, ; Seth Foster, Sec'y ; Josiah 
Hussey, S. D. ; James Little, J. D. ; David Jacobs, S. S. ; William 
Collamore, J. S. ; Atherton Wales. Tyler ; John Young, William 
Curtis, Jr., James Clapp, Abijah Otis, Elisha Tilden, Joshua Bar- 
stow, Judah Alden, Nathan Rice, Jotham Lovering, Luther Lin- 
coln, William Cushing, Gridley Thaxter, William Torrey, Silas 
Morton, Charles Collamore, Henry Thaxter, John N. Mallory, 
Gamaliel Bradford. 

Sept. 30, 1793, it was voted " that Bros. Abijah Otis, Charles 
Turner, Josiah Hussey, Elisha Tilden, and Adams Bailey be a 
committee to confer and agree with Bro. Morton in regard to 
building the proposed Hall, and procure an obligation for the 
Lodge security, the work to be prosecuted as fast as possible, and 
the Treasurer to borrow what monev should be wanted to carry 
on the building of the Hall." Nov." 18, 1793, "voted that Bro. 
Paul Revere, Jr., represent Old Colony Lodge in the Grand Lodge 
at Boston until superseded by another." June 16, 1794, the 
officers were installed into office by the officers of the Most 
Wor. Grand Lodge : John Cutler, Grand Master ; Samuel Dunn, 
D. D. Gr. M.; Mungo Mackey, Gr. S. Warden; Samuel Parkman, 
G-. J. Warden; William Shaw, Gr. Treas. ; Benjamin Russell, Gr. 
Sec'y ; James Hall, Gr. S. Deacon; Elisha Doan, G-. J. Deacon; 
Robert Gardner, Gr. Marshal. This was the first communication 
held in the New Lodge Room, called Old Colony Hall. 



Lodges and Societies. 291 

January 19, 1800, "Voted, To convene at the Lodge on the 22d 
inst. to hear a Eulogie to be delivered by Bro. Charles Turner 
in memory of our illustrious brother, George Washington." The 
Lodge met according to the vote, and marched in procession to 
the Rev. John Mellen's meeting-house, where the service was ren- 
dered in presence of forty brethren and a large congregation. 

At a meeting of the Lodge held Oct. 26, 1801, Henry Thaxter 
was a visitor to the Lodge when Caleb Bates and Ezra Lewis were 
made entered apprentice and fellow craft, Bro. Caleb Bates 
being the first resident of Hingham to receive the degrees of 
Masonry in Old Colony Lodge. In August, 1803, Bro. Jotham 
Lincoln, Jr., made his first visit to the Lodge, and in Oct., 1803, 
John Leavitt, D. McB. Thaxter, Jotham Lincoln, Jr., Moses 
Sprague, and James Stephenson were recorded as visitors to the 
Lodge. April 12, 1805, Jotham Lincoln, Jr., was W. Master P. G-., 
and Caleb Bates, S. Warden P. Gr. May 25, 1807, Bros. Ichabod 
R. Jacobs, Paul Eustis, and Thomas Hatch were chosen a com- 
mittee to confer with the brethren of Hingham in reference to the 
removal of the Lodge to their town. Sept. 14, 1807, the Grand 
Lodge of Mass. granted the petition to remove Old Colony Lodge 
from Hanover to Hingham, Mass. Oct. 16, 1807, Bros. Jotham 
Lincoln, Jr., Benjamin Beal, John Leavitt, Duncan McB. Thaxter, 
James Stephenson, Moses Humphrey, and Welcome Lincoln, Jr., 
were made members of the Lodge. 

Dec. 11, 1807, the Lodge held its first regular communication 
in Hingham, Barnabas Lincoln, Jr. acting as Tyler, and the fol- 
lowing named brethren were elected to office: Jotham Lincoln, 
Jr., W. Master; James Stephenson, S. Warden; Ichabod R. 
Jacobs, J. Warden; Charles Bailey, Treas. ; John Leavitt, Sec'y ; 
Duncan McB. Thaxter, S. Beacon; Thomas Hatch, -/. Beacon; 
Benjamin Beal, 8. Steivard ; Caleb Bates, J. Steward. 

March 4, 1808, Bro. James Stephenson was authorized to pro- 
cure a new Seal for the Lodge. Oct. 28, 1808, Rev. Bro. Joseph 
Richardson was a visitor. Dec. 9, 1808, Bro. James Stephenson 
installed Bro. Jotham Lincoln, Jr., W. Master, and he installed 
the other officers. Bro. Jotham Lincoln, Jr., continued as Master 
until 1819. Bro. Caleb Bates was then elected and served for two 
years, when Bro. Jotham Lincoln was again chosen and served 
one year. Bro. Marshall Lincoln served for the two years 1822 
and 1823, Bro. Fearing Loring for the three years, 1824, 1825, 
and 1826, Bro. Charles Fearing through 1827, 1828, and 1829, and 
Bro. Charles Gill from December, 1830, until the Lodge returned 
its charter to the Grand Lodge, Dec. 31, 1832. The reasons for the 
return of the charter were set forth in a public communication 
signed by Jotham Lincoln, Charles Gill, David Harding, and Solo- 
mon Lincoln, a committee of the Lodge. 

Oct. 8, 1813, Bro. Artemus Hale acted as Sec'y pro tern. Dec. 
13, 1816, Bro. John Leavitt, having served nine years as Sec'y, 
retired, and Bro. Jedediah Lincoln was chosen to fill the vacancy. 



292 History of Hingham. 

Jan. 7, 1820, Bro. Jared Lincoln, of Boston, was made a Proxy 
to the Grand Lodge, and continued for several years. Jan. 
12, 1821, Wor. Bro. Jotharn Lincoln installed Bro. Caleb Bates. 
W. Master, — Rev. Bro. Joseph Richardson acting as chaplain. 
Bro. Jerom Loriug delivered an appropriate address, there be- 
ing a large number of visiting brethren present. Feb. 10, 1821, 
Bros. Jerom Loring, Jotham Lincoln, and Jedediah Lincoln were 
chosen a committee to arrange for a Masonic Library in the 
Lodge. Dec. 27, 1822, Bro. David Harding was chosen Sec'y, and 
continued to hold the office until the charter was returned, Dec. 
31, 1832. Nov. 12, 1821, Rev. Bro. Joseph Richardson, as D. D. G. 
Master, made an official visit to the Lodge and delivered an ad- 
dress. Dec. 30, 1824, the Lodge, with visiting brethren, proceeded 
to the Old Meeting-house at half-past five o'clock for the public 
installation of the officers. After singing by the choir and prayer 
by Rev. Bro. Joseph Richardson, Wor. P. M. Marshall Lincoln in- 
stalled Bro. Fearing Loring W. Master, and he installed the sub- 
ordinate officers ; after which a sermon adapted to the occasion 
was delivered by Rev. Bro. Calvin Wolcott of Hanover. May 27, 
1825, by invitation of the Grand Lodge it was voted to attend the 
laying of the corner stone of the contemplated monument on 
Bunker Hill. Bros. Jotham Lincoln, David Harding, and Samuel 
Hobart, with the stewards, were chosen a committee to make all 
necessarv arrangements. 

Dec. 27, 1811, "Voted, That the Lodge be holden for the year 
ensuing at Bro. Jotham Lincoln's hall, the price being ten dollars 
for the year." The Lodge continued to occupy this hall, after- 
wards owned by Bro. Royal Whiton, until it surrendered the 
charter Dec. 31, 1832, and also after the return of the charter 
until April 11, 1855. After that date meetings were held in 
Chilton Hall over C. & L. Hunt's store until January 13, 1860, 
when the rooms in Lincoln's Building were consecrated and dedi- 
cated to Masonic purposes, which have been in constant use by 
the Lodge until the present time (1892). 

Oct. 21, 1851, nearly twenty years after the return of the 
charter to the Grand Lodge, a meeting of some of the members 
of the fraternity was convened at the Union House to take into 
consideration the reopening of the Lodge. There were present 
Bros. Marshall Lincoln, Royal Whiton, Alvah Raymond, John 
P. Lovell, Lovell Bicknell, Bela Whiton, and P. Adams Ames. 
Dec. 17, 1851, the committee, Bros. Marshall Lincoln, P. Adams. 
Ames, Royal Whiton, and John Basset, Jr., reported that they 
had secured the return of the original charter and other pa- 
pers to the Lodge, and the following named brothers were elected 
to office: Marshall Lincoln, W. Master; Bela Whiton,*!?. Warden; 
Dean Randall, J. Warden; John P. Lovell, S. Deacon; Warren 
A. Hersey, J. Beacon; Royal Whiton, Treas.; John Bassett, Jr., 
Sec 1 y ; Lovell Bicknell, $. Steioard ; Alvah Raymond, J. Steward; 
Joseph Richardson and Stephen Puffer, Chaplains. Feb. 23, 1852, 



Lodges and Societies. 293 

the brethren met at Bro. Royal Whiton's house and proceeded to 
the New North Meeting-house, where the officers were publicly in- 
stalled by D. D. G. M. Albert Case, in the presence of a large 
audience. Dec. 18, 1855, W. P. M. Marshall Lincoln installed 
Uro. Bela Whiton W. Master. Oct. 7, 1856, 28 members of the 
Lodge withdrew to become affiliated with Orphan's Hope Lodge, 
Weymouth, to which the original charter had just been re- 
turned. Jan. 9, 1857, the Lodge attended the funeral of Wor. 
Bro. Marshall Lincoln and rendered the Masonic burial service. 
Feb. 9, 1857, W. Bro. Bela Whiton was for the second time 
installed as W. Master at a public service in the New North 
Church by D. D. G. M. Albert Case. After the installation of 
officers an address was given by Rev. Bro. William R. Alger, of 
Boston. June 17, 1857, the Lodge participated, by invitation 
of the Grand Lodge, in the inauguration of the Gen. Warren statue 
at Bunker Hill, and procured the present banner of the Lodge for 
the occasion. Dec. 22, 1857, W. P. M. Bela Whiton installed 
Bro. Bela Lincoln W. Master, and the following named brothers 
have filled the office since : Enos Loring 1859 and 1860 ; Warren 
A. Hersey 1861; Edwin Wilder 1862 and 1863; E. Waters Burr 
1864, 1865, and 1866 ; Charles N. Marsh 1867, 1868, and 1869 ; 
Henry Stephenson 1870, 1871, and 1872 ; Jason Whitney 1873 ; 
Charles W. S. Seymour 1874, 1875, and 1876 ; Charles T. Burr 
1877,1878, and 1879; John M. Trussell 1880 and 1881 ; Stetson 
Foster 1882 and 1883 ; A. Willis Lincoln 1884 ; Stetson Foster 
1885 ; Arthur L. Whiton 1886 and 1887 ; Wallace Corthell 1887 
and 1888 ; William F. Harden 1889 and 1890 ; Charles H. Mar- 
ble 1891 and 1892. April 23, 1861, the Lodge gave the use of 
its rooms to the committee for furnishing aid to the soldiers. 
August 1, 1889, the Lodge, by invitation of the Grand Lodge of 
Mass., attended the dedication of Pilgrim Monument at Plymouth, 
Mass. 

The one hundredth anniversary of the establishment of the 
Lodge was celebrated Dec. 9, 1892, at Agricultural Hall. There 
were literary exercises in the afternoon, when an Historical 
Address was delivered by Rev. Bro. Joshua Young, D.D., a former 
chaplain of the Lodge. There were also addresses by W. Master 
Charles H. Marble, and Most Wor. Grand Master Samuel Wells, 
of the Grand Lodge ; a prayer by Bro. Edmund Hersey, Chap- 
lain ; and original hymns, sung by the Apollo Quartet. A ban- 
quet followed at which over four hundred ladies and gentlemen 
were present. In the evening there was a ball. The occasion 
was in every way worthy of the high character of this ancient 
institution. 

The above sketch was prepared by Mr. Edwin Wilder. 



294 History of Hingham. 



OLD COLONY LODGE, I. 0. 0. F. 

Old Colony Lodge, No. 108, Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows, was first instituted in Hingham January 13, 1846. Its 
charter, which is now in the possession of its successor, bearing 
the same name, contains the signatures of N. A. Thompson, 
Most Worthy Grand Master ; E. M. P. Wells, Right Worthy 
Deputy Grand Master ; William H. Jones, Right Worthy Grand 
Secretary ; J. M. Usher, Worthy Grand Warden ; and Hezekiah 
Pierce, Grand Treasurer. At the institution of this Lodge the 
Grand Lodge of Massachusetts had had but three Past Grand 
Masters : Daniel Hersey, E. H. Chapin, and Thomas H. Norris. 

For several years Old Colony Lodge had a vigorous existence 
with a large membership, but later, in 1852, internal dissensions 
arose which reduced the membership, and on April 6, 1853, the 
last meeting was held, and the charter subsequently surrendered 
to the Grand Lodge. 

The charter remained inoperative for twenty-nine years, or 
until 1882, when in the spring of that year Fred H. Miller, Her- 
bert 0. Hardy, and Horace J. Allen, resident Odd Fellows, suc- 
ceeded in interesting a sufficient number to request a return of 
the charter and the formation of a new Lodge. This was 
granted, and on the 8th of September the Lodge was reinstituted 
by the officers of the Grand Lodge. The petitioners for the return 
of the charter were Henry Siders, of the original Lodge ; Fred 
H. Miller, Herbert 0. Hardy, Horace J. Allen, and David 0. 
Wade, of Crescent Lodge No. 82, East Weymouth ; and Henry A. 
Tibbitts, of Mystic Lodge No. 51, Chelsea. On the night of rein- 
stitution there were twenty- seven candidates initiated. 

The new Lodge took up quarters in John A. Andrew Hall,. 
Whiton building, where they have since remained. The present 
membership (in 1 893) is seventy-five. The officers are as follows : 

Noble Grand, — Arthur M. Bibby. 

Vice-Grand, — Eben H. Cain. 

Secretary, — Herbert O. Hardy. 

Permanent Secretary, — Walter W. Hersey. 

Treasurer, — Frank W. Nash. 

Warden, — Edward Cowing. 

Conductor, — C. Stuart Groves. 

Inside Guardian. — Bertram L. Blanchard. 

Outside Guardian, — William H. Leavitt. 

R. S. Noble Grand, — Arthur F. Hersey. 

L. S. Noble Grand, — Charles B. Whiton. 

R. S. Vice-Grand, — Fred H. Miller. 

L. S. Vice-Grand, — Barzillai Lincoln. 

R. S. S., — Alfred J. Clapp. 

L. S. .S^ — Fred S. Wilder. 

Chaplain, — Hiram T. Howard. 

Sitting Past Grand, — C. Sumuer Henderson. 

Trustees, — Hiram T. Howard, Barzillai Lincoln, Arthur F. Hersey. 



Lodges and Societies. 295 

The following is a list of the Past Grands of the Lodge since 
1882: — 

Horace J. Allen, Fred H. Miller, Barzillai Lincoln, Edward F. 
Wilder, Walter W. Hersey, Henry Siders, Arthur F. Hersey, 
Hiram T. Howard, Eugene F. Skinner, Herbert O. Hardy, Frank 
W. Nash, Edward Cowing, Henry Jones, Martin L. Stodder, 
Isaiah P. Pratt, John H. Stoddar, 2d, Charles L. Davis, C. Sumner 
Henderson, Arthur M. Bibby. 



WOMPATUCK ENCAMPMENT, No. 18, I. 0. 0. F. 

This Encampment was instituted at Hingham Sept. 7, 1846, 
and had among its members, during its existence here, some of 
our most respected citizens. It continued in Hingham but a short 
time, yet it succeeded in making itself a thorn in the flesh to its 
superior power and became the object of severe discipline from 
the Grand Encampment. 

The difficulty came about in this way : In May, 1848, the Grand 
Encampment had imposed a tax on the subordinate encampments, 
which Wompatuck Encampment demurred at. There was no 
objection to paying all proper assessments which could be shown 
to be in accordance with the constitutional requirements of the 
Order, and a communication to this effect was made to the Grand 
Encampment, to which the Grand Patriarch made a reply, in 
which he presented arguments at length for the propriety of the 
tax. In an official communication, in language which was char- 
acterized as " offensive," the Grand Patriarch was informed that 
" what was wanted was a constitutional reason for the tax, and 
not advice." Thereupon the Grand Patriarch visited Hingham, 
and " suspended the Encampment during the pleasure of the 
Grand Patriarch and the Grand Encampment." Subsequently, a 
committee of the Grand Encampment was appointed to consider 
the whole matter, and reported in favor of confirming the action 
of the Grand Patriarch, which report was accepted, but recom- 
mending that if all due taxes were paid and the members expressed 
a willingness to show proper respect to the superior power in 
future, the Encampment should be reinstituted. It does not 
appear that all the members were willing to comply with these 
conditions, but in the latter part of 1849 some of the members 
petitioned to be reinstituted. The Grand Encampment would 
not, however, reinstitute part of the Encampment. Aug. 1, 1849, 
the Grand Patriarch reported to the Grand Encampment that 
Wompatuck Encampment had complied with the terms imposed, 
and had been reinstituted at East Weymouth. 

This, however, was not the end of the trouble, for some of the 
members had continued the Encampment at Hingham, and had 
requested the Grand Encampment to install the officers duly 



296 History of Hingham. 

elected, which request was of course refused. But the books and 
papers were not surrendered to the East Weymouth Encampment, 
and it was recommended by the Grand Encampment that the 
East Weymouth Encampment institute proceedings against the 
Hingham usurpers for the recovery of the records. Whether 
there was any attempt to do so does not appear, but if there was 
it did not prove successful. 

The Encampment continued at East Weymouth until Feb. 2, 
1851, when the charter was surrendered to the Grand Encamp- 
ment. Oct. 27, 1875, the Encampment was reinstituted at East 
Weymouth, where it has been in a flourishing condition ever 
since. 

The Chief Patriarchs from the time of its institution, in 1846, 
until its suspension, in 1848, were Bela Whiton, Henry Siders, 
and Robert T. P. Fiske. 



JOHN A. ANDREW LODGE No. 1665, KNIGHTS OF 

HONOE. 

The Order of Knights of Honor is a secret benevolent so- 
ciety, composed of a Supreme, Grand, and Subordinate Lodges. 
It was established in June, 1873, by persons who believed that an 
Order organized with the purpose of paying a death benefit as one 
of its objects would meet with approval and success. Its aston- 
ishing growth has proved their wisdom. The objects of the Order 
are stated briefly by the Supreme Lodge, as follows : — 

1. To unite fraternally all acceptable white men of every pro- 
fession, business, or occupation. 

2. To give all moral and material aid in its power to members 
of the Order, by holding moral, instructive, and scientific lectures, 
by encouraging each other in business, and by assisting one an- 
other to obtain employment. 

3. To promote benevolence and charity, by establishing a 
Widows' and Orphans' Benefit Fund, from which a sum not 
exceeding $2,000 shall be paid, at the death of a member, to his 
family, or to any one related to him by the ties of blood or mar- 
riage, and dependent on him for support. 

4. To provide for the relief of the sick and distressed members. 

5. To ameliorate the condition of humanity in every possible 
manner. 

John A. Andrew Lodge, No. 1665, was organized in Hingham, 
June 30, 1879, with seventeen charter members. It meets regu- 
larly on the first and third Wednesday evenings of each month. 



Lodges and Societies. 297 



CORNER-STONE LODGE INDEPENDENT ORDER OF 
GOOD TEMPLARS. 

The Independent Order of Good Templars dates its birth 
from the year 1851, in the State of New York, and crystallizing 
the best features of former organizations, it was welcomed for its 
systematic effort, thorough discipline, grand object, and just 
belief that women should enjoy equal rights and privileges with 
men. It is represented in every civilized country, and makes no 
distinction in race, sex, or color. 

Its object is, by moral and religious precepts, to teach men, 
women, and children the evils of intoxication. By social ties, 
oratory, song, debate, and various exercises to enlighten and 
amuse, and make the Lodge Room and the Temple interesting. 
It seeks to reclaim those fallen by means of strong drink, and to 
prevent others from falling. By all ways in which the home is 
made valuable, it strives to make the Lodge-Room, its fraternal 
home, attractive. 

Its platform is total abstinence for the individual, and prohibi- 
tion for the State ; and it endeavors to arouse men to the impor- 
tance of the ballot-box in the destruction of the dram-shop and 
the protection of the family, home, and country. 

Every person of good character is welcomed to the privileges of 
the Order. 

Corner-Stone Lodge No. 13, of Hingham, was instituted Jan. 22, 
1881. Its meetings were held for one year in Abbott's Building, 
on South Street, near Thaxter's Bridge, then for seven years in 
Thayer's Building, corner of Broad Bridge and North Street. 
In October, 1889, the Lodge took a lease of the upper story of 
Abbott's Building, next west of the first place of meeting, forme re- 
called " Oasis Hall," and dedicated it as " Good Templars' Hall." 

The Lodo:e is in a flourishing condition. 



TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES. 

The Hingham Temperance Society was in existence about 
1830. May 2, 1836, the male citizens who believed in the princi- 
ples of Total Abstinence organized themselves into the Young 
Men's Total Abstinence Society. None of the members of the 
original committee, who drafted its Constitution, or of its long 
list of Vice-Presidents, are now living. March 7, 1842, the name 
of the organization was changed to the Hingham Total Absti- 
nence Society. 

The Cold Water Army had an organization here in 1842, and 
in 1844 the Women's Total Abstinence Society advertised its 
meetings. 



298 History of Hingham. 

In Apil, 1852, Corner Stone Division of the Sons of Tem- 
perance was formed, but after an existence of about fifteen years 
it surrendered its charter. 

In 1868 there was a Lodge of the Independent Order of Good 
Templars instituted in Hingham, which existed for a few years 
only, but another charter was granted to the " Corner-Stone " 
Lodge already mentioned. 

In the winter of 1875-76 a great amount of Temperance work 
was done here, and many who had been habitual drinkers signed 
the pledge. Meetings were held in all sections of the town, and 
March 27, 1876, the Hingham Centennial Reform Club was or- 
ganized, which has held regular meetings to the present time 
(1893). 

May 24, 1876, through the efforts of this Reform Club, the 
Women's Christian Temperance Union was organized. 



CLUB OF GENEROUS UNDERTAKERS. 

Among the papers of Dr. Joshua Barker, of Hingham, there is 
a manuscript entitled "Proceedings of the Club," containing 
'■' The Laws, Votes, and Orders of the Club of Generous Under- 
takers," which was founded Aug. 20, 1772. 

PREAMBLE. 

As a Cultivation of the Faculties wherewith we are vested by 
the Supreme Author of our Nature is not only commendable but 
highly incumbent ; and as Improvements in the Art of Speaking 
hold the first Place in the Catalogue of Acquisitions, we the Sub- 
scribers, fir'd with a noble Desire of rendering Ourselves suitable 
Members of Society, and of more extensive Use to Mankind, 
chearfully engage to form a Society by the Name of the Club of 
Generous Undertakers, to meet statedly for the Purpose of Im- 
provement in the Art of Speaking, and promise to subject our- 
selves to the following Laws. 

Joseph Loking. Joshua Barker, Jr. 

jotham loring. jos. lewis. 

Samuel Thaxter. Martin Leavett. 

Francis Barker, Jun. John Thaxter. 

Josiah Leavitt. Tho. Loring. 
John Sowden Cole. 

Several meetings were held, and the members spoke original or 
selected pieces. The last minutes of proceedings are recorded in 
February, 1773. 



Lodges and Societies. 299 



JEFFERSON DEBATING SOCIETY. 

This institution was formed in 1823 by those young men of 
Hingham who were attached to the political principles of Thomas 
Jefferson, for the purpose of acquiring " general and political 
information." Monthly meetings were held for the discussion of 
questions proposed by the government of the Society. The anni- 
versary of its institution was celebrated every year by a public 
address, and addresses by members of the Society were delivered 
every quarter. The preamble to the constitution contains the 
following : — 

" The Republican young men of Hingham who adhere to the political 
principles of that venerated statesman and ardent patriot, Thomas Jeffer- 
son, desirous of increasing the ardour of their patriotism by the warmth of 
their social affections, and of qualifying themselves to judge of the conduct 
of their rulers by a knowledge of their own duties and rights, have agreed 
and do hereby associate themselves. . . ." 

There are one hundred and one names subscribed to the 
constitution. 

A great variety of subjects relating to politics and society were 
discussed at the meetings. The records are very full, and the 
society was one of the prominent institutions of the town in its 
day. ' The last record is dated May 4, 1831. 



HINGHAM DEBATING SOCIETY. 

Formed Feb. 9, 1844. 

At its meetings the usual range of subjects were discussed, and 
the organization continued with more or less interest among its 
members for two or three winters. 



MONDAY NIGHT CLUB. 

This club was formed in 1877, and its membership was limited 
to about twenty-five. It was formed by gentlemen who felt that 
it would be agreeable and profitable to meet together for the dis- 
cussion of subjects of general interest. For the sake of harmony, 
political and religious subjects were the only ones prohibited, as 
the club admitted its members without regard to their political or 
religious convictions. The club met during the winters at the 
houses of its members in turn. The host read a paper upon some 
timely topic, which was followed by a discussion of the subject, 
after which a supper served to send the members home in good 
humor. These meetings extended through eight winters. The- 
last meeting of the club was held in the spring of 1885. 



300 History of Bingham. 



GLAD TIDINGS LITERARY UNION. 

This organization was formed in October, 1888, at South 
Hingham, and still continues in existence for the study of modern 
scientific subjects and moral questions. Its average membership 
is fifteen. Its meetings are held weekly, during the winter, in 
" Wilder Memorial." 

SOUTH HINGHAM CORNET BAND. 

This band was organized Oct. 8, 1866, with fifteen members. 
The president and leader was Joshua Jacobs, Jr. The band dis- 
solved Feb. 10, 1872. During its existence its leaders were 
Joshua Jacobs, Jr., Nelson Groce, and Ira Wales, of Rockland. 



HINGHAM BRASS BAND. 

In 1866 Chas. W. S. Seymour, Wm. H. Thomas, Horace F. 
Reed, Wm. M. Gil man, John B. Lewis, and Horace Peare, mem- 
bers of Corner-Stone Div. S. of T., decided to organize a brass 
band, procured instruments, and commenced rehearsals, which 
were kept up through the year. 

In the spring of 1867 new members were taken in, and the 
band was reorganized under the name of the Hingham Brass 
Band, with the following instrumentation : — 

Horace Peare, 1st E i? cornet; C. W. S. Seymour, 2d E^ cornet; 
Geo. L. Gardner, solo B!? cornet; Leavitt Sprague, 1st Bi? cornet; 
Wm. M. Gilman and Wm. B. Sprague, 2d B I? cornets ; W. H. 
Thomas, solo alto ; Joseph H. Lincoln, 1st alto; Horace F. Reed, 
1st tenor; L. 0. Cain, 2d tenor; John B. Lewis, B& bass; Joshua 
Morse and D. W. Sprague, E V basses ; Chas. H. F. Stoddard, side 
drum ; James B. Prouty, bass drum ; Sidney W. Sprague, 
cymbals. 

During the summer of 1867 Mr. Wm. F. Harden had charge of 
the band. He retired from the band in November, 1867, and from 
that time until September, 1869, Horace Peare acted as leader. 
The band then hired Mr. Wm. E. White, of Quincy, as leader. 
Mr. White led the band until January, 1875, when he moved to 
Providence, R. I., and was obliged to give up the leadership. At 
this time the band was very fortunate in securing the services 
of Mr. T. J. Evans, of East Weymouth. He proved to be a fine 
player and a good musician. Under his direction the band did 
some very good work. 

The band furnished music for the Hingham Agricultural & 
Horticultural Society for 14 years, Post 104 G. A. R. 10 years, at 
Derby Lecture for several years, and at the celebration of the 
250th anniversary of the settlement of Hingham in 1885. 



Lodges and Societies. 301 

In the summer of 1886 the band suspended rehearsals, as many 
of the members had moved away from town. The organization is 
still kept up by holding the annual meeting each year at the usual 
time. 

The following citizens of Hingham and adjoining towns have 
been members of the band at various times : — 

Waldo F. Bates, Fred. H. Hobart, Edwin Hersey, E. C. Blossom, 
Halah Harden, James Ballentine, A. L. Leavitt, Jr., C. Edgar 
Tirrell, E. H. Cushing, Calvin H. Young, Oren A. Beal, Geo. L. 
Cudworth, Daniel W. Stoddard, John H. Tower, Arthur S. Fear- 
ing, T. C. Fearing, Herbert Wilder, Geo. R. Reed, Herbert Mead, 
A. L. Stephenson, John Cartwright, Frank Clark, of Boston, C. S. 
Burr, Win. B. Fearing, Elmer E. Pratt, Walter Pratt, John French, 
Walter Tuttle, J. Anthony Sprague, Frank Young, E. H. Cain. 

Two of the original members belong to the organization at 
the present time (1893), namely : C. W. S. Seymour and Horace 
Peare. 

THE NATIONAL BRASS BAND. 

This band is of recent origin and is composed of young men 
with headquarters at Hingham Centre. It has already made its 
appearance on a few public occasions, and is earnestly at work to 
acquire a satisfactory proficiency. Leader, Fred L. Lane. 



THE HINGHAM PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA. 

This orchestra was organized Nov. 14, 1881, and the first re- 
hearsal was held on Sunday afternoon, Nov. 20, 1881, at the resi- 
dence of Mr. E. Waters Burr, at Hingham Centre. During its 
active existence its list of members embraced those who played 
upon the following instruments, first and second violins, viola, 
violoncello, contra bass, flute, clarinets, cornets, trombone, drums, 
triangle, etc. 

Regular rehearsals were held every Sunday afternoon at Mr. 
Burr's house. All the members gave their services except one or 
two members from other towns, whose services were indispensable 
for the proper formation of an orchestra. The expenses were 
paid by giving public rehearsals, concerts, and furnishing music 
for entertainments, school exhibitions, etc. The orchestra kept 
together for about five years, until the formation of the Hingham 
Choral Society. As most of the members joined its orchestra, 
that society gradually took the place of the Philharmonic, and 
since the death of Mr. Joseph T. Sprague, the president of the 
Philharmonic Orchestra from the time of its formation in 1888, it 
has had no regular rehearsals, although the organization has never 
been disbanded- 



302 , History of Hingham. 



THE CLARION ORCHESTRA. 

This orchestra was formed at South Hingham, June 1, 1884, 
with six members, and is still in a flourishing condition, prepared 
to furnish music for any occasion. 



HINGHAM MUSICAL EDUCATION SOCIETY. 

This society was organized Feb. 5, 1848, " for the purpose of 
improvement in music," with the following officers : — 

President, David A. Hersey. 

Vice-Presidents, John K. Corbett, Bela Whiton. 

Secretary and Treasurer, Luther Sprague, Jr. 

Executive Committee, Samuel Bronsdon, David Souther, Walton 
Y. Mead, Charles Howard, Jr., Joseph T. Sprague. 

Conductor and Teacher, Nathan Lincoln. 

In the notice for the first meeting members were requested to 
be provided with copies of the " Carmina Sacra " and members of 
the orchestra to bring their instruments. The society consisted of 
about eighty members, and practice was mostly in anthems and 
choruses. The orchestra was composed of violins, viola, violon- 
cello, double bass, and flutes. 

Its progress was apparently satisfactory during its first season, 
and in the following autumn they resumed their meetings for 
another winter's practice. 



THE HINGHAM CHORAL SOCIETY. 

This society was formed Oct. 6, 1869, and held its rehearsals at 
the " Armory " at Hingham Centre, and once or twice in the hall 
over the store of Alonzo dishing, at South Hingham. From 
various causes it was short-lived, being dissolved in March, 1870. 
Its records show that the cantata of " Daniel " was creditably 
performed in Loring Hall, Feb. 1, 1870, and that " in the opinion 
of all the audience the concert was an entire success." 



HINGHAM CHORAL SOCIETY. 

This society was organized in 1885 for the purpose of the study 
and practice of oratorios and other sacred music. Its rehearsals 
have been held on Sunday evenings, in Loring Hall, from Novem- 
ber to May, and they have been profitable and satisfactory to its 
members in making them better acquainted with music of a high 
order. The chorus has numbered about fifty, and the orchestra 
from fifteen to twenty. 



Lodges and Societies. 308 

Edward E. Tower, of Cohasset, was conductor during the first 
season, and Morris F. Whiton of Hingliam 1886-1892, and Albert 
E. Bradford has been conductor since that time. The musical 
works to which attention has been principally given are Ballard's 
" ninety-first Psalm," Gaul's " Holy City," Farmer's " Mass in B 
flat," Mendelssohn's " Athalie," Haydn's " Creation," Costa's 
" Eli," and Mendelssohn's " Elijah," interspersed with other vocal 
and instrumental compositions. 

The public have been admitted to rehearsals, and on many occa- 
sions the hall has been filled with an interested and appreciative 
audience. 

Other musical organizations have existed in the town, mostly 
for brief periods and with limited membership, such as the Hing- 
ham Glee Club in the 20's, Hingham Union Singing Society in 
the 40's, Fife and Drum Corps in the 30's and Hingham Drum 
Corps from 1888 to 1890. 

PH(ENIX club. 

As early as 1849 some of the lads of Hingham Centre formed 
a club which met at various places in that village for social enjoy- 
ment. On the 27th day of November, 1851, it adopted as its name 
" G. I. A. of Scribes and Pharisees," adopted a constitution and 
by-laws, and hired the room over the store of Messrs. F. Burr & 
Co. in which to hold its meetings. These were held monthly, with 
a special meeting on the afternoon of the annual Thanksgiving 
Day. 

Nov. 24, 1853, the name was changed to " United Associates," 
and under this name it was continued until March 7, 1856, when 
the room was given up ; but on the same day it was reorganized 
under the name of the " Phoenix Club," by which title it is still 
known, meetings having been held as often as once in each year, 
sometimes in this town but more frequently in Boston. Of the 
twenty-two original members all but seven are still living, but re- 
signations in the early years of the club's existence reduced the 
membership so that the number in 1862 was only fourteen ; of 
this number nine are now living and have all been able to attend 
the meetings of the Club for the past ten years. 

The Directors chosen in 1856, when the present name was 
adopted, were Ebed L. Ripley, Starkes Whiton, and Edwin Fearing. 
Mr. Fearing at his decease was succeeded by Henry Stephenson, 
who died in 1887, and he was succeeded by Wm. Fearing 2d ; 
Messrs. Ripley and Whiton have held office continually since 
their first election. 

In the earlier years of its existence, and under its several titles 
this club did much towards furnishing enjoyment to the people of 
the town by arranging for sociables, fancy-dress balls, and 4th of 
July parades. 



304 



History of Hingham. 



SOCIETY OF MUTUAL AID. 




Hide© an& Herniations 

OF THE 

SOCIETY OF MUTUAL AID 

FOB 

DETECTING THIEVES. 

M U E Q U fo M a 

FORMED "IN 1819. 




The illustration above is taken from the heading of a broadside, 
which indicates the purpose for which the society was formed in 
1819, but which is more fully explained in the preamble which 
follows : — 

The practice of stealing has become so prevalent that it becomes 
necessary for the well disposed to unite in the most effectual measures for 
protecting their property against the depredations of the unprincipled, and 
of mutually aiding each other in bringing such offenders to the punish- 
ment they may deserve, and as provided by the just laws of our country. 

We, the subscribers, do therefore associate ourselves together, for the 
above purpose, and also the more effectually to recover any property that 
may at any time be stolen from a member of this Society ; and engage to 
comply with the following Rules and Regulations. 

The Rules provide for the election of a Treasurer who should 
also be Clerk, a Standing Committee, and a Pursuing Committee. 

In 1822, the society voted unanimously that the widows of de- 
ceased members should be entitled to all privileges, and be con- 



Lodges and Societies. 305 

sidered members of the society, " so long as they continue such 
widows." 

A list of members in 1847 contains eighty-five names. 

The Society existed until 1864, a period of forty-five years, and 
Mr. David Andrews was its Clerk and Treasurer from the time of 
its foundation until his death, which occurred Oct. 7, 1863. 

At the annual meeting held Jan. 5, 1864, a resolution of respect 
to the memory of Mr. Andrews was adopted, Mr. Daniel Bassett 
was chosen Clerk and Treasurer, and the meeting adjourned to 
Feb. 2, 1864, when it was voted that the society be dissolved and 
the funds divided equally among the members. 



THE HINGHAM MUTUAL FIRE SOCIETY. 

This society was formed in 1803. A pamphlet, printed by 
Hosea Sprague, West Street, Boston, 1804, contains its constitu- 
tion with the following preamble : — 

We whose names are underwritten, in order to draw close together 
the bond of union, that our friendship may be perpetuated by our poster- 
ity to the remotest ages, to aid and assist each other through this gloomy 
world, to promote and encourage social virtue, to provide for and wrest 
our property from that devouring element fire, do constitute a society and 
have denominated ourselves the Hingham Mutual Fire Society, and 
for ourselves and those who hereafter may be admitted as members do or- 
dain and establish the following Constitution. 

The edition of the constitution printed in 1809 contains the 
following revised preamble, as if the former one were not emphatic 
enough in stating the objects of the society : — 

In large and increasing cities and towns, no societies have proved more 
beneficial than those established for the purpose of rendering assistance in 
the hour of peril, as well to the public in general as to their individual 
members, under circumstances which have laid them in ashes and devas- 
tation. To cement, therefore, the bonds of Union, promote harmony 
in a social circle, and thereby associate those sensations of mind, which 
serve to beautify society ; with a view to usefulness which should be the 
primary motive in the formation of every institution ; and more particu- 
larly for the purpose of protecting our own and the property of our friends 
and neighbors from the ravages of that all-devouring and destructive ele- 
ment Fire, — we the subscribers have formed ourselves into a society, 
under the name of the Hingham Mutual Fire Society. 

Article VI. of the constitution was as follows : — 

Each member shall provide at his own expense two leather buckets to 

be painted sky blue, the inside red, with the name of the society, and 

two hands link'd together ; and also one strong bag one yard and a half 

long and the same bigness round, with a suitable line so fix'd as to draw 

vol. i. — 20* 



306 History of Hingham. 

the same together, and the 'owner's name on the outside. The buckets 
shall be kept hung in a conspicuous place at the house of each member, 
with the bag inside one of them, and shall not be used at any time but at 
a fire ; and should any member lose any of the above utensils at a fire 
and not be able to find the same after making diligent search and advertis- 
ing the same, the loss shall be made good by the society at large. 

The society disappeared from public view with the advent of 
fire engines. Many of the old buckets are preserved in town as 
interesting relics. 



The Home Dramatic Club, the Thespian Club, and Catholic 
Dramatic Association, all organized within the past ten years, 
have given local dramatic entertainments with success. The Cro- 
quet Club at Hingham Centre, which disbanded a few years 
since, was for ten or fifteen years a prominent feature in the life 
at Hingham Centre. This with a Tennis Club and numerous 
Base Ball clubs of recent and variable terms of existence repre- 
sent the interest in athletic sports. The Social Club and Owl 
Club are composed of young men for purely social purposes. 

There have been and are numerous clubs for literary im- 
provement such as are found in every community, which are 
so much of a private nature that the present work seems hardly 
to include them. 



NATIVE AND RESIDENT PHYSICIANS. 

BY GEORGE LINCOLN. 



In most of the older towns of eastern Massachusetts, the earlier 
ministers were practising physicians as well as pastors. This 
was undoubtedly the case in Hingham from the time Rev. Peter 
Hobart and his company arrived, in September, 1635, until his de- 
cease in 1679. He had received a liberal education at Magdalene 
College, England, where he took his degree of Bachelor in 1625, 
and of Master of Arts in 1629. He undoubtedly was qualified to 
fill any professional position ; and after nine years of experience 
as a preacher at old Hingham, came with his followers and settled 
in our Hingham. During his active ministry here of nearly forty- 
four years he kept a record, in chronological order, giving most of 
the births, baptisms, marriages, and deaths which occurred in this 
parish, and from which the two following entries are inserted 
(surname omitted) as an illustration : — 

"January 19, 1670-71, Joshua 's son borne." 

"January 29, 1670-71, Peter, son of Joshua , baptized." 

From the large number of births thus recorded in " Hobart's 
Diary," it would seem that he must have been present in the ca- 
pacity of physician to have been able to make the record chronologi- 
cally and accurately. Moreover, it was not until after his decease 
that the town or county records began to refer to any payments 
made to physicians, or to their conveyances here as grantors or 
grantees. In 1702 Cotton Mather wrote as follows : — 

" Ever since the days of Luke, the Evangelist, skill in physic has been 
frequently professed and practised by persons whose most declared business 
was the study of divinity." 

Referring to the Colonial period, a writer in the " New England 
Historical and Genealogical Register " says : — 

" The training received by young physicians was very irregular. De- 
grees of Doctor of Medicine were possessed by only a few, who had studied 
abroad. . . . The few eminent physicians trained in the Colonies were to 
a great extent followers of a natural gift and tendency. Young men who 
desired to become physicians practised under the instruction of the estab- 
lished physicians down to the middle of the eighteenth century. After 
college courses of medical lectures were organized, a license from the fac- 
ulty was given, which served instead of the subsequent diploma," etc. 



308 History of Hingham. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that " Hobart's Diary " is the 
only reliable authority from which to obtain a record of the earlier 
births in Hingham ; that neither our town nor the county records 
furnish any evidence of a located physician here prior to the de- 
cease of Mr. Hobart ; and that during the colonial period there was 
no medical school in Massachusetts to confer the degree of Doctor 
of Medicine upon young physicians. 

The names of those natives and residents of the town who have 
practised medicine as a profession are subjoined in alphabetical 
order, as it was found to be almost impossible to give the exact 
year of the earlier settlements or removals. 

Joshua Barker, son of Capt. Francis and Hannah (Thaxter) 
Barker, was born in Hingham March 24, 1753, and was graduated 
at Harvard University, 1772, in the class with William Eustis, 
Samuel Tenney, Levi Lincoln, and others. After a regular course 
of preparatory study with Dr. Danforth, of Boston, he settled as a 
physician in this his native town, and was contemporary with Dr. 
Thomas Thaxter. Here he had a large acquaintance, and he 
received a share of the public patronage. Possessing a general 
knowledge of business in addition to the requirements of his pro- 
fession, he was frequently called upon to serve in other depart- 
ments of active duty, — to give legal advice, or to act as guardian 
to the children of deceased parents. He was a man of culture and 
refinement, of broad views and liberal sentiments ; and to these 
commendable qualifications were added an easy politeness, a cheer- 
ful hospitality, and a patriotic pride for his native town. He mar- 
ried, Oct. 17, 1779, Susanna, daughter of Benjamin Thaxter. They 
had two children, a son and a daughter. The son died in infancy, 
and Susan, the daughter, married Rev. Samuel Willard. Dr. 
Barker died in Hingham, the 2nd of April, 1800, aged 47 years. 
He resided on Main Street, opposite the old meeting-house. He 
was early a member of the Massachusetts Medical Society. 

Lazarus Beal, born in Hingham, second precinct, April 6, 1725, 
was a son of Deacon Lazarus and Ruth (Andrews) Beal, and a 
descendant in the fifth generation of John Beal, one of the early 
settlers of Hingham. After receiving an education such as the 
public schools of the town afforded, he removed to Newton, Mass., 
where, as tradition says, he studied medicine with Dr. Samuel 
Wheat. He subsequently married Dr. Wheat's daughter Lydia, 
and had children born at Newton, in Hingham, and at Cohasset. 
In 1748 he was employed a part of the year by the Selectmen of 
Hingham to teach in the school of the second precinct ; but after 
his marriage, in 1749, he located at Newton, remaining there until 
1763 or 1764, when he returned to his native town. Hingham 
tax-lists show that he was quite an extensive farmer as well as a 
physician. In 1768 he improved fifty acres of land, kept four cows, 
a flock of sheep, etc., besides having other interests in real estate. 
His professional calling, however, was not neglected, as the records 
of the town show that he received a share of patronage up to the 



Native and Resident Physicians. 309 

time Cokasset was set off from Hingham. He probably removed, 
at or near the time of the Revolution, to Weymouth, where some 
of his descendants still reside. 

Joseph Bossuet, for several years a physician in Hingham, was 
a native of the city of Paris, France. He was educated at the 
Hdtel Dieu, the medical college in Paris, where he practised his 
profession until France made common cause with the United 
States, when he came to America as a surgeon and physician in 
the War of the Revolution. During the war he was not only cap- 
tured by the British, but he also met with many other reverses 
and pecuniary losses. At the commencement of the present cen- 
tury he located in Hingham, and resided, first, on North Street, 
near the harbor, in the house now owned and occupied by Leonard 
W. Litchfield. He afterwards lived in the Abiel Wilder house on 
Lincoln Street. Dr. Bossuet was a thorough master of his profes- 
sion. Having had a long and varied experience, and possessing 
■ excellent judgment, his advice was frequently sought in difficult 
cases by our local physicians as well as by those from the neigh- 
boring towns. Late in life he removed with his family to Boston, 
where he died 13 October, 1827, aged 81 years ; and his widow, 
Mrs. Catharine Rumport de Vous Doncour Bossuet, died at Rox- 
bury, Mass., in June, 1830, aged 52 years. Dr. Bossuet joined the 
Massachusetts Medical Society in 1821. 

Dr. Boylston is supposed to have been located here as a physi- 
cian in 1722 and 1723, as his name appears among those to whom 
money was paid at that time by the Selectmen. 

Robert Capen announced through the columns of the local 
newspaper, dated Hingham, Dec. 21, 1838, that he " has taken 
the house of the late Joseph J. Whiting, at Queen Ann's Corner, 
so called, where he may be found by those who desire his profes- 
sional services." It is said that he came from Plymouth. He 
remained in Hingham about two years. In 1838 he was elected 
a Fellow of the Massachusetts Medical Society. 

David Coggin received his degree of M. D. in 1868 from the 
Harvard Medical School, and is a member of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society. In 1869 he came to Hingham and practised in 
his profession for about two years. Owing to impaired health, 
however, he removed, in 1871, to St. Louis, Mo. He afterwards 
returned east, and is now located at Salem, Mass., where he 
makes a specialty of diseases of the eye. 

Charles Henry Colburn, who succeeded Dr. Ezra Stephenson, 
was a son of Charles H. and Martha A. (Barnes) Colburn, and a 
native of Philadelphia, Penn. In early life he came to Boston to 
reside, and several years later was connected with some of the 
prominent musical organizations of the city. During the Civil War 
he joined the Sixth Regimental Band, and while in this service 
acquired that practical information which proved of great value 
to him in the profession he afterwards decided to follow. Upon 
-returning to Boston he devoted the greater part of his leisure to 



310 History of Bingham. 

the study of medicine under the tutorship of one of the most dis- 
tinguished physicians in the city. He entered the Harvard Med- 
ical School in 1870, and in 1874 received his degree of M. D. Soon 
after the decease of Dr. Stephenson, in 1874, he received and ac- 
cepted an invitation to settle in Hingham, locating near the former 
residence of his predecessor on Main Street, Hingham Centre. 
Here he met with a successful patronage, and was highly esteemed, 
not only for his skill as a physician and surgeon, but also for his 
social qualities and his recognized musical talents. He died of 
malignant diphtheria, contracted in the course of professional 
duty, the loth of May, 1880, aged 37 years. He left a widow 
and one son. 

Benjamin Cushing, born May 9, 1822, and the only son of Jerom 
and Mary (Thaxter) Cushing, of Hingham, was for several terms 
a pupil at the Derby Academy. He was graduated at Harvard 
University in 1842, received his degree of M. D. in 1846, and is a, 
practising physician in the city of Boston. 

John Cutler, who called himself " a Dutchman," and whose 
name appears as such upon conveyances and other legal docu- 
ments, was a practising physician in Hingham for about twenty 
years. Very little which relates to him, however, can be ascer- 
tained at this late day, either as to his educational advantages or 
to his professional career. At the time of Philip's War, and for 
several succeeding years, he resided on Town (South) Street, near 
Thaxter's Bridge ; but he may have removed at a later date to the 
west part of the town, judging from the following conveyance 
(S. R. of D. vol. 13, p. 22, abstract) : Ephraim Nichols of Hing- 
ham, " seaman," and Abigail his wife, in consideration of £135, 
sell to Doctor John Cutler, " Dutchman," of Hingham, " our house 
lot of five acres, which we lately purchased of Moses Collier, with a 
dwelling-house, barn," etc. This estate was bounded by the Town 
Street, east, and by land of Thomas Lincoln, the husbandman, 
south. Deed dated 12 March, 1682-83, and recorded the 18th of 
September following. Dr. Cutler removed with his family to Bos- 
ton before 1700. He married in Hingham, Jan. 4, 1C74-75, Mary 
Cowell, of Boston. The names of his children, with their dates of 
birth, are given in Vol. II. p. 150 of this history. 

John Dixon married Elizabeth, the daughter of George and Lucy 
Vickery, of Hull. She survived him and married secondly Joseph 
Lewis, widower, of Hingham. Caty, a granddaughter of Joseph 
and Elizabeth (Vickery) (Dixon) Lewis, married Elijah Beal, Jr., 
and their daughter Caty married Caleb Gill. Hence we have had 
in the present century two heads of families born in Hingham. 
father and son, bearing the ancestral names of DixOn Lewis Gill. 
Concerning the professional career of Dr. Dixon, but little is known. 
He died in this town, and a gravestone erected to his memory in 
the Hingham Cemetery bears the following inscription : — 



Native and Resident Physicians. 311 

Here lies buried ye Body of 

Doct. John Dixon 

Deceased Feb. y e 14, 1717. 

In y e 36 th year 

of his age. 

Charles Alonzo Dorr, who succeeded Dr. Harlow as a physi- 
cian at the south part of the town, is a son of Samuel A. and Mary 
M. (Wedgewood) Dorr, and was born at Sandwich, N. H., Feb. 12, 
1851. He entered Dunimer Academy, at Newbury, Mass., in 1868 ; 
Bowdoin College, at Brunswick, Me., in 1871; attended the Maine 
Medical School three years ; received his degree of M. D. from 
Dartmouth Medical College in 1877, and the same year commenced 
the practice of medicine at Richmond, Me. In 1880 he removed 
to Hingham, and in 1885 became a member of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society. His present residence is on Main Street near 
the meeting-house at South Hingham. 

Robert Thaxter Edes, a graduate of Harvard University, 1858, 
M. D. 1861, and more recently a Professor in the Harvard Medi- 
cal School, is a son of Rev. Richard S. and Mary (Cushing) Edes. 
He came to Hingham soon after the decease of Dr. Fiske in 1866, 
and located as a physician, remaining for about two years, when 
he removed to Boston. While a resident of Hingham he married 
at Boston, April 30, 1867, Elizabeth T., daughter of Calvin W. 
Clark. They resided in Hingham on Main, near Water Street, in 
the house built and occupied by his great-grandfather, Dr. Thomas 
Thaxter. See Genealogical Record, Vol. II. p. 209. 

Robert Treat Paine Fiske was born at Worcester, Mass., 
Jan. 1, 1800. He was graduated at Harvard College in the class of 
1818. After the usual term of medical study, and a brief practice 
of his profession elsewhere, he, in 1822, came to Hingham and lo- 
cated as a physician and surgeon. Here he soon commanded a 
large and lucrative patronage, which he continued to hold up to 
the time of his decease. During this forty-four years of active 
professional service in Hingham his duties were often arduous and 
exacting. He was frequently called upon to attend the sick in the 
adjoining villages as well as at home, and his oft-repeated visits to 
Hull, over Long Beach, especially in the winter season, or during 
severe storms, were, in many instances, far from what is termed 
poetical. Throughout the entire period of his practice here, the 
length of which has been exceeded in but one or two instances, he 
held the respect and confidence of the community. Enterprising, 
influential, and public-spirited in every movement relating to local 
improvements, he devoted what leisure hours he could command to 
rural pursuits. He was one of the early proprietors of the Hing- 
ham Cemetery Corporation, and for many years its acting Super- 
intendent ; and it was largely through his excellent judgment and 
good taste that improvements ware commenced upon this now 
beautiful and historic burial-place. He also was a director of the 
Hingham Bank, and held other positions of trust and responsibil- 
ity. Dr. Fiske joined the Massachusetts Medical Society in 1839. 



312 History of Hingham. 

He married for his first wife Mary Otis, daughter of Ebenezer Gay. 
She died 8 August, 1852, aged 51 years. He married secondly, 
Oct. 16, 1854, Anna L., daughter of John Baker, and died the 8th 
of May, 1866, aged 66 years. He resided on North Street opposite 
Fountain Square. See Genealogical Record, Vol. II. p. 230. 

Daniel French, whose family record will be found in Vol. II. 
p. 236 of this history, was probably a native of Hingham and born 
about 1720. During his early practice as a physician he resided 
at the west part of the town, near Weymouth line, until his first 
wife died, which was Aug. 6, 1742, — three days after her infant 
babe was born. Our records show that he was not without patron- 
age ; but being located at a considerable distance from the more 
thickly settled parts of the town, he no doubt saw a better opening 
for his professional services in the neighboring village of East 
Weymouth, whither he shortly after removed, and where all but 
one of his ten children were born. Several of his daughters, how- 
ever, married residents of Hingham, and this town was after- 
wards their home. Dr. French died suddenly in Weymouth, at 
fifty-five years of age. 

Henry F. Gardner, a native of Hingham, and born Feb. 13, 
1812, was the second son of Melzar and Silence (Gardner) 
Gardner. In early life he learned the trade of blacksmith with 
Charles Howard, and later was in the employ of the Messrs. Ste- 
phenson at Hingham Centre. He afterwards removed to Hartford, 
Conn., and thence to Springfield, Mass. Upon leaving Hingham 
he abandoned his former calling to become an eclectic physician. 
From Springfield he removed to Boston, and for a number of years 
was the landlord of a hotel at the corner of Beach Street and Har- 
rison Avenue. About 1870 he assumed the position of Superin- 
tendent of the Pavilion estate, which he managed with great success 
and to the satisfaction of the trustees. Dr. Gardner was one of 
the early advocates of Spiritualism, and the first person to lecture 
upon this subject in Hingham, as well as at Boston. Possessed 
of more than ordinary talents, and of an active, sanguine temper- 
ament, he made many warm friends, especially among those who 
held views similar to his own. He died at Boston the 6th of De- 
cember, 1878, in his 67th year. 

Charles Gordon, born in Hingham, Nov. 17, 1809, was the 
second son of Dr. William and Helen (Gilchrist) Gordon, of this 
town. He was graduated at Brunswick College, 1829, and re- 
ceived his degree of M. D. from the Harvard Medical School in 
1832. The following notice was published in the Hingham Ga- 
zette dated June 7, 1833. " Dr. William Gordon informs the in- 
habitants of Hingham and vicinity that he has connected with him 
in his Professional Business his son Charles Gordon, M. D." The 
same year (1833) he was elected a Fellow of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society, being at that time a resident of Lowell, Mass. 
He died at Boston, March 1, 1872, aged 62 years. 

William Gordon was for more than 30 years a practising 
physician in Hingham. He was educated at Exeter Academy, 



Native and Resident Physicians. 313 

and afterwards studied medicine with Dr. Thomas Kittredge of 
Andover. He first entered upon the practice of his profession at 
St. Andrews, but upon the invitation of several prominent citizens 
of Hingham, he came and established himself here in 1807, re- 
maining until the autumn of 1838, when he removed to Boston. 
He afterwards settled at Taunton, and there passed the closing 
days of his life in the midst of his children. He joined the 
Massachusetts Medical Society in 1828. During his long resi- 
dence in Hingham his practice was extensive and oftentimes 
arduous and perplexing, — embracing a large circuit and requiring 
the utmost activity and perseverance in the discharge of profes- 
sional duty. He was eminently successful, however, both as a 
physician and surgeon. An easy politeness in addition to a 
cheerful speech and agreeable manners always made his presence 
in the sick room pleasant to the invalid, and his removal from 
this town was deeply regretted. He died suddenly from an affec- 
tion of the heart, to which he had been subject for several years, 
and at his special request his remains were brought here and 
buried in the Hingham Cemetery. A tablet has since been 
erected at his grave, upon which is the following inscription: 

" In Memory of 

Dr. William Gordon. 

Born at Newbury, 

May 17, 1783. 

Died at Taunton 

June 17, 1851. 



From 1808 to 1S38 
a devoted physician in this town." 

William Alexander Gordon, the oldest son of Dr. William 
and Helen (Gilchrist) Gordon, was a native of Newburyport, 
Mass., and born March. 17, 1808. His early education was ob- 
tained at the schools in Hingham. He afterwards entered Har- 
vard University and was graduated in 1826, in the class with 
Hon. Robert Rantoul, Rev. Oliver Stearns, and others, and in 
1829 received his degree of M.D. For a short time only he was 
located as a physician in Hingham, having for his office a room in 
the second story of Loring's Building, Broad Bridge. In 1834 he 
was elected a Fellow of the Massachusetts Medical Society, being 
at that time a resident of Taunton, Mass. He died at New Bed- 
ford, Feb. 1887, in the 79th year of his age. 

The " Christian Register " says of the late Dr. Gordon : — 

" Dr. William A. Gordon, who died suddenly at his late home in New 
Bedford, was of Scotch ancestry, and was a son of Dr. William Gordon, 
who at the time of William A. Gordon's birth, March 17, 1808, was 
a, resident of Newburyport. Dr. Gordon was a lineal descendant of Alex- 
ander Gordon, a scion of the loyal Gordon family in the Highlands of 
Scotland. When William A. Gordon was two months old his parents 
moved to Hingham. He was prepared for college at Derby Academy in 
that town, and was graduated at Harvard in the class of 1826, when but 
eighteen years old. He at once commenced the study of medicine with 



314 History of Hingham. 

his father, and was graduated at the Harvard Medical School in 1829. 
In his death, another refined, cultivated Christian gentleman of the " old 
school " has gone from among us. Those who for years were blessed 
with his presence in sickness have felt the magnetic charm of his person- 
ality. An eminent physician with a large practice, he was yet ever ready 
to help the most needy patient. Goodness and strength seemed to ema- 
nate from him. Truth and uprightness were his lifelong habit, and gentle- 
ness and sweetness blending with great strength and firmness made an 
almost perfect character." 

Daniel Greenleap was for a number of years a practising 
physician in Hingham, and probably contemporary with Dr. 
James Hayward. In his professional capacity he was frequently 
called upon to administer to those needy residents who were sick, 
and to some extent cared for by the selectmen of the town. It is 
also fair to judge that he received a respectable patronage from 
other sources. He married in Hingham, July 18, 1726, Mrs. 
Silence (Nichols) Marsh. They had three children born in Hing- 
ham. He probably removed from here with his family about 
1732. His record in the genealogical portion of this work is 
given on p. 279 of Vol. II. 

Nathaniel Hall, son of John of Yarmouth, was a practising 
physician in Hingham early in the last century. He probably 
succeeded Dr. John Cutler, who removed from here before 1700. 
He had been a captain under Church in the Indian War at the 
East, " and fought with great bravery," says Mr. Savage, " in de- 
fence of Falmouth, Sept. 21, 1689." His wife was Ann Thornton, 
a daughter of Rev. Thomas Thornton. In Feb. 1708-09, he, with 
Ann, his wife, and sixty other inhabitants of Hingham, testified to 
the best of their knowledge and belief that the widow Mehitable 
Warren (a daughter of Edward Wilder, and born here 1664) was 
not guilty of the sin of being a witch, as she was reported to be ; 
but that "she has bene a woman of great affliction by reason 
of Many distempers of Body ; and that God hath given a Sancti- 
fied improvement of his afflictive hand to her." In 1713 he sold 
his home-place in Hingham (between South Street and the meet- 
ing-house of the First Parish), containing about six acres, with 
dwelling-house, shop, and outbuildings thereon, to Joshua Tucker. 
He may have resided for a short time at the west part of the 
town. Our tax -lists show that he was styled " Captain " by the 
assessors. After leaving Hingham he removed to the Delaware 
River. He left no issue. 

Jonathan Edwards Harlow, who succeeded Dr. Jonas Un- 
derwood in 1850, was a resident physician of Hingham for about 
thirty years. He was a son of Stephen and Patience (Ellis) Har- 
low, and born at Middleboro', Mass., May 1, 1824. After com- 
pleting his early education, and graduating at the Bridgewater 
Normal School, he was for one or two years a teacher. He sub- 
sequently entered the Harvard Medical School, and in 1848 
received his degree of M. D. The year following he studied 
medicine and surgery with Dr. Jacob Bigelow of Boston, with 



Native and Resident Physicians. 315 

whom he acquired additional knowledge in the profession he had 
chosen. He then went to North Bridgewater (Brockton) to estab- 
lish himself as a physician, but in 1850 he settled permanently in 
Hingham. Here he was cordially welcomed by the former pa- 
trons of his predecessor ; and as his skill and real worth became 
known, a more extended field of professional duty opened before 
him. Good health, however, although it may to some extent be 
an inheritance, is not always assured even to the physician ; and 
this was true in the case of Dr. Harlow, for his physical system 
became impaired several years before his decease. He died of 
Bright's disease the 29th of May, 1880, aged 56 years. He was 
twice married, and a son and two daughters survived him. His 
family record is found on p. 290, Vol. II. of this History. 

Byron R. Harmon came to Hingham soon after the decease 
of Dr. Piske, in 1866, to establish himself as a physician. His 
office was at the " Union Hotel." He remained only a few 
months. 

James Hayward, whose name appears among the heads of 
families in Vol. II. p. 295, was a practising physician in Hingham 
for eight or ten years. He resided on North Street near the* har- 
bor ; and his home-place included a large part of the land which 
lies between the harbor and the estates bounded by North and 
Ship streets. He probably removed about 1730 to Weymouth, 
where several years later he died, and March 3 (27?), 1739, his 
brother Nehemiah, of Hingham, was appointed to administer upon 
his estate. He had three children born in Hingham and one at 
Weymouth. 

Dr. Heard, whose death on the 28th of November, 1675, is 
recorded in Hobart's Diary, may have been a non-resident friend 
or medical adviser of Mr. Hobart, rather than a physician of Hing- 
ham. And this seems more than probable from the fact that no 
other reference to his name occurs upon our records, nor does 
tradition furnish any information relating to such a person as 
having been a physician in this town. 

Abner Hersey, the youngest son of James and Mary (Hawke) 
Hersey, was born in Hingham, Oct. 22, 1721. He settled as a 
physician at Barnstable, Mass., where he acquired a large practice, 
and is said to have been eminent in his profession. He died at 
Barnstable the 9th of January, 1787, aged 65 years. He was one 
of the earlier members of the Massachusetts Medical Society. In 
his will he bequeathed to Harvard University the sum of £500 
towards the establishment of a professorship of the theory and 
practice of physic ; also an equal amount, which, for good reasons 
was diverted from the purposes mentioned in the legacy, and dis- 
tributed among the churches of Barnstable County in accordance 
with the consent of his heirs. A stone erected to his memory, 
and to his brother James, stands in the cemetery near the Unita- 
rian Church at Barnstable. 

Ezekiel Hersey, the eldest son of James and Mary (Hawke) 
Hersey, was born in Hingham, Sept. 21, 1709, and was graduated 



316 History of Hingham. 

at Harvard University in 1728. He settled in his native town as a 
physician, probably succeeding Dr. Daniel Greenleaf. He became 
eminent in his profession. " In the controversy between the 
colonies and the mother country, he espoused the cause of the 
former, and his opinions had a most favorable effect on the com- 
munity in which he lived. His charities were extensive, as his 
means were adequate to do much good. He was among the bene- 
factors of Harvard University. In his will, executed Nov. 29, 
1770, he directs his executrix to pay to the corporation of that 
University, £1000, 'the interest thereof to be by them appropri- 
ated towards the support of a professor of anatomy and physic' 
His widow gave the same sum for the same purpose. A profes- 
sorship was established on this foundation, entitled the Hersey 
Professorship of Anatomy and Surgery." * Dr. Hersey died Dec. 
9, 1770, leaving a widow, but no children. He resided on South 
Street, near the present R. R. station at West Hingham. 

James Hersey, second son of James and Mary (Hawke) Her- 
sey, and brother of Dr. Ezekiel Hersey, was born in Hingham 
Dec. 21, 1716. He was a physician, and resided at Barnstable, 
Mass., where he died the 22d of July, 1741, in the 25th year of 
his age. 

Nathan Hersey, born in Hingham January 28, 1743-44, was 
the oldest son of Elijah and Achsah Hersey. He was a physician 
at Leicester, Mass. 

Alexander Hitchborn, a native of Hingham, and born in 1822, 
was the' second son of Alexander H. and Cinderilla (Gardner) 
Hitchborn. His early education was acquired in the public schools 
of this town, in which he was an apt as well as a brilliant scholar. 
About the year 1854 he removed to North Bridge water (Brockton) 
to establish himself as a physician. Here he met with sufficient 
encouragement to warrant a permanent settlement, and his ready 
conversational powers, added to a kind and obliging disposition, 
won for him many friends. At the commencement of the Civil 
War he enlisted in the Twelfth Regiment Mass. Vol. Infantry, and 
was commissioned captain. The year following he was appointed 
assistant-surgeon of the Seventh Infantry of the regular army. 
He was killed at the battle of Chancellorsville, Va., in May, 1863, 
aged 41 years. 

Peter Hobart was contemporary with Dr. Daniel Shute, and 
both were graduated the same year (1775) at Harvard University. 
He was a son of Deacon Peter and Lucretia (Gill) Hobart, and 
was bom in Hingham July 31, 1750. After his early schooling 
was completed he began his business life as an apprentice to Jere- 
miah Lincoln, a blacksmith, whose shop was in the square near 
the present Torrent engine-house, West Hingham; but having 
a taste for classical studies, he fitted for college, and was grad- 
uated in 1775, as stated above. He afterwards studied medicine, 
and for six months or more was a surgeon in the War of the Rev- 
olution. His wife, whom he married in Hingham Nov. 16, 1779, 

* Lincoln's History of Hingham. 



Native and Resident Physicians. 317 

was Mary Cushing, daughter of Elisha and Mary (Lincoln) dish- 
ing. She was a granddaughter of Col. Benjamin Lincoln, father 
of General Lincoln. About 1783 Dr. Hobart settled as a physician 
in Hanover, where he died in 1793. His widow, it is said, re- 
moved to the State of New York and died there. 

John G. Lambeight, a resident physician at South Hingham 
some ten or twelve years, was probably a native of Germany, or 
perhaps of German descent. He was not only a bright and intel- 
ligent representative of that nationality, but in his profession 
he was original and skilful in his ways and methods. He first 
located here on Main Street near the meeting-house of the South 
Parish ; but several years later removed to Prospect Street, oc- 
cupying a part of the Joshua Hersey house. His wife, Mrs. 
Martha Lambright, was from Fayette, Me. She died in Hing- 
ham 23 Nov. 1840, aged 44 years. Dr. Lambright removed to 
Boston shortly after the decease of his wife. 

Josiah Leavitt was for a number of years a practising physi- 
cian in Hingham. He also was somewhat of a mechanical genius, 
and of an inventive turn of mind. Prior to the war of the Revo- 
lution he constructed a clock for the old meeting-house, " the dial 
of which appeared in the dormer-window on the southwesterly 
slope of the roof, and was thus visible to the public." Tradition 
says that he built a church organ and set it up in the old meeting- 
house, where it stood for a while, and that it was eventually sold 
to go to Portland, Me. I find no record, however, to verify this 
tradition ; but that several years later lie was a professional organ 
builder at Boston is certain. In 1773 he built and resided in the 
house now owned and occupied by heirs of George Bassett on Main, 
corner of Elm Street. This dwelling he sold in 1777 to Joseph 
Blake, and soon after removed to Boston. The Selectmen's Book of 
Records, Vol. II., show that as a physician he received a fair share 
of the patronage of the town, as no doubt he did from the public. 
His inventive perceptions, however, led him to seek other fields of 
employment. He was the son of Hezekiah and Grace (Hatch) 
Leavitt, and was born in Hingham Oct. 21, 1744. The Christian 
name of his wife was Azubah. She died at Boston Nov., 1803, 
aged 40 years. He died March, 1804, aged 59 years. 

Martin Leavitt, son of Elisha and Rnth (Marsh) Leavitt, was 
born in Hingham March 20, 1755. He was graduated at Harvard 
University in 1773, — Colonel Nathan Rice, who for many years 
was a resident here, and brother-in-law of Martin, being one of 
his classmates. Dr. Leavitt was for some time surgeon on an 
armed ship during the War of the Revolution. His professional 
career in Hingham, however, was brief. He was drowned the 
27th of Nov. 1785, aged 30 years. He was unmarried. 

Bela Lincoln, son of Hon. Benjamin and Elizabeth (Thaxter) 
Lincoln, and a younger brother of Major-General Benjamin Lin- 
coln, was born in Hingham March 11, 1733-34. He was gradu- 
ated at Harvard University 1754, in the class with Rev. Samuel 



318 History of Hingham. 

Foxcroft, Gov. John Hancock, and others, and for nearly twenty 
years after was a practising physician in Hingham. During 
this time " he visited Europe for the purpose of obtaining pro- 
fessional information, and received the degree of Doctor of Med- 
icine from the University of Aberdeen." In 1768 he purchased 
of Ambrose Low a lot of land on Town Street (corner of North 
and Cottage), and in 1769-70 erected thereon the building now 
known as the " Cushing House," and where he resided during 
the few remaining years of his life. He died 16 July, 1773, 
aged 39 years, leaving a widow, but no children. 

Levi Lincoln, the only son of Capt. Levi and Elizabeth (Nor- 
ton) Lincoln, was born in Hingham Dec. 12, 1767. After receiv- 
ing his preparatory education in Hingham, he entered Harvard 
University, and was graduated in the class of 1789, with George 
and Francis Blake, Cushing Otis, Cotton Tufts, and others. He 
subsequently settled as a physician in this his native town, and 
resided on South Street, near what is now the West Hingham 
Station of the South Shore Railroad. Here he had many in- 
fluential friends ; his professional charges were reasonable, and 
he received a liberal share of the public patronage. Dr. Lincoln 
was a man of talent and refinement. He was frequently called 
upon to discharge duties other than those belonging to his pro- 
fession. He was a lover of rural pursuits, and an original member 
of the first Agricultural Society of Hingham. He died the 24th 
of May, 1829, aged 61 years, leaving a widow and three married 
daughters. In 1810 he was elected a Fellow of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society. (See p. 483, Vol. II. of this History for his 
family record.) 

Caleb Marsh may have had some practice in Hingham as a 
physician, but it does not appear that he was located here per- 
manently. He was in Hanover, and at Scituate, several years, 
and in the history of these towns his name is given on the lists 
of physicians. His name also occurs as the teacher of a gram- 
mar school in Hingham soon after the Revolution. Dr. Marsh 
was a son of Stephen and Mercy (Beal) Marsh, and was born in 
Hingham Dec. 1, 1759. Tradition says that he was a person of 
delicate constitution, and unable to withstand the exposures 
which those who follow this profession are so often called upon 
to endure. He died in Hingham the 20th of August, 1799, in 
the 40th year of his age. 

Israel Nichols was for many years a practising physician of 
Hingham (sec. pre.) and Cohasset. But few particulars, however, 
in regard to his educational advantages or professional career can 
now be ascertained. He was a son of Daniel and Abigail (Beal) 
Nichols, and was born in Hingham Sept. 7, 1746. He was twice 
married, first to Anna, daughter of Peter Humphrey ; and, sec- 
ondly, to Mrs. Hannah (Foster) Stowell. Dr. Nichols died at 
Cohasset the 11th of August, 1808, in his 62d year. His son, 
Dr. Paul Lewis Nichols, settled as a physician at Kingston, Mass. 
For the family record of Dr. Nichols see Vol. III. p. 89. 



Native and Resident Physicians. 319 

Franklin Nickerson is a practising physician at Lowell, Mass. 
He was born in Hingham Sept. 8, 1838, and is a son of the late 
Capt. Anson and Sally A. (Downs) Nickerson. He was gradu- 
ated at Harvard University in the class of 1860, and at the Har- 
vard Medical School in 1863, where he received his degree of 
M.D. Dr. Nickerson married in Hingham Nov. 14, 1866, Mary 
W., daughter of David and Hannah (Souther) Lincoln. 

Philip J. Nujent, a native of Ireland, practised medicine for a 
short time in Hingham about the year 1877. He resided on 
North, near Ship Street, but removed from town after being here 
a few months. 

Daniel O'Reardon, from Belfast, Ire., was located at the har- 
bor in 1870-71, and practised medicine. He had a good educa- 
tion and a considerable experience. He went away in 1871 and 
did not return. It is said that be died at New York. His wife, 
who was Rose M. Hyslop before marriage, and a native of Belfast, 
Ire., died in Hingham the 11th of Oct. 1872, aged 32 years. They 
had one child, Mary, born here May 1, 1871. 

Thomas Phipps (sometimes written Phips on the receipts of 
the Town Treasurer) appears to have been located as a physician 
in Hingham from 1765 to 1769 inclusive. But little is known 
concerning his history or professional career except that he had 
patients in the second precinct as well as in other parts of the 
town. He was a fine penman, and undoubtedly well educated. 
Tradition, which may or may not be correct, says he was a teacher 
as well as physician here. 

James Henry Robbins was born at Calais, Me., July 22, 1839. 
He is the eldest son of James and Mary Augusta (Parkman) 
Robbins, who, in 1835, removed from Concord, Mass., to Calais. 
He received his degree of A. B. at Amherst College in 1862, and 
that of M. D. at the Harvard Medical School in 1867. The same 
year he began the practice of medicine at Machias, Me., where he 
remained until February, 1876, when, his family being broken up 
by the death of his wife, he returned to Calais, and there con- 
tinued in the practice of his profession until the month of June, 
1880, when he was called to Hingham. While a resident of 
Maine he was a member of the Maine Medical Association. Since 
locating in Hingham he has held several honorary positions 
among his associates. Dr. Robbins has been president of the 
" Medical and Surgical Association," and in 1887 and 1888 was 
chosen president of the South Norfolk District Medical Society. 
Resides on Main Street, near Pear Tree Hill. 

Charles R. Rogers came from Wareham, Mass., in May, 1883, 
to establish himself as a homoeopathic physician in Hingham. He 
occupied a house on Cottage St., but after remaining about four 
months removed to Ware, Mass. 

Edward Coit Rogers, a native of New London, Conn., was for 
several years a resident homoeopathic physician in Hingham. 
He died here the 11th of November, 1860, aged 44 yrs. and 9 



320 History of Hingham. 

months. His family record is given in Vol. III. p. 141, of this 
History. 

Ignatius Sargent was located in Hingham as a homoeopathic 
physician for a number of years. He was born at Gloucester, 
Mass., Feb. 14, 1807, and is the son of Abimelech and Mary 
(Allen) Sargent. His mother, Mrs. Mary Sargent, died here the 
28th of Feb., 1867, at the great age of 98 yrs. and 5 months. 
Dr. Sargent commenced the study of his profession with Dr. 
Paine of Belfast, Me. His first wife, whom he married in Hing- 
ham, Sept. 12, 1828, was Sally Gilkey, daughter of Isaac and 
Polly (King) Gilkey. After her decease he married for his sec- 
ond wife, Susan S. Barnard. During the practice of his profes- 
sion in Hingham, he resided on North, near Ship Street. He 
removed from here to Woburn, and from thence to Methuen, 
Mass., where he continued in practice as a physician. Having 
relinquished this calling on account of advancing years, he re- 
turned to Hingham, residing on Pond Street. Aug. 7, 1891, he 
died at Cummington, Mass., set. 84 years. 

Daniel Shute, born in Hingham, Jan. 30, 1756, was the only 
son of Rev. Daniel, D. D., and Mary (Gushing) Shute. He re- 
ceived a liberal education, having been graduated at Harvard Uni- 
versity in 1775. During the War of the Revolution, his activity, 
patriotism, and zeal for the public good were conspicuous. He 
served as surgeon in the Continental army, in several military 
organizations under Major-General Benjamin Lincoln's command ; 
was present at the siege of Yorktown ; and subsequently was 
on duty at various hospitals. In 1783 he appears to have lo- 
cated as a physician at Weymouth ; but the year following, 1784, 
he returned to Hingham and established himself permanently 
in his profession. In 1808 he was a Fellow of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society, and later, one of its councillors. Tradition 
says that he was a faithful and courteous practitioner ; and judg- 
ing from the 1274 entries of attendance at births, which are 
recorded in his account books, his business was quite extensive 
and perhaps lucrative. He married, Dec. 31, 1789, Betsey, the 
eldest daughter of Major Isaiah Cushing, of Hingham. She died 
4th of Oct., 1818, aged 50 years. He died 19th of August, 1829, 
in the 74th year of his age. They resided on Main, at the corner 
of South Pleasant St., and had seven children. See Vol. III. 
p. 147. 

Daniel Shute, the oldest son of the preceding, was born in 
Hingham, July 23, 1793. He fitted for college at the Derby 
Academy, and was graduated at Harvard University in 1812, 
being the third of the name, father, son, and grandson, who were 
graduates of this institution. He subsequently studied medicine 
at the Harvard Medical School under the supervision of Dr. John 
C. Warren, and succeeded to his father's practice in Hingham. 
He married, Dec. 22, 1816, Hannah Lincoln, daughter of Deacon 
Robert Gushing. They resided on Main Street, opposite the meet- 
ing-house at South Hingham, and had nine children. Dr. Shute 



Native and Resident Physicians. 321 

was a good classical scholar, and very methodical and cautions in 
his practice. He was a member of the Massachusetts Medical 
Society. He was especially fond of horticultural pursuits, de- 
voting a large share of the limited leisure he could command to 
the cultivation of fruits and flowers, and was one of the original 
members of the first Agricultural Society of Hingham, founded 
in 1813 by the recommendation of the Massachusetts Society for 
Promoting Agriculture. He died the 26th of June, 1838, in the 
45th year of his age. His family record appears in Yol. III., p. 
147, of this History. 

Gustavus L. Simmons, the only son of Samuel and Priscilla 
(Lincoln) Simmons, was born in Hingham, March 13, 1832. He 
was graduated at the Harvard Medical School, 1856, in the class 
with Robert Ware, Conrad Wesselhoeft, and others, and is now 
an established physician and surgeon of large practice at Sacra- 
mento, Cal. He married, in 1862, Celia, daughter of Rev. Peter 
Crocker, of Barnstable, Mass., and has children, Gustavus, Carrie, 
Celia, and Samuel. 

Henry B. Spalding 8 (Edward Page 7 , Henry 6 , Samuel 5 , Henry 4 , 
Henry 3 , Andrew 2 , Edward 1 ) was born among the hills of New 
Hampshire. His boyhood was spent on the farm which his 
father carried on in connection with his business as dealer 
in cattle. His early educational advantages were only such as 
the district afforded, and an additional few weeks of instruc- 
tion during the winter, when his father would supplement the 
school term by hiring a teacher for his boys at home. At the 
age of fourteen he left home for a student's life in Appleton 
Academy (now McCollom Institute), Mt. Yernon, N. H. Here, 
with the exception of a short time at Francestown Academy, he 
pursued a course of study preparatory to entering college. The 
winter months he spent in teaching, as a means of earning a part 
of the money required to pay his expenses during the remainder 
of the year. The breaking out of the Civil War found him just 
completing his college preparatory course of study, and with it 
came the question of duty that so deeply stirred the hearts of 
millions. Should he respond to his country's call for men which, 
not mentioning all other possible sacrifices and losses, meant for 
him the unavoidable giving up of the long-coveted collegiate 
course of study for which he had been working four or five years ? 
The decision was soon made, and in the fall of 1862, together 
with about twenty of his classmates and friends, he was enrolled 
a soldier in the 13th Reg. N. H. Yols. The following spring, 
however, he was discharged for disability. After his health had 
become sufficiently restored he commenced the study of medicine, 
most of the time under the tutorship of J. H. Woodbury, M. D., 
of Boston. He attended lectures at Harvard Medical School, and 
afterwards at the New York Homoeopathic Medical College, from 
which latter institution he graduated in 1866, and at once located 
in this town. Of the positions of honor to which he has been 

VOL. I. — 21* 



322 History of Hingham. 

called in his profession are the presidency of the Boston Homoeo- 
pathic Medical Society, also of the Massachusetts Homoeopathic 
Medical Society, and lecturer at Boston University School of 
Medicine. 

Samuel Hopkins Spalding was born at Wilton, N. H., Aug. 31, 
1856. He is the son of John H. and Mary L. (Hopkins) Spalding. 
After completing his early education in the public schools of his 
native town, he entered Phillips Andover Academy, in 1870, and, 
was graduated there in 1873, ranking third in his class. During 
the next two years he was employed in the store of Macullar, 
Williams, & Parker, Boston. He then decided to study med- 
icine, and in the autumn of 187b' he joined the middle class of 
Phillips Exeter Academy. In June, 1879, he became a student 
at Harvard College, and was graduated there in 1881. In the 
following autumn he entered the Boston University School of 
Medicine, from which he was graduated in 1884, serving during 
the last two years as House Surgeon in the Massachusetts 
Homoeopathic Hospital. He was a member of the Hahnemann 
Society. After graduating from the School of Medicine he was 
in the practice of his profession for three years in Arredonda, 
Florida. Jan. 6, 1888, he came to Hingham, and has since been 
in practice here as a physician and surgeon ; first as assistant, 
and later as partner with Dr. Henry E. Spalding, under the firm 
name of Drs. Spalding and Spalding. He is a member of the 
American Institute of Homoeopathy, and of the Massachusetts 
Homoeopathic Medical Society. He married, Dec. 17, 1891, Ella 
Elizabeth Drew, of Boston. 

John Winthrop Spooner commenced the practice of medicine 
in Hingham in 1871. He is a son of John P. and Abby Elizabeth 
(Tuckerman) Spooner, and was born at Dorchester, Mass., Sept. 
20, 1845 ; was educated in the public schools of Dorchester ; 
fitted for college at Phillips Academy, Exeter, N. H. ; was gradu- 
ated at Harvard University in 1867, and received his degree of 
M. D. in 1871, being elected a Fellow of the Massachusetts Medi- 
cal Society in the same year. He was House Physician at the 
Boston City Hospital for one year. He has served three years as 
censor of the Plymouth District Medical Society ; was for several 
years chairman of the board of censors of the Norfolk South So- 
ciety, and later one of its councillors. He holds positions of trust 
and responsibility in several local institutions. In April, 1886, he 
was appointed by the Governor a Medical Examiner for Plymouth 
County. Resides on Main St., near the Old Meeting-house. See, 
also, genealogical record in Vol. III., p. 163, of this History. 

Ezra Stephenson was born in Hingham, Oct. 13, 1805. He 
was a son of James and Desire (Sprague) Stephenson. His 
earlier education was acquired at the public schools, and in the 
Derby Academy. He subsequently worked for a short time at 
the trade of carpenter, but soon abandoned the occupation to 
enter the medical school of Harvard University, from which in- 
stitution he, in 1832, received the degree of M. D., and in 1836 



Native and Resident Physicians. 323 

was elected a Fellow of the Massachusetts Medical Society. He 
commenced the practice of his profession at Barnstable, Mass., 
and for six years devoted himself with marked success to the 
labors of his chosen calling. Upon the retirement of his imme- 
diate predecessor in Hingham, Dr. William Gordon, he returned 
here to establish himself for the remainder of his life. His office 
and residence were on Main St., at Pear Tree Hill. As a physi- 
cian and surgeon he was trusted and respected by those whom he 
visited, and he was highly esteemed by his associates of the pro- 
fession. He died the 20th of May, 1874, aged 69 years. Of his 
family, a widow and two sons survive. See his family record in 
Vol. III., p. 188, of this History. 

George Grosvenor Tarbell (Har. Coll. 1862), located in 
Hingham for the practice of medicine and surgery in 1866, and 
received sufficient encouragement to have remained here ; but a 
larger field for his professional services having presented itself at 
Boston, he accepted the opportunity and removed thither. While 
in Hingham he resided on Lincoln Street. 

Thomas Thaxter, second son of Major Samuel and Abigail 
(Smith) Thaxter, was born in Hingham, Aug. 25, 1748. After 
completing his early education at the public schools, and his sub- 
sequent term of medical pupilage, he commenced the practice of 
medicine and surgery in his native town, succeeding Dr. Bela 
Lincoln. He had many influential friends and connections to 
encourage him ; his charges were moderate ; and his successful 
treatment in difficult cases, especially of the then prevailing 
throat distemper, won for him more than a local reputation. He 
was a member of the Massachusetts Medical Society. While 
visiting the sick in town he usually rode on horseback, although 
when the patient resided at a distance his square-topped chaise 
was brought into use. During the later years of his life he and 
his son Robert rode out together daily on horseback to visit the 
sick, each having his saddle-bags, and riding upon opposite sides 
of the road. Dr. Thaxter superintended the education of a num- 
ber of medical students, several of whom were from other places. 
He was the proprietor of a drug store, the attendant being his 
sister, Miss Abigail Thaxter. He also gave a portion of his time 
to agricultural pursuits and the improvement of farm stock. His 
first wife, whom he married Jan. 8, 1773, died the 2d of March 
following. His second wife was Mary Barker, daughter of Capt. 
Francis and Hannah (Thaxter) Barker, and sister of Dr. Joshua 
Barker. They had five children. He built and resided in the 
house now owned by Arthur Lincoln, on Main, near Water St., in 
which he died, the 20th of June, 1813, aged 65 yrs. His family 
record is given in Vol. III., p. 237, of this History. 

Ezekiel Thaxter, fifth son of Major Samuel and Abigail 
(Smith) Thaxter was born in Hingham, May 15, 1758. Con- 
cerning his professional life and place of residence but little is 
known in Hingham, except that tradition says he removed to 



324 History of Hingham. 

Nova Scotia, and that towards the close of the Revolution he was 
surgeon on a privateer. 

Gridley Thaxter, fourth son of Major Samuel and Abigail 
(Smith) Thaxter, was born in Hingham, April 9, 1756. He 
studied medicine with his brother Thomas, and was for some 
time surgeon on an armed vessel during the War of the Revo- 
lution. About the year 1780 he was settled in Abington ; and 
as a physician for more than half a century, enjoyed a very 
extensive practice. " He probably rode more miles and visited 
more patients," says his biographer, " than any other physician 
who ever resided in the County of Plymouth." In 1809 he was 
elected a Fellow of the Massachusetts Medical Society. His 
first wife, whom he married July 13, 1783, was Sarah Lincoln, 
a daughter of General Benjamin and Mary (Cushing) Lincoln. 
He died the 10th of Feb., 1845, aged nearly 89 years. Dr. Ezekiel 
Thaxter, of Abington (Harvard University, 1812), was his son. 

Robert Thaxter, born in Hingham, Oct. 21, 1776, was the 
oldest son of Dr. Thomas and Mary (Barker) Thaxter. He was 
graduated at Harvard College in the class of 1798, with Dr. Wm. 
E. Channing, Judge Story, Rev. Perez Lincoln and others, who 
at a later period were distinguished for their eminent services. 
After graduating, he studied medicine with his father, and for 
nearly ten years was a practising physician in Hingham. In 1808 
he joined the Massachusetts Medical Society, and in 1842 was 
elected its vice-president. In 1809 he removed to Dorchester, 
Mass. There he published the following : — 

Notice : Doct. Robert Thaxter informs the Inhabitants of Dor- 
chester that he has taken lodgings at the residence of Mr. William Rich- 
ards, where he will be ready at all times to attend to his profession. He 
will inoculate with kine Pox, free of expense, all persons who feel them- 
selves unable to pay. — Columbian Centinel, July 22, 1809. 

Dr. Thaxter was an accomplished physician, and highly appre- 
ciated in a widely extended circle. Gentlemanly and kind to all, 
and especially charitable to the needy, " he was indeed the beloved 
physician." He contracted a ship disease while in the discharge 
of his professional duties, from which he died the 9th of Feb. 
1852, aged 75 yrs. He never married. 

Jonas Underwood, who succeeded Dr. Daniel Shute, announced 
to the public of Hingham and vicinity, through the columns of 
the local newspaper of April 5, 1839, " that in compliance with 
an invitation of a committee of the Parish of South Hingham, 
he has taken rooms at the house of the late Bela Tower, and 
respectfully tenders to the public his services in the several 
branches of his profession." 

Dr. Underwood was a native of Hudson, N. H. Receiving 
his early education in his native town, and in the academy at 
Exeter, he afterwards entered Harvard University, and was 
graduated in 1815, in the class with Appleton Howe, William 
Sweetzer, John Jeffries, and others, who in later years be- 



Native and Resident Physicians. 325 

came distinguished as physicians. He subsequently was em- 
ployed as teacher in a school at Philadelphia, Pa., and in 1822 
received his medical diploma from the university of that State. 
After participating in the advantages of hospital and dispensary 
practice under the most distinguished professors of Philadelphia, 
he commenced the practice of his profession at Andover, Mass. 
He joined the Massachusetts Medical Society in 1837, and re- 
signed his membership' in 1849. In 1839 he removed to Hing- 
ham, as previously stated. Here he was highly esteemed as a 
physician and citizen by his many patrons, up to the time of 
his decease. He was unostentatious and of sound judgment, 
possessing many excellent qualities of mind and heart, and his 
patients found in him at all times a warm and sincere friend. 
He died in Hingham, the 26th of Feb., 1850, in the 62d year 
of his age. The record of his family is given in Vol. III., p. 271, 
of this History. 

John Ware, the second son of Rev. Henry and Mary (Clark) 
Ware, was born in Hingham, Dec. 19, 1795, and when a lad of 
about ten years, removed with his parents to Cambridge, Mass. 
He was graduated at Harvard University in 1813 ; received his 
degree of M. D. in 1816 ; was early elected a Fellow of the Mas- 
sachusetts Medical Society, in which organization he held many 
important offices, and was its president for a number of years. 
He resided at Boston, and died in 1864, in the 69th year of his 
age. Dr. Ware married in Hingham, April 22, 1822, Helen, 
daughter of Dr. Levi Lincoln of this town. She died at Boston, 
25th Jan., 1858, aged 59 years. 

James Wilde, the only son of Elijah D. and Lucy (Beal) 
Wilde, was born in Hingham, Nov. 29, 1812. His early edu- 
cation was acquired in the public schools and at the Derby 
Academy. He subsequently entered Harvard College and was 
graduated in the class of 1832 ; received his degree of M. D. from 
the Harvard Medical School in 1835 ; and shortly after settled in 
the practice of his profession at Duxbury, Mass., where he con- 
tinued to reside until his decease, which occurred the 15th of 
Oct., 1887. In 1839 he was elected a Fellow of the Massachu- 
setts Medical Society. 



The permanently located physicians of Hingham have been 
among the most useful, devoted and respected citizens of the 
town. Wherever duty called, or in whatsoever positions they were 
chosen or delegated to fill for the public good, a prompt and 
willing service has been given. Educated in most instances 
at the best medical institutions, they have been qualified to im- 
part information upon a variety of subjects ; to hold offices of 
trust ; to act as counsellors ; and to assist in all local or public 
improvements. 

It would be singular, indeed, if among the large number of 
physicians noticed in the foregoing sketches, there were not some 



326 History of Hingham. 

circumstances or individual traits preserved by record or tradition 
which would remind us of their peculiarities and the conditions 
under which they were placed. Did space permit the insertion 
of such notices in this connection they would in many instances, 
no doubt, furnish interesting reading to those who have a love 
for the curious, or a taste for the study of the methods and pro- 
ceedings of the past. The following are illustrations. 

Among the disbursements recorded by the Selectmen in 1794, 
are the following : — 

To Ebed Hearsey for keeping & nursing Elijah Hearsey 
from the time his leg was taken off, 13 weeks, 5 sh. per 

week, and 7 sh. per week for nurse for him £7. 16. 

To Docf Barker, as per account £8. 7. 6 

To Docf Thaxter, as per account £11. 15. 5 

Probably Doctors Barker and Thaxter were both present, pro- 
fessionally, at the amputation referred to ; but we get no informa- 
tion from the account rendered as to how much was charged per 
visit in surgical operations, as at that time other subjects of the 
town were under a physician's care, and for the payment of these 
services the town was responsible. Ordinarily, the charges of 
these physicians was one shilling per visit. 

Many years ago a venerable gentleman of this town said to 
the writer : " It was an agreeable picture to see Dr. Tom Thaxter 
and his son Robert riding along together horseback, each occu- 
pying opposite sides of the road, with their saddle-bags, to visit 
the sick. Usually they were very jolly, laughing and joking to- 
gether like school-boys. Occasionally, when Dr. Tom was alone,, 
he rode in a square-topped chaise which had wooden springs." 

The wages for a nurse, in ordinary cases, at the commencement 
of the present century, were seventy-five cents per week. 

Dr. William Gordon, who came here about the time Dr. Robert 
Thaxter removed to Dorchester, was a very popular young man. 
At first he rode in a sulky when visiting his patients. His 
charges then were fifty cents per visit, but before removing to 
Boston his price was raised to one dollar. 

Isaiah Cushing, s. of Major Isaiah (Vol. II. p. 163 : 36), studied 
medicine with Dr. Thomas Thaxter, and settled in the State of 
Maine. He died in 1819, set. 42 years. 

The life of a physician is one of incessant anxiety and toil. 
It does not have the freedom and liberty which is enjoyed in other 
pursuits, nor, in a pecuniary point of view, do statistics show that 
it brings to a majority in the profession great wealth. It has 
been to the writer, however, a pleasant task to recall the virtues 
of those who have engaged here in this calling ; to know that 
their lives have been given to the relief of sickness and distress, 
and to feel assured that such services in our midst have met the 
approval of this community. 



NATIVE AND RESIDENT LAWYERS. 

BY FRANCIS H. LINCOLN. 



In the following sketches the attempt has been made to include 
air those lawyers who have practised their profession in Hingham, 
whether native or resident, and also those natives who went from 
here to other places. It has been necessary to confine the notices 
for the most part to facts, but it is a record of men of ability, and 
did space permit, there would be ample opportunity to enlarge up- 
on their worth as members of an honorable profession. 

John A. Andrew [II. 10] was born in Windham, Maine, May 31, 
1818. His early education was in the public schools, and he was 
fitted for college at the Bridgton (Me.) Academy, which he entered 
in 1831. He is described while in the Academy as "a well behaved 
boy, and a general favorite with the village people. He had a kind- 
ly heart, but an indomitable will, which firmly contended against 
wrong and oppression." He was graduated at Bowdoin College in 
1837, and in the same year he entered the law-office of Henry W. 
Fuller, Esq., of Boston. For more than twenty years afterwards 
he practised law in Boston, without interruption to the regular 
duties of his profession. In December, 1848, he was married to 
Eliza Jones Hersey, of Hingham, and from that date his home was 
for a great part of the time at Hingham. While living here he 
was nominated for State senator, but defeated. In 1860 he was a 
delegate to the National Republican Convention at Chicago, when 
Abraham Lincoln was first nominated for the presidency. In the 
same year Mr. Andrew was elected governor of Massachusetts, and 
filled that office for the five years from 1861 to 1865, during the 
stormy period of the War of the Rebellion. After the close of the 
war he resumed the practice of his profession in Boston. He died 
in Boston Oct. 30, 1867. 

There is no need to recount at length in this connection the 
marvellous capacity of the great " War Governor" for the exigen- 
cy which brought forth his powers. That is a part of the military 
history of the time. Nor need his anti-slavery sentiments through 
life be more than alluded to. It is with satisfaction that we re- 
member that he lies buried in one of our cemeteries, in accordance 
with his expressed desire, and that his statue stands there to 
remind the young and old of his nobility of character and his 
unswerving loyalty to principle. 



328 History of Hingham. 

John F. Andrew [II. 10], the son of Hon. John A. Andrew, was 
born in Hingham Nov. 26, 1850. His early education was ob- 
tained in Boston, and he was graduated from Harvard College in 
1872. He studied law in the Harvard Law School, and received 
the degree of LL.B. in 1875, after which he continued his legal 
studies in the office of Brooks, Ball, and Storey, in Boston, and was 
admitted to the bar of Suffolk County in 1875. Mr. Andrew was 
representative to the General Court from the Ninth Suffolk Dis- 
trict in 1880, 1881, and 1882, and was State senator in 1884. He 
was a delegate to the National Republican Convention at Chicago in 
1881, and during the presidential campaign of that year was pres- 
ident of the Young Men's Republican and Independent Organiza- 
tion of the city of Boston. He was Democratic candidate for 
governor of Massachusetts in 1886, and was a member of the 51st 
and 52d Congresses, being first elected in 1888. He is a member 
of the New England Historic-Genealogical Society. 

Shearjashub Bourne was the first person who practised law in 
Hingham. He came from Barnstable, and was here for a few 
years, probably between 1794 and 1800. His office was in a build- 
ing on the northeast side of Broad Bridge, where the railroad 
track now is. He afterwards removed to Boston, and was a prac- 
tisine: lawyer there until his death. 

Walter L. Bouve [II. 89], the son of Thomas T. and Emily G. 
(Lincoln ) Bouve - , was born in Boston, Oct. 28, 1849. His educa- 
tion was obtained at schools in Hingham and Boston, and at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he was fitted for the 
profession of a civil engineer. From 1868 to 1870 he was engaged 
in Illinois as division engineer of the Toledo, Wabash, and West- 
ern Railroad, and in other railroad surveys. He was also engaged 
in engineering in Massachusetts and Rhode Island from 1870 to 
1872. He subsequently studied law at the Harvard Law School, 
where he was graduated in 1879. He was admitted to the bar 
Nov. 13, 1880, and began practice with offices in Boston and 
Hingham. He was appointed special justice of the Second Dis- 
trict Court of Plymouth County April 1, 1885, and assistant 
district attorney for the Southeastern District of Massachusetts 
in February, 1890. He was commissioned first lieutenant in the 
First Corps of Cadets, M. V. M., in February, 1889. 

Joseph O. Burdett [II. 99] was born in South Reading (since 
Wakefield), Mass., Oct. 30, 1848. His early education was obtained 
in the public schools of his native town, and he was graduated at 
Tufts College in 1871. He was supported and educated by his 
own earnings from the age of twelve years. He taught school at 
intervals while in college, and during the winter of 1868-69 he 
taught the Centre Grammar School in Hingham. After gradua - 
tion he studied law with John W. Hammond, Esq. (afterwards 
Judge Hammond of the Superior Court), of Cambridge, and in 
the Harvard Law School. He was admitted to the bar in Middle- 
sex County April 19, 1873, and practised law one year with Mr. 
Hammond. Since that time he has been in practice by himself, 



Native and Resident Lawyers. 329 

with offices in Hingham and Boston. He was elected a member 
of the school committee of Hingham in 1876, and chairman of the 
board in 1880, which office he has held to the present time (1893). 
He was representative to the General Court from the First Ply- 
mouth District in 1884 and 1885, chairman of the Republican 
State Committee in 1889, and has been re-elected to the same 
office in 1890 and in 1891. 

Thomas H. Buttimer [II. 113] was born in Hingham, March 
17, 1868. His early education was in the Hingham public 
schools. He was fitted for college in the Hingham High School, 
and after the full course of four years he was graduated at Harvard 
College in 1890. He studied law in the office of Child & Powers, 
Boston, and at the Boston University Law School, where he received 
the degree of LL.B. in 1892. He was admitted to the bar July 26, 
1892, and - practises his profession with offices in Boston and 
Hingham. 

Abel Gushing [II. 161], the son of Abel Cushing, was born in 
Hingham March 13, 1785. He taught school in Hingham in 1805 
and in later years. He was graduated at Brown University in 
1810, and studied law with Hon. Ebenezer Gay, in Hingham, after- 
wards removing to Dorchester, where he practised his profession. 
He was representative to the General Court from Dorchester for 
three years, and also a senator from Norfolk County. He was 
appointed a justice of the Police Court in Boston, which office he 
held until a short time before his death. He died in Dorchester 
May 19, 1866. 

Ebenezer Gay [II. 266] was the son of Martin and Ruth (At- 
kins) Gay, and was baptized in Boston Feb. 24, 1771. He was 
the grandson of Rev. Ebenezer Gay, D. D., so long the minister 
of the First Parish in Hingham. Mr. Gay was fitted for college at 
the Boston Latin School, and was graduated at Harvard College 
in 1789. He studied law in the office of Christopher Gore, who 
was an eminent statesman of that day, and afterwards governor 
of Massachusetts. He was admitted to practice at the Court of 
Common Pleas in 1793, in the County of Suffolk, opened an office 
in Scollay's Building, where he soon acquired a lucrative prac- 
tice in a day of small fees. Attracted by early associations he 
removed to Hingham in 1805, where he opened an office, con- 
tinuing his office in Boston also for some time after he came 
here. After the death of his father, in 1809, he gave up his Bos- 
ton office. Soon after coming to Hingham he was offered by Gov- 
ernor Gore the appointment of judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas, but declined it, and he continued the practice of his pro- 
fession here until his death, which occurred Feb. 11, 1842. He 
was State senator for two successive years, president of the 
Hingham Bank from its establishment in 1833 until his death, 
and filled other important offices of trust. His counsel and pro- 
fessional services were much sought by the people of Hingham 
and other neighboring towns, and his practice was large. Deeds 
and other instruments in his handwriting are familiar sights to all 



330 History of Hingham. 

whose researches lead them to examine transactions here in the 
earlier years of this century. Many young men studied law in his 
office, — among them Abner Loring, Abel dishing, Jerome Lor- 
ing, John Thaxter, Jacob H. Loud, Solomon Lincoln, Benjamin B. 
Fessenden, James H. Wilder, James L. Baker, and Ebenezer Gay, 
Jr. Mr. Gay was a man of decided opinions, fearless in express- 
ing them, and commanded the respect of his clients for his pro- 
fessional abilities. 

" He was of that valuable class of the profession who, without 
possessing the rare gift of eloquence, or the more common talent 
for the conflicts of the bar, are yet able, by their learning and in- 
tegrity, to pay the debt which every lawyer justly owes to his 
profession. His clients, and among them many widows and or- 
phans who resorted to him for advice, always found in him a 
friend as well as a counsellor. Through life Mr. Gay exhibited a 
unity of character, which was always marked with usefulness, 
without ostentation or display. In politics he belonged to the old 
Federal school, claiming Washington for their model and leader." 

Ebenezer Gay [II. 266], the son of Ebenezer and Mary Allyne 
(Otis) Gay, was born in Hingham March 27, 1818. He was a 
pupil at Derby Academy in early life, and studied law in the office 
of his father in Hingham, and at the Harvard Law School, where 
he received the degree of LL.B. in 1841. He began practice in 
Hingham, and later opened an office also in Boston. He was a 
member of the school committee of Hingham, a trustee of Derby 
Academy, a director in the Hingham Bank, and State senator 
in 1862. For several years he has held a position in the Suffolk 
Registry of Probate. 

John Gilman [II. 275] was born in Hingham, England, and 
was the son of Edward Gilman, who came here from Hingham, in 
England, in 1638. This family afterwards settled in Exeter. 
John Gilman probably went to Exeter before 1650, as the earliest 
mention of his name noticed upon the town records there is an 
order " by the freemen and some others chosen for ordering the 
affairs of the town," dated June 19, 1650, signed by him and five 
others. Nov. 9, 1652, he was again chosen one of the selectmen, 
and in October, 1653, one of a committee " to carry on the meeting- 
house." He was elected " townsman " for many years between 
1654 and 1678, and probably afterwards. He was commissioner for 
small causes in 1665, 1666, and 1668. He held many other offices, 
and was evidently one of the prominent citizens of the place, often 
chosen or appointed to positions of trust. In 1678 and 1679 he 
was elected one of the associate judges of the County Court of 
the old County of Norfolk. He was named, in President Cutt's 
Commission in 1679, one of the Council of the Province, and also 
in Gov. Cranfield's Commission in 1682, and was appointed one of 
the justices of the Court of Pleas. In 1683, being obnoxious to 
Gov. Cranfield, he was removed from the Council. 

Upon the establishment of the new Provincial government in 
New Hampshire in 1692, Capt. Gilman was elected a delegate to 



Native and Resident Lawyers. 331 

the Assembly, and was speaker of the House, and in 1697 he was 
again a delegate. He died July 24, 1708. 

Henry Edson Hersey [II. 321] was born in Hingham May 
28, 1830, and was the son of Capt. Stephen and Maria (Lincoln) 
Hersey. He gave early indications of a scholarly taste, and 
after going through the customary course of instruction in the 
public schools of Hingham, he was fitted for college at the Derby 
Academy under the charge of Mr. Luther B. Lincoln. He entered 
the sophomore class of Harvard College in 1847, and was gradu- 
ated in 1850. His college rank was very high, and at Com- 
mencement the salutatory oration was assigned to him. After 
leaving college he was a private tutor in Charlestown, N. H., study- 
ing law at the same time in the office of Hon. Edmund L. 
Cushing. His professional studies were afterwards continued 
in Boston in the offices of Hon. Peleg W. Chandler and Judge 
John P. Putnam. He was admitted to the Suffolk Bar in Sep- 
tember, 1854, and at once entered upon the practice of his pro- 
fession, having offices in Boston and Hingham. He was a mem- 
ber of the school committee of Hingham, one of the trustees of 
Derby Academy, and for several years superintendent of the First 
Parish Sunday-school. 

In the fall of 1861, when he was just entering upon what 
promised to be a successful practice, his health began to fail. He 
sought relief in Spain and the south of France, but after a few 
months' absence he returned to Hingham, his health not being 
materially improved. He subsequently spent a few months in 
New Hampshire, but the slow wasting of consumption continued 
to exhaust his vital energies, and after returning again to Hing- 
ham, he died Feb. 24, 1863. 

" He was gentle, quiet, modest, and unobtrusive, yet very social 
and genial in his nature. He was refined in his tastes, diligent 
and methodical in his habits, and upright in all his dealings. 
Strictly conscientious, he aimed, in all the relations of life, to act 
according to his convictions of duty and right. In everything he 
undertook he was industrious, painstaking, faithful, — and he 
met with that success, that approval and respect, which industry 
and fidelity will always command. His was a turn of mind 
eminently calculated to inspire confidence ; his manners and 
habitual deportment were such as would commend any one to 
favorable regard ; and his prevailing spirit was of a cast in which 
men feel that reliance may be placed. He was discriminating, 
careful, patient, calm, conciliating, and even-tempered, — qualifica- 
tions so essential to one who is to act as an adviser and administra- 
tor in the affairs of others, sure to be appreciated, and ultimately 
meet their reward." 

Sewall Henry Hooper [II. 352], son of John S. and Maria L. 
(Barnes) Hooper, was born in Boston, July 29, 1853. His early 
education was obtained in private schools in Boston, and he was 
graduated at Harvard College in 1875. He studied law at the Har- 
vard Law School and in the office of Brooks, Ball, and Storey, and 



332 History of Hmgham. 

was admitted to the bar in Suffolk County, Oct. 15, 1880, soon 
after which he opened an office in Boston. He is a citizen of 
Hingham, where he has his residence during a large portion of the 
year. 

Arthur Lincoln [II. 474] , the son of Solomon and Mehitable 
(Lincoln) Lincoln, was born in Hingham, Feb. 16, 1842. He at- 
tended private and public schools in Hingham, the Derby Acade- 
my, and was fitted for college by his cousin, Henry Edson Hersey, 
Esq., in Hingham. He was graduated at Harvard College in 1863, 
and at the Harvard Law -School in 1865. Jan. 1, 1866, he entered 
the law office of Lothrop and Bishop, Boston, having been ad- 
mitted to the bar June 16, 1865. In January, 1867, he opened an 
office in Boston, and remained by himself until Nov. 23, 1867, 
when he became a partner with Lothrop and Bishop, the firm 
name being Lothrop, Bishop, and Lincoln. He continued a mem- 
ber of this firm until its dissolution in 1879, and since that time 
he has been in practice by himself, in Boston. 

He delivered the Address on Memorial Day in Hingham, in 
1876. 

He was representative to the General Court, from the First 
Plymouth District in 1879 and 1880. 

July 30, 1877, he was commissioned judge-advocate, with the 
rank of captain, on the staff of Brigadier-General Eben Sutton, 
commanding the Second Brigade, M. V. M., and March 3, 1882, 
resigned and was discharged. 

He has been a manager, secretary, and treasurer of the Boston 
Dispensary ; treasurer of the Industrial School for Girls at Dor- 
chester ; clerk and treasurer of the Proprietors of the Social Law 
Library in Boston ; trustee of the Derby Academy ; trustee and 
president of the Hingham Public Library ; trustee of the Massa- 
chusetts State Library ; director of the Hingham Mutual Fire In- 
surance Company ; and director and secretary of the Alumni 
Association of Harvard College. 

Benjamin Lincoln [III. 10], son of General Benjamin Lin- 
coln, was born in Hingham, Nov. 1, 1756, and was graduated at 
Harvard College in 1777. He held a distinguished position in a 
class containing many men of more than average ability. He 
studied law with Lieut.-Gov. Levi Lincoln, at Worcester, and com- 
menced practice in Boston. He acquired an honorable reputation 
at the bar, but the hopes of later distinction which were enter- 
tained from his promising beginning were destroyed by his death, 
at the early age of thirty-two, in 1788. 

Jotham Lincoln [II. 456], the son of Jotham and Meriel 
(Hobart) Lincoln, was born in Hingham, Nov. 7, 1815. He was 
educated in the public schools of Hingham, and the Derby Acad- 
emy, under the preceptorship of Mr. Increase S. Smith. Subse- 
quently he attended the private school of Mr. Luther B. Lincoln, 
and entered the sophomore class of Brown University in 1833, 
and was graduated in 1836. He studied law in the office of Hon. 
Solomon Lincoln, in Hingham, and was admitted to the bar in 



Native and Resident Lawyers. 333 

1839. He spent some time in teaching, and in 1841, when Hon. 
Solomon Lincoln was appointed United States marshal, he suc- 
ceeded to his law office in Hingham. In 1847 he was elected 
a representative to the General Court. After the adjournment 
of the General Court his bodily health was impaired and his mind 
diseased. On his recovery he went to Colorado, having a brother 
in Denver. He located upon a claim which he had taken up about 
forty miles from Denver, under the shadow of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. On Sept. 4, 1868, Mr. Lincoln was binding oats in his 
field, with another man, when three Indians appeared. His man 
ran for the house, but Mr. Lincoln would not run. The Indians 
broke down the fence and rode up to him. One of them attacked 
him with a sabre and the other two fired upon him, killing him 
instantly. 

Levi Lincoln [II. 466] was the son of Enoch and Rachel 
(Fearing) Lincoln, and was born in Hingham, May 15, 1749. His 
father was a farmer and a man of decided opinions, frequently 
appointed on important committees of the town during the Revo- 
lution, and a representative to the General Court. He was a man 
of limited means, and not wishing to give to one of his children 
advantages he could not offer to all, he placed his son Levi, at the 
usual age, as an apprentice to an ironsmith. The son soon 
manifested a love of literary pursuits, and devoted much of his time 
to the study of Greek and Latin, in which he was assisted by Mr. 
Joseph Lewis; a teacher for many years in Hingham, and also by 
Dr. Gay, his minister. With his fondness for books it is not 
strange that he soon acquired a distaste for his occupation. " His 
books were his companions day and night. He generally ap- 
peared as if in deep thought, and by some was considered reserved 
and distant in his manners." 

He soon abandoned his trade, and after six months' preparation 
he entered Harvard College, where he was graduated in 1772. 
After graduation he studied law with Hawley, and commenced 
practice in Worcester, Mass., in 1775. He rapidly rose to a dis- 
tinguished position at the bar, and was the acknowledged head of 
his profession in Worcester County. 

He was appointed clerk of the Court of Common Pleas in 1775, 
and in 1776, judge of probate for Worcester County. In 1781 he 
was elected a delegate to Congress under the Confederation, and in 
1787 he was re-appointed a delegate, but declined the office. In 
1797 he was State senator, and in 1800 he was chosen to repre- 
sent the Worcester district in Congress. He took his seat March 
4, 1801, and the next day was appointed, by President Jefferson, 
attorney-general of the United States. He resigned in 1805. 
He discharged the duties of secretary of state, under President 
Jefferson, until the arrival of Mr. Madison in Washington. He 
had the affection and esteem of Mr. Jefferson in a great degree,, 
and received from him a warm tribute to his character and abili- 
ties on leaving the Cabinet. In 1807 Mr. Lincoln was elected 



334 History of Hingham. 

lieut.-governor of Massachusetts, and re-elected in 1808, when, 
in consequence of Governor Sullivan's death, he became acting- 
governor. In 1810 he was elected a member of the Executive 
Council of this Commonwealth, and in 1811 he was appointed an 
associate-justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, 
which office he declined, and soon after retired to private life. 

" He was learned in his profession, and in his addresses to a 
jury, eloquent, and sometimes irresistible. As a statesman he 
was fearless and independent, and obtained respect by his energy 
and decision of character, and not by the practice of any arts to 
secure popular favor and public admiration." 

He died April 14, 1820, and in a review of his character and 
services a few days after his death was the following : — 

" Few of our lawyers and divines are acquainted with the fact that the 
arbitrary encroachments of the Royalist clergymen, in 1776, were first suc- 
cessfully resisted here (Worcester), and that too by Mr. Lincoln, — that it 
probably was his exertions that first defined and settled the often conflict- 
ing interests of minister, church, and parish. How few of our rising politi- 
cians have been taught that the first practical comment on the introductory 
clause of the Bill of Rights was first given by a Worcester jury, — that it 
was here first shown, by the irresistible eloquence of Lincoln, that ' all men 
were in truth born free and equal,' and that a court sitting under the au- 
thority of our Constitution, could not admit as a justification for an assault, 
the principle of master and slave, — that it was the memorable verdict 
obtained upon this trial which first broke the fetters of negro slavery in 
Massachusetts and let the oppressed free ! This deed of Judge Lincoln, 
even if it stood alone, ought to consecrate his memory with every freeman." 

Solomon Lincoln [II. 474], the son of Solomon and Lydia 
(Bates) Lincoln, was born in Hingham, Feb. 28, 1804. After 
attending private and public schools in Hingham, he was admitted 
to Derby Academy, Nov. 2, 1813, of which Rev. Daniel Kimball 
was preceptor. In April, 1819, he left the Academy to pursue a 
course of classical studies under the tuition of Rev. Joseph Rich- 
ardson, of Hingham, and in September following, when but 
fifteen years old, he entered the sophomore class of Brown Uni- 
versity, and was graduated there in 1822. 

From Oct. 28, 1822, to Nov. 15, 1823, he taught private and pub- 
lic schools in Falmouth, Mass. From Nov. 21, 1823, to Nov. 18, 
1826, he studied law in the office of Hon. Ebenezer Gay, of Hing- 
ham. Nov. 21, 1826, he was admitted to practice as an attorney 
at the Court of Common Pleas, in Plymouth, Mass. Oct. 21, 
1829, he was admitted as an attorney at the Supreme Judicial 
Court, in Plymouth ; and Oct. 26, 1831, he was admitted as coun- 
sellor by the Supreme Judicial Court, in Plymouth. Under the 
laws then in force three years of study were required for admis- 
sion to practice in the Court of Common Pleas, two years of 
practice in that court as preliminary to practice in the Supreme 
Judicial Court, and two years more of practice before admission 
as a counsellor-at-law. 



Native and Resident Lawyers. 335 

He continued in practice as a lawyer in Hingham, with some 
interruptions, until 1853. 

He was elected a member of the Massachusetts House of Repre- 
sentatives in 1829, and again in 1830, but in the latter year occu- 
pied his seat for a few days only, having been elected to the 
Massachusetts Senate in the session of that year, by the Legisla- 
ture, there being no choice by the people. He was also elected to 
the Senate in 1831, and served through the short session, after 
which he declined being a candidate. He was also elected rep- 
resentative in 1840. 

In December, 1840, he was appointed messenger to carry to 
Washington the electoral vote of Massachusetts for William 
Henry Harrison. 

March 10, 1841, he was appointed by President Harrison mar- 
shal for the District of Massachusetts and entered upon the duties 
of that office March 18, 1841, serving until December, 1844. 

He was a master in chancery for the County of Plymouth, 
which office he resigned March 10, 1843. 

Oct. 2, 1849, he was appointed by Governor Briggs bank-com- 
missioner, — George S. Boutwell and Joseph S. Cabot being the 
other commissioners appointed. May 14, 1851, the board having 
been established on a new basis, Governor Boutwell appointed as 
bank-commissioners Solomon Lincoln for one year, Peter T. 
Homer for two years, and Samuel Phillips for three years, and in 
1852, Mr. Lincoln was re-appointed for three years. He resigned 
in 1853, on his election to the office of cashier of the Webster 
Bank in Boston, after which he gave up the active practice of the 
law. He continued as cashier of the Webster Bank until 1869, 
when he was elected its president, which office he held until his 
resignation in January, 1876, and retirement from active business. 

Among the numerous offices which he held and societies of 
which he was a member were the following : — 

Director of the Hingham Mutual Fire Insurance Company, 1833-1864. 
President of the same, 1846-1864. 

President of the Trustees of the Hingham Public Library, 1869-1874. 
" " Hingham Cemetery for many years, resigning in 1881. 
" " Trustees of Loring Hall, 1852-1881. 
Vice-President of the Hingham Agricultural and Horticultural Society, 

1858-1875, and President, 1875. 
Trustee of Thayer Academy (Braintree) 1872-1881. 
Member of the American Antiquarian Society. 

" " New England Historic- Genealogical Society. 

" " Massachusetts Historical Society. 

" Bunker Hill Monument Association. 
Corresponding Member of the Essex Institute, 1857-1881. 
Member of Old Colony Lodge of Freemasons, 1827. 
Clerk of the First Parish in Hingham, 1829-1834. 
Member of the School Committee of Hingham. 

He was nominated for Representative to Congress, but declined the 
nomination. 



336 History of Hingham. 

His interest in all matters relating to the history of his native 
town was very great, and at the early age of twenty-three he 
wrote and published the " History of Hingham." This is the only 
history of the town which has heretofore been published. The 
book, although small, contains much valuable information, and is 
a monument of careful research and accuracy. It was published 
in 1827. A list of Mr. Lincoln's published writings and addresses 
appears in the chapter on " Publications," but the following con- 
tains also many of his writings not published : — 

1826, March 4. Address before the Jefferson Debating Society, Hingham. 

1826, July 4. Oration before the Citizens of Hingham. 

1827. History of Hingham. 

1829, Nov. 24. Address at the Dedication of the Schoolhouse in the 

Middle Ward, Hingham. 

1830. Historical Sketch of Nantasket. 

1830, July 18. Address before the Sunday School of the First Parish, 

Hingham. 
1832, Feb. 22. Oration before the Young Men of Plymouth, Mass., on 

the Centennial Anniversary of the birth of George Washington. 

1832, March 8. Lecture on " Fisheries " in the House of Representatives, 

Boston. [Repeated before the Boston Society of Natural History, 
Dec. 11, 1832.] 

1833, March 20. Lecture in Hingham, "The Mutual Connection and De- 

pendence of the Various Pursuits of Human Life." [Repeated at 

South Hingham, Jan. 14, 1834.] 
1833, Nov. 10. Address before the Sunday School of the First Parish, 

Hingham. 
1835, July 4. Oration before the Citizens of Quincy, Mass. 
1835, Sept. 1. Address before the Philermenian Society, Brown Univer- 
sity. 
1835, Sept 28. Address at the 200th Anniversary of the Settlement of 

Hingham. 
183—. Address before the Plymouth County Agricultural Society. 
1846, Sept. 16. Address before the Phi Beta Kappa Society, Brown 

University. 
1865. Notes on the Lincoln Families of Massachusetts. 
1867, Sept. 25. Address at the Dedication of the Hall of the Hingham 

Agricultural and Horticultural Society. 
1870, June 17. Address at the Dedication of the Soldiers' Monument, 

Hingham. 
1880. Memoir of Rev. Charles Brooks. 

Mr. Lincoln always lived in Hingham, where he died Dec. 1, 
1881. 

Solomon Lincoln [IT. 474], the son of Solomon and Mehitable 
(Lincoln) Lincoln was born in Hingham, Aug. 14, 1838. After 
attending private schools in Hingham and the Derby Academy, he 
was fitted for college at the private school of Mr. David B. Tower, 
in Boston, under the tuition of Mr. Ephraim W. Gurney, subse- 
quently a professor and member of the Corporation of Harvard 
College. He entered the sophomore class of Harvard College in 
1854 and was graduated in 1857. 



Native and Resident Lawyers. 337 

In February, 1858, he was appointed a tutor in Harvard College. 
This position he occupied until July, 1863, having been first a 
tutor in Greek and Latin, then in Greek, and finally in Mathe- 
matics. During the last year of his tutorship he attended the 
Harvard Law School, and received the degree of LL.B. in 1864. 

Jan. 26, 1864, he entered the law office of Stephen B. Ives, Jr., 
in Salem, Mass. He was admitted to the bar Oct. 20, 1864, and 
remained in Mr. Ives's office until July, 1865, when he was re- 
ceived by that gentleman as his partner. 

The firm of Ives and Lincoln was engaged in business in Salem 
until Jan. 1, 1867. At that time they opened an office in Boston 
and continued practice in both places until Feb. 1, 1882, when the 
firm was dissolved. Mr. George L. Huntress was a partner dur- 
ing the last four years, the firm name being Ives, Lincoln, and 
Huntress. 

Until 1881 Mr. Lincoln's residence was in Salem. Since that 
time he has been a resident of Boston. "While in Salem he was 
a member of the School Committee. 

Mr. Lincoln was aide-de-camp to Governor Talbot, with the 
rank of colonel, in 1874, and aid and chief of staff to the same in 
1879. He was an overseer of Harvard College from 1882 to 1889 ; 
re-elected in 1890, and since 1890 president of the board. 

In 1879 he was appointed by Governor Talbot a commissioner 
to represent Massachusetts at a meeting of the governors of the 
original thirteen States, at Yorktown, Va. In 1881 he attended 
the Centennial Celebration at Yorktown, Va., as commissioner, in 
the suite of Governor Long, who was also one of his college class- 
mates. 

He delivered an address at the celebration of the 250th anni- 
versary of the settlement of Hingham, Sept. 15, 1885. 

He is a member of the Massachusetts Historical Society, the 
American Antiquarian Society, and a trustee of Derby Academy. 

Henry M. Lisle [III. 22] studied law in the office of Shearjashub 
Bourne, in Hingham, and remained here after Mr. Bourne removed 
to Boston, practising law for five or sis years, and then removed 
to Milton, and finally to Boston. But little is known of him, and 
there is a tradition that he went to the West Indies. He delivered 
an oration before the inhabitants of Hingham on the death of 
Washington, Feb. 22, 1800. His office was at first in Mr. Bourne's 
old office, on the northeast side of Broad Bridge, and afterwards in 
Loring's building, on the opposite side. 

John D. Long [III. 25], the son of Zadoc and Julia Temple 
(Davis) Long, was born in Buckfield, Me., Oct. 27, 1838. His 
early education was in the common schools of his native town, 
and at Hebron (Maine) Academy, where he fitted for college. 

He was graduated at Harvard College in 1857, with high rank, 
in a class containing more than the usual number of good scholars. 
After graduating he was principal of the Westford (Mass.) Acad- 
emy for two years. He has since been a trustee of that academy, 
and president of the board of trustees. 

vol. i. — 22* 



338 History of Hingham. 

In the fall of 1859 he entered the law office of Sidney Bartlett, 
Esq., in Boston. In the fall of 1860 he entered the Harvard Law 
School, and remained there until May, 1861. Returning to Maine, 
he studied law in Buckfield. During that year for a short time 
he occupied the position of usher in the Boston Latin School. 
In the spring of 1862 he opened a law office in Buckfield, Me. In 
the fall of that year he came to Boston and spent the winter in the 
offices of Peleg W. Chandler and Charles Levi Woodbury. In 
May, 1863, he went into the office of Stillman B. Allen, Esq., and 
in 1867 became his partner, the firm name being Allen and Long. 
This partnership with Mr. Allen continued until Mr. Long be- 
came lieut.-governor in 1879. In the summers of 1867 and 1868 
he lived in Hingham, and in 1869 he made Hingham his perma- 
nent residence. He has been a member of the School Committee, 
a trustee of Derby Academy, and of the Hingham Public Library. 

He was representative to the General Court from the First 
Plymouth District in 1875, 1876, 1877, and 1878, and during the 
last three of those years was speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives. He was lieut.-governor of Massachusetts in 1879, and 
governor in 1880, 1881, and 1882. He represented the Second 
Massachusetts Congressional District in the 48th, 49th, and 50th 
Congresses, being first elected in 1882. 

He is a member of numerous societies and clubs, including the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the New England His- 
toric-Genealogical Society, and many others. 

He received the degree of LL.D. from Harvard University in 
1880. His publications are enumerated in the chapter on " Pub- 
lications." His pen has never been idle, and a list of all his 
numerous orations and addresses would of itself fill a volume. 
Mr. Long's public life and services are too well known to need 
any eulogium in this history. In 1889 he resumed the practice 
of his profession in Boston, returning to an association with his 
former partners, under the firm name of Allen, Long, and 
Hemenway. 

Abner Loring [III. 36], son of Peter Loring, was born in Hing- 
ham July 21, 1786, and was graduated at Harvard College in 
1807. He studied law in the office of Hon. Ebenezer Gay in 
Hingham, and commenced practice in Dorchester, Mass. Mr. 
Loring was possessed of an unexceptionable character for fairness 
and integrity. The hopes of his becoming distinguished in his 
profession were cut off by his early death, July 18, 1814. His 
death occurred " when his diligence in the pursuit of knowledge 
and his integrity and skill in his professional duties had gained 
universal respect and confidence, and opened the fairest prospect 
of an honorable and lucrative establishment " in his profession. 

Jacob H. Loud [III. 42] was born in Hingham, Feb. 5, 1802, 
and was the son of Thomas and Lydia (Hersey) Loud. He fitted 
for college at the Derby Academy under Rev. Daniel Kimball. 
He entered Brown University in 1818, and was graduated in 
1822. He studied law in Hingham with Hon. Ebenezer Gay, 



Native and Resident Lawyers. 339 

and was admitted to the bar in 1825. He commenced practice 
in Plymouth, Mass., Sept. 1, 1825. June 7, 1830, he was ap- 
pointed register of probate, which office he held until 1852. He 
was State treasurer from 1853 to 1855, and from 1866 to 1871 ; 
representative from Plymouth in 1863, and State senator in 1864 
and 1865 ; president of Old Colony Bank, Plymouth, 1855-1865 ; 
president of the Plymouth Savings Bank, 1872-1880 ; director of 
the Old Colony Railroad Company ; actuary of the New England 
Trust Company, Boston, 1870-1879. He delivered an oration in 
Hingham, July 4, 1823. He died in Boston Feb. 2, 1880. Mr. 
Loud was uniformly courteous in manner, a kind-hearted counsel- 
lor, a faithful custodian of private trusts, and a man of rectitude, 
industry, and conscientious fidelity in all the positions in which he 
was placed. 

John Otis [III. 102] was born in Hingham in 1657. He moved 
to Barnstable in 1686, where he died Sept. 23, 1727. He was 
a distinguished lawyer, for eighteen years a colonel of militia, 
twenty years representative, twenty-one years a member of the 
Council, and for thirteen years chief justice of the Court of 
Common Pleas and judge of probate. 

He was the father of James Otis, and grandfather of James 
Otis " the patriot," both well known in connection with the his- 
tory of the country. 

Benjamin Pratt [III. 116], son of Aaron Pratt, was born 
March 13, 1710-11, in that part of Hingham now included with- 
in the limits of Cohasset. He was graduated at Harvard College 
in 1737. He studied law with Auchmuty or Gridley, or both, and 
commenced practice in Boston. For several years he was one of 
the Boston representatives in the General Court, and was fearless 
and independent in support of those measures he thought to be 
just. He was a man of strong intellect and decided traits of 
character, qualities which made him conspicuous at the bar. He 
gained the friendship of Governor Pownal, and by his influence 
was appointed chief justice of the Supreme Court of New York. 
On the occasion of his separation from the Suffolk Bar, the mem- 
bers sent him an address, which spoke in affectionate terms of his 
worth as a man and a lawyer. 

Chief Justice Pratt hoped to spend the closing years of his life 
in New England, for he was possessed of all the pride of being 
a New England man, but death came to him ere he realized this 
fond anticipation. He died in New York Jan. 5, 1763. 

His talents were unquestioned. He was a man of great learn- 
ing, and wrote much in prose and poetry in a classical and schol- 
arly style. He made an extensive collection of rare documents 
relating to the history of New England, and hoped to write its 
history, but that hope he did not live to see fulfilled. 

Edward B. Pratt, son of Samuel L. and Mary L. (Bigley) 
Pratt, was born in Boston, Dec. 22, 1866. The family moved to 
Hingham in 1879. He attended the public schools, and was fitted 
for college in the Hingham High School ; took the full course of 



340 History of Hingham. 

four years at Harvard College, where he was graduated in 1888 ;, 
studied law in the office of Richardson & Hale, Boston, and at the 
Boston University Law School, where he received the degree of 
LL.B. in 1891 ; was admitted to the bar Jan. 17, 1891, and has 
offices in Hingham and Boston. 

David Thaxter [III. 237] was the son of Joseph B. and Sally 
(Gill) Thaxter, and was born in Hingham March 24, 1824. He 
was educated in the schools of this town, and learned the trade of 
a silversmith in his father's shop ; but pursued his studies, partly 
under the tuition of Preceptor Luther B. Lincoln, and afterwards 
at the Harvard Law School. He obtained his legal education by 
his own exertions, and with the aid of his brothers, and entered 
the office of Sidney Bartlett, Esq., the eminent lawyer of Boston. 
His office was in connection with Mr. Bartlett's during his entire 
professional career, until his death, which occurred June 10, 1878. 
Mr. Thaxter never sought or held public office. His life was un- 
ostentatious and somewhat retired. His reading was extensive 
and varied, and he was a man of broad and liberal views. In pro- 
fessional ability and character he commanded the entire respect 
of the members of the bar, and had the confidence of his clients as 
a barrister of perfect integrity. 

John Thaxter [III. 233] was born in Hingham July 5, 1755, 
and was graduated at Harvard College in 1774. He studied law 
with (President) John Adams, in Braintree, and in 1776 was ap- 
pointed deputy secretary to Congress. Afterwards, in the absence 
of Mr. Thompson, he performed the duties of secretary. In 1779, 
when Mr. Adams was appointed minister to make a treaty of peace 
with Great Britain, Mr. Thaxter went with him to Europe, as his 
private secretary, and with Mr. Adams resided in France and Hol- 
land. His integrity and fidelity won for him the greatest confi- 
dence of Mr. Adams. After peace was confirmed in 1783, the 
commissioners sent him to America with the charge of presenting 
the definitive treaty to Congress. 

In 1784 he commenced the practice of law in Haverhill, Mass., 
where he died at an early age. 

" As a lawyer, Mr. Thaxter was eminently respected for those 
qualifications the want of which, in some of the profession, has 
brought a degree of odium upon the whole ' order.' A nervous 
system, too delicate by nature to withstand the imperious taunts of 
overbearing arrogance, and still more debilitated by disease, dis- 
appointed the expectations which his strong, manly style of senti- 
ment had created, and unhappily rendered him less useful as an 
advocate at the bar than as a counsellor in his chamber. But he 
was rich in the less glaring virtues, — honor, integrity, fidelity, 
and love of peace. These gained him the esteem and confidence 
of all." 

John Thaxter [III. 235] was the son of Quincy Thaxter, and 
was born in Hingham Nov. 4, 1793. He was graduated from Har- 
vard College in 1814, read law in the office of Hon. Ebenezer Gay, 
of Hingham, and settled in Scituate, where he died in 1825. 



NATIVE MINISTEES. 

BY FRANCIS H. LINCOLN. 



The following biographical sketches are of those natives of 
Hingham who became ministers and were settled in other places. 
The list is as complete as our records have enabled the writer 
to make it, and it is hoped no important omissions have been 
made. There are also sketches of a few who, though not born 
here, are sufficiently identified with the town to entitle them to no- 
tice. Ministers who have been settled here are noticed, in con- 
nection with their parishes, in the chapter on Ecclesiastical 
History. 

Jedidiah Andrews [II. 12], son of Thomas Andrews, was born 
in Hingham, July 7, 1674, and was graduated at Harvard College 
in 1695. He taught school in Hingham in 1697, and was or- 
dained in Philadelphia in the autumn of 1701. He appears to 
have performed a good deal of missionary labor in other places, as 
liis record of baptisms shows that he ministered in Hopewell, 
Gloucester, Burlington, Amboy, and Staten Island. He was the 
Recording Clerk of the Presbytery and of the Synod as long as he 
lived. He conducted most of their correspondence, especially 
with New England, and was considered to be particularly gifted 
in bringing to a successful termination any disputes, both in con- 
gregations and among individuals. He died, after a long ministry, 
in 1747. Benjamin Franklin speaks of him thus : — 

" Though I seldom attended any public worship, I had still an opinion 
of its propriety, and of its utility when rightly conducted, and I regularly 
paid my annual subscription for the support of the only Presbyterian minis- 
ter or meeting we had in Philadelphia. He used to visit me sometimes as a 
friend, and admonish me to attend his administrations ; and I was now and 
then prevailed on to do so, — once for five Sundays successively. Had he been 
in my opinion a good preacher, perhaps I might have continued, notwith- 
standing the occasion I had for the Sunday's leisure in my course of study ; 
but his discourses were chiefly either polemic arguments or explications of 
the peculiar doctrines of our sect, and were all to me very dry, uninterest- 
ing, and unedifying ; since not a single moral principle was inculcated or 
•enforced, — their aim seeming to be rather to make us Presbyterians than 



342 History of Hingham. 

good citizens. At length he took for his text that verse of the fourth 
chapter to the Philippians : ' Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are 
true, honest, just, pure, lovely, or of good report, if there be any virtue, 
or any praise, think on these things,' and I imagined, in a sermon on such a 
text, we could not miss of having some morality. But he confined him- 
self to five points only, as meant by the apostle : 1. Keeping holy the 
Sabbath Day ; 2. Being diligent in reading the holy Scriptures ; 3. At- 
tending duly the public worship ; 4. Partaking of the Sacrament ; 5. Pay- 
ing a due respect to God's ministers. These might be all good things ; 
but as they were not the kind of good things that I expected from that 
text, I despaired of ever meeting with them from any other, was disgusted,. 
and attended his preaching no more." 

John Andrews [II. 13] was the son of Joseph and Hannah 
(Richmond) Andrews, and was born in Hingham, March 3, 1764. 
When quite a lad he was apprenticed to a Mr. Fleet, a printer in 
Boston ; but his earnest desire to obtain a liberal education induced 
his father to consent to his leaving Mr. Fleet at the end of the sec- 
ond year of his apprenticeship. He was fitted for college with Dr. 
Howard, afterwards of Springfield, but at that time a teacher in 
Hingham. He was graduated from Harvard College in 1786, 
studied theology at Cambridge, and resided for two years in the 
family of Chief Justice Dana. He soon accepted a call to settle 
as colleague with the Rev. Thomas Cary over the First Church in 
Newburyport, and was ordained Dec. 10, 1788. Mr. Cary died 
Nov. 24, 1808, and Mr. Andrews retained the sole charge of the 
parish until May 1, 1830, when he resigned his office. 

After his resignation he preached occasionally to one or two 
societies in the vicinity of Newburyport. His death took place 
Aug. 17, 1845, in his eighty-second year. In 1824 he received the 
degree of S. T. D. from Harvard University. Dr. Andrews, in 
his opinions, would be classed among those known as Unitarians. 
He abhorred all exclusiveness, and owned no creed but the Bible. 
Until the close of his professional life he freely exchanged pulpit 
services with all the Congregational ministers in Newburyport 
and its vicinity. He seldom touched upon controverted subjects, 
preferring to confine himself to those of a more practical nature. 
He preached the Dudleian Lecture, and several of his occasional 
discourses were published. For fifty years he was a trustee of 
Dummer Academy and for half that time its faithful treasurer. 
He was one of the delegates in the convention for revising the 
constitution of Massachusetts. 

Nicholas Baker [II. 17] came to Hingham in 1635, and was 
one of those who had grants of house-lots in that year. He was 
a delegate to the General Court in 1636 and in 1638. He left 
Hingham at an early date, and after living in Hull for several 
years, was ordained as pastor of the church in Scituate, in 1660. 
He died Aug. 22, 1678. Cotton Mather, in his " Magnalia," speaks 
of him as " honest Nicholas Baker ; who, though he had but a 
private education, yet being a pious and zealous man, or, as Dr. 



Native Ministers. 343 

Arrowsmith expresses it, so good a logician that he could offer up 
to God a reasonable service ; so good an arithmetician that he 
could wisely number his days ; and so good an orator that he per- 
suaded himself to be a good Christian, and being also one of good 
natural parts, especially of a strong memory, was chosen pastor 
of the church there ; and in the pastoral charge of that church he 
continued about eighteen years." 

Samuel M. Beal [II. 75], the son of Samuel and Elizabeth 
(Souther) Beal, was born in Hingham Oct. 23, 1839. His educa- 
tion was obtained in the public schools of Hingham, Wilbraham 
Academy, and the theological department of Boston University. 
He became a Methodist minister, and has been stationed as fol- 
lows : — 

1870-72. North Bridgewater, West Church. 

1873-74. Fall River, Quarry Street. 

1875. Somerset. 

1876-78. Edgartown. 

1879-80. West Dennis. 

1881-82. Wellfleet. 

1883. Hebronville and Dodgeville. 

1884-86. Sandwich. 

1887. Westerly. 

1888-89. Nantucket. 

1890. Vineyard Haven. 

1891-92. Centralville, R. I. 

John A. Crowe [II. 148] was born in Hingham, Nov. 17, 1860. 
His early education was in the public schools of Hingham. He 
entered Boston College, an educational institution under the 
direction of the Fathers of the Society of Jesus, in February, 
1878, and was graduated therefrom in June, 1880. In the fol- 
lowing September he began his immediate preparation for the 
priesthood at St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, Md., where, after 
completing the course of prescribed study, he received the degree 
of Bachelor of Theology. He was ordained to the orders of 
deaconship and priesthood at St. Michael's Cathedral, Springfield, 
Mass., by the Rt. Rev. P. T. O'Reilly, Dec. 22, 1883. His first 
appointment was in connection with St. Jerome's Church, Holyoke, 
Mass., where he remained one year. In June, 1885, he was trans- 
ferred to Concord, Mass., where, in addition to assisting in paro- 
chial work, he is the Roman Catholic chaplain to the Massachusetts 
Reformatory. 

Jeremiah Cushing [II. 151], son of Daniel dishing, was born in 
Hingham July 3, 1654, and was graduated at Harvard College in 
1676. He was educated for the ministry, under Rev. Mr. Norton, 
of Hingham, but did not settle immediately over any parish. He 
received an invitation to settle in Haverhill in 1682, which he de- 
clined, but afterwards was invited to become the pastor of the First 
Church in Scituate, which invitation he accepted. He was or- 
dained May 27, 1691. All the church records of his time are 



344 History of Hingham. 

lost, and there is little material from which to form an estimate 
of his ministry. He was the pastor of the church in Scituate 
until his death, which occurred March 22, 1705. 

Job Cushing [II. 153], son of Matthew Cushing, was born in 
Hingham July 19, 1694, and graduated at Harvard College in 
1714. He was the first minister of Shrewsbury, Mass., where he 
was ordained Dec. 4, 1723. In 1731 a question arose respecting 
the expediency in church government of having ruling elders in 
the church. This and matters growing out of it engaged the at- 
tention of the church for ten years or more. Church meetings 
were frequent, and there was much correspondence between this 
church and that of Framingham. This disclosed a controversy 
between the churches of Framingham and Hopkinton. In all this 
Mr. Cushing necessarily took a prominent part. He died Aug. 6, 
1760. 

Jonathan Cushing [II. 152], the son of Peter and Hannah 
CHawke) Cushing, was born in Hingham Dec. 20, 1689. He was 
graduated at Harvard College in 1712. He afterwards taught 
school in Hingham, and was ordained as minister of the First 
Parish in Dover, N. H., Sept. 18, 1717. He " sustained the char- 
acter of a grave and sound preacher, a kind, peaceable, prudent 
and judicious pastor, a wise and faithful friend." He died March 
25, 1769. 

Rev. Jeremy Belknap was ordained as colleague pastor with Mr. 
Cushing Feb. 18, 1767. 

Samuel Dunbar [II. 197] was the son of Peter and Sarah 
(Thaxter) Dunbar, and was born in Hingham May 11, 1704. He 
was graduated at Harvard College in 1723, and was ordained pas- 
tor of the First Parish of Stoughton in 1727, where he remained in 
faithful service for fifty-five years, until his death, June 15, 1783. 
There was no other religious society in all the territory of the 
First Parish of Stoughton, being that territory now included in 
and forming the town of Canton. 

Paul Revere, at the age of twenty-one, accompanied Col. Grid- 
ley to Crown Point in 1755-56, and assisted in the struggle then 
going on. Rev. Mr. Dunbar accompanied them on this distant 
and perilous journey, returning to his parochial duties in Decem- 
ber, 1755. 

Nathaniel Eells [II. 210] was born in 1678, and was the son 
of Samuel Eells, who removed to Hingham from Connecticut 
about 1689, when Nathaniel was eleven years old. His father's 
residence was in Hingham until his death, in 1709. Nathaniel was 
graduated from Harvard College in 1699. The first mention of 
him in Scituate, according to Mr. Deane, is Jan. 12, 1702-3, when 
" the church and society chose a committee to discourse with Mr. 
Eells concerning his settling with us in the work of the ministry." 
Again, in 1703, " The agents before chosen are directed to apply 
themselves to Mr. Eells, at his return to Hingham, concerning 
his settlement in the work of the ministry." He was ordained in 



Native Ministers. 345 

Scituate June 14, 1704. He was a leader among the neighboring 
clergy, — well acquainted with the constitution and usages of the 
churches, weighty in counsel, and often called to distant parts of 
the State and to other States on ecclesiastical councils. He as- 
sisted in the embodiment of the church in the South Parish in 
Hingham, Nov. 20, 1746. As a preacher there is reason to be- 
lieve that he did not so much excel as in his dignity of character 
and soundness of understanding. He preached the election ser- 
mon in 1743. His sentiments were the moderate Calvinism of 
that day, closely bordering on Arminianism, though in the latter 
part of his life he continued to speak of Arminian free-will as an 
error, but with no asperity. He died August 25, 1750. 

Samuel Feench [II. 235], son of Samuel and Bathsheba (Beal) 
French, was born in Hingham, July 13, 1729. He was graduated 
at Harvard College in 1748, and studied divinity. He is repre- 
sented as an excellent scholar and an amiable man. He died 
May 21, 1752, in the twenty-third year of his age. 

Calvin Gakdner [II. 251] was the son of Samuel and Chloe 
(Whiton) Gardner, and was born in Hingham, Aug. 29, 1798. 
He did not receive a college education, but was a good scholar, 
and esteemed for ability and integrity. He was first settled in 
the ministry over the Universalist church in Charlestown, Mass., 
in June, 1825, and he remained there until December, 1826. After 
two short settlements in other places he became the pastor of the 
Universalist church in Waterville, Me., in 1833, and for twenty 
years, until 1853, he held that position. He was twice married, — 
first, to Mary Whiting [III. 301], of Hingham, Dec. 26, 1825. 
She died Sept. 2, 1832. He married for bis second wife Julia Ann 
Hasty, of Waterville, Me., June 30, 1834. Mr. Gardner was a man 
of fine character, who will always be affectionately remembered 
in Waterville. He died there March 22, 1865. 

Henry Hersey [II. 313] was the son of Capt. Laban and Celia 
{Barnes) Hersey, and was born in Hingham, Aug. 16, 1796. His 
early education was obtained in the public schools of Hingham 
and in Derby Academy. He fitted for college under the tuition 
of Rev. Joseph Richardson of this town, and was graduated at 
Brown University in 1820. He pursued his theological studies at 
the Harvard Divinity School, where he spent the usual term of 
three years to qualify himself for the ministry, receiving his de- 
gree in 1823. In 1824 Mr. Hersey received a call to settle as 
pastor of the Congregational Church and Society in the East Pre- 
cinct of Barnstable, which he accepted, and was ordained Oct. 6, 
1824. There he remained in the faithful discharge of his duty 
for nearly eleven years, when the state of his health compelled 
him to ask for his dismissal, which was granted. He left Barn- 
stable in May, 1835. On leaving the ministry, which he did not 
again resume, he retired to his home in this town, where he spent 
the remainder of his days. He served as chairman of the school 
committee here for several years, with, a warm interest in the 



346 History of Hingham. 

prosperity of the schools and in the character of his native town. 
His reports were well written, judicious, and practical. He was a 
delegate to the convention in 1853 for revising the constitution of 
Massachusetts. Of his ministry at Barnstable it has been said : 
" It was marked by sobriety and an earnest desire to do good. He 
was a good preacher and pastor, and had many deeply attached 
friends. He was a fluent and easy writer, and his sermons were 
such as to commend themselves to his hearers." Mr. Hersey died 
in Hingham Sept. 23, 1877. 

Gershom Hobart [II. 335], son of Rev. Peter Hobart, was born 
in Hingham, December, 1645. He was graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege in 1667, in the same class with his brothers Japhet and Nehe- 
miah. After graduation he lived for a while in Hingham. " Hobart 
accompanied, or soon followed, the settlers who, after the destruc- 
tion of Groton by the Indians in 1676, returned in the spring of 
1678," and he was ordained minister there Nov. 26, 1679, as suc- 
cessor to Rev. Samuel Willard. His ministry was not harmonious. 
About the year 1689 he appears to have left the town, the dissen- 
sions having become so great. Although calls had been made to 
others, he was, in 1690, and again in 1693, asked to return, and he 
did so before 1694. When the Indians attacked Groton in 1694, 
Mr. Hobart was preserved from falling into their hands, although 
they took two of his children, killing one of them. He preached 
in Groton until 1705, and resided there till his death, Dec. 19, 
1707. 

Jeremiah Hobart [II. 335], the second son of Rev. Peter Ho- 
bart, was born in England in 1631. He was graduated at Har- 
vard College in 1650, in the class with his brother Joshua. After 
preaching at Bass River, now Beverly, and at other places, he was 
ordained at Topsfield, Mass., Oct. 2, 1672. His ministry there 
" was far from being a smooth one," and he was dismissed Sept. 
21, 1680. In 1683 he was called to Hempstead, Long Island, and 
was installed Oct. 17, 1683. His labors were satisfactory, but 
finding it difficult to collect his salary of .£70, he settled in Had- 
dam, Conn., in 1691. Here again he found himself in the midst of 
difficulties and controversies, arising from various causes, and his 
ministry seems to have been far from " smooth." In 1714 Mr. 
Phineas Fish was settled as his colleague, and " Nov. 6, 1715, being 
the Lord's Day, he attended public worship in the forenoon, and 
received the sacrament ; and during the intermission expired, sit- 
ting in his chair." 

Joshua Hobart [II. 335] was the eldest son of Rev. Peter Hobart, 
the first minister of Hingham, and came to Hingham with his father 
in 1635. He was born in England in 1628, and was graduated at 
Harvard College in 1650. His brother Jeremiah was of the same 
class. The two brothers probably continued at the college till 
December, 1651. They were employed successively as preachers 
at Bass River, now Beverly, Mass. July 16, 1655, Joshua sailed 
for Barbadoes, whence, having married, he went to London. He 



Native Ministers. 347 

subsequently returned to Boston, and " in 1672, after the death of 
Rev. John Youngs, the first minister of Southold, Long Island, pre- 
viously minister at Hingham in England, the inhabitants sent an 
agent to Boston for ' an honest and godly minister ; ' whereupon 
Joshua Hobart went to them, and was ordained Oct. 7, 1674." He 
died at Southold Feb. 28, 1716-17, " near ninety years of age, and 
yet preached publickly within a few months before his decease." 
" He was an eminent physician, civilian, and divine, and every way 
a great, learned, pious man." 

Nehemiah Hobart [II. 335], son of Rev. Peter Hobart, was bap- 
tized in Hingham Nov. 20, 1648. He was graduated at Harvard 
College in 1667, in the class with his brothers Gershom and Japhet. 
He began to preach at Newton in June, 1672, and was ordained 
there Dec. 23, 1674, having given " this bereaved flock a rich 
blessing," in healing, even before his ordination, the dissensions 
which followed the death of the former minister, John Eliot. He 
was a Fellow of Harvard College. Leverett's Diary states that 
" He was a great blessing and an Ornam* to the Society. Upwards 
of 40 years God blessed Newton with his Ministry. A few days 
before his death, in his Last Sickness he observed to M r Brattle 
& the Presid? who made him a visit, that upon his Return 
from the Last Comencem* he Remark'd that he had bin at 49 
Comencm^ never having miss'd one from the very first time he 
had waited on that Solemnity, and that God onely knew whether 
he sM attain to the 50 th " He died Aug. 25, 1712. He is spoken of 
as " an excellent scholar, in the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, some- 
time a vice-president of the college, a most pious, humble, prudent, 
and benevolent man." 

Noah Hobart [II. 338] was the son of David, and brother of 
Nehemiah Hobart, the first minister of Cohasset. He was born in 
Hingham, Jan. 2, 1705-6, and was graduated at Harvard College 
in 1724. He was ordained pastor of the First Church in Fair- 
field, Conn., Feb. 7, 1732-3. There he continued in the able and 
faithful discharge of the duties of his office for over forty years. 
The Sabbath immediately preceding his death he preached twice, 
and with more than his accustomed animation. He continued in 
his usual health until the evening of the Tuesday following, when 
he was attacked with a disease which, before the next Sabbath, 
closed his earthly existence. He died Dec. 6, 1773. 

" He possessed high intellectual and moral distinction. He had 
a mind of great acuteness and discernment ; was a laborious stu- 
dent ; was extremely learned, especially in History and Theology \ 
advanced the doctrine which he professed by an exemplary life > 
and was holden in high veneration for his wisdom and virtue." 

Daniel Kimball [II. 406] was the son of Daniel and Elizabeth 
(Tenny) Kimball, and was born in Bradford, Mass., July 3, 1778. 
He worked on his father's farm in summer and attended the dis- 
trict school in winter to the age of sixteen. He fitted for college 
with Mr. John Vose, for many years preceptor of Atkinson Acad- 



348 History of Hingham. 

emy. Mr. Kimball was graduated at Harvard College in 1800. 
After graduation he taught in the Sandwich Academy for a year, 
and in Bradford for six months, when he returned to Cambridge 
as a theological student. He was approbated and commenced 
preaching in 1803, and in the same year was appointed tutor in 
Latin, which office he held for two years. He then spent some 
time in preaching, writing, and study. He was preceptor of Der- 
by Academy from 1808 to 1826, and was ordained in Hingham as 
an evangelist, Dec. 17, 1817. After leaving the Academy, he 
removed to Needham, Mass., where he kept a boarding-school for 
both sexes until 1848. Mr. Kimball died in Needham, Jan. 17, 
1862. 

Daniel Lewis [II. 441] , the son of John and Hannah (Lincoln) 
Lewis, was born in Hingham Sept. 29, 1685. He was graduated 
at Harvard College in 1707, taught school in Hingham from 1708 
to 1712, and was ordained the first minister of the First Parish in 
Pembroke, Dec. 3, 1712. His peaceful ministry continued there 
for nearly forty years. He died June 29, 1753, his wife having 
died two weeks before him, both of a fever of less than a fort- 
night's duration. 

Isaiah Lewis [II. 441], the son of John and Hannah (Lincoln) 
Lewis, was born in Hingham, June 10, 1703, and was graduated 
at Harvard College in 1723. He was ordained in 1730 as minister 
of that part of Eastham, Mass., which was soon afterwards Well- 
fleet. Up to the time of his ordination the church over which he 
was settled had not been organized, and the council which was 
called for the ordination organized it. He continued in the faith- 
ful discharge of his duty for many years. In 1779 Mr. Lewis be- 
came old and feeble, and was unable to perform all the labors of his 
ministry, and it was voted that he should be dismissed ; but after 
a consultation with him it was agreed that he should relinquish 
his claim upon the town for his salary, and continue his pastoral 
connection. Twenty pounds were allowed for his maintenance, 
and a committee appointed to procure a minister. He continued 
in the ministry at Wellfieet fifty-five years. " He possessed a 
strong mind, and a heart devoted to the work of the gospel, in 
which he labored diligently and with success." He died in 1786. 

George Lincoln [II. 457], the son of George and Sarah 
(French) Lincoln, was born in Hingham, June 9, 1797. At the 
age of fourteen he went to Boston to learn the sail-maker's trade, 
and was soon after converted in the Bennet-Street Church. He 
returned to Hingham and continued in the occupation of sail- 
making, having also other business interests. He was one of the 
seven members of the first Methodist class formed in Hingham 
in 1818, and spared no labor to promote its welfare. He spent 
much of the time which he could spare from his business in educat- 
ing himself for the work of the ministry. He was licensed and 
ordained a local preacher, and for fifty years or more preached 
as he had opportunity. His longest terms of service were at North 



Native Ministers. 349 

Cohasset, South Hingham, and East Abington. He felt specially 
called to go out into the by-ways and hedges, and there was no 
neighborhood, however isolated, within many miles of his home 
in which he had not preached the " word of life." 

He died in Hingham, Jan. 2, 1868, in the seventy-first year of 
his age. 

Henry Lincoln [II. 467], the son of William and Mary (Otis) 
Lincoln, was born in Hingham, Nov. 3, 176.5. He fitted for col- 
lege with Eleazer James, teacher of a school in Hingham, and had 
some assistance from Dr. Joshua Barker. He was graduated at 
Harvard College in 1786. He studied theology with Mr. Shaw, of 
Marshfield, and was ordained pastor of the church at Falmouth, 
Mass., Feb. 3, 1790. This was his only settlement in the ministry. 
The pastoral connection between Mr. Lincoln and his parish was 
dissolved by mutual consent Nov. 26, 1823. He then removed to 
Nantucket, and the remainder of his life was spent there in the 
home of his daughter, who was the wife of Dr. Elisha P. Fearing. 
He died in Nantucket, May 28, 1857, and was buried in Fal- 
mouth. 

Perez Lincoln [II. 478] , son of David Lincoln, was born Jan. 
21, 1777, and graduated at Harvard College in 1798. He studied 
divinity with Dr. Barnes of Scituate, and was settled in the minis- 
try at Gloucester, Mass., Aug. 3, 1805. He was a talented and 
promising divine, but his constitution was feeble, and after a few 
years of devoted labor he died in Hingham, June 13, 1811. 

William G. Marsh [III. 63], son of Samuel W. Marsh, was- 
born in Hingham, Feb. 28, 1841. He received his education in 
the schools of Hingham and was for a time engaged in business 
in the employ of the Woonsocket (R. I.) Print Works. In December 
1868, he went to Melbourne, Australia, and in 1873 he was ap- 
pointed secretary of the Young Men's Christian Association in 
that city. In 1885 he resigned his position as secretary, and 
since that time he has been engaged in missionary service in 
Australia. He is an Episcopal clergyman. 

Andrews Norton [III. 94], the youngest child of Samuel and 
Jane (Andrews) Norton, was born in Hingham, Dec. 31, 1786. 
He was a lineal descendant of Rev. John Norton, the second 
minister of the First Parish. He was fitted for college at Derby 
Academy under Preceptor Abner Lincoln, and in 1801 entered 
the Sophomore class in Harvard College. He was graduated in 
1804. He was grave and studious from his childhood, and in 
college he held a high character for scholarship and moral worth. 
After graduation he spent four years in theological study. For a 
short time, in 1806, he was preceptor of Derby Academy. In 
1809 he accepted an invitation to supply the pulpit in Augusta, 
Me.; but, after preaching there a few Sundays he accepted the 
position of Tutor in Bowdoin College and entered immediately on 
its duties. Here he remained a year and then removed to Cam- 
bridge. 



350 History of Hingham. 

In 1811 he was appointed tutor in mathematics in Harvard 
College and remained in this position for a year. In 1812 he es- 
tablished the publication, " The General Repository and Review," 
which continued for two years. It was very earnest in defence of 
Unitarianism, and was conducted with great ability. In 1813 he 
Avas appointed librarian of Harvard College Library and held the 
office for eight years. In the same year, 1813, he was also ap- 
pointed lecturer on the Criticism and Interpretation of the Scrip- 
tures in the college. In 1819 he was elected Dexter Professor of 
Sacred Literature in the Harvard Divinity School. In 1830 he 
resigned his professorship, but still continued to devote himself to 
literary and theological pursuits. 

In 1849 he suffered from a severe illness, from which he never 
fully recovered. He passed the summer of 1850 in Newport, by 
the advice of his physician, and his sojourn there was attended 
with such beneficial results that he made it his subsequent resi- 
dence. In the summer of 1853 it was apparent that his strength 
was declining, and he died Sept. 18, 1853. Professor Norton 
was a learned writer on theological questions. He was a fre- 
quent contributor to periodicals, and many of his essays and 
discourses were published. Of his more elaborate works, that on 
" The Evidences of the Genuineness of the Gospels " is regarded 
as " one of the most important contributions which this country 
has made to theological literature." " To him, also, with Mr. 
Buckminster, Professor Stuart, and a few others, we are indebted 
for that impulse given to Biblical study in New England early 
in the present century, which has been of incalculable benefit to 
all denominations." 

David Sprague [III. 166], son of David Sprague, was born in 
Hingham, April 12, 1707. The following is taken from a " His- 
tory of the Exeter (R. I.) Baptist Church," by T. A. Hall. 

" Elder David Sprague, who was the founder and first pastor of the 
Exeter Baptist Church, was a native of Hingham, Mass., from whence he 
removed to Scituate, R. I., where he was converted and received as a mem- 
ber of the Six Principle Baptist Church in that town, then under the min- 
istry of Rev. Samuel Fiske. Here he commenced preaching with great 
acceptance, but, not holding Arminian views, was soon a little unpopular. 
He next removed to North Kingstown, united with the church in that town, 
and was ordained in 1737 as colleague to Rev. Richard Sweet, but 
finally left that church on account of its free-will notions, as he was Calvin- 
istic in his views, and went to South Kingstown and preached to the 
church in that place, but soon left them, and for the same reason, and re- 
moved to Exeter, where in the autumn of 1750 he founded the church 
made up largely of what were then termed New Lights. 

" There were two large gatherings of the New Light Churches of New 
England with the Exeter Church. The first, representing twenty-five 
churches, was on the 23d of May, 1753 ; the second, representing twelve 
churches, was on the second Tuesday in September, 1754, to settle terms 
of fellowship and communion at the Lord's table. 



Native Ministers. 351 

" Of this last meeting, David Sprague was chosen Moderator, and Isaac 
Backus, Clerk. At the first meeting Elder Sprague was chosen in com- 
pany with Elders Weeden, Lee, and Beck, to visit Middleborough, Mass., 
and sit in council on the troubles there, in the church of Mr. Backus. The 
decisions of these two councils in Exeter were in favor of open communion. 
Elder Sprague, being a strict Baptist in his views, shortly after left not 
only the New Lights, but the pastorate of the Exeter church. 

" The first record which we have been able to find is of a meeting 
Sept. 17, 1757, at the meeting-house, to hear from their pastor, Elder 
Sprague, the reasons for his long absence ; he not being present, the church 
adjourned to Oct. 1, 1757. At this meeting, at the desire of Elder 
Sprague, the proceedings of a council, held at the meeting-house July 15, 
1757, were read, after which he 'read an epistle in which he laid down 
many reasons for his not meeting with us for a long time, and also enjoined 
many things for the church to remove, confess, and retract before he could 
walk with us.' Deacon Joseph Rogers attempted some reply, which Elder 
Sprague would not hear, and abruptly left the house. On the 19th of 
November following the church next met, and after reading the result of 
a council held on the 3d of November, which advised and entreated them 
to withdraw from their pastor, they proceeded to read a letter of with- 
drawal, which Deacons Joseph Rogers and Philip Jenkins had previously 
prepared, which was adopted, and messengers appointed to carry it to 
him. 

" Soon after, Deacon Philip Jenkins felt it to be his duty to preach the 
gospel and take the watchcare of the church, but the church not being 
agreed on this matter, he left it, together with a number of those who 
were attached to him. Deacon Joseph Rogers about the same time had a 
grievous difficulty with another brother, in consequence of which Rogers 
also left the church. From this time, 1759, until 1763, it appears that no 
business meetings of the church were held. 

"The records again commence May 21, 1763, with Solomon Sprague 
for Moderator. Soon after this the church unanimously voted that they 
felt that he was the man to lead them on and take the watchcare of the 
church; but his mind as yet was not clear on that point. In July, 1766, 
David Sprague, their former pastor, returned, and was cordially received 
to their membership. He also in the same meeting offered himself and his 
gifts to the church to lead them on as a pastor ; but they declined the 
offered service as evidently showing that their minds were fixed upon the 
son as their choice for a leader. During his absence from the church he 
had preached for a season at New London, Conn., and on Block Island. 
After his return the church were evidently in accord with their former 
pastor on those points which once divided them, they having adopted his 
views, viz., that scriptural baptism was prerequisite to communion. He 
died in Exeter, in 1777, after a ministry of forty years. He was a man of 
pure character, superior abilities, happy address, and winning spirit." 

Joseph Thaxter [III. 233] was the son of Deacon Joseph 
Thaxter, and was born in Hingham, April 23, 1744. He was 
graduated at Harvard College in 1768, after which he taught 
school for some time in Hingham. When the Revolutionary War 
broke out, in 1775, he was preaching as a candidate for the ministry 
at Westford, but on the advance of the British towards Lexington 
he mounted a horse and rode to Concord, armed with a brace of 



352 History of Hingham. 

pistols, and was present at the engagement at Concord Bridge. 
He was afterwards appointed a chaplain in the army, attached to 
Colonel Prescott's regiment, and was present at the Battle of 
Bunker Hill. During the war he was elected a representative 
to the General Court, but resigned to assume more active duties 
in the army. After independence was acknowledged he settled 
in the ministry at Edgartown, where he lived a long, uneventful, 
and devoted life, dying July 18, 1827. He was present at the 
laying of the corner stone of the Bunker Hill Monument, June 17, 
1825, being at that time the only surviving chaplain of the Revo- 
lutionary Army, and offered an impressive prayer on that occa- 
sion, having then passed his eightieth year. 

William Walton [III. 274] came to Hingham in 1635, and had 
a grant of land in the first distribution of lots. He was educated 
at Emanuel College, Cambridge, England, where he took his de- 
grees in 1621 and 1625. He remained but a short time in Hing-. 
ham. " Mr. Walton " had a grant of land in Marblehead, Oct. 14, 
1638. This was Rev. William Walton, who was then preaching 
there. This is the first mention of his name in the records, and 
it is probable that he began the work of his ministry there in that 
year. Through his endeavors, with the assistance of others, a 
meeting-house was erected, and regular Sunday services were 
established. 

Mr. Roads, in his " History and Traditions of Marblehead," 
says : — 

" In October, 1 668, William Walton, the faithful and zealous missionary, 
died, after having served his Master and the poor people of Marblehead 
for a period of thirty years. Coming to them as a missionary to preach 
the gospel, he became, without ordination as a clergyman, a loving pastor, 
a faithful friend, and a wise and prudeni counsellor. His advice was sought 
on all matters of public or private importance, and when obtained was 
usually followed without question. That his loss was felt as a public be- 
reavement by the entire community, there can be little doubt." 

Heney Waee, Jr. [III. 277], the son of Rev. Henry Ware, 
the fourth minister of the First Parish, was born in Hingham, 
April 21, 1794. His early education was obtained partly at 
home and partly in the public and private schools of his native 
town. He fitted for college with Rev. Dr. Allyn, of Duxbury, 
Mr. Ashur Ware, his cousin, Mr. Samuel Merrill, and finally at 
Phillips Academy, Andover. He entered Harvard College in 
1808 and was graduated in 1812. Immediately on leaving college 
he became assistant-teacher in Phillips Academy, Exeter, which 
position he occupied for two years, studying theology at the same 
time. His theological studies were completed in Cambridge. 
He received a certificate of approbation as a preacher July 31, 
1815. He was ordained and installed as pastor of the Second 
Church in Boston, Jan. 1, 1817, the ordination sermon being 
preached by his father. His health became somewhat impaired 



Native Ministers. 353 

in 1828, and he was desirous of being relieved from the arduous 
labors demanded by a pastoral charge. At the same time a pro- 
fessorship in the Divinity School at Cambridge was offered him, 
and he resigned his pastorate. His parish refused to accept his 
resignation, but proposed that he should retain his pastoral con- 
nection with the assistance of Mr. Ralph Waldo Emerson as a 
colleague, who was ordained March 11, 1829. Mr. Ware had by 
this time accepted the professorship at Cambridge, but before 
entering upon his duties he made an extended visit to Europe, 
hoping for an improvement in health and strength. He returned 
home in August, 1830, and again requested his dismissal from his 
parish, which was granted, and he soon afterwards entered upon 
the duties of the professorship of Pulpit Eloquence and the Pas- 
toral Care, in the Divinity School, at Cambridge. He received 
the degree of S.T.D. from Harvard University in 1834. Dr. Ware's 
health was so essentially impaired in 1841 that he found great 
difficulty in performing his duties, and he resigned his professor- 
ship early in 1842. During that year he removed to Framingham, 
Mass., where he died Sept. 22, 1843. 

Dr. Ware was a Unitarian. He was a voluminous writer and 
author of numerous publications. His fame is too well known to 
call for extended comment on his abilities as a scholar, writer, or 
preacher. 

William Ware [III. 277], son of Rev. Henry Ware, was born 
in Hingham, Aug. 3, 1797. He was graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege in 1816, and at the Harvard Divinity School in 1819. He 
began preaching in 1820, his first public service being at 
Northborough, Mass., and for some time was engaged in preach- 
ing in various places, principally in Brooklyn, Burlington, Vt., 
and the city of New York. He was ordained pastor of the First 
Congregational Church in the City of New York, which was the 
first Unitarian Church established in that city, Dec. 18, 1821. 
His labors in New York were very arduous, as there was no Uni- 
tarian clergyman in the city or in the immediate neighborhood 
from whom he could receive assistance. In June, 1837, he re- 
moved to Waltham, Mass., having accepted an invitation from the 
Second Congregational Church in that place to supply their pulpit. 
Here he continued until April, 1838, when the church was united 
with the elder church in that place. Mr. Ware then removed to 
Jamaica Plain, and about the same time became proprietor and 
editor of the " Christian Examiner," which remained in his hands 
until 1844. In January, 1844, he terminated his connection with 
the " Christian Examiner " and accepted an invitation to become 
the pastor of the Unitarian Church in West Cambridge. He was 
soon after taken ill and resigned in July, 1845. In November, 
1845, he removed to Cambridge, and after this, his health having 
improved considerably, in 1847 he engaged in the ministry at 
large, in Boston, and continued in this employment for about 
a year. In 1848 he went to Europe, where he remained more 

vol. i. — 23* 



354 History of Hingham. 

than a year, principally in Italy, and on his return he delivered a 
course of lectures on European Travel. He published under the 
title of " Zenobia, or the Fall of Palmyra," vivid representations 
of ancient life and manners, which had previously appeared in 
magazines as " Letters from Palmyra." He also wrote and pub- 
lished many other works. 

He died in Cambridge, Feb. 19, 1852. As a preacher he was 
somewhat dry and lacking in oratorical effect, and distrustful of > 
his own powers, so that he was sometimes thought to be distant 
and reserved, but his writings show a force and ability very far 
above the average. 

Samuel Willard [III. 329] was the son of William and Cath- 
erine (Wilder) Willard, and was born in Petersham, Mass., April 
18, 1776. He was fitted for college principally by Rev. Nathaniel 
Thayer, D.D., of Lancaster, Mass., and was graduated at Harvard 
College in 1803. After leaving college he was a teacher in Phillips 
(Exeter) Academy, and a tutor in Bowdoin College, preparing 
himself for the ministry meanwhile. In 1805 he returned to 
Cambridge to finish his theological studies. He was licensed to 
preach by the Cambridge Association and preached his first ser- 
mon in Deerfield, Mass., March 15, 1807. He was invited to 
settle there and accepted. Aug. 12, 1807, was the day first ap- 
pointed for his ordination, and a council assembled composed 
principally of those entertaining the Calvinistic belief. It was 
about the time when a separation of the Calvinistic churches from 
the Arminian was taking place, and after a rigid examination in 
a session of two days duration, the council refused to ordain Mr. 
Willard. Another council was called, and he was ordained Sept. 
23, 1807. " From that time Mr. Willard became a pioneer in the 
cause of liberal Christianity." His ministry was faithful and 
acceptable. He was a musician and the author of the " Deerfield 
Collection of Sacred Music." In 1819 his sight became very much 
impaired, and in September, 1829, he resigned his pastoral charge. 
For the last forty years of his life he was blind. After the loss 
of his sight, he accustomed himself to commit to memory the 
Scriptures, his hymns, and other writings which were read to him, 
and the amount of matter which he could accurately repeat was 
prodigious. He was a member of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences, and in 1826 the degree of S.T.D. was con- 
ferred upon him by Harvard College. He was the founder of 
Willard Academy in Hingham, of which mention is made in the 
chapter on " Education " of this History. 

Dr. Willard died in Deerfield, Oct. 8, 1859. 



BURIAL-GROUNDS. 

BY GEORGE LINCOLN. 



INDIAN BURIALS. 

There are several localities in Hingham where the rude imple- 
ments of Indian warfare, of fishing and hunting, of husbandry, 
and of household use have been unearthed, which were occupied 
as burial-grounds by the aborigines prior to the settlement of the 
town by Englishmen. These burial-places were principally near 
the seashore. They have been found at Downer Landing, at Old 
Planters' Hill, at the head of Weir River, and at or near Cuba 
Dam or Little Harbor in Cohasset, which was originally a part of 
Hingham. From these localities have been taken at short dis- 
tances below the surface of the earth stone hatchets, axes, gouges, 
spear and arrow heads, sinkers, corn-crushers, pestles, copper 
trinkets, pottery, etc., which in most instances were near human 
bones ; and, although no record has come down to us relating 
thereto, they indicate unmistakably where some of the Indians 
who preceded the English, probably of the tribe of Wompatuck, 
were buried. 

BURIAL-GROUND OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 

The first spot of land in Hingham consecrated to burial pur- 
poses by the emigrants from England was that which adjoined 
the first meeting-house. It was situated on rising ground in front 
of what is now the Derby Academy lot, and for fifty years or more 
was the only burial-place for the inhabitants of the town. A nar- 
row roadway skirted its northern and southern boundaries, while 
on the east and west the ground sloped down in conformity to its 
surroundings. Several stately trees beautified its westerly decliv- 
ity, and a single tomb facing southward, used probably for winter 
interments, is still remembered by persons who are now living. 
Here, with few exceptions, most of the early settlers were buried. 
If the monuments which were erected to their memory had been 
preserved, rough and unartistic as they were, they would have 



356 History of Hingham. 

served as a more forcible reminder of the noble men and women 
who first settled here, and overcame the difficulties and hardships 
which the early planters of the Colony were obliged to encounter, 
than can any written record, however carefully preserved, which 
is rarely seen or brought to the notice of the people. 

Occasional interments were probably made in this ground after 
the sale of burial-lots had been commenced elsewhere ; but just 
when they were discontinued is uncertain. Tradition says that 
one of the Acadians (French Neutrals) was the last person buried 
here. This would have occurred from 1760 to 1763 ; but Hing- 
ham Records furnish nothing by which to verify this statement. 

After the locality had been abandoned as a burial-place, several 
buildings were erected on its northerly margin. One of these was 
owned successively by Joseph Loring and Solomon Blake, and used 
as a cooper's shop. Later it was rented for various purposes. 
At one time it was the residence of John Murphy and his wife 
Jane. Next west was the district schoolhouse ; and beyond this 
stood a shop, the easterly part of which was last occupied by 
Thomas Loud for the manufacture of hats, and the westerly end. 
by Samuel Norton, Jr., a repairer of watches and silverware. 

The hill was lowered to its present condition by a vote of the 
town in 1831, and the remains which were unearthed at that time 
were by the same vote reinterred in the Hingham Cemetery. The 
shop of Messrs. Norton and Loud was taken to South Street, near 
Magoon's Bridge, where it was rented to different tenants for 
several years. It was afterwards removed again, and is now 
occupied as a dwelling-house on Thayer Street. 

The schoolhouse was taken to the west part of the town and 
there used for some time as it had been. It has since undergone 
another change, and at the present writing is located as a dwell- 
ing-house on Thaxter Street. 

Human remains were found in this locality, in front of the 
estates of Caleb B. Marsh and John Siders, as late as 1877, when 
the drain leading to Broad Bridge was constructed. They were 
placed with those previously reburied. 



BEECHWOOD CEMETERY. 

In 1737 Aaron Pratt and Isaac Bates, " yeomen," both of Hing- 
ham, second precinct, in consideration of £1, current money, . . . 
conveyed to Jonathan Pratt, Israel Whitcomb, Stephen Stoddard, 
Jr., Prince Joy, Ebenezer Kent, and Joshua Bates, Jr., all of 
Hingham, ... a tract of land containing eighteen rods, . . . 
situated " in front of our house lots where we now dwell in the 
Township of Hingham," and bounded as follows : S. by the way 
or road ; E. with the land of Isaac Bates ; N. partly with the land 
of said Bates and partly with the land of Aaron Pratt ; and W 
with said Pratt " as the same is now staked out." The deed of 



Burial-grounds. 357 

•conveyance shows that each of these purchasers was to have and 
hold a lot one half-rod in width by six rods in length " after the 
following manner, that is to say : " Beginning W., the first lot to 
Jonathan Pratt ; the second to Israel Whitconib, etc. Then fol- 
low the usual conditions of a warranty deed. Acknowledged Dec. 
5, 1737, before Benjamin Lincoln, Justice of the Peace. 

The tract of land thus conveyed for burial purposes is the older 
part of the present Beechwood Cemetery. Additions to this pur- 
chase have been made at different times since, so that the grounds 
now embrace about one and a half acres. It is situated on Beech- 
wood and Doane streets, and is accessible from both streets. 
Within the past fifteen years it has been greatly improved and 
beautified in various ways. Two substantial iron entrance-gates 
have been erected, upon which the name of the cemetery and 
date of its incorporation (1874) are wrought, and its tablets and 
monuments are creditable specimens of the sculptor's art. 

Among the older and noticeable inscriptions in this ground are 
:the following : — 

Jsrael Whitcom, 

son of M r 

Jsrael & Mrs 

Hannah Whitcom, 

who Died 

March y e 29 

J737 - Aged 

10 Weks. 



Elizabeth Whitcom 

Davghter of M r 

Jsrael & Ms 

Hannah Whitcom 

Died March y e 26 

1737 Aged 

3 years 



Job Whitcom 

son of M r Jsrael 

& M r s Hannah Whitcom 

Died March y e 27 1737 

In y e 6 th year 

of his age 



CATHOLIC CEMETERY. 



The ground upon which this burial-place is located was pur- 
chased of Mrs. Catherine Roche, widow of John A. Roche, March 
3, 1877, by the Most Reverend John J. Williams, Archbishop of 
Boston. Rev. Peter J. Leddy was at that time pastor of St. Paul's 
Catholic Church in Hingham, and through him the land was se- 
cured. It was consecrated the 13th of November following. The 
lot contains about three acres, and is approached by an avenue 
leading from Hersey Street. Situated as it is on high table 



358 History of Hingham. 

ground, it commands the most extensive as well as diversified 
views of any of our local cemeteries. Its walks and paths are 
conveniently arranged ; its memorials are tastefully conceived,, 
and the inscriptions thereon are noticeable for their explicit and 
appropriate wording. 

A large granite monument in the form of a cross is one of the 
many features of attraction which meet the eye upon entering 
this cemetery. It consists of a massive granite plinth, surmounted 
with a well proportioned base ; this is succeeded by a die, above 
which rises the cross-shaped shaft. The inscription on the die 
reads as follows : — 

n ^m * NMAE PER WSE ^o RDlAM d& 

REQUIESCANT IN PACE. 

Upon the larger monuments, many of which are quite attrac- 
tive, are the surnames Burns, Carr, Casey, Corbett, Cronin, Crowe, 
Daley, Fagan, Farrell, Fee, Foley, Halley, Hayes, Keating, Loden, 
Moore, Quinn, and Tully. 

Over the door of the receiving tomb are the figures " 1881." 
What the future may reveal in the way of further improvements 
in this hallowed ground cannot be known or prophesied. But if 
the rapid strides and marked progress which have been made here 
within the past ten years are any criterion to judge by, it will soon 
rival in attractiveness many of the older burial-grounds. 



CEDAR STREET CEMETERY. 

On the old road leading from Hull Street to the present thor- 
oughfare between Hingham and Cohasset is a small burying- 
ground of perhaps a quarter of an acre in extent, in which lie 
the remains of several families whose surnames are found among 
the earlier settlers of Hingham. The spot has been occupied as. 
a place of interment for the fathers, mothers, and children of 
those whose homes were in this vicinity for a century and a half 
or more, and contains all that was mortal of many who were 
pioneers of this locality. It is a sequestered spot yet easy of 
access, and the surroundings are quiet and picturesque. 

Several tombs, monuments, and tablets, of modern construction 
have been erected upon the grounds within the last half-century, 
but many of the more ancient headstones are rough, moss-cov- 
ered, and unintelligible. The surnames most noticeable upon 
these memorials are Beal, Freeman, Humphrey, Litchfield, Lo- 
throp, Nichols, Phinney, and Stoddard. Among the older in- 
scriptions are the following : — 



Burial-grounds. 359 



Here lies buried 

ye Body of M rs Sybil 

Beal, y e wife of M r 

Obadiah Beal. She 

Died May 4, 1760. 

Aged 25 years. 



Here lye the 

remains of M rs Anna 

Beal, wife of Cap 1 

Ebenezer Beal, 

who Departed this 

life Sept 5 (25?) 

1768, in ye 35th 

year of her age. 



Here lies the 

remains of M r 

Thomas Humprey 

who Died Sept. 

10, 1770. Aged 

83 years. 



COHASSET CENTRAL CEMETERY. 

This conveniently located burial-place, situated at the corner 
of North Main Street and Joy Place, in Cohasset, did not include 
more than half the ground it does now when the town was legally 
known as the Second Precinct of Hingham. The row of antique 
tombs toward the street was then the front boundary line ; and 
just below the knoll on the opposite side was the rear line. Be- 
fore the middle of the present century the land lying between the 
range of tombs and North Main Street, upon which had been a 
small dwelling, with its adjoining garden, and a schoolhouse, was 
added to the cemetery grounds. But even with this increase of 
territory the demand for burial-lots was found to exceed the 
supply. Accordingly an association was formed in May, 1867, 
and on the 3d of September following a piece of land containing 
one and three-eighths acres, adjoining the cemetery in the rear, 
was purchased and added thereto, so that the area of the inclosed 
ground at the present time is about four acres. 

Concerning the early history of the original site but little can 
be said, for it undoubtedly dates back to the commencement of 
the last century, when the locality was settled by the sons of the 
first planters in Hingham, and the burials as well as the transac- 
tions of that period are nearly all involved in obscurity. As 
seen from our modern standpoint, this early occupied ground looks 
rough and untidy. Its tombs show evidences of neglect as well as 
of decay, and many of its memorials are moss-covered and unin- 
telligible. With a comparatively trifling expenditure of time and 
monev, however, this ancient landmark would be a source of 



360 History of Hingham. 

great attraction to many persons ; for much valuable information 
lies partially concealed here, which is not accessible elsewhere. 
Of the surnames more noticeable upon the older stones are Bates, 
Beal, Kent, Lincoln, Nichols, Pratt, Tower, etc. ; the most ancient 
of these having been erected to the memory of Sarah Pratt, wife 
to Aaron Pratt, who died July 22, 1706, aged 42 years. 

There also are two well preserved memorial stones in this old 
ground which attract attention from an historical point of view. 
They bear the following inscriptions : — 

M re LYDIA HOBART 

WIFE OF Y e REV U 

NEHEMIAH HOBART 

OBIT FEBRUARY 12 th 

1 7 3 f ANNO 
iETATIS 32. 



Here Lyeth y e Body 

of y e Rev D mr 

Nehemiah Hobart 

firft paftor of y e 

Church of Christ 

in thif place died 

May 31 an 1740 

in y e 44 year of 

his Age & 12 th of 

his paftorate. 

The first addition, in which " old Corpy's " (Corporal Beal) 
house previously referred to stood, has a front entrance on North 
Main Street, which affords easy access to this portion of the 
ground. 

The later acquisition is approached from Joy Place. It has 
the waters of Little Harbor near by, which are dotted with pic- 
turesque island views, and the strong contrast between the new 
and the more antique place of sepulchre is made especially no- 
ticeable from its close connection with the latter. Its avenues and 
walks are conveniently arranged ; the grounds and copings are 
well kept ; its monuments and memorials are of modern design, 
and evince good taste in their selection. They are all of recent 
construction, are finely executed, ■and pleasing to the eye. At its 
organization in 1867 the following officers were chosen : George 
Beal, Jr., President ; Edward Tower, Secretary ; Levi N. Bates, 
Treasurer; Edward E. Tower, John Bates, Philander Bates, 
Directors. 

The officers chosen at the annual meeting of the proprietors in 
1892 were : Charles A. Gross, President ; Newcomb B. Tower, 
Secretary ; Caleb Lothrop, Treasurer ; Edward E. Ellms, Philan- 
der Bates, Directors. The President, Secretary, and Treasurer 
are also Directors ex officiis. 



Burial-grounds. 361 



FORT HILL CEMETERY. 

The Fort Hill Cemetery, as it was used for more than a cen- 
tury, consisted of less than a half-acre of ground lying on the 
southeasterly side of the road leading from the westerly part ot 
Himrham to Weymouth. This small piece of land was probably 
one of the many pieces not granted by the original proprietors, 
and like many of these pieces was taken possession of and occu- 
pied without the formality of a grant. 

When the Proprietors gave their remaining undivided lands 
to the town, in 1788, this burial-place passed to the town and 
thus became one of the two public burial-places in the town. It 
seems to have been used by a few families residing in the vicinity, 
namely: Ward, Waterman, French, Beal, Lincoln, and a few 
others. Most of these family names have now ceased to have 
representatives in this locality. 

The part of the highway now Fort Hill Street, bordering upon 
this burial-place was discontinued and enclosed and became a 
part of it, but from its rocky character it is of little benefit. On 
this portion, and near the southeasterly line of the old road, three 
tombs were erected about the year 1825, and since that time 
others have been built. These now occupy nearly the whole 
extent of the older portion of the road. 

For many years few interments had been made in the old 
ground and the few memorial stones had become displaced and 
broken, as well as moss-grown ; and the stray cattle disputed 
possession of such scanty herbage as struggled for growth amid 
thorns and briers, while the old neglected ground was waiting 
the advent of the spirit of some " Old Mortality " to redeem it 
from waste and desecration. 

This came at last, as so many excellent things do come, from 
the devotion and labor of woman. The women of this vicinity, 
who by organized effort and well-directed labor, had obtained 
sufficient funds to warrant the beginning of a work of improve- 
ment, caused a meeting of those interested in the burying-ground 
to be called in November, 1851. 

This meeting was well attended, and out of it came the organ- 
ization of the Fort Hill Cemetery Corporation the same year. 
This was immediately followed by the purchase of about three 
acres of land in the rear and to the west of the old ground, the 
laying out of the land into lots, the grading and sale of a portion 
of the same, the fencing of the land, the planting of trees and 
hedges and the general work pertaining to a well ordered ceme- 
tery, and this has been continued to the present time. 

In the meantime the ladies continued their well-directed efforts, 
holding a fair each year for the sale of the products of their 
labor, the results from which have been sufficient to meet the 



362 



History of Hingham. 



quite large expenditures required. In 1884 they had paid into 
the treasury of the corporation 14,482.67, $286.67 of which was 

appropriated for placing in the 
" old ground " a granite monu- 
ment commemorative of the 
"Early Settlers of the West 
part of Hingham." In addition 
to the sum of $4,482.67, con- 
tributed by the ladies, who are 
now organized under the stat- 
utes as " The Ladies Fort Hill 
Sewing Circle in Hingham," 
they have given to the proprie- 
tors of the cemetery $2,000, to 
be held as a fund, the income of 
which is to be devoted to the 
care of the cemetery. In 1890 
a chapel similar in form to the 
one in the Hingham cemetery, 
but of smaller size, was erected. 
The contractor was J. F. Yinal 
of Weymouth. 

In 1866, the proprietors pur- 
chased of the estate of David 
Brown about one acre of land 
on the northwesterly side of 
Fort Hill Street, for the mate- 
rial to be used in filling and 
grading lots ; the ledges under- 
lying much of the cemetery ground requiring large filling to fit 
the lots for burial purposes. 

The town by vote have given the proprietors the care and man- 
agement of the " Old Burying Ground," reserving therein a lot 
for the burial of such as may have no one to provide for them ; 
and the town also appropriated $75 towards building the fence 
on the line of the cemetery and the schoolhouse lot. 

Since the proprietors organized in 1851 they have sold one 
hundred and forty lots. 

The officers of the Fort Hill Cemetery Corporation since it 
organized have been as follows : — 

Presidents : David Stoddar, 1851-52 ; Marshall Lincoln, 1852- 
54 ; Martin B. Stoddar, 1854-55 : Joseph A. Newhall, 1855-68 ; 
William Lincoln, 1868-79; Henry L. Fletcher, 1879, and in 
successive years following. 

Secretary : Quincy Bicknell, Jr., 1851 to 1856 ; now Quincy 
Bicknell, and annually re-elected to the present time. 

Treasurers : Thomas W. Stoddar, 1851-81 ; Isaac W. Our, 
1881, and to the present time. 

Directors : Warren A. Hersey, 1851-52 ; Ezra Bicknell, 1851- 




EARLY SETTLERS' MONUMENT, FORT 
HILL CEMETERY. 



Burial-grounds. 363 

55 ; Ebed S. Stoddar, 1852-54 ; Daniel Lincoln, 1854-55 ; Robert 
W. Lincoln, 1855-59; Stephen Stowell, 1855-58; David Cain, 
1858-59 ; Charles Spring, 1859-60 ; Stephen Stowell, 1859-63 ; 
David Cain, 1860-67 ; Andrew J. Gardner, 1863-68 ; Ezra Bick- 
nell, 1867-79 ; Henry Binney, 1868-72 ; Ebed S. Stoddar, 1872- 
73 ; Andrew J. Gardner, 1873-81 ; Alphonso Cain, 1879, and 
annually re-elected since ; Henry Binney, 1881-82 ; Lewis Stod- 
dard, 1882-88 ; Eben W. Cain, 1888. The President, Secretary 
and Treasurer are also Directors, ex officiis. 

Superintendents : Ezra Bicknell, 1874-79 ; Andrew J. Gardner, 
1879-81 ; Alphonso Cain, 1881, and annually since. 



HIGH STREET CEMETERY. 

This well kept and conveniently located burial-place for the 
inhabitants of the south part of the town has been enlarged twice, 
and within the past twenty years has been greatly improved and 
beautified. But as is the case with all our ancient graveyards, its 
early history is somewhat obscure. Tradition says that it was 
originally used as a burial-place by Indians ; and in support of this 
theory it is said that Indian remains, rolled up in blankets and 
lying face downward, were exhumed here at the time of its 
first general renovation. By others it is claimed that these 
remains were in tarred blankets, — that they were of persons 
who died of small-pox in Hingham soon after the war of the 
Revolution ; but as the Indians had neither blankets nor tar to use 
before the locality was inhabited by Englishmen, the reliability 
of the tradition is questioned. In neither instance, however, do 
these statements detract from the antiquity of this cemetery, for 
there were families bearing the surnames Bacon, Chubbuck, Dun- 
bar, Jacob, Russell, Tower, Whiton, Wilder, etc., residing here 
several years before 1681, when the new meeting-house was 
erected ; and without doubt these families found it more con- 
venient to have a burial-ground in their locality than to put up 
with the inconvenience of conveying their dead a distance of 
three or four miles. The oldest stone in this yard from which 
any information can be gained was designed and is inscribed as 
follows : — 

HERE LIETH 

BURIED Y e BODY 

OF JANE RUSSELL 

WIFE TO GEORGE 

RUSSELL AGED 

AB ou s ht 83 YE ars 

DIED FEBRUARY 

Y 23, 1688 



364 



History of Hingham. 




ENTRANCE TO HIGH STREET CEMETERY. 



Other inscriptions prior to 1700 are 

HERE LYETH YE 

BODY OF M" MARY 

IACOB Y e WIFE 

OF CAPT IOHN IACOB 

SHE DIED OCT' 2 1691. 



HERE LYETH 

BURIED Y BODY 

of GEORGE 

RUSSELL 

AGED 99 YEARS 

Died y e 26th 

of MAY 

1694. 



HERE LYETH Y e 

Body of Capt 

JOHN JACOB 

Aged A bout 63 

Dyed Sep tember y e 19, 

1693. 



MARY IACOB Y 

DAVGTER of IOSEPH 

IACOB AGED 

8 YE m 6 M° 

6 Dayes DYED 

MARCH Y 22 
i69f 



HERE LYETH BVRIED 

Y e BODY of SAMUEL 

IACOB AGED NERE 

24 YEARS DYED 

OCTOBER ye 29 

1695. 



RACHEL 

CUSHING 

AGED 2 

YEARE 

DIED SEPEM 

y e 9. 1699. 



MARY 

CUSHING 

AGED 9 

YEARs DIED 

AVGVST 
y e 8 1699. 



Burial-grounds. 365 

From 1797 to 1855 this cemetery was controlled and supported 
by the Parish, and, singular as it may now appear, the records 
show that from 1806 to 1811, inclusive — certain income was re- 
ceived from letting the same annually to the highest bidder for a 
sheep and calf pasture. Land was purchased and annexed to the 
original site in 1804, and again in 1866. In 1885 it was incorpo- 
rated as the " High Street Cemetery Association." The present 
officers of the association are as follows : President, Arthur R. 
Whitcomb ; Secretary, Loring H. Cushing ; Treasurer, Alonzo 
Gushing ; Directors, Webster Hersey, Alfred Cushing, David 
Cushing, 2d, William Cushing, and the President, Secretary, and 
Treasurer, ex officiis ; Sujjerintendent, Christopher B. Hill. 

The association has a trust fund for the care of lots, of which 
Arthur R. Whitcomb is trustee. It is in a flourishing condition, 
and additional improvements are contemplated in the near future. 

HINGHAM CEMETERY. 

The year in which the older part of this cemetery was first 
used for burials is uncertain. It probably was not far from the 
time the new meeting-house was erected, in 1681 ; as it had been 
a custom in old Hingham, England, for several generations before 
the early planters came here, to bury the dead in the grounds ad- 
joining the church, or even antedating that period, when their 
ancestors buried in the grounds around the old monastery which 
stood where the famous old (St. Andrew) church, of Hingham, 
England, which was rebuilt in 1316, does now. Some light, how- 
ever, upon the question of the earlier burials in this cemetery 
may be gained by the following conveyances : — 



S. R. of D., Vol. 22, p. 172 (abstract) : John Coombs of Hing. 
" Taylor " and Elizabeth his w., in consideration of £120, sell to Nathaniel 
Hall of Hing. " Physician," home lot of ab. 6 acres situated near the 
meeting-house with a dwelling-house, etc.. thereon ; bounded on the high- 
way or common land S. W. and W. and N. W. ; Samuel Thaxter on the 
E. " and some of it towards the N. E. and part of the front of which 
lyeth towards the burying place." This conveyance was recorded in 
1703. 

II. 

S. R. of D., Vol. 27, p. 79 (abstract) : Nathaniel Hall of Hing. 
" Physician " and Anna his w., for £125, sell to Joshua Tucker of sd. 
Hing., all that their home lot of 6 acres (as previously described and 
bounded) " and part of the front lying towards the burying-place, and 
southerly upon a square rode of land bounded upon the front fence by 
the grave of Josiah Loring, deceased, and upon a square rode of land 
bounded upon the front fence by the grave of Rachel Fearing and upon 
the graves at the south comer of said land," etc. This deed was acknowl- 
edged the 28th of March, 1713. 



366 



History of Hingham. 




ENTRANCE TO HINGHAM CEMETERY. 



III. 

(Abstract.) In a deed dated at Hing. June 17, 1718, Joshua Tucker 
(before-mentioned) conveys to sundry persons hereinafter named, for a 
burying-place, lots of from one-half to one rod each, at the rate of 10s. 
per square rod. The boundaries of the said burying-place are described as 
follows : " towards the S. E. with the land of Samuel Thaxter as the 
fence now standeth ; S. W. with the Common behind the meeting-house 
as the fence now standeth ; and N. E. and N. W. with the residue of my 
s d lot." 

The persons to whom lots were sold and the quantities pur- 
chased by each, were as follows : — 



No. 



rod. 



rod. 



1. 


To several persons 




No. 


7. 


Heirs of Ephraim 






was granted by Doct. 








Lane, dec a .... 


i 

9, 




Hall to bury their rel- 




Cl 


8. 


Joshua Hersey . . . 


1 




ations here. 




a 


9. 


Heirs of Samuel Ho- 




2. 


Luke Lincoln 


1 








1 


3. 


John Fearing . . 


1 


a 


10. 


James Hearsey, Jun. . 


1 


4. 






a 


11. 


David Lincoln . 


1 


5. 


Samuel Gill .... 


^ 


a 


12. 


James Hearsev, Sen. . 


1 
7 


0. 


Heirs of Josiah Lor- 




a 


13. 


James Lincoln . 


£ 






i 


a 


14. 


Ambrose Low . . . 


1 



Burial-grounds. 367 

rod. rod. 

No. 15. Josiah Lane .... 1 No. 23. Isaac, and Jonathan 



16. Lieut. Thos. Andrews 1 Lane 



17. Thomas Joy . . 

18. John Langlee . 

19. John Lewis . 

20. Caleb Beal . . 

21. John Beal, Jun. 

22. Nehemiah Lincoln . £ 



1 " 24. Heirs of John Mans- 
1 field, dec d . . . . \ 

1 " 25. Benjamin Lincoln . . 1 

1 " 26. Heirs of Jacob Beal, 

\ dec d 1 



The six-acre lot of land mentioned in the foregoing deeds, was 
originally granted to Thomas Gill, one of the early settlers of 
this town. 

During the last and the early part of the present century the 
successive owners of this ground sold grave-lots to various in- 
dividuals for what would now be considered a very trifling sum. 
These sales were usually recorded in the private account-books of 
the proprietors. They were made not only by Joshua Tucker, 
but also by Elisha Leavitt, Colonel Nathan Rice, and other suc- 
cessive owners, Thomas Loud being the last person who sold 
grave-lots here in this way. As an illustration of the small com- 
pensation received from these sales before the present century, I 
copy from the day-book of Col. Rice the following : " Jan. 7, 
1793. Rufus Lane, Dr. To half a rod of land for a burying- 
ground, 8 shillings " (81.33). It should be remembered in this 
connection, however, that these grounds were in a rough, unkept 
condition, without avenues, paths, or shrubbery, and that they 
were frequently used as common pasturage for cattle, and also as 
a playground by children who resided in the vicinity. 

In 1832 an article appeared in the Hingham Gazette, suggesting 
" that some measures be taken to render the north burial-grounds 
more respectable in the eyes of strangers, more worthy of our 
own character as citizens, and more creditable to the feelings of 
respect entertained for those who have left the stage of human 
action forever." 

On the 9th of March, 1837, Adam W. Thaxter, of Boston, who 
was a native of Hingham, purchased of Thomas Loud the bury- 
ing-ground lot in the rear of the old meeting-house, and adjoining 
the estate of Rev. Charles Brooks on the east. By act of the 
Legislature the Hingham Cemetery was incorporated Feb. 28, 
1838, and by gift of Mr. Thaxter, dated Jan. 1, 1839, his purchase 
became the property of certain persons named in the act of in- 
corporation, and of all who should afterwards purchase lots and 
thereby become proprietors. Mr. Thaxter made a second gift to 
the proprietors of a lot of land which he purchased May 21, 
1838, of Jacob H. Loud. This adjoined a part of his first pur- 
chase, and extended to the mill-pond. Nov. 15, 1848, he bought 
of Atherton Tilden a tract of land which soon became the third 
gift of Mr. Thaxter to the cemetery corporation. 



368 



History of Hingham. 




;>/' * '%)W%M\^H\M 



TOMB OF REV. EBENEZER GAY, D.D. 



Other additions were afterwards made as follows : The pro- 
prietors bought of Jacob H. Loud, April 28, 1865, the orchard 
and garden spot, extending to South Street, which had previously 
belonged to his father, Thomas Loud. August 22, 1870, a lot in the 
rear of the easterly part of the First Parish grounds and of the 
estate of Mrs. Ezekiel Lincoln was presented to the proprietors 
by Hon. Albert Fearing; and April 16, 1877, an additional tract 
of land became the property of the corporation by the generous 
gift of the sightly eminence overlooking the harbor from the heirs 
of Isaac Hinckley, deceased. This extended to Water Street and 
gave a third entrance, so that all parts of the ground are now 
easily accessible from the public thoroughfares in this vicinity. 

A liberal sum of money for the improvement of the cemetery 
has been received from Fairs held in the years 1839, 1842, 1859, 
and 1866. From these sources upwards of five thousand dollars 
was raised, which, with the funds derived from the sale of burial- 
lots, has been expended in terracing the hillsides, filling up hol- 
lows, constructing avenues and paths, planting ornamental trees 
and shrubs, and in many other ways beautifying this historic spot. 

The grounds now comprise about seventeen acres. They are 
agreeably diversified by hill and dale, and many elaborately- 
wrought monuments and headstones of marble and granite add 
to its various attractions. Here lie the remains of Rev. Peter 
Hobart (reinterred from the first burial-ground), the first minister 
of Hingham, and his successors, Revs. John Norton and Ebenezer 
Gay ; also of Rev. Joseph Richardson and Rev. Calvin Lincoln. 
Here also are the remains of Col. Samuel Thaxter, Col. Benjamin 
Lincoln, and his son Maj.-Gen. Benjamin Lincoln, Gov. John A. 



Burial-grounds. 



369 




HINGHAM CEMETERY CHAPEL. 



Andrew, and many others who have been eminent in public as 
well as in private life. 

A beautiful gothic chapel, designed by J. Sumner Fowler, was 
erected on North Avenue during the summer and autumn of 1886. 
It is situated near the South Street entrance-gate, and is easily 
approached from several directions. It has a spacious auditorium 
in which to hold funeral services, convenient ante-rooms, and in 
many other respects affords those indispensable accommodations 
for a large and well-kept cemetery which are so much needed by 
the public at the present time. 

The oldest gravestone now standing in this ground was orig- 
inally erected in the first graveyard to the memory of Thomas 
Barnes, who had a grant of land here in 1637, and was the an- 
cestor of all who have borne this surname in Hingham and vi- 
cinity. It bears the following inscription : — 

THOMAS BARNS 
AGED 70 YEARES 
DYED YE 29 DAY OF 
NOUEMBER, 1672. 

The next oldest headstone is that of Capt. John Thaxter, who, 
while a boy, came to Hingham with his father, Thomas. It was 
undoubtedly placed over the grave of Mr. Thaxter in the first 
graveyard, and had been removed thence when that burying- 
place was allowed to fall into decay. The inscription reads : — 

Here lyes Buried 

ye Body of Capt John 

Thaxter. Aged 61 years, 

Died March ye 14*, 1686-7. 

vol. l— 24* 



370 



History of Hingham. 



The earliest headstone erected in this cemetery, although no 
doubt there were other burials here previously, has upon it the 
following : — Here Lies ye 

Body of Ephraim 
Marsh Aged 24 
Years Died 
Jan'y ye 2. 1708 

Of the historic monuments of the present century are the sar- 
cophagus bearing an inscription to the memory of Maj.-Gen. Ben- 
jamin Lincoln, the monument 
" To the First Settlers of Hing- 



ham, Erected by the Town, 
1839," the soldiers' and sailors' 
monument, and the statue of 
Governor Andrew. 

Since the Act of Incorpora- 
tion the officers of this ceme- 
tery have been as follows : — 

Presidents: Adam W. Thaxter, 
1838-53 ; Solomon Lincoln, 1853- 
55 ; John Bassett, 1855-70 ; Solo- 
mon Lincoln, 1870-81 ; Henry C. 
Harding, 1882. 

Secretaries : Jairus Lincoln, 
1838-44; Eobert T. P. Fiske, 
1844-66; Elijah L. Whiton, 
1866-70; George Lincoln, 1870- 
79; Charles B. W. Lane, 1879- 
88 ; Charles A. Lane, 1888. 

Treasurers : Up to 1870 the 
office of Treasurer was held by the 
Secretary ; since then it has been 
separate duty. Elijah L. Whiton, 
1870-81 ; Enos Loring, 1881. 

Directors : Adam W. Thaxter, 
1838-53 ; Jairus Lincoln, 1838-44; 
Jotham Lincoln, 1838-41 ; Edward Thaxter, 1838-42 ; Solomon Lin- 
coln, 1838-55; Robert T. P. Fiske, 1838-66; Rufus Lane, 1838-41; 
Charles Lane, 1841-54; Royal Whiton, 1841-65 ; Charles W. Seymour, 
1842-51 ; John Todd, 1844 — has been annually re-elected since; Bela 
Whiton, 1851-70; Amos Bates, 1853-54; Joseph Sprague, 1854-55; 
Rufus Lane, Jr., 1854-63 ; John Bassett, 1855-70 ; Elijah L. Whiton, 
1855-81 ; George M. Soule, 1863-68 ; Enos Loring, 1865, and annually 
re-elected since ; Isaac Barnes, 1866-70 ; Daniel Bassett, 1868-70 ; Solo- 
mon Lincoln, 1870-81 ; George Lincoln, 1870-79 ; Samuel Easterbrook, 
1870-83; Albert Fearing, 1871-75; David Whiton, 1875-77; John D. 
Long, 1877 ; Joseph Sprague, 1882 ; Charles W. S. Seymour, 1883 ; John 
C. Hollis, 1887 ; Henry Stephenson, 1887, died same year; Charles B. 
Barnes, 1888. 

Committee on Improvements : Jairus Lincoln, 1838-42 ; Rufus Lane, 
1838-39 ; Robert T. P. Fiske, 1838-66 ; Solomon Lincoln, 1839-42 ; 




FIRST SETTLERS' MONUMENT, 
HINGHAM CEMETERY. 



Burial-grounds. 371 

Hoyal Whiton, 1842-53 ; Charles Lane, 1842-48 ; Charles W. Seymour, 
1848-53; Bela Whiton, 1853-67; John Todd, 1853-67; Elijah L. 
Whiton, 1855-67 ; Enos Loring, 1866-67. 

In 1867 the Directors voted not to choose a Committee on Im- 
provements, but in place thereof to create the office of Superin- 
tendent, to which office John Todd was elected. Mr. Todd still 
holds this position, having been re-elected annually since the date 
-of its adoption. 



HINGHAM CENTRE CEMETERY. 

The older part of this centrally located, well-kept, and easily 
approached cemetery was probably first occupied for burial pur- 
poses as early as 1700. Its ancient memorials are numerous, 
well preserved, and carefully arranged ; and they afford much 
valuable information in the way of names and dates to the an- 
tiquary and genealogist. In the absence of any record by which 
to fix the precise time when burials were first made here, the in- 
scription upon the oldest stone originally erected here (which 
corresponds in elate with that first erected in the Hingham Cem- 
etery) will throw some light upon its early occupancy. The in- 
scription reads thus : — 

ERECTED 

In Memory of 

Hezekiah Leauitt 

Who Died 

April the 20 th 

1708 Aged 71 

Years & 7 

Months 

There is, however, another stone in this inclosure of still 
greater antiquity, which originally stood in the first burial-ground 
where the early settlers were buried ; but which within the pres- 
ent century was taken to Hingham Centre and re-erected in this 
cemetery. It bears the following inscription : — 

HERE LYES Y<= BODY 

OF MATHEW HAWKE 

AGED 74 YEARS 

DEC D DECEMBER Y e 

11 th . 1684. 

Concerning the early history of this burial-place but little in- 
formation can be obtained. It was undoubtedly rough, unfenced, 
and almost uncared for until after the Revolution. But with the 
establishment of our National Independence there seems to have 
come a desire for improvement, and this was made manifest both 
by individual and corporative acts. 

From an authentic source dating back a century ago I copy the 
following : — 



372 History of Hingham. 

" At a legal meeting of the Proprietors of the common and undivided" 
land in Hingham held on the first Monday in April 1788, it was 

" Voted, That all the Proprietors ways and undivided land be given 
up to the Town for their use and benefit forever on the following condi- 
tions, viz : That a highway be laid out beginning at the northerly end of 
the road leading from Tho? Cushing's house to extend North 27° west, 
and 4 rods in width 'till it comes into the road leading from Great Plain. 
Also that a road be laid out beginning at the northwest corner of the 
road leading from Elisha Lane's shop, to extend north 49° west, 3 rods in 
width 'till it comes into the aforesaid town road ; and that the land be- 
tween the two roads aforesaid be reserved for a training field ; and that 
the land to the eastward of the said ways be reserved for a burying-place ; 
and that no building be erected upon the said training field, or burying- 
ground ; that the town accept of the aforesaid roads, and all the Propri- 
etors ways and repair them as other public roads [are] if necessary." 

At a legal town meeting held on the first Monday in April, 
1788, it was 

" Voted, To accept of the Proprietors' ways, and of the Proprietors' 
land, not before disposed of, which they at a meeting held this present 
day made a grant to the town of Hingham." 

Report of a committee made April 4, 1796 : — 

"Whereas several persons have requested leave of the town to set up 
a fence in front of the burying-ground on the Plain, the committee ap- 
pointed to take their request into consideration have examined the ground 
and report that the petitioners have leave to set up a fence beginning at 
the southeasterly corner of Elijah "Waters' land, and to run