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H I S T O R y^^Cii^s 









Author of " History of Whatbly," " History of Northfield," " History of 
Framingham," " History of Brookfield." 



^7 5 





SOME years since a few citizens of Palmer commenced to 
agitate the subject of having a history of the town written 
before the older portion of the community, who were the con- 
servators of many facts, should pass away. 

Through their influence the matter was brought before the town 
in 1883, and a Committee on Town History was appointed, con- 
sisting of 0. P. Allen, C. B. Fiske, John Clough, E. B. Gates, Dr. 
William Holbrook, David Knox and G. A. Murdock. Dr. AV. H. 
Stowe was added to this Committee in 1884. Mr. Clough died in 
1884, and subsequently Mr. Murdock removed from town and 
ceased to act with the Committee. 

Soon after its appointment the Committee entered upon the 
work of collecting material. Mr. Gates accepted the onerous task 
of preparing the genealogy of the older families and of tracing out, 
by means of the records, the sites of the farms and residences of 
the first settlers, as well as prej^aring a new map of the town. In 
1887, the Committee asked for an appropriation for the purpose of 
procuring a competent person to write the history of the town. 
The sum of $500 was voted for that purpose. On investigation 
that amount was found to be inadequate, so the matter was 
deferred until 1888, when an additional appropriation of $1,000 
was voted. The Committee then made choice of Rev. J. H. 
Temple of Framingham as a competent man to do the work, as he 
had had extensive experience in this line of literature. In the 
judgment of the Committee, the result has justified the choice 
made. Mr. Temple has been able to gather more valuable material 
from archives outside of the town records than would probably 
have been done by others less conversant with such work. 


Tlio members of the Committee hiive devoted mncli time to the 
work and have sought to have it done in a most thorough manner. 
It has been the aim of all concerned to have a full and faithful 
history of the town presented. If anything has been omitted, it is 
because the material could not be obtained in shape to use. It is 
hoped the history now presented will meet the expectations of all. 
At the annual town meeting in 1889, the Committee reported that 
the history would be ready for publication during the season, and 
asked for an appropriation of $1,500, which was granted, and the 
Committee was authorized to publish the history on its completion. 

0. P. Allen, ^ 

Chas. B. Fiske, I 
E. B. Gates, 
Wm. Holbrook, 
David Knox, 
Willard H. IStowe, 

> History 

Palmer, Mass., July 2G, 1881) 

P B E F A O E 

THE materials of this history have been gathered from official 
sources, viz., the Elbows Plantation and the Palmer Dis- 
trict and Town Records, the General Court Records and reports 
and papers in the State Archives at Boston, the old Hampshire and 
the modern Hampden County Registries of Deeds and Probate, 
and the several Church and Parish books. In most cases official 
documents are copied verhatim et liberatim — this method being 
most satisfactory to antiquarians, and best illustrating the peculiari- 
ties and changes in the use of words and phrases, and the orthogra- 
phy of different periods and scribes. 

The Records of the Plantation are well preserved and are quite 
full. The District and Town Records, though the volumes are all 
extant, are meager in details and provokingly incomplete. Matters 
of the utmost importance would be brought before the town for 
consideration, would be discussed in Town Meeting and referred 
to a committee, which committee would report. But the only 
record made by the clerk was the fact that said committee reported 
and the report was accepted, with no intimation what was the 
character of the rejiort. It is likely that the report was placed 
on file; but the old files and papers have been largely used to kindle 
fires in the Town House. By the thoughtfulness and courage of 
Dr. "W. H. Stowe some of these papers were saved, and have 
added great value to these annals; but the wanton waste of the 
larger part of these old town documents is highly reprehensible. 
And many of the family records and papers — in existence fifty 
years ago — have disappeared and no one knows how. Even the 
letter of the mother of John King, our earliest settler, cannot 
be found among any of his descendants. Fortunately a copy was 
made, and a transcript of this copy appears in this book. 


The sevenil Church and Parish records are (or were) sufficiently 
full for denominational purposes^ while the actors were upon the 
stage and their memories good, but they fail to answer important 
historical inquiries. Except for a period of ten years — 1753-1763 
— no records of the Presbyterian Church, which flourished for sixty 
years, have been found. 

The studies preparatory to the writing of this history were em- 
barrassed by an unlooked-for difficulty, viz., the prevalence of 
some wrong notions which had taken root in the community re- 
specting an early Indian deed, which was supposed to cover the 
territory embraced in the Elbow tract, and the action of certain 
parties claiming to hold the lands under guaranty of said deed. 
Printed addresses and sketches and some more pretentious ac- 
counts Avere found in circulation and commonly accepted as reliable 
authority, that recognized the validity of these claims, and formu- 
lated conclusions accordingly. These premises and conclusions 
were flatly contradicted by state papers and county documents, 
and the searcher after the truth was left in perplexity. It was not 
until the writer discovered, by a critical examination of the deed 
itself, that the conveyance covered not a foot of Palmer territory 
and that all claims of title under it were consequently fraudulent; 
that the way was cleared for successful investigation. His conclu- 
sion was fortified by the General Court records and other cotempo- 
rary papers; and once on the right track, it was easy to understand 
the doings and sayings of the early settlers and describe the man- 
ner in which they gained valid titles to their homesteads, and laid 
the foundations of a hona-fide Plantation. 

The course of events is narrated, in the main, in chronological 
order, with an occasional episode to bring out and complete a 
picture of related transactions which over-lapped specific dates. 
The exception to this rule are the chapters on Schools and 
Industries, which seemed to require a continuous account, cov- 
ering the whole period of the town's life. 

The headings of the several chapters, and the connected table of 
contents will guide the reader in finding any given matter of in- 
terest to him. And the Index at the end will contain all the 


names of individuals mentioned in our earlier records, and the 
subjects treated of in the historical part of the book, as well as a 
reference to the &\RerQ\\t families grouped in the Genealogical Eeg- 

In the war records great pains have been taken to procure full 
and accurate rolls of officers and privates, with terms of enlistment 
and places of service. All the records extant relating to the 
French and Indian war, the Revolution, and the Rebellion of 
1861-5 are copied in extenso. 

The lists of names of the early settlers and of residents at va- 
rious dates down to modern times, will possess special interest to 
genealogists, and ma}- supply some missing links in family reg- 

The thanks of the author are hereby tendered to the several 
members of the Town Historical Committee, The Town Clerk and 
the several Church and Parish clerks, the agents and owners of 
the manufacturing companies, and other friends who have en- 
couraged and aided him by furnishing information and making 

timely suggestions. 


Eramixgham, Mass., July 29, 1889. 


On p. 21, foot note, for 1734 read 1737. 

On p. 44, fifth ]. from bottom, for soil read evil. 

On p. 75, fifth 1. from bottom, for cliairmen read cliaiiDncn, and 
same correction on p. 99. 

FerreWs Grist Mill. As stated on p. 83, tlio first mill was 
destroyed, but it was rebuilt at a later period, as see p. 270. 

On p. 197, for enlistment of William and John Carlyle, sec pp. 
149, 183. 



Topographical Description. 


THE town of Palmer, Massachusetts, originally lay in the old 
county of Hampshire, and so remained till the new county 
of Hampden was incorporated, February 20, 1812. It is 
bounded on the north by Belchertown and Ware ; on the east by 
Warren and Brimfield ; on the south by Monson ; on the west by 
Wilbraham and Belchertown. It is very irregular in shape, and 
contains about 20,000 acres. 

At the date of its first settlement by the whites and recognition 
as a plantation, it was known as the Elhoio Tract, the north bounds 
of which were within a half mile of the present Hardwick line ; 
and on the east it was bounded by the old Brookfield township.* 
The area of the Elbow Tract, according to Dwighfs Survey and 
Plan of 1723, was 23,619 acres. But the territory actually covered 
by the General Court's grant, under authority of which lands were 
laid out to public functionaries and to the Proprietors and Grantees, 
much exceeded this amount. 

A considerable slice of the southeasterly part of the Tract was 
cut off and included in the town of Western (now Warren) when 
that place was incorporated in 1741-2, and the northeasterly part 
was set off as the Ware Eiver Parish in 1742, and was incorporated 
as the District of Ware when the Parish was changed to a District, 
November 25, 1761. f Just before this date the Magoon estate was 

* As originally laid out, the west bound of Brookfield was a straight line, eight and one-half miles 
in length. This wouldlcarry Brookfield northwest corner, i6o rods north of the range of the present 
north line of West Brookfield, if said line be extended across Ware river. 

In laying out land grants in the Elbow Tract in 1742, Nathaniel Dwight, the surveyor, placed the 
north line of the most northerly lot at Brookfield northwest corner. [See Map, by E. B. Gates] 

+ The writer has found no record to show when the District of Ware wa? incorporated into a IJown, 


taken from Palmer (then a District) and annexed to the Parish. 
The General Court Records, under date of May 29, 1761, recite: 
" Petition of Isaac and Alexander Magoon, sons and heirs to the 
whole of the estate of Isaac Magoon, late of Ware River Parish, in 
the County of Hampshire, deceased, setting forth that they own 
about 400 acres of land in the northerly part of Palmer, which lies 
five miles from Palmer Meeting-house, through a bad road, and 
but two miles from Ware River Meeting-house, and the road natur- 
ally good, praying that they may be annexed to Ware River Parish, 
etc. Notice was ordered to be issued and served on the District of 

"Nov. 18, 1761. Ordered, that the estate described in the afore- 
mentioned Petition be annexed to the Parish of Ware River, and 
the inhabitants or possessors of said estate to do duty and receive 
privilege there." 

Brimfield Addition. "■ In General Court, Resolved and Ordered, 
that the Inhabitants, together with all the lands lying in the town 
of Brimfield north of the Country Road leading from Boston to 
Springfield, be and hereby are set off to the District of Palmer, by 
the following bounds, viz, : beginning at the Bank of Chicopee 
River on the north side of said Country Road by the foot of Scott's 
Bridge, so called, thence following said Road and bounding south 
thereon, to Springfield line ; then turning north in said line to said 
River, then turning up said River bounding northerly and easterly 
thereon, to the bridge aforesaid — and made part and parcell of said 
District, there to do duty and recei^^ privilege. 

'' Consented to, T. Pownall. 

'•'April 24, 1760." 

Under date of July 15, 1794, the town records state: ''On the 
petition of William Cowee and Elizur Cook of Western, dated May 
7, 1794, voted and granted the request of said petition, that their 
land lying in Palmer and joining their land in Western, be set off 
from the town of Palmer and annexed to the town of Western." 

February 7, 1831. "That part of Western lying west of the 
described line, beginning at a Rock in the line between the two 
towns, marked W. P., running N. 42|°, E. 192 rods, to a monu- 
ment in the line between the two towns marked, W. P. — being the 
same territory set from Palmer to Western, January 5, 1764 — is 
hereby annexed to Palmer." — Gen. Ct. Records. 

The surface of the ground in Palmer is best described by the 
word broken, hills and narrow valleys occupying the larger part. 


The rivers are bordered by comparatively small meadows, and 
except the neighborhood of the junction of Swift and Ware rivers, 
there are no plains of considerable extent. 

Streams. — The profile view makes the mountains appear the 
prominent feature of the face of the country ; a bird's-eye view 
shows the greater importance of the three rivers that bound or 
cross the territory, and furnish power to the chief productive 

Quahcmg River [sometimes called, incorrectly, the Chicopee — 
earlier Chikuppe]. This stream is formed of two branches, one 
rising in the east part of Oakham, the other in the southeast part 
of Eutland, which unite at the village of East Brookfield. It then 
flows through Brookfield, West Brookfield and Warren, striking 
the line of Palmer at a point just below the village of West Warren, 
whence it forms the curving boundary of the town for about one- 
third of its entire circuit. The stream then turns sharply to the 
north, receiving the united waters of Swift and Ware rivers a short 
distance from the south line of Belchertown. The enlarged stream 
here takes the name of Chicopee, and flows westerly to the Connec- 
ticut. The two elbows, one at the southeast, near the corner of 
Brimfield and Monson, and the other at the southwest, gave the 
original and significant name to the Plantation. 

Mill-seats. Blair's saw mill was put in near the Warren line, and 
was in use in 1830. The privilege is now unused. 

The privilege at Blanchardville as occupied as early as 1800, 

perhaps earlier. In 1805 Captain Hyde had mills here. In 

1818 Elisha Converse's mills are named in the records. In 1830 
Bugbee had a saw and grist mill here. 

In 1824 the Blanchards built their scythe factory on this fall, a 
little below the grist mill, and established what proved to be one of 
the most important of the early industries of Palmer. This, and 
the cotton mills put in at the junction of the three rivers, will be 
fully treated of in the chapter on Palmer Industries. 

Fordioays. Indian trails and the early bridle-paths and roads of 
the whites crossed the large streams at natural fording-places, i. e., 
where a bar made shallow water and a hard bottom. 

There was an early fordway about a mile above the southeast 
elbow, where the "Old Country Road" from Brookfield came to 
the river. 

Another important crossing-place was just below the mouth of 
Elbow brook, known in the early records as " the fordway against 
Micah Tousley's house." 


There was a ford way at Scott's bridge, where the " Bay Path " 
crossed into the Elbow Tract. 

Shearer's Ford, where the old Indian trail crossed the stream, 
was about forty rods above the junction of the three rivers. 

Ware River rises in Westminster, crosses the easterly part of 
Hubbardston, the northerly part of Rutland, the east and south 
parts of Barre, forms the dividing line between Hardwick and New 
Braintree, enters the town of Ware at its northeast corner, and so 
passing along the easterly side of said town and through the north 
central part of Palmer, unites with Swift river a half mile north- 
easterly of the village of Three Rivers. The main fall and privilege 
on this stream in Palmer is at Thorndike village, where a grist mill 
was put in in 1736, a saw mill at a later date, a fulling mill in 1797, 
and the cotton manufactory in 1836-8. [See chapter on Palmer 

Fordiuays. Tackel's ford, called a "shallow bar," was near 
Whipple's station, and is named on our earliest Plantation records. 
A bridge was built here in 1747. 

Hall's ford is a short distance above the junction of Ware and 
Swift rivers. Later it was known as Chapin's ford. 

Siuift River rises in the centre of Wendell, and runs a nearly 
south course through Shutesbury, forms the dividing line between 
Pelham and Prescott, through Enfield, between Belchertown and 
Ware, between Belchertown and Palmer, and for less than a mile 
in Palmer town. The fall at Bondsville is 31 feet, and was 
utilized early for a grist and saw mill, then for a fulling mill, 
then for a woolen factory, and since 1845 has been in the occupancy 
of a prosperous cotton manufactory. [See chapter on Palmer 

Brooks. There are several brooks in our town limits, some of 
them permanent, but mostly small conduits of the melting snows 
and frosts of the hill-tops. When fed by springs, they are marked 
by fertility and power. But their chief historical value is as land- 
marks of early grants and deeds. 

PottaquattucJc Brook, known in modern maps as King's brook, 
has its rise on the slope of the mountain of the same name, runs 
southerly through a hollow in Cedar mountain, and empties into 
the Quabaug near the Col. King place. A small saw mill Avas once 
built on this stream; and a fulling mill, which in 1790 was owned 
by Benj. S. Cummings. 

Wigioam Brook, often wrongly called Salisbury'.^ Brook, is west 
of the one last named, and empties into the Quabaug. In 1793 a 
saw mill was put in on this brook by Wm. King, Thomas Quinton, 


and others, each partner to share the income in proportion to his 
stock. The result of the venture is not known. 

King's Brook is the early name of the small stream, or outlet of 
some living springs, on which the Palmer Carpet Mills are located. 
Earlier a batting factory was established here. The brook runs 
through the farm where John King, Sen., located and lived most 
of his days. 

Dumplin Brook runs from the Old Centre, through Breakneck 
Hollow, and empties into the Quabaug. McMaster's saw mill stood 
on this brook. 

Cedar Swamp Brook drains the Cedar Swamp, and flows north- 
erly into Pottaquattuck pond. A small saw mill was built on this 
brook, on land now owned by Josiah Gates. 

Jabez Brook crosses the great plain and enters Ware river near 
Hall's ford. 

Springs. — The Iron Spring comes out of the hills near the War- 
ren town line, and flows towards the Qaabaug. It was once sup- 
posed to possess important medicinal qualities. 

Tamar Spring, and its outlet Tamar Eun, were notable landmarks 
in early times. The spring was on the Eichard Coombs home-lot, 
adjoining the home -lot of John King, Senior. Charles Upham 
now lives near by. 

Cedar Swamp was southeast of the Old Centre, north of the 
farm of Eev. John Harvey, the first minister of the Elbows Plan- 

Ponds. — Pottaquattuck Ponds [pautaquatuck, pau-ta-quam-ut], 
Great and Little, lie on the left bank of Ware river, southwest of 
the mountain of the same name. The first saw mill in the Plan- 
tation, erected under the auspices of the Proprietors, was put in at 
the outlet of this pond in 1730 by Steward Southgatc. He put in a 
grist mill here in 1737. The privilege was occupied by a fulling 
mill in 1795. It is now utilized for saw and grist mills. 

Crawford Pond is a small body of water, a short distance south 
of Bondsville. The story goes, that a young man of the name of 
Crawford (Crofoot), whose father lived near Palmer Old Centre, 
was working for the summer in Belchertown, but went home on 
the Sabbatii. This pond was on his way, and one morning in 
June he stopped and waded in to get some lilies, and was entrapped 
in one of the spring holes that abound in the bottom, and was 

GJassford's Pond, sometimes called in the records " Beckwith's 


pond," is a still body of clear water, on the farm of George Brown, 
a little way above the junction of Ware and Swift rivers. 

Knox's Pond, sometimes called Backus pond, lies in the high 
land to the north of the residence of David Knox. 

Hills and Mountains. — Cedar Mountain Range extends from 
near the Palmer Carpet Factory in a northeasterly direction 
through the town. The southerly end is known as Tamar hill; 
the north end in Palmer is called Chestnut mountain. Then, 
after a depression through which a brook finds its way, the range 
appears again as Kattlesnake hill, and Colonel's mountain, lying 
partly in Palmer and partly in "Warren. 

Pottaquattuck Mountain, the highest point of land in town, 
stands in the north part, east of Ware river. It was at about the 
geographical centre of the Elbow Tract, as first laid out. 

Ware River Hill, sometimes called King's mountain, lies east- 
erly of Thorndike and extends towards Palmer Old Centre. 

Chicopee Hill is between Palmer Village and Old Centre. 

DumjMn, a steep, craggy eminence, and striking feature of the 
landscape, is between Shearer's Corner and the Four Corners. 
The Ware River Railroad runs at its westerly foot. 

Point of Rocks, or as it is called in the earliest surveys and deeds, 
" The Rocky Ledge," is a well known sharp eminence in the west- 
erly part of Palmer village, on the old Bay Path. 

Tamar Hill, as before stated, is north of Tamar spring. 

Baptist Hill. This was the name given by vote of the town, in 
1855, to the eminence west and southwest of Three Rivers. 

Long Hill is a name early applied to the range on the west of 
Ware river; that extends from E. G. Hastings' northerly into Ware. 
After these lands came into possession of the Thomson family the 
range was often called Thomson hill. 

Breakneck Hollow is named in the early records. It was east 
of Dumplin. 

Wigwam Hollow, or Salisbury Hollow, is on the brook of 
the same name, east of Blanchardviile. 

Ross' Plain and Ross' Den were near the southeast corner of 
Bradford's one-hundred-acre grant, in the northwest corner of the 
Elbow Tract. 

Tar Kiln Hollow was in Alexander Tackel's one hundred acre 
Home Lot, laid out in 1733. 

" Rood's Den, so called," is named in a survey of 1742 as being 
on Archibald Boyd's fifty acre First Division Lot (No. 29), which 
he bought of John King. 


Great Plain was an early name applied to the comparatively 
level land lying within the bend formed by the coming together of 
Swift and Ware rivers. 

The land in the neighborhood of Four Corners is sometimes 
designated the Pine Plain, as were several other level spots then 
covered with the pine forest. 

The Washington Elm. — This noted and stately tree stands on 
the south side of the Old Bay Path, one-fourth of a mile west of 
Scott's bridge, on the farm now owned by M. W. French. It 
measures fourteen feet in circumference near the ground, and 
spreads about one hundred feet. 

The place is an old Tavern stand, once owned by Daniel Graves, 
who obtained license to keep a house of entertainment before 1760, 
which license was renewed to his son, Aaron, in 1761. This son, 
Avho as captain served in the Revolutionary War, and afterwards 
rose to the rank of major, and was for many years a leading man 
in our civil and political affairs, kept the tavern during his life- 
time. The house was a large square building, with a huge stack 
of chimneys in the centre. The house had fallen down, but the 
chimney was standing in 1850. 

The Elm took its name from the tradition, apparently well at- 
tested, that General Washington, when on his way to take command 
of the American army, accompanied by his Staff, General Lee, and 
the deputation sent from Cambridge to Springfield to meet and 
escort him to headquarters, halted with his party under the shade 
of this tree to rest and lunch about noon, June 30, 1775. Very 
naturally the party ordered milk and other necessaries from Captain 
Graves' tavern opposite. 

As to the story of Washington's second visit in 1781) and address- 
ing the people from a platform erected under this tree, there is 
less of probability. Everett, in his '' Mount Vernon Papers," says : 
" Washington left New York October 15, 1789, in a chariot drawn 
by four horses, accompanied by several of his state officers and his 
own servants. He passed through New Haven, Hartford, and 
reached Springfield at 4 o'clock on the 21st October, where he in- 
spected the stores kept at the arsenal, and put up at Parsons' 
tavern. He left Springfield Thursday morning, 22d, at 7 o'clock, 
and arrived at Palmer, stopping at the old Scott tavern, where he 
breakfasted. He then went east, reaching Brookfield at noon, and 
dined at Hitchcock's tavern." 

The Bear Tree. — This venerable pine is standing in the front 
yard of Ridge's Food Factory, and to appearance is sound and 


healthy. The tradition is, that in the time of the last Indian War, 
when men carried loaded firearms on all occasions, Deacon Thomas 
King, who lived on South Main street, started for meeting one 
Sabbath morning, armed as the law required, and on passing this 
spot spied a bear among the branches of this tree. Obeying a 
natural impulse, he fired and killed the dangerous beast. The law 
of self-preservation and the safety of his family and flocks required 
the deed, but the law of Sabbath observance was technically violated. 
The church took up the matter as a case of discipline, but in the 
end decided that it was a " work of necessity and mercy," and 
withheld censure. 

It is an interesting fact that, in all deeds of this estate down to 
the present time, the Bear Tree is reserved from sale and transfer 
with the fee of the land. 

The '7Wi Milestone is named in the town records, Nov. 3, 1794. 
It stood on the old Boston road, east of the house of Captain 


The Elbow TRxVct — Settlement, 171G-1728. 


IN order to form a clear conception of the situation of things when 
our ancestors first made their pitch on the Elbow Tract, it is 
necessary to recall some historical facts of local and related in- 
terest. Although nearly a century had passed since the valley of the 
Connecticut was first visited by the English, yet actual settlements in 
this immediate region were few and scattered — confined to the river 
valley and a few isolated spots. The expressive term, " wilderness 
land," could still be appropriately applied to a considerable part of 
what is now Eastern Hampshire and Hampden, and Western Wor- 
cester counties. The Indian towns, once so numerous, were de- 
serted, and only their "remains" attested where the red men had 
their homes ; but the stories of their barbarities and cruel orgies 
were the staple of fireside talk ; the scars made by their arrows and 
hatchets were shown by surviving soldiers ; the undefined dread of 
the lurking and revengeful savage "was in the air," and English 
homes were slow in taking their places. 

Springfield was first settled in 1636, and took in the territory on 
the east side of the river, now covered by the town proper. Long- 
meadow, Wilbraham, Ludlow and Chicopee, but the inhabitants 
largely dwelt near the river. 

Hadley was laid out and settled in 1659, and embraced the tract 
of land extending from the great falls above Springfield, twelve 
miles up the river and nine to the eastward, taking in, as was sup- 
posed, a part of Belchertown ; but settlements were confined to the 
river valley. 


A grant of territory for a plantation at Brookfield was made in 
1660, and some settlers came on that year. It contained a plat of 
six miles square — afterwards enlarged to eight miles square. But 
it had always been an isolated town, — the wayside inn of business 
and adventurous life, and the strategic point of offensive and 
defensive war. 

A grant of eight miles square, embracing the towns of Brimfield, 
Monson, AVales and Holland, was made in 1701 to some of the 
principal inhabitants of Springfield, who came upon the ground 
September 23d of that year, and fixed upon a site for the town-plot, 
and returned. A few settlers came on soon afterwards and Ijuilt 
houses — some to remain, others to return temporarily to Springfield. 
The plantation had, however, only got fairly under way, when John 
King made his pitch on the northerly side of the Quabaug. 

These comprised the bona fide settlements on the east side of the 
Connecticut in our vicinity, at the period in question. Brookfield 
had once been destroyed by the Indians and deserted, and was just 
now attracting a rush of substantial inhabitants. Hadley and 
Springfield had been retarded in growth by the Indian wars, and 
the aggregate population of the four towns named probably did not 
exceed 2,000 in 1715. 

The Equivalent Lands. — An event which had an important 
bearing on the settlement of the Elbow Tract had but recently 
occurred, viz., the giving of a large tract of equivalent land by the 
Province of Massachusetts to the Province of Connecticut, to satisfy 
the latter's claim for encroachment on her proper bounds. The 
towns of Woodstock, Enfield and Suffield were originally settled by 
Massachusetts men, and by her permission, and that Province exer- 
cised jurisdiction — as she supposed rightfully — over the territory 
included therein. On running the north line of her Province as 
claimed under her charter, Connecticut found that the said line 
would take in the three towns named. Massachusetts refused to 
give them up. But after a long controversy, in 1713 an agreement 
was made between the two colonies, that the line should be run 
according to the charter, Massachusetts was to retain jurisdiction 
over the towns already settled by her, and was to grant as an equiv- 
alent as many acres of unimproved land to Connecticut. On running 
the line it was found to strike the Connecticut river at a point ninety 
rods north of the northeast bounds of Suffield, so that Massachusetts 
had encroached upon Connecticut soil to the amount of 107,793 
acres. In 1715 two men from Connecticut and one from Massachu- 
setts laid out for Connecticut the 107,793 acres, viz., 51,850 acres 


east of Hadley, afterwards included in the towns of Belchertown 
and Pelliam ; 10,000 acres, afterwards inclnded in Ware ; and 
43,943 acres at Coasset, in the neighborhood of Brattleboro', Vt., 
Massachusetts then exercising jurisdiction of the southern part of 
Vermont and New Hampshire. 

This whole number of acres was advertised by the agents of Con- 
necticut in sixteen shares, and sold at auction in Hartford in April, 
1716, to various parties for 683 pounds N. E. currency, or a trifle 
more than three halfpence per acre. The money went into the 
funds of Yale College. 

The towns of Sufiield, Enfield and Woodstock continued in Massa- 
chusetts till 1747, when they refused longer to pay the taxes levied 
by that state, and on their petition the General Assembly of Con- 
necticut agreed to take them under her jurisdiction, and they were 
so received in 1749. No records have been found to show that 
Connecticut ofEered any compensation to Massachusetts for this 
territory, notwithstanding the fact that she had received the full 
value of it in the exchange of lands in 1715. 

Among the purchasers of these Equivalent Lands were Governor 
Belcher and John Eead of Boston, Nathan Gould, deputy governor, 
and Peter Burr, one of the assistant judges of Connecticut. Gover- 
nor Belcher secured a large interest in the part known as Cold 
Spring, which, on its incorporation in 1761, was named Belchertown 
after him. John Read bought out Gould and Burr, and held what 
is known as •'•The Ten Thousand Acres," w^hich is often referred 
to in our records, and which eventually became the western part 
of Ware. 

Face of the Country. — The forty years that had elapsed since 
King Philip's War, by which the Indian clans of Massachusetts had 
been dispossessed of their inheritance, and practically driven from 
their ancient dwelling places, had wrought important changes hi 
the appearance of the country, chiefly in restoring it to its pri- 
meval condition, rather than bringing on evidences of civilization. 
The natives had the custom of burning over the lands annually, to 
destroy the underbrush and rank weeds and grass, and thus enable 
them the more readily to find game, and render travel from village 
to village and to their fishing places easier. These fires consumed 
the soft parts of fallen trees as well as the sprouts, and left only 
the large timber standing. Wet swamps were protected from the 
fires, as they were not set till after the fall rains, and consequently 
such swamps were densely wooded, and afforded a shelter for game 
of all kinds, and a hiding-place for the savages themselves in case 


of need. They were also careful to protect their planting-fields, 
and the chestnut and white oak groves, for the sake of the nuts 
and acorns, valuable to them as a food supply. 

Thus when the English first came to Massachusetts, they found 
the dry uplands free from underbrush and covered with only large 
trees, so that travel on horseback — the only method of land car- 
riage tl)en in use — was feasible; the country wore an open park-like 
appearance, and the plains and meadows were ready for the plow 
and scythe. Wood, in his account written in 1634, says: "In 
many places divers acres are clear, so that one may ride a-hunting 
in most places of the land. There is no underwood, save in 
swamps and low grounds; for it being the custom of the Indians 
to burn the woods in Xovember, when the grass is withered and 
leaves dried, it consumes all the underwood and rubbish." He 
further says that there is good fodder in the woodlands where the 
trees are thin; and in the spring the grass grows rapidly on the 
burnt lands. 

The English settlers in many parts imitated the natives and 
liurned over the outlauds and commons, in order that their stock 
might find good pasturage. According to tradition, the Hadley 
men set fire to the hills of Pelham and Belchertown, where their 
cattle ranged; and the Brookfield settlers burnt over the lands in 
Ware, which thus obtained the name of "Brookfield pastures." 
This practice continued till Massachusetts passed a law in 1743 
restraining such fires, on the ground that the burning of the woods 
greatly impoverishes the soil, prevents the increase of fire-wood 
and timber, and destroys fences. 

At the period under consideration, the more secluded parts of 
the country had largely recovered from the effects of the annual 
bush-burnings. The hills and plains were assuming a more primi- 
tive aspect, and travel, except in the beaten paths and public high- 
ways, was difiicult. From the scanty records extant, it is evident 
that the Elbow Tract was in the main well wooded. The early 
votes indicate that there was much old pine timber lying upon the 
ground, having fallen from age and the storms, and perhaps more 
remotely from the effects of the Indian fires; and that a pretty 
heavy growth of pine, sufficiently large for saw-logs, as well as 
young trees, was standing. There is also frequent mention of old 
oaks and chestnuts, fit for cutting into "bolts," to be cleft or split 
into clapboards and shingles. These bolts were from four to six 
feet long, and when worked up the clapl)oards were an inch thick 
on the back and ten to twelve inches wide, ^\'hen laid as a single 
coverincr thev were durable, but admitted the cold air somewhat 


too freely. At cue time the Massachusetts hiws required that pine 
clapboards exposed for sale should be 4 feet 6 inches long, 5 inches 
broad, and f of an inch thick on the back, and be straight and well 
shaved. A law on the subject was enacted as late as 1783. It 
would appear, however, that the early settlers of Palmer built 
wholly of logs, with only the roof clapboarded or shingled; and 
after the saw mill was set up they made use mainly of sawed pine 
boards for covering their houses.* But the single boarding, un- 
matched, was at best a poor protection against cold winter storms. 
A few houses may have been boarded on the inside and ceiled, but 
they were the exception to the rule. And this accounts for the 
fact that the minister was allowed from 30 to 50 cords of wood 
as his yearly supply. Probably other families consumed as much. 

It is, however, evident that the larger part of the hard woods, 
such as the various sj)ecies of oak and walnut, which was of slow 
growth, and a very considerable part of the chestnuts and pines 
were comparatively small — "staddles" as they were called, and 
were esteemed for their prospective rather than their present value. 
And this rendered the clearing of lands a difficult and expensive 

The impression which a stranger would be likely to receive on a 
first sight of the Elbow Tract, is probably accurately described by 
the General Courtis committee, when they say in their report : 
''AVe find the greatest part of said land to be a Pine land, high 
hills and low valleys ; the hills very poor and mean, the valleys 
pretty good." The meadows on the river banks were comparatively 
narroAv, and the matted wild grasses and ferns and shrubs, left un- 
burnt for a series of years, were unsightly, and concealed the true 
character of the soil. And the contrast between them and the 
renovated plains and broader meadows of Brookfield and the Con- 
necticut valley was striking and repulsive. 

At this date there were two established routes of travel through 
our territory, viz., the Hadley Path, which crossed it at the extreme 
north, and the Bay Path, which ran along the south bounds. The 
Hadley Path was marked out soon after 1660, or what is rendered 
probable by known circumstances, it followed an earlier Indian trail. 
It ran from Old Hadley to Quabaug, connecting the two settlements 
socially and commercially, and was the military road during King 
Philip^s War, and continued the main line of travel between the 

*■ It is a current tradition, that the first framed house in town was built by Selh Shaw about the 
year 1734. It stood in the Ware river valley, not far from Tackel's bridge. Mr. E. B. Gates took it 
down in 1836. 


two points for near a century. It started from the plain on which 
West Brookfield village now stands, ran by the southwesterly corner 
of Wekabaug pond, thence in a northwesterly direction to near the 
northeast corner of Warren, thence directly over the top of Coy's 
hill, where was the famous Rich's tavern, crossed Ware river a short 
distance above the falls at Ware village, crossed Swift river not far 
from the bridge near the Samuel Lemmon place, thence passing 
near the centre of Belchertown, and so on the north side of the Hol- 
yoke range, crossing Fort river near the south end of Spruce hill, and 
so to Hadley street and Northampton. The Path for many years was 
only a "bridle- way" for men on horseback, and the streams were 
crossed at natural fordways. Perhaps the first attempt towards a 
bridge on this Path is indicated in the following order of Court in 
1672 : " Ordered that John Smith of Hadley be directed to fell a 
tree across Swift river, for a foot-bridge, if any such be near at 
hand." Two years later the Court required the town of Hadley 
"to build at least a foot-bridge over Fort river on the way to Qua- 
baug." In 1676 a cart-bridge was built at the same place.* 

The Bay Path was laid out in 1673, as appears from the following 
record : "At a county Court holden at Charlestown Dec. 23, 1673, 
John Stone, Sen., of Sudbury, John Woods of Marlborough, and 
Thomas Earns of Framingham, were appointed and impowered to 
lay out an highway for the use of the country leading from the 
house of John Livermore in Watertown, to a Horse Bridge (then 
being) near the house of Daniel Stone, Jun., and thence the nearest 
and best way to Marlborough, and thence to Quabaug." It ran 
from Watertown, through "Happy Hollow" in Sudbury (now 
Wayland), through the north part of Framingham to Marlborough 
centre, thence to Worcester and Brookfield, where it met the old 
Hadley Path, already described, and Mr. Pynchon's Path to Spring- 
field. Following this last named track, it crossed the river by 
Lewis' Milk Condensing Factory, thence running over the hill by 
the Patrick place, through Warren Old Centre to a point near the 
river, where it parted from Pynchon's track (which kept on the 
southerly side of the stream), crossed the river into Palmer below 
Powers Corner, and followed pretty nearly the old post road through 
the Depot Village, crossed the Quabaug again at the lower elbow, 
and so on to Springfield. The streams were crossed at natural ford- 
ways ; a large tree was thrown across for foot travel, and later tAvo 
trees laid side by side and covered with sjjlit timbers formed a 
horse-bridge for saddle and pack horses. Eude cart-bridges suc- 
ceeded in time. 

Judd's History of Hadley, p. 45. 


This Avas the main line of travel for pleasure, adventure, and 
light traffic between Boston and Springfield [the transportation of 
heavy and bulky articles was made by the water route], and was an 
important factor in the movement of troops and commissary stores 
during the Indian wars. But it was not a finished road at the be- 
ginning of the 18th century, as is seen from the following petition : 

To his Excellency, Richard, Earl of Bellomont : 

Wee the subscribers being very sencealjle of the inconveniencys that may 
happen in as much as the stated Road to Conitticot especially Betwixt 
Wooster and Brookfield is very much incumbered with Trees ffallen and 
many Rocky Swamps and other impassable Obstructions to Travellers, 
Drovers and others, and hazzarding life or limb of both men and Horses 
and other Creatures to great Losses and Damages, Humbly propose that 
there bee a suteable allowance granted to repaire and amend s*^ Road, at 

least to the sum of pounds, Out of the Publique Treasurie of this 

Province, which we humbly leave to consideration and Subscribe. 

John Ptnchon, 
Saml. Partrigg, 
John Clarke, 
Isaac Phelps, 
May 29, 1700. Saml. Marsh. 

The General Court voted the sum of £5, for mending the Road afore- 
said where it is needed, so that it be rendered passable : And the gentle- 
men Petitioners are appointed a committee to do the work. 

Probably the road remained a hard one to travel after the £5 had 
been expended in repairs, and even up to the time when John King 
removed from Boston to the Elbows. 

Ixdiax Occupancy. — In the earliest notices found in the Colony 
Records of the country hereabouts, there are references to at least 
three Indian trails which crossed the territory of Palmer — one in 
the eastern, one in the northern, and the other in the southern part. 
And this naturally leads us to inquire into the relation of the native 
red men to our soil. 

No records have been found to show that any Indian clan laid 
claim to ownership of the land now included in the town of Palmer, 
or that any deed of transfer to the whites was executed. Indeed, 
the peculiar conformation of the ground shows its unfitness for a 
tribal dwelling-place, and its fitness for other purposes in the native 
economy. Inclosed within large streams, it was effectually isolated, 
while its broken and hilly character rendered it specially adapted 
for a breeding and hiding-place of game, and the numerous falls in 
the rivers pointed to it as of exceptional value as a fishing-place. 


The Indians Avere wise in selecting spots for the different demands 
of their peculiar necessities. A site for a permanent village required 
a handy, never-failing spring of water, a stretch of plain land, easily 
worked, for planting-fields, and a commanding eminence for a de- 
fensive fort. For a spring encampment they chose a spot near the 
falls of a stream, where shad or salmon j^assed up to their sjDawning- 
grounds. The late summer and early autumn usually found them 
near their corn-fields, and, if given to roaming, for a winter home 
they chose a sheltered place, handy to oak and chestnut groves, and 
to swamps where deer and the larger game could be found. 

Several important tribal dwelling-places are known to have existed 
in this neighborhood. Natural conditions indicate and historical 
records prove that considerable Indian villages were established at 
Chicopee and Springfield, and at Brimfield and Brookfield.* A 
large clan had a permanent wigwam-site in Ludlow. Single families 
had abiding places at detached points, within the circle of which 
these towns may be reckoned the circumference. 

The old Trail from Woodstock, Ct., to the Great Falls at Holyoke 
crossed our territory. The "Old Connecticut Path" from Cam- 
bridge, the "Providence Path" from Mount Hope and the Narra- 
gansett country, and the "Nipmuck Path" from Norwich, met 
near Woodstock. A branch from here struck off to the northwest 
through Southbridge into Sturbridge, where it parted — one track 
going west past the lead mines to Springfield, the other keej^ing a 
northwesterly course, and crossing the Quinabaug river near Fiskdale, 
into Brimfield, through the Captain Abraham Charles farm, the 
Deacon Tarbell farm to the southerly slope of Indian hill, and 
passing just north of "Steerage Rock" to the Quabaug river, a 
short distance above the elbow, where it crossed into Palmer, and 
followed in the main the course of the Bay Path, crossing the river 
near Three Rivers village, and thence through Ludlow to the Great 
Falls. This continued to be a well-known Indiaii Path till after 
the close of Philip's War, and for much of the way was the white 
man's bridle-path, and later his cartway, till a settlement was begun 
on the Elbow Tract. 

The trail through the eastern part of the Elbow Tract ran from 
the native village at Sherman's pond in Brimfield to the falls at 
Ware village, thus opening direct communication between the great 
planting-fields at the former place and the important salmon fishing- 
place at the latter. And both these trails centered at the Indian 
stronghold on Indian hill, known to early history as Qnahaug Old 
Fort. This fort, situated in Brimfield, north of Sherman's pond 

• For a detailed account of these last two villages, see " Temple's History of Brookfield." 


and near the Warren line, is named in the contemjoorary records 
oftener than any of the neighboring native defences. But its exact 
location was unknown till the sjDot was discovered by the writer in 
1885, while following the Indian trails. It was identified by de- 
scriptions of scouts and reports of spies sent out by the authorities 
at Boston, and by topographical measurements. Locally and his- 
torically, it is a place of great interest. Not less than four important 
native trails converged here, making it a central strategic point. It 
was a day's journey from Maanexit in Woodstock, and a like distance 
from Agawam, Chickuppe and the Great Falls, and less than half 
that distance from Quabaug. The products of the planting-grounds 
to the south could be stored here as provision against a time of 
need. Major John Pynchon, writing in 1675, says of the place : 
"Ashquoach lies somewhat southwest of our way to Brookfield, and 
about 23 miles from Springfield ; . . . the Indians have a great 
corn-field hard by on the southward side, and not far southward are 
more Indian corn-fields." The fort was set on the highest point of 
the hill, where is a rocky eminence, easily defended on all sides. 
The view in every direction was extensive, and a watchman could 
readily detect the approach of friend or foe. A spring of water — 
the essential adjunct of an Indian fort — comes out at the foot of the 
precipice. There is a good place for wigwams in the sheltered 
depressions on the southeasterly slope of the crown of the hill, and 
also lower down, on a kind of shelf extending easterly from the 
spring for thirty or forty rods. Both this shelf and the depressions 
above appear to have remained nearly bare of trees until a compara- 
tively recent period — a fact common to Indian wigwam sites. 

The messengers and agents sent at different times by the English 
authorities to the Quabaugs, for one purpose or another, often men- 
tion their stop at Quabaug Old Fort, thus leaving us in no doubt as 
to what tribe the place belonged. It is especially memorable as the 
temporary refuge of King Philip, August 5, 1675, when on his flight 
from Pocasset, with a broken band of followers, in search of protec- 
tion and new allies. 

The trail through the northern part of the Elbows was the con- 
tinuation of what is known as the "Nashaway Trail," leading from 
Lancaster to the Great Falls in the Connecticut river. It kept on 
the easterly side of Ware river, via the Menamesit villages to Potta- 
quattuck pond, where it crossed at the well-known fordway, and 
ran in nearly a west course, crossing Swift river some distance below 
Bondsville, and so by the north foot of Minechaug mountain in 
Ludlow to Chickuppe. This gave ready access to the noted fishing 
places at Ware village, the one at the outlet of Pottaquattuck pond. 


tlu! pluiitiiig ground on the plain by Swift river, and reached with 
little deviation the great native rendezvous at Wallamanumps. 

Of the tribes that occupied the lands bordering on the Quinebaug, 
Quabaug and Menamesick rivers before 1636 our knowledge is 
scarlt3^ We know the names of their villages and their chieftains, 
but little of their numbers and public or private affairs. In his 
famous letter, dated Springfield, July 5, 1648, AVilliam Pynchon, 
speaking of some tribal outrages lately committed, says : '^ The first 
o that were murthered the last yere lived about 6 or 7 miles on this 
side Quabaug nerer us, [at Quabaug Old Fort] & the murtherers of 
them are known, as they affirm. And there are severall Smale 
Sachims of Quabaug; and in all nere places there are other smale 
Sachims ; no one Sachim doth rule all." 

One of these "smale" Quabaug villages and the only permanent 
native settlement within our original town limits which has been 
certainly identified, was situated near Colonel's mountain, in what 
was set off to Warren. It is thus described by Mrs. Eunice P. 
Cutter : " There was an Indian settlement at the eastern base of 
Colonel's mountain in the northwest part of Warren, near the town- 
farm house. It was in a sunny spot, sheltered l)y hills on the west, 
northwest and east. Two cool springs supplied never-failing water. 
Three trails led from the village — one to the Menamesick river for 
salmon (this was later the Knglisli bridlepath to Hadley); one over 
Coy's hill to Wekabaug pond for bass and pickerel, and the third 
down Blackmar brook and across Quabaug river, to intersect the 
old trail to Springfield. A single Indian lodge — built perhaps by 
the last of liis clan — ^w^as standing here as late as ]746, when An- 
drew Cwee took possession. At this date the native burial-place 
was well defined ; and their domestic utensils of stone, as well as 
arrow and spear points, were abundant in the soil." 

Menamesick. — The Indian name of the river which crosses our 
territory not only indicates its uses in the native economy, but has 
a valuable historical significance. The word Menamesick means 
"great fishing basket," or "fishing wier" (pronounced ware); 
and a village-site, or encampment-place, on the banks, would be 
called, according to their etymology, Menamesick-et — "at the fish- 
ing wiors," contracted, Menameset, now often written Wenimisset. 
The natives applied the name only to the places where their wiers 
were put in, but the English writers used it as the name of the 
stream. These wiers were set at the foot of the falls, and were 
chiefly for capturing salmon. Shad could not leap the falls at 
(.'hicopee, and consequently were absent from our streams. Sal- 

THE ELBOW TRACT — settlemf:nt. 1716-1728. 37 

mon, the stronger fish, made the passage with little difficulty. 
This fish ran up into the cool ponds, and the outlets of large 
springs, to deposit their spawn, and M^hen ascending, were caught 
with scoop-nets, or killed with spears and arrows. When descend- 
ing, they were taken in traps. These wiers were simply rude stone 
walls built from oi)posite sides of the river, pointing down stream, 
till they nearly met each other. At this narrow opening a large 
cage was placed, formed of twigs fastened to hoops by strips of 
tough bark. When trapped in this cage the frightened fish were 
easily captured. Traps of this kind were set in the Quabaug river 
at the falls in Warren, but appear to have been more numerous in 
the northerly stream. Their existence in the Ware river was 
matter of personal knowledge to men living 20 years ago. Indeed, 
some of them remained in place up to the time of establishing the 
factories at Ware village and (Jilbertville. 

With these facts before us, aided by our knowledge of Indian 
character and customs, it is easy to picture in imagination the an- 
nual spring gathering of the liiver Indians at the greater falls in 
the Connecticut and Chicopee rivers, and the Quabaugs at the 
lesser falls above Three Rivers. All were there, men, women and 
children. Allied clans from XashaAvay and the Nipmuck country 
were welcomed; salmon were plenty, and roasted on the hot embers, 
or boiled in the stone kettles, were very toothsome, and very satis- 
fying. The men took no thought for the morrow ; gorged them- 
selves to repletion; dozed in the sun: and when the gluttonous fill 
had been slept off, they gambled, or wrestled, or pitched quoits. 
The squaws did all the v\ork of feeding and waiting on their lords, 
and split and dried whatever surplus of fish was left, for future 
emergency. But the following extract from HuhhanV.'i HiMorif of 
Xeiv England, written in 1679, though relating to much earlier 
time, will give the facts, stripped of all fancy coloring : " Every 
noated place of fishing or hunting was usually a distinct seigniory, 
and thither all theire friends and allyes of the neighborhood used 
to resort in the time of yeere to attend those seasons, partly for 
recreation, and partly to make provissions for the yeere. Such 
places as they chose for theire abode, were usually at the Falls of 
great Rivers, or neare the seaside, where was any convenience of 
catching such fish as every summer and winter used to come upon 
the coast; att which times they used, like good fellows, to make all 
common: and then those who had entertained theire neighbors by 
the seaside, expected the like kindness from them againe, up higher 
in the country; and they were wont to have theire great dances for 
mirth at those generall meetings. With such kinde of entercourse 


were theire affayres and commerce carried on between those that 
lived up in the country, and those that were seated on the sea 
coast about the havens and channells that issued into the sea; 
where there used to be at all times, clams, muscles, and oaysters, 
and in the summer season lobsters, bass or mullet and sturoeon, of 
which they used to take great plenty and dry them in the smoake, 
and keepe them the rest of the yeere. JJ\) higher at the Falls of 
great Rivers, they used to take salmon, shad and alewives that used 
in great quantities, more than cart loads, in the spring to pass up 
into the fresh water Ponds and I^akes, therein to spawne, of all 
which they, with theire wiers used to take great store for theire 
use. In all snch places there was wont to bee great resort." 

The Indian clans had all been broken up and had left these parts 
and united with the Northern tribes, before a settlement was begun 
at the Elbows. But single families would return and erect a wig- 
wam on the old site, and plant a patch of corn and pumpkins. The 
name, Wigiuam brook, given to the little stream that enters the 
Quabaug near Blanchardville, indicates that an Indian family was 
accustomed to spend the summer on the plains there ; and it is not 
unlikely that they and their white neighbors would hold a corn-roast 
and succotash-party in September, in a shady nook on Cedar moun- 
tain. It is known that such was the case at Colonel's mountain, as 
already narrated; and roving bands often made temporary camps at 
the old fishing-places and remained through the summer. They 
were commonly a sorry set, and were suspected, and were a pest to 
the farmers. And when the French authorities in Canada, under 
whose protection they had placed themselves, instigated a war with 
New England, these rovers were ready to act as spies and guides. 
This happened in the war of 1722-1726, known as Father Ralle's 
War. The hostile bands traversed the country to the north and 
west of Brookfield, and kept these frontiers in a state of constant 
alarm. All the towns were guarded by troops, and scouts were sent 
into the woods. Large and small companies were continually passing 
and repassing on the Hadley Path. In a diary kept by Lieutenant 
Eleazar Warner of Brookfield, entries like the following are fre- 
quent : "Thursday, April 30, 1724. — A scout was sent through the 
woods to Kutland. May 1. — The scout returned from Rutland ; 
two Indians seen. May 2. — Two men guarding, the rest warding. 
Sabbath, May 3. — Two men guard the meeting-house. . . . 
Tuesday, June 9. — Warding, and a scout sent to Ware River. June 
10. — The scout returned ; made no discovery. June 11. — A scout 
sent up to the turn of Ware River. June 12. — The scout returned ; 
made no discovery. June 15. — A scout sent to the branches of 


Swift River." These soldiers were placed as guards of the farmers 
in plaiiting-time, and in haying and harvesting. They also guarded 
the teams on the way to and from the corn mill. 

We have no records to show that oitr few settlers at this date were 
molested, or that they were protected by soldiers. Indeed, as they 
wore squatters, and living here without leave or license from author- 
ity, the Province was under no obligation to protect them, as it did 
the inhabitants of Brookfield and Brimfield, There is a tradition 
that our settlers built one or more strong garrison houses for self- 
protection; aiKl such a thing is highly probable in itself and in the 
circumstances of the time. But when it is coupled with the story 
that " the men were accustomed to resort to these guard houses at 
night, leaving their families exposed and defenceless," it savors of 
the marvellous, for these guard houses were intended for the protec- 
tion of families, not as club-houses for men, where they w^ould be 
out of danger and could smoke and sleep in peace. And our fathers 
were not such cowards as this arrangement would imply. And 
when the story goes on to say that "it was generally found to be 
the aim of the savage foe to cut off the male portion of the inhabit- 
ants, well knowing that from them they had the most to fear," the 
story-teller exposes his ignorance of Indian warfare; for the j^rime 
object of the savage was to secure scalps or captives for the sake of 
the reward offered for them by the French governor of Canada ; 
and there was less danger in attacking a defenceless woman than 
an armed man, and a female scalp brought the same price as a male. 
Some parts of the old tradition are credible. That the first settlers 
here, as in other exposed frontier plantations, used to go to their 
fields with a gun in one hand and a hoe or scythe in the other, is 
undoubtedly true. That the women left at home "had loaded fire- 
arms ready, and ready arms to use them in defence of themselves 
and their little ones, ajid kept a constant lookout for the dreaded 
foe," is undoubtedly true. And that Grandmother Ferrell, all 
alone in her log cabin and startled by the howling of her dog, 
should feel greatly relieved when she heard the well-known yell of a 
panther, and exclaim, " Oh mister I I'm glad it is 0}ihi yon ! " is a 
most natural experience, and a pleasant family reminiscence. But 
it should not be overlooked that traditions, to be valuable, must 
have the elements of probability, and be in agreement with well- 
known cotemporary facts.* 

* The traditions above referred to are given at length in Rev. Mr. Wilson's " Historical Address," 
which is a paper of the highest value ; but in noting the traditions it is evident that he merely repeated 
the story " as it was told to him." 

The tradition that a stockade was built on a knoll in Great Plain, near the house of George Brown, 
is not improbable, though the date must have been as late as 1745. Several families were then living 


The following letter relates to the time now under consideration, 
and gives us a glimpse of events current on our borders : 

Woodstock, March 8, 1727-8. 

On Tuesday last, at 3 P. M., Moh-gun-neat, a Norwich Indian, with 
Mo-as-quin-ne and Chaus-ham, two Pequods, came to my house and gave 
me the following Relation, viz. : That two Maqua men and a squaw, with 
an infant of about 6 mouths old, came into an House somewhere on the 
road between Springfield and Brookfield (not far from the house of Robert 
Old) the beginning of last week ; who having affronted the woman of the 
house (the only person then at home) by hanging on their kettle over her fire 
and turning away her kettle. Either the man of the House or some other 
man coming in, fell foul upon one of the Maqua men, and with a great stick 
has very much wounded his shoulder and back. And the child very nar- 
rowly escaped with its life, having been grazed on the belly with a stick of 
wood thrown at the squaw, the sharp end whereof carried away part of the 
child's clothing. He also destroyed and ruined the Maqua's kettle, etc. 
That the Maqua is full of resentment, and has vowed revenge on the man 
with his hatchet in May next (unless satisfaction be made him), at which 
time he proposes to return with 30 of his countrymen, who will, if he shall 
be seized, fall upon the English. The Indians, my informers (who have 
been with the Maquas since the violence done them) were sober, and 
seemed very much concerned lest a war should ensue with the Maquas. 
They also say, the Maquas were urgent with them to go with them at their 
drawing otf. But although they declined it, yet they expressed great dis- 
satisfaction at the treatment the Maquas met with. I thought it my duty 
to transmit this account to your Honour, who best know what method will 
be proper to take, etc. John Chandler.* 

Names of the Plantation. — The earliest discovered docu- 
ment relating to our territory is "Dwight's Survey'' of 1723, in 
which the place is designated "A Tract of Land belonging to the 
Province of the Massachusetts." It is also called "A Tract of 
Unappropriated Land of this I'rovince lying between Brookfield 
and the Equivalent Land." 

A deed is on record at Springfield, dated 1729, in which the 
place is called New MarlboroiKjli. .lames McElwain, .Sen., one of 
our early settlers, '^'of New Marlborough," sells his farm of 100' 
acres, ''lying at the Junction of Ware and Swift Kivers," to Messrs. 
(ireen and Walker of Boston. In 1733 the widow Lienor quit 
claims her right of dower in the same land, and dates '' New Marl- 
borough or Kingsfield.^^ In votes passed by the inhabitants, in 

on the plain, and were somewhat isolated and mucli exposed to attack from roving savagas, and at 
least one old Indian trail crossed this plain. 
* Mass. State Archives, LXXII, 365. 


what they termed toAvn meetings, held May 6, 1731, and Feb. 12, 
1732-3, the phice is called " Kingsfield," 

The earliest date when the name, The Elbows, is found, is in a 
petition of Joseph Wright and others to the General Court, June 
15, 1731. Aug. 31, 1731, Henry Dwight, Esq., in a petition, desig- 
nates it '*A Tract of Land called The Elbows, lying between Had- 
ley and Brookfield." In the report of the Committee, Ebenezer 
Burrill, Esq., chairman, dated June 21, 1733, the place, or planta- 
tion, is designated Tlie Elbow Tract. And as the said report was 
accepted by the General Court, and its recommendations ratified, 
this became its legal name. Steward Soiithgate, the first clerk of 
the Plantation, commonly wrote "Elbows," as the heading of 
papers ; but where the record has official or legal force, he uni- 
formly writes "The Elbow Tract." After Jan. 1741-2, other 
Plantation clerks introduced the name Kingstown, as a heading of 
papers, but uniformly wrote "The Elbow Tract" as the legal 

When the Plantation was organized by the General Court into a 
District, Jan 23, 1752, the Act established the name The District 
of Palmer. 

Date of the First Settlement. — All extant records concur 
in fixing the date of the first permanent settlement on the Elbow 
Tract in 1716; and the first settler was John King. He pitched 
near the Quabaug river on the little brook, appropriately named for 
him King's brook. "Tradition says that this pioneer family spent 
the first night of their sojourn here at the spring on the hill-side, 
near the old grave -yard, where their dust now slumbers. Some 
apple trees are said to have sprung up near by, from seed dropped 
by them from the fruit they were eating." Mr. King came hither 
from Boston, where his eldest son was born in 1715, by the old Bay 
Path, on which his log cabin was placed. 

The following letter, long preserved in the family, but now lost, 
contains what is known about Mr. King's parentage and birth- 
place: — 

Ednarston [Edwardstone ? J, April 20, 1718. 

Dear Son, — I received your letter April 6th, and there could nothing in 
the world be welcomer to me, except yourself. You send me word you are 
married. I pray God to bless you, and grant you both a happy life to- 
gether. You send me word you have met with hardships since you left 
me, which is a great trouble to me ; but I am glad to see in your letter 
that you have overcome them. But I think I shall never overcome my 
grief to think you are so far off that I have but little hope of ever seeing 
you again. But, if it is possible, let us meet once more again, which if I 


had not hopes of, my heart would break. But since we cannot enjoy your 
company, I beg of you to miss no opportunity of letting me hear from you. 

I am where you left me, and hope I shall be as long as I live. My son 
Jonathan and my daughter Mary are with me. I am sorry to hear you 
live in such a desert place, without neighbors. I often wish myself with 
you. Some of our neighbors here talk of going. I wish they may. I 
will encourage them what I can. And I doubt not but the gentleman that 
brought the letter to me will be a good neighbor and friend to you. I pray 
God he may be. 

Your brothers and sisters are all overjoyed to hear from you, and desire 
you to send as often as you can ; and pray send word how we may direct 
to you. You send me word you have a son. I pray God to him; he 
is the only grandson I have. Your brother William and your brother 
Thomas have two brave daughters apiece. I pray God to bless you and 
your wife and child. I could wish your child with me. I have sent a small 
token to you of ten shillings; and your brothers and sisters have sent one 
shilling apiece to the child, which is tifteen shillings in all. 

I am glad to hear you live under the ministry of the Gospel. I pray 
God to give you grace to improve by it. I hear you keep good fires. I 
often wish myself with you. The gentleman has almost persuaded your 
brother Jonathan to come, if I could spare him. 

Your ever loving mother, gjj^.^. 

As appears from his acknowledgement in a deed, Mr. King had 
a qvasi residence in Springfield; /. e., had religious privileges there, 
it being the meeting-house nearest his dwelling-place. For though 
he was a squatter on Province land, he was required by law to at- 
tend on Keligious Worship with the organized church next to his 
abode. That he did so attend on the ministry of the Word, is evi- 
dent from his mother's letter. 

Mr. King had a large family of sous and daughters, many of 
whom located near him on the Hay Path, which gave rise to the 
name "King's Row," applied to that part of the highway running 
through the Depot Village. 

Other families came on soon after Mr. King; but the precise 
date of their coming is not known. -Joseph Flamont was here in 
1720; so were James and Robert Smith, Sen. John Thomson came 
before 1725. Samuel Frost, John Kilburn, Joseph Wright, Sen., 
and Jun., Isaac Burr, James Dorchester, Thomas Jennings, Andrew 
Bailey, James McElwain, were here early, probably before 1728. 
Micah Tousley and Robert Old were living on the south side of the 
river over against the Elbows, in 1723, as appears on Dwight's 
" Survey and Plan" of that date. 

Except Mr. King, most of the early comers were from neighboring 
towns and plantations. The Cluipius, Cooleys, i:)orchesters, Graves', 


Miricks. Parsons', Scotts were from Springfield and the river towns, 
some of whom held their claims and helped build up the settlement, 
and others sold out and returned to their former homes. Many 
that signed the different petitions for a township, and some who 
received grants of home-lots, did not become permanent residents. 
Contrary to a prevalent idea among our people, there is pretty con- 
clusive evidence that no prearranged scheme for taking up these 
lands, nothing like a homogeneous colony took possession and 
divided the territory among themselves at any specified date; but 
both the English and the Scotch came in separate families or small 
companies, as inclination or necessity prompted, and made a pitch 
where they best could. Some sets of families were related by kin- 
ship, some by marriage, and some had no outside alliances. This 
will account, in part, for the social frictions and antagonisms to be 
developed hereafter. 

An impulse which ultimately led to the building up of our Plan- 
tation and gave character to early society here, had been set in 
operation a century before, and with no thought or purpose of 
American colonization. A brief account of this event, which re- 
sulted in two widely separated emigrations, is in place here, as it is 
intimately connected with the early fortunes of The Elbows. 

The Scotch— or Scotch-Irish, as they are more commonly called — 
that came to America in a body in 1718-19, were the descendants 
of a colony which migrated from Argyleshire, in Scotland, and 
settled in Ireland, in the province of Ulster, as early as 1612. This 
migration was brought about by the fact that, in the reign of 
James I, on the suppression of a rebellion of his Catholic subjects 
in the north part of Ireland, two million acres of land there, com- 
prising nearly the whole of the six northern counties, fell to the 
king as sovereign owner. His Scotch and English subjects were 
encouraged by liberal offers and grants, to leave their own country 
and settle upon these vacated lands. It was a stroke of kingly 
policy, made on the supposition that the turbulent spirits of the 
Emerald Isle, who had so often defied the authority and arms of 
the British government, might by this means be awed and con- 
trolled. A reason is thus made apparent for the enmity so constantly 
manifested by the native Irish towards their Protestant neighbors, 
who were occupying the soil from which their countrymen had been 
forcibly expelled. 

Under the temptation of a home on good soil, large numbers of 
Scottish emigrants located in the north counties of Ireland at the 
date in question, and in the reign of Charles II they received acces- 
sions by new arrivals. But it was in the latter part of the century, 


during the reign of Willium iuid ^^ary, that the most notable 
migration occurred. 

But their religious peace and safety in their new homes were of 
short duration. Though they were permitted to maintain their 
own forms of worship unmolested (they were Presbyterians), still 
.they were compelled to aid in supporting a clergyman of the estab- 
lished order, and a tenth of all their increase was rigorously exacted 
for this purpose. Besides, they held their lands by lease from the 
crown, and not as proprietors in fee. And many circumstances, 
easily imagined, in addition to the original strong traits of character 
which mark both the Scotch and the Irish, had served to inflame 
and strengthen the enmity existing between the two peoples. As 
Macaulay has forcibly said : " On the same soil dwelt two popula- 
tions, locally intermixed, morally and politically sundered. They 
sprang from different stocks. They spoke different languages. 
They had different national characters, as strongly opposed as any 
two national characters in Europe. There could therefore be little 
sympathy between them.* 

It was in view of these embari-assments and evils, incident to 
their domicile in Ireland, that the Scotch settlers were induced to 
try another migration, and this time to a new and untried region 
in America. Their knowledge of the country was derived from a 
young man named Holmes, son of a minister, who carried back a 
favorable report of the country. Yet they could have scarcely 
realized that they were leaving a better for a poorer agricultural 
country, and that they must endure privations and hindrances. 
But they were bound to shake off the trammels that had been im- 
posed on their religious rights, and secure freedom of conscience, f 

Their first move was to send over, early in the year 1718, the 
Rev. Mr. Boyd, to present an Address to Governor Shute of ^lassa- 
chusetts ; and in case of sufficient encouragement from him, to 
make the necessary arrangements for their reception. This Address, 
couched in respectful language, and signed by more than 20U adult 
men, among whom were nine ministers of the gospel and three 
other graduates of the University of Scotland, is here given in full. 
It has great historical value, locally and generally, as indicating the 
good state of education among the peasantry of the Protestant 

* "Nothing was more offensive to tliese emigrants than to be called 'Irish.' The Rev. Mr. 
McGregor, first pastor of the church at Londonderry, N. H., in a letter to Governor Shute, pro- 
tests in strong language against the name being applied to them." — Belknap's History of New 

t " They carried their household gods with them; and their religious peculiarities became more 
dear in their land of exile for the dangers and sorrows thro' which they had borne them." — Hon. 
IV m. Will is. 



counties of Ireland at that date, and it furnishes a list of the names 
of the ancestors of manv of our most lionored families.* 

[Copied from Parker'' h ^'History of Loi/donderry.''] 
Memorial to Gov. Shute. 

To His Excellency the Right Honourable Collonel Samuel Suitte Governor 
of New England. 

We whose names are underwritten, inhabitants of y^ Xorth of Ireland, 
Doe in our own names, and in the names of many others our Neighbours, 
Gentlemen, Ministers, Farmers and Tradesmen, Commissionate and appoint 
our trusty and well beloved Friend, the Reverened Mr. "William Boyd of 
Macasky, to His Excellency the Right Honourable Collonel Samuel Suitte 
Governor of New England, and to assure his Excellency of our sincere and 
hearty inclinations to transport ourselves to that very excellent and re- 
nowned Plantation upon our obtaining from his Excellency suitable incour- 
agement. And farther to act and Doe in our Names as his Prudence shall 
direct. Given under our hands this 26th day of March, Annoq. Dom. 


James Teatte, V. D. M. 
Thomas Cobham, V. D. M. 
Robert Houston, V. D. M. 
WiUiam Leech, V. D. M. 
Robert Higinbotham, V. D. 
John Porter, V. D. M. 
Hen. Neille, V. D. M. 
Tho. Elder, V. D. M. 
James Thomson, V. D. 
Wdham Ker 
\yill. McAlben 
Johon Andrson 
George Grege 
Andrew Dean 
Alexander Dunlop, M. 
Arch. M. Cook, M. A. 
Alexr Blair 
B. Cochran 
WiUiam Gait 
Peter Thompson 
Richard McLaughlin 
John Muar 
"William Jeameson 
Wm. Agnew 

Jeremiah Thompson 
John Mitchell 
James Paterson 
Joseph Curry 
David Willson 
Patrick Anderson 
John Gray 
James Greg 
Alex' McBride, Bart. 
Sam. McGivoru 
John Hurdock 
Geo. Campbell 
James Shorswood 
John McLaughlen 
George McLaughlen 
James Henre 
Thomas Ramsay 
Francis Richie 
James Gregg 
Robert Boyd 
Hugh Tarbel 
David Tarbel 
John Robb 
Jeatter Fultone 

* Of the men from the North of Ireland who settled in New England and the Middle States, a 
writer of note has said: "They were men of pluck and muscle, who hewed down the trees which 
buiit their frontier homes and churches; men who coveited no fine linen for their tables, so that they 
had enough of corn-bread and potatoes; and yet imbued with such a thirst for learning that they 
became the founders of many of our foremost schools and colleges." 



Robert Wear 
Alexr Donaldson 
Archil Duglass 
Robert Stiven 
Robt. Henry 
James Pettey 
David Bigger 
David Patteson 


John Wight 
Joseph Wight 
Robert Willson 
James Ball 
Andrew Cord 
James Nesmith 
John Black 
John Thompson 
Samuel Boyd 
Lawrence McLaughlen 
John Heslet 
George McAlester 
Thomas Ramadge 
James Campbell 
David Lindsay 
Robert Giveen 
James Laidley 
Benjamin Gait 
Daniel Todd 
Robt. Barr 
Hugh HoUmes 
Robt. King 
John Black 
Peter Christy 
James Smith 
James Smith 
Patrick Smith 
Sameuel Ceverelle 
James Craig 
Samuel Wilson, M. A. 
Gawen Jirwen 
Robert Miller 
Thomas Wilson 
William Wilson 
James Price 
Ninian Pattison 
James Thompson 
John Thompson 
Robert Thompson 

Adam Thompson 
Alexander Pattison 
Thomas Dunlop 
John Willson 
David Willson 
John Moor 
James McKeen 
John Lamont 
John Smith 
Patrick Orr 
Bonill Orr 
William Orr 
John Orr 
Jeames Lenox 
John Leslie 
John Lason 
John Calvil 
Samuel Wat 
James Craford 
David Henderson 
Matheu Storah 
David Widborn 
Luk Wat 
Robert Hendre 
William Walas 
Thomas Walas 
Thomas Cewch 
William Boyd 
Hugh Orr 
Robert Johnston 
Thomas Black 
Peter Murray 
John Jameson 
John Cochran 
Samuel Gonston 
Thomas Shadey 
William Ker 
Thomas Moore 
Andrew Watson 
John Thonson 
James McKerrall 
Hugh Stockman 
Andrew Cochran 
James Carkley 
Lawrence Dod 
Sandrs Mear 
John Jackson 
James Curry 



James Elder 
James Acton 

Samuel Smith 
Andrew Dodge 
James Forsaith 
Andrew Fleeming 
George Thomson 
James Brouster 


James Baverlan 
Peter Simpson 
Thomas McLaughlin 
Robert Boyd 
Andrew Agnew 
James King 
Thomas Elder 
Daniel Johnston 
Robert Walker 
David Jonston 
James Steuart 
John Murray 
Thomas Blackwel 
Thomas Wilson 
John Ross 
William Johnston 
John King 
Andrew Curry 



Samuel Code 
James Blak 
Thomas Gro 
Thomys Ouston 
Jame Gro 
John Clark 
Thomas Boyd 
Thomas McFader 
David Hanson 
Richard Acton 
James Claire 
Thomas Elder 
Jeremiah Claire 
Jacob Clark 
Abram Baberley 
Stephen Murdock 
Robert Murdock 
John Murdock 

Willjam Jennson 
James Rodger 
John Buyers 
Robert Smith 
Adam Dean 
Randall Alexander 
Thomas Boyd 
Hugh Rogers 
John Craig 
Wm. Boyle 
Benj. Boyle 
Ja. Kenedy 
M. Stirling 
Samuel Ross 
John Ramsay 
John McKeen 
James Willsone 
Robert McKeen 
John Boyd 
Andrew Dunlap 
James Ramsay 
William Park 
John Blair 
James Thompson 
Lawrence McLaughlii 
Will. Campibell 
James Bankhead 
Andrew Patrick 
James McFee 
James Tonson 
Georgt^ Anton 
James Anton 
George Kairy 
Thomas Freeland 
Thomas Hunter 
Daniel McKerrell 
Horgos Keneday 
John Suene 
Adam Ditkoy 
Alexander Kid 
Thomas Lorie 
Thomas Hines 
Will Halkins 
George Anton 
John Colbreath 
William Caird 
John Gray 
John Woodman 



Andrew Watson 
William Bleair 
Joseph Bleair 
Hugh Blare 
Samuel Anton 
James Knox 
Robert Hendrey 
William Dunkan 
David Duncan 
John Muree 
James Gillmor 
Samuel Gillmor 
Alexander Chocran 
Edward M Kene 
John Morduck 
Samuel McMun 
Henry Calual 
Thomas McLaughlen 
Robert Hoog 
John Millar 
Hugh Calwell 
William Boyd 
John Stirling 
Samuel Smith 
John Lamond 
Robert Lamond 
Robert Knox 
William Wilson 
Wm. Paterson 
James Alexander 
James Nesmith 
David Craig 
Weall. McNeall 
Thomas Orr 
William Caldwell 
James Moore, Jr. 
Sam. Guuion 

Matthew Lord 
Robert Knox 
Alex. McGregore 
James Trotter 
Alexander ]\rcNeall 
Robert Roo 
Joseph Watson 
Robert Miller 
John Smeally 
James Morieson 
James Walker 
Robert Walker 
Robert AYalker 
AVilliam Calwell 
William Walker 
Samuel Young 
Alexander Richey 
James Morieson 
Joseph Beverlan 
Robert Crage 
John Thompson 
Hugh Tomson 
James Still 
James Hoog 
Thomas Hanson 
John Hanson 
Richard Etone 
James Etone 
Thomas Etone 
Samuell Hanson 
James Cochran 
James Hultou 
Thomas Haretone 
John Cochran 
William Cochran 
Samuel Huntor 
John Huntor 

Oil recei\iiig a favorable report from Mr. I'oyd, a large part of 
the signers converted their pro])erty into money, and embarked in 
five ships for Boston in America, where one hundred families ar- 
rived Aug. 4, 1718. A considerable number of these emigrants 
remained in Boston, where they united with others of their coun- 
trymen, already residents, and organized the First Presbyterian 
Church and Society, over which the Ivev. John Moorhead was in- 
stalled pastor. Others located in Andover and adjoining towns. 
.Sixteen families, however, went eastward in a body, but eventually 

THE ELBOW THA(^T — SETTLKMEKT, 171(5-1728. 39 

turned tlieir course and settled at Nutfield, now Londonderry, N. 
H. Another portion of the company repaired to Worcester, where 
they proposed to form a distinct settlement, and establish the 
Presbyterian order, under the ministry of one of the pastors Avho 
had come over with them. For reasons not clearly explained, per- 
haps not fully understood, the settlement here did not prosper. 
Perhaps Congregationalism was stronger than Presbyterianism ; 
perhaps the standing order was overbearing, and the exotic imbi])ed 
prejudices that both acted and re-aoted; perhaps the Scotch charac- 
ter had too many points of antagonism with the American character 
of that age, ;ind each thought to crowd the other, and as a natural 
consequence, the weaker were forced from the field. At any rate, 
the colony in large part dispersed. A part went West, and planted 
themselves at Unadilla, on the banks of the Susquehanna in New 
York. Some of the families located in Spencer; some in Stow; 
some in Hopkinton; some crossed over into Connecticut, and some 
came to The Elbows. Probably the first of these came here in 
1720 ; and others followed at different dates, scattering along till 
1733. A part of the Worcester colony, joined by a fresh arrival of 
their countrymen, settled at Coleraine in 1736; and a company of 
thirty-four, partly recent emigrants, purchased of Col. John Stod- 
dard, Jan. 1, 1739-40, a township to the east of Amherst, being 
the northerly section of the Equivalent Lands. To this, the first 
comers gave the name Lisbon, or New Lisburne — changed to Pel- 
ham, on the incorporation of the town Jan. 15, 1742. 

As will be seen on examination, several of the men whose names 
are found in the list of addressers to Gov. Shute, came early to 
Palmer. Among these were Eobert Dunlop, James Moor, John 
Moor, John Paterson, William Paterson, James Smith, Patrick 
Smith, Robert Smith, .John Thomson, Eobert Thomson. And 
other family names soon appear among our inhabitants, as Bell, 
Blair, Crawford, Flamont (Fleming), Lamont (Lemmon), Rogers. 
A few of the Scotch families that settled here before 1733 came 
from Londonderry, N. H. ; but the majority of our Elbows planters 
appear to have been of a later and direct emigration [in 1727], as 
their names are not found on the petition of 1718, nor in the list of 
the New Hampshire company. 

These settlers came on in families, old and young, grand-parents, 
parents, and children, with character, goods, and associations, all 
])Ound together in a bundle by common ties. 

Circumstances of the First Planters. — All accounts agree 
that the majority of the early comers to The Elbows were of the 


middle class, and expected to depend on their labor for support. 
The timber was at hand with wliich to build their log cabins. But 
their "claims" must be cleared and broken up, and seeds must be 
planted for future crops. The Scotch emigrants brought flie pota- 
toe * with them to America, a vegetable till then unknown to our 
people; and it was an important article of their annual food supply, 
as it has since become to American families. Fish were plenty in 
the Quabaug and Ware rivers, and game in tlie swamps. Hogs 
were a well known commodity here, from the first, and were eatable 
from pighood onward. They brought, or purchased, stocks of neat 
cattle, which would be at once " marked " and turned out to graze 
in the woods. Corn and the smaller grains ripened early on the 
newly cleared lands; and tlnis a fair variety of food was secured for 
daily wants. 

The main crops raised by these first comers, besides i)otatoes, 
were Indian corn, summer wheat, rye, peas, oats, barley (for malt) 
and flax. At "country pay" prices, /. e., for barter and the pay- 
ment of rates, wheat was usually reckoned at 5 shillings per bushel ; 
rye, barley, malt and peas, 4 shillings ; corn. 3 shillings. The price 
at our plantation was somewhat higher, as is shown by the follow- 
ing vote : ^^ Voted, that what grane Mr. Harvey takes towai-ds his 
rates he is to have as follows, to wit, wheat eight shillings per 
bushel, rye six shillings, and corn four shillings." Cash prices 
were usually one-third less. 

What surplus grain could be spared was carted to Springfield, 
where it was taken by traders, and paid for in cash or goods, usually 
the latter. Several thousands of bushels of wheat and peas were 
annually shipped from Springfield to Boston by water. Corn was 
not an article of shipment at this date. 

As a means of raising money, these first comers to the Elbow 
Tract made considerable turpentine and tar. The pitch pines, 
which were then the old growth on our plains, were "boxed" by 
cutting a hollow the width of an axe in the trunk, where the tur- 
pentine would collect, and could be dipped out into pails and barrels. 
Much of the tar at first was obtained by burning in kilns the knots 

' The potatoe of that day was a coarse-grained and harsli-tasted tuber, and was slow to be intro- 
duced into our American families as an article of food. Many of our older people refused to taste of 
it till the day of their death. Though raised in Pelham in 1740, it was ten years before it found its 
way to Hadley and Northampton. It was regarded as a curiosity rather than a thing of utility. The 
boys would do errands for a man who had them, and receive a potatoe in payment, which they would 
plant in the garden merely for looks' sake. In 1763 Josiah Pierce of Hadley raised S bushels, and it 
was a wonder what he would do with them. In some towns it was regarded as a sort of " forbidden 
fruit." The Rev. Jonathan Hubbard of Sheffield (who died in 1765), came near being dealt with by 
the church /or raising twenty husheU 0/ potatoes in one year'. As late as 1795 potatoes were not a 
regular article of food among the better class of farmers in eastern Massachusetts. 

TIIK ELBOW TRACT — SETTl-HMK.VT, 1710-17:^8. 41 

and hearts of old fallen trees.* (Jovernor Winthrop of (Connecticut, 
in a paper written in 16tj2, speaks of the pitch pines that grew in 
the barren plains of New England from which tar was made, and 
describes the fat knots and the method of burning in kilns. lie 
says : '• Many old trees had been blown down long befoi-e, and had 
all perished except the knots where the bough wae joined to the 
tree, and some of the body towards the root, which were full of 
turpentine. The fires of the Indians that burnt up the dry and 
rotten parts of the old logs, only scorched the knots and heart full 
of resinous matter." These old pine knots and hearts were also 
used by the settlers for "candlewood," /. e., for lighting the house 
at evening for such purposes as were not met by the blaze on the 
hearth. Every well-to-do family provided itself with a cart-load of 
this touchwood in the fall. When sold to the villagers the price 
was 6 to 10 shillings per load — considerably higher than what was 
paid for walnut wood. Many votes were passed and orders issued 
(to be copied hereafter) at the annual meetings of our Plantation, 
regulating the gathering of candlewood and the making of tar and 
turpentine. The following is a sample : '' Voted, That all or any 
person or persons whomsoever who shall Box, Chip or Work any 
Pine trees standing on y^ Commons for drawing Turpentine shall 
be deemed tresspassers, and Proceeded against accordingly by the 
(jQj^tee appointed to Inspect and take care of the Timber of the 
Commons." In Xorthampton an order was passed in 1699, '"That 
no more candle wood should be collected for use within seven miles 
of the meeting-house, on forfeiture of the same ; and that pine 
trees shall not be boxed for turpentine within three miles." 

The early settlers here also disposed of saw-logs, and later of lum- 
l)er, as a means of income. At first the logs were drawn to Spring- 
field, where saw mills were erected as early as 1G6T. The logs were 
sold at the estimated board measure, and the price commonly paid 
was 4s. to 4s. 6d. per 100 feet. The following votes shed light on 
this matter : " Elbows, Dec. 20, 1736, Voted, That any person.^; 
who have right or interest in the Comm.ons, shall have full liberty 
to take up and improve by drawing immediately to some Saw mill 
in y® Township any Pine loggs that have lain so long fallen that 
y® Bark will freely strip or peel off them." The next yaar it was 
voted, "'I'hat all persons who have right or interest in the Commons 
shall nevertheless 1)e deemed trespassers and proceeded against ac- 
cordingly, who shall cut or carry away from said Commons any 
Pine loggs or other timber, in order to transport it into any other 
town or place before it is sawed by some Saw mill in the Tract." 

* "Tar Kiln Hollow," on Alexander Tackel's home-lot. is named on tl e records in 1733. 


In May, 1738, the restriction was modified as follows : *' Voted, that 
every one of the proprietors of y® Commons shall have liberty to 
carry off loggs or timber now lying fallen on any of the said Com- 
mon Lands; in Proportion to their several interests under the 
following restrictions, viz*- : That so many shillings as each proprie- 
tor was rated for his Common Land to y® Minister's last year's 
Salary ending in November : So many Pine Trees now fallen or 
Oak or Chestnut Trees standing, he may have liberty to take off 
and improve to his particular advantage : Or to cut and take off so 
many loads of Fire-wood (Provided no staddles or young trees less 
than six inches diameter at y® stump shall be included in such 

Spinning a'ssd Weaving. — An important means of family in- 
come to -our first settlers was the spinning by the women of linen 
thread, and weaving the same into fine cloth, which found ready 
sale at good prices in Springfield and all the older towns. Next to 
food-grain, flax was usually regarded as the most essential crop, as 
it was a chief dependence for clothing. Almost all the domestic 
cloth used for common family garments, sheets and other Ijed furni- 
ture, table cloths, napkins, towels and bags, were the product of 
flax, either in the form of linen or tow. The flax was home-grown; 
and the cloth was home-made. Some smart females learned the art 
of making linsey-woolsey of flax and wool; but it required special 
skill. The more common way was to make tow cloth and linen 
checks, and exchange them with the traders for linsey-woolsey. 
Silks and calicoes were obtained in the same way. Sheep are men- 
tioned as found in the Connecticut valley as early as 1660; but the 
great risk from wolves, and the expense of a shepherd, prevented 
the keeping of them by common farmers. Much of the wool used 
in our families came from Newport, E. I., and was procured by ex- 
change for tow and linen cloth. The wool cost in money about Is. 
per pound, and was all carded by hand. Worsteds were combed — 
not carded — from the finest wools. It could be said in truth of the 
women of those days, they '^ sought wool and flax, and worked 
willingly with their hands." Cotton was procured in the West 
Indies, and was comparatively expensive. It was spun upon the 
great wheel, like wool. Checks and stripes of all cotton, or cotton 
and wool, were considerably worn. 

There was an Order of the General Court passed May 14, 1656 — 
Requireing if imjiroovement of all Hands in Spinning : — 

This Court, taking into serious consideration the present straights and 
necessities that lye uppon the countrie in respect of cloathing, which is not 


like to be so plentifully supplied from forraigae parts as iu times past, and 
not knowing any better way and means condueeable to our subsistence 
than the improoveing of as many hands as may be in spinning woole, cot- 
ton, flax, &c. — 

It is therefore ordered by this Court and the authoritie thereof, that all 
hands not necessarily imploid on othec occasions, as weomen, girles and 
boyes, shall and hereby are enjoyned to spinn according to their skills and 
abilitie; and that the selectmen in every town doe consider the condition 
and capacitie of every familie, and accordingly to assesse them at one or 
more spinners ; and because several families are necessarily imploide the 
greatest part of theire time in other business, yet, if opportunities were at- 
tended, some time might be spared at large by some of them for this worke, 
the said selectmen shall therefore assess such families at half or a quarter 
of a spinner, according to theire capacities ; Secondly^ that every one thus 
assessed for a whole spiner doe, after this present yeare, 1656, spinn, for 
thirty weekes every yeare, three pounds pr. weeke of linin, cotton, or 
woollen, and so proportionally for half or quarter spinners, under the 
penaltie of twelve pence for every pound short ; and the selectmen shall 
take ppeciall care for the execution of this order, which may be easily 
effected, by dividing theire several townes into tenn, six, five, and to ap- 
point one of the tenn, six, or five to take an account of theire division, 
and to certifie to the selectmen if any are defective in what they are as- 
sessed, who shall improove the aforesaid penalties imposed upon such as are 
negligent, for the encouragement of those that are diligent in theire labour. 

This order of the Court was in force, in substance at least, either 
as a law or a custom, for near one hundred and fifty years. And as 
late as the year 1809, a bridal outfit always included a "great 
wheel,'" a "little wheel," and a "reel." And it was matter of 
pride iu our girls to know how to use them all. 

The Scotch women — wives and daughters of the early settlers of 
this town and Pelham — excelled in the art of spinning fine linen 
thread. They brought Avith them the "little wheel," commonly 
called the "foot wheel," which enabled them to make a finer and 
evener thread than could be spun on the more cumbersome large 
wheels heretofore used by our English dames ; and the cloth 
woven of such thread had a proportional excellence. "Scotch 
linen " at once became fasliionable and in demand among the more 
wealthy families — greatly to the advantage of our people at the 

Dwight's Flax of 1723. — This survey — the oldest known to be 
in existence — of the territory embraced in the Elbow Tract, is en- 

* "The Scotch emigrants of 171S introduced into Boston the flax spinning-wheel, the familiar 
domestic instrument of their native households. This had quite a run in Boston ; schools *ere 
established to teach the art of spinning;, and ladies of the first quality were found among the votaries 
of this useful art." -jVow. IVm. Willis. 

44 in STORY OF r.\LMHK. 

titled •• A Plat of the Survey of a Tract of Land belonging to the 
Province of the Massaciiusetts, bounded ])artly on Swift river, and 
partly on Ware river and jiartly on Chickaby river ; westerly on 
Chickaby river, southerly partly on Bi'ooklield river and partly on 
Brookfield line ea.sterly, and jiartly on Ten Thousand Acres of the 
Equivalent Land, so called, and partly on J'rovinee Land northerly. 
The contents of the whole (Mr. Clark's five hundred acres and 
Capt. Dwight's three hundred acres excepted) is 22,819 a. 2 r. 27 p. 
Pr Tim° Dwight Suv'." By this Plat the northeasterly corner bound 
was on the west side of Ware river, and near the present line of 
Ilardwick, which wa.s the northwest corner bound of Brookfield, 
as laid out in 1701. 

This Survey and Eeturn to the General Court is here referred to 
and has s})ecial value, as proof that the territory included, was re- 
garded at that date as Province Land, not appropriated by the 
government, and not rightfully held by any claimant, except as 
specified in the Description. It follows then, that John King, and 
the Springfield men, and the Scotch families were only squatters, 
living there without right and title to the land they occupied. 
Why they were there will appear from their own statement, to be 
given in full in the next chapter. 

But while these hardy adventurers were making heroic efforts to 
clear the forests and establish homes for their growing families — 
apparently undisturbed by the Province authorities — a party ap- 
pears on the stage, who shifts the scenes and interrupts the move- 
ments, and gives presage of a finale of calamity and soil. 

Lamb and Compaxy's Claim to the Elbow Tract. — Soon 
after it became an established fact that a permanent settlement was 
to be made across the river to the west of Brookfield and north of 
Brimfield, a syndicate of gentlemen, survivors and heirs of a com- 
pany that in 168(5 had bought a large tract of land of the Indians 
"lying near Quabaug," made a movement to locate said purchase 
so as to cover the tract in question. 

As this transaction had an important bearing on the early settle- 
ment of our town; and the said company's claim to our territory, 
and sale oi' lots to some of the first comers, was the cause of vexa- 
tious losses and delays, and of movements and counter movements, 
and is often referred to in our Plantation Kecords ; and as very 
erroneous ideas prevail respecting the bounds of the land actually 
purchased of the Indians and the rights which accrued to Lamb 
and Company under said purchase; it seems to be necessary, and 
an act of justice to all parties concerned, that the true history of 


the said purchase, and the long subsequent claim, together with 
the action of the General Court thereon, and the final outcome, 
should be presented here in full. This history is wholly gathered 
from cotemporary official documents, found in the county registry 
at Springfield ; in the State Archives at Boston ; in the General 
Court records, and the record of the Proprietors of Lambstown. 

The Indian- Deed. — "Know all Men- By These Presents that 
we John Magus, Lawrence Nassowanno attorneys to Annogomok 
Sachem of the tract of land called Wombemesicock : James & 
Simon sons & heirs of black James Sachem of the Nipmug coun- 
trey, for divers good causes and considerations us thereunto move- 
ing : And more especially for & in consideration of y® sum of 
Twenty Pounds current money of New England to us in hand paid 
by Joshua Lambe, Nath: Paige, Andrew Gardiner, Benja. Gamblin, 
Benjamin Tucker, John Curtis, Richard Draper and Samuel Bug- 
gies of Roxbury In the County of Suffolk In New England, y® Re- 
ceipt whereof we Doe hereby acknowledge ourselves therewith to 
be fully satisfied contented and paid : Have given granted bar- 
gained sold aliened enfeoffed & confirmed, and by these Presents 
doe fully freely & absolutely give grant bargain sell aliene enfeoife 
and confirm unto the said Lambe, Paige, Gardiner, Gamblin, 
Tucker, Curtis, Draper and Ruggles. their Heirs & Assignes, a Cer- 
tain tract or parcell of land Containing by Estimation Twelve miles 
long North & South; & Eight miles wide East & West Scituate 
lying & being Near Quabaug Commonly known by the Name Wom- 
bemesiscock: being butted and bounded Southerly upon the land of 
Joseph Dudley Escf lately Purchased of the Indians, Easterly the 
Southernmost Corner upon a Pond called Sasagooka Paug and 
Soe by a brook which Runneth Into the s*^ Pond & Soe up North- 
erly into a place called Wequaes & Soe still Northerly untill It 
meets with a River Menamesick & Westerly by the River untill it 
come against Quabaug bounds and Joynes unto their bounds, or 
however otherwise butted & bounded : Together with all and 
singular y® rights commodities liberties privileges & appurtenances 
whatsoever to the same belonging or however otherwise appertain- 
ing: To Have and to Hold the said tract or parcell of land scituate 
containing & being as aforesaid to the said Lambe, Paige, Gardiner, 
Gamblin, Tucker, Curtis, Draper & Ruggles their heirs and assignes 
in common tenancy to their only propper use and behoofe forever. 

And the said John Magus, Lawrence Nasowanno Attorneys afore- 
said, James & Simon Heirs of black James as aforesaid Doe cove- 
nant promise and grant for themselves Heirs executors & adminis- 


trators to & with the said Lamb, Paige, Gardiner, Gamblin, Tucker, 
Draper, Curtis and Ruggles their Heirs and Assigns that they will 
the above granted and bargained land & every Part and pareell 
thereof with their and every of their appurtenances, warrant & de- 
fend from all & every person & persons whatsoever claiming any 
right or title thereto or interest therein from by or under us. 

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands & seales this 
27th day of Dec' Anno Domini 1G86." 

John ]\Iagus, and seal 

Lawrence Nasowanna and seal 

James his mark and seal 
Simon his mark and seal 
Anogemag his mark and seal 
John Magus, James and Simon 
Indians acknowledged the same 
June 25, 1G87 before me 

Wm. Stoughton. 

On the 7Dh day of May: 1723: This deed was received : and 
was then here Eegistered from the original : 

Pr John Pynchon Reg*. 

The Province claimed, under its charter, the sole right of fee 
simple in the land covered by the charter. But in making acqui- 
sition of particular territory from the Indians, " It was usual to 
obtain from the head men or chiefs of a tribe dwelling upon the 
same, a formal deed of release, for which some satisfactory, though 
often inconsiderable, compensation was paid. Upon application to 
the General Court, the title thus acquired was generally confirmed, 
but upon such conditions as the Court saw fit to prescribe. Com- 
panies of private speculators early engaged in the business of thus 
buying up Indian titles to lands, which they secured to themselves 
by confirmatory act of the General Court." Judge E. Wash- 
burn. So far as appears from the records, Messrs. Lamb and 
Company obtained from the Province authorities beforehand no 
liberty to purchase the land in question, nor did they afterwards 
secure a confirmation of the granted title, nor did they put the 
deed on record. Indeed the wording of their petition of June, 
1727, is evidence that the successors of the purchasers did not 
then claim a right of fee in the land. "A petition of Joshua 
Lamb and others, praying that this Court would confirm unto them 
and those they represent and their associates the said Tract of land 


described iu the deed herewith exhibited.*^ The General Court 
refused its sanction to their claimed rights under the deed; conse- 
quently the said deed was in law null and void ; and the records 
show that it was so regarded and treated by the Legislature in all 
its siihseqveut doings. This important fact will clearly appear from 
the General Court Eecbrds, to be quoted in these pages. 

The bounds of the tract named in the deed to Lamb and Com- 
pany are not easily traced by the description, except the line on the 
westerly side, which is definitely stated, viz : " Westerly by the 
liiver Menamesick untill it come against Quabaug bounds and joynes 
uzito their bounds." This is explicit, and was easily followed then, 
and remains unchanged by the lapse of time. This places the 
southwest corner of the tract at a point on Ware river, about three 
miles above where Ware Village now stands, and effectually dis- 
poses of the question of the company's right to the Elbow Tract. 
Not a foot of the Elbow Tract was covered by the deed. And as 
the entire piece specified in the deed lay easterly of Ware river, and 
Avas eight miles wide, its southeast corner would be near the Spen- 
cer line; and "twelve miles long North and South" would carry 
the north bounds to the extreme northerly line of Rutland. 

To go somewhat into details: Messrs. Lamb and Company 
suffered their Indian deed to remain a dead letter for 37 years, till 
all l)ut one (Richard Draper) of the Grantees had deceased, at 
which date it Avas put on record in the Hampshire county registry. 
Four years later, the heirs and assigns of the grantees organized, 
and made their first move to take possession of their property, as 
aj)pears from the following Agreement : 

Whereas, we the subscribers or our ancestors have fairly purchased of 
the native and original owners thereof a certain Tract of land lying near 
Quabaug or Brookfleld, commonly then called by the name of Wombe- 
mesisecock for a valuable consideration, as per the deed thereof duly ex- 
ecuted, acknowledged and recorded, bearing date 1686 will be more plainly 
manifested : and 

Whereas the bounds of said Tract be not so certainly known, or the 
contents thereof : 

We Therefore, the persons concerned, viz. Joshua Lamb for himself, 
Nathaniel Paige and Christopher Paige as heirs to Nathaniel Paige, Samuel 
Green and Edward Sumner as assigns to Andrew Gardner's heirs, Caleb 
Seaver one of the heirs of Benj. Gamblin, Benj. Tucker and Samuel Davis 
as heirs to Benjamin Tucker, Benj. Smith on behalf of John Curtis' heirs, 
Richard Draper for himself, and Joseph Ruggles for the heirs of Samuel 
Ruggles : Do Hereby Authorize and empower the above named Samuel 
Green to employ and improve a surveyor and two other persons 
suitable for that purpose, to view and consider and mark out the said lands, 


as butted and bounded in said deed : to take an account of the waste land, 
ponds, as well as other land therein fit for settlement : and make report of 
their doings to ourselves the last Tuesday in April next : that so we may 
proceed therein for the mutual advantage of the purchasers : — the said 
meeting to be at the house of Simon Rogers in Boston on the Tuesday. 
Witness our hands this 20th of February 1726-7. 

At a legal Proprietors' meeting at Simon Rogers in Boston April 25, 1727. 
In the first place by a major vote of the proprietors we chose Deacon 
Richard Draper moderator of the said meeting : In the next place by a 
major vote of the Proprietors we chose Joseph Ruggles Proprietors' clerk : 
In the next place voted that Capt. Samuel Green should be allowed the 
charges in his account expended upon finding out the said land, to be paid 
at the next meeting : and in the last place voted that this meeting be ad- 
journed to the same place the last Tuesday of May next at one of the clock 
in the afternoon. 

May 30, 1727, at adjourned meeting voted by the Proprietors of a certain 
Tract of land contained in a deed signed John Magus, Lawrence Nassa- 
wanno, &c., that Col. Joshua Lamb, Deacon Richard Draper and Capt. 
Samuel Green be a committee to represent the whole Proprietors, and to 
prefer such a petition to the Honourable General Court as they in their 
prudence may think fit, the prayer of which to contain what may be most 
needful for the safe proceeding of said Proprietors in settling the said 

The doings of the above named committee are indicated in the 
following extract from the General Court Records: 

A petition of Joshua Lamb, Richard Draper and Samuel Green as they 
are a Committee for a number of Purchasers of a certain Tract of Land 
lying near the Town of Brookfield, Shewing that the said Richard Draper 
and sundry others formerly purchased of the Indian Proprietors a large 
Tract of Land called Wambemisiscook, bounded and described by the deed 
herewith exhibited, which has been acknowledged and recorded, And pray- 
ing that this Court would confirm unto them and those they represent and 
their associates the said Tract of Land, that so they may bring forward a 
Settlement on the said Land. 

In the House of Representatives, Read, and Voted that the contents of 
six miles square be allowed to the purchasers of the Tract of Land within 
mentioned between the Town of Brookfield and the E(iuivalent Land in 
the County of Hampshire,* to be laid out by a surveyor and chain men 
on oath — Pmvided, that within five years after such survey and confirma- 
tion thereof, the grantees their heirs and assigns shall settle fifty families 
that are now Inhabitants of this Province, and have a Meeting House 
erected, a minister settled, a Lot for the Ministry and one for the School 
laid out ; The house lots to be laid out as near as may be, and as regularly 

* This would take in the south part of Hardwick, the easterly half of Ware, and a small section of 
the northerly end of Palmer and Warren, but was wholly outside of the limits specified in the Indian 
deed. Probably the Bill was drawn up by the Company's attorney. 


and defensibly as the land will allow of — Proiiided the Petitioners make, no 
further claim to the Ixind within mentioned. 

In Council, June 28, 1737, Read and non concur\l. 

The Proprietors' Kecords of Lamb and Company show that on the 
next day, viz., June 29, 1727, the Company met at Boston, and 
• ' voted that Capt. Green should go upon the proprietors' land and 
warn them off from making any further improvement thereon." 
Again "voted that Capt. Green should agree with those persons 
that have made a pitch upon the said land for the present year, as 
he and they shall agree, as our tenants." 

At a meeting held a year later, viz. July 25, 1728, after reciting 
the purchase, and the failure to obtain a confirmation of the same, 
and the privileges of a township, the Proprietors elected Joseph 
Euggles clerk, to be sworn : "And we do also hereby ajDpoint Capt. 
Samuel Green, Mr. Nathaniel Paige and Rev. Mr. Timothy Euggles 
to be a Committee to procure a good and well approved of surveyor 
and two chain men who shall be under oath to the faithful discharge 
of their office and trust, and shall survey six miles square within 
our claim and draw a fair platt thereof and the same put on record; 
and any two of the Committee to have full power to act: And also 
their power is to extend to make an agreement with such persons as 
have settled upon the same, as to the bounds of their farms, and 
what to give for their interests there; and to improve the money 
they shall gain thereby toAvards defraying the charge that the Com- 
mittee shall be at in the work they are empowered to do. Then to 
proceed to make an allotment of forty or fifty lots, one for a Minis- 
ter, one for a Ministry and one for a School ; and the other to be 
disposed of as the proprietors shall hereafter order and agree." 

Under the authority thus conferred, the above named Committee 
proceeded to act, and previous to the last of December, 1728, they 
had laid out, sold and given deeds of farms, mostly of one hundred 
acres each, to forty-eight of the inhabitants then living upon the 
tract of land which was afterwards known as Tlie Elbows. 

By the Journal of the House of Representatives it appears that 
Sept. 24, 1729, "A petition of Joshua Lamb Esq, and Mr. Timothy 
Ruggles a Committee of a number of Proprietors and purchasers of 
a certain tract of land lying near Brookfield, praying for a confirma- 
tion of all or part thereof for a Tow^nship, for reasons mentioned — 
Bead, and the qnestion was put whether the prayer of the petition 
should be granted, and it passed in the Negative.'' 

"Nov. 27, 1729. A petition of Isaac Burr, John King and sundry 
others, shewing that they are settled upon a certain tract of Land 
bounded easterly by Brookfield, southerly and westerly by Brim field, 


and northerly by Coldspriug, by admission of Rev. Timothy Rug- 
gles of Rochester and others, a Committee of the Proprietors of 
said tract of land (as they call themselves), Praying that they may 
have the grant and authority of this Court for settling on said Land, 
and exempted from the conditions they have entered into with the 
said Committee. Read. Also a Petition of Robert Auchmuty Esq, 
for and in behalf of Joshua Lamb Esq. and Timothy Ruggles 
Clerk, as they are a Committee of the Proprietors of a certain Tract 
or parcel of land containing by estimation 12 miles long North & 
South, and 8 miles wide East & West, lying near Quabaug, known 
by the name of Wombemsicunck, in which is included the laud 
petitioned for by Isaac Burr, John King &c. as well as sundry other 
petitions for land within their propriety; — Praying that they may be 
heard by their counsel to make out their right to the land contained 
in their purchase from the Indian Sachems, before any grant on the 
said petition be made, or that if any grant should pass, that a 
saving of their right and claim may be inserted, for the reasons 
mentioned. Dec'' 2, 1729, all the parties were heard, and the 
petitions ivere rejected" 

In the House of Representatives, June 15, 1731. "A petition of 
Joshua Lamb Esq. and others, a Committee of the purchasers of a 
Tract of Land called Wombisiscook (heretofore purchased of Indian 
Sachems), Praying that they may be formed into a Township and 
invested with the usual privileges, and give such further and neces- 
sary sanction to their said purchase as shall be deemed expedient, for 
reasons mentioned. Pk,ead, and the parties concerned being heard, 
after a long debate, the question was put, whether the petition 
should be granted. And it passed in the Negative." 

House of Representatives, June 17, 1731. "A petition of Tim- 
othy Ruggles and others, a committee of the descendants & legal 
representatives of Joshua Lamb and others, Praying that the Court 
Avould make them a grant of Land of the contents of eight miles 
square adjacent to the river called Nenemeseck alias Ware River (in 
such form as the lands will admit of) for a Township, under such 
regulations as the Court shall think fit, for Reasons mentioned. 

Dec. 31, 1731. The above petition was brought up, read, and 

The next day, Jan. 1. 1731-2, In the House of Representatives, 
was presented ^'A petition of Joshua Lamb, Timothy Ruggles, 
Joseph Ruggles and Ebenezer Pierpont, in behalf of themselves and 
associates. Praying that a Tract of laud of the contents of six miles 
square, adjacent to the River called Nenemeseck, now Ware River, 


may be granted them for a Township, in such form as the land will 
admit of, and under such regulations as to the time and manner of 
settling the same, as the Court shall think fit, for Reasons men- 
tioned. Read, and Ordered, that Mr. Shove, Mr. Gushing and Mr. 
Samuel Chandler be a committee to consider of such Regulations as 
may be thought proper, and Report as soon as may be." 

•'Jan. 13, 1731-2, Mr. Shove for the committee reported — Read, 
and accepted, and Ordered, that there be and hereby is granted to 
the petitioners & their associates, a tract of land of six miles square 
for a Township, at the place petitioned for, to be laid out in a regu- 
lar form by a surveyor & chairmen under oath, a Plan thereof to be 
presented to this Court at their session in May next for confirma- 
tion, the said land by them to be settled on the conditions follow- 
ing, viz. That within the space of five years they settle and have 
on the spot 60 families (the settlers to be such as are the natives of 
New England) ; each settler to build a good and convenient dwell- 
ing house of one story high, 18 ft. square at the least, and clear and 
bring to four acres fit for improvement, and three acres more well 
stocked with English grass, and also lay out three shares throughout 
the town each share to be one sixty-third part of the s"^ tract — one 
share for the first settled Minister, one for the Ministry, and the other 
for the School: and also to build a convenient meeting-house, and 
settle a learned and Orthodox Minister within the time aforesaid." 

'•Jan. 20, 1731-2. Read in Council, and concurred." 

The governor refused his consent. 

June 17, 1732. "A petition of Joshua Lamb, Joseph Ruggies, 
Timothy Ruggies and Eben^. Pierj)ont, Praying for the grant of a 
tract of land lying on the iiorthioard of and adjacent to Ware River, 
for a Township, upon such conditions as the Court shall judge 
proper. In the House of Representatives, Read, and Ordered [See 
Bill above quoted]. In Council June 20, 1732, Read, and concurred. 

Consented to, J. Belcher. 

Nov. 24, 1732. "A Plan of the lands six miles square lying 
north of Ware River, granted to Joshua Lamb and others, was pre- 
sented. In the House of Representatives, accepted & confirmed. 
In Council, concurred. 

Consented to, J. Belcher." 

Thus was ended a persistent contest of six years. So long as 
Messrs. Lamb and Company made it a condition that their title and 
claim under the Indian deed should be confirmed, or in any way, 
directly or indirectly recognized, their petitions Avere rejected. 
But when they asked for a grant of land outside of the limits of 


territory claimed to be covered by said deed,, i. e., on the westerly 
side of Ware river, and named no conditions, their petition was 
readily granted. The township was named Lambstown, afterwards 
changed to Hardwick. 

This narrative — somewhat extended — of the claims and opera- 
tions of Messrs. Lamb and Company, will explain the peculiar 
phraseology of documents, and enable the reader to understand the 
numerous references in the petitions of John King, Joseph Wright, 
James Dorchester and others, to be copied in the next chapter, and 
also help him to get a right idea of the causes of delay, and un- 
looked for difficulties which the first settlers of The Elbows encoun- 
tered, before they secured valid titles to their farms, and precinct 


The Elbow Tsact — A Plantatjon, 1726-1752. 




BOUNDAEIES.— According to Dwight's survey of 1723, the 
northeast corner of the tract proposed for a plantation, or 
township, was at the northwest corner of Brookfield. 
Thence the line ran south on Brookfield to the Quabaug river ; 
thence following the river to its junction with Swift river, and up 
this stream to the southwest corner of Eead's Ten Thousand Acres : 
thence easterly, on the south line of Eead^s laud, to the southeast 
corner of the same ; thence northerly, on the east line of Bead's 
Manor, to a point nearly west from Brookfield northwest corner, 
and thence to said corner. This embraced an area of 23,619 acres. 
As laid out by the Committee and confirmed by the General Court 
in 1733, all the Common Lands nearly as far north as Hardwick 
line were included in the grant. 


First Move for a Precixct.— Of the first teu years of their 
life here the settlers have left no account, except the record of the 
birth of Sarah, daughter of Samuel and Deliverance Frost, born 
February, 1725 ; Margaret, daughter of Captain John and Elizabetli 
Thomson, born Jan. 26, 1726 ; Joseph, b. 1716, Thomas, b. 17J8, 
William, b. 1720, Benjamin, b. 1722, Sarah, b. 1723, Aaron, b. 
1725, children of John and Sarah King. 

In December, 1726, those men who had located on King's Row 
and vicinity sent a petition to the General Court asking for pre- 
cinct privileges. The petition cannot be found, but the substance 
of it is given in the General Court Records, as follows : ''A peti- 
tion of John Kilburn, Joseph AYright, and sundry other persons, 
inhabiting within the County of Hampshire, praying that this 
Court would grant or sell to them a Tract of Land belonging to 
this Province, lying westerly on Ware River or the Equivalent 
Lands, southerly upon Chickaby River, easterly upon Brim field, 
the grantees not exceed seventeen families. Proposing to go imme- 
diately upon the place, and to continue as a village till it may be 
thought proper to annex them to Brimfield or some other Town.'^ 

'' December 26, 1726. In the House of Representatives Read 
and Ordered, that the petition be referred to the next May session 
for further consideration, and that in the meantime Maj. Chandler, 
Mr, Wright, and Mr. Gun be a committee to repair to the lands 
petitioned for, view the situation, quality, and circumstances 
thereof, and that they report their opinion of y® value of the same 
at the s^ next May session. 

In Council Read & Concurred. 

Consented to." 

It will be seen that this movement of the "settlers" was made 
six months before Joshua Lamb and Company asserted a claim to 
the territory ; that the petitioners call it " Province Land," and ask 
for a grant of the same, or the privilege of purchasing it. The 
petition has further historical value, as showing that seventeen 
families had already located or were ready to locate on this southern 
part of the Elbow Trite; t, and that their plans did not contemplate 
the organization of a township. It also appears that the petition 
was favorably received by the General Court — a thing in striking 
contrast with the reception of the petitions of the several rlaimers 
to the territory. 

The movements of .Messrs. Lamb and Company at the next May 
session, to get possession of these lands, put an end to the prospects 
of Kilburn and Wright, and we liear no more of the efforts for 


precinct or town privileges (except as instigated and controlled by- 
Lamb and Company) for the next four years. It should however, 
be borne in mind, that the said Company persistently pressed their 
claims, and went so far as to survey the Tract, and lot it out into 
farms of one hundred acres each, and sell and give deeds of the 
same to the settlers. [See ante, pp. 49, 50.] 

These proceedings account for the non-action of the people; and 
also afford explanation of some expressions and qualifying clauses, 
both in petitions and in orders of CVjurt. The strange spectacle 
presents itself of a colony of honest, industrious, loyal men, 
occupying homes of their choice, and striving to plant social and 
religious institutions, and to obey magistrates; and at the same 
time bound hand and foot by their own acts; viz, first by pitching 
on land to which they had no right or title; and second, by purchas- 
ing their farms of " claimers" who were equally without right and 
title to the same. For an account of their subsequent efforts to 
extricate themselves from their dilemma, we are indebted to the 
Journals of the House of Eepresentatives in loc, from which 
copious extracts Avill now be given. 

First Move for a Plajsttation.^*- July 3, 1780. A petition 
of David Ingersole, John Miller, John Stearns, and to the number 
of fifty-three others, praying for a Tract of land between Brook- 
field, Brimfield and Springfield, of tHe contents of six or eight 
miles square (on part of which they are settled) in order to erect 
the same into and settle a township there, for reasons mentioned 


Sept. 24, 1730. A petition of John King, Samuel Nevins and 
others. Inhabitants of some lands lying between the towns of 
Brookfield and Springfield, and northward of Brimfield, and adjoin- 
ing on the north upon some lands called Equivalent Lands in 
the county of Hampshire, praying for a Tract of the s*^ lands, 
of the contents of six miles square for settlement thereof. 

Read, and at the motion and desire of Mr. Pynchon, the same 
was withdrawn." But the House took action, and ''ordered, that 
Mr. Welles, Mr. Samuel Chandler, Mr. Hall and Mr. Johnson be a 
committee to inquire into and consider the circumstances of the 
Land, and make Report what may be proper for the Court to do 

" Sept. 30, 1730. The House being informed that there are 
sundry persons making, settlements upon some unappropriated 
Lands of this Province lying between Brookfield and the Equiva- 


lent Land: Ordered, that the cousidcratiou of said affair be com- 
mitted to the committee appointed the 24th instant, to make inrjuirv. 
&e. and Report." 

" Mr. Welles, for the above named committee reported. [Report 
not recorded.] Read and Voted not to accent b* Report." 

"After debate relating to those lands, Orf/eret/ that Mr. Shove 
be. and hereby is fully authorized and impowered, for and in behalf 
of this Province, to bring forward a writ or writs of Ejectment 
against any and all persons in possession of the above mentioned 
Lands, that derive their title any otherways than from the General 
Court of this Province. 

Sent up for concurrence." 

This will be understood as a blow aimed at the Messrs. Lamb and 
Company, and those of the settlers who had bought land and 
claimed title to the same from the deeds of said Company. There is 
no evidence that the writs ol ejectment were serveil on any of the 

"June 15, 1T31. A petition of Joseph Wright and others, in- 
habitants or residents on a Tract of Land commonly called ' The 
Elbows,' lying between the Towns of Springfield and Brookfield, 
praying the Court either to confirm the Title of the Indian pur- 
chasers or claimers (Messrs. Lamb & Co.), or in case the Court 
should see cause to reject and disallow their claims to the Tract in 
question and determine the same to the Country Land, that then 
the petitioners aiid others of the prior settlers, and such others of 
the native inhabitants, upon such terms, limitations and conditions 
as to this Court shall seem meet, may have a grant of the land 
within mentioned for a Township." Same date — "A petition of 
John King and others. Inhabitants of a tract of land lying between 
the towns of Brookfield, Springfield, and Brimfield, prayiDg that 
they may be confirmed in their possession of the said lands (saving 
unto Col. Lamb and associates their Right therein) &c., for reasons 
mentioned. These several petitions were read: And after a long 
debate, on the next day the questions were severally put, whether 
the prayers of said petitions should be granted ? And it passed in 
the Negative." 

By recalling the attitude taken by the General Court toward Col. 
Lamb and his associates, as narrated in the previous cha2)ter, this 
decided Negative will be understood. And in the same light we 
are prejiared to see the force and beai-ing of the following paper, 
which is in i)lace here : 



General Court Records, Vol. 15, page 148. August 18, 1731. A Me- 
morial of Henry Dwight, Esq., setting forth that great numbers of strangers 
without any liberty obtained from the Government, are encroaching and 
settling on sundry parts of the best unappropriated Lands in this Province, 
more especially on a Tract of Land called The Elbows, lying between Had- 
ley and Brookfleld — Praying that this Court would take some proper meas- 
ures to prevent their disorderly settlements — 

In Council, Ordered that Samuel Thaxter, William Dudley and Thomas 
Gushing, Esq"., with such as the House of Representatives shall join, be a 
Committee to inquire into the matters contained in the within petition, and 
report as soon as may be. 

In the House of Representatives, Read and Concurred: And Ordered 
that Mr. Welles, Mr. Baxter, Mr. Hobson, Maj. Brattle and Mr. Brown be 
;'oined in the affair. 

]Vo Eeport of this Committee has been found; nor does it appear 
I'roni the Eecords that any further action on the subject was taken. 

House Journal (printed), VoL I, p. 55. ^'January 7, 1731-2. 
A petition of James Dorchester and others. Inhabitants of a Tract 
of land lying between the towns of 8pringfield, Brookfleld, Brim- 
field, and the lands called Equivalent Lands, in the county of 
Hampshire, whose names are thereto subscribed, praying the Court 
to grant them a tract of land within mentioned, and endow them 
with the Privileges that such places have, so that they may be in a 
capacity to erect a place for the public worship of God, or that 
such measures may be taken for their relief as the Court shall 
think fit. 

Read. And Jan 21, upon a motion made by Mr. Pynchon in 
behalf of James Dorchester and others, Ordered, that the s^ Pyn- 
chon have leave to withdraw the s* petition." 

"Jan. 28, 1731-2. A petition of John King and others, pray- 
ing that the s^ tract of land be granted them, and that they may 
be indulged witli the privileges that such places have, for reasons 

Eead and negatived." 

It will l)e seen from the petition of James Dorchester (above 
quoted) that the Elbow settlers now based theii' prayer for Precinct 
or Town privileges, on new grounds, viz., in order that they may 
legally proceed to establish religious ordinances among themselves ; 
as, though they had engaged a minieter who was then preaching in 
the place, they could levy no taxes for his support, nor build a 
meeting-house, without an Act of the Legislature. And it is fur- 
ther to be noticed, they obtained a favorable hearing only when 


they repudiated all claims under the deeds of Lamb aud Compaii}', 
and threw themselves on the mercy of the Court. 

A peculiar difficulty which these settlers met with, aud which was 
a cause of embarrassment for some years, is indicated by the follow- 
ing petition, which in the chronological order of events, has a place 
here. It was the over-lapping of special grants, due to the indefi- 
niteness of boundry lines and angles. And usually, as in the case 
in hand, the innocent holder, who had expended his means in mak- 
ing improvements, was the sufferer. 

"June 8, 1732. A petition of John Nivin of a place called 
Kingsfield, within this Province, shewing that he has purchased a 
tract of laud in the said place, of Mr. Timothy Ruggles, upon 
which he is settled and hath settled his four sons, and built, and 
made considerable Improvements: But so it is that Josiah Shel- 
don having purchased a grant of land made by this Court to Col. 
.Samuel Partige, hath laid out the same upon the Petitioners and 
his sons' Improved Lands, — and hath returned a Plot thereof to 
this Court, and obtained a confirmation of the same — Praying that 
the s* confirmation may be set aside, so that the Petitioner, and 
his children may not lye at the mercy of the said Josiah Sheldon. 

In Council Read and Ordered, that the Petitioner serve the said 
Josiah Sheldon with a copy of this petition, that so he may shew 
cause on Tuesday next, if any he have, why the prayer thereof 
should not be granted. 

In the House of Representatives. June 13, 1732. Read and 
Kon-concurred." * 

The Pkayer that Prevailed. — After the defeats and delays 
of six years, it is pleasant to chronicle a final success of plans 
which had been pursued with untiring energy through unusual dis- 
couragements. The following petition will ever l)e memorable in 
(jur annals, for its submissive yet loyal spirit ; its acknowledgment 
of errors, with a candid statement of reasons ; and its earnest de- 
sire to be put under such regulations as may have a tendency to 
promote the flourishing of religion. 

To his Excellency Jonathan Belcher, Esq., Capt. Generall and Govemour 
in Chief in and over his Majesty's Province of the Massachusetts Bay in 
New England, The Honourable His Majesty's Council and House of Repre- 
sentatives in General Court assembled May the thirty-first, annoque Dom- 
ine 1732. 

The Petition of the Subcribers Dwelling and Residing on a Tract and 

Gbnkral Court Records, Vol. 15, p. 259. 


Parcel of Land lying situate between Springfteld, Brookfleld, Brimfield and 
the Land called the Equivalent Land and Cold Spring. 
Humbly Sheweth 

That they are sensible the said Land belongs to the s<i Province, Yet the 
Reasons why your Petitioners entered on y^ said Land was as follows — Some 
from the incouragement of Joshua Lamb, Esq., and Company Tbat the said 
Land belonged to them and that they would give to such of your Petition- 
ers as entered thereon under them a Good Right and Title to such a Part 
thereof as they Respectively contracted for. Yet notwithstanding, your 
Petitioners are sensible that the s*^ Lamb and Company have no Right to 
the said Land, and that the same will prove greatly to your Petitioners' 
Damage, that is, to such as hold under them without Relieved by your 
Excellency and Honours — And that others of your Petitioners entered 
on from Necessity, not having wherewith of their own to Subsist. Yet 
nevertheless your Petitioners are duly sensible that they justly deserve 
your Discountenance. But considering the Reasons offered they humbly 
Request your compassionate Consideration that they may be put under 
such Regulations as may have a tendency to promote the flourishing of 
Religion, &c. 

Therefore your Petitioners most humbly Pray that your Excellency and 
Honours would take the Premises into your wise consideration, and either 
grant them y« s<^ Tract of Land, or put them under such Restrictions & 
Regulations as in your Consummate wisdom shall be thought most Rea- 

And your Petitioners (as in Duty bound) shall ever pray. 

Joseph Wright John Henderson 

Barnard McNitt Humphrey Gardner 

Daniel Fuller Nicholas Blancher 

Andrew MacKee William Crawford 

James Shearer Samuel Nivins 

Daniel Killam Joseph Gerish (?) 

David Spear Samuel Shaw 

Thomas Lite! Andrew Rutherford 

Samuel Doolitel Daniel Parsons 

James Brakenridge James McClelan 

John Bemon James Lamberton 

Duncan Quinton Thomas McClelan 

Isaac McGune Robert Thomson 

James Dorchester Robert Doonlop 

Tsaac McGune, Jtm. Benjamin Parsons 

Micah Tousley James Lamont [Lemmsn] 

Elijah Vose Timothy McElwain 

Elisha Hall William Sloan 

Alexander Tackels Thomas Jennings 

Robert Farrell James McElwain 

Joseph Flamont [Fleming] Matthew Brown 

Aaron Nelson Patrick Smith 


John Brooks Joseph Wright, Jr. 

Aaron Parsons Thomas Hill 

Andrew Farrand David Nivins 

Robert Harper Samuel Brooks 

William Shaw Robert Nivins 

Joseph Brooks John Harvey 

In the House of Representative's, June 19, 1732. 
Read and Ordered that the Petition lie on the table. 

It is always pleasant to know the modus operandi of complicated 
affairs which have a favorable ending. Fortunateh', our Planta- 
tion Eecords supply this information in relation to the preparation 
and presentation of the above petition. 

'' March 18, 1732. A toun meatten warned and attended, Joseph 
Wright, Jun., Moderator. 

Agreed upon by the Inhabtants that a petition should be sent to 
the Cort and be sined by siners of the Inhabtants, and the names 
under as f oilers. In the names [of the] rest. 

Joseph Wright, Jun., William Scoot, Stoard Southgate, James 
Dorchester, John King, Samuel Shaw, Sarg^^* Dnlittl. 

Men chosen to prefer the petition at Cort, Stouard Southgate, 
John King, Joseph Wright." 

"April 10, 1732. A toun meatten warned and attended, 
Andrew Mackee, Moderator. 

"Voted whether a petion should now att this time be sent to 
Cort, and voted in the Xegative.'' 

"June 5, in the year 1733. A toun meatten warned and 
attended, Joseph Wright, Modrator. 

"Voted that Mr. Mackaelain gitt a petition Drayn and the 
Inliabtaints pay the charge. 

"Voted that Samuell Shaw, Joseph Wright, Jun., are the men 
chosen to prefer the petiton to Cort.'' 

"June 12, in tlie year 1732, a toun metteu warned and attended, 
Samuell Shaw, Moderator. 

" Voted by the Inhabaints that seven men should determen liow 
should be ptitoned, to wit, Samill Shaw, John King, James Mack- 
clelan, Joseph Wright, Bingmin Parsons, Barnett Macknet, To^mas 

Only two of the above Committee went to Boston, and their 
account was as follows : 

" Shaw's & Wright's Account for their going down to enter 
■y^ Petition of v® Inhabitants June, 1732. 


Of money by them received : fifty-six petitioners m all, and 
















forty-three paid to tliem the sum of os. per piece, which make up 
v« sum of £10 15s. 0. 

Of money by them expended, viz. 

to charges on road down, 12s. 6d. per piece 

To six days in Boston, one of them 5s. per day 

To six days in Boston, y® other at 3s. per day 

To their horses keeping 

To entry of Petition in Lower House 

To charges ©n road up, 9s. 6d. per piece 

To treat and drink 

Allowed. £10 15 

" Mr. James Mack Elwean's Account for getting y® Petition 
Drawn was allowed. _[Amt. not given.] 

As the General Court Records show, the petition was laid on the 
table. In their anxiety about its fate, the petitioners sent Steward 
Southgate as their agent to press their claim at the Fall session of 
the Court. He attended to the duty, and his charges were as fol- 
lows : 

"A Bill of Steward Southgate for attending upon y® Generall 
Court on y® Petition of y^ Inhabitants. November 20. 1732, viz. 

To expenses on y^ road from Leicester to Bo.ston 

To 9 days boarding in Boston @ 32s. per week 

To 9 nights horsekeeping @ 3s. per night 

To a copy of y® Petition 

To entering y^ Petition in y^ Upper House 

To a copy of ye Court Order & Vote 

To treats & Expenses severall times 

To charges on y^ road from Boston to Leicester 

November 30, 1732. Allowed. 




















The favorable result of Mr. Southgate's mission is thus re- 
corded: — 

November 34, 1733. A Petition of Joseph Wright and fifty-six others, 
Inhabitants of a Tract of land situate between Springfield, Brookfield, 
Brimfield, the Equivalent Land and Cold Spring, shewing that the Petition- 
ers are sensible that the Lands they are settled on do of right belong to the 
Province ; but for as much as they were encouraged to settle there by 
Joshua Lamb Esq. and Company who pretended a Title to the Land and 
with whom they had agreed as to the purchase — Therefore praying a grant 
of the s** Land from this Court, for such consideration as the Court shall 
judge reasonable. 


In the House of Eepresentatives Read, and in answer to the Petition, 
Voted, that Col. John Alden and Mr. Samuel Bradford with such as tlie 
Honourable Board shall appoint, be a committee to go upon the Lands pe- 
titioned for, that they carefully view the situation and circumstances 
thereof, as well as those of the Petitioners ; and also the quantity & Qual- 
ity of the said Lands, and Report their opinion at next May session, what 
may be proper for the Court to do thereon, and that the Petition be refer- 
red accordingly. 

Sent up for Concurrence. 

J. QuiNCY, Speaker. 

In Council November 28, 1732. 
Read and Concurred, and Ebenezer Burrill, Es(i. is joined in the affair. 

J. WiLLARD, Secr'y. 
Consented to J. Belcher. 

" Elbows. At a meeting of the Inhabitants on Thursday y® 31st 
of May, A. D. 1733, it was Voted, that Steward Southgate be ap- 
pointed and impowered to go down to, and attend upon y® General 
Court, in behalf of y*' Inhabitants, at y® present session. To use 
y® utmost of his endeavours to obtain a title and confirmation of 
y® land in our possession, upon the best and easiest terms possible." 

"June 22, 1733. Ebenezer Burrill, Esq., from the committee of 
both Houses, on the Petition of Joseph Wright & others praying, 
as entered Nov. 28, 1782, gave in their Report, which was read and 
accepted in Council, and concurred in by the Representatives, and 
is consented to J. Belcher." 

Report of the Committee. 

The Committee appointed by the General Court at their session 
in November last to repair to the Land Petitioned for by James 
Dorchester and sundry others, Having in pursuance of the vote of 
y® said Court Repaired to y® said Lands, and carefully Viewed the 
situation and circumstances thereof, as well as those of the Pe- 
titioners, and also the Quality and Quantity of said Lands, Do re- 
port our opinion thereon as Follows, viz. 

We Find the Laud petitioned for to bo a Tract of Land com- 
monly called Elbow Tract, lying near Springfield and the Equiva- 
lent Land, containing Seventeen Thousand and Fourteen Acres 
(viz. Y® contents of five mile square and one thousand and four- 
teen acres over). Exclusive of y® Particular Grants taken uj) and 
laid out within y® same : Bounded and Included within y® lines 
and boundaries of the adjacent Lands, as hereafter laid down, viz. 
Easterly in part upon y® west line of Brookfield Township, from 
■y-e Nor- west Corner tree Tlio s** line runs S. 2° West to y^ River 


called Quabaug alias Chickerby River ; Thence bounding on Brim- 
field Township as y® s^ River runs Easterly in part and Southerly 
and in part Westerly so far down s'* River as to where y® South 
end line of a Tract of Equivalent Land called Cold Spring Town- 
ship crosses or strikes y® s*^ River ; Thence bounding Northerly on 
y® s*^ line as it runs East by y® needle of y® surveying Instrument 
to the South East Corner of said Tract or Township, which is' 
y® mouth of Swift River ; Thence bounding Westerly in part on 
y® said Tract or Township of Equivalent Land as the River runs to 
where y® South side line of another Tract of Equivalent Land 
(containing Ten Thousand Acres belonging to Jno Read Esq) 
strikes upon or runs from the s^ River ; Thence bounding North- 
erly (in part) upon said line as it runs E. and by N. to the South 
East Corner of the said Land, being a heap of stones by y® Root 
of a great Red Oak tree fallen close by and on y® West side of a 
small Run of water about 18 rods Southerly of y® River called 
Ware River ; Thence bounding Westerly on the East side line of said 
Tract as it runs North by y® needle, until an East line therefrom 
will strike y® Nor-west Corner tree of Brooktield mentioned — As 
by a Plan herewith presented appears. 

We Fixd the greatest part of y® s*^ Land to be Pine Land, High 
Hills, and Low Valleys ; the hills very poor and mean, the valleys 
pretty good. 

We Also Find that the said Tract of Land lies in a Broken 
form, and is much Discommoded by Farms claimed by Particular 
Grants from this Court, which have taken up the best of y® land. 

We Also Fixd that the Circumstances of y^ Petitioners & 
Settlers and their Settlements are Different and much Intricate 
and Perplexed ; Some of them having entred and Setled without 
Regulation, and Interfered and Incroached upon other men's 
Pitches & Improvements. And in many instances two several 
Setlers claim one and y® same spot under different pleas and pre- 
tences of Right ; some having Lots laid out ; some partly laid, and 
others only Pitched, interfering one with another as aforesaid. 

We Wol'ld Further Inform this Honourable Court that we 
have taken great pains and care to Inspect & Inquire into every 
Particular Circumstance relating to y® said Tract of Laud, and 
find it needful, to prevent further Charge & Difficulty, to Report 
Particularly, as Follows, viz. That we find there are entered & 
setled and about setling on the said Tract of Land the Mwiber of 
Eighty Persons, the most whereof are families who have built 
Houses and made considerable Improvements ; and are now and 
have constantly for more than three years past Been supplied with 


a Minister to preach the Word of God unto them : who has been 
supported by a free Contribution 

We Also Fixd that nhout for/ i/-rif/hf of the above Number were 
Introduced or Led on or lucouraged to Setle and make Improve- 
ments, By Joshua Lamb, Esq., & Company, and their committee 
who Chiimed the said Tract of Land by virtue of an Indian Pur- 
chase. And the most of the Number had actually contracted with 
them for certain Parcells thereof, and received Deed of conveyance 
and Order from them for laying out of their Lotts : And have had 
y^ most of them laid out accordingly. 

We Are Therefore Humbly of the Opixiox, That the sev- 
erall Persons & Families here after named, that were so admitted 
& setled under and by the said Claimers : Have their severall & 
respective Lots hereafter mentioned. Ratified & Confirmed to them 
their Heirs and Assigns, In such proportion and under such 
Restrictions, Limitations i!^ Conditions us follow and are hereafter 
mentioned, vizt. 

That Samuel Doolitel, James Mac Elwean, John King, .lobn Kil- 
burn & his assigns, Daniel Fuller, Samuel Frost, John Scot, Barnard 
Macnitt, James Mack Clelan, Benjamin Parsons, John Thomson, and 
James Brackinridge, Have each of tbem the Hundred acre Lott 
whereon they are Setled, in the form as they are already laid out. 

And that William Scot have a Hundred acres where his House 
and Improvements are, as already laid out and bounded Westerly 
Southerly & Easterly : But Northerly to run a line off from Chick- 
erby River at forty rod up the River from the month of Dumplin 
Hill brook, E. 17° S., extending bo far Easterly as to make up the 
complement of a Hundred acres. 

And that James Mack([uistou have a Seventy acre Lot, bounding 
upon y® s*^ line Southerly, and Westerly on the River, North on 
y® foot of the Mountain, and to extend so far Easterly as to make 
up the complement of Seventy acres. 

And that Samuel Shaw have a Hundred acre liOt where bis 
House & Improvements are, as y*' same is already laid out, Saving 
the Improvements of Andrew Rutherford, and that he extend no 
further Northward than s** Rutherford's fence ; then extend East 
until a South line will make up the complement of his Lutt. 

That Ebenezer Mirick y® assignee of James Dorchester, Have a 
Hundred acre Lot as y® same was laid out to said Dorchester, Sav- 
ing y® House and Improvements, viz. of James Dorchester, Jun., 
to run up Northerly on y* West side of his s^ Improvements a line 
N. 39° E. so far that a line square off Westward to y® line of the 
Lot on the West side, will make up the said complement. 


That the said James Dorchester, Jun., Have a Lot of Seventy 
acres, bounding Westerly' on y® line last described, and so far South- 
erly as to include his aforesaid Improvements, and Easterly on the 
line of the Lot already run, and so far IS'ortherly as to make up the 
complement of Seventy acres, not infringing on other Lots or Surveys. 

That Joseph Wright Have a Hundred acre Lot, Sixty acres there- 
of including the House and Improvements, as it is already laid out. 
And that Joseph Wright, Jun., Have a Hundred acre Lot, Seventy- 
two acres thereof, including the House and Improvements, as al- 
ready laid out. And that Sixty-eight acres to make up the comple- 
ment of these two lots, be laid out, including half of it on the 
Northerly part of y® lot laid out to Samuel Bedortha, to extend 
Northerly and Easterly to make up the complement. 

That William Sloan Have a Hundred acre Lot, including his 
House and Improvements, to bound Southerly on Ware River 160 
rods, not infringing on Elisha Hall's Improvements, running off 
from y^ River by parallel lines as far Northerly as to make up the 
complement of the Hundred acres. 

That James Dorchester Have a Hundred acre Lot, including his 
House and Improvements, to be laid out in Eegular form, 160 rods 
in length, not infringing on any Lot or Grant already mentioned. 

That John Moor, the assignee of Joseph Dorchester, Have a 
Hundred acre Lot, to be laid out, extending no further than the 
Nor-easterly Corner Tree as it was laid out to said Dorchester, nor 
no further Northerly than to Include his house and Improvements, 
Westerly and Southerly by square and parallel lines so far as to 
make up the complement of a Hundred acres, not infringing upon 
other Grants or Surveys. 

That Duncan Quinton, the assignee of Thomas Farrand, Have a 
Hundred acre Lot, to be laid out according to the order of the 
former Claimers in their Deed to Farrand. Provided they do 
not Interfere upon any Lot or Grant already mentioned. 

That Andrew Mackee Have a Hundred acre Lot including his 
House and Improvements (Provided he has not infringed upon the 
Equivalent Land belonging to Jno. Read Esq.) to be laid out, bound- 
ing Northerly on the line of said Land 160 rods in length, running 
square off therefrom in parallel lines so far as to make up the com- 
plement, Excluding y® Meadow on Ware River. 

That Steward Southgate have a Hundred acre Lot, to be laid out 
on AVare River and Esq. Read's Tract of Equivalent Land, at 
y® Southeast Corner thereof, extending Easterly and Southerly in 
regular form so far as to make up y® complement of a Hundred 
acres. And also a Seventy acre Lot as was Granted to him by the 


said Claimers, in consideration of his Building a 8aw-mill ; Ten 
acres thereof to be laid out including the s^ 8aw-mill and Improve- 
ments thereabouts ; aiul Sixty acres on y® Jlast side of the mill 
pond, bounding Easterly on a Three Hundred acre Farm belonging 
to y® heirs of Henry Dwight, Esq., deceased, and Southerly from 
y^ Southwest Corner Tree of s** Farm to an Island in y® Meadows 
at y*' upper end of y^ mill pond, including y^ Meadows downward 
to y^ pond ; bounding upon y*' pond Westerly ; extending so far 
Northerly as to make up y® content of Sixty acres. 

That Kobert Farrall Have a Hundred acre Lot, according to 
Survey and Deed from y® aforesaid Claimers, Saving that the same 
be laid out including his House and Improvements, bounding 
Southerly, not exceeding 160 rods in length, nor infringing upon 
other Lot or Improvement. 

That Elisha Hall and Thomas Farrand Hold one Hundred acres, 
to bound Westerly on Swift River, and Southerly on Ware River, 
by two other lines running therefrom, including their Houses and 

That John Paterson, the assignee of Andrew Farrand, Hold a 
Sixty acre Lot, as the same was laid out to the s*^ Andrew Farrand. 

That Isaac Magoon, Jun., Hold a Hundred acre Lot, including 
his House & Improvements, to be laid out according as y* bounds 
are described in his Deed from y® Claimers, Provided it infringe 
not upon other grants or surveys. 

That Jethro Ames Hold a Fifty acre Lot, including his House, 
and to be laid out in Regular Order by lines, the length not to ex- 
ceed twice the breadth. 

That Thomas Jennings, the assignee of Thomas Sweetman, Hold 
a Hundred acre Lot, including his House and Improvements, to be 
laid out as Described in y^ Deed from y^ Claimers, Provided it 
interfere not upon other Lots or Surveys. 

That William Shaw Hold a Fifty acre Lot, including his House 
and Improvements, to bound Northerly, Easterly and Westerly as 
already laid out, and to extend so far Southerly as to make up his 
complement of Fifty acres by a line parallel to y® North side. 

That the Widow and Heirs of Andrew Bailey Hold a Hundred 
acre Lot, bounding Southerly on Quabog River, including their 
Houses and Improvements, and not exceeding 130 rods in length, 
and of regular form. 

That John Brooks Hold a Fifty acre Lot, to bound Easterly 80 
rods front on Quabog River, (In y® spot assigned in his Deed from 
y®- Claimers), to run thence Westerly by square and parallel lines 
till his complement be made up. 


That Joseph Brooks the assignee of David lugersole, Hold a 
Hundred acre Lot, including his House and Improvements, to be 
laid out according to the order of the Claimers respecting the 
same, Provided it interferes not upon any other Lot or Survey. 

That John Combs, the assignee of Samuel Bedortha, Hold a 
Fifty acre Lot at y® Southerly end or part of y^ Lot laid out to s*^ 

That Joseph Chadwick Hold a Fifty acre Lot, to bound South- 
erly 80 rods ou Quabog River, Easterly on Brookfield Line, in 
square form. 

That Abel Curtice Hold a Fifty acre Lot, to bound Southerly 80 
rods on Quabog River, Easterly on said Chadwick's Lot, square 
form and parallel lines. 

That Nathaniel Dewey Hold a Sixty acre Lot, including his 
House and Improvements, to bound Easterly on Abel Curtice's 
Lot, Southerly on Quabog River, Northerly on the Cooley Lot as 
laid out, and to extend Easterly to make up the complement. 

That there be granted to the wife of Nicholas Blanchard and to 
his eldest son the Hundred acre Lot that was laid out to Micah 
Rood, they being under Peculiar Circumstances on the spot, requir- 
ing Assistance the better to enable them to provide for themselves 
and the younger children — They fulfilling the conditions injoined. 

That Obadiah Cooley & Obadiah Cooley, Jun., Hold the Hun- 
dred acre Lot that was laid out to said Obadiah Cooley, Jun. 

That Timothy Mack Elwain Have a Hundred acre Lot, to bound 
Northerly on the line of Cold Spring Township, to extend so far 
West from the mouth of Swift River that a South line therefrom 
to Chickerby River will make the complement of One Hundred 

That Jonathan Chapin, Jun., Hold a Hundred acre Lot, Forty- 
two acres as already laid out to him, including his Improvements, 
and Fifty-eight acres more to be taken up and laid out with the 
allowance and to the acceptance of y® aforesaid Person or Pro- 

That John King, Jun., Hold the Hundred acre Lot only, called 
Tamar Spring Lot, as the same was laid out to Richard Combs. 

That Benjamin Kilburu Hold a Hundred acres only, to bound 
Westerly on Samuel Kilburn's Lot, to extend Easterly not exceed- 
ing 160 rods in width, and in Regular form. 

That Peter Backus Hold the Hundred acre Lot only that was 
formerly laid out to Benjamin Stebbins. 

That there be granted to Steward Southgate a Hundred acre Lot, 
Sixty-seven acres thereof lying on the East side of AVare River, as 


it was laid out to Moses Olds, and thirty-three acres on the West 
side of the liiver against the said survey — On condition of erecting 
a good and sufficient grist mill for the service of the people, within 
the space of two years. 

And That All the aforesaid Lots which have been laid out by 
the Surveyor imployed by the aforesaid Cluimers (as by his testi- 
mony, Plotts or minutes shall appear) shall stand and be so held 
and Recorded, excepting where any alteration is expressly made 

And That All y® aforenamed Persons or Grantees (excepting 
John King, Jun., Benjamin Kilburn, and Peter Backus), and 
them only, their Heirs and assigns. Be Intitled to after Rights and 
Divisions throughout the said Tract of Land, to be divided to and 
among themselves, in proportion to their grants or first allotments, 
after such grants or first allotments, or any other grants or Lots 
hereunder made or ordered, be laid out and satisfied : And also 
such other conditions as follows be fulfilled and complied with, viz. : 

(1) That such of the aforesaid Persons or Orantees as are Non- 
Residents and their Lots not setled, shall forthwith setle them by 
their own persons, or by such credible, wholesome Inhabitants as 
shall be accepted by the major j)art of the Resident setlers or In- 

(2) That they and each of the aforesaid Persons or Grantees do 
pay their equal Part of all past charges to support of the Ministry, 
and all such other Publick charges as have arisen and shall hereafter 
be agreed upon or allowed by the Setlers or Grantees. 

(3) That they and all y^ aforesaid Setlers or (Jrantees be em- 
i:)Owered at a meeting called according to I^aw, to act as Pj-oprietors, 
and to make such necessary Rules and Orders for the Regulating 
the Settlement; To chuse a Committee to lay out necessary Roads 
and Highways, before any further surveys are made, or any already 
made be recorded; and also to lay out in some suitable and conven- 
ient place or places, one Lot. not less than one Hundred acres, to 
be and for the first setled and ordained Minister ; And also two 
other Lots of the same contents, one for y® use of y® Ministry, and. 
the other for a School — Provided that no record be made of sl^ch 
Highways, Roads and Lots, so laid out, until first presented to and 
approved of l)y the aforesaid I'roprietors or (irantees; And also 
until the same Committee be alike impowered to fill up the comple- 
ment of such Lots as cannot be laid out in the places and form 
assigned, without interfering upon such other Lots, or Surveys, as 
may hereby be granted and allowed (if any such there be). 

Furthermore We F'ind : That the following luuned Persons, 

THE ELBOW TRACT — A PLANTATION. 1730-1752. 6'.) 

to the Number of Thirty-one, Having presumed to enter on the 
Province Land in said Tract without any leave or order from this 
Court, or under any Pretence of ]\ristake, or Admission from the 
Claimers : Yet they having most of them made considerable Im- 
provements, and expended the cliief of their Small Fortunes ; And 
having paid their proper proportion for the support of the Minis- 
try among them ; That to Remove them oft' would reduce them to 
extreme Poverty : 

We Are Therefore Humbly of y* Opinion, that it may not 
be Inconsistent with y® Honour of the Province, and yet a sufficient 
Discountenance to such Presumptuous Setlements; If there be 
granted to each of them a single Lot, Including their Improve- 
ments, upon such conditions as are hereafter mentioned, viz. : 

That there be granted to Samuel Nevins a Hundred acre Lot in- 
cluding his Improvements as the same was laid out by the Claimers' 
Surveyor under No. 3. 

That there be granted to Robert Nevins and David Nevius y® Lot 
of a Hundred acres laid out to John Dorchester. 

That there be granted to Samuel Kilburn a Hundred acre Lot 
including his House and Improvements, to be laid out between his 
Father Kilburn's Lot and Joseph Right's, to extend Northerly from 
the River so far as to make up the complement, not infringing 
upon other Lots or Surveys. 

That there be granted and laid out to Alexander Tackels a Hun- 
dred acre Lot including his Improvements, to bound Southerly on 
the Lot laid out to James MackClelan, Westerly on Ware River, 
and Northerly on the River in part, to extend so far East as to 
make up the complement. 

That there be granted and laid out to Thomas McClenathan a 
Hundred acre Lot, to extend so far Northerly as to include his Im- 
provements, and not to exceed 160 rods in length, and in Regular 

That there be granted and laid out to Humphrey (lardner a 
Hundred acre Lot, to extend no further Northerly than to include 
his Improvements, Easterly by Ware River and partly Southerly, 
to extend so far Westerly as to make u}) the complement of one 
Hundred acres. 

That there be granted and laid out to Elijah Vose a Fifty acre 
Lot, to bound Northerly on his brother-in-law Andrew Mackee, 
and on the River Easterly, on David Spear Southerly and to extend 
so far Northerly as to make the complement of Fifty acres. 

That there be granted and laid out to James Lambreton a Hun- 
dred acre Lot including his Improvements, in Regular form, not 


exceeding 160 rods in length, nor infringing upon other Lots or 

That there be granted and hiid out to James Shearer a Hundred 
acre Lot, including his Improvements, to bound Northerly on the 
8aw-mill Lot, and to extend Southerly so far as to include his Im- 
provements, and other ways so far as to make up his comple- 
ment, in Eegular form. 

That there be granted and laid out to John Henderson a Hun- 
dred acre Lot, to bound Northerly on Shearer's Lot, Westerly on 
Lambreton's Lot, and Southerly on Brackenridge's Lot, and to ex- 
tend so far Easterly as to make up the complement of one Hun- 
dred acres. 

That there be granted and laid out to John Beamon a Hundred 
acre Lot including his House and Improvements, to bound West- 
erly on the River, Northerly so far as to include his Improvements 
by a line parallel with y® line of Esq. Eead's Farm, Easterly on 
y® Farm granted to Coll. Partridge, and extend so far Southerly as 
to make up the complement ; Saving the Improvements of Robert 

That there be granted and laid out to the Reverend Mr. John 
Harvey a Hundred acre Lot including his house and Imjirove- 
ments, to bound Southerly by a line as the lot was laid out to 
SteAvard South gate, to extend Northerly to the South end of the 
Cedar Swamp, and other ways so far in Regular form as to make 
up the complement of one Hundred acres. 

That there be granted and laid out to Joseph Fleming a Hundred 
acre Lot, to bound Northerly on John Comb's Lot, and to extend 
so far Southerly as to include his Improvements, and other ways to 
make up his complement in Regular form. 

Also to Andrew Farrand a Hundred acre Lot, to bound 
Northerly on said Fleming, and Southerly on the Lot laid out 
to John Thompson, other ways in Regular form to make up his 

To James Moor a Hundred acre Lot. between the Rev. Mr. 
Harvey's and William Shaw's Lot, and Easterly on Andrew Far- 
rand. and so far Westerly as to make up y® complement of one 
Hundred acres. 

To William Crawford a I^Mfty acre Lot, to bound Westerly on 
John Moor's, Northerly on Duncan Quinton's. and Easterly on 
James Laml)reton's, to ext/'ud Southerly to make up Fifty acres. 

To Matthew Brown a Hundred acre Lot, to bound on the Lines 
of Capt. Hubbard's [Hobart's ?] Farm, other ways in Regular 
form to make up y® complement. 


To William Paterson a Fifty acre Lot, including his Improve- 
ments, in Regular form, not to exceed 100 rods m length. 

To Isaac Magoon, Sen. a Hundred acre Lot, bounding Northerly 
on Esq. Read's Farm, including his House and Improvements, other 
ways to extend to make up his complement, not to exceed 100 rods 
in length. 

To George Booth the assignee of James Mack Elwain the Sixty-four 
acre Lot that was laid out to Joseph Right and Joseph Right, Jun. 

To Patrick Smith a Hundred acre Lot including his Improve- 
ments, bounding Southerly on y® Mill pond and the Mill Lot, 
saving room for the road. Westerly on Ware River, Northerly on 
the Lower pond in part, and Easterly on the line of Col. Part- 
ridge's Farm. 

To Daniel Killum a Fifty acre Lot, including his Improvements, 
bounding Westerly on the River, Southerly on the Lower pond and 
Patrick Smith's Lot, Easterly on the Ridge Hills, and to extend so 
far Northerly as to make up Fifty acres. 

To Robert Thompson a Fifty acre Lot, including his Improve- 
ments, to bound Southerly on Patrick Smith's Lot, Westerly on 
Daniel Killum's in part and in part on the River, Northerly on John 
Bemon's Lot, and Easterly on the Farm called Col. Partridge's 
Farm, bounded so that there be no more than Fifty acres. 

To Thomas Little a Hundred acre Lot, to bound Northerly on 
Esq. Dwight's Farm, Southerly on the Sixty-eight acre Lot of 
Joseph Wright and Joseph Wright, Jun.. to extend Easterly and 
Westerly to make up one Hundred acres in Regular form. 

To James Laniont a Fifty acre Lot, to bound Northerly on Esq. 
Read's Farm, and Southerly on Mack Clenathan's Lot, each other 
way so as to make up the complement of his Lot in Regular form 
Including his Improvements. 

To Thomas Hill a Fifty acre Lot, including his House and Im- 
provements, in Regular form, not exceeding 100 rods in length. 

That there be granted and laid out to Andrew Rutherford a Fifty 
acre Lot, including his House and Improvements, to bound South- 
erly on Samuel Shaw's Lot, and Northerly on William Shaw's Lot, 
to extend each other way to make up Fifty acres in Regular form. 

To James Stephens a Hundred acre Lot, including his House and 
Improvements, in Regular form, not exceeding 160 rods in length, 
not infringing upon any other Lot or Survey. 

To Thomas Chapin a Seventy acre Lot, to bound Southerly on 
Quabog River, Westerly on the foot of Cedar Mountain, and to ex- 
tend Northerly and Easterly to make up the complement. 

To Robert Doonlap a Seventy acre Lot, to bound Easterly on 


Timothy McElwain's fjot, between Cold Spring Township and the 
River, to extend "Westerly to make up Seventy acres. 

That there be Granted and laid out to Jabez Umstead's eldest son 
Jeremiah a Hundred acre Lot, adjoining the said Umstead's Farm, 
in Regular form, not interfering with any other Lot or Survey. 

To liobert Stanford a Hundred acre Lot, to bound Southerly on 
widow Bailey's Lot, Westerly on the foot of the Mountain, to ex- 
tend other ways to make up the complement. 

And That All the Last NAirED Persons, Settlers or (Irantees, 
according to the Quantity of their respective Lots, Do pay upon 
equal proportion with the Rest of the first mentioned Settlers in all 
past charges for y® support of the Ministry and other necessary 
Publick Charges as shall be allowed and agreed upon by y^ Setlers 
or Grantees aifore mentioned. 

And That All and Each of the Afforenamed Persons, or 
Grantees, both First and Last mentioned (excepting the Kev. Mr. 
John Harvey) Do pay into the Publick Treasury of this Province, 
The Sum of Five Hiindred pounds, within two years; as also forth- 
with to pay the further Sum of Sixty-seven pounds, eleven shillings, 
nine pence, the Charge and Expense of this Committee on the 
affair, each man or Grantee his equal Part or Proportion of said 
sums, according to y® quantity of his Grant or first Allotment. 

And if Any of the aforenamed Persons or Grantees, either first 
or Last mentioned. Do not fulfill y« aforesaid Conditions within 
the term of Time herein Limited; Their Lots to be forfeited, and 
other ways disposed of as this Court shall order. 

And That All Publick Charges arising for y® future (until 
they be setled and invested with y® Powers and Privileges of a 
Township) shall be raised upon their severall Lots according to the 
Quantity of acres: And that all such of the affore named Persons or 
Grantees as are entitled to Draw after Rights and Divisions, shall 
pay a Double proportion to all such Charges, according to y® Quan- 
tity of the Grants or first Lots. 

And That They, the aforesaid Settlers & Grantees Do erect & 
build a suitable House for Public AVorship, and setle a Minister 
within two years : — And that they be allowed to bring in a Bill for 
erecting and selling themselves off as a Township accordingly. 

All which is Humbly submitted in the "Name and by Order of the 
Committee. Eben^ Burrill. 

Boston, June 31, 1733. 

In Council, June 31, 1733. 

Read and Ordered that this report be accepted. Sent Down for 
concurrence. J. Willard, Sec^. 


In the House of Representatives, June 21, 1733. 
Eead and Concurred. J. Quixcy, Speaker. 

June 22. Consented to. 

J. Belcher. 

This Report of the General Court's Committee, which was so 
promptly accepted, and all its recommendations ratified and made 
of legal effect, signalizes a happy ending of the uncertainties and 
complications and set-backs of a seven-years' struggle. It carries 
the evidence of a comprehensive view of things on the part of the 
Committee ; of the absence of all prejudice from their minds ; of 
their faithful discharge of a delicate duty, and their scrupulous en- 
deavor to do exact justice to all the parties in interest. The pre- 
rogatives of the Province in its right of sovereign ownership are 
recognized and maintained; and the equitable claims of the settlers, 
growing out of the erection of houses, and ''improvements," and 
voluntary support of a Gospel Ministry (and the money unwittingly 
paid to the syndicate of claimers) are acknowledged and made good. 
Besides, the Committee appears to have regarded its duty as more 
than a mere perfunctory one, to be formally discharged, and re- 
ported on in generalities. They took an inside view of the situa- 
tion in all its complicated bearings, present and jDrospective ; they 
studied the financial, and the social, and the moral, and the 
political condition of the settlers, and took account of what they 
had done, and were able to do, and were ready to do, and the con- 
sequences imminent on a partial or full settlement of the questions 
at issue to the well-being or the ill-being of the young conimunity. 
They found matters rijie for a peaceful arbitration ; the foundations 
well laid for the varied institutions of social order and sti-ength, and 
for growth and prosperity. By apportioning and setting the bounds 
of the home lots to each and all the settlers, they determined the 
vexed question of land titles ; and by establishing the rule and 
method for apportioning the "Commons and Undivided Lands;" 
and by providing how persons in the future shall be admitted to 
the rights of property and citizenship ; and fixing the basis of taxa- 
tion and the ratio of assessment of taxable estates for all public 
charges, they anticipated and rendered unnecessary a special Pru- 
dential Committee, such as was usually required in similar cases, 
and which was expensive, and often hampered the free action of 
the inhabitants. In a word, they set the whole machinery of the 
Plantation in motion, and gave specific directions for its successful 
operation. And to crown all, they give leave to the Grantees ''to 
bring in a Bill for setting themselves off as a Township." [Why 


this last provision was not availed of, and the settlement organized 
as a township, rather than a plantation, ma}^ be inferred from the 
records of the next few years, particularly those relating to ''the 
500 pounds debt."] 

That the people of the Elbows appreciated the value of the great 
service rendered by the Committee appears in the following vote : 

"At a Meeting of the Proprietors of the Common and Undivided 
Lands in the Elbow Tract, legally convened on the Third Day of 
June being Monday, 1735, 

" Voted, That there be granted and laid out to Eben' Burrill, 
Esq'., Col. John Alden and Mr. Samuel Bradford who were the 
Hon^* Com*®® of the Gen" Court for Viewing and Determining the 
Grant of this Elbow Tract ; to each of them an Hundred acre Lott 
in any of the Common Land that was added to the Tract since it 
was surveyed by y® former Claimers : as a Grateful Acknowledge* 
of their Great and Good Service to the settle™* in Despatching y® 
affairs thereof by a full and particular Eeport. superceding the 
charge and Difficulty of a Com*®® of Regulation." 

Though the Committee's report, to the casual reader, may appear 
somewhat tedious in its details, yet it has been copied in full, be- 
cause of its important historical value as giving a true picture of 
the Plantation at that early date. Even its details are invaluable, 
because they can nowhere else be supplied. It is, in a sense, the 
Magna Charta of Palmer. 1, It furnishes a list of the then inhab- 
itants of the place, 2. It confers a title to their landed estates to 
all the then occupants, and defines the rights and privileges of the 
individual owners and the general public. 3. It represents each 
man's taxable estate, and is an accurate measure of his financial and 
physical ability and his thrift, 4. It shows who of the settlers had 
built houses and made clearings and were in occupancy of the 
same ; and by putting these last two items together we get an idea 
of the social and agricultural status of each family and the several 
neighborhoods or groups of families. 5. By stating the bounds of 
each man's home lot — as touching a river, or adjacent town line, or 
Read's farm, or one of the other granted farms — it gives us the 
data by which to locate each settler's possessions and construct a 
plan in detail of the Plantation. And by having each man's home 
lot delineated we can place his allotments of "Common Land" as 
they are laid out to him in the several after " Divisions." 

First Legal Meeting of the Xew Plantation. 
" Hampshire ss. 

To Steward Southgate one of the Principal Inhabitants or 


Grantees of the Tract of Land called The Elbow Tract, within 
the count}^ of Hampshire aforesaid 

Greeting : 

Whereas a lawful number of the Grantees or Inhabitants of the 
said Tract of Land, vizt., William Scott, Josej^h Wright, Sen,, 
James Mack Elwean, Steward Southgate, James Mack Clelan, John 
Scott, have made application to me for a warrant for calling & hold- 
ing a meeting of the said Inhabitants or Grantees at the House of 
Ebenezer Mirick of the aforesaid place, on the seventh day of 
August at 9 of y® clock in the forenoon of said day, to Transact on 
the several Particulars hereafter mentioned, vizt. : 

1. To chuse a moderator for said meeting. 

2. To chuse a clerk to enter and record all votes and orders of 
the said Proprietors or Grantees. 

3. To make and form all necessary Kules & Orders for Eegulating 
the Settlement, according to the Act and Order of the General Court; 
and to agree upon methods for calling of meetings for the future. 

4. To chuse a committee to lay out necessary roads and highways 
before any further Surveys are made, or any already made be re- 
corded ; And order the laying out of a Lot for the first settled and 
ordained Minister ; And two other Lots, one for the use of the 
^linistry, and another for a School. Also to see and order the 
filling up of the complement of such Lots granted, as cannot be 
laid out in the place and form assigned without interfering uppon 
other Lots or Grants. Also to see if the said Proprietors will im- 
power the same committee to form a judgement and make Report 
to the Proprietors what land may be a complete addition or allow- 
ance to any of the Lots for land taken up by the said roads or high- 
ways, or for any otlier particular damages that the owners of any 
Lots or Grants may sustain thereby. 

5. To pass upon bills or accounts of past charges for allowances, 
or to appoint a committee to settle and determine the same. 

6. To chuse assessors, or suitable persons to assess and apportion 
such bills as shall be allowed, or ruch other sums as shall be granted 
and agreed upon by the Proprietors or Grantees. 

7. To chuse a collector or collectors to levy and gather in such 

8. To chuse and appoint a surveyor and chairmen to lay out th« 
severall Grants made and selected within the propriety, or to chuse 
a committee to procure, agree with, and appoint the same. 

9. To see if the Proprietors will agree to Eegulate the Improve- 
ments, use the meadows in common, or to lease or dispose of the 


10. To see if the Proijrietors will co]isider the petition or com- 
plaints of the Grantees of Single Lots only; or to chuse a committee 
to consider their case and to Report their opinion what may be Just 
and reasonable to be done ; and what methods may be proper for the 
said Proprietors to take to relieve their case. 

11. To see if the Proprietors will dispose of any of the Common 
Land gratis for past services. 

12. To see if the Proprietors will agree upon some method or 
jmss orders for securing & preserving the Timber, Pine, or meadoAvs 
in common. 

These are therefore in his Majesty's Ngfme, To will and require 
you that you Do (agreeable to the rules and methods prescribed by 
Law for that purpose) notifie the said Proprietors or Inhabitants, 
or Grantees that they assemble themselves together at the time and 
place above mentioned, and to the ends and purposes aforesaid. 
Herein fail not. Dated at Springfield the 24th Day of July in the' 
seventh year of his Majesty's Reign, anno of Domini 1733. 

W*'. Pynchon, Just. Pacis. 

Elbows, August 7. 1733. Steward Southgate certifies that he 
has posted a copy of the warrant at a publick place, according to 
law and the order of said Warrant. 

At a Meeting of the Proprietors or Inhabitants & Grantees of 
Elbows Tract, convened according to Law, at the House of Ebenezer 
Mirick in s*^ Place on Tuesday the seventh Day of August, 1733 : 

Voted, That W*'. Pynchon, Esq., be moderator of the meeting. 

Voted, That Steward Southgate be clerk of the said Proprietors 
and Grantees. Sworn. 

Voted, That Lieut. Samuel Doolitel, Samuel Shaw, Joseph 
Wright, Jun., John King and Timothy Mack El wain be a com- 
mittee to lay out necessary roads and highways, and to order the 
laying of a Lot of one Hundred acres to be to y^ first settled and 
ordained Minister, and two other Lots of the same contents, one 
for the use of the Ministry and the other for a School, and make 
return thereof, according to y® Act. and Order of the General Court. 
And also to see and order the filling up of the complements of such 
Lots granted as cannot be laid out in the place & form assigned, 
without interfering upon other Lots or Grants. And that the 
same committee be impowered to form a judgement and make 
Report to the Proprietors what land may be a complement, addi- 
tion or allowance to any of the Lots for Land taken up by the said 
roads or highways, or for any other particular Damage that the 
owners of any Lot or Grant may sustain thereby. 


Voted, That Andrew Farrand be added to the Committee ap- 
pointed to lay out highwa3-s, &c., and that any four of tliem may 
act on any of the affairs whereunto they are appointed. 

Voted, That Timothy Dwight, Esq., William Scott and Andrew 
Mackee be a committee to prepare and form a Draught or Scheme 
of Rules & Orders for Regulating the Settlement, according to the 
Act or Order of the General Court, and that the same be posted up 
in some Publick place within y® Settlement at least seven days be- 
fore it be Reported to any meeting of the Proprietors in order for 

Voted, That if :iny seven or more of the Proprietors or Grantees 
agree and shall signifie to the clerk that they judge it necessary 
that there be a meeting of the Proprietors or Grantees, with the 
time, place and occasion for holding the same ; that the clerk be 
thereby impowered to issue out and cause notification thereof to be 
posted according to law. 

Voted, That Steward Southgate, Andrew Mackee and Ebenezer 
Mirick be assessors or men appointed and impowered to assess and 
apportion upon all the Proprietors and Grantees, all sums of money 
granted, allowed and agreed upon, equally and impartially to dis- 
tribute and proportion the same, according to the order or direction 
of the General Court's act or order. 

Voted, That all Ministerial payments be assessed and proportioned 
in Distinct Lists : and each particular person's sum or proportion 
to each particular Minister be set in Distinct Columns, And the 
sum allowed to defray the charges of the General Court's Com- 
mittee be also proportioned in a Distinct List. And that all other 
sum or sums that shall be allowed to defray the charges that have 
arisen, be proportioned in a Distinct List, And that all other 
sums that shall be granted or allowed to defray other past charges 
in future shall be also assessed in a Distinct List, prefacing the 
same with a general account of what the money was expended for. 

Voted, That every particular person. Proprietor or Grantee, Avho 
has paid his proportion of any particular assessment of past charges, 
or any part of his proportion thereof, and shall produce a Receipt 
or certificate of such payment from the Minister or Ministers to 
whose support and maintenance he Avas assessed, or other ways 
make it appear to the assessors' satisfaction, and obtain a certificate 
thereof from them, such receipt or certificate shall be sufficient to 
discharge any particular person (for so much as they contain) in 
any particular List or Assessment to which they relate or apper- 
tain, and shall accordingly be received and accepted by the col- 
lector, and from the collector to y® Receiver of money, and shall 


answer for so much in the Receivers account with the Proprietors 
or Grantees. 

Voted, That when any particukir person, Proprietor or Grantee, 
has paid more than his due proportion to any particular assessment, 
and shall make y^ same to appear by Receipts or Certificates as 
aforesaid, the overplus shall answer for so much in any other par- 
ticular assessment to which they most nearly relate. 

Voted, That where any particular person. Proprietor or Grantee, 
shall have j^aid more than his due jJi'oportion of y® whole of y^ as- 
sessments of past charges, and shall make the same to appear as 
aforesaid, the overplus shall answer for so much in y® next assess- 
ment for future Charges, and the assessors are to abate and give 
credit therein accordingly. 

Voted, That the Rev. Mr. Harvey be exempted from paying any 
part of past Charges. 

Voted, That Samuel Frost and James ^lack Clelan be collectors of 
all rates and assessments granted and allowed by the Proprietors 
and Grantees, and made and assessed by the assessors. 

Voted, That Steward Southgate, Andrew Mackee and Lieut. 
Samuel Doolittle be a committee, impowered and appointed to notify 
John Read, Esq., and with him, or such as he shall appoint, to renew 
and perambulate the bounds of the land adjoining the Elbow Tract. 

Voted, That the committee for laying out roads and highways, 
&c., be also a committee to procure and appoint a surveyor and 
chainmen to lay out the several Grants made and settled within the 
Propriety by the Act and Establishment of the General Court. 

Voted, That Lieut. Samuel Doolitel, Barnard Mack Kitt, Steward 
Southgate and James Mack Clelan be a committee to consider and 
examine the bills or particular accounts that shall not be allowed at 
this meeting, and to Report to y® Proprietors and Grantees what 
they shall judge is justly due and ought to be allowed thereof. 

The following accounts were then exhibited, allowed and ordered 
to be assessed on the Proprietors : viz: 

Account of Four pounds, paid Mr. Robert Killpatriek for five 
Sabbaths' preaching at 16 s. per Sabbath: 

Account of 6 pounds, 1 shilling, 8 pence, paid Rev. Mr. Weld, 
his board, horsekeeping, &c., for a quarter of a year's preaching: 

Account of 43 pounds, 13 shillings, paid Rev. Mr. Benjamin 
Dickinson, for two quarters of a year preaching, at 21-10-0 per 

Account of two hundred and sixty pounds, paid Rev. Mr. John 
Harvey, for three years and a quarter preaching at 20 pounds per 


Account of one pound ten shillings, paid for a Town Book of 

Account of nine shillings by John Kilburn, for boarding Rev. 
Mr. Benjamin Dickinson : 

Account of five pounds, two sliillings, paid for a cushion for the 

Account of two pounds, fifteen shillings, expended at Boston on 
Publick affairs, by Thomas Little: 

Account of five pounds, eighteen shillings, paid Capt. Pynchon, 
by Robert Thomson, for drawing and entering petition to General 

Account of thirteen pounds, five shillings, three pence, expended 
in 1729, by James Mack Elwain, in a journey to Boston with a 
petition to y® General Court: 

Account of eleven pounds, fifteen shillings, six pence, the charge 
and expenses of Samuel Shaw and Joseph Wright in a journey to 
Boston with the last Petition: 

Account of five j)ouuds, six shillings, nine pence, the charge and 
expenses of Steward Southgate in a journey to Boston last Novem- 
ber, to revive and prosecute the affair of the last petition: 

Account of sixty-seven pounds, eleven shillings, nine pence, the 
charge and expenses of the General Court's Committee, viewing the 
Elbow Tract, &c., as per the Court's Act appears: 

Account of eleven pounds, eleven shillings, three pence, the 
charge of Steward Southgate, attending upon the General Court 
and the Court's Committee in the establishment of the Grants of 
the Elbow Tract: 

Account of three pounds, paid for a Law Book and this l)ook of 
Records, by Steward Southgate. 

A true record, Stewakd Southgate, Clerk. 

At a meeting of the Proprietors & Grantees of the Elbow Tract, 
held September 24, 1733, it was Voted, that the sum of 67 pounds, 
eleven shillings and nine pence granted and allowed at y® last 
meeting to defray the charge of the Hon. General Court's Com- 
mittee be paid in by the collector, and account thereof cleared at 
or before the tenth day of Oct.' next." 

Some Eakly Votes and Rules. — " The committee who were 
appointed to consider and examine bills, presented several bills and 
Reported thereon, as follows, vizt. : 

"A bill of Thomas Litel's of 15s. jjaid to Mr. Samuel Shaw, to- 
wards a Petition which he said was never sent. The committee 


Report thereon, that they had agreed that no part of the Ijill 
ought to be allowed by the Proprietors, but that Mr. Litel be re- 
ferred to settle account with Mr. Sliaw. Voted, that the Report l)e 

"A bill of Aaron Nelson of 15 pounds, 16 shillings of past 
charges to y® Minister, and Petition, & to labor &c. — The commit- 
tee Report that the sum of 10 shillings towards committee charge, 
and 5 shillings towards the Pulpit cushion ought to be allowed of 
said bill. Proposed whether the Report be accepted, and it passed 
in y® Negative. 

''A bill on account of Mr. Collins of twenty shillings for Preach- 
ing one Sabbath— The committee Report, that nothing of said bill 
ought to be allowed by the Proprietors, but that the clerk write to 
Mr. Collins that the Particular man who imployed him ought to 
pay him. Proposed whether the Report ought be accepted, and it 
passed in the affirmative. 

"A bill of James Mack El wean of eight pounds, seven shillings 
and nine pence, for attendance upon the Generall Court upon 
the Elbows' business — The Committee Report that the said bill 
should be referred to Wm. Pynchon, Esq., for his judgment what 
ought to be allowed thereof ; and Esq. Pynchon being present 
reported that in his judgment, about one pound seven shillings 
ought to be cut off from y® said bill and y® rest allowed. And 
the question was put, whether y® sum of seven pounds shoiild be 
allowed in full discharge of y® said lull, and it was passed in 
y® Affirmative. 

" Voted. That every Non-resident Proprietor of a full Right, or 
one Hundred acre Lot with Draughts, that has built no House 
thereon, do build a House not less than eighteen feet square, and 
brake up four acres of land and clear and fit three acres for mow- 
ing, and include the same in a good and sufficient fence. And 
that every Non-resident Proprietor of a Fifty acre Lot with Draught 
(excepting the owner of the Fifty acre Right that was granted to 
John Brooks) do build a House on his Lot not less than sixteen 
feet square, and brake up two acres of Land, and fit three acres for 
mowing, and include the same in a good and sufficient fence ; and 
that the said Right granted to John Brooks be freed from these 
conditions of settlement." 

'* Voted, That no Proprietor or Grantee do suft'er or permit his or 
their swine to go at large, on the Commons, without sufficient and 
lawful yokeing and ringing, from the first of April untill the last 
of October yearly ; and that three men be chosen & empowered as 
Hogg Reeves to take care that the Province Law be put in execu- 


tion respecting swiue as fully as iu any of tlie towns of this Pro- 
vince ; and that William Sloan, Isaac Magoon, Jnn. and John 
King, Jnn. be the three men to execute the office of Hogg 

'•' Voted, That no Proprietor or Cyrantee of any Land in this set- 
tlement shall hire, or take in for hire, any dry cattle (vizt. cattle 
to fat or young cattle) into the Settlement to summer feed, to 
devour the herbage of the Commons, under the penalty of ten 
shillings for every oxe & steer of three years old and upwards, so 
taken or hired in, and five shillings for all young cattle of three 
years old and under, so taken or hired in ; to be recovered of such 
persons or person by an assessment to be made on their lands by 
the assessors of the Settlement, upon complaint made to and con- 
viction thereof before any two of the said assessors, and to be col- 
lected by either of the collectors, by warrant from the assessors, 
and paid in to the Proprietor's Eeceiver for the use of the Proprie- 
tors and Grantees ; and that these orders continue in force jintill 
the settlement be sett off and invested with the powers and privi- 
leges of a Township. 

"Voted, That Steward Southgate be empowered as our agent on 
our behalf to apply to the General Court at their next session, on 
the publick affairs of this settlement.'" 

" Voted, That our said agent shall enter a complaint to our General 
Court against all such Non-resident Proprietors and Grantees as 
have been returned Delinquent in settlement of their Lots, or in 
payment of their Eates by the committee appointed to take account 
of such delinquencies (except such as have or shall give satisfaction 
forthwith for settlement thereof, according to orders), and to pray 
that either a forfeiture may be taken of such Delinquent Rights 
and they otherways disposed of, or that the Proprietors' assessors 
be empowered to make sale of them, for payment of such Eates and 
Charges as have been assessed on them by order and authority of 
the General Court. 

" Voted, That every Proprietor of a Hundred acre Eight, who has 
not fulfilled the condition of settlement, and will be under an obli- 
gation of 150 pounds, with condition that he or his order or tissigns 
shall pay as much yearly to all publick Eates in this Town for the 
space of seven years next coming as by order of the Law will be as- 
sessed upon a twenty pound ratable estate, besides poles; or so long 
at least as till his Improvements on his Eight will amount to so 
much : That then no complaint shall be entered against him to the 
General Court for not settling, but shall be accepted by us as 
settled. And every Proprietor of a fifty or sixty, or seventy aero 


Right, to be under proportioniil)le obligation to pay proportion- 
able Rates, as aforesaid. And that Steward Southgate be appointed 
as a Trustee, to take the said bonds, and to be accountable to 
the town for them." [The creation of this "Trust" Avas the 
occasion of no end of trouble to the Plantation and trustee. He 
was accused of malfeasance in office ; and suits at Law, and counter 
suits followed ; and from being the most trusted man of the Settle- 
ment he became the most distrusted. His accounts were finally 
adjusted to his satisfaction ; but at no distant day he removed 
from town.] 

" Voted, For the better regulating of the Settlement and the 
affairs thereof, that this Rule be established, viz: That all sworn 
officers of the Proprietors and Grantees shall be fully eHipowered 
to execute and complete their respective offices, after the Inhabi- 
tants are vested with the powers of a town, as fully as before ; 
especially when any accounts remain unsettled, and are not ad- 
justed or cleared up, as well as any matter or thing relating or 
pertaining to their respective offices which was begun and not 

"We the subscribers being appointed a committee to take an ac- 
count of the Delinquencies of the Non-residents and other Pro- 
prietors and Grantees, with respect to the settlement of their Lots, 
or j)ayment of their Rates, Do Report as follows : vizt, that we find 
the widow Bailey and heirs delinquent, both as to settlement and 
payment of their rates. That James McQuiston is delinquent in 
part as to settlement and payment of rates. 

That James Dorchester is delinquent in part as to settlement and 
payment of rates. 

That Peter Backus is delinquent as to payment of rates. 

That Robert Dunlop is delinquent as to jjayment of rates. 

That Jeremiah Olmstead is delinquent as to payment of rates. 
Steward Southgate 
Samuel Frost, }■ Committee. 

James McClelax. 

" At a legal meeting of the Proi^rietors held on the second day of 
June 1735, the above Report was read and accepted." 

" November 28, 1733. Voted, That Andrew Maekee and Ebenezer 
Mirick be a committee or agents to call y® collectors or receivers 
of money granted to account, and fully impowered in the name 
of the Proprietors and Grantees, to hasten and inforce payment 
thereof when it is unreasonably delayed : and to sue for to recover 
y® same or any part thereof that is or may be privately embezzled. 


witliheld or misapplied, contrary to the grant or order of the 
Proprietors and Grantees ; and upon recovery, to pay the same 
according to the Grant ; and to render an exact and true account 

Grist Mill. — One of the necessities of the settler, and usually 
one of the first enterprises undertaken in a new settlement, was 
the erection of a grist mill. Fortunately for the early comers to 
the Elbow Tract, such mills were in existence, within their reach, 
though at somewhat inconvenient distances. Pynchon's mill at 
Springfield was built (or re-built) soon after the close of Philip's 
war. Hay ward's mill, on the old Hadley Path in Brookfield, was 
set up before 1708. A grist mill was put in at the falls in what is 
now Warren about 1720. Capt. Jabez Olmstead built a grist mill 
at the falls in Ware Village in 1729 or '30. This was on the Hol- 
lingsworth Grant, which was included within the territory of the 
Elbow Tract. The first mention of a grist mill in our plantation 
records is in the grant by the General Court's Committee in 1733 
of a hundred acre lotto Steward Southgate "on condition of his 
erecting a good and sufiicient grist mill for the service of the peo- 
ple, within the space of two years." The records show that he did 
not build the mill ; but that just at the expiration of the two years 
Robert Farrall and Thomas Harmon set up a grist mill on Ware 
river. The records are as follows : ''November 13, 1736. To see 
if the Proprietors will accept the Grist Mill built by Robert Far- 
rall and Thomas Harmon as a good and sufficient mill for their 
purposes, and in full satisfaction of the conditions injoined on 
Steward Southgate by order of the General Court. Voted, That 
the grist mill built by Robert Farrall & Thomas Harmon be ac- 
cepted as a good and sufficient mill for our service, and as a com- 
plete satisfaction of the condition enjoined upon Steward Southgate 
by Act of the General Court." 

About a year later Southgate set up a corn mill near his saw 
mill, which "first went Jan. y® 2, 1737-8." 

The Farrall mill was destroyed within a couple of years, as 
appears from the following record : 

Mar. 10, 1740-1, a petition was presented "To the Proprietors 
of the Common and Undivided lands of y^ Elbows — The Petition 
of y® subscribers for lyberty to take up and lay out ten acres of 
land, as part of y® First Division of y® grist mill Right originally 
granted to Steward Southgate, one acre thereof upon Ware River, 
including y« spot whereon y^ late grist mill stood, built by Robert 
ffarrall and Thomas Harmon ; and nine acres on y^ Pine plain 


adjoining to y® lot granted & laid out to Thomas ffarrand, includ- 
ing y* Little Pond on y« said Pine plain. 

And yo'" granting this Lyberty will oblige to thankfullness 
Yo' Petitioners, 

Steward Southgate 

Elbows, March 10th, lUo-l. 

The foregoing petition was granted. 

Andrew Farraxd 
Robert Farrall 

Saw Mill. — The concise history of the first saw mill built for 
the use of our people is thus given in the Records : 

*'0n Thursday the eighth day of September, 1730, the founda- 
tion of the Dam at the northeast corner of Potaquatuck Pond was 

'•On the 14th day of October, 1730, Potaquatuck Saw Mill was 
first raised ; and on the fifth day of March next after the saw mill 
first went. 

"On the 13th day of December 1732, the s*^ Mill was burnt 
down ; and it stood after it was raised two years & two months, 
lacking one day ; after it first went, it stood but one year, nine 
months & eight days. 

"The second Saw Mill at Potaquatuck Pond, Rebuilt on y* same 
spot, viz. was raised on the 8th of October, 1733, and first went on 
the 6th day of Xoveiuber, 1734 ; and on the 29th of April 1736, it 
was undermined by y® water and Broke down, after it had stood 
two years, six months & 21 days ; and after it first went one year, 
5 months & 23 days. 

"The third Saw Mill at Potaquatuck Pond, was built on a new 
spott, viz. it was raised on Monday the twentieth day of Septem- 
ber, 1736, and first went on y® 5th day of ^lay 1737." 

For other grist and saw mills, see chapter on Palmer Industries. 

Public Worship axd Preachers. — One of the important 
reasons given by the Committee of the General Court why the 
Elbow Tract should be incorporated into a plantation was thus 
stated: "We find settled there the Number of eighty persons, 
the most whereof are families, who have built Houses and made 
considerable Improvements ; and are noiu and have constantly for 
more titan three years past, Been supplied u'ith a Minister to Preach 
the Word of God unto them; who has heen supported by a free con- 

At the first legal meeting of the Proprietors they proceeded to 


audit and allow the several preachers' bills, and to order au assess- 
ment to remunerate the sums heretofore paid by individuals, and 
exact their proper porportion of such as were dilinquent or had 
borne no i)art of the burden. This was in accordance with a con- 
dition named in the act of incorporation — ''That they and each of 
the aforenamed grantees do pay their equal part of all Past Charges 
to the support of the Ministry, etc." Probably the ''assessment" 
was really an "equalization," and when a man had paid his just 
and full proj)ortion of these charges he was credited for the same 
on his tax bill. And it is from these audited bills for services 
rendered that we learn the names of the early preachers, and the 
length of their several terms of labor. 

Mr. Kobert Kilpatrick preached five Sabbaths, at sixteen shillings 
per Sabbath. 

Eev. Mr, Weld preached a quarter of a year, for which he was 
paid six pounds, one shilling and eight pence. 

*Rev. Mr. Benj-amin Dickinson preached two quarters of a year, 
at twenty-one pounds, sixteen shillings per quarter. 

Mr. Collins preached one Sabbath, for which service he presented 
a bill of twenty shillings, which was not allowed, but he was in- 
structed to look for payment to the person who employed him. 

Rev. Mr. John Harvey had j^reached three years and one quarter, 
at twenty pounds per quarter, so that his bill August 8, 1733, 
amounted to two hundred and sixty pounds. 

If the ministerial supply had been constant, Rev. Mr. Kilpatrick 
l)egan to preach the first of July, 1729, and Mr. Harvey commenced 
his labors in May, 1730. And there is no reason to doubt that 
these are the true dates, as all the I'ecords extant tally with such a 
conclusion, f 

Rev. John Harvey. — It is commonly understood that he was a 
Scotchman, born in the north of Ireland, and a graduate of the 
University. Before coming to the Elbows he was employed as a 
schoolmaster at Londonderry, N. H. It appears from some loose 
Plantation records that at first he was hired by the quarter, and 
that at the end of each quarter some leading man of the settlers 
went round to each house to ascertain their minds whether lie 
should be longer emploj^ed. 

♦ Benjamin Dickinson was gon of Nathaniel of Hadley, b. Sept. ii, 1702. His main business was 
teaching, though he occasionally preached as temporary supply. He m. Sarah Scott, and lived in 
Hadley, where he raised a family of five children. 

t According t* Mr. Harvey's final receipt, he began to preach May 11, 1731, which does not tally 
with his bill for services, for which a public tax was levied. His bill, rendered at the time, is more 
likely to be correct than his memory. 


At the end of his first year a public meeting was called, and it 
was ''Voted that James Dorchester, Joseph Wright and AndreAv 
B\irrand be y® men to go to every inbabitant of this place to know 
whether they are willing Mr. Harvey stays another quarter, and to 
receive notes of such as are willing to pay their proportion in order 
to sujiport said Minister. James Mackelweax, Clerk." 

'^Aug. 23, 1731. Voted to hire the Eev. Mr. Harvey quarterly, 
and to give twenty pounds." 

'•Voted, that Mr. Mackelwean, John King, James Shearer, 
Joseph Flamond, James Lamberton, James Dorchester, are the 
men to collect and pay the Rev. Mr. Harvey quarterly." 

The meaning, of the word '' collect " is seen when Ave read the 
following vote : " Voted that what grane Mr. Harvey takes towards 
his rates, he is to have as follows : to wit — Wheat, at eight shillings 
per bushel, rye, at six shillings, Indian corn, at four shillings." 
This "country pay" was "collected" by the Committee and deliv- 
ered to the minister at his own house. If he turned it into money 
it was at his own charge. It will appear in the terms agreed upon 
for his settlement in the ministry that he was liable to receive a 
large part of his yearly salary in corn or grain. 

In the autumn after the organization of the Plantation, the peo- 
ple took steps for the settlement of Mr. Harvey as their pastor. 
According to the custom of the time, which required the written 
opinion and advice of at least three neighboring ministers, a com- 
mittee consisting of Joseph Wright, Sen.. Samuel Shaw and James 
Dorchester was appointed "to take advice of y® neighboring or- 
dained ministers about the settling of a minister in this place.'' 
The Committee applied to the Hampshire Association, and received 
the following certificate : 

"Upon application made to Association of the Couniy of Hampshire, 
convened at Longmeadow, Oetbr y^ 10th, 1733, By ye people of j« place 
called ye Elbows, for advice about the settlement of a minister in that 
Place : The Association Resolved, that, seeing that Mr. John Harvey hath 
been improved amongst them for some considerable time in Preaching the 
Gospel, and we knowing nothing concerning him as to his Doctrine, Life or 
conversation that should Hinder his being imployed in y^ work of the Min- 
istry ; and having seen his Letter of Lycence. and he being by agreement to 
continue with them till y^ tenth of y^ next month, We are of the opinion 
that it may not be amiss for them then to make Tryall whether there can 
be a good and generall agreement among them further to Improve him in 
til at work. 

A true copy 

Test Jonathan Edwards, Scribe. 


Whatever this ''opinion" of the Association, with its guarded 
and involved phraseology and negative terms, may have been 
worth, or intended to be worth, it appears to have been satisfactory 
to the people; and '*at a meeting of the Proprietors, Grantees and 
settlers of the Elbow Tract legally assembled at the house of John 
Moor on Wednesday the 14th day of November, 1733, 8amnel 
8haw. moderator, it Avas voted, 1. That the Eev. Mr. John Harvey 
have a call to continue and settle in the work of the Ministry in 
this Place: 2. That one hundred pounds be granted to the Rev. 
Mr. John Harvey to encourage his settlement in the Ministry with 
us: 3. That eighty pounds per year be the stated salary for the 
Ministry in this place: 4. That Steward Southgate, Samuel Shaw, 
and James Dorchester be a committee to propose the terms of set- 
tlement and salary to the Eev. Mr. Harvey, to take his answer, and 
make return to the Proprietors and Grantees for further confirma- 

Nov. 28, 1733. The Committee who were appointed to treat 
with the Eev. Jolm Harvey brought in a report, which is as fol- 
lows : 

'•' The Eeport or Eeturn of the Committee appointed to offer the 
Terms of settlemont and salary to thg Reverend John Harvey, to 
Receive his answer, and make return, which is as follows, vizt. 
That we the subscribers in the name of the Proprietors and Grant- 
ees have given the Rev. Mr. Harvey a Call or Invitation to settle in 
y® work of the Ministry in this Place, and have proposed or offered 
him a Hundred pounds to encourage his Settlement, or towards 
building him a house. Provided he will accept the same from the 
People in work or labor, or in stuff or material for building, as he 
shall have occasion, at y® accustomed or Reasonable rates, if season- 
ably provided. 

We have further proposed and offered the sum of Eighty pounds 
for a yearly or stated salary, to be discharged at two payments; the 
first payment of Forty pounds to take its rise from the tenth of this 
instant November, and to be discharged on the second Monday of 
May next ; and the second payment of Forty pounds to take its riae 
from the said second Monday of May, and to be discharged on the 
second Monday of November following, and so yearly, and every 
year during his continuance amongst us in y® exercise of the Minis- 
try, Provided, and it was further proposed, that any of the People 
might pay or discharge their proportion of this salary in corn or 
grain at a Reasonable or market price, or in Work or labor in 
y^ spring or summei" season at Reasonable or customary wages. 

And upon these terms and proposals the Rev. John Harvey con- 


sents to serve us y® people of this Place in y® work of y® Gospel 
Ministry according to his ability, and as God by his grace shall en- 
able him and by his Providence continue him therein. But he 
desires and proposes that y® People of the place will either provide 
or lay him in his firewood yearly, or grant him a wood-lot. 

These offers and proposals have we made, and these we have re- 
ceived in answer, which we now report for your consideration. 

Steward Southgate, ) ^, ., , 

„ > Committee. 

Samuel Shaw, ) 

Elbows, November 28, 1733." 

'"Read, and Voted, That this Report l>e accepted, and recorded, 
and that the Rev. Mr. John Harvey be the minister of this Place 
according to the order of the Gospel, and the law of this Province. 

''Voted, That the Rev. Mr. Harvey be this year provided with a 
sufficient stock of firewood at y^ charge of the people." 

**At a meeting of the Proprietors and Grantees of the Elbow 
Settlement legally convened at the house of James Shearer, on 
Wednesday the 2()th day of March, A.D. 1733-4, John King mod- 
erator, it was voted, 1. That the Rev. John Harvey be ordained to 
the office of the Ministry in this place ; and that tlie time for his 
ordination be on the first Wednesday in June next. 2. That the 
place for ordaining Mr. Harvey be at the house of James Shearer, 
unless the Reverend Elders, called to officiate in that work, shall 
see cause (if the weather permitt) to do it abroad, or elsewhere. 
3. That the Rev. Mr. Harvey be ordained a Presbiterian Minister 
in this plac«. 4. That Samuel Shaw, Steward Southgate and An- 
drew Farrand be a committee in behalf of this Society to join with 
the Rev. Mr. Harvey to send and invite such Ministers to perform 
the ordination, as he shall nominate and appoint." 

At a legal meeting of the Proprietors and Grantees May 20, 1T34, 
it was Voted, That Steward Southgate, Samuel Shaw, Thomas 
Litell, Daniel Fuller and Joseph Fleming be a committee to take 
care and make provision for the suitable entertainment of the Rev. 
Presbitery and other Ministers, and others who may be called and 
sent to the ordination. Voted, That fifteen pounds be granted and 
raised upon the PiX)prietors & Grantees, according to the Rules of 
raising other ensuing charges, to defray the charge of entertaining 
the Rev. Presbitery & other Ministers who may be called to the 
ordination of the Rev. Mr. Harvey — to be immediately assessed and 
collected, and if the charge of the ordination should not amount 
to the said sum after accounts shall be settled by the committee,, 
the remainder to be ai5i)ropriated to some other Publick use, as the 
Proprietors & Grantees shall order." 


The Ordination. — ••• On the fifth day of June, Anno Domini 
173-1, the Rev. Mr. John Harvey was ordained the first Minister of 
the Church & Congregation of the Elbow Settlement. The ordin- 
ation was performed by the delegates of the Reverend Presbitery 
of Londonderry, upon a scaffold made up under a tree, being a 
great White Oak tree, standing on the Plain on the east side of the 
meadow called Cedar Swamp Meadow, within Mr. Harvey's lott.* 
The Piev. Mr. Thomson of Londonderry preached the sermon, and 
the Eev. Mr. Morehead [of Boston] gave the charge." Proprie- 
tor's Records, To this account Rev. Mr. Wilson, in his Historical 
Address, adds: '^One other Presbyterian minister was present, 
though what part he took in the service is not specified. They 
were all countrymen of Mr. Harvey's. Rev. Isaac Chauncey of 
Hadley assisted at the ordination, and perhaps other Congregational 
ministers." From a document preserved in the State Archives it 
appears that -' invitations were sent to the Church of Christ in 
Xorthampton, to Rev. Mr. Stephen Williams of Longmeadow, to 
the Rev. Mr. Isaac Chauncey of Hadley, and several others ; five 
of them came, whereof Rev. Mr. Chauncey was one, and by their 
advice and office he [Mr. Harvey] was ordained." f The invited 
council, then, comprised three Congregational and four Presbyterian 
ministers ; but as neither Rev. Mr. Edwards nor Rev. Mr. Williams 
was present, the actual ordaining council was composed of four 
Presbyterians and one Congregationalist. 

Mr. Harvey had a grant of a one hundred acre lot from the Gen- 
eral Court's committee, which was laid out on the old Brimfield 
road, about a mile from the old meeting-house. There was also 
•'surveyed and laid out the 'Ministry Lot' of one hundred acres, 
lying on each side of Ware River, and bounding northerly on Esq. 
Read's Farm." So that he had the use and improvement of two 
hundred acres of land, in addition to his "settlement" and salary. 
He was also provided with fire-wood, or a round sum was granted 
him with which to purchase the same. In 1734 twelve pounds was 
granted for this purpose ; the next year twenty pounds was granted, 
and the year following thirty-seven pounds. 

The Ministry Lot, above referred to, did not become the inheri- 
tance of Mr. Harvey or any particular pastor of the church ; but 
was for the use of each settled minister successively, during his 
pastorate. A memorial dated Jan. 5, 1759, signed by James Brack- 
enridge and others, a committee of the District of Palmer, was sent 

* The Ordination Tree stood on the old Brimfield road, three-fourths of a mile southeast from 
where the old meeting-house was built. 
t Mass. State Archives, xii. 71, 


to the General Court, setting forth that ''in the Grant made to 
them of their lands in 1733, they were required to lay out for 
the use of the Ministry and for a School, one Hundred acres 
each ; that they accordingly laid out such lands in 1735 ; hut they 
not being conveniently situated for the purposes intended, the 
inhabitants bought a farm of 150 acres for the use of the Ministry, 
in a much better situation, which cost them more than both the 
other lots would sell for : And they therefore pray they may be en- 
abled to make sale of the two lots mentioned, and ajDply the pro- 
ceeds towards payment for the lot they have purchased. The 
Court Granted the prayer so far as to give authority to the District 
to make and execute a Deed of the Ministry Lot referred to ; they 
purchasing lands of equal value in the most convenient place they 
can, to be held for the same purpose as the land is that they shall 
dispose of." Under this permission, the District made sale of the 
Ministry Lot, and purchased the farm of Rev. Eobert Burns, then 
retiring from the pastorate in the place. 

" The committe chosen to sell the Ministry Lot, and School Lot, 
and also to buy Mr. Burns^ farm for a Ministry Lot, — we the sub- 
scribers have acted as f olloweth : 

We sold the Ministry Lot for 106 pounds, 13 shillings, 4 pence : 
also sold the School Lot for 30 pounds, 13 shillings, 4 pence : also 
according to our Instructions we bought Mr. Burns' farm for 141 
pounds, 6 shillings, 8 pence, and obliged ourselves to maintain Jean 
Hill's child in behalf of the town. 

Palmer, Sept. 21, 1758. 

James Breakenridge, 
Robert Rogers, 


Samuel Shaw, Jux., 
Thomas Kixg. 

Committee. " 

This Report was laid before the town for consideration, and was 
read and accepted by vote. Barnard McNitt, Clerk. 

The Two Penny Tax. — As stated in the Report of the General 
Court's Committe of 1733, The Elbow Tract " is much discommoded 
by Farms claimed by Particular Grants from this Court, which have 
taken up the best of the Land." Under the Act establishing the 
Plantation, these Farms were not taxable for current charges. And 
at a meeting of the Pi'oprietors Nov. 28, 1733, Samuel Shaw, Wm. 
Scott and Steward Southgate were appointed a committe to prepare 
and prefer a petition to the General Court asking that the assessors 


of the Settlement may^be authorized to levy and assess a tax npon 
y® said Farms toward the charge of building a meeting-house and 
settling a minister. The result is thus recorded : 

'•'At a Great and General Court of the Province of the Massachu- 
setts Bay, and on a Petition of the Proprietors, Settlers and Grantees 
of the Elbow Tract in y® county of Hampshire — In Council April 
y® 16th 1734. Eead and Ordered, That the assessor or assessors of 
y® Plantation called y® Elbows, be and hereby are empowered and 
directed to assess the Farms within mentioned of the contents of 
two Thousand acres, at the Rate of two pence per acre per annum, 
for three years next coming, towards the charge of building a Meet- 
ing-House, and settling and supporting a Minister in the said Plan- 
tation. And the said Lands are subjected to be sold for the pay- 
ment of the said tax, in manner as provided in the Act made in the 
4th and 5th year of his present Majesty's reign, entitled An Act to 
subject the Unimproved Land within this Province belonging to 
Non-resident Proprietors to be sold for payment of Taxes or assess- 
ments levied on them by order of the Great and General Court. 

''And it is further Ordered, that the Proprietors' Receiver of the 
s*^ Plantation for the time being, be and hereby is vested with like 
powers that Treasurers and Receivers of Towns and Precincts are 
vested with, in and by an Act made and passed in the sixth year of 
his present Majesty's reign, entitled an Act for the seasonable pay- 
ment of Town and Precinct Rates and Assessments. 

Sent down for concurrence. 

In the House of Representatives April y^ 17, 1734. 
Read and concurred. 

Consented to J. Belcher. 

The amount of the tax on the farms referred to was 16 pounds, 
13 shillings and 4 pence per annum — not large in itself, but helpful 
to the young Plantation. But a very considerable part of these 
farms was unimproved land, and the owners became restive under 
the execution of a warrant for enforcing the collection of the tax. 
Captain Jabez Olmstead, who owned the Hollingsworth grant of 
500 acres, sent a petition to the General Court asking for relief. 

" December 20, 1734. Petition of Jabez Olmstead of Ware 
River, showing that the assessors of the Plantation commonly 
called The Elbows, under colour of an order of Court for taxing 
certain Lands not improved, lying near them, at two pence per 
acre, have assessed the Lands of the petitioner at two pence per 
annum, and threaten to sell his land to pay it: Praying that he 


may be annexed to the town of Brookfield till such time as there 
shall be a Parish settled between his Farm and Brookfield. 

"In the House of . Kepresentatives Eead and Ordered, that the 
prayer of the petition be granted, and the petitioner & his farm be 
and hereby are annexed and accounted a part of Brookfield, to do 
duty and receive privilege there, until the further order of this 
Court — The order of the Court within mentioned of the two penny 
tax notwithstanding. 

In Council Read & Concurred. 

Consented to J. Belcher. 

The Church. — Mr. Wilson, in his Historical Addrei^s, says: 
" No records of the Church are found of an earlier date than 1753. 
Probably none were made previous to that time ; consequently 
nothing definite can be ascertained respecting the precise date of 
the organization of the church or of the circumstances attending 
its formation." The Proprietors' records are perplexingly ambig- 
uous on this point. In one j^lace it is stated that Mr. Harvey was 
ordained ''the first minister of the church and congregation of the 
Elbows Settlement." In another place the contracting party is 
styled "the Christian Inhabitants of the plantation in town meet- 
ing assembled." In a paper preserved in the State Archives [vol. 
xii, p. 65] signed by Samuel Shaw and others, it is stated that Mr. 
Harvey was ordained, "although in s*^ Plantation at the s^ time 
there was no gathered church." 

A petition dated Dec. 14, 1739, signed by Nicholas Blancher, 
Thomas Little and others, "in behalf of themselves and the far 
greater part of the Church of Christ and Christian inhabitants of 
the Elbows," which was presented to the General Court, appears to 
establish the fact that a church had been formed and was in exist- 
ence at this date. But the matter is again thrown into doubt by a 
record in the Proprietors' Book : " These are to uotifie & warn 
the Proprietors & Grantees of the Elbows, to meet at the Publick 
Meeting-House in s^ place on Thursday, the 18th day of this 
instaut February, 1748, at 10 o'clk A. M., to act upon the follow- 
ing Articles : 1. To chuse a moderator. 2. To pass order that 
the Trew Presbiterian Rules of Church Discipline of the Church of 
Scotland Perswasion be trewly and faitlifully kept up and main- 
tained here in this congregation, agreeable to our jirofession, and 
also to our Solemn Ingagements which we are under, in the sight 
of God and man, as well as we are in conscience & Duty bound to 
a faithful Discharge of tlie same. ["The article was voted out."] 
3. That there be a vote pas't in order to have a Presbiterian Ortho- 

THE ELBO\y TRACT — A PLANTATION', 1726-1752. 93 

dox minister of the Church of Scotland Pcrswasion settled and or- 
dained here in this plantation, as soon as God in his Providence 
will permit of the same." 

Query. If a church was in existence here, what was the need 
and what would be the force of such contemplated action on the 
part of the Proprietors of the Plantation ? 

And the same query may be raised in relation to the following 
vote, copied from the Plantation Records : 

''At a meeting of the Proprietors & Grantees of y® Elbows legally 
held March 8, 1748, Voted, We the Inhabitants and members of 
y® church and congregation of Kingstown, alias Elbows, desire the 
Eev. Presbitery of Londonderry that they will dismiss the Eev. Mr. 
John Harvey from any further work of the Ministry among us." 
The obvious inference is that there was but one body to act on the 
subject, viz., the Proprietors and Grantees; and this body styled 
itself "the Inhabitants and members of the church and congrega- 

But the action of another meeting of the Proprietors and Grant- 
ees carries an equally obvious inference that there were two bodies 
in existence, and that a concurrence of the two was necessary to 
give validity to a ministerial call. In a warrant for a public meet- 
ing on April 27th, 1749, was an article " To pass a vote concurring 
with the call given by the congregation to the Rev. Mr. Boyd." 
Under this article, " Fo^e^? in concurrence with the congregation 
in regard to the call of Mr. Boyd to the work of the Ministry in 
this place." 

Query. Was primary action, in cases like the foregoing, taken 
by the congregation assembled for public worship on the Salhath, 
which would, of course, have no legal force, and confirmatory 
action taken at a legal meeting duly warned and held on a weeJcday ? 
If so, this custom will afford a plausible explanation of the phrase- 
ology of the Records. 

It is believed to have been an established custom of the Presby- 
terian Kirk of Scotland of that day that a member removing from 
one place to another took with him a token or certificate of church 
membership, and that these tokens were accepted in all their 
churches, and admitted the bearer to the communion. Could not 
all the professors at the Elbows who had these tokens call them- 
selves "in covenant" and church relation, and thus observe the 
ordinances, independently of a local church organization? 

The First Meeting-House. — At the date of the incorporation 
of the Elbows Plantation the people had been supplied with regu- 


lar joreacliing on the Sabbath for four years, but had not built a 
meeting-house. In the Act of June, 1733, they are enjoined to 
" erect and build a suitable house for Publick Worship within 
two years." 

The settlers had not been thoughtless on the matter, for even 
before the passage of this Act — even as early as August 23, 1732, 
the Records show that " The Inhabitaints beaying sencibel of the 
grat nead we have of a house convenient to worship God, we the 
Inhabitants in order thereto w have asembled and considred the 
matter. And in order to a regler doing we have chosen nine men 
to consider where the place should be, and mak Report to the 
town, viz. John King, Sam" Shaw, James Mackalain, James Lam- 
berton, Tomas Littel, Sarg* Magoon, Joseph Wright, Thomas Mac- 
Ian than, Sam" Curtis." This was bad spelling, but a good 
beginning. And to provide, in the meantime, a place for holding 
religious services, two days later there was gathered "A mettin 
of the Inhabaintints to considder where the Poub3dick woshep of 
God should be getthed for a yeare, to wit: the three first Sabath 
Days is to be att the house of James Dorchester, and the nex three 
Sabaath Dayes is to be at y® house of John More, and so to con- 
tinue by call three Sabaths at a change about." After this 3^ear 
they met at the house of Mr. Moore in the summer, and at John 
Henderson^s during the cold season, '^ provided his house be made 
comfortable to meet in ; " and sometimes at John King's, Ebenezer 
Mirick's, Wm. Crawford's (while Mr. Harvey boarded there in 
1733), or James Shearer's, where the ordination service was ap- 
pointed to be held. The meetings for Sabbath worship and for 
the transaction of public business, for the time being, were held at 
the same house. In 1734 and '35 the place of meetings was the 
Crawford house, which appears to have been injured in some way 
in connection with public gatherings, and the question was raised 
whether the people ought not to repair it, and it was " Voted that 
12 shillings be allowed to Steward Southgate, and 8 and sixpence 
to James Shearer for boards, nails and work about the house where 
the meeting for publick worship is held ; and that the same be ac- 
cepted as a part of their present Rate to the meeting-house.'' 

Immediately after the organization of the Plantation a serious 
move was made to build a meeting-house. "August 27, 1733, 
Lieut. Sam. Doolittle, Samuel Shaw, Joseph Wright, Jun., John 
King and Timothy Mackelwain were appointed a committee to 
pitch upon and nominate a spot whereon to build a meeting-house, 
and make report thereof to the Inhabitants for their acceptance." 
This choice of a location for the house proved a perplexing matter. 


A great number of spots were selected and agreed upon ; and after- 
wards rejected. There were many minds ; and these minds were 
unstable. Nearly two years were spent in choosing and rejecting 
spots. Nov. 14, 1733, it was voted to place the house " near James 
Lamberton's fence, by the Pine tree marked H standing on the 
north side of the Path." And a committee was appointed, viz., 
Steward Southgate, James McClelan, John Beman and Lieut. Sam- 
uel Doolittle, to agree with workmen to build and set up the frame 
of the Meeting-House, and to agree with the men of the place to 
provide stuff for enclosing of it, 2. That the frame of the Meet- 
ing-House exceed not thirty-six feet in length and thirty feet in 
breadth. 3. That Fifty pounds be granted and raised upon the 
Proprietors & Grantees, according to the grant and Order of the 
General Court, towards the charge of building and setting up the 
Meeting-House. '' 

It appears that the timber was cut during the winter, and hauled 
to the place agreed upon. But the next March a new vote was 
passed " That the Meeting-House be sett on the east side of Cedar 
Swamp brook, between the brook and the foot of the hill, and 
within seven or eight rods of the road laid out towards Brookfield, 
on the south side thereof." Nearly a year passed in non-action. 
But — as the two years' limit set by the Court would soon be 
reached — To make a final adjustment of the vexed question, 

"At a meeting of the Proprietors of Elbow Tract legally held at the 
house called Crawford house on the 10th day of February 1734-5, Mr. An- 
drew Mackee moderator, it was Voted That every person, Proprietor & 
Grantee, shall enter with the clerk or bring in his vote therein, naming a 
spot to set the Meeting House on ; and that the two spots which shall be 
tke highest in nomination, shall be put to a lott for a final determination. 
Then the nomination being entered with the clerk, and the same counted, 
it appeared that a spot on the knowl near Crawford's house, and a spot on 
the east side of Cedar Swamp brook on The north side of the road, near 
where Wm. Nelson's haystack stood, were the two spots highest in nomina- 
tion. Then the lotts being made by the clerk, the Rev. Mr. Harvey was 
sent for ; and then Voted, That the Pvev. Mr. Harvey shall draw the lott, 
and the spot which is entered upon the lott or paper which he shall draw, 
shall be the determinate spott whereon to set the Meeting House. After 
solemn prayer, Mr. Harvey drew the lott whereon the spot on the knowl 
near Crawford's house was entered." 

The spot thus decided upon was the one where the meeting- 
house stood for more than a century, and which was known as the 
business centre of the town. The tavern, and the store, and the 
blacksmith's shop came in quick succession. 

At an adjourned meeting of the Proprietors in March, it was 

9G niSTOKY OF PALilEli. 

" proposed whether any thing be allowed to the owners of the lots 
where any of the meeting-house timber is cut ; and it passed in the 
Negative." This does not imply that the timber was cut without 
permission ; probably every man who owned a particularly fine 
timber tree was willing that it should be utilized for the building 
of the sanctuary of worship ; and the vote simply means that all 
such contributions should be reckoned as a gift. 

At a meeting held March 17, one hundred pounds was granted 
" for building & finishing the Meeting House ; " and seven 
pounds 'Ho make provision for raising it." Voted '^That James 
Lamberton & Daniel Fuller be ajDpointed to make provision of 
Drinks and cake suitable, and to order and dispose of the same at 
the time of the Eaising." 

The records indicate that the frame was ready to be set up May 
12. Probably it was raised before planting. Probably the ''rais- 
ing " was a notable event in the Plantation, especially as this was 
the first frame house erected there. The youngsters of both sexes 
were collected at a safe distance, in wonderment how such immense 
timbers could be got into their lofty positions, and were anxious to 
see the last rafter put in place and the pile of cakes exposed. The 
men all lent a hand and worked heartily and cheered lustily, under 
inspiration of the occasion, and perhaps in some degree under 
inspiration of the Drink that was distributed only to the workmen. 

The building appears to have been "finished," i. e., covered in, 
by the last of October, and to have been used for Sabbath worship 
early in November. The first Plantation meeting for public busi- 
ness was held in the new house on December 4, 1735. 

All accounts agree that the house, both inside and outside, was a 
very plain structure. Probably it was only single boarded on the 
outside. The door had hinges, but no lock — such a thing being 
then unknown in the settlement. It was fastened by a wooden 
latch on the inside, which was pulled up by a string, or when that 
was broken a stick run through the crack lifted the latch. The 
sanctity of a meeting-house was its best protection from youthful 
intruders, and there was little within to tempt adult thieves. The 
first mischief done to the sanctuary was from without, in the sum- 
mer of 1744, when a lawless hunter stole the lead from some of the 
window panes for bullets and broke the glass in doing it. For- 
tunately, such an example acted as a warning, rather than a temp- 
tation. The inside of the house was neither ceiled nor plastered. 
The pulpit was a cage-like box, perched on posts, and reached by a 
flight of narrow stairs, the only ornament being a cushion, pur- 
chased two years before, on which the Bible rested. Long wooden 

THE ELliOW TRACT — A PLANTATION-, 172G-1752. 97 

benches were the only seats first put in. These were arranged in 
two rows through the body of the house, facing the pulpit, and 
separated by an aisle. The men sat on one side by themselves, and 
the women on the other. Pews were not put in till after 1744, 
These were regarded as a luxury, to be enjoyed only by the well-to- 
do part of the congregation. The space nearest the pulpit was 
reckoned highest in dignity, and the pew ground was lotted out 
according to the rates men paid towards the public charges. The 
Elbow settlers were very jealous of whatever should mark distinc- 
tions of wealth in church affairs, and all the early attempts to dis- 
tribute the pew ground on the basis of taxable estates got a decided 
negative. The point was yielded only when warrants of " distress " 
were issued for the forcible collection of the 500-pound debt assess- 
ment. When built these pews were scpiare pens, ranged along the 
walls of the room, and set up at the expense of the occupants — 
though special permission of the Proprietors was necessary. Some- 
times a condition was annexed that the builder ''should sit there 
with his family," but usually only the dimensions were stated, and 
the pew became personal property. 

That it was cold and uncomfortable in the meeting-house in the 
winter without a fire was a matter of course. That only one ser- 
mon was preached on. the Sabbath at this season was natural and 
wise. That the noise of a hundred feet, heavily booted, stamping 
on the bare floor and thumping together to restore circulation in 
the benumbed extremities should cause the minister to sometimes 
stop the sermon and dismiss the people was according to the fitness 
of things and showed his good sense. That the small congregation 
collected on a stormy Sabbath in the most inclement season should 
adjourn from the cold meeting-house to the adjacent well-warmed 
tavern, and the preacher take the bar for his pulpit, was a prudent 
move and implied no disrespect for the house of God, nor any han- 
kering for the stores Ijehind the bar. Put yourself in their place 
and see if you could devise a better plan I 

In February, 1740, an article was inserted in the warrant for a 
plantation meeting, " To grant and order a certain sum of money 
so much as y* Proprietors & Grantees there met may see cause, to 
be raised and imployed towards y® Eepairing and finishing y® 
Meeting House for y® publick worship of God, to be dispensed for 
the more and better comfort of the society." Under this article, 
sixty pounds was granted towards y® repairing y® meeting-house. 
Probably a part of it was expended in clapboarding the building. 
In June, 1743, forty pounds, old tenor, was raised for finishing the 
meeting-house. The Committee to do the work appear to have 


heen dilatory ; and the next year Aaron Nelson, Paul Glasford and 
Jonathan Chapin were appointed ''to call the committee of the 
Meeting House to account for what they have done with the money 
that Avas gathered for finishing the s* House." Soon after this 
date the seats were repaired, and it was ordered ''that the body 
seats of the Meeting House shall be set close together in the mid- 
dle." This was a first step to make room for the building of pews 
around the walls. In July, 1750, six pounds, thirteen shillings 
and four pence was granted for "rectifying the Meeting House." 
A, part of it was spent in building seats in the gallery for young 
people to sit in. And this very naturally led to the appointment, 
the following October, of John Webber and Matthew Hutchins, 
"two fit men to sit in the gallery amongst y® young people to in- 
spect their carriage, that they may not profane y® Sabbath in the 
time of Avorship." 

Such was the condition of the Meeting-house at the close of the 
Plantation period ; and we leave its further history for the next 

SiNGijq"G. — There is no evidence from the Kecords that a choir 
was in existence at this date. Indeed, the custom of the time and 
the prevalent Presbyterian idea of this part of public worship, 
would exclude such an aid to devotion. The appointment in 1735, 
of " a Precentor or clerk of the Congregation," carries the conclu- 
sion that the singing was Congregational, /. e., the psalm was "lined 
off" (or Beaconed; as it was called in Congregational Churches) 
by the Precentor, and sung, line by line by the assembly. Probably 
a choir, to sit by themselves in the gallery, was not formed until 
Mr. Baldwin's day. 

Thus was completed what may be called the necessary equipment 
of the new Settlement. The people held the fee in their lands ; 
had houses to live in ; had an ordained Minister ; a Meeting-House ; 
a Saw mill and Grist mill ; country roads leading to near and re- 
mote centres of trade ; and Town roads laid out so that every 
family had " a way to mill and meeting." 

But the settlers had some causes of worry and irritation, and some 
burdens to bear, a part of which were incident to a new plantation ; 
and a part grew out of their peculiar circumstances. Two of these 
peculiar drawbacks will now be considered in detail. 

Land Grants to Public Men. — It will be remembered that the 
General Court's Committee in their Report of June, 1733, say : 
"We find the place much discommoded by Farms claimed by Par- 


ticnlar Grants from this Court, which have taken up the best of 
the Land.'' 

Hobart's Farm. — In the Mass. Colony Records, Vol. IV, Part II, 
p. .31, under date August 1, lOGl, is the record : " This Court have 
Granted to Mr. Peter Hubberd [Hobart] pastor of Hingham, three 
Hundred acres of Land for a Farme where it may be had, not 
p'^judiciall to any plantation." This public grant of land was in 
accordance with the policy of the time, to do honor to men of dis- 
tinction in the ministry and civil and military life, and add to their 
means of support. Mr. Hobart [he wrote his name Hubljerd in 
England] was the influential pastor of an influential church in the 
Colony, and the father of seventeen children. The Farm was not 
located and laid out in his day, nor in his son's day ; but the grant 
held good, and 71 years later was laid out to a grandson. In Gen- 
eral Court, July 1, 1732, '''a petition of John Hobart of Xcav Lon- 
don, Conn., only son of Joshua Hobart late of Southold, on Long 
Island, deceased, grandson of Peter Hobart of Hingham, deceased, 
praying liberty to lay out a Grant of 300 acres of Land, made to his 
said grandfather in the year 1661 by the General Court, the same be- 
ing devised to his father Joshua — The said Land not being yet taken 
up and confirmed : Eead and Ordered y* the prayer of the petition 
be granted, and the petitioner is allowed by a surveyor and chair- 
men under oath, to lay out 300 acres of y® Unappropriated Lands 
of this Province to satisfy the grant, and to return a Plat to this 
Court within six months for confirmation." The survey was made 
by Benjamin Flagg, and the Plat returned to the Court Nov. 16, 
1732 — "Lying partly between a Farm of Mr. John Read, and a 
Farm lately laid out to Samuel Partridge, Esq., near and adjoining 
to a place called Podaquoduck."* The reason for locating the 
Grant on the Elbow Tract was because available unappropriated 
Land was found here, and public attention was just now drawn 
hither, which would give the land a marketable value. It might 
just as well have been located on country Land any where else. 
The northwest corner of the Grant is a short distance west of Hazel 
Snow's house, and from there the bounds ran east by the town 
line of Ware to the farm of Solomon and Luman Brown. Except 
20 acres sold for taxes, the land was bought in 17-15 by Matthew 

The HoJUngsiiwrth Grant. "Jan. 6, 1673-4. In ans' to the 
petition of Richard Hollingsworth the Court judgeth it meet to 
grant the petitioner five hundred acres of land where he can find it 

Ancient Plans, Vol. II, p. 215. 


free from any former grant." * In his petition, Eichard Hollings- 
worth of Salem says: " Yonr humble petitioner's ffather came into 
this country about forty yeares since, and brought a great ifamily 
with him, and a good estate. And being the first builder of ves- 
sells, being a ship-carpenter, was a great benefit to this countrey, 
and as great or greater than any one in the infancie of the countrie 
of a private man as it is fully knowne, yett gained uot himselfe an 
estate, but spent his own that he brought, and notwithstanding all 
his service and the largeness of his family, being twelve in number, 
he never had more granted him by the countrie but forty one acres 
of ujiland, and not one acre of meadow, and the land lying soe re- 
mote from the towne of Salem, it proved little worth to him or his, 
and none of his children have ever had any thing but have lived by 
their labour with God's blessing, and your petitioner hath used 
marefan employment, and through many dangers and with much 
difiicultie gotten a livelyhood for himselfe and his family, and being 
brought very low by his loss by the Dutch taking all from him, is 
constrained to apply himselfe unto yourselves, whom God hath sett 
as ffathers of this Commonwealth. 

And doth most humbly beseech you seriously to consider the 
premises, and if it may stand with your good liking and charitie to 
grant unto him a competent parcell of land that he may sitt downs 
upon with his family, viz. his wife and six children, for he would 
leave the seas had he any competencie of land whereby with his 
own industry and God's blessing he might mainetaine his family. 
And he shall take it as a great favour." As stated above, 500 acres 
was granted him. He did not locate the grant, though it may have 
given him financial credit. His heirs sold the right to Samuel 
Prince of Rochester, who in May, 1715, located the grant on the 
road from Brookfield to Hadley, and procured a survey and plat, 
made by William Ward, which was confirmed by the General 
Court, f Prince sold to Thomas Clarke, merchant of Boston, who 
sold to Jonas Clarke of Boston, who sold April 2, 1729, for 400 
pounds, to Jabez Olmstead of Brookfield, who took possession. J 
The farm lay between Ware river and Eead's 10,000 acres, and took 
in nearly the whole of what is now Ware Village. This land was 
included in the Elbow Tract, and was once taxed there, as see 
ante, pp. 91-2. 

The C(q)t. John Sheldon (jrant. In the assault on the town of 
Deerfield by the Indians, Feb. 29, 1704, Ensign John Sheldon's 

* Mass. Col. Records. Vol. IV, Part II, p. 576. 

t Council Records, in loc. 

% Registry of Deeds, Springfield. 


w^ife, a baby, his brother-in-law, and his daughter's husband were 
slain, and four of his children, and his wife's brother and family 
were taken captive, and with other prisoners, one hundred and 
eleven in all, were carried to Canada. To learn their fate, and if 
alive, to secure their redemption, he undertook the then perilous 
journey to Quebec. He started Dec. 20, 1704, going over the 
Hoosac mountain to Albany, and thence northward through the 
wilderness. He learned the whereabouts of most of the living 
captives, though he was allowed to see but few of them ; and at the 
end of four months returned with only five of his townsmen. He 
started on a second journey Jan. 25, 1706, and returned at the end 
of six months with 44 redeemed captives, including his remaining 
children. He made a third journey to Canada, and returned with 
seven captives. All his journeys were made by authority of the 
Provincial Government, and his expenses paid from the public 
treasury. In a Petition to the General Court, dated Nov. 18, 1707, 
he recites : 

"Whereas I have been a great sufferer in the common calamities that 
hath befallen us at Deerfield, greatly impareing my estate &. family, so that 
I have been much unsettled, & the Rather because so many ye neighbours 
&, of my own were carried away into captivity, occasioning myself to take 
three journeys to Canada, to obtain and be helpful in their release & re- 
turning home again, which hath been a very difficult and hazzardous un- 
dertaking, which I doubt not but this Hon'bl Corte, is very sensible of. 
Upon the considerations aforesaid, I am emboldened to ask a Gratuity by 
Granting me a tract, some of the country's Land undisposed of, in or near 
the County of West Hampshire, in some convinient place where I can find 
it, to the quantity of 500 acres, or thereabouts, and the Corte shall judge 
most Meet & Convenient for me, & least prejudicial to any other grant. " 

Nov. 27, "In consideration of his good services to the Province 
in several journeys to Canada'' the General Court granted to Capt. 
John Sheldon 300 acres of unappropriated land. Capt. Sheldon 
assigned his right to Henry D wight, Esq., of Hatfield ; and a sur- 
vey and plat of the same was made by Timothy Dwight in 1723. 
The farm lay east of Pottaquattuck large pond, separated from the 
pond and meadow by Southgate's Mill Lot. The Ware road from 
the Old Centre passes through the west part of the lot, and the 
road over the mountain runs on the east side. A large portion of 
this 300 acres was unoccupied till 1790, when it was bought bv 
Deacon Gurdon Sedgwick. 

The Col Samuel Partridge Grant. In Nov. 1725, the General 
Court made a Grant of 500 acres to the Hon. Samuel Partridge of 
Hatfield, his heirs and assigns, to be laid out in the unappropriated 


Lands in the county of Hampshire. A survey and plat of the 
Grant was made by Benjamin Flagg in 1731, the Farm lying- 
near and adjoining to Podaquoduck Hill.* Col. P. sold the lot to 
Josiah Sheldon of Suffield, a land speculator, who held possession, 
although prior to its actual location, Timothy Buggies, agent of 
Lamb and Company, had sold the Land to John Nevins, who with 
his sons had settled and built upon it. [See ante, p. 58] The Land 
lies mostly on the west side of Pottaqnattuck mountain, the north- 
west corner bound being the same as that of the Hobart Farm. 
The west line is a short way west of the road by J. 0. Hamilton's. 
The south line has never been disturbed, being the north boundary 
of the Joseph Lee Farm. The east line bears N. 30° E. taking in 
the heighth of the mountain. 

Col. Partridge was a man of affairs and influence in the Colony. 
He was colonel of the Hampshire regiment, judge of Probate, a 
member of His Majesty's Council, and after the death of Col. John 
Pynchon in 1703, was the most important man in the western part 
of the Province. He acted as Prudential Committee to control the 
laying out the towns of Brookfield, Northfield, etc. In 1720, he 
received a grant of 150 acres from the Proprietors of Northfield ; 
and near the same date was granted ICO acres within the township 
of Brookfield. Being familiar with the country he secured his 
Grants in the best of the Lands. He did not occupy any of these 
Farms, but lived and died in Hatfield. 

The Marsh and Clemens Grant. October 3, 1733. ''The petition 
. . . showeth, that the subscribers are now dwelling on a tract 
of unappropriated Lands, bounded south by the Elbows, and partly 
by Brookfield township, east by Ware river, north by Lambstown 
and west by the Farm of John Kead, Esq., containing 1-443 acres ; 
. . . and on s** tract we have lived some of us three years, where 
we have spent the most of that little substance we have ; . . . 
it was not the extraordinary quality of the Lands that induced us 
to go upon it, for a considerable part of it is Ledges of Eocks, so 
as to render it unprofitable, but what induced us to settle uj^on it 
was our necessity, our principle dependance for suj)port of our- 
selves in husbandry, and we had not a foot of land to imploy our- 
selves and families upon, were exposed to idleness and pinching 
want ; and being then unsensible how highly the Court resented 
such a way of settling, and apprehending that the j)rinciple thing 
insisted on was that there should be no trading or stock jobbing, but 
an actual settlement and improvement in husbandry by the Grantees 
themselves, with which we were ready to comply. — Wherefore being 

* Ancient Plans, \o\. II, p. 193. 

THE ELBOW TEACT — A PLANTATION, 17^^6-1752. 103 

thus unhappily entangled on said Land, we most humbly move 
that this Great and Hon^' Assembly would condescend to exercise 
their charity and Pitty toward us in granting us so much land as 
may be a competency for us to improve for a livelyhood for our- 
selves and children : We have no Tho't of any other but with sub- 
mission to spend the remainder of our Lives and substances on the 
spot, are content and ready to submit to any injunctions or limita- 
tions Avithin our reach this Hon''^ Court shall think meet to lay 
upon us, 

John Clemens, Thomas Marsh, William Clemens, Jonathan Rood, 
Judah Marsh." 

The prayer was not granted at this time ; but in Jan., 1737, on a 
revival of the petition, the plat was accej)ted and the lands con- 
firmed to the petitioners, ''provided each of the Grantees do 
within five years from date have six acres brought to English grass, 
or broken up by plowing, and each of them have a good dwelling- 
house thereon, of 18 feet square and 7 feet stud at the least, and 
each a family dwelling therein : . . . and that the Grantees do 
within 12 months pay to the Province Treasury, five pounds each." 

This grant appears to have been included in the bounds of the 
Elbow Tract as defined by the General Court's Committee. 

Grants of one hundred acres each were made and laid out by the 
Proprietors to Ebenezer Burrill, Esq., Col. John Alden and Mr. 
Samuel Bradford, the General Court's Committee for viewing and 
determining the Grants of the Elbow Tract. These lots lay in the 
Nor'west and North part of the " North-End Addition." 

Besides these special Grants, there was the Ministry Lot of 100 
acres, and the School Lot of 100 acres, which were not taxable, for 
current charges. 

As before stated, these "Particular Grants" covered the choicest 
lands ; they were not, like the unappropriated Land, open to settle- 
ment (except on purchase), and they were not taxable for current 
plantation charges (except by special act). And so, in the first 
starting of the settlement here, they proved a hindrance and cause 
of friction and weakness. 

But the heavy burden which weighted down the first Grantees of 
the Elbow Tract, and blocked the wheels of enterprise and took the 
heart out of the people was 

The Five Hukdked Pounds Debt. — By referring to the Act 
of 1733, establishing the Elbow Plantation, it is seen that a condi- 
tion of the grant and confirmation of homesteads to the petitioners 
(and a sort of penalty for their "presumptuous settlement" on 


province land without authority) was ''that the}' do pay into the 
Publick Treasury of the Province the sum of Five Hundred 
Pounds, within two years.'' This sum might have been raised, if it 
had been the sum total of their indebtedness and immediate obliga- 
tion. But the Act of Incorporation further required that the set- 
tlers shall forthwith raise, by taxation on their estates, the sum of 
67 pounds, 11 shillings and 9 pence to meet the charge and expense 
of the Committee, and such additional amounts as may be needed 
to pay all past charges to the support of the Ministry and other 
necessary public expenses that have arisen or shall be allowed and 
agreed uj^on by said proprietors, as the settlement of a Minister and 
building a Meeting-House. These ''past charges" and the "neces- 
sary publick charges " to be provided for in the first year amounted 
to the sum of 771 pounds and 2 pence, making a grand total, 
including the 500 pounds, of 1,271 pounds and 2 pence. The peo- 
ple forthwith laid an assessment to meet the 771 pounds 2 pence, 
and it appears to have been paid with promptness. The other load 
they did not attempt to lift. 

May 20, 1735. The Grantees "voted, that a humble j^etitiou be 
prepared and preferred to the General Court, showing our pressing 
difficulties and great Hardships ; and Praying that the 500 pounds 
enjoined by the Act of the Court as the condition of our Grant, to 
be paid into the Province Treasury next month, may be abated or 
taken off. " Voted, That in case our said petition should not be 
granted, that he [our agent] then prefer a petition, that the time 
of payment of the said sum may be protracted two years longer." 

The next year they chose a committee, viz., Steward Southgate, 
Samuel Shaw, David Spear and John Thomson, "to apply to the 
Hon. John Stoddard and Eben' Pomeroy, Esq, and as many other 
members of the General Court belonging to this County as may 
conveniently be gott together, And lay before them y® State & 
Condition of this Settlement with respect to y® 500 Pounds Injoined 
on us by y^ Gen" Court, And to take their Advice what steps or 
methods we shall proceed in for the case." As a result, 
two years' extension of time was granted for the assessment and col- 
lection of the tax. 

The two years' extension expired, but the tax was not levied. 
And in December, 1739, the General Court ordered the appoint- 
ment of three disinterested men,* who should forthwith proceed to 
assess and levy the sum of 500 pounds on the original Grantees or 
their assigns, and make out a warrant according to law and commit 

* The men were Col. Joseph Dwight of Brookfield, Major Pomeroy of Northampton and Col. 
Wm. Pynchon of Springfield. 


the same to collectors, also appointed by the Court, with power to 
issue warrants of distress on delinquents, the whole business to be 
closed up before the last Wednesday in May, 1741. The rest of the 
story is told in the following official documents :* 

To His Excellency W°i Shirley Esq. etc. 

The Humble Petition of the Proprietors and Inhabitants of the Elbow 
Plantation in the County of Hampshire 

Most humbly sheweth 

That the sum of 500 pounds, old tenor, Injoined as a condition in 
y6 Grant of y^ Lands in s* Plantation by this Hon''^ Court in the year 
1733 ; And afterwards in the year 1739, the said sum, by a Committee 
appointed & impowered by the Court, was assessed, and the assessments 
committed to collectors with warrants to collect the same, and time pre- 
fixed for payment thereof into the Province Treasury : The which time 
through the clemency and forbearance of this Hon^i Court has been ex- 
tended, and again for some time past expired : Until at length execution 
from y6 Province Treasurer is issued upon the collectors who are now daily 
exposed to imprisonment for y® said sum, which is yet unsettled ; occa- 
sioned partly from a rumour that the said sum in that way would not be 
exacted, since this Hon^'i Court was pleased (Unexpectedly) y^ last year to 
set ye sum of twenty pounds lawful money on this little poor Infant Plan- 
tation to ye Province Tax : And partly thro' the poverty of many of the 
Inhabitants who could not pay their proportions of said sum without being 
run into distressing circumstances : But chiefly thro' the great difiiculty 
and (in some cases) wholly impraeticableness of collecting the same ac- 
cording to y® directions of y^ warrant, for instance, the then residents 
who were assessed and their names in the List, upon neglect or refusal of 
payment were to be distressed by their goods or chattells, but in the two 
or three times of forbearance which this Hon^i Court in great clemency 
allowed, several who were then Residents have alienated their lands and 
gone off and have left nothing whereon to levy distress : And some who 
are yet Residents have conveyed away and alienated their chattels : And 
some others thro' extreme poverty have not wherewith that may be dis- 
tressed to satisfy y^ sums set on them : — And several of the Non-residents 
who were assessed and by y® s<^ warrant were to have their lands seized 
and sold upon neglect, etc., have in the s'^ interim of forbearance sold 
ye whole of their lands to others whose names are not on the List, and 
their lands not liable to be seized by virtue of s"^ warrant. Nor no way left 
whereby y® s*^ collectors in ye s"^ cases can recover ye sums assessed for 
which they daily stand exposed to imprisonment, t 

Wherefore y^ Petitioners humbly pray yo^ Excellency & Honours to 
grant such relief in ye premises as in yo"^ great wisdom & goodness shall 

* Massachusetts State Archives, cxv, i66. 

t By law, collectors of taxes were then held responsible for the full amount of all tax bills com- 
mitted to them for collection ; and were liable to imprisonment m the County jail for neglect to pay to 
the treasurer the full sum assessed, at the time appointed, unless they could secure a vote of abate- 
ment from the town or state. 


seem meet — Humbly suggesting that if it might please yo'" Exc^ & Hon" 
to extend y"' charity & goodness to a poor small plantation, and wholly to 
Remitt y® s^ sum : Or to abate or lessen it : Or divide it and annex part 
of it annually to °^ Province Tax : Or however other way. 
in submission to y'^ great wisdom & goodness. — 

Furthermore, yo' Peti's Humbly Sheweth That y^ sums set by this Hon^^ 
Court on this poor Plantation for ye year past and the present year to 
ye Province Tax, will be very hard and grievous and wholly unsupportable, 
if ye aforesaid 500 pounds be exacted, being but a poor people and a small 
mean tract of land at first ; and near a third part thereof by order of this 
Court since taken off from us and annexed to Western : So that our pro- 
portion to the Province Tax seems double to what is laid on y® Towns about 
us, comparing numbers and estates : And moreover the assessing and col- 
lecting thereof by ye stated rules as in ye Treasurer's Warrant emitted 
seems wholly unpracticable under our present circumstances : for not being 
Invested with either Town or Precinct privileges, have therefore no such 
officers as those Warrants are directed and refer to. 

Wherefore y°^ Petiti's Humbly Pray Y^r Excel? & Hon's to remitt those 
sums and grant Liberty to Bring in a Bill for creating the s^^ Plantation 
into a Township with powers and privileges to raise & assess the Province 
Tax. And other Rates and Taxes for ye future, as other Towns in this 
Province in joy. 

And yor Pet's as in duty bound shall every pray etc. 

Samuel Shaw 

In the name & behalf of the Elbow Proprietors. 

" In the House of Representatives, Sept. 15. 1743. 
Read, and in ans' hereto Ordered, That the Warrant mentioned 
be so far stayed as that they be obliged to pay only one quarter part 
thereof forthwith, and the other three quarters in three equal pay- 
ments, viz. in the years 1744, 1745 and 1746. And that a Com- 
mittee, chosen by s"^ Plantation, or the major part thereof, shall 
proceed in the sale of any delinquent Proprietor's lands within the 
whole of that Tract which was granted by this Court to the Peti- 
tioners and y"^ associates for payment of his proportion of s*^ sum, 
after notifying the sale in the Boston Gazette, twenty days before 
the same be made. Also Voted, that the Petitioners be allowed to 
bring in a Bill for creating s** Plantation into a township. 
Sent up for concurrence 

T. CusHixG. Spkr. 
In Council, Sept. 15, 1743. 

Read and concurred J. AA^illard, Sect. 

Consented to AV. Shirley.'* 

A meeting of the Proprietors and Grantees was held Oct. 5, 1743, 
at which 7 pounds 15 shillings, old tenor, was granted to Samuel 
Shaw for his services at Boston ; and Samuel Shaw, Isaac j\Iagoon 


and Barnard McNitt were appointed a committee to sell delinquent 
proprietor's land, according to the order of the General Court. 
The proportional assessments were made in '44, '45 and '46, and 
paid in part. Then, from time to time, follow the record of the 
sale at vendue of 15 acres, and 10 acres, as the case may be, of the 
Home Lots for non-payment of the owners' just proportion of the 500 
pounds tax. And thus, by voluntary payments or enforced collec- 
tion, the debt was eventually discharged. 

Proprietors of Common and Undivided Lands. — The 
reader of our records has observed that the title under which all 
meetings for the transaction of regular Plantation business were 
warned and held was "^The Proprietors and Grantees of the Elbow 
Tract." A careful study shows that the two terms are not equiva- 
lents, or parts of a single body, but represent a partnership, in 
which two distinct bodies, each with specified and well-defined 
rights and obligations, unite to act for a common purpose. And 
the two, thus united and acting as one, constituted the corporation 
or body politic. 

The "■ Proprietors" were the forty-eight persons who had bought 
their Home Lots of the Messrs. Lamb and Company, and which lots 
were respectively ^'ratified and confirmed to them, their heirs and 
assigns" by the Act of the General Court. The "Grantees" were 
the thirty-one persons who had taken ujd lands and settled, without 
asking leave of anybody. And the grant of Home lots to this class 
was in the nature of a limited gratuity or consideration for '"^ im- 
provements " made, and they had no rights of estate in the Elbow 
Tract outside of these granted lots, except by purchase. 

As in all partnerships, there was diversity and mutuality of inter- 
ests, and possible antagonisms. The powers and duties and liabili- 
ties of each partner were defined in the Act of Incorporation, as 
were also the functions of the firm. The two were equally liable 
for past debts and for the necessary charge of building a meeting- 
house and the support of a minister, '^ each man to pay his equal 
part or proportion of said sums, according to y® quantity of his first 
Allotment." And his vote counted one in the choice of officers 
and in all orders and assessments for ordinary plantation charges. 
And the estates of each inhabitant and qualified voter on which 
taxes were to be levied were defined in the Act, viz. , the Home Lots, 
as "confirmed," or "granted" by the General Court's Committee. 

But here the equality ended. The "Grantees" could acquire 
additional land and rights in the Tract only by purchase. While 
the "Proprietors" (except John King, Jun., Benjamin Kilburn 


and Peter Backus) tlieir heirs and assigns were " Intitled to after 
Rights and Divisions "of kinds, i. e. in what remained after the 
eighty Home lots had been surveyed and laid out. This important 
advantage was however in part offset by the condition that "all 
persons who are entitled to draw after Eights & Divisions shall 
pay a double proportion to all publick charges that shall arise in 
the future." 

The special section in the Act of incorporation provided that the 
forty-eight (forty-six) settlers first named, "be impowered at a Meet- 
ing called according to Law, to act as Proprietors, and to make 
such necessary rules and'^orders for the Regulating the Settlement : 
To chuse a committee to lay out necessary roads and highways, be- 
fore any further surveys are made, or any already made are recorded : 
To lay out a Hundred acre Lot for the first ordained Minister, a 
Hundred acre Lot for the Ministry, and another for a School ; and 
to fill up the complement of any granted Lot that cant be laid out 
in the place and form originally assigned." This exclusive power 
and duty rendered necessary a distinct organization of "The Pro- 
prietors," practically coeval in time with the organization of the 
Plantation. Hence we find "A Meeting of the Inhabitants or 
Grantees, (in another place officially styled ' The Proprietors and 
Grantees') of the Elbow Tract," warned and held on the 7th day 
of August, 1733 ; and " A Meeting of The Prop7'ietors of the Com- 
mon and Undivided Lands within the Elbow Tract," warned and 
held on the 24th day of September, 1733, each called by Wm. Pyn- 
chon, Esq., justice of the peace. Each organization had its own 
sworn clerk, and kept its own Records. These two sets of Records 
are extant. And they show signs, in their earlier pages, of some 
confusion of ideas as to the exact limits of their several and sepa- 
rate powers and duties, which gradually became adjusted by expe- 
rience. The Records also disclose the fact that the " Grantees of 
single lots only" felt "aggrieved" and made "complaints" of the 
unequal terms and restrictions under which they were placed, at 
the very outset ; and that a committee was appointed " to consider 
the case, and make Report what methods may be proper for the 
said Projjrictors to take to Relieve their case." The report, if made, 
is not preserved, a thing to be much regretted, as it would throw 
light on one of the most intricate problems in our early history. 
See Introduction to Chapter IV. 

At the first meeting of the " Proprietors," Sept. 24, 1733, 
Steward Southgate was chosen clerk (he was also clerk of the Plan- 
tation) and took the oath of oftice before Esq. Pyuchon. It was 


"That Ebenezer Mirick, Steward Southgate and Barnard McNitt be a com- 
mittee to inspect and take care of the wood, timber and Pine, standing, 
lying or growing on the Common Lands. And that they or any two of 
them be fully impowered in the name and behalf of the Proprietors to 
prosecute any Trespassers thereon. And that they be also impowered 
to take care of the Meadows in Common, to lease, order or regulate 
the Improvement thereof, untill they be Divided ; And to prosecute any 
actions of Trespass that has or may be made thereon." 

"For the next seven years, the Proprietors, through their com- 
mittees and agents, confined their action mainly to taking care of 
the wood, timber and Pine on the Commons, and preventing 
''strip and waste" of the same by "persons having no rights 
therein " [Grantees of single lots only] ; and to surveying, laying 
out and filling up the complement of the lots granted by the Gen- 
eral Court's committee. The work was difficult, and provoked 
numerous collisions, and engendered many heart-burnings. 

There were, however, two votes passed, which deserve to be 
recorded in these annals. 

1. • Dee. 20, 1736, Voted, "That if any person or persons, having no 
right or Interest in the Commons, shall presume to cutt, fall or carry away 
from off ye same, any sort of trees or Timber, he or they shall be deemed 
and proceeded against as Trespassers by y® committee appointed to Inspect 
and take care of the timber of the Commons, or any two of them — Unless 
the s^ person or persons being Inhabitants and Grantees of Single Lotts in 
s^ Tract, shall previously obtain leave or lycence from y^ s^ committee, or 
y® major part of them, for cutting and improveing so much Timber as they 
shall really stand in need of for their own proper use upon their Home 
Lotts, and no more. And the s<i com*^® or any two of them are hereby im- 
powered to grant such leave or lycence under their hand accordingly." 

2. May 13, 1738. Voted, "That all such Trespasses as have been here- 
tofore committed by cutting or carrying timber, &c., be forgiven ; and the 
Trespassers sett free and discharged from all such Prosecutions, suits, for- 
feitures and penalties as they have thereby exposed themselves to by such 
cutting or carrying, without leave first had and obtained per y® Proprie- 

In the spring of 1741, a movement was made for the Division of 
the Commons among the Proprietors. 

Of such Common and Undivided Lands, there remained in the 
Right of the Proprietors, after all the committee's grants had been 
satisfied, 9934 acres, which by the terms of the Act, could be ap- 
portioned to said Proprietors, according to their first Allotments. 

First Division of Commons. March 10, 1740-1. "A Scheme 
for the First Division of Land. 1st. That there be a Division of 
the Common Lands ; and that the owners or Proprietors of each 


original Home Lott, entitled to Rights in Common, shall have for 
a first division, an equal quantity of acres as is expressed in y^ Grant 
of y® Home Lot, viz. To an Hundred acre Grant Lott, an hundred 
acres of first division ; and to a Fifty acre grant, fifty acres of first 
division, and the rest in proportion. 

2dly. That the said first division he taken up and laid out with 
free lyberty of choice in any of y® Common & Undivided Land in 
y® Elbov*- Tract, by lot, according to the number drawn, beginning 
with No. 1. and the rest successively. 

3dly. That there be so many Draughts or Numbers, as there 
Avas original Grants that had Rights in Common appertaining 
to them, and no more. And that only the present proprietors or 
one of y® proprietors of each of y® s** Rights shall be allowed to 
Draw, beginning with first mentioned in the original grant, and so 
successively as they are there mentioned. And if any of y® s^ Prop'^ 
are absent and none present impowered to act for them, the clerk 
shall draw for each Prop'' so absent. 

ithly. That the whole Right of first Division Drawn upon or ap- 
pertaining to Fifty, Sixty or Seventy acre Home Lott Grants, shall 
each be taken up and laid out in one entire piece; in such form that 
no more than six new lines shall be run to lay out or encompass 
each piece, of which lines no one to be shorter than twenty rods, 
nor longer than eighty in a Fifty acre lot; and so in all others pro- 

5thly. That the proprietor or proprietors of a whole Right of first 
Division Drawn upon or appertaining to an Hundred acre Home 
Lott grant, may have lyberty to take up and lay out their s** first 
Division in two pieces and no more, the first piece when their 
proper turn comes, according to the Number Drawn, to contain 
not less than fifty nor more than sixty acres ; and after the whole 
number of Draughts are laid out and recorded, then the remaining 
piece, beginning with lowest No. drawn, and so the rest success- 
ively, which may be taken up in any of the Common Lands: And 
the Hundred acre divisions to be under the same restrictions as to 
number and length of lines, proportionably as the Fifty acre Divis- 

6thly. That the purchaser of any piece of first Division Land, 
having a proper Right of his own to take up, may lay his purchased 
piece adjoining thereto, when his proper turn of survey conies, 
under the afore mentioned restrictions as to the number and length 
of lines. 

7thly. That none of y® Proprietors who have not their Home 
Grant Lotts laid out and recorded, shall have Lyberty to Draw for 


their Eight of first Division, untill they shall each of them by 
themselves or some responsible person on their behalf, become 
bound to a committee in a sufficient Bond, to cause y® s*^ Lotts to 
be laid out and recorded within a certain time, not exceeding two 
months from this date. 

8thly. That all surveys of first Division Lands shall be entered 
with the clerk within one week after the date of the survey, or else 
the survey shall be held for none, and the land so surveyed as lya- 
ble to be taken up as any of y® Common Lands. 

9thly. That no man shall retain the surveyor above two days in 
his service about one Lot or piece of Division Land, after he has 
had notice that his proper turn is come, but y® next in order, after 
that time may claim his turn or right of survey. 

lOthly. That the Clerk enter upon y® Eeturn of the survey, when 
he receives the same, which shall be accounted the date of record. 

llthly. That road- ways, and brooks or rivers shall not be ac- 
counted sufficient to separate land into pieces when laid out across 
the same. But allowance shall be made as well where land is or- 
dered to be left for roads, as where they are actually laid out. 

12thly. That in the surveying and laying out of y® aforesaid first 
Division of Lands, there be no more than one rod in an hundred 
allowed for swagg of chain ; and so in proportion for longer and 
shorter lines. j^^^^^^ Breakexridge, Moderator. 

Steward Southgate, Prop"' Clerk. 

Nathaniel D wight was appointed surveyor, and Isaac Magoon, 
James Lament, John Patrick, Duncan Quinton, Seth Shaw, James 
McMasters, William McClanathan, William Paterson, chainmen, to 
lay out the Division Draughts, all of whom were sworn by Wm. 
Pynchon, Esq. Later, it was voted to begin to lay out the Division 
lots, Oct. 26, 1741. The number of lots or Draughts in the First 
Division was forty-six, all in the name of the original Proprietors 
or their heirs. Where an assignment had been made, of course the 
assignee or his agent made the Draught and pitch. 

Second Division of Commo?is. May 7, 1743. ''At a meeting 
of the Proprietors, it was voted, 1. That after the said First Divi- 
sion be surveyed and recorded, there be a Second Division of Equal 
Quantity ; in which Second Division that Proprietor or Eight shall 
be first in order of pitch and survey that was last in y® First Divi- 
sion, and so backward in order successively. 

2. Voted, that the way and method of laying out the Second 
Division shall be, that every Proprietor shall have the Liberty of 
two pitches, the first inclosed intirely ; the second, where he may 


make up his complement. And he that hath amind to take up his 
pitch in one intire piece, he may do it at first : if in two pieces, he 
shall take the fill of his complement in any Common Land going 
out from it." 

The number of lots or Draughts, and the names of the Drawers, 
were the same as in the First Division. 

Third Division of Commons, ^hxvch 2G, 1757. "The Scheme 
of the Third Division was as follows : 

1. That each original Hundred acre Grant shall draw twenty-five 
acres, and a less Grant shall draw less proportionably. 

2. That each original proj^rietor, his heirs or assigns, shall draw 
lots for his turn to lay out, beginning at No. 1, and so through the 
46 numbers successively, the lots to be on separate pieces of paper ; 
and the clerk shall draw for non-residents, if no person appears to 
draw for them. 

3. That all the Draughts in the former Schemes shall be laid out 
and recorded before any of the Third Division is laid out ; and the 
surveyor shall notify delinquents, and if they neglect for one Aveek 
after such notice, the committee shall proceed to draw and lay out 
lots for them. 

4. That each of the lots of Third Division shall be laid out in 
any of the Commons that are not before taken up, and alltogether 
or in separate pieces — if in one piece, not to exceed four new lines : 
if in separate pieces, he may leave any part of his draught till the 
rest are gone through with. 

5. The surveyor shant be detained more than two days to each 
lot, after he has notified the proprietor that he is ready for his 
turn ; and if said proprietor neglect to draw and chuse, then at the 
end of two days the surveyor shall proceed to lay out the next 
draught. Non-residents shall be notified thro' the publick jDrints 
at Boston, and shall have ten days in which to appear & lay out 
their lots. 

G. Each Keturn shall be recorded within six days after the lot is 
laid out. 

7. A lot that runs across a road, brook or river shall have an al- 
lowance of land for as much as the road, brook or river measures. 

8. If any proprietor shall purchase of any other proprietor a lot 
or part of a lot in this division, the said purchaser inay lay the land 
so purchased in with his own draught, and at the same time, altho' 
its proper time to be laid out ant come." 

The number of draughts, and the names of drawers were the 
same as in former divisions. 

Fourth Division of Commons. Jan. 2, 1792. "Rulel. Each 


original Hundred acre grant shall draw fifteen acres ; and a less 
grant shall draw less proportiouably. 

2. Each of the lots shall be laid out in any of the Commons not 
before taken up and recorded : and a proprietor may lay out his 
draught in one intire piece, or in separate pieces, if there cant be 
found enough lying together." 

The other rules were identical with those for the Third Division. 

The number of draughts, and the names of drawers, were the 
same as in former divisions. 

These last draughts were commonly laid out in small parcels of 
24-, 3, 5 or 8 acres each, as each proprietor could find them lying 
convenient to some other lot which he had purchased or drawn in 
his own Eight. 

The several draughts extended through a series of years — instead 

of months, as was the intention of each scheme. Both residents 

and non-residents were dilatory, and trusted to the good nature of 

the surveyor and committee to excuse tardiness and neglect. The 

last draught recorded is dated May 15, 1818, and the record affords 

a good sample of the later pitches : " Surveyed and laid out to 

Thomas Quinton, 17 acres and f of the Common and Undivided 

Land of the Proprietors of Palmer, on the following Eights, viz. 

4 acres on Duncan Quinton's Eight, 10 acres on Joseph Wright's 

Eight, and 3| acres granted to Thomas Quinton for his services." 

Joseph Cummings, Surveyor. 

Wm. Merritt, ) ^, . 

T ,1- > Chainmen. 

Isaac Merritt, \ 

Thomas Quinton, Clerk. 

Xo evidence has been found to show that there was at any time 
a formal dissolution or termination of the organization of ''The 
Proprietors of the Common and Undivided Lands." 

Suvmmry. From these records of Divisions, it appears that the 
original proprietary grants drew as follows : A Hundred-acre lot in 
the First Division, 100 acres; in the Second Division, 100 acres; in 
the Third Division, 25 acres ; in the Fourth Division, 15 acres — in 
all 240 acres. A Seventy-acre lot drew in all 168 acres. A sixty- 
acre lot drew in all 144 acres. A Fifty-acre lot drew in all 120 
acres. These several draughts, added to the original grant, made 
the estates of the Proprietors stand, respectively, 340 acres, 238 
acres, 204 acres, 170 acres. As far as amount of land is concerned, 
the farmers of our Plantation and town were "well off." But, in 
fact, few of the original Proprietors lived to draw land in the last 
Division. And not many of the heirs of those men held in fee sim- 
ple all the rights of Draughts together with the first granted Home 


lots. A very considerable part of the homesteads and the Division 
lots had passed into the hands of assignees and purchasers, who 
stood in the place of the original Grantees. 

BuRYiKG Place. — "The Burying Place layed out May the 
12th 1735. Began at an oak bush with a great stone roied against 
it standing about ten rods southeast of the Meeting House, being 
the Norwest corner of the Burying Place; thence S. 36° E., 12 rods 
to stons on the side Hill. Thence E. 36°. N. 13 rods to stone 
against the little Hollow in Noreast corner. Thence to where we 
began 13 rods. Laid out by Steward Southgate, Barnard McNitt, 
Isaac Magoon, Jun., committee." 

The Old Burying Ground at Palmer Village was set apart by the 
first comers before our Eecords commence, and the date of its first 
use is unknown. It is named in 1729. 

Physician. — Am article in the warrant for a Plantation meet- 
ing, June 10, 1743, " To se if the Inhabitants will give any Incour- 
agement for a Doctor to settle in the place." The vote is not 
recorded. [Doctor John Sherman located in Brimfield in 1721; and 
had an extensive practice. ] 

Western.— In 1740, the families living in the east part of the 
Elbows made a move to be set off, with others of Brimfield and 
Brookfield, and form a new town. Their main plea was, distance 
from, and difficulty of reaching the meeting-house for publick 
worship on the Sabbath. Perhaps the pending quarrel with the 
minister (Kev. Mr. Harvey), and the burdensome debt, had an in- 
fluence in starting the movement ; and also an influence with the 
House of Representatives in their favor. The Elbow plantation 
sent a remonstrance to the General Court ; and set at work means 
to counteract their plan. At a plantation meeting, the question 
was raised, whether they would move the meeting-house, so as 
better to accommodate the east side people ; and some new roads 
were laid out to meet their wants. But the General Court readily 
granted their prayer, and " An Act to incorporate the Town of 
Western," was passed Jan. IG, 1741-2. They were granted the 
usual powers and privileges ; and a section provided '' that nothing 
in this act shall be construed to hinder, alter or prejudice the rights 
of any person in any of the towns named (Brookfield, Brimfield 
and Kingstown) in the Common Lands of the same." The slice 
taken from the Elbows (then often called Kingstown) covered the 
farms of John Blair, John Patrick, and the heirs of Andrew Bailey, 


Joseph Chadwick, Abel Curtis, Nathaniel Dewey, Obadiah Cooley, 
Jun., Joseph Brooks, Jun., Matthew Brown and James McElwain 
(then m the occupancy of John and David Blair and John Patrick). 

Ware River Parish. — Early in the spring of 1742, the families 
living- in the north part of the Elbow Tract, and others in possess- 
ion of Read's 10,000 acres, the Hollings worth Grant and the Marsh 
and Clements Grant, in all 33 house holders, sent a petition to the 
General Court, among other things, reciting: "The Petitioners 
dwell at a great distance from any place of publick worship, most 
of them six or seven miles, and therefore cannot enjoy that 
privilege in their present condition, but as their Hearts are sincerely 
desirous of the Publick Worship of God, they persuade themselves 
they shall be able cheerfully to bear the Charge that will attend it. 
But as some of them belong to the town at the Elbows, some 
to Brookfield, and the rest of them live on farms of the Province 
Grants, they cannot properly and lawfully Proceed to erect and 
maintain the Publick Worship of God among them, without the 
aid of, this Court, and therefore pray this Hon^^ Court by a suitable 
Committee of this Court, to inquire into their state and circum- 
stances, and make them a separate and distinct Township or 

The Elbow Plantation strongly opposed the dismemberment of 
our territory. " The Memorial of sundry of the Proprietors of 
the Elbow Tract in the County of Hampshire, Sheweth — That 
whereas we are informed that your Excellency and Honours ap- 
pointed a committee to view a tract of land lying between Swift 
River and Brookfield, petitioned for by Thomas Marsh and others ; 
and that s*^ committee have been upon the spott, to view the same : 
& understanding that part of s^ Land is in our town bounds : and we 
having had no Kotiss thereof only bi a few lines sent from s^ com- 
mittee to the clerk of our town the day before s*^ committee 
viewed the same ; and so having no opportunity to know how much 
of s"^ lands petitioned for belongs to our town ; nor to offer our 
Reasons and objections against said petition : We pray that y'"" 
Excell^ & Hon""^ would not proceed to act any thing on s*^ Com- 
mittee's Report concerning the same, until we have had oppor- 
tunity to offer our reasons to the contrary. Wm Pynchon, David 
Shaw, Barnard McNitt, John King, Samuel Shaw, James Braken- 
ridge, John Thomson. 

Elbows Tract, Oct. y« 30th, 1742. 

The committee reported Dec. 4, 1742 : "We are of opinion that 
the petitioners at present are not sufficient in order to erect a town 


with privileges, etc. But inasmuch as they live at a very great 
distance from any place of publick worship, and meet with great 
difficulty thereby, we are further of opinion that the petitioners 
living northward of a line run due east from the southeast corner of 
the land belonging to John Read, Esq. to Western line be freed from 
all taxes to any other place or town during the pleasure of the Gen- 
eral Court, So that they may be able to provide preaching among 
themselves." The Report was accepted, and it was "Ordered that 
the land within the limits mentioned and the Inhabitants thereon 
be erected into a Precinct, with powers & privileges such as other 
Precincts do or ought to enjoy : And they be and hereby are 
obliged to maintain the publick worship of God among them, in 
the suj)port of a learned orthodox minister." Passed in concur- 
rence, and consented to Dec. 7, 1742. 

This took off several influential families from our Plantation, 
and crippled in a measure her resources. But it did not affect in 
any way the rights of proprietors in the Common and Undivided 
Lauds lying on either side of the dividing line. 

Dark Days. — Quarrel hefween the People and the Minister. 
The ordination and settlement of Rev. John Harvey, and provision 
for his support, have already been narrated in their proper place. 
And for the four or five years succeeding, the records give evidence 
of no unusual friction betAveen pastor and people. But in March, 
1738, the minister was presented by the grand jury for drunken- 
ness, and on arraignment plead guilty. After which a strong feel- 
ing of opposition to Mr. Harvey was developed ; parties took sides ; 
hard words and hard actions followed, that threatened ruin to the 

It is difficult to give a summary of the doings and undoings of 
the excited and angry combatants, and mete out equal justice to 
all parties concerned. And as the sayings and doings of these 
parties, which comprised practically all the inhabitants, constituted 
the history of those years, and gave color and spirit to all social 
and political, as well as religious affairs ; and the quarrel planted 
seeds that bore abundant fruit in years to come (the records of 
which cannot be understood without a knowledge of these disagree- 
able facts) ; it is thought best to let each party speak for itself, by 
giving verbatim copies of the more important official documents in 
the case. These papers are found in the titate Archives. 

Sept. 19, 1739. ''The petition of Steward Southgate and 
others Humbly Sheweth — That whereas it pleased this Hon''^ 
Court about six years ago, to grant the lands of the Elbow Planta- 


tion to your petitioners and others to the number of about 80, In- 
joining them as a condition of their grant, amongst other things, 
to build a meeting house and settle a minister within the space of 
two years then next coming ; and ordered their lands to be taxed 
(until these conditions should be fulfilled) to defray the charge 
thereof, and for supporting the Ministry. And in order to fulfill 
the said condition the said Inhabitants (being the greater part of 
them People from Ireland) proceeded in y® next year after the said 
grant to choose and call the Eev. John Harvey, a gentleman from 
Ireland, to be their Minister ; and altho' in said Plantation at the 
said time, there was no gathered church, yett they obtained not the 
advice of any of the Neighbouring ordained Ministers, previous to 
such their call and choice, according to the Direction of the Law 
in that case ; But instead thereof Procured three of their own 
country ministers (of which but one of them belonged to this 
Province) who being mett in the jDlantation j)roceeded to the 
ordination of the said gentleman, calling themselves a Presbytery, 
and pretending to be invested with authority from the Church of 
Scotland held themselves exempt from any consociation with or 
accountableness unto the churches of this Province. And altho' 
almost all the English people of said Plantation were much dissat- 
isfied with and protested against the choice and call of s^ gentle- 
man, exhibiting many just and weighty exceptions and allegations 
against him ; JSTotwithstanding which being overlooked, they the 
s"^ Pretended Presbytery proceeded to ordain him, not only without 
y® advice and concurrence of the Neighboring ordained Ministers 
(as aforesaid) but to their dissatisfaction who were several of them 
present and jorotested against their jDroceedings, alleging that the 
said Harvey had not had a fair and impartial trial upon those 
charges exhibited against him, and particular that of drunkenness. 
However his ordainers then promised that if ever after he was 
justly chargeable with that or any other crimes, upon complaint 
and proof thereof made to them, they would depose him ; Yett, 
notwithstanding their s*^ promise, after full five years taxing our 
Lands to the support of s*^ Minister, who had he been ever so well 
qualified and regularly settled, ought not to have been supported 
by taxing our Lands above two years, according to y® Order and 
(we humbly conceive) the intention of this Hon^^ Court.* Yet 
their depending upon the said promise, complaints were made to 
the s"^ Presbytery against the s*^ Harvey for repeated instances of 
the aforesaid crime of drunkenness, and other gross immoralities ; 
and three months afterwards renewed at their sitting in Boston ; 

* See atiie, p. go. 


iJut no liearing or trial could be had thereon until] the beginning 
of June last — Three young ministers, his countrymen (who were 
not his ordainers but were since ordained) came into y® said Plan- 
tation and one lay elder with them, who formed themselves into 
what they called a Presbytery and proceeded to a hearing of some 
of the complaints exhibited against y^ s^ Harvey ; and after unrea- 
sonably rejecting y^ most material witnesses, upon frivolous pre- 
tences of their being disqualified, they drew up and published what 
they called a final and decisive Judgment. In which, altho' they 
found and declared him guilty of some of the enormities charged 
upon him, for which they only slightly rebuked and admon- 
ished, and so continued him in y^ Ministry. But the aforesaid 
crime of drunkenness of which he had been found guilty in one of 
the particular instances by y^ Grand Jury of the County of Hamp- 
shire, and by them presented to the Court of General Sessions of 
y® Peace held at Northampton on y® first Tuesday of March 1738, 
and afterwards convicted thereof by his own voluntary confession 
before one of the justices of the said Court, of which record was 
made, and copies thereof produced to y® s"^ Presbytery at y® s* 
trial ; Yett that notwithstanding they clearly acquitted him of 
s*^ crime against clear and manifest evidence, dej)osed before a 
Magistrate, and personally examined by them at the time of trial ; 
as well as against an authentick record of his own confession of 
y® fact attested by the Justice that took it and made the record 
thereof. And further, notwithstanding the aforesaid trial was 
made by but four single persons, two of them belonging to the 
town of Worcester (and of none of y® best character), and were all 
entertained before and at the time of trial by s^ Harvey at his 
house and by his adherents ; and one of them under accusation of 
y® same crimes, to have his trial y® next week after by this new 
acquitted member amongst y® rest. Yett nevertheless, your poor 
petitioners, under the greatest grounds of dissatisfaction at such 
partial proceedings, are bound down to y® aforesaid judgment in 
matters of y® utmost importance to their souls and y^ souls of 
their children, without any liberty of appeal, review or re-hearing, 
or any means of relief under heaven, without fleeing and leaving all 
as in y® case of persecution — Unless by y® goodness & wisdom of 
this Hon** Court, it may be obtained ; for y® s** Harvey and his ad- 
herents utterly refuse to join with the aggrieved in calling a Coun- 
cil of Churches for a re-hearing and more important trial of their 
complaints; and without his or their concurrence in calling them, 
or some order from authority they cannot be obtained, or if they 
should would not be likely to be effectual to our Relief. 


''And further, your Petitioners humbly conceive that it was 
never y® intention of this Court in ordering the Lands in s*^ Planta- 
tion to be taxed for y® support of the Ministry therein, that such a 
minister should be supported therewith as should not be settled 
and otherwise qualified according to y® Laws of this Province ; 
much less that one wholly disqualified for y^ gospel ministry accord- 
ing to y® word of God and y® Laws of the Land should be main- 
tained and supported by y® authority of this Court upon y« estates 
of such as conscientiously dissent from such a Minister, and thereby 
are exposed and actually sufi'er many great hardshii^s and difficul- 
ties. Yett, nevertheless the lands of yo"^ petitioners in s^ Planta- 
tion by colour of authority from this Court has been constantly 
taxed for six years together for y® supj^ort and maintenance of the 
aforesaid minister ; and upon non-payment thereof has been posted 
and exposed to sale and still liable to y® same for the future, unless 
redressed by this Court. 

"The Inhabitants of s"* Plantation not being invested with town 
Privileges are more immediately under the power, care and Inspec- 
tion of this Hon^^ Court. Upon whom therefore y' poor petition- 
ers with greater confidence in y'" wonted Goodness would humbly 
repose themselves for Eelief and Protection. 

" The prayer of the Petition therefore is, that y^ Excellency & 
Honours would be pleased to extend your compassionate Regards to 
y'^ poor suffering petitioners, and in order to our full and ample 
Relief, would be pleased to inquire into y® truth and certainty of 
the complaints and grievances herein represented, either by your- 
selves, a committee or a council of ministers, or any other way as 
in y' great wisdom shall seem meet. " And that you would please 
to order that in the mean time no further taxes shall be laid upon 
our Lands in s*^ Plantation for the maintainance of the aforesaid 
minister ; nor that our Lands shall be sold and alienated from us for 
any such taxes aleady assessed. And that y^ Inhabitants of the 
aforesaid Plantation may receive from this Hon*^ Court no investi- 
ture of town privileges untill the aforesaid complaints and griev- 
ances by order and authority of this Court shall be fully inquired 
into, and effectually remedied. And y'' Pet" shall ever pray, &c. 

Steward Southgate Samuel ffrost 

Thomas Jennings John Moor 

Joseph "Wright John King 

Thomas Chapin Samuel Lenox 

James Shearer John King, Jun. 

John Shearer Joseph Flemond 

William Scott Benjamin Parsons 


John Applin James Moor 

Jonathan Chapin James McClelan 

Thomas ffrost Daniel Fuller 

Joseph Chaclwick Samuel Kilborn 

Samuel Dumbleton Ebenezer Mirick 

Joseph Brooks Noah Cooley 

Joseph Flemond, Jun. lasac Magoon * 

Dec. 14, 1739. "The Answer of Several the InhalDitants of 
the Plantation called the Elbows, to the Petition of Steward South- 
gate & others. 

" And y*^ respondents iu behalf of themselves & the far greatei' 
part of the Church of Christ and the Christian Inhabitants of the 
place aforesaid answer and say 

" That in conformity to the Province law the Eev. Mr. John 
Harvey was chosen and called by a full majority of the Christian 
Inhabitants of that place in their town meeting, with the advice of 
three neigboring ordained Ministers ; f and the said Steward South - 
gate was a principal agent in bringing it to effect. And particu- 
larly Nov. 28, 1733, he and Samuel Shaw as a committee of Town 
report what treaty they had with Mr. Harvey, and had him, Mr. 
Harvey, thereupon chosen their Minister, he having been before 
recommended to them by the Association of the Ministers of Hamp- 
shire County, Oct. 9, 1733. 

" March 20, 1733-4. The Congregation being met, agreed and 
voted ho should be ordained on the first of June following, as a 
Presbyterian Minister ; and Mr. Southgate and others there named 
to send for the neighboring ministers to perform the office. 

" 1734. Mr. Southgate sent to the Church of Christ in North- 
ampton, to the Rev. Mr. Stephen Williams of LongmeadoAV Spring- 
field, to the Eev. Mr. Isaac Chauncey of Hadley, and several others. 
five of them came whereof the Rev. Mr. Chauncey was one, and 
by their advice and office he was accordingly ordained at the time 
designed. So that there remains no objection as to his being or- 
dained, but national, that it was performed for the most part by 
pious and orthodox ministers of another nation. 

"We are very sensible that as the petitioners proceed to shew, 
Mr. Southgate and some few others have since that ordination set 
themselves against the Rev. Mr. Harvey, seeking by all possible 
means to blast his reputation and hinder the effects of his pious 
labours amongst us, that occasioned those that were of another 
temper and spirit to subscribe a declaration of their satisfaction in 

* Mass. State Archives, XII, 65. 
t See ante, p 86. 


his life and doctrine as orthodox and becoming a minister, in March, 
1737-8, to the number of 51, to present to the Justices of his 
Majesty's Court of General Sessions of y® Peace in Northampton.* 

"As to the Council of Ministers or Presbytery in June last, that 
would not allow Mr. Southgate's wife and mother and sisters to be 
sworn of stories nine years old. We produce their definitive sen- 
tence, and submit it to the judgment of this Hon^^ Court, humbly 
conceiving it must carry in the face of it more weight than all the 
hard and indecent language of y® petitioners against it ; and fur- 
ther declare that Mr. Southgate then consented to it and professed 
a reconciliation with Mr. Harvey in these terms, forgiving hmi all 
his trespasses as he hoped for forgiveness with God. This truly was 
his duty, Mr. Harvey having made a publick & penitent confession 
of his fault, and done every thing that a Christian man and min- 
ister of y® gospel ought to do. 

"And 3^et, notwithstanding Mr. Southgate bath by his unwearied 
diligence in this affair procured 24 (28) subscribers to join with him 
in his calumnious petition ; some that have before signed to their 
approbation of him in 1737-8; some that have no interest or es- 
tate in the place, some that live in other towns, and particularly 
Thomas Jennings that lives in Willington in Connecticut, and one 
that hath since recanted it under his hand. 

•^'Sucli being the truth of the case, y' respondents who have not 
only the same regard to the welfare of their souls as Mr. Southgate 
professes to have of his, but also a tender regard to Christian peace, 
love, and good order, humbly submit themselves to the wise direc- 
tions of this Hon^^ Court to make us and our learned and pious 
minister better than we are in all respects : Assuring y^ Excell^ & 
Hon'^^ that we shall diligently strive to approve ourselves orderly, 
peaceable and obedient to y® utmost of our ability. 

Nicholas Blancher Samuel Shaw, Jun. 

Andrew Farrand James Shaw 

Nathaniel Wilson John McClenathan 

Timothy McElwain Samuel Nevins 

James McMaster Samuel Nevins, Jud. 

Robert Farrel David Nevins 

David Blair David Spear 

Hugh McMaster Seth Shaw 

James Lament Robert Bratten 

John Patrick James Breakenridge 

Robert Hunter James Barry 

Andrew Rutherford Thomas Little 

On his indictment and trial for drunkenness, to which he plead "guilty." 


John Thomson Samuel Ferguson 

David Shaw Dunken Quintin 

James Smith Barnard McNitt 

Patrick Smith Robert Rogers 

John McMaster Alexander Tackels 

Thomas Farrand William Tackels 

John Blair John Glasford 

John McMaster Mathew Brown 

Thomas McClenathan William Sloan 

Wm McClenathan James Breakenridge, Jun. 

Samuel Shaw James Lamberton* 

The above petition and remonstrance were referred to a com- 
mittee, who reported Dec. 22, 1739, that ''in their opinion the 
comphiints in the petition of Sonthgate and others are groundless, 
and therefore the petition ought to be dismist." 

There are numerous other papers in the State Archives relating 
to this unhappy affair. But the two ah-eady quoted, show the 
animus of the controversy, and supply the material facts, as seen 
from the different standpoints, and interpreted by the parties con- 

The largo majority of the voters sustained the minister, and 
voted to raise 100 pounds to reimburse his friends their expenses 
in defending him before the General Court. But his pastoral life 
appears not to have been agreeable to himself, for in the fall of 
1744 he notified the people that he should quit work for them in 
December. In a Warrant for a Plantation meeting held Dec. 17, 
1744, was an article, " To chuse a committee to provide a supply 
for the pulpit, since Mr. Harvey hath fulfilled the time he deter- 
mined, and hath bidden us provide for ourselves.'' The article 
was negatived. But the 20 pounds additional to his salary was 
" continued " for the current year, and 20 pounds old tenor was 
voted for the supply of his firewood. 

In 1746 a new scandal arose in which Mr. Harvey was implicated. 
And this time it was his former friends and supporters that took 
up the sword against him. It seems that he had escorted Mrs. 
Agnes Little, the wife of Thomas Little, to and from Boston, and 
a story got afloat, charging them with unchaste conduct on the 
journey. The matter was brought before a meeting of the Inhab- 
itants, and two separate committees were ajDpointed to carry the 
case before the Presbytery for advice and investigation. It does 
not appear that the Presbytery took it up. June 11, 1747, Barnard 
IMcNitt, Seth Shaw and Andrew Entherford were appointed a com- 

Mass. State Archives, xii. 71. 


mittee ''with full power in our behalf for the prosecution of that 
affair conceruing the scandalous reports raised on the Rev. Mr. 
Hai'vey, that the same may be prosecuted to effect ; and said com- 
mittee shall have full power to prosecute the s*^ affair either in this 
County or any other, employing one or more attorneys under them, 
if need be." Oct. 12, at a legal meeting of the Proprietors & 
Grantees, the aforesaid committee were instructed 'Ho go onward 
in the prosecution of y® affair against Mr. Harvey, at the cost and 
cliarge of the Proprietors and Grantees;" and "100 pounds old 
tenor was granted to carry on the case against Mr. Harvey." 

The next entry in the plantation records implies that Mr. Harvey 
had resigned. Nov. 23, 1747. "Article second. To chuse a man 
to go after a minister to supply the pulpit, seeing the Eev. Mr. 
Harvey has given up his right thereto." Capt. Shaw was appointed 
and instructed to provide a supply for the pulpit till the second 
Tuesday in March next. Dec. 14, 1747, a legal meeting was 
warned, "To see if they will call y® Presbytery to get Mr. Harvey 
dismissed orderly." 

The records furnish no evidence that the suit against Mr. Har- 
vey was pressed, and the j^robable inference is, that his resignation 
virtually ended the affair. 

The date of his resignation must have been about Nov. 1, 1747. 
The date of his dismission by the Presbytery is not given ; but be- 
fore July, 1748, as witnesseth the following "recate :" 

Kingstown, July the 5, 1748. 
Recaved from Mr. Barnard McNitt the full of my Reates, Sallery and 
Wood-reates, during his collection. Ney, the full due to me since my com- 
ing to the Elbowes, which has been seventeen years past, the Eleventh day 
of may Last, as witness my hand this fifth of July 1748. 

Mr. John Harvey. 
"Witness preasant 

Samuell Shaw, Juner." 

After leaving the Elbows, Mr. Harvey resided for a time in Peter- 
boro', N. H., where no church then existed, but afterwards a 
Presbyterian church was formed. He then removed to Blaudford, 
Hampden Co., Mass., which was settled largely by his country- 
men, where he lived on a farm until his death. 

Our plantation was without a settled pastor for several years. 
Rev. Benjamin (?) Lord supplied for a few Sabbaths in the spring 
of 174S, and was paid four pounds, old tenor, per Sabbath. Rev. 

James Morton and Rev. Mitchell preached for a few weeks 

in May and June, 1748. Mr. Mitchell was then living in Litch- 
field. Rev. Alexander Boyd was then employed as minister and 


was i^aid seven i^ounds per Sabbath, "and he to board himself." 
He appears to have given general satisfaction to the people, and at 
a meeting of the Proprietors and Grantees Nov. 23, 1748, it was 
" voted to give Mr. Boyd a call to settle in the work of the ministry 
here. Voted, as a Settlement 6U0 pounds, old tenor bills. And 
for salary and wood, voted 400 pounds, old tenor. And Mr. Boyd 
to find his own fire-wood ; and to pay the s*^ salary to Mr. Boyd 
every year that he shall continue a minister to this Congregation, 
agreeable to y® old tenor bills as it is now passing between man and 
man, and to be raised agreeabl as in manner following, that is to 
say, Endian Corn at 20 shillings old tenor j^er bushell, rye at 30 
shillings per bush., wheat at 40 shillings, and y® salary to rise and 
fall according to the stated price of grain aforesaid, as it shall rise 
and fall annually ; together with the use of y^ Ministry Lot ; all 
which during his ministry in this place, and no longer. Voted 
James Smith, Eobert Bratton, David Spear, Thomas McClenathan, 
John Thomson, Wm. Scott, Jun., Benjamin Parsons, Barnard 
McNitt, Andrew Eutherford to be a committee to manage Mr. 
Boyd's settling." At another meeting it was voted "to endeavour 
to have Mr. Boyd settle in the work of the ministry here according 
to y® Presbyterian Church Government." Mr. Boyd preached some 
time longer, but declined the call. It was voted in June, 1749, 
" not to have a committee to supply iis with preaching this sum- 
mer." Before March, 1751, Eev. Mr. Mitchell had supplied the 
pulpit again, and Eev. John McKinstrey had preached for a time. 
And it was "voted that John Glasford shall board the ministers 
who shall preach for us for six months from this time and rest his 
horse, for which he shall have two shillings & 8 pence lawful money 
for each week's board." 

The annals of the pulpit will be taken up again in the next chapter. 

The Old Fkench and Indian War, 1744-1749.— The only 
reference on our Plantation Eecords to military matters during 
this war is the following article in the Warrant for April, 1751 : 
" To see how the money is laid out that Capt. Samuel Shaw took 
of such men as Avas Impressed into his Majesty's service, and did 
not go but payed their fines, and chusc a committee to see y® money 
laid out according as y® Proprietors and Grantees shall order." 
''Voted not to act on y® article." A probable explanation is found 
in an order to Col. Pynchon : "Col. Pynchon is ordered to im- 
press twenty men from his regiment, viz. five for Col. Israel 
Williams, and fifteen for Col. J. Willard at Fort Dummer." June 
24, 1749. 


From papers in the State Archives we learn the names of men 
engaged in the service who were settlers on our territory. Capt. 
Jabez Olmstead was in the expedition against Louisbourg in 1745. 
He commanded the 10th Co. in Col. Samuel Willard's 4th Mass. 
liegt. Timothy Brown was captivated May 5, 174G, by the Indians 
on the road between the two Ashuelots (while returning from Bos- 
ton, where he had been the bearer of important dispatches), carried 
to Canada, where he was held one year, three mouths and fifteen 

Among the men posted at Fort Pelham under Capt. Samuel 
Childs was Samuel Allen of Kingstown, mustered into service May 
1, 1748. 

In Capt. Thomas Buckminster's Co., at Fort Dummer, Aug 6, 
to Aug. 20, 1748, were Obadiah Cooley, Andrew Cowee, John Blair, 
Peter Blackmer, James Paterson. 

List of Early Settlers, Inhabitants and Landholders, 

[Tliose marked Proprietors bought of Lamb and Company, 
1728-9, whose titles to home-lots were confirmed by the General 
Court. Those marked Grantees were squatters, whose home-lots 
were a gratuity from the General Court in 1733. Dates indicate 
when the name first appears on record.] 

Allen, Samuel, and wife Mary had daughter Eleanor born 
April 1, 1740. 

Ames, Jethro, from Lancaster, proprietor of 50-acre home-lot ; 
house named 1733. 

Applin, John, blacksmith, from Watertown ; inhabitant 1733 ; 
clerk of Proprietors 1743-46. 

Backus, Peter, proprietor of 100-acre home-lot originally laid 
out to Benjamin Stebbins ; but without "after rights" in the 

Bailey, Andrew, proprietor, 100-acre home-lot confirmed to 
widow and heirs by Gen. Court 1733. 

Barry, James, an inhabitant 1739. 

Bartlett, Benjamin, an inhabitant 1733. 

Bedortha, Samuel, from Springfield, bought 100 acres of Lamb 
and Company 1728 ; sold Jan. 25, 1731 to John Combs. 

Bell, William, 1742, drew 70 acres in the First Division of 
Commons, on S. Southgate's right. 

* Mass. State Archives, 73 : 


Bemon, (Beaman), Joii]«5-, grantee of 100-acre home-lot 1733 ; 
located earlier, 

Bethune, Nathaniel, Esq., of Boston, assignee of James 
McClelan before 1742 ; drew one hundred acres each in the First 
and Second Division of Commons. 

Blackmer, John, 174G, drew 63 acres in the Second Division of 
Commons, on John Paterson's right. 

Blackmer, Peter, 1743, drew 30 acres in First Division of 
Commons, on Joseph Brooks' right. 

Blair, John, from N. of Ireland, admitted an inhabitant 
Nov. 1734, having bought home-lot of Joseph Brooks, Sen. 

Blair, David, 1735, and John, drew 50 acres in First Division 
of Commons, 1742, on William Scott's right. 

Blancher, (Blanchard), Nicolas, prob. b. Charlestown, bought 
1728, a 100-acre home-lot of Lamb and Company ; died 1732 ; the 
General Court confirmed to the widow a lUO-acre lot in fee simple. 

Booth, George, assignee of James McEIwain ; grantee of 64- 
acre home-lot 1733. 

Boyd, Archibald, from N. of Ireland, bought 1742, a 50-acre 
lot of John King, at Eood's Den, so called ; drew 50 acres in First 
Division of Commons, on Ebenezer Mirick's right. 

Breakenridge, James, a native of Scotland, came from North 
of Ireland July 1727, proprietor of 100-acre home-lot. 

Brittain, (Bratten), Egbert, w. Elizabeth; 1743, drew 50 
acres in First Division of Commons on Ebenezer Mirick's right. 

Brooks, John, proprietor of 50-acre home-lot. 

Brooks, Joseph, jiroprietor, as assignee of David Ingei-sole, of 
100-acre home-lot. 

Brooks, Samuel, proprietor, as assignee of David Ingersole, of 
100-acre home-lot. 

Brooks, Samuel, a petitioner 1732, perhaps identical with last 

Brooks, William, accepted an inhabitant 1733. 

Brown, James, 1748, drew 100 acres in Second Division of 
Commons, on right of Joseph Brooks. 

Brown, Matthew, grantee of 100-acre home-lot 1733. 

Brown, Thomas, son of Matthew, 1734. 

Brown, William, son of Matthew (?) 1734. 

Buckley, William, an inhabitant 1733. 

Burr, Isaac, on petition Nov. 27, 1729. 

Camp, Joel, m. Eebecca Blancher, an inhabitant 1748. 

Chadwick, Joseph, from Watertown ; proprietor of 50-acre 

THE ELBOW TRACT — A PLANTATION, 1726-175'^. 127 

Chapin, Jonathan, Jun., from Springfield, proprietor of 100- 
acre home-lot. 

Chapin, Thomas, grantee of 70-acre home-lot. 

Combs, John, assignee of Samuel Bedortha, proprietor of 50-acre 

Combs, Eichard, bought 1728, of Lamb and Company 100 acres, 
which was laid out 1733 to John King, Jun. 

CooLET, Noah, bought 1728 of Lamb and Company 100 acres. 

CooLEY, Obdiah, Sen. and Jun., joint proprietors of 100 acre 
home-lot, bo't by 0. Jun. of L. and Co. 

Crawfoot (Crowfoot), Stephen, a 118-acre lot was surveyed 
and laid out to him before 1738. [Records in loc.'] 

Crawford, William, grantee of 50-acre home-lot 1733, pitched 

Cummins, Capt. Jacob, from Killingby, Ct., bought land of S. 
Southgate in north part of town before 1742. 

Curtis (Curtice), Abel, proprietor of 50-acre home-lot. 

CwEE (Cowee), Andrew, 1745, settled on James McElwain's 
right ; drew 50 acres in second Division of Commons. 

Davis, Samuel, 1741, drew 60 acres in second Division of Com- 
mons on right of Nathaniel Dewey. 

Derby, Samuel, rated in Minister Tax, 1734. 

Dewey, Nathaniel, proprietor of 60-acre home-lot. 

Dickinson, Benjamin, an inhabitant, 1733. 

Doolittle, Samuel, from Wallingford, Ct., (?) proprietor of 
100-acre home-lot. 

Doonlap, Robert, from N. of Ireland 1718, grantee of 70-acre 
home-lot 1733 ; had pitched earlier. 

Dorchester, James, from Springfield, proprietor of 100-acre 
home-lot. In 1732 his house was the place of public worship one- 
half the time. 

Dorchester, James, Jun., proprietor of 70-acre home-lot. 

Dorchester, John, bought 1728, 100 acres of Lamb and Com- 
pany, which was granted 1733 to Robert and David Nivins. 

Dorchester, Joseph, bought 1728, 100 acres of Lamb and 
Company, which was granted 1733 to John Moor. 

Dumbleton, Samuel, an inhabitant 1739. 

English, James, drew 1742, 100 acres in First Division of Com- 
mons, on Thomas Jennings' right. 

EwiNG, Alexander, before 1741, bought 50 acres of John Hen- 
derson ; drew 100 acres in First Division of Commons on Barnard 
McNitt's right. 

Farrall (Ferrell), Robert, proprietor of 100-acre home-lot. 


Farrand, Andrew, bought GO acres of Lamb and Company 
1728, which he assigned to John Paterson : grantee of 100-acre 
home-lot 1733. 

Farrand, Thomas, bouglit 100 acres of Lamb and Company, 
which he assigned to Duncan Quinton. 

Ferguson', Samuel, an inliabitant 1737. 

Flamont (Flemming), Joseph, from N. of Irehmd 1718 : 
grantee of 100-acre home-lot 1733. 

Frost, Samuel, from Billerica or Springfield, pitched as early 
as 1725 ; proprietor of 100-acre home-lot. 

Fuller, Daniel, proprietor of 100-acre home-lot. 

Gardner, Humphrey, grantee of 100-acre home-lot. 

Gerish, Joseph, a petitioner 1732. 

Glasford, John, Sen., had a house and lot on Ware river 

Glasford, John, Juu., in 1741, drew 67 acres in First Division 
of Commons, on S. Southgate's right. 

Glasford, Paul, son of John, Sen., bo't a farm in 1734. 

Graves, Daniel, from Springfield, located early on the Brim- 
field Addition. 

Green, Joseph, merchant of Boston, drew 100 acres in First 
Division of Commons, 1740 on James McElwain's right. 

Hall, Elisha, and Thomas Farrand, joint proprietors of a 100- 
acre home-lot. 

Harmon, Thomas, in company with Robert Farrall built a grist- 
mill in 1735 or '36. 

Harper, Robert, an inhabitant 1732. 

Harvey, Rev. John, from N. of Ireland, first settled minister ; 
grantee of 100-acre home-lot. 

Hains (Haynes), Daniel, wife Anna (Hannah) had children 
born 1730 and 1732. 

Henderson, John, grantee of a 100-acre home-lot 1733. 

Henderson, James, brother of John, owned a 50-acre lot ad- 
joining his brother. 

HiGGiNS, Samuel, and wife Martha had son John born Ai)ril 
4, 1739, at Dean's Farm. 

Hill, Thomas, grantee of 50-acre home-lot 1733, had built a 

Hollo way, William, in 1742 drew 100 acres in First Division 
of Commons on right of Joseph Brooks, Jun., and 100 acres in 
Second Division. 

Hunter, Robert, bought about 1738, the Southgate saw-mill 
lot of 70 acres. 


Ij^gersole, David, was an inhabitant 1727, boiiglit in 1728 100 
acres of Lamb and Company, which he assigned to Joseph Brooks, 
to whom it was confirmed in 1733 ; was taxed 1733. 

Jennings, Thomas, proprietor in 1733, assignee of Thomas 
Sweetman, who bought 1728 100 acres of Lamb and Company, con- 
firmed to T. J. 

KiLBURN, Benjamin, bought 1728 of Lamb & Co. a 100-acre 
lot which was confirmed to him by the General Court in 1733 
"without after Eights." In 1739 the lot was laid out to John 

KiLBURN, Daniel, owned 100 acres near the Old Centre. 

KiLBURN, John, settled before 1726 ; proprietor of 100-acre 

KiLBURN, Samuel, son of John ; grantee of 100-acre home-lot 

KiLLUM, Daniel, bought 100 acres of Lamb and Company, 
which was laid out in 1729, but not recorded ; grantee of 50-acre 
home-lot 1733. 

King, John, Sen., the first settler 1716 ; proprietor of 100-acre 
home-lot on King's brook. 

King, John, Jun., 100 acres, the Tamar spring lot, originally 
laid out to Eichard Combs, was confirmed to him by the General 
Court ''without after Eights." 

Lamberton, James, from Londonderry, X. IL, 1727, grantee of 
lOo-acre home-lot 1733. 

Lamont (Lemmon), James, from N. of Ireland 1718; grantee of 
50-acre home-lot 1733. 

Lamont, James, Jun., and Samuel, early settlers. 

Lenox, Samuel, wife Jean, had children born 1734—39. 

Little, Thomas, petitioner 1732, grantee of 100-acre home-lot 

McClelan, James, proprietor of 100-acre home-lot. 

McClenathan, Thomas, grantee of 100-acre home-lot 1733. 

McClenathan, William, grantee of 100-acre home-lot 1733. 

McElwain, James, Sen., bought 1728 of Lamb and Company, 
100 acres at junction of Ware and Swift rivers, which he sold 
1729 to Green and Walker, merchants of Boston ; died soon ; wife 

McElwain, James, Jun., petitioner 1732 ; proprietor of 100- 
acre home-lot. 

McElwain, Timothv, son of James, Sen., proprietor of 100- 
acre home-lot. 

McKee, Andrew, petitioner 1732, proprietor of 100-acre home-lot. 


McMaster, Hugh, Oct. 15, 1741, a 50-acre home-lot was laid 
out to him ou Chickobe river, originally granted to John Brooks. 

McMaster, John-, Jun., in 1739, a home-lot of 100 acres was 
laid out to him, originally granted to Benjamin Kilburn. 

McMaster, John and James, in 1740 drew 100 acres in First 
Dirision of Commons, on James Dorchester, Sen's right. 

McMiGHiLL (Mihill, Michill), William, son-in-law of Robert 

McNiTT, Alexander, b. N. of Ireland, County Donegal, came 
over with his son, d. Feb. 10, 1746, aged 90 ; wife Sarah died May 
10, 1744, aged 84. 

McjSTitt (McNight), Barnard, son of Alexander, petitioner 
1732, proprietor of 100-acre home-lot. 

McQuiSTON, James, proprietor of 70-acre home-lot. 

Magoon" (McCune), Isaac, from N. of Ireland, petitioner 1732, 
grantee of 100-acre home-lot, 1733. 

Magoon", Isaac, Jun., petitioner 1732, proprietor of 100-acre 

Miller, John, rated in Minister tax 1734. 

MiRiCK, Ebenezer, from Springfield, son of Thomas, assignee 
of James Dorchester, proprietor of 100-acre home-lot. His house 
was a place of public meetings. 

Moor, James, from N. of Ireland 1718, grantee of 100-acre 
home-lot 1733. 

Moor, John, from N. of Ireland 1718, proprietor of 100-acre 
home-lot. His house was a place of public meetings. 

Nelson (Nilson), Aaron, petitioner 1732. 

Nelson, William, "his hay stack'' is named 1735. 

Neyins (Nivins), John, in 1728 bought 100 acres of Lamb and 
Company. See his petition, ante p. 58. 

Nevins, David, petitioner 1732. 

Nevins, Egbert, petitioner 1732. The two were joint gran- 
tees of the 100-acre home-lot laid out to John Dorchester. 

Nevins, Samuel, petitioner 1732. Grantee of a 100-acre home- 
lot 1733. 

Olds, Moses, in 172S bought 07 acres of Lamb and Com- 
pany, which was granted to Steward Southgate for a grist mill 

Olmstead, Capt. Jabez, from Brookficld, bought Apr. 2, 1729, 
the Hollingsworth Grant, 500 acres. 

Olmstead, Jeremiah, son of Capt. Jabez, grantee of 100-acre 
home-lot 1733. 

Orcott, or Olcott, Joseph, rated in ^Minister Tax 1733-34. 


Parker, John", taxed in 1733. 

Parsoists, Aa-ron, petitioner 1732. 

Parsons, Benjamin"^ from Springfield, connected with James 
Dorchester, proprietor of 100-acre home-lot. 

Parsons, Daniel, j)etitioner 1732. 

Parsons, Joshua, son of Benjamin, 1733. 

Paterson, John, from N. of Ireland 1718, assignee of Andrew 
Farrand, proprietor of 60-acre home-lot. 

Paterson, William, brother of John, grantee of 50-acre home- 
lot 1733. 

Patrick, John, admitted an inhabitant Nov. 1734, bought the 
farm of Joseph Brooks, Sen. 

Peebles, (Pibles) John, m. Nov. 1740, Dorothy Harvey, daughter 
of Kev John ; had children born till 1748. 

Post, John, in 1741 drew 100 acres in Second Division of Com- 
mons on Samuel Doolittle's right. 

Ptnchon, Col. John's heirs draw 100 acres each in the First 
and Second Division of Commons, on John Kilburn's right. 

QuiNTON (Quintin), Duncan, petitioner 1732, assignee of 
Thomas Farrand, proprietor of 100-acre home-lot. 

Eogers, Robert, from N. of Ireland 1718, About 1740, bought 
a farm on Quabaug river. 

EooD, MiCAH, bought 100 acres of Lamb and Company, 
which was laid out by their orders May 15, 1729, lying on Qua- 
baug river. In 1733, the lot was laid out to the wife of Nicholas 

Eutherford, Andrew, petitioner 1732, grantee of 50-acre home- 
lot, on which he built a house in 1733. 

Scott, John, son of William, proprietor of 100-acre home-lot. 

Scott, William, proprietor of 100-acre home-lot. 

Shaw, Samuel, had built a house before 1732, proprietor of 100- 
acre home-lot. 

Shaw, Seth, came to America 1720, and pitched in Brimfield ; 
removed to the Elbows 1735 or 6, and built the first framed 
dwelling-house ; it stood on Ware river near the outlet of Potta- 
quattuck pond ; was taken down by Mr. E. B. Gates at the end of 
100 years. 

Shaw, William, a petitioner 1732, proprietor of 50-acre home- 

Shearer, James, a petitioner 1732, had large house, where 
public meetings were held ; grantee of 100-acre home-lot. 

Shearer, John, son of James, admitted an inhabitant 1734, on 
Abel Curtis' right. 


Shearer, William, son of James, bought 100 acres of land, a 
lot in First Division of Commons. 

Sloan, William, petitioner 1732, proprietor of 100-acre home- 

Smith, James, son of Robert, bought part of the Col. Partridge 
Farm, also the Robert Thomson and the Daniel Fuller farms. 

Smith, John", son of James, drew 100 acres in First Division of 
Commons on right of Elisha Hall. 

Smith, Patrick, son of Rol)ert, a petitioner 1732, grantee of 
100-acre home-lot, 1733. 

Smith, Robert, from N. of Ireland 1718, bought part of the 
Col. Partridge Farm. 

SouTHGATE, STEWARD, from Leicester, employed by Lamb and 
Company as surveyor of their claim, and to lay out lots to pur- 
chasers; afterwards surveyor to the Pro^^rietors of the Elbows; 
Proprietors' and Grantees' clerk; proprietor of two 100-acre 
home-lots, and 70-acre mill-lot. The original grants, and rights 
in the Commons, amounted to 728 acres. He returned to Leicester 
in 1744. 

Spear, David, had built a house l)efore 1732, grantee of 100- 
acre home-lot, 1733. 

Stanford, Robert, grantee of 100-aere home-lot 1733, which 
he assigned to Matthew Brown, 

Stebbins, Benjamin, bought 1728, 100 acres of Lamb and 
Company, which was granted by the General Court to Peter Backus 
in 1733. Probably Stebbins never took possession. 

Stevens (Stephens), James, a petitioner 1732; had built a house; 
grantee of 100-acre home-lot 1733. 

Sweetman, Thomas. In 1728, bought 100 acres of Lamb and 
Company, which he assigned to Thomas Jennings, to whom it was 

Tackels, Alexander, from N. of Ireland ; petitioner 1732, 
grantee of 100-acre home-lot 1733. 

Tackels, Hugh, blacksmith ; an early inhabitant. 

Tackels, William, an inhabitant 1739. 

Thomson, John, from N. of Ireland 1718 ; pitched 1725 ; pro- 
prietor of 100-acre home-lot. 

Thomson, Robert, from N. of Ireland 1718 ; petitioner 1732 ; 
grantee of 50-acre home-lot 1733. 

Tousley, Micah, had built a house on south side of Quabaug 
river beforei 1723 ; petitioner 1732. 

VosE, Elijah, brother-in-law of Andrew McKee, petitioner 
1732, grantee of 50-acre home-lot. 


Walker, Isaac, merchant of Boston ; in 1740 drew 100 acres in 
First Division of Commons, on right of James McElwain. 

Webber, John, bought farm of Andrew Farrand ; drew 100 
acres in Second Division of Commons, in right of John Thomson. 

Wilson, Nathaniel, an inhabitant 1789. 

Wright, Joseph, from Springfield, a petitioner 1726, proprietor 
of 100-acre home-lot. 

Weight, Joseph, Jun., a petitioner 1732; bo't 100 acres of Lamb 
& Co. ; proprietor of 72-acre home-lot. 


Palmer a Disteict— 1752-1776 : A Town— 177G-1812. 

WAR — shay's rebellion — LIST OF TAX PAYERS, 1786 — THE HANGING 

THE period of our history covered by the last two chapters, was 
to the settlers a time of bearing burdens, and struggling with 
difficulties incident to a new plantation in a rough country. 
And they had to contend with difficulties peculiar to themselves, and 
imposed by their organic constitution. Some of these drawbacks 
have already been named. The two classes or parties into which, for 
reasons of justice and wisdom as the legislature believed, the inhab- 
itants were divided by the conditions of their land grants, neces- 
sarily produced inequality and antagonism of rights and social 
l^osition, whose results of jealousies and discords were radical and 
far-reaching. And these anomalous conditions of land tenure and 
taxation,* imposed with our organic law, with their logical se- 
quences, suggest a lesson in political economy, both interesting and 
instructive to the philosophical student. The history of none other 
of our Massachusetts plantations and towns furnishes a more strik- 
ing example. 

Then there was an active cause of contention, growing out of 
the want of homogeneity of the people. The Americans had taken 

See ante pp. 107- 

PALMER DISTRICT— 1752-177G : A TOWN— 1776-1813. 135 

on their distinguishing features of character, and become a well 
defined genus. They had large self-esteem and self-trust ; and the 
necessities of frontier life had developed wariness, courage and 
clannishness. They were familiar with our customs and laws, and of 
course were best fitted to fill the more responsible and lucrative 
offices in the new plantation, liesides, it hajipened that they held 
twenty-six of the one-hundred-acre Proprietary lots, leaving only 
thirteen to the Ulster men. 

And the Scotch immigrants possessed a strong individuality 
which did not readily assimilate with other nationalities. As one 
of themselves has said : " They were of ardent temperament, ten- 
acious of their opinions, and strong in their prejudices — as really 
and truly Scotch in their habits and tastes and characters as the 
natives of the ' Land o' Cakes." " This class were hard-working, 
and frugal in their personal and family life, and had a high ideal 
of fidelity and frugality in public affairs — as was shown by their 
frequent votes to '^'^call to account" their treasurers and collectors, 
and to " turn out " of office a board of assessors, or committees of 
trust, if there was a shade of suspicion as to their good judgment 
or honesty. The records show that it was not unusual to hold as 
many as seven plantation meetings in a year, the main business of 
at least five of them being to reconsider and undo the work of the 

This jealousy of their rights, and suspicion of other men's mo- 
tives, and argus-eyed watchfulness, were fostered by the unhappy 
ecclesiastical contentions that arose, and assumed a race character ; 
and which proved a two-edged sword in social and political affairs. 
And all other causes of worriment were aggravated by the 500 
pound debt due the Province, that weighted down enterprise and 

To these might be added the discouragements which attended the 
outting asunder of their territory, by the organization of the town 
of Western on the east, and Ware Eiver Parish on the north, which 
took away some of the finest land and most valuable estates — and 
thus diminished the taxable property without sensibly diminishing 

Perhaps the pluck of our people in holding on to the plantation, 
under adverse circumstances, is greater matter of surprise than 
their internal antagonisms. 

But the day of prosperity was dawning. 

First Movement for Town Privileges. — It will be remem- 
bered that the Act of June 1733, provided that when the several 


conditions of the Grant of a Plantation were fulfilled, the Proprie- 
tors and Grantees ''be allowed to bring in a bill for erecting and 
setting themselves off a Township/' 

But these "conditions" were not promptly fulfilled, and the 
matter lingered. Indeed, as the records show, the main effort of 
the settlers for several years, was to secure a modification or rever- 
sal of these "conditions." 

The following record of one meeting will serve as a sample of 
many that were held, between 1?34 and 1749. 

" At a meeting of the Proprietors and Grantees of the Elbow 
Tract, held May 12, 1735 : Voted, that Steward Southgate be em- 
powered as an agent on our behalf to apply to the General Court 
at their next session, on the publick affairs of this Settlement. 
Voted, that our said agent shall prepare and present a Bill to the 
said Court for investing the Inhabitants of this Plantation with 
the powers & privileges of a Town, with a Petition for the same, 
and for confirmation of our Lands (if he finds it needful) — repre- 
senting the Difficulties and inconveniences we labour under in our 
present circumstances. Voted, that a Humble Petition be prepared 
and preferred by our said agent to the Great & General Court, and 
in our name and behalf, showing our pressing Difiiculties & Great 
Hardships ; and therefore praying that the 500 pounds enjoined by 
the Act of that Honourable Court, as the condition of our Grant, 
to be paid into the Province Treasury next month, may be abated 
and taken off. Voted, that our said agent be directed, in case our 
said Petition for abating the 500 pounds should not be granted, 
that then he prepare & prefer a Petition in our name and behalf, 
praying that the time of payment of the said sum be protracted 
two years longer." 

Mr. Southgate succeeded in securing the passage of an Act for 
granting Town privileges to the Plantation, as appears from the 
General Court Eecords : " June 25, 1735. The Bill intitled an 
Act for erecting the Plantation called the Elbows into a Township 

by the name of . In Council. Read a second time, and 

passed in concurrence to be engrossed." But he failed to secure a 
release or abatement of the 500 pound tax, and the whole scheme 
fell through. 

Two similar petitions were sent to the General Court in October, 
1743, and the petitioners were " allowed to bring in a Bill for erect- 
ing the said Plantation into a Township." But the 500 pounds 
tax was still unpaid, and the Bill failed to become a law. 

July 8, 1746. At a meeting of Proprietors & Grantees, it was 
" Voted, that Thomas Little be the man that shall go to the General 

PALMEK A DISTEICT, 1752-1776. 137 

Court at Boston in behalf of this town to get this Plantation invested 
with the privileges of a Township ; but if that petition be flung out, 
then to put in another petition to get the way of making our Rates 
more plain." Probably this last clause refers to the unequal rights 
of Proprietors;, and Grantees, and the power of taxing non-resi- 
dents. The scheme failed. 

Sept. 22, 1748. At a meeting of Proprietors and Grantees, 
Barnard McNitt was chosen to go to the General Court to get the 
place set off to be a town ; and his instructions were, that he "use 
all due and proper means, according to the best of his judgment in 
said affair, with the advice of the members of the Courts as many 
of them as he can have conference with." He evidently did some 
good lobbying, and made a favorable impression. And March 9, 
1748-9, he was again chosen to go to Boston, "to get this Planta- 
tion set off to be a town." He presented the following petition : 

" To His Excellency William Shirley, Esq. 

The Petition of the Proprietors & Grantees, so called, in a new Planta- 
tion or Settlement commonly known by the name of The Elbows, in the 
County of Hampshire 

Humbly Sheweth That Your Petitioners have fulfilled the orders of the 
Great & General Court when the land in said Plantation was granted, fifty 
families having been brought in and fixt there, & a Minister settled ; but 
recent difficulties arising between the Minister & the People, and there 
being little prospect of his serviceableness among them, the minister and 
the people parted, and the people have invited another Minister, who is 
near settling with them as they hope: But so it is circumstanced with 
them — May it please yo'^ Excellency & Hon's, that they are likely to be 
much embarrased in proceeding in this affair, as well as divers others, un- 
less they can be erected into a Town, or some way made capable of pro- 
ceeding regularly & legally to do those things which the interest, peace & 
good order of so considerable a Number of Families as above fifty make 

The Land which yo' petit's pray may be included in this Township cor- 
poration, abutts easterly on the Town of Western so called, and westerly on 
Brimfield, northwesterly on a Plantation called Cold Spring, northerly on a 
Tract of Land belonging to the Heirs of John Read, Esq. 

And yr Pet^s as in duty bound 

shall ever pray &c 

In the name & by order of the Inhab^^ above^* 

Barnard McNitt. 

Elbows, May 31, 1749. 

In Council June 12, 1749. 
Read & Ordered 
That the prayer of the petition be so far granted as that the 
s*^ Settlement or New Plantation according to the true bounds 


thereof, and the Inhabitants that are or may be settled thereon, Ije 
and hereby are erected into a District or Precinct, and vested with 
such Powers & Privileges as towns by law enjoy, so far as relates to 
the choice of town ofificers, and for granting money from time 
to time to defray the charges of said District, setling a min- 
ister, erecting a Meeting-house, granting & making all needfull 
Roads & "Ways; and for support of Schools, and other charges; and 
that Barnard Macnitt the petitioner is hereby impowered to call 
the first meeting for the choice of proper officers, sometime in the 
month of July next, to stand till the annual meeting in March 

Sent down for concurrence 

J. WiLLAED, Secy. 

In the House of Representatives, June 14, 1749. 
Read and non-concurred 
And Ordered, that the s*^ Settlement or new Plantation, accord- 
ing to the true bounds thereof, be incorporated into a town, and 
have and enjoy Privileges as other towns by law have & enjoy; and 
that the Pet"^ have liberty to bring in a bill accordingly. 
Sent up for concurrence 

Joseph Dwight, Sp''^ 

In Council, June 14, 1749. 
Read & concurred 

Sam^ Holbrook, Dep. Sec^.* 

[The Governor did not consent.] 

The Government of Great Britain was becoming jealous of the 
Colonies, and especially of the power claimed and exercised by the 
popular branch of our General Court. And no reason is apparent 
why the Governor withheld his assent to the above-named Bill, ex- 
cept that all incorporated towns had the right to send a representa- 
tive annually to the General Court. 

In the fall of 1751, David Shaw was chosen agent, went to Bos- 
ton and succeeded in securing the passage of an Act erecting the 
Elbows Plantation into a District. Probably the inhabitants were 
disappointed at not obtaining toion privileges. And at a meeting 
held Oct. 18, 1752, an article in the warrant was : "To grant to 
David Shaw so much money as shall be esteemed reasonable satis- 
faction for his being at y® whole of y^ charges in going to y® Gen- 
eral Court, and getting s* town set off to be a District, so as he may 
have a reasonable recompence for his trouble & cost." It was put 

Mass. State Archives, cxv, 475. 

PALMER A DISTRICT, 1752-1776. 139 

to vote whether David Shaw should have anything for his cost and 
charges at y® General Court at Boston — Y® house was divided, and 
it passed in y® Negative." 

An Act for erecting y^ Plantation called j ® Elbows, into di. District hy 
the name of Palmer. 

Whereas it hath been represented to this Court that >e Inhabitants of 
y« Plantation in the County of Hampshire, cahed The Elbows, labour under 
Difficulties, by reason of their not being incorporated into a District : — 

Be it enacted by the Lieut. Governor-, Council and House of Representa- 

Sect. 1, That y^ Plantation aforesaid be, and hereby is erected into a 
District by y® name of Palmer, bounding as follows : viz. easterly on 
ye town of Western ; northerly, partly on the plantation called Cold 
Spring, and partly on Ware River Precinct, called Read's Farm ; southerly 
and westerly on y^ town of Brimfield ; and that the Inhabitants thereof 
be and hereby are invested with all y^ powers, privileges and immunities 
that the Inhabitants of towns within this Province are or by law ought to 
be invested with : saving only in the choice of a representative ; which, it 
is represented, said Inhabitants are not at present desirous of. 

Be it further enacted 

Sect. 3. That all rates and taxes heretofore assessed or ordered to be 
assessed, pursuant to the laws and orders of this Court, upon ye Inhabit- 
ants of said Elbows Plantation, shall be levied, collected and fully com- 
pleated, agreeable to the laws or orders by which they were assessed. 

Passed January 30 ; published January 31, 1752. 

The above Act of Incorporation failed, inadvertently, to provide 
for calling a meeting of tlie Inhabitants, to organize the District 
by the choice of the necessary oflticers. And a supplementary Act 
was passed. 

" Whereas by an Act made and passed at y® session of tliis Court in 
January last, y® Plantation called y® Elbows was erected into a sepa- 
rate District and invested with all the privileges that by law towns 
in this Province enjoy, that of sending a representative alone ex- 
cepted : But no provision being made for calling y® first meeting 
of y® Inhabitants of s*^ new District : therefore Resolved, That 
John Sherman [of Brimfield], upon application made to him for 
that purpose by five or more of y® Inhabitants of s** District, in 
writing under their hands, be and hereby is enabled to issue his 
warrant to some one of them, requiring him to warn and give no- 
tice to s"^ Inhabitants that they meet & assemble together at such 
time & place and for such purpose as shall be mentioned in suc^ 
application : And s^ Inhabitants so assembled shall have full power 
to act and vote as effectually as towns in ordinary cases at their 


meetings ordered by their selectmen according to y* directions of 
y® law, are impowered to do. 

Passed in concurrence June 4, 1752. 

Consented to S. Phipps. 

Name of the District and Town. In some instances the inhab- 
itants were allowed to select a name for their proposed town or 
Precinct : but at this period it was more customary for the legisla- 
ture to pass the act of incorporation, leaving the name blank, which 
blank the governor would fill when he affixed his signature. This 
name was soinetimes determined by local considerations ; but of tener 
was selected as a mark of special favor to some friend or patron. 
Our people petitioned to have the place called ^'Kingstown" (a 
name which they had assumed and used in local records and unoffi- 
cial documents since Jan. 1741-2), in honor of John King, the 
earliest settler on the territory. But the governor inserted Palmer, 
in honor of his relative, Thomas Pahner, Esq., who had recently 
died in Scotland. The name is not unjoleasant to speak or write, 
but it has no associations connected with our early annals or topog- 

First District Meeting. In pursuance of a warrant issued by 
John Sherman, Esq., and served by David Shaw, a meeting of the 
inhabitants of Palmer District was held at the publick meeting- 
house, on Tuesday June 30, 1752, at 8 o'clk in the forenoon, when 
the following officers were chosen : moderator, Seth Shaw ; town 
clerk, David Shaw ; selectmen, Seth Shaw, John Thomson, Thomas 
McClanathan, John Applin ; assessors, Robert Rogers, William 
Scott, Jr., John Applin ; constables, John Moor, John King ; 
treasurer, William Scott, Jr. ; surveyors of roads, John Thomson, 
William McClenathan ; fence viewers, William Ball, Robert Fer- 
rell, Jr.; tythingman, Robert Terrell, Jr, Voted, that swine may 
run at large in y® Commons this present year, well yoked and rung 
according to law. Voted, to John Murray, 8 shillings, lawful money, 
for a coj)y of y® General Court's Act : and also 2 shillings to David 
Shaw for two warrants from a justice of the peace, in order to hold 
y® first meeting in Palmer District. Voted, Seth Shaw, James 
Brackenridge, William Scott, Jr., to be a committee to sell y® grass 
of our ministerial lot this year to y® highest bidder at publick ven- 
due, the money to be for y® publick use of said town [And after- 
wards y® s^ committee sold y® s** grass to Dunkin Quinton for 13 
pounds old tenor.] Voted, and granted to Seth Shaw and Thomas 
McClanathan, for boarding Rev. Mr. Boyd, IG shillings lawful 
money, and since last March, for keeping Ministers, four shillings 
lawful money more. Voted & granted to Seth Shaw, Jr., for going 

PALMER A DISTRICT, 1752-1 776. 141 

to y® presbytery last August, one pound four shillings lawful money, 
in consideration of the same. Voted, and confirmed to John Glass- 
ford, a former grant of 2 pounds 2 shillings & eight pence lawful 
money. Voted, to John King, Wm. Scott, Jr., and Robert Ferrell, 
Jr., 8 shillings lawful money, to each of them for being assessors 
last year. Voted, that all y® money formerly granted but not yet 
assessed, as appears recorded in y® town book, shall be assessed by 
y® present assessors in order to be collected. 

Seth Shaw, moderator. 

Preaching. — The new District being thus organized, immediate 
steps were taken to settle a minister. For the four years since the 
dismission of Mr. Harvey, ecclesiastical affairs had been in a dis- 
tracted state. Candidates were numerous, and so were the opinions 
of the people. 

Rev. Timothy " Ai a meeting of the Inhabitants of 
Palmer District held on Wednesday, July 29, 1752, it was voted, 
that Rev. Mr. Timothy Symes be our minister in s*^ place. Voted, 
to the Rev. Mr. Timothy Symes for his settlement in the work of 
the ministry in s*^ place 33 .pounds, six shillings & eight pence 
y® first year, and 33 pounds, six shillings & eight pence the second 
year of lawful money of this Province, for his settlement ; and also 
53 pounds six shillings & eight pence, lawful money of this Prov- 
ince of yearly salary for the first two years ; and at expiration of 
y« first two years, then to add to y^ sum, three pounds six shillings 
& eight pence yearly for a space of four years more, until y® whole 
of his yearly salary amount to sixty-six pounds fourteen shillings 
and four pence lawful money of this Province yearly, and then that 
to be his stated salary during y^ whole of his ministry in this place ; 
together with the whole of the benefit of the Ministerial Lot, in 
s^ place — Provided that y® s*^ Mr. Symes will Join himself to our 
Presbyterian Government of y® Church of Scotland persuasion, 
and also to be a member of the same Presbytery to which Rev. Mr. 
John Moorhead of Boston belongs, and also oblige himself to stand 
by and maintain y® same rules of y® Church of Scotland persua- 
sion with us in our church in s*^ place, on y® account of y^ above 
mentioned considerations. And further to the Rev. Mr. Symes his 
necessary supply of firewood yearly for his further encouragement, 
provided that he will settle with us as aforesaid. Voted that James 
Smith, Samuel Stewart, and Benjamin Parsons be a committee to 
carry a copy of these votes to Mr. Symes, and treat with him about 
8** affair in behalf of y® town." 

The outcome of the movement is indicated by the follo^\ang ex- 


tract from the records : " Oct. 18, 1752. Inasmuch as y® J{ev. 
Mr. Timoth}' Symes has failed of going to our Presbytery in order 
to join himself with s*^ Presbytery, and be a member of the same, 
and has also failed of giving y® Inhabitants of s^ place an answer to 
y® call or encouragement which they gave to him concerning his 
settling with them in the work of the Ministry, neither has brought 
any certificate to our Presbytery nor to y® Inhabitants of s*^ place 
for their acceptance from y® Presbytery whereto he did lately be- 
long, Therefore it is thought very needful and necessary to chuse 
some meet person in order to send to our Presbytery at their next 
sitting for a minister to supply us with preaching, or to endeavor 
to get one on probation in order to settle with us. Voted, that 
James Smith go to'y® next Presbytery at Londonderry in order for 
to get a sujDply of preaching for y® present." 

Rev. Ehenezer Knihlotu. At the annual meeting March 1, 1753, 
it was ''voted to grant Robert Bratten 40 shillings lawful money 
for his going to New London and bringing up Eev. Mr. Ebenezer 
Kniblow to preach to us in this place. " 

Mr. Kniblow supplied the pulpit in all fifteen sermons, as appears 
from the following record: ''At a meeting of y® Inhabitants of 
this District Legally convened and assembled at y^ Publick Meeting 
House in s*^ Place, August 23, 1754, y^ Meeting being opened, 
Andrew Butterfield was chosen moderator to regulate s*^ meeting. 
On the third article in the warrant, Voted that Eev. Mr. Ebenezer 
Kniblow be allowed four pounds, sixteen shillings, which is eight 
shillings lawful money for each Sermon he preached on Sabbath 
Days in this District, exce2)t three Sermons which we can prove he 
preached other men's worhs.'^ 

This was not satisfactory to Mr. K. For a warrant was issued by 
the selectmen for a District meeting to be held Sept. 9, 1754, "To 
see if the Inhabitants are willing to allow Mr. Kniblow y^ full of his 
Demands: and if they are not willing, they will consider what is 
proper to be done in that affair." The action of the District is not 

Rev. Robert Burns. At a District meeting held on Friday, July 
20, 1753, it was voted that Seth Shaw go along with Mr. Robert 
Burns to y® Presbytery which is to sit at Newbury next August, in 
order to manage in behalf of our town or District in all the affairs 
that shall be brought under their consideration. And also voted to 
raise the sum of £3 lawful money in part of their charges in the 
journey: and also they are to keep and bring in to y® town a true 
and fair account of y® expenses of y® journey, so as they may be paid 
the whole of it: or if it is more than what is wanted for their use, 

PALMER A DISTRICT, V'io2-l'f7(>. 143 

tlieu they are to pay back to y® town y^ overplus if any there be." 
The £3 fell short of actual expenses by £1, 7, 4, which sum was 
allowed and paid. 

Sept. 14, 1753. An article in the warrant was, ''To consider 
whether the District will concur with the call that the congrega- 
tion has given to the Rev. Mr. Burns." Voted in the affirmative. 
Also voted to give Mr. Burns as a "settlement" six hundred 
j)ounds of y® old tenor, being equal to £80 lawful money, as y® 
money is now stated here at this day & date amongst us: to wit, 
the first year there is to be paid to him 300 pounds old tenor, and 
y® second year 300 pounds of y^ old tenor. Also voted to grant Mr. 
Burns a yearly salary of £53, 6, 8 lawful money, equal to 400 pounds 
old tenor, so long as he is in the work of the ministry in this place. 
Seth ShaM-, Thomas McClanathan, James Smith, Barnard McNitt 
& James Brackenridge were chosen a committee to go & treat with 
Mr. Burns, and to act and carry on the affair of his settlement. 

The terms were afterwards modified, so that the whole of the 
"settlement" money, £80, was paid to Mr. Burns the first year, 
and the annual salary was to be £60 lawful money. 

Mr. Burns was from the North of Ireland, though of Scotch 
parentage. He began preaching as a candidate May 15, 1753. 
The date of his ordination was probably Nov. 19 of the same year, 
as the next day a District meeting was held, at which all arrearages 
were paid, including payment of Mr. B.'s preaching to Sabbath 
Nov. 15, and including £1, 7, 9 for Rhum & Sugar, presumably 
used on ordination day. 

The ministry of Mr. Burns was short and full of trouble. The 
Session Records hint at one cause of dissatisfaction: "At the 
quarterly session held June 3, 1756, the Elders then present unani- 
mously refused to join with or assist Mr. Burns in the administra- 
tion of the Lord's Supper, unless he would perform ministerial 
visits, and catechize yearly the several quarters of the Parish; like- 
wise unless he would preach the Saturday before & the Monday 
after the Sacrament." 

The District Records give few particulars relating to him. But 
it is known that charges of immorality were brought against him, 
and that he ceased to perform the duties of pastor early in the 
year 1757. Probably his official relation to the church was severed 
by act of Presbytery Aug. 23, 1757. The following receipt indi- 
cates his place of residence at the date : 

Union, Conn., Oct. 14, 1761. 
Then received of Elder Samuel Shaw, Jr. , Treasurer of Palmer, the full 
and just sum of eight pound?, fifteen shillings and five pence, for the Dis- 


trict of Palmer, being in full of all accounts, debts, dues & demands from 
the beginning of the world unto the date hereof, as witness my hand. 

Robert Burns. 

"Mr. B. afterwards went to Pennsylvania, and spent the rest of 
his days there upon a farm." Wilson. 

Preachers ad mterim. Mr. Mitchell supplied the pulj)it four 
Sabbaths : Mr. Peck supplied four Sabbaths : Mr. Noah Benedict 
supplied eight Sabbaths. And Mar. 4, 1760, the District voted 
that Barnard McNitt should go after Mr. Noah Benedict '' to see if 
he will come again and preach to us, that we may have an ojipor- 
tunity to give him proper encouragement to settle in the work of 
the ministry." He declined to be a candidate ; and Mr. Curtis was 
engaged to supply the pulpit. June 26, 1760, it was voted " to 
employ Mr. Curtis some time longer in the work of the ministry 
in order to settlement." Oct. 27, 1760. An article in the Avarrant 
was, '*To see if the District will wait longer for Mr. Hedge, or 
send for other supplies, and to act as they shall think most conven- 
ient, as some have had account of Mr. Baldwin's being a person 
likely to suit the people." Mr. Baldwin was preferred. The 
record of his ministry belongs to a later period. 

The Church. — As stated in a previous chapter [see ante pp. 
92-3], no records are found which prove conclusively that a church 
organization existed in Palmer during Mr. Harvey's ministry. As 
bearing on the question, it may be said, the records show that no 
man is styled "Elder" or "Deacon" during this period. And 
considering the scrupulousness of scribes at that date, to give every 
person his proper military and ecclesiastical title, such omission 
goes far to show that no such office had existence in our place. 
The first official notice of a church in Palmer is under date of 
March 1, 1753. "Voted, That one of the JEJlders of our Session go 
to our Presbytery at their next meeting, in order to get a minister 
sent to us from said Presbytery, either on probation, or else on 
further trial in order for settlement in the work of the ministry." 

The " Palmer Session Records" begin Nov. 27, 1753. And from 
this day forward the titles Elder and Deacon are uniformly and 
appropriately applied to town and other local officers. The Session 
Records extend to 1764 ; but are meagre of details having any par- 
ticular interest. The Elders first chosen appear to have been, Seth 
Shaw, Samuel Shaw, Sen., David Spear, Sen;, Robert Bratten, 
Sen., James Smith, and Joshua Shaw. June 4, 1755, Barnard 
McNitt, AVilliam McCIanathan, Samuel Shaw, Jun., David Spear, 
Jun., were chosen, and at a later date were " set apart as Elders in 

PALMER A DISTRICT, 1752-1776. 145 

this Parish having first received the charge, and signed the for- 
mula, which is as follows : 

We the subscribers, do hereby declare that, besides the Word of God as 
our only rule, we do sincerely own and believe the whole Doctrine con- 
tained in the Confession of Faith approven of by the General Assembly of 
Westminster, and ratified by law in 1690, and frequently confirmed by di- 
vers acts of Parliament since that time, to be agreeable to the Word of 
God : and we do own the same to be the confession of our faith. Also we 
do own the purity of the Presbyterian government & discipline now so 
happily established in said Confession, which Doctrine, Worship and Gov- 
ernment we believe are founded on the Word of God and agreeable there- 
unto. And we do promise that through the grace of God enabling us, we 
will firmly and constantly adhere to the same ; and to the utmost of our 
power, will, in our station, maintain and defend the said Doctrine, Wor- 
ship, Discipline & Church Government as contained in said Confession, by 
Church Sessions, Presbyteries & Synods ; and that we will in our practice 
conform ourselves to said worship, & submit to said Discipline & Govern- 
ment : And we will never, directly or indirectly, endeavor prejudice of 
said established Doctrine. We promise that we will follow no devisive 
course from the present established Doctrine contained in said Confession, 
either by adding thereunto or diminishing from it : We promise to re- 
nounce all Doctrines, tenets & opinions whatsoever, contrary thereunto, or 
inconsistent therewith. These things we jointly promise we will adhere to, 
assert and maintain, as long as we shall be continued in the office of Elders, 
as the Lord shall enable us." 

Eev. Mr. Colton, who had access to all public and ofiticial papers 
extant in 1811, says : "Mr. Baldwin kept no Church Eecords." 

Schools. — In a strictly chronological order, the establishment 
of a school, and building school houses, would come in here. But 
the general importance of the subject, and its vital connection 
with the whole life of the town, seem to indicate that the matter 
of schools and education should be treated of in a separate chapter. 
In this way, a clearer and more definite impression will be secured, 
and votes and facts will appear in their true relations. 

For many years succeeding the incorporation of the District, the 
records are largely filled with the doings relative to roads, bridges, 
and matters of local concern, which had importance only in their 

1755. Hampshire ss March 26, 1755. 

Then Samuel Shaw, Jun., took the oath respecting bills of the 
neighboring governments, and at the same time took the oath of 
office for a clerk of Palmer. 

Coram Josiah Dwight, Just, of Peace. 

146 HisTOKY OF palmp:k. 

"flSarch 38, 1755. The selectmen of Palmer took the oath re- 
specting bills of the neighboring governments. 

^ Samuel Shaw, Juu., Clerk. 

The oath referred to was a refusal to take for public use, bills of 
credit issued by the provinces of Rhode Island and Connecticut, 
which had greatly depreciated, while Massachusetts had provided 
for the redemption in silver of her bills issued before 1749. 

Mary Blackwood from Ireland, mother of Mary the wife of 
David Shaw, died January 18. 1755. in the ninety-ninth year of 
her age. 

Brimfield Addition. April 33, 1760, that part of Brimfield lying 
north of the old Country Eoad, between the Chicopee river at 
Scott's bridge and Springfield line, was annexed to Palmer. 

April 35, 1760, the District of Monson was incorporated, bounded 
northerly by the River, and from Scott's bridge to Springfield line 
by the old Country Road. This left the Road belonging to neither 
town, and both towns refused to keep it in repair. April 18, 1761, 
the General Court passed an Order that as Palmer had received a 
valuable acquisition in lands and inhabitants, the whole of said Road 
should belong to Palmer. 

The intent of this order was plain enough, but the terms were 
not exi^licit, and it did not determine the liability for the suj)port 
of the bridge. Committees were appointed by Monson and Palmer, 
who made an attempt to reconcile differences and decide on a j^lan 
for keeping the road and bridge in repair. But they failed to 
agree. A petition was sent to the General Court, asking relief 
from what was regarded an unjust burden. In the mean time the 
highway was neglected, and an indictment was found against the 
District for said neglect. 

The following extract from the General Court Records explains 
the situation and outcome of the affair : 

In tlie House of Representatives— T\iQ House being informed by 
divers members that the bounds of Brimfield, the Districts of Mon- 
son and Palmer, in the County of Hampshire, as settled by this 
Court, is so uncertain that many disputes have arose, and, without 
the interposition of this Court, many more are like to arise within 
said town and Districts and their surveyors of highways, respecting 
the repairing the Great Road leading from Boston to Springfield 
through part of said Districts, and the two. bridges erected over 
Chicopee River, one on the easterly side of said Palmer between 
said Palmer and Brimfield, and the other on the westerly side of 
said Palmer near William Scott's dwelling house — Therefore for 
the preventing all such disijutes for the future, and that the said 

PALMER A DISTRICT, 1752-1776. 147 

town and Districts, and the surveyors of highways witliin their 
limits may fully understand their duty, and that the said Eoad and 
bridges may be kept from time to time in good repair — Resolved, 
that the bridge over Chicopee River on the east side of the District 
of Palmer between Palmer and the town of Brimfield upon said 
River, be annexed to the town of Brimfield ; and that the town of 
Brimfield shall keep the same in good repair from time to time as 
there shall be occasion, and shall be liable to the same pains and 
penalties of the law respecting the same, as other towns respecting 
highways are. And that the District of Palmer be alike enjoined 
to maintain and keep in good repair the other bridge over said 
River near the dwelling house of William Scott in said Palmer, and 
the whole of the Country Road from the last mentioned bridge 
towards the east line of the town of Springfield, until it is full oaie- 
half the way thither, wheresoever the same shall happen ; and that 
the remainder of said Road to Springfield line be annexed to the 
said District of Monson, and the inhabitants thereof be alike en- 
joined from time to time to keep the same in good repair. 

In Council Read & Concurred. 

Consented to by the Governor. 

February 7, 17G3. 

SmaU Pox. At a meeting held Mar. 3, 1761, this District voted, 
that Lieut. Wm. Scott have liberty and the consent of the District, 
to build a house of his own in the turn of the River north of the 
County road, and in that part of the District lately taken off from 
Brimfield, to be a small pox hospital, to be used for inoculation, or 
make use of the house Daniel Graves now lives in, set it apart for 
the same purpose, in case liberty be obtained from the said Daniel." 

Nov. 15, 1763. " Granted to Ens. Samuel Shaw, £2, 5, which 
sum he paid Andrew Rutherford, on account of Abraham Wil- 
moth's having the small pox at his house." 

Justice of the Peace. March 3, 1761. " Voted to choose a com- 
mittee, viz. Samuel Frost, Timothy McElwain, Barnard McNitt, 
Robert Rogers, and John King, to petition His Excellency the 
Governor to commission some person as a Justice of the Peace in 
this town. Then voted the following instructions to the abovesaid 
committee : 

That after due consideration and deUberation, debating the affair, we do 
find that WilUam Scott, Jun. , is a person most Hkely to be of public service 
to the society in the commission of the peace : And we do expect that you 
will as soon as you have opportunity, make application to the Governor in 
behalf of this town, that a commission of the peace might be procured for 
Mr. Scott, he being a person of considerable knowledge of the law, and 


also of a very good character. "We therefore put confidence in you, that 
you will take every proper measure you can think or imagine necessary ; 
and so proceed from time to time till you have obtained the same." 

The Last French and Indian War, 1754-1763. — What is 
known in history as the Old French and Indian War, was ended by 
the Treaty of Aix La Chapelle, signed Oct. 1, 1748, and proclaimed 
in Boston, May 10, 1749. But it proved to be little more than a 
truce. The Indians, in the interest of the French Government, re- 
commenced hostilities in May 1754, and threw our colonies into a 
general state of alarm. Assuming that there could be no lasting 
peace in her American colonies so long as the French power was 
dominant on the northern frontiers, Great Britain determined to 
effect the conquest of Canada. 

The English government called on the Provinces to furnish their 
full quotas of men for the great expeditions against Louisbourg, 
Crown Point, Fort Niagara with its outpost. Fort DuQuesne, 
and the French possessions on the Eiver St. Lawrence ; these forces 
were placed under the command of British officers, who were often 
ignorant of the country, and inexjierienced in frontier service, and 
Indian tactics ; and in the meantime the intermediate frontiers 
were left in the main to looJi out for themselves. No greater proof 
of loyalty to the crown and love of home and country could be 
given, than the readiness with which the Massachusetts authorities 
and militia, answered the calls, and met the hard conditions. 

June 21, 1754, Gov. Shirley issued orders to the commanders of 
regiments, to make a thorough inspection of the state of the militia, 
and rejjort to headquarters. The several towns were also required to 
supply themselves with the full stock of ammunition required by law. 

Our District records contain no allusion to this war, neither as to 
military orders, nor as to men and means furnished, nor the casual- 
ities of the service. Even the lists of the active Militia, and the 
Alarm men, which all towns were required to make out and send to 
head-quarters, cannot be found. That our militia was organized 
according to law ; that requisitions for men to be raised by enlist- 
ment or draft, were received and promj^tly met, is proved by the 
State records. It is inferred that all orders and drafts sent to the 
District authorities were handed to the captains of the militia com- 
panies, (Capt. John Thomson and Capt. Samuel Shaw); that they 
executed the orders ; and the returns were placed on file, which files 
are lost. Probably the orders came through tlie colonel of the 
regiment to whicli our companies were attached ; and the men re- 
ported to him for duty. 

PALMER A DISTRICT, 1752-1776. 149 

The following statistics of service of Palmer men (evidently in- 
complete, but all that were found after a diligent search) are copied 
from papers and muster-rolls preserved in the State Archives at 

1755. Four military expeditions were planned in the spring of 
this year : one against the French in Nova Scotia ; a second against 
Fort DuQuesne ; a third against Crown Point ; and a fourth 
against Niagara. 

In Capt. Ebenezer Moulton's Co., Crown Point expedition, in 
service Sept. 11 to Dec. 25, were the following Palmer men : 

Sergt. Hugh Tackels "William Fleming 

Samuel Frost Jonathan King 

John Lamberton Henry Webber 

David Bratten Isaac Applin 

Timothy Farrell Robert McMaster 

John Hill Josiah Farrall 

John Millard, aged 19, is credited to Palmer, in the service of 

175G. The plan of the campaign this year embraced the reduc- 
tion of the forts at Crown Point and Niagara. Massachusetts 
raised an army of near 7,000 men ; but through the incapacity of 
Gen. Abercrombie, the British commander, "the summer passed 
in fruitless labor." 

In Capt. Tristam Davis' Co., Crown Point expedition, in service 
Feb. to Dec, 1756, were Sergt. Hugh Tackels, b. Ireland, age 31, 
blacksmith ; Aaron Nelson, Daniel Allen, William Geary, Samuel 
Smith, all of Palmer. 

William Carlyle was impressed April 22, 1756. 

Benjamin King, son of John King, Sen., enlisted in the spring, 
and was killed by the Indians at Fort Massachusetts, June 7, 1756. 

Sylvanus Walker was in Capt. Solomon Keyes' Co., Mar. to Dec. 

Stephen Blackmer and Simeon Brooks were in service from July 
10 to Dec. 31. 

Samuel Lemmon enlisted this year, and continued in service 
through '57, '58 and '59. 

Roll of Minute Men of Col. John Worthington's Regiment. 

Capt. Samuel Day Corp. John Bliss 

Lieut. Timothy Bliss Corp. John Sloan 

Ens. John King Corp. Isaac AppUn 

Clerk, Samuel "Warner Corp. John Hill 

Sergt. "William King Drum' Jona. Ely 

Sergt. Caleb Stebbins Benoni Atchinson 

Sergt. Francis Brakenridge John Langdon 


Abner Chapin David Bratten 

John Hitchcock David Shaw 

Moses ^yar^iner John Millard 

Jesse Warner Hugh Smith 

Benj. Warner, Juu. James McMighill 

John Jones Nero Mirick 

Eleazar Bliss William Shaw 

Benjamin Smith James Moore 

Thomas McClanathan William Man 

Martin Waite Joshua McMaster 

John Lamberton Robert McMaster 

William Fleming Matthew Spencer 

David King 
Twenty-one or twenty-two of these men belonged to Palmer. 
The nature of the service performed is not stated ; but the account 
v\^as allowed June 14, 1757. [Archives, xcv. 405.] 

1757. This was the eventful year of the war, noted for the dis- 
astrous campaigns of the combined British and American forces, 
and remembered and spoken of by our fathers for three generations 
as the year of " The Great Alarm about the taking of Fort William 

The expedition planned against Crown Point and Ticonderoga 
was popular. Many of the men who were out last year continued 
in the service, and recruits were easily procured. But by order of 
Lord Loudon, then commanding in the Provinces, the bulk of the 
forces were drawn off in an expedition against Louisbourg, which 
proved a failure. 

While the main army were at the eastward, only 7,000 men — 
4,000 under Gen. Webb at Fort Edward, and 3,000 under Col. 
Munroe at Fort William Henry — were left for the defence of the 
northwestern frontiers. 

At this juncture. Gen. Montcalm gathered a French and Indian 
army of 11,000 men, and concentrated at Ticonderoga. August 3, 
with 9,000 of his best troops, including 1,000 Indians, he invested 
Fort William Henry. For six days Col. Munroe, with an effective 
force of 2,372 men, held the great army at bay, constantly expect- 
ing aid from Gen. Webb, then lying only fifteen miles distant. 
But no help came ; and on Aug. 9, the fort was surrendered. The 
defence had been so gallant that Col. Munroe was admitted to an 
honorable capitulation, viz., that his troops should be allowed to 
march out with the honors of war, retaining their arms, baggage 
and one field-piece. The articles of capitulation, however, were 
shamefully broken. The Indians attached to Montcalm's army, 
without hindrance from the French officers, eommenecxl to plunder 

PALMER A nrsTRicT, 1752-1776. 151 

the more valuable baggage, and then to murder both otticers and 
men in cold blood. The numbers thus massacred could never be 
known, but it fell little short of 300. 

This disaster spread consternation throughout Massachusetts. 
All the militia rushed to arms, and were quickly on the march 
"for the relief of the army at Fort Willia'm Henry." The com- 
panies from the towns near the scene of conflict reached the neigh- 
borhood of the devastated fort, but too late to be of essential ser- 
vice. The more distant companies were halted on the march, and 
reached home at the end of from seven to seventeen days. 

Apprehending that Montcalm might take advantage of his suc- 
cess, and make a descent on the defenseless towns of our state, Gov. 
Pownal issued orders to Sir. William Pepperell at Springfield, dated 
Boston, August 13, noon — ''If the enemy [Montcalm^s forces of 
French and Indians] should approach the frontiers, you will order 
all wagons west of the Connecticut river to have their wheels 
knocked off, and to drive the said country of all horses, to order 
all provisions that can be brought off, and what cannot, to destroy ; 
and you will receive this as my order, not to be executed Imt in case 
of necessity, and then not to fail to do it. 

Signed Thomas Pownal." 

But the French commander did not pursue his advantage. The 
neighborhood of the Connecticut river was too full of armed men. 
But the sudden excitement in the heat of dog-days, and forced 
marches without suitable clothing and provisions and shelter, 
brought on sickness among our troops. Hospitals were established 
at Westfield, and other places on the routes westward ; and there 
was great suffering and many deaths. 

Of Palmer men, Sergt. Hugh Tackels, and Samuel Lemmon con- 
tinued in the service. Samuel Allen, Moses Scott, Thomas Hen- 
derson, William Mitchell, John Blackmer, Stephen Crowfoot and 
John King, were in Israel Williams' Co., out from Jan. to Nov. 

David Brewer was in Capt. John Chad wick's Co., Col. John 
Worthington's Regiment. 

Capt. John Thomson and his company were ordered out, and 
marched ; but the muster-roll cannot be found. 

The following certificates speak for themselves : 

"I hereby certify that my son, Thomas Ferrand was captivated by the 
French and Indians at the surrender of Fort Wilham Henry last year ; 
he was in Col. Frye's Regiment, and Capt. Jonathan Ball's Co. ; he was seen 
in Canada by several who have since returned home, and there is a flying 
rumor of his being sent to France, but it wants confirmation. 

Palmer, Sept. 15, 1758. Thomas Farrand. 


"I hereby certify that my brother, James Man, of Capt. Waldo's Co. , 
was taken by the French and Indians at the surrender of Fort William 
Henry last year, and was afterwards seen in Canada, in possession of the 
French, and it is reported that he was sent to France, but the story wants 
confirmation. William Man. 

Palmer, Sept. 18, 1758." 

Many of the soldiers of that ill-fated army disajipeared at that 
date, and their fate, whether by death or captivity was never known. 

1758. The j)lan of the campaign for this year included the in- 
vestment of Louisbourg ; and expeditions against Ticonderoga and 
Fort DuQnesne. The first and last were successful ; that against 
Ticonderoga was a disastrous failure, though it was in part compen- 
sated by the capture of the French fort Frontenac on Lake Ontario. 

Massachusetts raised 7,000 men for the army. Isaac Ferrell of 
Palmer was in Cajit. Jonathan Ball's Co., Col. William Williams' 
Regiment, from April 18 to May 31, 1758. 

Early in the year Col. Williams received orders to prepare his 
Eegiment to march for the Reduction of Canada, Some of the 
companies were mustered March 13, though the march was not 
begun till the roads were settled in May. The route was by way of 
Westfield river, Pittsfield, Greenbush, Lake George, etc. 

A Muster Boll of Capt. Daniel Burt's Co. of Foot, for the Reduc- 
tion of Canada, in Col. William Williams' Regiment, 1758. 


. Residence. 



Capt. Daniel Burt 


March 13 

Nov. 20 

Lieut. Stephen Dewey 





' ' Davenport Williams 




Oct. 18 

Ens. John King 




Nov. 4 

Sergt. Aaron Mirick- 




" 5 

'' Gad Astin 




Oct. 31 

" Phineas Dingey 




Nov. 5 

'- Hugh Tackels 




" 4 

Corp. Josiah Holbrook 




" .5 

" Paul Keyes 




Oct. 31 

" Timothy Ferrell 




Nov. 4 

' ' Stephen Hatch 




" 4 

Drum' Isaac Mund 




Oct. 1 

" Jasper Needham 




Nov. 5 

Samuel Harmon 




Oct. 31 

Zebulon Sacket 




" 31 

Israel Taylor 




" 31 

Noble Smith 




" 31 

Josiah Fox 




" 31 

David Walker 




" 31 

Asa Bush 




" 31 

PALMER A DISTRICT, 1752-1776. 






John Astin 




Oct. 31 

Ebenezer Fosgate 




" 31 

Elijah Spencer 




" 31 

Samuel Gutteridge 




" 31 

Joshua Le Baron 



July 26 

Jabez Joslin 




Oct. 31 

Benjamin Sheldon 




" 31 

Lemuel Covell 




July 26 

Noah Hosford 



Oct. 31 

Abner Colton 




Nov. 3 

John Fermon 



Sept. 17 

Moses Cooley 




Nov. 4 

Luke Chapin 




" 4 

Aquila Moffett 




Oct. 9 

James McNitt 




Nov. 4 

William McMichell 




" 4 

David Bratten 



" 4 

John Moor, Jun. 




July 20 

Joel Camp 




Nov. 4 

James Nelson 




" 4 

Joshua McMaster 




" 4 

Samuel Patterson 




" 4 

Isaac Applin 




" 4 

Moses Parsons 



•' 4 

Isaac Walker 




" 5 

Benjamin Blodgett 



" 5 

Timothy Walker 




" 5 

Jonathan Moulton 




Sept. 4 

Isaac Bliss 




Nov. 5 

Archibald Graham 




" 5 

William Garey 




" 5 

Nathaniel Mighill 




" 5 

Eeuben Towsley 




" 5 

Phinehas Graves 



July 31 

Simeon Keene 




Nov. 5 

Ebenezer Stebbins 



" 5 

Elnathan Munger 



" 5 

John Shaw 




" 5 

John Harris 



" 5 

Peter Graves 



" 5 

Smith Ainsworth 



d. Oct. 17 

Isaac Scott 



Nov. 5 

Daniel Sherman 




July 23 

Serial Sherman 




Nov. 5 

Joseph Morgan 



" 5 

Asa Belknap 



" 5 

Israel Janes 



" 5 







Peter FoUen 




Nov. 5 

Asa Holbrook 




" 5 

Thomas Hobart 




d. Sept. 4 

Reuben Hoar 




Nov. 5 

Jacob Ainsworth 




Aug. 18 

Matthias Hartman 




Nov. 5 

William Nelson 



" 5 

John Morgan 




July 23 

Joseph Thomson 




Sept. 16 

John Rosebrook 




Nov. 5 

Richard Bishop 




" 5 

Samuel Webber 




" 5 

Samuel Mitchell 




" 5 

John Thomson 




" 5 

Reuben Lilly- 




" 5 

Aaron Nelson 




" 4 

James Lemmon 




" 4 

James Taylor 




" 4 

Jesse Beers 




" 4 

Gideon King 




Oct. 31 

Samuel Church 




" 31 

Joab Astin 




" 31 

John Collins 




" 21 

Josiah Church 




Sept. 16 

John Beals 




Oct. 31 

Noah Frost 




Nov. 3 

Paul Hitchcock 




Oct. 4 

Jotham King 




d. Aug. 9 

Benjamin Nelson 




Nov. 5 

Benjamin Carpenter 




" 5 

Benjamin Webber 




" 5 

Enoch Noble 




Oct. 31 

" I hereby certify that my son Matthew Spencer, was captivated by the 
French and Indians, about the middle of June Last, as he was on a scout- 
ing party from Lake George to Ticonderoga — He was a soldier in Maj. 
Rogers' Co. of Rangers. Sarah Spencer, Widow. 

Palmer, Sept. 19, 1758. 

1759. The taking of Louisbourg in Jnly of last year gave the 
English control of the eastern gate to Canada. The only strong- 
holds held by the French outside of Montreal and Quebec, were 
Niagara, and the two forts at Ticonderoga and Crown Point, 
which guarded Lake Chaniplain. Niagara was invested by Gen. 
Prideaux July G, and was taken on the 24th. Ticonderoga was 
reached by the division under Gen. Amherst July 22, and after a 
short seige taken : when Crown Point was abandoned by the 

PALMER A DISTRICT, 1752-177G. 155 

Erench, wlio retired to the Isle aux Nois, at the northern extremity 
of the Lake. 

While these operations were going on, Gen. Wolfe was prose- 
outing a most important enterprise, viz., the reduction of Quebec. 
This brilliant achieyement, which resulted in the victory on the 
heights of Abraham, Sept. 13, and the immediate surrender of the 
city of Quebec, closed a series of victories on the side of the 
English, which made the year 1759 a memorable one in American 
colonial history. 

Descriptive Roll of men enlisted in Col. John Worthington's 
regiment, invasion of Canada, 1759. 

These men were attached to Capt. John Furnass' Co., and served 
in the battalion commanded by Col. T. Euggles : 

Samuel Lemmon, of Palmer, age, 27, enlisted March 23, dis- 
charged Sept. 25. 

Joseph McMichel, of Palmer, age 26, enlisted Mar. 31, dis- 
charged Dec. 4. 

Thomas Hill, son of Mary H., of Palmer, age 19, enlisted Mar. 

John Millard, of Palmer, age 23, enlisted Mar. 29, discharged 
Dec. 8. 

Jonathan Chapin, of Palmer, age — , enlisted Apr. 6, discharged 
Dec. 3. 

John Davis, of Palmer, age — , enlisted Apr. 6, discharged Dec. 8. 

Benjamin Trask, then of Brimfield, afterwards physician in 
Palmer, age 35, enlisted April 6. 

In Capt. Silvanus Walker's Co., Crown Point expedition, out 
from May 15 to Dec. 27, 1759, were Stephen Hatch and John 
Eecky of Palmer, 

Thomas Dunham, Benjamin Hutchinson and Jesse Warner of 
Palmer enlisted in Capt. John Bancroft's Co., Crown Point expedi- 
tion, and were in service March 31, to Dec. 27. 

1760. The capture of Montreal was all that remained to be 
done to comj^lete the conquest of Canada. Gen. Amherst concen- 
trated the three divisions of the army before Montreal, Sept. 6 and 
7 ; and on the 8th the whole Province of Canada with its depen- 
dencies surrendered to the British crown. 

Descriptive Roll of men enlisted from Palmer in Capt. Tristam 
Davis' Co. for Eeduction of Canada. The Co. was mustered Mar. 
5 and discharged Nov. 25, 17G0. 

John Reeky, b. Palmer, age 18, enlisted Mar. 1, lived with 
Thos. McClanathan. 

Nathaniel Hews, b. Palmer, age 35, enlisted Mar. 31. 


James McNight, b. Palmer, age 20, enlisted Apr. 10, son of 
Barnard McNitt. 

David English, b. Palmer, age 17, enlisted Apr. 11, lived with 
David Shaw. 

Moses Cooley, b. Palmer, age 19, enlisted Apr. 10, sou of David 

Isaac Magoon, b. Palmer, age 17, son of Isaac Magoon. 

Aaron jSTelson, of Palmer. 

William Nelson, of Palmer. 

Joseph Patterson of Palmer, enlisted in Capt. Eobert Field's 
Company, out from June 10 to Dec. 2, 1760. 

Elnathan Samson was in Capt. Williams' Co., Col. Thomas' 
Kegiment, service at the westward. 

Petition of Capt. John Thomson. 

"Your petitioner's son, Benjamin Tkomson, enlisted himself into the 
Provincial service last summer, into Capt. Barnard's Co., Col. Saltonstall's 
Kegiment, and was taken sicl<: at Montreal the third day after the reduction 
of it ; from thence was carried to Crown Point, and underwent great hard- 
ships and wet in the battoes, which sickness proved to be the small-pox, 
and had it very bad, and lost one of his eyes with the same distemper. 
Y' pet' went after him October 29, and came home November 25, — 27 
days. Found his son in the S. P. Hospital at Crown Point, very low, which 
detained him some days, and then came very slow, which was a great ex- 
pense of money and time. Could get no relief or billeting at Province 
cost, but y' pet'^ discharged all expenses. Prays for a reasonable reward 
in money. John Thomson. 

Palmer, March 17, 1761. 

The General Court ordered four pounds to be paid to William 
Scott for the Petitioner, in full. 

Alloivance granted for sick and wounded soldiers. 

£1, 16, 6, to Z. Foster, for Ebenezer Mirick. 

£5, 12, 8, to " for Isaac Magoon. 

Massachusetts levied 3,000 men for the army in 1761 : and about 
the same number in '62 ; but the war was substantially ended. A 
treaty of peace was signed at Paris, Feb. 10, 1763. 

Cost of the loar. From May, 1755, to May, 1763, Massachusetts 
raised and expended $4,217,000, of which sum four millions were 
proper war charges. Great Britain refunded to us one and a half 
millions ; and the balance was borne by the Province, and was a 
grievous burden. 

From the opening of the war to and including the year 1760, the 
seasons proved remarkably fruitful in New England. The colonies 
were able to supply the wants of the army from their own re- 

PALMER A DISTRICT, 1752-1776. 157 

sources. But a drought set in in the spring of 1761 and continued 
through '62, which cut short the croj^s, and made it necessary to 
send abroad for provisions to supply the ordinary wants of the 

17G1. An article in the warrant for a District meeting, Aug. 
17, 1761, was " To agree upon some method of preventing Magoon, 
Blair and Brown getting their estates taken off from our town and 
annexed to others." '' Voted, That William Scott, Jun. go to the 
General Court at the next session, and there use his best endeavors 
to prevent Magoon's lands being annexed to Ware Eiver Parish, 
and James Brown and Blair's lands being annexed to Western." * 

Meetiistg-House. — The meeting-house, built in 1735, when the 
Plantation was new and poor, had got much out of repair ; and 
withal was old-fashioned, in looks and arrangements. And " at a 
meeting of the freeholders & other inhabitants of Palmer, on Fri- 
day, Aug. 21, 1761, it was voted, that Samuel Shaw, John King, 
Ephraim Gates and John McMaster be a committee to repair & 
finish the meeting-house. Voted £20 to be disposed of by s^ com- 
mittee in finishing the house. Voted to Ephraim Gates 20 shillings, 
for which he is to remove back and make narrower, the pulpit, 
minister's pew, and stairs, with the deacon's seat, and make the 
pulpit lower — all to be done without damage to the work, or without 
■mahing it look looi'se than it does now." The following directions 
were given to the committee : ''That they new shingle the roof of 
the house, clapboard new the outside, and make new window frames 
& sashes in a handsome size, and glaze the same with glass 8x6, 
renew the fore door and sill that is rotten. Also voted that they 
proceed to the inside, new lay such places in the floor as may need 
it, and make new seats in the body, and that they make seats 
in the gallery, with one row of small pews all round the backside 
of the gallery, in as convenient a manner as possible. And if they 
find there is room over the stairs, they make pews over the same. 
And that they proceed to seal [ceil] and case all the timbers on the 

* Petition of Isaac and Alexander Magoon, sons and heirs to the whole of the Estate of Isaac 
Magoon, late of Ware River Parish in the county of Hampshire, setting; forth that they own about 
400 acres of land in the northerly part of Palmer, which lies 5 miles from Palmer meeting-house, and 
the road bad, and but 2 miles from Ware River meeting-house, and the road naturally good — praying 
that they may be annexed to Ware River Parish. Nov. 18, i76i,the General Court Ordered, that the 
estate described in the Petition be annexed to the Parish of Ware River, and the Inhabitants or 
Possessors of sd Estate to do duly and receive privilege there. \,Gen. Court. Rec. in loc. 

Petition of William Blair and James Brown, both of Western, in the county of Worcester, reciting 
that parts of their Farms lie in Western and part in Palmer; that they live 3 and lY^ miles from Wes- 
tern meeting-house, and 5 and 6 miles from Palmer meeting-house, and are taxed in both places — 
praying that their estates may be wholly annexed to Western. Nov. 21, 1761. The General Court 
dismissed the petition. 


sides and overhead." At the same meeting it was "voted that 
Samuel Shaw, Robert Rogers, Thomas King, Ephraim Gates & John 
McMaster be a committee to set a vahie on the pew ground, and 
dispose of the same in the following manner, viz., That they value 
the ground or place where each pew shall stand at not more than 
three pounds nor less than 40 shillings — only the corner pew next 
to the minister's pew, if it prove large enough for the heads of three 
families to sit in, then to add ten shillings to the price of it. And 
that s^ committee take the grand list or survey which was taken 
this summer, and there find the person who is highest in real & 
personal estate, and make him an offer of the highest pew [pew 
ground] ; and in case the pew will hold two families or the heads of 
two families, they shall place them together, if in their judgment 
they shall think best ; and so proceed to dispose of every pew 
[ground] in the body of the meeting-house, paying a small regard 
to age ; and in case any person refuses to have a pew, or neglects to 
fulfill the conditions enjoined, then s^ committee shall proceed to 
dispose of it to another. And that each family that has a pew [pew 
ground] shall pay on demand to the committee the sum set on 
said pew by s^ committee. And the pew shall be wholly built by the 
proprietor or proprietors of s"^ pew [ground] who shall seal [ceil] 
up the backside and case the timbers against them. And if the 
proprietor of any pew have no part of a window against it, he may 
have liberty to make a window equal in size with the other windows 
in the house, and finish it outside & in handsomely & well, and 
also keep s"^ window in repair during the whole time he owns the 
pew, and so thereafter in case of a remove by death. Each pew 
ground shall be lotted out by the committee of uniform depth & 
width, and the pews shall be built agreeable thereto by the proprie- 
tors thereof ; and the pews shall be built in a handsome uniform 
manner, according to the direction of the committee ; and those 
intitled to pews shall promptly finish them, without hindering the 
committee in their finishing the meeting-house ; and if any intitled 
to pews shall neglect to build the same, the committee shall proceed 
to finish the same at the cost of the owner, and if he refuse to jiay 
the cost, he shall forfeit the i^ew to the town. In case any pew 
owner remove from town, he shall tender his pew to the selectmen 
for the time being ; and if they refuse to reimburse him the cost 
of the pew ground and pew, he may sell the same to whom he 
pleaseth ; if a pew owner be removed by death, the pew descends to 
his heirs." 

Later in the year, the price of pew ground was reduced, the 
highest being placed at £1.10; and it was voted to close up the 

PALMER A DISTRICT, 1752-1776. 159 

two end doors of the meeting-house and use the sj^ace for pew 

June 7, 1763. £50 was voted to be raised for repairing the meet- 
ing-house. Voted, that the committee shall sell the glass and old 
stuff to the best advantage, and lay out the money in finishing the 
meeting-house. Later, £9, 1, 6, 3, was granted for the same 

March 23, 1763. "Voted to pay Dunkiu Quinton 9 shillings, for 
which he has promised to open and shut the meeting-house doors 
from time to time, as need shall require, for the year ensuing, and 
also to sweep the s** house once every four weeks." 

Seathig the Meeting - House. It will be remembered that the 
Elders and Deacons had a special seat of honor in front of the 
pulpit. The several pew owners occupied each his pew, jDlaced in 
order around next to the walls of the house. The space left in the 
middle of the house was divided into two equal parts by an aisle 
running from the front door to the pulpit. Long seats or benches 
were put in to fill this space on either side of the aisle, those on 
one side called the " men's seats,'' and those on the opposite side 
called the "women's seats." These seats ranked in "dignity" ac- 
cording to location, the highest being those nearest the pulpit. 
Men were assigned to seats by a committee of the District appointed 
for that purpose, and were seated according to "age and estate" — 
the highest taxpayers taking the front seat, and so down the scale. 
The young folks of both sexes were assigned seats in the gallery, 
girls and boys each by themselves, with a "bar" between. If any 
one was dissatisfied with his or her ranking or seat-mates, an appeal 
was taken to the town, in legal meeting, and the action of the Com- 
mittee approved or the appellant's wishes in the case granted. 

The pew-owners at this date are not known. The non-pew- 
owners, who had seats assigned in the body of the house and gal- 
leries, were as follows. The list has value and interest, as shoAving 
how families were rated in taxable estate and social dignity in 1764 : 

In y® First Seat in y® Body of y^ House : 
Capt. Samuel Shaw, ^ 

David Shaw, | 

Matthew Brovv^n, 

Eobert Bratten, I Their wives on y® seat opposite, on 

James Smith, ' y® Women's side. 

Benjamin Parsons, 
Joshua Whitney, 
James Lamont. 



In y^ Second Seat : 
Barnard McNitt, 
Ens. Noah Cooley, 
David Cooley, 
Jeremiah Bishop, 
Elisha Higgins, 
James Moor, 
Robert Hunter. 

On y« Third Seat : 
Ephraim Gates, 
John Shearer, 
Archibald Thomas, 
AVilliara McMichell, 
David Fleming, 
James Smith, Jun., 
William Brown. 

On y« Fourth Seat : 
Timothy Ferrell, 
Thomas McClanathan, 
Hugh Smith, 
George Wood, 
Israel Johnson, 
Abner Loomis. 

On y« Fifth Seat : 
Thomas Farrand, 
Aaron Nelson, 
Aaron Elwell, 
George Abbott, 
Uriah Higgins, 
John Moor, 
Israel Whitney. 

Their wives on y® opposite side. 

Their wives on y® opposite side. 

> Their wives on y® opposite side. 

Their wives on y® opposite side. 

In y^ Fore Seat of y® Front Gallery, Men's side 

Eobert Hunter, Jun. 
Judah Moor, 
Gershom Whitney, 
Joseph McNall, 
Joshua McMaster, 
Robert ]\IcMaster, 
Zephon Blackmar. 

I Their wives in the Fore Seat in 
y the Front Gallery, on the Women's 
1 side. 

PALMER A DISTRICT, 1752-1776. 161 

In y« Fore Seat of y« Side Gallery, Men's side : 

John King, Jun., 

Gideon Chapin, 

John Hill, 

Henry Thomson, 

Arthur McNall, 

Eobert McMaster, Jun., 

Simeon Graves, 

Urijah Ward. > 

Their wives in the Fore Seat op- 
posite, on y^ Woman's side. 

In y*' same Fore Seat: 

Samuel McClanathan, William Fleming, David Bratten, Joshua 
Parsons, David King. 

In y® Pew in the back of the Front Gallery : 

John Quinton, James King, Thomas McClanathan, Jun., John 
Allin McElwain, John McMaster, Jun., Joel Bishop, Moses 
Lamont, Thomas Hill. 

In y® back pew of the side gallery. Men's side : 

Thomas Quinton, Josei^h Chapen, Abner Chapin, James Smith, 
Moses King, Benjamin Thomson, William McMaster, Noah Cooley, 
Jun., Eeuben Cooley, Jonathan Cooley, Hugh Moor, Alexander 
Moor, John Shearer, Jun., Archibald Thomas, Jun., Eobert Mc- 
Michel, Andrew Brown, John Lamberton, William Smith. 

In y® Fore Seat in y® Front Gallery, Women's side : 

Jane Brown, Eleanor Parsons, Tabitha Parsons, Sarah Bracken- 

In y® Fore Seat in y® Side Gallery, Women's side : 

Widow Mary Shaw, Esther Brackenridge, Elizabeth Quinton, 
Anne Quinton, Sarah Shaw, Jane Hill, Abigail Graves, Esther 

In y® pew back side of y^ Front Gallery, Women's side : 

Jane Bratten, Mary McNitt, Lucy King, Elizabeth McMaster, 
Catharine McMaster, Mary Shaw, Margaret Cooley, Margaret Mc- 

In y* pew back of y® Side Gallery, Women's Side : 

Letice Eogers, Mary Smith, Jane McClanathan, Margaret Shaw, 
Abigail Parsons, Margaret Parsons, Mary Cooley, Tabitha Cooley, 
Submit Cooley, Sarah Thomas, Margaret Smith, Catharine Nelson, 
Lydia Bratten, Elizabeth McClanathan, Ehoda Bishop, Jane Mc- 
Master, Jane Ferrell. 

In presenting their report to the town, the committee add : 
''We may have omitted some young man or woman of the age of 
those above mentioned. We are therefore of the opinion that such 


(if any there be) should sit in the second seat in the Front Gallery. 
And we are of the opinion as there are several other seats not taken 
up, it would be prudent for parents to direct their younger children 
to sit in them, 

Wm. Scott 

Seth Shaw 

Egbert Rogers y Committee. 

Samuel Shaw, Jun, | 

Thomas Kino j 

Support of the Poor. The custom in the Plantation times, and 
the early years of the Palmer District, was, for individuals or the 
selectmen to provide for the wants of needy and sick persons, and 
present a bill to the inhabitants at their public meeting, which was 
commonly accepted and paid. The first grant in anticipation, was 
made March 22, 1763. '' Granted 6 pounds 10 shillings for the use 
of the Poor of this District.'' And a like grant was made in suc- 
ceeding years. 

Graves' Tavern. January 16, 1761, a petition was presented to 
the General Court by Capt. Aaron Graves of Palmer, setting forth 
that his father Daniel Graves of said town, deceased, at the Court 
of General Sessions of the Peace, holden at Springfield the last 
Tuesday of April last, obtained a License from the Justices of 
s** Court, to keep a Tavern in his then dwelling-house ; that he 
has since deceased, leaving a suitable stock for such a house of 
entertainment — Praying that the Court of Sessions may be im- 
powered to grant the petitioner a License to keep a Tavern in 
said house. 

Order thereon, That the petition be granted, and that the 
Justices of the Court of General Sessions for the County of 
Hampshire be, and they are hereby impowered to grant to the 
petitioner a License to keep a Tavern in the house mentioned, 
he procuring the approbation of the selectmen of said town of 

To the Selectmen of the District of Palmer. 

Gentlemen: I understand by the constable I am rated in the District, 
which I am none uneasy at; but yet I am poor & under low circumstances, 
and must build me a Hous'? to secure me from the inclemency of the 
weather. My sons as they grow up, forsake me, which makes things go 
very hard ; & I would pray you to consider me, & abate all or some part of 
my Rates. And I shall endeavour to use the prudentest means possible not 
to be chargeable to the town, Nor any of my neighbours. 

George Bates. 

Palmer, March 21, 1763. 

palmer a district, 1752-1776. 163^ 

War of The Revolution". 

The American Eevolution began several years before war actually 
broke out. In morals, and in politics, causes are usually remote 
from effects. With the two potent factors in existence, viz, the 
asserted "Eights and Power of the British Government, and the 
asserted Immunities and Power of the Colonies, both a revolution 
and a war, were political necessities, and both had been clearly fore- 

The mother country asserted it ''To be essential to the unity, 
and of course to the prosperity of the empire, that the British 
Parliament should have the right of taxation over every part of the 
royal dominions." The American Colonies asserted that " Taxa- 
tion and representation were inseparable, and that they could not 
be safe, if their property might be taken from them without their 
consent." This claim of the right of taxation on the one side, and 
the denial of it on the other side, was the hinge on which the Rev- 
olution turned. 

In accordance with the newly-adopted policy, the Parliament, in 
17G5, passed the famous Stamp Act, which ordained that all instru- 
ments of writing, such as deeds, bonds, notes, receipts, wills, etc., 
used among the Colonists, should be null and void, unless executed 
on Sfam^jed Pajjei', for which a duty should be paid to the crown. 
This tax, while it was practically of small consequence to the farm- 
ers and mechanics, bore severely on men of business and officials. 
A ream of common blank bail bonds had usually been sold for £15 ; 
a ream of stamjyed bonds cost £100. A ream of stamped policies of 
insurance cost £190 ; a ream of common ones, without stamps, had 
cost £20. 

The Stamp Act proved a failure, and was repealed. But the 
principle on which it was based was not yielded by Great Britain ; 
and Parliament proceeded to lay a duty upon various articles of im- 
port to the Colonies. This action was resisted both by words and 
deeds. Associations known as the '' Sons of Liberty," were organ- 
ized in all the colonies. They comprised both males and females, 
who pledged themselves to forego all the luxuries of life rather than 
be indebted to the commerce of England. It was agreed that sheep 
should not be killed for food, but kept for their wool. The acre- 
age of flax sown was immensely increased ; and carding, spinning, 
weaving and dyeing, heretofore the business of the common classes, 
now became the fashionable employment of women of wealth ; and 
to be dressed in "home-spun," was alike the pride of both sexes, 
and was a passport to popular distinction. 

The people of Boston, always first to move at this juncture, and 


take the lead in resistance to arbitrary measures, assembled in town 
meeting, and resolved, that they would not import British manu- 
factures or other merchandise on which duties were imposed. 

But the spirit of resistance to arbitrary acts of Parliament per- 
vaded all our towns. The first recorded exjiression of public senti- 
ment in Palmer is under date of March 1, 1768. An article in the 
warrant was " To see if this District will agree upon & come into 
some efficient measures to promote industry, economy and manu- 
factures." At a very full meeting the following votes passed : 

"Whereas the excessive use of foreign superfluities is one great cause of 
the present distressed state of this country, in general ; and the happiness 
of the communities depends upon Industry, Economy and Good Morals : 
and this District taking into serious consideration the great decay of trade 
and scarcity of money, the heavy debt contracted in the last war, which 
still remains on the people ; and the great difBculties to which by these 
measures they are reduced : — Therefore, voted unanimously, that this Dis- 
trict will use their utmost endeavors and enforce their endeavors by 
example in suppressing extravagance, Idleness and Vice, & promoting In- 
dustry, economy and good manners. And in order to prevent the unnec- 
essary exportation of money of which the continent has of late been so 
much drained, it is therefore voted, that this District will by all prudent 
means endeavor to discountenance the use of foreign superfluities, and 
Incourage the manufactures of the whole continent in general, and of this 
Province in particular." 

No further action of the District bearing upon public affairs 
appears on the records for six years. But the process of educating 
the public mind, and settling certain fundamental principles of 
action, and bringing men to the point where they would put their 
hands in their purses for money, and sign enlistment papers for 
service, was going on all the time : and the day of trial was at 

1774. — At the annual District meeting March 23, the following 
officers were chosen, viz., moderator, Lieut. Wm. Scott ; clerk, 
Eobert Hunter ; treasurer, Joshua Shaw ; selectmen, Lieut. Wm. 
Scott, David Spear, John McMaster, Robert Ferrell, Robert Brown ; 
assessors, Joshua McMaster, Aaron Graves, Joshua Shaw ; consta- 
bles, Thomas Hill, Patrick Watson ; wardens, Solomon Cummins, 
David Bratten ; surveyors of highways, Lieut. Wm. Scott, Urijah 
Ward, Aaron King, Henry Thompson ; tything-men, Robert Mc- 
Michel, Thomas Quinton ; deer reeves, Thomas McClanathan, 
John Shearer, Jun. ; fence viewers & prizers of damages, Judah 
Moore, John Quinton ; cullers of staves and shingles, John Smith, 
Aaron King ; sealer of leather, Robert Hunter. 

The above list shows who were prominent in town affairs at this 

PALMER A DISTRICT, 1752-1776. 165 

date, and, as will presently appear, indicates that the military sen- 
timent of the people was in the ascendency. Most of these names 
will be found in the annals of war service. 

''At a meeting of the inhabitants of Palmer convened at the 
publick meeting-house Sept. 19, 1774, Eobert Ferrell was chosen 
moderator. Voted, that Phineas Mixer, Hugh McMaster, Thomas 
King, James Smith, Jun., and Joshua Shaw, be a committee to 
look into the state of the town stock of powder and lead, etc., and 
make report next Monday ; and also to see what powder, lead and 
flints Avill be necessary to be provided for the inhabitants, and re- 
port the same. 

Voted, that David Spear and Aaron Graves go to the county 
congress to set at JSTorthampton next Thursday. '^ 
''Adjourned to Monday, 26th instant. 
Sept. 26, met according to adjournment. 

Voted, that David Spear go the general congress of delegates 
from the whole Province, to meet at Coiicord the second Tuesday 
in October next. 

Voted, tliat Wm. Scott pay, or deliver seventy-four pounds of 
powder, one hundred and twenty-six pounds of lead into the town 
stock, in full discharge of the amount of said stock in his hands. 

Voted, that there be provided four half -barrels of powder, four 
hundred of lead, and one hundred dozen of flints, for a town 
stock, and the money to pay for the same be taken from the money 
on interest ; and that Wm. Scott, Joshua Shaw and Phineas Mixer 
be a committee to purchase and pay for the same." 

A meeting was called for October 10, " To see if the District will 
order and direct the constables who have the Province Tax for the 
last year collected and now in their hands, to pay or deliver the 
same into the hand of our District Treasurer, there to remain until 
the inhabitants shall otherwise order." 

October 10. Voted, That Timothy McElwain and Urijah Ward, 
constables, shall pay the Province Tax to Joshua Shaw, the treas- 
urer of Palmer District ; and the District will indemnify them 
from all damage they may sustain by so doing." 

At a publick meeting held Dec. 27, 1774, " Voted, to pay David 
Spear nine pounds for going to attend the Provincial Congress. 

Voted, that Kobert Ferrell, David Spear, Phineas Mixer, Joshua 
Shaw, Ebenezer Jones, Thomas King and James Smith be a Com- 
mute of Inspection. 

Voted, That Joshua McMaster, Ens. John King, Judah Moore, 
Aaron King and Patrick Watson be a committee to receive the 
donations for the poor of Boston." 


1775. At a meeting of the inhabitants of Palmer held on Tues- 
day, Jan. 17, 1775, " Voted, that Capt. David Spear shonld attend 
the Provincial Congress to be held at Cambridge the first of Feb- 
ruary next ensuing.'^ 

The call for a meeting of the District to be held March 2 recites : 
*' Whereas the selectmen have received the proceedings of the Pro- 
vincial Congress, accompanied with a Letter addressed to the inhab- 
itants of the Massachusetts Bay, earnestly desiring that moneys 
collected on the Province Eate might be j)aid into the hand of 
Henry Gardner, Esq., — the freeholders will assemble and deliberate 
thereon, and act what is most prudent." 

" The meeting being opened, Robert Ferrell was chosen moder- 

'^ Voted, that 20 pounds of our Province Rate now collected be 
paid to Henry Gardner, Esq. 

"Voted, that the Committee chosen to lay in our town stock of 
ammunition take the remaining part of our Province Rate and lay 
it out for that purpose." 

The following officers were elected at the annual meeting, March 
21, viz.: moderator, Wm. Scott; clerk, Robert Hunter; treasurer, 
Joshua Shaw; selectmen, Wm. Scott, David Spear, Robert Ferrell, 
Robert Brown, Joshua Shaw ; assessors, Thomas King, Joshua 
Shaw, Aaron Graves ; constables, Judah Moore, Solomon Cum- 
mings ; wardens, James Smith, 2d., Moses King; ty thing men. 
Joshua Parsons, Samuel Buell; highway surveyors, Samuel McLan- 
athan, John King, Jona. Chapin, Ebenezer Jones ; deer reeves, 
John Shearer, Jun., William Sloan ; fence viewers, Francis Break- 
enridge, David Flemming, John Rogers ; cullers of staves and shin- 
gles, Dea. John Smith, Aaron King ; sealer of leather, Robert 
Hunter ; hog reeves, Thomas Quinton, William Shearer. 

Mimite Me7i. The Provincial Congress which met at Cambridge 
in October, 1774, adopted a system of measures to put the Province 
of Massachusetts in a state of defense by enrolling able-bodied men 
into companies, well armed and officei'ed, to be known as Minute 
Men. To meet the necessary expenses, they appointed a Commit- 
tee of Supplies, and elected Henry Gardner, Esq., of Stow as Treas- 
urer and Receiver General, and directed that all Province taxes 
that had been granted and all moneys in the hands of collectors in 
the several towns should be i^aid over to this new Treasurer, instead 
of being paid into the Royal Treasury. 

Kothing appears upon the records of Palmer to show when a 
company of Mimite Men was organized, nor how they were officered, 
nor the rules by which they were governed. That such a company 

PALMER A DISTEICT, 1752-177G. 167 

was formed iu the winter and was in active drill, is proved by the 
action of the District at a meeting held March 28 : " Voted, that 
one shilling for half a day's training in a week, shall be paid out of 
the treasury, to each Minute Man, 26 in number, for each man, 
during the town's pleasure. Voted, that each Minute Man shall be 
entitled to 20 shillings per month during the time he shall be 
actually iu the service of the publick, being regularly called and 
employed, and to be paid out of the town treasury, over and above 
what he may receive for his wages out of the Province treasury. 
Also voted, that in case any or all of the Minute Men are desirous 
to return their blanket into the town store, he may do so at the 
price set by the committee chosen for that jjurpose, and be paid out 
of the town treasury.^' 

The above votes imply that a company of 26 men, properly 
armed and supplied with blankets, had been in training for a time, 
in accordance with town action, or, what is more probable, in 
accordance with the orders of the militia officers of the town. 
For, as will presently appear, the officers of the two military com- 
jjanies exercised ahnost unlimited authority in all matters relating to 
the raising of men for the luar. And such was the confidence re- 
posed in Capt. Aaron Graves and Capt. David Spear, respectively 
commanding the two militia companies, that the District seldom 
demurred to their doings, or refused to pay the bills contracted by 

The Lexington Alarm. The movement of the town March 28 
was none too soon, and the Minute Men were quickly called into 
active service. 

It is believed that the news of the marching of the British troops 
upon Lexington and Concord, on the morning of April 19th, 
reached Palmer late in the evening of that day, and that the com- 
pany of Minute Men was mustered and started for the scene of 
action early the next morning. The names of these patriots, ever 
to be cherished by our citizens, are preserved in the State Archives, 
and the Roll is here presented in full. It will be seen that the 
number who actually marched was 44, instead of the 26 specified in 
the town vote. 

A Muster Roll of Capt. David Spear's Company of Mi7mte 
Men that marched from Palmer, on the Lexington Alarm, April 19, 

Names. Days Out. Wages and Travel. 

Capt. David Spear 22 £6 4s. 9d. 

Lieut. Robert Hunter 13 3 1 10 

" David King 9 2 5 10 



Days Out. 

Wages and Travel. 

Sergt. Samuel McLanathan 



2s. 3d. 

" Samuel Buel 



4 6 

" Stephen Blackmor 




" John A. McElwain 



17 10 

Corp. Erwin Shaw 



" Daniel King 



18 5 

" Joseph Shaw 



7 5 

" Luke Hitchcock 




John King 



6 2 

John Shearer 




Thomas McT,anathan 



10 5 

David Bratten 



11 11 

Joshua McMaster 



16 2 

Jonathan Tyler 



14 9 

Daniel Dodge 



7 7 

Joseph McNall 


15 8 

Andrew Brown 


14 9 

Simeon Graves 



10 5 

Eleazar Bishop 



11 11 

Seth Bishop 



10 5 

David Shaw 


15 8 

Kobert Burns 

22 . 


10 5 

Gideon King 



10 5 

William Shearer 



10 5 

Josiah Tinney 



10 5 

"William Sloan 



10 5 

Asher Cooley 



14 9 

Simon Barrouge 



6 2 

Henry Thomson 



6 2 

Moses Lammon 



10 5 

Obadiah Brown 


14 3 

John A. Smith 



10 5 

John Gardner 


1 10 

Nathaniel Rogers 


15 8 

Gideon Graves 




Urijah Ward 



14 9 

Rufus Thomson 



7 7 

John ]\Iorse 




John Gibson 




Adonijah Jones 



17 1 

Solomon Cummings 



6 2 

£86 19 2 
Dr. Benjamin Trask, afterwards of Palmer, marched in Capt. 

James Sherman's Brimfield Company of Miniite Men. 

Three days later, i. e., April 22, the constables were sent from 

house to house throughout the District, to warn the inhabitants 

PALMER A DISTRICT, 1752-1776. 169 

" To meet on the 24th, at the publick meeting-honse, at 8 o'clock 
in the morning, to act upon the following article, viz. To come 
into some method of procuring and providing bread, meat, peas, &c., 
for the support of our Minute Men and others, who are marched 
for the relief of our distressed brethren, who are suffering in the 
common cause of their country, and to act thereon as shall be 
thought proper.^' 

" You are desired not to fail attending said meeting, as we are 
informed stores are short, and our men may greatly suffer by the 
least neglect." 

''At the meeting April 24, Elder Seth Shaw was chosen modera- 

Voted, That the provisions needed for the support of our Minute 
Men and others, already marched, be provided at the cost of the 
town, by a common Eate. 

Voted, To procure 1 barrel of peas, 1 barrel of biscuit, 1 barrel 
of pork, and 1 barrel of flour, all from Lieut. Ebenezer Jones. 

Voted, That John Quinton and John Hill procure a team and 
carry down the stores to our men. 

Voted, That the said Quinton and Hill draw out of the treasury 
ten dollars, to bear their expenses, and to be accountable to the 
town for the same. 

Voted, That Joshua Shaw, James Smith, Jun., and Francis 
Breakenridge be a committee to receive such provisions and stores 
as the inhabitants may bring in, and keep a fair account of the 
quantity and quality of the same." 

The bounty offered at the meeting in March to encourage the 
Minute Men, and paid in October, amounted to 17 pounds, 16 shil- 
lings and 8 pence. 

Capt. David Spear was chosen a delegate to the Third Provincial 
Congress, to be held at Watertown May 31, for which he was paid 
the sum of 10 pounds, 1 shilling and 4 pence. 

" In his Majesty's name." Up to this date, according to law and 
custom, and from the dictate of reverence for the authority of the 
reigning sovereign, all Palmer District meetings for the transaction 
of public business were warned in Ms Majesty's name. The last 
time this formula was used, was in the call for a meeting issued 
May 16, 1775. After this date, the formula used was, "In the 
name of the General Court and of the people of this Colony." 
Thus our District cast off her allegiance to royal authority in less 
than one, month after the British troops fired on the American yeo- 
manry at Lexington, and before the issue of the impending conflict 
was fairly defined. 


''Ill Provincial Congress, ]\ray 1, 1775. 

Whereas the Inhabitants of Boston have been detained by Gen. 
Gage, but at length (by agreement) are permitted to remove with 
their effects into the country ; and it is believed that about 5,000 
of s*^ inhabitants are indigent «& unable to be at the expense of re- 
moving, Resolved that the towns named be requested to take the 
number specified in this skedule, and provide for them, and other 
towns be desired to contribute, etc. — To be reimbursed out of the 
publick Treasury." The number assigned to Palmer was 25. Our 
records make no allusion to the matter. 

llie Eight Montlis' Service. The Minute Men who resjoonded 
to the alarm call of the 19th of April, and drove the British troops 
back into Boston, by that exploit fulfilled their duty, and could 
not be held for further service. In the strict sense, they were vol- 
unteers, and not soldiers, either by draft or official summons, and 
were at liberty to return home when they chose. The moment was 
critical, and the situation grave. The lion had been driven into his 
den ; but how was he to be kept there ? The far-sighted patriots 
were equal to the emergency. The Committee of Safety had sum- 
moned the Provincial Congress to meet April 22; and they earnestly 
entreated the Minute companies to hold the ground till more ^^er- 
manent companies could be enlisted. The next day, April 23, the 
Congress resolved to call on Massachusetts to furnish 13,500 men 
to be enlisted for eight montlis service. 

The next day the Committee of Safety selected from among the 
officers on the ground such as had seen service in the French and 
Indian wars, and were otherwise qualified, and tendered to them 
commissions as colonels of regiments, and desired them to find 
among their acquaintances men of experience and popularity who 
would recruit companies with promptness, and to whom commis- 
sions as captains could be given. What were known as ''beating 
papers " were issued to these prospective captains. The following is 
a copy of one of these papers : 

In Committee of Safety, Cambridge, Apr. 24, 1775. 
To Capt. Sylvanus Walker, Sir : You are hereby empowered immediately 
to enlist a company, to consist of 56 able-bodied and effective men, includ- 
ing sergeants, as soldiers in the Massaclmsetts service for the promotion of 
American Liberty, and cause them to pass muster as soon as possible. 

Joseph Warren, Chairman. 

The same day, April 24, nine sets of beating papers were issued 
to Col. David Brewer, then a resident of Palmer. He was a man 
of military spirit and bearing, and appears to have had an extended 
acquaintance with men like himself, as is shown by the rapid filling 

PALMER A DISTRICT, 1T52-1776. 171 

lip of liis prosj^ective regiment. And that he inspired confidence 
in his associates is proved by the fact that on June 10 the nine cap- 
tains united in signing the following petition : " We the subscrib- 
ers beg to be indulged in joining Col. David Brewer's regiment, in 
j)reference to any other." 

Col. Brewer was a native of Framingham, born Dec. 24, 1731. 
He had resided in Brookfield 1757 to 1765, where he held the office 
of highway surveyor, and where he married, (1) in 1757, Mary 
Smith, (2) May 8, 1763, Elizabeth Smith. 

He distributed his beating papers in part to men from this imme- 
diate neighborhood, and in part to men from distant towns. These 
officers recruited their respective companies largely from the Minute 
Men then present at Cambridge, and were so successful that they 
reported for duty June 10 with nearly full numbers. 

" In Provincial Congress, Watertown, June 15, 1775. 
The committee appointed to consider the claims of the several 
gentlemen who suppose that they have just grounds to expect of 
this Honorable Congress that they should receive Commissions ap- 
pointing them severally to be chief colonels in the Massachusetts 
Army, report : Col. David Brewer has levied nine companies 
amounting, inclusive of officers, to 465 men, 307 of whom are 
armed with effective fire arms, and all, except 34 men on the way, 
are now posted at Eoxbury, Dorchester and Watertown." 

'' In Committee of Safety, Cambridge, 
June 17, 1775. 
''These certify the Honourable Congress, that Col. David 
Brewer has satisfied this Committee that there are in the nine 
companies mentioned below, near 500 men: — It is therefore recom- 
mended to the Congress that the said Brewer's regiment be com- 
missioned accordingly." 

" In Congress, June 17, 1775. 
Ordet'ed, that commissions be delivered to the several officers 
within named : 

Field and Staff Officers : 

Col. David Brewer of Palmer 

Lieut. Col. Rufus Putnam of Brookfield 

Major Nathaniel Danielson of Brimfield 

Adjt. Thomas Weeks of Greenwich 

Quar. Master Ebenezer Washburn of Hardwick 

Surgeon Estes How of Belchertown 

Asst. do. James Bradish of No. 5. 


Chaplain Amos Adams of Roxbnry (who died Oct. 4.) 
[John Trotter was clerk of the regiment.] 

Company Officers: 

Capt. Amos Walbridge of Stafford, Ct. 
Lient. Jehiel Hunger 
Ens. James Blodgett 

61 men, 51 arms. 
Capt. Isaac Colton of Palmer 
Lieut. John Wright of Granville 
Ens. Nathaniel Alexander of Springfield 

46 men, 38 arms. 
Capt. Peter Ingersoll of Barrington 
Lieut. Silas Goodrich 
Ens. Thomas Burnham 

49 men. 

Capt. Jonathan Bardwell of Belchertown 
Lieut. William Gilmore 
Ens. Moses How 

60 men, 57 arms. 
Capt. Levi Eounseval of Freetown 
Lieut. Henry Pierce 
Ens. Lemuel Tabor 

60 men, 57 arms. 

Capt. Abiathar Angell of 

Lieut. Isaac Warren 
Ens. Simon Earned 

48 men, 9 arms. 
Capt. Malcom Henry of Murrayfield 
Lieut. John Gray 
Ens. David Sacket 

50 men, 20 arms. 

Capt. John Packard of Brookfield 
Lieut. David Brewer, Jun. 
Ens. Jona. Allen of Bridgewater 

54 men, 50 arms. 
Capt. Jonathan Danforth of Western 
Lieut. Joseph McNall of Palmer 
Ens. Levi Bowen 

45 men, 31 arms. 
This regiment — afterwards known as the Ninth Massachusetts — 
had headquarters at Roxbury and was in camp there through the 

PALMER A DISTRICT, 1752-1776. 173 

summer and fall. Col. Brewer was in command as late as October 
18 ; and as his name does not appear in later returns, the inference 
is that he died in camp. Very few deaths and casualties of the 
eight months service are found on the records preserved in the 
State House. 

Indeed the list of these Eight Months men, officers and privates, 
preserved in the State Archives, is very incomplete. They were in 
the best sense, patriotic, and brave, and self-sacrificing ; the service 
they performed, including the battle of Bunker Hill, was of vital 
consequence to the country's cause, and deserves to be known and 
remembered ; but a large part of their names, and the work they 
did, were unrecorded, and cannot now be ascertained. They were 
state troops — really volunteers ; and in the unsettled condition of 
affairs and poverty of the treasury, many of the pay-rolls did not 
find their way to safe hands which cared to preserve them ; perhaps 
some were not properly filled out ; often, men would enlist, and 
serve only for a part of their term, and their names would be 
omitted in the final settlement. The deficiencies in the records of 
this date are very perplexing to the historical inquirer. Fortun- 
ately, the Continental Army Rolls, kept from and after 1776, are 
more complete. 

The following Rolls contain the names, so far as is known, of the 
Palmer men who served in the Eight Months Campaign of 1775. 
These Rolls, embracing the quotas from various towns, are in- 
serted in full, because of their special historic value, as well as to 
account for the fact that some of our men apj^ear later in the war 
as residents of distant places, and others, then non-resident, are 
afterward credited to Palmer. 

MusTER-PvOLL of Capt. Sylvanus Walker'' s Co., Col. Timothy Danielsori's 
Regt. Eight Months Service. 
Capt. Sylvanus Walker, 
Lieut. Asa Coburn, 
Sergt. Isaac AVarner, 

" Solomon Walker, 

" Samuel Pike, 

" ThQS McCluer, 
Corp. David Shaw, 

" Ebenezer How, 

" John McElwain, 
fifer, Henry Evins, 
drummer, John Warren, 
Moses Ainsworth, 
Elemuel Ainsworth, 
John Brown, 




Apr. 24, 1775 

(I it 

May 1, " 








ane 15, " 
pr. 29, " 
[ay 1, 

' 18, " 
' 4, *' 

< 4^ u 

' 6, " 



' 2, 

pr. 29, " 



Woodbridge Belcher, 


mustered May 16, 177 

Obadiah Brown, 


Apr. 29, " 

Joseph McClintock, 


May 28, " 

Israel Conant, 


" 13, " 

Abner Cooley, 


Apr. 29, " 

David Davis, 


" May 26, 

John English, 

Palmer [prom, corp.] " "13, " 

Peter Elexander, 


" June 15, " 

Judah Ferry, 


May 4, 

John Guest, 


«' 8, 

John Gardner, 


u 18, " 

Abijah Hide, 


" 1, 

Josiah Holbrook, 


" " 5, 

Eli Hitchcock, 


" June 15 " 

Eldad Hitchcock, 


" " " 

Abner Hitchcock, 


u << u 

Ebenezer Jones, 


Apr. 29, " 

John Marble, 


May 1, 

James Murray, 


" 9, 

Thomas Marsh, 


u u 10, <^ 

Daniel Moore, 


" 10, " 

Abner Old, 


" 4, " 

Ebenezer Phillips, 


u 5, 

Jonas Streeter, 


u 1^ 

Josiah Stone, 


u u 1, 

Oliver Smith, 


u 3^ 

Edward Walker, 


.. u 5^ 

John Wolcut, 


u 10, .. 

David Wood, 


" 21, 

Thomas Young, 


u 2, 

In Capf. Jonathan BardioeWs Co., Col. David Brewer's Reyt. 

Alexander Tackels, Palmer, enlisted May 23. 

Capt. Isaac Colton of Palmer, took a set of beating papers Apr. 
24, and raised a company of 54 men, belonging to Ludlow, Mon- 
son, Springfield, etc, which joined Col. Brewer's Regiment. 

John Moor of Palmer enlisted July 24, in Capt. Abel Thayer's 
Co. Col. John Fellows' Regt. 

Luke Hitchcock of Palmer enlisted May 29, in Capt. Jo. Thomp- 
son's Co., Col. T. Danielson's Regt. 

Muster Roll of Capt. Jonathan Danforth's Co., in the Ninth 
Mass. Beg., commanded hy Col. David Brewer. Return dated 
Roxbury, Oct. 7, 1775. 

Capt. Jonathan Danforth, Western 
Lieut. Joseph McNall, Palmer 
Ens. Nahum Ward, Shrewsbury 

Sergt. Adonijah Jones, Palmer 
' ' Nathan Hill, Brookfield 
" Ebenezer Horton, Rehoboth 

PALMER A TOWN, 1770-1812. 


Samuel Hounds, Rehoboth 
Arthur Thresher, " 

Noah Thresher, " 

Joseph Thresher, " 

Benjamin Wheeler, " 
Simeon Wheeler, " 

Daniel Hastings, Belchertown 
Daniel Cady, Roxbury 
James Allen, Western 
Nathan Allen, *' 

Edmund Washburn, Western 
Thomas Whipple, " 

Henry White, " 

John Brown, Swansey 
Nathaniel Lewis, " 
Ezra Luther, ' ' 

Denis O'Brient, " 
Daniel Rioden, " 
Berry Bowen, Brookfield 
Moses Bowen, " 

Stoddard Bowen, " 
Benjamin Hill, " 

Pomp Lorum, " 

Jonathan Ralph, " 
Benjamin Baker, Dartmouth 
Miles Jordan, Ware, d. June 11 

Sergt. Sylvanus Cambell, Rehoboth 
Corp. William S. Brown, Swansey 

" Samuel Brown, " 

" Peter Brewer, Southborough 

" Joshua Danforth, Western 
Fifer James Hill, Brookfield 

" Bartholomew Hill, Brookfield 
Aaron Bartlett, Palmer 
Thomas Bartlett, 
Shadrack Chapin, 
John Douglas, 
John Gibson, 

Ellas Rogers, " d. Sept 21. 

Nathaniel Rogers, 
Micah Dougherty, Framingham 
Daniel Bullock, Rehoboth 
Joseph Bullock, " 

Joseph Bowen, " 

Israel Goff, " 

Daniel Hix, " 

Stephen Ingalls, " 

Abiah Jenkins, " 

Richard Lee, " 

Wheaton Luther, " 

Isaac Martin, " 

Elisha Mason, " 

Aaron Millard, " 

1776 — The Committee of Correspondence chosen in Palmer March 
19, were : Ebenezer Jones, Joshua McMaster, Aaron King, Robert 
Ferrell and Daniel Graves. - 

The District of Palmer Assumes Full Town Rights. — The 
following reciprocal action of the State and our District marks the 
beginning of a new era in the political status of Palmer. 

" Massachusetts House of Representatives, 
May 10, 177G. 
Rewlved, as the opinion of this House, That the Inhabitants of 
each town in this Colony ought, in full meeting warned for that 
purpose, to advise the person or persons who shall be chosen to 
represent them in the next General Court, whether that, if the 
Honourable Congress should for the safety of the said Colonies, 
declare them independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain, they 
the said inhabitants, will solemnly engage with their lives and for- 
tunes, to support them in the measure. 

Samuel Freeman, Speaker. '' 


The First Representative. " At a meeting of the freeholders and 
inhabitants of Palmer, legally convened on Thursday the 23d day 
of May, 1776, Capt. David 8pear was chosen Representative to serve 
at the General Assembly to be held at AVatertown, May 29th, 

PniXEAS Mixer, Moderator." 

'' To THE Constables of Palmer 
Greeting : 

These are to require you in the name of the General Court and 
of the people of the Colony, to notify and warn the whole of the 
inhabitants of Palmer, to meet and assemble themselves together 
at the Publick Meeting-house, on Monday the 17th day of June 
current, at one o'clock in the afternoon, then and there 

To advise and instruct the Representative of this toivn, Whether, 
should the Honourable Congress, for the safety/ of the Colonies, de- 
clare their Independence of Great Britain, they the said inluibitants 
loill engage witli their lives and fortunes to supjjort them. 

Given under our hand and seal at Palmer, the 13th day of June, 
A. D. 1776. 

Thomas Kixg, 

James Smith, Y Selectmen. 

Joshua Shaw. 

Instructions. — At a very full meeting of ye Inhabitants of Palmer, 
legally met at y^ publick Meeting-house, on Monday, the 17th day of June, 
1776, at one of the clock, y« meeting being opened, Robert Ferrell was 
chosen moderator : and then proceeded & Voted y^ following instructions to 
the Representative of this Town, now at the General Assembly of this 
Colony, as y® sentiments of this Town : 

That, Whereas, the Court of Great Britain hath by sundry acts of Par- 
liament, assumed the power of Legislation for y^ Colonies in all Cases 
whatsoever, without the Consent of the Inhabitants ; — Have likewise, 
exerted y® assumed power in Raising a Revenue in y« Colonies without their 
Consent : we cannot justly call that our own, which others may when they 
please take from us against our wills : — Jlatti likewise, appointed a New set 
of officers to superintend these Revenues, whojly unknown in the Charter, 
and by their commissions, invested with powers altogether unconstitutional, 
and destructive to y® security which we have a Right to enjoy. Fleets and 
armies hath been Introduced to support these unconstitutional officers in col- 
lecting these unconstitutional Revenues : — Have also altered the Charter of 
this Colony, and thereby overthrown the Constitution, Together with many 
other grievous acts of Parlinment too grievous to be borne : — The peaceable 
Inhabitants being alarmed at such repeated inroads on y® Constitution & 
gigantick strides to despotick power over y^ Colonies, Petitioned the King 
for Redress of grievances separately: — finding that to fail. Petitioned 
joyntly— begging as children to a Father to be heard and Relieved, But all 

yi« Ml mil Itefl :l 


ft! II 



1 |M?S Mill r^lf ^^^*-^ 





PALMEE A TOWN, 1776-1812. 177 

to no purpose, the Petitions being treated with ye utmost contempt. The 
united Colonies finding that No Redress could be had from Great Britain, 
unitedly agreed to an opposition In the most Peaceable way they could con- 
trive, being willing to try every peaceable measure y* possibly could be in- 
vented, rather than Brake with Great Britain. Great Britain being bent 
on her favorite scheme of Enslaving y© Colonies, declared them Ptebbels & 
Treated them as such. The Colonies being driven to a state of Dispare 
from the least Eeliefe from them, were obliged by ye laws of self-preserva- 
tion, to take up arms in their own Defence, and meant to use them only as 
such. But the dispute has arose to so great a height that it is Impossible 
for the Colonies ever to be Joyned with Great Britain again, with the least 
Security & Safety to themselves or posterity. 

We, therefore, the Inhabitants of this Town, do believe it absolutely 
Necessary for the safety of the United Colonies, to be Independent from 
Great Britain, & Declare themselves Intirely a Separate State, as we can se 
no alternative but Inevitable ruin, or Independence. — But as there is a 
General Congress of the United Colonies, composed of Honourable, wise 
and good men, who sit at the Head of affairs, consulting measures which 
will be most for the Safety and Prosperity of the whole ; & have the means 
of Intelligence and Information in their hands, we submit the whole affair 
to their wise Consideration & Determination : — And if they shall unite in 
a separation from Great Britain, ive do unanimouely determine & declare 
we ivill Supjjort tliem with our Lives and Fortunes ! 

We do Direct the Representative of this Town to lay these votes before 
the Honourable General Assembly of this Colony, to Enable them to com- 
municate our Sentiments to the Honourable Continental Congress. 

Robert Hunter, Clerk." 

This paper, issued on the anniversary of the battle of Bunker 
Hillj and seventeen days before the Congress adopted and sent forth 
its famons "Declaration," has been appropriately called Tlie 
Palmer Declaration of Independence. It needs no explanation ; 
and it is its own best commentary. But as showing the self-sacri- 
ficing patriotism and cool courage of our fathers of that day, it is 
worthy of everlasting remembrance. 

This series of public transactions, done in accordance with the 
letter and spirit of a Eesolve of the House of Eepresentatives of 
Massachusetts, constitute the beginning of the de facto town life 
of Palmer. The Legislature authorized the inhabitants of all 
towns in the Colony to do a specific act : the inhabitants of Palmer, 
"^'in the name of the General Court," did this specific act, viz., 


elected a Eepresentative, and gave him liis Instructions — and tlnis 
assumed all the riylds of toivns : the General Court received said 
Eepresentative, so elected and instructed, and he acted with the 
body. And thenceforward the town annually chose and sent a 
Eepresentative who was received and duly qualified. 

The proper date of the organization of the Town of Palmer is 
May 29, 1776. 

To go back a few months, and take up the thread of military 
events : — As the time approached when the term of the Eight 
Months men would expire, the Massachusetts authorities issued or- 
ders, Dec. 1, 1775, calling out 5,000 men of the militia, to defend 
the fortifications at Cambridge and Roxbury. The quotas of sev- 
eral towns were as follows : Brimfield, 25 ; Monson, 15 ; Belcher- 
town, 20 ; Ware, 10 ; Palmer, 15. 

Under this call, which was promptly met, several of our men, 
then on duty, continued in service, and their names do not appear 
on the enlistment Rolls. It is known, however, that a large com- 
pany was raised in the neighborhood, which went ''to re-inforce 
the American Army (temporarily) Feb. 1, 1776." The officers 
were : 

James Sherman of Brimfield, Captain. 

David Spear of Palmer, 1st Lieutenant. 

Simeon Keep of Monson, 2d Lieutenant. 

This company was attached to Col. Ebenezer Learned's regiment. 

The following Palmer men joined Capt. Reuben Munn's Monson 
company, and were in service till November 26 : Judah Moore, 
fifer ; David Sjiear, Jun. ; William Sloan, James Shaw. 

Lieut. Samuel Buel was in Capt. Daniel Sacket's Co. that 
marched to reinforce the Northern Army Oct. 21, and was out one 

The officers of the two militia companies in Palmer this j-ear, 
were : First Co., Capt. David Spear, 1st Lieut. Robert Hunter, 
2d Lieut. Robert McMaster. Second Co., Capt. Aaron Graves, 1st 
Lieut. Joshua Shaw, 2d Lieut. David King. 
To Joshua Shaw, Treasurer 

Please pay to George Brackenridge twelve shillings out of the 
town's money, for the purchase of a Drum. 

Thomas Kixg, 

David Spear, )- Selectmen. 

James Smith, 

Palmer, June 21, 1776. 

Gen. Washington early saw the impossibility of organizing an 
efficient army out of recruits enlisted for short terms of three to 

PALMER A TOWE-, 1776-1812. 17^ 

eight months. And when his forces marched up the North river 
after the defeat at Brooklyn, the army came near being broken up 
by the discharge of these short-term companies. At his earnest 
solicitation, seconded by all his general officers, the Continental 
Congress, in October, 1776, matured a plan for the formation of a 
regular army by the enlistment of men to serve during the war. 

Ik Congress, Oct. 8, 1776. 

Resolved, that for the further encouragement of the non-com- 
missioned officers and soldiers who shall engage in the service for 
the ivar, a suit of clothes be annually given each of said officers and 
soldiers, to consist the present year of 

two linen hunting-shirts 

two pair of overalls 

a leathern or woolen waistcoat with sleeves 

one pair of breeches 

a hat or leathern cap 

two shirts, two pair of hose, 2 pair of shoes 
amounting in all to the value of 20 dollars ; or that sum to be paid 
to each soldier who shall procure those articles for himself and pro- 
duce a certificate thereof from the captain of the company to which 
he belongs, to the paymaster of the regiment." 

At a later date Congress offered, as an inducement to enlist, a 
bounty of £20, to be paid at the time of muster, and promised the 
following quotas of land : To a colonel, 500 acres ; to a major, 400 
acres ; to a captain, 300 acres ; to a lieutenant, 200 acres ; to an en- 
sign, 150 acres, and 100 acres each to non-commissioned officers 
and privates. These terms were afterwards modified so as to admit 
of enlistments for three years, or during the ivar, but the three- 
years' men were not entitled to any grant of land. As will appear 
in the sequel, several of our Palmer men drew the bounty of money 
or land. 

Of the eighty-eight battalions ordered to be raised, Massachusetts 
was required to furnish fifteen. 

In accordance with this order, the Massachusetts Assembly 
passed a resolve requiring each town in her jurisdiction to furnish 
" every seventh man of sixteen years old and ujDwards, without any 
exception, save the people called Quakers." 

Pay-KoU of Capt, Daniel Cadwell's Co. in Col. Timothy Robinson's de- 
tachment of Militia sent to Ticonderoga, out Dec. 25, 1776, to April 2, 1777 : 
Capt. Daniel Cadwell Sergt. John Colton 

Lieut. Daniel Parsons " Joseph Abbott 

Lieut. Pvob* McMaster " John McElwain 



Sergt. Stephen "Wright 

Corp. Medad Stebbins 
" Abner Warriner 
" Aaron Colton 
" Joseph Colton 

Drum' Judah Moore 

Fif Wm. Colton 

Stephen Ashley 

Seba Bemont 

Luther Bliss 

Moses Barber 

Thomas Blackmar 

William Brown 

Ebenezer Beebe 

Steward Beebe 

Benoni Bannister 

Oliver Burt 

Benoni Clark 

Samuel Calkins 

Solomon Cummings 

Daniel Chapin 

Judah Chapin 

Henry Chapin 

Jesse Carpenter 

Edward Colton 

John Chatterton 

Asa Chaffee 

Amos Chaffee 

Justin Cooley 


Joel Day 

James Edson 

Moses Ellsworth 

William Fuller 

Eleazar Fisher 

David Hubbard 
John Hitchcock 
Perez Hitchcock 
William Hitchcock 
Jabez Hancock 
John Hancock 
Jacob Kendall 
Solomon Loomis 
James Lamberton 
Jesse Lamphear 
Isaac Morris 
Timothy Murphy 
Ebenezer Cakes 
Elijah Palmer 
Jonas Rogers 
Nathaniel Rogers 
Timothy Root 
Joshua Searl 
Luther Smith 
Joseph Steel 
Moses Stebbins 
John Stebbins 
James Shaw 
Knowles Shaw 
Josiah Tinney 
Jonathan Tyler 
Amasa Waters 
David Ward 
Samuel Warner 
Daniel Woodworth 
Lewis White 
Joel Willey 
Cyprian Wright 
Isaac Bliss 
Joshua Parsons 

Sixteen of these men belonged to Palmer. Lieut. McMaster, 
Solomon Cummings and James Lamberton were reported Feb. 24 
sick of small pox at Ticonderoga. Under the order for raising 
these men, Caj)t. Graves reported that two drafted men, viz., 
Eeuben Lilley and Moses Lammou, paid their fine of £5 each, with 
which money he hired Nathaniel Eogers, who served as above. 

1777. — A Return of the Number of Males from sixteen years old and 
upwards which breathed on the First Day of January in the Town of 
Palmer, in the year 1777 : 

No. of Men belonging to the Training List 94 

No. of Men belonging to the Alarm List 35 

PALMER A TOWN, 1776-1812. 181 

No. of Decrepid Persons who are rendered incapable of service thereby 46 
No. of Men incapable of service by reason of old age & other infirmi- 
ties 9 
No. of Negroes 3 

Total 187 

Signed Phinehas Mixer, \ Selectmen 

Ebenezer Jones, V of the Town of 
John Smith, ) Palmer. 

"Pursuant to an order of the General Court of this state, the 
selectmen and committee of safety of Palmer have met, and stated 
the price of Labor, G-rain, meat, and other necessaries of life here, 
and earnestly recommend to the inhabitants of this Town to con- 
form themselves accordingly. 

Palmer, Feb. 19, 1777. 

Labor in the summer per man per day 3s Od 

Other seasons in proportion 

"Wheat per bushel 

Rye and barley, per bushel 

Indian corn when dry, per bushel 

Good sheep's wool, per pound 

Good pork of y® best quality, per pound, 

Salt pork without bacon, per pound 

Grass fed beef that is good, per pound 

Stall fed beef that is good, per pound 

Eaw hides, per pound 

Raw calf skins 

Good American cheese, per pound 

Good butter, per pound 

Good tried tallow, per pound 

Spanish potatoes in the fall, per bushel 

Other seasons, per bushel 

Men's good yarn stockings, per pair 

Men's shoes made of neat leather 

Other shoes in proportion 

Good oats, per bushel 

Good tow cloth yard wide, per yard 

Tanned hides 

Cotton or linen check yard wide, per yard 

Mutton, lamb and veal, per pound 

Good wheat flour, per hundred weight 

Good English hay, per hundred weight 

Horse keeping, each per night 

Oxen keeping 1 yoke, per night 

Good fine peas, per bushel 

White beans, per bushel 




































Shoeing horse, calking heel and toe 
Plain shoeing 

Weaving tow cloth yard wide, per yard 
Good cider barrels 

Carpenters and joiners work, per day 
Masons work, per day 

A dinner of boiled meat at a tavern exclusive of cider 
Shoe makers making shoes in their own shop, per day 
Shoe makers that go into families to make shoes, and 
take the family throughout, per day 













1 8 

Committee of Correspondence chosen this year : Daniel Graves, 
Thomas McLanathan, Lieut. Samuel Buel, Joshua McMaster, Sol- 
omon Cummings, Aaron King, John Quinton. 

Bounties Offered: " Voted 12 pounds to each man who shall en- 
list into the Continental Army, over and above what the Continent 
and State allows them — that is to say, for such men as shall answer 
for this town." 

The second Representative. "AX a meeting of the freeholders 
and other inhabitants of the town of Palmer, legally convened on 
Friday, May 16th, 1777, Lieut. William Scott was choson Eepre- 
sentative to represent this town at the Great and General Court to 
be held in Boston." 

The First Three Years Mei^. — Under the call of Congress 
for men to till the regular army for three years, or during the war, 
our citizens began to enlist Jan. 1, and in the course of a few 
months the quota was full. 

A Return of Men engaged into the Continental Service from the Town 
of Palmer in the year 1777. 



Co. .iolned. 


Gideon Graves, 


Capt. Seward 

Col. Crane 

John Smith, 

3 years 



Luther Loomis, 


Capt. Abbey 

Col. Brewer 

James Raven, 


Capt. Haynes 

Col. Wigglesworth 

James Carlisle, 


Capt. Danforth 


Robert Carpenter, 



Col. Jackson 

Aaron Bartlett, 



Col. Wigglesworth 

Moses Tinney, 




Israel Loomis, 


Capt. Seward 

Col. Crane 

Jona. Blunt, 




John McMichel, 




Francis Lemmon, 




John Bruster, 




John Douglas, 

3 years 

Capt. Danforth 

Col. Wigglesworth 

John Bartlett, 




PALMER A TOWN, 17TG-1812. 




Co. joined. 


William McNall 

3 years 

Capt. Danforth 

Col. Wigglesworth 

Ezekiel Wood worth, 

Capt. Colton 

Col. Greaton 

John Denny, 

Capt. Bryant 

Col. Crane 

William Gibson, 

Capt. Frothingham 


Adam Stephenson, 

Col. Bigelow 

Ephraim Avery, 

Capt. Bull 

Col. Sheldon 


David Spear, } C 

)apts of Militia in 

Aaron Graves, f Town of Palmer. 
N. B. James Raven, above named, is judged by the Committee to belong 
to Milton, he never having resided in Palmer. Justin Ely, Chairman. 

These men were transferred to different companies and regi- 
ments, as the exigencies of the service required. But Crane's Ar- 
tillery was a favorite with them. 

The formation of a regular army did not supercede the necessity 
for drafts for special service of short terms. The towns were often 
called upon for such quotas. In some cases, detachments from 
local militia companies marched by themselves ; in others, squads 
of men from different towns united to form a large company, 
under a favorite captain. 

Roll of Capt. Aaron Graves'' Co. in Service in the Northern Department^ 
May 8 to July 8, 1777 : 

Capt. Aaron Graves, 

Lieut. Samuel Saxton, 
" Oliver Chapin, 

Sergt. Joseph Saxton, 
" John Langdon, 
" Orison Shaw, 

Elisha Hubbard, 

Benoni Aitchison, 

William Spear, 

Jacob Hoar, 

Abner Hitchcock, 

Samuel Arnold, 

Simeon Bacon, 

Tho^ Blackmar, 

Josiah Bliss, 

Benoni Banister, 

Stephen Bliss, 

Gideon Beebe, 

Josiah Bullard, 

Alexander Beebe, 

John Burt, 

Reuben Burt, 

Joseph Banister, 

John Carlisle, 

Asa Chaffee, 
Ephraim Chapin, 
Thomas Coleman, 
Richard Cady, 
John Davis, 
John Tinney, 
Gideon King, 
John Langdon, 
Joshua McMaster, 
Isaac Merritt, 
William Roach, 
David White, 
Thomas Shearer, 
Joseph Shearer, 
Gad Stebbins, 
Abner Sikes, 
Jeremiah Miller, 
Jonathan Tyler, 
Isaac Trask, 
James Thomas, 
Asa Walker, 
Moses Warriner, 
Benjamin Wright. 


Luke Hitclicock was in Capt. William Cooley's Co., Col. John 
Moseley's Eegt., Service in the Northern Department, July 9 to 
Ang. 12, 1777. 

In Capt. Eeuben Munn's Monson Co., Col. Elisha Porter's Eegt., 
detached to join Gen. Gates' army for 30 days, Sept. 26, 1777, were 
1st Lieut. Jonathan Thomson and Sergt. Aaron Morgan, Solo. 
Bishop, Wm. King, Solo. Nelson, Elijah Nelson, Jacob Shaw, 
Lemuel Smith. 

Pay- Roll of Lieut. Joshua iShaw's Co., Col. Elisha Porter's 
Eegt., detached to join Gen. Gates for 30 days, in the service of the 
United States, from Palmer in the Massachusetts State, from Sept. 
26, 1777 : Lieut. Joshua Shaw, Sergt. John A. McElwain, Sergt. 
Luke Hitchcock, Corp. John Shearer, Corp. Phineas Mixer, Fifer 
Judah Moore, John Spear, Joseph Smith, Obadiah Ward, John 
Carley, David Fleming, John Shaw, William McClanathan, Jona- 
than Moore, Simeon Graves, Elisha Cleaveland, Thomas Eiddle, 
John Cutler, Gideon King. The company was credited with travel 
both ways, 260 miles. These men took part in the battle of Sara- 
toga, which led to the surrender of Gen. Burgoyne. 

Pay-Roll of Capt. Ephraim Chapin's Co., Col. Ruggles Woodbridge's 
Eegt., Aug. 12 to Nov. 30, 1777 : 

Sergt. Aaron Morgan Samuel Morgan 

" John Gardner Isaac McMaster 

Corp. John McMaster Edw. Pain 

" Sylvanus Sanderson David Pain 

Seba Bemont William Sloan 

Moses Barber Reuben Shearer 

Zadock Bliss Joel Stebbins 

Joel Bishop Abner Sikes 

Samuel Combs Ebenezer Jones 

Justin Cooley Joseph Frost 

Isaac Ferrell James Eddy 
John Loomis 

A part of these men belonged to Palmer, and were with Gen. 
Gates' army. 

"At a meeting of the inhabitants of Palmer Nov. 27, 1777, 
Lieut. Ebenezer Jones, Dea. John McMaster, Phineas Mixer, Eob- 
ert Ferrell and Dea. John Smith were chosen a committee to take 
care of the families of the Continental soldiers that are now in the 

"Voted, that the 22 bushels of Salt now in town received of the 
Board of War, for the benefit of the inhabitants of this town, be 
divided according to the number of polls in each family." 

PALMER A TOWN", 1776-1812. 185 

Sichiess in CamjJ. Owing to bad sanitary regulations and the 
sudden massing of troops at unhealthy locations, contagious diseases 
were prevalent in the army during the autumn months. Many 
soldiers were furloughed and had sad experiences on the way and 
after reaching home. Our town records note the following ; 
"Voted, to Phineas Mixer £2, 4, 0, for nursing and tending Moses 
Buck, a continental soldier. The bill was as follows : 

" The Town of Palmer Dr. 
To me the subscriber, for taking care of Moses Buck a Continental 
soldier Brought to me by the Selectmen of Palmer for to take care of when 
sick and louseze 

To cleanseing him from lise 10 

To cuering s'^ Moses of the itch 10 

To Nurseing and taking care of the aforesaid soldier two weeks at 

13 shillings pr wk 14 

2 4 
Nov' ye 28, 1777. Phineas Mixer, 

The following receipt, found among loose papers in the Town 
House, is in place here, though its full import is not known : 

Fishkill, Dec' 30, 1777. 

Kecei'^ of Wm Sax of Norwich of Connecticutt 
Nineteen Barrels of flower To Exsport to palmar in Massachusetts 
bay and thare To store it the said Sax Call or send the Barer hav- 
ing this same Resept also we acnoledge to carre the said flower to 
Palmar for One Dollar p' Mile for Each Tun Baring One Hundred 
& Thirty five to palmar and to Conduct the same with Care as wit- 
ness your hands this same day Samuel Buell 

Nineteen Barrells 39 cwt q. 00 lbs Simeon Fekeell 

1778. — At a town meeting held Jan. 1, 1778, the Representative 
of the town now in the General Court was instructed to vote in 
favor of the Articles of Confederation of the United States, except 
the first paragraph of the seventh article, delegating power to Con- 
gress to declare war. 

It was also "Voted that our present Representative should not 
attend the Genera] Court any more this present year." [Each 
town paid the salary and expenses of its representative.] 

At the March meeting, Lieut. Ebenezer Jones, Joshua McMaster, 
Daniel Graves, Lieut. Samuel Buel and Judah Moore were chosen 
Committee of Safety for the present year. 

"Voted that Capt. David Spear, Dea. Thomas King, Lieut. 
Joshua Shaw, Aaron Graves and Samuel McClanathan be a com- 
mittee to take care of soldiers' widows and familys.^" 


At the same meeting it was voted to abate the taxes of the several 
men engaged in actual service in the war. 

The above votes were passed in view of the fact that the heavy- 
drafts on our active militia made last year on account of Bur- 
goyne's invasion from the north had left many families in destitute 
circumstances. And new men could not be induced to enlist to 
meet the calls this spring, and drafted men chose to pay their fines 
rather than go away from liome with the uncertainty resting on 
the welfare of wife and children. 

April 20. A Ecsolve passed the General Court for raising fifteen 
battalions, to reinforce the Northern army, respectively for eight 
and nine months. The nine months service was to be reckoned 
"after their arrival at Fishkill." The eight months men were "to 
fortify the North river," and serve time ''after their arrival at 

The following nine months men were drafted : Lieut. Wm. 
Scott, paid his fine of £20 ; Joseph Chapin, paid his fine ; John 
King, paid his fine ; John Shearer, paid fine of £14, 2, ; John 
Moore, Jun., was paid bounty of £19 ; Francis Breakenridge (age 
51), James Smith (age 57), Nathaniel Coburn, Samuel Hubbard, 
Amos Gray, each of whom received the bounty, and entered the 

Men drafted for the eight months service : Eleazar Bishop^ 
Hiram Wood, Lieut. Samuel Buell, John Hill, Daniel Dodge, 
Thomas King, Joseph Crofutt, each of whom paid his fine of £10. 
The names of their substitutes are not found. The following 
paper relates to this matter : 

Palmer, June 2, 1778. 
State of Massachusetts Bay 

To the Selectmen of Palmer, Dr. 

To bounties for two men, 30 pounds each ; said two men raised 
in s^ Palmer to fill up the 15 battalions, agreeable to the Resolve 
of April 20. Said two men were mustered by the county muster- 
master, and turned over to the superintendent, agreeable to s*^ orders. 

Also one other man drafted from s*^ Palmer at the time, and for 
the purpose above mentioned. But he absconded and could not be 
obtained till some time afterwards, and when he was taken he was 
caused to be mustered by Mr. Ely, the muster-master, and turned 
over to the superintendent, as above. 

ThomasKing, ] Selectmen 

David Spear, j ^ 

Joshua Shaw, , p^j^^^^^_ 

Aaron Graves, 

PALMER A TOWJf, 1776-1812. 187 

Under the order of the General Court passed June 10, for raising 
men to serve in E. I. till Jan. 1, 1779, John Cutler and Denis 
Swaney enlisted and served 7 months ; Elijah Walton and Daniel 
Hopkins served 4 months. Each was paid a bounty of £17.15. 

Eafions. The continental allowance of provisions established by 
the Hon^' Congress : 

1 lb. of bread or flour, per man per day. 

H lbs. of beef, or 18 oz. of pork or 1 lb. of fish per day. 

3 pints of peas or beans per man per week. 

1 qt. of beer, per man per day, or 9 galls, of molasses per 100 men 
per week. 

8 lbs. of hard or 24 lbs. of soft soap per 100 men per week. 

^ pint of rice per man per week. 

Salt and vinegar are delivered in such quantities as the Com- 
mander of the Dept. shall direct. 

Where money was drawn in lieu of rations the allowance was 

For beef, pork or fish -^j^ of a dollar. 

For bread or flour ^ of a dollar. 

For peas or beans ^V of a dollar. 

For milk, -^, beer, gV, rice, Vo > soap, y^ ot a dollar. 
Total if of a dollar. 

An article in the warrant July 28, was '' To see if the town will 
choose one or more men to represent them in the Great and General 
Court of the state, agreeable to a precept sent to them for that 
purpose signed by Elisha Porter, sheriff of the county. ''Voted 
out and chose none." 

'' The inhabitants voted out the constitution exhibited to this 
town by our representative, unanimously, fifty-eight voting. 

Clothing. ''Sept. 7. It was put to vote whether the town 
would provide the clothing sent for by the General Court in June 
last — voted in the positive. 

" It was put to vote whether the town as a town, would make up 
to the several providers of the above mentioned clothing, the whole 
of the reasonable cost of the same, if the board of War would not 
allow it — and it passed in the positive.'' 

Lieut. William Scott of Palmer was the authorized agent of 
Government, to collect and forward the clothing for the army, for 
the county of Hampshire. The following letter explains itself : 


The Massachusetts Bat. 
I beg leave to inform your Honours that the inclosed is a Eeturn 
to the Secretary, of the Cloathing I have receaved from the several 


Towns in the County of Hampshire, which I have transported to 
Fishkill Landing, and delivered to Hezekiah Smith, Esq., Commis- 
sary in the Northern Department of the Army. The collecting 
Cloathing has gone on much slower than I could have wished ; the 
cloath was to spin, weave and whiten, the wool was on the sheep's 
backs ; the shoes & all to be made wp ; to which may be added the 
slothfulness & backwardness of some towns in complying with the 
Resolve, caused the collecting them to go on slow and troublesome. 

While I was on my way to Fishkill with the Cloathing I saw a 
Boston Newspaper which had an order of Court in it for the agents 
to make a Return by the first of this month. I have therefore 
taken the earliest opportunity after I came home to make Return 
into the Secretary's office of the Cloathing I have receaved. 

I would beg your Honours to inform me whether I am to call on 
the Delinquent Towns for the Remainder, or whether the Delin- 
quency is to be made up from the Board of War. — Would likewise 
beg to know if y'^ Honours has any further service for me to do, 
which I shall always be ready to perform with integrity & to the 
utmost of my ability. 

I shall take the first opportunity (which I trust will be soon) to 
make a propper settlement of what I have already done. 

I am Your Honours Most Obedt & Humble Servt, 

Palmer, July 11, 1778. Wm Scott, Agent. 

[The "Return^" has not been found.] 

Where some of our men were in service this fall, and other par- 
ticulars, appear in the following 

Pat-Eoll of Capt. Phineas Stebhins' Co., Col. Nathan Sparhawk's Regt. 
Three months and some days service, under Resolve for granting £5 per 
month addition to Continental pay. Sept. 13 to Dec. 12, 1778. Detached 
to re-inforce Gen. SulUvan. 

Corp. Thomas Blackmar, Palmer, enlisted Sept. 15, due £15, 6, 8 
Elijah Walton, " " " " 15, 6,0 

Wilham Hopkins, " " " " 15, 6,0 

James Walker, . " " Oct. 1, " 12,13,4 

Clotldng. Nov. 4. The town voted that the selectmen immedi- 
ately procure the remaining part of the donation clothing, as 
reasonably as may be, and lay their account of the cost before the 
town for allowance and payment. 

" Voted to Samuel McClanatlian £4, 10, for grain which he pro- 
vided for Moses Tinney's wife." 

" Voted Lieut. Shaw £4, 8, for grain and meat which he provided 
for Moses Tinney's wife." [Moses Tinney was one of our Three 
Years men.] 

PALMER A TOWN", 1776-1812. 189 

Nov. 25. "Voted Dea. Thomas King £1, 12, 0, for rice that he 
let Moses Tinney's wife have." 

1779. Clothing for the Army. Feb. 9 the town 'Woted £103, 
4, for 27 pairs of stockings, 20 pairs of shoes, and 6 shirts, pro- 
cured by the selectmen as a donation to the soldiers of the Conti- 
nental army." 

Committee of Safety, Daniel Graves, Lieut. Ebenezer Jones, 
Eobert Terrell, Lieut. Samuel Buel, Jonathan McMaster. 

Representative. May 17. Capt. David Spear was chosen to 
represent the town of Palmer in the General Court this year. 
"Voted, That Dea. John Smith, Dea. Thomas King, with the se- 
lectmen, and the committee of safety, be a committee to give our 
representative his instructions." 

Quotas of men who marched to Providence, pursuant to the 
order of the General Court of June 8, 1779 : Palmer, 2 ; Monson, 
2 ; Ludlow, 1 ; Ware, 1 ; Brimfield, 3. 

An article in the warrant for June 21, was, " To see what meas- 
ures the town will come into in order to raise five Continental men, 
for nine months, agreeable to the Gen. Court's Resolve of June 9." 
" Voted to each soldier that shall voluntarily enlist, as above, the 
sum of £140;" 

The following men enlisted : 
Benjamin Brooks, 
Benjamin Hooker, 
John Barre, 
John Crowfoot, 
Elijah Walton, 

Another article was, "To see what measure the town will come 
into in order to raise six other Continental men, being a part of 
twenty-seven, the full quota laid upon the town of Palmer, in 
order to fill up the 15 battalions, to serve for three years or during 
the war." This article was ''voted out." But in the course of the 
year Sergt. Israel Loomis, John Crowfoot, and James Carlisle en- 
listed for the tvar, which counted more than a short term enlist- 

Bounties. July 5. The town voted "to give to every nine 
months man that shall serve for Palmer, on the present Court's 
order, £100, in addition to the £140 before granted." " Voted, 
to Joshua McMaster and Hugh McMaster, £20 each, for addi- 
tional encouragement for going to Providence as soldiers for 
this town."* 

age 17, 

height, 5 ft. 6 in. 

" 19, 


" 40, 

" 5 6;^ 

" 19, 


" 17, 


* They joined Capt. Joshua Woodbridge's Co. in Col. Nathan Tyler's Regt., and were in service 
in R. I. 1 mo. 5 days, from December, 1778. 


" Voted, To those individuals who paid out bounties to soldiers 
that did service for this town a year ago last spring, £149, 4, 9, the 
same to be immediately assessed and collected." 

Voted That the town will procure clothing for 27 Continental 
men, agreeable to the Court's order." 

Voted That no specie or article shall be held at a higher 
price for a month next to come than the price now is for the 

July 30. The town chose Lieut. Joshua Shaw delegate to the 
convention to be held at Cambridge the first of September^, for 
forming a new constitution for the State. And Capt. David Spear, 
Dea. John McMaster, Dea. Thomas King, Capt. Aaron Graves, Dr. 
Benjamin Trask, Landlord Thomson, Aaron Wilson, Solomon 
Cummings, Francis Breakenridge, Joshua McMaster and Daniel 
Graves were chosen a committee to give said delegate his Instruc- 
tions. He was j^aid for his services £93. 

Capt. Joseph McNall raised a large company from Western, 
Brookfield and vicinity for service in R, I. under Lt. Col. Samuel 
Pierce, and was out from May 19, one month and 18 days. James 
Shaw and Thomas Hamilton went from Palmer. 

Pay-Eoll of Capt. Joshua Shaw's Co., Col. Elisha Porter's Regt., 
service at New London July 19 to Aug. 27, 1779. The Palmer men 
were : Lieut. Jona. Brown, Lieut. David King, Sergt. John Harris, 
Sergt. Andrew Brown, Sergt. Zebadiah Abbott, Corp. Luke Hitch- 
cock, Corp. James Sherman, Henry Bliss, Thomas Blackmar, 
Daniel Hopkins, John Lamberton, Gideon Morgan, Joseph McClin- 
tock, Roger McElwain, Jona. Moore, John Spear, Joseph Smith, 
Peleg Watson, 

Sept. 6. Robert Ferrell was chosen delegate to a convention to 
be held at Northampton the 8tli inst., for the purpose of stating 
prices in this county. 

Robt. Ferrell, Dea. John Smith, Capt. David Spear, Robert Hun- 
ter, Urijah Ward, Francis Breakenridge, and Dr. Benj. Trask were 
chosen a committee to state the prices of the necessaries of life for 
the Town of Palmer. 

Oct. 4. Capt. David Spear was appointed delegate to the con- 
vention to be held at Concord November first, for the purpose of 
stating prices for the species (?) in this State. 

Oct. 9. Orders were issued by the General Court, that men be 
raised to join the army at Claverack. The quota of Palmer was 
ten. The town voted to pay bounties of £300 to these ten men. 
The following were drafted, and paid fines of £50 each, viz., Seth 
Adams, Joseph Shaw, John Shearer, Jun., William Rosebrook 






PALMER A TOWN, 177G-1813. 191 

James King, Timothy Ferrell. The following served, and were 
paid £60 each, viz., David Shaw, Samuel Hendrick, William Eoach, 
Elisha Oleaveland, Stephen Crawford. 

Same date, the town voted " To pay £00 each to men who would 
serve six months at Providence, with interest till paid." 

Voted, to pay £3 6s. 8d. to each man serving one month at New 
London (to the number of eleven) over and above the publick 
bounty granted by the State. '^ 

" Voted £40 for purchasing and transporting lOOwt. of powder." 

In a Return of men drafted from the Militia of Hampshire 
county to march to Horse Neck under Col. Samuel How, were 
Aaron Nelson and Joseph Crofoot of Palmer, [date not given] 

''Widow King's Account for keeping and taking care of Hannah 
Rutherford at her House when sick, Sept. y® 10,1779. 

For three weeks Keeping and tending her the old way 15 s. the 

new way 
For going after the Doctor 
For two pounds of sugar 
For three pints of rum 

£20 13 

As has appeared from the foregoing Rolls and records, the war 
service in which our men were engaged this year, was of a some- 
what miscellaneous character. The American army held the North 
River and the forts above ; and many of the Massachusetts drafts 
were for men to make sure this advantageous position. Washing- 
ton's head-quarters was at Middlebrook, N. J. ; but with a small 
army, poorly 8^^pplied with clothing and stores, and a depreciated 
currency, he could make no offensive operations. The British 
were ojjerating at the South with their fleet and land forces ; 
and sent several ravaging expeditions into Connecticut and Rhode 
Island. New Haven was plundered ; East Haven, Fairfield, Nor- 
walk and Green's Farms were wantonly burnt. They also cap- 
tured the two important military posts at Stony Point, and 
Verplank's Point, on the lower Hudson. The re-capture of the 
former, July 15, by Gen. Wayne, was one of the most brilliant 
exploits of the War. But no important advantage was gained by 
either side. 

1780.— March 21, Capt. Sylvanus Walker, Dea. John McMaster, 
Timothy Ferrell, Patrick Watson and Phinehas Mixer, Sen., were 
chosen a Committee of Safety. 

" It was put to vote whether the Britons now residing in Palmer 
should be exempted from the rates that are now assessed upon 


them ; and it passed in the negative ; also it was put to vote 
whether they should be rated for the future ; and it passed in the 
aflfirmative." [Nothing appears upon the records to explain this 
vote. But it is believed that a numl^er of the prisoners of war 
taken with Burgoyne, either strayed from the ranks when they 
were marching through this town on the way to Cambridge, and re- 
mained, or that some of them found their way hither at a later 
date. What were known as " Burgoyne's men" were found in 
most of our towns about this time, and many of them became per- 
manent settlers and useful citizens.] 

The Neiv State Constitution. The Convention which met Sept. 
1, '79, to prepare a Constitution or Frame of Government, com- 
pleted its labors Mar. 2, '80. And *'at a meeting of the Inhab- 
itants of Palmer from twenty-one years old and upwards, legally 
convened on Wednesday, May 24, 1780, for the sole purpose of tak- 
ing under consideration the said form of Government proposed by 
the Convention of the Commonwealth of the Massachusetts Bay, 
John Smith was chosen moderator. The proposed constitution 
being read, the town made choice of a committee to consult, con- 
sider and report; and after reading the said constitution again, and 
after due consideration, proposed the following votes and amend- 
ments : viz. 

In Chapter 2, Executive Poivers, the latter clause of the 2d 
article, would propose the following amendment, viz. ^^ Unless 
he shall declare himself to be of the Christian Protestant Ee- 
formed religion." — The reason for this alteration is this, that 
it is our duty to keep the Executive Power free as possible from 
such principles of Religion as have heretofore been the Destruc- 
tion of many commonwealths. Again, we apprehend it no in- 
fringement on any man's conscience, because it does not oblige 
any person whatever to accept of the ofiBce but by his own free 
will and consent. — This article, with the amendment, was put to 
vote, there being 57 voters present, and it passed vinanimously in 
the affirmative. 

In Chapter 3, Judiciary Power, article first, would i:»ropose an 
amendment in the latter clause of the article, viz. " Provided, 
nevertheless, the Governor, with the consent of the Council shall 
remove them upon the address of both Houses of the Legislature." 
The reason for this is, because the Governor, as a single person, 
may be mistaken in his judgment, and more likely to be than both 
Houses of the Legislature. Therefore we are of opinion that the 
removal of persons from office lyeth safer in the hands of both 
Houses, than in one single person, however just his intention may 

PALMER A TOWN", 1776-1812. 193 

be. — The article, with the amendment, was put to vote, and it 
passed unanimously in the affirmative. 

In Chapter 6, Form of Oath, &c., article first, it is the opinion of 
this town, that any person being chose Governor, senator, coun- 
cillor or representative, ought to declare himself to be of the 
Christian Protestant Reformed religion, and for the same reason as 
before given, as to the qualification of Governor. — This article 
passed in the afiirmative unanimously. 

In article 10, we strongly recommend the following addition, 
viz. ''The General Court that shall be held in the year 1790, 
shall issue precepts to the several towns and plantations requiring 
them to choose delegates to meet in Convention some time in that 
year, which time and j)lace of meeting shall be appointed by the 
said Court, in order to correct such deficiencies, and make such 
alterations in this Constitution, as from experience shall be found 
necessary ; the delegates to be chosen in the same manner and pro- 
portion as are the representatives to the lower branch of the Gen- 
eral Court. '^ The reasons for this addition are : that we believe 
ten years will be sufficient to determine whether there is a necessity 
for any alteration or amendment in this constitution: and we think 
the General Court should order the convention and appoint time and 
place, rather than take the roundabout way of getting the sense of 
the people first, and then send out its precepts. If there shall be no 
need to alter or amend the Constitution by that time, we shall heart- 
ily rejoice, and be satisfied to pay the delegates on their return with- 
out doing any business — but that haj^piness we do not expect. — This 
article, as amended, passed unanimously in the affirmative. 

It was then put to vote on the whole constitution, amended as 
above, and it passed in the affirmative, 56 for, and 1 against. 

The town then ordered the following instructions to Mr. Joshua 
Shaw, delegate to the convention, viz. Sir : You are desired to 
use your utmost influence to get the foregoing amendments made 
in the Constitution. We do not wish to be singular in our senti- 
ments any further than is for the safety of the commonwealth. 
You will be careful not to endeavor to overthrow the present con- 
stitution at large, but only deliver the sense of the town on such 
articles as we have proposed. You are likewise desired to propose 
the addition of the following articles, viz. That for the ease, con- 
venience & benefit of the Inhabitants, all Licenses for Innholders 
& Retailers of spirituous liquors, may be given by selectmen in the 
several towns, where such license is to be recognized: Also that 
all deeds & conveyances of land be recorded in the several towns 
where the lands lie. The state of Connecticut has for a long 





time practised on this plan, and finds it by experience to be a great 
privilege. John Smith, 


John" Quinton", 
Samuel Shaw, 

May 24, 1780. At a meeting of freeholders and other inhabit- 
ants of Palmer, it was put to vote whether this town should send a 
representative to the General Court to be held at Boston this 
present year, and it passed in the negative. This applied to the 
spring session, which was the last one held under the old form of 
government. A new order of things began in September. 

1780. June 5, an order was issued for a new levy of men for 
the army. And at a meeting of the town June 15, it was voted 
"that the six commissioned officers of militia be a committee to 
agree with the men now called for, as reasonable as possible in re- 
spect to their hire, which sum shall be allowed by the town." 

The following men were engaged : Daniel Rogers, David Mc- 
Clintock, James Cummings, Luke Hitchcock, John Moore. 

June 22, a draft was made on this town for 12 men from the 
militia, for 3 months service, to re-inforce the Continental army. 

The town directed the commissioned officers of militia'' to hire 
the 12 men called for ; authorizing the selectmen to borrow money 
to pay them, and pledged the town '' to make good the money bor- 
rowed as it was when they borrowed it." 

The men hired were : John Adams, James Averill, Jun., Joseph 
Bacon, Jesse Elwell, John Gardner, John Gibson, Moses Graves, 
James Lamberton, Norris Linsey, Peter Lovejoy, John Spear, 
John Duglass. They joined Capt. Joseph BroAvning's company in 
Col. Seth Murray's Eegt., and were out July 4 to Oct. 10. 

June 23. Orders were issued requiring the town to draft two 
men for 6 months service in the army. The two men sent under 
this order were : 

Benjamin Brooks, marched July G, discharged Dec. 16 ; travel 
allowed, 150 miles ; time of service, 5 mos. 19 days ; wages, 
£11, 5, G. 

Benjamin Hooker, marched July 6, discharged Jan. 11 ; travel 
allowed, 150 miles ; time of service, G mos. 14 days ; wages, 
£12, 18, 0. 

They were attached to Capt. Frothingham's Artillery company. 

Aug. 8. The town Voted that £1130, G, 15, be allowed to the 
selectmen for money paid and their obligation given to the soldiers 
raised, agreeable to the Resolves bearing date June 5th, 22d and 
23d, 1780. 

PALMER A TOWI^, 1776-1812. 195- 

As will be seen, the number of men raised did not fill the calls. 
There was a deficiency of 5 under the first call, and more under a 
call of June 12. And at a meeting Sept. 14 the committee was 
directed to try further to procure the full quotas ; " and if said 
committee cannot procure the said men, the town of Palmer will 
defend s*^ committee from any fines that ever may arise for not se- 
curing s^ men." 

Three more men were secured, viz., John Hackett, Abner Smith 
and James Walker. They enlisted for six months. 

In justice it should be said that at this date the town had 8 men 
in the service who enlisted for the war — some of them enlisting 
during the last year. And they appear to have counted no more 
than the Three Years men, in the credits allowed by the State 

Election of State Officers. The new constitution having been 
agreed to by a large majority of the towns, Monday, Sept. 4th, was 
assigned for the election by the people of Governor, Lieut. Governor 
and Senators. 

At the meeting in Palmer the votes were as follows : 

For Governor — John Hancock had 21 votes. 
James Bowdoin had 2 votes. 

For Lt. Governor — James Bowdoin had 21 votes. 

Dr. Samuel Holton had 3 votes. 

For Senators — Joseph Hawley had 21 votes. 

Timothy Danielson had 16 votes. 
Dr. Samuel Mather had 18 votes. 

Oct. 12. " Capt. David Spear was chosen representative for the 
Town of Palmer to attend the General Court this present term.^' 

"Voted 555 dollars to Lieut. Joshua Shaw for his expenses, &c. 
attending the Convention at Boston in order to establish a consti- 
tution for this State." 

Beef for the Army. Urijah Ward, John Quinton and James 
Smith were appointed, Oct. 12, to purchase cattle or beef for the 
army, as ordered by the General Court. They paid 4 pounds per 
hundred weight, and the town granted 7,300 pounds in remunera- 
tion for the same. 

Dec. 2. The term of the First Three Years men being about to 
expire, the General Court ordered the raising of a new levy, to 
serve for three years, or during the war. The quota of Palmer 
was ten. At a town meeting held Dec. 26 it was voted ''that 
Lieut. Wm. Scott, John Thomson, John Quinton, Thomas 
McClanathan and Samuel Shaw be authorized to inlist ten men 
for Three Years, or for the continuance of the war with Gt. 


Britain, for supplying or filling up the Continental army. Said 
committee is hereby directed to agree with each man so hired or 
inlisted, on as cheajD terms as they can, and give each of said men 
a certificate for the hire or sum agreed upon on the treasurer of 
this town, who is hereby ordered to pay said certificate within the 
space of one month after the date thereof." 

Notwithstanding the large bounty offered, the filling up of the 
quota was the work of several months. Men had grown tired of 
war. The glamour and fascination of adventure had passed, the 
early enthusiasm had subsided, and the stern reality of hardship 
and exposure had taken their place. 

Descriptive List of the Last Three Years Men enlisted by the 
Town of Palmer : 








Barnabas Evens 

Mar. 23, 




5 ft. 8 in. 


Robert Brown 

Apr. 7, 



5 " 8 " 


John Douglas 

" 11, 



6 " 

Moses Tinney 

" 12, 



5 " 3 " 

Samuel Fisher 

" 12, 



5 " 4 " 

Pelatiah Morgan 

" 24, 



5 " 10 " 

Peter Love joy 

May 14, 



5 " 10 " 

Primus Jackall 

July 5, 



5 " 1 " 

Pelatiah McGoldsmith 

" 31, 



5 " 6 " 

Lebbeus Paine 

Feb. 22, 






The bounties paid to these men were as follows : To Jackall 
(who was a slave), £100 14 silver money ; to Goldsmith (also a 
slave*), £92 10 silver money ; to Paine, £92 silver money ; to each 
of the others, £90 hard money; making a total of £916 14 shillings 
in silver paid the ten men. In addition, each man received 18 
Continental dollars for rations. 

The following paper has historical value in this connection : 

"March 20, 1781. I humbly desire you Gentlemen of Palmer, that you 
would be so good as to abate my Rates: For I think that I am very much 
wronged in paying my part for all these [ten] men that are raised for the 
War, when I have had one son in the war four years and now going on six 
years, and never received one penny of the Town — besides John and 
William have been out a great many times. 

I think I have done more in the war than any of you, so I hope you will 

* It appears that tlie owners of these slaves afterwards claimed compensation for their services. 
And the next year the town " voled i^ 128 190 for to pay for the two Negroes that the town has sent 
into the Three Years service." In 1784 the case was before the court at Northampton. And a town 
meeting was called " To see what the town will do about the Negro man Primus, that Capt. Watson 
bought of Mr. Bardwell of Belchertown, to serve in the army: Also Peltiah Goldsmith, bought of 
Maj. Aaron Graves, for the same purpose." Dea. John Smith was appointed agent to act for the 
town. The result is not recordsd. 

PALMER A TOWN, 1776-1812. 197 

take it into consideration, I being poor, and have nothing to pay with. I 
think I am free from all rates, both by the laws of God and man, for I am 
now in my seventy-first year of age, and am not able to work as I have 

Your humble petitioner 

James Carlyle." 

The terms of enlistment of the above-named John and William 
Carlyle have not been found, but their names should be added to 
our list of soldiers. 

Beef. Dec. 4. The General Court issued orders for a new 
supply of beef for the army. The amount required of Palmer was 
9331 lbs.: and Jan. 16, '82 the town appropriated 12,596 pounds 
17 shillings to purchase the same. The sum above named was in 
the depreciated currency of that date. And the extent of this 
depreciation is indicated by the following vote at the ensuing March 
meeting : " Voted £1000 to be worked out on the highways the 
present year, at 20 dollars per day." The usual annual grant was 

1781.— April 2. Vote for State officers. 

For Governor, John Hancock, 20 

Benjamin Lincoln, 5 

Lieut. Governor, Thomas Gushing, 26 

Eepresentative, ''Voted not to send this year." 

Beef. " Voted that the town will purchase the monthly supply 
of beef for the army, that is called for by the General Court. 

"Voted £78 in silver money for purchasing the six months 
supply of beef. 

Clothing for the army. ''Voted that the selectmen provide 
y® clothing for the soldiers, agreeable to the orders of the General 
Court." And £28 was appropriated to pay for the same. 

Orders were issued to the town, requiring that seven men be en- 
listed for three months service in the army. And Aug. 2, the town 
voted to pay £4 per month to each man that shall enlist. The list 
has not been found. 

Polls, Valuation, etc., 

, of Palmer, 1781. 

Number of Polls, 


Number of Houses, 


Number of Barns, 


Number of Stores, etc., 


Number of Mills, 


Number of Horses, 


Number of Oxen, 


Number of Steers, 


Number of Cows, 




Number of Sheep, 1363 

Number of Swine, 262 

Number of barrels of cider made, 400 ■ 

Acres of mowing & tillage laud, 436 

Acres of meadow, 850 

Acres of Pasturage, 450 

Acres of Woodland, 11,485 

Oz. of Plate, 97 
Coaches, value of £20. 
Money at interest & on hand, £500. 

1782. — The surrender of Cornwallis and the British army, at 
Yorktown, Oct. 10th of hist year, yirtually closed the war ; though 
drafts and enlistments continued on a small scale. 

In March, Palmer was ordered to furnish 3 men for the conti- 
nental army, and Urijah Ward was appointed a committee to hire 
the men. He did not succeed. And at a meeting June 11, it was 
" Voted that the Town of Palmer be classed into three classes by 
the assessors, to hire the three men now called for." Classing. 
The rule was for the assessors to group the taxpayers, equitably, 
into as many classes as there were men to be raised ; and each class 
was taxed to raise one man, and pay him the stipulated bounty. It 
was a just method ; and in practice was found to be Yery efficient. 
Quite commonly a class would secure one of their own number. 

Vote for State officers, April 1, 1782. 

For Governor, Benjamin Lincoln, 32 

John Hancock, 5 

For Lieut. Governor, Thomas Gushing, 19 
Joseph Hawley, 13 

May 6. Capt. David Spear was chosen representative for the 
town for the present year. 

Summary. — List of men belonging to Palmer, who enlisted For 
the War, and sei-ved to its close. 


Sergt. Gideon Graves, 
John Bruster, 
Jona. Blunt, 
Jona. Carley, 
F;ancis Lemmon, 
.lohn Crawfoot, 
Sergt. Israel Loomis, 
James Carlisle,* 

Mar. 20, '77, 
Mar. 20, '77, 
Mar. 22, '77, 

Oct. '79, 
Nov. 20, '79, 
Dec. 20, '79, 


Capt. Seward, 

Capt. Seward, 


3d Regt. Artillery. 

7th Mass. Inf. 
3d Regt. Artillery. 
3d Mftss. Inf. 

* From his father's statement it appears that James Carlyle enlisted in the Eight Months' service; 
was one of the first to sign with the Three Years Men in 1777; and enlisted " For the War," as 

PALMER A TOWN-, 1776-1812. 199 

Under a Resolve of the Mass. Legislature of March 5, 1801, 
these men were entitled to draw $20, or 200 acres of land. 
Jona. Carley, who settled in Greenfield, drew as above. 
John Crawfoot, settled in Bennington, Vt., and drew as above. 
Gideon Graves, lived in Palmer, and drew as above. 

After the War. — The disturbance of society, in its productive, 
manufacturing and commercial interests, caused by and incident to 
eight years of revolutionary war, was radical and far-reaching. 
The old order of things was broken up, and new elements of pur- 
pose and power were introduced, or forced themselves into posi- 

The expedients resorted to to meet emergencies had upset estab- 
lished codes of morals and codes of honor, and helped to make pop- 
ular the dangerous maxim that "the end justifies the means." 

The expenses of the war, the depreciation of the paper issues of 
money, the heavy taxation, and the extent of town and individual 
debts, began, two or three years before the close of the war, to 
awaken a spirit of popular discontent in Massachusetts. Every- 
body was behindhand. Eeal estate was unsalable ; provisions and 
clothing were scarce and dear ; the hard money had gone for public 
uses, and paper bills had lost their credit. The soldiers came home 
poor, many of them sick, most of them with j)lans of life deranged, 
and with discouraging prospects for the future. The state levied 
taxes ; and the town levied taxes ; and real estate owners were called 
to bear the heaviest burden of this direct taxation. The farmer 
could not conceal his farm from the assessor, or the tax-gatherer, 
or the sheriff. And this pressure upon the agricultural industry 
accounts for the distress, and disorders, and opposition to state 
taxes, which showed itself in the central and western counties, and 
ripened into open resistance. Demagogues and adventurers — al- 
ways the product of "hard times" — took advantage of these un- 
settled and irritating conditions to stir up strife, and gain notoriety 
and influence. The culmination of affairs, in this region, was 
what is known in history as the "Shays Eebellion."' 

That the burdens were heavy, no one can doubt ; that the public 
grievances were real, and the individual and social embarrassments 
were oppressive ; that might asserted its right without due regard 
to equity ; and that self-protection often pointed to the shortest 
way to secure its ends, is undeniable. Everybody attempted to en- 
force the collection of debts ; and the strife was, who should get in 
his attachment first. The state sued the town ; the town sued the 
tax-payer; the tax-payer sued each his neighbor. Lawyers and 


sheriffs were kept busy in drawing up and serving writs and sum- 

And a sentiment joervaded the community that existing laws were 
defective, and their administration unequal ; and that redress must 
come from new laws and a reformed administration. There was 
little agreement as to what precise changes were necessary, and 
what statutes would correct prevalent evils. But there was a wide- 
spread feeling that the innumerable executions against persons and 
property then in the hands of sheriffs, must be stayed until a j)lan 
of relief could be devised. The first step then was to prevent the 
sitting of the county courts. This was revolutionary. The second 
step was to call county conventions, to discuss grievances, and 
formulate demands, and create or fire a public sentiment which 
would influence the state government. This was legitimate. 

In July, 1782, government attempted to meliorate evils, and con- 
ciliate the popular clamor, by passing the " Tender Act," which 
made neat cattle and other articles of personal property a legal 

It was intended to work in the interest of private debtors ; but 
it increased rather than cured the evil. By its ex post facto opera- 
tion, and suspension of existing law-suits, it complicated all ques- 
tions of debt and credit. It lived just long enough to prove its 
injustice to the creditor class, and its negative relief to the debtor. 

The first outbreak in Hampshire county occurred in the preceding 
April. Samuel Ely, of Somers, Ct., a deposed preacher, and lead- 
ing agitator, got together a so-called convention at Northampton, 
at the time when the Supreme Judicial Court and the Court of 
Common Pleas were holding sessions there. For an attempt to pre- 
vent the sitting of the Court of Common Pleas and for disturbing 
the i^eace generally, Ely was arrested, and pleading guilty to the in- 
dictment against him, was condemned to a term of imprisonment. 
He had won the confidence of a large number of adherents, some of 
them men of good standing in civil and military life; and, watching 
their opportunity, a band of his friends attacked the jail and re- 
leased him. Three persons, believed to be ringleaders in the rescue, 
were arrested and committed to jail in Northampton. These were 
Capt. Abel Dinsmore, Lieut. Paul King and Lieut. Perez Bard- 
well. And it was proclaimed that they would be held as hostages 
till the body of Ely was delivered to the sheriff. The three per- 
sons arrested were military men, who had seen large service in the 
war, and the spirit of their old comrades in arms was aroused, and 
about three hundred of their friends assembled at Hatfield, under 
Ca^it. Keuben Dickinson as leader. Sheriff Porter of Hadley 

PALMER A TOWN", 1776-1812. 201 

called out twelve hundred of the militia for the protection of the 
jail. After maturing his plans, having received a large reinforce- 
ment, all well armed, Capt. Dickinson sent three messengers to 
Northampton, June 15, proposing that the sheriff should send a 
committee to meet him at a place one mile from the jail, in two 
and a half hours from the delivery of the message. The sheriff 
declined acceding to the demand. The next morning Capt. Dick- 
inson sent the following pretty explicit note : — 

"The demands of our body are as follows : That you bring the prisoners 
now in jail, viz., Capt. Dinsmore, Lieut. King and Lieut. Bard well, forth- 
with: That you deliver up Deacon Wells' bonds, and any other that maybe 
given in consequence of the recent disturbance. The above men to be de- 
livered on the parade, now in our possession ; the return to be made in half 
an hour." 

It was a trying position for the sheriff. He had with him in 
front of the jail about 600 militia, well armed and resolute ; Capt. 
Dickinson had an equal number of well armed and determined 
men, ready to obey the command of their leader. The wisdom and 
prudence of General Porter averted a bloody conflict. He released 
the three hostages, on their parole of honor, they agreeing to de- 
liver the body of Ely to the sheriff, or in default thereof, their own 
bodies on the order of the General Court. In after years. General 
Porter was greatly blamed for his conduct in the matter, and no 
end of opprobrious adjectives was affixed to his name. But the 
General Court, at its session in November, emphatically endorsed 
his course, and granted a pardon to all concerned in the affair, ex- 
cept Ely. 

The following regimental Eeturn has reference to the troops 
called out on this occasion ; and of a similar call for a like purpose 
two years later : 

Pay Roll of the Field and Staff Officers of the First Eegt. of the County 
of Hampshire, two tours, to Northampton, June 12 to 16, 1782, in support 
of the Government, and one to Springfield in Sept., 1784, by request of the 
High Sheriff of the County. 

Col. Gideon Burt, Longmeadow, pay £9 28. 8d. 

Lt. Col. Reuben Munn, Monson, " 5 8 

Maj. Aaron Graves, Palmer, " 4 5 1 

Surgeon Thomas Anderson, " 4 16 8 

Sergt. Maj. Joseph Moffatt, " 4 16 8 

Qr. Mr. Israel Trask, " 4 16 8 

Surg. Mate Thomas Wallis, " 4 16 8 

Adjt. Jonathan Burt, *' 4 5 8 


Conventions. A chief means relied on to influence public opinion 
and secure concert of action was the holding of conventions, com- 
posed of delegates chosen by the towns of a smaller circuit, or of 
the whole county. These Conventions met at Deerfield, Hatfield 
and Hadley, in the Connecticut valley, and at Worcester. Their 
spirit and object may be inferred from the wording of the ''call" 
of one of them : "To take into consideration the deplorable situa- 
tion the people of this County and the Commonwealth are in, and 
the more deplorable situation they are soon like to be in, by reason 
of the very great scarcity of a circulating medium.'' 

Palmer was represented in several of these larger Conventions. 
Dea. John McMaster was sent as a delegate to a county convention 
held at the house of Capt. Seth Murray in Hatfield, Oct. 20, 1783. 
This body was moderate and judicious in the expression of its 
views, recommending that the good people of the county strive to 
acquire by industry in their several callings the money necessary 
for the payment of their taxes, but expressing the opinion that it 
would be impossible for them to do so as quickly as the Government 

In the warrant for a town meeting Aug. 3, 1784, was an article 
"to see what method the town thinks projDer to be taken with 
respect to the several executions now against this town served and 
immediately to be served." '* Voted that the town choose a man to 
go up to Colonel Porter (the sherifl') to see whether the execution 
that is in Maj. Dwight's hands be stayed for the present. Voted 
that Lieut. Wm. Scott be the man." '' Voted that John Thomson, 
Robert Ferrell, Robert Hunter, John Allan McElwain and Tim- 
othy Ferrell be a committee, that in case the execution in the 
hands of the sheriff from the State Treasurer cannot be stayed, 
then and in that case the said committee give bonds to the consta- 
bles against whom the executions lie, to save them harmless from 
all losses, costs and damages they or either of them may sustain by 
reason of their not collecting the said taxes, they using all reason- 
able measures they can think necessary for collecting the same." 
" Voted £0, 8, 4 to Maj. Aaron Graves for his execution that he has 
paid for the suit that was commenced against him, supposing that 
the suit be stayed, and likewise interest on his money till paid." 

Feb. 1, 1785. "Voted, that if Joseph Darling, now in custody, 
Avill give the selectmen of the town of Palmer his obligation that 
he will pay his taxes to them, the said selectmen shall release the 
said Darling from his present confinement." 

Feb. 1, 1786. "Voted, that Landlord John Thomson, Maj. 
Aaron Graves, Francis Brackenridge, Dea. John McMaster and 

PALMER A TOWN, 1776-181^. 203 

Lieut. Joshua Shaw be a committee to deliberate on the mat- 
ter and to give our representative his Instructions as to having 
a Bank of Paper Moneii made in this State to discharge our State 

"Voted, that there should be a Sinking Fund of Paper Money in 
this State, and that said Fund of money should sink one shilling 
on the pound. Voted, that if this Sinking Fund of money should 
not take place, that then all real and jDcrsonal estate should be a 
legal tender to answer all executions.'' 

Capt. David Spear was sent as a delegate to a Convention at 
Hatfield last year. Capt. Spear was also chosen delegate to a 
County Convention to be held at the house of Col. Seth Murray, 
in Hatfield, the second Tuesday of May, 1786. 

Lieut. Thomas McOlanathan was sent as a delegate to a Conven- 
tion holden at the house of Elisha Cook, in Hadley, the first Tues- 
day in November, 1786. 

Dec. 25, 1786. Capt. Sylvanus Walker, Lieut. Thomas McClan- 
athan, Eobert Hunter, Joshua Parsons and William Man were ap- 
pointed a committee to take into consideration the Eeport of a 
Committee, Korman Clark, chairman, issued by a Convention 
holden at Worcester December 7, instant." The committee's 
action is not recorded. 

In the meantime active measures of resistance to the S'tate 
authorities were in progress. Having exhausted the influence of 
conventions, the more daring of the malcontents resorted to the 
force of armed demonstrations. Among the prominent leaders 
were Capt. Francis Stone of North Brookfield, who really furnished 
the brains of the movement ; Col. Seth Murray of Hatfield ; Maj. 
Luke Day of West Springfield ; Capt. Daniel Shays of Pelham ; 
Capt. Eli Parsons of Berkshire. These men had all served with 
credit in the war of the Revolution, and had great influence over 
the common people. A body of the insurgents had prevented the 
holding of the Court of the Common Pleas at Great Barrington, 
in August. In September, the Supreme Judicial Court at Spring- 
field was virtually prevented from sitting. The December sessions 
of the Courts at Worcester were broken up by the presence of about 
1,000. armed men under Capt. Shays. 

It was plain, alike to the State Government, and the insurgent 
leaders, that the time for decisive action had come, and both made 
ready. The Governor ordered Maj. General Lincoln to raise 4,000 
troops from the eastern counties, and hold them in readiness for 
emergency. They were destined for service in Worcester, and Lin- 
coln was given authority to act as occasion required. The loyal 


Hampshire militia men were ordered to rejiort at Springfield to Gen. 
Shepard, for the protection of the Arsenal. This corps numbered 
about 1,100, and had several field pieces. Maj. Day, was posted at 
West Springfield, where he had gathered about 400 insurgents. 
Parsons was at Chicopee, and had with him about 400 men. Shays 
was at Pelham, and wherever his presence was most needed. He 
was the acknowledged leader of the cause, though Day was the 
abler man and better posted in military tactics, and was really am- 
bitious of the chief command. 

Palmer was on the great road from Worcester to Springfield, and 
in ready communication with tlie Hampshire towns on the north, 
and the disafEected towns of Hardwick, Rutland and Petersham 
towards the east. It was a convenient point from which to watch 
the troops coming from the Bay ; and to make a descent on the 
Arsenal at Springfield — the rifling of which was a cherished object 
of the insurgents. About the middle of January, 1787, Capt. 
Shays appear upon the scene ; and promptly issued orders for his 
adherents in southern Hampshire to rendezvous at Palmer. He him- 
self joined them here on the 31st or 22d. On the 2od he was here 
in command of a force of not less than 1,000 men. At a council 
of war held that day, it was decided to join Day's forces then rest- 
ing at West Springfield, and Parsons' division of 400 men at Chic- 
opee, and then attack the Arsenal. The plan leaked out ; and Maj. 
Aaron Graves hurried to Worcester to inform Gen. Lincoln, who 
was there in camp. Shays marched to Wilbraham on the 24th ; 
and started for Springfield the next morning. At the same hour. 
Deputy Sheriff Asaph King started on horseback to notify Gen. 
Shepard, then in command at S. The snow was covered with 
a hard crust, and King rode much of the way across lots, the 
blood streaming from his horse's legs at every step. He got in a 
considerable time before the insurgents. Shays appeared in the 
afternoon, and marched steadily towards the Arsenal. Shepard fired 
his cannon to the right and the left, and over the heads of the 
advancing column. He then fired point-blank at the head of the 
column, when three of the insurgents, viz. Ezekiel Root and Ariel 
Webster of Gill, and Jabez Spicer of Leyden fell dead, and John 
Hunter of Shelburne fell mortally wounded. Shays and his men 
turned and fled in confusion, without firing a gun, or caring for 
their dead and dying comrades. 

This proved the death-blow of the Rebellion. 

Tradition says that some Palmer men were in active sympathy 
with the Shays party, and joined the ranks of the insurgents. 
But their names are not preserved, in any authentic record. 

PALMER A TOWN, 1776-1813. 


At the close of t]ie 5"ear 1787, Palmer was in debt to the amount 
of £79.9. 

Tax Payees, 178G. 

The following list of tax payers of Palmer of this date is here 
presented, to show the changes in family names since the early set- 
tlement of the place. Many families have disappeared and new 
ones have come in. The list has also historical and genealogical 
value, as indicating the then residence of men who, at an earlier 
and later date, are found as tax payers in other towns. 


^fo. Polls. 


No. Polls. 

Abbott, Samuel 


Coy, Nehemiah 

Adams, Andrew 


Crouch, Aaron 

" wid. Ann 

Cummings, Isaac 

" John 

" Jacob 

Averill, James 

" Solomon 

Bacon, Joseph 

Darling, Elisha 

" Simeon 

" Enoch 

" Thomas 

" Ichabod 

" wid. 

" Joseph 

Bachelor, John 

Elwell, Harris 

" Nehemiah 

" Jesse 

Baldwin, Rev. Moses 

Evans, Barnabas 

Beckworth, Jabez 

Ferrell, Elisha 


" Isaac 

Bettis, Andrew 

" Josiah 

Bishop, Joel 

" Robert's heirs 

Blackmar, Joseph 

" Simeon 

" Lemuel 

" Timothy 


" Stephen 

Ferry, Judah 



Fisher, John 


Blair, William 

Fleming, David 


Brackenridge, Francis 

" David, Jun. 


" George 



' ' James 

Fosket, Joshua 


Brainard, Timothy 

Gardner, John 


Bratten, David 

Gates, Ephraim 


Brown, Edward 

Gibson, John 



Graham, Jesse 



Graves, Maj. Aaron 


Chapin, Joseph 

" Daniel 


" Luke 

' ' Gideon 


Cleaveland, David 

" Simeon 



Griggs, Lemuel 



Hale, Samuel 


Cooley, Jonathan 

Hamilton, Asa 


" Zadock , 

' ' James 





No. Polls. Names. 

No. PoUs. 

Hamilton, John 

4 McMichel, Robert 


Hannum, Foster 

1 Merrett, Isaac 


Haven, James 

1 " John 

Hill, John 

3 " William 

" Thomas 

1 Mirick, Aaron 

Hitchcock, Luke 

3 Mixter, Phineas 

" Winchester 

1 Moors, David 

Hoar, John 

1 " Hugh 

Homes, Daniel 

1 ' ' Jonathan 

Hopkins, Ebenezer 

1 ' ' Joseph 

Hunter, Robert 

3 Nelson, Aaron 

Hutchinson, Benjamin 

1 Parsons, Joshua 

" Samuel 

1 Quiuton, Thomas 

King, Benjamin 

1 Robenson, William 

' David 

2 Roberts, David 

' wid. Deborah 

' ' Isaac 

' Gideon 

1 ' ' Nathaniel 

' James 

1 Rogers, John 

' Jesse 

1 " Nathaniel 

' John 

2 Robins, 

' Moses 

1 Rotch, Edward 

' Reuben 

1 " William 

' Thomas 

2 Rutherford, wid. Hannah 

T.amb, Dr. Jabez 

1 Samson, Samuel 

Lamberton, John 

1 Scott, Dr. Calvin 

" John, Jun. 

1 " William 


1 " William, Jun. 

Lewis, Diah 

1 Shaw, Capt. David 

Longworth, William 

1 ' ' James 

Lumbert, David 

1 " John 

Lyons, James 

1 " Lieut. Joshua 

Mann, William 

2 " Joshua, Jun. 

McClanathan, Josiah 

1 " Moses 

" Samuel 

1 " Noah 

' ' Thomas 

1 " Samuel 

" William 

1 " Seth 

McDowell, William 

1 " William 

McElwain, John Allen 

1 Shearer, John 

*' Roger 

1 " John, Jun. 

" Timothy 

1 " Joseph 

McMaster, Hugh 

1 Sherman, Prince 

" Isaac 

1 Simpson, Thomas 

" John 

2 Sloan, Robert 

" John, Jun. 

1 Smith, Benjamin 

" Joshua 

1 " wid. Elenor 


2 " Hugh 


1 " James 



Towif, 1776-1812. 


Names. No. 



No. Po 

Smith, James, Sen. 


Trask, Rufus 


'• James, Jun. 




" John 


Walker, Capt. Sylvanus 1 

" John A. 


" Sylvanus, 

Jun. 1 

John, 2d 


Ward, Urijah 


" Jonathan 


Watson, Capt. Patrick 1 

" Joseph 


Whitney, Ebenezer 

" Robert 


' ' John 

" William 


Whitoms, Isaac 

Spear, Capt. David 


Willey, Israel 

" David, Jun. 



" John 


" Judah 

Stacy, Isaac 


Williams, James 


Thomson, Henry 


Withington, Joseph 1 

" John 


Wire, James 




Wood, George 


" Robert 


' ' Hiram 


Tilden, William 


" wid. 


Burr (Timothy) & Clark (Seth), 


Cwee, William, land. 

70 acres 

. Dwight, Joseph's heirs, land, 

80 " 

" Josiah's heirs, land, 

200 " 

Eddy, Caleb's heirs, land. 

90 " 

'« Joshua, land. 

99 " 

Emery, Jonathan, land, 

160 " 

Gordon, William, land. 

70 " 

Jones, Joseph, land. 

20 " 

Moors, John's heirs, land. 

20 " 

Shaw, Erwin, land. 

23 " 

Simpson, Jonathan, land, 

180 " 

Stone, James, land, 

100 " 

Waldo, Daniel, land. 

100 " 

Wells, Samuel, land. 

333 " 

Miscellany.— TAe Hanging of Shaw. In the fall of 1770, 
William Shaw, a son of one of our good families, and a man of ex- 
citable temper, was committed to Siaringfield Jail for debt. While 
at work with shoemaker's tools, a hot dispute arose between him 
and a fellow-prisoner named Earl, and Shaw struck him a fatal 
blow with a hammer. He suffered death upon the gallows at 
Springfield Dec. 13, 1770, Parson Baldwin of his native town 
preaching the customory sermon. 

Wagons first named. Sept. 4, 1780, the town ''voted 2 pounds 
14 shillings to Samuel Kilborn for the use of his waggin for to con- 


vey a sick man from Palmer to Brimfield.'' A pleasure wagon was 
owned by Wilson Foster, father of John Foster, about 1808, and 
was then considered quite a rarity. Two wheeled chairs and 
chaises came into use at an earlier date. 

Collector of Town Taxes. The custom prevailed from early 
times for the constables to act as collectors of taxes, and they were 
held accountable for all rates committed to them by the assessors, 
unless the town by special vote abated a person's tax. It some- 
times happened that singular complications arose from enforced 
collections, like the following: ''Mar. 5, 17G5. Voted, that the 
sum of one joound, 3 shill. 7 pence 3 farthings, being the whole of 
the rates assessed on Thomas McClintock for the year 1763, be 
abated, on account of the constable's taking his grain by distress, 
and the same grain being consumed in the burning of John King, 
Jun's house." 

Prudent men were averse to accept the office, but the law pro- 
vided that every qualified voter should take office when duly 
elected, or pay a stipulated fine. If a constable failed to collect all 
the tax bills he was hardly dealt with, sometimes by levying on his 
property, and sometimes by imprisonment. 

March 18, 1788, William McDowell was chosen ''collector for 
the whole town of Palmer, and he is to receive four pence on the 
pound for collecting, and his fees is to be assessed on the town this 
year." Samuel Shaw was his bondsman. The "minister's rate" 
was a tax distinct from ordinary town taxes, and James Shaw, con- 
stable, was to collect that, as formerly. At the March meeting in 
1793 the office of constable and collector was put up at vendue and 
struck off to William McDowell, he being the lowest bidder, at six 
pence on the pound. The town grant was 88 pounds 4 shillings. 

Oct. 6, 1787, Mr. Aaron Mirick was chosen delegate to the Con- 
vention to be held in Boston the second Wednesday in January 
next to revise the Federal Constitution. 

War7iing Out of Town. To insure permanency of settlement of 
men of good morals and good repute, who would add to the pro- 
ductive capacity of the inhabitants, the custom prevailed generally 
throughout the Province of " warning out of town "all transient 
persons, and all who did not purchase real estate, and all strangers 
not vouched for by some taxpayer. And when a stranger came 
into a place ostensibly to take up residence, the citizen into whose 
family or tenement he came was required to give notice to the 
selectmen of the name of the person or persons, the town from 
whence he came, his pecuniary circumstances, and the date of his 
arrival. The town authorities would then, at their discretion. 

PALMER A TOWN, 1776-1812. 209 

allow him to remain, or order him to be "warned and cautioned as 
the law directs." A person so warned was prevented from gaining 
a ''settlement," and the town escaped liability for his support. 
Many men thus ''warned" by the constable took up permanent 
abode and became honorable citizens, and heads of distinguished 
families. Palmer often availed itself of the right in question, as 
appears from the following records : 

Hampshire ss. Palmek, Jan. 7, 1790. 

To William McDowell, Constable : 

You are in the name of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
Directed to warn and give notice unto Susanna Rogers, Benjamin 
Trim, Sharp Graves, Dinah Woodard and George H. Storer — 
Transient persons who have lately come into this town for the pur- 
pose of abiding there. Not having obtained the town's consent 
therefor, that each of the above named persons with their children 
(if any they have) depart the limits of said town (with others 
under them if any they have) within fifteen days. And of this 
precept, with your doings thereon, you are to make Eeturn into the 
office of the Town Clerk within twenty days next coming, that such 
further proceedings may be had in the premises as the law directs. 
Given under our hands and seal at Palmer aforesaid, this eleventh 
day of January, one thousand seven hundred and ninety. 

AAROisr Graves, 

David King, 

John Thomson, 

Thomas McClanathan, 

"Hampshire ss. Palmer, January 25, 1790. 

By virtue of the within Warrant, I have warned and given notice 
unto Susanna Rogers, Benjamin Trim and his family, and Sharp 
Graves, transient persons, immediately to depart the limits of said 
town of Palmer, within fifteen days, as the law directs. 

W^ McDowell, Constable." 

In the following April others were "warned," viz., Samuel Ab- 
bott, wife and children ; David Roberts, David Roberts, Jun. ; 
James Stricklen with his wife and family ; John Brown with his 
wife and family; John Sweeney and wife ; Dennis Sweeney and 
wife ; Diah Lewis and his wife and family. 

June 14, 1791. William Mendum and Phebe, his wife, received 
a like warning and notice. 

Nov. 3, 1791. The following were warned and notified, viz., 
Matthew Clark, wife and family ; Henry Stevens, wife and family; 





James Ferry, wife and family; Jesse Thayer, with his children and 
family; Anna Kibbe. 

3fore Cloth. The article in the warrant of May 20, 1751, was 
''To see if this Society will bie a more cleuth & grant mony for 
that purpose, and allsoe to bie tulles to dige graves and chuse a man 
for that end." '^ Voted 3 pounds 9 shillings & four pence, lawful 
money in order to purchase tlie materials in said article therein 
contained." March 16, 1790, the town "Voted that Shadrick 
Thomson be appointed to take care of the meeting-house, the 
Moore Cloth, and the tools Belonging to the town for Diging the 
Graves.'' A similar vote was passed in 1792. 

Jury Box. Oct. 18, 1791. "Voted and Actsepted of the Jury 
Box as now Regulated by the Selectmen, and accordingly chose a 
Comitte to select one Qurter part of the Number of Tickets lay^ 
befor the Town in Order to be put into a seperate Box Lyeble to 
be Drawn to serve as Jurors at the Supr"' Judictial Court — Ac- 
cordingly Lieut. David King, Lieut. James Smith, Capt. David 
Spear was chose a Comittee for the aforesaid purpose. S^ Com- 
itte withdrew and after a short time returned and Reported and 
was Accepted by the town and accordingly the Box was Prepared, 
Locked and Delivered as the Law Directs." 

Weights and Measures. Jan. 17, 1791. The town Voted that 
the selectmen be authorized to purchase weights and measures for a 
standard to try others by in Palmer : that for Dry measure they 
buy a half-bushel, a peck, a half-peck and a two-quart measure ; 
for Liquor measure of jjewter, a quart, a pint, a half-pint and a 
gill ; for Weights, a scale beam, a 4-pound weight, and so down to 
one ounce, in brass weights. Granted the sum of £2, to pay for 
the same, to be assessed in the first town rate that is made. 

Coicee and Cook's Lands Set Off. July 15, 1794, *' On the Peti- 
tion of Capt. William Cowee and Elizur Cook of Western, Dated 
May 7, 1794, Voted and Granted the request in said Petition, that 
their Land lying in Palmer and joining their Land in Western, be 
set off from the Town of Palmer, and annexed to the Town of 

Plan of the Town. — Nov. 3, 1794. At a legal town meeting 
it was voted, ''That Mr. Aaron Merrick, Lieut. James Smith and 
Maj. Aaron Graves be a committee to make out an accurate Plan of 
the Town of Palmer, agreeable to a late Law of this Common- 
wealth." The committee employed Admatha Blodget as surveyor, 
who made the necessary measurements and drew an outline map of 
the town, indicating boundary lines, the course of the rivers, the 

PALMER A TOWN-, 1776-1813. 211 

mill-seats, the mountains, the old Post Road and the county high- 
ways. The committee's charges were as follows : James Smith, 
$7.30; Maj. Graves, $4; Mr. Merrick, $2.75. Probably these 
charges included the sum paid to Mr. Blodgett. The original Plan 
is now in the State Archives at Boston. 

Gtdde Posts. May 20, 1795, Col. Ebenezer Webber, Isaac War- 
rin and Clark McMaster were appointed a committee for the pur- 
pose of setting up Guide Posts on all the public roads, as the law 
directs. This was promptly done, at a cost of 114.54. 

Singing School. Nov. 13, 1797. The town voted to raise the 
sum of $40 '* for the purpose of hireing a singing master to teach a 
singing school." In 1800, $30 was granted ''for the support of 
psalmody,*' and Solomon Shaw was appointed committee to spend 
the money. 

Justice of the Peace. By a good majority, the town voted May 
2!), 1798, to nominate Lieut. James Smith to the Governor and 
Council to be commissioned as justice of the peace. He declined 
the business. In the following November, John A. Smith was 
nominated for the oflfice. 

The Parade. Nov. 1, 1798, a committee, consisting of Clark 
McMaster, William King and Urijah Ward, was appointed ''to 
clear the ground and make a Parade near the meeting-house — free 
of cost to the town." This Parade was a lot of about 4 acres lying 
north of the Meeting-house. 

Burying Grounds. — There is no doubt that the earliest burials 
of the dead at the Elbows Plantation, were on the land near 
"•King's Eow," now the South Cemetery. The first action on 
record, in relation to a public burial place, is under date of March 
17, 1734-5, when it was voted, "That Steward Southgate, Barn- 
ard McNitt and Isaac Magoon, Jun., be a committee to pitch upon 
and lay out a piece of Land for a Burying place." 

"The Burying Place layed out May the 12th 1735, Began at an 
oak bush with a great stone rolled against it, standing about ten 
rods east of the meeting-house, being the norwest corner of the 
Burying Place; thence S. 36° E. 12 rods, to stones on the side 
hill ; thence E. 36° N. 13 rods to a stone against the little Pond in 
the southeast corner ; thence N. 36° W. 12 rods to a stone against 
a little Hollow in the noreast corner ; thence to where we began 13 

Oct. 8, 1788. The town voted to take 624- rods of land of Land- 
lord John Thomson, for to enlarge the Burying Yard, and allow 
him the land that belongs to the town which he has closed in his 


pasture, in exchange." It was also voted to inclose this yard with 
a stone wall ; and John Thomson, Francis Brakenridge & Lieut. 
Joshua Shaw were chosen a committee to do the work at a cost not 
to exceed £36. This vote was afterwards reconsidered ; and a fence, 
instead of a wall, was built. At the same meeting, it was voted 
that Aaron Merrick, Lieut. John King & Dr. Calvin Scott be a 
committee to fence & repair the South Burying Yard." This com- 
mittee reported May 8, 1789, that having proposed to that Neigh- 
borhood to do the Avork by subscri])tion, the following men agreed 
to assist in making and erecting the fence, viz. Lieut. Wm. Scott, 
Maj. Aaron Graves, Daniel Graves, Simeon Graves, William Scott, 
Esq., James King, Benjamin King, Gideon King, Lieut. David 
King, Deacon Thomas King, Jonathan Cooley, Capt. Sylvanus 
Walker, Sylvanus Walker, Jun., Jesse King, together with the 
members of the committee. The town accejited the report, and 
voted that the above named persons be exempted from doing any 
part of fencing the Burying Place at the meeting-house. 

In 1800, Capt. John King contracted with the selectmen to dig 
graves as occasion required, in the South Burying Ground for the 
sum of 25 cents each. Solomon Shaw made a like agreement for 
the grave yard at the meeting-house. 

In 1865, four and a half acres of adjoining land was purchased 
by the town, of Elisha Converse, To enlarge the South Cemetery, 
and the whole ground enclosed. The present area is about six acres. 

Tomhs. In April 1830, the town voted to build a tomb in each 
of the public Burying Grounds at the expense of the town, and 
granted 8300 for that purpose, and appointed the selectmen a com- 
mittee to cause said tombs to be built. This vote was reconsidered 
and the town voted to give leave to individuals, inhabitants of the 
town, to build tombs for their own use. 

List of Town officers elected March 1!), 1709. 

Town Clerk, John A. Smith ; Selectmen, Aaron Merrick, Gor- 
don Sedgwick, Capt Alpheus Converse, Lieut. James Smith, Dr. 
Jonathan Shearer ; Town Treasurer, Joseph Smith ; Constable & 
Collector, Isaac Warren ; Assessors, Admatha Blodgett, Dr. Jona. 
Shearer, Dr. Jabez Lamb ; Highway Surveyors, William Foster, 
Capt. Patrick Watson, Capt. John King, Isaac Warren, Lieut. 
Urijah Ward, Zenas Rider, Theophilus Knight ; Tythingmen, Ens. 
William Spear, Jacob Converse ; Sealer of Weights and Measures, 
Clark McMaster ; Cullers of Lumber, Ens. William Spear, Moses 
Shaw ; Fence Viewers, William King, Patrick AVatson ; Sealer of 
Leather, Jonathan Moores ; Hog Eeeves, Joseph Converse, Dr. 
Nathan Cummings. 

PALMEK A TOWN, 1776-1812. 213 

Granted for repair of riighwa5^s, $250. 
Granted for support of Schools, $300. 
Granted for support of the Poor, 8125. 
Granted for Rev. Mr. Baldwin's salary, S250. 
Granted for Incidentals, $G1. 

A New Meetixg-House. — The first Meeting-House, which had 
stood for 60 years, had become much dilapidated. It could in lit- 
eral truth be said of it, " Yea, the sparrow hath found an house, 
and the swallow a nest for herself, where she may lay her young, 
even Thine altars, Lord of Hosts!" Parson Baldwin had a 
powerful voice, but it was with difficulty that his prayer and ser- 
mon could be followed during the nesting time of the swal- 
lows, who kept up their customary twittering and fluttering in 
meeting time, regardless of any devout asjiirations of the worship- 
pers below. 

The matter of building a new meeting-house was brought before 
the town in the fall of 1795, when 24 voted in favor and 9 against 
it. It was voted to set the house " on the land where the old one 
stands, or as near as the ground will admit of." The spot finally 
selected was to the southeast and across the road from the old one. 
It was voted " to build a house 50 ft. long by 40 ft. wide, with a 
porch at each end thereof." This was afterwards changed to 46 by 
45 ft., with a porch at the west end 15 ft. square. Moses Shaw 
was appointed "to make out a plan of the Meeting-house," and 
Lieut. James Smith, Aaron Merrick and David King were chosen 
a committee to superintend the work. At a later date, Capt. 
Alpheus Converse, Aaron Merrick, Lieut. Urijah Ward, Lieut. 
Luke Hitchcock, Theophilus Knight, Gideon Graves and Lieut. 
James Smith were appointed superintending committee. The 
money due the town for the " School Lot " and other outstand- 
ing claims were appropriated to pay for the meeting-house. 
These bills not being readily collectable, the town voted "to sell 
the pews and pew-rights in the proposed meeting-house, and use 
the money so raised to pay for the house — the sale to be by pub- 
lic vendue, and payment to be made in the following manner, 
viz. : " One-third part by the 26th day of Nov' next ; a second 
payment by the 26th of May in the year 1797 ; and a third pay- 
ment in two years from the 26th day of May which will be in the 
year 1798." 

It was voted that the materials be gathered and the frame set up 
in June, 1797. Voted that "the new meeting-house shall be 
underpinned with good and handsome stone, so that the sill shall 


lie 14 inches from the ground at the highest j)lace of ground." 
Voted, that the pews in the new meeting-house ''be finished with 

The meeting-house was practically finished in the fall of 1798 ; 
and it was dedicated on Sabbath, October 21, of that year. 

There were 46 pews on the ground floor, which sold for the sum 
of $2,501, and 30 pews in the gallery, which sold for $783.50, 
making a total of 13,284.50. This sum, with the avails of the 
School Lot, more than met the cost of the house, and one-third 
was deducted from the face of each pew-note. 

Sale of the Old Meeting-Hoiise. At a town meeting held Sept. 
13, 1798, "personally appeared the major part of the pew-holders 
in the old Meeting-House, and agreed with the town that they 
would acquit and relinquish all right & title to s^ house in respect 
to private property, excepting the window in Scott's pew, and in 
Deacon Joshua Shaw's pew, which they may take out and carry 
away: Also any person a pew-holder may take off and carry away 
the hinges of his pew. Voted to sell the old Meeting House at a 
public vendue to the highest bidder." 

Horse- Sheds. Land for horse-sheds was staked out as fol- 
lows, viz. : " Between the meeting-house and Burying place, 128 
feet ; north of the Turnpike road, 170 feet ; northeast of the 
meeting-house, 24 feet ; southeast of the meeting-house, on the 
hill, 100 feet ; and the ground on the road between Moses Shaw's 
and Mr. Tupper's store." This gave room for 55 sheds. ''Voted, 
that the persons who stand highest on the estate bill may have 
the first choice of ground to build horse-sheds on, each shed 
to be 8 ft. long, and to be built within one year, or lose their 

Cupola. In the fall of 1806 the town voted to raise the sum of 
$600 towards building a cupola on the meeting-house. It was com- 
pleted in the spring of 1808, for the sum of $470. 

Bell. When the frame of the cupola was up, in 1807, Mr. Aaron 
Merrick purchased a bell and presented it to the town. In 
acknowledgement of the gift, the town ordered that the bell should 
be rung on each coming birthday of the donor (November 25th), 
and presented him the following letter : 

Aaron Merrick, Esq. 

Sir : By vote of the Inhabitants of this town, we are selected to express 
to you their gratitude for your repeated and almost unexampled generosity 
to the town. "We are very sensible. Sir, that praise & adulation would not 
be pleasing, but disgusting to you ; yet give us leave to say, that to you we 
are indebted iu a very great degree for the present respectable figure we 

PALMER A TOWN, 1776-1813. 215 

make in society.* Your late instance of generosity in presenting the town 
a valuable Bell, which proves not only an ornament to the place, but ex- 
tremely useful in calling together its members on all public occasions, will 
never be obliterated from the memory, but always remain recorded in the 
hearts of your grateful fellow townsmen ; and we now beg you to accept, 
through us their committee of their most sincere & grateful acknowledge- 
ments. And we most earnestly pray that you may yet many years enjoy 
health & prosperity, continue a blessing to your family, this town & your 
Your most obliged and very humble servants, 

Moses Baldwin, ^ 
Amos Hamilton, |- Committee. 
J. Baldwin, ) 

Palmer, 18th March, 1808. 

Stove. Nov. 3, 1828. The town voted, " That Benjamin Con- 
verse and other individuals have leave to put in a stove into the 
meeting-house, provided it be done free of expense to the town." 
The story goes, that a good woman, who had always found sufficient 
comfort in her fur cloak and foot-stove, on entering the meeting- 
house and seeing the formidable heater, became excited and fever- 
ish, and was so overcome by the hot aii- that she actually fainted — 
tho' it proved on examination that 7io Jtre had been kindled in the 
new stove ! 

In 1809 the town appropriated $100 for painting the meeting- 

May, 1815. The town voted " To have patent springs put in in 
all the lower windows in the meeting-house, & a lock provided for 
the upper door in the cupola, to be under the order of the select- 

In May, 1828, an article in tlie town warrant was '*To grant 
money to repair the meeting-house & cupola." ''Voted to raise 
1250 to paint the meeting-house and repair the steeple." A com- 
mittee was appointed, who proceeded to do the work, and expended 
in all 8464, which the town allowed and paid. 

March, 1822. The town chose Col. Amos Hamilton, Benjamin 
Converse and Philip Lamb a committee to purchase a Bass-viol for 
the use of the town. 

Jan. 23, 1835. "Voted that the town consent that the Congre- 
gational Society (organized April 4, 1831) make such alterations in 
the meeting-house as they think proper — provided it is done with- 
out expense to the town in its corporate capacity ; and that the So- 
ciety be allowed the avails of the pews or slips when sold." Did 

* In October, 1805, Mr. Merrick built and presented to the town a Town House, in which to hold 
its business meetings. 


the meeting-house thus come, de facto, under the control of the 
First Parish ? 

By common consent of all parties in interest, the meeting- 
house was forsaken as a place of worship by the Congregation- 
alists, April 1, 1847 ; and a division of territory agreed upon, 
the northerly part of the town to belong to the First Parish, 
and the southerly part to the Second Parish. The latter built a 
new house at the Depot Village, and the former a new house at 

The old meeting-house stood empty for a time ; was then occu- 
pied by the Methodists for a couple of years. Jan. 15, 1854, it was 
sold at auction for $600, to Gamaliel Collins, Esq., for the use of 
the Catholics; was repaired, and consecrated July 1, 1855; and 
was occupied by them for some years. After this it remained deso- 
late till a late period, when it was sold and taken down. 

The Bell. The ownership of the bell, which, as before stated, was 
a gift to the town by Aaron Merrick, Esq., was a matter in disj^ute 
for 4 or 5 years. The dwellers at the Old Centre and others 
claimed that it belonged to the town, and should remain in its 
place in the meeting-house, still the town's property. The Thorn- 
dike people, now the nucleus of the First Church and Society, 
claimed that the ownership vested in them as the First Parish 
which had legally taken the place of the town as to all ecclesiasti- 
cal and parochial rights and privileges. In a legal opinion. Judge 
Chapman took the same view, but advised a cautious course of 
procedure in getting possession. The Centre peoj^le kept good 
watch and ward, and were determined to prevent capture by sur- 
prise or assault. 

About the middle of January, 1852, a church sociable was held 
at Thorndike ; and soon after midnight a party consisting of about 
40 men in sleighs and an ox-sled, went quietly to the Centre, found 
their way into the meeting-house, and with pullies lowered the bell 
and loaded it on the sled. Just before starting they gave the bell 
one loud ring, which waked the hamlet ; but the force was too 
large to be overcome by the half-dressed dwellers ; and the prize 
was borne off to the village and raised to its place in the cupola of 
the new meeting-house. 

The affair created much excitement and bred ill-feeling. And at 
tlic March meeting (1852) the town "Voted That the selectmen be 
a committee to procure all the records in relation to the Bell, 
Meeting-house and other property in dispute between the town and 
Society, and place them in the hands of Myron Lawrence, Esq., 
for his examination & opinion in relation to the lawful owner of 

PALMER A TOWN, 1776-1812. 217 

said property, and that his opinion bo binding on both parties." 
The " opinion '' is not on record. 

Nov. 14, 1853. The town chose a committee of ten, viz., Elias 
Turner, Joseph Moody, Aaron King, Eobert McMaster, Eufus 
Smith, Moses Learned, Ralph Green, Seva Brown, William Mc- 
Elwain and Lorenzo C. Ferry, to go and take down the old bell 
from Thorndike meeting-house, and re-place it in the old meeting- 
house belfry from whence it came. Voted that the above-named 
committee be required to give bonds to the selectmen in the sum 
of i;5,000, to indemnify the town from all costs and expenses that 
may be made by the said committee." 

No further town action appears upon the records. Probably the 
15,000 bond worked as an effectual quietus to the agitation ; and 
the bell remained at Thorndike. 

Tlie Embargo. Sept., 1808. At a meeting the town Voted that 
the selectmen in behalf of the town, petition the President of the 
United States to repeal the Embargo, similar to the petition from 
the inhabitants of Boston. 

Muster. The town Voted "to give each soldier in the militia 
and cavalry in the town of Palmer, six ounces of powder for mus- 
ter on the 28th instant." 

Eev. Moses Baldwin. — At a meeting of Palmer District held 
on Monday, Oct. 27, 1760, it was voted ''to send Seth Shaw to 
Southold on Long Island, after the Rev. Mr. Baldwin to labor in 
the work and doctrine in this corner of the vineyard." Mr. Shaw 
was paid eight dollars for the expenses of his trip. Mr. Baldwin 
came on and preached through the winter, and March 3, 1761, it 
was "voted by the Inhabitants of Palmer to give the Rev. Moses 
Baldwin a call to settle in the work of the Gospel ministry, accord- 
ing to the Presbyterian platform of the Church of Scotland. 
Voted, to give Mr. Baldwin £60 lawful money per year as a salary, 
from the time of his ordination so long as he continues in the work 
of the ministry in this District. Voted, to make over by deed to 
Mr. B. the 150 acre Lot which we have reserved for the ministry, 
for his own proper estate, he paying into our treasury the sum of 
£150 lawful money, or signing the same to be paid in a reasonable 
time with interest." This 150 acres was not the "Ministry Lot" 
originally laid out and held for the use of the successive pastors, 
for that lot had been sold^, and, by permission of the General Court, 
tlie money invested in the purchase of the farm formerly owned 
and occupied by Rev. Robert Burns during his ministry. This 
Burns farm lav three-fourths of a mile south of the old meetinsr- 


house, on what was known as the Stafford and Greenwich Turn- 
pike. It had good buildings and much of it under cultivation, 
and was altogether a desirable parsonage — though the bargain 
seemed a hard one for the young minister. He was to hold it in 
fee, and not on sufferance, as had been the tenure of the ''Ministry 
Lot/' and was to have five years in which to make payment, and 
the estate was exempt from taxation. The committee to wait upon 
Mr. B. and receive his answer were Barnard McNitt, Wm. Scott, 
Jun., James Brackenridge, Capt. John Thomson, Samuel Shaw, 
John McMaster and Seth Shaw. 

Mr. Baldwin accepted the call, and was installed by the Boston 
Presbytery June 17, 1761. 

Mr. B. made payments for his farm as follows : In 1765, £80 ; in 
69, £30, and the balance a year or two later. At the date of pay- 
ment of each instalment the town, by vote, remitted the interest then 
due. In 1774 three pounds was voted to Mr. Baldwin '' for getting 
his firewood." The next year four pounds was granted him for the 
same purpose, and it was voted that Mr. B. "have liberty to get 
2000 rails upon the School Lot to I'epair his fences." 

In December, 1778, an article in the warrant was " to take under 
consideration the salary of Rev. Moses Baldwin, the necessaries of 
life at the present time being so far advanced in their prices that 
his present salary is not suflBcient for his support — to act and do at 
said meeting respecting his support equitable and honourable." 
Under this article, the town ''voted 232 pounds to the Kev. Mr. 
Baldwin, for an addition to his salary, for the present year." This 
was probably in the depreciated currency, and amounted to much 
less than the figures indicated. 

The next year an article in the October warrant was "To see if 
the town will make the Eev. Mr. Baldwin's salary as good as it 
was when he settled in the town, in any sort of grain, either wheat, 
rye, or Indian corn, as the price was when he settled with us, or in 
money equal as said grain now goes." *' Voted, to establish the 
Eev. Moses Baldwin's salary at sixty pounds a year for the future, 
making the standard the following articles, viz. Wheat, at 5 
shillings per bushel, rye, at 3 shillings and 4 pence per bushel, 
Indian corn, at 2 shillings and 5 pence per bushel, and good grass- 
fed beef at 20 shillings per hundred." This assumption on the 
part of the town of the right to construe or alter the terms of the 
original contract by substituting "current money" for "lawful 
money," and making grain and beef a legal tender, was radical in 
its nature, and, though justified probably on the plea of necessity, 
yet it disturbed the cordial relations which so far had subsisted be- 

PALMER A TOWN, 1776-1812. 219 

tween pastor and people. The pastor felt the pressure, and the 
people had a sense of the wrong. And at a meeting held Sept. 3, 
1781, Maj. Aaron Graves, Capt. David Spear and Doctor Benjamin 
Trask were appointed a committee "to agree with Rev. Mr. Bald- 
win as to his salary for the year past." The committee reported 
that "■ if they paid the salary in money it should be allowed at the 
rate of 90 pounds for 60 pounds," and it was so voted. 

But the times were ''out of Joint." And in November, 1784, 
Mr. Baldwin felt constrained to ask a dismission. A meeting of the 
town was called, and Francis Brackenridge, Lieut. Joshua Shaw, 
Urijah Ward, Capt. David Spear and Wm. Scott, Jun., were ap- 
pointed a committee " to treat with the Eev*^ Moses Baldwin Con- 
sarning his oneseness and if that they finde that it is for Lack of 
more Salery for to see how much of an idesion satisfy him and make 
Keport." The town voted — 14 ayes to 8 noes — to add 15 pounds tO' 
Mr. B.^s salary, making it 75 pounds per annum, equal to 1250, which 
continued to be the salary during the remainder of his pastoarte. 

In January, 1810, an article in the warrant was, '* To see if the- 
town will grant money for the purpose of hiring a minister to 
assist the Rev. Mr. Baldwin in supplying the pulpit the present 
winter." It was passed over, but the insertion of the article was 
significant of the popular sentiment. Mr. Baldwin proposed to the 
town to relinquish a part of his salary, on condition that the town 
shall supply the pulpit a certain part of the time. And Aaron 
Merrick, Esq., Capt. Alpheus Converse and Deacon Gordon Sedg- 
wick were appointed a committee to arrange the matter. The up- 
shot was that the town voted to pay Mr. B. 1100 per annum and ta 
hire a candidate to supply the pulpit. 

In January, 1811, Mr. Simeon Colton was employed to preach 
on probation. The following letter speaks for itself and deserves 
a place in these annals as a testimony of the unselfish spirit and 
honorable motives of the writer as a man, and his Christ-like spirit 
as a minister of the Gospel. 

"To the Church and Congregation of Palmer : 

Having been informed by a committee chosen by the town, that it is your 
desire that I should be dismissed from the ministerial charge of the church 
and congregation, that the town may with less inconvenience settle a min- 
ister who may be able to perform the duties which are necessarily incum- 
bered on one in that office — For nearly half a century I have served you as 
your settled minister. On the 17th day of June next, will be fully com- 
pleted fifty years since I was regularly installed over this churck and 
congregation ; and during this period, untill very lately, I have been able 
to serve you, whether well or not well, will leave to the Great Judge of all 
to determine. I am now aged and infirm. I verily thought, when I settled 


with you, that I was settled for life ; and still am convinced that if the 
records had been made, this would abundantly appear. I conceived that 
in this way I had laid a foundation to render my last days, when age and 
infirmities might come upon me, comfortable and easy, well knowing 
that my annual income was so small that I should not be able to lay up 
a sufficiency. During the period which divine Providence "has suffered 
me to continue among you in the work of the ministry, I have invariably 
made it my chief study, as far as my feeble abilities would admit, to 
teach #uch things as I conceived would lead the people under my charge to 

The good of this people has invariably been my wish, and if I know my 
own heart, the same spirit governs me to the present time. I do not a 
moment hesitate to do that which will have a tendency to promote the 
glorious cause of the Redeemer. Relying en the divine Protection, and 
on the generosity of the people with whom I have lived so long in the 
bonds of love and friendship, I freely resign the charge I have so long 
held, upon the terms which your committee were pleased to oft'er, which 
were, that I should be paid by the town one hundred dollars a year so long 
as I live. I do also consent to be dismissed by the Council which may be 
called to ordain Mr. Simeon Colton, or in any other suitable manner most 
agreeable to the town— on condition the town confirm the proposition 
which was made me by the committee, as stated above. I would ask your 
serious attention to one other point, which I will offer only as a request, 
and by no means have considered as a demand, viz. I am apprehensive that 
were I dismissed from this people, the little property I now possess would 
be liable to taxation ; and I humbly conceive that your generosity will be 
such that you will free myself and property from that burden during the 
short period I may continue with you. I feel sensible that I must deny 
myself many of the comforts of life with so small a stipend ; but trusting 
in the Kind and protecting care of the Great God of the Universe, I feel 
a perfect confidence that I shall not want the real necessaries of life during 
the few days I may continue on earth. And may God in his infinite good- 
ness protect and keep us from all evil, and finally unite us again in his 
heavenly Kingdom, where we shall enjoy Bliss without alloy. 

Palmer 23 May 1811. Moses Baldwin. 

The ecclesiastical council, to dismiss Mr. Baldwin and ordain his 
sui;cessor, met June 18, 1811. Kev. Ephraim Ward of Brookfield 
was chosen moderator, and Eev. Warren Fay of Brimfield scribe. 
The record reads : " This Council having received a request from 
the Rev. Moses Baldwin and the Church in Palmer, that the con- 
nection between them be dissolved, and taking the subject into 
consideration, viewed their request proper — and accordingly voted 
that the connection be dissolved." 

This act of dismission of Mr. Baldwin by a Council of Congrega- 
tional Churches, instead of by Presbytery, and the ordination of 
Mr. Colton by the same Council, was the only formality used in 

PALMER A TOWN, 177G-1812. 221 

changing the Churcli polity from Presbyterianism to Congrega- 

Mr. Baldwin was a native of Newark, N. J.; was a graduate of 
New Jersey College at Princeton, and the first to receive collegiate 
honors at that institution in 1757. The degree of A. M. was con- 
ferred on him by D. C. in 1791. He received ordination as an 
evangelist, and was laboring as such at Southold on Long Island, 
when he was invited to come to Palmer. After preaching six 
months as a candidate he was installed June 17, 1761, and con- 
tinued in the pastoral office here a full half-century. But few 
incidents of his long and eventful life can now be gathered. Xo 
church records are extant covering this period. Public attention 
and town action were largely absorbed in the series of important 
events, preceding, constituting, and following the Eevolutionary 
War. The few references on the town records to the minister and 
his ministry have been copied in the preceding pages. That at one 
period of his pastorate he had sore trials of faith and patience, and 
heavy discouragements, is apparent from the record. And it is no 
less clear that his ministry was useful and fruitful of good. The 
spirit of the man and the minister is indicated in his letter to the 
church and congregation. ''He was tall in stature, and of a dark 
complexion : social in his nature ; full of good feeling and hearty 
sympathy, which rendered him a genial companion and a welcome 
visitor at the homes of his parishioners. As preacher, he was bold, 
animated and fervent, and much given to gesticulation. His man- 
uscript sermons show that he depended a good deal on the spur of 
the moment, many of the sentences being only begun, the filling 
out being left to the quickened intellect and excited feelings of the 
hour and occasion. He survived every male inhabitant who was at 
the head of a family when he settled in the place." He survived 
his dismission only two and a half years, dying at his home in Pal- 
mer on Tuesday, November 3, 1813, aged 81. His remains were 
interred on Thursday, when the Kev. Justus Forward of Belcher- 
town preached a sermon from Zech. 1: 5. '-'Your fathers, where 
are they? and the prophets, do they live forever?" 

The "Hampden Federalist" of November 18, 1813, a newspaper 
published at Springfield, gives the following obituary notice of Mr. 
Baldwin : "As a minister of Christ, he was faithful and diligent 
in discharging the duties of his office. Few have gone through a 
greater variety of trials ; few have subsisted upon a smaller annual 
stipend, and few have ever manifested a greater attachment to a 
people, or sought more earnestly for their good. His greatest am- 
bition was to please God. He gloried in maintaining and defend- 


ing the system of faith, which was 'once delivered to the saints.' 
His doctrines were pure, for they were the doctrines of the gospel ; 
his preaching was impressive, for it was the preaching of the cross 
of Christ ; and his motives were good, for he sought to win souls 
to God. As a speaker, he was above mediocrity. Few possessed 
an equal talent in gaining the attention, and interesting the feel- 
ings of an audience. In all his dealings with m'an, as well as in the 
discharge of his official duties, he was punctual and exact. As a 
husband he was affectionate, and as a parent he was watchful and 
kind. Mourning friends will regret his loss, and an affectionate 
people will sympathize with them in their affliction. ' Blessed are 
the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth : Yea, saith the 
Spirit, that they may rest from their labours : and their works do 
follow them.'" 

The following memorandum was found among some loose papers 
in Mr. Baldwin's desk after his decease. It appears to have been 
the beginning of an autobiographical sketch of his life : 

''I, Moses Baldwin, was born November 4, 1732: two months 
after my father died; and my mother about four years after him. 
After the death of the latter, I lived about two years with my uncle 
Harrison. After this I lived with Moses Ball, my mother's uncle, 
till I was fifteen years old, when God in his providence was pleased 
to remove him by death. After this I put myself as an apprentice 
to learn a trade, which I pursued till I was nineteen years of age, 
when God gave me a greater sense of my lost state and of the im- 
portance of salvation than I had ever yet had. Upon this, being 
resolved to seek God till I found Him through all " 

TuRXPiKES AND STAGES. — The first incorporated Turnpike 
road, built in Massachusetts, ran through Palmer Centre. It was 
chartered in 1796, through the influence of Capt. Levi Pease of 
Shrewsbury. Capt. Pease was a native of Enfield, Ct., born m 1739; 
served his time as apprentice to the blacksmith's trade, and at the 
commencement of the Revolutionary War, was living in Blandford, 
Mass. He was in the public service during the whole of the war, 
in the commissary department, and as the bearer of important 
dispatches. When Gen. Thomas was on the Northern frontier, he 
often passed to and fro between him and head-quarters ; and was 
present with him when he died of small pox. He was strong, 
courageous and wary. He used to tell how to avoid capture when 
carrying orders, he crossed the lake in a small boat, and alone, 
rather than travel by the usual routes ; lying concealed in the day- 
time, and pushing ahead at night. When the moon shone bright. 

PALMER A TOWN, 1776-1812. 223 

he -would pull out from shore, and stretching himself at length, 
would work the boat with his hands as paddles. He always got his 
dispatches through safely. Commissary Wadsworth often trusted 
hira with a saddle-bag full of money with which to purchase cattle 
and horses, taking no receipt therefor. His business led him to an 
intimate acquaintance with the lay of the land and the people of 
Connecticut, Massachusetts and Eastern New York. He foraged 
for the French army in its march to Yorktown. In Virginia the 
corn was then in the milk, and he would buy it by the acre, paying 
the price of ten bushels of hard corn per acre. It was used for 
fodder for horses and beeves. 

After the war Capt. Pease, who was then living at Somers, Ct., 
established a stage-route between Hartford and Boston. In 1794, 
he removed to Shrewsbury and continued the running of stages. 
Sometimes he had one passenger, and sometimes none ; but by reg- 
ularity of trips, rain or shine, he soon enlisted confidence and 
secured patronage. He drove his own teams, and repaired his 
carriages at his own blacksmith's shop. He early obtained from 
the Government a contract for transporting the mails. The prospect 
was bright ; but the roads were circuitous and bad. His means 
were limited ; and he conceived the idea of organizing a stock 
company, which should build and maintain straight turnpikes, on 
which he might run his stage-coaches, and which would attract 
general travel, and the tolls could be relied on to repay the invest- 
ment. His expectations were realized so far as patronage of his 
stage lines was concerned ; but his hopes were disappointed as to 
the surplus income from tolls. And having taken the largest part 
of the stock, by its depreciation in value, he lost much of his estate. 

FiEST Massachusetts Turnpike. — " Whereas the highway lead- 
ing through the towns of Palmer and Western, is circuitous, rocky 
and mountainous, and there is much travelling over the same, and 
the expense of straightening, making and repairing an highway 
through those towns, so as that the same may be safe and convenient 
for travellers with horses and carriages, would be much greater than 
ought to be required of the said towns, under their present circum- 
stances : 

Be it therefore enacted, That Levi Pease, Ephriam Mower, Na- 
thaniel Gorham, Moses Bliss, Thomas D wight, D wight Foster, 
John Hastings, David Sexton, Samuel Fowler, Daniel Goulding, 
Ebenezer Hunt, Samuel Henshaw, John Hooker, Erastus Lyman, 
Joseph Lyman, Levi Lincoln, Pliny Merrick, Ebenezer Mattoon, 
Jun., Charles Phelps, Nathaniel Paine, Warwick Parks, Benjamin 


Prescott, William Sliepard, Levi Sliepard, Simeon Strong, Phinelias 
Upham, Samuel Ward, John Williams, Samuel Flagg, Salem Town, 
etc., shall be a corporation by the name of The First Massachu- 
.setts Turnpike Corporation, etc., for the purpose of laying out 
and making a Turnpike Road, from Western Bridge, near the 
Upper Mills, so called, in Western, county of Worcester, to the 
county road near the house lately called Scoffs Tavern, in Palmer, 
county of Hampshire, and for keeping the same in repair ; which 
road shall not be less than thirty feet wide in any place ; — with the 
privilege of erecting a gate, etc., and to receive tolls as follows: for 
a two-horse coach or four-wheeled carriage, 25 cents : a cart drawn 
by two oxen, &c., 10 cents ; a curricle, 9 cents ; a two-horse sleigh, 
9 cents ; a chair, chaise and two-wheeled carriage with one horse, 
9 cents ; oxen, horses, &c., driven, 3 cents ; sheep and swine, 3 
cents per dozen. [The tolls were afterwards raised to 15 cents for 
one-horse curricles, chaises, &c.] 

Section 2 gives authority to purchase and take land. 

Section 3 fixes the penalty for hindering travelers. 

Section 4 fixes the penalty for injuring the gate. 

Section 5 provides that the shares shall be regarded as personal 

Section G directs the first meeting of the corporation to be held 
at Simeon Dwight's Tavern in Western. 

The said Turnpike must be completed within five years. 

Passed June 11, 1796. 

In November following the act was amended so as to require the 
road to be three rods wide, with a roadway of 18 feet. 

March 1, 1798. The corporation was authorized to build an ad- 
dition, to constitute a part of the Turnpike, from the house of 
Maj. Aaron Graves in Palmer, to the house of Col. Reuben Sikes 
in Wilbraham, with the right to set up a gate and take toll. [Col. 
Sikes was a boyhood acquaintance and friend of Capt. Pease. 
Their affection was like that of brothers. Both were blacksmiths, 
and well versed in their trade. Pease, having failed to secure co- 
operation in other quarters, requested Sikes to join him in his new 
enterprise. He readily complied ; their views and plans were har- 
monious ; and so far as the running of stages was concerned, their 
venture was successful. Col. Sikes removed to Worcester, where 
he was keeping the stage tavern 1815-20.] 

Capt. Pease, who was the leading spirit of the corporation, 
pushed the enterprise, so that the stages were running over the new 
route in November, 1797. This road ran through Palmer Old Cen- 
tre, and kejDt on the northerly side of the river eastward ; and was 

PALMER A TOWlf, 1776-1812. 225 

the leading thoroughfare for long travel between Boston, Worcester, 
Springfield, Hartford, New Haven and New York for many years. 
The toll-gate was about two miles east of Palmer meeting-house. 
At first, a single stage coach was run three times a week each way. 
leaving Boston every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday at noon, 
reaching Worcester at 8.30 p. m., Brookfield at 12 midnight. Pal- 
mer at 3 a. m., AVilbraham at 4 a. m., Suffield at 7.30 a. m., where 
it stopped two hours ; reached Hartford at 11.30 a. m.. New Haven 
at 6 p. m.. New York next day at noon, making the trip in 48 
hours. The return trip was on alternate days. As patronage in- 
creased, additional stages were put on, and made daily trips each 
way. In 1830, two or three coaches were running each way every 
day; and this continued till the Boston & Albany railroad was 
opened in 1839. 

Capt. Pease died in 1824, and from that date the stage line wai< 
owned and controlled by other parties. But to him belongs the 
credit of being the father of the stage coaches. 

The Petersham and Mojison Turnpilce Corporation was estab- 
lished Feb. 29, 1804, its right of way leading from the Fifth Mass. 
Turnpike in Athol through the towns of Athol, Petersham, Dana, 
Greenwich, Ware, Palmer and Monson, and connecting with the 
turnpike from Stafford, Ct., southward. This road crossed Ware 
river by a bridge just above the present Whipple bridge, ran 
through Palmer Old Centre and over the Quabaug at Fay's bridge. 
It was not used, except for a brief period, as a stage route, but for 
the transportation of heavy goods by teaming. The original inten- 
tion was to establish a rival route to the water-way on the Con- 
necticut river through the South Hadley and Montague canals, 
which had Hartford and Brattleboro' as its termini. Norwich was 
then jealous of Hartford as the entrepot of heavy merchandize, and 
planned this turnpike to promote its commercial interests. 

The route followed was nearly the same as that of the New Lon- 
don & Northern Railroad as far as Palmer, from which point it 
bore to the east-north-east, thus supplying a tier of towns away 
from the river with West India goods, iron, etc. Petersham was 
then the leading town in population and enterprise in Northern 
Worcester County and an important centre of business ; and from 
Athol the "great road" stretched both east and west. The traffic 
over the new turnpike was large for a number of years, a very con- 
stant succession of heavy teams passing to and fro. It is believed, 
however, that the real per cent, of gain was with the teams and 
local traders, rather than with the corporation. The turnpike was 
given up, and was accepted as a county road in 1819. 


Palmer in Modern Times— 181;^-1889. 




AT the date of the opening of this chapter, though " old things " 
had passed away — the old forests, the old meeting-house, the 
log cabins, the old men and women ; and new times had 
begun — new dwellings, new names, new fashions of dress and style 
of living, a new ecclesiastical polity ; — yet the Palmer of 1812, bore 
slight resemblance to the Palmer of 1889. The great water-power 
of the rivers, the utilizing of which is our distinguishing feature, 
and prime source of prosperity, was then running to waste, except 
to drive a few grist and saw mills, a fulling mill or two, and some 
shingle machines ; the body of the people were living in their scat- 
tered farm-steads, each family having its '' road to mill and meet- 
ing," and its way to the nearest turnpike or county road ; many 
of the lanes still maintaining gates and bars ; * swine and cattle 

* April I, 1816, the town voted to grant the petition of S.imuel McCIenathan, Jun., if the said 
Samuel would pay the expense of the road through widow Grover's land, and that Thomas McClana- 
than, 2d, would consent to have the road laid thro' his land, provided the town would allow the said 

PALMER IN MODERN TIMES, 1812-1889. 227 

running at large on the highways and woodlands ; and the tything- 
man ready with his official staff to arrest tlie Sunday wayfarer. 

There were then three main lines of transportation and travel 
through the town. The old Bay Path ran from Wilbraham Line 
via Scott's bridge, through King's Row to Powers' Corner, and so 
to Western Old Centre. This road took largely the pleasure travel, 
partly because it was the old way, and partly to shun the toll-gate 
where 15 cents were exacted for the privilege of passing. The 
other east and west route was the First Turnpike, which ran from 
Scott's bridge via Palmer Centre to Western Upper Mills. This 
was then in its full tide of success, and the stageman's horn awoke 
the echoes in Dumplin, and the arrival and departure made daily 
brief excitement and bustle at the meeting-house hamlet. The 
north and south travel passed over the Petersham & Monson Turn- 
pike. This was of benefit to the country store and tavern at the 
Centre, as the pleasure travel was to the taverns on the Bay road. 

At the date in question, there was no place which could be prop- 
erly called a village. At the old Centre was the graveyard, the new 
meeting-house and horse-shed, the district school-house of con- 
tracted dimensions. The town house, which was a small building 
erected in 1805 by Aaron Merrick, Esq., and given to the town,* 
stood hard by the school-house. The taverns of Landlord King, 
where the stages stopped (earlier Quinton's, and later Frink's 
Tavern), Landlord Asa AVard (earlier John Thomson's, father and 
son), Hamilton and L'^pham's store, and the dwelling houses of 
Moses Shaw the carpenter, and Daniel Shearer, made up the ham- 
let. Capt. Allen, the blacksmith, lived a mile to the east. 

On the Bay Eoad, scattered through a couple of miles, were 
Graves' tavern, west of the river, opposite the Washington elm ; the 
site of the famous Scott's tavern east of the river, then in ruins \ 
Asa Bates' tavern, a short distance further east, which soon gave 
place to John Sedgwick's on Shearer's Corner. Then came the 
cellar hole and well which marked the site of Joseph Wright's log 
cabin, opposite the Point of Rocks; and further along, just east of 
the Point, was the old John King house, standing on the east end 
of the terraced lot, now owned by Dr. William Holbrook (the barn 
forms part of the out-buildings of Mr. David Knox). Then came 

Thomas to erect good convenient gates or bars across the road leading from his house to Erwin Shaw's, 
and to discontinue the road as an open way so long as good gates and bars are kept in good repair by 
Thomas McClanathan, 2d, or whoever occupies the farm he now lives on. 

* Nov. 25, 1805. The town voted "That Daniel Shearer, James Smith, Jun., and Jacob Con- 
verse, Jun., cause to be published in the federal Spy at the expense of the town the public donation 
of Aaron Merrick, Esq., (viz., the new & convenient and well excepted Town House), which he built 
& presented to the town as a gift. And voted that there should be drawn in letters over the door of 
said Town house the year it was built & by whom it was built." 


the John King 2d's house, where Benjamin King lived. King's 
tavern occupied the spot where Cross' Block noAV stands, and was 
then the dwelling of Col. Cyrus Knox.* John Shaw lived on the 
opposite side of the street, the house standing in the roadway now 
leading to the John Squire's foundry ; his blacksmith shop was 
where Commercial Block now is. This was the only shop in the 
neighborhood. Mr. Shaw himself was not a smith, but he hired 
men who were skilled in the trade, and who went to the shop on 
call. From here the street made a sharp descent almost to a level 
with the present railroad bed, where it turned to the east and up 
the slope. On the slope, where is now the brick dwelling house, 
lived David King, a grandson of John, Sen. Where is now the 
residence of Mrs. Laura E. Child was a large house, originally 
built by Deacon Thomas King, son of John, Sen., and then occu- 
pied by Daniel King, Jun. The main uj^right part was moved 
about 1840 to the site of the Weeks House, and was occupied as a 
tavern by A. N. Dewey. In the hollow to the east was the dwelling 
house of William Baldwin (still standing), built by his fatlier, Eev. 
Moses Baldwin. The parson himself lived in a house a few rods to 
the east. The district school-tiouse was where Mrs. Tiffany's house 
now stands. 

These buildings and the graveyard constituted the historical 
" King's Eow," where the first planters of the Elbows pitched then- 
farms and cabins. There was no grocery nor dry-goods store here 
till Amos C. Billings came with the advent of the railroad. 

In 1812, where is now the thriving village of Thorndike, the land 
was largely held by three leading families, viz.: Capt. Timothy 
Ferrell, who lived on the site of the present Henry Charon house ; 
Capt. Charles Cargill (or his heirs), whose house stood where is 
now the school house, and the McElwain, now the Keith home- 
stead. On the upper privilege, where a dam was put in by 

Goodman as early as 1797, was a clothier's shop, smith's shop, etc., 
then owned (or occupied) by Moses Learned. 

No dam had been built on the main privilege at Three Eivers. 
The place was known as the " Dark Corner," and all the land was 
owned by David and Daniel Shearer, whose houses were the only 
ones in sight. As early as 1789 saw and grist mills had been put in 

* John King, Jun., built a house here early, wliich was used as a tayern. It was burnt in 1763, 
with all its contents. But the neighbors all turned out, cut the timber and hauled it to the spot, 
and in a week's time had up the frame of a new two-story hou.'^e, which remained till it was taken 
down in 1838. The following extract from the town records relates to the burning of the old house : 
" Voted, that the sum of i pound 3 shill. 9 pence 3 farthings, being the whole of the rates assessed on 
Thomas McClintock for the year 1763, — that said rate be abated, on account of the constable's taking 
his grain, by distress, and the lame grain being consumed in the burning of John King Jun's house." 

PALMER IN MODERN TIMES, 1812-1889. 329 

at the lower end of the rapids by Gideon Graves, but they were hid- 
den by the intervening woods. 

At Bondsville, Ezekiel Boydcn had a dwelling house and a saw 
and grist mill on the lower privilege. A single highway led 
thither and crossed into Belchertown. The rest of the place was 
"in the rough.'' As one who saw it describes, "The valley was 
covered with briers, brambles and wild grape vines, and was about 
the roughest spot I ever set eyes on." 

War of 1812. — The town records furnish little matter relating 
to this war with Great Britain. And the muster-rolls of regiments 
and companies, which were at the time returned to our State 
authorities, have all been transmitted to Washington by order of 
the War Department, and are inaccessible. 

Tliis war was very unpopular in the Eiver towns. The Federal 
party, then in the ascendant, denounced it as directly tending to 
•cripple our commerce and subvert our State rights, without ade- 
quate cause. Governor Strong declined to order out the militia on 
requisition of the President. 

Immediately on the declaration of war, June 19, 1813, the ma- 
jority of the towns in Western Massachusetts united in calling a 
convention to protest against it and take measures to secure concert 
of sentiment and action. 

" At a legal meeting of the inhabitants of the town of Palmer, 
holden at the town house in said town July 13, 1813, 

1. Chose Capt. Jesse King moderator. 

2. Voted to petition the President & Congress that war may be 
averted, & Peace restored, and an alliance with France may be 
avoided ; passed with one dissenting vote. 

3. Voted to send two delegates to meet in Convention at North- 
ampton on the 14th instant. Accordingly chose Col. Amos Hamil- 
ton and Capt. Alpheus Converse for the delegates.'' 

The Convention met at Northampton July 14. and was truly a 
representative body, delegates from 57 towns being present. 

John Hooker of Springfield was chosen president, and Isaac C. 
Bates of Northampton, secretary. 

The Convention voted to present a respectful memorial to the 
President of the United States, praying that commissioners be ap- 
pointed to negotiate a peace with Great Britain u23on safe and hon- 
orable terms. It also provided for the appointment of Committees 
of Safety and the calling of a State Convention. Capt. Amos 
Hamilton was chosen one of the delegates to this State body. 

The conflict of the State and National authorities was a serious 


matter, and threatened serious consequences, direct and remote. 
But when, in 1814, the harbor of Boston was menaced with block- 
ade by British men-of-war, Gov. Strong changed his policy and 
called out the State troops and made ready for the defense of the 
coast towns. The proper quota was detached from our town mili- 
tia company and promptly reported for duty. 

At a town meeting in Palmer June 19, 1815, it was voted ''to 
grant the sum of three dollars to each of the soldiers that was de- 
tached last September [1834:] into the Publick Service." The fol- 
lowing list comprises the men who drew *?3 under the above vote : 

Theron McMaster, Jonathan Cooley, 

Sylvanus Collins, Asa Thomson, 

William Mason, Asahel Boyden, 

Robert Ferrell, Reuben Shaw, 

Charles Shaw, Sam^ McClintock, Jun., 

Noah Stimpson, Calvin Ward, 

John Mcintosh, Jun., George King, 

Elijah Allen, Joel Wright. 

It is known that Daniel Hamilton enlisted and was in the service 
under Gen. Scott at Lundy's Lane and elsewhere. 

Samuel Gates also enlisted as a substitute, and was out suffi- 
ciently long to entitle him to a pension. 

First Congregational Church and Its Pastors. — The 
Presbyterian form of government of the Church of Scotland flour- 
ished in Palmer for a period of about 80 years. But after the re- 
moval by death and emigration of a considerable number of the 
Scotch families, and the coming in of men and women educated in 
New England ideas and forms, the church polity was quietly 
changed, and the town voted that the successor of Rev. Mr. Bald- 
win ''should be settled on the Congregational plan, by an ordain- 
ing Council.'' 

Rev. Simeon Colton. — April 8, 1811, the town voted to concur 
with the church and give Mr. Simeon Colton a call to settle in the 
work of the ministry in this town. "Dea. Gordon Sedgwick, Dea. 
Alpheus Converse, Dea. Samuel McClenathan, Capt. Jesse King, 
Lieut. James Smith, Isaac Ferrell and Theophilus Knight were ap- 
pointed a committee to arrange the terms of settlement. April 32, 
the town voted to give Mr. Colton four hundred and fifty dollars as 
a yearly salary during the time he is able to supply the pulpit him- 
self. Voted, also, that Mr. Colton shall have the use of five hun- 
dred dollars which is coming to the town from the estate of Aaron 

PALMER IN MODERN TIMES, 1812-1889. 231 

Merrick, Esq., by giving security on interest for the same, which 
money is to be paid into the hands of the selectmen in November, 
1812. It is further agreed that the pastoral relation shall continue 
until Mr. Colton is fairly dismissed by a council of ministers con- 
vened and assembled for that purpose by the pastor and the 
church, so that there may be a separation in good standing.^' 

Mr. Colton accepted the call ; and Wednesday June 19, was 
agreed upon as the day of ordination. Moses Shaw, Clark Mc- 
Master, and Theophilus Knight were apjioiuted a committee "to 
provide for the Council, and prop up and secure the meeting-house, 
if they find it necessary." Lieut. Benjamin Cummiugs, Ens., 
Timothy Terrell, Dr. Aaron King and Zadock Cooley were ap- 
pointed a committee ''to seat the people on that day.'' Capt. 
Alpheus Converse, Dea. Gordon Sedgwick, Dea. Samuel McClena- 
than, Dea. James Hamilton and Joseph Smith were chosen a com- 
mittee " to write to the Council who are appointed to ordain Mr. 
Colton and request their attendance." 

The Council met June 18 ; dismissed Rev. Mr. Baldwin ; examined 
Mr. Colton ; and voted to proceed the next day to the ordination. 
The parts assigned were as follows : 

Introductory Prayer, Rev. Samuel Ware of Ware ; 

Sermon, Rev. Z. S. Moore of Leicester ; 

Consecrating Prayer, Rev. Joseph Blodget of Greenwich ; 

Charge, Rev. Ephraim Ward of Brookfield ; 

Right hand of Fellowship, Rev. Alfred Ely of Monson ; 

Concluding Prayer, Rev. Joshua Crosby, 2nd ch. Greenwich. 

Mr. Colton's ministry appears to have been a successful one. 
One hundred and twenty members were added to the church, all 
but sixteen on profession. These were largely the fruits of a revival 
which occurred in 1819. In the spring of 1821, some opposition to 
Mr. Colton was manifested in the town, the nature of which does 
not appear ; and he asked a dismission from the pastoral relation. 
He was dismissed by a council November 13, 1821. 

Mr. Colton was a native of Longmeadow ; graduated at Yale 
College 1806, and studied theology with Rev. Samuel Worcester, 
D. D., of Salem. He was preceptor of Leicester academy for two 
years. After his dismission he taught the academy in Monson for 
nine years, where he had been preceptor for a year previous to his 
settlement in Palmer. He then took charge of the academy at 
Amherst. Later he removed to Fayetteville, North Carolina, and 
assumed the care of a new educational institution, established under 
Presbyterian patronage. He remained here thirteen years ; when, 
on invitation of the trustees, he removed to Mississippi, to become 


president of Clinton College, an institution just incorporated. This 
was an attempt to revive a concern that under other auspices, had 
proved a failure. But expected funds were not forthcoming ; 
friends became discouraged ; and the effort was abandoned. Mr. 
Colton returned to Korth Carolina, and opened a Select School of 
high order at Ashborough, where he died in December, 18G8. His 
scholarship was of a high order ; as is evinced by the fact that in 
1846, the College in Delaware conferred on him the honorary de- 
gree of D. D. " He was a man of restless enterprise in whatever 
he undertook, having a full share of that enthusiasm which has 
been said to be common to many who bear his respectable family 
name. He was an earnest, faithful preacher, an excellent instructor, 
always patient and hopeful, prompt in the fulfilment of every duty, 
and full of the spirit of self-sacrifice, whatever his work might be." 

October 10, 1822, the town voted to give a call to Eev. Ebenezer 
Newhall to settle in the work of the ministry in Palmer ; and 
offered him an annual salary of five hundred dollars. He accepted 
the call — proposing however certain conditions, among which was 
one that he should be allowed two Sabbaths in the year to visit 
friends, attend ordinations, etc. The town first voted to accept the 
conditions, but afterwards reconsidered the vote ; and the matter 
was dropped. Mr. Newhall was a native of New Ispwich, N. H. ; 
graduated at Harvard University, 1818 ; was ordained pastor of the 
church in Oxford, December, 1823; installed at Lincoln, Jan., 1833; 
settled at Willsboro', N. Y., 1847 ; Chesterfield, N. H., 1852 ; 
Litchfield, N. H., 1854. 

May 5, 1823, the town voted to hire Rev. Benj. F. Lombard to 
supply the j^nlpit until otherwise ordered. 

March 8, 1824. Voted, "That the town so far dispose of the 
use of the meeting-house as respects the supplying the pulpit, that 
the church and those voting with them shall have the pulpit one- 
half of the time, and the residue of the people the other half of 
the time, each weekly and successively — the church to have it next 
Sabbath and the residue the second week, and so on alternately. 
[The vote stood, 78 in favor and 10 against.] 

May 3, 1824. At a town meeting a committee consisting of Leb- 
beus Chapin, Benjamin Converse, Wilson Foster, Jesse Smith, 
Capt. Jonathan Moore, Asa Ward, James Stebbins, John Sedgwick, 
Philip Lamb and John McMaster, 2d, was chosen, "to confer to- 
gether and devise the best and most conciliatory measures to unite 
the people in the town, and for supplying the pulpit." 

In October, 1824, the Church gave a call to Mr. Eric Prince to 
settle in the ministrv; but the town voted not to concur. 

jATiD.NAL Church, Palmkr Olij Cinikk. Eri:cti:i) 1797. 
[From a painting by Airs. Jennie R. Carpenter.] 

PALMER IX MODERN TIMES, 1813-1889. 233 

November 1, 1824. The town voted ^'to choose a committee of 
six persons to employ some suitable person to supply the desk in 
the meeting-house with preaching — said committee to consist of 
three persons from each party to be nominated by their own party, 
which vote was passed; but the churchparty having expressed their 
dissatisfaction therewith, it was voted mutually to reconsider the 
said vote." 

These votes of the town indicate a very unhappy condition of 
things as respects religious ordinances. The precise bone of con- 
tention is not apparent from the records; nor is it expedient at this 
late day to inquire into or criticise the motives and acts of the par- 
ties in interest. 

Rev. Henry H. F. Sweet. — An article in the warrant for 
March 9, 1825, was " To choose a committee of equal numbers from 
each party to select a minister or ministers to supply the desk in 
the meeting-house." And Lebbeus Chapin, John Blanchard, Jesse 
King, Amos Hamilton, Solomon Shaw and John McMaster, 2d, 
were chosen said committee. This committee were so fortunate as 
to secure a candidate who healed all the ecclesiastical differences in 
the town and church. And at a meeting held Sept. 12, 1825, it 
was voted "To give Mr. Henry H. F. Sweet a call to settle in the 
work of the Gospel ministry in this town, and to give him an annual 
salary of five hundred dollars — on condition that he may dissolve 
the contract at any time by giving six months' notice, and the 
town by a majority vote may do the same, an ecclesiastical council 
giving its sanction." The answer of Mr. Sweet is so full of good 
sense and Christian sincerity and wisdom, that it is here copied 
in full : 

Palmer, October 8, 1825. 

To the Cong^ Church and Society in Palmer: 

Brethren & Friends : A communication from your respective 
committees, containing your request that I would settle with you 
as your pastor and minister, has been duly received. Wishing, as I 
trust I do, in so important a transaction, to be guided by those 
plain indications of Divine Providence, which when faithfully con- 
sulted, and fearlessly and conscientiously obeyed, never lead astray 
from the path of duty, it has been made the subject of serious and 
prayerful consideration. Many of the circumstances under which 
this invitation is presented are pleasing, and deserving of peculiar 
regard ; and in them the hand of an overruling Providence ought 
to be reverentially acknowledged. The kindness and cordiality 
with which I have been received while among you; the harmony 


which has marked your proceedings, and the unanimity with which 
your request is expressed, afford ground for the pleasing hope that, 
should I continue with you, my labors might be useful. These 
things united I have uniformly viewed as indications of the provi- 
dence of God, which ought not to be disregarded ; and in forming 
my decision on this subject, have wished they might have their 
proper influence. But in the consideration of other circumstances, 
I have felt constrained to hesitate. The principal one to which I 
allude, and the only one which need be mentioned, is the support 
which you offer me. Here I would not be understood to intimate 
that there is any want of liberality on your part. I would by no 
means say that you have not proposed as much as it is your duty to 
offer. Nor am I willing to admit that my hesitation has arisen 
from an avaricious disposition on my part. Every one must be sen- 
sible that it cannot be the duty of any one to settle in the work of 
the ministry where he has not a rational prospect of being placed 
in circumstances free from embarrassment. If in my circum- 
stances the sum you offer, though liberal considered in relation to 
yourselves, does not afford me this prospect, it cannot be my duty 
to accept your proposal. This I have had serious apprehensions, 
which I have before not unfrequently expressed was the case in the 
present instance. 

But, upon mature deliberation and in view of the encouragement 
afforded in the form of a settlement by individual contributions, I 
have thought that it is not my duty finally to object to your pro- 
posals on this account. After taking into consideration the 
attendant circumstances, and, as I hope, having sought direction 
from Him who is the fountain of light and wisdom, I have con- 
cluded to yield myself to your wishes. Believing it to be the call 
of God's providence, I now accept of your invitation to settle with 
you in the work of the Gospel ministry. And while I thus come 
forward to surrender myself to the labors and trials of this high 
and arduous calling, I would not for a moment forget my depend- 
ence on Almighty God for ability and a disposition to discharge 
the important and responsible duties which it involves ; nor can I 
refrain from reminding you that I need your prayers. The inter- 
est which you have manifested on this subject, and the sacrifices 
which you have shown yourselves ready to make, while they inspire 
the hope that this wish will be complied with, afford a pleasing 
token of future good. Let us unite our supplications that the 
Lord our God may counsel and direct us in all our transactions 
relative to the interesting connection now contemjDlated. That 
the Great Head of the church may own and signally bless your ex- 

PALMER IN MODERN TIMES, 1812-1889. 335 

ertions for the advancement of religion and lead you in the way- 
best calculated to promote His glory and your present and eternal 
interest is the ardent wish and unceasing prayer of 
Your friend & Brother in the Lord 

Henry H. F. Sweet. 

He was ordained November 9, 1825, and after a brief ministry of 
fifteen months died February 20, 1827, aged 30 years and 4 months. 

Mr. Sweet was the only son of Henry and Lucinda Sweet, born 
in Attleboro' Nov. 1, 1796. He united with the church in A., 
then under the pastoral charge of Rev. Nathan Holman, in 1816, 
graduated at Brown University 1822, and studied theology with 
Rev. Dr. Ide of Medway, who preached his ordination sermon. 
He married Miss Elizabeth Henshaw of Roxbury, who afterwards 
married Mr. Cyrus Merrick of Sturbridge. 

As a man Mr. Sweet was gentle, unassuming and kind in his 
manners and intercourse with others. His mind, though not 
brilliant, was above the ordinary level — patient, logical, fully 
grasping and thoroughly understanding its themes of thought. 
As a preacher he was interesting and impressive. He was thor- 
oughly Calvinistic in his doctrinal views. As a pastor he was sol- 
emn, deliberate, wise. He particularly excelled in the conference 
meeting and in his interest in the lambs of his flock. A revival of 
considerable power commenced a few months before his death, as a 
result of which over 30 were added to the church. His memory 
was fragrant in Palmer for many years. 

Rev. Joseph K. Ware. — Oct. 15, 1827. The town voted to 
give a call to Rev. Joseph K. Ware to settle in the work of the 
ministry, offering him an annual salary of $500, with conditions 
similar to those agreed to in the case of Mr. Sweet. He gave his 
answer, accepting the invitation, Nov. 8, and was ordained Dec. 
12, Rev. Dr. Humphrey preaching the sermon. 

A considerable minority was opposed to the settlement of Mr. 
Ware, and did not become reconciled to his ministry. Many left 
the society, some at first because of their dissatisfaction, others on 
account of the heavy burden of taxation for his support, until his 
friends found themselves unable to raise the salary. On his re- 
quest, he was regularly dismissed from the pastoral relation Mar. 
16, 1831. 

Mr. Ware was born in Norwich, Mass., April 21, 1793, and re- 
moved with his parents to Conway at three years of age; graduated 
at Amherst College 1824, and studied theology at New Haven. 


After leaving Palmer he preached several years in Newark, X. Y., 
and one year in Walworth, N. Y., then took charge of a High 
School in Palmyra, N. Y., where he remained two years, then 
preached in Havana and Burdette, N. Y., four or five years and 
one year in Dresden, N. Y. ; then took np his residence in Canan- 
daigna, same State. 

A Parish Organized. Soon after the dismission of Mr. Ware, 
i. e., on April 4, 1831, a Society or Parish was formed, comprising 
those who held to the doctrines of the church covenant and ac- 
cepted the Congregational form of government. The society 
elected its clerk and treasurer, but meetings for business, where 
money was to be granted, were called by the selectmen, the war- 
rant specifying, "All the male inhabitants of said town legally 
qualified to vote in the Congregational Religious Society of 
Palmer.*' And by a vote (already quoted, see ante p. 215) in 1835 
the town virtually transferred the control of the meeting-house to 
the Society or Parish. 

Rev. Samuel Backus. — During the summer succeeding the 
dismissal of Mr. Ware, preaching was sustained irregularly, and re- 
ligious affairs were in a low and dark state. In September, Rev. 
Samuel Backus was employed to preach as a candidate, and con- 
tinued to supply till his installation, January 11, 1832. He held 
the pastorate for nine years. Some dissatisfaction arose, partly in 
consequence of his active efforts in the cause of temperance, and he 
asked a dismission. The pastoral relation was dissolved May 4, 

Mr. Backus was a native of Canterbury, Ct. ; graduated at Union 
College, 1811 ; was first settled in Woodstock, Ct. Since leaving 
Palmer he has lived in Brooklyn, N. Y., where he has been engaged 
in teaching, and laboring as city missionary. 

Rev. Moses K. Cross. — Early in the fall of 1841, Mr. Moses 
K. Cross began to preach, with a view to settlement as pastor. His 
ministrations were highly acceptable to the people. He received a 
call, which he accepted, and his ordination took place Feb. 2, 1842, 
the sermon being preached by his former pastor. Rev. Milton P. 
Braman, D.D., of Danvers, 

Shortly after this date, the growth of business and population at 
the four villages left the Old Centre '^out in the cold." Nothing 
but the meeting-house and graveyard remained there to draw the 
townspeople either on week-days or the Sabbath. The settlers at 
Three Rivers were accommodated with both Baj)tist and Meth- 

PALMER IX MODEiLN TrM.'-:s, 18l".~l889. 237 

odist meeting-houses. The new nnd thriving- village at the 
Depot felt the need of religious privileges and a bouse of worship 
near at hand. The division of the town into distinct parish'^s be- 
came an acknowledged necessity. The people would not ,-^0 to the 
(distant) meeting-house, and the meeting-house must cornt-* to the 
people. In view of these patent facts, an amicable and nearly eq "^^l 
division of the town into two pari-^hes was effected April l, l 34T. 
The second society made its centre at the Depot Village. The old 
parish and the old church removed to Thorndike Village, where 
they soon erected a neat sanctuary, which ;otill continues to be the 
home of the First Church. 

Mr. Cross remained pastor, and continued his work at the new- 
location till, owing to failure of hfjalth, he was constrained to ask 
a dismission, which took place? March 7, 1849. He was born in 
Dan vers, Sept. 24, 1PS±Z ; graduated at Amherst College 1838 ; 
studied theology o^ East Windsor and Andover. He was installed 
pastor of thr^"T'^rst Church in Soutli Deerfield Sept. 4, 1850, where 
he remairicd till 1854. He then went west, and was pastor at Tip- 
ton, lo^ a, 1855 to 1805 ; Washington, Iowa, 18G5-1867 ; Waverly, 
samr- state, 1867-1871. Since that date he has resided at Waterloo, 

For th.-^ year following the dismission of Mr. Cross, the pulpit 
was supplied by Rev. Levi Smil.h and Rev. Plineus Moody. 

Rev. S^ j.yester Hint.. — Mr. Hiue, the next pastor, was in- 
stalled Nov. 19, 1851, and remaiued in the pastoral office till May 
23, 1854. He was born in Middlebury, Ct.; graduated Yah Col- 
lege, 1843, and at East Windsor Theological Seminary; was or- 
dained pafjtor of the Congregational Church in Ticonderoga, N. Y. 
He is now associate editor of a paper at Hartford, Ct. 

Nov. 25, 1854, the Society voted to give Rev. M. K. Cross, w'no 
had just been dismissed from South Deerfield, a call to re-settle in 
the ministry in Palmer ; but he declined. 

Rev. John H. M. Lela^^d. — Mr. Leland commence.-l preaching 
in 1855 ; was installed Sept. 17, 1857, and retained the pastoral of- 
fice but little more than a year, being dismissed Nov. 13, 1858. He 
was a native of Amherst, born Jan. 25, 1821 : grad. A. C. 1840 ; 
ordained at South Royalston, Oct. 13, 1847 ; dismissed 1849 ; in- 
stalled Bethel, Me., where he was pastor 1850-53 ; preached in 
Palmer, as above ; since 1858 has lived in Amherst. 

Since Mr. Leland's time the Society and Church have been sup- 
plied with acting pastors withottt installation. 

238 HI>=;'iORY OF PALMER. 

Key. Jeremiah W. Tuck. — Commenced his labors here April, 

1859, and remained till May 1, 1865. Mr. Tuck was born at Ken- 
sington, N. II., Oct. 8, IBll ; grad. A. C. 1840 ; Hart. Theol. Sem. 
1843 ; ordained at Ludlow, Sept. 6, 184:3, where he remained till 

1860. After leaving Palmer he was settled at Jewett City, Ct., and 
^as pjistor, 186G-76; pastor Third Ch., Middlecown, Ct., 1877-81. 

Rev. William B. Bond.— Came to Palmer from St. Johnsbury, 
Yt., and supplied the pulpit from May 4, 1865, to May 1, 1869. 
He is now at Lake, 111. 

Rev. Hiram Day.— Windham, Ct. ; began his labors here 
in Sept., 1869, and closed A^oril 1, 1870. Is now located at Glen- 
coe. 111. 

Rev. Theodore Adgate Leete. — Was aui^ing pastor from May 
1, 1870 to April 1875. He was born in Guilfc^M Ct., May 20, 
1814 ; grad. Y. C. 1839. Y. Theol. Sem. 1843 ; ord. pastor First 
Church, Windsor, Ct., Sept. 24, 1845, dismissed Sept. 185 ; acting 
pastor Florence, (Northampton) Mass., 18G1-2 ; Agawam, lb'62-3 ; 
in the service of the Christian Commission, 18G3-4. War^ aci.i.^ 
pastor at Bland ford, Mass., 1864-'70 ; Palmer, 1870-'^ 5 ; Union 
Church, Three Rivers, 1875-77; Orange, Ct., 1877-80; North- 
ford, North Branford, Ct., 1880-''S3 ; without charge Longmeadow, 
Mass., where he died April 28, 1 S8C. 

The Society and Church was supplied by Mr. H. L. Read, an 
e>ungelist from May 1875, for al>ont a year and a half. 

Rev, White, was acting pastor from March liS77, to Oct. 

1S78, when he removed to Hallowell, Ale. 

Rev. Charles H. Ricketts. — Came to Palmer direct- from the 
TheoJogical Seminary, and had charge of the pulpit from 1880 to 
1884, whev he went to the First Church, Rockville, Ct., where he 
was instated, and remained till May 1, 1889. 

Rev. Albert C. Hurd, took charge of ihe pulpit Aug. 24, 1885, 
and remained two years, when he went to Francestowu, N. H., 
where he is now acting pastor. 

Rev. Ernest W. Shurtleff, from And. Theol. Sem., com- 
menced preaching March 8, 1888, but at the end of three months 
his health failed, and he removed to California. 

PALMER IN MODERN TIMES, 1812-1889. 239 

Rev. Carlos H. Hanks, was employed on recommendation of 
Mr. Shurtleff, and has since supplied the pulpit. He received 
ordination in Ohio, where he supplied both Presbyterian and 
Congregational churches. He is now (1889) a member of Boston 

The First Baptist Church. 

As early as 1818, a few families resident in Palmer began to hold 
religious meetings under the auspices of neighboring Baptist min- 
isters ; and that year, two or three taxpayers filed certificates that 
they had paid taxes for the support of preaching elsewhere, and 
were exempted from the minister's rate. A church of this faith 
was organized in the south part of Belchertown, under the name 
of the " Belchertown and Palmer Baptist Church," November 16, 
1825. For a while meetings were held in a house occupied in com- 
mon by this people and a Methodist society. In 1832 they erected 
the present church edifice in the village of Three Rivers, which was 
dedicated in January 1833. The name of the church was then 
changed to the ''Baptist Church in Three Rivers." The number 
of original members was 24, 11 males and 13 females. The number 
of members in 1852 was 111. The pastors have been : Rev. Messrs. 
Alvin Bennett, Henry Archibald, Tubal Wakefield, David Pease, 
John R. Bigelow, Prosper Powell, N. B. Jones, Chester Tilden, 
Joseph Hodges, Jun., Sanford Leach, Addison Parker, March 
1848-1852, L. H. Wakeman, Dec. 1852-March 1855, C. L. Baker, 
June 1855-Apr. 1857, L. W. Wheeler, May 1857-May '58, E. H. 
Watrous, June 1858-May '62, E. Kinney, July 1862-May '63, 
Thomas Womersley, May 1863-Aug. 1868, L. F. Shepardson, Jan. 
1869-April '73, S. Wright, Sept. 1874-Mar. '75, J. W. Holman, 
1875-Apr. 1877, Philip Berry, June '77-April '78, T. C. Russell, 
July '78-1881, F. B. Joy, May 1882-April '87, John Eyers, Sept. 


The Methodist Episcopal Church. 

A class of ten persons was formed at Three Rivers by Rev. A. 
Taylor in 1833, and Royal BuflBngton was appointed leader. The 
class met in the school house on the hill. At first it was connected 
with Brookfield circuit. In a short time it became connected with 
South Belchertown, Rev. A. Perry being the preacher in charge. 
In 1837 a chapel was built opposite and a little to the southwest of 
the mill— old lady Hubbard giving the land, on condition that it 
should be occupied by a Methodist chapel and should revert to her 
heirs whenever such religious service was discontinued. Rev. H. 
Moulton was appointed preacher. He was followed by Rev. William 
Gordon, who in 1840 was succeeded by Rev. T. W. Gile. Up to 


1841 the society divided the labors of the pastor with the society in 
Belchertown ; but iu that year it was made a station, with Rev. J. 
Xichols preacher in charge. He remained two years, and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. D. L. Winslow, for one year ; Rev. J. Cadwell, 
under whom the church had a large growth. The preachers that 
followed were Rev. Amos Binney, Rev. Daniel Chapin, Rev. C. L. 
McCurdy, Rev. J. W. Mowry, Rev. Nathaniel J. Merrill, Rev. E. 

B. Morgan and Rev. F. Fisk. This brings the record down to 185G. 
A class had been formed at Thorndike before 1845, and the next 

year applied to the Conference for a preacher. Rev. X. E. Cob- 
leigh was sent. A church was organized January 23, 1847. Ser- 
vices were held in the hall of the school house. At the end of a 
year the membership numbered 60. Rev. William M. Hubbard 
was preacher 1849-50. In 1852 the society began to hold service 
in the old Congregational meeting-house at Palmer Centre, and so 
continued to do for a couple of years. Rev. D. K. Merrill and J. 

A. Ames were pastors in charge. In 1853 this church and the one 
at South Belchertown were made one station, with Rev. D. Atkins 
as preacher. As the outcome and adjustment of a series of diffi- 
culties encountered by the Thorndike society, in 1854 this and the 
mother church at Three Rivers came together and formed one large 
congregation, with Rev. C. ^Morgan as preacher. During the sum- 
mer they met in the ToAvn House at Four Corners ; in the winter 
they returned to the old chapel. 

1855. Rev. F. Fisk was appointed preacher. This year, as tlie 
result of a friendly consultation, it was decided to build a new 
meeting-house at the Four Corners. Work was begun in Septem- 
ber, 1856, and the house was dedicated June 16, 1S57, Bishop 0. 

C. Baker preaching the sermon. 

The chapel at Three Rivers being given up by the denomination, 
reverted to the Hubbard heirs, was sold and removed and made 
over into a dwelling house. 

The preachers in charge at Four Corners have been Rev. James 
M. Clark, Rev. L. R. Bolles, Jun., Rev. D. K. Banister, Rev. J. B. 
Bigelow, Rev. C. H. Hannaford, Rev. A. F. Bailey, Rev. A. P. 
Asken, Rev. N. Fellows, Rev. J. M. Clark, Rev. 6. W. Adams, 
Rev. William Gordon, Rev. W. R. Tisdale, Rev. Charles T. John- 
son, Rev. Matthews, Rev. Atkins. 

At the Fourth Quarterly Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church of Palmer, held ]\Iarch 10, 1866, the following were elected 
trustees of the said church for the year ensuing, viz., A. Beard, E. 

B. Gates, Robert McMaster, Martin Sedgwick, T. D. Potter. The 
Board organized Mar. 19 by the choice of A. Beard chairman and 

PALMER IX MODERN TIMES, 1812-1889. 241 

T. D. Potter secretary and treasurer, who was sworn by G. W. 
Eandall, J. P. Toim Records. 

Metlioclist Eiiiscopal Cliurcli at Bondsville. In April, 1866, the 
Methodists of South Belchertown and those living in Bondsville 
formed a union and commenced holding religious services in Union 
Hall. A class of 15 members was organized ; Rev. John Cadwell 
was sent as preacher; the Sabbath school was started with 70 mem- 
bers. In 1875-6 a neat and convenient house of worship was 
erected, at a cost of $6,000, the corner stone being the gift of Mr. 
Oadwell. The preachers in charge have been Rev. John Cadwell, 
Rev. Wm. K Hubbard, 2 years ; Rev. Wm. P. Blackmar, 1870, 2 
years ; Rev. J. W. Cole, 1 year ; Rev. George E. Chapin, 1873, 2 
years ; Rev. Alfred Noon, 1875-6 ; Rev. D. K. Merrill, 1877-9. 

In 1885 the church at Four Corners was disbanded, and a large 
part of the members joined the Bondsville church, which is now 
(1889) the only church of the denomination in Palmer. The pres- 
ent pastor is Rev. C. Virgin. 

Second Baptist Church. 

The Second Baptist Church in Palmer was originally organized 
August 8, 1852; was incorporated by special act of the Legislature 
May 2, 1887. 

This church was a colony from the Baptist Church at Three 
Rivers. The following twenty members took letters from the 
mother church for the purpose of starting a new interest at the 
thriving village near the Depot, where most of them resided : 
Sylvester Parks, Laura Parks, Lyman Chamberlain, Susan Cham- 
berlain, Mary J. Chamberlain, Dudley Calkins, Eunice Calkins, 
Levi Calkins, Sarah G. Calkins, Esther Calkins, Eliphalet Tenney, 
Susan Tenney, Lewis Tenney, Calista E. Tenney, Elizabeth A. 
Tenney, Elijah Valentine, Pamelia D. Valentine, Wilson Arnold,. 
Francis L. Bissell, Mariah H. Bissell. 

Sabbath services began to be held in a hall early in 1852, and 
among the first preachers were Rev. Dr. Pattison, Rev. Mr. Gunni- 
son, Rev. Judson Chaplin. In July of the same year a unanimous 
invitation was extended to Rev. Samuel A. Collins, Jun., to become 
the pastor. He accepted, and was publicly recognized Sejat. 29 

During his pastorate, i. e., in 1853, steps were taken to build a 
house of worship; this was completed and dedicated in March, 1854, 
Rev. Dr. Ide of Springfield preaching the sermon. The house oc- 
cupies a commanding position near the railroad station ; first cost, 
15,000. Mr. Collins resigned his charge in March, '54. He was 


succeeded by Mr. Andrew D. Bullock, a member of the Baptist 
Church in Taunton, who supplied the pulpit for one year as a licen- 
tiate. At the call of the church he was ordained April 11, 1855, 
Rev, Dr. Porter of Pittsfield preaching the sermon. Mr. Bullock 
resigned in 1800. 

The pastors since 1860 have been : 

Rev. G. Sherman Smith, from East Greenwich, R. I., who was 
pastor from August, 1860, to 1863. 

Rev. E. M. Hayues, from West Haven, Vt., from June, 1866, to 

Rev. J. H. Tilton, from Natick, R. I., from July, 1860, to 1870. 

Rev. E. D. Daniels, from Leverett, from ^fay, 1870, one year. 

Rev. R. R. Riddell, from Sing Sing, N. Y., pastor from Feb., 
1ST2, to the summer of '73. 

Rev. E. A. Goddard, from Huntington, commenced his labors in 
June, 1874, and was dismissed May 11, 1876. 

Rev. Philip Berry, who was joint pastor over this and the church 
at Three Rivers from April, 1877, to April, '78. 

Rev. T. C. Russell was also joint pastor of the two churches 
from July, 1878, to 1881. He came to Palmer from Mansfield, Mass. 

Rev. 0. R. Hunt, from Springfield, preached two years, from 
January, 1883. 

The present pastor, Rev. A. W. Weeks, came from Worcester, 
and commenced his labors in November, 1885. 

Union Evangelical Church. 

A church, without denominational connection, composed of 
members who hold to the Evangelical doctrines, was organized at 
the village of Three Rivers April 27, 1876. The original number 
of communicants was 37. Their house of worship was erected in 

The acting pastors of the church have been : Rev. T. A Leete, 
who came here from the First Congregational Church, and minis- 
tered during 1875-77; Rev. M. M. Tracy, a graduate of Amherst, 
1860; Rev. F. W. Cobb, who has since died; Rev. C. D. Dudley, 
since deceased; Rev. W. L. Noyes, who supplied about a year and 
a half ; Rev. C. L. Ayer, who remained four and a half years ; G. 
W. Christie, who commenced his labors November, 1, 1888. 

The Second Congregational Church. 

[Prepared by O. P. Allen.] 

The opening of the Boston & Albany railroad, about the year 
1838, created a new village centre at the station. Business and 

PALMER IK MODERN TIMES, 1813-1889. 243 

popuUtion increased rapidly; the old centre began to show signs of 
age ; tL> village of Thorndike was becoming a power in social and 
civil affairs, and as a natural result the two new villages claimed a 
right tc special religious privileges. 

In 1847, an amicable division was effected, Rev. M. K. Cross 
remaining with the mother church, and fifty-four members with- 
drawing, with a view of forming a new church at the Depot Village. 

The Second Church was organized April 1st, 1847, by an Eccle- 
siastical Council called for the purpose, with a membership of 
fifty-sevf 1, which number was increased to sixty-nine before the 
close of the year. For nearly a year the church had no pastor, but 
the desk vas supplied by Rev. Dr. Ely of Monson, and others. 
In January 1848, the church by unanimous vote extended a call to 
Mr. Thomas Wilson to become its pastor, and on Feb. 3S, he was 
ordained and installed pastor. Mr. Wilson was bDrn- in Paisley, 
Scotland, June 15, 1822 ; he came with his fathe and family to 
Lowell in 1820. He fitted there in the high .school for college, 
graduated at Dartmouth in 1S41, and at Andjver Theological 
Seminary in 1847. He remained with the church in Palmer until 
July 1st, 1852, when he asked for a dismissal on account of inade- 
quate support. 

During his pastorate forty-six members were added to the church. 
His ministry was a very successful one, and he left his first charge 
respected and beloved by all. He removed to Westford, Mass., 
where he was installed May 4th, 1853, and dismissed Feb. 13th, 
1856. Then he received a call to become the pastor of the First 
Congregational Church in Stoughton, Mass., where he was installed 
March 13th, 1856, and dismissed Mar. 13th, 1876. On account of 
ill health he rested from ministerial labors for nearly a year ; then 
assumed the p;astorate of the Congregational Church in Eaton, 
N. Y., Mar. 25th, 18V7, where he is still laboring. After the re- 
tirement of Mr, Wilson, the church was without a pastor for some 
two years, but wns able to secure the services of Rev. W. W. Belden, 
for most of the time. In Sept. 1854, the church extended a call to 
Rev. Joseph Vail 1, D. D. of Somers, Ct., to become its pastor; 
the call was accepted and on Dec. 7th, 1854, he was installed the 
second pastor. Dr. Vaill was born in Hadlyme, Ct., July 28th, 
1790. He graduated at Yale in the class of 1811, and was ordained 
to the ministry Feb. 2d, 1814, and had his first settlement in Brim- 
field •, his second in Portland, Me., for three years ; after which he 
received a second call to Brimfield ; then for four years was a suc- 
cessful solicitor for Amherst College ; then was pastor in Somers, 
Ct., where he was installed Aug. 6, 1845. His pastorates covered 


thirty-seven years prior to his settlement in Palmer. After a pas- 
torate in Palmer of about thirteen years he was ilismissed at his 
request, Feb. 12th, 1868. He was elected a Representative from 
the Palmer District to the Massachusetts Legislature and died in 
office Feb. 22d, 1809, leaving an honored name as a rich legacy to the 
people he loved so well. Dr. \'aill was a true gentleman of the 
old school, dignified, but with a lieart full of sympathy and tender- 
ness. He was quick at repartee and enjoyed genuine wit in others. 
His memory is still gratefully cherished in the parish he presided 
over so long. 

Rev. Bradford M. Fullerton was ordained and installed the third 
pastor Feb, 12th, 1808. Mr. Fullerton was born in Brid^^-eport, Ct., 
Apr. 15th, 1837. He graduated at Amherst in 1801, and at An- 
dover Theological Seminary in 1805. After graduating he was en- 
gaged in editc rial work on the Worcester Transcript and the Hart- 
ford Post a fe=v months each, and on the Norwich Bulletin two and 
one half years. After a successful pastorate of more than thirteen 
years he was dismissed u<- his request July 6, 1881. During his 
charge one hundred and ninety-five members were added to the 
church, largely the result of revivals. Besides his pastoral cares 
Mr. Fullerton took a lai-ge interest in public affairs, being for many 
years an efficient member of the school board. In his retirement 
the parish lost an efficient pastor and a man of schohirly attain- 
ments. Soon after leaving Palmer he accepted a call from tlie 
Trinitarian Congi-egational Church in Waltham, where he still 
officiates as pastor. 

After Mr. Fullerton's resignation the church remained without a 
pastor for rearly two years, the desk being supplied by different 
])reachers. Rev. Pleasant Hunger, Juu., the ^urth pastor, was or- 
dained and installed June 7th. 1883. He was born in Wisebury, 
Md. He graduated at Boston University and at Hartford Theo- 
logical Seminary. After a pleasant pastorate of three years he was 
dismissed, at his request, July 25th, 1880, and became pastor of the 
Central Congregational Church in Xewtonville, Mass., where he 
still remains. During his short pastorate Mr. Hunter won a large 
place in the hearts of his people and was allowed to go with keen 

Rev. Howard W. Pope, the fifth and present pastor, was installed 
Nov. 3d, J 886. He was born Jan. 21st, 1849, in New Havem Ct. 
He graduated at Yale in 1871 and at Yale Tneological Schvool in 
1874. He was ordained and installed pastor of the Congregational 
Church in Bridgeport, Ct., in 1874, where he remained until he ac- 
cepted a call to become pastor of the Congregational Church in 

ym ip^#S^ . 





Rev. Thomas Wilson 

PALMER IN MODERN TIMES, 1812-1889. 345 

Manchester, Ct., in 1881 ; from this church he was dismissed, at 
his request, in 1886. 

The entire list of membershii^ of this church since its organiza- 
tion is 437 ; the present membership is 183. 

The deacons of the church from its organization to the present 
time are as follows : Benjamin Converse, chosen April 9th, 1847 ; 
Lebeus Chapin, chosen April 9, 1847 ; Wilson Brainard, 1851 ; 
Calvin Nutting, 1851 ; Henry A. Moore, 1867 ; Freeman S. Foster, 
1869; Hiram Converse, 1869; A. E. Park, 1883; George F. Brown, 
1883; Wm. A. Brakenridge, 1887; Charles W. Bennett, 1887. 

The clerks of the church have officiated as follows : A. V. 
Blanchard, 1847 ; Rev. Thomas Wilson, 1848 to 1852 ; S. H. Hall, 
1852 to 1854 ; A. Blodget, 1854 ; Rev. J. Vaill, 1854 to 1868 ; Rev. 
B. M. Fullerton, 1868 to 1881 ; S. H. Hellyar, 1881 to 1885 ; Rev. 
P. Hunter, Jun., 1885 to 1886 ; 0. P. Allen, 1886 to the present. 

Beneficiaries. Collections in this church were first instituted 
April 20th, 1855, and from that itime to 1878 were effected by 
special collectors, who were given specified portions of the town to 
canvass, the amount collected being small compared to the sum 
now devoted to charitable objects. In 1878 the envelope plan 
and weekly voluntary offerings was adopted and is still continued. 
These contributions are devoted to the different missionary socie- 
ties, home and foreign, and other charitable objects. Since 1878 
the sum of nearly 1^7,000 has been contributed by the above plan, 
$1,500 of which was paid in 1888. 

Connected with the church is the Ladies' Benevolent Society, 
which was organized in 1856, for the purpose of aiding various 
enterprises of a benevolent nature. It has raised and paid out for 
various worthy objects since its organization the sum of $5,784. 

The Sunday Scliool. The Sunday school connected with the 
church was organized April 2d, 1852. It has an efficient corps of 
teachers and numbers two hundred, with an average attendance of 
one hundred and twenty-five. Its officers are elected annually by 
the church. The school has had these superintendents : Arza 
Blodgett, for 1852 ; Jonathan Webber, 1853-4 ; Azel Brakenridge, 
1855 ; Henry A. Moore, 1856. 

From 1857 the superintendents were chosen by the Sunday 
School, and as no records were kept, the list is not complete ; but 
during that interval of 17 years the following gentlemen occupied 
the position, viz. : W. C. Childs, Dr. Wm. Holbrook, Dr. E. B. 
Lyon, J. D. Blanchard, Dea. Freeman S. Foster, H. J. Lawrence, 
E. N. Montague, and possibly others. 

Since 1873 the superintendents have been chosen by the church 


as follows : 0. L. Strader, for 1874-5-G-7; F. B. Shepard, for 
1878-9-80; H. K. Stoughton for 1881-3-3; 0. P. Allen, for 1884- 
5-6; L. E. Moore, 1887; J. B. Shaw, 1888-9. 

A select library of 483 volumes is devoted to the use of the school. 

The Cliristian Endeavor Society. Connected also with the 
church, was organized Nov. 31st, 188G, with H. B. Knox as jiresi- 
dent. The society has been a success from the beginning, and has 
proved a valuable auxiliary to the church work. The society num- 
bers 73 active and two associate members. The present presiding 
officer is Dr. G. H. Wilkius. 

The Ecclesiastical Society. Connected with the church, was 
organized April 30th, 1847, by thirty gentlemen, as follows : J. B. 
Blanchard, A. N. Dewey, Abner Allen, W. J. Blanchard, J. D. 
Blanchard, Franklin Blanchard, A. C. Billings, John Brooks, 
Daniel Converse, James Keith, J. P. Keep, Ephriam Allen, Benj. 
Converse, Hiram Converse, Lebeus Chapin, A. C. Merrick, John 
Bowles, S. L. Fleming, Lambert Allen, Abner Blodgett, Azel 
Brakenridge, Arza Blodgett, Isaac King, W. C. Childs, Harvey 
Smith, Cyrus Knox, A. V. Blanchard, C. Terry, Wilson Brainard, 
W. N. Prime. All the above are dead or removed from town, ex- 
cepting A. V. and Franklin Blanchard. 

The Church Edifice. When the church was first organized 
meetings were held in McGilvray's hall in the Depot Village, then 
just starting into life and activity. It soon became apparent, 
however, that a more commodious place was imperatively needed. 
Two rival sites were offered as gifts on which to build a church ; 
one by Col. Cyrus Knox, near the present Woolrich's food factory, 
and the other by Capt. A. N. Dewey. The latter was chosen. 

As early as October, 1846, a paper had been circulated for the 
purpose of obtaining subscriptions to 160 shares of stock at 825 
per share for the building of a church. In a short time the whole 
amount was taken and about 83,500 paid in. The stockholders 
were to rent the church to the society at a rate of not more than 8 
per cent, on the cost thereof, which amount was to be divided as a 
dividend among the stockholders. 

The corner stone of the church was laid with appropriate cere- 
monies in the month of May, 1847, by Rev. Dr. Ely of Monson. 
The church was dedicated Wednesday, Dec. 22d, of the same year, 
''to the worship of God, by appropriate solemnities, viz.: Invo- 
cation and reading of the scriptures by Mr. Thomas Wilson (licen- 
tiate); introductory prayer by Eev. C. B. Kittridge of Monson; 
sermon by Rev. E. Russell of Springfield; dedicatory prayer and 
benediction by Rev. Dr. Ely, D.D., of Monson. The exercises were 

PALMER IN MODERN TIMES, 1812-1889. 247 

exceedingly interesting, and an additional zest was given to them, 
from the fact that they occurred on a day hallowed by such sacred 
associations to every lover of the Puritans. The sermon on Psalm 
96: 6, 'Honor and majesty are before him, strength and beauty 
are in His Sanctuary,' was characterized by that bold, vigorous and 
manly style for which the preacher is distinguished. " 

The company called "The Palmer Depot Church Corporation," 
which was outside of the church society had incurred something of 
a debt in the erection of the church, and in 1853 the building was 
sold at auction to satisfy a claim, and was bid off by D. F. McGil- 
vray for $i2,475. In 1854 the church was purchased by the Eccle- 
siastical Society, by whom it has since been owned. The original 
cost of the church was $5,000. In 1870 the church was thoroughly 
remodeled at a cost of nearly $8,000, and was rededicated Feb, 23, 
1871. A few years later a pipe organ was put in by subscription 
at a cost of $1,500. In 1886 the unsightly vestry was remodeled 
and put into tasteful shape at a cost of about $800. In 1876 a par- 
sonage was erected on the church grounds at an expense of $4,000. 

The Advent Chmstian Church. 
This religious body was organized in 1874, with Elder H. H. 
Tucker as preacher. Meetings were held in McGilvray's hall. In 
1875 a chapel was built on Park street, on land given for the pur- 
pose by Dr. E. G. Wood. It was dedicated Oct. 13, of that year. 
At present the church has no settled preacher, and services are 
maintained only a part of the time. 

St. Paul's Uniyersalist Church. 

The Universalists commenced holding regular Sabbath services 
at the Depot Village early in 1875, in charge of Eev. Benton 
Smith, missionary of the State Convention. The first meetings 
gathered in the parlors of a hotel, or at private houses. In 1875 
Mr. M. W. French built Wales Hall Block, and meetings were held 
here till the house of worship was completed. 

The church was organized May 28, 1876, by Kev. A. J. Patter- 
son, D. D., and consisted of twenty-one members. 

The church edifice, standing on the corner of Central and Park 
streets, was dedicated May 12, 1880. It is built of Monson granite; 
its length is one hundred and eleven feet, breadth eighty feet. 
The main tower is one hundred and thirty feet in height, the other 
eighty feet. The auditorium, whose seating capacity, including 
the gallery, is four hundred and twenty, is neatly finished in black 
walnut, and all the furnishings are rich and tasteful. On the right 


of the pulpit is the choir guUery, on the left the chancel, and in 
the rear the organ. 

At the rear of the building and directl}' connected with it is the 
chapel. Entrance to this from the outside may be had on both 
sides, and from the auditorium by two doors. On the lower floor 
are the chapel proper, the ladies' parlor, the pastor's cloak room 
and the library room. On the second floor are a large dressing 
room, a dining room seating a hundred, and a kitchen. Few 
eliurches can be found more complete and convenient in all their 
appointments than this. 

The first pastor, Eev. C. H. Eaton, was settled June 29, 18T7, 
and dismissed, after a four-years' pastorate, to take charge of Dr. 
Chapin's church in New York City. He was a graduate of Tuft's 
College and Theological Seminary. He was succeeded by Rev. E. 
A. Perry, also a graduate of Tuft's, who remained till 1885, when 
he removed to Fort Plains, N. Y. The present pastor, Eev. F. W. 
Betts, was settled in September, 188G. He received his theological 
education at the Clinton Liberal Institute, Canton, N. Y. 

Roman Catholic Chueches. 

Before 1850 the spiritual wants of the Catholics of Palmer were 
ministered to by Rev. John D. Brady and Rev. James A. Strain of 

In 1850 Rev. William A. Blenkinsop succeeded Father Strain at 
Chicopee, and the next year was transferred to Springfield. His 
parish took in Northampton, Greenfield, "Westfield, Chester Fac- 
tories, Holyoke, Amherst, "Ware, Thorndike, Three Rivers, Palmer 
Depot, Monson, Indian Orchard, etc. Father Blenkinsop com- 
menced regular mission work at Palmer in 1851 or '52, but could 
visit his flock here not oftener than twice a month. Then worship 
was held first in the old dry-house of the Thorndike Manufacturing 
Company at Thorndike Village. For want of seats, his few hearers 
were obliged to remain standing during service. They next met 
for a time in Newton's Hall at Thorndike. 

In 1854 Gamaliel Collins, Esq., in behalf of the Catholics, pur- 
chased the old Congregational Meeting-House at Palmer Centre, 
which was somewhat refitted and dedicated in 1855, Bishop Fitz- 
patrick of Boston performing the rites of consecration. Father 
Blenkinsop continued in charge and held worship at the Old Cen- 
tre for about a year. He was succeeded by Father Ilealy, who had 
residence at Ware and ministered to the two parishes. During his 
pastorate Father Healy remodelled the old church, and also built 
^t. Patrick's Church at Monson. Soon after this, these two churches 

Si. Paul's Universalist Chukch. Palmhr. 

PALMER IN MODERN TIMES, 1812-1889. 349 

were made into one parish, and Rev. Father Lasco was assigned to 
duty as pastor. He had charge of the two flocks for six months, 
when he was taken suddenly ill and died. Rev. Father Moyse was 
the next priest in charge. He was succeeded by Rev. Anthony J. 
Rossi, a graduate of St. Mary's Seminary, near St. Louis, Mo. He 
remained in charge till 1869, when he was transferred to the arch- 
diocese of Boston and assigned to the care of St. George's parish at 
Saxonville, a village of Framingham. After Father Rossi left. 
Father Molinari was stationed at Palmer for a few months. The 
next permanent pastor was Rev. F. J. Lynch, who came to Palmer 
in the fall of 1869 and still remains in active service, revered by 
his flock and honored by all men. He can well feel a just pride in 
the work of twenty years, which has resulted in the establishment 
of three prosperous churches of English-speaking Catholics. 

Rev. F. J. Lynch was educated at St. Mary^s Seminary, Balti- 
more, Md., where he was in residence at the breaking out of the 
late Civil War, and participated in the excitement consequent on 
the marching through the city of the earliest Northern regiments. 
He received ordination in 1865, and was stationed at Holyoke; 
came to Palmer in 1869, and took charge of the parish, then in- 
cluding the whole town. Sabbath worship was held in the some- 
what dilapidated church at the Old Centre. 

In 1876, through the efforts of Father Lynch, a church edifice 
was erected at Thorndike, and the Catholics forsook the old meet- 
ing-house and gathered at the new church. The house is a neat 
and very substantial structure, 120x50 feet, and occupies a spot 
where its fine proportions are seen to advantage. It has a seating 
capacity of 760, and cost ^23,000. A parsonage was built in 1878. 
The Sabbath School connected with this church numbers 175. 

Up to July, 1878, the people of this faith all worshipped in the 
new house. But the growth of the several villages of Palmer 
brought a larger population than could be well accommodated at 
one place, and the territory was divided into three parishes — St. 
Mary^s at Thorndike, St. Thomas' at Palmer Village, and St. Bar- 
tholomew's at Bondsville. 

St. Thomas' Church, at Palmer village, was erected in 1878, at a 
cost of about 14,000. Originally it had a seating capacity of 250. 
At the end of ten years the house was found too small for the in- 
creasing congregation, and in August, 1888, the work of recon- 
struction and enlargement was begun. The work was completed 
and the new house was dedicated March 24, 1889. It is of wood, 
and in the gothic style of architecture, and has a seating capacity 
of 600. The body of the church inside is wainscoted at the base, 


and above is finished in arches frescoed in subdued and harmonious 
colors, which form a pleasing contrast with the dark walnut color 
of the seats. Nineteen handsome cathedral windows light the in- 
terior of the entire structure. Upon the walls of the auditorium 
are the 14 stations of the cross, while higher up are beautiful 
Scriptural illustrations and representations of the seven sacraments. 
The walls of the sanctuary are elaborately finished in gold leaf, and 
the altar is of uniqne and chaste design. Upon the right of it 
there is painted a cluster of grapes combined with a bunch of 
wheat, while upon the left side there is represented a chalice and 
host, each having a mystical significance. The chapel, which is 
entirely new, will also be used as a sacristy, and can be reached 
by a side entrance and from the auditorium. 

Kev. Thomas J. Sullivan was assigned to this parish (which in- 
cludes North Wilbraham) at the time of its organization in 1878, 
and still remains pastor in charge. He is a native of Worcester, 
where he was educated at the public schools and the Holy Cross 
College. He studied for the priesthood at the Grand Seminary of 
Montreal, and was ordained December 19, 1873. He resides in a 
commodious parsonage adjoining the church. He has been a mem- 
ber of the Board of School Committee of Palmer since 1883.* 

St. Bartholomew's Parish at Bondsville was organized in 1879, 
and through the efforts of Father Lynch a neat and comfortable 
church edifice was erected. It has since been remodeled, and now 
has sittings for about 500. Rev. B. McKeany was assigned to duty 
here, and still remains the priest in charge. 

French Catholic Church, A mission was commenced at Three 
Rivers as early as 1880, to meet the special needs of the large French 
poiDulation of that village. AVorship was first held in the town 
house at Four Corners. St. Anne's Church, which occupies a com- 
manding position, was built in 1884. It has about 600 sittings. 
Rev. Ant. A. Lamy came here in the early days of the enterprise, 
and still continues the priest in charge. 

Father Lamy is now (1889) buildiug a church at Bondsville, to 
accommodate the French Catholics of that growing village. 

Items of Historical Interest. 

1820. March 13. The town voted that swine may run at large 
in the streets, properly yoked and rung. 

1830. October 16. Col. Amos Hamilton was chosen delegate 
to represent the Town of Palmer in the convention to be held at 

* p. S. Father Sullivan closed his labors with St. Thomas' Church June 20, 1889, and is suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Wm. Hart from Holyoke. 

PALMER IX MODERN TIMES, 1812-1889. 351 

Boston for the purpose of revising the Constitution of this Com- 

Apprentices. — To show the manner of binding out children as 
apprentices to learn trades, which prevailed as a common custom in 
a former generation, the following Indenture is copied from the 
Palmer town records : 

Tliis Indenture witnesseth, That Charles Coon of Springfield, in 
the county of Hampden, laborer, hath put & placed, and by these 
presents doth put and place his son Charles Sanford Coon as an ap- 
prentice to Abner Allen of Palmer, Gentleman, to learn the art, 
trade or mystery of husbandry, so far as the said apprentice be 
capable to learn of him the said Allen. The said Charles Sanford, 
after the manner of an apprentice, to dwell with and serve the 
said Allen from the day of the date hereof untill the 14th day of 
January, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-eight, at which 
time the said apprentice, if he be living will be seventeen years of 
age. During all of which time the said apprentice his said Master 
well and faithfully shall serve — his secrets keep, and his lawful 
commands everywhere and at all times readily obey — he shall do no 
damage to his said master nor willfully suffer any to be done by 
others, and if any to his knowledge be intended, he shall give his 
master seasonable notice thereof — he shall not waste the goods of 
his said master, nor lend them unlawfully to any — At cards, dice, 
or any unlawful game he shall not play — fornication he shall not 
commit, nor marriage contract during the said term — Taverns, ale 
houses, or places of gaming he shall not haunt or frequent — from 
the service of his said master he shall not absent himself — but in all 
things and at all times he shall carry and behave himself as a good & 
faithful apprentice ought, during the whole time or term aforesaid. 

And the said Allen, on his part, doth hereby promise, warrant 
and agree to teach and instruct the said aj)prentice, or cause him to 
be taught and instructed, so far as he may be capable to learn, in 
the art, trade or calling of a husbandman, by the best way or means 
he can ; and also if he be capable to learn, to teach and instruct the 
said apprentice or cause him to be taught to read and write and 
cypher as far as the Eule of Three, if the said apprentice be capa- 
ble to learn — And shall well and faithfully find and provide for the 
said apprentice, good and suflQcient meat, drink, clothing, lodging, 
and other necessaries fit and convenient for such an apprentice, 
during the term aforesaid : And at the expiration thereof, shall give 
unto him the said apprentice, two suits of wearing apparel, one 
suit suitable for the Lord's day, and the other for working days. 


In testimony whereof, the said parties have hereunto set their 
hands and seals this 31st day of March, A. D. 1829. 

Charles Coon seal 
Signed, sealed Abner Allen seal 

and delivered in presence of 
Leonard Davis, 
James Stebbins. Recorded by me 

Theoph. H. Knight, Town Clerk. 

Three Eivers. May 3, 1830, the town voted ''that any per- 
son who shall pass or repass the bridge near the junction of the 
Three Rivers in Palmer with a horse or horses or carriages faster 
than on the walk shall be subject to a penalty of one dollar for 
each and every time he shall so pass faster than on a walk — con- 
formably to the provisions of a late Law of this Commonwealth, 
and that the selectmen be directed to put up boards at each end of 
said bridge, agreeably to Law.'' 

Town Map of 1830, — An article in the warrant for a town 
meeting May 3, 1830, was " To take measures to carry into effect 
a Resolve of the Legislature of this Commonwealth, requiring 
towns to make surveys of their territory and return plans of the 
same into the Secretary's office, passed March 1, 1830, and to raise 
money to pay the expense thereof." '' Chose the board of select- 
men, viz., John Frink, Joseph Lee, Jun., and Cyrus Knox, agents 
to effect a survey of the town." The next spring the selectmen 
reported that the sum of $18.95 had been paid out for surveying 
the town. And in their report for 1832 they state that the further 
sum of $37.87 had been paid ''for surveying and making a Map of 
the Town." This map is now in the State Archives at Boston, and 
has considerable value. It is an outline map, with the streams, 
ponds, mill-seats, county roads and school houses carefully delineated 
and noted. Cleared lands and woodlands are distinguished, and the 
latter appear to cover considerably more than half our territory. 

Ringing the Bells. — May 2, 1836, the town voted "That the 
selectmen cause the bell at the Centre Meeting-House and the bell 
at the Three Rivers Meeting-House to be rung for all town pur- 
poses and tolled for all deaths and funerals for the inhabitants of 
said town, and ringed regularly every day at twelve o'clock at noon 
and nine o'clock in the morning." 

Surplus Revenue. — At a meeting of the town May 1, 1837, 
''voted to receive this town's proportion of the surplus revenue 

PALMER IN- MODEKN" TIMES, 1812-1889. 263 

from the Treasurer of this State, on the conditions prescribed by 
the Acts of the Legislature. 

And also voted that Amos Hamilton, the treasurer of said town 
of Palmer, be the agent to receive said money, and bind the town 
in its corporate capacity for the security and repayment of the same 
to the State. 

Voted, that the said town treasurer be authorized in behalf of 
the town, to loan said money, and take mortgages on real estate to 
secure the payment of the same, not in larger sums than one thou- 
sand dollars, nor in less sums than three hundred dollars, and the 
estates so mortgaged shall be estimated to be worth three times the 
value of the sum loaned — And shall all be loaned to the inhabitants 
of the town of Palmer — And that the interest accruing on said 
money for the first year be appropriated for the use of common 
schools — And chose the selectmen a committee to assist the treas- 
urer in loaning said money." 

Nothing appears upon the town records to show the amount of 
money received from the State, nor to whom loans were made. 
The annual reports of the selectmen on the financial condition of 
the treasury make no mention of this money. The interest (no 
sum named) appears to have been appropriated for the use of 
schools, though in 1844 the town voted to appropriate "fhe Sur- 
plus Eevenue'" to purchase a Poor Farm. 

List of Pensioners living in Palmer in 1840 : 
Huldah Ball, aged 79. 
Jonathan Hunt, aged 80. 
Eleanor McClintock, aged 85. 
Alice Perry, aged 78. 
Naomi Strickland, aged 78. 
Samuel Taylor, aged 79. 

Poor Farm. — Dec. 2, 1844. The town "voted to appropriate 
the Surplus Eevenue to purchase a farm to be used by said town 
for the support of town paupers, with the necessary tools and stock." 

18G3. Voted to sell the town farm, and purchase the farm of 
Ralph Green for the use of the town ; price, $2,050. 

1879. Voted to build a new house and barn on the Poor Farm. 

New Town House. — In 1846, the town voted to build a new 
Town House at the Four Corners, provided land can be had there 
free of expense to the town. Voted that the size of the House 
be 70 X 48 feet, with 18 feet posts. 


Watering Tubs. — 1879. The town voted to authorize the 
selectmen to construct and maintain watering tubs in the villages 
of Palmer and Bondsville. 

1885. A Fire District was organized, and W. W. Leach was 
chosen clerk, and sworn. 

The town voted to appropriate the sum of $8,000 to purchase a 
steam fire engine, hose, hose carriage and apparatus, and the erec- 
tion of an engine house. 

Modern Cemeteries. — At Three Rivers. ''The committee 

appointed to see if they could obtain a spot of land for a burying 

ground at the Three Elvers, have attended to the duty, and report : 

K. D. Earl has agreed to let the town have a sjDot of land on the 

following conditions, viz. that the town shall pay him twenty-five 

dollars for it, and shall fence it, and shall level the ground in front 

of the fence. The size of the ground is as follows : located at the 

corner of the roads northeast of said Earl's house, and measuring 

twenty rods on each road, and thence a strait line from one bound 

to the other across the west end, containing about one acre. The 

fence on the north side is to be set back one and a half rods from 

the road. Signed 

Elias Turner, 

Abel Calkins, 

A X J Ti/r 1 -lo -loony Marble K. Ferrell. 

Accepted March 13, 1837. 

At Four Corners. This Cemetery was laid out in 1851. The 
town voted to purchase three acres of land, at one hundred dollars 
per acre. 

The Catholic Cemetery near the Old Centre was laid out in 1863, 
The Catholic Cemetery at Thorndike was laid out in 1879. 

Digging Graves. — 1836, May 2. The town voted, ''that the 
selectmen be authorized to pay for digging the graves for town 
inhabitants, and attending funerals with the hearse." 

Palmer Cemetery Association. — Was organized June 18, 
1888. Its object is to have a care of, and make general improve- 
ments in the cemetery at Palmer Village. Its means are derived 
from annual fees of members, donations, and appropriations by the 
town. Officers: president, W. A. Brakenridge ; v. pres., J. H. 
Woolrich; secretary, L. E. Chandler; treas., L. E. Moore; trus- 
tees, J. W. Shanks, Mrs. George Davis, W. B. Ham, Mrs. S. R, 
Lawrence, Mrs. L. E. Child, Wm. Merriam, C. B. Fiske, H. C. 
Strong, David Knox, George Eobinson, Mrs. L. W. Burleigh. 

JuiJi.ic J. (i. Allun. 

PALMER IN MODERN TIMES, 1812-1889. 255 

Palmer Water Company was organized May 25, 1885, with a 
capital of $20,000, The reservoir is situated on Tamar mountain, 
and fed from living springs. The Company supplies the hydrants, 
the B. & A. railroad, the hotels, and 200 families. Officers : 
0. L. Goodhue, pres. ; C. K. Gam well, clerk ; J. H. Gam well, 
treas.; C. L. Goodhue, T. A. Clark, F. R. Lawton, C. K. Gamwell, 
J. H. Gamwell, directors. 

The Electric Light Company was established in 1888 ; operates 
under the Westinghouse patent ; furnishing both arc and incandes- 
cent lights, which are in use in the hotels, stores, and public build- 
ings quite generally. 

The District Court of Eastern Hampden, was instituted 
April 29, 1872. Has jurisdiction in Palmer, Brimfield, Monson, 
Holland, Wales and Wilbraham ; holds daily sessions at Court 
house in Palmer village. Justices : James G. Allen, till his death 
in 1879, when George Robinson was appointed, and still presides. 
Special Justices : H. F. Brown of Brimfield, and J. B. Shaw of 


Industries of Palmer. 

state valuation, 1840 — inbustrial statistics, 1855 — railroads— 
blanchard's sctthe factory— three rivers manufacturing CO. 


taverns- stores— agricultural society. 

State Valuation, 1840. 

AS the date — 1838-1845 — marks the commencement of a new 
era in the business life of Palmer, it is thought best to 
present the statistics of the official valuation of 1840, and 
the industrial statistics of 1856, in order to show the rapid advance 
made in 15 years. These tables will help the reader to estimate 
aright the causes of the new development, and prepare the way for 
considering in detail the history of the several industries which 
were started or revived near this time : 

No. of inhabitants in 1840, 2,150 

No. of ratable polls, 16 years and upwards, 539 

No. of polls not taxed, 33 

No. of dwelling houses, 237 

No. of barns, 218 

No. of shops adjoining dwelling houses, 1 

No. of other shops, 23 

No. of tan houses, 1 

No. of warehouses and stores, 9 

No. of grist mills, 3 

No. of saw mills, 3 

No. of iron works and furnaces, 1 

No. of cotton factories, 2 

No. of spindles in the same, 22,520 


No. of looms in the same, 486 
No. of woolen factories, 1 
No. of spindles in the same, 590 
No. of looms in the same, 32 
No. of all other works and edifices of the value of $20, 111 
Amount of every person's whole stock in trade, in- 
cluding goods and merchandise, $32,850 
Amount of money at interest more than they pay 

interest for, $52,086 
Amount of stocks held in banks and insurance com- 
panies, $14,800 
Value of shares in any bridge, canal, railroad, $1,780 
No. acres of tillage land, 1,143 
No. bushels of rye raised, 4,457 
No. bushels of oats raised, 8,561 
No. bushels of Indian corn raised, 7,555 
No. acres of English mowing, 657 
No. tons of hay produced annually, 757 
No. acres of fresh meadow, 1,153 
No. tons of hay produced on the same, 1,091 
No. acres of pasturage, 8,224 
No. cows kept on same, 978 
No. acres of woodland, 3,208 
No. acres of unimproved land, 1,742 
No. acres of unimproveable land, 2,049 
No. acres owned by the town, 10 
No. acres taken up by roads, 630 
No. acres covered by water, 783 
No. horses one year old and upwards, 337 
No. oxen four years old and upwards, 310 
No. of young cattle, 424 
No. of sheep six months old and upwards, 2,123 
No. swine six months old and upwards, 285 
Total number of acres in town, 19,691 

Industeial Statistics foe 1855. 

Number of inhabitants, 4,012; churches, 6; school houses, 13; 
taverns, 6; grist mills, 3; saw mills, 4; blacksmith's shops, 6; 
grocery and dry goods stores, 17; cotton mills, 4; spindles, 48,590; 
cotton consumed, 3,415,000 lbs.; cloth manufactured, 7,577,000 
yds., which included printing cloth, 1,650,000 yds.; duck cloth, 
1,710,000 yds.; 34-inch shirtings, 1,317,000 yds.; stripe ticks and 
denims, 3,000,000 yds.; value of cloth, $5628, 707; capital, 1957,000; 
men employed, 505; women, 541. 

Furnace for the manufacture of castings and hollow ware, 1 ; 
product, 50 tons ; value, 84,000. 


Scythe Factory, 1 ; scythes made, 14,000 ; vah;e, -$0,000 ; hands 
employed, 15. 

Saddle and Harness manufactory, 2 ; value of goods made, $2,500. 

Hat Manufactory, 1 ; number of hats made, 300. 

Carriage Manufactory, 1 ; value of carriages, etc., made, §15,000 ; 
hands employed, 15. 

Soap and candle works, 1 ; soap manufactured, 936 barrels ; value, 
$2,808 ; tallow candles made, G,000 pounds ; value, 8840. 

Tin ware manufactory, 1 ; value of product, $1,000. 

Currying shop, 1 ; value of leather finished, 833,000 ; hands em- 
ployed, 7. 

Boots manufactured, 500 pairs ; shoes, 1,000 pairs ; value, 
$3,000 ; hands employed, 7. 

Manufactory of straw hats and bonnets, 1 ; goods finished, 
8,295 dozens ; unfinished, 10,200 dozens ; value, $10,000 ; males 
employed, 15 ; females, 262. 

Lumber prepared for market, 1,350,000 feet ; value, $9,600. 

Firewood prepared for market, 9,500 cords ; value, $23,750. 

No. of sheep, 441 ; wool produced, 1,421 lbs. 

No. of horses, 292 ; value, $21,905. 

No. of oxen, 205 ; steers, 176 ; value, $15,010. 

No. of milch cows, 483 ; heifers, 226 ; value, $17,273. 

Butter made, 38,000 lbs.; value, $7,600. 

Cheese made, 20,000 lbs.; value, $2,000. 

Indian corn, 550 acres ; average yield jDer acre, 28 bushels. 

Wheat, 1 acre ; yield, 10 bushels. 

Rye, 393 acres ; yield per acre, 10 bushels. 

Oats, 335 acres ; yield per acre, 25 bushels. 

Potatoes, 160 acres ; yield per acre, 100 bushels. 

English mowing, 1,596 acres ; hay, 1,596 tons. 

Wet meadow or swale hay, 618 tons. 

No. of swine, 268 ; value, $1,921. 

Beans raised, 800 bushels ; value, $2,000. 

Buckwheat, 2,000 bushels ; value, $1,500. 

There is $1,000 invested in the manufacture of reeds ; value of 
finished article, $1,400. 

From the preceding tables it appears that the population nearly 
doubled in 15 years; that the number of cotton factories just doubled, 
while the increase of production was more than 100 per cent. ; and 
the growth of minor industries kept pace with the new demand. 

The Adyp:nt of Railroads. — Among the potent causes of the 
development of industrial pursuits at this period was the construe- 


tion of the Boston and Albany Railroad. The great water power 
of our rivers had been in part utilized some years before, and large 
enterprises set on foot, but a drawback was the hard and costly 
transportation of raw material and manufactured goods. The rail- 
road removed or lessened this hindrance, and brought our factories 
and their products near to market. It reduced the time of hauling 
to Springfield from six hours to one hour, and in the same propor- 
tion to and from Boston. And the prospect of rapid transit and 
cheapened rates acted as a stimulus to raise the spirits and hopes of 
investors, after the hard reverses and blue days of '37. Even if a 
dollar had no greater purchasing power, it had a guarantee of 
larger income, and so possessed more intrinsic value. 

The Boston and Albany Railroad was opened from "Worcester to 
the Connecticut river in October, 1839. The effects of its coming 
had in part been discounted in the assured promise of that event, 
but the actual fact gave a new start to social and business life. 
This was especially true of the Depot Village, which up to this 
time had been content to be only a suburb of the Old Centre. As 
compared with the present, however, those were ''the days of small 
things." The road had but a single track. The depot buildings 
were small and cheap affairs, situated on the north side of the 
track, and reached by a sharp descent from near the junction of 
Main and Central streets. The freight house was equally small 
and inconvenient. The double track, the enlarged freight yard, 
the overhead bridge and the Union station have come with the de- 
mands of traffic and the ability of income. The present commo- 
dious and elegant passenger station was built in 1883-4. 

The New London Northern Railroad was an important enter- 
prise and promised large results to the two original termini. It 
was oiJened to Palmer from the south in 1850 and to the north in 
1853. But to us it was rather a feeder than a creator of enter- 
prises. And the opening, at a later date, of the Ware River Rail- 
road, and, still later, of the Athol branch of the Boston and 
Albany, while they effected no sudden change or enlargement of 
business, have yet directly benefitted the manufacturing interests 
of Three Rivers, Thorndike and Bondsville, and thus indirectly 
built up and strengthened the town. 


The minor industries of Palmer have in part been indicated and 
described in the chapter on Topography, in connection with the 
rivers and brooks. But the more important of these will now be 


more fully described, in a detailed history of the several incorpor- 
ated manufacturing companies at the different villages. This 
involves a little repetition ; but it will make the record more 
intelligible, and at the same time show the progress of invention 
and art from small beginnings to the high degree of perfection 
now attained. 

Blanchard's Scythe Factory. — This deserves a place among 
the early industrial enterprises of modern Palmer, because of its 
success, and because the parties interested became permanent resi- 
dents of the town, and have contributed largely to our high stand- 
ing as a community, in social as well as financial matters. 

The Blanchards came to Palmer from Dudley (now Webster), in 
Worcester county. Thomas Blanchard, son of Samuel, was a cele- 
brated inventor of curious and valuable mechanisms, the scope of 
his powers in this line being almost unlimited. Among other con- 
trivances, was a machine for heading tacks, one for bending wood, 
and one for turning irregular forms of wood. This last proved to 
be of incalcuable value, and was first applied to the turning of gun 
stocks, busts, and casts of hard material. The U. S. Government 
secured the invention for use in its armories, which revolutionized 
the manufacture of small arms. 

Thomas Blanchard lived in Millbury, and in travelling to and 
from Springfield, while superintending the introduction of his in- 
vention, he observed the water-power in the Quabaug river, above 
the present Depot Village; and knowing that his brother, John B., 
who was then making scythes on a small scale in Dudley, wanted 
to secure a larger privilege, informed him of the chance. The 
result was that Maj. John B. Blanchard purchased the said priv- 
ilege, built a factory, and removed to Palmer in 1824 — about a year 
anterior to the building of the dam at Three Kivers. He was a 
good mechanic, and fully versed in the art of scythe-making. His 
tools bore a high reputation for excellence of make and temper, and 
the business prospered. He continued the manufacture till 1840, 
when age and infirmity induced him to retire. He died in October, 
1850. His son, Alonzo V., came to Palmer with the father, and 
was associated with him in the works. After the father retired, A. 
V. took in partnership, his brother, William J., and later, his 
brother John D., and still later, another brother, Franklin. The 
firm fully maintained the early reputation of their goods, their 
sales in some years amounting to 2,000 dozens of scythes, of the 
value of 120,000. 

In addition to scythe-making, the brothers engaged largely in the 


manufacture of plow and shovel handles^, ox-bows, and wheel-rims, 
the annual value of which equalled that of their scythes. This 
work was carried on in a separate building, and was continued till 
the building and all its valuable machinery, and a large amount of 
stock was consumed by fire. 

John D. Blanchard died suddenly in 1872, when the manufac- 
turing of scythes was given up and the business of the firm closed. 

Mr. A. V. Blanchard, whose memory covers the whole of the 
firm's affairs in Palmer, is still hale and hearty; and has furnished 
the material for the foregoing sketch, and many reminiscenses, 
which add to the value of this book. He has been honored by the 
town by repeated election to its more responsible civil offices, and as 
a member of the school board. He represented the town in the 
Legislatures of 1836, 1845 and 1847. 

Three Rivers. — The first notice on the town records of a move- 
ment to utilize the power of the water-fall at this point, is the fol- 
lowing : " May 4, 1790. On the petition of Gideon Graves and 
others, requesting an open road to said Graves' mills, voted, that 
the selectmen go and open the road by Cleaveland's to said mills, 
and agree with some person to move the fence so that s*^ road may 
be open and free to pass and repass. June 7, voted to Hugh Moors 
one shilling per rod for making a fence and opening a road from 
his bars to s* mill-yard, as the road now goes, which shall be a full 
recompence to said Moors for making s** fence and continuing the 
road open and free forever." Mr. Moors' bill, which was allowed 
and paid in November, was £3. 5. 0. This mill was located near 
the foot of the falls, and was in use for many years. In 1825, the 
privilege was bought by Russell Jenks, and by him sold to the Three 
Rivers Manufacturing Company. This comj)any sold the same, 
November 25, 1828, to Messrs. W. and A. Sprague. The privilege 
is now owned by Ed. D. Metcalf of Springfield, but has lain unim- 
proved since the Graves mill ceased to run. 

The lands enclosed between the two streams, and those lying on 
the southerly side of the Quabaug, were owned by David and Dan- 
iel Shearer, and excepting homestead clearings, were mostly in a 
wild state. August 28, 1823, the Shearer brothers entered into an 
agreement with Russell Jenks, by which they conceded to him the 
right to build a dam nine feet high at the junction, with rights of 
flowage, etc. March 15, 1824, Samuel Perry deeded to Daniel 
Shearer three acres of land on the northerly side of the stream, 
with right of flowage. August 6, 1825, Shearer conveyed this land 
and rights to William S. Rogers of Boston ; and October 18, 1825, 


Jenks conveyed to llogers, all the land and rights which he had 
acquired of the Shearers, 
The dam was built in 1825. 

The Three Eivers Manufacturing Company. 

Be it enacted, etc. 

That Levi Brigham, William S. Rogers. Samuel D. Ward, Levi 
Merriam, Darius B. Holbrook, Thomas A. Dexter, Willard Phillips, 
Charles P. Dexter and Anthony Olney are hereby made a corpora- 
tion by the name of the Three Eivers Manufacturing Company, 
for the purpose of manufacturing cotton, woolen and linen goods, 
iron and machinery, in the town of Palmer, in the county of 
Hampden, with all the powers and privileges, etc. Said Company 
may hold real estate not exceeding in value 8300,000 and personal 
estate of the value of 8700,000. Passed January 21, 1826. 

August 9, 1826. Wm. S. Rogers conveyed to the above named 
Company, all the real estate and rights which he had acquired of 
Jenks, the Shearers, and Perry. The Company also bought more 
lands of Perry and others, which gave them control of the whole 
privilege and its surroundings. They then went forward, and 
■commenced the canal, erected a large and convenient mill, and put 
in machinery for manufacturing woolen cloths. Willard Phillips 
was managing agent of the Company. 

But the canal proved refractory. There remained a long cut 
through the solid rock to be excavated. The engineer and con- 
tractor did not understand the art of effective blasting ; tons of 
powder were wasted ; brain and brawn, and money went up in smoke. 
Time did not wait ; bills matured ; stockholders' purses grew lean, 
and their hearts discouraged. The cost had not been counted. 
And the original outlay, and expense of building the dam and 
factory, and the upper part of the canal appear to have exhausted 
the means of the corporation, and forced it to the dangerous ex- 
pedient of borrowing money, and giving mortgages as security. 
How long the work proceeded is not definitely known. Records of 
^ later date show that Edmund Munroe of Boston held a mortgage 
covering one-half part of the estate. 0. Pickering, Luther Parks, 

Fay, Putnam, Pritchard, had claims secured 

by mortgage. 

In 1828 a special effort appears to have been made to save the 
plant. Among others. Hall J. Kelley, who had attained a good 
reputation as civil engineer, visited the place and invested a con- 
siderable sum in the enterprise. He took hold with his accus- 


tomed enthusiasm, and probably was reckoned as a kind of forlorn 
hope. He made accurate surveys, and drew a comprehensive plan 
of the site, embracing the dam, mill and canal, took the necessary 
levels and alignments and marked out lots and streets. The plan 
is still extant, and §viuces a comprehensive mind, which took in 
the immense facilities afforded by the water power and the favor- 
able lay of the land for planting a productive industry, and creating 
a village. He also projected an extension of the canal to the Con- 
necticut river, to be used for the transportation of the supplies and 
goods of the factory and village. 

But the debt already incurred must first be lifted. The means 
were not forthcoming, the mortgagees foreclosed and the company 

The Palmer Company.— Oct. 7, 1831, an Act was passed by 
the General Court incorporating John S. Wright, Thomas Lord 
and Luther Parks as a corporation by the name of the Palmer Com- 
pany for the purpose of manufacturing woolen and cotton goods 
and machinery in the town of Palmer, with right to hold real 
•estate not exceeding in value $200,000, and personal estate of the 
value of 8200,000. 

October 17, 1831, the Palmer Company bought the buildings, 
privilege and all rights pertaining thereto of the Three Rivers 
Manufacturing Company, and of most of the mortgagees holding 
claims under said company. The price paid is supposed to have 
been $60,000. 

At this date appear upon our records the names of two men who 
were destined to act an important part in the history of Palmer 
and be largely instrumental in transforming a rather sluggish 
farming community, content with the " old ways " of the fathers, 
into a busy, bustling and thriving manufacturing town. The two 
men were John S. Wright and Joseph Brown. Mr. Wright fur- 
nished the money, Mr. Brown furnished the brains. And both 
together brought into subjection the waters of our three large 
-streams, and made them tributary to our commercial and social 
prosperity, and laid the sure foundations of the three flourishing 
factory villages. Other men began — wisely, perhaps — and made 
preparations and showed the possibilities, and deserve all proper 
credit for the necessary preliminary work, but to them belongs the 
credit of success. 

Joseph Brown was born in Cumberland, R. I. ; located early at 
Chicopee, where he learned the manufacturing business in all its 
parts, and successfully managed a cotton mill. He came to Three 


Kivers in 1831, with the advent of the Palmer Company and took 
charge of the revivified enterprise. He was a man of action and 
push, of excellent judgment and business capacity, and withal of 
an indomitable will and large hopefulness. All things conspired 
to point him out as managing agent of the new company. His 
first move was to finish the canal. One who was then living at the 
place says : ''It was wonderful to see the energy he infused into 
the workmen. He was down in the cut, and up on the bank, and 
everywhere.'^ Blasts were put in where they would do the most 
good, and in a comparatively short time the canal was finished. 

Mr. Brown's knowledge of machinery enabled him to construct 
a set of cheap spindles and looms for utilizing short staple cotton 
in making fine goods. Up to near this date our manufacturers 
largely used the long fibre for spinning fine threads. The short 
staple was considerably cheaper than the long. The goods, as he 
produced them, were well liked, and the profits were large. At first 
and for several years the mills were run on printing cloth, 27 inches 
wide. Later, the manufacture of sheetings was introduced. The 
enterprise prospered. Mr. Brown became owner of a considerable 
number of shares, and continued to act as managing agent for the 
company till 1859, when he retired with a competence. 

Mr. Wright never located in Palmer. The house of John S. 
Wright & Co. of Boston was the selling agent of the concern. 

In the meantime, a stone grist and saw mill (still standing) was 
put in on the northerly side of the stream, taking power from the 
pond. This was in operation for many years, and, among others, 
was leased by Horace Hunn. 

The mill was burned May 10, 1863, and the disturbances and un- 
certainties of the war rendered it inexpedient to rebuild. Nov. 
23, 1863, the Palmer Comimny sold the privilege to John S. 
Wright, who was a principal owner, and it remained unoccupied 
for ten years. February 9, 1872, Mr. Wright sold the property to 
The Otis Company of Ware. The dam and canal remained intact, 
and the new proprietors proceeded during 1872 and '73 to build the 
present mill, 290x75 feet, and put up a dye house, finishing room, 
and several new tenements. As then arranged, the mill contained 
20,160 spindles and 450 looms, and employed 425 hands, with a 
product of 12,200 yards per day. At first the leading product was 
cotton flannels ; changed to denims, cheviots, fancy shirtings, and 
colored goods, the manufacture of which still continues. Within 
the last few years changes have been made, as the result of experi- 
ence, and improvements introduced, and the product largely in- 
creased. Present number of spindles, about 24,000; looms, 700; 


hands employed, 625 — males, 350, females, 275; annual product, 
9,000,000 yards; cotton consumed, 2,800,000 pounds. 

Height of fall, 18 feet. 

The valuation for 1888 shows, machinery, $181,400; factory and 
buildings, $121,450; water power, $8,000; forty-four houses, 164,- 
125; stone grist mill, store, barns, etc., $2,450; land for building 
purposes, 20 acres, $4,000; land for farm, 265 acres, $5,300. 

The population of the village is about 1,700. Six schools are 
supported by the town, carefully graded so as to meet the wants of 
all classes, except high school scholars, who are transported to the 
high school at Palmer Depot. There are three regularly organized 
religious societies, viz., the Union Church, the First Baptist, and 
the French Catholic — which last erected a tasty house of worship 
iu 1884. 

The location of the village of Three Elvers is fortunate as to the 
feasibility of building operations, and good drainage to secure the 
health of the people. In 1860 an acre of ground directly in front 
of the mill yard was set apart for public use, planted with shade 
trees, and now constitutes a handsome park. In 1883 the town re- 
located and straightened the principal streets, thus adding much to 
the convenience of travel and the symmetry of the village. 

A brief notice of the man who first surveyed and laid out the 
village, and who was a somewhat noted character here during 
the last years of his life, will complete the narrative of this 

Hall Jackson Kelley, according to his own account, was born at 
Northwood, N. H., February 24, 1790. He was a descendant of 
John Kelley, who settled in Newbury, Mass., in 1633. His father 
was Benjamin Kelley, a physician, who practised his professsion in 
Loudon and Gilmanton, N. H. At the age of 16, the boy left 
home, and taught a school at Hallowell, Me. He studied the clas- 
sics, and graduated with honor at Middlebury College in 1814 ; was 
granted the degree of A. M. by his alma mater, and also by Har- 
vard University in 1820. He married, first, a daughter of Rev. T. 
Baldwin, D. D., of Boston. His second wife was Mary Perry, an 
adopted daughter of T. D. Bradlee of Boston. They were married 
by Eev. Mr. Baldwin, at the house of Mr. Bradlee, April 17, 1822, 
and took up residence at Charlestown, where they remained till the 
spring of 1829, when they removed to Three Rivers in Palmer. 
Mr. George Mooers remembers their arrival at their new home ; and 
that Mrs. Kelley, wholly unused to country life, but determined to 
be her own housekeeper, employed him to milk their cow, and then 
to teach her to milk, which she readily accomplished. The family 


resided at Three Eivers till the summer of 1832, when Mr. Kelley 
was preparing to start for Oregon. The wife and children then 
went to Boston, and from thence to Bradford, Mass., and later to 
Gilmanton, N. H., to live with Dr. Kelley. After Mr. Kelley's 
return from the West, he passed some time with his family in New 
Hampshire ; and after his re-settlement at Three Eivers his wife 
and children visited him occasionally down to 1843 ; but his 
" home" was not re-established. 

In his " Letters to his Wife," Mr. Kelley mentions his sons, 
Charles, who went to California ; Benjamin, who about 1850 was 
at Fort Lincoln, Texas ; and John. " Tom Kelley," another son, is 
remembered by old people. 

After his graduation from college, Mr. Kelley devoted his time 
to teaching, the preparation of elementary books for schools, the 
introduction of black-boards, and the study of the higher branches 
of mathematical sciences, making what he deemed a discovery in 
the true system or method of geographical and topographical sur- 
veying ; but his neglect to formulate the proper tables, left the 
discovery incomplete. Gen. Bernard, head of the corps of Civil 
Engineers, approved the new principle; and "^'President Jackson 
promised to adopt it, whenever a book, giving directions for its 
practice, and a proper apparatus, should be prepared." But the 
time and means were wanting. 

In 1828, Mr. Kelley became interested in the affairs of the 
"Three Rivers Manufacturing Company" of Palmer, chartered 
two years before, which was then struggling with some engineering 
and financial difficulties, and invested largely in its stock and plant, 
[the sum named is $10,000], which proved a total loss. This led 
to his taking up a residence in Palmer, as already narrated. And 
the existence of some claims to land of his own, and of his friend, 
Mr. 0. Pickering, led to his return to Palmer in 1839. 

As early as 1817, while a teacher in one of the grammar schools 
of Boston, Mr. Kelley conceived the idea of leading a colony for 
the exploration and settlement of Oregon, then practically an 
"unknown country," He says : " Then 1 began first to converse 
with friends about it, then to lecture and write books and tracts, in 
order to give the widest publicity to my plans and purposes." In 
1824, he publicly announced his intention "to settle Oregon, and 
to propagate Christianity beyond the Rocky Mountains." In 1829, 
he procured an act of incorporation from the Legislature of Mass- 
achusetts of "The American Society for Encouraging the Settle- 
ment of the Oregon Territory;" and in 1830 he published a 
''Geographical Memoir of Oregon," accompanied by a map, drawn 


by himself, and also a ''Manual of the Oregon Expedition," for 
the guidance of emigrants. 

Mr. Kelley spent the winters of 1830 and '31 in Washington, 
opening his scheme, and enlisting the interest of public function- 

After many haps and mishaps, difficult to understand and 
describe, he left Boston for Oregon on the first of November, 1832; 
stopped in AYashingtou through the winter, where he '' was the re- 
cipient of many favors, and of further public encouragement and 
patronage." Left Washington ]\rarch 1, 1833, and traveled via the 
Cumberland road and the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to New Or- 
leans; thence by ship to Vera Crux, where he arrived May 11; 
thence by stage to Jalapa and the city of Mexico. From thence, 
after vexatious delays, he proceeded to San Bias, and reached San 
Diego April 14, 1834. He arrived at Monterey in due time, and left 
for the north by land the last of June. The party then consisted 
of about 30 men and 160 horses and mules. They were mostly 
new acquaintances of our hero; old hunters and trappers, traders 
and tramps, and four or five who intended to settle. On reaching 
Oregon he selected the Valley of the Wallamet as the place for 
planting a colony; pitched his camp there; made some surveys and 
explorations. But he did not ''settle." Other adventurers were 
there; disagreements arose about priority of claims; about motives 
and plans, and means and ends. The Hudson's Bay Company 
viewed the attempt to establish a colony there with jealousy, and 
were active in thwarting the plans of the Americans. 

" Mr. Kelley left Fort Vancouver in March, 1835, taking passage 
in the brig Dryade, belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company, for 
the Sandwich Islands ; but not, however, until he had collected a 
large amount of valuable information relative to the geography and 
statistics of that Territory, and had made a particular survey of the 
Columbia river from Vancouver to its mouth." While at the 
Sandwich Islands he explored the island of Owyhee, of which he 
constructed a map. He sailed for home in the ship Canton 
Packet, reaching Boston late in the jeox 1835. 

He relocated at Three Elvers in 1839. In January of that year 
he sent a memoir to Congress, reciting his labors and losses in the 
Oregon expedition ; and afterwards petitioned that body for a grant 
of land in that region, as an acknowledgement of service and re- 
muneration for expenses and losses incurred "in promoting the 
colonization of that Territory." Hon. John Davis, then a member 
of the U. S. Senate, wrote to Mr. Kelley as follows : "June, 1848, 
Sir : Having learnt that you are about to leave Washington for 


your home without having obtained an Act of Congress in your be- 
half, the subject not having been acted upon, I beg leave to say 
that I consider you as entitled, in equity and good conscience, to a 
liberal grant of land from the Government for your meritorious 
services in promoting the settlement of Oregon, and I by no means 
despair of obtaining such a grant. 

Signed J. Davis." 

Among the supporters of his petition were the Hon. George Ban- 
croft, T. H. Perkins, Esq., Gen. J. McNeil, W. P. Gregg, Isaac 0. 
Barnes, P. P. F. Degrand. But he failed to secure a land grant, 
and passed the remainder of his days in comparative poverty. He 
died at Three Eivers the middle of January, 1874. 

The following letters speak for themselves : 

Boston, Jan. 30, 1843. 

In the year 1831 I was editor of Ziori's Herald, a religious paper sustain- 
ing the faith of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In the above year I pub- 
lished for Mr. H. J. Kelley a series of Letters addressed to a Member of 
Congress, developing his plans for the settlement of the Oregon Territory. 
At other times Mr. K. made appeals, through our paper, with a view to ex- 
cite the minds of the Christian community to the importance of founding 
religious institutions in that Territory. He was one of the first explorers 
of that region, and to his zeal and efforts is largely due the establishment 
of missionary operations in that country. 

Signed Wm. C. Brown. 

Rev. David Green, secretary of the A. B. C. F. M., bears similar 
testimony, and says: ''The welfare and improvement of the 
Indians of that Territory, and the introduction there of the bless- 
ings of civilization and the useful arts, with education and Chris- 
tian knowledge, seemed to be his leading object. Much of the 
early interest felt in the Oregon country by New England people 
was probably the result of Mr. Kelley's labors.'^ 

Hon. John P. Bigelow, Secretary of the Commonwealth, writes, 
January 26, 1843 : " Mr. Kelley may be said with truth to have 
devoted his life, health and property, for more than twenty years, 
to the colonization of Oregon. He has suffered much, very much, 
in every respect, in his endeavors to promote this object, and is 
entitled, richly, to the gratitude of his country, for his devotion to 
the noble cause. ^' 

Of the character of Mr. Kelley it is not easy to form a satisfac- 
tory estimate. He was a many-sided man. In certain directions 
he was a learned, but in whole, was not an educated man. His 
mind was active, but appears not to have been well balanced. His 
sympathies were large, but liable to be misdirected for want of 

Hall J. Kellev. 


cool judgment. He saw things in their individuality, not in their 
relations. What apjieared to him to be desirable and philanthropic 
he pursued with enthusiasm, and without counting the cost. The 
goodness of his motives was never called in question, but his zeal 
was often ''without knowledge." In a word, he was the creature, 
not the creator, of circumstances. 

Perhaj^s he gives the clue to his own character, when in one of 
his letters he tells of a "vision" which he had in his 12tli year and 
another when he was 16, and of their fulfillment in actual occur- 
ences. The incidents narrated, show a natural tendency to depend 
on dreams and impulses, rather than on sober judgment and calm 
forethought. Perhaps his main defects were lack of knowledge of 
men, and lack of financial ability, which two lacks account for 
much of his ill-success in life. And disappointed liopes led to the 
misanthropic spirit and distrust of his friends, that characterized 
and embittered his later years. 

Besides Mr. Kelley's philanthropic plans, his scientific projects 
and suggested industrial improvements were numerous. He made 
plans for a canal from the Charles river to the Connecticut ; for a 
ship-canal from Barnstable to Buzzard's Bay; and located several 
railroads in the state of Maine. He published "The American 
Instructor," the "Instructor's First Book," " Geographical Memoir 
of Oregon," "Manual of the Oregon Expedition," "Map of Upper 
California and Oregon," "History of the Settlement of Oregon," 
and "Appendix," " Narratives of Events and Difficulties,^' " Let- 
ters to Mrs. Mary Kelley," "Letters to My Brethren," besides the 
series of papers in Zion's Herald and The Traveller. 

Thorndike. — An attempt to put to a practical use the power of 
the fall in Ware river, within the limits of the present town of 
Palmer, was made in the early days of the settlement. In 1736 
Eobert Ferrell and Thomas Harmon put in a grist mill about a 
fourth of a mile below what is now known as the lower privilege at 
Thorndike. With the exception of Capt, Jabez Olmstead's mill at 
Ware Village, this was the first grist mill erected in the Elbow 
Tract. Steward Southgate had built a saw mill at the outlet of 
Pottaquattuck pond six years earlier, but had neglected to set uj) a 
corn mill, though it was understood that he was under obligation 
to build such a mill. And this led to the official action recorded in 
the following vote : Article 4 of the warrant for a Plantation 
meeting November 29, 1736, Avas "to see if the Proprietors & 
Grantees will accept the grist mill built by Ptobert Ferrell and 
Thomas Harmon as a good and sufficient mill for their purposes. 


and in full satisfaction of the conditions enjoined on Steward 
Southgate by order of the General Court." " Voted, that the 
grist mill built by Ferrell & Harmon be accepted as a good and 
sutticient mill for our service, and as a complete satisfaction of the 
condition in joined upon Steward Southgate by act of the General 
Court." [Steward Southgate's grist mill at Pottaquottuck pond 
"was raised Oct. 26, 1737, and first went Jan^ y^ 2^ 1737-8." 
Plantation Eecords.] FerrelFs mill was located on the north side 
of the river, and continued in use for many years. In 1757 it was 
owned and ran by Lieut. William Scott. A saw mill was put in at 
the same dam, which was in existence as late as 1795. 

About 1797 a dam was built at what is known as the upper 

privilege, just below the sharp bend in the stream, by 

Goodman, and a saw and grist mill erected on the north side of the 
river. In 1 799 this property was owned by Capt. Charles Cargill, 
who set up a clothier's shop. In 1811 Moses Learned had an inter- 
est in the works — perhaps was owner of the property.* 

In 1825 Asa Gates, Jun., owned part of the estate, which then 
consisted of "one shop lot with blacksmith's shop, clothiers shop 
Avith 3 carding machines and one picker." He sold to Aaron 
Blanchard. In 1830 the works were known as Merrick's mills. 

Soon after the Palmer Company [the successor of the Three 
Rivers Manufacturing Company] had got established and in suc- 
cessful operation at the junction of the streams below, the owners 
of that concern turned their thoughts towards the acquisition of 
this valuable privilege on Ware river, and began quietly to buy the 
laud and secure the water rights necessary to setting on foot a large 

The Thor]s^dike Company. March 14, 1836, John S. Wright, 
Luther Parks and Israel Thorndike were granted an act of incor- 
poration as the Thorndike Company, for the purpose of manu- 
facturing cotton, woolen and silk goods and machinery in the town 
of Palmer, with right to hold real estate of the value of $250,000, 
and the whole capital stock of said company shall not exceed the 
value of $500,000. The lands bordering on the rapids hereabouts 
were held by the Ferrell and McElwain families, Joseph Shearer, 
Aaron and Chester Blanchard (who owned the old Cargill estate), 
Franklin Morgan, et als. 

John S. Wright appears to have been the leading spirit among 
the corporators, and was probably the largest owner of the com- 
pany's stock. His experience of five years at Three Elvers in start- 

• Moses Learned married the widow of Capt. Cargill. 


ing the Palmer Company, had taught him the value of the services 
of Joseph Brown as purchasing agent and general manager of the 
enterprise, and he availed himself of this experience and engaged 
Mr. Brown to initiate the works of the Thorn dike Company. Mr. 
Jacob B, Merrick, who already possessed large interests here, and 
eventually became a large owner of stock and was agent for many 
years, was associated with Mr. Brown in these preliminary move- 

The year before, and in anticipation of the act of incorporation, 
Mr. Brown began to purchase land in the neighborhood of the 
falls. September 14, 1835, he bought of Joseph Shearer 20 acres 
lying a little north and northwest of the Cargill mills (which 20 
acres was owned by Thomas Quinton in 1810), and Sept. 21 he 
bought the Cargill farm. Same date he bought of Jonathan 
McElwain 11 acres, being part of said McElwain's homestead. 
Sept. 24, 1835, Mr. Brown bought of Timothy Ferrell a lot of 23 
acres, a lot of 7 acres and a lot of 35 acres, " with all my rights in 
the bed or channel of the Ware river and the right of flowage occa- 
sioned by any dam to be built on any of said lands conveyed by me 
to said Joseph Brown." Mr. Brown conveyed all these Ferrell 
lands and rights to the Thorndike Company May 6, 1836, for 
123,000. This comprised the lower privilege. March 18, 1836, 
Messrs. Brown and Merrick bought 10 acres of Aaron Blanchard 
(formerly owned by Theophilus Knight), and same date bought 
of Chester Blanchard the Cargill mill privilege, with all the build- 
ings thereon, all of which they conveyed to the Thorndike Com- 
pany May 28, 1838. Thus the company came in full possession of 
the upper privilege. 

The first dam was put in on the lower privilege in 1837, and No. 
1 mill was built the same year. This mill was 175x50 feet, and 6 
stories high. Power was obtained from two breast wheels. The 
first product was plain white goods, shirtings and sheetings, 36 and 
40 inches wide. The number of looms was then 232. A turbine 
wheel was substituted for the breast wheels in 1862. The new dam 
on this privilege was built in 1868. The new part of No. 1 mill 
was started in 1881, and a dye house was built when the product 
was changed to colored goods. 

The first dam on the upper privilege was put in in 1845, con- 
structed of logs, and mill No. 2, or the "new mill" built. This 
was 216x50 feet, six stories and an attic. A new and substantial 
dam has lately been put in. 

In 1884 there were in operation 728 looms and 32,336 spindles, 
turning out a weekly product of 160,000 yards of denims, awnings 


and plain and fancy tickings. There Avere employed 600 hands, 
Avith an average monthly pay-roll of about $15,000. 

The company declines to give any statistics of their present pro- 
ductive capacity, and amount of business, and number of hands 

From the Assessor's report for 1888, it appears that the valuation 
of the property of the Thorndike Company was : Machinery, 
|;176,825; factory buildings, $95,800; forty-six houses, $49,700; 
three barns, $1,400; saw and grist mill, $350; land, 280 acres, 
$5,600; land. Forest Lake, seven acres, $300; land, 20 acres, with 
buildings, $4,000; water power, $10,000. 

There are in the village two churches — the First Congregational 
and the Catholic. There is a good school house, and six graded 
schools are maintained — three primary, two intermediate, and one 
grammar department. The Ware Eiver railroad runs through the 
heart of the village. 

BoNDSYiLLE. — The earliest notice of an attempt to use the water 
of Swift river, within our town limits, was in 1749, when James 
and Samuel Lamont put in a cobble-stone or log dam at the lower 
privilege in Bondsville, and set uj) a grist mill. A tradition says 
the mill-stones were at first carried by a current-wheel. How long 
the brothers ran the mill is not known, nor is their immediate suc- 
cessor. Some time later the widow Norton was in occupancy. 
During her ownership the water undermined one end of the dam, 
and to repair it, trees of considerable size were thrust into the 
breach, butt-end foremost, and untrimmed. The remains of this 
singular breastwork could be seen in modern times. About 1782, 
David Darling, Sen., bought the privilege. In 1795 Mr. Darling 
sold one-half of his rights to Ezekiel Boyden, who contracted to 
put in a saw-mill. The agreement was that each should put in a 
Avheel of the same size, and so share the power equally; but one 
partner claimed that the other's wheel was larger than his, and the 
disagreement was carried into the courts. At length, Mr. Boyden 
bought the other half, and about 1816 leased the privilege to John 
(Michael?) Swinington, who made prej^aration to transform the 
buildings into a mill for the manufacture of cotton cloth. For 
want of funds the project failed ; and in 1820 Boyden sold out to 
Leonard Owen, who in turn, about 1825, sold to J. B. Merrick and 
Emelius Bond, who finished the building and made many improve- 
ments about the place. In 1828 Merrick and Bond sold the mill 

and part of the land to Moses Learned and Parmenter, who 

put iu machinery for manufacturing Avoolens — Mr. Bond retaining 



the ownership of much of the land, the store, and an interest in 
the mill. The business prospered, and in 1836 the official returns 
to the State show : ''Woolen mill, 1 ; woolen machinery, 2 setts ; 
wool consumed, 60,000 pounds ; cloth manufactured, 68,000 yards ; 
A'alue of same, $54,000 ; males employed, 16 ; females employed, 
16; capital invested, $9,000; sperm oil used, 800 gallons." 
At one time Mr. Learned manufactured fine broadcloth. 

The Munroe Company. — March 28, 1836, Luther Parks, 
Israel Thorndike and John S. Wright w^ere incorporated as the 
Munroe Company, for the purpose of manufacturing woolen, cot- 
ton and silk goods and machinery in the towns of Palmer and 
Belchertown ; with rights to hold real estate of the yalue of $250,- 
000; and the whole capital stock not to exceed in value $550,000. 
The same pari>; , owned the mill at Three Rivers, and had just 
obtained an act of incorporation, as '' The Thorndike Company ; " 
and, as in that case, they employed Joseph Brown as agent m the 
purchase of the existing water rights, and adjacent lands. He had 
already bought a tract of land of Francis Braman (Nov. 22, 1835); 
and Jan, 1, 1836, had purchased of Emelius Bond his fee and equity 
in the real estate and water rights of the privilege. In the same 
year Mr. Brown bought out all the interest which Parmenter and 
J, flamed held in the property. But the commercial revulsion 
of 1837, put a temporary stop to the enterprise, and things re- 
mained in statu quo till the crash was over. 

May 28, 1838, Mr. Brown transferred the privilege, and all acquired 
interest in the property to "The Munroe Company," which started 
up the works and continued the manufacture of woolen goods. SejDt. 
3, 1840, their Return shows : " Woolen mill, 1; number of spindles 
in the same, 590; number of looms, 32." In the mean time, viz., 
in 1835, the mill Avas leased to and carried on by Jethro Lapham 
for a short time. Then Smith & Phelps ran it for a couple of years. 
In 1844, Buifum & Harding took the mill and manufactured satinets 
for a year or two. Then Christopher C. Aldrich took a lease for 
four years, and was in charge when the mill was burned in 1849. 

The grist mill had been given up ; but the old mill-house was 
used for a variety of purposes. A shingle machine was in opera- 
tion for a time ; Phipps & Titicut made percussion caps ; Greenwood 
put in machinery for making shoe-pegs ; and one of the buildings 
was used for constructing looms, lathes, and other machinery. 

The Boston Duck Company. — Feb. 15, 1845, an Act was 
passed by the General Court incorporating " Augustus H. Fiske, 


John S. Wright & Elijah Loring, as a corporation by the name of 
the Boston Duck Comjoany, for the purpose of manufacturing 
cotton and woolen goods and machinery, in the town of Palmer and 
the town of Belchertown, etc. The company may hold real estate 
not to exceed in value $200,000 ; and the whole capital stock shall 
not exceed 1500,000 in value." 

Sept. 6, 1845, the new company bought out the rights of the 
Munroe Company, and near the same time, the lands and rights of 
other parties, and began preparations to use the upper privilege on 
the river. The capital stock paid in at the outset was $135,400, 
the par value being reckoned at $700 per share. The real estate, 
before the burning of the old miil, was valued at $30,000. Joseph 
Brown took four shares and became the agent, and the controlling- 
spirit of the enterprise. He planned the new dam ; and superin- 
tended the erection of the stone mill. In a word, he was the active 
and trusted manager of affairs, from 1845 to 1860. The Company 
attribute to his wise sagacity the great success that has given it its 
high standing, and financial prosperity. He was to the new cor- 
poration, what Emelius Bond was to the earlier jilans of improving 
the stream, and laying out and building up the village — which very 
properly bears his name. 

The stone miil was completed in 1849, the same year in which the 
old mill was burned. In size it is 240x50 feet, and five ston'ps 
high. It was first fitted with looms for the manufacture of sail 
duck, and continued to run on heavy duck till 1861. In this year 
a new brick mill was built, 120x50 feet, 2 stories high ; new and 
improved machinery added, and the product was changed to sheet- 
ings, drills and light duck. For three years past, 20 looms have 
been run on cotton flannels, and the rest, as before, in 1876, a 
brick dye-house, 120x60 feet and three stories high, was built, 
where all kinds of piece dyeing is done. In 1879-80, a brick ad- 
dition 120x54 feet, four stories high, was put on, making the 
establishment complete in all its parts, with the exception of the 
boiler-house, which was built in 1888. This is 72x42 feet, and is 
detached from the other buildings. In 1882-3, the foundation of 
a new mill, 520x100 feet was put in on the lower privilege, at a 
cost of over $100,000— intended to be a 20,000 spindle mill. The 
superstructure is not yet built. 

The number of looms now in use is 328; annual product, 5,000,- 
000 yards of duck and flannels ; present capital stock, $350,000 ; 
number of hands employed, 400 ; monthly pay-roll, $10,000. 0. 
B. Smith has held the office of agent for 19 years. F. A. Packard 
is superintendent, John Watson superintendent of dye-works. 


The height of the fall is 21 feet. 

This is the more northerly of the four villages in Palmer, and is 
about 5 miles from Palmer depot. The Athol branch of the Bos- 
ton & Albany railroad runs directly past the mills, nearly on a level 
with the dam ; and the Massachusetts Central railroad crosses the 
river 80 rods above over an iron bridge 50 feet high and 170 long. 
These roads give easy access to market in all directions. There is a 
fine grammar school house and primary school rooms. The Meth- 
odists have a pretty church, built in 1876, at a cost of $6,000. The 
Irish Catholic Church was erected in 1879; and the French Catho- 
lics are now completing a church for their own people. 

Population of the village, 1,200. 

The valuation of 1888 shows : Boston Duck Company — Ma- 
chinery, 8125,438; factory buildings, -$84,500; thirty-eight houses, 
$37,000 ; shoe shop, barns, etc., $1,150 ; land, 18 acres, with build- 
ings, $3,800; 20 acres, with lower privilege, $2,000; 681 acres, 
with reservoir, $5,300 ; upper water power, $7,500 ; lower water 
power, $4,000. 

Palmer Carpet Mill. — These works are among the important 
industries of the town, turning out some of the finest goods in 
their line to be found in the country. The mills are located in a 
retired spot three-fourths of a mile east of Palmer Village, and are 
run by steam i^ower, having an engine of seventy-five horse power. 
There is pure water for cleansing purposes coming from a never- 
failing spring above the mill. 

The factory was built in 1871 by the Parks Carpet Company. It 
was bought by the Palmer Carpet Company, and their business 
established here Nov. 16, 1874. This is a joint-stock company, 
with a capital of $50,000. They manufacture body-brussels and 
wiltons of high grade, having sixteen looms on the former and four 
on the latter, with a capacity of six hundred yards per day. Quite 
a number of the operatives were familiar with the manufacture of 
this class of goods in their early days in England. 

The company is now preparing to commence the making of 
carpet yarns. 

Ridge's Food for Infaxts and Invalids. — The factory where 
this food is prepared is located in Palmer Village, nearly opposite 
the cemetery. The building was erected in 1864, and intended for 
a boot shop, but this business failing, it was bought by Woolrich & 
Company in 1874, and utilized for the manufacture of their patent 
food. This is a preparation of pure wheat grains subjected to a 


patented process, which renders it easily digestible and acceptable 
to the most irritable stomach. The large and increasing demand 
seems to prove its great value. The formula is of English origin, 
and the right of Mr. Woolrich covers Canada and the United 

All parts of the business of manufacturing and putting up the 
article are carried on at the factory, even to the making of the tin 
boxes in which it is packed, nicely adjusted machinery doing much 
of the mechanical work. 

Mr. John H. Woolrich is a native of Handley, County of 
Cheshire, England. He is a thoroughly educated chemist. Came 
over sea to Nova Scotia in 3 860, where he set up a food manufac- 
tory. At the end of ten years he came to Maiden, Mass., and en- 
gaged in the same business, which, as already stated, he removed 
to Palmer in 1874, on account of better facilities for transportation. 

Palmer Wire Company. — This company was incorporated 
January 24, 1882, with a capital of 150,000, afterwards increased to 
$150,000. The company purchased a large tract of land in the 
western j^art of Palmer village, where they erected large and sub- 
stantial buildings at a heavy outlay. The works stand directly 
upon the railroads, so that facilities for shipping material and 
goods are unsurpassed. The product was largely telephone and 
telegraph wires, of which at the time there was a great demand. 
But pecuniary reverses overtook the company and forced them to 
suspend business. 

After lying idle for a year the plant was purchased in 1885 by J. 
S. & H. P. Holden, who the next year commenced the manu- 
facture of tinned wire for mattresses, brooms, etc., which is still 
continued. Holden & Cushing made wire nails here for a time, 
but have sold this business to D. F. Holden. The present officers 
of the company are J. S. Holden, president, and H. P. Holden, 

The Wire Goods Company was started by George F. Wright 
in 1883 in a building adjoining the Palmer Wire Company, and 
using power from their engine. When the P. W. Co. failed, the 
Goods Co. were obliged to suspend operations for about a year. 
When the Holdens bought the plant and commenced business, the 
Wright Wire Cloth Company, composed of George F. Wright 
and his two sons, George M. and H. N., was organized and started 
operations again at the old stand. This was in 1886. The com- 
pany was incorporated in January, 1888, with a capital of 820,000. 


They manufacture power loom wire cloths of iron, brass and cop- 
per, steel sparker, fan mill and hardware cloths, twisted nettings, 
fruit drying cloths and im23roved wire lathing. These goods em- 
brace a wide range of sizes and quality, varying from nine square 
feet to the pound to three pounds per square foot. 

There is a costly galvanizing tank and apparatus connected with 
the factory, kept ready for use day and night. 

All the complicated machinery in use is the invention of George 
F. Wright, and is wholly made on the premises. 

In the short period of its existence the company has built up a 
large business, the annual product being 400 tons of cloth, of the 
value of 860,000. They now have 50 hands in their employ. 

The H0LI3EN Woolen Mill, located to the eastward of Palmer 
Village, was started in 1883 by H. P. & J. S. Holden for the 
manufacture of ladies' dress goods. J. S. Holden sold out his 
interest to Charles E. Fuller, and the firm is now Holden & 

The Palmer Plaistikg Mill, at the Depot Village, was estab- 
lished in 1873 by Francis Keyes. It is noAV owned by H. P. Marcy. 

The Palmer Iron" Foundry, located near the Union Depot, 
was started by Julius C. Shaw. After 1874 it was owned by 
Edgerton & Davis, now Edgerton & Francis. They manufacture 
hollow ware, sinks and various kinds of machinery. 

Soap Factory. — Many years ago Smith & Blanchard set up 
the business of making soft soap at the village of Thorndike. In 
1851 the factory was bought by Sawyer & Gallop, who made up- 
wards of 1,000 barrels of soap per year, besides great numbers 
(0,000 pounds) of tallow candles. The works are now owned by 
A. Trumble. 

The Betts' Fencing Company occupies the building at the 
Depot village formerly used by the Goddard Hat Factory. It was 
started five or six years ago, for the construction of wire fencing, 
formed of small wires firmly fastened to inch square pickets, easily 
rolled and unrolled, and ready to be fastened to posts set in the 
ground. The concern is owned by D. F. Holden & Brothers. 

Tanneries. — Capt. Patrick Watson established a tannery near 
Whipple's Station about 1766, which continued in use till 1827. 
There was a tanyard near Warren town line. 


William Mason constructed tan works near Blanchardville about 
1790 ; and after his death his son William carried on the business 
of tanning and currying till after 1855, in which year the value of 
curried leather was $(32,000. 

Distillery. — October 3, 1808. The town by vote ordered the 
selectmen to lay out a road from Levi Allen's distillery to the road 
near Elihu Smith's. It stood east of the Old Centre, and manu- 
factured whiskey from rye. It was once owned and run by a com- 
pany, consisting of Col. Amos Hamilton, Zadock Cooley et als. The 
story goes, that Cooley once loaded a hogshead of their production 
on an ox-team and started for Boston, to exchange the same for 
money and groceries. Unfortunately his team was upset on the 
road, the hogshead burst, and the liquor ran to waste. But he 
was no worse off than his partners, who shipped an invoice of the 
article via Springfield, to Boston, and when received at Boston it 
was condemned and forfeited as being below proof. 

Col. Cyrus Knox had a small still for making cider brandy. 

Blacksmiths. — The first was John Aj^plin, who was here as early 
as 1733. 

Hugh Tackels is named on the records as a blacksmith here in 
1755 ; probably he was here much earlier. 

McMichel had a shop near C. F. Smith's. 

McElwain carried on the trade at the Four Corners. The 

dates of both are uncertain. 

Capt. Timothy Brainard came to town about 1772, and set up a 
shop north of Blanchardville, where he carried on a profitable 
business for many years. He was the first of the trade to furnish 
his own stock. He made scythes as well as axes and farming tools 
in general. 

Tinsmith. — May 7, 1804. The town " voted, on petition of 
William McDowell, that the sum of $40, be given him out of the 
treasury to enable him to purchase tin and tools to work at his 
trade, in order to support himself and family." 

Carpenter. — December 22, 1795. The town ''voted that Moses 
Shaw be appointed to make out a plan of the new meeting-house, 
and lay it before the town." It is understood that he laid out the 
work by the square rule, and was the first builder in town to use 
this rule, all previous work of the kind having been done by the 
**try rule." 


AVooL Carding and Cloth Dressing was carried on in a small 
mill on Pottaquattuck brook about a mile and a quarter east of 
Palmer Centre. It was owned in 1790 by Benj. S. Cummings. 

A similar mill was put in early on Quabaug river where Blan- 
chard's scythe works afterwards stood. 

In 1795, there was a Fulling Mill at the outlet of Pottaquat- 
tuck pond. Perhaps it was run by Burr & Clark as early as 1787. 

Other clothing works are noticed in connection with the woolen 
and cotton factories at Three Rivers, Bondsville and Thorndike. 

A batting factory once occupied the site of the carpet mills, and 
was operated by Horace Clark in 1860. 

Hancock & Burnett manufactured locks at Thorndike in 1860. 

Phipps & Titicut made percussion caps at Bondsville at an earlier 

Hampden Hat Mill. — This factory, whose main business was 
the finishing of straw hats, was established at Depot Village in 1869 
by S. X. Davis. He was succeeded in 1872 by Robert L. Goddard, 
who carried on the business till his death. 

Printing and Newspapers. — The earliest notice found on our 
records of a publishing and printing business in Palmer is in the 
year 1805, about which date Ezekiel Terry* located here, and issued 
some small books. The first thing got out by him, now extant, 
was a tract of 12 pages, in verse, bearing the title, " The Sorrows 
of Yamba : Illustrating the Cruelties of the Slave-trade. To- 
gether with Reflections of a Minister in the Day of Declension. 

' Let God be praised who overrules, 

'The work of Tyranny and Fools.' 

Greenwich : 

Printed by John Howe — for 

Ezekiel Terry of Palmer. 


[A copy of this tract, and of most of the other books and pamph- 
lets issued by Mr. Terry is now in possession of W. H. Stowe, M.D., 
of Palmer.] 

As early as 1809 Mr. Terry set up a printing press in an old 
building located in the west part of the town, now (1888) occupied 
by Isaac Hubert. In June, 1809, he issued the first number of a 

* Mr. Terry appears to have been a " Jack at all trades." He wrote in prose and poetry, was a 
preacher, a teacher (once a member of the school committee), a printer, a blacksmith, a shoemaker, 
and a clockmaker. Some of his clocks are said to be still in existence, and in running order. 


miniature monthly, of 12 pages, entitled The Massachusetts Watch- 
man and Periodical Journal. In the j)rospectns he says : "The 
Watchman will be published on the first week of every month, at 
the small price of sixty-two and a half cents a year, payable half- 
yearly, or fifty cents payable in advance." The contents consisted 
of a summary of remarkable occurrences [not local], historical 
scraps, sentimental remarks, anecdotes, poetry. Probably it was 
continued only one year. 

Mr. Terry printed and published numerous works, some of them 
stitched, some with paper covers, and some bound in substantial 
leather. Among them were: "American Freedom^-A Poem. 
1813." "Memoirs of Mrs. Billings." [No date.] "Memoir of 
the Life and Character of the Late Eev. George Atwell of Enfield. 
By Ezekiel Terry. 1815." [144 pages.] " Hymns and Spiritual 
Songs. 1816." [232 pages.] Printed for J. E. Kent of Suffield. 
"An Account of the Triumphant Death of F. S., a converted pros- 
titute, who died April, 17G3, aged 26 years. By Martin Maden, 
Esq." "Miscellaneous Observations on Eeligious Subjects ; Being 
a General View of Particular Tenets, which at this Day are held 
Sacred by Many, etc. By Luther Stebbins. Printed for the Author,^ 
1816." "A Sermon, delivered by Timothy Merritt in 1816." "A 
Candid Opinion of the Nature and Tendency of Universalism." 
"Jesus on the Colt ; an allegorical discourse : By J. Hartwell." 

Journalistic History. The town records show that a newspaper 
called the Palmer Sentinel was started here in January, 1846. The 
warrants for March meetings in 1846 and 1847 were published in it. 
It was owned by Whittemore & Tenney. In 1847 Mr. Whittemore 
sold his interest to his partner, and the paper was removed to 
Springfield. The Palmer Times was started by D. F. Ashley in the 
spring of 1847, but issued only one number. 

The Palmer Journal. A company was formed in 1850 known 
as the Palmer Publishing Association, and the Palmer Journal, a 
six-column quarto sheet, set in bourgeois, made its appearance on 
Saturday, April 6, 1850. It was edited and conducted by Gordon 
M. Fisk, who in his salutatory said that the paper "had come to 
stay." At the end of the first year Mr. Fisk bought the stock and 
good-will of the paper, and changed the type from bourgeois to 
brevier. It soon obtained a wide circulation and a marked influ- 
ence, and became a power in the town and vicinity. 

Feb. 24, 1855, A. J. Goff became associated in the enterprise. 
April 12, 1862, James McLaughlin succeeded Mr. Goff, and the 

firm became G. M. Fisk & Co. Mr. McLaughlin retired in , 

and A. W. Briggs became a member of the firm. In 1871 H. J. 


Lawrence, now of North Brookfield, came into the concern, though 
3Ir. Fisk retained the controlling interest and was editor-in-chief 
till his decease in 1879, when the property came into the possession 
of his son, Charles B, Fisk, who in 1883 enlarged the sheet and 
made many changes in its make-up. 

The Journal is now published by C. B. Fisk & Co., L. E. 
Chandler having been admitted to the firm in 1885. The weekly 
issue is over 3,000 copies. 

Mr. Gordon M. Fisk, who started the Journal.^ was regarded as 
an able writer and discriminating editor. He took a prominent 
and honorable part in the educational and political affairs of the 
town, having been a member of the board of school committee, and 
holding for two terms a seat in the Massachusetts State Senate. 

Early Taverns. — At Palmer Old Centre. Dunkin Quinton 
opened a tavern here about 1733. After him it was kept in suc- 
cession by Thomas Quinton, William King (1793), John King 
(1797-1817), John Frink (1817-^32), Abner Allen (1832-), Elias 
Turner (1842-). This was known as the stage tavern. 

John Thomson, Sen., built a tavern house on the opposite cor- 
ner, perhaps as early as 1737, which was a favorite resort for towns- 
people on Sundays and election days. He and his son, John, Jun,, 
managed the house till 1793, when the family moved West. Asa 
Ward was in possession of the house in 1812. 

On the Old Bay Road. Capt. David Shaw kept a house of enter- 
tainment for travellers, which stood to the west of Blanchardville, 
about the years 1740-^50. Dea. Chapin afterwards lived here. 

John King, Jun., had a tavern at the Depot Village, where 
Cross' Block now stands, as early as 1750. It was maintained as a 
public house for three-quarters of a century. 

Daniel Graves obtained license to open a public house before 
1760. It stood opposite the Washington elm. In 1761 his son, 
Maj. Aaron, petitioned to have the license renewed to him, and his 
request was granted. Men now living remember when the old 
chimney was standing. 

Scott's Tavern, east of Scott's Bridge, was opened in Revolution- 
ary times, as early as 1778, and maintained till about 1794. 

Asa Bates had a tavern a short distance to the east, 1797-1810, 
when John Sedgwick built and opened his famous hostelry at 
Shearer's Corner. 

Stores. — No mention is made on early records of grocery or dry 
goods stores. The latter were not required, as families produced 


their own clothing and bedding, and the former mnst have been 
small affairs, managed mostly by barter. 

William Tupper had a store at the Old Centre in 1790. This 
was afterwards Hamilton & Ui^ham's, and for a long time Hamil- 

P. R. Euggles opened a store at Three Elvers in 1826. 

Emelins Bond had a store at Bondsville as early as 1820, which 
flourished for many years. 

The first store at Palmer Village was opened by Amos C. Bill- 
ings in 1838 or '39. 

The Eastern Hampden" Agricultural Society. 

[Prepared by O. P. Allen.] 

This society is not an exclusive institution of Palmer, yet it had 
its inception in the town and was fostered by its citizens in its 
infancy and has since had its home in the town of its birth. For 
some years before the organization of the society, occasional exhibi- 
tions of cattle and horses were held, the first one of which we have 
any particular account was held in Thorndike, Nov. 5th, 1851. 
There were sixty-one pairs of oxen exhibited, and a few horses were 
speeded on the street. No premiums were offered. It was a 
mutual assemblage of farmers to compare notes on cattle and have 
a pleasant time. After the matter had been discussed for some 
years, the Eastern Hampden Agricultural Society was organized at 
the Nassawano Hotel in Palmer, Oct. l?th, 1853, with these 
officers : President, Col. Cyrus Knox of Palmer ; vice-presidents, 
Francis F. Smith of Monson, Alfred Homer of Brimfield, Joseph 
Eamsdell of Warren, Willard Andrews of AVare, E. Dorman of 
Belchertown, Jonathan Burr of Wilbraham, D. L. Atchinson of 
Ludlow, Whitman Munger of Wales, E. G. Fuller of Holland. 
Benjamin A. Burleigh of Palmer; directors, Col. Elias Turner and 
A. Blodgett of Palmer, J. W. Smith and Warren Fuller of Monson, 
Chandler Fenton of Brimfield, Elias Hall of Ware ; secretary, M. 
W. French of Palmer ; treasurer, M. K. Ferrell of Palmer. The 
first exhibition was held at Palmer, Oct. 25th, 1853, in the open 
fields near the residence of Col. Cyrus Knox. The fair for vegeta- 
bles and fancy works was shown in the vestry of the Congrega- 
tional Church, where it was continued for many years. The day 
was a raw one for tne season, but the cattle from many hills and 
the people from many homes flocked to the scene, so that at 10 
o'clock the fields allotted for the exhibition were crowded with cat- 
tle and human beings. There were 14G pairs of oxen, which with 

Major B. F. Morgan. 


other entries of stock made au an aggregate of 338 head of cattle. 
There were 50 horses also exhibited. The cavalcade of teams on 
the streets made a fine display. The trotting course was the main 
street, from the railroad bridge near the Weeks House to Shearers 
Corner or just beyond, making a fair mile track. The agricultural 
dinner was served at the Nassawano Hotel, when Landlord E. B. 
Shaw acquitted himself well for the occasion. The after-dinner 
speeches combined humor and words of encouragement for the 
future success of the society just formed. The success of this, the 
first fair of the society, augured well for the future. At this time 
Eastern Hampden teemed with cattle, red cattle being the favor- 
ites. Many farms had 50 head, and some, like the famous farm of 
Major Morgan, had 120 head of cattle. It was only necessary to 
select the best from each farm to get together a fine exhibition at 
any time. At this first exhibition no money was paid for pre- 
miums — they were merely nominal. There were no receipts of 
money, as the entire exhibition was free. This was the humble be- 
ginning of a society which has since become strong and prosjaerous. 
When the second fair of the society was held an admittance fee of 
ten cents was charged at the vestry, which realized ^39 ; the ex- 
penses of the society were 141.85. In 1855 there was collected for 
male membership, at one dollar each, and from female members, 
at fifty cents each, the sum of $63.75, and from admission to the 
fair in the vestry 170.80. This year the society made some awards 
in the shape of whips and plated ware, costing in all $39.11. The 
total expenses were $84.61. For three years the society had held 
its fairs without aid from outside, and could give little in the way 
of premiums. In 1856 the society voted to take measures to be- 
come an incorporated body. This was effected by an Act of the 
Legislature passed May 5th, 1856, as follows: " Alonzo Y. 
Blanchard, J. K. Knox, Alonzo N. Dewey and Alfred L. Con- 
verse, their associates and successors, are hereby made a corporation 
by the name of the Eastern Hampden Agricultural Society, for the 
encouragement of agriculture and the mechanic arts, by premiums 
and other means, in the town of Palmer, in the county of Hamp- 
den, with all the powers and privileges and subject to all the 
duties, liabilities and restrictions of other agricultural societies 
established in this commonwealth; and they are hereby authorized 
to admit members from the towns of Palmer, Ludlow, Monson, 
Brimfield, Wilbraham, Wales and Holland and the city of Spring- 
field, in the county of Hampden ; lielchertown and Ware, in the 
county of Hampshire, and Warren, in the county of Worcester. 
Said society shall be entitled, on the same terms as other incor- 


porated agricultural societies, to receive annually out of the treas- 
ury of the commonwealth such sum as any other incorporated agri- 
cultural society may receive under the provisions of chapter 42 of 
the Revised Statutes, notwithstanding the restrictions of section 
seventh of that chapter." 

With its enlarged field of action, the society entered upon more 
prosperous times and with a greatly increased membership from sur- 
rounding towns. The capital stock of the society was placed at 
1^3,000, or 600 shares of S5 each. The stockholders gave their 
notes for the shares they desired, and were required to pay interest 
annually on the same. The original society numbered 88 male 
and 8 female members. The incorporated society had 130 stock- 
holders and 13 female members. 

The new society met and organized Sept. 5th, 1856, under its 
charter, and made choice for president A. V. Blanchard, treasurer 
Col. Cyrus Knox, secretary J. K. Knox. Before dissolution the 
old society voted to make a donation of all its effects to the new 

The first exhibition under the charter was held October 14 and 
15, 1856, on grounds adjacent to the new trotting park near Park 
street. The exhibition was a success, and on the second day there 
were some six thousand people present, partly to see the fair and 
partly to witness the horse trot, which was under other auspices. 
There were paid out in premiums at this fair $208.78; the receipts 
from all sources, including $377 from the state, were $565. At a 
special meeting of the society held October 13, 1860, it was made 
evident by a statement of Col. Knox that the society had been 
working on a wrong basis, in the matter of giving notes for shares 
of stock. It was then voted that all persons receive back their 
notes upon the payment of interest due on them. It was voted 
that the capital stock, number of shares and. value of the same 
should remain as before, but that in order to become members of 
the society the shares of stock must be paid for in cash. This 
necessary action vitiated all claims of former members. Quite a 
number of the old members at once became stockholders in the re- 
organized society, which started off with about one hundred mem- 
bers. November 1, 1862, the society voted to buy the Palmer 
trotting park of J. M. Converse for $2,300. These grounds were 
located on and near what is now known as Park street. For 
the first time since its organization the society now had an enclosed 
home of its own. For the next ten years this park was used by the 
society for exhibition purposes. In 1872 the growth of the village 
seemed to demand the park for building lots, and it was sold for 


#7,000 to M. W. French and Albert Burleigh, who divided it into 
fifty-one lots and sold them to parties who have since nearly cov- 
ered the ground with desirable houses. The same year the society 
purchased a desirable lot of land one-half mile east of the village 
from James Gamwell, which was fitted with a half-mile track, an 
exhibition hall, cattle pens, etc., and surrounded with a fence, 
where the exhibitions have since been held. Within a few years 
the park has been surrounded with a substantial fence, a Judge's 
and a grand stand have been erected, all at a cost of nearly $4,000. 
The society is in a j^rosperous condition, and its annual fairs form 
a great attraction to the people of Eastern Hampden. For some 
time it has paid out $1,000 annually in premiums. The present 
list of stockholders is 275. The number of ladies who belong to 
the society is 225. 

The present oflficers of the society are : President, H. P. Holden 
of Palmer ; Vice-Presidents, W. M. Tucker of Monson ; C. E. 
Dewey of Palmer ; Secretary and Treasurer, 0. P. Allen of Palmer ; 
Directors, Geo. Eobinson of Palmer, J. M. Converse of Palmer, 
B. P. Aiken of West Brookfield, H. D. Vaille of Monson, D. K. 
McCray of Hampden, A. S. Geer of Belchertown, Winslow Fos- 
kit of Brimfield, W. M. Green of Wilbraham. 

Delegate to State Board of Agriculture : Dr. AYilliam Holbrook 
of Palmer. 

The following is a full list of Presidents, Secretaries, Treasurers, 
and Delegates to the State Board since the organization of the 

Presidents: Col. Cyrus Knox of Palmer, 1853 ; Austin Fuller 
of Monson, 1854-5 ; A. V. Blanchard of Palmer, 1856 ; Dr. Samuel 
Shaw of Palmer, 1857 ; Joseph Ramsdell, Jr., of Warren, 1858-9 ; 
Sherman Converse of Monson, 1860-1 ; S. C. Herring of Brim- 
field, 1862 ; J. K. Knox of Palmer, 1863 to 1866 ; W. W. Cross of 
Palmer, 1867 ; J. K. Knox of Palmer, 1868 ; Dr. Wm. Holbrook 
of Palmer, 1869-70 ; J. S. Blair of Brimfield, 1871-2 ; Dr. H. P. 
Wakefield of Monson, 1873 to 1876 ; Col Jacob Stever of Palmer, 
1877 ; Dr. H. P. Wakefield of Monson, 1878 ; Dr. Wm. Holbrook 
of Palmer, 1870 ; C. E. Dewey of Palmer, 1880 ; W. M. Tucker of 
Monson, 1881 ; Dr. Wm. Holbrook of Palmer, 1882 to 1887 ; H. P. 
Holden of Palmer, 1889. 

Treasurers, all of Palmer : M. K. Ferrell, 1853; Col. Cyrus Knox, 
1854 to 1862 ; D. Knox, 1863-4 ; Enos Calkins, 1865 ; J. W. 
Comins, 1866 ; L. Dimock, 1867-8. 

Secretaries, all of Palmer : M. W. French, 1853 ; Dr. Wm. Hol- 
brook, 1854-5 ; J. K. Knox, 1856-7 ; Geo. Eobinson, 1858-9 ; 


D. Granger, 1860-2 ; J. H. Blair, 1863-5 ; J. W. Comins, 1866 ;. 
J. F. Holbrook, 1867-8. 

Secretary and Treasurer combined, all of Palmer : 0. P. Allen, 
1869 ; 0. C. Shaw, 1870 ; Geo. Eobiuson, 1871 to 1876 ; 0. P. 
Allen, 1877 to 1889. 

Delegates to State Board of Agriculture, in the order of service : 
Sherman Converse of Monsou, H. S. Ward of Monson, J. S. Blair 
of Brimfield, Hiram Converse of Palmer, Dr. H. P. Wakefield of 
Monson, Wm. E. Sessions of Hampden, Dr. Wm. Holbrook of 


Schools and Education. 

BY reference to tlie Act of 1733, establishing the Elbows Plan- 
tation, it will appear that no provision was made for raising 
money for the support of schools. By a law of the Colony, 
passed in 1642, the selectmen of towns were required to look after 
the children of parents and masters who neglected to train them up 
" in learning and labour." And a law was passed in November 
1647, ordering that every town containing 50 families should pro- 
vide a school where children might be taught to read and write. 
But these statutes applied to towns, and the Elbow Tract was a 
plantation. And the Proprietors and Grantees appear to have 
understood that their powers and privileges were limited to such as 
were expressly named in the Act. The only officers elected were 
clerk, treasurer, assessors, collectors, and a committee on lands, 
roads and bridges. And taxes were levied only to pay the minis- 
ter, build a meeting-house, and defray the ''necessary charges," as 
specified in the Act. That this view was the one commonly accepted 
by all parties in interest, is evident from the fact that in the bill 
reported June 1747, "For erecting the Plantation into a District," 
an express proviso was inserted authorizing the raising of money for 
the support of schools. 

School Lot. By the Act of 1733, it was enjoined that there be 
laid out in some suitable place, a lot of one hundred acres, ''for 
a School." This lot was surveyed and laid out May 28, 1735, "on 
the east side of Dumplin Brook." The intent of this proviso — 
which was commonly inserted in the incorjjorating Act of all planta- 
tations and towns — was to encourage the people to provide means 
of educating the children. The School Lot was public projierty, 
to be leased to the best advantage to some responsible citizen, who 
would cultivate it and pay the annual rent, or take care of the wood 
by cutting and selling the old growth, and paying the proceeds into 
the treasury. This annual income was supposed to be devoted to 
school purposes, but would of itself go but a little way toward 
supporting a school. 


The first mention of a school ou our records, is under date of 
March 9, 1750. An article in the warrant read : ''To see if they 
will have a school master and grant money for that pupose. " " Voted 
in the Negative." 

April 22, 1751, an article in the warrant was "To see if they will 
agree to provide a school, to grant money for that purpose, and 
chuse a committee to manage y® said affair, and give them their 
instructions." Voted in the Negative. It is not necessary to believe 
that the settlers lived here for tAventy years after the plantation was 
established, without some means of schooling. Family instruction 
was enjoined, both by the statutes, and by public policy, and 
parental prompting. Neighborhood instruction was a common 
custom of the time. No public money was granted !^to pay the 
school master ; but in all probability. Steward Southgate, Barnard 
McNitt, James Brackenridge, or William Scott, who appear to have 
been the best scholars among the early settlers, gave lessons to the 
older boys in winter ; and their wives gathered the neighbor's little 
children with their own, in the home kitchen, during the summer 
months, and taught them to read, write and cypher ; and were 
paid for the service four pence or six pence per week. The only 
necessary inference from the negative votes just quoted, is, that 
the people refused to be taxed to j)ay for a professional school 

As already intimated, public schools were not reckoned a public 
necessity, at that date. Learning sufficient to read the Scriptures, 
and cast accounts was considered obligatory, and instruction to 
this end was required of parents and guardians ; but the expense 
was mainly a private charge. The Public Free School, as we now 
understand the term, was not a gei'^n, but a growth of our free 
institutions. And the growth was gradual, and the full fruitage 
comparatively late. In few of our towns were such schools estab- 
lished at the date in question ; in many of them their establishment 
dates within the present century. Towns hired school rooms or 
built school houses, jDrovided teachers, and granted money sufficient 
to meet a part of the charge of tuition, and parents paid the balance. 

Our local school system took its rise with the organization of 
Palmer into a District. And the fact that public schools were es- 
tablished before school houses were built, made it necessary that 
tliey be kept at private dwellings, and is confirmatory of the con- 
clusion that such a custom had prevailed in past years. An article 
in the warrant of Oct. 18, 1752, was " To agree upon some certain 
method of keeping a school in this town this present year; and also 
to state the places where it shall be kept ; and also y® length of time 

SCHOOLS a:n"d educatiox. 289 

ut each place that shall be kept ; and to grant so much money to 
be raised as may be thought needful to defray y® charges of 
y® same." On this article, " Voted for a school in y^ following four 
Quarters of this District the sum of £2, 13, 4 lawful money, to- 
gether with what is allowed us or falling to our share of fines lying 
in y® county treasurer's hands. Voted to divide y® said money into 
four equal shares, to be apportioned as follows, viz. : To y« south- 
easterly corner of y® District, beginning at Barnard McNitt's and 
running a northerly line taking both James Moors, John Glassford 
and Brackenridge, there following the roads easterly taking in El- 
well, Parsons & Applin. The second Quarter, being y® northeast- 
erly Quarter, taking in all without y® line of y® southeast Quarter, 
beginning at Hunters, Deacon Smiths and McMitchells, and goes 
straight line to the north side of the river, taking in William 
English. The third Quarter comprises the north and northwest 
part, taking in Nilson, Shearer, Dnnkin Quinton and Eobert Lam- 
berton, then turning north following the road from y® Meeting- 
house as it goes to Tackels, and so all the north side of Ware river. 
The fourth and last Quarter is the southwest corner, following 
y® line of the northeast corner as it goes by Glassford's, and fol- 
lowing y^ road by y® meeting-house, and. all south and west of 
y® road that goes to Tackels. Voted that each Quarter meet to- 
gether, and appoint some convenient place within the same to keep 
school in, as they please and most convenient for them ; and after 
they have had y® school so long as to spend their share of y® money 
they apj)ly to y® treasurer for the same — provided y® school be kept 
between this time and next March. And if either of y® Quarters 
neglect to lay out its share of the money before March next, it is 
not to have the benefit of it ; but said sum is to be kept in the 
treasury as a supply for y® next year of school." 

The sum of £10, 14, 4 was granted to carry out the foregoing 
plan of a school. And this continued to be the annual grant till 
1769, when it was raised to £13, 6, 8. School masters only were 
employed; and it is believed that the same master taught the school 
in the several Quarters, a term of six weeks or two months in each 
successively, thus going the round in six or eight months, and con- 
stituting what was then known as a "moving school." Teachers^ 
wages were low, and so continued for many years. In 1774, Eobert 
Brown agreed to keep the school on the east side of the Potaquatak 
for one pound, twelve shillings and eleven pence — and waited two 
years for his pay. As late as 1805 Lyman Walbridge taught the 
winter school in the southwest district, and his wages for the term 
were -$9.62. 


In 1764, the town was partitioned into five school Quarters, the 
new one being called the Meeting-house Quarter. 

In 1789, a committee divided the territory into nine school dis- 
tricts, as follows: ''The Meeting-house Quarter, taking in Dea. 
John McMaster, Clark McMaster, James Williams, John Thomson, 
Shadrick Thomson, John Hill, Thomas Hill, W"* Man, Lieut. 
Joshua Shaw, George Brackenridge, W"^ Fleming, Noah Shaw, 
James Smith, Doctor Jabez Lamb, Joshua Foskit, Thomas Quin- 
ton, William Warriner. 

2. Lieut. Thomas McClanathan's Quarter, including himself and 
Steven Blackmar, Joseph Smith, Eobert McMichell, Luke Hitch- 
cock, Mr. Champney, Robert Smith, Lieut. James Smith, Deacon 
John Smith, James Shaw, Gordon Sedgwick. 

3. Lieut. Urijah Ward's Quarter, taking besides himself Robert 
BroAvn, Samuel Samson, Samuel McClanathan, Ephriam Gates, 
John Lamberton, William Merrit, Joshua McMaster, Widow Bacon, 
Simeon Bacon, Samuel Blackmar. 

4. Capt. David Spears Quarter, including Capt. Spear, Capt. 
Patrick Watson, Wm. McDowell, John Shaw, David Spear, Jun., 
Henry Thomson, Noah Thomson, Asa Hamilton, Jonathan Moors, 
Timothy Ferrell, Elijah Darling. 

5. Francis Brackenridge's Quarter, Mr. Withington, Lieut. An- 
drew Adams, David Fleming, David Fleming, Jun., John Rogers, 
Jesse King, Timothy Brainard, Judah Ferry, Joseph Chapin, Capt. 
David Shaw, Samuel Shaw, Rufus Trask, John Fisher, James 
Hamilton, Mr. Colston, Capt. Sylvanus Walker. 

6. The Row Quarter : Rev. Moses Baldwin, Deacon Thomas 
King, Lieut. David King, Lieut. John King, Aaron Merrick, 
Samuel Blodget, Jonathan Cooley, Gideon King, Benjamin King, 
W" Scott, Esq., Doctor Calvin Scott. 

7. Southwest Quarter : Maj. Aaron Graves, Lieut. W" Scott, 
Capt. Robins, John Shearer, Jun,, Samuel Abbott, Hugh Moor, 
Hopestill Cleveland, Gideon Graves, John Shearer, Simeon Graves, 
David Roberts, David Moor, James King, Lemuel Blackmar, 
Daniel Graves, John Bachelor. 

8. Timothy McElwain's Quarter (known as the Point Quarter) : 
himself and Wm. Shaw, John Allen McElwain, Roger McElwain, 
Simeon Ferrel, Josiah Ferrel, George Wood, Joseph Darling, 
Widow Smith. 

9. Lieut. John Hamilton, Robert McMaster, Hugh McMaster, 
Wm. McMaster, Joshua Parsons, Wm. Smith, Isaac Cummings. 

In 1798 the Row Quarter was divided into two districts, making 
ten in all. 


Scliool Houses. Schools were established long before school 
houses were built. And it was found to be a serious and perplex- 
ing question to determine who should be at the charge of erecting 
the houses and where they should be placed. The first attempt to 
settle this question was made in 1758, six years after a school was 
set in operation, when Samuel Frost, John King, William 
McClanathan and Seth Shaw were chosen " a committee to settle 
a school house in each Quarter — if the people cannot agree among 
themselves — at the Quarter's cost." But conflicting interests could 
not be harmonized, and the vote was not carried into effect. Nine 
years later, /. e., in 1767, the town voted to raise by assessment 60 
pounds, to be expended in building a school house in each district 
for keeping school. Also voted that Ens. Samuel Shaw, David 
Spear, James Brackenridge, Thomas King, James Smith, Jun., 
and Robert Ferrill be a committee to plot a place in each district to 
build a school house on, when it happens so that either of the dis- 
tricts cannot agree on a place themselves. And if any district 
neglects to build a school house when duly warned thereto, then 
the said committee is directed and empowered to build a school 
house for such district, and each district shall have the benefit of 
all the money assessed on them in the usual form." School houses 
were built in most of the districts soon after this date, though the 
house in the Centre was not finished till 1782. In 1850 the num- 
ber of school districts was 13, and this continued to be the division 
till the district system was abolished in 1869. 

The school lot, before described, was sold in 1792, and the 
money apjiropriated towards paying for the new meeting-house, 
with the proviso that it be replaced into the town treasury "when 
the town find it necessary." There is no record of its replacement. 

Annnal Grants for Schools. 1752, £10, 14, 4, and the same 
sum till 1769, when £13, 6, 8 was raised; 1775 to 1780, £14; 1780, 
350 j)ounds, depreciated currency; 1781, £15 silver money; 1784 to 
1795, 30 pounds; 1795, 170 dollars; 1797, 1250; 1804 to 1825, $400;* 
1825 to 1831, $500 ; 1832 to 1834, 1600 ; 1835 to 1836, $750 ; 1837 
and 1838, $900 ; 1839, $1,200 ; 1840, $1,000; 1841 to 1843, $1,000; 
amount actually expended for schools in 1842, $1,539.40 ; 1843, 
$800 and the interest of the Merrick fund f and the Surplus 

* March 10, 1823. The town voted that Samuel Perry and Russell Jenks have liberty to draw 
back their proportion of school money for the last year, and to draw their proportion of school money 
for the present year and lay it out as they please. 

t Aaron Merrick, Esq., bequeathed to the town the sum of $850, the annual interest of which 
was to be appropriated for the benefit of schools and to be divided equally to the several districts. 
Unless specified, the annual town grant was exclusive of the income of this fund. The fund, unim- 
paired, is now in the savings bank. 


Revenue ; 1844, same as last year ; 1845, $1,200, 1300 to be equally 
divided among the districts and $800 on the valuation ; 1846, 
$1,200; 1847, 11,200; 1848, $1,200; 1849, 11,250, $1,200 to be 
divided on the valuation and $50 among the small districts, at the 
discretion of the assessors ; amount actually expended for schools 
this year, $1,355.38 ; 1850, $1,G50, $250 to be divided equally to 
the districts and $1,400 on the valuation ; 1851, the town voted to 
raise $2,000 to support the common schools and $G00 to support a 
high school the ensuing year; $300 of the school money was placed 
in the hands of the School Committee, to be divided among the 
districts at their discretion, and $1,700 to be divided on the 
scholar. At the April meeting the town voted to establish a high 
school, to be kept the first six months at Thorndike, three months 
at the Depot and three months at Three Rivers, provided a suitable 
place be provided at each village, free of expense to the town ; in- 
come of the Merrick fund, $49.62. 1852, $2,000, which continued 
to be the annual grant for the district schools till 1860. In 1855 
the interest of the Merrick fund was $99, and the amount received 
from the State was $168.72. The total sum expended for schools 
Avas $2,491.33. 18(30, $2,800 ; 1861, $2,300 ; 1862, $2,400 ; 1863, 
$2,700, and the same sum in '64 and '65 ; 1866, $3,500 ; 1867, 
$3,500 ; 1868, $4,000 ; 1869, $4,000. This year the district system 
was abolished and all the schools put in charge of the School Com- 
mittee. 1870, $4,500; 1871, $4,500; 1872, $5,000 ; 1873, $5,000, 
to which was added the interest of the Merrick fund, $57, the 
amount received from the State, $245.47, and the dog tax, $368.62, 
making in all the total of $5,671.09 ; 1874, grant $6,000, amount 
expended $7,005.21; 1875, $8,000; 1876, $7,500; 1877, annual grant 
$6,500, repairs $600, contingencies $600, interest of Merrick fund 
$52.27, dog tax $298.56, tuition of foreign scholars $47.50, total 
$8,351.13; 1878, $7,500; 1879, $7,500; 1880, $9,000. A new school 
house was built at Thorndike, at the cost of $2,033.61. 1881, 
$9,500 ; addition to the Depot Village school house cost $2,500 ; 
total school expenditures, $14,381.68. 1882, $10,000, a new school 
house built at Three Rivers costing $3,500. 1883, $10,000 ; a new 
school house built at Wire Mills. There were maintained this 
year the high school at Depot Village, 1 grammar, 1 intermediate 
and 2 primary ; at Three Rivers, 1 grammar, 2 intermediate and 3 
primary schools; at Bond's Village, 1 grammar, 1 intermediate and 
2 primary ; at Thorndike, 1 grammar, 2 intermediate and 2 
primary ; 1 school at Palmer Centre, and a school in the out dis- 
tricts, viz., the Shaw, Shorley, Whiting and Mason. 1884, 
810,000; 1885, $10,000; 1886, $10,000; 1887, $10,500, and for 


salary of School Committee ($100 each), $600; contingencies, $700; 
repairs, $1,000 ; care, $600 ; fuel, $800 ; text books, $800 ; trans- 
portation of pupils, $600 ; total, $15,600. 1888, $10,800. Anew 
high school building was erected at the Depot Village, costing 
$6,634.93. The total amount expended for school j^urposes (ex- 
clusive of cost of new high school) was $17,545.37. The income of 
the Merrick fund was $34.34 ; Revenue school fund, $641.28 ; re- 
ceived from the State, $188.41. 

School District System Aholished. By act of the Legislature 
of 1869, Chapter 110, the old district system of town schools was 
abolished, and all the public schools throughout the state put in 
charge of the school committees of the several towns. As the 
school houses in our district were the property of the district, an 
appraisal of the same was necessary before the town took possession. 
Enos Calkins, Gamaliel Collins, Wilson Brainard, E. B. Gates, G. 
W. Eandall of Palmer, and H. F. Brown of Brimfield, William 
Kent of Wilbraham, and Henry Basset of Ware were appointed a 
committee to appraise said property. Their report, dated July D, 
1869, is as follows: 

District No. 1, Centre, house, land, etc. $200 

" No. 2, Three Rivers, house, land, etc. 4,138 

" No. 3, Depot, house, land, etc. 4,444 

" No. 3, Blanchardville, house, land, etc. 1,477 

No. 4, Mason, house, land, etc. 428 

" No. 5, Foster, house, land, etc. 427 

" No. 6, Burley, house, land, etc. 70 

" No. 8, Shearer, house, land, etc. 40 

" No. 9, Gamwell, house, land, etc. 175 

" No. 10, Duckville, house, land, etc. 3,758 

" No. 11, Hastings, house, land, etc. 175 

" No. 12, Thorndike, house, land, etc. 4,230 


The whole matter of providing accommodations for the schools 
of the town was left with the school committee and the selectmen. 
The houses in the several villages were retained and occuijied, as 
were some in the out districts; others were sold, and a few new 
ones were built for the better convenience of neighborhoods. 

School Committee. In early times the selectmen had charge of 
the schools, unless the town chose a special committee for that pur- 
pose. After regular school districts were established, the town 
would sometimes appoint a committee-man for each of the several 
quarters, and sometimes it would be left to the district to manage 
the schools and pay the teachers. In 1839 the town ''Voted that 


the several school districts select and contract for their own 

The following " Eeport " indicates that the town elected a com- 
mittee, whose duties were in part analogous to those of a modern 
school committee, as early as 1786. The bill for services for 
these inspectors, found among the papers in the town house, is 
here presented, more from its historical value than for its literary 
merits : 

Palmer May the 17 1787 
Whereas the town of Palmer in time Past have Chose we the Subscribors 
a Commite to Inspact into the afares of the town of Palmer consarning 
the Schools and other afaiers which wee have Don as we have Exebated to 
the town which we have spant two days and a half Eh of us which wee 
charg the town 6 shillings Each of us £0:18:0 total 

Joshua Shaw \ 
Robert Hunter v Comite 
DAvm King ) 

Similar committees were appointed from time to time, and doubt- 
less performed their duties faithfully, and perhaps carried in a bill 
for services ; but their reports are not extant. 

In 1805, an article was inserted in the town warrant " To choose 
a School Committee." Under this, Capt. Jesse King, Ens. Daniel 
Shearer, Solomon Shaw, Isaac Ferrell and Jacob Converse, Jun., 
were chosen a committee "to inspect all the schools in the town of 
Palmer." In 1807, Jacob Converse, Jun., John Baldwin and Ben- 
jamin Cummings were appointed a commmittee ''to insjDCct the 
schools." No mention is again made of a school committee till 1811, 
when " one man in each school district was chosen to employ school 
masters & set up the schools, viz. Alpheus Converse, John Baldwin, 
Isaac Ferrell, Jona. Moors, Jun., Wilson Foster, William Merritt, 
Benjamin Cummings, Amos Hamilton, and Elisha Cleaveland. 
Also chose John Baldwin, Daniel King and Aaron King a commit- 
tee to examine school masters, and to inspect & examine the 
schools." The next year a district committee of eight was chosen 
to employ school masters and set up the schools ; and Eev. Simeon 
Colton was chosen to examine school masters ; and Lieut. Benjamin 
Cummings, Luther Brown, Daniel King, Jun., Ezekiel Terry and 
Simeon Cummings, to examine the schools. Similar action was 
taken the next year ; and Rev. Simeon Colton was chosen a commit- 
tee to examine school masters and school mistresses. [This is the 
first mention of female teachers on our town records.] 

1814. Aaron King, James Stebbins and Benjamin Cummings 
were chosen a committee for visiting and insijecting schools. 


1815. School Committee, Doctor Aai-on King, Capt. Alplieus 
Converse and Chester McKinney. 

1816. Eev. Simeon Colton, Lieut, Daniel King and Theophilus 
Knight, School Committee. At the October meeting the town 
"voted the Eev. Simeon Colton's request to teach a school in town 
the ensuing winter, if he saw fit.'' 

1817. James Stebbins, Dr. Aaron King, John Frink, Benjamin 
Cummings and Chester McKinney, School Committee. 

1819. School Committee, James Stebbins, Esq., Dr. Anson 
Moody and Benjamin Fuller, Jun. Same committee in 1820, 

1822. James Stebbins, Esq., Dr. Anson Moody and Chester 
McKinney were chosen School Committee, to examine the schools, 
masters of schools and school mistresses, and the town will support 
them in the discharge of their duty. 

1823. School Committee, Dr. Aaron King, Capt. Daniel King 
and Elias Turner, 

182-4. Dr. King, Mr. Turner and Chester McKinney, 

1825. Dr. King, Mr. Turner, Cyrus Knox, Livy McMaster and 
Maxey M. Converse. 

1826. Eev, Henry H. F. Sweet, Calvin Ward, Livy McMaster, 
Col. Amos Hamilton and Dr. Marcus M. Shearer. 

1827. Livy McMaster, Aaron King, Alonzo V. Blanchard, Dr. 
M. M, Shearer, and Sylvester Parks, 

1828. Eev, Joseph K. Ware, L, McMaster, Alonzo Y. Blanch- 
ard, Isaac King, Eobert Hitchcock, Charles Pearce and Calvin 

1829. Eev, J, K, Ware, L, McMaster, A, V. Blanchard, Maxey 
M. Converse and Harvey U. Sherman. 

"Voted that the School Committee provide school books for the 
several school districts, as provided by a late law on this subject." 

1830. Eev. J. K. Ware, Dr, Aaron King, H. U, Sherman, Elisha 
Converse, Jun,, and Theophilus H, Knight, 

1831. Dr, A, King, E. Converse, Jun,, H, U, Sherman, Elias 
Turner and John W, Smith, 

1832. Eev. Samuel Backus, Messrs. Turner, Converse, Sherman 
and James Gamwell. 

1833. Same as'last year. 

1834. Eev. S. Backus, Eev. David Pease, William J. Blanchard. 
Alvin Smith and Hiram Converse. 

1835. Eev. S. Backus, Eev. John E. Bigelow, H. U. Sherman, 
J. Gamwell and John W. Smith. 

1836. Eev. S. Backus, Eev. J. E. Bigelow, J. W. Smith, E. 
Converse, Jun., and Henry Lyon, Jun. 


'' Voted to pay Eev. Messrs. Backus and Bigelow each one dollar 
a day for the time they spend on account of the schools." 

1837. Rev. Messrs. Backus and Bigelow, and A. V. Blanchard. 
"Voted, to pay the clergymen on the committee ten dollars each, 
provided they do their duty faithfully." 

1838. Rev. S. Backus, Rev. J. R. Bigelow, A. V. Blanchard, J. 
Gamwell and H. U. Sherman. 

1839. Dr. Amasa Davis, A. V. Blanchard and James Gamwell. 

1840. Same as last year. 

1841. Messrs. Gamwell and Blanchard and Gamaliel Collins. 

1842. Rev. Moses K. Cross, Rev. James Nichols, H. U. Sherman. 

1843. Rev. M. K. Cross, Rev. C. Tilden, Samuel Henry. 

1844. Rev. M. K. Cross, Rev. Joseph Hodges, Jun., Rev. D. L. 

1845. Rev. M. K. Cross, Rev. J. Hodges, Jun., S. T. Spaulding, 

1846. Rev. J. Hodges, Jun., Calvin Torrey, Esq., A. V. Blanch- 

1847. Calvin Torrey, A. V. Blanchard. 

1848. A. V. Blanchard, Rev. X. E. Cobleigh, E. D. Chapin. 

1849. Rev. Addison Parker, Rev. Thomas Wilson, A. V. Blanch- 

1850. Rev. T. Wilson, Rev. A. Parker, Rev. Wm. H. Hubbard. 

1851. Rev. T. Wilson, Rev. A. Parker, Rev. Plinius Moody. 

1852. Rev. T. Wilson, Rev. A. Parker, Rev. Sylvester Hine. 

1853. Rev. S. Hine, Rev. W. W. Belden, Rev. Levi H. Wakeman. 

1854. Rev. S. Hine, Rev. L. H. Wakeman, Charles D. Foster. 

1855. Gordon M. Fisk, Franklin Barker, Ephraim B. Gates. 

1856. A. D. Bullock, E. B. Gates, Gamaliel Collins. 

1857. Same as last year. 

1858. Rev. J. H. M. Leland, A. D. Bullock, G. Collins. 

1859. The town voted to choose eleven men on the School Com- 
mittee — four for three years, three for two years and four for one 
year. Voted to instruct the School Committee to appoint a super- 
intendent of schools for the coming year. Chose E. B. Gates, 
George W. Randall, Elias Turner, Wm. Twiss, D. B. Bishop, G. 
Collins, Philo D. Winter, Wilson Brainard, Abram B. Davis, R. B. 
Caswell, E. H. Watrous. Mr. W^atrous was chosen superintendent. 

1860. Elias Turner, G. Collins, E. B. Gates, G. W. Randall, 
Wilson Brainard, R. B. Caswell. 

1861. G. Collins, W. Brainard, G. W. Randall, P. D. Winter, C. 
L. Bugbee, D. Granger, who was appointed superintendent at a 
salary of 1125. 


IN 1745 





1862. Eev. J. W. Tuck, Dwight M. Stebbins, D. Granger, who 
was appointed superintendent. 

1863. D. Granger, D. M. Stebbins, L. H. Arnold. 

1864. D. M. Stebbins, E. B. Gates, Dr. Wm. Holbrook. 

1865. D. M. Stebbins, Dr. W. Holbrook, Wm. K. Vaille. 

1866. Dr. W. Holbrook, E. M. Haynes, G. Collins. 

1867. Same as last year. 

1868. Same as last year. 

1869. Dr. Wm. Holbrook, Rev. B. M. Fullerton, Gamaliel Col- 
lins, who died, and Miss C. E. Hills was chosen to fill the vacancy. 

1870. Miss C. E. Hills, Rev. B. M. Fullerton, Rev. L. F. Shep- 

1871. Dr. Silas Ruggles, Rev. L. F. Shepardson, Miss C. E. 
Hills, Rev. B. M. Fullerton. 

1872. Rev. B. M. Fullerton, Dr. Silas Ruggles, Rev. L. F. Shep- 
ardson, Rev. T. A. Leete, E. B. Gates. 

1873. Rev. Messrs. Fullerton and Leete, Dr. S. Ruggles. 

1874. Same as last year. 

1875. Same as last year. 

1876. Rev. Messrs. Fullerton and Leete, Dr. Wm. Holbrook. 

1877. Messrs. Fullerton, Holbrook and E. B. Gates. 

1878. Same as last year. 

1879. Messrs. Fullerton, Gates and Dr. Silas Ruggles. 

1880. Messrs. Fullerton, Ruggles and H. C. Strong. 

1881. Dr. Ruggles, H. C. Strong, E. B. Gates. 

1882. A. R. Stoughton, Rev. C. H. Ricketts. 

1883. Rev. C. H. Ricketts, E. B. Gates, Dr. S. Ruggles, H. A. 
Smith, Rev. Thomas J. Sullivan, S. S. Taft. 

1884. Messrs. Ruggles, Gates, Sullivan, Smith, Taft and George 
A. Murdock. 

1885. Same as last year. 

1886. Messrs. Smith, Taft, Sullivan, Murdock, Ruggles and W. 
C. Green. 

1887. Messrs. Smith, Ruggles, Green, Sullivan, Taft and Mrs. 
M. A. B. Proctor. 

1888. Messrs. Green, Smith, Sullivan, Taft, Addie C. Hamilton 
and George C. Buell. 

1889. School Committee for three years, W. C. Greene and S. S. 
Taft ; for two years, M. H. Davis. 

The High School. The High School grew out of the educational 
necessities of the several villages. For several years it was a mov- 
ing school, tarrying at each village for a length of time somewhat 
in the ratio of the local number of pupils to be accommodated. 


From the first it measurably met the popular want, though not al- 
ways in a way to secure popular favor. Its fortunes in different 
years were various ; but it created a public sentiment by its own 
manifest advantages, and the children, its first graduates, when 
they became fathers and mothers of families, were ready to put it 
on a permanent basis for the advantage of their children. 

The High School began in this wise : At a meeting held April 
7, 1851, "the town voted to raise $2,000 to support the common 
schools, and $600 to support the High School the ensuing year. 
Voted, that the High School be kept the first months in Thorn- 
dike District, the next 3 months in the Depot District, and then 3 
months in the Three Elvers District — provided a suitable place be 
provided in each District, free of exj)ense to the town." In carry- 
ing out the vote of the town, the school committee employed Mr. 
Eben N. Chamberlain as teacher for the year. The number of 
different pupils was 125. 1852. The school moved to the several 
villages as last year. Mr. Chamberlain resigned at the close of the 
second term, and Daniel J. Sprague, a graduate of Amherst Col- 
lege, was appointed in his place. 1853. Mr. Sprague remained 
through the year ; and the school moved and prospered as last year. 
1854. Henry L. Boltwood was employed as teacher, and the school 
moved to the several villages. 1855. D. S. Phillips, teacher, with 
a single term each at the Centre, Thorndike, Depot and Three 
Kivers. 1856. The town voted " That the High School as hereto- 
fore kept, be dispensed with ; that the town appropriate 8300 (in 
addition to the $2,000) to be expended by the school committee in 
raising the grade of two (or more) of the District Schools to the 
standard required by law for High Schools, in accordance with the 
statutes authorizing it." Under this vote the schools at Depot 
Village and Thorndike were selected, a room fitted up at each, and a 
spring and fall term kept at Thorndike, under the charge of Lyman 
Partridge, and a fall and winter term at theDej)ot, under Chas. H. 
Grifiin. The committee state that the plan does not work satis- 
factorily. But the town voted to continue the plan another year 
(1857), and H. W. Wentworth taught a term, and D. D. Cole a 
term at Thorndike, and George W. Calkins two terms at the Depot. 
1858. The plan was continued, H. B. Barrows and George C. Lan- 
don. teachers. 1859. The town voted that the High School be 
kept at the town house at Four Corners through the year, Geo. C. 
Landon, teacher. 1860. George Mason and Edwin S. Stone were 
the High School teachers this year. 1861. The school was con- 
tinued at the town house, E. S. Snow, teacher. 1862. The town 
voted to establish graded sehools of a high order, one at each vil- 


lage, and granted $100 additional to the regular appropriation for 
each village. 1863. Graded schools maintained as last year ; A. H. 
Warren, Wm. K. Vaille, Philander Thurston and Miss H. J. 
Moulton in charge for the winter term. 1864. Graded schools on 
the plan of last year. 1865. The same plan as last year. 1866. 
The plan continued, but under female teachers, except that Charles 
D. Foster taught the Bondsville school in the winter. 1867. 
Graded schools in the four villages. 1868. Graded schools at three 
villages, kept by females, except that Mr. D. D. Porter and Mr, C. 
L. Harrington taught the winter terms at Thorndike and Three 
Rivers. The school committee re-established the High School at 
Depot Village, which was in charge of Miss Ellen M. Ware during 
the warm season and Mr. W. W. Miner for the fall and winter 
term. By act of the General Court, the district system in our 
schools was abolished, and the whole management of schools placed 
in the hands of the school committee. In 1869 the High School 
was maintained at the Depot under Miss S. G. Quimby in the sum- 
mer and fall, and Claude Watson in winter. Graded schools were 
sustained at the other villages. 1870. What the committee call 
Grammar and High Schools were kept at the several villages, 
taught during the winter term by Messrs. H. C. Strong, Albert M. 
Bigelow, and Misses M. J. Cady and Carrie A. Bushnell. 1871. 
The Palmer High School at Depot Village was in charge of Mr. A. 
M. Bigelow through the year; and the grammar schools at the 
other villages were in charge of females. 1872. The High School 
was taught by Mr. E. 0. Dyer ; the grammar schools at Three 
Rivers and Thorndike were in charge, during the winter, of Mr. G. 
J. Coe and John A. Munroe, respectively ; at other times taught by 
females. 1873. The Palmer High School was taught one term by 
Mr. Arthur T. Muzzey, and two terms by A. Gordon Tufts. The 
grammar schools at Thorndike, Bondsville and Three Rivers were 
in charge during the winter of Chas. E. Cochran, M. Pliny Dickey, 
and Geo. Burbank, respectively. 1874. Mr. Fisher continued in 
charge of the High School through the year. There were as usual 
three grammar schools at the villages, and 16 schools of lower grades 
kept in town. 

In November of this year, the Palmer High School was established 
on a permanent basis at the Depot Village, and arrangements made 
for the accommodation of the scholars of suitable age and standing. 
A regular four years' course of study was arranged, including an 
English and Classical course, adapted to fit pupils for business 
pursuits, or for college. The system of graded schools at the four 
villages was revised, to meet their several wants. This includes one 


or more primary and intermediate dej)artments, and a grammar de- 
partment. Pupils pass from the lower to the higher grades by 
regular graduation ; and from the grammar schools to the High 
School. Thus a motive and stimulus to study and good conduct are 
acting on the child constantly from his earliest school age ; teacher* 
are working in harmony for the attainment of a common object ; 
and the committee can see the end from the beginning, and need to 
waste no time on distracting questions of foundation and jilan. 

1875. Mr. Fisher remained at the head of the High School 
through the spring and fall. Mr. E. G. Baldwin took charge in 
the winter, and remained in service through 1876 and 7. Mr. 
Frank A. Hosmer was employed for the spring term of '78, and Mr. 
Wm. H. Whiting for the fall and winter. He was retained till the 
close of the spring term of 1881. C. A. Doubleday taught one 
term. Frank W. Whitney took charge of the school in the winter 
and remained principal through '82, '83, and the spring of '84. 
Mr. H. B. Knox, a graduate of Colby University, 1881, was appointed 
principal of the High School in the fall of 1884, and is in charge 
at the present time, April, 1889. The number of pupils enrolled 
last year was 81. In their report, dated March 6, 1889, the School 
Committee say : "The High School will open the spring term in 
the new building. The room from which it moves is already sorely 
needed for the lower grades, and will be occujjied at once, while the 
change into a new, commodious and well-arranged building will add 
to that life and vigor which now mark our High School. It is a 
good school, excellently well kept ; and the liberal policy of the 
town has done much to enlarge its influence and opportunities, and 
the people are to be congratulated on the scholars, the teachers and 
the results." 

In 1879, the town voted "^to authorize the School Committee to 
defray the travelling expenses of scholars attending the High 
School from other parts of the town, not exceeding S8 per term per 
scholar." The same liberal policy is continued to the present time. 
The grant this year (1889) for ''transportation of High School 
scholars" is ll,OQO. 

Statement of Schools, 1888. 

High — Teachers, H. B. Knox, Helen L. Cobb, Sadie Stanwood ; 
average attendance, 66.0 ; Xo. enrolled, 81. 

Palmer Grammar — Teacher, Margaret A. Sullivan ; average at- 
tendance, 46.6; No. enrolled, 55. 

Palmer Intermediate — Teachers, Ida A. Taft, N. L. Ingram, 
Addie L. Rogers; average attendance, 51.39; No. enrolled, 63. 


Second Primary — Teacher, Minnie S. Burleigh ; average attend- 
ance, 44.01 ; No. enrolled, 62. 

First Primary — Teacher, Abbie J. Wallis ; average attendance, 
60.4; No. enrolled, 80. 

Thorndike Grammar — Teacher, L. E. Philbrick ; average attend- 
ance, 23.13; No. enrolled, 33. 

Second Intermediate — Teacher, Effie E. Smith ; average attend- 
ance, 26.6 ; No. enrolled, 38. 

First Intermediate — Teacher, Jennie R. Williston ; average at- 
tendance, 30.79 ; No. enrolled, 44. 

Third Primary — Teachers, Mrs. L. E. Philbrick, Addie L. 
Eogers, Julia M. Parsons; average attendance, 29.11; No.' en- 
rolled, 51. 

Second Primary — Teachers, Florence M. Carter, S. Beulah 
Thayer; average attendance, 25.51 ; No. enrolled, 52. 

First Primary — Teacher, Mary E. Murdock ; average attendance, 
45.07 ; No. enrolled, 64. 

Three Rivers Grammar — Teachers, E. G. Ward, F. A. Parsons ; 
average attendance, 24.48 ; No. enrolled, 35. 

Second Intermediate — Teacher, Lizzie M. Carrier ; average at- 
tendance, 26.18; No. enrolled, 38. 

First Intermediate — Teacher, Helen L. Robinson ; average at- 
tendance, 25.76; No. enrolled, 43. 

Third Primary — Teacher, Kate L. Webb ; average attendance, 
35.44; No. enrolled, 48. 

Second Primary — Teachers, Sarah E. Ward, H. May Sears ; 
average attendance, 39.68 ; No. enrolled, 58. 

First Primary — Teacher, Frances E. Beauregard ; average at- 
tendance, 45.42 ; No. enrolled, 113. 

Bondsville Grammar — Teacher, H. E. Loring ; average attend- 
ance, 26.67; No. enrolled, 46. 

Intermediate — Teacher, Mrs. L. B. Ely ; average attendance, 
22.85 ; No. enrolled, 33. 

Second Primary — Teachers, Helen M. Warren, Agnes J. Spooner : 
average attendance, 32.83 ; No. enrolled, 44. 

First Primary — Teacher, Mary L. Lynde ; average attendance, 
43.8; No. enrolled, 90. 

Wire Mill — Teachers, Hattie M. Blanchard, Lucy E. Naylor, 
Mattie S. Howard ; average attendance, 30.36 ; No. enrolled, 54. 

Palmer Centre — Teachers, Addie L. Rogers, Mattie L. Howard, 
Eliza M. Walker ; average attendance, 25.73 ; No. enrolled, 39. 

Blanchardville — Teachers, Alice L. Abbe, Cora E. Brown, Nellie 
B. Cutter; average attendance, 23.58; No. enrolled, 43. 


Whiting — Teachers, Addie C. Hamilton, Alice Brown, Mina E. 
Ball ; average attendance, 13.05 ; No. enrolled, 21. 

Shaw — Teacher, Ernest F. Shaw ; average attendance, 7.54 ; No. 
enrolled, 10. 

Mason — Teachers, Cora E. Brown, J osie E. Shea ; average at- 
tendance, 10.39 ; No. enrolled, IG. 

Shorley — Teacher, Nellie Mack ; average attendance, 6.32 ; No. 
enrolled, 11. 


As the Library is an imj^ortant factor in the education of a com- 
munity, an account of the earlier and later attempts to establish 
such agencies in Palmer properly comes in in connection with the 
history of our schools. 

Undoubtedly the need of such an educational auxiliary was felt 
earlier, as the supply of family reading was very meagre in variety, 
though excellent in quality. The Bible was in every household, 
the psalm book in many, the catechism was stored in every 
mother's memory and imparted to her children, and on the shelf or 
top of the bureau in many families were Josephus' Wars of the 
Jews, Willison's Communicants' Directory and a volume or two of 
sermons. D wight's System of Geography and a few other school 
books were on hand, but were rather dry reading. 

So far as is known, no concerted movement towards founding a 
public library was made till after the settlement of Eev. Simeon 
Colton as pastor of the church. He was a thoroughly educated man 
in general literature as well as theology, and was the prime mover 
in starting the first library in town — seconded, it would appear, by 
Law3'er Stebbins, then a new comer and a college graduate. 

The Palmer Social Library was started about 1815. Besides the 
minister and the lawyer, Philip Lamb, Cyrus Knox, Col. Amos 
Hamilton, Moses Learned, the Smiths, the Kings, Asa and Calvin 
"Ward, Benjamin Converse, Dea. Lebbeus Chapin and most of the 
prominent men of the town took shares [it is said that women were 
not admitted to membership]. The entrance fee was one dollar, 
and the annual dues the same. The books were kept in the Town 
House at the Old Centre. Hickson Olds, a clerk in Col. Hamil- 
ton's store, was librarian. The rules of the association, as pasted 
on the fly-leaf of their books, were : '^Annual meeting, first Mon- 
day in December, at four o'clock in the afternoon. Other meet- 
ings, first Monday in March, June and September, at six o'clock in 
the afternoon. N. B. Books to be returned one hour before time 
of meeting, on a penalty of twelve and a half cents for each vol- 
ume." This would imply that there were four days in the year for 


taking out and returning books. The number of volumes in the 
library is not known: It contained Hume's History of England, 
Milnor's Church History, 5 vols., and Mavor's Universal History, 
34 vols. Probably it was made up largely of standard works of like 
character. When Mr. Colton, left town, the spirit of life in the 
library seems to have departed. And the bitter quarrel over the 
control of church affairs which followed, alienated old-time friends 
and for a while absorbed all interest and paralyzed all social plans. 
The library naturally fell into neglect and disuse, and the books 
were sold at auction in 1825. 

About 1841 Mr. Spalding, an agent for the " District School 
Library," published under the sanction of the board of education 
of the state, visited the town for the purpose of interesting the 
citizens in the formation of school libraries. Col. Cyrus Knox and 
Capt. Sylvester Parks, of the Depot Village, took hold of the mat- 
ter, and a meeting was called at the old school house opposite the 
present agricultural park. The subject of the library was presented 
by the agent, and as a result the sum of $30 was raised by subscrip- 
tion, which amount, with the aid given by the state, in accordance 
with a law passed in 1837, enabled the district of the Depot Village 
to purchase about 100 volumes of books. These books were mostly 
published by Chas. H. Webb & Co. of Boston, were compact in 
size and embraced a large range of subjects, suited for all ages, 
such as the Eollo books for the young, and Abbott's works for the 
adults. Capt. Parks was librarian, and kept the books at his house. 
Another library of this character was obtained for the Mason dis- 
trict, under the fostering care of Col. Isaac King. These libraries 
circulated some nine or ten years, until the books had either been 
worn out or had been read by all who had an interest in them; and 
as no more books were added, there ceased to be a call for the few 
which remained. So this library dropped out of public knowledge. 

There was another interregnum of a few years. In January, 
1861, incited by the efforts of Mr. John Eeynolds, formerly of the 
Neiv England Farmer, a number of the leading citizens formed the 
Quahaug Library Association, with J. G. Allen, president ; J. A. 
Hall, vice-president ; J. K. Knox, secretary ; James Eobinson, 
treasurer ; Dr. Wm. Holbrook, librarian. This was a stock con- 
cern, the shares being 85 each. The library numbered about 150 
volumes, and consisted largely of works on agriculture, horticulture, 
floriculture, farm, garden, stock^ etc. The books were in the care 
of Dr. Holbrook until 1861, when he entered the service of his 
country in the war of the rebellion. The books were then taken 
in charge by Cyrus Knox, Jr. at the post office, where they remained 


several years, then were boxed and remained in seclusion till turned 
over to the Young Men's Library a few years since. 

After the close of the war, after Peace had once more spread her 
mantle over society, the village people of Palmer became once more 
interested in the project of another library, to be established on a 
different basis from those which had preceded it ; one which should 
have a selection of books such as would appeal to all classes of 
readers. Quite a number of the citizens of the village met on the 
evening of February 4, 1867^ at the school house and organized the 
Palmer Public Library Association, with these officers: President, 
P. P. Kellogg; secretary, 0. P. Allen; treasurer, L. Dimock ; 
board of directors, P. P. Kellogg, 0. P, Allen, Rev. E. M. Haynes, 
Dr. E. B. Lyon, C. L. Gardner, Esq.; librarian, Mrs. A. J. Xew- 
ton. The money was raised from the members of the association, 
who paid one dollar per year. With the funds raised in this way 
quite a respectable list of j)opular books was soon placed on the 
library slielves. The library was located at first in the store con- 
nected with the post office, where it remained some two or three 
years ; then it was cared for some time by Clark, the jeweler, and 
lastly it was placed in the charge of Lawyer R. P. Harlan, in 1871, 
then having his office in the house now owned by Mr. Wm. Kurtz 
on South Main street. 

This library was well patronized for some five years, when the 
members gradually neglected to pay the annual dues, thereby losing 
their membership. Many of the books were worn out or scattered 
among the members ; so from one cause and another the library 
ceased to circulate in 1872. After the organization of the present 
library a large number of the books of the circulating library were 
gathered and turned over to its managers. The subscription library 
having failed to meet the requirements of the public, it occurred 
to the firm of Wood & Allen, druggists and book sellers, to insti- 
tute a circulating library of poi^ular books suited for both young 
and old. The patrons of this library were charged two cents per 
day for the use of the books. This library was instituted in 1870, 
and existed till 1878. It contained some GOO volumes and circu- 
lated about 2,500 volumes per year. It met with a good measure 
of success and jiaid a fair profit on the outlay. It was sold to the 
Young Men's Library Association in 1878, and formed the nucleus 
of the new library. 

More than sixty-five years of exjoeriment had paved the way for a 
more permanent and enduring library — one which should embrace 
the entire town for its patrons and should furnish all classes of 
readers with books suited to their age and tastes, and, more than 


all else, should be free to all. A few citizens who had long consid- 
ered the wants of the public, and having an interest in furnishing 
the masses with the means of cultivating their taste for books, 
came together and, after maturing plans, organized on Dec. 3d, 
1878, the Young Men^s Library Association, which was also incor- 
porated under the general laws of the State of Massachusetts. The 
corporate members consisted of W. A. Lincoln, S. W. French, 
Rev. C. H. Eaton, 0. P. Allen, S. S. Taft, Dr. W. H. Stowe, W. 
C. Dewey, C. B. Fisk, S. H. Hellyar, 0. W. Johnson. The asso- 
ciation organized with these officers : President, Rev. C. H. 
Eaton; vice-president, C. B. Fisk; secretary, S. W. French; treas- 
urer, W. A. Lincoln ; librarian, W. H. Stowe ; directors, C. H. 
Eaton, W. H. Stowe, S. W. French, W. A. Lincoln, 0. P. Allen. 

Immediately after the organization of the association, the sum of 
seven hundred and fifteen dollars was raised by subscription for the 
purchasing of books. The library was opened to the public Feb. 
8th, 1879, in one of the vacant stores of French's Block on Central 
street. With the money contributed and books donated by numer- 
ous friends of the library, together with many of the surviving 
books of the old circulating library, the managers were able to place 
922 volumes on the shelves for the use of the public on the day of 
opening. The library has since been supported by yearly appro- 
priations of the town of from $500 to $600. The library now con- 
tains 3,788 volumes, embracing a wide range of the best literature 
in all branches of knowledge. 

The library has been well patronized by all portions of the town. 
The volumes taken from the library in 1888 were 9,219, which is 
an increase over preceding years. The historical books are much 
sought by the pupils of the grammar and high schools of the town. 
The greatest present need of the library is a suitable building for a 
permanent home. It must not be left unsaid in this connection 
that from its first inception the library has had no firmer friend 
and supporter than Mr. M. W. French, who for several years gave 
the use of his rooms for the benefit of the library and was ever 
ready to give the managers the aid of his counsel. New members 
are received into the association by a two-thirds' vote of the asso- 
ciation and the payment of ten dollars. The library is managed by 
its officers, without pay. The present officers of the association 
are : President, W. C. Greene ; vice-president. Dr. W. H. Stowe ; 
secretary, W. W. Leech ; treasurer, G. W. Ely ; librarian, 0. P. 
Allen; directors, 0. P. Allen, Dr. W. H. Stowe, Rev. H. W. Pope, 
W. C. Dewey. 

The tenth anniversary of the opening of the library was observed 


Feb. 8th, 1880, with fitting exercises at the Second Congregational 
Church, with music by the choir, an historical sketch by Rev. F. W. 
Betts and a very able and interesting address by Hon. S. S. Taft. 

In this connection it is relevant to say that most if not all the 
religious societies in town have small and well-selected Sunday- 
school libraries connected with them, for the use of the scholars in 
attendance. There are also quite a number of private libraries in 
town worthy of mention. This list includes all that are known to 
number over 400 volumes of bound books : 

The library of Dr. W. H. Stowe leads the list in point of num- 
bers. His library contains over 1,400 volumes, and, besides his 
professional books, has a large number of old and scarce works 
illustrating many j^hases of local and New England literature. The 
carefully selected library of 0. P. Allen contains 1,300 volumes, 
embracing a very wide range of subjects in all branches of knowl- 
edge, being especially rich in poetry, histq^y, works of reference 
and art. The library of Lawyer S. S. Taft has 400 volumes of law 
and 750 volumes of well selected miscellaneous books. Lawyer C. 
L. Gardner has a well-filled law library of 475 volumes, and 450 
volumes of miscellaneous works. Kev. F. W. Betts has 800 
volumes of carefully selected books. W. 0. Greene, the agent of 
the Thorndike Co., has his home well stocked with 600 volumes. 
H. B. Knox, j^riucipal of the High School, has 450 volumes ; and 
C. B. Fisk, cashier of the Palmer National Bank, has 400 volumes. 

Graduates. — The following list comprises the natives or resi- 
dents of Palmer, who have obtained a liberal education at college, 
other than our professional men: John Baldwin, grad. D. C. 1791; 
Daniel Baldwin, died in senior year at D. 0. 1792; Ezra Lee Bald- 
win, died while a member of D. C. 1796; John Dunbar, grad. W. 

C. 1832, missionary to Pawnee Indians ; Jabez Lamb, ; Samuel 

Fleming, ; Henry D. Converse, died before grad. at Y. C. 1848; 

John Ward, Jun., died while a member of Y. C. 1862 (?); Lucius 
L. Merrick, grad. A. C. 1860; George W. Calkins, grad, B. U. 
1862, teacher ; H. C. Strong, grad. A. C. 1875, lawyer ; W. C. 

Green, grad. B. U. ; William E. Holbrook, grad. A. C. 1876, 

physician, Lynn ; Samuel S. Parks, grad. A. C, 1886, lawyer, 

Now (1889) members of College. C. Julian Tuthill, Boston Uni- 
versity ; Miss Eva E. Kenerson, Boston University; Charles J. 
Hunt, Tufts College ; Harry J. Brown, Amherst College ; Charles 
G. Gardner, Amherst College ; George Holden, Amherst College ; 
Edward N. Lacey, Amherst College. 


War of the Kebellion, 18G1-1865. 

THE following brief and imperfect account of tlie part taken 
by Palmer in furnishing men and means for the late Civil "War 
is all that can be gathered from the town records. In the ex- 
citement and haste of the time, our officials were more intent on 
meeting requisitions and filling quotas and raising money for boun- 
ties and caring for the soldiers' families, than on keeping a record 
of the same. Hence our history, which should set forth in full 
and perpetuate the sacrifices and patriotic plans of the men and 
women whose hearts and hands were devoted to the cause of the 
country, and should furnish a complete list of names and services 
of the soldiers who went to the front, can contain only meagre de- 
tails, and but a partial list of names of the men who enlisted and 
performed honorable service. 

Action of the Town. May 4, 1861. "Voted to aid in arming 
and equipping and drilling of a company of volunteers, to be ready 
for service in the present war. 

" Voted to provide for the families of any of the citizens of Palmer 
who may enlist as volunteers or be drafted to serve in the present 
war, during the absence of such citizen soldiers. 

"Voted to raise $5,000 — $2,000 to be applied for arming and 
drilling soldiers, and $3,000 for providing for the families of men 
in the service. 

September 31, 1861. The town voted ''to pay to each member 
of the families of volunteers mustered into the service of the. United 
States the sum of $1 per week, so long as said volunteer remains in 
said service. 

July 19, 1862. Voted 'Ho raise $2,700 to pay bounties of $100 
each to 27 men called for by the Governor of the Commonwealth. 
Voted to add a bounty of $5 to each man who shall enlist within 
five days.'' And the treasurer was authorized to borrow $2,835 
for the purposes named. And J. S. Loo mis, Abel Webber, Nathan 
Howard, A. N. Dewey, P. P. Kellogg, Rufus BroAvn, D. B, Bishop 
and Luther H. Arnold were appointed a committee to procure men 
to enlist. 


August 11, 1862. The town offered a bounty of $100 to each 
man who shall enlist under the call of the President for 300,000 
men to serve in the army, and authorized the treasurer to borrow 
such sums of money as may be required to pay said bounties. At 
a meeting held August 28 the bounty offered was increased to S150 
and the treasurer was authorized to borrow a sum not exceeding 
$8,000 to pay said bounties. 

The Town Report contains the following List of Volunteers who 
enlisted for three years and received each a bounty of $105 : John 
W. Osborn, Thomas Blanchard, Jun., George Colegrove, Lorenzo 
C. Strikeland, Edward Mitchell, James A. AYitherell, Daniel 
Hadley, Cyrus M. Benjamin, Henry Sullivan, George E. Pepper, 
George Fowle, Charles Jackson, George Ballon, Austin Clark, 
Leonard Whitcomb, Charles Latham, Lucius L. Merrick, Lyman 
McDowell, William Holloway, Isaac Sutcliff, William Thompson, 
Bradley E. Olney, George D. Shaw, Azel Thompson, John M. 
Barton, Reuben Jackson, D. T. Cooper. James Knowlton re- 
ceived $100.60. 

List of Nine Months' Volunteers who received each a bounty of 
$150 : Oapt. F. C. Cook, S. R. Keith, James B. Foster, Purlin S. 
Thompson, Rufus M. Bacon, Eli Strickland, Lyman A. Trumble, 
J. Loury, Horace White, Henry Canterbury, W. H. Duncan, 
Charles A. Studley, Joseph D. Dwelly, E. G. Hastings, Rufus W. 
Herrick, J. R. Hempstead, George F. Amidon, Miles C. Gerrald, 
Charles Hastings, Frank K. Angell, Fred. F. Brimhall, John H. 
Thayer, Morris Breen, Robert J. Hancock, Edgar Cooley, George 
H. Wellman, James W\ Needham, F. J. Holt, David Mclntire, 
Robert Gregory, A. A. Dorman; Otis F. Kendall, Wm. F. White, 
Frank Lester, James C. Fletcher, Elbridge Mcintosh, James Mc- 
Grath, Dexter B. Packard, Jerre L. Kavanagh, Samuel Brown, 
George W. Mills, William T. Smith, Charles Tuin, Wm. McGuire. 

John Hayden and John Murphy received $100 each. 

April 11, 1864. The town Voted " To pay $100 bounty to each 
of the nine men now called for to fill the last quota of the town." 
The bounty was afterwards raised to $125, to each enlisted man. 

May 21, 1864. Voted, *^*That the selectmen be authorized to 
pay $300 to each man who shall be accepted by the government to 
fill our present and past deficiencies of 45 men, and the treasurer 
was authorized to borrow $13,200 for this purpose. Voted to assess 
the $13,200 this year." 

May 23, 1865. The town "Voted to assume the various sums of 
money subscribed and paid by individuals for the purpose of filling 
quotas of men called for by the United States authority." And a 

WAR OF THE REBELLION, 18(31-1865. 30& 

committee was appointed to ascertain the amount thus subscribed, 
who reported as follows : 

We have examined the subscriptions, and find that the sum of $8,054 
was thus paid to the town's committee elected to obtain recruits, in 1864 ; 
that said committee have expended $8,041.40, and now have on hand $12.60, 
subject to the order of the town. 

Ends Calkins, 


E. B. Gates, 

S. A. Newton, 

;- Committee. 

Geo. W. Randall, 



The report was accepted, and the sum of 88,041.40 was granted 
and ordered to be assessed this year, and when collected to be paid 
out to individuals according to their several subscriptions. 

March, 1866. The town voted "to pay back to the 30 citizens 
of Palmer who were drafted in '63 and '64, and paid each $300 
commutation money — upon proof of such payment." The list of 
the men who were drafted May 18, 1864, is as follows : William 
E. Hancock, Wm. E. Cooper, John C. Rich, Albert Loomis, John 
M. Converse, Timothy F. Fuller, James Hamilton, Dr. James M. 
Comins, Jere Cronin, James B. Atwood, M. Clark Fenton, H. W. 
Munger, Orriu P. Allen, Eugene Shorley, Eleazar Owen, Jos. M. 
Barnes, Sherman G. Smith, Wm. Thompson, Samuel D. Shaw, 
George D. Moores, Wm. E. Parks, Francis D. Fuller, Frederick 
Thayer, John Dawson, Lyman B. Collins, Martin Brown, Salem T. 
Weld, Matthew Glouster, Patrick Dewannier, Michael Shay, Ches- 
ter B. Canterbury, Alfred G. Lamb, B. L. Greene, Josiah Brooks, 
Rufus E. Knowlton, Jeremiah Kelley, Converse Sedgwick, Henry 
Eaton, John Sullivan, Charles Clark, John Sullivan, Elijah G. 
Murdock, Ethan Warriner, Joseph Cavin, in all 44. Some were not 
accepted; some enlisted, and 30 paid the $300, which was re-paid by 
the town. 

Soldiers' Records. 

[Compiled by E. B. Gates.] 

One hundred days' men in Eighth Regiment Infantry, M. V. 

Charles F. Bennet, 19, mustered July 13, '64, discharged Nov. 
10 '64. 

George S. Bennet, 21, mustered July 13, '64, discharged Nov. 
10, '64. 

Henry F. Gerald, 33, mustered July 13, '64, discharged Nov. 
10, '64. 


One hundred days' men in Forty-second Reg. Infantry, M. V. 
Franklin Blair, 18, mustered July 16, '64, dis. Nov. 11, '64. 
Artemas W. Briggs, 22, must. July 16, '64, dis. Nov. 11, '64. 
Herbert W. Hitchcock, 19, must. July 16, '64, dis. Nov. 11, '64. 
Bart. J. Murphy, 20, must. July 16, '64, dis. Nov. 11, '64. 
Albert C. Parsons, IS, must. July 16, '64, dis. Nov. 11, '64. 
Paul Prue, 20, must. July 16, '64, dis. Nov. 11, '64. 

Mne months' men in Forty-sixth Reg. Infantry, M. V. 


Joseph E. Dwelly, muse, 16, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. May 30, '63. 


Francis C. Cook, capt., 28, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Anson A. Dorman, sergt., 34, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Wm. F. White, sergt., 30, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Myron S. Barton, sergt., 24, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

E. G. Hastings, sergt., 22, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. for disability 
March 26, 1863. 

Geo. F. Amidon, corp., 19, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Lyman Trumble, Corp., 29, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. for disability 
Jan. 14, 1863. 

John H. Thayer, Corp., 27, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. for disability 
June 14, 1863. 

James B. Foster, muse, 28, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Charles Hastings, wagr., 35, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Angell, Frank, 27, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Bacon, E. M., Jun., 19, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Breen, Morris, 18, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Brimhall, Fred F., 18, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Brown, Samuel, 21, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Canterbury, Henry, 44, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Cooley, Edgar, 18, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. to re-enlist May 30, '63. 

Duncan, Walter H., 19, must, Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Fletcher, James C, 19, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Gerald Miles C, 20, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Gregory, Eobert, 25, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Griswold, Oscar S., 19, must. Oct. 15, '62, died Jan. 31, '63, at 
Newbern, N. C. 

Hancock, K. J., 23, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 19, '63. 

Hard, John, 21, must. Oct. 15, '62. 

Hempstead, John K., 19, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Herrick, R. W., 27, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. to re-enlist May 30, 

WAR OF THE REBELLIONS', 18G1-1865. 311 

Holt, Frank J., 18, must. Oct. 15, '63, dis. July 29, '63. 

Kavanaugh, Jerre M., 21, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Keith, Samuel R., 29, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Kendall, Otis F., 33, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Lester, Frank F., 19, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Lury, Isaiah, 28, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July, 29, '63. 

McGrath, James, 36, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

McGuire, William, 44, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. for disability 
March 26, '63. 

Mclntire, David, 25, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. to re-enlist May 30, 

Mcintosh, Elbridge, 38, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. to re-enlist May 
30, 1863. 

Mills, George W., 24, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. for disability March 
26, 1863. 

Murphy, John, 22, must. Oct. 15, '62. 

Needham, James W., 23, must. Oct. 15, '62. 

Packard, Dexter B., 40, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Smith, William T., 27, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. to re-enlist May 
30, 1863. 

Strickland, Eli, 18, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Studley, Charles A., 27, must. Oct. 15,- '62, dis. for disability 
Feb. 16,\863. 

Thompson, Purlin S., 25, must. Oct. 15. '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

Tuin, Charles, 29, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

W^ellman, George H., 18, must. Oct 15, '62, dis. July 29, '63. 

White, Horace, 39, must. Oct. 15, '62, dis. to re-enlist May 30, 

The Forty-sixth Eegiment was raised in Hampden county ; left 
camp at Springfield, November 5, 1862, sailed from Boston, and 
reached Newbern, N. C, November 15, and went into camp on the 
right bank of the Neuse ; went on the Goldsborough expedition in 
December, and had an engagement with the enemy ; Avas employed 
in erecting fortifications, etc., through the winter; had sharp 
skirmishes March 14, 1863 : March 26 ordered to Plymouth, N. C, 
where it was besieged for eighteen days ; returned to Newbern, 
May 8 ; was in the successful raid to Gum Swamp ; embarked 
June 24, for Fortress Munroe ; ordered to Baltimore July 1, where 
it was emjiloyed in patrol and guard duty, escorting and guarding 
of prisoners, etc., till July 6th ; proceeded to Sandy Hook, with 
orders to occupy and hold Maryland Heights ; remained here till 
July 11, when it marched and joined the Army of the Potomac 
near Funkstown. Just as the army moved across the river, orders 


came to proceed by the shortest route to Massachusetts, there to be 
mustered out, our term having expired. 

Three years' men in Seventh Battery Lt. Art., M. V. 
Kennedy, John, 40, must. Nov. 30, '64., dis. exp. of service. 

Three years' inen in Second Regt. Heavy Art., M. V. 


Mulvany, Michael, 10, must. Sept. 17, '64, transferred to 17th 
Reg., Inf., Dec. 16, '64. 


Dunham, George, 21, must. June 15, '64. 


Mackintosh, Elbridge, 39, must. Aug. 22, '63, dis. Sept. 3, '65. 


White, Horace, 30, must. Oct. 5, '63, dis. for disability March 

0, '64. 


Breen, Morris, 20, must. Dec. 7, '63, dis. for disability Aug. 11, 

Farrell, John, 22, must. Aug. 20, '64, trans. 17th Inf. 


O'Hare, Patrick, corp., 25, must. Dec. 26, '64, dis. July 28, '65. 
Men enUded for one year in Fourth Regt. H. Art., M. V. 


Bartlett, Erastus M., must. Aug. 18, '64, dis. June 17, '65. 
Bellamy, Bradley 0., 35, must. Aug. 18, '64, dis. June 17, '65. 

Three years' men in First Battalion H. Art., M. V. 
Andrews, Ambrose M., 23, enl. Nov., '62, dis. June 29, ''do. 

Three years' men in First Regt. Cavalry, M. V. 


Green, Horatio D., 18, enl. Jan. 6, '64, dis. June '2ij, '65. 
Kibbe, Harlow B., 39, enl. Sept. 25, '61, dis. for disability Feb. 
14, '64. 

Lucas, Stephen, 20, enl. Sept. 14, '61. 
Smith, Jacob, 22, enl. June 8, '64. 

Three years' men in Fourth Regt. Cavalry, M. V. - 


Daniel, 22, en 
Jan. 6, '65. 

WAE OF THE REBELLION, 1861-1865. 313 


Bell, Joseph, 19, enl. Nov. 33, '64. 

Three years' men in Tenth Regt. Infantry, M. V. 
Holbrook, William, M. D., apptd. Assist. Surg. June 21, '61, 
prom. Surgeon 18th Regt. Inf. Jan. 13, '62. 
Evans, George, 2G, enl. June 21, '61, dis. to re-enl. in 37th Eegt. 
Inf. Dec. 21, '63. 


Palmer, Charles G., 19, enl. .June 21, '61, dis. for disability Nov. 
26, '62. 

Potter, Edward T., 21, re-enl. in 37th Reg. Inf. June 19, '64. 
Judd, Dwight. 

Thire years' men in Fiftee7ith Regt. Inf., M. V. 


Pasco, George W., 19, enl. Dec. 9, '61, dis. for disability Dec. 
17, '62. 

Underwood, B. P., enl. Dec. 9, '61. 

Three years' men in Sixteenth Regt. Inf., M. V. 


Davis, James, 23, enl. July 15, '63. 
Hand, John, 24, enl. July 15, '63. 
Kelly, James, 20, enl. July 15, '63. 

Three years' men in Seventeenth Regt. Inf., M. V. 


Farrell, John, 22, enl. Aug. 29, '64, dis. June 30, '65. 
Fitzgerald, Edward, 18, enl. Aug. 29, '64, dis. June 30, '65. 


Mulvany, Michael, enl. Sept. 17, '64, dis. July 11, '65. 
Three years' men in Tioentieth Regt. Inf., M. V. 


Galvin, Thomas E., 35, enl. July 18, '61, k. at Gettysburg July 
3, '63. 


Evans, George, 28, enl. Dec. 21, '63, dis. July 16, '65. 
Potter, Edward T., 21, enl. Dec. 21, '63, dis. July 16, '65. 

Three years' men in Twenty-first Regt. Inf. M. V. 
Francis, Thomas, enl. Aug. 5, '61, commissioned 1st Lieut. May 
18, 62, commissioned Capt. Sept. 26, '62, resigned May 5, '63. 


Davis, Frank G., 24, hosp. steward, Aug. 19, 'Gl, dis. Sept. 
24, '64. 


Collis, Marcus M., 20, corp. May 5, '61, sergt. Jan. 2, '62, trans. 
to 36th Eegt. Inf., re-enlisted. 

Fitzgerald, Patrick, 19, enl. Aug. 5, '61. 

Hastings, Charles, 34, enl. Aug. 5, '61, dis. disability Dec, 8, '61. 

McEwen, James, enl. May 23, '61, trans, to V. E. corps. 

Murdock, Charles H., corp., enl. Aug. 5, '61, dis. disability June 
26, '63. 

Olney, Bradley E., 34, enl. Aug. 6, 62, dis. Aug. 30, '64. 

Olney, James W., 21, enl. Aug. 5, '61, re-enlisted, dis. Jan. 1, '64. 

Koster, John S., 21, sergt., enl. Aug. 5, '61, trans, to 36th Eegt. 

White, Alonzo, 19, enl. Jan. 2, '64, trans, to 36th Eegt. Inf. 

White, Lorenzo, 21, enl. Aug. 5, '61, dis. disability Jan. 19, '62. 

The Twenty-first Eegiment Infantry, M. V., saw great vicissi- 
tudes, and did important service. It was one of the earliest to take 
the field, and one of the last to leave the service. 

This regiment left Massachusetts August 23, 1861. It was sta- 
tioned at Annapolis, Md., until January 6, 1862, when it embarked 
for North Carolina. It was engaged at Eoanoke Island February 8, 
'62; at Newbern, March 14, '62; at Camden, April 19, '62; at 
second Bull Eun, Va., August 30, '62; at Chantilly, September 1, 
'62; at South Mountain, Md., September 14, '62; at Antietam, Sep- 
tember 17, '62; at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, '62. Leaving 
the Army of the Potomac March 26, '63, it was attached to the 
Western Division, and in Tennessee it was engaged in the battles of 
Blue Springs, October 10, '63; at Campbell's Station, November 
16, '63; and was in the seige of Knoxville, November 17 to Decem- 
ber 7, '63. On the 29th of December, '63, all but 24 of the sur- 
vivors of the regiment re-enlisted — having lost in killed or mortally 
wounded 8 commissioned officers and 91 enlisted men, with 279 
officers and men more or less severely wounded, and 47 prisoners 
and missing. 

January 8, 1864. The re-enlisted regiment started for home on 
a furlough. They again left for Annapolis the middle of April, 
where they joined the Ninth Army Corps. The regiment partici- 
pated in the battles of the Wilderness, Va., May 6, '64; at Spott- 
sylvania. May 10, 12 and 18; at Shady Grove road. May 31 and 
June 1; at Cold Harbor, June 2; at Petersburg, June 16, 17, 23 to 
July 28, 30, and August 19; after which the remnant was joined to 
the Thirty-sixth Massachusetts Infantry. The losses between May 

WAR OF THE REBELLION, 1861-1865. 315 

6 and August 19 were, in killed and mortally wounded, 32; wounded, 
128; prisoners, 31. 

Three years^ men in Twenty-second Regt. Inf., M. V. 
Berry, Barney, 22, enl. June 14, '64, unassigned. 
Murphy, James, enl. June 14, '64, unassigned. 

Three years' men in Twenty -fourtli Regt. Inf., M. V. 


Clark, Edward, 23, enl. Sept. 9, '61, dis. Sept. 9, '64. 
Fuller, Francis D., 24, enl. Sept. 9, '61, dis. disability Sept. 11,'62. 
Doland, Leroy, 21, enl. Oct. 2, '61, killed June 5, '62, Trantor's 
Creek, N. C. 
Foley, John W., 23, enl. Sept. 10, '61, dis. Sept. 10, '64. 
Murdock, Frank M., 24, enl. Oct. 6, '61, dis. Oct. 2, '64. 
Walker, H. M., 21, enl. Oct. 6, '61, died Dec. 12, '61. 


Bullock, William H., 19, enl. Oct. 23, '61, died May 10, '64, at 

McElwain, George, enl. Oct., '61, dis. Oct., '64. 

McElwain, Henry, enl. Oct., '61, dis. Oct., '64. 

The Twenty-fourth Regiment left Massachusetts December 9, 
1861, and was in camp at Annapolis, Md., till January 6, '62, when 
it embarked as part of the Burnside expedition. It was engaged 
at Roanoke Island, Newbern, Kinston and Groldsboro in '62, and at 
Fort Wagner and other battles before Charleston, S. C, during '63. 
It was ordered to St. Augustine, Fla., early in October, '63, where 
it remained in garrison at Fort Marion. 

In January and February, 1864, 412 of the men re-enlisted for 3 
years as " veteran volunteers," and February 13 left St. Augustine 
on a furlough of 30 days at home. They returned at the end of 
their furlough, and May 1 were with the rest of the regiment at 
Gloucester Point, Va. They were at Bermuda Hundred May 6; 
were at Drury's Bluff May 13 and 16, where our troops were re- 
pulsed, and returned to Bermuda Hundred. In June the regiment 
was at Deep Bottom on the James river. While here it was in 
several severe engagements. In August it took position in front of 
Petersburg, and took part in the various demonstrations against 

Losses in Action. — Commissioned officers — Killed or died of 
wounds, 6; wounded 8; prisoners of war, 1. 

Enlisted men — Killed or died of wounds, 54; wounded, 166; 
prisoners of war, 30; missing in action, 4; died of disease, 19. 


Three years' men in Tioenty-fifth Rcgt. Inf., M. V. 


Hanifin, John, 22, enl. May 6, 'G2, (lis. July 13, '65. 

Three years' men in Ttuenty-sixth Regt. Inf., M. V. 
Ray, James, 23, enl. June 8, '64, nnassigned. 
Wilson, Thomas, 23, enl. June 15, '64, unassigned. 

Three years' men in Twenty -seventh Regt. Inf., M. V. 
Clark, George W., 22, musician, enl. Sept. 20, '61, dis. by order 
of War Dept. Aug. 30, '62. 

Fuller, George E., 22, hosp. steward, enl. Sept. 20, '61. 


Childs, Abraham, 28, sergt., enl. Sept. 20, '61, prom. 2d lieut. 
Sept. 24, '63, re-enl. Dec. 23, '63, dis. May 15, '65. 

Allen, William, 37, enl. Sept 21, '61, re-enl. Dec. 23, '63. 

Anderson, C, enl. Sept. 21, '61, dis. for disability Mar. 31, '63. 

Ashworth, Samuel, 20, enl. Dec. 14, '63, dis. July 19, '65. 

Brown, Lucius, 28, enl. Dec. 16, '63, d. Dec. 4, '64, Anderson- 

Brown, Seth, 21, enl. Dec. 14, '63, dis. June 26, '65. 

Childs, Calvin, •I'il, enl. Sept. 20, '61, dis. for disability Sept. 11, 

Clark, Stephen, 31, enl. Dec. 14, '63, d. Aug. 22, '64, Anderson- 

Clark, Austin, 44, enl. Aug. 7, '62, unassigned. 

Flaherty, John J, 21, enl. Sept. 20, '61, re-enl. Dec. 23, '63. 

Lowell, Calvin, 23, enl. Sept. 20, '61. 

McKinney, Michael, 18, enl. Sept. 20, '61, dis. for disability 
Oct. 1, '62. 

McGuire, William, 44, enl. Dec. 14, '63, not accepted. 

Merritt, Elam, 38, enl. Dec. 19, '63, k. June 3, '64, Cold Har- 
bor, Va. 

O'Connor, John, 26, enl. Sept. 20, '61, dis. Sept. 27, '64. 

Webber, Luther P., 21, enl. Sept. 20, '61, dis. for disability Mar. 
26, '63. 

Snow, George, died in Andersonville prison. 

The Twenty-seventh Regiment was raised in the four western 
counties of the State, left camp Nov. 2, 1861, for Annapolis, Md., 
where it remained till Jan. 6, '62, when it sailed for North Caro- 
lina as part of the Burnside expedition. It was in the engagement 
at Roanoke Island and Newbern in '62 and at the seige of Wash- 
ington and Gum Swamp in '63. In the fall of '63 it was at New- 

WAR OF THE REBELLION", 1861-1865. 317 

port News and doing provost guard duty at Norfolk and Ports- 
mouth, Va. In the spring of '64 the regiment took part in an ex- 
pedition to Magnolia Springs and to other points. May 5 it was at 
Bermuda Hundred, May 6 had a severe engagement at Mary 
Dunn's farm, May 9 advanced towards Petersburg and had another 
severe engagement. In the battle of Drury's Bluff the regiment 
lost heavily in killed and prisoners. Joined the Army of the 
Potomac June 1, in the battle at Cold Harbor June 3-12, at Point 
of Kocks on the Aj)pomattox June 14, at the terrible battle in 
front of Petersburg June 18, and remained in the trenches there 
until Aug. 24, when it was ordered to North Carolina. Casualties : 
Officers killed, 6 ; enlisted men killed, 55. Died of wounds — 
Officers, 2; enlisted men, 47. Wounded — Officers, 8; enlisted men, 
226. Prisoners — Officers, 7 ; enlisted men, 253. Deserters, 51. 
Died of disease — Officers, 3 ; enlisted men, 128. 

Three years' men in Twenty -ninth Regt. Inf., M. V. 
Gill, Joseph, enl. June 13, '64, dis. July 29, '65. 

Three years' men in Thirty-first Regt. Inf., M. V. 


stetson, Charles, 21, enl. Nov. 20, '61, re-enl. Feb. 15, '64. 
Sullivan, Thomas, 24, enl. Jan. 4, '62, re-enl. Feb. 16, '64. 


Davis, Wm. B., 18, enl. Nov. 20, '61, re-enl. Feb. 11, '64, dis. 
Sept. 9, '65. 


O'Connor, Timothy, 19, enl. Jan. 9, '62. 

Shea, Jeremiah, 21, enl. Dec. 8, '61, dis. Jan. 8, '65. 

Three years' men in Thirty-fourth Regt. Inf., M. V. 


Darling, Willard, 18, corp., enl. July 13, '62, dis. June 16, '65. 
Darling, George W., 19, enl. July 13, '62, dis. June 16, '65. 
Ferry, Samuel L., 18, enl. July 13, '62, dis. June 16, '65. 
Gordon, Frank W., 19, enl. July 31, '62, dis. for disability May 
9, '63. 

Kendall, Lester, enl. July 31, '62, dis. June, '65. 
Quint, Charles, enl. July 31, '62, dis. June, '%h. 

Three years' men in Thirty-sixth Regt. Inf., M. V. 
Robert M. Cross, 1st lieut., 21, enl. Aug. 22, '62, dis. July 26, '64. 



Thompson, Azel, sergt., 26, en], July 19, '62, dis. for disability 
Oct. 24, '63. 

Blanchard, Thomas, corp., 20, enl. July 19, '63, prom. Mar. 14, 

Pepper, George E., corp., 27, enl. July 19, '62, dis. June 8, '65. 

Whitcomb, Leonard, corp., 21, enl. July 19, '62, dis. 1862 for 

Witherell, James A., corp., 21, enl. July 19, '62, d. July 20, '63, 
Brownsville, Miss. 

Ballon, George W., 35, enl. July 19, '62. 

Barton, John M., 21, enl. July 19, '62, dis. Juno 8, '65. 

Benjamin, Cyrus M., 21, enl. July 19, '62, dis. for disability 
Mar. 20, '63. 

Colegrove, George, 18, enl. July 19, '62, dis. June 8, '65. 

Cooper, Dearborn T,, 30, enl. July 19, '62. 

Fowler, George, 18, enl. July 19, '62, dis. June 18, '65. 

Galivan, Henry, 18, enl. July 19, '62, dis. June 16, '65. 

Hadley, T. Daniels, 30, enl. July 19, '65, dis, June 16, '65. 

IloUoway, William, 40, enl. July 19, '65, dis. for disability Dec. 
14, '63. 

Jackson, Charles, enl. July 19, '62, d. June 15, '63, Louisville, 

Jackson, Eeubeu, 21, enl. July 19, '62, d. Nov. 20, "64, Salis- 
bury, N. C. 

McDowell, Lyman, 19, enl. July 19, '62, d. Feb. 1, '65, Salis- 
bury, N. C. 

McManus, John, 22, enl. Jan. 4, '64, pris. of war Oct. 2, '64, d. 
Apr. 1, '65, Annapolis, Md. 

Merrick, Lucius L., sergt., 33, enl. July 19, '62, died of wounds 
received on flag of truce, Oct. 10, '64. 

The " History of the Thirty-sixth Eegiment," says : " September 
30, 1864. Sergt. L. L. Merrick, who re-joined the regiment the 
night before, was mortally wounded, and died ten days later. He 
was known throughout the regiment, and respected by all for his 
manly Christian character. A graduate of A. C. and at the time 
of his enlistment was preparing for the ministry. He had been 
twice wounded, at Knoxville and in the Wilderness, and was about 
to receive a commission in a regiment of colored troops." 

Osborne, John W., 21, enl. July 19, '62, dis. June 19, '65. 

Shaw, George D., 18, enl. July 19, '62, dis. for disability Jan. 
30, 1865. 

Strikland, L. C, muse, 18, enl. July 19, '62, dis. Jan. 8, '65. 

^VAE OF THE REBELLION, 1861-1865. 319 

Sutcliff, Isaac, 38, enl. July 19, '62, died Oct. 19, '63, Cin- 

Thompson, William, enl. July 19, '62, died 1863, Baltimore. 


Collis, Marcus M., 1st sergt., transf. from 21st infantry, jDrom. 2d 
lieut., Nov. 13, '64. 

Evans, G-eorge, transf. from 10th infantry and re-enlisted, 

Olney, James W., corp., 29, enl. Jan. 2, '64, transf. to 56th Inf. 

White, Alonzo, 21, enl. Jan. 2, '64, transf. to 56th Inf. 

The Thirty-sixth was a Worcester county regiment, which left 
the state September 2, 1862, joined the Army of the Potomac ; was 
at Lovettsville, Va., October 29 ; at Falmouth, November 19 ; one 
week later at Carter's Koad, where the rations were two ears of corn 
per man per day, the supply train having been cut off. December 
12, crossed into Fredericksburg ; re-crossed the 15th, and remained 
at Falmouth till February 10, when it left for Newport News, where 
it remained six weeks. Went by boat to Baltimore, by rail to Park- 
ersburg, by boat to Cincinnati, by rail to Lexington, Ky., reaching 
that place March 29. Marched to Middleburg, where it staid till 
May 23 ; reached Columbia May 26. The night of the 27th 
marched towards the Cumberland in pursuit of Morgan's Guerillas, 
captured 25 prisoners, and returned to Columbia. June 4, the 
regiment was at Lebanon, Ky,, 7th, took cars for Louisville ; crossed 
the Ohio, and by rail to Cairo, where it embarked for Vicksburg, on 
steamer " Meteor." Vicksburg fell July 4 ; marched in pursuit of 
Johnston, 60 miles in a burning sun, in all and return 140 miles. 
"Without rations many of the men drojjped dead in the ranks, and 
nearly all fell out exhausted." Ordered back to Cairo, where the 
regiment arrived August 12 ; thence to Cincinnati, and crossed 
over into Covington, Ky., and went into barracks. In this Miss- 
issippi compaign the regiment lost 50 men by death, and twice that 
number by discharge from disability. 

The regiment next had head-quarters at Knoxville, E. Tenn., 
operating in various directions ; during 1864, it took part in the 
campaign in Tennessee, in the advance upon Eichmond, Ya., in the 
defense of Washington, in the Shenandoah valley, and then again be- 
fore Petersburg, where it was stationed the last of December, 1864. 

Casualities : 4 commissioned officers killed, and 6 wounded ; 51 
enlisted men killed, and 200 wounded ; and a large number died of 
fatigue and disease. 

Three years' men in TMrty-eiglith Regt. Inf., M. V. 
Conrad, W., 23, enl. June 6, '64, unassigned. 


Three years^ 7nen m Fifty-fourth Regt. Inf., M. V. 
Wallace, Samuel, Jim., 33, enl. July 36, 64, transf. Aug. 39, '65, 
to 5otli Inf. 

Fifty-fifth Rerjt. Inf., M. V. 
Lucius L. Merrick received a commission as 2d lieut. in this reg- 
iment October 31, 1863, but declined to accept, and was killed as 
before stated. 

Three years' men in Fifty-seventh Regt. Inf., M. V. 


Fuller, Frank D., corp., 26, enl. Feb. 18, '64, dis. July 30, '65. 

Brown, Seva, 33, enl. Jan. 25, '64, killed May 6, '64, wilderness. 

Blair, Frank, 44, enl. Jan. 35, '64, dis. Feb. 27, '65. 

Clark, Horace, Jun., 35, enl. Jan. 23, '64, died Apr. 29, '64. 

Dorman, Anson A. 34, enl. Jan. 33, '64, dis. July 30, '65. 

Duncan, Walter H., 30, enl. Jan. 23, '64, dis. Aug. 9, '64, order 
of War Dept. 

Foster, James B., enl. Jan. 33, '64. 

Gokey, Benjamin, 18, enl. Jan. 25, '64, dis. July 30, '65. 

Hughes, Thomas, 35, enl. Jan. 25, 64, dis. July 30, '65. 

Hammond, George M., 33, enl. Feb. 18, '64, killed May 6, '64, 

Jackson, James, 18, enl. Jan. 35, '64, dis. July 30, '65. 

Jones, Eben, 44, enl. Jan. 35, '64, dis. for disability. 

McClellan, Alexander, 30, enl. Jan. 25, '64; dis. July 30, '65. 

McGowan, Michael, enl. May 18, '64, dis. June 15, '65. 

Murdock, Charles H., 30, enl. Jan. 35, '64, dis. July 30, '65. 

Pasco, Cephas B., 27, enl. Jan. 25, '64, dis. July 30, 65. 

Pasco, George W., 19, enl. Jan. 25, '64, dis. sick. 

Paine, Horace H., enl. Jan. 35, '64, dis. July 30, '65. 

Thompson, Asa, 34, enl. Jan. 35, '64, dis. July 30, '65. 

Thompson, James, enl. Jan. 35, '64, dis. July 30, '65. 

Wallace, Samuel, enl. Jan. 25, '64, dis. July 30, 65. 

Wellman, Frank, enl. Jan. 35, '64, dis. July 30, '65. 

White, Lorenzo, 23, enl. Jan. 25, '64, killed May 6, '64, Wilderness. 

The Fifty-seventh was mainly a Worcester county regiment. It 
left the state April 18, '64, for Annapolis, Md. ; was ordered to 
proceed to Washington, D. C, thence across the Long Bridge into 
Virginia, to the Rapidan, via Fairfax Court House, via Manassas 
Junction, and reached Rappahannock Station May 3. May 4 it 
moved in the direction of the Rapidan via Brandy Station, crossing 
at Germania Ford May 5. May 6 the regiment entered the action 
of the Wilderness, and received its first baptism of blood. At 10 

WAR OF THE REBELLION, 1861-1865. 321 

o'clock A. M. it had 24 officers and 521 enlisted men ; the battle 
lasted about one hour, and in this brief time it lost in killed, 
wounded and missing, 251. 

In the first battle of Spottsylvania, May 12, the total loss was 72; 
in the second Spottsylvania, May 18, the loss was 17; at North 
Anna River, May 24, the loss was 37; at Coal Harbor, June 3, the 
loss was 9; before Petersburg, June 17, 44 were killed, wounded 
and missing. ''^In the trenches," June 17, July 30 and Aug. 9, 
the total loss sustained was 85; at Weldon Railroad, Aug. 19, the 
loss was 16; in the three actions at Poplar Grove Church, Sept. 30, 
Oct. 8 and 28, the loss was 23 : making a total loss in less than six 
months of 554 officers and men. 

Three years' men in Fifty -eighth Regt. Inf., M. V. 
Burlingame, George D., 24, enl. Mar. 26, '64, died Aug. 23, '64. 

Three years' men in Fifty-ninth Regt. Inf., M. V. 
Williams, John, 22, enl. June 9, '64, unassigned. 

Veteran Reserve CorjJS. 

Burpee, James E., 30, enl. Aug. 14, '64. 

Curran, Timothy, 38, enl. Sept. 2, '64. 

Gould, Henry K., 31, enl. July 13, '64. 

Ivers, William, 33, enl. June 13, '64. 

Jackson, Henry, 34, enl. Aug. 15. '64. 

Kelly, William, 41, enl. Aug. 20, '64. 

Masterson, William, 43, enl. June 11, '64. 

McCarthy, Timothy, 44, enl. Aug. 16, '64. 

Ronan, Michael, 37, enl. Aug. 17, '64. 

Shea, Michael, 17, enl. June 15, '64. 

Stewlosh, John T., 38, enl. Aug. 14, '64. 

Wood, John E., 44, enl. June 10, '64. 

Hawley, Joseph S., 25, enl. Nov. 20, '64 in the Engineer Corps, 
United States Army. 

Kennedy, Roger, 30, enl. Aug. 24, '64 in the First Division of 
Columbia Infantry. 

Stone, C. P., earlier and later a resident of Palmer, then living 
in Brattleboro, Yt., enlisted in '61 in the First Vt. Cavalry, and 
was in the service three years and eleven months — nine mouths a 
prisoner at Libby and elsewhere : was promoted from the ranks to 
2d lieut. July 16, '62 : then to 1st lieut. : and May 10, '64, re- 
ceived commission as captain. For meritorious service he was 
promoted to major by brevet. 


Palmer Men in the United States Navy. 

Clark, Roland, date of enlistment not found. 

Davis, E. L., enl. 1864, captain's clerk on Steamer Miami. 

Fleming, Michael, enl. Aug. 8, '64, for three years on Steamer 
Britania, Capt. Hugo, commander. 

Foley, James F., enl. June 18, '61, on U. S. sloop of war Rich- 
mond, Capt. Alden commander. 

Graves, S. F., enlisted '64, master's mate on the Rachel Leaman ; 
transferred as ensign to the Alabama, under Farragut. He is now 
captain of a steamer hailing from San Francisco. 

Lyons, James, date of enlistment not found. 

O'Leary, James, enl. for 3 years on the U. S. gunboat Tulip, 
Capt. Smith commander. 

Waite, Horace, enl. 1863, captain's clerk on the Decatur. 

Perry, James, enl. 1862, served on gunboat Sabina, dis. 1863. 


Miscellany axd Statistics. 


FOR 1889. 

List of Officers. 

Elhoivs Plantation, 1733-1752. 
Proj)rietors of Common Lands." 
Steward Southgate, 1733-1741. 
Barnard McNitt, 1741-1750. 
James Breakenridge, 1751-1767. 
William Scott, 1767-1792. 
Thomas Quinton, 1792-1818. 

Elbows Plantation, 1733-1752. 
Proprietors and Grantees." 
Steward Southgate, 1733-1739. 
David Shaw, 1739. 
John Thomson, 1740-1741. 
John Applin, 1742-1646. 
William Scott, Jun., 1746-1750. 
Samuel Shaw, Jun., 1750-1752. 

Clerks and Treasurers of the 

Clerks and Treasurers of the 


let and Town of Palmer. Clerks and Treasurers. 
David Shaw, clerk ; Wm. Scott, Jun., treasurer. 
David Shaw, clerk ; Wm. Scott, Jun., treasurer. 
David Shaw, clerk ; Wm. Scott, Jun., treasurer. 
Barnard McXitt, clerk ; Samuel Shaw, Jun., treasurer. 
Barnard McNitt, clerk ; Samuel Shaw, Jun., treasurer. 

Samuel Shaw, Jun., treasurer. 

Samuel Shaw, Jun., treasurer. 

Samuel Shaw, Jun., treasurer. 

Samuel Shaw, Jun., treasurer. 

Samuel Shaw, Jun., treasurer. 

Barnard McXitt, clerk : 
Barnard McNitt, clerk 
Barnard McNitt, clerk 
Barnard McNitt, clerk : 
Barnard McNitt, clerk 

Thomas King, clerk ; Samuel Shaw, Jun., treasurer. 




Thomas King, clerk; Samuel 8haw, Jun., treasurer. 

Thomas King, clerk 
Thomas King, clerk 
Thomas King, clerk 
Thomas King, clerk 
Thomas King, clerk 
Thomas King, clerk 

Samuel Shaw, Jun., treasurer. 

Samuel Shaw, Jan., treasurer. 

Samuel Shaw, Jun., treasurer. 

Samuel Shaw, Jun., treasurer. 

Samuel Shaw, Jun., treasurer. 

Samuel Shaw, Jun., treasurer. 
Thomas King, clerk ; Joshua Shaw, treasurer. 
Eohert Hunter, Jun., clerk ; Joshua Shaw, treasurer. 
Eobert Hunter, Jun., clerk ; Joshua Shaw, treasurer. 
Robert Hunter, Jun., clerk ; Joshua Shaw, treasurer. 
Robert Hunter, Jun., clerk ; Joshua Shaw, treasurer. 



Robert Hunter, Jun, 
Robert Hunter, Jun 
Robert Hunter, Jun., clerk 
Robert Hunter, Jun., clerk 
Robert Hunter, Jun. 
Robert Hunter, Jun. 


Robert Hunter, Jun., clerk 

Robert Hunter, Jun. 
Robert Hunter, Jun. 
Robert Hunter, Jun. 
Robert Hunter, Jun. 
Robert Hunter, Jun. 

Joshua Shaw, treasurer. 

Joshua Shaw, treasurer. 

Joshua Shaw, treasurer. 

Joshua Shaw, treasurer. 

Joshua Shaw, treasurer. 

Joshua Shaw, treasurer. 

Joshua Shaw, treasurer. 

Joshua Shaw, treasurer. 

David King, treasurer. 

Joshua Shaw, treasurer, 
clerk ; Joshua Shaw, treasurer, 
clerk ; Joshua Shaw, treasurer. 


John A. Smith, clerk 
John A. Smith, clerk 
John A. Smith, clerk 

William Scott, Esq., clerk; Francis Brackenridge, treasurer. 
Robert Hunter, clerk ; Joshua Shaw, treasurer. 
John A. Smith, clerk ; Joshua Shaw, treasurer. 
John A. Smith, clerk ; Joshua Shaw, treasurer. 
John A. Smith, clerk ; James Smith, treasurer. 

James Smith, treasurer. 

James Smith, treasurer. 

James Smith, treasurer. 

James Smith, treasurer. 

James Smith, treasurer. 

Joseph Smith, treasurer. 

Joseph Smith, treasurer. 
Smith, clerk ; Joseph Smith, treasurer. 
Smith, clerk ; Josei^h Smith, treasurer. 

Joseph Smith, treasurer. 

Joseph Smith, treasurer. 

Joseph Smith, treasurer. 

James Smith, treasurer. 
James Smith, treasurer. 

John A, 
John A 
John A 
John A 

Smith, clerk 
Smith, clerk 
Smith, clerk 
Smith, clerk 

Smith, clerk ; 
Smith, clerk : 
Smith, clerk : 
Amos Hamilton, clerk 
Amos Hamilton, clerk 


1807. Amos Hamilton, clerk ; James Smith, treasurer. 

1808. Amos Hamilton, clerk ; James Smith, treasurer. 

1809. Amos Hamilton, clerk ; Solomon Shaw, treasurer. 

1810. Amos Hamilton, clerk ; Solomon Shaw, treasurer. 

1811. Amos Hamilton, clerk ; Solomon Shaw, treasurer. 

1812. Amos Hamilton, clerk ; Solomon Shaw, treasurer, 

1813. Amos Hamilton, clerk ; Solomon Shaw, treasurer. 

1814. James Stebbins. clerk ; Solomon Shaw, treasurer. 

1815. Theophilus Knight, clerk ; Amos Hamilton, treasurer. 

1816. Theophilus Knight, clerk ; Clark McMaster, treasurer. 

1817. Theophilus Knight, clerk ; Clark McMaster, treasurer. 

1818. John Frink, clerk ; Clark McMaster, treasurer. 

1819. John Frink, clerk ; Clark McMaster, treasurer. 

1820. John Frink, clerk ; Clark McMaster, treasurer. 

1821. John Frink, clerk ; Clark McMaster, treasurer. 

1822. John Frink, clerk ; Dr. Anson Moody, treasurer. 

1823. John Frink, clerk ; Dr. Aaron King, treasurer. 

1824. John Frink, clerk ; Dr. Aaron King, treasurer. 

1825. John Frink, clerk ; Dr. Aaron King, treasurer. 

1826. John Frink, clerk ; Dr. Aaron King, treasurer. 

1827. John Frink, clerk ; Dr. Aaron King, treasurer. 

1828. John Frink, clerk ; Dr. Aaron King, treasurer. 

1829. Theophilus H. Knight, clerk ; Dr. Aaron King, treasurer. 

1830. Theophilus H. Knight, clerk ; Dr. Aaron King, treasurer. 

1831. Theophilus H. Knight, clerk ; Dr. Aaron King, treasurer. 

1832. Theophilus H. Knight, clerk ; Dr. Aaron King, treasurer. 

1833. Theophilus H. Knight, clerk ; Dr. Aaron King, treasurer. 

1834. Theophilus H. Knight, clerk ; Dr. Aaron King, treasurer. 

1835. Theophilus H. Knight, clerk ; Dr. Aaron King, treasurer. 

1836. Amos Hamilton, clerk ; John Ward, treasurer. 

1837. Amos Hamilton, town clerk and treasurer. 

1838. Amos Hamilton, town clerk and treasurer. 

1839. Amos Hamilton, town clerk and treasurer. 

1840. Amos Hamilton, town clerk and treasurer. 

1841. Horatio G. Hale, town clerk and treasurer. 

1842. Gamaliel Collins, town clerk and treasurer. 

1843. John Ward, town clerk and treasurer. 

1844. John Ward, town clerk and treasurer. 

1845. John Ward, town clerk and treasurer. 

1846. John Ward, town clerk and treasurer. 

1847. John Ward, town clerk and treasurer. 

1848. William J. Blanchard, town clerk and treasurer. 

1849. Theophilus H. Knight, town clerk and treasurer. 


1850. Theopliilus H. Knight, town clerk and treasurer. 

1851. Theopliilus H. Knight, town clerk and treasurer. 

1852. Theophilus H. Knight, town clerk and treasurer. 

1853. Ebenezer Brown, town clerk and treasurer. 

1854. Ebenezer Brown, town clerk and treasurer. 

1855. Ebenezer Brown, town clerk and treasurer. 

1856. Ebenezer Brown, town clerk and treasurer. 

1857. James K. Child, town clerk and treasurer. 

1858. William N. Packard, town clerk and treasurer. 

1859. Daniel Granger, town clerk and treasurer. 

1860. Daniel Granger, town clerk and treasurer. 

1861. Daniel Granger, town clerk and treasurer. 

1862. Daniel Granger, town clerk and treasurer. 

1863. Daniel Granger, town clerk and treasurer. 

1864. Joseph H. Blair, town clerk and treasurer. 

1865. Lyman Diniock, town clerk and treasurer 

1866. Lyman Dimock, town clerk and treasurer. 

1867. Lyman Dimock, town clerk and treasurer. 

1868. James B. Shaw, town clerk and treasurer. 

And Mr. Shaw has been annually re-elected clerk and treasurer 
from 1868 to the present time (1889). 


1752. Seth Shaw, Eobert Eogers, John Thomson, Thomas Mc- 
Clenathan, John Applin. 

1753. Seth Shaw, Thomas McClenathan, Eobert Eogers, Dunkin 
Quinton, James Smith, John Thomson, John Applin. 

1754. Barnard McNitt, Hugh McMaster, James Breakenridge, 
William McClenathan, Eobert Ferrell, Jr. 

1755. James Breakenridge, John Thomson, Barnard McNitt, 
Robert Hunter, James Smith, Seth Shaw. 

1756. James Breakenridge, Dunkin Quinton, Eobert Eogers, 
Thomas King, Timothy McElwain, Samuel Shaw. 

1757. Timothy McElwain, John Thomson, Jonathan Chapin, 
Seth Shaw, James Smith. 

1758. John Thomson, Seth Shaw, Timothy McElwain, Jonathan 
Chapin, Samuel Shaw, Jun. 

1759. John Thomson, Seth Shaw, Timothy McElwain, John 
Smith, John King. 

1760. John Thomson, William Scott, Timothy McElwain, Seth 
Shaw, John King. 

1761. John Thomson, William Scott, Seth Shaw, Timothy Mc- 
Elwain, John King. 


1763. John Thomson, Seth Shaw, John King, Timothy Mc- 
Elwain, William McClenathan. 

1763. William Scott, James Breakenriclge, Seth Shaw, John 
Smith, Robert Rogers. 

1764. James Breakenridge, Robert Rogers, Seth Shaw, William 
McClenathan, John Smith. 

1765. William Scott, Seth Shaw, Robert Rogers. 

1766. William Scott, Robert Rogers, Seth Shaw. 

1767. Seth Shaw, Robert Rogers, William Scott, William Mc- 
Clenathan, Samuel Shaw. 

1768. Seth Shaw, Robert Rogers, William Scott, Samuel Shaw, 
William McClenathan. 

1769. Lieut. William Scott, Deacon Seth Shaw, Robert Rogers, 
Sen., Samuel Shaw, William McClenathan. 

1770. Lieut. William Scott, Deacon Seth Shaw, Elder Robert 
Rogers, Elder William McClenathan, David Spear. 

1771. Lieut. William Scott, Phineas Mixter, John McMaster. 
1773. Lieut. William Scott, Dea. Seth Shaw, Phineas Mixter, 

John McMaster, David Spear. 

1773. David Spear, Lieut. William Scott, John McMaster, Rob- 
ert Brown, Robert Ferrell. 

1774. Lieut. William Scott, David Spear, John McMaster, Rob- 
ert Ferrell, Robert Brown. 

1775. Lieut. William Scott, Capt. David Spear, Robert Ferrell, 
Robert Brown, Lieut. Joshua Shaw. 

1776. Capt. David Spear, Lieut. Joshua Shaw, James Smith, 
Thomas King, Capt. Aaron Graves. 

1777. Phineas Mixter, Dea. John McMaster, Dea. John Smith, 
Robert Ferrell, Lieut. Ebenezer Jones. 

1778. Capt. David Spear, Dea. Thomas King, Lieut. Joshua 
Shaw, Capt. David Spear, Aaron Graves, Samuel McClenathan. 

1779. Capt. David Spear, Lieut. Joshua Shaw, Capt. Aaron 
Graves, Robert Hunter, Lieut. Robert McMaster. 

1780. Robert Ferrell, Joshua McMaster, Dea. John Smith, John 
Quinton, Samuel Shaw. 

1781. John McMaster, John Quinton, Samuel Shaw, John Rogers, 
Solomon Cummings. 

1783. Capt. David Spear, Maj. Aaron Graves, Francis Bracken- 
ridge, John Thomson, Capt. Patrick Watson. 

1783. Capt. David Spear, Maj. Aaron Graves, Francis Bracken- 
ridge, John Thomson, Lieut. John King. 

1784. Maj. Aaron Graves, Lieut. David King, Francis Bracken- 
ridge, John Thomson, Capt. Patrick Watson. 


1785. Maj. Aaron Graves, Francis Brackenridge, John Thomson, 
Lieut. David King, Capt. Patrick Watson. 

1786. Maj. Aaron Graves, Lieut, David King, Francis Bracken- 
ridge, John Thomson, Capt. Patrick Watson. 

1787. Capt. David Spear, Urijah Ward, Lieut. John Hamilton, 
Jesse King, Lieut. Thomas McClenathan, 

1788. Maj. Aaron Graves, Lieut. David King, Lieut. Thomas 
McClenathan, John Thomson, Capt. Patrick Watson. 

1789. Maj. Aaron Graves, Lieut. David King, Lieut. Thomas 
McClenathan, John Thomson, Capt. David Shaw. 

1790. Lieut. David King, Maj. Aaron Graves, Capt. David Shaw, 
Lieut. Thomas McClenathan, Lieut. James Smith. 

1791. Aaron Merrick, Lieut. John Hamilton, Capt. David Shaw. 

1792. Aaron Merrick, Lieut. John Hamilton, Capt. David 

1793. Aaron Merrick, Lieut. John Hamilton, Col. David Shaw, 
Capt. Thomas McClenathan, Lieut. John King. 

1794. Maj. Aaron Graves, Lieut. David King, Capt. David Spear, 
Lieut. Joshua Shaw, Dea. Samuel McClenathan. 

1795. Lieut. David King, Maj. Aaron Graves, Capt. David Spear, 
Dea. Samuel McClenathan, Dea. Joshua Shaw. 

1796. Alpheus Converse, Gordon Sedgwick, Ebenezer Webber, 
Thomas Hill, Jesse King. 

1797. Alpheus Converse, Gordon Sedgwick, Ebenezer Webber, 
Jesse King, Joseph Smith. 

1798. Aaron Merrick, Samuel McClenathan, Timothy Brainard, 
Clark McMaster, Solomon Shaw. 

1799. Aaron Merrick, Gordon Sedgwick, Capt. Alpheus Converse, 
Lieut. James Smith, Dr. Jonathan Shearer. 

1800. Dr. Jonathan Shearer, Lieut. John Hamilton, Theophilus 
Knight, Isaac Warren, Daniel Shearer. 

1801. Dea. Gordon Sedgwick, Lieut. James Smith, Timothy 
Brainard, Capt. Alpheus Converse, Theophilus Knight. 

1803. Aaron Merrick. Capt. Thomas McClenathan, Capt. Jesse 
King, Lieut. ^N-'illiam Speur, Daniel Shearer. 

1803. Aaron Merrick, Esq., Capt. Thomas McClenathan, Dea. 
Gordon Sedgwick, Capt. Jesse King, Daniel Shearer. 

1804. Capt. Alpheus Converse, Capt. Jesse King, John A. Smith, 
Isaac Terrell, Solomon Shaw. 

1805. Capt. Jesse King, Ens. Daniel Shearer, Solomon Shaw, 
Isaac Ferrell, Jacob Converse, Jun. 

1807. Aaron Merrick, Esq., Gordon Sedgwick, Alpheus Converse,. 
Isaac Ferrell, Solomon Shaw. 


1808. Capt. Jesse King, Theophilus Knight, Clark McMaster, 
Amos Hamilton, John King, 3d. 

1809. Jesse King, Theophilus Knight, Clark McMaster, Amos 
Hamilton, John King, 3d. 

1810. Capt. Jesse King, Theophilus Knight, Clark McMaster, 
Amos Hamilton, John King, 3d. 

1811. Capt. Jesse King, Theophilus Knight, Clark McMaster, 
Amos Hamilton, John King, 3d. 

1812. Capt. Jesse King, Theophilus Knight, Asa Ward, Enos 
Eider, Samuel Shaw. 

1813. Jesse King, Theophilus Knight, Asa Ward, Enos Eider, 
Samuel Shaw. 

1814. Alpheus Converse, Asa Ward, Enos Eider, Samuel Shaw, 
Isaac Ferrell. 

1815. Jesse King, Asa Ward, John McMaster, Benjamin Cum- 
mings, Philip Lamb. 

1816. Col. Amos Hamilton, Solomon Shaw, Wilson Foster, John 
Smith, John Shaw. 

1817. Col. Amos Hamilton, Solomon Shaw, W^ilson Foster, John 
Smith, John Shaw. 

1818. James Stebbins, Esq., Asa Ward, Eolbert Smith, Joseph 
Lee, Jun., Elijah Hills. 

1819. James Stebbins, Asa Ward, Eobert Smith, .Joseph Lee, 
Jun., Elijah Hills. 

1820. James Stebbins, Wilson Foster, Joseph Lee, Jun. 

1821. Col. Amos Hamilton, Asa Ward, Calvin White. 

1822. Col. Amos Hamilton, Clark McMaster, Daniel King. 

1823. Col. Amos Hamilton, Capt. Daniel King, Capt. Jonathan 

1824. Col. Amos Hamilton, Joseph Lee, Jun., Noah Stimson. 

1825. James Stebbins, Esq., Asa Ward, Zadock Cooley, Eeuben 
Shaw, Elias Turner. 

1826. John Frink, Lebbeus Chapin, Calvin Ward, Cyrus Knox, 
John Sedgwick. 

1827. John Frink, Calvin Ward, Cyrus Knox, John Sedgwick, 
John B. Blanchard. 

1828. Col. Amos Hamilton, Sylvester Parks, Eobert Hitchcock, 
Jonathan Moore, Jun., Isaac King. 

1829. Capt. Sylvester Parks, Eobert Hitchcock, Col. Isaac King, 
Emelius Bond, Truman Smith. 

1830. John Frink, Joseph Lee, Jun., Cyrus Knox. 

1831. John Sedgwick, Capt. Timothy Ferrell, Truman Smith. 

1832. Col. Cyrus Knox, Capt. Truman Smith, Clark McMaster. 


1833. Elislia Converse, Jun., Leonard Davis, Alonzo V. Blaiicharcl. 

1834. Col. Cyrus Knox, Joseph Brown, 2d, Leonard Davis. 

1835. Col. Cyrus Knox, Clark McMaster, John Ward. 

1836. John Ward, Abel Calkins, Marble K. Ferrell, Ralph Green, 
William J. Blanchard. 

1837. John Ward, Abel Calkins, Marble K. Ferrell, Ralph Green, 
William J. Blanchard. 

1838. John Ward, William J. Blanchard, David 8. Paine, Pliny 
Cooley, Philetus W. Burnett. 

1839. John Ward, Pliny Cooley, Eliphalet Hancock, Royal Buf- 
fington, A. V. Blanchard. 

1840. Sylvester Parks, John Gamwell, Royal Buffington. 

1841. John Gamwell, A. V. Blanchard, P. W. Burnett, Gilbert 
Barker, Merrick Cooley. 

1842. A. V. Blanchard, Asa Shumway, Moses Barnes. 

1843. Blanchard, Shumway, P. W. Burnett, Abner Allen, Jun., 
Jedediah A. Paine. 

1844. Abel Calkins, Abner Allen, Jun., James Gamwell, Benja- 
min Davis, John D. Blanchard. 

1845. James Gamwell, Marble K. Ferrell, J. D. Blanchard, Gil- 
bert Barker, Absalom C. Peck. 

1846. Gilbert Barker, Jonathan Taylor, Keyes Foster. 

1847. Keyes Foster, Isaac King, W. J. Blanchard, Rufus Brown, 
Sylvester Parks. 

1848. Sylvester Parks, Isaac King, K. Foster, Joseph C. Burgess, 
Horace Hunn. 

1849. A. V. Blanchard, M. K. Ferrell, Perry Hastings, Enos 
Calkins, Cyrus Knox. 

1850. Blanchard, Knox, Ferrell, Calkins, Rozel Hastings. 

1851. Knox, Blanchard, Ferrell. 

1853. Blanchard, Calkins, George Moores. 

1853. George Moores, John A. Squires, Enos Calkins. 

1854. Gilbert Barker, G. Moores, John A. Squires. 

1855. Horace llunn, Nathan Howard, David Knox. 

1856. Howard, Hunn, Knox. 

1857. Horace Hunn, George Moores, Solomon R. Lawrence. 

1858. Messrs. Hunn, Moores and Lawrence. 

1859. Messrs. Lawrence, Moores and James S. Loomis. 
18G0. Messrs. Moores, Loomis and Gilbert Barker. 
186L Messrs. Moores, Loomis and Abel Webber. 

1862. Messrs. Loomis, Webber and Nathan Howard. 

1863. Abel Webber, E. B. Gates, Parker W. AVebster. 

1864. Messrs. AVebber, Gates and Webster. 


1865. Enos Calkins, E. B. Gates, George Moores. 

1866. Messrs. Calkius, Moores and J. E. Crane. 

1867. Same as last year. 

1868. W. W. Cross, J. E. Crane, P. W. Webster. 

1869. J. S. Loomis, E. G. Murdock, P. W. Webster. 

1870. Same as last year. 

1871. Same as last year. 

1872. Same as last year. 

1873. Messrs. Murdock, Webster and T. D. Potter 

1874. Ebenezer Brown, 0. B. Smith, J. 0. Hamilton. 

1875. James 0. Hamilton, Enos Calkins, E. B. Gates. 

1876. Messrs. Hamilton, Calkins and George Moores. 

1877. J. 0. Hamilton, P. W. Webster, Joseph Kerigan. 

1878. 0. B. Smith, H. P. Holden, Joseph Kerigan. 

1879. Albert H. Willis, F. A. Packard, Joseph Kerigan. 

1880. F. A. Packard, Joseph Kerigan, Charles E. Dewey. 

1881. E. G. Murdock, Henry G. Loomis, Henry McMaster. 

1882. Same as last year. 

1883. H. G. Loomis, Elbridge G. Hastings, Joseph Kerigan 

1884. Messrs. Loomis, Kerigan and Davis B. Bishop. 

1885. Charles D. Holbrook, Charles L. Holden, Joseph Kerigan. 

1886. J. Kerigan, Samuel H. Hellyar, H. E. W. Clark. 

1887. H. E. ^Y. Clark, Daniel F. Holden, Joseph Kerigan. 

1888. D. F. Holden, William H. Brainard, Joseph Kerigan. 

1889. William H. Brainard, Michael J. Dillon, Joseph F. Hol- 


Representatives to the General Court. 

1776. "At a legal meeting of the freeholders and inhabitants of 
Palmer on Thursday May 23, 1776, Capt. David Spear was chosen 
Eepresentative to serve at the General Assembly to be held May 29. 

PniNEAS Mixer, Moderator." 
Capt. Spear was admitted a member. 

1777. May 19, "At a meeting of freeholders and other inhabi- 
tants of Palmer held May 19, Lieut. William Scott was chosen 
Representative to represent this town at the Great & General Court 
to be held at Boston." 

1778. ''Article 2d. To see if the town will choose one or more 
persons to represent them in the Great & General Court of the 
State the present year, agreeable to a precept sent to them for that 
purpose, signed by Elislia Porter, sheriff of this county." "At a 
meeting of freeholders & other inhabitants of Palmer, on Tuesday, 
July 20, 1778, it was voted not to send." 


1779. ''At a meeting of freeholders and inhabitants of Palmer, 
on Monday, May 17, voted, that Capt. David Spear serve as Repre- 
sentative for the town of Palmer this present year; voted, that Dea. 
John Smith, Dea. Thomas King, with the selectmen & com- 
mittee of safety be a committee to give our representative his 

1780. *'At a meeting of freeholders and other inhabitants of 
Palmer, qualified by law to vote, held May 24. It was put to vote 
whether this town should send a Representative to the Great & 
General Court to be held at Boston this present year, and it passed 
in the negative." 

1781. The town voted not to send a representative. 

1782. ''At a legal meeting of the freeholders and other inhabitants 
of Palmer, Monday, May 6, Capt. David Spear was chosen Repre- 
sentative for the town for the j)resent year." 

1783. "At a meeting of the freeholders and other inhabitants of 
Palmer legally held on Wednesday, May 7, Capt. David Spear was 
chosen to represent the town in General Court this present year. 
And Doctor Benjamin Trask, Maj, Aaron Graves, Robert Hunter, 
John Thomson & Francis Brakenridge were appointed a committee 
for to give our Representative j^articular Instructions." 

1784. Capt. David Spear was chosen to serve as Representative 
for the town of Palmer the present year. 

1785. "William Scott was chosen to represent the town of 
Palmer in General Court this year, and Capt. David Spear, Lieut. 
Joshua Shaw and Maj. Aaron Graves were appointed a committee 
to give said Representative his Instructions." 

1786. " Voted, that Capt. David Spear serve as Representative 
for the town of Palmer in the General Court this present year, and 
that he shall be under the directions of the selectmen for the time 

1787. May 17. "Voted, that Capt. David Shaw be chosen to rep- 
resent the town the present year in the General Court to be holden 
at Boston." 

1788. " Voted, that Capt. David Shaw serve as Representative for 
th£ town of Palmer at the General Court." 

1789. " Voted, that Capt. David Shaw be the man to represent 
the town in the General Court this present 3'ear." 

1790. " Capt. David Shaw was chosen by vote to Represent the 
town of Palmer in the General Court the year ensuing." 

1791. " The town did elect Capt. David Shaw to represent them 
in the General Court by a great majority of votes." 

1792. " The legal voters being called upon brought in the votes 


unanimously for Maj. David Shaw to Represent them in the General 
Court the insuing year.'' 

1793. "The male inhabitants of Palmer, being 21 years old and 
residents in said town for one year next preceding and having a 
freehold estate within said town of the annual income of three 
pounds, or any estate of the value of sixty pounds, did meet on 
Thursday, May ICth, and elect Col. David Shaw to represent them 
in the General Court at Boston this present year." 

1794. May 8. "The votes being called for, brought in, counted 
and sorted, Capt. Thomas McClenathan had a majority and was 
chosen and notified, as the law directs." 

1795. May 6. " Voted and made choice of Capt. David Spear as 

1796. "For Representative, Lieut. David King had 27 votes and 
John A. Smith had 1 vote." 

1797. Lieut. James Smith was elected Representative. 

1798. Isaac Warren was elected Representative, "he having 23 
votes, Lieut. James Smith 9 votes & Aaron Merrick 4 votes." 

1799. Aaron Merrick was chosen Representative, " he having 52 
votes, Isaac Warren 16 votes, Capt. Alpheus Converse 1 vote." 

1800. For Representative, Lieut. James Smith had 39 votes, 
Daniel Shearer 18 votes, Isaac Warren 11 votes, Alpheus Converse 
1 vote. 

1801. For Representative, Lieut. James Smith had 23 votes, 
Isaac Warren 13 votes, Capt. Alpheus Converse 9 votes. 

1802. For Representative, Lieut. James Smith had 20 votes, 
Daniel Shearer had 11 votes. 

1803. For Representative, Aaron Merrick had 15 votes, Lieut. 
James Smith had 10 votes. 

1804. For Representative, Aaron Merrick had 25 votes, Lieut. 
James Smith had 11 votes. 

1805. " The whole number of votes given for Representative was 
27, all for Aaron Merrick, Esq." 

1806. Aaron Merrick. 1816. Col. Amos Hamilton. 

1807. Aaron Merrick. 1817. Col. Amos Hamilton. 

1808. Aaron Merrick. 1818. James Stebbins, Esq. 

1809. Capt. Jesse King. 1819. Voted not to send. 

1810. Capt. Jesse King. 1820. James Stebbins, Esq. 

1811. Capt. Jesse King. 1821. Clark McMaster. 

1812. Capt. Jesse King. 1822. Clark McMaster. 

1813. Capt. Alpheus Converse. 1823. Voted not to send. 

1814. Capt. Alpheus Converse. 1824. John Frink. 

1815. Capt. Jesse King. 1825. Voted not to send. 


1826. Asa Ward. 1831. Joseph Lee. 

1827. Voted not to send. 18:32. Joseph Lee. 

1828. Capt. Daniel King. 1833. Capt. Daniel King. 

1829. John Sedgwick. 1834. Robert Hitchcock. 

1830. Col. Cyrus Knox. 1835. Col. Cyrus Knox. 

1836. Emelius Bond and Alonzo V. Blanchard. 

1837. Sylvester Parks and John Ward. 

1838. Marble K. Ferrell and Abel Calkins. 

1839. James Gamwell and William J. Blanchard. 

1840. Franklin Morgan and Asa Shumway. 

1841. Olney Goff. 1845. Alonzo V. Blanchard. 

1842. John Ward. 1846. Lambert Allen. 

1843. Abel Calkins. 1847. Alonzo V. Blanchard. 

1844. Gilbert Barker. 

1848. Calvin Torrey, Esq., who attended the regular session and 
resigned his seat, when Jacob B. Merrick was chosen for the extra 
session of that year. 

1849. Jacob B. Merrick. 1858. Solomon A. Fay. 

1850. John D. Blanchard. 1859. Henry Seism. 

1851. Joseph Brown, 2d. 1860. John Clough. 

1852. Amos C. Billings. 1861. Solomon E. Lawrence. 

1853. Enos Calkins.* 1862. Stephen G. Newton. 

1854. Gilbert Barker. 1863. James S. Loomis. 

1855. Elijah G. Murdock. 1864. Jacob Stever. 

1856. Alonzo N. Dewey. 1865. David Knox. 

1857. Sylvanus G. Shaw. 1866. Ephraim B. Gates. 
1867. James G. Allen. 1869. Eev. Joseph Vaill, D. D., who 

died, and Lyman Dimock was chosen to fill the vacancy. 

1871. Ebenezer Brown, 1882. Dr. Wm. Holbrook. 

1873. James B. Shaw. 1884. Oren B. Smith. 

1875. Chas. L. Gardner. 1886. Stephen S. Taft. 

1876. Chas. L. Gardner. 1887. Stephen S. Taft. 
1878. Timothy D. Potter. 1889. Wm. W. Leach. 
1880. Joseph F. Holbrook. 

Membees of the State Sexate. 

Dr. Aaron King, for the years 1849 and 1850. 
Calvin Torrey, Esq., for the year 1852. 
Gordon M. Fisk, for the years 1860 and 1861. 
Charles L. Gardner, for the years 1878 and 1879. 

* Frederick T. Wallace was chosen Delegate to the Convention for revising the State Ct 

miscellany and statistics. 335 

County Commissioners. 

Col. Cyrus Knox, 3 years, 1835-1838. 
John Ward, 6 years, 1838-1844. 
James S. Loomis, 4 years, 1871-1874. 

Justices of Court of Sessions. 

Amos Hamilton, 1819-1820. 
James Stebbins, 1823-1828. 

M. C. — One of Palmer's sons has held a seat in the National 
Legislature. Henry King, a descendant of the original settler, was 
born in Palmer, July 6, 1790. He studied law for a time in the 
oflBce of N. H. Brainard, an eminent practitioner of Connecticut ; 
but went to Wilkesbarre, Pa., for the purpose of completing his 
legal education, and made that state his home. He entered early 
into politics ; was elected to both branches of the State Legislature, 
and subsequently was elected a member of Congress, where he took 
an honorable position. The statute books of his adopted state bear 
evidence of his legal knowledge and practical wisdom. His home 
was in Allentown, the shire town of Lehigh county, where he died 
July 13, 1861. He came to Palmer for a wife, as the record reads : 
Married, Nov. 15, 1831, Henry King of Allentown, Pa., and Mary 
L. Terrell, daughter of Capt. Timothy Ferrell of Palmer. 


William Scott., Jun., grad. H. U., 1771 ; by vote of the town he 
was recommended to the governor for a commission of justice of 
the peace, which was given him, and he was the magistrate here 
till his death. 

Daniel Shearer, a native of the town, was in practice here, 1800- 

James Stebbins, from Springfield, was admitted to the bar in 
1813, when he settled in Palmer ; removed in his old age to his 
native town, where he died. He grad. at Williams College in 1807. 

Calvin Torrey was in practice here, 1841-1858. 

S. T. Spaulding, A. C, 1839, was here in 1844. 

B. B. AVhittemore, H. U., 1839, came to Palmer about the same 
time as Spaulding, and like him, remained but a short time. 

Samuel Fleming was here, 1847-1850. 

M. Barlow was here, 1852. 

Frederick T. Wallace came to Palmer in 1848 and remained till 


James G. Allen settled here in 1853, and was in practice as at- 
torney, and judge of the District Court till his death in 1870, 
Daniel Granger, 1857-18C1. 
J. H. Blair, 1862. 

Charles L. Gardner, 1867 to the present time. 
R. P. Harlow, 1870-1. 
J. W. Cochran, 1870. 

Stephen S. Taft, H. U., 1870. 1872 to the present time. 
A. R. Barker, 1879. 

H. C. Strong, A. C, 1875. 1879 to the present time. 
T. K. Kenefick, H. U., 1877. 1879 to the present time. 
W. W. Leach, Tufts C, 1880. 1883 to the present time. 
A. R. Fitch, 1888 to the present time. 


In June, 1743, an article was inserted in warrant for a Planta- 
tion meeting ''To see if the Inhabitants will give any Incourage- 
ment for a Doctor to settle in the place." The record does not show 
Avhat action, if any, was taken. Probably Dr. John Sherman of 
Brimfield was called when the skill of a physician could not be 
dispensed with. 

The date after a name indicates when the name of the said per- 
son first appears on the town records. 

Jabez Lamb came to Palmer about 1764, and was in practice here 
for several years. 

Calvin Scott, 1778. 

Benjamin Trask, 1779. 

Jonathan Shearer, 1794. 

Nathan Cummings, 1799. 

Anson Moody, 1819. 

J. 'N. Hastings, 1820. 

Aaron King, 1824-1861. 

Marcus M.'shearer, 1826-1854. 

Amasa Davis, 1839. 

Reuben Barron, 1843-1858. 

J. B. Thomas, 1845. 

George W. Burke, 1845-1850. 

Andrew J. White, 1846-1850. 

William Holbrook, 1848 to the present time. 

E. E. Wilder, 1853. 

William Blair, 1854. 

N. Barnes, 1854-1859. 

Porter Davis, . 


A. M. Higgins, 1856. 
George N. Nichols, 1857. 
G. F. Forbes, 1857. 
Samuel Shaw, 1857. 

F. W. Calkins, 1860. 
J. M. Comins, 1861. 

B. R. Johnson, 1862. 
E. B. Lyon, 1863. 
Isaac Manning, 1863. 
Silas Euggles, 1866-1889. 
J. K. Warren, 1870-1882. 

^Y. H. Stowe, 1876 to the present time. 
H. A. Smith, 1878 to the present time. 
W. E. Holbrook, 1879. 
John Eand. 
J. B. Hyland. 

G. H. Wilkins, 1882 to the present time. 
E. Sirois, 1884 to the present time. 

M. H. Davis, to the present time. 

J. J. Flynn, 1886 to the present time. 

John Wilbur, 1887. 

A. 0. Squares, 1889. 

And many others whose stay was brief. 

Thomas Lodge, F. & A. M. — Thomas Lodge was first chartered 
on the 13th day of December, A. L. 5796, under seal of the Grand 
Lodge and the hands of Paul Revere, G. M.; Samuel Dunn, D. G. 
M.; Isaiah Thomas, G. S. W., and Joseph Laughton, J. W. It was 
located in Monson. The charter members were Samuel Guthrie, 
David Young, Peter Walbridge, Hezekiah Fisk, Ephraim Allen, 
Elisha Woodward, Amasa Stowell, John Moore, David Peck, Zebe- 
diah Butler, Jesse Converse, Isaiah Blood, Jun. 

The name of the lodge was adopted in honor of Isaiah Thomas of 
Worcester, then G. S. W. of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, 
who presented the new organization with a full and valualjle set of 
jewels, the same which are now in use by the lodge. In his last 
will Mr. Thomas made a liberal bequest to the lodge as a token of 
regard for it and its members. 

The lodge flourished for a period of about forty years, and drew 
together in fraternal bonds many of the most reliable men of Mon- 
son and Palmer, and gathered upon its records the names of mem- 
bers worthy of everlasting remembrance. But a time of trial and 
day of adversity came, which resulted in a suspension of its work. 


At a regular communication held in Monson January the 14th, A. 
L, 5835, it was cotcd " that this lodge be closed." The regalia was 
carefully preserved, and a few brethren held occasional meetings 
for lectures and to "keep up heart and hope." 

After twenty years of "rest," though not of "refreshment," 
Thomas Lodge recommenced "work," as appears from the follow- 
ing record : 

"In Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, Boston, September 10th, A. L. 
5856. — Ordered, That the charter of the late Thomas Lodge at Monson be 
and the same is hereby restored to the following petitioners (former mem- 
bers of said lodge), with permission to remove and hereafter hold the same 
in the town of Palmer, viz. — Brothers Elias Turner, Joseph L. Reynold, S. 
F. Newton, Jacob Thompson, J. R. Flynt, Alfred Ely, Jacob Nichols, D. B. 
Hannum, Otis Bradford and Joel Tucker. And the foregoing petitioners 
and their associates and successors are hereby invested with the rank and 
all the powers and privileges originally conferred by the charter of said 

WiNSLOW Lewis, Grand Master. 

Charles W. Moore, Grand Secretary. 

Officers elected under the first organization : Dr. Samuel Guth- 
rie, W. M.; Dr. David Young, S. W.; Hezekiah Fisk, J. W.; Sam- 
uel D. Ward, Treas. ; Dr. Ede Whitaker, Sec. 

Officers elected under the reorganization : Joseph L. Reynolds. 
W. M. ; Elias Turner, S. W. ; Jacob Thompson, J. AV.; .Jacob Nich- 
ols, Treas.; J. W. Crooks, Sec. 

Officers elected in 1888 : S. H. Ilellyar, W. M. ; Andrew Fin- 
ney, S. W.; Charles E. Fish, J. AV.; J. B. Shaw, Treas.; G. C. 
Ellis, Sec. 

The regular communications of the lodge are held the first Mon- 
day on or before the full moon in each month. Annual meeting, 
first Monday in December. 

Hampdeist Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, was instituted June 
10, 1864, with sixteen charter members ; present number (1889), 
one hundred and twenty. Stated convocations are held monthly 
on the Monday following the meeting of the blue lodge. Cost of 
regalia, $700. 

Officers for 1889 : George 0. Henry, H. P.; E. G. Hastings, K.; 
S. H. Hellyar, Scribe; George Robinson, Treas.; C. ^^\ Cross. Sec; 
James B. Shaw, C. H.; Andrew Pinney, P. S.; Charles E. Fish, R. 
A. C; Frank N. Carpenter, M. 3d V.; Edwin C. Sexton, M. 2d V.; 
George A. Bills, M. 1st Y.; Rev. F. AY. Betts, Chaplain; S. AY. 
Shumway, Tyler. 


Past High Priests : James B. Shaw, Andrew Pinney, George 

Independent Order Odd Fellows. — Lodge No. 190 was in- 
stituted in Palmer Sept. 24, 1879. with eighteen charter members ; 
present number (1889), one hundred and thirty-five. Meetings are 
held on Friday evening of each week in rooms which have been fur- 
nished at an expense of 11,400. The funds amount to about 
12,000. Past N. G., A. A. Converse, W. E. Brown, L. A. Conant, 
George Robinson, Rev. 0. R. Hunt, A. S. Meserve, Charles Upham, 
E. AV. Walls, J. H. Smith, C. E. Fuller, W. B. Ham, F. A. Rug- 
gles, F. H. Caryl, E. J. Osburn. 

Present (1889) officers : J. B. Shaw, N. G. ; R. A. McQuaid, V. 
G.; F. H. Conant, R. S.; George Robinson, Treas.; 0. A. Marcy, 
P. S.; C. L. Holden, Warden; F. E. Sedgwick, Conductor; R. J. 
Henry, 0. G.; J. C. Haines, I. G.; A. A. Converse, R. S. N. G.; 
C. E. Shumway, L. S. N. G.; D. E. Robinson, R. S. V. G.; George 
Magrath, L. S. V. G.; G. S. Butler, R. S. S.; C. B. Patrell, L. S. 
S.; A. Parsons, Chaplain; E. J. Osburn, P. G. 

Daughters of Rebeck ah. — Good Cheer Lodge, No. 60, was in- 
stituted Nov. 22, 1887, with forty charter members. It now num- 
bers fifty-four. Officers for 1889 : Ellen M. Holden, N. G. ; Jose- 
phine H. Ham, V. G. ; Mary E. Robinson, Sec; Nellie Henry, 
Treas. ; Susie K. Converse, Warden ; Julia H. Henry, Conductor ; 
W. B. Ham, 0. G.; Georgia A. Fuller, I. G. ; George Robinson, R. 
8. N. G. ; Clara S. Stone, L. S. N. G. ; Elsie A. Caryl, R. S. V. G. ; 
Etta L. Robinson, L. S. V. G.; Sarah J. McQuaid, Chaplain; Effie 
M. Stone, Organist; Sarah A. Parkhurst, P. G.; Sarah J. McQuaid, 
E. J. Kenerson, Elsie A. Caryl, Trustees. 

L. L. Merrick Post, No. 107, G. A. R., was organized July 18, 
1881, with 30 charter members. Its present membership is 52. 
Its first commander was Col. H. R. Stoughton, followed by Dr. 
Wm. Holbrook, D. W. Taft, Chas. Upham and Capt. H. E. W. 
Clark. Its present officers are : Commander, E. A. Kirk ; S. V. 
Commander, Geo. 0. Henry; J. V. Commander, C. P. Stone; 
adjutant, C. W. Cross ; Quartermaster, A. A. Converse ; Surgeon, 
Dr. Wm. Holbrook ; Chaplain, Capt. H. E. W. Clark ; Officer of 
the Day, A. J. Bixby; Officer of the Guard, S. S. Nichols ; Sergeant- 
Major, J. V. Clark ; Quartermaster-Sergeant, AVm. Kurtz. The 
Post holds semi-monthly meetings. 


The Woman's Relief Coeps, No. 76, auxiliary to the G. A. R., 
was instituted November 19, 1886, with a list of 20 members ; it 
now numbers 53. It holds its meetings the first and third Fridays 
of every month. Mrs. D. S. Davis has held its highest office since its 
organization. Its present officers are: President, Mrs. D. S. Davis; 
S. V. President, Mrs. A. J. Lawton ; J. V. President, Mrs. Clara 

B. Ellis ; Secretary, Mrs. Rose E. Carter ; Treasurer, Mrs. Julia 
H. Henry; Chaplain, Mrs. Hattie M. Kirk; Conductor, Mrs. 
Jennie Smith ; Guard, Mrs. Kate Shumway; Asst. Conductor, Miss 
Georgie Packard ; Asst. Guard, Mrs. E. J. Griswold ; Correspond- 
ing Secretary, Mrs. Susan W. Coleman. 

Order of the Iroi7 Hall. — Branch No. 681 of the Iron Hall 
was instituted at Palmer February 29, 1888. It meets semi- 
monthly and has 40 members, and is in a flourishing condition. Its 
officers are : Chief Justice, Chas. E. Fuller ; Vice-Justice, C. W. 
Cross; Accountant, H. E. Huntley; Cashier. C. E. Fish; Medical 
Examiner, Dr. W. H. Stowe ; Adjuster, C. K. Gamwell ; Prelate, 
0. P. Allen ; Herald, L. G. Parkhurst ; Watchman, Luke Park- 
hurst ; Yidette, C. A. Bogne ; Trustees, 0. P. Allen, R. J. Henry, 

C. L. Sanders. 

Golden Rule Alliance. — Mizpeh Chapter, No. 23, of this 
organization was instituted at Palmer June 16, 1881. It is a social 
life insurance organization. This Chapter has 34 members. The 
meetings occur on the second Tuesday of each month, and are held 
at the houses of its members. Its officers are : Past Judge, 0. P. 
Allen ; Judge, J. H. Haynes ; Associate Judge, H. Lawrence ; 
Advocate, S. H. Brown ; Scribe, C. W. Cross ; Collector, G. F. 
Brown ; Treasurer, E. J. Wood ; Chaplain, S. Edgerton ; Guide, 
Mrs. E. J. Wood ; Warden, Mrs. S. Edgerton ; Sentry, Mrs. 0. P. 
Allen ; Surgeon, Dr. G. H. Wilkins. 

The Young Men's Christian Association at Three Rivers 
was organized November 4, 1876. 

The Three Rivers Reading Room Association was organ- 
ized October, 1878. 

QuABAUG Council, Royal Arcanum was organized 1885, 

with a charter of 22 members. At present it has members on 

its rolls. Its first regent was Geo. Robinson. Others who held the 
position are S. W. French, Frederick Allen, and C. E. Fish. It has 


semi-monthly meetings. These are its officers: Kegent, F. N. Car- 
penter ; Vice-Eegent, C. T. Brainard ; Secretary, A. C. Page ; Orator, 
Geo. Robinson ; Collector, H. W. Smith ; Treasurer, H. N. Sedg- 
wick ; Guide, J. H. Shaw ; Chaplain, C. A. LeGro ; Warden, C. B. 
Sumner ; Sentry, W. B. Ham. 

The Ancient Order of United Workmen was instituted in 
the fall of 1886, with 18 charter members ; its present list numbers 
38. Its meetings occur on second and fourth Tuesdays of each 
month, and are held at Three Rivers. H. B. Knox was the first 
master workman ; and those who followed him are : E. F. Smith, 
W. 0. Twogood. Its present ofiicers are : M. AY., F. A. ITpliam ; 
P. M. W., C. F. Nickerson ; F., F. E. Stillman ; 0., C. E. Dal- 
rymple ; Financier, P. P. Hayes ; Recorder, P. D. Frome ; G., 
E. P. Arnold ; Receiver, H. J. Eaton ; I., W. Russ ; O.W., Elijah 
Freak ; Trustee, C. L. Alexander. 

The Father Matthew Total Abstinence and Benovelent 
Society of St. Thomas Church. This Society was organized Jan- 
uary 8, 1888. Its membership is . As its name indicates, its 

object is to promote the cause of temperance and provide aid for 
its members in sickness. It has these officers : President, James 
Healey ; Vice-President, Charles Burns ; Recording Secretary, John 
Roach ; Financial Secretary, John McMamanany ; Treasurer, M. J. 
Dillon ; Spiritual Adviser, Rev. T. J. Sullivan ; Physician, J. J. 

Palmer Reading Room Association was organized May 18, 
1888, for the purpose of maintaining a reading room in connection 
with the public library, free to all who wish to avail themselves of 
its privileges. The funds are voluntary contributions of the mem- 
bers. The officers of the association are as follows : President, Dr. 
AY. H. Stowe ; Vice-Presidents, 0. P. Allen, M. J. Dillon ; Secre- 
tary, A. 0. Merritt ; Treasurer, L. E. Chandler ; Directors, Dr. 
AY. H. Stowe, H. P. Holden, 0. P. Allen, E. P. Ball, L. E. Chand- 
ler, A. C. Merritt, C. E. Fish, Rev. T. J. Sullivan, L. H. Gager, 
C. L. Alexander, C. E. Fuller, M. J. Dillon, M. J. Dorson, AYm. 
A. Brakeuridge. The society has about fifty members. 

Palmer Lawn Tennis Club. — Organized in May, 1888. 
Grounds on Knox street. The club has these officers : President, 
AY. F, AYade ; A^ice-President, H. L. Holden; Secretary and Treas- 
urer, Miss Addie L. Rogers ; Executive Committee, AA". F. AYade, 
E. E. Hill, AY. AY. Hall. 


Palmer Base Ball Association was first organized in 1879. 
Its grounds are leased from the Agricultural Society, east of the 
village. Its present officers are : President, C. A. Brown ; Vice- 
President, H. E. Huntley; Treasurer, L. W. Caryl ; Secretary, H. 

E. Sanger ; Manager, D. F. Ilolden ; Directors, C. E. Fuller, G. 
Erskine, F. E. Carpenter, 0. Gardner, II. P. Holden, C. 0. LeGro, 
O. J. Stockwell, G. Griffin. 

The Palmer Sextette. — For many years the village of Palmer 
has had a well organized cornet band, but owing to frequent re- 
movals of some of its members it has been necessary to have it re- 
organized nearly every year. At the present it has a well organized 
corps of six pieces. Besides the leader, W. A. AVeld, the members 
are: F. 0. Hunger, Harry Dark, A. C. Merritt, D. G. Gradey, 

F. E, Sedgwick. 

Among the open societies, not already mentioned — all worthy of 
notice — are : Crescent Club, Paterson Club, AVoman's Christian 
Temperance Union, Wigwam Debating Society, Bondsville Division 
Eoyal Legion, Sons of Temperance, Temperance Society connected 
with Catholic church in Thorndike. 

The Palmer Savings Bank was chartered March 4, 1870, and 
organized March 26, 1870. Corporators : George T. Hill, Frank- 
lin Morgan, Gordon M. Fisk. Officers chosen at first: George T. 
Hill, president ; Franklin Morgan, Albert Norcross, Henry F. 
Brown, vice-presidents ; Gordon M. Fisk, Enos Calkins, John 
Foster, Ebenezer Brown, S. R. Lawrence, D. W. Ellis, E. F. Mor- 
ris, R. M. Reynolds, J. G. Langley, Ira G. Potter, A. L. Converse, 
trustees; James G. Allen, secretary; M. W. French, treasurer. 
The bank first occupied a room in Lawrence block. 

The successive presidents have been : H. P. Wakefield, elected 
January 6, 1873; William N. Flynt, elected January, 1874; Enos 
Calkins, elected January, 1876; II. P. Wakefield, elected January, 
1877; M. W. French, elected January, 1878; James B. Shaw, 
•elected January, 1870; Charles L. Gardner, elected January, 1882, 
and still holding the office. 

Secretaries: J. G. Allen, elected January, 1870; W. A. Lincoln, 
elected January, 1878; C. L. Gardner, elected January, 1881; 
Stephen S. Taft, elected January, 1882, and still holding the office. 

Treasurers : M. W. French, elected January 6, 1871; Ebenezer 
Brown, elected January, 1874; Leonard Green, elected March 16, 
1875; Wm. A. Lincoln, elected September, 1877; A. W. French, 


elected September, 1881; Wm. C. Dewey, elected January, 1882; 
Louis E. Moore, elected February 11, 1882; James B. Shaw, elected 
September 5, 1885; Louis E. Moore, elected January, 1886, and 
still holding the office. 

Amount of deposits January 6, 1873, 1216,888.74. 

Financial statement, July 1, 1880: 

Loans, Real Estate, 

1551,254 09 

" Personal, 

194,290 45 

" Bank Stock, 

7,486 30 

" Towns, 

31,456 46 

Public Funds, 

20,000 00 

Bank Stock, 

47,323 75 

Railroad Bonds, 

80,100 00 

Real Estate, 

18,100 00 

Deposited in Banks on interest, 

48,000 00 


5,837 07 

$1,003,748 12 


$978,740 85 

Guaranty Fund, 

22,000 00 

Undivided Profits, 

3,007 27 

$1,003,748 13 

1889. Alce-presidents : Enos Calkins, Lyman Dimock, George 
Mooers. Trustees : Enos Calkins, J. B. Shaw, Lyman Dimock, 
George Mooers, C. L. Gardner, S. S. Taft, C. B. Fisk, J. S. Hol- 
den, Geo. C. Buell, H. G. Loomis, 0. P. Allen, Stillman Ellis, 
L. E. Moores, T. D. Potter, H. P. Holden, Hiram AYard, F. A. 
Packard. Board of Investment : Enos Calkins, George Mooers, 
C. L. Gardner, T. D. Potter, H. G. Loomis. 

Palmer National Bank. — Organized Nov. 18, 1875, with 
|;75,000 capital; began business Feb. 16, 1876. May 23, 1882, 
voted to increase capital 175,000, and July 30, '84, voted to increase 
'$50,000 more, making it $200,000. March 23, 1889, voted to re- 
duce capital stock to $100,000. 

Officers at organization : President, M. W. French; Cashier, 
Leonard Green; Directors, Marshall W. French, Alonzo N. Dewey, 
John A. Squier, James B. Shaw, Albert H. Willis, George Mooers, 
Horace P. Wakefield of Monson, Philip P. Potter of Wilbraham, 
Henry S. Lee of Springfield. 

List of Presidents : Marshall W. French, elected Nov, 23, 1875 ; 
Albert H. Willis, elected Jan. 13, 1880 ; James B. Shaw, elected 
Jan. 13, 1885; Louis E. Moore, elected Jan. 10, 1888. 

Vice-Presidents : Albert H. Willis, elected Jan. 14, 1879; Oren 
B. Smith, elected Jan. 13, 1880 ; Louis E. Moore, elected Jan. 8, 
1884 ; James B. Shaw, elected Jan. 10, 1888. 


Cashiers : Leonard Green, elected Dec. 13, 1875 ; William A. 
Lincoln, elected Aug. 27, 1877 ; Samuel W. French, elected Jan. 
11, 1881; William C. Dewey, elected Feb. 1, 1882; Charles B. 
Fiske, elected Aug. 17, 1883. 

Present officers : President, L. E. Moore; Vice-President, J. B. 
Shaw ; Cashier, Charles B. Fiske ; Directors, James B. ;Shaw, 
Edward Fairbanks of Warren, Louis E, Moore, Charles B. 
Fiske, Joseph F. Holbrook, Charles D. Holbrook, George H. 

Post Offices. — " Posts,'' i. e., men on horseback, were employed 
to carry messages and documents to and from Boston and the in- 
terior of the State from the earliest settlement of the Connecticut 
valley. After the Revolution the regular post rider made his 
weekly trips from Worcester to Springfield, via Brookfield, Western 
(Warren) Old Centre, over the old Boston road. When Capt. 
Pease put on his stage line he carried whatever papers and letters 
were offered. And the regularity and certainty and safety of this 
way induced the United States Government, on his petition, to es- 
tablish the turnpike as a mail route and the Cajitain himself as the 
contractor. This was as early as 1805 or 6. 

The post office for Palmer was of course located at the Old Cen- 
tre, which continued to be the only office in town till 1826. The 
first postmaster was Col. Amos Hamilton, who held the place till 
old age. Succeeding him were John Ward, Theophilus Knight 
and Col. Elias Turner, who was in commission when the office was 
removed to Thorndike in 1845. 

The postmasters at Thorndike have been, Gamaliel Collins (1845), 
A. R. Murdock, G. Collins again (1865-68), Silas Ruggles a short 
time, Capt. H. E. W. Clark (1869-85), John A. Wright (1885). 

The post office at Three Rivers was established as early as 1826 
or 7 and kept in a store on the corner southwesterly from the mill. 
P. R. Russell, the merchant, was the first postmaster. He was 
succeeded by James G. Hale in 1831, Nathan M, Cutter in 
1834, Asa Shumway in 1839, A. F. Packard (1842-62), George 
W. Randall, Abel Webber, Charles H. Murdock till 1873, D. F. 
Holden till 1877, A. P. Tradeau, J. Twiss, A. P. Tradeau again 
in 1889. 

The post office at Palmer Village was established in 1839. The 
postmasters have been A. C. Billings. Chester Strong (1842), John 
Bowles, Abner Allen, Dr. William Holbrook (1849-53), 0. H. Bid- 
well, D. Granger, Col. Cyrus Knox (1861-64), Cyrus Knox (1864- 
88), C. A. Brown (1888). 


The post office at Bondsville was established in 1849. Postmas- 
ters : Nathan D. Wight to 1878, E. B. Murdock, 1878 to , 

H olden. 

The Kidd Letter. — 

"Ever since the days of Captain Kidd, 
The Yankees think there's money hid." 

As the finding of a letter signed Robert Kidd, created a great 
excitement in Palmer, and was commonly believed to be a genuine 
document, and is still thought to be genuine by well-informed men, 
it is given a place in these annals.* 

One morning in February, 1849, rather exciting word was brought 
into the Depot Village on the Boston and Albany railroad, that a 
singular and remarkable document or letter had been found by the 
side of " The Old Eoad," on the farm of one Samuel Shaw, by his 
son and his cousin, the son of a Dr. Gardiner Shaw, two young men, 
one about twenty, the other perhaps eighteen years old, who had 
been out the day before with their dog in pursuit of rabbits. Having 
run one under a shelving ledge of rocks, they sought to dislodge 
him by enlarging the aperture, so that the dog might enter, or if 
practicable, to draw him forth with the hand. Removing a loose 
stone, one of the young men thrusting in his arm, his hand came 
in contact with a small glass bottle, or rather, perhaps, a large vial. 
Drawing it forth, and seeing that it contained a roll of paper, they 
became very much excited and curious to learn what, if anything, 
was written thereon. The vial was hermetically sealed with a cork 
made of sheet lead, closely and tightly pressed in, with a cap of the 
same material over all, and wound tight around the neck by a small 
wire or cord, somewhat after the manner in which sea-faring per- 
sons prepare communications to be thrown overboard in time of 
distress, hoping the same may be washed upon some distant coast. 
Going to the house on the side, and nearest the highest part of the 
rocky mountain heretofore described, and not many rods from the 
place of their find, they uncorked the vial and attempted to with- 
draw the paper, but the scroll having loosened from its coil after 
its insertion through the small neck, filling it full, they found it 
impracticable to obtain the paper intact, and were necessitated to 
break the glass. There were two pieces of paper in the vial ; the 
outer one bore merely a postscript, but upon the inner one there 
was written what follows : 

* The following statement, and copy of the letter, are taken from a paper prepared by Frederick 
T. Wallace, Esq. 


" To John Bailey, Esq., of Xew York : 

Sir — I fear we are in a bad situation, we are taken for pirates, 
and you must come to Boston as soon as yon get this ; there is no 
one here I can depend on — the man who brings this to you cannot 
read it, he knows nothing what is in it — you must come as soon as 
you get it, or I may not see you before I am carried to Enghind. 
If I do not see you I will tell you where the money is, for we have 
plenty of that if it Avill do any good. It is buried on Conant's 
Island, in Boston Harbor, on the northwest corner of the island in 
two. chests, containing from fifteen to twenty thousand pounds 
sterling, in money, jewels and diamonds. They are buried about 
four feet deep with a flat stone on them, and a pile of stones near 
by. There is no one that knows where it is but me now living, as 
Dick Jones and I hid it when part of our men were in Boston and 
the rest were asleep one night— it is about sixty rods up the side 
hill. I want to see you before we are carried to Old England, if 
possible — if not, you must get all the witnesses in my favor,- and 
the best of counsel to help you. I want you to see Col. Slaughter 
and John Nichols and James Bayard and Capt. Houson and Edward 
Teach, and all that can do me any good ; say nothing to them about 
the money or that I have wrote to you. You know my old friends 
in New York, and who will help me. That Moore scrape is the 
worst part of my case. I think my interest with Lord Bellamont, 
and my two commissions and some French papers I have with me, 
and my men running away to the pirates to Culiford, and other 
things are in my favor. All may be safe yet ; they think I have 
got money buried doAvn at Plymouth or that way somewhere, they 
don't think it is so near Boston ; but they shan't have my money 
and life too ; don't fail to come to me as soon as yon get this. 

I enquired the best way by land to New York, and told him to go 
to AVorcester and then to Quabog, an Indian town where Maj. Wil- 
lard fought the Indians ; there is a pond and a stream leading to 
Connecticut river, and down to Hartford by water to New York, 
and to give this to you himself. Say nothing to him about me or that 
you ever saw me — but come without fail, or if I am gone to England, 
be there as soon as possible. Secure the money and diamonds before 
you come, as my money will do a great good for us — it will buy a 
great many great people and all the poor I want in my favor. Keep 
dark in New York, say nothing to any but my friends — don't fail to 
be in Boston before I am carried to England, as I can tell you more 
than I can write, and better what I want. I told the man that 
brings this to you, if he met with any trouble or was taken by the 
Indians, to hide his papers in some safe' place where he can find 


tliem if he got away. I will jsut them in the glass, for if he should 
get them wet or anything should happen to him they will be safe. 
I can't think of anything more to write now,, but will tell you all 
when you come. They keep me well and are kind to me here. 
This is from vour friend -r, -nr^ 


Boston, 1700-1. 

IS". B. — Come soon, without fail, and I will tell you more and all 

about the money. It is on Conant's Island, about three miles down 

the Harbor of Boston — they don't think it is so near Boston ; but 

you must keep dark here — say nothing to any one here about me till 

YOU see T> -rr >> 

E. KiDD." 

Although the bitterest cold day of the winter, and snow more 
than two feet deep and much drifted across the hills, the writer 
availed himself of an invitation and a seat in a well-robed sleigh 
and visited the highest mountain farm house in the town — the 
home of Mr. Samuel Shaw, a quiet, honest and every way respect- 
able citizen. We arrived at the house about noon and found some 
twenty or more persons already there, having come mostly from the 
villages in the valleys from three to five miles distant to see the re- 
markable curiosity. All the circumstances relating to the finding 
were recounted by the two young men and repeated to every new 
visitor. That lonely farm house never before opened its door to so 
many visitors. Prominent citizens, born in the town, were there 
for the first time. There upon the table lay the broken glass — the 
cork and cap of sheet lead and the two sheets of long but rather 
narrow, unruled cap paper, the latter coarse and of a dingy white 
color, and bore the stamp of the English crown, plainly to be recog- 
nized when held up to the light. TJie writing was what would be 
called old English commercial style, '• a fair round hand," like unto 
that of the commander of the Pinafore. No one who saw that let- 
ter doubted of its antiquity and genuineness, that it was found by 
the boys as described, and that it had lain in the silence of the cave 
of the mountain for 150 years. For weeks the house of Mr. Shaw 
was besieged by visitors, and until the family became so much em- 
barrassed thereby that the document was finally sealed up and de- 
posited in a bank for safe keeping. 

The spring of 1849 was the period at which the California fever 
was at its height, and men were leaving the country towns no less 
than cities by the hundreds for the Golden Gate. Among the- 
large number which left Palmer for that distant coast were the two 
3^oung men who had found the Kidd letter. Thinking some ques- 


tion might possibly arise concerning it in their absence, or doubt 
be expressed touching the truth of their oft-repeated statements of 
the circumstances of the finding of that letter, they thought it im- 
portant and prudent to leave behind them a more solemn statement 
of the facts, and to that end applied to the writer to draw up their 
respective formal affidavits, rehearsing and setting forth particularly 
and minutely every fact and circumstance connected therewith, 
which was accordingly done and which they subscribed and made 
solemn oath to before a magistrate, and, leaving the same with 
their respective fathers, departed for Colifornia. 

About the same time, but a little later in the spring or early 
summer, Mr. Samuel Shaw, the father, for the first time in his 
life, made a trip to Boston and visited the islands in the harbor, 
and especially the one anciently called Conant's, but now Gov- 
ernor's, Island. He found, however, on inquiry and from local 
history, that there had been, even in recent years, much change in 
the shores of most of those islands, and especially the one of par- 
ticular interest to him from the allusions thereto in the lately 
found letter — that more than sixty rods of the northwest corner of 
the island indicated in the letter as the place where two chests of 
treasure had been buried had, in the long interval of 150 years, 
been washed away by the tide — in fact, he was told by a resident on 
the island that more than thirty rods had been swept away from 
the same cause within the then last thirty years — that the Govern- 
ment was then building a sea wall to protect that part of the island 
from further erosion by the tides. 

There can be no doubt of the genuineness of the Kidd letter and 
that it was found near the ancient highway in the town of Palmer, 
Mass., as before related, for the absolute honesty and sincerity of 
the two young men is not to be questioned. Besides, there was not 
a person in the town, nor within a hundred miles of it, possessed of 
the specific colonial historical information of a hundred and fifty 
years previous who could or would undertake to perpetrate a fraud 
and imposition by the manufacture of such a document, nor a per- 
son living on earth who would select such a place for its conceal- 
ment with any hope or expectation that at some indefinite time 
thereafter a rabbit and dog, supplemented by two young hunters, 
in a cold and cheerless winter's day, upon the side of a desolate and 
lonely mountain, would bring it forth to astonish and deceive an 
honest and intelligent community. But, though undisputed and 
undoubted at the time by hundreds of gentlemen who visited the 
place and examined and read the paper, let us notice some of its 
peculiarities and the internal evidences of the genuineness of the 


letter. First, its enclosure in glass and sealing is after the manner 
of a seaman ; its peculiar date, 1700-1, indicating, though the 
month and day were omitted, that it was at the point of the 
annual period when under the ''old style" it would be 1700 and 
under the ''new style" 1701, and the character of the handwriting. 
The whole tenor of the communication — specific, peculiar, solicit- 
ous, anxious, just such a letter as such a character would be likely 
to write under like circumstances, and just such as the facts of his- 
tory will show to have existed at the moment and prior and subse- 
quent thereto. Then, again, the names of persons therein alluded 
to, some known to history, others not; likewise the names of Indian 
localities and battle grounds in the description of the ancient route 
from Boston to New York. 

So far Mr. Wallace's paper. The sequel is soon told. It seems 
that a dispute arose between the two senior Shaws as to the custody 
and proprietorship of the letter in question. Samuel brought a 
suit at law against Gardner. Eminent legal talent was retained on 
botli sides. The plaintiff emiDloyed Hon. R. A. Chapman of Spring- 
field, and the defendant was represented by Hon. Wm. Gr. Bates of 
"Westfield. The case came to trial. The plaintiff took the witness 
stand and swore that the letter was a forgery. And so the affair 

The Fire of 1851. — By this fire, which happened April 17, 
1851, the finest jDart of Main street in Palmer Village was destroyed, 
and the loss was not less than $70,000. It broke out at midnight 
in a wooden building owned by Elisha Converse, and occupied by 
W. C. Hunger as a general dry goods and grocery store. A wooden 
building owned by Chester Strong and occupied by stores and as a 
family residence, and the adjacent brick building in which was the 
printing office of the Palmer Journal, fell in course. Then the 
Palmer Hotel, owned by Mr. Converse, and the Nassawano House, 
owned by D. & C. M. Shaw, were wiped out. Most of the mer- 
chants and tenants had light insurance, and their means were 
greatly cripjjled. The real estate owners were better protected, 
and at once re-built in a more substantial manner of brick. 

April 19, 1857, the block on the corner of Main and Furnace 
streets, was destroyed by fire. It was occupied by the Palmer 
Journal, the Blood hat works, and by tenants, and the loss was 
about $10,000. 

In March, 1867, the new iron foundry of J. V. Squire was burnt ; 
and the next year his foundry, built in place of the first, shared the 
same fate. The loss on both was near 813,000. 


In December, 18G8, Palmer steam mill, owned by Henry Seism, 
and leased by E. Crosby & Co. as a grist mill and flour store, and 
Commercial block, were consumed by fire, with a loss of 830,000. 
The occupants of the block were George Gerald, Fox & Holbrook, 
F. Dodge & Co., Dr. Wm. Holbrook, Geo. Blanchard, J. A. Brak- 
enridge, A. 0. Sweet, F. J. Wassum, H. G. Cross and several 

The next large fire started in the car house of the N. L. X. R. II. 
Co., and consumed the house of Mrs. S. W. Smith, the residence 
of J. B. Shaw, Loomis Bros\ furniture store and the residence of 
J. S. Loomis. The losses were estimated at $26,350. 

The larger part of the new Union depot was destroyed by fire in 
1888, which was a serious loss to the railroad companies. 

The burning of the cotton mill at Three Elvers in May, 1863, has 
already been noted. The loss was near $225,000, and the business 
of the village was, for the time, practically destroyed. 

The CeinTennial Celebrations" of 1852. — An article in the 
warrant for April 7, 1851, was " To see if the town will authorize 
some person to collect statistics and publish a pamj^hlet history of 
the town for the last century.*' '^ Voted, that Eev. Thomas Wilson 
be a committee to prepare an address on the centennial anniversary 
of the town in 1852."' And at the next March meeting it was 
voted ''that the address be given in the Town House on the 5th of 
July next." 

According to the above vote of the town, the one hundredth an- 
niversary of its incorporation [as a District] was observed by ajjpro- 
priate festivities July 5, 1852. In the Palmer Journal of July 
10th was the following account : The day was a bright and beau- 
tiful one, and at an early hour the people began to gather at the 
Town House at Four Corners, so that by 10 o'clock nearly 2,000 per- 
sons were assembled. A procession comprising ladies and gentle- 
men was formed, under the direction of Dr. J. B. Thomas as chief 
marshall, and escorted by the Belchertown Brass Band to a fine 
grove a hundred rods distant, where the address was delivered. 

Arrived at the grove, the president of the da}', John Ward, Esq., 
called attention to the appointed exercises, viz. : I. Prayer by Rev. 
Samuel Backus of Brooklyn, X. Y., formerly pastor of the First 
Congregational Church in Palmer. 

II. National Hymn — " Let every heart rejoice and sing." 

HI. Reading the Declaration of Independence by F. T. Wallace, 

IV. Hymn — ''When stern op]iression's iron rod." 


V. Address b}^ Rev. Thomas Wilson — Subject, The History of 
the Town of Palmer. 

VI. Music by the Band. 

VII. Benediction by Eev. J. W. Mowry. 

The procession re-formed and marched to the Town House, 
where a bountiful repast had been provided by Charles D. Foster 
of the Thorndike Hotel. At the table, Rev. Sylvester Hine in- 
voked the Divine blessing ; and the company did ample justice to 
the palatable viands. 

The regular toasts were read by F. T. Wallace, Esq. 

1. Tlw Day loe Celebrate. — May each returning anniversary of 
the birth of our national liberties find us happy in their enjoyment, 
and impress us with gratitude to the men of 1776 by whom they 
were achieved. 

2. The President of the United States. — Hon. Millard Fillmore. 

3. The Amei'ican Flag. — The sacred emblem of Liberty : The 
free sons of Columbia will never suffer it to be disgraced. 

" The Star Spangled Banner, O long may it wave, 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave." 

4. ' The Governor of the CommomueaWi. — Hon. Geo. S. Boutwell. 

5. The Manufactories of Palmer. — Though the times are hard, 
they are bound to "go,'' while Jacolt and Joseph grease the wheels. 
[Referring to Jacob B. Merrick and Joseph Brown, the then agents 
of the Thorndike and Palmer Manufacturing companies.] 

6. Old Uncle Sam. — The great uncle of all uncles. He settles 
a dower of Liberty on all his nephews and nieces. 

7. The Union of the States. — '^The palladium of our national 
independence ; the guarantee of our national prosperity; and the 
pledge of our national glory." 

8. The Palmer Declaration of Independence, June 17, 1776. — 
Though of less consequence to the world than our national declar- 
ation, it demonstrates to us, with proud satisfaction, that while the 
people of Palmer were then ignorant of the deliberations of Con- 
gress, they, in a public meeting, pledged their lives and fortunes 
under the wisdom of Congress, for National Freedom. [This 
sentiment was received with three cheers. Historians may make 
note of the fact, that the citizens of Palmer made a declaration of 
independence seventeen days before it was declared by the Conti- 
nental Congress. 

9. Uncle Sam''s Family — May they be content to hold their thirty- 
five farms, with all future additions, as tenants in common. 

10. The State We Live In — Old Massachusetts — The land of our 


Pilgrim Fathers and the spot where the first blood of the Revolu- 
tion was shed. She stands a monument of American prosperity 
and independence. 

11. The Fariiiers of Palmer — Though the township was once rep- 
resented as a "^ very poor piece of land and the hills high and mean." 
yet by their industry it has been made to yield abundantly, and 
their fine, portly figures are evidence that they have enough and 
some to spare. 

12. Tlie House We Dine In — Though located between four vil- 
lages, it belongs to none of them ; it stands " alone in its glory." 

Volunteer toasts were offered by F. T. Wallace, Mrs. Franklin 
Morgan, (len. J. A. McElwain of Warsaw, N. Y., Samuel D. 
Backus of Brooklyn, N. Y., Franklin Morgan, John Ward, Gordon 
M. Fisk, A. Y. Blanchard, J. B. Merrick, Dr. J. B. Thomas, Mrs. 
A. Y. Blanchard and others, and happily responded to by Rev. 
Thomas Wilson, Rev. Samuel Backus and A. Y. Blanchard. 

On request of a committee, the address of Rev. Mr. Wilson was 
published, at the expense of the town. It is a pamphlet of 60 
pages. Mr. Wilson says in his preface, " The records of the 
original proprietors, together with those of the town and the first 
parish ; and the journals of the Colonial and State Legislatures in 
the archives of the Commonwealth, have been the principal sources 
from which the materials have been gathered." It is a valuable 
summary of facts, and has been of essential service to the author of 
this history. Many persons were then living whose memory 
reached back to Revolutionary times, and supplied valuable infor- 
mation at first hand, which can now be obtained only in this 
printed pamphlet. This is especially true of matters pertaining to 
the ministry and churches. 

The Celebration of Juke 17, 1886. — This was intended to 
more especially commemorate the anniversary of Palmer's Declara- 
tion of Independence. The services were held in St. Paul's 
Church, and were presided over by 0. P. Allen, Chairman of the 
Historical Committee of the town. An original hymn, written for 
the occasion by Rev. G. Y. Moxham of Monson, was sung by the 
choir and congregation. Dr. W. H. Stowe read the Palmer Decla- 
ration, prefacing the reading by telling how the original paper dis- 
appeared a few years ago, with so many other valuable documents, 
at the time when a quantity of old records of this descrii^tion was 
wantonly dumped out of the Town House as so much rubbish. By 
a happy accident, the Declaration was traced to Schofield, Ctah, 
where it was found and only recentlv recovered. 


Mrs. Emma W. French sang the "Star Spangled Banner." The 
address was delivered by "\V. C. Greene and was a scholarly produc- 
tion, rehearsing the doings of the early settlers as to civil, religious 
and educational matters, and more particularly the town's action in 
the times of the Eevolution. 

Dea. William Hyde responded to the sentiment, " Ware, the 
Dmigliter of Palmer," criticising in a pleasant way the assumption 
of the toast, for, as he understood the facts, the "daughter" was 
older than the "mother." S. S. Taft, Esq., in a brief speech, 
characterized the "town meeting" as the model form of adminis- 
tration and safeguard of the State Government. 


Personal, $749,144 

Resident Bank Stock, 56,900 


Real Estate, Buildings, $1,331,110 

Real Estate, Land, 453,425 


Total, $2,590,579 

Number of Polls 1,490. 

Poll tax $2.00. 

Rate per $1,000, $16.30. 

Number of persons assessed on property, 733 

Number of persons assessed for Poll Taxes only, 1,029 

Money and Stocks assessed, $7,500 

Number of Horses assessed, 515 

Number of Cows assessed, 649 

Number of Sheep assessed, 134 

Number of Neat Cattle assessed, 368 

Number of Swine assessed, 106 

Number of Dwelling Houses assessed, 861 

Number of Acres of Land assessed, 17,698 


Tax on polls 

trict. Name and Description. Valuation, and property 

,,-, 1 , excepting sin- 

(Palmer.) gle poU taxes. 

Aspinwall, George W. House $1,000, lot .25a $300, 

pasture 114a $200, $1,500 $26.46 

Allen, O. P. Personal, 4,000 

House 2,000, lot .50a 500, barn 100, 2,600 109.58 

Allen, Cheney. Personal, 50 

House 450, lot .13a 200, barn 50, 54a 200, 900 17.49 

Allen, F. C. Personal, 95 3.55 

Allen, Anthony. House 800, land .25a 200, 1,000 18.30 

Alexander, Clayton L. Personal, 150 

Sprout Lot 76.50a 600, 600 14.23 

Aiken, Norman. Personal, 30 2.49 


trict. Name and Description. 



Atkins, George M. House 1,500, .50a 200, 



American Express Co. Personal, 



Abells, Mrs. Nellie. House 800, .25a 150, Shop 50, 

1.50a 200, 




Angelier, Mary. House 850, la 200, barn 50, 



Ashe, James. Personal, 


House 250, 18a 200, barn 50, 



(Three Rivers.) 

Aldrieh, Leonard. Personal, 


House 500, 61a 1,100, barn 150, 



Adams, Sarah. House 800, .50a 200, exempt 500, 



Alonzo, Julian. Personal, 



Arnold, Sarah J. House 800, .13a 150, barn 50, ex- 

empt 500, 




Adams, A. P. Personal, 


House and Store 1,400, .25a 300, 



Butler, 0. E. House 600, .75a 100, 



Brown, P. P. Personal, 



Brown, Frank J. Personal, 



Brown & Abbe. Personal, 



Brown, S. H. Personal, 


House 1,000, .25a 150, barn 75, 



Brown, C. A. & Co. Personal, 



Brown, C. A. Personal, 


House 3,000, .2.5a 500, 



Brown, Eben. Personal, 


House 4,500, 5.75a 2,000, barn 400, .50a 1,200 

Seism house 1,000, block 4,000, 



Barnes, \Y. A. Personal, 


House 900, .25a 200, 



Barnes, Mrs. John P. House 800, .50a 200, exempt 




Brainard, W. H. Personal, 


House 800, 165a 1,600, three barns 400, 30a 150, 

80a 400, 



Brainard, John W. House 1,000, .50a 300, House 900, 



Brainard, Mrs. Wilson. House 1,800, .25a 200, 



Bowen, Ezra P. House 800, .25a 125. 



Bennett, Chas. W. House 1,800, .50a 200, 



Bennett, Wm. B. Personal, 


House 1,000, 17a 450, barn 100, 



Barton, F. D. Personal, 


Land .25a 200, 



Brooks, E. S. Personal, 



Blodgett, S. R. Personal, 




District. Name and Description. 



1 Blodgett, Mrs. J. A. Green House 100, .50a 100, 

barn 50, 



Blodgett, Jonas. Personal, 


House 400, three barns 300, 212a 2,500, bog- 

house 50, 



Blanchard, A. V. & Co. Barn 150, 3a 200. 



Blanchard, A. V. Personal, 


House 2,000, 7a 700, Brooks house 200, la 50, 

three barns 150, 4a 150, 3,250 59.37 

Blanchard, Franklin. House 1,500, 2.75a 300, 

barn 100, 1,900 32.97 

Blanchard, Mrs. John. House 1,900, .25a 250, 

barn 300, 2,450 39.94 

Blanchard, Thomas. Personal, 625 

House 1,400, .38a 500, barn 200 2,100 46.42 

Burns, James, estate. Personal, 220 

House 100, 164a 700, barn 100, 900 18.25 

Burns, Alice. House 700, .25a 125, Prindible house 

400. .13a 100, Doyle house 325, .12a 100, .12a 100, 1,850 30.16 

Ballantine, Wm. House 1,000, .25a 200 1,200 21.56 

Bills, Geo. A. Personal, 825 15.45 

Barrett, Michael. House 600, .13a 150, 750 14.23 

Barrett, Joseph S. Personal, 500 

Laundry building 250, .25a 150, 400 16.67 

Bostock, J. T. House 1,800, .25a 200, 2,000 34.60 

Burleigh, Louisa. House 1,200, .25a 200, barn 100, 

.50a 250, 1,750 28.53 

Burleigh, Hannah. House 600, 36a 750, barn 50, 

house 100, exempt for daughters, $785, 
Burnham, J. C. Personal, 

House 900, .25a 150, barn 50 
Breckenridge, W. A. Personal, 

House 1,000, 100a 1,300, house 800, 3a 300, 

house 500, barn 500, 10a 100, .25a 75, 
Braman, N. P. House 850, .50a 250, barn 50, 
Betts, F. W. House 900, .25a 200, 
Buck, E. A. & Co. Building on B. & A. land, 
Betts Fencing Co. Personal, 

Brothers, Lawrence. Personal, 

Boston & Albany R. R. Co. Two freight houses 

4,000, part of passenger station 4,000, land south 

of track near station 2a 2,000, land north of 

track near station 2.50a 10,000, Dewey lot 3a 800, 

Parks lot 2.63a 400, Chapin lot .50a 10, Cooley 

Crossing lot 1.12a 100, 21,400 348.82 

Boynton, E. B. Personal, 75 

House 500, 3.75a 300, barn 100, 900 17.89 




















District. Name and Description. 

2 Bond, L. W. Personal, 

House 1,000, 75a 250, house 900, house 900, 3.50a 

150, barn 150, .63a 200, 
Bolton, Henry E. House 1,000, .50a 200, barn 100, 
Breen, Patrick, Personal, 

House 300, 13.75a 250, barn 50, 
Brown, Mary. House 750, .18a 150, exempt 500, 
Brown, George. Personal, 

House 800, 146a 1,500, two barns 400, 40a 300. 
Bixby, L. E. Personal, 

3 Bentley, ^Sfarks. Personal, 

House 900, .50a 150, barn 100, 
Barker, Franklin, Personal, 

House 700, 115al.500, house 750, 4a 300, barn 300, 
Bourne, 0. S. House 500, 17a 600, barn 100, 
Bullock, S. J. House 300, .12a 100, 
Butterfield, A. M. & Co. Personal, 

Burlingame, Jerry. Personal, 

House 400, 112a 850, two barus 150, 
Boyle, Felix, Personal, 

House 300, 40a 400, barn 100, 
Bliss, Julia. House 800, 110a 1,100, barn 100, 
Baptist Society. Parsonage 600, .50a 150, barn 50, 
Betters, Joseph. Personal, 

4 Breard, Eunice. House 750, store 400, .50a 200, 

barn 50, 
Bond. A. M. Personal, 900, barn 100, .38a 200, store 1,000, .12a 

Bishop, H. T. Personal, 

House 1,100, .50a 300, house 900, .25a 100, house 

1,100, .50a 300, barn 200, 7a 200, 4,200 143.81 

Barber, John. House 700, barn 75, .50a 150, shops 

Burns, Patrick, estate. House 700, barn 100, 4a 300, 
Bonville, H. M. Personal, 

House 200, .50a 50, 17a 200, 
Burpee, Rebecca. House 275, 4a 100, 
Bacon, Hannah R. House 200, la 50, 
Brown, Samuel. Personal, 

House 600, 10a 100, house 300, .25a 50, barn 100, 

barn 50, 36a 600, 
Brown, Talma & Loman. Personal, 

House 200, 214a 3,600, barn 100, 10a 100, 8a 100, 

71a 350, 
Blodgett, Sarah. Personal. 

House 350, 188a 1,200, barn 200, 6a 50, 

































































134. 89 





District. Name and Description. Valuation. Tax. 

4 Butler, Nancy. House 700, la 200, Ijarn 50, ex- 
empt 500, $450 $7.34 
Blanchard, Rosa. House 600, .50a 100, barn 100, 

exempt 500, 300 4.89 

Billings, A. M. House 1,000, barn 100, .50a 300, 1,400 24.82 

Bennett, A. F. One-fourth buildings at Forest 

Lake 200, 10a 200, 400 8.52 

Boston Duck Co. Machinery, 125,438 

Factory buildings 84,500, 38 houses 37,000, 5 

barns 1,100, shoe shop 50, 122,650 

Land 18.38a with buildings 3,800, 20a with lower 

water power 2,000, 68.56a with reservoir 5,300, 

upper water power 7,500, lower water power 

1 Cross, C. W. House 2,400, .. 
Carjl Bros. 

Connor, MarJ^ House 1,600, 
Conner, Daniel. 
Conner, Michael. 

House 450, two barns 400, 
Calkins, Enos. House 2,100, 
Chilson, Wallace. .25a 300, 
Chalk, Thomas J. 

House 600, barn 50, 4a 300, 
Cashman, Michael. House 40 
Casey, Margaret. 

House 400, barn 150, 168a 
Converse, John M. 

Hotel block 10,000, store and tenement 900, 

market and tenement, 1,700, .63a 3,000, home 

house 7,000, .50a 1,700, Pleasant street house 

1,000, Pleasant street lane house 800, .25a 200, 

Park street house 1,200, .50a 200, Coaverse street 

house 1,100, Converse street house 800, .25a 200, 

Converse street house 800, .12a 100, Thorndike 

street house 3,000, 1.63a 1,500, River street house 

1,800, .50a 200, Side Hill house 500, .12a 50, 

three barns 250, two barns Fenton farm 200, 

house Fenton farm 600, 140a 1,400, Barrett lot 

11a 600, meadow lot 6a 1,000, near cemetery 21a 

2,000, near MitchelFs .50a 50. 
Converse, Wm. W. House 1,600, barn 100, .25a 300, 
Converse, Hiram, estate. Personal, 

House 900, 175a 2,500, house 150, 10a 50, two 

barns 25C, 
Crowley, Patrick. Personal, 

House 500, barn 100, 30a 500, 



50a 600, 






barn 100, .50a 400, 








72a 600, 



barn 50, .25a 500, 










)0, barn 25, .50a 100, 




















VALUATIOX A]S"D TAX,, 1888. 359 

District. Name and Description. Valuation. Tax. 

1 Capen, C. D. House 1,400, .25a 250, $1,650 $28.90 

Child, Laura E. Personal, 200 

House 2,500, .63a 700, .50a 200, mortgage E. J. 

Wood 500, mortgage E. G. Wood estate 700, 4,600 78.24 
Congregational Society, 2d. Parsonage 1,800, .50a 

200, 2,000 32.60 

Clanine, Michael, estate, la 100, 25a 300, 400 6.52 

Conant, A. W. House 800, .50a 100, 900 16.67 

Cobb, Geo. W. Personal, 700 13.41 

Collis, Geo. W. Personal, 70 3.14 

3 Clifford, Patrick, estate. House 750, ,50a 250, 1,000 16.30 

Clifford, John. Personal, 25 

House 400, barn 50, 6a 150, 600 12.19 

Carr, Lewis. 2.50a 200, 200 5.26 

Collis, Luther. Personal, 610 

House 850, house 625, 46.25a 1,650, barn 300, 3,425 65.76 

Collis, Charles. House 600, .25a 150, 750 14.23 

Collis, Silas. Personal, 65 

House 700, .13a 150, shop 100, 1.25a 125, barn 

100, 1,175 22.21 

Collis, Fred M. House 800, 800 15.04 

Carmody, John. Personal, 660 

House 800, house and store 800, 74a 1,800, barn 

100, .13a 100, 3,600 71.48 

Carmody, Jerry. Personal, 1,000 18.30 

Caven, Patrick. Personal, 95 3.55 

Caven, Bridget. House 300, barn 100, 11a 300, 700 11.41 

Connor, Morris O. House 300, 1.25a 125, 425 6.93 

Connor, John O. House 300, .25a 100, 400 8.52 

3 Calkins, James W. House 600, 14a 350, barn 100, 

33a 300, barn 100, 1,450 25.64 

Calkins, Franklin. House 350, la 50, 400 8.52 

Calkins, Jerome B. Personal, 25 

House 500, 6a 200 700 13.82 

Calkins, Abel B. Personal, 180 

House 450, barn 150, 109a 1,000, 1,600 31.02 

Coleman, Nicholas. House 500, barn 100, .37a 200, 800 15.04 

Chabott, Antoine. House 800, .50a 200, 1,000 18.30 

Connor, Jerry. Personal, 50 

Ho'Jse 350, barn 50, 17a 500, 900 17.49 

Canterbury, Mrs. E. M. Personal, 300 

House and shop 400, .07a 100, exempt 500, 4.89 

Camerlin, Ramin. Personal, 25 2.41 

4 Clark, H. E. W. House 2,500, .75a 350, house 850, 

.25a 100, barn 250, store-house 100, 4,150 69.65 

Clark & Hastings. Personal, 7,510 
House 70Q, 110a 3,000, barns and sheds 300, .13a 


District. Name and Description. Valuation. Tax. 

200, slaughter-house 250, market and tenement 

at Thorndike 1,800, |.5,150 $206.35 

4 Clark, James H. Personal, 275 

House 400, barn 100, 95a 700 1,200 26.04 

Clark, B. F. House 1,000, barn 100, .50a 200, 1,300 23.19 

Cross, Augusta S. House 700, barn 100, la 200, ex- 
empt 500, 500 8.15 
Crimmins, Daniel. Personal, 50 

House 500, barn 100, 20a 350, 950 18.31 

Crimmins, Timothy. Personal, 50 

House 500, barn 100, 3oa 400, 1,000 19.12 

Crowley, Julia. House 400, barn 75, 18.75a 350, 

exempt 500, 325 5.30 

Cora, John. House 200, .50a 50, 250 4.07 

Charon, Henry. Personal, 895 

House 1,600, three barns 400, 100a 1,500, 3,500 73.64 

Congregational Society, 1st. Parsonage 700, .50a 

200, 900 14.67 

Cunningham, Mary. House 800, .25a 100, exempt 

500, 400 6.52 

1 Davis, E. L. Personal, 700 13.41 

Delahanty, William P. .50a 250, 250 4.07 

Doyle, John. House 325, .25a 125, 450 9.34 

Dewyre, Dennis. House 600, house 400, .25a 125, 

shop 50. 1,175 21.15 

Dawson, John. House 900, .25a 125, 1,025 18.71 

Dillon, Michael J. Personal, 230 

House 700, barn 75, .25a 125, 2.63a 250, .25a 

125, 12a 300, 1,575 81.42 

Doekery, Michael. House 1,000, house 300, .25a 

200, 1,500 26.45 

Desmond, Daniel. House 300, barn 50, 2.50a 50, 400 8.52 

Dimock, Lyman. House 2,500, barn 200, shed 100, 

.50a 500, 3,300 55.79 

Dewey, Charles E. Personal, 1,115 

House 2,200, two barns 400, Blanchard house 

700, Blanchard barn 100, M. W. French house 

3,500, M. W. French barn 800, M. W. French 

block 10,000, icehouse 150. .storehouse 150, 2.12a 

1,800, farm 90a 5,000, sprout lot 25a 500, Blan- 
chard lot .50a 100, French lot 1.25a 5,000, 
Dewey, W. C. .50a 2000, 
Ditto, Peter, Jr. Personal, 

House 200, barn 100, 68a 800, 
Dwyer & Sullivan. Personal, 

Daily, John J. Personal, 

House 400, barn 100, 60a 500 














District. Name and Description. Valuation. Tax. 

2 Dutton, Jeremiah. Personal, $410 $ 

House 900, three barns 300, 85a 1,500, 2,700 53.69 

Duncan, William E. Personal, 50 

House 900, barn 200, 4a 400, 3.25a 200, 1,700 30.53 
Dewyre, Daniel^ estate. House 600, barn 100, 54a 

1,000, ■ 1,700 27.71 
Dewyre, Catherine. House 300, barn 50, 7a 150, all 


Dunn, James, estate. Personal, 90 

House 300, barn 50, 32.75a 500, exempt 500, 350 7.18 
Dowd, Elizabeth D. House 650, .25a 200, exempt 

500, 850 5.71 

3 Dunn, Honora. Personal, 100 

House 1,100, barn 150, barn 100, Dunn house 

700, Callahan house 450, Shearer house 200, .13a 

100, 13a 350, .12a 100, .13a 100, .60a 650, 4,000 66.83 

Doyle, Daniel. Personal, 105 

House 250, barn 50, 20a 300, 600 11.49 

Davis, M. H. Personal, 100 

House 850, barn 100, .50a 150, 1,100 21.56 

Davis, Henry. House 1,900, barn 100, .13a 200, 2,200 35.86 

Derby, E. L. Personal, 200 5,36 

Dalrymple, George E. Personal, 1,650 28.90 

Dimeaux, Eli. Personal, 75 

House 700, barn 50, shop 50, 11.50a 700, 1,500 37.67 

4 Dill, Henry J. House 700, shed 35, .35a 150, 875 16.76 
Daily, Catherine. Personal, 35 

House 550, barn 50, .38a 300, exempt 500, 300 5.30 

Dimmock, John W. Personal, 335 

House 600, barn 50, 68a 450, 1,100 33.59 

1 Eager, F. M. Personal, 1,000 

House 1,000, barn 75, 4a 300, 1,375 46.17 

Ellis, George G. Personal, 5,700 94.91 

Ellis, Stillman. Personal, 300 

House 3,500, barn 400, new house 3,400, new 

barn 150, .38a 500, .50a 300, 7,350 135.06 

Ely, George W. Personal, 350 

House 700, barn 100, Walnut street house 1,000, 

Walnut street house 1,W0, .30a 135, .35a 150, 

.35a 150, 3,335 60.37 

Edgerton, Hannah. House 1,500, .38a 200, 1,700 27.71 

Edgerton & Francis. Personal, 1,880 

House 600, pattern house 300, foundry 400, 

engine house 300, barn 100, .50a 300, 3,000 63.34 

Esplain, Julius. House 500, barn 100, 1.50a 300, 800 15.04 

4 Evans, Hannah. Personal, 15 

House 550, barn 100, shop 50, 13a 400, 1,100 18.17 



House 900, barn 


100, .25a 


District. Name and Description. 

4 Elmer, Charles. Personal, 300, 2a 40, 20a 100, 27a 150, 10a 100, 
Emory, B. F. 

House 700, barn 300, 139a 2,500, 

1 Fosket & Holbrook. 
Fosket & Brainard. 
Ferrj', Samuel L. 
Ferry, L. E. 
Fox, Mrs. Martha. 

Foster, Keyes, estate. 

House 1,000, barn 150, 69a 800, 
Foster, John. House 2,300, barn 200, .37a 400, 
Foster, Chas. D. Personal, 

Feeney, John. Personal, 

House 2,500, barn 200, house and store 3,000, 

house and restaurant 900, saloon 1,600, store- 
house 100, .25a 500, .75a 4,000, 
French, M. W. Personal, 

House 1,500, small 300, two barns 1,500 

hen house 300, hog house 300, storehouse 100, 

50a 1,000, 64a 1,400, .25a 100, 
French, W. P. House 1,000, barn 50, .25a 200, 
Finnerty, Michael. House 800, barn 100, one-third 

block 800, .13a 100, .10a 250, 
Finnerty, Mrs. Mary. 

House 600, house 500, .75a 300, 
Fish, Chas. E. House 750, .13a 150, 
Fuller, Chas. E. 

House 1,900, barn 150, 6a 700, 
Fuller, Timothy F. House 800, barn 75, .25a 150. 
Fiske, C. B- & Co. Personal, 

Fiske, C. B. House 2,200, barn 50, Journal block 

1,000, .75a 800, .37a 1,000, 
Forsman, Chas. Personal, 

House 250, barn 100, 100a 1000, 
Flynn, J. J. Personal, 

Fisherdick, Geo. H. Personal, 

2 Farrell, William. House 400, barn 25, 5a 100, 
Fitzgerald, Thomas. Personal, 

House 400, barn 50, 11a 250, 
Fenton, John. House 800, .25a 125, 
Fenton Dennis. Personal, 

House 500, barn 100, 11.50a 700, 
Fenton, Patrick. Persona), 

House 800, 21.50a 500, 
Ferris, Patrick. House 550, .25a 100, 































































trict. Name and Description. 

Fuller, James. Personal, 

House 400, barn 100, 45a 800, 
Fuller, James and Edward.' Barn 100, 18a 450, 
Fletcher, Lucinda. House 650, 50a 135, exempt 500, 
Fletcher, Eliza. House 650, .13a 100, exempt 500, 
Foley, Bridget. House 1,500, barn 100, 4a 400, 

1,500 exempt for self and children, 
Foley, Jerry D. 20a 150, 
Ferrill, Helen. Personal, 

House 500, house 800, barn 100, barn 50, 75a 

900, 28a 400, 
Flamming, George. 
Ferkey, Beni. Personal, 

House 500, barn 50, 2a 200, 
Ferkey, John. Personal, 

House 500, barn 25, 2a 200, 
Flynn, Catherine. House 400, .87a 100, 
Foley, James F. House 700, barn 80, .50a 200, 
Foley, John W. House 400, house 800, barn 100, 

.13a 100, 70a 500, 
Fillmore, W. F. Personal, 

Fuller, C. D. Personal, 

House 750, two barns 200, 212a 2,400, 
Goodes, Edward. Personal, 

House 400, .63a 500, 
Gamwell, Chas. K. Personal, 

Gamwell, John H. Personal, 

House 2,000, barn 100, house 900, four barns 

300, house 300, house 300, barn 50, .75a 600, 

148a 1,800, .37a 150, 
Gamwell, A. A. House 800, .25a 150, 
Griffin, Jonathan. House 500, .25a 125, 
Griffin, George A. Personal, 

Hoiase 1,400, barn 200, .33a 250, 
Griffin, Catherine, Personal, 

House 300, barn 25, 5a 300, 20a 250, two-thirds 

block 1,600, .12a 350, 
Grady, Michael. House 600, .82a 100, 
Gray, Mrs. Betsey, estate. House 700, .50a 800, 
Gardner, Charles L. Personal, 

House 2,500, office 300, barn 200, .25a 500, 
Gallagher, Barney. House 1,200, house 700, barn 

100, .50a land 400, 
Goddard & Farrar. Shop 2,500, 1.20a 800, 
Goddard, Lavinia. House 1,500, .25a 250, 
Graves, "W. B. Personal, 

House 250, 2.50a 150, 
















































District. Name and Description. Valuation. Tax. 

2 Green, John 0. Personal, $125 |4.04 
Girouard, Adolphus. Personal, 535 

House 1,000, house and shop 400, barn 150, .25a 

150, 1,700 38.43 

Griffin, Michael. House 250, 1.50a 200, 450 9.34 

Griffin, Thomas J. Personal, 25 

House 300, barn 75, 5a 300, 675 13.41 

Glaster, Matthew. Personal, 25 

House 300, barn 50, 25a 500, 850 16.26 

Grady, John. House 800, .05a 50, 350 7.71 

3 Green, A. W. Personal, 50 

House 900, barn 300, shop 100, 1.25a 300, 7a 600, 2,200 38.68 

Graves, Daniel, Personal, 405 

House 400, barn 200, 115a 1,7*00, 2,300 46.09 

Graves, Henry. Personal, 160 

House 600, barn 150, 92a 900, 1,650 31.51 

Graves, Mrs. Olive. Personal, 355 

House 400, barn 200, 116a 1,500, 2,100 40.02 

Genoir, Adeline. House 500, .25a 75, exempt 500, 75 1.22 

4 Green, Bolivar. House 800, barn 100, .13a 150 1,050 19.12 
Greene, W. C. Personal, 933 17.17 
Gates, E. B. and Bartlett, E. M. Personal, 510 

House 1,200, barn 200, two barns 200, carriage 

house 50, 260a 3,100, 4,750 89.78 

Gates, Josiah. Personal, 325 

House 300, barn 100, 130a 1,200, 15a 150, 1,750 35.83 

Gates, Herbert C. Personal, 150 4.45 

Gerald, George F. House 1,000, 2a 200, 1,200 21.56 

Gerald, Joseph F. Personal, 240 

Barn 100, 12a 300, 400 12.43 

Gerald, Isaac F. House 1,100, 10a 300, 1,400 24.82 
Gerald, Henry F. House 700, barn 200, la 200, 20a 

500, 1,600 28.08 

Gay, John, . Personal, 25 

House 600, 4a 200, 800 15.45 

Gay, John, Jr. House 500, .25a 100, 600 11.78 

1 Hellyar, Samuel H. Personal, 5,500 

House 1,200, .50a 300, 1,500 116.10 

Henehan, James. House 1,000, .25a 150, 1,150 20.75 

Hitchcock, W. 0. House 2,700, .25a 300, 3,000 50.90 

Hitchcock, "W. H. House 2,300, barn 100, .50a 350, 2,750 46.83 

Hitchcock & Blanchard. Personal, 1,080 17.60 

Hawkes, J. A. Personal, 80 

House 1,400, barn 150, .25a 300, 1,850 33.46 

Holbrook, Chas. D. Personal, 1,475 

House 2,000, barn 200, .37a 300, .13a 800, part 

of Commercial Block, 4,500, 7,800 153.18 


District. Name and Description. Valuation. Tax. 

1 Holbrook, Joseph F. Personal, $1,200 $ 

House 2,500, house 1,700, barn 350, .34a. 600, 

.34a 600, coal sheds 700, 6,450 126.70 

Holbrook, William. Personal, 300 

House 2,500, barn 200, office 300, house 400, new 

house 1,700, barn 200, .50a 1,500, 14a 2,300, .20a 

100, 9,200 156.85 

Haynes, John H. Personal, 700 

.50a 300, 300 18.30 

Hatch, Freeman C. Personal, 2,425 

House 1,600, barn 200, ice house 50, .25a 250, 2,100 75.76 

Hills, Adeline. House 2,200, .38a 300, 2,500 40.75 

Hills, Albert L. House 1,000, house 600, .25a 200, 1,800 31.34 

Harvey, J.N. House 600, .13a 150, 750 14.23 

Holden, John S. Personal, 375 

House 4,000, barn 300, house 1,500, 1.13a 1,000, 

.12a 150, 6,950 121.40 

Holden, J. S. & Co. Personal, 14,600 

Factory 10,000, house 500, 10,500 409.13 

Holden, J. S. & H. P. 11a 1,500, 1,500 24.45 

Holden, Henry P. Personal, 175 

House 4,300, barn 200, tenement house 1,000, 

.25a 600, .25a 125, 6,225 106.32 

Holden, D. F. Personal, 125 

House 2,500, barn 200, .75a 700, .75a 100, 28a 

100, 3,600 62.72 

Huntington, H. T. Personal, 65 

House 1,800, barn 150, .25a 200, 2,150 38.11 

Holt, Andrew L. Personal, 25 2.41 

Hunt, Mrs. Susan. House 900, barn 75, .25a 125, 1,100 17.93 
Hamilton, Mrs. Jane. House 900, barn 100, 3.50a 

300, 1,300 21.19 

Hanson, John. Personal, 125 

House 400, barn 50, 60a 400, 48a 200, 1,050 21.16 

Hurley, Patrick F. Personal, 170 

House 200, barn 50, 113a 650, 900 19.45 

Hancock, Wm. E. Personal, 25 

House 350, barn 50, .50a 75, 475 10.15 

Hancock, Harry O. Personal, 30 .49 

Hastings, E. G. House 7,000, barn 400, .75a 800, 8,200 135.66 

2 Hanifin, Jerry. Personal, 25 

House 650, house 350, barn 50, .25a 200, 6a 

100, 1,350 22.42 

Hanifin, John F. House 800, shop 1,000, .25a 250, 2,050 35.42 

Holden, Chas. L. Personal, 2,650 

House 900, store 1,100, barn 100, house 500, 

.13a 200, .16a 75, 2,875 92.06 


District. Name and Description. Valuation. Tax. 

3 Haynes, Artemus L. Personal, $825 $ 

House 800, barn 150, barn 100, barn 50, house 

700, .25a 200, 4a 250, .75a 200, 5a 250, 10a 40, 

5a 25, 2,765 58.52 

Hanley, Mary. Hotel 3,000, .12a 200, 3,200 52.16 

Hunn, Mrs. Ruby. House 800, barn 100, la 200, 1,100 17.93 

Harrington, John. House 300, barn 50, .50a 100. 450 7.34 
Howard, Adelia. Three-fourths house 1,500, .20a 

200, 1,700 27.71 

Hartnett, Thomas. Personal, 50 

House 1,200, barn 100, hennery 100, 5.50a 500, 1,900 33.79 

Hubert, Isaac. Personal, 85 

House 250, barn 50, 2a 50, 350 9.09 

Hitchcock, Justus. 4.50a 300, 300 6.89 

4 Hitchcock, Marshall. Two-thirds house 750, two- 

thirds barn 75, .25a 125, 950 15.48 

Houston, Richard R. House 850, barn 100, 2a 350, 1,300 23.19 

Haney, Daniel. Houise 400, barn 50, 5.50a 230, 700 13 41 
Hendricks, Mrs. Mary. House 550, shop 100, .50a 

300, .75a 50, exempt 500, 500 8. 15 

Harvey, Wm. Personal, 50 

House 700, two barns 200, .25a 150, 38.34a 800, 

46a 700, 2,550 44.39 

Hale, E. M. House 850, house 400, barn 150, .7oa 200, 1,600 28.08 

Haley, Cornelius. House 650, .25a 100, 750 12.23 

Hovey, Wm. (Monson). House 400, barn 100, 2a 50, 650 10.00 

Hamess, Israel. Personal, 70 3 14 

Hastings, R. S. Personal, 150 

House 700, barn 100, 77a 700, 1,500 28. iK) 

Hastings, R. S., Jr. Personal, 275 

House 350, two barns 200, 76a 800, 1,350 28. '9 

Hamilton, James O. Personal, 1,225 

House 800, two barns 200, 200a 3,000, 30a 200, 4,200 90.43 
Hamilton, Horace. House 450, barn 50, .50a 50, 

40a 350, 900 16. i)? 

Hartnett, Ellen. House 750, .25a 150, exempt 500, 400 6.:)2 

Harkness, Joseph. Shop 40, 1.38a 200, 240 3.91 

1 Jones, Julia A. House 600, .50a 200, exempt 500, 300 4.89 

Johnson, Albert H. House 500, .25a 75, 575 11.37 

Johnson, Chas. O. Personal, 103 

House 200, barn 50, 41a 300, 550 12.65 
Johnson, Mrs. Candice. House 900, .12a 100, ex- 
empt 500, 500 8.15 
Johnson, Calvin W. Personal, 125 

House 1,400, barn 100, barn 50, double house 

1,800, .38a 400, .12a 200, la 100, 4,050 70.06 

Justin, George H. House 700, .38a 200, 900 16.67 


District. Name and Description. Valuation. Tax. 

3 Jones, Stephen. Personal, $75 $ 

House 200, barn 50, 3a 100, 10a 200, la 25, 575 12.59 

Jarvis, Anatal. Personal, 150 4.45 

1 King, Joseph, estate. Personal, 865 

House 800, barns 200, 234a 2,300, 3,300 67.89 
Klnnevan, Mrs. Michael. One-half house 150, one- 
half barn 25, 100a 825, exempt 500, 500 8.15 
Kinnevan, John. Personal, 190 

House 400, barn 100, 57a 500, 1,000 21.40 

Kinnevan, Patrick. Personal, 65 

House 250, barn 100, 73a 600, 950 18.54 

Knox, Cyrus. House 3,000, .50a 500, 3,500 59.05 

Knox, J. K. Personal, 582 

House 900, barn 200, 200a 2,400, 3,500 68.53 

Knox, David. Personal, 950 

House 2,000, barn 200, house 800, la 900, 40a 3,000, 

48a 600, .25a 200, 7,700 142.99 

Keith, Chas. H. Personal, 100 

House 1,200, barn 200, .63a 250. 1,650 30.53 

Keith, Joseph H. Personal, 280 

House 600, barn 100, 136a 1,400, 2,100 40.79 
Kurtz, William. House 1,700, house 1,000, shop 75, 

.3Sa 500, 3,275 55.38 

Kendall, Herman M. Personal, 225 

House 600, barn 200, 145a 1,630, 15a 200, 2,630 48.53 
Kenerson, Geo. B. House 1,200, house 1,000, house 

900, house 800, shop 100, .87a 350, .63a 300, .38a 

100, 4,750 79.43 

2 Knowlton, A. P. Personal, 100 3.63 

3 Kehner, John. Personal, 200 5.26 

4 Keith, G. W. Personal, 330 

House 400, .2.5a 100, 500 15.53 
Keith, Fanny M. House 700, barn 100, 60a 1,200, 

16a 100, 2,100 34.23 
Kent, Miss Dolly. House 600, .25a 100, exempt 

500, 200 3.26 

Kelley, Jeremiah. Personal, 125 

House 700, barn 50, .25a 100, 15a 600. 1,4.50 27.68 

Keefe, Timothy. Personal, 220 

House 400, barn 100, 49a 900, 1,400 28.40 

King, Geo. A. Personal, 270 

House 1,000, house 200, two barns 200, 18.50a 

500, 40a 600, 20a 100, 20a 100, 12a 300, 3,000 55.30 

Kendall, F. M. Personal, 155 

House 500, barn 100, 65a 800, 1,400 27.35 

Kerrigan, Joseph. Personal, 900 

House 600, two barns 200, 150a 1,500, 125a 500, 








District. Name and Desciiptlon. 

house 2,000, 76a 250, house 1.100, .75a 300, house 

800, 75a 200, 
1 LaSalle, Oliver. .13a 125, 

Lawrence, S. "W. PersoDal, 75 

House 2,100, barn 150, 1.50a 1,000, house 1,200, 

.25a 150, house 1,000, barn 100, house 2,000, 7,700 128.73 
Lawrence, Mrs. Maria. House 5,000, block 5,000, 

barn 275, la 2,000, Walnut street house 700, Wal- 
nut street house 600, .38a 300, East Central street 

900, East Central street house 1,000, .50a 400, 

West Central street house 700, West Central 

street house 500, .38a 300, Pleasant street house 

1,000, Pleasant street barn 200, .50a 300, barn 

100, house 200, 19,475 317.44 

Lawrence, Hubbard. Personal, 2,000 

House 1,900, house 1,100, shop 1,000, .50a 350, 4,350 105.51 

Loomis, Mrs. Albert. House 900, barn 50, .25a 200, 1,150 18.75 

Loomis, H. G. Personal, 1,585 

House 1,100, barn 200, .75a 400, .50a 500, 2,200 63.69 

Loomis, J. S. Personal, 235 

House 2,500, barn 300, .75a 500, 68a 1,000, 4,300 75.92 

Loomis, J. S & H. G. Personal, 1,800 29,34 

LeGro & Lynde. Personal, 3,500 57.05 

LeGro, Charles A. House 1,100, .10a 100, 1,200 21.56 

Lynde, James P., Jr. Personal, 100 3.63 

Lacey, John N. Personal, 75 

House 1,800, barn 150, .25a 300, 2,250 39.90 

Lyman, Geo. W. Personal, 80 

House 1,600, barn 50, shop 150, .88a 200, 2,000 85.90 

Lacouline, Jacob. House 1,300, .37a 150, 1,450 25.64 

Leach, Survetus. Personal, 150 

House 1,200, shop 350, .50a 350, 1,900 35.42 

Lynch, Edward. Personal, 45 

House 300, barn 100, 100a 500, 900 17.40 

Leary, Cornelius. Personal, 115 

House 700, barn 100, la 300, 1,100 19.81 

Lamb, David P. House 400, .25a 100, 500 10.15 

Lusty, Robert. House 550, la 50, 600 9.78 

Lacy, John. House 400, barn 75, 11a 225, 700 13.41 

Lynes, Timothy. Personal, 35 

House 450, barn 75, 7a 400 925 17.65 

Lehan, John. Personal, 25 

House 850, .50a 150, 1,000 18.71 

Lamy, Rev. Ant. A. Personal, 100 

House 1,200, barn 100, .50a 150, house 000, .25a 

100, old church 600, la 150, Burns lot 4a 500, 

Ruggles lot .50a 200, 3,600 62.31 

VALUATION" AND TAX, 1888. 369 

strict. Name and Description. Valuation. Tax. 
Lamy, Ant, A,, and French Catholic Society. Par- 
sonage 3,500, .25a 200, $3,700 $60.80 
Lamy, Severe. Personal, 50 2.82 
Lamy, Charles. Personal, 4() 

House 600, barn 100, 10a 700, 1,400 25.47 

Lamorene, Fred. Personal, 250 

House 400, barn 75, 39a 525, 1,000 22.37 

Lane, Daniel. Personal, 25 2.41 

Lawler, Morris. Personal, 740 

House 600, barn 150, 100a 1,200, 1,950 45,85 
Lawler, Catherine. House 200, barn 50, 76a 850, 

house 350, .37a 150, 1,100 17.93 

Loftus, John. House 400, .25a 300, 700 13.41 

Lawton, William, & Medcalf, W. A. Personal, 1,340 

House 1,200, shop 1,200, ice house 100, Hastings 

house 750, Hastings barn 100, .50a 400, 2.87a 

350, .50a 100, 4,200 94.30 

Lynch, Kev. F. J. • Personal, 175 

House 3,300, barn 300, 2.25a 400, hoixse 800, 

barn 50, 2a 300, 5,150 88.81 

Lynch, Patrick. Personal, 60 

House 1,100, barn 100, 18a 400, 1,600 29.06 

Lynch, Jerry. House 800, barn 50, .75a 150, 1,000 18.30 

Leary, Cornelius. Personal, 50 

House 900, barn 100, .25a 100, 1,100 20.75 

Leary, Dennis. House 800, barn 50, la 300, 1,150 20.75 
Leary, Daniel F. House 1,000, house 600, barn 50, 

2.50a 450, 2,100 36.23 

Lynes, Thomas. House 900, .S8a 125, 1,025 18.71 

Lamb, Reuben. Personal, 80 3.30 

Lumau, John F, House 800, .63a 200, 1,000 18.30 

^miigan, W. R. Personal, 1,500 

House 1,500, .25a 200, .25a 300, .82a 300, 2,300 63.94 

Marcy, Oscar C. Personal, 3,000 

House 1,000, .25a 200, barn and sheds 2,000, 

.50a 1,250, 4,450 123.44 

Marcy, F, F, Personal, 3,225 

House 1,500, house 1,500, lumber shed 500, shop 

and office 600, .50a 200, 1.50a 500, .50a 200, 5,000 136.06 

Mitchell, Lysander. House 500, barn 25, 2a 250, 775 14.63 

Merriam, Frank W. la 50, 50 2.82 

Merriam, William. Personal, 125 4.04 

McQuaid, R. A. .38a 125, 125 4.04 

Merrick, Mrs. A. C. House 1,100, .25a 250, 1,850 22.01 

Munger, H. W. Personal, 2,050 

House 1,100, barn 100, house 600, house 800, 

house 300, barn 50, shop 600, paint shop 50, 


District. Name and Description. Valuation. Tax. 
.25a 250, .25a 200, .13a 300, 20a 300, .07a 200, 

30a 125, $4,975 $116.51 

1 Moynahan, John J. Personal, 450 

House 1,000, barn 100, house 750, .50a 300, .13a 

250, 2,400 48.46 

Monahan, Thomas. House 400, .25a 125, 525 10.56 

Mack, Mrs. Mary. Personal, 25 

House 600, 3a 400, 1,000 16.71 

Murphy, Patrick. House 500, barn 25, .75a 150, 675 13.00 
Murphy, John. House 600, barn 50, house 350, 

1.50a 250, .25a 100, 1,350 24.01 

Murphy, William. House 500, barn 50, .25a 200, 750 14.23 
Miller, W. E. and heirs of P. H. One-half house 

900, .13a 200, 1,100 17.93 

Miller, W. E. House 1,050, .25a 250, 1,300 21.19 

Maloney, Michael. House 750, .25a 250, exempt 500, 500 8.15 

Morgan, Geo. 8a 125, 125 2.04 

Morgan, Franklin, estate. 10a 100, 100a 400, 500 8.15 

Mahoney, D. J. House 300, barn 100, 3a 50, 450 7.33 

Moore, L.E. House 1,800, .12a 200, 2,000 34.60 

2 Murdock, A. R. House 550, barn 100, 1.25a 250 900 14.67 
Moriarity, John, estate. House and saloon 500, tene- 
ment and store 1,000, barn 50, .50a 200, .38a 150, 1,900 30.97 

Moriarity, Maurice. Personal, 1,200 

House 600, .50a 300, 900 36 23 

Moriarity, John. House 400, .07a 100, 500 10.15 

Moynahan, Bart. Personal, 120 

House 350, barn 50 .25a 500, 900 18.63 

McKelligot, Patrick. House 350, house 250, 5a 200, 800 13 04 

McKelligot, Maurice. House 350, .13a 50, 400 8.52 

McKeany, Rev. B. Personal, 200 

House 1,200, house 700, barn 200, .50a 200, 2,500 46.01 
Methodist Society. Parsonage 600, .25a 100, par- 
sonage 600, 2a 100, barn 100, 1,500 24.75 

3 Mason, Wm. H. Personal, 50 

.30a 100, 100 4.45 

McDugal, Personal, 25 

House 800, barn 100, 1.25a 200, 1,100 20.34 

4 Murdock, E. G. Personal, 1,050 

House 1,700, barn 150, la 300, store 1,100, 1.13a 

250, house 500, .12a 75, house 750, .75a 250, barn 

25, 3.50a 200, 2.50a 1.50, .50a 50, 5,500 108.77 

McAuliff, Honora. House 1,100, .38a 200, 1,300 21.19 
McCormick, Maurice. House and store 1,800, barn 

150, small house and store 400, .50a 400, 2,750 46.83 

Mooers, Geo. Personal, 3,450 

House 2,200, barn 400, shed 100, 3a 500, new 


District. Name and Description. Valuation. Tax. 

house 600, .25a 50, new house 500, .07a 50, two 

houses 600, 100a 2,500, two barns 200, barn 100, 

Three Rivers house 1,100, la 200, barn 100, house 

and store 700, Thomas lot 2.50a 250, Ferrill lot 

70a 900, Sedgwick lot 90a 500, "Whipple lot 66a 

400, $11,950 $253.03 

4 Mooers, Geo. 0. Personal, 75 

House 350, barn 150, 20a 300, 800 16.26 

Mayette, Frank. Personal, 100 

Store and tenement 1,500, barn 100, .13a 200, 1,800 32.97 

McGilp, Ellen. House 800, .45a 175, 975 15.89 

Molloy, John. Personal, 125 

Two houses 1,600, two barns 150, 1.5a 250, 10a 

300, 5a 50, 2,350 40.35 

Moynahan, Andrew. 8a 75, 75, 3.23 

McKelligot, Edward. Personal, 125 

Barn 150, .25a 100, 250 8.11 

Mahoney, Dennis. Personal, 560 

House 600, barn 300, 303a 1,765, 2,665 54.57 

Miller, Adrian. Personal, 277 

House 400, two barns 150, 74a 600, 1,150 25.26 

McCarty, Chas. Personal, 25 

House 550, barn 50, 2.50a 200, 800 15.45 

McClentock, Julia. House 800, .25a 150, exempt 500, 450 7.34 

1 Nelson, William. Personal, 25 

House 200, barn 25, 4.25a 200, 425 9.34 

Northrop, H. A. Personal, 825 

House 1,600, barn 100, .25a 200, house 1,400, 

.25a 150, ice house 200, mill 200, 28a 500, 4,350 86.36 

Northrop, A. J. Personal, 250 

House 1,800, barn 200, .50a 400, Three Rivers 

house 800, barn 100, .63a. 200, 5a 25, 28a 500, 4,025 71.68 

New London Northern R. R. Co. House 600, .25a 

200, house 1,700, .25a 500, freight house 1,000, 

two engine houses 2,400, 6a 1,200, 1.25a 1,000, 

2.50a 600, 

3 Newell, R. 0. Personal, 
Nichols, Samuel S. 

4 Naylor, Joseph. Personal, 

House 500, shop 25, .70a 75, barn 100, 20a 175, 
26.63a 300, 
1 Olmstead, Abigail. House 1,700, .25a 200, 

O'Neil, John. Personal, 

House 300, barn 100, 16a 200, 10a 200, 3a 100, 
O'Brien, Patrick. House 300, .75a 100, 
3 Olds, Amos. Personal, 

Barn 100, 13.50a 375, 





















'trict. Name and Description. Valuation. Tax. 
Olds, Mrs. S. M. House 1,200, barn 100, 3.25a 

450, .$1,750 $28.53 

Orcutt, Frank. Personal, 130 

House 450, barn 100, 85a 1,000, 1,550 29.39 

O'Connor, Catharine. Personal, 650 

Block 3,700, .25a 300, 4,000 75.80 
Olney, Dora. House 200, 140a 750, barn 50, exempt 

500, • 500 8.15 

Pierce, Frank L. Personal, 150 4.45 

Park, A. E. Personal, 1,575 

House 2,500, barn 200, .50a 300, 3,000 76.57 
Parks, W.R. House 1,800, .50a 200, two houses 

800, la 350, 3,150 53.35 

Provost, Joseph. Personal, 50 2.82 

Palmer, Jason A. Personal, 125 

House 1,800, house 800, barn 200, la 500, .25a 

125, 17a 400, 80a 1,800, 35a 400, 6,025 102.25 

Parkhurst, L. G. Personal, 80 3.30 

Palmer Carpet Co. Machinerj', 27,900 

Factory buildings 6,000, three houses 4,000, 

storehouse and office 1,200, Clark house 700, 

Clark barn 100, 14a 1,500, barn 100, 13,600 676.45 
Palmer Savings Bank. Block 6,500, office 300, 

bakery 1,800, tin shop 500, .25a 500, .25a 300, 9,900 161.37 

Palmer Wire Mfg. Co. Machinery, 6,000 

Mill buildings 12,000, five tenement houses 4,000, 

barn 100, land 42a 2,600, 18,700 402.61 

Palmer Water Co. 19a 400, 400 6.52 
Palmer Electric Light Co. Unfinished building, 

800, .25a 100, 900 14.67 

Powers, Geo. W. .50a 100, 100 1.63 

Plympton, Porter. Personal, 15 2.24 

Pasco, Sarah S. House 600, barn 100, ICa 350, 1,050 17.12 

Parent, O. A. Personal, 3,650 

Barn 50, store and tenement 2,000, .50a 450, 100a 

600, 3,100 112.03 

Parsons, B. D. House 850, barn 50, .25a 150, 1,050 19.12 

Packard, F. A. Personal, 60 2.98 
Potter, T. D. House 1,250, barn 200, .75a 300, 

house 1,200, 7a 250, house 800, barn 100, 6.75a 

700, 4,800 80.24 

Potter, T. D. & Co. Personal, 4,400 

Lumber sheds and office 500, ice house 300, .75a 

400, 1,200 91.28 

Pease, Justus. House 600, barn 50, 50a 150, 800 13.04 

Paine, Horace R. Personal, 50 2.82 

Potter, Edward T. Personal, 75 3.22 



















VALUATIOlSr AND TAX, 1888. 373 

District. Name and Description. 

8 Powell, 0. A. Personal, 

Two-thirds house 700, two-thirds barn 100, 34a 
100, 1.75a 100, 4.50a 100, 
Powell, Harriet S. One-third house 350, one-third 

barn 50, .17a 50, .75a 50, 2.25a 50, exempt 500, 
Poole, Thomas M. House 200, barn 100, 87a 800, 
4 Page, B. B. House 700, barn 100, .50a 200, 

Prindable, Morris. Personal, 

House 200, barn 50, 100a 500, 
Pheneuf, Fred. House 600, house 700, .50a 200, 
Palmer Mill of Otis Co. Machinery, 

Factory and buildings 121,450, forty-four houses 
64,125, store 1,350, stone grist mill 100, 7 barns 
1,050, land for buildings 20a 4,000, land for 
farm, etc., 265a 5,300, water power 8,000, 205,375 6,304.53 

1 Kead & Hearn. Personal, 1,300 21.19 
Robinson, Charles. House 1,800, .25a 250, 2,050 35.42 
Robinson, George. Personal, 1,025 

House 1,400, house 500, barn 150, barn 100, .25a 

400, .12a 100, 118a 1,700, 4,850 97.76 

Rhodes, William. House 600, .35a 100, 700 13.41 

Rice, Geo. A. 4.38a 350, 350 7.71 

Roach, Thomas. House 1,000, .63a 150, 1,150 20.75 

Rourke, Bryan. Personal, 50 

House 350, barn 100, 90a 700, 1,150 21.57 

Rich, John C. House 800, 2.25a 300, 1,100 19.93 

Rich, Otis H. House 800, .50a 150, 950 17.48 

Randall, Geo. W. Personal, 75 

House 1,400, barn 100, 5a 500, 2,000 35.82 
Ronan, Mary. House 1,200, barn 100, .75a 400, 4a 

100, 1,800 29.34 

Ronan, David. .25a 150, 150 4.45 

Rose, Mrs. Matilda. House 900, .13a 100, exempt 500, 500 8.15 

2 Russell, Richard. Personal, 100 3.63 

3 Roberts, Cyprian. Personal, 65 

House 450, la 100, 550 12.03 

Roberts, Charles. House 150, la 100, 250 4.07 

Russell, Charles. Personal, 150 4.45 

Ruggles, Silas. Personal, 245 

House 1,000, house 900, house 450, house 400, 

house 700, house 600, house 450, house 500, tank- 
house 200, four barns 650, 1.50a 300, 25a 1,500 

34a 1,600, .12a 50, la 100, 9a 150, 3a 100, 9,650 163.39 
Ruggles, Charles S. House 350, house 500, barn 50, 

4a 300, 1,100 19.93 

Rivers, Fred. Personal, 65 

House 350, barn 50, 2a 100, 500 11.21 


District. Name and Description. Valuation. Tax. 

3 Rogers, N. K. Personal, $100 $ 

House 700, .50a 150, house 600, la 100, house 

and saloon 1,450, two barns 200, .50a 300, 3,500 60.58 

4 Riley, John. House 750, .13a 50, 800 15.04 
Riley, Patrick. House 550, barn 50, 12a 350, 950 17.48 
Riley, Daniel. House 600, barn 50, la 100, 750 12.23 
Ramsden, Andrew. Personal, 50 

House 1,000, barn 100, .38a 150. 1,250 23.20 
Roche, Michael. House and saloon 1,500, barn 100, 

•25a 200, 1,800 31.34 

Rich, George B. Personal, 135 

House 700, barn 100, 46a 550, 1,350 26.22 

Root, Frank. Personal, 25 

House 750, barn 50, 1.50a 150, 950 17.89 

Ryan, James. Personal, 205 

House 200, barn 100, 15a 150, 20a 300, 20a 150, 

40a 150, 8a 100, 15a 200, 1,350 27.35 

1 Sexton, E.G. Two houses 2,000, shop 200, .25a 250, 2,450 41.93 

Sanders, Horace H. House 1,300, .13a 200, 1,500 26.45 

Saunders, Gharles L. Personal, 375 

House 700, .12a 100 800 21.15 

Sanders, William. House 450, .25a 75, 525 10.56 

Smith & Co. Personal, 1,500 24.45 

Smith, S. W. Personal, 60 

House 1,700, barn 200, .25a 600, 3a 350, 3a 200, 3,050 52.70 

Smith, H. W. Personal, 150 

House 1,000, barn 75, .25a 250, 1.325 26.05 

Smith, John H. Personal, 125 4.04 

Smith, Horace C. Personal, 392 

House 300, barn 100, 113a 800, 18a 200, 1,400 31.21 

Smith, R. 0. F. Personal, 350 

House 500, barn 75, 31a 550, 1,125 26.08 

Smith, John W. House 900, .25a 125, 1,025 18.71 

Smith, Charles. House 175, la 25, 200 5.26 

Stone, G. P. Personal, 1,500 26.45 

Stone, George N. Personal, 25 

House 600, house 700, house 300, two barns 200, 

shops 400, shop 200, shop 50, barn 25, .13a 50, 

3a 150, .12a 50, la 75, .12a 50, 22a 250, 3,100 52.94 
Sedgwick, Frank G. House 1,600, barn 200, .38a 

300, 2,100 36.23 

Sedgwick, Mary £. House 1,600, .50a 300, 9a 100, 2,000 32.60 

Stowe, W. H. Personal, 180 

House 1,900, .12a 200, 17a 800, 2,900 52.21 

Squicr, John A. Personal, 40 

House 3,600, barn 200, .38a 800, house 400, 

house 600, .50a 700, house at Blanchardville 

VALUATlOISr AND TAX, 1888. 375 

trict. Name and Description. Valuation. Tax. 

1,000, 13a 250, house at Blanchardville 200, .38a 

300, barn 100, 1.12a 200, il;8,350 $138.76 

Studley, O. W. Personal, 750 

House 1,050, barn 100, .63a 200, 1,350 36.24 

Shaw, J. B. Personal, 3,525 

House 4,000, barn 300, .56a 800, .75a 700, 5,800 154.00 

Shaw, Mrs. Mary A. House 1,100, .25a 250, 1,350 22.01 

Shaw, Mrs. Malvina. House 1,100, .25a 250, 1,350 22.01 

Shaw, Freeman W. Personal, 30 

House 350, 2a 100, 450 9.83 

Shaw, George M. House 550, barn 75, .75a 150, 775 14.63 

.Shaw, Calvin K. Personal, 255 

House600, barn 100, carriage barn 50, 130a 1,400, 2,150 41.20 

Shaw, Frank M. House 400, barn 50, .50a 100, 550 10.97 

Sullivan, Kev. T, J. Personal, 175 

House 2,900, barn 150, 2a 600, 3,650 64.36 
Sullivan, Mary. House 900, .13a 150, house 400, 

.25a 100, 1,550 25.27 

Shanks, J. W. Personal, 60 

House 1,900, barn 100, .25a 400, 2,400 43.10 

Shumway, S. M. House 700, .38a 200, 900 16.67 

Shumway, Geo. W. House 1,300, .38a 150, 1,450 25.64 

Sherman, Horatio. House 300, barn 50, .38a 100, 450 9.34 

Sherman, Merrick A. Personal, 250 

House 400, two barns 200, 120a 900, 1,500 30.52 

Stevens, C. N. House 500, .38a 100, 600 9.78 

Stebbins, L. W. House 900, .50a 125, 1,025 18.71 

Strong, H. C. Personal, 250 

House 800, office 200, .50a 250, 1,250 26.45 
Strong, L. E. House 800, .25a 200, barn 150, 10a 

500, 1,650 26.90 

Strong, H. C. & L. E. Personal, 1,500 

Hotel block 10,000, block 4,500, new barn 800, 

.75a 4,000, 19,300 339.04 

Simmons, Jacob. Personal, 1,500 26.45 

Shearer, Purlin. Personal, 257 

House 1,000, house 350, three barns 300, 19a 

1,200, 2,850 52.64 

Shearer, Purlin M. Personal, 145 4.37 

Sears & Cook. Personal, 1,075 17.53 

Snow, Lyman C. Personal, 300 

House 1,000, barn 200, 13a 800, 5a 100, 3,100 41.12 

Shumway, Charles E. Personal, 150 4.45 

Sedgwick, Butler. Personal, 100 

House 800, barn 100, .50a 250, 1,150 22.38 

Sullivan, James. House 300, .25a 50, 350 7.71 

Sullivan, Michael J. House 800, .25a 50, 350 7.71 











% 400, ex- 






District. Name and Description. 

2 Sullivan, Michael, 3d. .25a 100, 
Sullivan, John D. House 100, la 100, 
Sullivan, Humphrey. 

House 350, barn 100, 7a 250, 
Sullivan, Mary. House 400, barn 100, 

empt 500, 
Slattery, Michael. 

House 250, barn 200, barn 50, .13a 50, 110a 

1,300, 1,850 37.05 
Slattery, Bridget. House 600, .07a 100, exempt 

500, 200 3.26 
Smith, H. A. Personal, 150 4.45 
Smith, O. B. Personal, 3,250 54.97 
Smith, Charles A. Personal, 75 3.22 
Squares, Alice. House 600, house 200, 38a 200, ex- 
empt 500, ' 500 8.15 
Southwick, Mrs. Peter. House 700, barn 50, la 250, 

exempt 500, 500 8.15 

Shaw, H. D. Personal, 150 4.45 

Shea, Jerry. Personal, 2,550 

One-half block 1,800, barn and shed 200, .38a 

200, 1,700 71.28 

Shea, Michael. House 250, .25a 100, 350 7.71 

3 Sugrue, Dennis. Personal, 35 

House 300, 3a 300 600 10.35 

Smart, Peter. Personal, 75 3.22 

Smart, Leander. Personal, 50 2.82 

Sharp, James. Personal, 55 

House 600, barn 100, .25a 100, 800 13.94 

Shaw Brothers. Personal, 2,100 

Store 1,200, .07a 200, 1,400 57.05 

Squares, Laura. House 700, .50a 150, 850 13.85 

Stebbins, D. M. House 500, barn 50, .50a 150, 700 11.41 

Sullivan, Michael. Personal, 25 2.41 

Sullivan, Thomas. House 500, .25a 150, 650 10.60 

Sirois, Eucharist. Personal, 225 5.67 

Sikes, O. B. Personal, 700 

House 900, house 250, three barns 250, cider mill 

100, 278a 3,400, 4,900 93.28 

Sikes, Otis B. .25a 300, 300 4.89 

4 Sullivan, Daniel J. House 550, .25a 150, 700 13.41 
Sullivan, Dennis. House 950, barn 100, .50a 250, 1,300 23.19 
Sawyer, J. D. Personal, 575 

House 650, .75a 150, house 400, barn 300, 46a 

800, soap shop 200, 31.50a 800, 3,300 65.16 

Sugrue, Jeremiah. Personal, 25 

House 750, la 200, barn 50, 20a 100, 1,100 20.34 


District. Name and Description. Valuation. Tax. 

4 Sugrue, Honora. House 500, unfinished house 50, 

.38a 150, $700 $11.41 

Staples, James H. Personal, 100 3.63 

Snow, Fred. Personal, 150 4.45 

Snow, Hazel G. Personal, 255 

House 450, barn 100, 13a 250, 800 19.00 

St. John, Mary. Personal, 395 

House 200, 113a 800, barn 100, 6a 60, 1,160 25.35 

Sampson, Fred. Personal, 50 

Unfinished house 500, .13a 100, 600 12.60 

Shea, Patrick. House 375, .20a 75, 450 9.34 

Smith, Austin R. Personal, 766 

House 500, 25a 2,500, barn 300, 35a 150, 3,450 70.73 

Smith, Sarah J. House 600, barn 100, 1.50a 400, 1,100 17.93 

Smith, Charles F. Personal, 1,505 

House 650, barn 300, 226a 2,300, house 50, .67a 

250, 3,550 84.40 

Smith, Eli. Personal, 335 

House 700, two barns 200, 207a 3,000, 3,900 71.03 

Shaw, Charles R. Personal, 550 

House 300, 300a 2,000, house 700, 6a 120, barn 

200, 16a 60, 28a 200, 25a 75, 52a 450, 60a 450, 4,555 85.22 

Shorley, Eugene. Personal, 440 

House 400, barn 300, cider mill 100, 180a 1,200, 2,000 41.76 

Stimpson, Harriet A. Personal, 420 

House 400, 75a 1,000, barn 200, 12a 50, 12a 50, 

91a 800, 2,000 39.49 

1 Thompson, Joseph, estate. House 1,800, barn 300, 

.25a 400, store 1,000, store house 200, shop 200, 

.50a 1,500, Bondsville house 700, 10a 100, barn 

100, .30a 250, shop 50, 10a 100, 
Thompson, Mary. Personal, 

Two houses 1,500, .38a 300, 
Thompson, William. Personal, 

House 1,200, barn 100, .25a 300, 
Thompson, William A. Personal, 

House 800, .50a 150, barn 100, .50a 100, 
Tiffany, Mrs. Lucy D., estate. House 1,400, 13a 

300, house 400, barn 50, 21a 900, 
Tuthill, James H. House 2,200, .32a 400, house 

1,600, .13a 250, shops 800, .12a 125, 
Tanner, Luther W. House 1,200, barn 150, .40a 250, 
Tesch, Charles H. House 1,000, .38a 300, 
Tyler, Mary E. House 900, .25a 250, 
Taft, Ida A. House 850, .25a 150, exempt 500, 
Taft, S. S. Personal, 

House 1,800, .50a 400, barn 200, .50a 250, house 


























District. Name and Description. Valuation. Tax. 
750, .35a 125, barn 75, 50a 200, house 600, la 

525, two houses 800, 25a 450, barn 75, .25a 200, $6,450 $108.36 

1 Taylor, Newell S. House 800, .25a 200, 1,000 18.30 

2 Taylor, William S. Personal, 100 

House 500, barn 75, 8a 400, 975 19.52 

Thomas, Catherine. Personal, 25 

House 350, barn 50, la 100, 500 8.56 

3 Twiss, John F. Personal, 1,600 

.38a 150, 150 30.53 
Twiss, Mary. House 650, barn 50, 1.50a 200, ex- 
empt 500, 400 6.52 
Trudeau & Rivers. Personal, 3,500 57.05 
Thayer, Henry. Personal, 75 

Barn 50, .50a 400, 450 8.56 

Talmadge, William. Personal, 225 

House 400, barn 100, 56a 600, 1,100 23.59 

Talmadge, Harriet. House 800, barn 50, .50a 200, 1,050 17.12 

Tenney, D. E. Personal, 250 

One-half house 350, 54.75a 600, barn 100, 15a 

150, 10a 100, 24a 75, 1,375 28.48 
Tenney, Lewis M. House 300, 18a 300, barn 100, 

13a 150, 15a 150, 20a 200, 24a 75, 1,275 20.78 
Tenney, Harriet A. One-half house 350, 31a 500, 

barn 100, 10a 100, 10a 120, 24a 75, 1,245 20,29 

Tracy, Henry. Personal, . 75 

House 350, 14a 200, barn 50, 3a 50, 650 13.82 

Thompson, Jane. House 1,100, la 200, 1,300 21.19 
Turner, Tryphenia. House 300, barn 100, 80a 500, 

exempt, 500, 400 6.52 

4 Thomas, Phila. House 1,400, barn 100, la 300, 1,800 29.34 
Truesdell, Erskine. Personal, 100 3.63 
Trumble, Warren. Personal, 100 3.63 
Trumble, Alfred. Personal, 390 

House 500, barn 200, 96a 1,000, 1,700 36.07 

Thornhill, W. S. Personal, 65 

House 400, la 100, 500 11.21 

Thayer, Onando. House 600, barn 100, la 150, 850 13.85 

Talmadge, Nathaniel. Personal, 250 6.07 

Thurston, Ralph. Personal, 125 4.04 

Thompson, W. J. Personal, 125 4.04 

Thorndike Company. Machinery, 176,825 

Factory buildings 95,800, forty-six houses 49,700, 

three barns 1,400, saw and grist mill 350, 280a 

5,600, 7a (Forest lake) 300, 20a with buildings 

4,000, water power 10,000, 167,150 5,606.80 

1 Upham, Charles. Personal, 125 

House 700, 60a 1,300, barn 100, .13a 25, 40a 150, 2,275 41.13 

VALUATION AND TAX, 1888. ;^79 

District. Name and Description. Valuation. Tax. 

1 Whiton, Nelson. Personal, $80 $3.30 
Winter, Walter. House 2,600, shop 150, .50a 600, 3,350 .56.61 
Wilder, W. J. , W. H. and Joseph. House 400, .25a 

100, 500 8.15 

Wilder, John L. House 800, .25a 150, 950 17.48 

Wing, James C. House 1,200, barn 100, 25a 150, 1,450 25.64 

Wing, A. T. Personal, 85 3.38 

Wilcox, George W. Personal, 300 6.89 

Wellman, J. R. Personal, 73 

House 800, barn 50, .25a 250, 1,100 21.10 

Woolrich, John H. Personal, 305 

House 1,500, 3.50a 300, farm-house 400, 50a 600, 3,000 55.87 

Woolrich & Co. Personal, 300 

Factory 3,000, barn 100, 2a 600, 3,700 65.20 

Weeks, J. W. Personal, 2,900 

Hotel 5,000, barn 600, 1.12a 1,300, 6,900 161.74 

Wassum, F. J. Personal, 1,800 

House 1,600, .50a 450, 2,050 64.76 

Willis, A. H. House 3,300, barn 300, .62a 600, 4,200 70.46 

Wallace, Sarah. House 850, .25a 150, exempt 500, 500 8.15 

Wilkins, George H. Personal, 825 15.45 

Wood, E. J. Personal, 60 

House 1,900, barn 150, .25a 200, house 1,300, 

.50a 300, 3.75a 250, less mortgage 500, 3,600 61.66 
Wood, E. G., estate. One-half house 900, .38a 200, 

house 800, .63a 300, .25a 125, 2,325 37.90 
Wood, Mrs. E. G. House 1,050, barn 100, la 300, 

less mortgage 700, 750 12.23 

Wright Wire Cloth Company. Machinery, 5,400 

Factory 3,700, 3,50a 300, 4,000 153.22 

Wright, John. Personal, 25 

House 1,000, barn 50, .25a 100, shanty 50, .13a 

50, 1,250 22.79 

White, L. C. Shop 200, • 200 3.26 

White & Eppley. Personal, 290 4.73 

Webster, W. P. House 1,200, barn 100, .13a 200, 1,500 26.45 

Webster & Squier. 22a 500, ."00 8.15 

Wood, Michael. Personal, 80 

House 250, barn 50, 26a 250, 550 12.27 

Wilbur, Edith B. House 1,500, barn 400, 2.75a 400, 2,300 37.49 
Warriner, Maria, estate. House 750, house 800, .50a 

150, 1,700 27.71 
Ware River Railroad Company. Engine house 2,700, 

.38a 800, 4a 200, 
Wheeler, Mrs. House 500, barn 50, la 150, 
Whitman, Mary. House 900, .13a 200, 

2 Wight, N. D. House 500, 1.50a 250, 











strict. Name and Description. 

Watson, John. Personal, 

Wood, Mary, House 600, .13a 100, exempt 500, 
Wilson, John. Personal, 

Shop and tenement 700, .25a 150, barn 100, 7.50a 

Wilder, A. W. Personal, 

Winchell, G. W. Personal, 

Wemeth, Euseb. Personal, 

Wright, John A. Personal, 

Whiting, George D. Personal, 

House 400, two barns 150, 46a 500, 
Whiting, William. Personal, 

Walker, J. K. Personal, 

Wilson, George. House 1,800, .38a 200, .12a 200, 
Wilson, Cornelius, estate, la 300, 

















10.75a 100, 
Three houses 2,000, barn 50, 

Name and Residence. 
Amidon, Philip, Monson. 
Arnold, R. H., Brimfield. 

.75a 200, 
Blaisdell, Charles E., Springfield. 11a 100, 11a 100, 
Blair, Royal E., Springfield. 12a 120, 
Blair, A. F., Ware. 10a 50, 17a 100, 
Barnes, F. M., Ware. 3a 30, 
Cutler, Charles, Warren. 50a 400, 
Crossman, A. W., Warren. House 400, 30a 25, 8a 100, 

la 25, 
Collins, L. W., St. Cloud, Minn. House 500, shop 200, 

.13a 25, 
Calkins, George, Monson. 22a 400, 14a 300, 
Calkins, D. A., estate, Monson. 34a 200, 
-Cross, W. W., Brockton. Block 7,500, house 1,500, 

barn 200, .88a 2,000, 
Childs, Charles J., Clinton. House 250, barn 50, 4a 

earner, Thomas, Ware. 7a 70, 
Davis, B. F., Ware. 30a 375, 
Doane, Mrs. Austin, and Eliza Merritt, West Warren. 

12a 250, exempt 125, 
Fay, Mrs. Eli. .50a 30, 
Fosket, Marcus, estate. Barn 150, 90a 900, 
Fosket, Anna, Springfield. House 1,100, .25a 250, 
Foster, Freeman, Ware. Barn 75, 50a 1,000, 
Fairbanks, Julia, Sturgis, Mich. House 400, .38a 300, 

































11,200 182.56 












































Name and Residence. Description. 

Fay, J. T. & Co., Northboro. House 600, house 300, 

store house 200, 6a and power 1,000, 
Gibbs, Lucius, estate, Ware. 68a 550, 
Gould, George, Ware. 80a 500, 
Gould, Austin E., Brooklyn, N. Y. House 1.600, .50a 

400, barn 100, la 150, 6a 300, 
Green, George D., Ludlow. 78a 500, 4a 25, 
Green, Josiah J., Belchertown. 2a 100, 
Green, Walter M. , Wilbraham. 5a 50, 
Hastings, George H., Wilbraham. 22a 100, 
Jenks, Porter F. , Belchertown. Barn 200, 49a 1 , 1 00, 
Lincoln, Albert, estate, Warren. 40a 250, 5.50a 225, 
Long, Cornelius, Belchertown. 5a 50, 
Lombard, Joseph E., Warren. 26a 150, 
McMahon, John, Warren. House 800, .25a 150, 
Merritt, William, Warren. 38a 350, 
Metcalf, E. D., Springfield. 6a 500, 33a 500, 
Mansfield, Patrick, Belchertown. 11a 200, 
Nichols & Fosket, Springfield. Block 2,500, .25a 400, 
O'Neil, Dennis, estate, Warren. 125a 300, 
O'Reim, Franz, Warren. 2a 50, 
Powell, Lavinia, Springfield. One-fourth house 700, 

.07a 50, exempt 500, 250 4.07 

Powers, F. 0., Greenwich. House 1,650, .50a 150, 

house 1,300, .50a 150, three houses 3,800, barn 

125, .75a 225, 
Powers, Norman S., Brimfield. 10a 400, 
Powers, George W., Brimfield. .50a 100, 
Packard, Prudence, Greenfield. House 1, 500, 1.50a 500, 
Potter, Ira G., Wilbraham. 16a 200, 
Potter, P. P., Wilbraham. Personal, 

House at Palmer 1,600, barn 200, .25a 200, 11 

houses in Three Pwivers 13,650, 3 barns 100, 7a 

1,350, sprout lot 10a 150, sprout lot 50a 400, 
Richardson, Stephen B., Warren. 16a 150, 
Rivers, John, Indian Orchard. Store block 2,500, 

store and tenement 1,300, shop and tenement 

1,700, barn 150, 4a 800, 
Smith, Frank C, Ware. House 150, 50a 400, 30a 200, 
Shepardson, David, Wales. House 1,100, .20a 150, 
Strickland, John, Warren. 9a 40, 
Shaw, E. F., Springfield. Two-thirds house 300, barn 

50, .75a 100, 
Swift, S. W., Wilbraham. 21a 800, 
Tagan, Frank, Warren. 40a 250, 
Trowbridge, A. J. , Warren. 9a 200, 
Trowbridge, L. P., estate, Warren. 3.50a 50, 



































Name and Residence. Description. 

Trumble, Elijah M., widow, Monson. House 300, 

barn 50, 2a 100, 
Towne, M. D. L., Ludlow. House 1,000, barn 100, la 

Warren, Town of. 100a 1,200, 
Ward, John, estate of, New Britain, Ct. 7a 100, 
Witt, Lyman, Stafford, Ct. House 650, barn 50, .50a 

Warren, J. K., Worcester. House 2,000, barn 250, .38a 

Walker, Horace, Blandford. House 300, 8.50a 200, 
Wing, Keuben C, Springfield. House 600, barn 50, 

.13a 150, 
Wesson, D. B., Springfield. Land and water-power 

52a 3,000, 
Yale, John, Ware. 11a 100, 

Palmer, July 17, 1888. 

David Knox, 
T. D. Potter, 
Jeremiah Button 























) Assessors 



roN. ) Palmer. 


Clerk and Treasurer — J. B. Shaw. 

Selectmen— W. H. Brainard, M. J. Dillon, J. F. Holbrook. 

Assessors — David Knox, C. S. Smith, C. F. Smith. 

School Committee — W. C. Greene, T. J. Sullivan, H. A. Smith, 
Addie Hamilton, S. S. Taft, M. H. Davis. 

Constables — H. A. Northrop, James Healey, Ole E. Cronferd, M. 
J. Dawson, T. J. Carmedy, E. L. Derby, M. M. Thomas, Ralph 
Thurston, A. P. Knowlton, Charles Alexander, P. A. Forte. 

Appropeiations for 1889. 

Railings, $400 

Contingencies, 3,000 

Highways, 4,000 

Sewers and culverts, 500 

Bridges, 1,000 

Support of poor, 6,000 

Teachers' salaries, 11,000 

Text books and supplies, 1,000 

Transportation of High School scholars, 1,000 

Care school houses, 800 

School contingencies, 1,000 

School repairs, 500 

Fuel for schools, 900 

Salaries of School Committee, 600 

Heating apparatus for High School, 1,800 

Soldiers' aid, 500 

Memorial Day, 100 

Young Men's Library Association, 600 

Balance on High School building, 4,500 

Savings bank loan, 2,000 

Discount on taxes, 2,000 

Sewer a-t Three Rivers, 600 

Street lights at Thorndike, 200 

Sidewalk at Bondsville, 200 

Enlarging poor house, 300 

Drainage near Town house, 100 

Town History Committee, 1,500 


E. B. Gates. 


Early Palmer Families 







IN early youth I became interested in the history of the town, 
and the genealogy of its inhabitants : because the staple talk of 
the aged was then chiefly on themes connected with the hard- 
ships of pioneer life ; the trials and affliction of parents whose chil- 
dren were taken from them by the "■ mortal throat distemper " preva- 
lent in the wilderness ; as well as the brighter side of the story — 
the rewards of industry, and the happy results of devotion to the 
cause of Christ, which was a leading motive in our fathers' plans 
of settlement. 

The traditional accounts connected with generations that have 
laid the foundation of our present prosperity, gave me a desire to 
know who those ancestors were, and the location of each family, 
and to commence a genealogical register of the same, which has 
occupied my time for the past three years. The love for the work 
in restoring ancient landmarks of the first century, which were so 
nearly obliterated by time (although tiresome), has borne me along, 
and kept me to the purpose to perpetuate as far as possible the 
memory of what otherwise might be forgotten, and soon pass into 

In this part of the book, relating to the first settlers, I have con- 
fined myself, in giving the names of families and their location, to 
the Plantation records, the county records at Springfield, and Mass. 
Archives in Boston. I have visited most of the grants or locations, 
and found sufficient landmarks to identify the same, by plotting 
surrounding farms from the minutes of the original survey, and 
thus establish the homestead of each family. 

Mr. David Knox, a relative of the Kings and Shaws, the first 
inhabitants of Palmer and Brimfield, is well informed by tradition 
of the settlement of the south part of the town, and with his 
assistance we established the location of several families, which 
now agree with the farms as surveyed by Steward Southgate, sur- 
veyor for the Proprietors, till they made their First Division of 

The plotting of farms on Quabaug river from the Marble Ferrell 


place to Blanchardsville may be found on the chart, together with 
locations at the Old Center. 

I have endeavored to make this work as complete as possible un- 
der the circumstances. The town records that I have examined 
from 1820 to 18G5 are very incomplete. 

[The historian considers it only an act of justice to say in this connection 
that Mr. Gates has devoted many months of time, spent not a small amount 
of money, and given persevering study in collecting statistics and facts 
relating to the early grants of land made by the General Court to public 
men, as well as the later allotments to the first-comers upon our territory : 
that he has made careful exploration and accurate surveys of these lots and 
farms, and determined bounds and angles, many of which were obscure 
and uncertain. The results of this work appear in the elaborate maps he 
has prepared, and which have been engraved, and add essentially to the 
value of this volume. 

In connection with these investigations he collected a great amount of 
material relating to the early plans and efforts for settling a colony at the 
Elbows — then a wilderness. These investigations covered the period from 
1716, when John King first pitched on the north bank of the Quabaug, 
down to the date when the place was organized into a Plantation. 

The results of these studies were largely written, with a view of embody- 
ing them in an Appendix. But it was deemed best to incorporate this 
material in the historical part of the book, where, in the judgment of the 
historian and committee, it more properly belonged ; and Mr. Gates has 
gracefully yielded to the judgment of others in the matter. But he none 
the less deserves credit for his extensive labors, which are duly appreciated 
by all who have known of his care and patience and success in the difficult 
field, and appreciated by none more than the historian and committee. 

It should be added, that by an independent course of investigation, Mr. 
Gates reached the same conclusions respecting the land covered by tke 
Indian Deed, and the false claims of Lamb and Company to the Elbow 
Tract, which are recorded on pages 44-52 of this book.] 

The Manor of Peace. 

In 1715, John Keed, Esq., of Boston, purchased a tract of 10,- 
000 acres of "Equivalent lands," lying in what is now the town of 
Ware, east of Swift river. His south line ran east and by north 
four miles and one hundred rods, to a described bound called Read's 
Southeast Corner ; and from thence the line ran due north to 
Lambstown, now Hardwick. The southwest corner of Read's 
farm at Swift river, as originally established, was at a point about 
nine rods north of the present Ware line ; and the south line of said 
farm was in dispute for several years, as some of the Elbow Propri- 
etors had overlapped in laying out their lots. Committees were 
appointed to settle the disputed land, but failed to give satisfaction. 

INDEX. 389 

In 1755, a committee consisting of John Thomson, James Braken- 
ridge, Wm. Scott, Jun., Isaac Magoon and Duncan Quinton, on 
the part of the Elbows, and John Kead, Wm. Eead and Henry 
Daggett for the proprietors of the Manor, with surveyor and chain- 
men, took the matter in hand and mutually agreed to run lines 
that should bind both parties in interest forever. Their plot placed 
the southwest corner bound on Swift river, three rods below the 
first established corner and six rods north of the present Ware line ; 
thence the line ran east and by north four miles and one hundred 
rods to the southeast corner — thus leaving a gore of land, termin- 
ating in a point at said southeast corner, on the south side of the 
farm, belonging to the Elbow Tract. In 1756, Duncan Quinton 
took as part of his division lot, nine and a half acres of this gore, 
being one mile long, three rods wide at the east end, and five and a 
half rods at the west end. Jerry Jenks took the west end next to 
Swift river. The narrow east end was long known as " Widow 
Magoon^s Garter." From the southeast corner, thus established, 
the line was run due north by the needle 1,334 rods. 

The following Index contains the names of grantees, and will 
serve as a guide to the numbers affixed to the description of 
original lots and their owners, and to the corresponding names and 
lots on the maps. The figures on Map No. II indicate the families 
that located in the South Division (Palmer). 

1. Applin, John 

24. Gardner, Humphrey 

2. Blancher, Nicholas 

25. Hunter, Robert 

3. Brooks, John 

26. Hall, Elisha, and Farran, Thomas 

4. Breakenridge, James 

27. Harvey, Rev. John 

5. Beman, John 

28. King, John, Sen. 

6. Brown, Matthew 

29. Kilburn, John, Sen. 

7. Brown, Thomas 

29. Kilburn, Samuel 

8. Brown, William 

30. Kilburn, Daniel 

9. Crawford, William 

31. Lamberton, James 

10. Cooley, Noah 

32. Little, Thomas 

11. Chapin, Jonathan 

33. Lemon, James 

12. Combs, Richard 

34 and 35. Lemon, Samuel and James, 

13. Crawford, Stephen 


14. Dorchester, James 

36. Moore, John 

15. Dorchester, John 

37. Moore, James 

16. Dorchester, James, Jun. 

38. McNitt, Barnard 

17. Doolittle, Lieut. Samuel 

39. Mirick, Ebenezer 

18. Frost, Samuel 

40. McQuiston, James 

19. Fuller, Daniel 

41. McElwane, James 

20. Farrell, Robert 

42. McElwane, Timothy 

21. Fleming, Samuel 

43. Magoon, Isaac 

22. Farran, Andrew 

44. Magoon, Isaac, Jun. 

23. Glasford, Paul 

45. McKee, Andrew 



46. McClanathan, Dea. Thomas 

47. McClanathan, William 

48. McClellan, James 

49. McMitchell, William 

50. Nevins, Samuel 
.51. Nevins, Robert and David 
.52. Parsons, Benjamin 

53. Parsons, Joshua 

54. Patterson, John 
54. Patterson, William 
.55. Rogers, Robert 

56. Slone, William 

57. Shaw, Dea. Samuel 

58. Scott, William 

73. Quinton, Duncan 

74. Webber, John 

75. Hamilton, James 

76. Hill, Thomas 

77. Rutherford, Andrew 

78. Shaw, William 

79. Combs, John 

80. Henderson, John 

59. Scott, John 

60. Shearer, James. Sen. 

61. Shearer, William 

62. Smith, Patrick 

63. Spear, Dea. David 

64. Smith, Robert, Sen. 

65. Smith, Dea. John 

66. Smith, Eld. James 

67. Smith, Hugh 

68. Thomson, Robert 

69. Thomson, Capt. John 

70. Tackles, Alexander 

71. Wright, Joseph, Sen. 

72. Wright, Joseph, Jun. 


81, Olds, Moses 

82, Yose, Elijah 

83, McMaster, James 

84, Ministry lot 

85, Dunlop, Robert 

86, Jennings, Thomas 

87, McMaster, John, Sen. 

son James 

90, Shearer, John 

Brimfield Addition. 

91. Graves, Daniel 

and his 

Map No. 1, North Division (Ware). 

1. Southgate, Steward 6. Col. Pynchon's heirs, Samuel 

2. Magoon, Isaac, Sen. Bradford, Hon. Ebenezer Bur- 

3. Magoon, Isaac, Jun. rell, John Blackmer, Samuel 

4. Cummings, Capt. Jacob Davis and John Post. 

5. Olmstead, Jeremiah 

North Division (Warren). 

1. Brooks, Joseph, Sen. 6. Cooley, Obadiah, Jun. 

2. Bailey, Andrew 7. Brooks, Joseph, Jun. 

3. Chadwick, Joseph 8, Stanford, Robert 

4. Curtice, Abel 9, Joseph Green and Isaac Walker.. 

5. Dewey, Nathaniel merchants in Boston. 

Descriptive List 

And Record of the First InhaUtants, Their Home Lots and After 

Divisions and Successors. 

No, 1. Applin, John, by trade a blacksmith, located in the east 
part of the town. The lands of late have belonged to the Blodgett 
farm. He bought of the Gent. Claimers in 1728, and it was a 
General Court grant, 1732. It was occupied by Keuben McMaster 
in 1809. No number of acres given. 


^o. 2. Blanchard, Nicholas. Claim of 336 acres ; bought of 
Gent. Claimers 100 acres, 1728, and confirmed to him by General 
Court, 1732. Sold to Aaron King about 1745, and owned by Jesse 
King in 1809. It was the home of Col. Isaac King, and owned by 
Joseph King in 1888. 

No. 3. Brooks, John. Land, 250 acres; bought of Gent. Claim- 
ers, 1728, 50 acres and confirmed to him by the General Court. It 
is known of late as the Reuben Eogers farm. It is bounded 80 
rods on the Quaboag river. Sold to Hugh McMaster, 1741, it 
being his first place of residence. 

No. 4. Breakenridge, James. 239 acres. He purchased 100 acres 
of Gent. Claimers, 1728, east of the place known as Cedar Swamp. 
In 1732 the General Court granted him the same land. In 1809 
Obadiah Breakenridge's heirs, the fourth generation, were living on 
the farm. Azel sold some time after and bought where the family 
now resides. The present owner is Horace Smith. 

No. 5. Beman, John, 120 acres ; 100 granted by the General 
Court, 1732. It was sold to Capt. Thomas McClanathan and owned 
by him in 1809. John Smith sold his farm on the mountain and 
bought this, 184-. Eli, his son, owns it in 1888. 

No. 6. Brown, Matthew. 560 acres on the east side of Potto- 
quatuck mountain, joining west on Rev. Peter Hobart's grant of 
300 acres, which he bought in 1745, except 20 acres that had been 
sold for rates to meet the proportion of £500 ordered by the Gen- 
eral Court. His General Court grant in 1732 of 100 acres, with no 
right of after division. He was also assignee of Robert Stanford's 
claim of 100 acres, now in Warren, in 174-. In the settlement of 
the estate the home farm was owned by Robert, his youngest son, 
and Solomon in 1809. The next generation, Talmia and Solomon, 
are the proprietors in 1888. 

No. 7. Brown, Thomas, located on Peter Hobart's grant on the 
north of the mountain and east of C. D. Fuller's farm soon after 
the purchase by his father. 

No. 8. Brown, William's farm was on the east side of the moun- 
tain and from the same purchase. Part of it was afterwards the 
homestead of Seth Brown, the father of Seva. It is mostly wild 
lands at the present time. The west part is known as the Dunbar 
farm, not under cultivation. 

No. 9. Crawford, William. 50 acres granted by the General 
Court, 1732, situated at the Old Centre and lands lying north and 
east of the meeting-house. The First Church edifice was built on 
this lot. 

No. 10. Cooley, Noah. 325 acres ; he purchased 100 acres of 


Gent. Claimers, 1728, which the Court granted in 1732. Land of 
the second division in 1742 was owned by Judah Ferry, 1809, and 
Sylvanus Shaw, 1850, and George Robinson, Esq., in 1888. 

No. 11. Chapin, Jonathan. 471 acres ; bought 100 acres of the 
Claimers in 1728, which was granted to him by the General Court, 
1732, He occupied the homestead for several years, afterwards 
sold to Mr. Converse. The Widow Converse occupied the place, 
1809. Owned by M. C. Fenton, 1880. 

No. 12. Combs, Eichard. 100 acres ; the Tamor Spring lot, 
bought of the Claimers, 1728 ; granted by the General Court to 
John King, Jun., the eldest son, and by the consent of Mr. King 
it was surveyed out to the original purchaser, Richard Combs. 
Dea. David Shaw bought the farm in 1742, Aaron Merrick, Esq., 
owned it in 1809 and Dea. Lebeus Chapin in 1850. The Spring 
lot is now owned by James Loomis. Charles Upham has the part 
of the farm north of the railroad. 

No. 13. Crawfoot, Stephen. 100 acres on Pottoquatuck brook, 
west of Eugene Shorley. 

No. 14. Dorchester, James. 305 acres; bought of Gent. Claimers 
100, 1728; a General Court grant, 1732. He sold to John McMaster, 
Sen., 1734, and he gave deed to John, Jun., 1739, and reserved a 
life lease. Owned by John McMaster, 3d, 1809. J. K. Knox is 
now the owner. The house, the most ancient in town, has been 
moved back of the sand hill, where it stands a monument of the past 
and shows to the traveler the thrift and industry of our ancestors. 

No. 15. Dorchester, John. 100 acres bought of the Gent. Claim- 
ers, 1728. See Robert and David Nevins. 

No. 16. Dorchester, James, Jun. 330 acres; bought of the Gent. 
Claimers 70 acres assigned to John King and granted by the Gen- 
eral Court, 1732. He gave deed July 26th, 1733 ; consideration, 
230 pounds. [Hampshire Records, book F.] He sold the claim 
of after division to other parties and purchased the farm of James 
McMaster, south of Old Centre, and that was his home till he sold 
to Dea. John McMaster, and from thence it was deeded to his son 
Clark, in consideration of love and regard for him. It is known at 
the present time as the Clark McMaster farm, Charles Foster re- 
sides there, 1888. 

No. 17. Doolittle, Samuel. 230 acres ; 100 acres bought of the 
Gent. Claimers, 1728, and granted by the General Court, 1732; 
laid out north of the Warren road on Cedar mountain, and running 
east to Quaboag river. It was owned by Obadiah Ward, 1760, 
Uriah, his son, 1809, and his grandson, Calvin. Since that date 
Horace Moulton, 1886. 


L 1 T H o. BY M I LTON Bradl ey Go. 




Xo. 18. Frost, Samuel. 309 acres ; bought of Claimers 100 acres, 
1728, and Court grant, 1732, and owned by Capt. Sylvanus Walker 
ill 1774 ; afterward by Jesse King. Timothy Brainard was the 
owner in 1809, and Dea. Wilson Brainard in 1880. 

No. 19. Fuller, Daniel. 329 acres ; bought of Gent. Claimers 
100 acres and granted by the General Court, 1732. His lot was on 
Quabaug river, which he sold and then located on a lot the east 
side of Ware river. Dea. James Smith bought his farm with 
others adjoining, 1749. It has since been owned by Joseph Smith, 
Dea. Wilson Foster and James 0. Hamilton. Austin E. Smith is 
included in this purchase, but these lands were west of the present 
road and bounded by the river. 

No. 20. Ferrell, Eobert. 335 acres ; bought of Gent. Claimers 
100 acres, and granted by General Court, 1732. Situated north 
side of Ware river, the southwest corner bounded near to the saw 
mill that he and Andrew Farran built in consideration of 100 acres 
of land, which was accepted by the proprietors as a good and suffi- 
cient mill, and ordered it to be put on record. The farm has been 
the home of five generations : Robert, Lieut. Timothy, Capt. Tim- 
othy, and his sons, daughters and grandsons. 

No. 21. Fleming, Joseph. Had a lot of 100 acres granted by 
the General Court, 1732. Situated on the easterly side of Cedar 
11 ountain. He was not entitled to after divisions, but bought land 
of the proprietors. It was owned by Samuel Fleming in 1809, and 
his son, George, in 1850. 

No. 22. Farran, Andrew. 100 acres granted by the General 
Court, 1732, without after divisions. The land was south of David 
Fleming's, and was owned by John Webber, 1740. He bought 
John Thomson's first division of 100 acres Joining the home farm 
n the west side of the mountain. He sold to Fr,ancis Breaken- 
ridge, where he died, 1790. Ebenezer Webber married his widow 
and resided on the farm. It has since been known as the place of 
Solomon Webber. 

No. 23. Glasford, Paul. Purchased his lot of the proprietors, 
1734. He with his father, John, and John, Jr., were made free- 
men and owned land in different parts of the District. The farm 
was owned by Isaac Ferrell in 1809, and afterward by his son. Mar- 
ble K. At the present time by 0. B. Sikes. 

No. 24. Gardner, Humphrey. A grant of 100 acres by the 
General Court, and situated the west side of Ware river, opposite 
the Pottoquatuck saw mill. He traded farms with Seth Shaw 
of Brimfield, 1736, and is said to have built the first two-story 
frame house in the District. After its doing service for a century. 


it shared the fate of all that was built in its day, less stylish and 
convenient. The property was owned by Robert Hastings, 1850; 
and 50 acres on the Robert Ferrell, 2d, division, owned by Nathan- 
iel Durant, 1820. The farm of E. G. Hastings, 1888. 

No. 25. Hunter, Robert. An early settler — about 1738. He 
bought Steward Southgate's saw mill lot of 70 acres on the east 
side of the pond ; the addition to the farm was from f-Henry 
D wight's grant. It was owned by Dea. Wilson Foster in 1809, and 
his son, Keyes Foster, 1850, and now by Joseph Kerigan. 

No. 26. Hall, Elisha, and Thomas Farran. 100 acres granted 
by the Gen. Court, 1732. This lot was sold to James McElwane, 
Sen., by the Gent. Olaimers, 1728. Mr. McElwane sold it to Green 
and Walker, merchants in Boston, 1729. He died soon after the 
sale. In 1732 his wife gave deed to her right in dower, dated at 
New Marlborough or Kingsfield, the names desirable to the inhab- 
tants before the District was organized. Green and Walker, not 
being able to claim a title to the land without a settlement, sold to 
Hall and Farran, and it was granted to them by the Court. Enoch 
Olds resided there in 1809. Mr. Beckworth, who married a daugh- 
ter of Robert Ferrell, Jr., Capt. Timothy Ferrell and Jacob Stever 
owned it at different dates. Now the farm of George Brown. It 
is situated at the Junction of Ware and Swift rivers, and includes 
the Glassford pond. 

No. 27. Harvey, Rev. John. 325 acres ; 100 acres granted by 
the General Court as the first settled minister. Situated south of 
Cedar swamp, and west of Cedar mountain. It was on this farm 
and under a large oak, a little distance east of his house, Mr. Harvey 
was ordained as the first minister of the District. The farm was 
next owned by Dea. Joshua Shaw, and by Solomon 1809, Luther and 
Amos Shaw, George Keith, and Mr. Elliott have since owned the 

No. 28. Kingi, John, Sen. 325 acres; bought of the Gent. 
Claimers 100 acres, on a brook, the name given at the first settle- 
ment of the place, King's brook. The carpet mill is located on 
the stream, north of this farm, Tamor spring was the boundary on 
the east side of the lot, and the east side of the Agricultural park 
is included in this grant, and the first house was north of the Cooley 
house, and not far from the old Bay path. The Court also granted 
him seventy acres, as the assignee of James Dorchester, Jr., situa- 
ted near to his northwest corner. After the death of Mr. King, 
Jonathan Cooley became the proprietor, and Jonathan Jr., was the 
owner in 1809. It is known at the present time as Tenneyville. 
Thomas and David King, see Joseph Wright, Jr. 


The Tamor spring lot on the east side of Mr. King, was bought 
of the Gent. Claimers by Richard Combs, and afterwards sold to 
John King* of Springfield. Mr King sold it to David Ingersol of 
Springfield, for ninety pounds of money, November 20, 1730. 
HamjJsMre Records, hook B. 

It being the third sale before the district was organized, the 
General Court Committee granted it to John King, Jr., and was 
restricted from any after divisions. But when the Proprietors relaid 
their farms in 1733, it was surveyed to Richard Combs. Mr. King 
being present and made no objection. See No. 12 for present owner. 

No. 29. Kilburn, John, Sen. 338 acres ; 100 bought of the Gent. 
Claimers in 1728, and granted by the General Court. It included 
the west part of Palmer village. Col. Cyrus Knox at one time was 
one of the principal owners. 

Kilburn, Samuel, his son, had 240 acres ; 100 was a grant by 
the General Court. It was bounded 35 rods on the river and east 
of the point of rocks. (At the time of surveying the lands, it was 
called the rocky ledge.) Dr. Holbrook is in possession of this desir- 
able location. These two lots were occupied by John King, Jr., in 
17-4 — , and Gideon King in 1809. David Knox resides on a portion 
of the lands, the rest have been sold as building lots for some of 
the best residences in the village. 

No. 30. Kilburn, Daniel. Had a grant of 100 acres south of the 
Old Centre. It was owned by Benjamin King in 1809, and William 
Harvey in 1855. Mr. Casey now owns the farm. 

No. 31. James Lamberton came from Londonderry, N. H., 1727, 
he had a grant by the General Court, 1732, of 100 acres of land at 
the Old Centre, east of the meeting house ; he afterwards bought 
50 acres of the Proprietors. He deeded to his son John and James, 
Jr., 1756. It was owned by William Warriner in 1809, and after- 
wards the farm of Elisha Converse. It is now the Town farm. 

No. 32. Little, Thomas. Had 100 acres ; a General Court 
grant, 1732, situated east of Old Centre and Cedar swamp brook. 
Owned by Benjamin Cummings, 1809. The proprietors afterwards 
were Capt. Allen, John Frink ; the west part of the farm was 
the Leonard Davis place. 

No, 33. Lemon, or Lament, James, 325 acres ; 50 acres of it was 
a grant by the General Court. His lot was laid out the west side of 
Thomson hill, and bounded on the north by Esq. Read's farm of 
10,000 acres. It was owned by Nathan Davis in 1809, and after- 
wards by Thomas Poole and sons. 

No. 34-35. Samuel Lemon and James, Jr. owned most of the land 

John King of the Elbows. 


on Swift river, from Read's manor land to Crawford's pond in Bonds- 
ville. There is a tradition that Samuel Lemon commenced im- 
provements by the use of the water power, built the log dam that 
was of good service for more than a century ; and when the mill 
was burnt in 1840 it was announced by some present that the dam 
had been built one hundred years. It is now submerged in water 
by the building of the new stone dam. 

No. 36. Moore, John, 340 acres ; bought of Gent. Claimers 100 
acres, and granted by the Court in 1732. 70 acres was situated in 
the centre of the town, and west of the church edifice, the north 
line was near the old road that was travelled over the hill to Thorn- 
dike, and bounded south by James McMaster's farm, a brother of 
Dea. John. John Thomson's hotel was on this lot, and near the 
elbow of the road that leads to Palmer. Moses Shaw was the owner 
in 1809, except what had been disposed of for building lots. 

No. 37. Moore, James, had a grant of 100 acres lying southwest 
of Rev. John Harvey, occupied by Samuel Shaw in 1809. 

No. 38. McNitt, Barnard, 180 acres ; bought of the Claimers 
100 acres, the same was granted by the G-eneral Court in 1732. It 
was owned by Benjamin Merrick in 1809, and Merrick Cooley in 
1830, and Joseph H. Keith in 1888. 

No. 39. Mirick, or Merrick, Ebenezar. 275 acres. He was the 
assignee of James Dorchester, Sen., of 100 acres, bought of Gent. 
Claimers, and granted to Mr. Mirick by the General Court in 1732. 
It was situated between John King's farm on the east, and Joseph 
Wright, Jr. on the west. He sold to Nathaniel Wilson, of Spring- 
field, January 16, 1735. His father, Thomas Mirick, advanced 
money in settling Brimfield, in consideration of which he was 
granted one hundred and twenty acres of land in Monson division, 
which he deeded to Ebenezar in 1736, where he settled. Rev. Mr. 
Baldwin bought of Mr. Wilson and occupied the farm for several 
years. He died in 1813, his widow went to live with Mr. Shaw on 
the old homestead, south of the Old Centre, where she died April 
14, 1842. The Merricks of past generations that lived in this town, 
Monson and Wilbraham, were descendants of the same ancestors 
that settled in Springfield. 

No. 40. McQueston, James. 207 aeres ; bought of the Claimers 
70 acres, and it was granted to him by the General Court in 1732. 
It was situated on Dumplin brook, and bounded west by the river ; 
it is known of late years as the Benjamin Burleigh farm. 

No. 41. McElwane, James. 305 acres ; bought 100 acres of the 
Claimers, and granted by the General Court in 1732. Situated 
south of Ware river, and owned by John Allen McElwane in 1809, 


and since owned by Zadock Cooley, Jacob B. Merrick, Esq., and 
Jeremiah Dutton. 

No. 42. McElwane, Timothy. 300 acres ; bought 100 acres of 
the Claimers over the rivers, the farm lately owned by Horace Hunn. 
It was a General Court grant of 1732. By a vote of the Proprie- 
tors, he was permitted to make a change for the saw mill lot south 
of the river in Thorndike upper village. James McElwane, Sen., 
see No. 26. 

No. 44. Magoon, Isaac, Jr. 374 acres ; 100 purchased from the 
Claimers and granted by the General Court. It is one of the N. E. 
corner farms of the town. He sold to James Lamberton ITS — . 
He traded farms with Irwin Shaw, that first settled in Ware. It 
has been owned by Charles Shaw, and Mr. Blodgett at the present 

No. 45. McKee, Andrew. 343 acres ; 100 he bought of the 
Gent. Claimers and it was granted to him by the General Court in 
1732. It was bounded on the north by the equivalent lands of Esq. 
Eead. He sold to John Thomson in 1742, and the principal owners 
to the property since are : Noah Thomson, Harvey Utley in 1809, 
Calvin White, and Dea. Freeman Foster. Mr. Thomson, in after 
divisions in 1741, became the owner of all the land south to David 
Spear's farm. Henry, his son, settled on the east side of the hill, 
his farm has since been owned by Dea. Rozel Hastings and his son 
Perry, and for the last forty years by Ephraim B. Gates. His son 
Benjamin located on the west side of the hill. He sold to Nathan 
Davis about 1815. Of late years it has belonged to Daniel Dewire. 

No. 46. McClanathan, Thomas. 150 acres ; 100 acres of it was 
a General Court grant of 1732. It was owned byCapt. Jonathan 
Moores in 1809, and some of the owners since were James McMaster 
and Waterman Fuller. The farm is located between Bondsville and 
Elbridge G. Hastings. 

No. 47. McClanathan, William. 100 acres granted by the Gen- 
eral Court. It is not on the records how much he received in after 
divisions. It is situated on the east of the mountain and near the 
source of the Pottoquatuck brook. It was owned by Dea. Samuel 
McClanathan in 1809, and known to the present generation as the 
Seva Brown farm. 

No. 48. McClellan, James. 100 acres granted by the General 
Court, 1832. It was sold to Capt. Patrick Watson and owned by 
his son James and heirs till 1840. Charles Hastings has been the 
occupant of late years. 

No. 49. McMitchell (McMighill, McMihill), William. Located 
west of his father, Kobert Smith. His farm was a portion of the 


Col. Pattridge grant, with the addition of lands of John Thomson 
right, and the east side of the farm of Patrick Smith's grant. Now 
owned by Charles F. Smith. 

No. 50. Kevins, Samuel. 100 acres was granted to him, 1732. 
It lies east of Three Rivers village, "and near the flag pond," as 
described in the grant. It was owned by Theophilus Knight in 
1809, and since by Kittridge Earle and Omri Bourns. 

No. 51. Nevins, Robert and David. Had a grant of 100 acres 
by the General Court. The lot was bought by John Dorchester of 
the Claimers. It is situated at the source of King's brook and was 
about a mile from the country road. It has formerly been known 
as the Harvey Sherman farm and since owned by Mr. Graves. 

No. 52. Parsons, Benjamin. 235 acres ; he bought of Gent. 
Claimers 100 acres. It was granted to him, 1732, and situated on 
the east side of Pottoquatuck brook. Owned by John Hamilton, 
1780, and his son, Joshua, 1809, and since by John Gamwell and 
Eugene Shorley. 

No. 53. Parsons, Joshua. His farm was in the right of his 
father, situated on the height of the mountain and on the east of 
Benjamin Parsons. It was owned by John Gamwell, 1809, and 
James Gamwell, 1850. The Miller family are the present owners. 

No. 54. Patterson, John. 189 acres ; he had a grant of G3 acres, 
lot No. 2, the same that was laid out to Andrew Farran, situated 
on the west side of Dumplin hill. He sold after the organization 
of the District to Paul Glassford, and entered lauds with his brother 
William in the north part of the town. Joshua McMaster owned 
the farm in 1809, where he had lived for 50 years. Reuben Shaw, 
his son Samuel, and Charles R. Shaw have since been the owners. 

No. 55. Rodgers, Robert. He jDurchased his farm of the pro- 
prietors about 1740 ; situated on the Quabaug river. The old house 
where they first settled was west of the present location. Reuben 
R. erected new buildings on a part of the farm, where Hugh Mc- 
Master first settled ; the John Brooks lot of 50 acres. 

No. 56. Slone, WilHam. 325 acres ; he bought 100 acres of the 
Claimers, and it was granted to him by the General Court, 1732. 
It was situated on the north side of Ware river, and the farm east 
of Hall and Farran, at the junction of Ware and Swift rivers, and 
the opposite side of the river from James McElwane's lot. The 
farm was owned by Zadock Cooley, 1809, and now by George 

No. 57. Shaw, Dea. Samuel. 312 acres; he bought 100 acres of 
the Claimers, and the General Court granted it, 1732. It was 
bounded on the south by Quaboag river and on the east by Barnard 




McNitt's farm. It was owned by Samuel, Jun., 1750, and by 
Samuel and David, 1780. They sold to Cajit. Alpheus Converse, 
who was living on the farm, 1809. Dea. Benjamin and his son, 
Dea. Hiram Converse, owned it each in their generation. 

No. 58. Scott, William. 562 acres ; he bought of the Claimers 
100 acres, situated at one of the elbows of the Quaboag river and 
where the country road crossed the river into Brimfield (Monson). 
The farm was owned by William Scott, Esq., 1760, and by John 
Scott, 1809. The property was afterwards owned by William Scott, 
3d, and then by John Sedgwick. The location was familiar to the 
public as Scott's Tavern, and later as Sedgwick's Hotel. 

No. 59. Scott, John, the eldest son of William Scott, Sen. 211 
acres ; he bought 100 acres of the Claimers, and it was a grant to 
him, 1732. The location was in Breakneck hollow, east of Mount 
Dumplin, and was owned by Hugh McMaster, June, 1809. 

No. 60. Shearer, James, Sen. 150 acres ; 100 acres was a grant 
by the General Court. It was situated southeast of Pottoquatuck 
pond, lying both sides of Cedar Swamp brook. Divisions and addi- 
tions make it difficult to describe the lines at the present time. 
Mr. Shearer's location for his buildings was on the opposite side of 
the brook from where Francis Courtis built, and afterwards owned 
by Dea. Ealph Green and Elias Paul. The east side of the farm is_ 
owned by Josiah Gates. 

No. 61. Shearer, William. Farm was bought of the Proprietors' 
first division right, situated west of his father, on the south of Pot- 
toquatuck pond. Sold to John Gibson, 1770. It now belongs to 
George ]\Ioores. 

No. 62. Smith, Patrick, had a grant of 100 acres, bounded west 
by Ware river and situated between the two ponds, and extended 
east to Col. Patridge's grant. Part of the farm on the east was 
sold to Mr. McMitchell. Asa Newell was the owner of the west 
part, 1809. It now belongs to Erastus Keith and Moores. 

No. 63. Spear, Dea. David, had a grant of 100 acres by the Gen- 
eral Court. The principal owners, Dea. David, Jun., David, 3d, 
and William Spear, Jonathan Nutting and E. M. Bartlett. 

No. 64. Smith, Ptobert, Sen. He bought his farm of Col. Sam- 
uel Patridge of Brookfield from a 500-acre grant by the General 
Court, and Mr. Parkhill, that married his daughter, lived with 
him. It has been owned in the family since that time by Eobert, 
his grandson, Robert, Jun., Capt. Freeman, and at the present 
time by Charles F. Smith, the sixth generation. 

No. 65. Smith, Dea. John. He bought a 100-acre lot laid out to 
Robert and David Nevins on the first division riffht of Elisha Hall 


and Thomas Farran. It was situated on Little Pottoquatuck moun- 
tain, bounded north by Col. Patridge grant, and the southwest line 
was the northeast line of Henry Dwight, Esq.'s grant of 300 acres; 
these lines remain the boundaries at the present of the Smith farm. 
His sons, William and John Allen, remained on the farm, and the 
princij^al proprietors since are Joseph Lee, Porter Lee, Robert 
Davison and Bradley Olney. 

No. 66. Smith, Elder James, bought his lot from the grant of 
Col. Patridge, situated east of his father, Eobert, Sen. It remained 
in the family till John Smith, the fifth generation, sold the farm 
and bought where Eli Smith now resides. Joseph Kerigan is the 
present owner. 

No. 67. Smith, Hugh, son of Dea. James Smith. His father 
purchased the farms of Robert Thomson and Daniel Fuller, 1749. 
The farms have been occupied by Hugh Smith, and in 1809 by 
Joseph, his son, and the owners since are Dea. Wilson Foster and 
sons, John and Freeman, James 0. Hamilton and Austin R. Smith. 
The first settled proprietors were on the west side of Col. Patridge's 
grant and East Ware river. 

No. 68. Thomson, Robert. 70 acres. General Court grant, 1732, 
lying north of the ponds. See No. 67. 

No. 69. Thomson^ John. 385 acres; he bought of the Claimers 
100 acres and granted by the General Court, 1732. James Hamil- 
ton bought it, 1 763, and it was the home of the families for three 
generations. Mr. Thomson had a 100-acre lot, his first division, 
on the west side of the mountain, and sold to John Webber, 174-, 
for Noah, Benjamin and Henry Thomson. See No. 45. 

No. 70. Tackles, Alexander, had a grant of 100 acres from the 
General Court, 1732. Sold to Capt. Patrick Watson, 176-, where 
he lived in 1809. The owners since are Chester Hastings and heirs. 

No. 71. Wright, Joseph, Sen. 300 acres; he bought of the 
Claimers 100 acres and was granted by the General Court, 1732, 60 
acres, with improvements, east of William Scott's and Mng east to 
the point of rocks, or the rocky ledge. He sold his farm in Spring- 
field, 1726. 

No. 72. Wright, Joseph, Jun. 374 acres ; he bought 100 acres 
of the Claimers, and the General Court granted him 72 acres of it, 
situated on the great plain east of John Kilburn's lot and bounded 
south by Quaboag river, including the depot and the east part of 
the village. Part of this farm was sold at ''vendue" to pay the 
rates of £500 ordered by the General Court at the organization of 
the district. ''Sold to Joseph King." Mr. Wright disposed of 
the balance, and it came into the possession of Dea. Thomas and 


David King. Dea. Thomas located on the east side of the lot, and 
it was occujjied by him, Capt. Daniel and Daniel King, his son, 
and now known as the Dewey farm. David settled on the west 
side of the lot, and while it was being occnpied by John Watson 
the Boston and Albany Kailroad caused the change of business 
from farming to a place of merchandise. 

In 1728 there were eight farms bought of the Claimers and 
granted to them by the General Court, 1732, which formed the 
row between Blanchardville and the river crossing at Purlin 
Shearer^s. In twelve years there were but two families remaining, 
John King and William Scott. Dea. David Shaw had bought the 
Richard Combs farm, and Nathaniel Wilson, from Springfield, the 
Ebenezar Mirick place. The larger portion of the lands were 
bought up by the King family, and it was known afterwards as 
King's row. 


No. 73. Quinton, Duncan. 325 acres ; he bought 100 acres of 
the Claimers, and it was granted to him, 1732. Thomas, his son, 
was owner, 1780 ; William King and his son Wills, 1793 ; John 
Hunt, 1809; Hardin Hunt and heirs since 18-40. 

No. 74. Webber, John. He bought the farm of xindrew Farran 
and John Thomson's west lot, north of Andrew Eutherford. See 
No. 22. 

No. 75. Hamilton, James, bought the farm granted to John 
Thomson, 1763, situated on Cedar mountain. See No. 69. 

No. 76. Hill, Thomas, had a grant of 70 acres south of the Old 
Centre and west of Eev. John Harvey. John Hill was the owner 
in 1790. Benjamin King and William Harvey have since been 
owners, with some alteration of boundary lines with the farm of 
Daniel Kilburn. 

No. 77. Rutherford, Andrew, had a General Court grant of 70 
acres, situated north of Dea. Samuel Shaw. It soon came into the 
possession of other parties, and Thomas Mason and heirs were the 
owners for many years, with other lands. It is now the farm of 
Mr. Estin. 

No. 78. Shaw, William, had a grant of 100 acres west of Mr. 
Rutherford's lot and south of James Moore's. Mr. Shaw lived but 
a few years, and since then the proprietors have been many, and 
the farm, with the two lots north, are owned by families of Swedes. 

No. 79. Combs, John, had a grant from the General Court of 
100 acres on the north of Joseph Fleming's, which he sold to him 
in 1734. The deed is in possession of the family descendants in 


good preservation. It gives in detail the full description of the 
real estate, land, wood growing, with that fallen upon the ground, 
streams of water, rocks and ledges of rock, the last of which are 
too numerous for farming purposes with machinery in use at the 
present time. Samuel Bedortha of Springfield bought this farm of 
the Gent. Claimers and sold it to John Combs, Jan. 25th, 1731. It 
is described in the deed, situated on Rocky hill. Hampshire Rec- 
ords, book F. 

No. 80. Henderson, John, had 100 acres, and his brother James 
50, granted by the General Court. It was situated east of James 
Lamberton's, on Cedar Swamp brook. James Smith, 2d, bought 
the John Henderson farm, and Dr. Jabesh Lamb bought the lot on 
the east. John McMaster was the owner of both lots in 1809, and 
it has remained in the family till of late. 

No. 81. Olds, Moses, bought of the Claimers 67 acres, and the 
General Court granted it to Steward Southgate as part of the grist- 
mill lot. It lies south of Pottoquatuck pond, and joins Ware river 
on the west. 

No. 82. Vose, Elijah, had a grant of 50 acres on the west side of 
Ware river, between Dea. David Spear on the south and the Minis- 
try lot on the north. Dea. Spears bought the lot in 1740. 

No. 83. McMaster, James, an elder brother of Dea. John and 
Hugh. He bought his farm of the Proprietors previous to 1735. 
See No. 16. 

No. 84. Ministry lot of 100 acres, ordered to be laid out by the 
General Court. It was situated on both sides of Ware river, and 
bounded north on the line of Esq. Read's equivalent land. 

No. 85. Dunlop, Robert, had a grant of 70 acres " over the rivers." 
The northeast corner was bounded on the rocky ledge opposite 
Three Rivers mill, on the west side of the river. Gilbert Barker 
and his son Franklin have been the owners the past half-century. 

No. 86. Jennings, Thomas. 309 acres; 100 acres was a grant by 
the General Court. It was surveyed to James English, 1742, and 
situated southeast of William McClanathan's and west of Lieut. 
Samuel Doolittle's farm and east of Pottoquatuck brook. It has 
been connected with the south part of Seva Brown's farm of late. 

No, 87. John McMaster, Sen., and James, his eldest son, had a 
100-acre lot surveyed to him, 1740, in the right of fiirst division of 
James Dorchester, Sen. It was situated south of William McClana- 
than's and east of Little Pottoquatuck mountain, and most of the 
land west of the brook. It was sold to Ephraim Gates, 1752, and 
to Noah Shaw, 1796. It has been used as pasture lands for the last 
forty years. 


Brimfield Addition. 

No. 90. Shearer, John, the eldest son of James Shearer, Sen., 
settled in Brimfield, the West Division. It was annexed to Palmer, 
1760. The same year the West Division petitioned the General 
Court for the organization of a separate township. The building 
of the Three Rivers mill, with its industry and growth of the vil- 
lage, left Mr. Shearer^s location in the east part. The old home- 
stead was occupied by his descendants for several generations. 

No. 91. Graves, Daniel,* with the family by the same name, 
came from Springfield, and he located on this addition on or near 
the old country road. His son, Maj. Aaron Graves, was keeping 
hotel, 1780. There has been several proprietors since that time. 
Mr. M. W. French is the present owner. The descendants of Mr. 
Graves (many of them) obtained farms in this addition. 

On Map No. 1. 
The North Division. 

No. 1. Southgate, Steward. The amount of land appears on the 
records laid out for him amounted to 635 acres, but in proportion 
as other proprietors drew from their after divisions he would have 
been entitled to upwards of 900 acres. The General Court granted 
him 300, 100 for his home farm on the east side of Ware river and 
south of Ware village ; this was sold to Capt. Jacob Cummings. 
The General Court also granted him 200 acres, in consideration of 
his building a good and sufiBcient saw and grist mill, which was 
built on Pottoquatuck ponds, to the satisfaction of the proprietors. 
The saw-mill lot was on the east and south of the pond, and 10 
acres at the outlet of the pond to the river, the grist-mill lot of 
100 acres, 63 acres south of the pond, including the grove at For- 
est lake, and 37 on the west side of the river, including lands of 
the estate of Adolphus Whipple. 

No. 2. Magoon, Isaac, Sen., had a General Court grant of 100 
acres, situated south of Esq. Read's equivalent lands, with a line 
running west from near the southeast corner. It was occupied by 
the Widow Magoon heirs, 1809. 

No. 3. Magoon, Isaac, Jun., in his first division had 100 acres 
east of Esq. Read's southeast corner, and east of Ware river. Seth 
Lamberton^s farm in 1809. 

No. 4. Cummings, Capt. Jacob, bought his lands of the proprie- 
tors. Steward Southgate and Isaac Magoon, with an addition at dif- 

See genealogy of the family. 


ferent times of after divisions. It belonged to Joseph Cumniings 
in 1809. 

No. 5. Olmstead, Jeremiah. Had a grant of 100 acres situated 
northeast of his father Olmstead's farm, formerly the Hollings- 
worth grant ; beginning the survey at the bridge, crossing Ware 
river on the old country road. Alexander Magoon was the owner 
in 1809. 

Col. Pynchon (see Eeal Estate 2, p. 3, on John Kilburn's ac- 
count. — Real Estate 2, p. 128). Heirs had a lot of 200 acres in the 
northwest corner of the common lands, bounded on the west by 
equivalent lands, on the north by Marsh's grant. Samuel Bradford, 
Hon. Ebenezar Burrell, General Court committee, had 100 acres 
each situated south of Col. Pynchon's farm. The 400 acres were 
bought by James and William Breakenridge, with other lands that 
belonged to the proprietors. 

John Blackmer, Samuel Davis and John Post were some of the 
early settlers who made their purchase of the proprietors, John 
Blackmer settled southeast of his father-in-law, Capt. Cummings. 
Mr. Davis bought of Nathaniel Dewey. Mr. Post located north 
of Capt. Olmstead's farm on the proprietors' undivided lands. 

The North Division in Western ( Warren). 

No. 1. Brooks, Joseph, Sen. 295 acres; assignee of David In- 
gerson of 100 acres ; he bought of the Claimers 100 acres, and it 
was a Court grant, 1732. John Blair and John Patrick were made 
freemen and purchased the farm in 1735. It was situated in the 
east part of the District and bounded north by the farm of Oba- 
diah Cooley. 

No. 2. Bailey, Andrew. Bought 100 acres of the Claimers, and 
granted to his heirs by the General Court, 1732. Col. Stone and 
Samuel Blair were the owners in 1809. The West Warren Mfg. 
Co. are the owners of some of the lands with their privilege. 

No. 3. Chadwick, Joseph. 112 acres ; he bought 50 acres of the 
Claimers and granted to him, 1732; and situated in the southeast 
part of the District on Quabaug river, near the lower village of 
Warren Center. Mr. Dennison was the owner in 1809. 

No. 4. Curtice, Abel, had 100 acres ; he bought 50 acres of the 
Claimers, and it was granted to him, 1732. It was bounded east 
by Joseph Chadwick and south by the river, and owned by John 
Mills, 1809. 

No. 5. Dewey, Nathaniel, had 100 acres ; he bought 50 acres of 
the Claimers, and was granted by the Court, 1732. It bounded 
east by Abel Curtice, and was owned by John Patrick, 1809. 


No. 6. Cooley, Obadiah, Jr. 325 acres; he bought 100 acres and 
it was granted to him, 1732. It was situated one-half mile west of 
Brookfield line and north of the land granted to Joseph Brooks. 
James Blair bought the farm and occupied it, 1809. 

Ware Divisio7i. 

No. T. Brooks, Joseph, Jr. 289 acres ; he bought 100 acres of 
the Claimers, and it was a G-eneral Court grant, and situated in the 
northeast corner of the District. It was bounded east by Brook- 
field and north by Col. Pynchon's 500 acre grant. [So stated on the 
records, but the north boundary is not right.] 

No. 8. Stanford, Robert. 100 acres ; he bought of the Claimers 
50 acres ; he assigned it to Matthew Brown, and the General Court 
granted it to the assignee, 1732. Mr. James Brown became the 

No. 9. Joseph Green and Isaac Walker, merchants of Boston, to 
100 acres of land in the right of James McElwane's first division, 
and surveyed to them, 1740. Situated west of Joseph Brooks, Jr., 
and south of Col. Pynchon's land. 

John Blare, John Patrick, David Blare and James Brown were 
the purchasers of a large part of the lands north of the Quabaug 
river, that were entered by the first settlers. The location of this 
lot described by the records is uncertain. 


The Register of Families that Settled in the Elbow 
District During the First Century, 

" Our dead are never dead to us until we have forgotten them." 

—George Eliot. 

MANY persons know and care little about their ancestors, 
and to those the labor and expense in compiling this part 
of our town history will appear wasted, yet the true history 
of the town is only the history of the families that compose it. 
Therefore no educated person will underrate the value of historical 

Having a desire that this part of the work might be as complete 
as circumstances would permit, I have corresponded with the de- 
scendants of our ancestors residing in the Middle and Western 
States, and also searched the records of other towns and those of 
the New England Genealogical and Historical Society at Boston 
that contained information with regard to their residence previous 
to their settlement in this town. Mistakes may occur in some in- 
stances, which I trust will be excusable by those who have been en- 
gaged in a similar work. In a few instances I have given some 
traditional account of families when the traditions were more than 
probably true. 

Note. — Abbreviations: b., born ; m., married ; unm., unmarried ; ch., 
children ; dau., daughter ; s., son ; w., wife. Some families have two col- 
umns of figures — the one at the left represents the registered member of 
the family ; the figure at the right of the head of the family denotes the 
generation from the first family registered. 


John and Eebecca came from "Watertown. He was a blacksmith 
by trade, and carried on the business near the Jonas Blodgett place. 
Their settlement here, in 1727, was after the birth of some of the 
children, as they are not on the records with the rest of the family. 

An epidemic deprived them of three of their boys in seventeen 
days, in the month of January, 1738. We can hardly imagine the 
severe affliction of this family, with several others, in the loss of 


their children by that dread disease, (on the records) the mortal throat 
distemper ; and at a time of their being deprived of the comforts 
of life, and living in a wilderness country. 

The family resided in Palmer till 1764, and then his son Thomas, 
with his family and youngest sister, Rebecca, removed to a new 
settlement (Swansey, N. H.). He is represented on the records of 
this town as a useful man in society, and in Swansey one of the 
leaders in the organization of the town and church. He carried 
with him a letter from the first Presbyterian Church of Palmer. 

John and Rebecca Applin. 

2, oh. 1, Thomas, h.l , m. Mabel Brown. 

3^ ch. 2, Edward, , d. Jan. 3, 1738. 

4, ch. 3, John, Jr., , d. Jan. 2-5, 1738. 

5, ch. 4, Ebenezar, b. Nov. 2.5, 1734, d. Jan. 20, 173S. 

6, ch. .5, Sarah, b. Nov. 24, 1737. 

7, ch. G, Rebecca, b. Aug. 13, 1740. 

Thomas,'- s. of John^ and Rebecca, m. Mabel Brown, Nov. 9, 1752. 

8, ch. 1, John, b. Nov. 27, 1753. 

9, ch. 2, Annah, b. Oct. 21, 1755. 

10, ch. 3, Sarah, b. Sept. 10, 1757. 

11, ch. 4, Thomas, b. Oct. 10, 1759. 

12, ch. 5, Timothy Brown, b. Nov. 13, 1760. 

George and Mary Abbott. 

(!h. 1, Hannah, b. June 22, 1758. 

Ch. 2, Nathan, b. June 26, 1760. 

Ch. 3, Molly, b. Sept. 20, 1.762. 

Ch. 4, Sarah, b. Oct, 25, 1765. 

Ch. 5, Bethiah, b. May 13, 1768. 

Ch. 6, George, b. Sept. 4, 1770. 
Gideon and Mary Abbott. 

Ch., Sally Appleton, b. March 15, 1793. 

Andrew, Jr., and Rebecca Adams. 

Ch. 1, AmoB, b. Feb. 12, 1790. 

Ch. 2, Lucy, b. Oct. 18, 1791. 

Ch. 3, Sally Swift, b. Jan. 11, 1798. 

Ch. 4, Rebecca, b. Jan. . 

Oliver, s. of Andrew, m. Betsey . 

Ch., Eunice Wight,b. Oct. 4, 1812. 


Allen, 0. P., b. Sept. 30, 1833, in Wallingford, Vt., educated at 

Chester academy, taught in public schools four years in Vernon and 

New Jersey, superintendent of schools in Vernon two years. He 

removed from New Jersey to Palmer October 5, 1859, and opened 


'^TEfe A^i- 



ALLEN. 409 

the drug store in Lawrence Block, January, 1860, in company with 
Dr. A. M. Higins, afterwards in partnership with Dr. E. G. Wood, 
and later with Dr. A. B. Cowan. In 1880 bought his partner's 
interest and continued the business alone. He purchased the Lam- 
bert Homestead, corner of Church and Pleasant sts. in 1866, where 
he has since lived. Married Miss Hattie L. M. Gavin of Boston, 
February 30, 1860, she d. February 25, 1862, had one child, Ina 
Lyndon, b. May 16, 1861. 2d m. Miss Lucinda E. Scott, dau. of 
E. G. Scott of Vermont, June 16, 1863. 

Ch. 2, Walter Scott, b. Feb. 1, 1867. 
Ch. 3, Julia Adeline, b. July 6, 1869. 
Ch. 4, Lillie May, b. Sept. 7, 1870. 

His ancestors are : — father, Robert, b. Apr. 16, 1805, in Shutes- 
bury, now living Vernon, Vt., at the age of 8-1 yrs ; grandfather, 
Robert, b. in Newport, R. I., Oct. 10, 1767, d. in Wallingford, Vt., 
May 15, 1856, aged 88 yrs ; great grandfather, Joseph, b. probably 
in Nantucket, 1728, d. in Shutesbury, 1804, aged 76 yrs ; great- 
great grandfather, Joseph, b. about 1692, d. nearly one hundred 
yrs. of age. 

A record in Savage, on the Allen family of Newport, R. L, which 
probably connects this line. (?) Allen, Joseph, of Newport, R. I., 

m. July, 1662, Sarah . Ch. Abigail, b. April 1, 1663 ; Rose, 

b. Oct. 1, 1665 ; Joseph, b. March 4, 1668 ; John, b. July 15, 1669 ; 
Philip, b. July 3, 1667, William, b, Aug. 10, 1673. 

The different branches, or the different lines of the Allen family 
that have lived in town for the past ninety years are not easily 
traced to their progenitors, and their family relation to each other 
very well known, as there appears no connecting link with the 
branches whose genealogy have been traced. 

The Allen family have long been residents in England and Scot- 
land, and many of them shared in titled and honored names. 

Capt. Abner Allen came from the eastern towns to Petersham, 
and m. Philadelphia Crowl May 20, 1793. I find some records that 
make it possible that he might have been a descendent of Walter, 
that settled in Newbury, 163 — . He removed to Palmer in 1800, 
and located on a farm east of the Old Centre, and in connection 
with farming worked at his trade, (a blacksmith). 

Ahner and Philadelphia Allen. 

Ch. 1, Elijah, b. Dec. 15, 1794, m. . 

Ch. 2, Cyrus, b. Apr. 4, 1796, m. Sally Blodgett March, 1817. 
Ch. 3, Cyrena, b. Nov. 6, 1797, m. Jonathan Wade Dec. 13, 1827. 
Ch. 4, Lambert, b. June 29, 1799, m. Elisabeth Steel 1825. 
Ch. 5, Clarisa, b. Jan. 18, 1802, m. Moses Barnes 1822. 


Ch. 6, Backster, b. Apr. 28, 1803. 

Ch. 7, Huldah, b. Nov. 6, 1804, m. Pliney Cooley Jan. 25, 1829. 

Ch. 8, Ephraim, b. Apr. 18, 1806, in. Mary Scripture Apr. 9, 1831. 

Ch. 9, Abner, Jr., b. Nov. 15, 1807, m. Mary Hale Oct. 1832. 

Ch. 10, John, b. Nov. 17, 1809. 

Ch. 11, Philadelphia, b. Oct. 25, 1811, m. Elias Turner. 

Allen, James G., Judge, was the son of Edmund^ boru in Bel- 
chertown, and grandson of Capt, Edmund Allen from Sturbridge, 
that removed to Belchertown in early life. Edmund Jr. lived in 
Belchertown till he was 23 years of age, and being known as a 
superior mechanic, Benjamin Prescott, a superintendent of the 
Springfield Armory, in 1809 gave Mr. Allen employment in stock- 
ing guns, which was somewhat tedious, as the Blanchard joatent for 
irregular turning had not been brought into use. He worked in 
tlie armory till 1845, and at the age of 28, married Lucy, daughter 
of Jonathan Gardner, a merchant of Springfield. The family con- 
sisted of nine children ; James G., our late townsman, b. in Sj^ring- 
field, and when young entered the printing-office, but later engaged 
in carriage manufacturing at Huntington. He studied law in 
Springfield, and in 1853 settled in Palmer, and opened an office in 
Strong's block. He was Trial Justice, Notary Public, Commis- 
sioner of Insolvency and Public Administrator, and July 1, 1872, 
appointed Judge of the Eastern Hampden Court, which appoint- 
ment he held at his death, 1878. Mr. Allen took an active part in 
the improvements of the village, he built the Allen Block in 1873-4, 
his residence was the brick house built by the B. &. A. R. R. cor- 
poration for Capt. Watson. His progenitor dates back to the early 
settlement of the colony. James Allen and wife, Anna, came from 
Suffolk Co., England in 1639, and settled in Dedham, the town 
where his cousin, Rev. John Allen settled in 1637, and became the 
first settled minister in 1639, James was made freeman in 1647, 
and in company with fifty others in 1649, settled in the western 
part of the town on Charles river, and in the following year it was 
incorporated Medfield. 

James, m. Anna in England. 

Ch. 1, John, b. in Dedham, Dec. 4, 1639. 
Ch. 2, James, b. in Medfield, m. Lydia Adams. 

Ch. 3, Nathaniel, m. Mary Fritswell, had nine ch.— 1, Samuel; 2, Nathaniel: 
3, James; 4, John; 5, Mary; 6, Ann; 7, Sarah; 8, Benjamin; 9, Edmund. 
Ch. 4, William, m. had ch. 
Ch. 5, Benjamin, m. had ch. 
Ch. 6, Martha, m. William Sabin, R. I. 
Ch. 7, Mary, m. Joseph Clark, Medfield. 
Ch. 8, Sarah, m. Domingo White. 
Ch. 9, t Joseph, b. June 24, 1652, m. Hannah Sabin, Sekonk, R. I. 

ALLEN". 411 

10. Joseph^, s. of JamesS m. Hannah Sabin. 

19, ch. 1, Joseph, b. Dec. 19, 1676. 

20, ch. 2, Hannah, b. , 1679. 

21, ch. 3, Daniel, b. , 1681, removed to Pomfret, Ct. 

22, ch. 4, David, b. , 1683, removed to Pomfret, Ct, 

23, ch. 5, Noah, b. Apr. 21, 1685, m. Sarah Gay, Dedham. 

24, ch. 6, Eliezer, b. 1688, m. Mary Battelle. 

25, ch. 7, Jeremiah, b. 1690, unm. 

26, ch. 8, Hezekiah, b. 1692. 

27, ch. 9, Abigail, b. 1697. 

28, ch. 10, fNehemiah, bap. May 21, 1699. 

30, ch. 11 and 12, Thankful and Mary. 

28, Nehemiah^, s. of Joseph-, m. , had eight sons and one dau. 

31, ch. 1, fEliphalet, b. 1728. 

32, ch. 2, Nehemiah, b. 1730, d. March 26, 1822. 

33, ch. 3, John, b. 1732. 

34, ch. 4, Jacob, b. Feb. 24, 1734, removed to Whitehall, X. Y. 

35, ch. 5, Abel, b. March 3, 1736, d. 1820. 

36, ch. 6, David. 

37, ch. 7, Timothy, m. Hannah Moffit. 

38, ch. 8, Abagail, b. Dec. 23, 1741, m. Aaron, s. of Isaac Allen. 
31, fEliphalet*, s. of Nehemiah*, had 8 sons and 3 dau. 

39, ch. 1, t Edmund, b. Dec. 1, 1753. 

40, ch. 2, Elijah, b. Apr. 10, 1765. 

41, ch. 3, Khoda, b. , m. Caleb, s. of Isaac Allen. 

42, ch. 4, Willard, b. Aug. 14, 1770; and others. 

39, Capt. EdmundP, s. of EliphaletS m. Molly Stacy, Sept. 13, 1776; he d. Dec. 
23, 1833; she b. July 17, 1759, d. Dec. 12, 1836. 

43, ch. 1, Polly, b. Aug. 13, 1777, d. March 29, 1850. 

44, ch. 2, t Chester, b. Feb. 4, 1779, d. Sept. 14, 1859. 

45, ch. 3, Amnia, b. Dec. 20, 1780, m. Mr. Wilson. 

46, ch. 4, Anna, b. Sept. 1, 1782. 

47, ch. 5, Nathan, b. June 2, 1784, d. Dec. 26, 1825. 

48, ch. 6, tEdmund, b. Feb. 2.5, 1786. 

49, ch. 7, t Abram, b. March 2, 1788. 

.50, ch. 8, Elisabeth, b. Apr. 23, 1790^ m. Mr. Rice, d. Nov. 22, 1823. 

51, ch. 9, Silence, b. Sept. 6, 1792, m. Moses Record, d. March 23. 1826. 

52, ch. 10, Julia, b. March 2, 1795, d. Sept. 14, 1827. 

53, ch. 11, Elijah, born Sept. 1, 1797, d. Sept. 20, 1832. 

54, ch. 12, Almira, b. Aug. 3, 1799. d. March 31, 1834, unm. 

55, ch. 13, Eliza, b. Aug. 26, 1801. 

44, Chester"^, s. of Capt. Edmund^, m. Anna Rice Nov. 26, 1805. 

56, ch. 1, Harriett, b. Aug. 13, 1806, m. Jerry Miller, Ludlow, d. Dec. 6, 1857. 

57, ch. 2, Elijah C, b. Aug. 13, 1808, m. Lucinda Babbit. 

58, ch. 3, Elisabeth, b. Sept. 12, 1811, m. Samuel S. Johnson. 

59, ch. 4, Abner B., b. June 13, 1814, m. Mary Pearce. 

60, ch. 5, Sophronia, b. Nov. 26, 1816, m. John Coney. 

61, ch. 6, Samuel Hovre, b. Feb. 20, 1819, m. Julia Pierson. 

62, ch, 7, Mary S., b. May 2, 1821, m. Eben Brown. 

49, Ahravn!^, s. of Capt. Edmund^, residence, Belchertown. 

63, ch. 1, Joanna, m. Eestus Curi-ier. 


64, ch. 2, Henry, m. M. Willis. 

65, ch. 3, George, m. Lucy Lewis. 

66, ch. 4, Keyes H., m. Martha Davis, Palmer, now resides in Missouri. 

67, ch. 6, Phebe, m. Forrest Leach. 

68, ch. 5, Mary, m. Anderson Parker, settled in Brimfield. 

48, Edmund^, s. of Capt. Edmund^ b. in Belchertown, Feb. 25, 1786, m. Lucy 
Gardner of Springfield, Dec. 22, 1814. 

69, ch. 1, Edmund P., b. Feb. 2, 1816. 

70, ch. 2, Fanny S., b. Aug. 31, 1818, m. David P. Curtis, d. April 15, 1889. 

71, ch. 3, James G., b. July 18, 1820, m. Elisabeth C. Bradley. 

72, ch. 4, Maria L., b. June 19, 1826, unm., d. Aug. 9, 1878. 

73, ch. 5, Samuel T., b. Aug. 3, 1826, d. May 24, 1849, unm. 

74, ch. 6, Frederick S., b. Feb. 27, 1828, d. July 25, 1850, unm. 

71, James G.,' s. of Edmund,*' m. Elisabeth C. Bradley June 28, 1843. 

75, ch. 1, Maria E., b. July 26, 1845. 

76, ch. 2, James D., b. Jan. 29, 1848, d. Apr. 22, 1858. 

77, ch. 3, Frederick, b. Apr. 2, 1855, m. Emma C. Perry Jan. 10, 1878. 

Allen, Cheney, came from Brookfield and settled in Palmer 1839. 
The family register gives the names of John, Artemns, Isaac and 
Zebediah living in Brookfield 1775. Some of their descendants re- 
side there at the present time. 

John Allen and wife Anna. 

Ch. 1, James, b. Feb. 15, 1788. 

Ch. 2, John, Jun., b. May 28, 1790. 

Ch. 3, Polly, b. Feb. 13, 1793. 

Ch. 4, Anna, b. March 22, 1796. 

Ch. 5, Eunice, b. Jan. 21, 17199. 

Ch. 6, Joyce W., b. Sept. 6, 1801. 

Ch. 7, Liberty B., b. May 11, 1806. 

Ch. 8, Joseph, b. July 7, 1808. 
John, Jr., m. Hepsabeth How; he d. March 10, 1847; she d. Dec. 22, 1852. 

Ch. 1, John H., b. Nov. 17, 18—, d. Sept. 4, 1878, unm. 

Ch. 2, George W., b. Feb. 24, 1813, m. Mary E. Marsh. 

Ch. 3, Levanchey W., b. Dec. 26, 181.5, m. Hiram Walker. 

€h. 4, Cheney, b. Jan. 24, 1819, m. Harriett Orcutt 1842, she d. Feb. 1865,— 
ch. Francis V,., b. Nov. 3, 1844. 

Ch. 5, Mary, b. May 8, 1821, m. Henry Churchill, Lynn. 

Ch. 6, Nathaniel L., b. Apr. 5, 1824, m. Nancy Harvey. 

John and Matthew Brown's residence in the District dates back 
to 1727. Matthew signed the petition for the organization of the 
township. John has no record of taking up land, and it is said he 
returned to the eastern part of the state to his friends, who were 
decendants of John Brown, who came from England, 1634. 

Matthew and wife. He was b. 1676, d. Apr. 30, 1766. 
Ch. 1, Thomas; ch. 2, William; ch. 3, Robert; ch. 4, James. 

BROWN. 413 

1, Thomas-, s. of Matthewi, m. Jane McNitt, December, 1744; d. Nov. 3, 1756. 
Ch. 5, Andrew, b. Dec. 28, 1745, m. Mary Bell May, 1767. 

Ch. 6, Kobert, b. Nov. 17, 1747. 

Ch. 7, John, b. Oct. 6, 1749, m. Elizabeth Carver 1770. 

Ch. 8. Margaret, b. Aug. 24, 1751, m. Andrew Young March 14, 1774. 

Ch. 9, Anne, b. Oct. 24, 1753. 

Ch. 10, Mary, b. Feb. 17, 1756, m. James Shaw 1780. 

2, William,- s. of Matthew,^ m. Margaret Johnson ; he was b. 1721, d. Feb. 

26, 1783. 

11, ch. 1, Samuel, b. May 9, 1749. 

12, ch. 2, Matthew, b. June 7, 1751. 

13, ch. 3, Elizabeth, b. Aug. 12, 1753, m. Josiah Farrell Oct. 26, 1786. 

14, ch. 4, Margaret, b. Aug. 29, 1756, m. David Brown, Jan. 1, 1771. 

15, ch. 5, Thomas, b. Sept. 2, 1759, m. Jane McNitt, Dec. 15, 1784. 

16, ch. 6, William, b. Aug. 9, 1762. 

17, ch. 7, Samuel, b. Jan. 16, 1765. 
IS, ch. 8, James, b. June 10, 1767. 

3, Robert,'^ s. of Matthew^, m. Elenor McClanathan September, 1748. 

19, ch. 1, Thomas, b. Apr. 24, 1750. Elenor, d. May 6, 1755; m. 2d wife, 
Sarah Shaw, Feb. 10, 1757. 

20, ch. 2, Elisabeth, b. Sept. 11, 1760, m. Isaac Hunter. 

21, ch. 3, Seth, b. June 9, 1762, m. Elisabeth Pond Aug. 24, 1794. 

22, ch. 4, Elenor, b. Jan. 28, 1765, m. John Hunter Dec. 18, 1784. 

23, ch. 5, Kebecca, b. March 4, 1768, m. Isaac Hunter, 2d wife, Feb. 13, 1798. 

24, ch. 6, Solomon, b. Dec. 9, 1772, m. Ruth Brakenridge March, 1798. 

25, ch. 7, Prudence, b. July 19, 1775, m. Dea. Wilson Foster, Oct. 19, 1797. 
24, Solomon^, s. of Eobert^, m. Ruth Brakenridge March, 1798; he d.Dec. 30, 

1866; she d. Feb. 13, 1850. 

26, ch. 1, Polly, b. March 15, 1799, m. Royal Colister, 1823. 

27, ch. 2, Talmai, unm. 

28, ch. 3, Solomon, unm. 

29, ch. 4, Sarah, m. Mr. Olds. 

21, Seth^, s. of Robert^, m. Elisabeth Pond Aug. 21, 1794. 

30, ch. 1, Clarisa, b. June 19, 1794, m. Daniel Dunbar 1820. 

31, ch. 2, Alvah. b. Aug. 26, 1796, m. Sally Anderson; went west. 

32, ch. 3, Amasa, b. Apr. 16, 1798. 

33, ch. 4, Seva, b. Dec. 3, 1799, m. Caroline Cobb. 

34, ch. 5, Robert. 

35, ch. 6, Harvey. 

36, ch. 7, Eli. 

37, ch. 8, Louisa, m. Martin Shaw Oct. 29, 1828. 

38, ch. 9, Anna. 

33, Seva*, s. of Seth^, m. Caroline Cobb Oct. 22, 1829, d. Aug. 22, 1872. 

39, ch. 1, Seva, Jr., b. March 7, 1831, d. Battle of Wilderness, 1864. 

40, ch. 2, Caroline, b. Aug. 20, 1833, m. George Keith Jan. 1, 1849. 

41, ch. 3, Lucius, b. Sept. 15, 1835, m. Sarah A. Childs Apr. 10, 1858. 

42, ch. 4, Maria, b. Sept. 15, 1838, m. Lyman Snow Nov. 18, 1857. 

43, ch. 5, Samuel, b. Jan. 1, 1842, m. Melissa C. Dimock Oct. 28, 1862. 

44, ch. 6, Seth, b. May 10, 1843, m. Mrs. Sarah A. Brown Jan. 26, 1866. 

45, ch. 7, Elisabeth, b. May 11, 1846, m. Olin Potter Apr. 5, 1866; m. Frank 
Shaw Sept. 23, 1875. 


46, ch. 8, Sarah, b. Aug. 17, 1848, m. George Merriam Jau. 1, 1872. 
43, Samuel^, s. of Seva^ m. Melissa C. Dimock Oct. 28, 1862. 

47, ch. 1, Bertie S., b. Sept. 7, 1867, d. Feb. 26, 1874. 

48, ch. 2, Mabel, b. Apr. 26, 1873. 

James^, s. of Matthew^, settled on a farm east of his father that 
is now in the limits of Warren. His father was assignee of the 
place, 1736, it being granted to Robert Stanford by the General 
Court Committee. James m. Elizabeth Blare, and several genera- 
tions occupied the land with other lots laid out to him in the 
rights of the proprietors. 

4, James^ and Elisabeth (Blare) Brown. 

49, ch. 1, Matthew, b. Oct. 17, 1742. 

50, ch. 2, David, b. Apr. 11, 1744. 

51, ch. 8, James, Jr., b. Sept. 21, 1745. 

52, ch. 4, William, b. Apr. 12, 1747. 

51, James, Jr.^, m. Elisabeth Johnson. 

53, ch. 1, Asa, b. Oct. . 

54, ch. 2, Eli, b. March, . 

55, ch. 3, Anna, b. July, 178-. 

56, ch. 4, Joel, b. Nov. 25, 178-. 

57, ch. 5, Samuel, b. June, 178-. 

58, ch. 6, Polly, b. Sept. 22, 1787. 

59, ch. 7, Amos, b. June 6, 1790. 

60, ch. 8, James, b. June 17, 1793. 

61, ch. 9, Johnson, b. Nov. 5, 1795. 

52, William^, s. of James^, m. Margaret. 

62, ch. 1, Thomas, b. Nov. 20, 1770. 

63, ch. 2, James, b. Apr. 16, 1772. 

64, ch. 3, William, Jr., b. Dec. 7, 1773. 

65, ch. 4, Calvin, b. Dec. 3, 1775. 

66, ch. 5, Betty, b. Aug. 19, 1777. 

Ehenezer, s. of James and Betsy (Maynard) Brown, and grandson 
of Ebenezer Brown, of Brighton, Mass., farmer. Mr. Brown was 
left to the care of friends at the age of eleven years by the death 
of his father. At the age of fifteen it was proposed by his friends 
in Palmer to change his location for the benefit of his health. After 
his settlement he labored a part of the time to procure funds to 
pay expenses to attend school at Monson and Wilbraham Academy. 
At the age of twenty-one he became in possession of his father's small 
estate, and with the advice of a friend, Dea. Green, he bought an 
old store at the Old Centre, to engage in merchandise ; but as the 
rush of business was centering at Palmer Village, he moved the 
store at Thorndike and fitted up a tenement, which wasted some of 
his small capital. He then opened a hardware store at Palmer, 
about 1848, and his steady application to business has rewarded 


him with a handsome property. He built his residence on West 
Main street in 1869, when it was thought by some that he had 
moved out of the village. This was about the commencement of 
first-class houses in the village. In 1874, in company with J. F. 
Holbrook, they built the Commercial block. By the urgent request 
of the citizens, Mr. Brown has served in important places of trust 
for the town, and always been interested in his considerate way for 
the benefit and improvement of the village. 

James, s. of Ebenezer, m. Betsey Maynard, d. 1834. 

Ch. 1, Ebenezer, b. Oct. 16, 1823, m. Mary S. Allen, Dec. 16, 1845. 

Ch. 1, Clarence A., b. Apr. 12, 1850, m. Fanny W. Royce. 

Ch. 2, Anna A., b. Feb. 6, 1858, m. Francis D. Barton, June 6, 1884. 

Ch. 1, Francis D., b. March 15, 1886. 

Ch. 2, Eben R. b. Aug., 1887. 


James Breakenridge was born in Scotland in 169(3. The name 
at first probably originated from the peculiar feature of the coun- 
try — its ridge hill and a place of ferns. His parents died when he 
was young, and he went to Ireland and married in 1720 and had 
three sons — James, William and Francis. The family departed 
from Ireland July 16, 1727. Francis died during the voyage. He 
settled easterly of the Old Centre, the>farm now occupied by Horace 
Smith, and had other children — Francis, 2d, Sarah, Esther, George 
and Margaret. James and William settled in the Xorth Division 
of the Elbows, on lands laid out in their father's right of after 
divisions, and also lands purchased from the General Court Com- 
mittee. The family otherwise remained in the South Division. 

James Breakenridge, Sen., b. 1696, m. Sarah 1720, b. 1696 ; he d. Apr. 

5, 1767 ; she d. I^ov. 17, 1773. 
Ch. 2, James, b. May 28, 1721. 
Ch. 3, William, b. Sept. 17, 1723. 
Ch. 4, Francis, b. Jan. 8, 1725, d. Aug. 19, 1727. 
Ch. 5, Francis, 2d, b. Nov. 18, 1728, m. Margaret Cowan 1755. 
Ch. 6, Sarah, b. Oct. 6, 1729, m. James Lemmon. 
Ch. 7, Esther, b. Sept. 19, 1731, m. James Hamilton Feb. 6, 1766. 
Ch. 8, George, b. June 1, 1733, m. Mary Thomson 1758. 
Ch. 9, Margaret, b. , d. Sept. 9, 1787. 

James, Jun., the eldest son o'f James, Sen., owned a tract of land 
in the North Division, joining his brother William on the north, 
which he sold to him in after years and removed to Benning, Vt. 
Esquire Hyde, in his historical address of AVare, makes mention 
that he was sent on a mission to England for redress of grievances. 
This was after he and his brother William were members of the 
Provincial Congress in 1775. We have no records of the man from 


his appoiutment, except to learu that he was i^ersuaded it was 
wrong for the colony to rebel against the King, and he therefore 
espoused the cause of the British and remained till the close of the 
war. When he came back it was not to live with his friends. He 
settled in Kentucky, and was the ancestor of the politicians and 
statesmen of the Southern States. 

2, James-, Jun., and Mary. 

Cb. 10, Janet, b. Aug. 18, 1746. 
Cb. 11, Isabel, b. Oct. 22, 1748. 
Cb. 12, Estber, b. Sept. 22, 1751. 
Cb. 13, Mary, b. Feb. 1, 1754. 
Cb. 14, James, b. Aug. 26, 1756. 
Cb. 15, William, b. Dec. 8, 1758. 

Capt. William, s. of James, Sen., m. Agnes Sinclair. He was 
one of the most prominent men in the organization of the town of 
Ware, was town clerk for many years and a member of the first 
board of selectmen. He held a captain's commission under the 
King, but when tyranny began to oppress the people he resigned 
his commission and raised a company for the Eevolution. His son 
enlisting in his company, said he was going to take care of his 
father. He d. aged 84 years. 

3, William- and Agnes Sinclair. 

Cb. 16, Sarah, b. Aug. 22, 1747, m. Josepb Ruggles, d. 1827. 

Cb. 17, William, Jun., b. Marcb 5, 1750, m. Thankful Marsh. 

Cb. 18, James, b. Nov. 22, 1752, m. Priscilla Coney. 

Cb. 19, George, b. Aug. 5, 1755, m. Persia Joslyn May, 1784. 

Ch. 20, Francis, b. Jan. 11, 1759, m. Lydia Pepper. 

Cb. 21, Mary, twin to Francis, m. Jesse Page 1780. 

17, William'^, Jun., eldest s. of Williams, m. Thankful Marsh of Ware, d. 
Dec. 17, 1833. 

Ch. 22, Thankful, b. Jan. 8, 17S1, m. Amasa Anderson. Their children, 
Oriva, William, Samuel, Franklin, Charles. 
23, William^ Sinclair, s. of William, Jun., m. Anna Cummings of Ware. 
Ch. 1, Charles Sinclair; cb. 2, Henry Porter; cb. 3, Mary Ann; ch. 4, New- 
ell Cutler; ch. 5, Bradish Cummings. 
28, Judah^ Marsh, s. of William, Jun., m. Sela Cummings Apr. 29, 1792. 
Ch. 1, Mary; ch. 2, Josepb Cummings; ch. 3, William Wesson. 

32, Sally, m. Josepb Cummings. 

Cb. 1, Mary; ch. 2, Sarah; ch. 3, Eliza; ch. 4, Delpha; ch. 5, Joseph Austin; 
cb. 6, Lutbera; cb. 7, Mary Anne; cb. 8, William Breakenridge ; cb. 9, El- 
bridge; 10, Martha. 

33, Charlotte, m. Isaac Stearns. 

Ch. 1, Charlotte; ch. 2, Isaac, Jun.; cb. 3, Maria; ch. 4, Alonzo; ch. 5, 

18, James^, second s. of William- and Agnes Breakenridge, m. Priscilla 


34 cb. 1, James; ch. 2, Allender; ch. 3, Polly; ch. 4, Reuben M. ; ch. 5, Pris- 
cilla; ch. 6, William; ch. 7, Agnes Sinclair; ch. S, Mehitable E. 
35, Allender*, s. of JamesS, b. March 27, 1787, m. Esther Perry Dec. 13, 1807. 
41 ch. 1, Elijah P.; ch. 2, James M. ; ch. 3, Allender C. ; ch. 4, Allender C, 
2d; ch. 5, Elias K.; ch. G, Josiah C; ch. 7, Julia A.;ch. 8, William L. 
42, James^ M., second s. of Allender*, m. Hester Wade Oct. 18, 1838. 

49. ch. 1, Charles A.; ch. 2, James H.; ch. 3, Alice H.; ch. 4, Hester W. 

Mrs. Hester d. May 4, 1849. 
Second m. Celia Chapin Dec. 5, 1849. Ch. 5, Henry D. ; ch. 6, Mary D. ; ch. 
7, Lucy C. 

44, Allender^ C, 2d, s. of AllenderS m. Amanda Medcalf Nov. 17, 1818. 
56, ch. 1, Ellen M. ; cb. 2, Augusta F. ; ch. 3, Warren J. 

45, Elias^ K., fifth s. of Allender*, m. Martha Culver March 29, 1841. 

59 ch. 1, Martha A. ; ch. 2, Almira L. ; ch. 3, Elias E. ; ch. 4, Clara C. ; ch. 5, 
Clarance E. ; ch. 6 Adelia E. ; ch. 7, Eva W. 

46, Josiah^ C, sixth s. of Allender*, m. Frances A. Bradley Nov. 20, 1844. 
65, ch. 1, Allender I.; ch, 2, Florence F.; ch. 3, William C; cb. 4, Frances 

Augusta; ch. 5, Fredrica C; ch. 6, Rosetta S.; ch. 7. Robert St. Clair; 
ch. 8, Ethel; ch. 9, Philip K. 
48, William^ L., seventh s. of Allender*, m. Mary B. Lyman Jan. 21, 1826. 
74, ch. 1, Frederick L. ; ch. 2, Lyman W. ; ch. 3, Julia A. ; ch. 4, Mary E. ; 
ch. 5, Henry W. ; ch. 6, Seymour C. ; ch. 7, Harlin A. ; ch. 8, Fanny E.; ch. 
9, Osro E. 

19, George^, third s. of William- and Agnes Breakenridge, m. Persis Joslyn 

May, 1785. 
83, cb. 1, Dwight; ch. 2, John; ch. 3, George; ch. 4, William; ch. 5, Benja- 
min; ch. 6, Betsey; ch. 7, Sally; cb. 8, Theodosia; cb. 9, Susan H.; cb. 10, 

20, Francis^, youngest son of William^ and Agnes Breakenridge. 

93, had one son, Francis, Jun., b. February, 1790, d. June 17, 1831. 
Francis-, 2d, and fourth s. of James, Sen., b. in Palmer 1728, m. Mary 

Cowan 1755. 

Mary died March 6, 1789. He then married Eebecca Blair May 
U, 1789. He died Jan. 30, 1790, in the 62d year of his age. His 
child Eebecca was born after his death. The daughter married 
Joseph Brickett, and Francis willed his property to his wife 
Eebecca. The farm was east of now Herman Kendall's. She then 
leased her farm to Col. Ebenezer Webber for eight years, and was 
married to him in 1792. The record is made from the will and 
lease, now in the possession of Mr. Seth Smith of Palmer. 

8, George'^, s. of James^, Sen., b. June 1, 1733, d. March 11, 1797, m. Mary 
Thomson Nov. 16, 1758 ; she b. May 16, 17o6. 

94, ch. 1, James, b. Sept. 20,1759, m. Eunice Shaw Dec. 6, 1781. 

95, ch. 2, Anna, b. May 13, 1761, d. Sept. 5, 1820. 

96, ch. 3, Margaret, b. July 31, 1763, m. Clark McMaster Oct. 14, 1790. 

97, ch. 4, Mary, b. Sept. 9, 1T65, d. Oct. 17, 1767. 

98, cb. 5, Molly, b. Oct. 19, 1767, m. Isaac Warren Oct. 18, 1797 ; they went 
to York State. 


99, ch. 6, George, Jun., b. Sept. 29, 1769, m. Mary McClanathan Nov. 10, 1795. 

100, ch. 7, Sarah, b. May 16, 1771, m. John Dunbar April, 1801. 

101, ch. 8, Ruth, b. April 18, 1773, m. Solomon Brown March, 1798. 

102, ch. 9, Daniel, b. April 2, 1775, d. April 4, 1775. 

103, ch. 10, Francis, b. April 4, 1777, d. March 11, 1807. 

104, ch. 11, Obadiah, a twin of Daniel, m. Chloe Watson Nov. 3, 1802. 

104, Obadiah^, s. of George-, m. Chloe Watson Nov. 3, 1802; he d. Jan. 27, 
1809; she d. Jan. 5, 1808. 

105, ch. 1, Azel, b. Dec. 28, 1804, m. Eliza W. Smith. 

106, ch. 2, Mary T., b. March 3, 1806, m. Calvin Ward March 23, 1828; she 
d. Feb. 2, 1829. 

107, ch, 3, Louisa, b, Aug. 14, 1803, d. Sept. 22, 1823. 

105, Azel*, s. of Obadiah^, m. Eliza W. Smith April 14, 1830; he was b. Dec. 
28, 1804; she was b. Feb. 15, 1810; d. Aug. 11, 1858. 

108, ch. 1, William A., b. May 12, 1831. 

Ch. 2, Mary L., b. Aug. 12, 1833, m. George Robinson, Esq., Nov. 12, 1857. 

109, ch. 3, Charles H., b. Dec. 7, 1835, m. Nellie Webber. 

110, ch. 4, John A., b. Feb. 19, 1842, m. Hattie Kellog Nov. 10, 1868. 

111, ch. 5, Jane E., b. June 24, 1845, m. George Hastings Jan. 29, 1868, d. 
April 16, 1875. 

112, ch. 6, Helen M., b. Nov. 10, 1849, m. Charles T. Brainard June, 1872. 

109, Charles H.^, s. of AzelS m. Nellie M. Webber December, 1857. 

113, ch. 1, Charles W., b. May 17, 1863. 

114, ch. 2, Carrie B., b. Oct. — , 1867. 

110, John A.^, s. of AzelS m. Hattie Kellogg Nov. 10, 1868. 

115, ch. 1, William E.