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Full text of "History of the town of Rochester, New Hampshire, from 1722 to 1890"

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1127436 GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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. 1 3 1833 00083 4579 , ^^, 



HISTORY 



OF THE TOAVN OF 



ROCHESTEK 

NEW IIAMPSHIKE, 

FROM 1722 TO 1890. 



BY 



FRANKLIN MCDUFFEE, A. M. 



EDITED AND REVISED BY 

SILVANUS HAYWAED. 



" Threshing Time's neglected sheaves, 
Gathering up the scattered leaves 
Which the wrinkled Sibyl cast 
Careless from her as she passed." 



m TWO VOLUMES. — VOL.MI. 



MANCHESTER: 

THE JOHN B . CLARKE CO. , PRINTERS, 
1892. 



# 



Copyright Secured by 
M. F. McDTIFFEE. 



1127436 

EDITOR'S PREFACE 



In 1865 the author of this History began a series of historical sketches in 
the "Rochester Courier," and, with much labor during subsequent years, col- 
lected a large amount of material for a town history. The minute and thor- 
ough character of his work is seen in the early history, and especially in the 
record of Rochester in the Rebellion. The carefully preserved sketches and 
other papers contain scattered notes suggesting changes and additions indicative, 
in some degree, of his general plan. His lamented death left the work, uufor- 
tnately, incomplete. 

His father, John INIcDuffee, Esq. (now recently deceased), took great interest 
in the matter, and expressed his desire to put the money, which others would 
have expended on marble or granite, into the History of Rochester, as a better 
and more enduring monument to the memory of his son. At his request I 
undertook the task of editing and completing the work. It has proved a far 
greater labor than was at first anticipated. Every sentence has been carefully 
reviewed and re-written in the desire to make it as nearly as possible what the 
author himself would have wished. jVkrch has been added, and many parts 
are exclusively my own. Though I could not expect to attain the careful 
accuracy, and clear, attractive style of the author, my hope is, that only special 
critics will be likely to discern just the points of transition between the work 
of the author and that of the editor. 

The reader will observe that the standpoint of time varies with the time 
of writing, or of going to press. 

The date of publication suggests the transition from the toicii to the city of 
Rochester, and that whoever shall resume the historic pen must begin with the 
inauguration of a city government with the Hon. Charles S. Whitehouse as 
first mayor. 

The kind assistance of many besides those named in the body of the work 
is hereby thankfully acknowledged. Special mention should be made of Irving 
A. Watson, M. D., the Hon. A. S. Batchellor, the Rev. N. F. Carter, J. R. 
Ham, M. D., and my lamented friend, the late Hon. Isaac W. Hammond. 

Like a broken column restored by some less skillful hand, it is hoped this 
History will remain as a fitting monument to the fragrant memory of its author 
and designer, Franklin McDuffee. 

S. H 

SouTHBRiDGE, Mass., August, 1892. 



CONTENTS, 



Chapter. Page. 

I. Descriptive 9 

II. Indian History 13 

III. Incorporation and Charter 33 

IV. Proprietary History 41 

V. Revolutionary Period 51 

VI. First Century of Church History 75 

VII. Leading Men of the Revolutionary Period . . . 115 

VIII. Life of Early Settlers 124 

IX. From the Revolution to the Rebellion .... 145 

X. Educational and Literary . 156 

XI. Rochester in the Rebellion 193 

XII. Church History since 1819 239 

Xin. Lights and Shadows , . . 293 

XIV. Leading Men since the Revolution 321 

XV. Business of Rochester 461 

XVI. Political 517 

XVIL Unclassified Miscellanies 545 

Appendix 569 

General Index 627 

Index to Towns • • . 651 

Index to Names 655 

Index to Baptisms and Marriages 677 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



To face 
page 

Franklin McDuffee Frontispiece. 

Market Street ............ 9 

Plan of Lots 50 

Army Roll of Capt. Place 63 

Map of Rochester in 1805 144 

J. H. Woodman 332 

Charles Dennett 337 

James Farrington 346 

N. V. Whitehouse 358 

Charles S. Whitehouse 364 

E. F. Whitehouse 366 

John McDuffee 368 

McDuffee Block 372 

Joseph H. Smith 379 

John P. Hale 381 

Dominicus Hanson 394 

Ezekiel True 401 

Charles Main 405 

I. W. LouGEE 407 

James E. Lothrop 421 

Damel Lothrop 424 

John F. Torr 428 

Charles K. Chase 430 

Charles Greenfield 420 

E. G. Wallace 474 

Edwin Wallace 475 

Norway Plains Company No. 3 Mill 477 

Norway Plains Company Nos. 1 and 2 Mills 478 

Dodge's Hotel ........... 487 

GoNic Mills 503 

Agent's House at Gonic . • 507 

CocHECO Mills, East Rochester 514 



E R li A T A 



Page 10, first line, for Robert's read Roberts'. 

Page 20, sixteenth line from bottom, insert S. after Charles. 

Page 22, seventh line, add John Wentworth. 

Page 27, eighth line, for as killful read a skillful. 

Page 80, omit foot note. 

Page 117, fifth line from bottom, for McDffuee read McDuffee. 

Page 161, eighteenth line, for Hiram N. read Hiram M. 

Page 168. tenth line from bottom, omit reference to Appendix. 

Page 169, thirteenth line from boltom, after appoint omit a. 

Page 176, sixth line, after George insert P. 

Page 201, twenty-second line, for Cross read Union. 

Page 205, third line insert a at beginning. 

fourteenth line from bottom, omit comma after hearty. 
Page 206, twenty-third line, after Luther insert B. 
Page 211, twenty-first line, instead of Porter read Potter. 
Page 212, twelfth line from bottom, for August 29, 1861 read 1862. 
Page 224, nineteenth line, for Pocataligo read Pocotalgo. 
Page 233, second line, for since read after. 

seventeenlh line, for Pocotaligo read Pocotalgo. 
Page 234, seventh line from bottom, for Montolinia read Motolinia. 
Page 237, twenty-seventh line, for Henham read Hennem. 
Page 252, eighth line from bottom, after James insert H., and after An- 
dover, insert Mass. 

Page 253, fifteenth line from boltom, for patorate read pastorate. 

Page 258, tenth line, for 60 read 62. 

Page 261, eleventh line from bottom, for geat read great. 

Page 319, thirteenth line from bottom, after Charles, for C. read H. 

Pages 324, 325, and 327, for Henry Orne read Henry FI. Orne. 

Page 331, second line from bottom, for 1766 read 1776. 

Page 349, at end of last line, insert t. 

Page 357, eighteenth line from bottom, after Nicholas insert V. 

Page 365, seventeenth line, after Charles insert H. 

Page 394, fifteenth line from bottom, for 300 read 381. 

next line, for 380 read 369. 
Page 408, twelfth line from bottom, for 1698 should perhaps be 1658. 
Page 421, tenth line, for daugher read daughter. 
Page 443, tenth line from bottom, after Stephen insert M. 
Page 449, tenth line from bottom, for (ionic read Rochesl^. 
P'Bge 459, sixth line from bottom, for 1880 read 1885. ^Wy 
Page 470, first line, for neergetic read energetic. ^L 

Page 473, eighteenth line from bottom, after Micajah insert H. 
Page 483, ninth line from bottom, omit last n. 

Page 521, first line, for Togers read Rogers, omit comma after R, and 
insert comma after Roberts. 

Page 530, seventeenth line from bottom, for Colton read Cotton. 

Page 531, twenty-fourth line, for Lewis read Louis. 

Page 541, tenth "line from bottom, for 141 read 142. 

Page 543, fourth line from bottom, for 1854 read 1845. 

Page 553, seventh line from bottom, at end put e in place of c. 

Page 561, last line, for 1841 read 1881. 

Page 572, fourth line, for Charberlain read Chamberlain. 

Page 621, twenty-first line should be a foot note with asterisk. 



AUTHOR'S IXTTiODUCTIOX 



It is much to be regretted that so little pains is taken to preserve the inci- 
dents of local history. Although the liveliest interest may be felt in the recital 
of these incidents, yet they are generally left to the keeping of uncertain tra- 
dition, so that after two or three generations have passed away it is difficult 
to distinguish fact from mere fiction or embellishment. Even great events and 
deeds are soon forgotten and entirely lost. 

Every town should support a historical society or adopt some other means 
for the preservation of its history. A library association might be made to 
serve all the purposes; a local newspaper, too, is an excellent means, as its 
value and prosperity depend upon its furnishing a complete record of current 
events. 

These remarks are well illustrated by the following incident. 

In 1774, when the oppressions of the mother country were exciting resistance 
in the minds of the colonists, and their hearts were beginning to yearn for 
independence, General Gage, who commanded the British forces in Boston, 
wanted carpenters to build barracks to secure the troops against the approaching 
winter. But no carpenters could be hired in Massachusetts to work for British 
soldiers. In this dilemma General Gage applied for aid to Governor Went- 
worth of New Hampshire, who dispatched a secret agent to some of the back 
towns to hire workmen. The success of this person in his visit to Rochester 
is thus recorded in Belknap's History of New Hampshire : — 

"The agent in .this secret business was brought on his knees before the commitiee of 
Rochester and naade an humble acknowledgment. This prudent step of tlie committee dis- 
armed the populaij rage and prevented any injury to his person or property." 

Every citizen of Rochester may well feel proud to find the town thus early 
taking so unequivocal and decided a stand in the cause of independence. But 
certainly this is but a meager and unsatisfactory account of so prominent an 
event. Who were this committee? and whence did they derive their authority? 
What was the language of that "humble acknowledgment"? and where did 
the meeting occur? The records of the town furnish no light. Tradition even 
gives us no clew. Who knows anything in regard to the subject? (p. 54.) 



AUTHORS INTRODUCTION. 



It is the purpose of the writer to give a few sketches of the early history 
of the town, not entering minutel)'- jfito barren statistics and details of gene- 
alogy, but selecting such matters aQ /^re of general interest, and the knowledge 
of which may be readily obtained." f There are doubtless many old papers and 
letters stored in attics in RochesterJwhich would elucidate important points in 
its history, if the owners would tfing them forth to the light. It is hoped 
these articles will tend to this res A, and awaken an increased interest in the 
subject. n " 

ROCHESTEH, 1865. .. i, 



I 



f 



/ 



ROCHESTER. 



CHAPTEK I. 

DESCRIPTIVE. 

" The siuless, peaceful works of God." 

Rochester is situated on tlie 71st meridian west of Greenwich. 
The village is about one mile east of this meridian, and in latitude 
43° 18' north. The town is approximately a trapezoid containing 
about 52,000 acres, Avith its diagonals extending nearly ten miles 
north and south, and a little over eight miles east and w^est. Its 
northeastern boundary is the state line on the east bank of the 
Salmon Falls river wdiich separates Rochester from Lebanon and 
Berwick in Maine. On the southeast it is bounded by Somers- 
worth and Dover, on the southwest b}^ Barrington and Stratlbrd, 
and on the northwest by Farmington, touching Milton for a short 
distance between Farmington and the river. 

Of natural ponds or lakes Rochester is almost entirely destitute. 
The line between Rochester and Farmington crosses Ricker's pond 
near its center, and a small portion of Round pond extends over 
Barrington line. " Little Long pond " also crosses the same line 
about half a mile farther east. The Salmon Falls river flows along 
the northeastern side, and the Cocheco river crosses the town 
towards the southeast from Farmington to Dover, Isinglass river 
(probably named from the mica in its bed or along its banks) loops 
into Rochester from Barrington, making a large ox-bow, where it 
is crossed by the j^ashua & Rochester railroad ; then returning to 
Barrino'ton it bends back aii-ain across the line and enters the 
Cocheco near where Rochester corners on Dover. Owing to the 
level surface of the town the brooks are few^ and of little importance. 



10 ROCHESTER. 

The principal ones are Eobert's brook, flowing from Eicker's pond ; 
Berry's brook, which supplies the reservoir recently built ; A\"illow 
brook, and Heath brook. 

Dr. Jackson's report of the geology of the State says : — 

" Rochester is probably underlaid by strata of mica slate, which is covered by 
drift consisting of fine sand and sandy loam. Our attention was directed to 
an extensive peat bog, comprising more than one hundred and fifty acres, and 
not less than forty feet in depth. It is but half a mile from the flourishing village 
of Rochester, and will prove of great value both for fuel and for agricultural use. 
The bog may be easily reclaimed by draining off the surplus water into the Co- 
checo river by means of ditches which need not be more than six feet deep. 
Several persons who visited this bog with me resolved to purchase, reclaim it, 
and convert it into a meadow for English grasses. I have no doubt of its proving 
more valuable than any upland soil in the town." 

From Prof. Hitchcock's '^ Geology of iSTew Hampshire" we learn 
that Rochester was under the sea during the " Atlantic period." It 
was afterward covered with gneiss holding crystals of andalusite, 
which are still largely prevalent here. The gneiss was subsequently 
covered with "an uncouth mica schist." The movements of the 
ice in the glacial period were towards the southeast. Bowlders are 
not unfrequent, ])ut none of remarkable size have been observed. 
Coarse glacial drift and finer modified drift deposited by rivers 
of the Champlain period, cover most of the town, forming extensive 
plains which obscure the underlying rock. These plains, extending 
eight miles along the Cocheco, are in many places, as especially 
at Gonic, underlaid by clay. Their height at Rochester Village 
is two hundred and twenty-six feet, and at East Rochester and 
Gonic two hundred feet, above sea level. The river falls much 
more rapidly than the plains, so that it lies seventy-five feet below 
them in the south part of the town. There are five "lenticular 
hills " in Rochester. The finest of these is the one now owned 
by Walter S. Hussey. 

" It rises with a very regularly rounded outline one hundred and fifty feet above 
the lowland or valleys which surround it on every side. Another of similar height 
but less typical in form, lies one mile southeast, near Gonic Village. Two of these 
occur east of the Cocheco, being Haven hill crossed by the road to Great Falls, 
and Gonic hill a half mile south. The former is le.ss steep and prominent than 
usual, but was shown by a well at its top to be composed of glacial drift at least 
forty feet deep." 

Dry hill lying near Barrington, and the range towards Farm- 
ington called Chestnut hills, are probably the highest points in 
town, being a little over five hundred feet above sea level. 



DESCRIPTIVE. 11 

The most important natural feature of the town is undoubtedly 
the peat bog ah-eady mentioned. A large portion of it lies between 
the village and the first crossing of the Great Falls & Conway rail- 
road. The greatest depth found in building that road was a little 
over twenty feet. East of the railroad there are fifty or sixty acres 
more, varying in depth from five to fifteen feet. A few persons 
have used this peat for fuel with good success. It yields a large 
amount of light, dusty ashes "which are found useful for polishing. 
The market value of these peat beds depends almost entirely on the 
price of coal. Largely through the exertions of Franklin McDuftee, 
the Strafford County Improved Peat Company was organized 
Noveml)er 13, 186G, at the office of jSTathaniel Wells, Esq., in Great 
Falls. The capital stock was one hundred thousand dollars, all 
owned by less than a dozen men. IX H. Buffum, A. A. Perkins, 
and Royal Eastman of Great Falls, E. G. Wallace of Rochester, and 
Jeremiah Evarts of Boston were chosen directors; and Franklin 
McDufFee treasurer and clerk. The company was not designed for 
stock speculation but for business, fully intending to enter upon the 
work the following spring, but so great a fall in the price of coal 
intervened that they were compelled to abandon the enterprise. 
The land is still owned by these men and their successors. 

Evidently Rochester has superior natural advantages for manufac- 
turing. With the Cocheco flowing diagonally through the town, 
and the Salmon Fall forming its eastern boundary, our water privi- 
leges are rarely surpassed. Its location also necessarilj^ makes it a 
railroad center. It is not possible that our great advantages should 
fail to excite a sure and continual growth in manufacturing 
pursuits. 

The soil of Rochester is largely sandy or slaty, and not favorable 
for the highest agricultural success. In some parts, however, it 
yields good crops. The plains are easily tilled, and, with a large 
supply of dressing frequently renewed, will well repay the diligent 
farmer. The soil is specially favorable for pines. White pines, 
pitch pines, and Xorw^ay pines have always abounded. These with 
several varieties of oak, hemlocks, chestnuts, birches, maples, and 
larches are the principal trees. Shrubs and smaller plants are such 
as are usually found in the light soils where pine and white oak 
prevail. 



12 ROCHESTER. 

Formerly, here as elsewhere, wild animals were numerous. 
Wolves, bears, deer, and moose fed or annoyed the early settlers, 
and busy beavers built their curious dwellings along the streams. 
They are now only traditions of the remote past. The level country 
aftbrding no rocky hiding-places, these larger wild beasts were 
sooner exterminated here than in many other places. The forests 
also being early cleared away, no shelter is left even for the larger 
birds. For the same reason, foxes and raccoons are fewer than in 
most 'New Hampshire towns. Mr. William IST. Hastings, who has 
made a special study of microscopic objects, has found diatoms of 
forms apparently somewhat rare, such as are assigned by other 
investigators to distant localities only. On the whole, it must be 
said that neither the fauna nor the flora of Rochester presents any 
remarkable features. 



CHAPTER II. 

INDIAN HISTORY.^ 



" Erewhile, where yon gray spires their brightness rear, 
Trees waved, and the brown hunter's shouts were loud 
Amid the forest; and the bounding deer 
Fled at the glancing plume, and the gaunt wolf yelled near. 

"There stood the Indian hamlet; there the lake 

Spread its blue sheet that flashed with many an oar, 

Where the brown otter plunged him from the brake, 
And the deer drank ; as the light gale flew o'er, 
The twinkling maize-field rustled on the shore; 

And while that spot, so wild, and lone, and fair, 
A look of glad and innocent beauty wore, 

And peace was on the earth and in the air, 

The warrior lit the pile and bound his captive there." 

If we knew nothing of the past history of Rochester, the names 
Newichwannoc, Squamanagonic, and Cocheco would be sufficient 
proof that the Indians dwelt here before the white man came. 
It was their custom to give names to the mountains and lakes 
among which they dwelt, and the river falls and other places which 
they frequented for hunting and fishing. The rivers themselves 
they did not name, though the names they gave to the falls and 
other remarkable places are often applied now not only to the 
rivers but to the towns and villages upon their banks. 

The Indians did not use arbitrary, unmeaning terms, but every 
name had some peculiar fitness to the locality to which it was 
applied. Xewichioannoc, by which name the Salmon Falls river was 
formerly known, was two hundred years ago pronounced iSTe-ge- 
won-nuck. It is found spelled in no less than nine different ways. 
It is difficult to resolve the word into its parts, although the last 
syllable, ock or acke, denotes the name of a pfo^-g. From several 
sources worthy of credit it is interpreted to mean, " The place of 



*In preparing this chapter, the author is largel.v indebted to Belknap's History of New- 
Hampshire. 



14 ROCHESTER. 

many falls," and was probably applied to tlie lower portion of the 
river, for which it is very appropriate. 

Squamanagonic, now abbreviated to Gonic, is analyzed thus : — 
Squam, water ; an, a hill ; a, euphonic, merely aiding the pronunci- 
ation; (/o?i, clay; ic, a place. Literally rendered, then, it means, 
" The water of the day j^lace hill." Those familiar with the soil in that 
part of the town will regard this as a tolerably faithful description. 

Cocheco has been varionsly spelled, Cochecho, Cochechae, Quo- 
checho, Kechceachy, etc. It was first spelled Cocheco in the name 
of the Manufacturing Company at Dover, probably by accident. 
Its meaning is as follows : Co, falls ; che, great ; co, falls ; that is, 
falls and great falls. The expression was probably applied by the 
Indians to the succession of falls in Dover, including the great falls 
in the city and the smaller falls a mile or more up the river. 
According to the dialect now used by the Indians in Maine, it is 
supposed the word should be w^ritten '■'•K'tchecoke," in which case 
the meaning would be great -place ; that is, great place in the river, 
equivalent to great falls. 

A curiosity may exist to know something of these people who 
inhabited this section before the white settlers, and thus fixed the 
names of these localities. What tribes dwelt here ? Were the 
inhabitants numerous ? Were there Indian villages in this vicinity? 
Such questions doubtless suggest themselves to others as the}^ often 
have to the writer. 

It should be remembered that the Indian population was very 
sparse. Here and there a tribe had a little village of a few hundred 
inhabitants at the most, and these villages were far remote from 
each other. They were not great travelers except in their hunting 
and fishing excursions and when on the war path, and the greater 
part of the country was little visited by them. They were so 
igriorant of geography as to suppose that New England was an 
island. Their usual route from the mountains and lakes to the 
white settlements was by the Cocheco and JSTcwichwannoe (now 
Salmon Falls) rivers, and probably many a warlike band of both 
Indians and whites liave passed along these rivers near where 
our beautiful village is now situated. 

When our tathers came to Xew England they found within its 
confines five principal nations of Indians. In Connecticut were the 
Pequots; in Rhode Island, the Narragansetts ; in Massachusetts, the 



INDIAN HISTORY. 15 

Massachusetts Indians. The Pawkunnakutts inhabited Xantiu-ket, 
Martha's Vineyard, and Plymouth. The Pawtuekctts constituted 
the fifth and last great sachemship. To this general division of 
Pawtucketts belonged the Pennacooks living upon the Merrimack 
river and in the central portions of this State. Several other 
smaller sacheraships were also included in the national name of 
Pawtucketts, such as the Agawams, ISTaumkeeks, and Piscataquas. 
All these originally formed one great nation under Passaconaway, 
called the great sachem of Pennacook. The Pennacooks were 
probably the most powerful of these subordinate tribes. 

When Xew Hampshire was first settled, the remains of two tribes 
had their habitations on the several branches of the Piscataqua river. 
One sachem lived at the falls of Squamscott, now Exeter, and the 
other at those of Xewichwannoc, now South Berwick, Me., their 
headquarters being generally in places convenient for fishing. Both 
these, with several inland tribes residing about Lake AVinnipiseogee, 
acknowledged subjection to Passaconaway, the first great sagamore 
of whom we have any account. He excelled the other sachems in 
sagacity, duplicity, and moderation, but his principal superiority was 
his skill in some of the secret operations of nature, which gave him 
the reputation of a sorcerer, and extended his fame and influence 
among the neighboring tribes. They believed he could make water 
burn, and trees dance, and metamorphose himself into flame ; that 
in winter he could raise a green leaf from the ashes of a dry one, 
and a living serpent from the skin of one that was dead. At a 
great feast of the Indians in 1660, Passaconaway, finding himself 
near his end, made a farewell speech to his children and people, in 
which, as a dying man, he warned them solemnly against quarreling 
'with the English, as it would prove the sure means of their own 
destruction. He told how he had tried all his arts of sorcery against 
them, yet still they increased in number and their settlements 
advanced. Wonolanset, his son and successor, heeded his advice, 
for when, fifteen years later, King Philip's war broke out, in which 
were engaged all the other Xew England tribes, including even 
those upon the Kennebec and Penobscot rivers, he withdrew his 
people to a remote place that thej might not be drawn into the 
quarrel. But when in 1676 Major Waldron seized four hundred 
Indians whom he had invited to Dover, then called Cocheco, to 
witness a training and a sham fiffht, thouo-h all the IV'nnacooks were 



16 ROCHESTER. 

dismissed unliarmed, yet their Indian nature could not brook such 
indio-nity, and forgetting the advice of the dying Passaconaway, 
by resentment and thirst for revenge they were driven into war. 
From this time the Pennacooks, in common with the other tribes, 
became implacable foes to the white settlers. 

A few months only after the capture of the Pennacooks b}' Major 
Waldron occurred an event in the history of Indian warfare which 
gave to a part of our town a name which it has ever since borne. 
In Alarch or April, 1677, a famous Indian scout and sagamore 
named "Blind Will," who had been frequently employed by Major 
Waldron, was sent out by him with seven of his Indians up the 
Cocheco river, to learn the designs of the enemy. They were 
surprised by a company of Mohawks, who had been stimulated by 
the English to make war upon their ancient enemies, the Eastern 
Indians, and most of them were captured or slain. Blind Will him- 
self was dragged away by the hair of his head, and being wounded 
perished in the woods "on a neck of land formed by the confluence 
of the Cocheco and Isinglass rivers." In the early town records this 
place always bears the name, " Blind Will's Neck," now contracted 
to the simple term " The ISTeck." Thus more than fifty years before 
the town was incorporated or known by any distinctive name, " The 
Neck " had been chiistened b}^ this bloody incident. 

In immediate connection with the story of Blind Will another 
Indian incident prior to the incorporation of the town finds an 
appropriate place. Horrible in the extreme, it fitly illustrates the 
savageness of this barbarous race. 

The people living in the neighborhood of the Chestnut hills have 
probably heard with fear, in their childhood days, of the ghost 
of Rogers, whose grave is said to be near the camp-ground, or 
Trickey's ledge. Tradition says that Rogers, whom the Indians 
on account of his obesity nicknamed " Pork," being a prisoner, was 
unable to keep up witli his captors, and therefore they put him to 
death in the most cruel manner, sticking pitehwood into his body 
atid thus roasting him alive. lie was literally barbecued. Tlie ])lace 
is still shown where his remains are said to be buried. Tradition 
has not exaggerated this account, but on the contrary has palliated 
the statements of authentic history. 

In the year 1690 an expedition of twenty-seven French soldiers, 
and about an equal number of Indians under Hoodgood, a noted 



INDIAN HISTORY. 17 

warrior, was fitted out in Canada against the English settlements. 
Tliev attacked Salmon Falls, and after an obstinate fight in which 
thirty of the l)rave defenders were slain, the garrison surrendered. 
Fifr\'-fonr prisoners were taken, and the atrocity above mentioned 
took place while on the retreat to Canada, The account is origin- 
ally derived from Dr. Cotton Mather. 

" Robert Rogers, a corpulent man, being unable to carry tbe burden which the 
Indians had imposed upon him, threw it down in the path and went aside into the 
wood to conceal himself. They found him by his tracks, stripped, beat, and 
pricked him with their swords; then tied him to a tree and danced round him till 
they had kindled a fire. Tliey gave him time to pray and take leave of his fellow 
prisoners, who were placed round the fire to see his death. They pushed the fire 
toward him, and when he was almost stifled, took it away to give him time to 
breathe, and thus prolonged his miseiy : they drowned his dying groans with their 
hideous singing aiui yelling, all the while dancing round the fiie, cutting olf pieces 
of his flesh and throwing ihem in his face. \\'hen he wos dead, they left his body 
broiling on the coals, in which state it was found by his friends and buried." 

After reading this we can the more easily imagine what anxiety 
fell upon the early settlers at the mere intimation that the Indians 
were lurking around their homes. The very word Indian became 
a terror. The people were haunted at every step by the fear of 
surprise, and at the slightest alarm families were hurried to the 
garrisons for refuge. We cannot wonder that they took their 
arms with them when they we!it forth to visit, or to work, to the 
shop, to the field, or to the church. 

•* The husbandmen, with muskets o'er them slung, 
In danger and in watching held the plough ; 

Sadly and .slow the fearful moments sped, 
For savage men athirst for blood were nigh ; 

And when at eve they bowed the weary head, 
They knew not but ei'e morn the war-whoop cry 
Would reach their lowly roof, and call them out to die." 

In 1722 l)egan tlie Indian war called " Lovewell's War "' on 
account of the bold and memorable exploits of Capt. John Love- 
well. He made several successful expeditions against the Indians, 
but finally being ambushed by a superior force under the chief 
Paugus near Lovewell's Pond, a long and bloody fight ensued in 
which he was slain, with many of his company, and the remainder 
escaped only through great suffering and hardship. This war fell 
with great severity upon the proprietors of Rochester, co.sting many 
of them their lives. The first victim was Joseph Ham, avIio was 
killed and three of his children taken prisoners. 80011 after, 
Tristram Heard, another })roprietor, was waylaid in the road and 



18 ROCHESTER. 

killed. Another, James Nock, one of the elders of the church at 
Oyster river, was killed while returning on horseback from setting 
beaver traps in the woods. 

The Provincial Council offered a bounty of one hundred pounds 
for every Indian scalp. The prospect of so large a reward encour- 
aged Abraham Benwick to raise a company of volunteers, whose 
services were speedily called into requisition. In June, 1724, Moses 
Davis and his son, being at work in a cornfield, went to a brook 
to drink, where they discovered three Indian packs. Notice was 
immediately given to the company, and while guiding them to the 
spot they fell into an ambush and Davis and his son were Ijoth 
killed. The company fired upon the Indians and killed their leader, 
a half-breed Indian, supposed to be the son of the Jesuit priest 
Ralle, who was the chief instigator of the Indians against the English 
settlers. His scalp was presented to the lieutenant-governor in 
council by Robert Burnham, and the bounty was paid to Capt. 
Francis Mathews in trust for the company. All the men named 
above were proprietors of Rochester, and Captain Mathews w^as 
the first selectman chosen by the town. 

Several families of Quakers, although conscientiously opposed to 
war even in self-defense, yet sufiered among the others. Ebenezer 
Downs, one of this class, having been taken prisoner, was required 
to dance for the amusement of his captors, and upon refusal was 
grossly insulted and abused. Another, John Hanson, who lived in 
Dover and had a large family, adhered to peace principles so rigidly 
that he would not even remove to the garrison for safety. While 
he and his eldest daughter were gone to the Friends' weekly 
meeting, a part}^ of French Mohawks entered the house, killed and 
scalped two small children, captured his wife with an infant, the 
nurse, two daughters, and a son, and carried them to Canada. When 
they were afterwards redeemed, the Indians threatened that tliey 
would again capture them. A party came to Dover for this purpose, 
but failing of carrying out this design, lying in wait, they shot dead 
Benjamin Evans, wounded William Evans and cut liis throat. John 
Evans being slightly wounded feigned death, and submitted to be 
scal[)ed without discovering any signs of life. He lived for many 
years. Peace was finally concluded in December, 1725. 

Peace was not, however, of long duration. France held the Can- 
adas and Nova Scotia, and was ambitious to connect these with her 



INDIAN HISTORY. 19 

colonies in Louisiana, while England occupied only a narrow strip 
along the Atlantic coast, and saw with alarm the aggressive move- 
ments of her rival. Each jealously eager for the extension of her 
own domains, encroachments and wars continually ensued until the 
tinal conquest of Canada hy the British brought permanent peace. 
An Indian war was invariably an appendage to a war between these 
two nations, and as invariably the Indians were engaged upon the 
side of France. This is not to be wondered at. The Canadian 
French were a roving, adventurous people, by their plastic nature 
well calculated to gain the friendship and alliance of the red man. 
They were themselves half Indian in manners, joining in the chase 
and the dance, building and living in wigwams, and training their 
children to the Indian mode of life. The French Jesuits traversed 
continent and ocean to carry their religion to these heathen tribes, 
and though they failed to civilize them yet they exerted over their 
passions a restraining influence, which was lost, however, as the}'' 
withdrew from sight. These nriests claimed to have converted 
great numbers; but their conversion consisted in wearing little cruci- 
fixes on their necks, being immersed in river or lake, and learning 
by rote a few formulas of prayer. It is not strange, therefore, that 
they acquired a powerful influence over these forest tribes. There 
were strong ties of brotherhood between the two races, and as the 
French always remained loyal to the home government, their Indian 
allies were easily stimulated to attack the settlements of the English 
enemies of France. The French furnished arms and ammunition 
for these hostile excursions, and found ample repayment in the 
large number of captives for whose redemption heavy ransoms were 
paid by their friends. The Indians were serviceable allies, wily 
and cruel foes. They dwelt at remote distances in the wilderness, 
whither they could be pursued only with great difficulty and expense. 
jVlaking incursions in small bands, they fell unexpectedly upon the 
isolated settlements, showing little or no mercy to their victims. 
Their attacks could never be foreseen. Accustomed to forest life, 
quick in all their perceptions and motions, trained in the love of 
cruelty and bloodshed, and expert in every artifice to entrap a foe, 
they were a dangerous and dreaded race. 

Although the settlement of Rochester was long postponed on 
account of Indian wars, yet for nearly twenty years after the settle- 
ment began, nothing occurred to interrupt its progress. At this time 



20 ROCHESTER. 

there must have been nearly one hundred and fifty families, and 
being on the very frontier they were most helplessly exposed to all 
the horrors of the impending conflict. For a few weeks or months 
they might have neglected their work and lived in garrisons oi 
engaged in active warfare, but as the contest continued year after 
year they were compelled to expose themselves in order to provide 
means of subsistence. 

In 1774 the proprietors voted to give to the settlers all the mill 
rents then due, to be appropriated for building five block-houses 
or forts, — 

*' three on the great road that leads to Norway Plains, one at Squamanagonic 
upper mill, and one on the load by Newichwannoc river near the Widdo Tebbets's, 
or as his Excellency should otherwise order," — 

and appointed a committee to carry out the vote. These forts were 
built, although the rents could not be collected to pay for them. 
Besides these public garrisons, many others were built at private 
expense, receiving the names of their owners. One such was built 
by Eichard Wentworth, near where Thomas Fall now lives on the 
main road. The Eawlins garrison was not far from the same place. 
The Rev. Amos Main occupied a garrison house near the top of 
Rochester hill. The Goodwin garrison was on the land now owned 
by John Crockett, opposite the Bartlett place ; Copp's garrison, near 
where Mr. Crockett lives. The garrison at Squamanagonic stood 
where now is the garden of Col. Charles Whitehouse. The one upon 
]!!^evvichwannoc road was not far from Asa Roberts's house. The 
only one of these forts noAV remaining forms the rear part of the 
present house of Ed^vard Tebbets. The upper story having been 
removed and the lower covered with clapboards and painted, it 
would not be recognized b}' any outward ap],>earance as a house 
built t(^ protect the people of Rochester from the tomahawk and 
scalping knife of the savage. Garrisons were built two stories in 
height, the lower story being of solid timber with strong window 
shuttei's fastening upon the inside. The upper story projected three 
or four feet upon all sides, so that water could be poured down to 
extinguish flames in case the house should be fired, while an enemy 
who came near was exposed to certain death. Loop-holes were pro- 
vided large enough on the outside for a gun-barrel to be pointed 
through them, and hollowed or beveled upon the inside to allow the 
gun to 1)0 aimed in difi'erent directions. The second story was built 



INDIAN HISTORY. 21 

according to the ftiney or ability of tlio owner. In the Richard 
Wentvvorth garrison it was made of thick planks dovetailed together 
at the corners like a chest, and \\ithout any frame, except a few 
braces. The cellars of the public garrisons were divided by Avails 
into many apartments for the accommodation of different families ; 
this was the case with the one at Gonic. As an additional })rotec- 
tion, oftentimes the whole building was surrounded with a rampart 
or palisade formed of timber or posts set in the ground. To these 
fortitied houses the men, vvhen driven from their labor in the tield, 
retreated ; here they left their women and children when they went 
abroad; and here they were compelled to pass much of their own 
time in inactivity, while perhaps the cattle were being killed in the 
pastures near by, and the crops remained unharvested or were being 
destroyed by the enemy. 

A few anecdotes will illustrate the cunning of the Indians and the 
necessar}' caution of the settlers. One day the cattle were discov- 
ered in the cornfield at Col. McDuffee's. The boys were starting 
at once to drive them out, when they were stopped by the Colonel, 
who said he knew the fence was strong, and the rascally Indians 
must have laid a plot to trap them. 'No one was allowed to move 
out of doors for a day or two, but when it was safe to venture forth, 
the place of concealment contrived by the Indians was discovered, 
and it was evident that they had broken down the fence, driven the 
cattle into the field, and placed themselves in ambush to kill or 
capture whoever came out. At one of the garrisons a large number 
of hogs were kept, which w^ere suffered to roam about during the 
day to feed upon acorns and such other food as they could find, and 
were called home at night. One evening they were called a long 
time, but none made their appearance. In the night, when it was 
quite dark, the hogs seemed to return suddenly, and a grunting as 
of a large drove was heard all around the building. The family, 
however, were too wary to be deceived, and at once suspected the 
truth, tliat the Indians had dispatched the hogs and were now imi- 
tating their grunts to entice somebody out of the garrison. These 
are only a few out of the many tricks and treacheries of their crafty 
foes. More than once a hatchet was found sticking in the garrison 
door, as a token of threatening and defiance. That the imagination 
of the settlers sometimes magnified tlie real danger or excited need- 
less fears is very probable. It could hardly be otherwise ; for little 



22 ROCHESTER. 

would be required to produce alarm after a few persons had fallen 
victims to these wily and savage foes. 

A thrill of horror ran through the settlement when on the twenty- 
seventh day of June, 1746, by an artfully contrived and boldly exe- 
cuted plot, four men were murdered within sight of a garrison, and 
a fifth was wounded and taken prisoner. Their names were Ger- 
shom Downs, Joseph Heard, John Richards, and Joseph Richards. 
They were on the way to their work in the field, carrying guns and 
traveling in company for mutnal protection. A band of Indians, 
having first sent one of their number forward to station himself 
behind a tree at a convenient distance on the opposite side of the 
road, had concealed themselves near where these men must pass. 
Having thus prepared a snare with the noted cunning of the race, 
they awaited the approach of their victims. When the workmen 
arrived at the ambush the solitary decoy suddenly stepped forth in 
full view and fired upon the company. "Face your enemies; fire!" 
was the instant order of Joseph Richards who acted as captain. 
All immediately discharged their pieces at the savage, who having 
thus drawn their fire, instantly disappeared and escaped unharmed. 
The remaining Indians springing from their ambush in the rear, 
immediately rushed forward with terrific whoops and yells. All the 
guns on both sides having been discharged, an exciting race ensued 
The men fled down the road toward a deserted house owned by 
John Richards. The Indians followed with caution, lest some of 
the guns might still remain loaded. The flying party, except John 
Richards, who was wounded, succeeded in reaching the house. 
Closing the door behind them, the}' planted themselves firmly 
against it and hastened to reload their guns. But before they could 
accomplish this, the Indians mounted to the roof, tore oft* the poles 
of which it was constructed, and falling upon the now defenseless 
men, despatched them in the most brutal manner. The guns of the 
murdered men were afterwards found half-loaded; and an unfinished 
web which Mrs. Richards had left in the loom, was stained with the 
blood of her neighbors. John Richards, instead of following the 
others, directed his flight towards the garrison where his wife was 
dwelling; but before he could reach it an Indian overtook him, and 
with uplifted tomahawk was about to take his life. Richards called 
for quarter and was spared. His wound not being dangerous, and 
being able to travel, he was carried prisoner to Canada. This 



INDIAN HISTORY. 23 

massacre occurred near the spot where a schoolhouse now stands, 
on the main road. The ambush was a short distance this side, near 
■where Bidtield Meserve now resides. Taking the wounded Kicliards 
with them, tlie Indians, to escape pursuit, struck hastil}' into Wliite- 
hall swamp. After killing some cattle and cutting out their tongues 
and a few tidbits, they came out on the Salmon Falls road near 
Adams's Corner. Here a party of men were at work in tlie iield, 
one of whom had stationed his son, Jonathan Dore, a boy of twelve 
years, on the fence to keep a sharp lookout and give the alarm if 
any Indians appeared. As in youthful innocence he sat whistling 
on the fence, the Indians suddenly came in sight. He gave the 
alarm and the men all escaped ; but before he could get down 
from the fence the Indians had seized him. The father from his 
hiding-place saw his son captured and carried away, but knew 
that all attempts at rescue were hopeless. 

The foregoing accouTit of the capture of Richards and the slaugh- 
ter of his companions is founded u})on a few lines in Belknap's His- 
tory, In order to form a more minute and connected narrative, 
incidents and particulars derived from tradition and other sources 
have here been added. The correctness of Belknap's history of the 
atiair has been unjustly questioned by a great-grandson of liichards, 
who received a different version from his father Tristram. His 
account was published in a history of the Richard's family by Rev. 
Abner Morse. The following is the account as given in Mr. Morse's 
book, and is, to say the least, infrrrsfivr/ : — 

" Richards and the other young man [doubtless meaning Dore] having arrived 
in Canada and appearing to be contented, were permitted to go out hunting with 
the Indians; and as they did not try to escape were, after about a year, allowed to 
go out alone. They then planned a way to escape. They found a large lioHow 
log in the forest, and prepared it to hide in. As tliey passed that way they stowed 
a part of tlieir provisions there, and one evening crawled into the log out of sight. 
The Indians, finding that Richards and his mate did not come home at dark as 
usual, were soon searching for them, making the woods ring with their calls and 
answers, and many limes passed over the log. After twenty-four hours' search 
the Indians gave them up and retired to their wigwams. Richards and his mate 
hearing no more of the Indians, then crept from their hiding-place and started for 
Rochester. Their scanty allowance was soon gone, and they began to suffer from 
hunger and fatigue. Richard's mate now gave himself up to die, as he could go 
no further. Richards, being loath to leave him, carried him .^oine distance, but 
finding his own strength fading also, and the young man begging Richards not 
to die with hiro, but to save his own life if possible, he reluctantly consented to 
do so. They found here the entrails of a deer, which some hunter had left, and 
striking a fire, broiled it on the coals. ' This," said Richards, ' was the sweetest 
meat that I ever ate.' lie now left his companion, but had proceeded but a little 
way when he heard dogs barking behind him, and returning discovered that some 



24 ROCHESTER. 

hunters had found his friend. They were from Rochester, and carried Richards 
and his friend home." 

l^ot to dwell upon the improbability that hunters from Rochester 
should have been, in time of war, at such a dangerous distance in 
the wilderness in the enemy's country, it is ivell known that Dore did 
not escape as related. After careful investigation there is no doubt 
the following accounts are substantially correct. Belknap's general 
accuracy as a historian is unquestioned. He derived his information 
of this particular event from Rev. Joseph Haven, at a period when 
many persons were still living who dwelt here when these events 
took place. Even Richards himself lived in the village after Mr. 
Haven's settlement here. The account also agrees with the tradition 
preserved and credited by the people in the locality of the tragedy. 

Richards was kindly used by the Indians, and under their skillful 
treatment his wound was soon healed. After remaining a year and 
a half in Canada, he was sent by a flag of truce to Boston, and 
thence returned to his friends at Rochester. He bought the place 
now owned by a son of Hon. Jacob H. Ela, and here lived till 1792, 
when he died at the age of seventy. His son of the same name 
inherited the place, and for years was a miller in the Home and 
Hurd mill, opposite where Dea. Barker's grist-mill now stands. He 
served through the Revolutionary War; was in the battle of Bunker 
Hill and at the surrender of Ticonderoga, where he narrowly escaped 
capture. He was also at the battle of Bennington and at the 
surrender of Burgoyne. He is remembered hy many now living. 
The following lines are commemorative of Richards and his mill : — 

"Roll on, fair river! yield your torrent still. 

And turn with vigorous sweep Old Richards' mill. 

While others sing the men and deeds of fame. 

Be ours to consecrate Old Richards' name. 

For oft the aged miller at his hearth 

Detained our boyish troop with well-timed mirth ; 

Told us strange tales, nor waited to be pressed. 

Laughing old man! he loved the tale and jest; 

Strong was his arm, and while the mill went round. 

He hooped his pails and tubs with clattering sound. 

His long gray coat with dust was thick beset; 

His broad-brimmed hat was hat and epaulette; 

Nor was he all for jesting, — in a trice 

He sober grew, and gave us sage advice, 

With shake of head and keen emphatic eye 

Descanting loud on truth and honesty. 

But baffled oft to make his audience hear. 

When wheels and tubs and hammer claimed the ear, 

He raised his voice, and with its accents shrill 

Defied the deafening clamor of the mill." 



INDIAN HISTORY. 25 

Nothing was lieard of young Dore until the surrender of Fort 
AVilliani Henry in August, 1757, more than eleven years after his 
capture. This fort Avas garrisoned by British soldiers, among 
whom were recruits from [N^ew Hampshire towns. When compelled 
to surrender, it Avas stipulated that the French should protect the 
garrison from the Indians, wh<^ were ready to massacre them. But 
the French pertidiously abandoned the garrison, after they had laid 
down their arms and marched out of the fort, and one of the most 
horrible scenes of butcher}^ recorded in American annals took place. 
The Indians Avere unrestrained, and nearly half of the garrison were 
miirdered. Among the Ncaa' Hampshire soldiers Avho escaped AA'^as 
a Dover man. On his arriA^al home he declared confidently that he 
had seen Jonathan Dore. Dore's father's house had been a stopping- 
place for teamsters Avho came from DoA^er to Rochester for the pur- 
pose of logging on the Salmon Falls river. This man had been 
there ft-equeutly, and kncAV Dore aa'cII A\lien a child. He said that 
Avhen the massacre became general after the surrender of the fort, 
he tied to the Avoods and Avas closel}' pursued by an Indian. When 
he found the Indian Avas Avithin a few feet of him, having no Avay of 
escape he turned round and faced the Indian, to meet his unavoid- 
able fate. The uplifted tomahaAvk Avas just descending upon his 
head AAhen he recognized, amid the paint and costume of the Indian, 
the eyes of Jonathan Dore. The recognition seemed mutual. The 
Indian dropped his tomahaAvk by his side and Avalked slowly back 
to the fort. This story of the soldier gained little credit. It was 
not thought possible that the boy of tAveh^e could be recognized in 
the man of twenty-three painted and dressed as a native of the Avil- 
derness. oSTothing more AA^as heard of Dore until December, 1759, 
Avhen he suddenly made his appearance in Rochester, after an ab- 
sence of thirteen years and a half. His story AA\as substantially as 
folloAvs: — He Avas treated kindly and adopted into the St. Francis 
tribe, to AA'hich his captors belonged. He married an Indian girl at 
an early age, and had scA-eral children. He acquired the habits and 
disposition of an Indian, and ahiiost forgot that he Avas descended 
from another race. He bore a part in all the cruelties at the taking 
of Fort William Henry. A white man Avhom he Avas pursuing 
turned upon him just in season to arrest the descending tomahawk, 
and then Dore saAV a face Avhich had been familiar to him in the 
days of childhood. The recollection of his father's fireside and the 



26 ROCHESTER. 

happy scenes of liis boyhood instantl}' rushed upon his mind ; his 
arm fell by his side ; he walked back to the fort overpowered by the 
long-forgotten associations so unexpectedly and so vividly revived 
within him, and took no further part in that horrible tragedy. 
From that time he thought often of his boyhood home, but his wife 
and children bound him to the Indians with ties too strong to be 
severed. The village of the St. Francis tribe contained a mixed 
population of French and Indians. On the evening of October 3, 
1759, a wedding was celebrated in the village, at which a French 
priest officiated. The principal Avarriors of the tribes were absent 
on a hunting expedition. During the wedding ceremonies persons 
were heard around the T\ag\vani supposed to be Indians who had not 
been invited to the wedding. The result proved that they were 
spies of that noted New Hampshire ranger, Major Robert Rogers, 
who was seeking an opportunitj' to revenge the massacre at Fort 
William Henry, and discovered that evening that many of the war- 
riors were absent from home. The dance went on, and the festivi- 
ties did not end till long after midnight. Dore had some corn to 
husk a short distance from the village, and as it would soon be day- 
light, instead of retiring to rest he thought he would go into the 
field and husk his corn. Just before dawn he heard the sound of 
guns. He supposed some of the Indians, who like himself had 
chosen not to go to sleep after the wedding frolic, were shooting- 
ducks. But soon, hearing a general discharge of muskets, he kncAA- 
that an enemy was among them, and kept himself concealed. From 
his hiding-place he saw the women and children rushing into the 
water for escape, being there shot or otherwise killed. It was a 
horrid scene, equal to any Indian butchery. An hour or two later 
he saw the smoke and flames of their burning village, and after all 
seemed (piiet he crept cautiously forth. A sad picture met his gaze. 
Of the l)eautiful village of the St. Francis tribe nothing but smoking 
ruins remained. Their richly ornamented church and all their 
dwellings had shared one common fate. The dead bodies of their 
old men and women and children were strewn in all directions. 
Snch was the summary vengeance visited upon the St. Francis tribe 
by Major liogers and his company of Rangers, for the massacre at 
Fort William llenry. After long search among the ruins, Dore dis- 
covered the l)odies of his wife and children, and hastily deposited 
them in one «Tave. No livino- l»eino; met his eve. He knew not 



INDIAN HISTORY. 27 

where the remainder of his tribe had tied. Tho objects of his affec- 
tion were buried. The ties which bound him to the Inchaiis wore all 
sundered, and his thoughts turned toward the home of his childhood. 
He soon returned to Rochester, and settled on a farm in Lebanon, 
Me.. Avhere he spent the remainder of his days. He married again, 
but having no children adopted a boy named John Dixon, who 
became heir to his farm which he occupied for some years. 
As might be ex[)ected, Dore was as killful marksman, being expert 
as an Indian in the use of the bow. He usually spent his winters in 
hunting, taking John Dixon with him. Upon his last excursion, 
being near the fork of the Kennebec, they met an Indian with whom 
Dore had a violent altercation, during which they pointed their guns 
at each other. Finally the Indian stepping backwards, disappeared 
without turning his face from Dore. Dixon witnessed this but did 
not understand its meaning, till Dore told him that the Indians were 
determined to kill him, that he should immediately start for home, 
and that he, Dixon, must make his wa}' back as l)est he could. 
They then separated, and Dore arrived home in ten days, -while his 
companion was two weeks in reaching the first white settlement in 
Ossipee. The Indian whom they met was a relative of Dore's first 
wife, and it is believed that the Indians accused Dore of betraying 
them to the whites on account of his sudden disappearance when 
their village was destroyed. On the subject of the loss of his Indian 
famih' Dore was reserved, and would enter into no conversation 
about it. He was often heard sineins; the sons: he was sinoina- when 
the Indians took him on the fence. After his return he was always 
known as "Indian Dore." He died in Lebanon about 1816.* 

The excitement produced by the atrocity of the twenty-seventh of 
Juno cannot easily be imagined. The suddenness of the attack, — 
its locality the most thickly settled part of the town, — the exciting 
nature of the struggle, — the death of so many of their friends and 
neighbors, — the capture of the wounded Richards and the youthful 
Dore, — and the escape of the enemy before pursuit could be made, — 
all must have roused the feelings of the people to an intense degree. 
It is apparent from the haste with wliicli they adopted measures for 



*Two somewhat different accounts are given by the author. Tliey are here combined and rec- 
onciled as nearly as possible. The authorities cited are Judge Noali Tebbets, who "fortv years 
ago interested himself in the remarkable history of this man," and T. M. Wentworth, £sq., of 
Lebanon, Me., "who was brought up near the place where 'Indian Dore' lived." Mr. W. gives 
the name of Dore's adopted boy as Jonathan Kankins. Tlie other name has been given above 
because it is the one used by tlie author in the later sketch. [AV/iVur.] 



28 ROCHESTER. 

future security, that great anxiety prevailed. Xo sooner were the 
remains of the murdered men buried, than a petition was dispatched 
to the Governor and Assembly at Portsmouth, representing the dan- 
gerous situation of the inhabitants, and begging for a guard of sol- 
diers to protect them. This petition — 

"Humbly sheweth that the inhabitants are few in number, — in indigent circum- 
stances, — living in a Nvilderness, — and are continually liable to the assaults of the 
barbarous Indian enemy, who have killed within the past week four men, and 
taken prisoners one man and a boy; — they have killed and wounded a considerable 
number of our cattle ; — they are continually lurking about our houses and fields, and 
are seen by some of us almost every day ; — we cannot go out or come in without 
being liable to fall by them, — and our families are suffering because we are not able 
to go to our labor. * * * Therefore, we pray your Excellency and your Hon- 
ors to take our deplorable circumstances under your wise consideration, and extend 
to us your paternal care and affection by allowing us a suitable number of soldiers 
to guard us in our garrisons and about our necessary employments." 

The excitement had not subsided when another event occurred, 
which carried it to a still greater height, and added another life lost 
to the list of their calamities. Traces of Indians had been discov- 
ered in the sand near the Heath brook at Norway Plain, and, in expec- 
tation that a iiarty were on the way to attack the settlement, a 
company of men concealed themselves at night beside the road, a 
short distance below ISTorway Plain brook, at the foot of Haven's 
Hill, intending to ambush the Indians when they came along. 
Upon the approach of the enemy, however, one of these sentinels, 
Moses Roberts, became alarmed, and began to creep through the 
bushes toward his neighbor, who seeing the bushes wave, fired upon 
him, supposing him to be an Indian. Roberts died the next morn- 
ing, blaming only himself and justifying the man who shot him. 

To support the petition of the inhabitants the Rev. Amos Main was 
sent to Portsmouth. His mission proved successful, for besides the 
assurance of soldiers to protect them, he brought back a very sub- 
stantial token of the "paternal care and aifection" of the authorities 
in the form of a huge cannon, — one of the iron guns of Queen 
Anne's time, — for the safe return of which, when demanded, he 
gave liis receipt in a large sum. 

Tln-oughout the summer and autumn and a part of the winter, 
scouting ])artics of soldiers were stationed in the town, who went 
their daily rounds upon the most traveled roads near the garrisons, 
and Irom one garrison to another, occasionally making longer 
marches when special reasons required. These parties or squads 



INDIAN HISTORY. 29 

usually consisted of from twelve to twenty men, wiio were relieved 
every few weeks b3'' fresh soldiers. When long marches across the 
country were to be made, the number was much larger. Upon 
report that a party of thirty Indians had killed a man at Pennacook 
(Concord), and were approaching Rochester, Gov. Wentworth 
ordered Major DaA'is with a detachment of forty men to march to 
Rochester, to scout about the town. Similar cases frequently 
occurred. It was doubtless owing to such precautions and the con- 
tinual presence of soldiers that there was no further loss of life this 
year. 

In the spring of 1747 the inhalutants again found it necessary to 
petition for a guard, and as a strong argument Avhy this favor onght 
to be extended to them, they set forth that no less than twenty of 
their brethren were enlisted in His jSIajesty's service for the Canada 
expedition. Driven by distress and fear of the enemy, several fami- 
lies had already removed from the town. The petitioners confessed 
themselves unable to defend the settlement. Their only dependence 
for succor and relief was upon the provincial authorities, and while 
they acknowledged with hearty thanks the protection granted dur- 
ing the past year, yet unless the same could be continued, they said 
they must unavoidably move awa}' and leave all their improvements 
to destruction by the Indians. Major Davis, with thirty men, was 
sent for their protection. Uncommon danger must have threatened 
the settlement at this time, for at a public town-meeting in the fol- 
lowing October, the town voted their grateful acknowledgment to the 
Governor and Council for sending Major Thomas Davis with thirty 
soldiers, who by his prudent, diligent, and careful management, 
under Divine Providence, had been instrumental of defeating the 
€nemy in their attempts against them, and so of preserving their 
lives. It is probable there had been an engagement, for on May 23, 
1747, Samuel Drown, a soldier, had been wounded in the hip. The 
ball was never extracted, and he was for a long time taken care of at 
the expense of the Province. He died in 1795, aged 90 years. 

Every one who has traveled the ISTeck road remembers the spring- 
by the roadside, about half a mile below Gonic, between the Rich- 
mond Henderson house and Dudley Hayes's. On the seventh of 
June, 1747, three boys, John and George Place, and Paul Jenness, 
discovered a company of Indians lying in ambush near this spring. 
The Indians tired upon them, and John Place returned the Hre, 



30 ROCHESTER. 

Avounding one of their imniber. Jeniiess presented his gun in a 
tln-eiitt'iiing manner without tiring, and by keeping it aimed at the 
Indians prevented them from rushing upon them until a part}- of 
men at work in the field near by came to their relief, and the Indians 
were put to Hight. The wounded Indian was traced by the stains of 
blood for a long distance. 

A few rods from the road leading from Rochester A'illage to Gonic, 
and not far from the latter place, in a quiet spot half encircled by 
trees which line tlie high river bank, several rough, unlettered 
stones, indistinctly visible to the passing traveler, mark the resting- 
place of some of the early inhabitants. One of these graves is that 
of Jonathan Ilodgdon's wife, who was killed by the Indians, May 1, 
1748. The locality of her death is just beyond the " Great Brook," 
on the right hand side of the road, nearly opposite the place of her 
burial. She had gone out on a still Sabbath morning to find and 
milk her cows. A considerable party of Indians lying concealed 
upon Ham's hill, which commanded a view of Squamanagonic gar- 
rison, had been for several days watching all the movements of the 
settlers. Tradition says it was their plan to watch the fort until they 
saw the men depart with their guns to the church, and then surprise 
and cai>ture the women and children left behind, and finally waylay 
the men as they should return, — a favorite stratagem of these tribes. 
But when they saw Hodgdon and his wife leaving the fort together, 
they determined to caiiture them. Mrs. Hodgdon was seized and 
the Indians endeavored to keep her quiet and carry her away as a 
]»ris()ner, but as she persisted in i^creaming they killed her on the 
spot, ller husband, wlio was a short distance away, hearing her 
cries hastened to her rescue, intending, if she were taken by the In- 
dians, to surrender himself also. He arrived at the instant of her 
death, while the savages were in the act of scalping her. Presenting 
his gun it missed fire, but he made his escape to the garrison.* The 
news si)read rapidly. The old iron cannon upon the hill charged, it 
is said, witli nine })()unds of powder, thundered its note of alarm, — 
lieard eveii at rortsmouth. Hundreds of people gathered from near 
and far. At \\\o o'clock in the afternoon a company of light horse 
arrived iVoni Portsmouth, and the country was scoured as far as 
Lake Winiiiiiiseogee, but without success. It was believed that 



• Jonatlmn Ho.lg.lou imuTicil again an<l liiul in all twenty-one cliiklien. lie died in 1815. 
agcil »i. 



INDIAN HISTORY. 



31 



the Indians concealed tlicnit^elves upon islands in tlic river near 
our village. 

Governor Wentworth Lad already ordered several well-known In- 
dian lighters to raise men and to be constantly ready to protect the 
settlers. Under date of March 26, Oapt. Joh Clements of Dover 
liad been directed — 

" to impress or iulist into His ]\rajesty's service thirty-five effective men — and 
scout Avith them, in the neighborhcod of Kochester, -uhich scouting you are to 
repeat as often as you shall judge it for the safety and protection of the iidiabitants." 

The pay of the men was £2 15s. per month. The seven lirst 
named on the roll came to Rochester, May 4, and were donl)tless en- 
gaged in tlie search above related. The following are the names on 
the — 

" Muster-Roll of a company of pressed men, under command of Capt. Job 
Clements, at Rochester and Barrington, in 1748": — 



John Hodgdon, Sergeant. 

John Plowe. 

Samuel Toby. 

Nicholas ^Veeks. 

Edward Man. 

Joseph Downing. 

Peter, negro belonging to 

Greenleaf. 
John Huntress. 
Daniel Allen. 
William Johnson. 
John Leavitt. 
Elias Tarlton. 
Tiiomas "Went worth. 
Jonathan Ricker. 
James Perkins. 



James "Wilkson. 
Edward Man. 
Joseph Rawlings. 
James Perkins. 
John Huntress. 
Joseph Downing. 
Daniel liunker. 
Aaron Bickford. 
Daniel Conney. 
Ebenezer Xock. 
James Hall. 
Bryant Davis. 
Ephraim Ricker. 
Joseph Downs. 
Moses Ricker. 
Sanmel Ham. 



Ebenezer .Jones. 
William Hill. 
Edward Burroughs. 
James Nute. 
Moses Pinkham 
Abraham Plaice. 
James Clements. 
Benjamin Ricker. 
Samuel Weymouth. 
Jacob Allen. 
Ichabod Bickford. 
John McCoy. 
John Lewis. 
Thomas Hainack. 



The repetition of names doubtless indicates a re-eidistment after 
one month's service. 

The attack of May 1st was the last attempt of the Indians in 
Kochester. Such vigor of pursuit perhaps deterred them from sub- 
sequent attacks. Peace took place the following year, — a peace 
of short duration, for in 1754 the sword was resumed. In these 
later wars, however, the Indians were not so cruel and Ijarbarous as 
before. Prisoners were so valuable for redemption that they secured 
as many as possible alive, and kindly cared for them, sharing their 
food with them in times of scarcity. The settlers also, through ex- 
posure and experience, had become better warriors, and understood 
better how to cope with their savage and wily foes. Heretofore the 



32 ROCHESTER. 

English had carried on the war in a desultory and feeble manner, 
which encouraged their enemies to undertake these marauding and 
murderous expeditions. From this time the English displayed more 
vigor, and, fitting out formidable expeditions against Canada, largely 
relieved the eastern settlements from the calamities of the war. 
The British officers, liowever, sent press-gangs into the towns to im- 
press men into their service. The people of Rochester petitioned to 
be exempted from the press, but it does not appear that the request 
was grantetl. "When the press-gang visited the town, Jabez Dame 
concealed himself until the danger was past; but having informed 
the girl he was courting of his intentions, he volunteered the next 
morning. 

The following are the names of some of the Eochester men 
engaged in His Majesty's service at this time : — 

Lieut. John McDuffee. Jabez Dame. Ichabod Corson. 

Daniel Alley. Ensign Wm. Allen. Gershora Downs. 

John Copp, Jr. William Berry. Eleazar Rand. 

The war was virtually closed in 1759 by the surrender of Quebec. 
The fbll owing year all the remaining French possessions in Western 
Canada were surrendered to the English, and the eastern settlements 
found a permanent peace from the ravages of the Indians. 



CHAPTER III. 

INCORPORATION AND CHARTER. 

The Xew Hampshire Register gives but nine places ineor[iorated 
before Rochester. An idea of the population and progress of the 
Province at this time may be formed from the following statement, 
dated ten years later. 

"Whole number of ratable inhabitants in N. H 2,946 

" " two-stovy dwelling-houses ...... 1,316 

" " oue-story dwelling-houses ...... 606 

" " acres of improved laud ...... 16,434 

or less than one third of the present area of this town. This does 
not include several townshi}>s then recently granted, some of which 
had not been settled. 

A few years prior to 1722 about one hundred families of Scotch 
Presbyterians with their four ministers, having " conceived an ardent 
and inextinguishable thirst for civil and religious liberty," arrived 
in Boston from the north of Ireland, where they had settled in the 
reign of James I. By permission of the colony of Massachusetts 
many of these families settled above Haverhill upon a tract of land 
which they called Xuttield. The town was incor[)orated in the same 
year with Rochester, and was named Londonderry, from the city in 
Ireland in which many of these settlers had resided, and where some 
of them had endured the hardships of a memorable siege. These 
people iirst introduced here the art of manufacturing linen, and the 
culture of the potato. Their spinning-wheels turned by foot were a 
great curiosity in the country. They were an industrious, thrifty 
people, and among their descendants have been civil and military 
officers of the highest rank, and men eminent for learning and every 
desirable accomplishment. Being among the early settlers of many 
places in Xew Hampshire and Vermont, an account of these people 
often finds a conspicuous place in town histories. It is known that 
some of them settled in Rochester, and amono- the tamilv names 



34 ROCHESTER. 

now tiiniiliar to us, arc those which appear in the early records of 
Londonderry. 

Tlie settlement of these immigrants in Londontlerry first gave a 
stimulus to the inhabitants of the older towns to prepare new plan- 
tations. They regarded the new-comers with jealous eyes. Had 
not they themselves fought the king's wars? Had they not endured 
the hardships and privations incident to the wilderness? And w^ere 
they not therefore entitled to the choicest and most fertile lands in 
preference to strangers? Should they be restrained within the limits 
of the old towns? Thus reasoning they soon began to petition for 
new townshi})s and grants of land. Special reasons founded upon 
conflicting claims to the lands, kept these petitions for a long time 
in suspense, Init at length they were favorably regarded, and in May, 
1722, iiarrington, Chester, jSTottingham, and Rochester were incor- 
porated. The signing of the charters of these four towns was the 
last act of government performed by Col. Samuel Shute, his Maj- 
esty's governor of the colonies of Massachusetts and ^ew Hamp- 
shire. Having once learned to evade all difliculties as to title, by 
i!iserting the saving clause, " as far as in us lies," other grants through- 
out the Province rapidly followed. The towns mentioned appear to 
have been named from distinguished British statesmen of that day. 
Viscount Barrington was brother to Gov. Shute. The Earl of 
Rochester was brother-in-law to James H., and was one of the most 
eminent men of his time. Macaula}' says: — 

" A statesman, who subsequently rose to the highest eminence to which a British 
subject can reacli, soon began to attract a large share of the public attention. 

Lawrence Ilyde [Earl of Rochester] was the second son of the Chancellor Clar- 
endon, and was brother of the first Duchess of York. He had excellent parts 
which had been improved by parliamentary and diplomatic experience ; but the 
infirmities of his temper detracted much from the effective strength of his abilities. 
Negotiator and courtier as he was, he never learned the art of governing or con- 
cealing his emotions. When prosperous, he was insolent and boastful; when he 
sustained a check, his undisguised mortification doubled the triumph of his ene- 
mies; very slight provocations sufficed to kindle his anger; and when he was angry 
he said bitter things which he forgot as soon as he was pacified, but which others 
remembered many years. Ilis (piickness and penetration would have made him a 
cousumnuite man of business but for his self-sufficiency and impatience. His writ- 
ings prove that he had many of the qualities of an orator, but his irritability pre- 
vented him Irom doing himself justice in debate, for nothing was easier than to 
goad him into a pa.ssion; and from the moment when he went into a passion he 
was at the mercy of opponents far inferior to him in capacity. Unlike most of the 
leading politicians of that generation, he was a consistent, dogged, and rancorous 
party man, a cavalier of the old school, a zealous champion of the crown and of the 
church, and a hater of republicans and non-conformists. He had consequently a 
great body of personal adherents. 'I'he clergy especially looked on him as their 



IXCOKPORATION AND CHARTER. 35 

own man, and extended to his foibles an indulgence of which, to say the truth, he 
stood in some need, for he drank deep; and when he was in a rage, and he very 
often was in a rage, he swore like a porter." 

Those who are aequainted with tlie style of this historian, know 
well with what exaggerated outline his characters are tre(|uently 
drawn, rendering them in some instances mere caricatures, and will 
he ahle to make a proper allowance. 

Rochester became exceedingly popular in England. During sev- 
eral reigns the whole kingdom had been violently agitated by ques- 
tions of religion, Protestants and Catholics striving for the ascend- 
ency with an alternation of success. James upon his accession 
endeavored to establish the supremacy of Popery. Protestants could 
not be retained in the principal oflices of government. Rochester 
liad for years held the exalted position of lord treasurer; he clung 
tenaciously to the otHce; he pleaded for delay; he listened to set 
arguments from the most learned of the papist clergy, who labored 
for his conversion; yet when neither evasion nor his relationship 
to the king could longer save him from a direct choice between his 
treasurership and his religion, he deliberately sacrificed his high office. 

"The Old and New Testaments, the martyrologies of Eusebius and Fox were 
ransacked to iind parallels for his heroic piety. lie was Daniel in the lion's den, 
Shadrach in the fiery furnace, Peter in the dungeon of Herod, Paul at the bar of 
Nero, Ignatius in the amphitheater, Latimer at the stake." m m f^^n « *-» -^ 

Such was the admiration excited by his constancy. Doubtless the 
rigid Protestants of New Hampshire deemed it an honor to have the 
new town named after so distinguished a leader. 

To be among the grantees of the new plantations was a privilege 
eagerly sought. The prospect of receiving, gratuitously, an ample 
tract of land, either a whole share of five hundred acres, or even a 
fractional part of a right, was certainly alluring to those who had 
been so long confined to the limits of the old towns. That all who 
signed the petition, however, did not become grantees, is certain. 
It is not so well known what qualifications were required for propri- 
etorship, or for what reason some were selected to receive whole 
shares, while others had to be content with a half, a third, or a quar- 
ter. Upon examination of the schedule, however, it can hardly 
escape the notice of any one, that while the whole share [)roprietors 
include the Governor, Lieut. Governor, members of the council, 
and others whose consequence is indicated by such titles as Col., 



36 ROCHESTER. 

LiuLit.-Col., Capt., Lieut., and Ensign, the smaller proprietor.s have 
no such prefix to their names. Evidently the poorer citizens, those 
who most needed the lands, were not the ones to receive them. 

Most of the inlial)itants of Dover, with persons from Portsmouth, 
Newington, and Oyster River (Durham), joined in the petition for 
the new township of Rochester. The following is from the Journal 
of the Council and Assembl}' : — 

"Province of New Hampshire. 

"At .a General Assembly held at Portsmouth by adjournment May 3, 1722. 

The petition of sundry persons mostly of The Town of Dover, praying for a Tract 
of Land above The said Town, &c was Read at the board and ordered To be deliv- 
ered To Col. 'Waldron and Capt. Wentworth, That They might Collect out of the 
said petitioners such persons as They Thought proper to be proprietors and present 
The same To The board for approbation." 

The lauds had been surveyed to fix the limits of the proposed 
township ; Col. Waldron and Capt. Wentworth had performed the 
duty assigned them, when " the Greatest part of s'd petitioners with 
sundry other persons," meaning, doubtless, the Governor, L't Gov- 
ernor and members of the Council, were incorporated into a body 
politic. At a Council meeting May 10, 1722, — 

" Several Charters being prepared by order of His Excellency The Gov'r and 
Council for granting away sundry tracts of land in This Province and incorporating 
the Grantees, were This day laid before The board, and being Read were signed 
and sealed (namely) 

1 Chester Charter, dated the 8th Instant 

2 Nottingham^ 

3 Barrington [- dated This day 

4 Rochester ) 

Copy's of which Charters are on file.'' 

Fragments of the original Charter of Rochester, bearing the Pro- 
vincial seal much obliterated, and the signature of Gov. Shute, 
remain in the Town Clerk's office. The writing is in the bold and 
beautiful hand of Col. Richard Waldron, clerk of the Council. 
The Proprietors' Book contains a copy of this important document, 
which will -well repa}' a perusal. Its provisions are novel and inter- 
esting. As nearly as it can bo copied in print, it is as follows : — 

GEORGE by the Grace of God of Great Brittaiu France and Ireland King 
Defender of the faith &c 

TO ALL PEOPLE to whom these Presents shall come GREETING : 

KNOW ye That WE of our especial Knowledge and mere motion for the due 

encouragement of settling a new Plantation by and with the Advice & Consent 

of our Council have given and granted and By these Presents as far as in US lies 

do give and grant unto Sundry OUR beloved subjects whose names are enroU'd iu 



INCORPORATION AND CHARTER. 37 

a schedule hereunto anexed iu the Proportion and after the maner therein nieu- 
tion'd all that tract of Land lying and being between the river of Salmons falls 
and the Northeastern side line of Barrington being bounded at tlie Southeast end 
by Dover head line, and to run northwesterly into the Country and Southwesterly 
upon Barrington head-line — according to the discretion of a Committee which 
shall be appointed by the Proprietors to lay out the same not Exceeding the quan- 
tity of ten miles square together with all the waters rivers rivolets and appurtinan- 
ces within (and belonging to) the same and that It be a Town Corporate by the 
name of Kochester : To have and To hold the s'd land with its appurtinances 
emoluments and Privileges unto the said Grantees in tlie proportions and the man- 
ner mentioned in the afores'd annexed Schedule (which is part of this Charter) and 
to their heirs and assigns forever upon the following Conditions. 

1st That the Proprietors of every sliare (except Parsonage School and furst 
Ministers) build a dwelling house within three years and settle a family therein 
and break up Three Acres of Ground and Plant or sow the same within four years 
and pay his or their Proportion of the Town charges when and so often as occasion 
shall require the same. 

2d That a Meeting house be built for the Publick worship of God within the s'd 
term of four years. 

And if any Proprietors shall make default in complying with the conditions of 
this Charter on his part such Delinquent shall forfeit his Share to the other Pro- 
prietors which shall be Disposed of by a major vote at the then next legal Proprie- 
tors Meeting. But in Case of an Indian-war within the four years then the s'd 
Grantees shall have the same space of four years for performance of the above 
conditions after such impediment of settling is removed Rendering and Paying for 
the same to US OUR heirs and successors the annual quit-rent of one pound of 
turpentine in the said Town if lawfully demanded on the first day of July yearly 
and every year forever. Reserving also unto US OUR HEIRS and successors all 
Mast trees growing on the s'd Tract of land according to the Acts of Parliament 
in that Case made and Provided AND for the better order rule and Government of 
the s'd Town of Rochester WE DO BY THESE PRESENTS for OUR selves 
OUR heirs and successors grant unto the s'd Grantees to appoint and hold Town 
and Proprietors Meetings from time to time as occasion requires and to chuse all 
officers that are proper for the management of Town and Proprietary affairs with 
all the powers privileges & authoritys which any other Town within this Province 
hath enjov'd doth enjoy or ought to enjoy according to the laws customs & usages 
thereof. IN TESTIMONY whereof WE have caused the seal of OUR said Pro- 
vince to be hereunto affix'd AVITNESS Samuel Shute Esqr : OUR Cap't General 
and Governor in Chief in and over OUR s'd Province at Portsmo : the tenth day 
of May in the eighth year of OUR REIGN annoq Domini 1722 

By order of His Excellency SAM^l SHUTE. 

Y* Govr : with the advice 
of the Council. 

RICHARD WALDRON Cler: Cou. 

The term '■'• quitrent" used in the cliarter Avas applied to certain 
kinds of rent, because the tenants thereby went quit and free of all 
other services. The word came to be generally used to designate a 
small or merely nominal rent reserved. The pitch j^ines which 
abounded in Rochester might well have suggested turpentine as the 
most proper form of quitrent. In the Londonderry charter the 
annual quitrent was " one Peck of Potatoes,'^ and, as we have seen, the 
settlers of that town tirst introduced the culture of the potato. The 



38 



ROCHESTER. 



(juitreiit for many other towns was "o?<e Ear of Indian Corn." The 
'^ MasI trees'' mentioned were such pines as were judged suitable for 
masts to supply the royal navy, and which the English government 
was at that time expecting the American colonies to furnish. Survey- 
ors were appointed to mark all such trees with " tlic broad arrow" 
and laws with severe i)enalties were enacted against cutting them. 
On the back of the charter is the following: — 



A Schedule of the names of the Proprietors of tlie Town of Rochester with their 
respective proportions ascertained being Part of the Charter. 



First Whole Share Proprietors: 



Col". Richard ^^'aldron 

Cap" Benj" Wentworth 
L' Col" James Davis 
Cap" Sam" Tibbits 
L' Jos. Roberts 
Cap" Tim" Gerrish 
Cap" Paul Gerrish 
L' Tristram Herd 
Cap" Tho^ Tibbits 
L' John Ham 
Cap" Paul A\'entworth 
Ens: John Waldron 
Benj" Wentworth 
Eph-' Wentworth 
Gersh'" Wentworth Jun' 
Cap" Step'"' Jones 
L' Jos: Jones 
Cap" Fraues Mathes 
Sher: Renj-' Gambling 
(Jap" John Knight 
Ens: Isra' Hodgsdon 
Dea" Gersh"' Wentworth 
Thomas Young 
John Russey 
Eben"^ A'arney 
Eli Demerit 
E' Joiin Smith 



5 AVhole 7 
( share. ) 



AVhole 
share. 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 



130 L' Jon"! AVoodman 

69 Jos: Kent Sen'' 

10 John Tompson 

33 AV" Leathers 

132 Peter Varaney 

85 Eph'' Tibbits 

125 Cap" John Downing 

48 Benj" Bickford 

64 W'" Furber 

52 John Dam Sen'' 
61 George AYalton 

106 John Usher 

19 John Wille 

36 James Durgin 

96 John Doe 

24 Thomas Drew of Bay 

76 Jos: Jenks 

32 James Bunker 

135 John Bickford Sen' 

86 Thomas Robburts 
60 Clem' Hughes 

46 Rich'i AValdron Jun' 

53 Parsonage 

7 Use of Gramar School 

35 Furst ordained ) 

1 Gospel Minister C 
118 



L' Jos. Beard 
& Son Plumer 

John Burnam 
Rob' Huniain 



Thomas Hanson 
John Hanson 
Nat' Hanson 



Secondly Half Share Proprietors, 
one share to be Henery Tibbits 



S Whole 
") share. 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 

Do 



5 

66 

37 

29 

94 

126 

101 

18 

92 

6 

95 

40 

58 

78 

68 

98 

42 

15 

3 

44 

105 

121 

39 

23 



\ 



Equally divided 
betwixt them. 

Do 



71 



67 



Ens: John Tib 

bits Sligo. 
Nicli" Harford 
John Kenny 

Tin idly Third Share Proprietors — 

one share , , 

to be E.juallv .- 'J^*'" ^!f 

divided " ' •^''^■"^ss Burnam 

betwixt them. '^°^" ^^^^ J""' 



) one share to be 
•^Equally divided 43 
) betwixt them. 

I Do 56 



~) one share 
I to be Equally go 
divided ' ^^ 
betwixt them. 



INCORPORATION AND CHARTER. 



:^0 



Tobias Hanson 
Jos: Hanson 
Benj" Hanson 
John Hayes 
Peter Hayes 
Ich" Hayes 
Sam" Hayes 
W"' Hayes 
Beuj" Hayes 
Job Clements 
James Clements 
John Clements 
Philip Chesley 
Ich^ Chesley 
Jon" Chesley 
Silv=« Xock 
Tho^ Nock 
Zach: Nock 
Kichard Hussey 
Job Hussey 
Jos: Kankins 
Geish'" Downs 
Thomas Downs 
Eben"^ Downs 
Sam" Downs 
W" Downs 
Beni'* Stanton 
Natii" Perkins 
»Sam" Perkins 
Josh" Perkins 
John Rickar 
Meturiu Rickar 
Eph" Rickar 
Jos. Rickar 
Geo. Rekar 
Jer'' Rawlings 
John Winget 
Moses Winget 
Sam" Winget 
Valentine Hill 
John Nutter 
Jam" Nutter 
James Nute 
Sam" Nute 
Tho' Tuttle 
Dan' Horn 
^V'" Horn }- 

"W" Horn Jun' ) 

Richard Pinckham 1 
Sol" Pinckham 
Amos Pinckham ) 
John Tricky ) 

Tho* Tricky [ 

Hatevil Nutter ) 

EdW" Evans 1 

Jos. Evans |- 

Benj'' Evans ) 



Sam' Egerlv 

Do 22 John Egerly Jun"- 

W'" Wormwood 
Jos: Daniel 

Do 4'J Jos: Dani<^l Jun"^ 

Jethro Bickford 
Moses Davis Jun"^ 

Do 01 Tho^ Wille 
W'" Jackson 
John Hall 

Do 97 Tho^ Hall 

Sam' Carle 
Eben'- Tuttle 

Do 102 W" Twambly 
Janr Guppy 
Sam' Allev 

Do 27 Benj" Fost 

W">'Fost 
Sam' Herd 

Do 38 Jam" Herd 

David Watson 
James Hobs 

Do 2G Jos : Ham 

John Pearl 
Eben' Garland 

Do 72 Jabez Garland 

Tho" Wallingford 
Sam' Willey 

Do 120 John Norway 

Edw' Whthouse 
W" Blackstone 

Do 133 Rich'' Hammock 
James Hanson 
Tim" Robinson 

Do 41 Sam' Corson 

John Rawlins 
John Drew 

Do 59 John Cook 

Benj" Pender 
Jos'''' Stevenson 

Do 74 John York 

John Ambler 
J"" Aston 

Do 77 Jon-' Crosby 

Ens Jos : Chesley 
Jos : Cheslev 

Do 62 Sam'. Chesley 

John Williams 
Salathid Denbow 

Do 70 Sam' Perkins 

W"' Clay 
John Renolds 

Do IG Job Renolds 

James Clark 
Nath Lummas 

Do 89 Jos: Wheeler 
Dan' Harvev 



Do 


115 


Do 


112 


Do 


110 


Do 


45 


Do 


9 


Do 


21 


Do 


109 


Do 


134 


Do 


20 


Do 


73 


Do 


75 


Do 


17 


Do 


30 


Do 


63 


Do 


100 


Do 


111 


Do 


107 


Do 


13 


Do 


54 



40 



ROCHESTER. 



Ens: Hatevil Nutter 
Heniy Nutter 
Eleaz"" Coleman 
Tho"* Laiton Sen"" ~) 
John Carter I 

John Laiton back [ 
river. J 

Peter Cook ^ 

Tho" Starbord .Jun'' ;- 
Tho^ Starbord ) 

Benj" Mason ) 

Wili'" Dam V 

Cap' Jolni lieighton ) 
Nath' Ilandal ) 

Sam' Randal 
W' Kandal ) 

Jos: Small 
Zach: Small 
James Basford 
John Bickford 
Elea'' Bickford 
Jos: Bickford 



Do 



Do 



Do 



Do 



Do 



Do 



Do 



34 



14 



111 



99 



79 



Moses Diivis 
Jam^ Huckins 
Sam" Williams 
John Williams 
W" Hill 
Abr"' Clark 
L'. Abr. Bennick 
Elisha Critchet 
John Moe 
Wil'" Ellis 
Geo : Walton Jun"" 
John Macpheadris 
Nich'^' Follet 
John Bucks 
John Conner 
John Bantum 
Benedict Tar 
Dan' Pasre 



Do 


124 


Do 


129 


Do 


12 


Do 


84 


Do 


55 


Do 


57 



Fourthly Quarter-share Proprietors. 



John Twombly 
Jos : Twombly 
Benj" Twombly 
Sam'. Twombly 
Benj" Peirer 
Eleaz'' Wier 
John Connor 
John Hogsdon 
James Conner 
Plugh Conner 
Tho*^ Stevens 
Rich'i. Rooks 
John Gray 
Abner Thurstin 
Thos** Westcot 
James Nock 
John Munsey 
W'" Jones 
Jos : Eastice 
Sam' Bray 



one share to 
be Equally 
divided 
betwixt Them 

Do 



1 



90 



y 



Do 



28 



Do 



Do 108 



Morris Fowler 

John Hoit 

Thos« Alden 

Benj^ Green j 

Associates Admittd 

Gov'' Shute for a home-lot & five 

hund''. acers 
L' Gov"" Wentworth Ditto 

Sam' Penhallow a whole share 
Marck Hunking Do 

Geo : Jaffrey Do 

Shad" Walton Do 

Rich^i Wibird Do 

Tho'' Westbrook Do 

Tho^ Packer Do 

Arch<^ Macpheadris . Do 



Do 



31 



82 



104 
103 
116 
136 
122 
123 
137 
131 
11 
128 



Rochester Schedule being Part of the Charter and Contains one hund'^ and 
twenty five whole Shares to be proportioned as herein Express:d amongst the Two 
hundred and fifty three Proprietors herein Mention'd 

Certifie:d 

pr Rich** NValdron Cler : Con. 

r>y ;i subsequent vote of tlie Proprietors, Paul Gerrish clianged 
his lot 125 for lot 80 whit'h was called " bad land " by the com- 
uiittec. Joseph Jenkiiigs Juu. who bought lot 124 of Moses Davis 
and others, was allowed to exchange for lot 2, also called "bad land."' 



CHAPTER IV. 
PROPRIETARY HISTORY. 

A PUBLIC notice issued by four leading Grantees, called upon the 
" Proprietors and Commoners " to assemble on the 9tli of July, 
1722, " at the meeting house in Cochecho to consider, debate, and 
resolve such matters and things " as were necessary for the perform- 
ance of the conditions of the charter. Col. Richard "Waldron Avas 
chosen ^Moderator, and Paul Gerrish, Town and Proprietors' Clerk. 

The first condition of the charter required that within three years 
the proprietors of every share should build a house and settle a fam- 
il}^ therein, and within four years plant or sow three acres of ground. 
The right of those who failed to comply was forfeited. In order to 
facilitate the fulfilling of this condition, the following votes were 
passed : — 

" Voted that there be a Committe forthwith Chosen to run the bounds & Lay 
out the lotts of the s** Town according to the Charter and that they be allowed five 
shillings Pr day Each for their service 

Voted That the s'd Committe Consist of seven persons | vi : | L'. Col". James 
Mathes Cap". Tim'^ Gerrish Cap". Sam" Tebbits Cap". John Knight and Cap". Benj* 
Wentworth who are (after they have Laid out and run the bounds of the s'^ Town 
according to the Charter) to survey the land within the s^^ Town and pitch upon the 
most commodious part of the s'^ Town to be laid out in lotts with proper Roads and 
streets and also a suitable Train-field, and the houses required to be built by the s<* 
Charter shall be Erected on the s'^ lotts soe to be laid out by the respec- 
tive owners of the s'^ lotts, and when the s^^ Committe shall have Compleated 
there worck they are hereby Impowered to give Publick Notice to the Common- 
ers to meet at time and place as they shall appoint to draw their several lott and 
pay the Coramittes Charge for the service they have don " 

The Clerk was directed to procure a " book consisting of three 
quires of paper bound up in parchment at the charge of the com- 
moners," to keep the records in. The only result of this meeting 
was this three-quire book bound in parchment, a quaint looking, 
substantial, but time-worn volume, — still extant as a silent witness 
to the faithful services of the aforesaid Paul Gerrish, " Proprietor's 
Clarck." 



42 ROCHESTER. 

The committee did not survey the lands. Indian hostilities had 
already hroken out, and in less than a month war was declared, in 
wliich, as we have seen in a preceding chapter, many of these proprie- 
tors lost their lives. In anticipation of an Indian war already im- 
minent, the charter had made provision, if such a war should arise 
to prevent the settlement of the town, that after the impediment 
should be removed, four years should be allowed for the fulfillment 
of the conditions. 

Nearly a year and a half after peace was concluded, and about five 
years after the meeting above recorded, upon petition of eighty-four 
proprietors, directed to two Justices of the Peace, a meeting was by 
them called to be held on the 24th of April, 1727, for the purpose of 
consulting upon the best means to forward the settlement of the town 
which as yet remained an unbroken wilderness. Paul Gerrish was re- 
chosen Clerk, and continued to serve in this capacity till his death, 
in 1744. There were also chosen the first selectmen in the history 
of the town, — Capt. Francis Mathews, Capt. John Knight, and 
Paul Gerrish. They were instructed to call upon the committee 
appointed five years before, and request them to attend to the 
duty of surveying and laying out the lands according to the vote. 
So little interest was taken in the affairs of the new plantation that 
it was five months before the committee reported. They recom- 
mended a plan of division, which not being acceptable to the pro 
prietors was voted to be "void and of no effect." In place of this 
large committee, Capt. Robert Evans was appointed surveyor, with 
specific instructions how to proceed. One hundred and twenty-five 
lots, being one lot for each share, containing sixty acres each, were 
to be laid out in ranges from Salmon Falls river to Barrington line, 
beginning with land adjacent to Dover. All land not fit for settle- 
ment was to be passed over. Suitable roads were to be laid out 
through every range. The rivers were reserved, also twenty acres 
of land at every fall suitable for a mill. These mill privileges were 
for many years a source of trouble to the proprietors, and afterwards 
to the town, lis it was found impossible to collect the rents. After 
making his survey, Ca[tt. Evans was to prepare a plan and go and 
show the }troprietors their respective lots. His wages were fixed at 
fifteen .sliillings per day, an instance of the care with which the pro- 
prietors guarded against ditHculty in settling with their servants. It 
was common lor them to fix the price of service whenever tliey ap- 



PROPRIETARY HISTORY. 43 

pointed committees or agents. This was necessary in part, on account 
of the constant depreciation of the colonial bills of credit. At this time 
three pounds of currency were equal to only one of sterling. The 
drawing of the lots began at the meeting-house in Cocheco, upon the 
13tli day of December, and was completed on the following day, at 
Oyster River, whither the meeting had adjourned. Every proprie- 
tor was notified to bring or send to this meeting money to pay his 
proportion of the expenses thus far incurred, — twenty shillings a 
whole share, parts of shares in proportion, — delinquents to expect 
to be voted out. One member entered upon the record his " dis- 
sent " from the last requirement, on the ground of injustice in taxing 
for the expenses before any account of the same had been exhibited; 
a point well taken, as the lawyers would say. The Rev. James 
Pike was chosen to draw the lots. He was not a proprietor, and this, 
with tlie fact of his sacred profession, aftbrding the strongest guar- 
antees of impartiality, may have suggested his selection. This did 
not, however, prevent some dissatisfaction, for, at the request of ten 
members, an article was inserted in the call for the next meeting to 
see whether the proprietors would sustain the drawing or proceed 
anew. The drawing was confirmed. 

This division of home lots comprised all the land between Dover 
and the Four Rod road which was laid out from Salmon Falls river 
to Barrington, and is the same road which crosses the common at 
the lower end of the village. 

Another year elapsed before any permanent settlement was made. 
As in most towns, there is some question as to the claim of being 
the first settler. This honor has usually been given to Capt. 
Timothy Roberts of Dover. He was not a proprietor, but bought a 
quarter of a share of Samuel Twombly of Dover in I^ovember, 1728, 
for which he paid ten pounds. The deed of Twombly to Roberts is 
the first recorded conveyance of land in Rochester. He moved his 
family into town, Dec. 26, 1728. The lot drawn by Twombly was 
a part of number 90 in the first division, nearly opposite the farm 
below Gonic now owned by Hon. John McDuftee, and here prob- 
ably Roberts first settled. Tradition says that he settled on the main 
road at the place now owned by George Varney. He may have lived 
there, but it was probably at a later date. The mill privilege at 
Squamanagonic was leased to him for ten years, by the proprietors 
in 1732, at a yearly rent of a little over seven pounds. 



44 ROCHESTER. 

Jonathan Ham claims that his great grandfather, Eleazer Ham, 
moved into town a month or two before Capt. Roberts, but after 
stopping one night returned to Dover from fear of the Indians, and 
that he came back to Rochester on the same day with Capt. Roberts. 
He settled nearly opposite the Roberts place, the cellar being still visi- 
ble near where George Varney lives, and died there at the age of 58 
years. Jonathan Ham has a deed of the place dated in 1729. He 
says that he had this account from his grandfather, Ephraim Ham, 
who died in 1817 at the age of 83, and who was the third white child 
born in Rochester, the other two being his brothers who died of the 
" throat distemper," and were both buried in one grave. One was 
not named, the older was iS'athaniel. 

It is worthy of notice that the names now most common in town 
are those which frequently recur in the list of proprietors. Among 
these are Bickford, Edgerly, Evans, Foss, Ham, Hanson, Hayes, 
Horn, Hurd, Roberts, Tebbets, Varney, Wentworth, and White- 
house. Although some of the settlers were of the Scotch-Irish 
immigrants, the town was settled principally by people from 
Dover where most of the proprietors lived. Yet the proprietors 
themselves formed no large part of the new settlers. Of the 
first sixty families, not one fifth part were of actual proprie- 
tors. To the original grantees the lands were rather a matter 
of speculation and profit than of occupation and improve- 
ment. In order to fulfill the condition of the charter requiring 
owners of every share to settle a family within three years, proprie- 
tors sometimes gave away a portion of their lands, usually the first 
division lot, to any one who would settle thereon, and thus secure 
their right in the lands yet undivided. In some instances the lands 
were given by the proprietors to their sons who settled them. 

After the settlement was once begun, it progressed more rapidly, 
80 that at the end of ten years there were sixty families in town, the 
names of most of which are ascertained. There would have been 
one hundred Jind twenty-five, had all complied with the charter con- 
ditions. Great indulgence was evidently granted in this respect. 
The records do not show that a proprietor was deprived of his right 
for any cause, though sometimes those who failed to pay their pro- 
portion of the charges were threatened with being voted out. 

The lots thus far thrown open to settlement were comparatively 
small, intended as homesteads whereon the people might be encour- 



PROPRIETARY HISTORY. 45 

aged to settle. Thus they would be near each other, until they were 
stronger in number, and would not only enjoy the pleasures of 
neighborhood, but be less exposed to danger from the enemy. 

At a meeting of the Proprietors held in Dover, April 20, 1730 : — 

" Voted that there be two hundred & forty acres of Land Laid out to Each Whole 
Shiar in s"! Town as a second Divition — that Cap". Robert Evans M"" James 
Nute M"" John Trickey Cap". Frances Mathowes & m'' John Downing be appointed 
as a Coramitte to Lay out the said Land in the Maner followint^ Viz — 

1^' Each mans Lot or second Divition is to Lay all to geather in one body or 
Place 

2'y To be Laid out in Raninges and the first Raing to begin upon the head of 
the home Lotts or first Divition 

3'y the s** Committe is to Leave such Land as they shall not think fit to settle by 
or between any of the s<* Divition or Rainges as a Common for the use of s"^ Pro- 
prietors until their further Order 

4'y to Leave for highways & roads were it shall be tho* Convenient 

5'y to make allowances for Rivers & ponds were any shall happen to be Laid out 
in any Lott. 

6'y that Each of the Committe be allowed ten shillings Pr Day for the time 
they shall spend in the woods for there service above s'^ — and to agree with a 
survey"^ & Chainmen to parfict the Laying out of said Land " 

In the first and second ranges of this division was an extensive 
level tract to which was given the name " Xorway Plain," doubtless 
from the JS^orway pines with which it was thickly covered. In 
accordance with the vote of the proprietors reserving to themselves 
all mill privileges with a suitable quantity of the adjoining land, two 
hundred and fifty acres or more of this plain was left common. It 
was not numbered, as were the other lots, but simply marked on the 
plan " Mille Comon." The diagram on the following page repre- 
sents its exact form as copied from the plan of Capt. Robert Evans, 
the surveyor. 

The curved line represents that part of the Cocheco river where 
the mills are now situated. The Four Rod road, which now 
crosses the common at the lower end of the village, as originally 
planned, ran from the brook behind Otis's house, and joined the 
present road at the fork near Kelley's, but this route was changed 
for a higher location. The Ten Rod road is the road still called 
by that name leading to Farmington, which, as originally planned, 
extended across the river to the Four Rod road, by the west side of 
the village, but the lower part was never opened. All who would 
enjoy a view of our beautiful village, as it appeared one hundred 
and fifty-five years ago, may find it here. A little exercise of 
imagination to supply the " silent sea of pines," will render the 



46 



ROCHESTER. 




Four Rod Eoad. 



rROPRIETARY HISTORY. 47 

picture complete. If the spirit of Capt. Evans were permitted to 
revisit the scene of his earthly labors, he would tind it difficult, even 
with his trusty compass, to ascertain the precise latitude and longi- 
tude of" Norway Plain Mille Comon." 

A meeting for drawing the lots was held Dec. 14, 1780. At the 
same time a town treasurer was first chosen. Hitherto the select- 
men had performed the duties of this office. To receive and pay 
out the money was not an onerous task, for the expenses were light, 
and only small assessments had ever been necessary ; simply sufficient 
to pay for making surveys and dividing the lands. Xow, however 
business of greater importance arose, requiring a financial agent. To 
advance the settlement as rapidly as possible, and thus enhance the 
value of their lands, it was plainly the interest of the proprietors to 
furnish the settlers a meeting-house, a minister, and passable roads, 
that they might attend regularly upon Sabbath worship. Having 
built a meeting-house in 1731, at a meeting held there on the third 
of April, 1732, they voted that a minister should be called and set- 
tled, and appointed a committee for this purpose. They also voted 
thattheTeuRod road, running across the town by the meeting-house, 
should be cleared " fitt for man and horse to pass and repass," also 
the other main roads. An overseer was appointed with authority to 
hire men to carry on the work. The proprietors having almost 
absolute power over the settlement had also corresponding responsi- 
bilities. They must manage all town and ecclesiastical aftairs, and 
supply the funds necessary for this purpose. An act of the Legisla- 
ture April 1, 1737, took the management of all these aflairs out of 
the hands of the proprietors, and conferred it upon the residents. 
It gave them the right to impose taxes upon non-residents, and col- 
lect the same by distraint upon the property, to choose necessary 
town officers, and to transact all business proper to be transacted by 
towns. 

From the incorporation of the town, the proprietors had held the 
entire control. Their clerks, selectmen, commissioners, constables, 
and surveyors were the authorized officers of the town. From this 
date, however, their political importance rapidly declined. Their 
chief business, from the beginning, had been to divide the lauds 
among themselves, and to make them as valuable as possible. The 
bulk of the land had now been divided. They kept up an organiza- 
tion and held occasional meetings until 1763, but their business was 



48 ROCHESTER. 

restricted to matters concerning the propriety only, and is mostly 
without special interest. 

Committees who were appointed to collect the mill rents were 
unsuccessful, and the Proprietors after passing a vote to give to the 
inhabitants what was already due, in order to build five block 
houses for protection against the Indians, on May 28, 1744, gave all 
future rents forever for the support of the ministry, to be equally 
divided if there should be more than one settled minister. They 
were thus relieved of what had been a source of continual trouble 
and annoyance. 

At this period, lumber was the principal export of New Hamp- 
shire, consequently the preservation of timber on the undivided 
lands had always required much attention. It was found impossible 
to prevent depredations upon the unsettled lands. Even after the 
lands were divided, the proprietors found it necessary to associate 
together to protect their property, and agents to prosecute trespassers 
were chosen as regularly as selectmen. 

October 21, 1751, the Proprietors appointed Walter Brayant, 
John Bickford, and John Leighton " to Lay out all the Lands . . . 
above the Second Division." This third division comprised a nar- 
row strip of land at the head of the present towns of Milton and 
Farmington. The drawing began Aug. 28, 1753, and was continued 
on Oct. 1, and completed Aug. 1, 1754. There yet remained many 
lots called " bad land," large commons near the mill privileges, and 
various " nooks and gores " scattered through the town. William 
AlHn, Joshua Winget, and John Plumer were chosen N'ov. 4, 1760, 
to divide these lands, and were " allowed Twenty Shillings Each per 
day Except the Surveyor shall have Thirty shillings." The drawing 
of this fourth division was made Dec. 20, 1762. The lots were not 
of uniform size as in the previous divisions, but varied according to 
the quality of the land. The mill privilege at the Flume, in Milton, 
was sold at auction to Samuel Ham. From the mill common at 
East liochcster eight lots were carved out. Those who feel inter- 
i'stcd to follow the changes of the Norway Plain mill common, as it 
griulually passed from a wilderness to a village, will notice that in 
this fourth division it was cut into three lots; still leaving a large 
tract of land about the falls. The main street here appears for the 
lirst time. The diagram on the opposite page shows tlie manner in 
which tliese lots were taken out. 



PROPRIETARY HISTORY. 



49 




Four Rod Road. 



50 ROCHESTER. 

No. 88 fell to Lieut. Joseph Beard; I^To. 89 to Lieut. Jonathan 
"Woodman ; and No. 90 to Samuel Edgerly. Between 88 and 89 is 
the main street leading from the brook to the center of the village. 

In 1769 James Ilorne owned No. 88. No. 89 was afterwards 
owned by Paul Harford, and is the lot referred to in the following 
town record in 1787: — 

" Paid for a part of the 4"^ Division Lott of Land of Collector Paul Harfords 
Taken by Co' Dame by Extent & Sold at vendue & bid off by the Selectmen 
94 — — " 

The last record of Jno. Wentworth, the Clerk of the Proprietors, 
is dated Oct. 12, 1763, and contains the following : — 

" Voted the 120"i Lot in the 4'^ Division be Given to the Clerk in full for his 
Services as Clerk & Treasurer to this day." 

After his death, the Proprietors' books and papers fell into the 
hands of the administrator of his estate, who bore the same name, 
and was probably his son. As he had no legal power to dispose of 
these documents, a number of the proprietors petitioned him as 
Justice of the Peace to call a meeting of the Proprietors, which he 
did. The meeting was held at Stephen Wentworth's house in 
Rochester, June 28, 1784. The Town Clerk was elected Proprietors' 
Clerk, all the books and papers were passed over to his custody, and 
the office was vested in him and his successors forever. The last 
record is by Josiah Main, Proprietors' Clerk, Sept. 28, 1785, being 
his receipt for — 

"a Eecord Book — the Original Charter — the Original plans together with 
attested copies of the same, and fifty-five loose papers Containing Notifications 
Accounts and Receipts." 



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50 ROCHESTER. 

No. 88 fell to Lieut. Joseph Beard; oSTo. 89 to Lieut. Jonathan 
Woodman; and No. 90 to Samuel Edgerly. Between 88 and 89 is 
the main street leading from the brook to the center of the village. 

In 1769 James Home owned No. 88. No. 89 was afterwards 
owned by Paul Harford, and is the lot referred to in the following 
town record in 1787: — 

" Paid for a part of the 4"^ Division Lott of Land of Collector Paul Harfords 
Taken by Co' Dame by Extent & Sold at vendue & bid off by the Selectmen 
94 _ — " 

The last record of Jno. Wentworth, the Clerk of the Proprietors, 
is dated Oct. 12, 1763, and contains the following : — 

" Voted the 120* Lot in the ^^^ Division be Given to the Clerk in full for his 
Services as Clerk & Treasurer to this day." 

After his death, the Proprietors' books and papers fell into the 
hands of the administrator of his estate, who bore the same name, 
and was probably his son. As he had no legal power to dispose of 
these documents, a number of the proprietors petitioned him as 
Justice of the Peace to call a meeting of the Proprietors, which he 
did. The meeting was held at Stephen "Wentworth's house in 
Rochester, June 28, 1784. The Town Clerk was elected Proprietors' 
Clerk, all the books and papers were passed over to his custody, and 
the office was vested in him and his successors forever. The last 
record is by Josiah Main, Proprietors' Clerk, Sept. 28, 1785, being 
his receipt for — 

" a Record Book — the Original Charter — the Original plans together with 
attested copies of the same, and fifty-five loose papers Containing Notifications 
Accounts and Receipts." 




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CHAPTER V. 

REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. 

" What flower is this that greets the morn, 
Its hues from Heaven so freshly boru ? 
With burning star and flaming brand 
It kindles all the sunset land: 
O, tell us what its name may be ! 
Is this the Flower of Liberty ? 

It is the banner of the free, 
The starry Flower of Liberty. 

" In savat^e Nature's fair abode 
Its tender seed our fathers sowed ; 
The storm-winds rocked its swelling bud. 
Its opening leaves were streaked with blood, — 
Till, lo ! earth's tyrants shook to see 
The full-blown Flower of Liberty ! 

Then hail the banner of the free, 
The starry Flower of Liberty." 

Until the Rebellion, the Revolution was regarded as the most 
interesting period of our nation's history. Its heroes, its battles, its 
great principles of equal rights and free government, have been the 
leading theme of the historian and the orator for more than a hun- 
dred years. Veneration for the patriots who took part in the stir- 
ring events of that day has been constantly increasing. Their wis- 
dom and courage are more fully ai>})reciated now than ever before. 
The grand results of that war are better understood. To-day the 
blessings flowing from the Declaration of Independence are prized as 
of inestimable value. It was the appreciation of these blessings 
that inspired the nation and prompted it to deeds of valor during the 
late civil war. The red battle-fields of the Rebellion attest, beyond 
language, the attachment to the principles for which the Revolution 
was inaugurated. 

The interest in events of national importance during this period 
has caused merely local incidents to be too much overlooked, yet, 
it can not be uninteresting to know what services the citizens of our 



52 ROCHESTER. 

own town rendered toward the achievement of Independence, what 
feelings moved them, how eagerly they sprang to arms, and w^hat 
sufferings they endured in the camp and on the field of battle. The 
little that can now he rescued from oblivion is enough to gratify 
our pride, but not enough to satisfy our curiosity. It is enough to 
confer lasting honor upon the town. Her delegates were present at 
all the conventions called to co-operate with the other American col- 
onies ; she paid her proportion of the expenses of each Continental 
Congress ; she cheerfully took her part in the responsibility of 
resisting British authority; her citizens shared largely in the feelings 
which animated the American people ; they responded with alacrity 
to every call for soldiers, gave them liberal bounties, and provided 
for the support of their families. Their minute-men marched 
immediately when notified, and, at one time, when other troops 
withdrew from the field, Rochester responded to the urgent call of 
Washington for re-enforcements, and sent a company of militia to his 
army at Cambridge. Her soldiers took part in the capture of Bur- 
goyne at Saratoga, and of Cornwallis at Yorktown; they were in 
the battle of Trenton, and shared the sufferings of Valley Forge. 
Some fell upon the field of battle; some died prisoners of the British 
army; many were cut oft' by the ravages of disease. Twenty-nine 
men Avere lost during the w^ar, — no inconsiderable number, when 
it is remembered that the towai had then less than half its population 
in 1866. The soldiers of Rochester were sturdy men accustomed 
to fatigue and inured to hardship. Some of them had seen ser- 
vice in the French and Indian wars, had been at the siege of Louis- 
burg, and taken part in the conquest of Canada. They early caught 
the spirit of opposition to British tyranny and prepared for resist- 
ance. There was nothing hesitating or doubtful about the action 
of Rochester. The following record is from a copy of the IS'ew 
Hampshire Gazette of Feb. 4, 1774, preserved in the office of the 
Secretary of State at Concord. 

"PROVINCE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

ROCHESTER RESOLVES. 

In Consequence of the General Uneasiness in the opulent Towns on the Continent 
of North America, and a Letter from the Committee of Correspondence, led us in 
these bye Parts to consider seriously the Cause of it; and we find Taxation without 
Representation (which as Lord Cambden well observes is inseparable) is the Cause 
of it. We consider our Constitution, that our Fore-Fathers at last to prevent hard 



REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. 53 

Usage, left their Native Land, to enjoy that Liberty which they judged asfreeborn 
Englishmen, they were entitled to. They then arrived on this then hostile Shore, 
■which was a howling Wilderness, which was never purchased nor conquered at the 
Cost of Great- Britain, where they had to struggle with the Prospect of Famine, 
cold Season, besides combating an artful vindictive Enemy, and almost all other 
Difficulties that human Nature could surmount. When those Troubles were a 
little over, and the Sunshine of Prosperity began to arise, all hard Thoughts of the 
Mother Country's Behaviour vanished, and they surrender'd Jurisdiction and Sov- 
ereignty to the Crown of Great-Britain on Charters, with as strong Assurance as 
crowned Heads could give, that said Charters should be inviolably observed on 
both Sides; which Conditions were inserted in said Charters, by which we were to 
choose our own Representatives; to make and ordain Laws for the Regulation of 
said Colonies; raising Monies, and the like, not repugnant to the Laws of Great 
Britain. We have always cheerfully accepted the King's Governor, and he has a 
negative Vote in our Assemblies, as the King has in Parliament; and Men or 
Money have been requested for upholding Government, it was readily granted, and 
raised where the Subjects could bear it best. Therefore, after all this, for the Par- 
liament of Great-Britain to take such a Step over all Charters, and the most solemn 
Assurances, as to tax when and as they please, to raise a Revenue to support a 
Number of Hungry Placemen, of what Denomination soever, that distress peace- 
able Subjects, and are a Pest to Society, that after all the Struggle in recovering 
the same, answers no other end but to alienate the Minds of the King's most duti- 
ful Subjects from him, and run the Nation in Debt on a Ballance. Oh I when 
will the Eyes of Administration be opened: we think our Behaviour has merited a 
more generous Treatment, 

Therefore in Consideration of the above unhappy Situation of our American 
Brethren in general. At a legal Town Meeting of the Qualified Voters of the 
Town of Rochester, assembled at the Meeting House in said Town, on Monday 
the 24tli of this Instant January, A. D. 1774, to consider on the alarming Circum- 
stances of this once free country. 

1. John Plummer, Esq: chosen Moderator of said Meeting. 

2. Voted unanimously that it is our deliberate Opinion that we are freeborn, 
and loyal Subjects of the Crown of Great-Britain, and as such depend on Protec- 
tion, and not Slavery. 

3. That the present King GEORGE the Third is our lawful Sovereign; and the 
Heirs of his Body, in the Protestant Line are so to remain; and as such promise to 
pay him all lawful obedience, agreeable to our happy Constitution, and that we 
will so render Tribute to him as his Due. 

4. That as such freeborn Subjects, we will to our utmost be on our Watch that 
no artful designing Men of any Rank soever, may deprive us of our Privileges by 
creeping in at unawares, to undermine us of this Jewel Liberty, by setting up their 
Placemen to pray and sport with the same. 

5. Voted that the Hon. John Plummer, John ]SIcDuffee, Ebenezer Tebbits, 
Esqrs; and Daniel Wingate, be a Committee to correspond with their Brethren 
Committees, in the neighboring Towns or any Three of them. 

6. Voted that a Copy of this be sent to the Committee of Correspondence at 
Portsmouth, assuring them that our Hearts are Knit with theirs in the noble 
Cause of Freedom, And the meeting Dissolved. 

John Plumer, Moderator. 

A true Copy, from the Original Vote of the Meeting, 

Attest, JosiAH Maix, Town Clerk.'''' 

Of the committee thus appointed, Ebenezer Tebbetts was clerk. 
Their work was exceedingly important and involved heavy respon- 
sibilities, so that it is not surprising that two days after the battle of 



64 ROCHESTER. 

Bunker Hill by which the Colonies were irrevocably committed to \ 
the ,war, they requested an addition to their number. 

"June 19, 1775 it was put to vote to see if the Town will add to the former 
Committee of Correspondents according to the desire of s^ Committee and Voted 
in the affirmative and Voted that the Committee shall Consist of thirteen Voted 
that Esn Ichabod Cosen Lieut John Brieuster Capt William Allen Esn James 
McDuffee Lieut William McDufee Abner Dame Capt William Chamberlin Jabez 
Dame Cap' David Place is Chosen a Committee according to the foregoing Notifi- 
cation — " 

Early in the war similar committees of safety were appointed in 
most of the principal towns of 'New Hampshire. !N"early every town 
had some persons who had no sympathy with the colonists in the 
impending struggle. These committees were of special service by 
their vigilance and activity in marking out and reporting every one 
suspected of toryism. They carried on extensive correspondence 
with other committees, to secure a general concert of action, but 
exercised large discretionary powers, and did not hesitate to act 
independently and boldly when the good of the cause would be 
imperiled by delay. 

In the fall of 1774, when Gen. Gage, who commanded the British 
army in Boston, wanted carpenters to build barracks for the troops 
against the approaching winter and could not hire them in Massa- 
chusetts, he applied to Gov. Wentworth of New Hampshire. The 
governor, who was as popular as a British governor could be, 
secretly dispatched agents to the back towns, in the hope of secur- 
ing workmen. But ]^ew Hampshire was no more servile than 
Massachusetts. One of these agents visited Rochester, but the loyal 
men were on the alert. The following from the New Hampshire 
Gazette states the result. 

" Rochester, November 8th, 1774. 
Strafford ss. 

To show that we in these Parts of the Province are as warm Defenders of our 
civil Liberties as those in the Capital, and are as much on their Watch against aid- 
ing and assisting arbitrary Men in forging Chains to promote their Country's 
Ruin, according to their Ability : 

Therefore when Fame sounded the Report in our Borders that a number of 
Artificers were gone from Wolf borough, Middletown, &c, to Boston, on the Errand 
of erecting Barracks for the soldiery there, we were much alarmed here, and at a 
Muster of the Companies of Militia here last Week it being suspected that Nich- 
olas Austin of Middletown was an Accomplice or Agent somehow in sending 
them, our Sons of Liberty here would have marched directly to have paid him a 
Visit : but we fearing what might be the issue of tlie justly enraged People in such 
an Undertaking; Numbers of the most considerate warmly withstood it and pro- 
posed to send tor him to meet us at some Time and Place that might be agreed on. 



REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. 55 

Therefore the Committee of Correspondence here wrote to him to meet us at 
the House of Stephen Wentworth Innholder in Rochester, on Tuesday, the 8th 
instant, at which Time and Place he attended, and before a Number of the Inhab- 
itants of this and the neighboring Towns, met to hear his Defense, by Examina- 
tion on liis solemn Affirmation before John Plumer, Esq; that he only spoke to 
four of the Men, and gave them orders to go to the Governor, and speak to him, 
and that he did not let the Men Know that they were to go to Boston, but had a 
mistrust they were, b}' what the Governor said to him at his Return ; he further 
says the Gov told him that the People would be dissatisfied when tliey came to 
know it, but he thought it would be for the best, and further declares he told the 

Men that the General of the Army would pay them their Wages 

And then on his Knees, when nothing less would satisfy, he made the following 
Confession. 

' Before this Company I confess I have been aiding and assisting in sending 
Men to Boston to build Barracks for the Soldiers to live in, at which you have 
Reason justly to be offended, which I am sorry for, and humbly ask your Forgive- 
ness, and I do affirm that for the future I never will be aiding or assisting in any 
Wise whatever in Act or Deed contrary to the Constitution of the Country, as 
Witness my hand.' 

Nicholas Austin. 

This is the true State of the above Transaction before us and a respectable Num- 
ber of Attendance from the Towns round us to see the above. 



Daniel Wingate,^ Committee 
John Plummer, > of 

John ]\IcDuffee, ) Correspondence ." 



The battle of Lexington was the signal for a general uprising of 
the yeomanry of I^^ew England. The excitement was intense. It 
has been paralleled in our history but once ; when, eighty-six 
years later, the news flashed over the wires that Beauregard had 
opened fire on Fort Sumter. Each was the opening act of war. 
The excitement of April, 1775, can be easily imagined by those in 
whose memories the scenes of April, 1861, are still fresh. Men 
instinctively sprang to arms. The militia of New Hampshire imme- 
diately poured in to join the patriot army around Boston. In Roch- 
ester a recruiting oflace was opened, and men enlisted at Stephen 
Wentworth's tavern; over fifteen pounds was paid in bounties to 
volunteers; half a hundred of lead was bought at the town's expense; 
and, after the soldiers departed, blankets Avere forwarded to them 
by the selectmen. 

The Pro\ancial Committee of Correspondence, upon receiving 
news of the battle, had hastily sent notice to seventy-one towns, 
requesting delegates from each to assemble at Exeter, forthwith. 
Only three days after the battle delegates had arrived from all these 
towns. Commendable promptness ! John Plummer was present 
from Rochester. The members being pledged to secrec}', the pro- 
ceedinscs of the convention are not known. A Provincial Congress 



56 ROCHESTER. 

had already been summoned to meet at Exeter on the 17th of May. 
The notification of the town meeting in Eochester to choose dele- 
gates to this Congress, implored " the serious and thinking party to 
attend," it being a day of "trouble and distress." James Knowles 
and John McDufFee were elected delegates. This Congress voted to 
raise three regiments, those Kew Hampshire troops still remaining 
around Boston to form two, and the third to be raised immediately. 
As the new regiments began to be formed, many of the volunteers 
who had hastened away under the first excitement returned home, 
and for some weeks the force about Boston was very small. John 
McDufl:ee, who had seen service in the French wars, had been a 
lieutenant of rangers at the siege of Louisburg, and had commanded 
a detachment of men under Wolfe at the capture of Quebec, offered 
his services to the Colony, and on May 20 was commissioned Lieut. 
Colonel of the third regiment under Col. Poor. This regiment was 
not fully organized at the time of the battle of Bunker Hill, but after 
the battle, was immediately ordered forward and went into camp 
with the other New Hampshire troops at Winter Hill. 

The following Rochester men volunteered in this regiment : — * 

(From a Eoll dated June 2, 1775.) 
" Capt. Winborn Adams' (Durham) Company. 

Age. Age. 

Daniel McNeal, Yeoman, 24 years. John Walker, Yeoman, 26 years. 

Jonathan Flodgdon, jr. " 20 " Edward Rolings, " 21 " 

John Richards, jr. " 25 " Ebenezer Horn, " 26 « 

John Bergin, Cordwainer, 30 " Thomas Tolley, " 27 " 

Thomas Furber, Tailor, 26 " 

Capt. Jonathan Wentworth's (Soinersioorth) Company. 

(Residence not given on the Roll.) 

Samuel Nute, Sergeant, entered May 28. 
James Chamberlin, Corporal, entered May 29. 

Samuel Merrow, " " " 29. 

Ebenezer Chesley, Private, " " 29. 

Nathaniel Perkins, " " " 28. 

Daniel Alley, " " " 20. 

Ephraim Alley, " " " 26. 

Josiah Durgin, " " " 30. 

James Wentvporth, " " " 30. 

Joshua Merrow, " " " 30. 

Gershom Downs, " " " 28. 

Capt. Ben.jamin Titcomb's (Dover) Company. 

Jonathan Downing, Yeoman, 25 years old." 



*In all lists of soldiers which may be given, it will be understood that the residence is taken 
from the rolls, unless otherwise stated. 



REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. 57 

This is the only one of this company, whose residence is given as 
Rochester. Another later roll gives a few names j^^'obabli/ from 
Rochester, hut their residence is not stated. In all there Avere twenty- 
six Rochester men in the army during this summer. Their term 
of enlistment was until the last of December, unless sooner dis- 
charged. 

The 22d of June had been appointed as a day of fasting and 
prayer, and was duly observed in Rochester. The Rev. Joseph 
Haven, then preaching as a candidate, thus alluded to their gloomy 
prospects ; — 

'• The times and seasons call for mourning. Our rights and privileges are invaded, 
and that by those we looked upon as our protectors. They have turned a deaf ear 
to all our petitions and remonstrances. The compassions of our King and Ministry 
are closed against us, and Britain has become a cruel monster, not forgetting her 
child, but seeking its ruin. We have once and again heard of the blood of our 
friends being spilled in the day of battle. Some have lately left us to go to the 
fatal field, there nobly to risk their lives for the defense of their country and reli- 
gion. AVe wish them prosperity, and that they may do valiantly for their people. 
But who knows how many may ever return ? Bravely have they gone forth and 
with honor may they return, but the hearts of their friends here are no doubt full 
of grief. It is a solemn day. My aged fathers, who among you can remember 
such a day? Let us unite to call upon the Lord. Let us not hold our peace till 
he hear and answer. Let us pray for our brethren who jeopard their lives contin- 
ually for us in the field. And let us pray for a reconciliation with the parent State 
on terms constitutional and honorable to both, and that thei'e may be a final period 
put to the war that is now begun between Great Britain and her Colonies." — War 
was not the only calamity. The fruit of the land was cut ofi' by drought. — 
" We are threatened with grievous famine. The fire devours our pastures and 
rages in the wilderness. Some of our habitations have been already destroyed and 
many more are exposed." 

These extracts show with what feelings our people entered into 
that unequal struggle, which after hours of victory and hours of 
defeat, days of thanksgiving and days of fasting, years of painful 
suspense yet of unfaltering determination, ended in the recognition 
of the United States as a free and independent nation. 

Portsmouth, the capital of the colony, was liable to be attacked 
by British armed vessels at any moment. Alarms had already been 
several times sent to adjoining towns ; and, indeed, the first act of 
armed hostilitity in the Revolution had occurred at Portsmouth. As 
early as Decemljer, 1774, a British ship of war being daily expected 
from Boston with troops to take possession of Fort William and 
JMary, John Sullivan and John Langdon put themselves at the head 
of a band of volunteers from Portsmouth and the neighboring 
towns, and before the British could arrive, captured the fort, made 



58 ROCHESTER. 

prisoners of the garrison, and seized a hundred barrels of gun- 
powder which furnished the Colonists with ammunition for the 
battle of Bunker Hill. It is more than probable that Rochester was 
represented in this daring exploit, for she charged the State seven- 
teen pounds for bounties " on the Sea-coast alarm at Kittery." 
Another and similar transaction in which she bore a part occurred 
on May 26. The British vessel above referred to had arrived with 
troops and taken possession of the fort. For a number of months 
they interrupted navigation, and seized several vessels coming into 
the harbor. In retaliation, a body of armed Colonists went to a bat- 
tery on Jerry's Point, took away eight large cannon, and brought them 
to Portsmouth. In Rochester's account with the State, she charged 
sixteen pounds for bounties paid volunteers " to Jerry's Point after 
cannon." For powder and ball for these raids five pounds and 
twelve shillings were charged. Votes of thanks were passed by the 
convention at Exeter, to all those who had been engaged in seizing 
the powder at the fort and the cannon at the battery. But it was 
recommended, — perhaps to restrain the too great freedom of such 
acts, — that no movement of parties or bodies of men should be under- 
taken without direction of the Committee of Safety. Rochester 
adopted this recommendation at the next town meeting. No more 
such unlicensed expeditions occurred. After war had actually settled 
upon the land, steps were taken for the better defense of Portsmouth, 
and among other measures, the Committee of Safety ordered the 
selectmen of Rochester to deliver to Col. Evans a four-pound cannon 
for the defense of Piscataqua Harbor. This was, doubtless, the old 
iron gun, so famous in the Indian wars. 

The necessity of having the colony prepared against any sudden 
attack by the enemy could not be overlooked. The Continental 
Congress had already given directions for raising companies of min- 
ute-men, — so called because they were to be ready to march at a 
minute's warning. Out of the twelve regiments of militia in New 
Hampshire, four regiments of minute-men were to be organized. 
Men were most urgently appealed to to engage in this service. " It 
was an important crisis," "all was at stake," and, for encourage- 
ment, it was promised that the companies should be relieved every 
four months, so that the duty might be divided as equally as possible 
among the whole body of militia. Upon the 18th of October, in- 
structions were issued to officers of militia, selectmen of towns, and 



REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. 



59 



town committees of safety, to use their utmost endeavors to raise 
their quotas of minute-men. Five days later came tlie startling 
report that a British fleet was about to attack Portsmouth. Wash- 
ington, suspecting such a design, dispatched Gen. Sullivan to take 
command of the militia and defend the harbor. The call for men was 
promptly responded to by Rochester. The following is the roll of a 
company of Rochester men who marched to Portsmouth under com- 
mand of Capt. David Place, and served from four to six weeks on 
Seavev's Island. 



David Place, Captain. 
Ebenezer Tebbets, 1st Lieutenant. 
John Ham, 2d Lieutenant. 
George Place, Ensign. 
Paul Libbey, Sergeant. 
Reuben Heard, Sergeant. 
Joshua Courson, Sergeant. 



John Harden, Sergeant. 
John Woodman, Corporal. 
James Wentworth, CorporaL 
Jonathan French, Corporal. 
Benjamin Taylor, Corporal. 
Ichabod Rawlings, Drummer. 
Samuel Place, Fifer. 



Daniel Cook. 
Samuel Goodwin. 
George Heard. 
John Rogers. 
Amos Place. 
Amos Spencer. 
John Bickford. 
James Rogers. 
Mesheck Heard. 
Samuel Robertson. 
Ebenezer Courson. 
Moses Drown. 
John McDuffee. 
James Coleman. 



PRIVATES. 

Joseph Berry. 
Moses Hammet. 
Daniel Watson. 
Haniel Clark. 
John Nute. 
Robert McCreelis. 
Thomas Chamberlain. 
John Stanton. 
David Wingate. 
Joseph Plummer. 
Jonathan Tebbets. 
John Laighton. 
Amos Hayes. 
Jonathan Richards. 



Joseph Richards. 
Dudley Pike. 
Solomon Clark. 
Joseph Thompson. 
Isaac Wentworth. 
John Place, 
Benjamin Furber. 
John Rawlings. 
Timothy Ricker. 
James Berry. 
Moses Furber. 
Edward Rawlings. 
John Bickford. 



When the expected fleet failed to arrive, the excitement subsided, 
and attention was turned to the siege of Boston, where Capt. Place's 
minute-men found their next service. Six months of barrack life 
around Boston had dampened the ardor of many of the Continental 
soldiers. Their terms of enlistment w^ere fast expiring, and new en- 
listments w^ere obtained with difiiculty. The first efl:ervescence of 
patriotism was over. The troops whose time was out were rapidly 
marching home, and some Connecticut regiments liastoned oft' before 
their time expired. Washington was surrounded with difliculties, 
and the camp was in danger of being left empty. In this exigency. 
Gen. Sullivan dispatched by express to the New Hampshire Commit- 
tee of Safety a letter calling for militia. The committee met ajid 



60 ROCHESTER. 

ordered out sixteen companies. The first on the list was Capt. 
Place's. On the next day the roll of his company was examined, 
allowed, and ordered to be paid. This service was from the third of 
December till the fifteenth of January. The names of the men have 
not been found. The record among the army rolls is simply this': 

" Return of companies of New Hampshire militia in the Continental Army, 
December, 1775. 

Rochester. 

Capt. David Place — Lt. Thomas Hodgdon — 2d Lt. Aaron Hanson — Ensign 
James Goodwin — 4 Sergeants — 4 Corporals — 2 drummers and fifers — 81 
privates." 

Lieut. Timothy Roberts and several other Rochester men engaged 
in the same service under Capt. John Waldron, of Dover. IN'either 
of these companies was in 2a\y action. This closes the first year of 
the war. 

Although the revolutionary spirit had been increasing in the Col- 
onies for years, yet the prayer of good men still continued to be in 
the words of Mr. Haven, " for reconciliation with the parent State 
upon terms constitutional and honorable to both parties." On the 
fourth of July, 1776, this hope was abandoned, and thenceforth the 
war was for independence. The first danger to which the new cause 
was exposed arose from the influence of the Tories, a numerous and 
powerful party, from whom more was to be feared than from open, 
armed enemies. Congress, therefore, recommended that measures 
be taken " immediately to disarm all persons who were notoriously 
disaffected to the American cause, or should refuse to associate to 
defend by arms, the Colonies against the British." The New Hamp- 
shire Committee of Safety sent at once to the several towns printed 
forms prepared as follows : — 

" To the Selectmen of Rochester : 

Colony of New Hampshire. 

In Committee of Safety, April 12, 1776. 

In order to carry the underwritten resolve of the Honorable Continental Con- 
gress into execution, you are requested to desire all males above twenty-one years 
of age (lunatics, idiots, and negroes excepted), to sign to the Declaration on 
this pajier ; and when so done, to make return hereof, together with the name or 
names of all who shall refuse to sign the same, to the General Assembly or 
Committee of Safety of this Colony. 

M. Weare, Chairman. 

liN Congress, March 14, 1776." 



REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. 



61 



Resolved, That it be recommended to the several Assemblies, Conventions, and 
Councils or Committees of Safety of the United Colonies immediately to cause all 
persons to be disarmed, within their respective Colonies, who are notoriously disaf- 
fected to the cause of America, or who have not associated and refuse to associate 
to defend by Arms the United Colonies against the hostile attempts of the British 
fleets and armies. 

(Copy) Extract from the minutes. 

Charles Thompson, Sect'y." 



" In consequence of the resolution of the Honorable Continental Congress, and 
to show our determination in joining with our American brethren in defending the 
lives, liberties, and properties of the inhabitants of the United Colonies, 

We, the subscribers do hereby solemnly engage and promise that we loill to the utmost 
of our power, at the 7-isk of our lives and fortunes, with arms, oppose the hostile pro- 
ceedings of the British fleets and armies, against the United American Colonies. 



Ebenezer Tebbetts, 
Samuel Furber, 
Benjamin Furber, 
Barnabas Palmer, 
"William Trickey, 
Daniel Hayes, 
Ephraim Wentworth, 
Richard Walker, 
Benjamin Rollins, 
Thomas Plummer, 
Daniel Watkins, 
Richard Wentworth, 
Avery Hall, 
Wentworth Hayes, 
Isaac Libbey, 
Mark Hartford, 
John Brewster, 
Daniel Kimball, 
Moses Hammett, 
Joseph Dame, 
Joseph Haven, 
Isaac Wentworth, 
Josiah Main, 
Paul Libbey, 
Thomas Roberts, 
Samuel Alley, 
Stephen Jenkins, 
Josiah Folsom, 
Samuel Nute 
Ebenezer "Wentworth, 
James Jackson, 
James Deering, 
Ichabod Rollins, 
Moses Hayes, 
William Jennis, Jr., 
John Knowles, 
Moses Brown, 
Caleb Jackson, 
Ebenezer Place, Jr., 
George I'lace, 
Jonathan Ham, 



Daniel Wingate, 
William Evans, 
William Chamberlin, 
Richard Furber, 
Jacob Hanson, 
James Foster, 
Benjamin Fost, 
Eleazar Coleman, 
Dodovah Garland, 
Bradstreet French, 
David French, 
Thomas Ham, 
Henry Tebbets, 
Thomas Peevey, 
James How, 
James Chesley, 
Daniel Garland, 
Enoch Hoitt, 
Benjamin Fost, Jr., 
John Trickey, 
John Trickey, Jr., 
James French, 
John Ham, Jr., 
Joseph Knight, 
James Chamberlin, 
William Knight, 
Ebenezer Chesley, 
Solomon Perkins, Jr., 
Joseph Plummer, 
Jonathan Pinkham, 
Jonathan Richards, 
John Richards, 
Thomas Furber, 
Jonathan Morrison, 
Joseph Page, 
Aaron .Jennis, 
Elijah Varney, 
Henry Allard, 
Ephraim Ham, 
Robert Walker, 
Beard Plummer, 



John Beargin, 
Timothy Roberts, 
Samuel Plummer, 
Lemuel Bickford, 
Jabez Dame, 
William Allen, 
Joshua Pearl, 
John Plummer, 
William McDuffee, 
John Ham, 
Ebenezer Ricker, 
Stephen Ben-y, 
Abner Dame, 
John Cook, 
Daniel Rogers, , 

John Woodman, 
AVilliam Wingate, 
Hunking Colebroth, 
James Rogers, 
James Rogers, Tertius, 
Samuel Chamberlin, 
James Downs, 
Ichabod Hayes, 
Nathaniel Watson, 
Samuel Twombley, 
James Wentworth, 
Simon French, 
David Jennis, 
William Hodgdon, 
Solomon Drown. 
William McNeal, 
Aaron Plam. 
Richard Place, 
Alexander Hodgdon, 
Benjamin Hoitt, 
Thomas Brown, 
Moses Downs, 
Zebulon Davis, 
Nicholas Wentworth, 
Elihue Wentworth, 
Joseph Jones, 



62 



ROCHESTER. 



Samuel Drown, 
Joseph Hayes, 
Samuel Seavey, 
Diamond Pearl, 
Turner Whitehouse, 
Thomas Davis, 
Moses Hayes, Jr., 
Nathaniel Watson, Jr., 
Jonathan Twombley, 
Job Clements, 
Cornelius Jenkins, 
Caleb AVakeraan, 
Benjamin Twombley, 
Eeuben Wentworth, 
Peter Horn, 
Ebenezer Horn, 
Thomas Drew, 
William Jennis, 
James Knowles. 
William Ham, 
Solomon Perkins, 
Samuel Merrow, 
George Willand, 
Samuel Merrow, Jr., 
James Horn, 



John Heard, 
Zebulon Dame, 
Josiah Wentworth, 
Jotham Nutter, 
John Randall, 
John Richards, Jr., 
Abraham Morrison, 
Daniel Page, 
Joshua Downing, 
John Nute, 
Moses Jennis, 
Samuel Robinson, 
Paul Jennis, 
Joseph Tucker, 
Joseph Drown, 
Joseph Jiles, 
Ebenezer Place, 
Alexander Hodgdon, Jr., 
John Hammett, 
Jonathan Bickford, 
Samuel Tworably, Jr., 
Edward Tebbets, 
James Rogers, Jr., 
Benjamin Hayes, 
Joseph Walker, 



Edward Lock, 

Charles Knight, 
David Leighton, 
Samuel Jones, 
Moses Horn, 
Ithamar Seavey, 
Ebenezer Garland, 
James McDuffee, 
John Jenness, 
Richard Nutter, 
John Place, 
Joseph Walker, Jr., 
Richard Furber, Jr., 
Joseph Thompson, 
Reuben Heard, Jr., 
Reuben Heard. 
Moses Roberts, 
Gershom Downs, 
Lemuel Richardson, 
Benjamin Copps, 
Abraham Cook, 
Edmond Tebbets, 
Joshua Cossen, 
Samuel Wingate, Jr., 
Thomas Brown, Jr. 



The following persons refused to sign the annexed association : — 



James Allen, 
Ichabod Cossen, 
Thomas Trickey, 
Samuel Wingate, 
Joseph Heard, 
Tristrem Heard, 
Benjamin Bickford, 
Jonathan Hodgdon, 



Jona Ellis, 
Edward Varney, 
Benjamin Dame, 
John Witherell, 
Morris Ellis, 
Solomon Clark, 
William Ellis, 
Benjamin Heard, 



Nathaniel Garland, 
Abraham Pearl, 
Samuel Downing, 
Joshua Knight, 
Stephen Wentworth, 
Daniel Jenness. 



Moses Yarney, Jr., 
Ebenezer Varne}', 
Thomas Cloutman, 
Isaac Twombley, 
Nathaniel Meeder, 
Joseph Meeder. 



The undernamed persons are of the Society of Friends, and do not choose to 
sign : — 

Elijah Tebbets, Jonathan Dame, 

John Tebbets, Benjamin Meeder, 

Joseph Tebbets, Jonathan Meeder, 

David Tebbets, Elijah Tebbets, Jr., 

Mordecai Varney, Ezekiel Tebbets, 

Moses Varney, Muzzey Gould, 

Moses Austin, Robert Tebbets, 

John Cloutman, David Varney, 

Rochester, 15th October, 1776. 
By order of the Committee. 

a true coppy. 

Attest 

Eben'r Tebbets, Cl'k. 

A true list of all the whigs and tories in the town of Rochester in 1770." 

Thus, one huiidivd and nincty-oioht persons in Rochester signed 
tliis agreement, twenty-two belonging to the Society of Friends 



A- 



\. 



i JJ^ 









tes ' 



62 



ROCHESTER. 



Samuel Drown, 
Joseph Hayes, 
Samuel Seavey, 
Diamond Pearl, 
Turner Whitehouse, 
Thomas Davis, 
Moses Hayes, Jr., 
Nathaniel Watson, Jr., 
Jonathan Twombley, 
Job Clements, 
Cornelius Jenkins, 
Caleb Wakeman, 
Benjamin Twombley, 
Keuben "Wentworth, 
Peter Horn, 
Ebenezer Horn, 
Thomas Drew, 
"William Jennis, 
James Knowles. 
William Ham, 
Solomon Perkins, 
Samuel Merrow, 
George Willaud, 
Samuel Merrow, Jr., 
James Horn, 



John Heaid, 
Zebulon Dame, 
Josiah Wentworth, 
Jotham Nutter, 
John Randall, 
John Richards, Jr., 
Abraham Morrison, 
Daniel Page, 
Joshua Downing, 
John Nute, 
Moses Jennis, 
Samuel Robinson, 
Paul Jennis, 
Joseph Tucker, 
Joseph Drown, 
Joseph Jiles, 
Ebenezer Place, 
Alexander Hodgdon, Jr., 
John Hammett, 
Jonathan Bickford, 
Samuel Twombly, Jr., 
Edward Tebbets, 
James Rogers, Jr., 
Benjamin Hayes, 
Joseph Walker, 



Edward Lock, 
Charles Knight, 
David Leighton, 
Samuel Jones, 
Moses Horn, 
Ithamar Seavey, 
Ebenezer Garland, 
James McDuffee, 
John Jenness, 
Richard Nutter, 
John Place, 
Joseph Walker, Jr., 
Richard Furber, Jr., 
Joseph Thompson. 
Reuben Heard, Jr., 
Reuben Heard. 
Moses Roberts, 
Gershom Downs, 
Lemuel Richardson, 
Benjamin Copps, 
Abraham Cook, 
Edmond Tebbets, 
Joshua Cossen, 
Samuel Wingate, .Jr. 
Thomas Brown, Jr. 



The following persons refused to sign the annexed association : — 



James Allen, 
Ichabod Cossen, 
Thomas Trickey, 
Samuel Wingate, 
Joseph Heard, 
Tristrem Heard, 
Benjamin Bickford, 
Jonathan Hodgdon, 



Jona Ellis, 
Edward Varney, 
Benjamin Dame, 
John Witherell, 
Morris Ellis, 
Solomon Clark, 
William Ellis, 
Benjamin Heard, 



Nathaniel Garland, 
Abraham Pearl, 
Samuel Downing, 
Joshua Knight, 
Stephen Wentworth, 
Daniel Jenness. 



Elijah Tebbets, 
John Tebbets, 
Joseph Tebbets, 
David Tebbets, 
Mordecai Varney, 
Moses Varney, 
Moses Austin, 
John Cloutman, 



The undernamed persons are of the Society of Friends, and do not choose to 
sign : — 

Jonathan Dame, 
Benjamin Meeder, 
Jonathan Meeder, 
Elijah Tebbets, Jr., 
Ezekiel Tebbets, 
Muzzey Gould, 
Robert Tebbets, 
David Varney, 

Rochester, 15th October, 11 
By order of the Committee. 

a true coppy. 

Attest 

Eben'r Tebuets, Cl'k. 

A true list of all the whigs and tories in the town of Rochester in 1770." 

Thus, one liuiidrod and ninoty-cii!,'lit persons in Ixocliester signed 
this agreement, twenty-two belonging to the Society of Friends 



Moses Yarney, Jr., 
Ebenezer Varne}', 
Thomas Cloutman, 
Isaac Twombley, 
Nathaniel Meeder, 
Joseph Meeder. 



•6. 





























^7 












•JS^^^WP/^^^'^' ^ -^^'^ J^;?^ ^ ^-^^ 



«f!K. 




•1 > 4 XVn. 









i;*\^ 






^^V'^' 



th 



-k.v^-_ \-x- -■-^>^- 




REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. 63 

" did not choose to sign," and twenty-two others refused to sign. 
This pLaced every man as a friend or an enemy to his country, and 
informed the Committee of Safety what individuals to watch or 
disarm. 

In re-organizing- the army for 1776, three regiments were called 
for from IN^ew Hampshire. These were regular Continental troops, 
and must not be confounded with the militia companies, which were 
called into the field in times of emergency. 

Captain David Place raised and took command of a company in 
the Second Continental Eegiment, under Col. James Reed. The 
date of his entry is the first of January. On the opposite page is 
given a fac-simile of a pay-roll dated on the twenty-eighth of April 
following, which shows that fourteen of his company had then de- 
serted, seven were absent on sick-list, and sixty-seven were present 
on duty. Only a small proportion of the men were from this town, 
and it is impossible to select their names with any approach to 
accuracy. Others, doubtless, enlisted in other companies. 

During the preceding fall and winter, Arnold had led an expedi- 
tion against Canada through the wilderness of Mairte. Montgomery 
had advanced by way of the Lakes, and after capturing Montreal, 
had pushed on and united his army with the force under Arnold. 
A daring but unsuccessful assault had been made upon the city of 
Quebec, in which Montgomery was killed and Arnold badly 
wounded. The remnant of the army blockaded the city during the 
winter behind ramparts of snow. In the spring, it became necessary 
to withdraw these forces, and, as the British were much superior in 
numbers, the retreat was beset with danger. All the regiments 
which could be spared were sent to re-enforce the American army. 
Boston having been evacuated l)y the British, Capt. Place had gone 
with his regiment under Washington, from Cambridge to I^ew York. 
Thence they were ordered up the Hudson and down the Lakes with 
the other New Hampshire regiments under command of Gen. 
Sullivan. These troops met the army retreating from Quebec, at 
the mouth of the Sorel, above Montreal. From that point the 
retreat was very rapid. So close was the pursuit of the enemy that 
the men could scarcely find time to cook their victuals, and the 
American force was so small that it became necessary to call out the 
militia. Many Rochester men hastened to the service, chiefly in the 
companies of Capt. Joseph Badger, Jr., and Capt. John Drew, of 



64 ROCHESTER. 

Col. Wingate's regiment. Daniel McXeal of Rochester, who had 
served as a private at the commencement of the war, was a lieuten- 
ant in the latter company. The pursuit ceased at St. Johns, yet the 
army continued its retreat to Ticonderoga. This fort being strongly 
fortified, and large re-enforcements of militia having arrived, the 
enemy were unable to capture it. Here the troops remained during 
the summer. Dysentery, small-pox, and putrid fever broke out 
among them, and nearly one third of the New Hampshire men in 
the service died this year by sickness. Rochester lost fourteen. 

The day when the survivors returned to their homes was one of 
mingled joy and sadness. On the Sabbath, December eighth, at the 
close of the sermon, they were publicly welcomed by Mr. Haven in 
these words : — 

" I shall now use the freedom to speak a few words to those who have been far 
from their friends, — far from the place of their nativity. You have been engaged 
in the cause of your Country — a just cause, and one that I hope God will defend. 
You have undergone much hardship and fatigue, but God has carried you through, 
and you have returned to the habitations of your friends. You rejoice ; we rejoice 
with you. I now welcome you home. I trust I may speak for all this Congre- 
gation — I am certain I may do it in the name of every well-wisher to his country 
and friend to mankind. I congratulate you on your return. My heart rejoices; 
but even now a sudden gloom comes over my mind. I can but drop a tear for the 
thought of the others who went forth with you. Will they return ? No ; for the King 
of Terrors has bound them. No less than fourteen of your once fellow soldiers and 
fellow townsmen are in the cold hands of death. Their eyes are closed and their bodies 
you have left in a distant land. Oh ye dear relatives of the dead, I am filled with 
sympathetic grief for you. The return of these your friends brings the dead fresh 
to your minds. Though you rejoice to see them, you can but rejoice with tears. 
Your friends are done with the cares of this world. They will no more be called 
into the field to oppose the soldiers of cruel tyrants. They have died for their 
country ; they could do no more. 'We trust God is rewarding them for the love 
they have shown to their country, and their sacred rights." 

After warning those who had been preserved not to be guilty of 
the sin of unthankfulness, he turned to those who had friends still 
remaining in the army, and endeavored to give them encouragement. 
He did not fail to enforce the duty of prayer for all those who were 
still engaged in the defense of their rights and privileges that they 
might be prospered and returned in safety to their friends. 

Let us now inquire who these were that were still absent in the 
service of their country. Besides the regulars of Reed's Continental 
regiment now with Washington at Trenton, there were two compa- 
nies of Militia commanded by Rochester officers and largely com- 
posed of Rochester men, Capt. William MeDuttec's Company, and 
Capt. John Brewster's Company. The former of these in Col. 



EEVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. 65 

Tasho's regiment was called out by order dated September sixteenth. 
They were mustered in, and marched to re-enforce the army in New 
York. They served about three months, during the whole of which 
time they were stationed at Peekskill to guard the passage of the 
Hudson. The Company numbered fifty-four men. Although the 
places of residence are not given, yet the names of twenty-four are 
found upon the town records of this period, and probably a still 
larger number belonged to Rochester. From the traditional accounts 
of their poaching raids upon the roosts and sties of the neighboring 
farmers, it is fair to judge tliat they saw more of the bright side of 
soldiering than the troops generally. It is even said that one Roch- 
ester boy gained a pension for a wound accidentally received in 
climbing a fence, as he was one night returning to camp with a good 
fat turkey under his arm. 

Capt. John Brewster's Company of Col. Pierse Long's regiment 
was stationed at Newcastle, from August 7, 1776, to January 7, 1777. 

The following Rochester men were in this Company : — 

James Howe, M. D., Surgeon's Mate. Enoch Burnham, Sergeant. 

John Brewster, Captain. Benjamin Hoyt, Corporal. 

John Bergin, Ensign. James Coleman, Corporal, 

Stephen Berry, Sergeant. Anthony IST. Rollings, Drummer. 

Privates. 

Samuel Richards, Isaac Libby, Amos Place, 

Amos Spencer, Moses Rollings, Amos Hayes, 

John Richards, Charles Ricker, Abraham Morrison. 

This company marched from Newcastle, to join the Northern 
Army in January, 1777, and were stationed at Fort Independence 
near Ticonderoga. In preparing for the coming campaign, — the 
glorious campaign which ended in the surrender of Burgoyne's 
proud army, — Ticonderoga was the rendezvous of the New Hamp- 
shire troops. Besides Capt. Brewster's company, there were many 
other Rochester soldiers gathered here. Among these were the 
recruits lately enlisted to fill up the regular Continental regiments. 
In the second regiment commanded by Col. Nathan Hale, were the 
following: — 

Capt. Benjamin Titcomb's Company. 

George Downing, 19 years of age. 

Jonathan Downing, 30 " " 

•Joseph Pearl, 17 " " 

John Garlin, 18 " 



Samuel Forst, 


21 years of age. 


Samuel Ryon, 


25 " " 


Thomas Shaw, 


24 " " 



QQ ROCHESTER. 

Benjamin Nute of Rochester was afterwards a lieutenant in tliis 
company, and Joshua Merrow was ensign and still later promoted to 

lieutenant. 

Capt. F. M. Bell's Company. 

Daniel Cook, 20 years of age. William Palmer, 19 years of age. 

Dauiel Watson, 23 " " Timothy Pucker, 19 " 

Eben. Chestley, 23 " " Edward Rollings, 21 " 

Enoch Wingate, 24 " " George Heard, 19 " " 

Joshua Place, 16 " " Paul Pearl, 28 " 

ThomasChamberlain,19 " " Simeon Pearl, 17 " " 

Daniel Wingate, 22 " " Daniel Horn, 27 " 

Daniel Rogers, jr., 30 " " 

Company Unknown. 

Henry Durgin. Jonathan Doe. Amos Place. 

Samuel Alley. Daniel Allej. 

Before leaving home, the volunteers were thus addressed by Rev. 
Mr. Haven: — 

" I cannot close without a few words to my young friends who have enlisted and 
expect soon to go forth in the defense of their country. Brethren, I applaud you 
that you have engaged in such a noble cause. Be strong and of good courage, and 
may the Lord God go with you, and may he never fail nor forsake you. I hope 
you have more noble views than those of gain or worldly honor, I hope you feel a 
sympathetic grief for your bleeding country, and an ardent zeal of freeing her from 
the hands of tyrants/who sport with our miseries, and glory in their more than 
savage barbarity. Be strong and of good courage, for we have enemies, even 
among us, that would be glad to see you fearful and shrinking back. Remember 
that you are under the care of God, and that, though the arrows of death may fly 
thick, yet they cannot hurt you without a commission from Him. . . . Seek 
the best company and prize such highly when you find it. Bad company avoid 
when you can, as you would the plague. The wickedness of it is contagious. 
Watch over your morals, watch over your conversation. If there is anything good 
in what I say, pray remember it. It may be the last time I shall have an opportu- 
nity to give you counsel ; for I may not live till the time is expired which you 
expect to be absent from home; or if I do, you may not live to return. Be bold, 
then, in the cause in which you are engaged. Our all is now at stake ; our friends, 
relations, possessions, and country, all call for vigorous exertion. Therefore, I 
charge you, by all that is dear to you, that you act like men and like Christians," 

Nothing worthy of note occurred at Ticonderoga or Fort Inde- 
pendence, where these troops were stationed, until the middle of 
June. At that time a strong English flotilla advanced to co-operate 
with Gen. Burgoyne's grand army. In a council of war, the Amer- 
icans determined to abandon the Fort. A retreat was made with 
the American flotilla up through the Lakes. Arriving at Whitehall 
the troops disembarked, the vessels were blown up by Col. Long, 
and the retreat continued toward Saratoga. On the way, an engage- 
ment occurred at Fort Anne (July 6), between Col. Long's regi- 



REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. 67 

meiit and the Ens-lish Mnth. in which the Eiio-Ush were defeated 
and compelled to retire. This closed the service of Capt. Brewster's 
company- The period of enlistment having expired, the whole regi- 
ment was discharged. Although great loss had been suffered in this 
hasty retreat, yet the other portion of the army retreating by land 
from Ticonderoga, fared even worse. Col. Hale's regiment formed 
a part of the rear guard. By reason of the great number of invalids 
and stragglers, they were unable to keep up with the main body. 
They fell back six or seven miles, and, contrary to Gen. St. Clair's 
express orders, stopped short at Hubbardton. They were overtaken 
by the enemy, on the morning of July sixth, and sharply attacked. 
The regiment fled panic-stricken, leaving their Colonel, Adjutant, 
three Captains, and two other officers, with from one to two hun- 
dred men, prisoners to the enemy. George Heard and Ebenezer 
Chesley, with others whose names arc not known, were missing 
from Eochester. Three also of our soldiers died this year while 
prisoners in the hands of the British. 

The surrender of Ticonderoga, with its numerous artillery, came 
like a thunderbolt upon Congress and the country. The New Hamp- 
shire Assembly had just finished their session and returned home. 
A summons from the Committee of Safety brought them together 
again. The militia was re-organized, and a large portion ordered 
to march immediately " to stop the progress of the enemy on our 
western frontiers." Capt. Daniel McDuftee raised a company of 
fift3'-eight men, thirty of whom were of this town. They engaged 
promptly in the service and at once marched to the seat of war. The 
excitement throughout the ISTorthern States was very great. Says a 
Rochester writer, of that day, referring to the alarm caused by the 
rapid advance of Burgoyne's army: — 

" It was a dark day to our people, and added greatly to the weight of all our 
former troubles. While some were ready to sink under the feeling of despondency, 
others were fired with a spirit of noble revenge. Great concern for the safety of 
their relatives in the array fell upon many." 

It was foreseen that a sanguinary battle must soon take place. In 
August came the good news of Stark's victory at Bennington. This 
was followed in a few weeks by the glorious triumphs over the 
invaders at Stillwater and Saratoga. To crown all, the surrender of 
the entire British army occurred in October. Alarm and anxiety 
were followed by universal rejoicing. Says the writer last quoted: — 



68 



ROCHESTER. 



" The surrender of the forces of a great general at the Northward is what we are 
ready to call the grandest thing that ever happened in America. It is difficult to 
moderate our joy or keep it within due bounds. We are a young people and not 
much used to such conquests, and it is to be feared that there will be now unreason- 
able joy as there was lately unreasonable sorrow. We are apt to go to extremes." 

Capt. McDuffee's company had joined the j^orthern army at Sar- 
atoga in September, arriving in season to participate in these bril- 
liant victories. From the roll of his company, which does not give 
residences, are selected the following names of Rochester men : — 



Bank. 

Captain, 
Ensign, 
Sergeant, 
Corporal, 

Drummer, 
Private, 



Entered. 

Sept. 8, 77. 



Discharged. 

Dec. 15. 

Died Nov. 18. 
Dischg'd Dec. 



Daniel McDuffee, 
David Leigh ton, 
Peter Glidden, 

Solomon Clark, Corporal, " Dischg'd Dec. 15. 
Jonathan Ellis, 
Eben. Twombly, 
James Wentworth, 

John McDuffee, " " « 

Enoch Hayes, '' " « 

Tobias Ricker, " " " 

John Richards, " " " 

Joseph Richards, " " " 

John Allen, " " " 

Amos Spencer, " " " 

Jonathan Dame, " " Died Nov. 16. 

Dudley Pike, " " Disch'd Nov. 30. 

Moses Rawlins, ' " " " 

Joseph Wingate, " " Dec. 15. 

Nicholas Wentworth, '' " Nov. 30. 

Amos Hayes, " " " 

Richard Furber, * " " Dec. 15. 

William McNeal, " " Nov. 30. 

John Stanton, » " Deserted Oct. 20. 

John Nute, " " " 

Joseph Thompson, " " " 

John Bickford, " " " 

Stephen Starboard, "■ '' " 

After tlie surrender of Burgoyne, the militia returned home, but 
the Continental regiments marched into Pennsylvania and passed 
the winter at Valley Forge. The sutlerings of the troops at that 
place form a part of our country's history familiar to every one. 

All danger of an invasion from Canada being now at an end, the 
theater of war was removed Southward. The militia of ^N'ew Hamp- 
shire was no more summoned to repel the invader at their very 
door. Yet in the summer of 1778, an expedition was raised, eom- 

* " Gen. Richard Furber died in ]848, in the 95th ve.ir of his ase. He was a Revolutionary 
sohlier, and lived in tiiat part of Rocliester wiiich was afterwards Farniinj^ton. He acted as an 
Adjutant at the surrender of iJurgoyne." \^Doi\r £n<juirer.] 



REVOLUTIOXARY PERIOD. 69 

manded by Gen. Sullivan, to co-operate with the French to expel 
the Britisli from Rhode Island. The co-operation, however, was not 
effected, the fleet being driven to sea by a violent storm. For this 
expedition Rochester furnished nineteen men, wlio served about six 
months in Col. Peabody's regiment. Again in 1779 six soldiers 
from Rochester enlisted in Col. Mooney's regiment, for the defense 
of Rhode Island, and served about six months, when, Newport hav- 
ing been evacuated by the British, they were discharged. Their 
names were : — 

Joseph Ricker. Samuel Rollings. Paltiah Stevens. 

Tobias Ricker. Thomas Carter. Isaac Hatch. 

Thus far our attention has been almost exclusively confined to the 
fortunes of militia companies, or volunteers raised for special service. 
"Wo have seen men leave their homes with words of encouragement 
and counsel, have traced them in long and difficult marches, have 
followed them in hazardous retreats, have seen them exposed to the 
dangers of battle and disease, and have listened to the tender words 
of welcome with which they were greeted upon their return. If 
more interest is found in the history of these brave bands than in 
that of soldiers in the regular army, it is owing to the excitement of 
the times when the former were called forth. A formidable enemy 
was invading their land, and they were alarmed at his rapid pro- 
gress. They were obliged to act promptly and decidedly. The in- 
terest is greater, also, because they went forth and returned together 
forming distinct companies, or parts of companies, having their own 
officers, so that it is not difficult to discover what part of the com- 
mon danger they shared. It remains to trace the fortunes of those 
who were engaged in the regular army. This can be done only by 
noticing the services of the regiments of which they formed a part. 
During August and September, 1779, they were in Sullivan's expe- 
dition against the Senecas. The object of this expedition was the 
capture of Xiagara, and the destruction of the villages of the Indians, 
who had been guilty of great outrages upon the Americans. It was 
conducted through a region almost entirely unknown, and covered 
with forests, and the march was beset with unusual dangers and dif- 
ficulties. Many villages were burned, orchards cut down, and crops 
destroyed; yet the main object was not accomplished, and the enter- 
prise failed of beneficial results. Several engagements took place, 
the most severe of which was at Newtown, now Elmira, New 



70 ROCHESTER. 

York, in which the enemy were led by the celebrated chief, Joseph 
Brant. The New Hampshire troops, under Poor, sustained the 
brunt of the battle, and behaved with great coolness and intrepidity. 
In 1780, the war was mostly confined to the Southern States. The 
N"ew Hampshire troops were stationed at West Point and in New- 
Jersey. In 1781, the three regiments were reduced to two, com- 
manded by Col. Scammel and Col. George Reid. They marched to 
Virginia, and were present at the surrender of the British army 
under Cornwallis at Yorktown. The names of those who served in 
the Continental army are now given, with the history and fate of 
each man, so far as can be gathered from the rolls and documents 
still in existence. 

CoL. Reid's Regiment. 

As Col. Reid commanded the regiment formerlj' imder Col. Hale, the names 
already given of men in that regiment are here rej^eated to give a more particu- 
lar account of each man. 

Joshua Merkow, Ensign. Engaged April 2, 1777. Promoted lieutenant 
July 12, 1780. 

t Joshua Place. Engaged May 1, 1777 for 3 years. Died August 7, 1777. 

t Simeon Pearl. Engaged Ap. 20, 1777 for 3 years. Died Feb. 10, 1778. 

t Paul Pearl. Engaged Ap. 20, 1777 for 3 years. Killed Oct. 7, 1777, at 
battle of Saratoga. 

t George Heard. Engaged May 1, 1777 for 3 years. Missing July 7, 1777 
in the retreat from Ticonderoga. 

t John Garland. Engaged May 10, 1777 for 3 years. Discharged May 10, 1780. 

t Samuel Foss. Engaged June 4, 1777 for 3 years. Died Sept. 6, 1778. 

t George Downing. Engaged Nov. 15, 1776 for the war. Promoted Corporal 
Ap. 1, 1781. Promoted Sergeant I^oy. 13, 1781.* 

t Jonathan Doavning. Engaged Nov. 15, 1776 for the loar. Promoted Ser- 
geant Major June 1, 1779.* George and Jonathan Downing thus enlisted veiy 
early, and for the %Dar. They probably received no bount5^ In 1788 the Town 
unanimously voted them $50 worth of Stock and Lumber for services in the Con- 
tinental Army. 

f Thomas Chamberlin. Engaged May 10, 1777 for 3 years. Discharged 
May 10, 1780. 

fEBENEZER Chesley. Engaged May 1, 1777 for 3 years. Missing July 7, 
1777 in retreat from Ticond.eroga. 

t Daniel Cook. Engaged May 10, 1777 for 3 years. Discharged May 10, 
1780. Re-enlisted for the war.* Was one of Washington's Guard in 1779. 

t Timothy Ricker. Engaged May 1, 1777 for 3 years. Discharged May 1, 
1780. Was one of Washington's Guard in 1779. 

t Daniel Alley, Corporal. Engaged Nov. 11, 177G for the war. Reduced to 
ranks Sept. 8, 1778. Transferred to Invalid Corps Feb. 1, 1780.* 

X William Harper, age 25. 

Moses Rolings. Engaged Nov. 13, 1776 for the war. Promoted Corporal 
.Tune 13, 1777. Killed Oct. 13, 1777, while the Americans were endeavoring to 
cut ofV Buro;oyne's retreat. 

Daniel Wats( >n. Engaged jVIay 1 , 1777 for 3 years. Discharged May 1, 1780. 

t William Palmer. Engaged May 1, 1777 for 3 years. Promoted Corporal 
June 8, 1779. Discharged Ap. 30, 1780. 

Ephraim Ham. Engaged Ap. 10, 1777. Discharged May 1, 1780. 



REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. 71 

flciiABOD HoRX. Enj^ao^cd Aug. 15, 1779 for the tvar. 
Appointed Drummer Dec. lli, 1771). lledueed July 12, 1781.* 

tJ«>HN RoGF.KS. Engaged Oct. 15, 1779 for the war. Promoted Corporal 
Oct. 1, 1780.* 

t Enoch Wixgate. Engaged ^la}* 1, 1777 for 3 years. Discharged ]\Iay 1, 
1780. Dkd Aug. 4, 1S2S. 

Daniel AVingate. Engaged ]\Iay 10, 1777 for 3 years. Discharged May 
10. 1780. 

t Joseph Pearl. Engaged May 1, 1777 for the icar.* Missing in retreat 
from Ticonderoga. 

t Joseph Ricker. Engaged Oct. 15, 1779 for the loar* 

Matthias AVelch. Engaged Feb. 1777 for the tvar. Deserted Nov. 27, 
1778. Joined May 1, 1780.* 

Daniel Cook, Jr. Engaged Ap. 10, 1780 for the ivar* 

Samuel Rollins. Engaged Feb. 28, 1781.* 

t Samuel Ryon. Engaged June, 1777. 

Edavard Rollins. Engaged May, 1777. 

f Henry Durgin. Deserted. Captured. 



t Jonathan Doe. 
Samuel Alley. 
fAMOS Place. 



Colonel Scammell's Regiment. 



t Thomas Shaw. Engaged Jan. 3, 1777. Deserted Ap. 5, 1781.* 
Robert Ellis. Engaged Aug. 17, 1780. Discharged Dec. 31, 1781.* 
Richard Cook. Engaged July 15, 1779 for the ^var. Died Oct. 8, 1781 at 
the siege of Yorktown.* 

Colonel Cilley^s Regiment. 

Daniel Rogers, Jr. Engaged May 11, 1777. Died July 20, 1777. 
Ebenezer Allen. Engaged Ap. 15, 1780. Discharged Dec. 31, 1781.* 
Daniel Sargent. Engaged Ap. 9, 1780. Discharged Dec. 31, 1781. 

Regiment Unknoavn. 

Otis Alley. Engaged Ap. 6, 1781 for 3 years.* 
Henry S^hth. Engaged May 1, 1781 for 3 years.* 
Abner Coffin. Engaged May 9, 1782. 
Solomon Droaa^'. Engaged Alay 10, 1782. 
AViLLiAM C. Peavey. Engaged May 18, 1782. 
Jonathan Ellis. Engaged May 18, 1782. 
t Peter Cook. Enlisted Sept. 1779 for one year. 

Ephraim Alley of Rochester enlisted for Madbury, Sept. 1779 for one year. 
Cesar Wingate. Engaged June 6, 1781 for 3 years.* He was Capt. Ham's 
slave. 

There were many others who served their Country upon the seas, 
in privateering vessels. It is difficult to find even the names of 
these men, much more to learn any particular account of their ser- 

* Claimed by the Town as in service May 13, 1782. 

t These names are found in Vol. XV. of the State Papers on the return of the " 1st Regiment in 
the County of Strafford whereof Stephen Evans is Colonel," as having enlisted from Rochester 
for three j'ears. Daniel Wingate, Jr. and Daniel Walton are on the same list. Perhaps they 
are the same as Daniel Wingate and Daniel Watson. Thomas Ellis is also credited to Rochester, 
May 30, 1782. [Editor.] 

J On roll of absentees from Col. Ciller's regiment at Valley Forge Jan. 10, 1778, is "William 
Sharper Left at Sopers. Desarted." Perhaps the same man. [Editor.] 



72 ROCHESTER. 

vices and adventures. Among them were Benjamin, Caleb, Joseph, 
and Timothy Roberts, and Isaac Hanson, who sailed with the gallant 
Paul Jones. With them was George Roberts of Middleton. Benja- 
min served also in the armj, and died in 1830 at the age of 76. 
George Roberts sailed in 1778 from Portsmouth in the Ranger and 
in 1779 in "Bon Homme Richard." James Marden was Drummer 
in 2d IS". H. Regiment in Capt. James Carr's Company. 

During the first years of the war, there was little dif&culty in fur- 
nishing the town's proportion of soldiers. Militia officers were fre- 
quently called upon to raise men from their companies, and the town 
appointed a committee to co-operate with them. The term of ser^dce 
was not long, and scarcely anything was paid for bounties. The 
first bounty appears to have been paid in 1777, — £34 each to 14 
men. After the hardships of the Canada expedition, which bore so 
severely upon the Rochester men under Captains Place, Brewster, 
and Daniel McDufiee, volunteering received a check. The first ex- 
citement was over. Enthusiasm had somewhat abated. It was 
found that the war was no pastime of a few months, but a business 
which would require years of determined and stubborn fighting. 
An appeal had been made to the town to abate the taxes of those 
men who suffered at Ticonderoga, and to repay those who had ad- 
vanced money to hasten the enlistment of volunteers. The town 
at first refused to grant either of these requests. Repeatedly called 
on to furnish their quota to fill the Continental regiments for three 
years, or for the war, they satisfied themselves with voting to raise 
only nine months' men, ofi'ering $100* bounty; but it was found 
impossible to raise theiji upon these terms. A recruiting committee 
was appointed, but at the end of one month they reported in toArn- 
meeting that they had been able to enlist only one man, though 
they had encouragement from others. " Encouragement " seems to 
have been the only result of their eftbrt. The people now saw 
their mistake and began to retrace their steps. They presented 
to the selectmen a large petition for another town meeting. They 
then voted to repay the money which individuals had advanced 
to procure enlistments, to abate the poll taxes of men in Place's 
and Brewster's companies, and to pay every soldier who had served 
in the campaign of 1777, thirty dollars. These measures were 
attended with greater success. In 1779 the town was called upon 



♦This is the first time dollars is used to denote the currency. — Ap. 20, 1778. 



REVOLUTIOXARY PERIOD. 73 

for eleven men for the war. A recruiting committee was appointed 
with discretionary power to pay such bounties as were necessary, to 
enhst men in or out of town on as reasonable terms as they were 
able, to pa}- bounties in money or in produce, and to call on the 
selectmen to cash the bills. At this time the currency was rapidly 
depreciating, and bounties as rapidly rising. In 1780 twelve hun- 
dred dollars each was paid for six months' men. Volunteers pre- 
ferred produce to paper currency, and in 1781 the selectmen charged 
the town for 1,033 bushels of corn paid the soldiers. Even the State 
preferred produce to its own bills of credit, for the town paid a State 
tax in 1780 with 13,425 pounds of beef, and in 1781 with 171| gal- 
lons of West India rum. In 1780 five quires of paper for the use of 
the town cost sixty pounds, or about §2.50 a sheet. Deacon Knowles 
was paid §400 for expenses to Concord, in part, on town business. 
The price fixed for labor on the highway this year was fifty dollars 
per day, workmen finding their own tools. ISTot only was paper 
money nearly worthless, but the State was flooded with counterfeit 
bills. At first sight, one feels that it is little credit to the acuteness 
of the selectmen that they should charge §832 counterfeit money in one 
item. Yet the sum does not look so large when reduced to a silver 
standard, seventy-five dollars in paper being only equal to one dollar 
in silver. It is not strange that prices were exorbitant, and the 
spirit of speculation prevalent. Nor is it to be wondered at that 
eftbrts were made to counteract this spirit and restrict the prices 
of necessaries b}' legislation. Imitating the example of Portsmouth 
mau}^ towns — Rochester among others — appointed committees to 
regulate prices. It does not appear what measures the Rochester 
committee adopted, but prices continued at a high figure, in defiance 
of all their eftbrts. An idea of the rapid depreciation of the cur- 
rency during the Revolution, may be formed from the following 
statement showing the amount of town expenses for each year : — 





£ 


s. 


d. 




£ 


s. d. 


1774, 


125 


11 


10 


1779, 


11558 


3 10 


1775, 


145 


13 


^'A 


1780, 


about 115250 




1776, 


245 


13 


7 


1781, 


1894 


18 2 


1777, 


806 


12 





1782, 


1005 


2 2 


1778, 


3047 


10 


6 


1783, 


464 


12 



In 1780, when the depreciation was the greatest, £2,799 16s. 9d. 
was in part for Mr. Haven's salary, £10,000 for the meeting-house, 



74 ROCHESTER. 

and the town's proportion of the State tax £34,943 5s. 7cl. The new 
currency came into use in 1781, and affairs began to improve. 

The recruiting committees appointed from time to time were as 
follows : — 

A -1 TT7Q ( William McDuffee, .„•, t^^q ( William McDuffee, 

April, 1778, j Lt. Ebenezer Kicker. ^P"^' 1^^^' j Ichabod Corson. 

(Ichabod Corson, 



T 1 ^ -»Q ( John Brewster, 
J"^y' 1^7^' I Ichabod Corson. 



1779, -i David Leighton, 
( Ebenezer Bicker. 



Upon the proclamation of peace in 1783, there was naturally great 
rejoicing throughout the land. "We cannot better close this chapter 
than in the words of Rev. Mr. Haven from — 

Lev. 26: 6. "And I will give peace in the land, and ye shall lie down, and 
none shall make you afraid ; and I will rid evil beasts out of the laud, neither 
shall the sword go through your land." 

" We have the confirmation of peace — a happy peace. It is one of the most 
joyful events in the memory of any among us. One of the most powerful and 
warlike nations in the world has taken up arms against us, and, in less than eight 
years, has been brought to comply with the very terms we proposed to them. 
Washington has obtained a great name in the earth, and perhaps is deservedly 
called the greatest general in the world — a man whose memory will be ever dear 
to his country — a man of whom even his enemies are obliged to speak well. The 
name of Washington has struck Great Britain with awe, and has hushed the 
clamors of war. We were poor and despised — we were looked upon as rash and 
imprudent, and as a people marked out to be crushed by the iron rod of oppres- 
sion. But now the happy day has arrived in which we rank with nations of fame, 
and feel our weight among the kingdoms of the earth. Let us consider who are 
our benefactors. Let us give thanks to God who is our greatest benefactor. Then 
let us call to mind those heroes who have sacrificed their lives to secure the rights 
and privileges we now enjoy. Let the memory of the dead be precious to us, 
whether the fatal lead ended their days, or they died a natural death in the camp. 
Next let us bear in mind what our worthies have done who have lived through the 
war and now partake of that peace for which they have contended. Shall we not 
honor those who under God have been the defense of our country, and have out- 
braved British veterans ? And now peace is restored let all animosities die. Let 
us be friendly to that country which we were once fond of calling our parent. No 
more would we be under her government, but we can extend to her the hand of 
friendship as a sister kingdom." 



CHAPTER VI. 

FIRST CENTURY OF CHURCH HISTORY. 

" We know, and what is better, we feel inwardly that religion is the basis of 
civil society, and the source of all good and of all comfort." — Burke. 

Our forefathers were a religious people, and prized, above all 
other institutions, the preaching of the Gospel. It was for religious 
more than political freedom that the pilgrims left the old world to 
find a home in the wilds of America. They established the closest 
alliance between the church and civil government, so that church 
memljership became the essential qualification for the enjoyment of 
civil franchises. The settlers of New Hampshire were imbued to a 
large extent with these vigorous religious feelings. The first and 
heaviest taxes were for the support of the ministry ; and although 
the burden was great, yet to maintain the institutions of religion 
was ever considered their first and chief duty. For nearly a cen- 
tury, the history of the town is bound up in the history of the 
church. The church might well be called the heart of the town. 
Town meetings, in many cases, related exclusively to the aftairs of 
the ministr3\ The body of the people hired the candidates for the 
pulpit ; invited to the pastorship ; voted the salaries, which were 
raised by general taxation ; called the councils ; built the meeting- 
houses and parsonages ; dismissed or buried the ministers ; and per- 
formed many other acts of authority in relation to church aftairs. 
The proprietors took the first steps some years before the inhabi- 
tants had gained a voice in town affairs. They voted April, 1730, 
to build a meeting-house, — 

" forty feet long, thirty-five feet wide, and eighteen feet stud; to be well framed & 
Inclosed &c. Voted also that Capt, Sam" Tebbets Paul Gerrish Esqr m"^ John 
TVengit & M"" Joseph Jeunes be a Committee to agree with any person or per- 
sons to build and Parfict the same." 

A tax of three pounds was laid upon each share. The meeting- 
house was erected the following year, at the fork of the roads near 



76 ROCHESTER. 

where the late Gershom Home lived. This was a spot well chosen, 
being near the middle of the settlement, upon high land, and easily 
accessible by roads from different directions. It soon became the 
most thickly settled part of the town, for everything at that period 
derived special value and importance from proximity to the church. 
This was the only place for every kind of public gathering. Here 
the people congregated weekly for worship. Here they met to dis- 
cuss all questions which concerned the general welfare. It was the 
political, moral, and social, as well as religious center. From this, 
as the place of Sabbath worship — the house of God — went forth 
influences the most elevating, refining, and chastening upon the 
hearts of the people. 

" A gentle life spreads round the holy spires, 
Where'er they rise, the sylvan waste retires, 
And aery harvests crown the fertile lea." 

I^Tothing was wanting on the part of the proprietors, so far as vot- 
ing could do it, to supply the town with a settled ministry. The 
inhabitants had reason to expect the prompt fulfillment of their flat- 
tering promises. Perhaps they enjoyed occasional preaching; for 
Mr, Adams, Mr. Pike, and Mr, Gushing, ministers of neighboring 
towns, manifested much interest in the religious condition of the 
colony. They attended, and one of them sometimes presided over 
proprietary meetings when measures to supply the pulpit were 
debated. They also served upon committees to procure a minister. 
They would not be likely, therefore, to leave the people entirely 
destitute of religious instruction. 

But a minister was not yet settled. To vote that it should be 
done, was not doing it. Differences arose between the proprietors 
and the settlers, as to which should bear the expense of supporting 
the Gospel. These differences increased from year to year. The 
proprietors being mostly non-residents, were dilator}^ and paid their 
taxes reluctantly. The settlers were poor and unable to bear heavy 
taxation, and yet were suffering for want of a pastor. Rec^ourse was 
had to the Provincial Assembly. The proprietors gladly availed 
themselves of an act passed May 10, 1731, by which the inhabitants 
were joined with them in being obliged to maintain the minister. 
They even voted to support a minister seven years longer than was 
required in the act. A year and a half passed away, and still they 
had no pastor. The people became uneasy. "William Chamberlain, 



FIRST CENTURY OF CHURCH HISTORY. 



77 



a prominent settler, preferred a petition to the General Assembly, 
in behalf of the people of Eochester, for the support of the Gospel ; 
and upon Ma^^ 10, 1734, an act was passed, which provided that the 
lands of delinquent proprietors might be taken " in execution or by 
extents " and sold to pay the taxes. It coniirmed to the proprietors 
the authority to choose selectmen and other town officers, but at the 
same time made it incumbent on them to call and settle the first 
minister and defray the charg-es. This law was to continue in force 
three years. About a year before its expiration the inhabitants 
again petitioned the General Asseml)ly in the following language: 

" The Petition of your humble Petitioners Inhabitants of the Town of Rochester 
in the Province afores'd, humbly showeth, — 

That we the Inhabitants of Rochester being persuaded that the Gospel & 
means of Grace is a rich & Invaluable privilidge ; for which Reason we Can't but 
must Lament our Sad State while we live without s'd means: and seeing no 
Rational Prospect of obtaining them for some Considerable Time to Come without 
the help and assistance of the non-Resident Proprietors; Especially Considering 
our own Poverty & the Difficulties in Subdueing a wilderness, and hoping it may 
not be Deemed Unreasonable to Desire some assistance from them, In Order to 
our Inioying the Gospel among us; Since tis too Evident to need any proof That 
their Temporal Interest is greatly advanced by us; — that is, by our Settling in s'd 
Town — And withall persuading ourselves that this honorable Court will Recon- 
sider our State & now doe Something for our Relief ; — We, whose names are 
underwritten doe once more humbly Request The Legislative Power to passe an 
act whereby to Oblige the Proprietors of said Rochester to assist us, the Inhabi- 
tants, In supporting the Gospel in said Town of Rochester for the space of six or 
seven years Till tis Likely we may be able to doe it of ourselves; or for such a 
Term of Time as this Honorable court shall Think fit; as also that the Honorable 
Court would appoint Two or Three peisons for Calling the Inhabitants of the 
Town together for the present Year for the Choice of Town officers &c. And 
your humble Petitioners shall ever pray as in Duty bound." 



Benjamin Merrow, 
Sam" Richard, 
Robbard Knite, 
Joseph Heard, 
Joseph Miller, 
John Jen n ess, 
!Mark Jenness, 
John Bickford, 
Jonathan Yong, 
James Lock, 
Timothy Robberts, 
Joseph Richards, 
Clem" Dearing, 



Ebenezer Place, 
Jonathan Cops, 
Stephen Berry, 
Joseph Richards, 
John Wentworth, 
"William Chamberlin, 
Solomon Clark, 
William Elis, 
Stephen Harford, 
Phillip Dore .lun"", 
William James, 
John Macfiee, 
Zebuluu Dam, 



John Bickford Jun'', 
Samuel Marrow, 
Ebenezer Bruster, 
Benjamin Forst, 
John Garlen, 
Eleazar Ham, 
John Allen, 
Paul Tebbets, 
Joseph Richards Jun', 
Benj^ Tebbets, 
William Stiles. 



Liberty was granted to bring a bill taxing each whole sliare fifteen 
shillings and appointing Eev. Jos. Adams, John Jenness, and Wil- 
liam Chamberlaine to call a meeting to choose town officers for one 
year only. A bill so prepared is still in existence, but never passed, 



78 



ROCHESTER. 



and was probably never presented. It seems likely the terms were 
not so favorable as had been hoped. 

The next year another petition was presented as follows : — 

" The Petition of the Inhabitants of the Town of Eochester, in s*! province, most 
humbly sheweth — 

That your Petitioners have been settled here, some of them, seven years or 
thereabout, that we are now increased to the Number of about Sixty Families, & 
are as yet destitute of a Settled Ministry, & have no civil Order in the Town, hav- 
ing never had any power to choose town officers, or to act in town affairs, y' your 
petitioners put in a petition to this Hon'*!'' Court at their Sessions the last Spring, 
praying for relief under our Difficulties afores"^ and also that, in Consideration of 
our low Circumstances and the Inconveniences and Charges such new Settlements 
are exposed to, a tax might be laid on the Rights of the Non-resident Proprietors 
towards the Support of the Ministry here; but so it happened that the Matter was 
not perfected, so that your petitioners remain still in the same unsettled and 
uncomfortable Condition, and do therefore humbly & earnestly entreat your Excel- 
lency and your Honours to take their Case into your compassionate Consideration, 
and that a Committee may be appointed to call a Meeting in Order to choose 
Town officers for the Year ensuing, and that a tax may be also laid on the Non- 
resident Proprietors of twenty Shillings a right per Annum, for Seven Years, next 
ensuing, for and towards the Support of the Ministry — Or otherwise to do for us, 
as to your Wisdom and Goodness shall seem meet — And your humble petitioners 
as in Duty bound shall ever pray 

Kochester March y^ 1736-7 



John alon 
Joseph Hard 
Stephen Harford 
Benjamin Merrow 
Robard Night 
John win ford 
Jack Busel 
Joseph Richards 
Joseph Hodgdon 
John Bickford 
William Eles 
Samuell merrow 
John Garlon 
Richard wentworth 
Jeams Busell 
Jeams Lock 



Gesom Downs 
John Bickford 
Samuell Merow 
John Hardie 
Thomas Perkens 
Elsar Ham 
Ebnesar Place 
willam wolford 
Joseph Berrey 
Beimin Hayes 

his 

John X Smith 

Joseph Richards: sen 
Timothy Roberts 
John Mackfee 
Zebulun dam 



Benjamin Tebbets 

Joseph walker 
William Stiles 
Stephen Beary 
Joseph miller 
Paul Tebbets 
Jeams Cley 
Solom Clark 
will Door 
will alen 
Sam Richard 
Sam Tombly 
mathy mackfee 
Jonathan Cops " 



"Ma"' 26; 1737 In the House of Representatives the within Petition read: and 
Voted : That Paul AV^entworth Esq'' Cap' Thomas Millet and Stephen Berry; be 
authorized A Comitte to Call the first Meeting to Chuse Town officers — and 
when such officers are Chosen, they to have full power to act as other town officers by 
the Law of the Province and they to have authority to Charge a Whole proprie- 
tors Share w"' a rate of fifteen Shillings per annum towards paym* of a Ministers 
Sallary and so in proportion for y' part of a Share or Right each proprietor do 
possess or Claime : this rate to be made yearely for payment only while they have 
an orthodox Minister there; not to continue longer y" the End of y'' yeare 1742; 
then to Support their Minister as y"^ Law directs in other towns and that the Pet" 
have Liberty to bring in a Bill accordingly — 



In Couni March 26, 1737 Read & Concured 
Assented to March 26, 1737 



JAMES JEFFRY Cl^ Ass>a 
R WALDRON Secy 
J BELCHER" 



FIRST CENTURY OF CHURCH HISTORY. 79 

Unfortunately, only scanty material exists out of which to con- 
struct the history of the town during its connection with the support 
of the ministry. "Wliile many unimportant items are carefully pre- 
served, questions are constantly arisino- upon matters of greater 
moment upon which there is no liglit. This is true to a great 
extent, through the whole history of the town : — 

" For 'tis a common ordinance of fate, 
That things obscure and small outlive the great." 

The people had already selected their minister, and only waited 
for legal authority to settle him. The Rev. Amos Main, who had 
for not less than a year preached in Eochester with acceptance, 
began to supply the pulpit regularly on the first of April, the date 
of the passage of the law. Paul Wentworth and Stephen Berry, 
who were empowered to notify the first meeting, called the people 
together April 26. At this meeting Mr. Main was chosen town 
clerk for the year ensuing, — a sure sign that he was expected to 
become a permanent resident. 

At a subsequent meeting, May 9, called expressly for that purpose, 
it was voted " that Mr. Amos Main be the settled minister of this 
town." Benjamin Forst, John Bickford, John Jennes, Benjamin 
Hayes, and Timothy Roberts were chosen to receive his answer, and 
agree with him upon terms of settlement. They were also, in case 
of his acceptance, to send out invitations to a number of ministers 
and churches for his ordination. It was voted to give Mr. Main 
" his heirs assigns, the privilege of a pew in the meeting house, on 
the right hand side of the pulpit, he to build it at his own ])roper 
charge and cost." This was a favor enjoyed by no other family. 
It was more than fourteen years before the town disposed of the 
remaining pew privileges. It was further voted to give Mr. Main 
the use of some of the common lands for seven years. The agree- 
ment between the committee and the minister fixed his salarj^ at one 
hundred and thirty-five pounds in current passable bills of credit, — 
equal to thirty pounds sterling, or about one hundred and fifty dol- 
lars, — a ])art of which he should take in such articles as he had occasion 
for, at the money 'price. The town was also to set him up a good 
house frame, forty feet long, twenty feet wide, and two stories high, 
wherever he might elect, and whenever he should call on the town 
for it. However scanty these provisions for the minister's support 



80 ROCHESTER. 

may appear at this day, tliey did not appear illiberal then. They 
illustrate the poverty of the people, in the matter of money. Their 
means consisted almost wholly in their farms. Moreover it must 
not be forgotten that, in addition to his salary, the first minister 
became a large land owner. In the division of the town among the 
proprietors, one whole share, exclusive of the parsonage lot, was 
reserved for the first ordained Gospel minister. In all township 
grants of that period the government wisely inserted this condition 
to encourage the early settlement of a minister. It is certain that 
considering the purchasing power of money, and the style of living 
deemed necessary to a minister's family, these early ministers were 
better paid than most of their successors. Mr. Main accepted the 
invitation " relying upon the town for a comfortable support and 
subsistence," and was duly installed into the pastoral oflice. Par- 
ticulars of the installation cannot now be found. The church record 
opens as follows : — 

" Sept. 18, 1737, Joseph Walker, Elizabeth wife of Eleazer Ham, and Mary 
y^ wife of John Mac Fee were admitted Into Full Communion with this chh." 

A church writer of the third century, says that three may form a 
church, but not a church government ; they are only laity. Accord- 
ing to ancient Congregationalism seven persons being the least 
number by which the rules of discipline in the eighteenth chapter 
of Matthew could be reduced to practice, that number was held 
necessary to form a church government. These seven, who were 
called the " seven pillars of the church," being united by solemn cove- 
nant, admitted others to their communion. Accordingly at a meet- 
ing held in November of the same 3^ear, seven persons having been 
already admitted, Stephen Berry and Joseph Walker were chosen 
deacons. There is no record of any council called to organize the 
church.* 

" At a Church Meeting In Rochester, March 22, 174f . 

The Chh voted Unanimously y*^ following articles viz : 

1. That y<^ Principles of this Church as to articles of faith are agreeable to y^ 
Westminster Confession of faith & according to y*^ Longer & Shorter Catechisms 
of y" assembly of divines as they were drawn up at Westminster &c — which 
Catechisms are Kecieved among us. 

2 : We Profess & Declare ourselves to be a Congregational Chh as to Disci- 
pline accoi-ding to y" Platform drawn up by a Synod at Cambridge In New 
England Anno Domini. 



*For list of cliurch members, see Appendix. 



FIRST CENTURY OF CHURCH HISTORY. 81 

3 : As to Articles of faith ; we account y'' Contrary Principles to y* Confession 
of faith & Catechisms aforesd to be Heretical & Erroneous & we Reject them as 
such. 

4 : Voted that those who Hold to, & Propagate Principles or Doctrines Con- 
trary to y" aforesd Confession of faith & Assemblies Catechisms shall be deemed 
& accounted by this — Church Erroneous & Heretical, & shall be dealt with by this 
Chh accordingly ^c. 

5 : Voted That y* Children of y^ Covenant & young People w° also are Herein 
Included, shall be obliged to attend upon Publick Catechising on y<= Lords Days 
& at other Times when by y* Pastor of this Chh Called thereto from time to 
time. 

6 : Voted y' Every Communicant belonging to this chh Pay four shillings 
towards Supplying y« Lords Table with y« Elements, for y* year Ensuing — And 
that what is unpaid by y" Communicants for y^ year Past be collected & laid out 
for y*= chh as they shall think Proper." 

The deacons were directed to provide for the sacrament, one 
gallon of wine and five pounds of flour from time to time, and 
what was left over was to be given to the pastor. At a subsequent 
meeting, it was voted, that those who did not bring in their pro- 
portion for the four years past, before the next church meeting, 
should be dealt with as disorderly persons unless they should show 
suflicient reason for their failure. One of the many evidences of 
the poverty of the people is found in their inability to pay their 
taxes for supplying the communion table; often, individuals were 
excused by vote, for sufficient reasons; the time of payment was 
frequently extended, and action taken to hasten delinquents. 

Like most of the early churches of ]^ew England, this little flock 
had many trials in the effort to keep its members in the straight 
path of Christian rectitude. Several instances of admonition are 
recorded, and many more of apparently voluntary acknowledg- 
ments, mostly for neglect to attend upon the church communion. 
Yet there were but few cases of punishment, even when the 
offenses were more aggravated. The following will serve for 
examples : — 

" William C ]Made Satisfaction to the Chh for what was offensive to them 

Heretofore In his Behaviour, & was by a vote of y<= chh admitted to occasional 
Communion with this chh. 

" Rebecca y"^ wife of Richard W made an acknowledgment before y® chh 

for y^ Vile abuses she had given with her Tongue — y'' chh Recieved Her to 
Charity ag"^ as an occasional communicant — " 

That " the tongue is an unruly evil which no man can tame " 
is as true now as when the words were penned by the inspired 
apostle. At several times this little member gave the church much 
trouble. It received their earliest attention, for the first vote was 



82 ROCHESTER. 

" a vote to Prevent Lying & Tattling, &c " — " Voted by this Church That 
If any member of y' chh do Raise or Spread a false & Evil Report of any of the 
Communicants of this chh or of their Neighbours, It shall be deemed matter 
of Scandal & offence, & y* upon its Being made known to y^ Rev'^. Pastor of 
y^ church by Evidence such offender or offenders shall be & are by this Vote of 
y' chh from time to time suspended from y'= communion of y^ chh untill that 
Publick Satisfaction be given to this Chh by y'' Person or Persons so offending — " 

To present such particulars is not exposing the weakness of our 
fathers. It is rather a proof of their wisdom, in that they knew 
what an amount of mischief and misery is produced by slander, 

" Whose whisper o'er the world's diameter 
Transports his poisoned shot." 

The discipline w^as not severe. The members labored rather by 
patient and persuasive means, by constant watchfulness over each 
other's conduct, by calling each other to account for public actions, 
by committees of admonition, and by church votes, to keep all 
within the lines of duty. This was in strict accordance with the 
Cambridge Platform which had been adopted for the regulation 
of their conduct. 

The church book, at this period, was made the record of bap- 
tisms and marriages, and in some cases of births and deaths, 
linearly six hundred baptisms are recorded, many of them of infants.* 
At this time, the general practice of the ISTew England churches 
admitted persons of serious and moral character to receive the 
rite of baptism. This was called the " half way covenant," and 
was sanctioned by the synod of Boston in 1663 to obviate the diffi- 
culty arising from the fact that church membership w^as necessary 
in order to vote or to hold office. All baptized persons were 
recognized as church members, and their children were entitled 
to baptism ; yet they made no profession of personal faith, and 
did not partake of the Lord's Supper, Baptized children were 
considered members of the church, and a special guardianship w-as 
maintained over them. Slaves also were baptized upon the faith 
of their owniers. These remarks are necessary to understand such 
records as the following: — 

"Aug. 28, 1737. Simon Bussel Baptized upon his Parents acct — " 
" May 16, 1756. Baptized Huldah Bickford so called Her master & mistress 
Jennes Bro't Her to Baptism — " 

" Sept. 5, 1756. Baptized Ralph Farnam son of Paul Farnam of Towow — " 

• See Appendix. 



FIKST CENTURY OF CHURCH HISTORY. 83 

"TowoAv" was the Indian name by which Lebanon, Me., was 
long called. Ealpli Farnam was the old revolutionary soldier who 
died a few years since, aged over one hundred years. 

In June, 1749, the church solemnly renewed their covenant, and 
observed a day of fasting and prayer "for the revival of religion, 
the outpouring of the spirit of God, and the advancement of the 
Eedeemer's Kingdom." Many confessions were made, votes of 
satisfaction passed, and the offending members restored to their 
standing. The sacrament was administered on the Sabbath fol- 
lowing. This was, perhaps, the first fast in the history of the 
town ; a special day appointed by the church itself, religiously 
and sincerely observed; and not the idle form to which the public 
fasts of the present day have so nearly degenerated. 

During all the years of Mr. Main's ministry not a ripple of 
dissatisfaction that can now be discovered occurred between pastor 
and people. ^lany things show that he dealt with them in a very 
mild and affectionate manner. Small as his salary was, the de- 
preciation of currency was so great during the Indian war, that 
he did not receive his just due. In a call for a town meeting, 
he caused an article to be inserted — 

" to see what the town will do in relation to their agreement with Mr. Main, 
as he saith he understands there is uneasiness among some people about these 
things, and he desires that all the people belonging to his charge would meet 
together on this occasion, that both pastor and people may have a friendly con- 
versation, and labor to settle the affair in the best manner they can." 

The people assembled, March 29, 1744, and after the " friendly 
conversation," voted immediately to build him the frame house 
which had been promised when he settled with them, and for 
which he had patiently waited more than twelve years; and chose 
Capt. Timothy Roberts and Ensign Edward Tebbets a committee 
for that purpose. The amount due on his salary was settled upon 
terms of mutual satisfaction. Although the currency continued 
to depreciate, Mr. Main received it without murmuring, frequently 
giving receipts like this : — 

" Received of the Selectmen of Rochester four hundred pounds old tenor on 
account of my salary for 1751, which sura with what I frankly give in to said 
town I take for the full of my salary for said year." 

Amos Main was born in York, Me., Jan. 8, 170|, and died 
in Rochester, April 5, 1760. Of his early life little is known. 



84 ROCHESTEK, 

He graduated at Harvard College in 1729, and about the time of 
his settlement in this town, he married Elizabeth, the daughter of 
John White of Haverhill, Mass. It is related that she had several 
sisters, who were all brought up to attend to domestic affairs, 
while she alone was sent to the best boarding-schools in Boston. 
What is singular, she, at the age of seventeen or eighteen years, 
married a frontier minister and resigned herself to the hardships 
and deprivations of the wilderness, while her sisters all married 
men of wealth. The late Judge White of Dover, a lineal descend- 
ant, had in his possession a silk apron elaborately embroidered 
by Mrs. Main, while a school girl in Boston. 

Mr. Main's last sickness was of few weeks' duration. His 
arduous labors and great exposure in attending to his diversified 
duties as the guide and support of the infant settlement, doubt- 
less hastened on the consumption of which he died. At their 
annual meeting in March, the town took measures to supply the 
pulpit, and on the twenty -fourth of the same month he made 
a will in the usual lengthy and formal style of that age : — thank- 
ing God that though weak in bod}' he remained of perfect mind 
and memory ; giving, principally and first of all, his soul into 
the hands of God, who gave it, and his body to the earth, to be 
buried in decent Christian burial, nothing doubting but at the 
general resurrection he should receive the same again by the 
mighty power of God ; and as touching the worldly goods with 
which it had pleased God to bless him, proceeding to bequeath 
them to the difierent members of his family. In lands he was 
rich enough to provide liberally for the maintenance of his wife, 
and also to give each of his children a good-sized farm. Of his 
personal estate he gave to his wife, his " negro man Pomp, two 
horses, three cows, and all his heifers." To Josiah, his only son, 
he gave his oxen and steers for the common use of the family, 
also one horse and a cow. His library was to be divided equally 
among his wife and children. One half acre of land adjoining 
the church burying -ground, he bequeathed for a bur^'ing- place 
for liis family forever. 

The day of his death was a sad one to his people. For twenty- 
three years he had been their counselor and Christian friend; 
always earnestly devoted to their interests, rejoicing with them in 
every time of prosperity, and sympathizing with them in every 



FIRST CENTURY OF CHURCH HISTORY. 85 

affliction. lie had unfliiicliingly remained throughout the perils 
of the Indian wars. lie liad been their pastor, their teacher, 
their physician, their adviser in worklly affairs. ^lany of them 
he had married, and their children had grown up to look upon 
him with love and respect. lie had baptized them ; he had 
attended them in their hours of sickness, to administer relief to 
the body and consolation to the soul ; and he had buried their 
dead. It was said of him truly, that 

" he was a great blessing to the people of his charge and greatly encouraged 
them in their concerns spiritual and temporal." 

" The best portion of a good man's life, 
His little nameless, unremembei-ed acts 
Of kindness and of love." 

Mr. Main's sermons which remain, are characterized by earn- 
estness of style, and b}^ elaborate division and arrangement of 
subject. They are tilled with the most direct warnings and en- 
treaties, justifying the epithet of Boanerges applied to him by 
Mr. Haven. He dwelt continually upon the danger and folly of 
impenitence, and it was evidently his one great object to lead 
sinners to repentance. His sermon number one, preached while 
a candidate, is perhaps a fair specimen of them all. It abounds 
in Scriptural quotations largely from the Old Testament, and, 
according to the custom of those times, is most methodically 
composed, consisting of an introduction, three principal divisions, 
eighteen subdivisions, and closing with practical remarks under 
the head of Ijiprovement. 

Mr. Main's practice as a physician was very extensive. His 
books show many charges against people in Berwick, Durham, 
Barrington, Towow (Lebanon), Somersworth, Dover, and occa- 
sionally Greenland, Rye, Wells, and Stratham. As we look over 
his records, we can imagine this faithful Samaritan making his 
way on horseback over rough and lonely roads to some distant 
part of the settlement or some neighboring town. His gun ever 
ready against the surprise of Indian foes is supported erect upon 
his foot near the stirrup, while the barrel rests against the saddle. 
At one place he stops to set a broken leg ; at another leaves a 
little liniment ; here he writes an indenture or a will ; here he 
baptizes some aged person, or an infant, or a man upon his 
deathbed; always making a note of such facts, and thus uniting 



86 ROCHESTER. 

upon the same journey the duties of several professions. In pay- 
ment for these services he received such as the people had to give, 
wool, flax, boards, beef, pork, labor, occasionally a pistareen, yet 
for the most part but little money. He often discounted their 
ministerial taxes for such articles as they furnished him, according 
to the agreement when he settled with them. 

Though he carried his gun, yet the Indians had such a sacred 
regard for his character that he was never molested. These 
savao-es, at the close of every war, were in the habit of coming 
to the white settlements and boasting of their exploits, and thus 
the settlers often learned the circumstances of the capture or 
death of their friends. They would frequently come to Mr. 
Main's house, and give him an account of his travels about the 
country duriug the hostilities, relating minute particulars. They 
even told him when he walked or trotted his horse, and where 
he stopped; showing that all his movements had been closely 
watched. When he inquired why they did not kill him, their 
reply was, " You one good man ; you same as one priest." 
Having a great veneration for the Jesuit priests who lived among 
them, this feeling was extended to Mr. Main whom they included 
in the same class. 

After Mr. Main's death, tradition says his remains were kept 
fourteen days before burial, as it was necessary to procure many 
articles from Portsmouth, and make suitable preparations that he 
might be interred with the honors and dignity due to his high 
position. The town paid the expenses, and the following items 
appear in the account of that year : — 

" Paid Enoch Hoeg for six rings for Mr. Main's funeral, 15—17 — 3 
Paid Steplien Evans for rum for the funeral, 11 — 5 — 

Paid for things at Portsmouth for the funeral, 47 — 10 — " 

The rings were mourning rings for the six daughters. He was 
buried in the family lot now included in the common burying- 
ground on Haven's hill. Just beyond this place stood the par- 
sonage in which Mr. Main resided. Within a few years this family 
burial lot has been inclosed and a beautiful marble monument 
erected by his descendants, to the memory of the first Gospel 
Minister of Rochester. 

A few days before the death of Mr. Main, after his recovery 



FIRST CENTURY OF CHURCH HISTORY. 87 

was beyond hope, the town voted to hire a minister for three 
months. The Rev. Samuel Hill was selected for this temporary 
supply. At the expiration of the time, " his doctrine and con- 
versation being nnreprovable and he appearing to be a person 
able, learned and orthodox," it was decided to invite him to a 
settlement as pastor. Many formalities were observed, and all 
things proceeded according to exact system. A committee of ten 
of the foremost citizens, at the head of which were Dea. Berry 
and Capt. Roberts, were to treat with the candidate; a smaller 
committee to procure a parsonage lot of the proprietors ; another, 
to draw up a covenant of agreement; and still another, to build 
a parsonage house. In the agreement they styled themselves a 
committee of " the freeholders and inhabitants of the town, church 
and congregation qualified to vote in town affairs." The contract 
with ]Mr. Hill was for fifty pounds sterling as a yearly salary, a 
house and barn to be built, the lot fenced, a well dug, and an 
orchard planted. All were to have a fair chance to pay their 
taxes in labor or in lumber such as was needed. Although the 
town was several years in building the house and fencing the lot, 
yet no time was lost in commencing the work. Sept. 29, 1760, 
the proprietors sold lot ISTo. 25, of the first Division for the use 
of the ministry. Upon this lot Avas at this time commenced the 
parsonage house, still standing upon the very top of Haven's hill, 
and now known as the Gershom Home place. As Mr. Main's 
house and land was his private property, this was the first parson- 
age owned by the town, and is still a respectable edifice, which 
the people, doubtless, then looked upon with much pride. While 
waiting for the house, the minister boarded at Mrs. Main's. The 
town bought him a pew, and omitted nothing which his necessity 
or comfort required. Nothing is known of his personal history or 
that of the church during his pastorate. He was cut down by 
death after a short ministry of four years, and the people were 
called a second time to mourn the loss of a beloved pastor. The 
loss of the church records of this period, — the shortness of Mr. 
Hill's residence in Rochester, — and the dispersion of his family 
have deprived us of the usual sources of information in regard to 
his life and character. 

Samuel Hill was born Oct. 17, 1714, in Maiden, Mass., where 
his ancestors settled early in the history of New England. He 



88 KOCHESTER. 

graduated at Harvard University at the age of tvrenty-one, and 
was ordained pastor of the Congregational Church in Marshfield, 
Mass., July 16, 1740. Here he continued for nearly twelve years 
of successful labor, though somewhat interrupted by ill health. 
A revival occurred in 1742, resulting in eighteen additions to the 
church. iSTo similar revival followed there till one hundred years 
later. Though his health incapacitated him for public preaching, 
his people were reluctant to let Mr. Hill go. He was sent on a 
trip to the eastward, but his health was not restored. A day of 
fasting and prayer on account of his weakness and inability to 
preach was observed by the church, and neighboring ministers 
were invited to attend. In February the church first met to 
consult in regard to the supply of the pulpit, but not till l^o- 
vember Avas his dismission recommended by a council convened 
to consider this subject. Their advice was accepted, and his 
dismission occurred on the twentieth of March, 1752. His people 
gave him, as a parting present, a "preaching Bible," — probably 
the one from which he had been accustomed to preach. He 
removed to Biddeford, Me., where he resided for a time in the 
house of Capt. Samuel Jordan, whose daughter Mr. Hill had 
married in 1739. He and his wife Avere received into the church 
there, of which Rev. Moses Morrill was pastor, who had also 
married a daughter of Capt. Jordan. In 1754 Mr. Hill was chosen 
representative of the town of Biddeford. In 1755 his wife died, 
and two years, after he married Elizabeth Shapleigh of Elliot, Me. 
In July, 1760, he received a unanimous invitation to settle in 
Rochester, where he was installed the 19th of November fol- 
lowing. 

While at Marshfield, Mr. Hill acquired a passion for gunning, 
and was in the habit of hunting wild fowl, which were found in 
abundance at a place called Brant Rock. Upon one of these 
excursions to this rock he was wounded, by the accidental dis- 
charge of his gun. 

The unpublished diary of the Rev. Josiah Cotton contains the 
following in reference to his dismission from Marshfield: — 

" A more pitiable case has happened at Marshfield, namely, — the dismission 
of Rev. Mr. Hill from his ministry. A good man and a good preacher, but 
very crazy and infirm, and otherwise in poor circumstauces. The Lord provide 
for him and his." 



FIRST CENTURY OF CHURCE HISTORY. 89 

The artziness here meant is simply bodily: there is uo intima- 
tion that his mind was affected. " A good man and a good 
preacher " is the testimony of his contemporary. It is eulogy suf- 
ficient. No odium rests upon his character, and as a preacher 
he was popular. 

Probably his constitution was so much broken by ill health 
before his settlement in Rochester, that the labors of the ministry 
were too great for him to endure. He died of dropsy on the 
nineteenth of April, 1764, at the age of fifty. The town defrayed 
the expenses of his funeral, as in case of Mr. Main. His remains 
were interred in the burying-ground close by the church in which 
he had been accustomed to preach, ^o marble monument, — no 
lettered stone informs us of the spot of his burial. Tradition, 
even, does not attempt to point it out. Among the many name- 
less graves of the people with whom he made a brief sojourn, his 
ashes repose, " but no man knoweth of his sepulcher uuto this 
day." 

For a year and a half after the death of Mr. Hill, the church 
remained without a pastor. The people were lukewarm. Although 
frequently called together to consider ministerial affairs and urged 
" to attend for a short space and solidly debate these questions," 
yet they continued in a state of indifference. One minister after 
another was hired to preach " on approbation," and one after 
another failed to give satisfaction, or to excite any permanent 
interest. For weeks and months candidates supplied the desk, 
uncertain of the wishes of the people, and when a decision was 
demanded, it would be voted to " seek further for some orthodox 
man." Among those who preached was Rev. Mr. Bowen, who 
soon after became pastor of the ^STew South Church in Boston, and 
who was father of Bishop Bowen of South Carolina. 

At length, Nov. 6, 1765, an invitation to settle was given by 
the church to the Rev. Avery Hall, who had preached only a few 
Sabbaths. The town united in the call on the thirteenth of Jan- 
uary following, and appointed John Plummer, Esq^, Ens". Ed- 
ward Tibbets, and Dec". James Knowles a committee to present 
the same. Mr. Hall signified his willingness to accept, if they 
would make suitable provision for his support. They offered a 
salary of seventy pounds, which he thought insufficient. They 
increased the offer to seventy-five pounds, and the committee 
7 



90 EOCHESTER. 

" discoursed " with Mr. Hall ; but lie still tliouglit the sum not 
" honorable." They refused any further increase. Town meetings 
were continued by numerous adjournments during the next three 
months, till on July 7, 1766, it was voted "to give Mr. Avery 
Hall the Sum of eighty Pounds lawful Money as his annual Sal- 
ary," and Capt. William Allen, Deacon James Knowles, Jabez 
Dam, Lieu*. David Cops, and Thomas Brown were appointed to 
treat ^vith Mr. Hall and " perfix the time of Ordination." His 
letter of acceptance is as follows : — 

■" To the Church of Christ in Rochester & to the Congregation in s^ Town 

Avery Hall sendeth Greeting. 
Dearly beloved in our Lord Jessus Christ, 

Where as in your destitute State, being deprived of a settled Gospel Minister, 
GOD in his Providence hath pointed out me, to preach y^ Gospel to you, & you 
liave made choice of me (1. as y'= least of all Saints) to be your gospel Min- 
ister, To take the charge of your Souls ; Seeing your Unanimity, & having im- 
plored y'^ divine Guidance in this important Affair, & being moved as I humbly 
trust by the Spirit of God, I think it my Duty to accept the call ; & I do freely 
accept y'^ Call to y'' Work of the gospel ministry among you & stand ready to 
be introduced into y^ Sacred Office according to gospel Order in a convenient 
time, confiding in your Goodness that you will be ready to afford me all needful 
helps & Assistances, for my comfortable Support among you ; expecting also 
that you allow me a suitable time for Journeying once a year to visit my Friends 

abroad. & now I beseech y^ God of all Grace to bless us with all spiritual 

Blessings in heavenly things in Christ Jesus ; and that y^ Word of the Lord 
may have free Course & be glorified among us. 

This is y^ sincere Desire & prayer, of your Servant in Christ 

Rochester, July 21, 1766. Aveky Hall." 

" Sept. 2, 1766. Voted £15 to Defray the charge of Mr. Hall's ordination to 
be Raised out of the Hire of the Parsonage Land in said Town for two years 
Past and Dec" James Knowles William Chamberlin Jabez Dam John Plummer 
Esq'' Cap' Jon'' Ham chosen a Committee to Provide the Materials for the 
ordination and the choice of the Place where the Provision is to be made for 
Entertaining of the Strangers is Left to said Committee to say where it Shall be." 

The ordination occurred Oct. 15, 1766. The Sermon and the 
Charge were by Mr. Hall of Wallingford, Conn., probably a relative 
of the pastor-elect. The Ordaining Prayer and the Right Hand of 
Pellowship were by the venerable James Pike who had been pastor 
at Somersworth for thirty-six years, and was Moderator of the Coun- 
cil. The Introductory Prayer was by Mr. Dame, and the Concluding 
Prayer by Dr. Langdon of Portsmouth. The Rev. Matthew Meriam 
present from Berwick, Me., was a classmate of Mr. Hall. "After 
singing a Psalm & the Blessing was pronounced, the large Assembly 
was dispersed." 

With some suitable sense of what was becoming to their improved 



FIRST CENTURY OF CHURCH HISTORY. 91 

circumstances, tlie people commenced a work of renovation. Be- 
ginning with the meeting-house, the broken glass was mended, the 
pews were changed, a bucket for the well, and a lock for the par- 
sonage house were bought. Such items as nails, lumber, glass, 
and " putte," again appear in the accounts. A spirit of reform 
seems to have seized the community. Some wanted to modernize 
public worship ; and so, from mending the meeting-house, the town 
undertook to mend the singing, — a delicate matter, — somewhat 
hazardous at all times, and evidently, not without the common 
result, hard feeling, at this time. The town was asked to grant — 

" the liberty of a seat, in some convenient place in the meeting house, to accom- 
modate the singers to sit together : " And it was voted " that A. B. C. have the lib- 
erty to build, at their own expense, a seat before the front gallery, so as not to hide 
the sight of the pews and those that sit back." 

A committee of five was appointed — two of whom were the dea- 
cons — "to choose out the best singers and say who should be 
the A. B. C." ISTo sooner, however, was the seat built, than the 
subject was reconsidered. The town concluded to take away the 
seat, pay the expense of building it, and try to reconcile all parties 
by providing a place for the singers below. The authority to choose 
out the best singers was renewed to the deacons, and those whom 
they chose annually were to have the privilege of sitting in the 
singers' seat. Thus, the first step towards the formation of a choir 
was taken by the town in public town meeting. The church soon 
took control of the matter. A year later, they held a meeting in 
reference to the singing, and chose Richard Wentworth, Paul Libby, 
Samuel Chamberlin, and David Place " to be with Deacon Walker 
as Choristers to Tune the Psalm." 

Having repaired the meeting-house, and formed a choir according 
to the approved manner of that day, the business of setting things 
in order extended to the parsonage. This building commenced 
for Mr. Hill six years before, had never been completed. It was 
one condition of the contract with Mr. Hall that it should be made 
fit for him to occupy, and be kept in good repair ; yet, for another 
six years the work dragged slowly along, and at the end of that time 
the town was still deliberating whether or not the " ministerial 
house should be finished ofi"." 

The period of Mr. Hall's ministry is remarkable only for the sad 
divisions among the people of his charge. All the circumstances 



92 ROCHESTER. 

attending liis call and. settlement were inauspicious, and foreshad- 
owed the troubles which followed. The lack of interest, the long 
delays, the difficulty of agreeing about the salary, all show that the 
congregation had suffered so long for want of a spiritual teacher, 
that it was in ill condition to receive one. To the general apathy 
which prevailed at his settlement, a state of passion and excitement 
succeeded. Disputes arose which divided the church and people 
into angry factions. Accusations led to counter accusations, and 
bitterness took the place of harmony. When the contest was at 
its height, the estrangement between the members of the church 
was so great that those of one faction refused to partake of the sac- 
rament with those of the other. The deacons were on opposite 
sides. To increase the discord, the parties were very nearly equal, 
the strongest party in the church having a majority of only one vote 
upon all test questions. It is impossible, at this day, to write a com- 
plete history of this church war ; even the causes of the troubles 
can not be fully ascertained. Written charges were brought against 
the pastor, but no record of them has been preserved. It is alleged 
that both the doctrine and the conduct of Mr. Hall were unsatis- 
factory to the people. The facts which are now known, lead to the 
opinion that the charges against his doctrine related to his position 
on the " half way covenant," while the charges against his conduct 
referred to the manner in which he conducted the controversy. 

The " half way covenant," as it was called, had been sanctioned 
by the practice of the JN'ew England churches from an early date. 
Persons who had been baptized in infancy, upon arriving at maturity 
with a good moral character and outward conformity to the require- 
ments of religion, were received into covenant, and were entitled to 
have their children baptized ; yet they did not partake of the sacra- 
ment, nor make a confession of faith. This practice sprung in part 
from the tenderness which the church cherished towards its children. 
But a more powerful reason was found in the fact already mentioned, 
that church membership was necessary to entitle a person to vote or 
to render eligible to civil office. Union with the church, therefore, 
being sought for political objects, the door was gradually opened to 
the unworthy, whereby the church could not but suffer dishonor. 
The " half way covenant " was devised as a partial remedy for this 
evil, by giving moral men the civil standing conferred by church 
membership, while not admitting them to the full spiritual privi- 



FIRST CENTURY OF CHURCH HISTORY. 93 

leges of those who professed conversion. They were however sub- 
ject to some degree of discipUne, as seen by the following vote. 

" July 13, 1749. Voted by this Church that Such Persons as are In Covenant 
with y* Chh yv° have not Joyned in full Communion with y<= chh Shall be Dealt 
with from time to time In case of Publick Scandal or offence by y'^ chh Equally 
with those in full communion." 

There were, therefore, two classes of church-members ; those in 
full communion, and those in covenant. A strong feeling of dis- 
satisfaction with this state of the churches had already arisen in 
many parts of Il^ew England. The great revival which swept over 
the country in 1741-2, did much to increase and extend this discon- 
tent. Jonathan Edwards, the most distinguished theologian of the 
countrv, had taken a decided position against the half-way cove- 
nant ; — a position which involved him in difficulties with his peo- 
ple, raised an intense opposition to his preaching, and finally resulted 
in his dismission from his pastoral office in Xorthampton. 

In the third year of Mr. Hall's ministry, Dec. 7, 1768, a church 
meeting was called especially to confer upon the question — 

" whether any should be received into covenant, that did not come into full 
communion, and the greater part gave in that they ought not to be received but 
into full communion, but it was not passed into a vote." 

From this time members began to absent themselves from church 
meetings, and from the communion table, and those who were in 
covenant ceased to attend upon public worship. Committees were 
appointed to reason with the delinquents, and urge them to return. 
At a church meeting, July 1, 1772, having been pressed to give 
their reasons, they openly avowed their dislike to Mr. Hall's minis- 
try. Mr. Hall, as moderator, checked them, forbidding them to 
enumerate particular causes of complaint, until they had sought 
private satisfaction. A paper containing charges against the pastor, 
(prepared, as the record states, by the wife of one in covenant,) 
was presented by Deacon Knowles. The pastor refused to read it, 
and insisted that it should not be read. " A clamor was raised." 
The church being determined to hear it, the moderator was over- 
ruled, and the paper was read, but no further action was taken. 
An attempt to settle the difficulties in a private way proved unsuc- 
cessful. At the next church meeting, Dr. Langdon of Portsmouth 
was invited to act as moderator. After the subject had been dis- 



94 ROCHESTER. 

cussed at length, it was voted, by one majority, that the answer of 
the pastor to the charges was unsatisfactory. At a subsequent 
meeting a vote was taken upon the same question with the same 
result, the vote standing " nine against eight." " A Christian con- 
ference " was called Aug. 12, 1773, at the pastor's house. The 
dissatisfied party were strongly urged to say what would satisfy 
them, but refused to do so. Then the observance of the sacrament 
was suggested, but the aggrieved members declined to participate. 
" So y® Meeting was brook up." The town took up the matter, and 
voted that they were dissatisfied with Mr. Hall's doctrine and con- 
duct, and that he should not supply the desk until he had cleared 
up his character ; but when the question of hiring another preacher 
came up, they hesitated, and declined to act. When a town by the 
concurrence of a majority of its legal voters had settled a minister, 
he had a life tenure in his office, and could not be removed except 
by action of a council or by legal proceedings. It was therefore no 
easy matter to get rid of an objectionable pastor. To the vote of 
dissatisfaction already passed, twenty-six voters entered an elaborate 
protest, founded upon technical objections to the notification, and 
want of power in the town. The town was still legally bound for 
the support of Mr. Hall. He continued to receive his salary, and 
maintained undivided possession of the pulpit. 

All attempts to settle difficulties in a private way having failed, a 
council was proposed with the approval of all parties. But how 
should it be called? Mr. Hall's friends demanded a mutual council 
called by the concurrent action of church and pastor. The other 
party insisted that as they were in the majority, the council should 
be called by the church, " as aggrieved loith their pastor." It being 
impossible to agree, the dissatisfied party claiming to be the church 
by reason of having one majority, called a council in the name of 
the church. All the minister's friends could do was to remonstrate. 
When the council met, however, they allowed the remonstrants 
to invite an equal number of ministers and churches of their own 
selection, to unite with them ; and so the council became mutual. 
The result of their deliberations was made known April 21, 1774. 
It advised that the pastor should ask a dismission, and that the town 
should pay him two hundred dollars as a compensation. Anxious 
to be freed from their minister on any terms, the town immediately 
accepted the result and voted the compensation. Mr. Hall declined 



FIRST CENTURY OF CHURCH HISTORY. 95 

to receive it. His friends claimed that he was not yet legally dis- 
missed, and alleged that unfair means were used to get the town to 
vote the compensation. They styled the charges against Mr. Hall 
cruel and unjust, and appealed to the result of council to show that 
they had not been proved. They accused their opponents of assum- 
ing the authority of the church when they were only a minor part 
of it; of appointing church meetings and calling in the assistance 
of mere covenanters to vote Mr. Hall's dismission ; and charged them 
with thus amusing the people and keeping them in a rage to answer 
their own ends. They proposed another council, but the proposi- 
tion was instantly rejected. Each party claimed to be the church 
and held its church meetings. One of these self-styled churches 
had voted the pastor's dismission. The other did not accept the 
result of council, but " signified their minds in writing, and desired 
the pastor to continue with them." The refusal to accept the 
decision of the council aroused the town. They appointed a com- 
mittee to prosecute Mr. Hall, if he attempted to preach, and to hire 
a candidate to supply the pulpit. One of this committee was 
Deacon Knowles, an influential member of the church, and one of 
the most able and respected citizens of the town. More than one 
hundred persons protested against the proceedings of this meeting, 
and the votes were not carried into effect. In spite of all these 
measures, Mr. Hall continued to preach in the meeting-house for 
more than six months longer. He then proposed to ask a dismis- 
sion on condition that the town should give him " one year's salary, 
one hundred pounds lawful money, the use of the parsonage house, 
lot and barn, and a lot of land adjoining, and exempt him and all 
his interest from paying any public taxes in town during his natural 
life," The town met this offer with an emphatic negative, followed 
up by a vote to lock the meeting-house against him. A " stock 
lock " for this object is one of the charges in this year's account. 
The meeting-house locked against him, and a candidate hired to 
preach in his pulpit, Mr. Hall concluded to make the best terms in 
his power. A year had elapsed since the meeting of the ecclesias- 
tical council which recommended his dismission. He now received 
sixty pounds as a compensation, and agreed to ask that dismission. 
The following record of a church meeting, April 10, 1775, is the 
last record made by the hand of Mr, Hall. 



96 ROCHESTER. 

" Some unhappy Disputes having arisen in this Chh relative to your pastor, & 
disaffection in the Minds of many towards the Pastor still subsisting, to the great 
grief of your Pastor, & it having been advised to by an Ecclesiastical Council that 
I should ask a Dismission from my pastoral Relation to this Church, I now ask a 
Dismission of you ; If it be your Minds that my pastoral Relation to you, breth- 
ren, be now dissolved, & that I should commend your Souls to God who has com- 
mitted them to my pastoral Care, the Dismission is not from OflBce, but only from 
my pastoral Relation to you, please to signify it, &c., & it passed in y*^ Affir^ by 
one." 

After endeavoring for two years to break the bonds between 
minister and people, the town, in the end, succeeded only by hiring 
the minister to ask a dismission. The conclusion of this unfortu- 
nate controversy and the final reconciliation of the parties in the 
church did not occur until the time of Mr, Hall's successor in office. 
Soon after the ordination of Mr. Haven, the church voted to hear 
the aggrieved brethren as to their grievances, — the words, " ag- 
grieved brethren," being now reversed in their application, and 
meaning those who had supported Mr. Hall. By the consent of all 
parties, the subject was referred to the Rev. Mr. Lancton of York, 
the liev. Mr. Hemenway of "Wells, and the Rev. Mr. Spring of 
Kittery, all in Maine. They met at the pastor's house. May 28, 
1776, and continued their sessions two days. Upon the announce- 
ment of their report, which is not recorded, — 

" The church unanimously voted to own and acknowledge the Rev. Mr. Avery 
Hall (their late pastor) as a brother of this church, and to recommend him to 
preach the gospel wherever requested." Shortly after it was voted " that persons, 
who are thought to be prepared, be admitted to own the covenant, and have the 
ordinance of baptism administered to their children, if they labor under such 
doubts and fears that they are afraid to come up to the table of the Lord." 

The half-way covenanters had finally triumphed. If it be true 
that these troubles sprang from Mr. Hall's attempt to establish a 
more rigid discipline by overthrowing the half-way covenant, not 
only is the fact creditable to his theological attainments, but the 
subsequent history of the churches shows that he was in the advance 
of religious reform. There were, however, other causes of dissatis- 
faction. His unpopularity was increased by a feeling that he was 
somewhat avaricious. He was censured also, for having accepted 
the invitation to settle, while there was so great indift'erence to his 
preaching. Mr. Haven regarded this prevailing indifference on reli- 
gious subjects as the chief source of the whole controversy. 

The Rev. Theophilus Hall was the first pastor of the church which 



FIRST CENTURY OF CHURCH HISTORY. 97 

lie had gathered in Meriden, Comi., where he died in the thirty- 
eighth year of his ministry. He was said to be " a man of strong 
intellectual powers, a faithful advocate of civil and religious liberty, 
much respected and beloved by his people." Several of his sermons 
were published; among them one preached at the ordination of Mr. 
Meriam at Berwick, Me. Avery Hall, his son, was born in Meri- 
den, Conn., Dec. 2, 1737, and graduated at Yale College in 1759. 
During the year 1761 he taught the Hopkins Grammar School at 
New Haven, Conn., while pursuing his theological studies. He was 
ordained at Eochester, Oct. 15, 1766. As a preacher Mr. Hall was 
moderate and monotonous in his manner, and had not the faculty 
of communicating his ideas in a way to command the attention or 
excite the interest of his hearers. This no doubt contributed to his 
unpopularity in Rochester. 

He is said to have been a man of considerable wit. Calling upon 
a friend one day, according to custom he was invited to drink. 
Offering him a diminutive glass, " this," said his friend, " is very 
old spirit, and very nice." Eaising and scanning the glass thought- 
fully for a few seconds, Mr. Hall replied, " Well, it seems to me it 
is very small of its age." 

During all the controversy with his parish, there seems to have 
been nothing brought to impugn his moral character. Several aged 
persons who have died within the last twenty years remembered Mr. 
Hall well, and testified that he was a man respected for his exem- 
plary habits, of good sense and judgment, and of very even temper, 
seldom known to be in a passion. 

After his dismission he removed to Wakefield, being among the 
early settlers of that town. He preached for a short time at Efiing- 
ham, going and returning upon the Sabbath, but soon left the min- 
istry and devoted himself to agriculture. He, however, was ver}^ 
useful in rendering kindly offices to the sick, visiting them often, 
and praying and conversing with them. After a church was formed 
in Wakefield, he officiated as deacon, as long as he was able to per- 
form the duties of that office. He was a successful farmer, manag- 
ing his large tract of land with profit. In those early da^'s he was 
almost the only man in town to write legal instruments. Holding 
the office of justice of the peace for many years, he was known as 
" Squire Hall," and as a magistrate gave judgment upon many 
cases at law. 



98 ROCHESTER. 

His first wife, Mary Chesley of Dover, died in Rochester, and 
he married Abigail, daughter of Eev. James Pike of Somersworth. 

Mr. Hall died Aug. 5, 1820, at the age of eighty-two years, 
having entirely lost his faculties. 

During the time when the meeting-house was locked against Mr. 
Hall, Joseph Haven was employed to preach as a candidate. He 
was then twenty-eight years of age, and had just finished his studies 
at Harvard University. In September, 1775, the church invited 
him to become their pastor. Soon after, the town united with the 
church in its invitation, oflering the same salary and privileges 
which had been granted to Mr. Hall. Mr. Haven was evidently not 
well pleased with the state of feeling among the people, and had 
much hesitation about settling in Rochester. Before replying, he ad- 
dressed a very plain letter to the inhabitants of the town, alluding 
to their troubles and expressing the belief that they would never 
get through with them so long as their indifference to religion 
existed. He regarded the fact that they had been already deprived 
of three ministers as a sore judgment, and said that they might take 
his answer as a decided negative, unless they manifested a more 
general interest in the question of his settlement. He begged them 
to come out and vote for or against him, that he might know what 
course to pursue. The town immediately renewed the invitation 
with such unanimity that he at once accepted, in the following 
terms : — 

" M^ Haven's Answer to the Chh & Congregation in Rochester. 

The sovereign of the universe governs all things, & by his providence orders 
them as shall be most to his honor & glory. He often brings about things contrary 
to our expectations & even wishes : But where he calls to a thing there must be a 
chearfui resignation to his will, & we must be ready to go in the paths he has 
pointed out for us. 

After great divisions & sore trials among you (the cause of which I hope none 
will now look abroad to find, but to his own heart) you have seen fit to give me 
an invitation to settle in the gospel ministry in this place, & to take the care of 
this chch & people upon me ; which is a great undertaking & what I am, of myself, 
utterly unable to go thro' with : Yet when I see that you are so well united (which 
is far beyond all expectation, & must be ascribed alone to the Lord) with an hum- 
ble relyance upon him, I must think myself bound in duty to yield to your solicita- 
tions, as being called thereto by the great head of the chch & bishop of Souls. 
The prayers of this chch & people I do earnestly solicit, that I may be directed & 
prospered in so great & arduous an undertaking : That I may be made a faithful 
minister of Jesus Christ, & a successful laborer in this part of his vineyard ; that 
I may be the means of winning many souls to him ; & that I may not fear the face 
of man, so as to leave any part of the business alotted me to do undone. 

And that the great head of the chch may bestow choicest of heavens blessings 



FIRST CENTURY OF CHURCH HISTORY. 99 

upon his flock in this place, & upon the whole town, shall be the constant wish & 
prayer of a hearty well wisher to your souls, & your humble servant 

Joseph Havex. 

As an addition to what you have proposed for a support, I shall expect that the 
parsonage house be put & kept in good & decent repair during my ministration 
among you. 

It has been proposed that the fence around the lot upon which the house stands 
be made good by subscription : this I shall likewise expect. 

And as God has seen fit in his infinite wisdom to bring great troubles & distress 
upon this land, the burden of which will fall heavy upon almost every person ; to 
testify my readiness to suffer with my brethren, & reposing my confidence in God, 
I do freely remit a tenth part of my first years sallary (which is eight pounds) to 
the town. 

Piochester Nov'. 25"^: 1775." 

The town voted Mr. Haven's call Nov. 20, 1775, and appointed the following 
committee 

" to Prosecute the above business as the Case shall requii-e. Cap' William Alien 
Barnabas Palmer Cap' William Chamberlin Ens Richard Furber Joseph Pearl John 
Plumer Esq'' Dea"^"^ James Knowles. 

" Dec. 25, 1775, Chose Jabez Dame Barnabas Palmer Cap' William Allen a 
Committee to Procure Meterials." 

" Paid Committee for going after Mr. Haven 1 — 18 — 6}4" 

*' Expences of Mr. Haven's ordination 12 — 10 — 4." 

The ordination occurred Jan. 10, 1776. The churches represented 
in the Council were the First and Fourth in Dedham, Mass., the 
First and Second in Berwick, Me., and the churches in Somers- 
worth, Dover, Barrington, and New Durham. 

" Chose Rev'^. M'' Haven Moderator. ReV^. M"". Foster Clerk. KeV^. M^ Porter 
made the first prayer ; Rev<* M^ Haven preached a sermon ; . . . Rev''. M"^. 
Foster made a prayer with laying on of hands ; then he gave the charge ; Rev^ 
M^ Merriam gave the right hand of fellowship ; B.ev''^ M^ Belknap made the 
concluding prayer ; a Psalm was sung & the assembly dismissed with the blessings 
being gave." 

Tlius happily commenced the relation of pastor and people, which 
continued for nearly half a century. The parsonage was again re- 
repaired, but the meeting-house was almost beyond mending. Mr. 
Haven omitted no opportunity of urging the importance of a new 
building. He frequently illustrated the uncertainty of life by point- 
ing to the shattered old building in danger of falling at every brisk 
gale of wind. After three years of patient continuance \vith no 
more prospect that the house would fall of itself, he gave them a 
discourse which is a good example of his style of "plain preaching." 

1 Corinthians, 11:22. "What, have ye not houses to eat and to drink in? 
or despise ye the church of God ? . . What shall I say unto you ? shall I 
praise you in this ? I praise you not." 

He told his hearers that it was a mark of declension in religion to see God's house 



100 ROCHESTER. 

going to ruin. " I hardly need make any closer application, for this old rack of a 
building, which is going to decay without any repairs, and which, by our conduct, 
we seem to think good enough to worship God in, seems to make application 
enough. This, which is called the house of God, is become a by-word to passen- 
gers. The season is coming on when a great many of you will excuse yourselves 
from attending public worship, because you expose your health in such a house. 
Do you think that if you have convenient houses yourselves to dwell in, it is no 
matter how God is turned off ? Why should there be such neglect V Why do you 
show so little regard to God and religion ? Is it uot plain that you have not much 
regard for either ? " 

Before the breaking out of tlie Eevolution, the necessary votes 
had been passed for building a new house, committees had been 
appointed, some of the large timbers had been cut and hauled, and 
the town had been divided into parishes. The house was to have 
been for the accommodation of the first parish, which consisted of 
one third of the town lying towards Dover, and although the whole 
town was to be taxed for this purpose, yet it was agreed that when 
the upper parish should build a house of their own, their proportion 
of the present tax should be refunded. Moreover, the meeting-house 
was intended to be a great honor to the town in its style of archi- 
tecture, for it was voted that it should be of the same dimensions as 
that at Dover " where the Rev. Mr. Jeremiah Belknap now doth 
preach," which was doubtless regarded as a model in those days. 
The old house was far from the center of population, and to avoid 
any difficulty about location. Esquire Chatburne and Captain Rogers 
of Berwick, with Dr. Thompson of Durham, were chosen a commit- 
tee to " perfix a place " where the house should be erected. The 
work was scarcely begun when it was interrupted by the war, and 
the crazy old building on the hill continued to be the capitol of the 
town, where the peace of the Gospel was preached on the Sabbath, 
and the war of Independence was discussed on week days. Associ- 
ated so intimately as it had been with the history of Rochester as a 
royal township, it was fitting, perhaps, that it should remain an 
emblem of decaying despotism, until its place could be supplied 
by an edifice which should be a worthy representative of free 
government. 

Mr. Haven's philippic at last roused the people to action. The 
building of the new house, — the present Congregational Church, — 
was commenced in 1780. The building committee consisted of 
Jabez Dame, Col. John McDuffee, and Capt John Brewster. The 
committee who were to "perfix the place" selected the common 
below the present village. The land belonged to Mr. James Horn, 



FIRST CENTURY OF CHURCH HISTORY. 101 

and the town gave him hi exchange a part of the planned ten-rod 
road adjacent. So much of the old house was to he used as would 
be profitable, and tax-payers were allowed to pay in labor or mate- 
rial at the market price. The upper parish, contrary to the original 
plan, was exempted from all tax for this house. The currency was 
now at its greatest depreciation, so that ten thousand pounds were 
voted for the material and for framing the building, and twenty-five 
dollars a day wages for the workmen. Eleven hundred and fifty- 
seven days' labor were expended in getting out and raising the 
frame, and the committee bought for the raising, thirty-four gallons 
of rum, eleven pounds of sugar, one barrel of cider, two and one 
half bushels of meal, thirty-eight pounds of salt pork, one hundred 
and sixty-eight pounds of veal, one bushel of peas, one peck of 
beans, nine pounds of butter, and two bushels of potatoes. 

What a raising ! Imagination only can picture the scene. 'No 
record nor even tradition has preserved the doings of that eventful 
day ; nor with the most minute knowledge of particulars could any 
description do justice to such an occasion. 

As soon as the frame was raised, the pew privileges were sold at 
auction to get means to continue the work. A plan for the pews, 
presented by Jabez Dame, was adopted by the town. Purchasers 
were to build their own pews. jS^one were allowed to purchase 
except those concerned in building the house. " All pews of the same 
denomination to be built in a similar manner." One fourth of the 
price was to be paid on demand, and eight months was allowed for 
the payment of the remainder. One half of each installment was to 
be paid in good merchantable white-pine boards, and the other half 
in current passable money. As the value of currency was con- 
stantly changing, the actual amount of money to be paid was to be 
estimated by comparing the market price of white-pine boards at 
the time of payment, with that at the time of the auction. The 
house Avas at length completed, and the seat of government, of reli- 
gion, of fashion, and of trade was lost to Rochester Hill and 
descended to jSTorway Plains. 

The town was now territorially divided into two parishes, but as 
yet no division of the church or society seems to have been made. 
By an arrangement voted by the town, Mr. Haven continued for 
many years to preach in the upper parish a certain number of Sab- 
baths every year, in proportion to the taxes paid by that part of the 
town for his support. 



102 ROCHESTER. 

Hitherto v:e find no record of a refusal to pay the tax for the sup- 
port of the minister. Its lawfuhiess and propriety seem to have 
been unquestioned. In 1780, however, John Jenness, Joseph and 
Solomon Drown, and Elijah Varney were arrested and imprisoned 
for refusing to pay their ministerial taxes. Joseph Drown brought 
an action for trespass against the town, and succeeded in recovering 
execution. The town then appointed a committee to examine the 
other cases and report, special care being taken that none of their 
personal friends should be on the committee. In accordance with 
their report, the town settled with the complainants by paying the 
charges of their imprisonment and abating the obnoxious tax. 

This marks the beginning of the struggle by which, during Mr. 
Haven's ministry, the quasi-connection hitherto maintained between 
Church and State was entirely abolished. The ferment of the Rev- 
olution extended to religious affairs. Freed from the odious tax by 
a foreign power men began to chafe under taxation for the support 
of a ministry whose instructions they disbelieved or disregarded. 
But not yet for many years was the yoke thrown off". Still towns 
were authorized by law to tax all the citizens for the maintenance 
of a gospel ministry. And these taxes could be collected by process 
of law in the same way as any others. 

In 1791 the town voted that accounts which particularly belonged 
to the Congregational Society should be kept separate from other 
accounts which concerned the town at large. June 3, 1799, the town 
instructed the Selectmen to petition for a charter for the Congrega- 
tional Society for " the purpose of incorporating the Society by the 
name of First Parish, that they may have power to transact all 
necessary parish business separate from the town." The petition 
Avas accordingly presented, signed by Eichard Dame, Beard Plumer, 
and Joshua Allen, the selectmen of that year. But nothing seems 
to have come of it. At least, no record has been found of any legis- 
lative action upon this petition. The Congregational Society, how- 
ever, seems to have maintained an existence separate from the town. 
In Rochester, as in many other towns, the lands set apart for the 
support of the minister occasioned more or less difficulty. Mr. 
Haven, who was by no means quarrelsome or avaricious, brought a 
suit against the town in 1814, for trespass on the Parsonage Lot. 
March 27, 1815, the town appointed N. Upham, ]M. Hale, and Jacob 
McDuffee to confer with Mr. Haven in regard to his claim. They 



FIRST CENTURY OF CHURCH HISTORY. 103 

reported a proposal from Mr. Haven dated May 11, oiferingto relin- 
quish his salary and all due him to the 29th inst., on condition of 
receiving $1,500 in money or acceptable notes, ^vitli exemption from 
all taxes, also to relinquish the parsonage lots after the following 
March, provided they should be leased only to hire a preacher " of 
good moral and religious character and approved abilities." The 
town refused to accept this offer, and he appears to have received 
his regular salary till 1819, when the act of the legislature fully 
divorced church aifairs from the control of the town. At the next 
annual meeting in 1820, an article to see if the town would vote to 
raise a salary for Mr. Haven was dismissed. Both Mr. Haven and 
the town seem to have considered the contract between them still in 
force, for in April, 1822, jMr. Haven stated that he had long since 
expressed his willingness to release so much of the contract as re- 
lated to his "yearly salary of 80£ of the late lawful money to com- 
mence !N"ov. 19, 1819," but with the condition that this should in no 
other way affect his contract with the town. This offer was accepted 
by vote of the town. In October, 1824, Mr. Haven proposed to the 
Congregational Society to relinquish " the parsonages " into their 
hands, they to pay him $25 quarterly for " the second division par- 
sonage lot," and he to quitclaim the " main road parsonage lot." 
The Society accepted this proposition and voted to sell the same 
" by quitclaim in lots with good security, interest annually, and pro- 
ceeds to be invested for a permanent fund for benefit of the society." 
Very naturally, the town, or rather the voters supporting other 
denominations, did not permit "the parsonages" thus to lapse into 
the possession of the Congregational Society without claiming their 
share. The Selectmen having refused when requested, to call a 
town meeting to consider this subject, a petition was duly presented 
to J. H. Woodman, Justice of Peace, and a meeting called by him 
was held Feb. 19, 1825, to see " what method the town would take 
to preserve its right in the parsonage lots." A Committee of one 
from each religious society was appointed to consider the matter and 
report at an adjourned meeting. The Committee were representa- 
tive and leading men in their several Societies: — David Barker, Jr., 
Congregationalist ; Charles G. Dennett, Methodist; Joseph Cross, 
Universalist ; Jonathan Dame, Friend; Meshach Robinson, Baptist. 
They reported unanimously, that the parsonage property was designed 
for religious uses, and recommended that the Selectmen and their 



104 ROCHESTER. 

successors in office should be trustees of the fund derived from said 
propert}', and report annually to the town its condition ; also that 
the incomes from this fund — 

" be distributed annually among the different religious societies which are or 
shall be recognized as religious societies, according to the taxable polls and estates 
of the several members of the said societies at the time of taking the inventory- 
in said town, and those persons who do not belong to either of said societies shall 
designate at the taking of the inventory in each year, to which of said religious 
societies their proportion shall be paid, and if any person shall refuse or neglect 
to designate to which society shall be paid his proportion of said income, it shall 
be distributed among the said several societies, according to the polls and estates 
of the members composing each." 

They recommended also that the sales of the property which had 
been made be confirmed by the town and that the selectmen receive 
of the Congregational Society their transfer of the notes, mortga- 
ges, deeds, and moneys arising from said sales, excepting so much 
as had been paid to the Rev. Joseph Haven for his acquittance, and 
the necessary expenses of the sales. This report was adopted, and 
the Selectmen were subsequently instructed to give quitclaim deeds 
to previous purchases of parsonage lands, if desired. The Congre- 
gational Society voted a committee to transfer the parsonage funds 
to the town, and also to confer with the other societies about divid- 
ing the same. The lands in some instances came back to the hands 
of the town, from the failure of the purchasers to pay or from other 
causes, so that it was several 3'ears before the lots were entirely dis- 
posed of. In 1827 two lots are mentioned as " bid off" by Isaac 
Pearl. In 1830 the Selectmen were a committee " to sell or let the 
parsonage land which has reverted to the town ; " and the year 
following it was — 

" Voted to sell that part of the parsonage land that was formerly Daniel Hus- 
sey's, and that trustees receive proposals for sale of other parts of parsonage land 
of which they have taken possession and report." 

With the disposal of the parsonage funds the whole connection of 
town and church affairs ceased. And this was nearly coincident 
with the closing of Mr. Haven's ministry. 

No history of Rochester could be regarded as approximately 
complete without a prominent record of the life and services of the 
Rev. Joseph Haven. He was for many years the only religious 
instructor of the people of Rochester, Farmington, and Milton, and 
his pastorate was more than double the length of that of any other 



FIRST CENTURY OF CHURCH HISTORY. 105 

minister liere. It should also be noted that his ministry extended 
over the most important periods of the town's history. The Revolu- 
tion, the adoption of the Constitution, and the inauguration of both 
State and i^ational Governments, the transition from a Monarchy to 
a Republic, the War of 1812-15, the separation of church from civil 
authorities, all occurred during his ministry. Nor was he by any 
means a silent looker-on, but as became his position he was a leader 
of public thought and sentiment, not hesitating to speak his opinions 
plainly and forcibly on all public questions. His father was a shoe- 
maker in Hopkinton, Mass., and afterwards in that part of Dedham 
which is now Dover, Mass., where he was deacon of the Congrega- 
tional Church. 

Joseph Haven was born in Hopkinton, Mass., May, 1747, and 
graduated at Harvard University in 1774. He studied theology 
with a clergyman of his own name in Dedham. As already seen he 
was ordained at Rochester, Jan. 10, 1776. For forty-nine years 
excepting when prevented by sickness or the infirmities of age he 
continued to preach the gospel, having the assistance of a colleague 
the last two years. 

Though the settlement of Mr. Haven gave general satisfaction to 
all parties, yet the troubles and dissensions which had been so long 
rife did not at once cease. Mr. Haven sometimes alluded to them 
publicly, endeavoring thus to bring to a sense of shame those who 
would not harmonize together in the social meetings. He was sev- 
eral times on the point of leaving, and would have gone but for his 
sympathy for their sad condition. After a time the parish became 
harmonious and prosperous. 

It is difficult, in these days of multiplied churches of almost end- 
less variety, to realize the grief and anxiety with which the pastors of 
old time saw the new isms creeping into and dividing their parishes 
which had been co-extensive with the town. It is easy for scoffers 
to say that their salaries were in danger, and hence sprang their ear- 
nestness. But although these ministers like all others were human, 
the charge is on the whole grossly unjust. The anxiety of such a 
man as Mr. Haven arose far more from an earnest love of his people 
than from any self-interest. He sincerely believed that the practices 
and teachings of these various denominations were on the whole 
dangerous to their spiritual welfare. As a faithful watchman it was 
his duty to waru the flock. This he did faithfully. 



106 ROCHESTER. 

The Quakers or Friends were the earliest on the ground, and 
though not many of his people were drawn after them, save from 
curiosity, yet he admonished them very plainly against even occa- 
sional attendance. The following is from a sermon preached March 

29, 1778 : — 

" John 4 : 23. But y^ hour cometh & now is, when y"= true worshippers shall 
worship y'' father in spirit & truth: for y'^ father seeketh such to worship him. 

. . . This is a text often abused, being bro't to prove y* God does not now 
. . require or regard external worship but y' of y"^ spirit only. . . . To affirm, 
as some do, that y'' worship of God under y'' gospel should be purely spiritual, 
without there being anything external required, is not only contrary to y"* practice 
& experience of y*^ Xtian religion in all ages, but to y*' ordinances of y*^ Gospel 

itself If baptism was only spiritual, why was water used in y^ days of 

X & his apostles, as it is evident beyond contradiction it was ? If it be said y^ 
spirit is meant by water, it may be ansr'd that can no ways be y'= case at all times. 
. . . . And so it is of y'^ sacrament of y'= Lord's supper; that of giving & receiv- 
ing bread & wine; for it will be very difficult to tell how this can be made only 
spiritual: for when do we find y® spirit compared to bread or wine? Or how can 
we break y^ spirit as bread is broken ? ... It is plain y' in y'= apostolic age, 
y« outward ordinance of y^ sacrament was practiced ; y'^ how can any pretend that 
this & baptism are only spiritually performed ? . . . I would not have you 
think I am pleading for external performances as tho' they were in y^ least meri- 
torious; no, nor yet that they will avail anything without y*' spirit. . . . But 
why do I plead that there must be external duties, seeing there are none who deny 
it? I say none; for if any pretend it, even they are more formal than any others 
& seem to depend more upon their forms. . . . The prophet asks this ques- 
tion, What doth y^ L'd require of thee but to do justly, & to love mercy, & to walk 
humbly with thy God? Now are not all these things external in some measure at 
least? But w' is it to walk humbly with God? Is it not to pay a strict & reveren- 
tial regard to all his commands & ordinances ? There can nothing savour more of 
pride than to set up a way of worship not appointed in God's word: it is prefering 
our wisdom to y' of God ; there is nothing of humility in it, nor can there be a 
walking with God. . . . It is y<^ spii-it of God, that makes any worship truely 
acceptable, & not our renouncing outward ordinances, & pretending to have our 
worship in spirit only. This sort of worship is no more likely to be spiritual than 
any other. . . . Where worship is purely spiritual in y*' manner some pre- 
tend, w' is y*^ preached word good for? Where any pretend to worship in a social 
manner, & yet there is no appearance of worship, how can it be in spirit &■ truth? 
And how is it profitable for any to attend with such people? Is a sabbath spent 
well where there is nothing either to edify or instruct ? . . . Where any meet 
& y« whole time is spent in silence, & there is nothing to keep one's tho'ts from 
roving, & being upon vanity, would it not be better to worship in private; or in 
private to be studying God's word, or some pious author? Is it a proper time for 
any to attend such meetings out of a vain curiosity ? I mention these things be- 
cause there are some who attend meeting where they expect nothing profitable; I 
roean attend at some particular times. Is it right for us to assemble where there 
is no marks of the father's being worshipped in spirit & truth, or where y* ordi- 
nances are not only neglected but denyed ? I say, is it right upon y'= L'd's day, 
w"*" should be spent in his worship ? Did the primitive Xtians assemble to be 
silent? Did they deny y^ ordinances? Was not water baptism practised in y^ 
days of X & his apostles ? And did not X appoint y'' ordinance of y*^ supper, break 
bread & give to his disciples, & also pour out wine for 'em to drink, & at y'^ same 
time command 'em to do that in remembrance of him? . . . Let nie warn 
all not to forsake w' they know to be y'= worship of God. It is of importance that 



FIRST CENTURY OF CHURCH HISTORY. 107 

we be in y*' right way ; therefore let us not be led out of y® way by those whom we 
have cause to look upon with pity, as they must be strangely ignorant or blind or 
they could not so far forsake y® worship of God." 

About 1806 Methodism was introduced and in a few years created 
a great excitement drawing away many from the old church. People 
of the present day have very little idea of the excesses in language 
and methods then employed. ISTo description can adequately por- 
tray the scenes which our fathers beheld. Mr. Haven did not fail 
to speak his mind plaiidy. In fact, he was forced to speak in self- 
defense, as the new-comers openly attacked the church, and the 
record of his ministry, in unsparing terms. The following is from 
the closing discourse of a series on the last petition of the Lord's 
Prayer. It was preached Jan. 10, 1810. 

" Math. 6: part of 13th Verse. 'Deliver us from evil.' l**' The evil of sinning. 
2^ The evil of suffering." Under the first head, among other sins are named : — "a 
pretended heated zeal in religion with or without knowledge. Dishonesty in reli- 
gious pretences; & pride & ostentation in religious worship, as tho' we were y* 
only holy people on earth, & best favorites with heaven; assuming y« judgment 
seat in order to pass hasty sentence upon those we suppose good or bad ; — con- 
demning all as heretics but ourselves, as tho' there was no true religion till ours 
came in fashion ; pretended dreams & visions to deceive ; — Dying for y"^ sins of 
others; pretending to raise y*^ dead; whether really or fictitiously dead; — Pre- 
tended secret prayer, when y^ design is to be heard & applauded of men: — & 
superstition of ill founded enthusiasm. " 

Among various items under the second head, he considered: — 
"what we may suffer by divisions & strife in families, in neighborhoods: in, 
Towns; in States, societies or nations. There may be divisions from religious 
political or other views, or they may be merely accidental. Divisions have ever 
been common in y<= O ; but y" first was a religious one, when Cain rose up & 
slew his brother Abel ; & for no other reason than worshipping G'd in y'= most 
rational & approved way, when Cain, no doubt by an innovation expected to 
receive y*^ divine approbation & reward. — A false worship was always y* most apt 
to inflame y*^ passions of mankind, & to be attended with y'' most heat and zeal: 
this I could easily point out from history, sacred & prophane. Where divisions 
are made, it has been common to call it a reformation, let y^ sect be w' it may; & 
all have been certain they were right, had G'd on their side & y' he helped in car- 
rying on y<^ mighty work; & y^ last sects always affect to be y*^ best & only right 
ones. But aged people can witness in some measure, how many towns have had 
these reformations, & their consequences; seldom have they been of any lasting 
benefit, but have laid a foundation for irreligion; a multiplicity of opinions, lasting 
confusion, & long divisions. The very remarkable relormation as some call it w"^'' 
has taken place in this Town, as well as in other places, lately, is matter of wonder 
& surprise to many, but mostly to y*^ young who have seen no such thing before. 
The effects have been good in some things. It has been the cause of introducing 
family religion into some houses, & at least to check prophane swearing with a 
number. And if it be a benefit; it has y"^ appearance of uniting y« converts in y^ 
strongest bonds of friendship ; but to cause 'em to stand aloof from others, as tho' 
their evil habits were dangerous and their morals pernicious. If apparent zeal is 
a proof they are right ; if boasting of their great success, iu their instructors ; if of 



108 ROCHESTER. 

their humility & love; & if a multiplicity of meetings, of forms & ceremonies; of 
prayers; of dreams; of religious spasms are evidences in their favor, they have all 
these. And if it is a proof in their favor, y' they are liberal in censuring others; 
if in saying there has been no reformation here for more than thirty years, the 
palm is yielded to 'em. Whether they shew any pride, spiritual, or of any other 
kind, let others judge. But as to a reformation in y« space of time mentioned, the 
wisest & best have observed there has been one of consequence. That there has 
been much less of dissipation; of intemperance; of fornication, 'w'='' has become 
apparent; of idleness; of gambling & of some other vices, w"^ have too much pre- 
vailed. This is a reformation y^"^ y" wise are ever pleased with, as a tree is known 
by its fruits, & not by y'' fairness of its leaves. But as to religious zeal, none pre- 
tend but it has been too cold, & now it may have got to y" other extream with 
some, & may end in all y^ vices we have mentioned ; w=^ may G'd prevent, & cause 
all to turn out well. 

It is more than 34 years since I have been with this people ; I have feelingly 
taken part in all your joys & sorrows; no favor has been bestowed, but I have 
wished gratefully to remember, & thankfully to acknowledge. I think I have not 
sought yours, but you. To promote your temporal & spiritual interest; I have 
endeavored to visit y*' afflicted & to pour y<= oil of consolation into y'' wounded 
heart. Yet I boast of nothing ; w' I say is only in self defence at this period of 
trial. But I must in justice to many, notice their increased kindness, when it 
appears most necessary. I dread y® future consequences of y® present divisions, to 
y^ town, when motives w'^'^ may now be only suspected will be more fully devel- 
oped. That there are a number sincere in their professions, none will doubt, tho' 
they may [fail] of correct information in y'^ true principles of our pure, holy & 
rational religion ; yet let all endeavor to cultivate charity as far as reason & re- 
ligion will authorize." 

One who understands the condition of aftairs can but feel that Mr. 
Haven was very moderate in his language concerning those who 
were so actively endeavoring not merely to build up a new sect, but 
seemed to be even more zealous to tear down and destroy " the 
standing order." And yet this movement was doubtless on the 
whole for good. The new sect was called out by Providence just 
when it was demanded b}' the general religious deadness of the 
times. Possessing what has been called " the enthusiasm of hu- 
manity," the great essential of practical religion, it grew rapidly and 
became prosperous. Its follies — and like all great reformatory 
orders and sects, in its beginnings it had its share — were corrected 
by time, its errors were rapidly outgrown, and when the law was 
repealed which taxed the people to sustain one denomination, Meth- 
odism began rapidly to absorb the religious population. 

The Baptist Society soon followed, also drawing oft' large num- 
bers, so that toward the close of his ministry Mr. Haven surrounded 
by new and vigorous sects, and involved in controversy with the 
town concerning the parsonage property, found his meeting-house 
growing empty of hearers. He was now too old to create any coun- 
ter sensation, or arouse any fresh enthusiasm. He was never elo- 



FIRST CENTURY OF CHURCH HISTORY. 109 

quent of speech, and now seemed dull to the younger people. 
Younger preachers had come in, — not so intelligent, not so edu- 
cated, not so talented perhaps, — but more zealous, more attractive, 
and representing ideas considered more progressive and answering 
a growing demand in the community. 

Many good qualities combined to render Mr. Haven a popular 
man ; but that which particularly predominated was his social and 
genial spirit, — his inexhaustible humor. The society of those per- 
sons is apt to be most courted, who are able to bring to the dinner 
or tea table the best supply of fresh and racy anecdotes. When the 
more sober and substantial virtues have long been forgotten, witti- 
cisms will not cease their rounds. A good story is remembered 
longer than a good sermon. A hearty laugh is better appreciated 
than money or wisdom, for there are more who share in its enjoy- 
ment. Few of the humorous sayings of Mr. Haven will bear record- 
ing, their pith consisted so largely- in the peculiar quaintness of his 
manner. The following will answer as illustrations. 

Walking in his garden with a friend to whom he was showing the 
varieties of fruit which he cultivated, the}" came to a tree laden with 
apples fair and inviting to the eye. Mr. Haven picking one of the 
finest handed it to his friend, saying, " There, I recommend you to 
try that apple." With expectations excited and mouth watering, 
the friend took a generous bite. Instead of the rich, juicy flavor he 
expected, he found only astringent bitterness. As he was recover- 
ing from the effect, Mr. Haven looked good-humoredly into his 
puckered face and said, " They need recommending don't they ? " 

Measuring some land one day, he carried one end of the chain 
while a young man of his acquaintance carried the other. Just as 
they were drawing the chain tight, the young man quoted the old 
adage, " The Devil can go only the length of his chain." " Pull, 
pull," instantly replied Mr. Haven, " and we will see." Such things 
were not studied, but were the spontaneous outflow of a healthful 
spirit of humor. 

The genuineness of the following story is not vouched for, but it 
has often been related of Mr. Haven and is probably true, though it 
is not likely the device was original with him, as it is one of those 
old stories that are ascribed to many different sources. One of the 
boys had been guilty of a grave misdemeanor, and it was dilRcult to 
ascertain which was the guilty party. But Mr. Haven assured them 



110 ROCHESTER. 

that he knew of a way to discover the truth. Accordingly he caught 
the old crower and put him under the brass kettle in a darkened 
room. Each boy was then required to go into the room alone and 
touch the kettle with his finger, with the assurance that when the 
guilty boy touched it the rooster would certainly crow. One after 
another passed in and returned with trembling, but no crowing was 
heard, and they began to think the test had failed, and that the pen- 
alty would be escaped. But not so easily. Mr. Haven said he was 
certain the guilty boy had not touched the kettle, for the old crower 
had always told the truth. So he required them to hold up their 
hands, and sure enough, one and one only had clean fingers. Of 
course this was the culprit, whose fears kept him from touching the 
kettle lest his guilt should be discovered. 

Often were the younger members of the family where Mr. Haven 
visited, astounded to observe him leave off" abruptly in the middle of 
some story, — perhaps a witch story more laughable than refined, — 
to ask a blessing over the tea-table, resuming the story so suddenly 
that the thread of the narrative remained unbroken. 

We are liable to misunderstand the true character of such a man. 
The reputation of being an excellent joker or story teller, or even of 
being fond of lively and mirthful company, is not considered the 
most desirable for a clergyman. Where there is such an irrepressi- 
ble vein of humor exhibiting itself on all occasions, a deeper vein of 
religious sentiment may escape our attention. Kot these lighter 
traits surely, but far nobler qualities made up the character of this 
excellent man. l^ot only by nature but on principle, Mr. Haven 
was affable and cheerful. He regarded cheerfulness as a Christian 
duty. In his severest trials and afilictions, of which he had a large 
share, he exhibited extraordinary calmness and cheerfulness. 

He was a man of great wisdom and shrewd common sense, which 
enabled him to manage all sorts of people with peculiar success. 
Much superstition was prevalent in his day, and he was specially 
fitted to expose its absurdities, by both ridicule and reason. People 
then generally believed that witches had power to torment and 
injure the souls and bodies of those who ofiended them. Many 
believed that de})arted spirits had no better employment than to 
return to the earth to vex and frighten terrified mortals. From his 
house on the common, Mr. Haven could frequently see not only 
youths and maidens, but men venerable with years and reputation, 



FIRST CENTURY OF CHURCH HISTORY. Ill 

making a wide circuit bv the meeting-house to avoid passing the 
house of old Jenny Cook. IVIany fooUsh stories were afloat concern- 
ing her power for evil. It was said that Col. McDnffee had prom- 
ised her, if she would let her liusband go to the army in the Revo- 
lution, and he should be killed, he would marry her himself When 
her husband fell in battle the Colonel refused to fulfill his promise. 
So the story went that she bewitched his horse till it became neces- 
sary to cut ofl: the horse's tail and burn it to drive out the witch, 
and that as the tail ascended the chimney it actually took off the 
bricks. Such stories and many like it were continually circulating 
and widely believed. Mr. Haven was well skilled in meeting such 
superstitions. When some ignorant sufferer from an overloaded 
stomach would tell how the witches rode him off by night and 
hitched him in the woods to stand till near morning, and then rode 
him back, Mr. Haven would suggest some odd and original plan to 
discover where the witches had their hitching-post, — some plan 
always sure both to cure the patient and afford the community a 
deal of fun over a good story. 

When Mr. Haven lived in the parsonage on the hill close by the 
graveyard, he often heard the clattering hoofs go by in the night as 
if Tam O'Shanter himself were on the road, and more than once 
stopped the frightened traveler and led him back to the graveyard 
to convince him that the ghost which had terrified him was only a 
white rock on the wall with a bush waving behind it. Mr. Piper of 
Wakefield once requested an exchange with Mr. Haven in order 
that he might exorcise an evil spirit in a bewitched family of his 
parish. Always ready to do what he could to relieve the suffering 
Mr. Haven accepted the invitation. He found one of the daughters 
and a vagrant girl living in the family, so badly bewitched that the 
touch of silver or the proximity of a Bible would throw them into 
fearful paroxysms. The daughter was confined to her bed, and 
without exciting her suspicions Mr. Haven managed to rub one of 
his silver knee buckles against her hand. It produced no paroxysm, 
neither did the Bible which he always carried in his pocket cause 
her any distress. He thus exposed to the family the folly and wick- 
edness of the imposition, and then advised the father to send away 
the vagrant girl who had so effectually duped them all. 

Mr. Haven was a man of great benevolence of feeling. It was a 
common saying that he was a friend of the sick and the poor. No 



112 ROCHESTER. 

one could long be confined to the sick bed before he learned it, and 
his presence with his kind and enlivening voice was often better 
than medicine, indeed his long experience had given him an un- 
derstanding of human ailments equal to that of most physicians. 
He thus secured a general attachment and regard, and aged people, 
at his death, recalled his kind attentions with heartfelt gratitude 
and warm affection. His labors and perseverance, his love for 
his people, and his zeal for his work among them were constant 
and unwearied. We thus see that his atfability of manner sprang 
from his heart, — the source of all true politeness. He never passed 
even a boy or girl on the street without bowing and raising his 
hat, a compliment sure to be acknowledged by bow or courtesy 
in return. It was said that he had worn a hole through his three- 
cornered continental by these frequent salutations. 

Few men devoted more time to reading and study, or investi- 
gated important questions more thoroughly than Mr. Haven. He 
seldom came into the house without taking a book or paper to 
read before he sat down. Literary in his own tastes he desired 
to help others in the same direction, and it was largely through 
his efforts that the Social Library Association was formed and 
achieved its lasting success. 

He was a man of great native independence of mind and thought. 
On almost every subject he had an opinion, not received from the 
authority of others, but formed by his own investigation. He 
thought for himself, and did not hesitate to avow his conclusions. 
His independence was not narrow and bigoted, the result of igno- 
rance, but was broad and enlightened, because it was founded on 
a basis of intelligent information on almost every subject. To 
have acted the hypocrite by denying or concealing his convictions, 
in order to secure public or private favor, would have been impos- 
sible to the nature which God gave him. 

Though well versed in theological lore, he took little pleasure 
in doctrinal discussions. " Foolish and unlearned questions he 
avoided, knowing these do gender strifes, and as a servant of the 
Lord he sought rather to be gentle unto all men, apt to teach, 
patient, in meekness instructing." Unlike many clergymen of his 
day he avoided " dark and metaphysical disputes" about questions 
of election and predestination and the like, which he thought only 
served to " darken counsel by words without knowledge." So he 



FIRST CENTURY OF CHURCH HISTORY. 113 

preached to liis congregation that they shoukl follow righteousness, 
faith, charity, peace Avith them that call on the Lord out of a pure 
heart. The extracts already given show that his sermons were 
eminently practical, and as plain as they were practical. ISToue 
could misunderstand his meaning. He thus hoped to deliver his 
own soul from the curse denounced against the careless or un- 
faithful watchman. So he rebuked the sins of the people, and 
used great plainness of speech in reference to their individual 
offenses. Did some wild fellows rob his orchard or his melon 
patch ? They heard the next Sabbath these words from the pulpit : 

"What shall I call you? Shall I call you thieves? This would afEront you. 
Shall I call you friends ? A thief is hardly worthy to be called so by any, for 
he may soon rob him whom he call his friend. I will call you poor deluded 
souls. You may think that custom sanctifies theft, and that because it has 
become a custom among some — a pack of low-lived villains — to rob orchards, 
vineyards, and the like, that therefore it is no sin." 

If the behavior of the boys in church was disorderly, he re- 
buked them in this style : — 

"I am sorry to tell you my young hearers that some of you have got to such 
a pitch of rudeness in this house, that you disturb many in the worship of 
God. What if God should now call you out of the world, do you think that 
your low cunning, or your pretty wit, as you consider it, could save you ? It 
is shocking to think what you are, some of you, both in and out of God's house. 
And there are some, if they will not take warning which is friendly, will find 
to their surprise and shame that the laws will be put in execution against them. 
This indecency and rudeness is not confined to young people alone. While 
the benediction is pronounced there is too commonly a noise and stir in every 
part of the house, but young people in particular are rushing from the house of 
God, as though they were rushing from a place of confinement. It is some 
time since any fatal, destructive distemper has in general spread among youth. 
It is remarkable to see the large number of children and young people there 
are among us. It is a most pleasant and delightful sight, when they behave 
themselves well. But have you, my young hearers, no cause to fear that God 
will soon send some fatal, raging disorder among you that you may be swept 
as with the besom of destruction ? " 

Mr. Haven's religious experience was deep and thorough. When 
about eight years of age, his elder brother reproved him for some 
wrong act, reminding him that God would punish such conduct. 
His heart revolted at the suggestion, and in the mad impulse of 
the moment he exclaimed, " I wish God was dead." But very 
quickly he was filled with horror at the thought of his impiety, 
and had a distressing view of the sinfulness and misery of his 
heart. This ans^uish of mind never left him till he found relief 



114 ROCHESTER. 

in the hopes of the gospel through the blood of . Christ. In this 
early experience sprang up the impulse to lead others to the same 
Saviour in whom he had found deliverance from the burden of sin. 
He was a man of devout spirit. In the morning, long before 
others were astir, he was in the habit of rising for private devo- 
tion and study. One who resided several months in his family 
says, " I have often seen him by morning candlelight with a large 
Bible and commentary before him, poring over their contents." 
His last days were peaceful and happy, giving the most satisfac- 
tory evidence of his being a true and sincere Christian. When 
asked, a short time before his death, if he felt resigned to the 
will of God, " Perfectly resigned " was his answer. And though 
very feeble and unable to speak much, he repeated the lines, 

" How long, dear Saviour, O how long 
Shall that bright hour delay ? 
Fly swifter round, ye wheels of time, 
And bring the welcome day." 

He thus passed peacefully and joyfully to his rest January 27, 
1825, and lies buried among the people of his charge. A plain 
white stone marks his grave with the following inscription : — 

Rev. Joseph Haven 

born May li^^ old style 1747, 

died Jan, 29, 1825. 



CHAPTER VII. 

LEADINa MEN OF THE REVOLUTIONAEY PERIOD. 

" With moistened eye 
We read of faith and purest charity 
In statesman, priest, and humble citizen, 
O could we copy their mild virtues, then 
What joy to live, what blessedness to die ! 
Methinks their very names shine still and bright, 
Apart, — like glowworms on a summer night, 
Or lonely tapers when from far they fling 
A guiding ray, or seen like stars on high." 

Hon. John Plummer. 

John Plummer was an active aud useful man in our town for 
many years before and after as well as throughout the Revolu- 
tion. Interested in public affairs, and possessing a sound judgment 
with considerable energy of character, he gained an influence with 
the people, so that his opinion was authority on important ques- 
tions. His business experience caused him to be elected to many 
local offices. No man in the history of the town has been so 
frequently chosen moderator of town meetings. Nearly sixty times 
was he elected to this office. He was also selectman for several 
years, and seldom Avas an important committee appointed, of which 
he was not a member. At that time few persons had suflUcient 
education or business experience to cjualify them for responsible 
offices. The people were almost exclusively engaged in farming, 
while the schools afforded no such advantages as at the present 
day. The education even of the leading men of that time would 
be regarded very limited now. Their success depended more upon 
native force and good judgment than upon knowledge derived from 
hooks. This fact must not be forgotten in estimating the char- 
acter and abilities of men of that generation. Mr. Plummer was 
the first magistrate appointed in the town, " and by his remark- 
ably conciliatory conduct was able to settle most disputes that 



116 ROCHESTER. 

came before lam in an amicable manner, and was wortby to be 
called a peacemaker." This expression well illustrates his char- 
acter. His benevolent disposition was constantly manifested in 
acts of kindness to the poor. By assistance, as well as good advice, 
he gained their friendship and esteem. He was well known be- 
yond the limits of the town, holding acquaintance with the influ- 
ential men of the State. He was a friend of Gov. Wentworth, 
who showed his appreciation of his worth by appointing him Judge 
of the Court of Common Pleas in 1773. Though perhaps some- 
what restrained by this friendship of the British Governor, from 
radical opposition to the royal government, yet his loyalty to the 
American cause is unquestionable. He was hardy and athletic, 
with an iron constitution. Witt}^ and humorous, he was very fond 
of company, especially that of the young. After the Revolution, 
his house was much frequented by his old companions in arms 
who always found a hearty welcome and hospitable entertainment, 
and many hours were spent talking over the events of the war. 
He was a man of much popularity, for his kind-heartedness made 
him beloved by the whole community. JSTo person's feelings were 
more easily moved in behalf of the poor and distressed, whose 
sufferings he was ever ready to relieve. If the corn crop hap- 
pened to be cut off, the poor for miles around knew who had a 
goodly store left over from which their wants would be freely 
supplied. He often pleaded the cause of the poor in court, without 
fee -or reward, and sometimes volunteered his services in defense 
of the unfortunate. In such cases, he was listened to with marked 
attention, and seldom failed of success. The town manifested its 
confidence by choosing him the first member of the Committee 
of Correspondence. lie hastened away — a volunteer delegate — 
to the Convention at Exeter immediately after the battle of Lex- 
ington, and rendered various services to the Committee of Safety 
during the war. When an independent State Government was 
established in 1776, such reliance was reposed in his patriotism 
and integrity, that he was re-appointed to the Judgeship. He 
retained this office until his voluntary resignation in 1795, at which 
time he was Chief Justice. He was a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention in 1778. As a farmer he was successful, and 
was a stock-raiser upon a large scale. His aftairs were managed 
with economy and skill, and he acquired large tracts of land which 



LEADING MEN OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. 117 

were inherited by his children. He died Xov. 19, 1815. at the 
advanced ao;e of ninety-six years. 

Of Judge Phimmer's ancestry little is known. His parents 
resided at Dover JSTeck, from which place he came with several 
brothers and settled in llochester. Descendants of these families 
are now quite numerous in this and neighboring towns. Judge 
Plummer's natural endowments, benevolent disposition, and patri- 
otism, rather than his moral character, gave him position. He 
whose duty it is to enforce the laws, ought to set the example 
of obedience. But Judge Plummer was no Puritan. The town 
treasury received frequent accessions by his numerous fines for 
breaking the Sabbath. Even to-day, tradition recounts his noto- 
rious amours, the memory of which is preserved as faithfully as 
that of his revolutionary services. 

Judge Plummer's first wife Avas Elizabeth, sister of Col. Titcomb 
of Dover, a distinguished and gallant oflicer in the Revolution. 
After her death he married Lydia Dennett of Portsmouth. The 
following amusing account of his courtship is from " Brewster's 
Rambles about Portsmouth " : — 

"Like a good housewife in those days, when no factories were in operation, 
the widow l3ennett kept her flock of sheep, and attended to the various pro- 
cesses of converting tlieir product into cloth, and her fame extended beyond the 
limits of the town. Near the house is a good spring which still flows as of 
old. It was a time of wool-washing. Laying aside her widow's weeds, dressed 
in a leather apron, a man's broad-brim hat and other apparel to match, she was 
washing her wool at the spring, when a stranger ou horseback approached and 
inquired for the residence of widow Dennett. Nothing daunted she pointed to 
the house, directing him to the front door, while she stepped round and entered 
the back way. He was not long in waiting before the lady of the house in 
comely apparel appeai-ed. The gentleman introduced himself as John Plummer 
of Rochester. He had heard of her good reputation, said perhaps it was too 
soon to come a courting, but would ask the privilege in proper time of pro- 
posing himbelf to her favorable consideration. In due time Judge Plummer 
came again, and they were married. They lived happily together many years, 
and their gravestones in Rochester record the ages of each at about ninety years. 
Whether he ever inquired who it was he found washing wool at the spring, we 
have never been informed." 

Lt. Col. John McDuffee. 

The parents of Col. John McDJfuee were among those Scotch 
families that had been settled in the north of Ireland in the reign 
of James I, and who emigrated to America to obtain freedom from 
Popish laws, and from the rents and tithes with which they were 
burdened. This son was born in, 1724, soon after their arrival 



118 ROCHESTER. 

in this countiy, and the family were among the early settlers of 
Rochester. 

Col. McDuffee entered upon military life in the French and 
Indian wars. In the Earl of Loudon's Expedition against Crown 
Point, he was commissioned a lieutenant in March, 1757, by Gov. 
Benning Wentworth. In January following he received a similar 
commission in William Stark's company of Rangers, and was au- 
thorized to fill up the company in any part of the Colonies, The 
soldiers of New Hampshire were so expert in Indian warfare, and 
so inured to fatigue and danger, that valuable services were ex- 
pected of these rangers. They were raised by express desire of 
Lord Loudon, to be employed in winter as well as summer, and 
proved so useful in skirmishing and procuring intelligence that 
they were kept in service till the close of the war. They sailed 
in the expedition to Louisburg and were engaged in the siege of 
that city until its surrender. Lieut. McDuffee with his rangers 
was employed in scouring the island, making prisoners of the 
French, men, women, and children, in accordance with an order 
from Gen. Whitmore detaching him for this special service. In 
the battle which resulted in the surrender of Quebec he com- 
manded a considerable detachment under Gen. Wolfe. He spent 
the following winter in that city, where he became enamored of 
a young French lady of aristocratic family, and was very devoted 
in his attentions. His addresses were not encouraged by the 
parents, however, and the family secretly removed from the city 
in order to interrupt the acquaintance. This disappointment was 
the reason of his remaining unmarried through life. So says 
tradition. After the conquest of Canada he returned home, and 
in 1762 was chosen Representative to the Provincial Assembly, 
being the first person chosen to this office in Rochester. He was 
frequently employed by the government in making surveys of 
public works. In 1768, in accordance with an act passed by the 
Assembly, he was engaged in laying out a highway from Durham 
Falls to Coos. In 178G, on petition of John Stark, the Legislature 
appointed a committee, of which Col. McDuftee was one, to run 
out the lines of Mason's Patent. Upon the basis of this survey 
a settlement was made Avith the Masonian Proprietors, finally dis- 
posing of a question which had been a source of trouble, vexation, 
and expense from the first settlement of New Hampshire. On 



LEADING MEN OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. 119 

the approach of the Revokition he took an active part in hehalf 
of the Colonies, and throughout the war was a zealous and enthu- 
siastic friend of independence. In 1774 he was appointed one of 
the town Committee of Correspondence, and was delegate to the 
first Provincial Congress at Exeter, May, 1775. War had hy this 
time become unavoidable, and this Congress was principally occu- 
pied in devising measures, raising men, and collecting munitions, 
for the defense of the Colony. He gave to this object not only 
the influence of his voice, but the force of his example, for on 
May twentieth, only three days from the opening of the Congress 
his name was enrolled as Lieutenant Colonel of the Second Regi- 
ment commanded by Col. Enoch Poor. As he was at that time 
one of the Selectmen, a town meeting was called to fill his place. 
His regiment was not fully organized at the time of the battle at 
Bunker Hill, but hearing the cannonading in the morning of that 
day, he mounted his horse and left his home in Rochester arriving 
at the field of battle the same evening. He remained at Camp 
Winter Hill and Cambridge during the siege of Boston, then went 
with the troops to ISTew York, and thence up the Hudson to Mount 
Independence, where many ]^ew Hampshire troops were stationed, 
and where he filled the ofiice of Brigade Commissary or Pay- 
master. As his name occurs frequently in the town records during 
the latter part of the war, it appears that he left the army about 
the close of the year 1779. He was a representative to the State 
Legislature in 1782. He was two years a member of the State 
Senate under the new Constitution, occupying the position of 
" Senior " Senator by which title the chairman of that body was 
then called. He was also for four years a Senator under the 
revised Constitution. His life was mostly spent in public service. 
He retained his faculties remarkably until a few months before 
his death, which occurred Oct. 15, 1817, at the age of ninety-three. 
Col. McDuffee was a man of noble form and cbnmianding ap- 
pearance, six feet two inches in height, of large frame, yet not 
corpulent. With a high sense of honor, he was firm and inde- 
pendent in the maintenance of his opinions. When the first pen- 
sion act was passed, he was advised to apply for a pension, but 
he spurned the suggestion with indignation, saying that it was 
sufficient reward to him to see the object accomplished for which he 
had fought. Impetuous in his feelings, he had no patience with 



120 ROCHESTER. 

any kind of oppression or injustice. His passions were especially 
violent against the enemies of his country; and in the last years 
of his life he might frequently have been heard muttering impre- 
cations against tories and redcoats, for, from being many years 
a soldier associating with rough companions, he had acquired so 
fixed a habit of profanity that he seemed to be utterly unconscious 
of the vice. The " l^ew Hampshire Gazetteer " says, " He was a 
man of strong mind and memory, of extensive information, and 
a sincere friend of his country." 

Deacon James Knowles. 

James Knotoles was born in Hampton in 1720, and came to 
Rochester in 1749. Little can be said of his life, further than to 
mention the positions he filled. Frequently moderator of town 
meetings, member of nearly every important committee in town 
during his active life. Representative to the Old Provincial As- 
sembly, when that body was convened for the last time by the 
British Governor, delegate to most of the conventions which 
fostered the spirit of revolution. Representative for six years to 
the new Assembly under the independent State Government, 
member of the Constitutional Convention of 1778, and also of the 
Convention of 1781, muster-master in the revolution, a magis- 
trate of the town. Selectman for several years ; — such were 
some of the oflices he was called to fill. As servant of the peo- 
ple, he spent a large part of his long life in unambitious yet 
useful public labor. In the church, taking the ofiice of Deacon 
upon the death of Stephen Berry who had honorably filled that 
position from the organization of the church till his death in 1762, 
he zealously and with religious fidelity discharged its duties for 
a space of forty years, until his own death at the beginning of 
the present century. To his patriotism were added the virtues 
of a calm and peaceful Christian character. He was one of the 
pillars of the church, and at the same time was always earnest 
in every cause which concerned the welfare of his country. As 
large a share of public responsibilities fell to his lot as to that of 
any one during this period. He died in 1802, aged eighty-two. 
Few are the names tliat come down to us, around which cluster 
so many pleasant and honored associations. In a sermon upon 
his death, Mr. Haven says : — 



LEADING MEN OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. 121 

" As a friend he was to be trusted ; as a neighbor, benevolent and respected ; 
as a magistrate or citizen he was for order and government ; and his general 
deportment was that of a sincere Christian. — not ostentatious in his worship, 
but steady and firm in his religion. As an officer of the church, he dignified 
his oflice. The church has cause to lament his death, though he died in ven- 
erable old age. He lived beloved and died lamented, and we trust his memory 
like that of the just, will be sweet." 

Dr. James IIowe. 

Among the patriots of the Revolution the name of James Howe 
should not be omitted. His pedigree runs back to James Howe 
who was a freeman at Ipswich, Mass., in 1637. One of his sons 
removed to Andover, and afterwards to Methuen, where his son 
Deacon James Howe was born in 1695, and died Dec. 22, 1771. 
His son James was Deacon with him in the same church. This 
Dea. James Jr. was born ^STov. 7, 1723, and died 1805 or 1806. 
He was married to Jemima Farnham Feb. 6, 1752, and had six 
sons, as follows: — Jonathan, James, David, Jacob, Isaac, and 
Farnham; all of whom served their country in the Revolution, 
from Bunker Hill to the close of the war. 

James Hoice was born at Methuen, Mass., March 23, 1755, and 
died in Rochester Oct. 13, 1807. He married about 1784, Lucy 
Fisher of iSTeedham, Mass., a sister of Mrs. Haven. She died in 
Boston, Mass., June, 1836. They had eight children, as follows : — 
1. Lucy born Sept. 7, 1785, married first Ephraim Dennett of Ports- 
mouth who died in 1831. She afterAvards married Josiah Vinton, 
Esq., of Boston, — no children. 2. Jafties born May 11, 1787, 
and died in Boston May 12, 1832. He was a man of much en- 
ergy and usefulness. He conducted a large business at Haverhill, 
Mass., and afterwards in Boston, in the wholesale dry goods trade 
with his brother Hall Jackson Howe. He had three sons and 
one daughter, who are highly respected residents of Brooklyn, 
]Sr. Y. 3. George is a farmer in Xeedham, Mass., and has four chil- 
dren. 4. Hall J. born Feb. 12, 1791, first settled as a dry goods 
merchant in Portsmouth, where he married Eliza P. Waldron. 
He removed to Boston, where he died August, 1849, leaving a large 
and highly respectable family. 5 & 6. Willard and Mary died in 
infancy. 7. Calvin Whiting born July 13, 1796, retired from 
business in 1857, and resides in New York city. He married 
Dec. 1, 1825, Charlotte Atwell. They have three daughters and 
one son, who served as surgeon in the Army of the Potomac. 

9 



122 ROCHESTER. 

8. Fisher born Sept. 3, 1798, was in business at Haverhill, Mass., 
from 1809 till 1820, when he went into company with his brother 
in Boston for sixteen years. Subsequently he resided in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. He married first June 16, 1825, Matilda Saltonstall, 
who died in Brooklyn May 21, 1831, leaving one daughter. He 
was again married Oct. 1, 1832, to Elizabeth Leavitt, who had 
three sons and two daughters. In 1849 he visited Europe and 
the East. He wrote occasional sketches of travel which were 
gathered into a volume and published. 

Dr. James Howe studied medicine with Dr. Bodwell of Methuen, 
Mass., and came to Eochester about 1776. His name appears on 
the Test Association. He became Surgeon's Mate in Col. Pierce 
Long's Regiment, and was one of the sufferers in the Canada 
expedition of 1777. He was esteemed as a man and a phj^sician 
on account of his great natural talent, and his benevolent dispo- 
sition. His largeness of heart endeared him to the people far and 
near. It is related that being called, at one time, to the bedside of 
a poor woman, he found the famil}^ so destitute of clothing that 
he repaired to the barn, took oft' his shirt which he left for their 
use, returning home shirtless to tell the tale of wretchedness he 
had been called to meet. He was emphatically a man of good 
deeds. For many years they formed his only creed. It was his 
ambition that his good deeds should overbalance his evil ones. 
Hence it became a favorite maxim with him to make the rich 
pay for doctoring the poor. In his later years, he kept no accounts, 
paid nothing, and charged nothing ; but when he needed anything 
for his family use, he applied to his rich neighbors. The sound of 
a farmer's dinner-horn was sufficient invitation for him to walk 
in and take a seat at the table, where he was always welcomed. 
Though a man of great eccentricities, and perhaps great failings, 
yet " even his failings leaned to virtue's side." His intemperance 
scarcely needed an apology in those days when abstinence was 
by all regarded a meanness and not a virtue, and his improvi- 
dence was but too large a generosity. The duties of the medical 
profession did not allow much time for other pursuits, yet the 
town elected him delegate to the Constitutional Convention ot 
1791, and sent him for three years to the Legislature. By the 
toils and exposures of his profession, a constitution naturally strong 
was early impaired, so that he did not live to great age. Near 



LEADING MEN OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. 123 

the close of his life, renouncing his dependence upon good deeds, 
he sought a more enduring peace hy reliance upon the merits of a 
Saviour, and died in the triumphs of Christian faith. 

Pre-eminent among the honorable names of this period is that 
of the Bcv. Joseph Haven, a full sketch of whom is given in the 
chapter on Church history. There are doubtless other names 
worthy of special mention. In fact almost every man, save the 
few tories of infamous record, was a patriot and a hero in those 
days " that tried men's souls." But the personal history of only 
a very few can now be obtained. With this short but brilliant 
list we must close the record. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

EARLY SETTLERS : — THEIR HARDSHIPS AND MODE OF LIFE * 

"The ambushed Indian, and the prowling bear: — 

Such were the needs that helped his youth to train ; — 
Rough culture : — but such trees large fruit may bear, 
If but their stocks be of right girth and grain." 

Our ancestors were a hardy race whose suflerings as pioneers 
in the wilderness it is difficult for us to realize.' At present, emi- 
gration proceeds with more system, and when the gold-seeker 
drops his pack at some rich lead, the comforts and even luxuries 
of life are not long in overtaking him. Flourishing cities exist 
to-day where only a few months ago not even the emigrant's 
shanty was to be seen. ]^ot so in the early days of ]^ew England. 
When Timothy Roberts moved his family into Rochester in mid- 
winter, the prospect must have been cheerless. Not for mines of 
gold and silver did he come, but for a home, — a farm which by 
hard and diligent labor might afibrd sustenance to himself and 
family. Others followed seeking the same object. The settlement 
progressed but slowly for many years. How great the privileges 
they had to renounce ! Dearest to them was the preaching of the 
Gospel, and though their charter promised them this blessing, 
yet more than eight years elapsed before a minister could be sus- 
tained, and the numerous petitions to the Assembly praying for 
assistance show how difficult was the task even then. For more 
than twenty years there was no school. Four years after the 
establishment of the church, there was no grist-mill in the town, 
although, as the inhabitants themselves state, Indian corn was 
their chief support. For several years their crops were cilt off 
by frost and drouth. The people ^vere poor and distressed but 
not discouraged. Then what labor was required in subduing the 



*Thi8 chapter is taken mainly from an address by the author, delivered before the Roch- 
ester Social Library Company, in the Congregational Church, Thursday evening, April 4, 1867. 
[Editor.] 



LIFE OF EARLY SETTLERS. 125 

forest. — in breaking up the land, — in making roads! What 
exposure in dwelUng in cabins, — in the toils of logging and 
hunting I What dejirivations of social enjoyments ! What a life 
of self-denial and toil ! Scarcely had the war with the wilderness 
begun to turn in their favor, when war with the Indians burst 
forth calling them to new dangers and exposures. Their mills 
built, their farms subdued, their orchards grown, their houses 
provided, and the church established, they lived for many years 
in constant alarm lest not these only but their own lives also 
should suddenly be destroyed. Yet at such a time, by their courage 
and discipline, they became a terror to their foes. These trials 
developed strong traits of mind, inflexible habits, and iron frames. 
The men were distinguished for hardihood, boldness, industry, 
and econom}'. As their circumstances tested all the energies of 
their character, so their character was schooled and molded to 
combat with circumstances. Their children brought up with 
coarse food, coarse clothing, and hard lodging, — trained to the 
use of arms and accustomed to danger, were preparing for the 
contest of life, — to become themselves pioneers at still more 
remote distances in the country. Notwithstanding their hardships 
many of these first settlers lived to a great age. Of those who 
died between 1776 and 1792, ona was over a hundred years old, 
two between ninety and one liundred, fourteen between eighty 
and ninety, twenty between seventy and eighty, and four between 
sixty and seventy. Of those living here in 1792 one was between 
ninety and one hundred, nine between eighty and ninety, and five 
between seventy and eighty. 

The houses or rude cabins of the settlers were usually con- 
structed of poles or logs so placed that by means of notches in 
the ends, the whole was firmly bound together. Then crevices 
or chinks were filled and plastered over with clay or stift" earth, 
mixed with moss or straw. The roof was made of bark or split 
boards. Something resembling a chimney or fire-place was built 
of stones, within which the fire was made upon the ground. A 
hole in the roof allowed escape for the superfluous smoke. In 
warm weather the smoke was desirable rather than otherwise to 
drive away the mosquitoes and other insects with which the woods 
abounded. Ovens formed of choice stones well plastered with clay 
or earth were built a short distance from the houses. Of course, 



126 ROCHESTER. 

after saw-mills were erected and better materials could be procured, 
these temporary cabins gave place to more substantial bouses. 

As families began to settle in remote parts of the town the 
necessity of making new roads was one of the heaviest burdens. 
As their dwellings were widely separated, the roads were long 
and the labor of keeping them in passable condition, great. Still, 
they complained not, as long as the roads were for their own 
people. But when new settlements were formed in the back towns, 
especially in ITew Durham, Watertown (Wolfeborough), and East- 
town (Waketield), the burden could no longer be silently borne. 
Great efforts were made to keep these roads clear through Roch- 
ester, then including Farmington and Milton, but in vain. At 
one time the town instructed the surveyors to warn men " to lay 
out two nights and work three days " to clear the road to New 
Durham. After performing more than five hundred days' work 
on this road, the town did not escape indictment. They petitioned 
the General Assembly, however, that a tax might be laid on the 
proprietors' lands to pay these expenses, representing that there 
were no inhabitants for seven or eight miles on this road, " neither 
were they in a capacity to take packs and travel sixteen or eighteen 
miles into the country to do so much labor as was needful, while 
their families suflered at home." In spite of the opposition of 
the non-resident proprietors, the prayer was granted, the lands 
taxed, and the inhabitants largely relieved. These days were dark 
and gloomy, as the record attests. His Excellency Gov. Went- 
worth, to manifest his sympathy and benevolence, made the town 
a present of nine pounds, for which they passed a vote of thanks. 
The heavy tax for new roads continued for many years. When 
absent from home, at work on the road, the men often camped 
out for days or weeks together, and at inclement seasons of the 
year. For shelter at night, they built a hut of poles or bark 
with one side open to the air. Wrapping themselves in blankets, 
lying with their feet towards a large fire in the center of the hut, 
they rested comfortably and rose refreshed for their day's labor. 
The roads were of a very primitive order. Little more was done 
than to cut away the trees and bushes close to the ground, and 
build rough bridges where streams could not be forded. The food 
of the workmen was salted pork and beef with Indian corn bread, 
and their drink largely spirit. It was their custom to invite 



LIFE OF EARLY SETTLERS. 127 

passing travelers to drink, expecting some gratuity in return. 
Alcoliolic drinks were then freely used, especially upon such occa- 
sions as funerals, weddings, huskings, raisings, and trials at court. 
Watering the jury was well understood hy those who had much 
law husiness. The farmers early planted orchards, and the apples 
were largely made into cider which became their common bever- 
age. While the men engaged in these outdoor labors, the women 
spun and wove the flax or wool, and attended to the clothing of the 
family. 

In addition to the atiiictious of the husbandman already enumer- 
ated, wild animals were numerous for many j^ears, and often 
pillaged his crops and robbed his sheep-fold. They sometimes 
ventured into the most thickly settled parts of the town. Mr- 
Main once discovered near his dwelling a very large black bear, 
which was killed and brought in by the assistance of his neigh- 
bors. To check the depredations of these animals a bounty of ten 
shillings was voted in 1751, to any inhabitant of the town who 
should kill a grown bear or wolf, icithui the bounds of the town, to 
be paid upon his producing the head of the animal with both 
ears on. During the first year, bounties were paid, under this 
vote, for " bar's heads " to John Place, Daniel Wingato, Matthew 
Macafee, Charles Rogers, John Mialles, and Samuel Wingate. 
Other bears were killed in years following, and within a short 
period bounties were paid for five or more wolves. Besides the 
town bounty, the Provincial Assembly allowed a discount upon 
the Province tax to every person who killed one of these animals. 
Bears were especially destructive to crops of Indian corn. Their 
mode of operation was to station themselves between two rows, 
and with their paws break down the stalks of four contiguous 
hills, so that the ears might lie near together, then having devoured 
them pass on. Thus, in an incredibly short time, they Avould lay 
waste a whole field of this valuable grain. They were sometimes 
killed by placing loaded guns with lines extending across the field 
so that a bear striking against one of them would discharge a 
gun and shoot himself. Oftener they were caught in log traps. 
Wolves made great havoc among sheep, and were common in New 
Hampshire long after this period. They were taken in various 
ways ; sometimes by log traps, sometimes by binding fish-hooks 
together dipping them into melted tallow till a ball was formed 



128 ROCHESTER. 

as large as an egg. These balls being scattered near some carcass 
were readily devoured by the animals. 

Plenty of deer tested the skill of the hunter. From 1758 to 
1764, at the annual meetings for election of town officers, two or 
more persons were regularly chosen " to search out who kills 
deer contrary to law." A law of the Province prohibited the 
killing of these animals at certain seasons of the j^ear, yet deer 
were so much sought after, that it was necessary to adopt strin- 
srent means to check their wanton destruction. Ichabod Corson 
and William McDuifee constituted this committee for five years. 
Rattlesnakes abounded. It is recorded that a number of people 
went to mow a meadow in Rochester, but found it so full of these 
venomous reptiles, that they set fire to the grass and quit the 
place. 

Coming down to a later period, let us picture to ourselves the 
Rochester of seventy-five years ago. Seventy-five years I How 
long, — how short the time! How long when we think of two 
generations passed away ! How long when we think of the changes 
which have taken place within that period ! And yet hoAv short ! 
How short even the whole period of our town existence ! How 
few the years since our beautiful village was but a wilderness 
untracked save by the Indian and the bear ! Only last Christmas,* 
was buried in the eastern part of the town, Mrs. Dorothy Tebbetts 
aged 101 years, who though she was born and passed her life in 
Rochester yet was for ten years a subject of Great Britain. The 
years of her life ran back beyond the Revolution, to within thirty 
years of the formation of the first church and the settlement of 
the first minister, — to within thirteen years of the first school, — 
to within twenty years of the horrible massacres here perpetrated 
by the Indians, — back to within thirty-seven years of that winter 
when the ringing of the white man's ax was first heard in our 
forest. Thus one human life has embraced almost the whole 
period of our existence as a town. Returning to the picture of 
our village at that time, — let us banish our large woolen and 
shoe factories from every part of the town, — our railroads, our 
banks, our i)riiitiiig-offices, our post-offices, our daily mails, our 
newspapers. The people with few exceptions are farmers. These 
exceptions arc a minister to attend the wounded in spirit, a phy- 

* December, 18G0. 



LIFE OF EARLY SETTLERS. 129 

sician to attend the wounded in body, and a lawyer to attend 
tliose wounded in property or personal rights. In the days of 
wliich we are speaking, Rochester was no insignificant town. 
AVith the exception of Portsmouth its population exceeded that 
of any town in tlie State. A few years later, after losing two 
thirds its territory to Farmington and Milton, its population was 
about the same as that of Dover, and still maintained its rank as 
one of the principal towns. The village of " Norway Plains," or 
" the city " as it was respectfully called by the rural people, con- 
tained eighteen or twenty houses, and soon after this at least, 
could boast of the only brick building in the county, — an object 
of fame and curiosity to the people man}- miles distant. At a 
later period, children were allowed to believe that the houses in 
^' the city " of Rochester were so near together that a man might 
walk from roof to roof. A view of the appearance and business 
of our village as it then was, may not be uninteresting. On the 
next page is presented a rough sketch of its buildings and streets 
as they were about 1788. Though not a perfect map it may aid 
in forming an idea of the appearance of the village at that time. 
The bounds and courses of the streets and mill-common are accord- 
ing to a survey of the Selectmen in 1785. The location and de- 
scription of the buildings are mostly from a memorandum made 
by Joseph Hanson, who moved into town in 1788, and made this 
record for the information of those who might be interested in 
such matters after he was dead. There were then twenty buildings 
in the village, including two or three untinished dwellings, a log 
house, a clothing-house or fulling-mill, a blacksmith's shop, an 
inn, and the meeting-house. Most of the buildings were small 
one-story houses. Of these buildings there now remain, the Moses 
Hurd house, the Knight house, the Jabez Dame house, and the 
Harford house, besides two or three others that have received 
additions and alterations so as to be hardly recognized. The 
Harford house then stood where Feineman's store now is, and the 
following incident is told of its removal : As a defaulting Collector, 
Paul Harford had caused the town great trouble. When he moved 
this building, he left it in the road near its present location, and 
arming himself and barricading the building swore he would never 
move it out of the street. The militia was called out under Gen. 
Furber, but Harford had provided himself Avith tubs of hot water, 



130 



ROCHESTER, 




NORWAY PLAINS, 1788. 



LIFE OF EARLY SETTLERS. 131 

with whieli he kept them at respectful distance till it was all spent, 
when he was compelled to surrender. In the town account for 
1789, we find this item : — " Paid Capt. Storer for rum when 
Harford was put out of his house £1-1-0." 

The log house was where is now the corner of Market and 
Bridge streets, and served as a connecting link between two periods 
of our history. It stood as a memorial of the hardships of an 
earlier generation, while m strong contrast, marking a great ad- 
vance in comfort and luxury, could he seen the Knight house, the 
building of which had just commenced. The clothing-house, 
where the iSTorway Plains Fp[tor Mill now is, represented the 
manufactures of the town ; while the meeting-house and the inn 
at the lower end of the village direct our thoughts to the morals 
and social customs of their day. The log house was, of course, 
the earliest style of architecture. After the erection of saw-mills, 
these gradually gave way to a more finished and comfortable 
structure, — a one-story low-posted house, containing but few rooms 
and those small. Before the Eevolution a two-stor\^ house came 
into fashion with a double or gambrel roof, like the Louis Mc- 
Duftee house, and the Ephraim Whitehouse house on the i^eck 
road. Still later appeared hip-roofed dwellings like the Dennett 
and Kenney houses. Cottage roofs, piazzas, brackets, etc., distin- 
guish the latest style. Thus with a little attention any one can 
determine with tolerable accuracy the period to which each house 
belongs. An aged citizen says that the first paint he ever saw 
upon a house was a gaily colored red and white door in Josiah 
Folsom's house, and the first green blinds were on the Joseph 
Otis house or some house near by. 

The raising of a house frame was in those days an event of 
general interest and excitement. As soon as the ridgepole was 
fairly in its place, it was customary to celebrate the completion 
of the job by a " christening." A bottle of rum was dashed upon 
the ridgepole, a name given to the frame, and sometimes a few 
verses of doggerel repeated. This frequently fell to a droll and 
original character named Thomas Ilanscom. The last celebration 
of this sort, of which we have any account, was at the raising of 
the Methodist meeting-house. This house was built near the spot 
where David Barker's house was burned. Only one stanza of 
Hanscom's poetry on the occasion is preserved. 



132 ROCHESTER. 

" The flames were sent by Heaven's command 
To purify this promised land; 
Near where the traveler found a bed 
This lofty building rears its head." 

At the raising of the Woodman mansion, now known as Man- 
sion House, April 20, 1799, Hanscom read the following verses : — 

" On the twentieth of April, in the year '99 
Our frame we got up in a suitable time. 
It 's a very fine frame, the flower of the Plain, 
The timber substantial and strong; 
The stories are high, it is forty feet wide, 
And forty-four feet it is long. 
Not a long time ago this timber stood in trees, 
But the workmen have tried the owner to please, 
Got it up at the time without any neglect, 
And we hope it will suit in every respect. 
As for the owner with his loving mate, 
"We hope they '11 live long at a plentiful rate. 
Their frame of itself is a picture to see ; 
When fixed and moved in it, happy may they be. 
As they are about their native place to forsake, 
May they have cause to rejoice in the bargain they make. 
With good neighbors united happy days may they see, 
And long live together in prosperity. 
So, long may they live, happy may they die. 
With every good thing may they always comply; 
Many years may they live to enjoy their cage. 
And to heaven may they go in an honest old age. 
The ' Flower of the Plain ' is tlae name of the frame, 
We 've had exceeding good luck in raising the same ; 
May God direct and instruct us in all that is right ; 
It 's the last day of the week, and late at night." 

Another illustration of this custom occurred about 1812. Nehe- 

miah Eastman had sold the March house to Josiah Edgerlj. As 

Edgerly proposed to move the house wdiole, Eastman found that 

it must be moved through his garden (the thought of which he 

could not endure), or the front poplar trees which he highly prized 

must be cut down, or his shed must be torn away. He tried to 

buy back the house, but in vain. Of the three evils he chose 

that which seemed the least, and decided to tear down the shed. 

When the new house was framed, l^ed Chamberline, the poet of 

the neighborhood, was called upon for the christening ceremony. 

But Ned unfortunately was drunk. He was brought up, however, 

and being allowed to support himself over a brace, l)egan as 

follows : — 

" As for Nehemiah, he is both lawyer and a squire, 
But the moving of his house he did dread, 
And, without any discretion, be fell into a passion, 
And swore he would tear down his shed." 



LIFE OF EARLY SETTLERS. 1S3 

At this stage of the proceedings, Eastman made his appearance 
with a green hide in his liand, and qnickly put to rout the drunken 
poet, and ended the ceremony. It is said that this was the first 
house built in this part of the country ^^^thout being named. 

It was the ancient custom to build houses on a north and south 
line, which accounts for the fact that so man}' of the old dwellings 
stand corner to the road. This custom had a sensible reason in 
the daily convenience of the inmates. Clocks then being too ex- 
pensive for general use, the liousc was thus made the timekeeper. 
Its shadow told the hour of noon, and thus the good housewife 
knew when to get her dinner, and when to sound the horn to 
call the hands from the field. Clocks were probably introduced 
about the time of the Revolution. They were the old-fashioned 
English brass clocks extending from floor to ceiling, usually occu- 
pying one corner of the room, whence the broad white face with 
its long pointers looked gravely down, and the slow and measured 
tick admonished the family that their lives were constantly jogging 
away. Few families could aftbrd them for they were very costly. 
Afterwards came a cheaper clock of wood, sold for about |20. 
Agents went from house to house insisting on putting them up on 
trial till they came again, and when they returned were willing to 
take almost anything in payment, and often took the cattle from 
the barns. In this manner they were generally introduced and 
were soon considered indispensable. In 1807 Edward S. Moulton 
commenced the manufacture of clocks here. After some years 
he was s^ucceeded b}^ one of his apprentices, James C. Cole. The 
clocks were of brass after the English pattern. Mr. Cole carried 
on an extensive business cutting the wheels with steel dies. He 
employed several journeymen and apprentices, and a cabinet-maker 
to prepare the cases. These clocks were carried far into the 
country for sale, and attained a wide reputation. It is not un- 
common, even in towns far back from Rochester, to find at this 
daj', these old time-pieces bearing Mr. Cole's name. 

In these early times there was no post-office and no mail. 
But few newspapers found their way into the town. On March 
4, 1768, the following advertisement appeared in the " JSTew Hamp- 
shire Gazette," printed at Portsmouth : — 

" Wanted, an honest, sober man who is able to keep two good Horses to 
ride as Post or Carrier through the towns of Kittery, Berwick, Soraersworth, 



134 ROCHESTER. 

Kochester, &c., to begin the first of April. Any Person inclining to undertake 
this business is desired to apply immediately to the Printers hereof and they 
will no doubt meet with Encouragement to their Satisfaction, as a great JS'um- 
ber of People in the above said Towns are very desirous of having the News 
Papers in case some Suitable Person constantly rides." 

Before the close of the month it was announced that a post-rider 
woukl immediately begin to ride through these towns, by whom 
all persons might be sup^jlied with the " Kew Hampshire Gazette," 
etc., etc., for nine shillings lawful money per annum, carriage in- 
cluded, and all who inclined to encourage so useful a person as 
a post-rider were desired to give in their names at the printing- 
office. We can easily imagine the appearance of the post-rider 
passing from town to town and from inn to inn with his bag of 
" Grazettes " strapped behind him. The poet has already made us 
familiar with his description : — 

" He comes, the herald of a noisy world, 
With spattered boots, strapped waist, and frozen locks, 
News from all nations lumbering at his back. 
True to his charge, the close-packed load behind, 
Yet careless what he brings, his one concern 
Is to conduct it to the destined Inn, 
And having dropped the expected bag, pass on. 
He whistles as he goes, light-hearted wretch, 
Cold and yet cheerful." 

In 1792 Josiah Paine advertised to ride Post from the printing- 
office in Dover through Rochester, Wakefield, Wolfeborough, Mid- 
dleton, ]^ew Durham, and The Gore to Gilmanton, and back 
through Barnstead, Barrington, Northwood, Lee, and Durham, 
once a week. 

A post-office was established in Rochester March 26, 1812; 
William Barker, innkeeper, being the first postmaster. The 
revenue of the office for the first three months was $5.07; for 
the next six months |7.99, making an average for the first nine 
months of not quite a dollar and a half a month. In 1826 the 
receipts for one quarter were but $25.76, and the postmaster's 
commission was only $8.51J; yet at this time there were sixty 
dwellings in the village, a cotton factory with four carding-ma- 
chines doing a large business in dressing country cloth, a scythe 
factory with a trip-hammer, besides two potteries and several 
stores; and the town was one of the county seats where the 
Court of Common Pleas held rcs^ular sessions. The annual rev- 



LIFE OF EARLY SETTLERS. 135 

eiiue of the office is now (1867) §1,225; there being also two other 
post-offices in town. Still the whistling post-boy continued his 
rides, and as he entered our village near the common, he com- 
menced to blow lustily his tin horn to announce to all the people 
the safe arrival of the latest news foreign and domestic. Many 
now living remember him. As late even as 1822, there was no 
stage except the mail-carrier above described, — then Robert Clark, 
f\miiliarly called duck-legs, rode the following circuit: — starting 
from Plymouth on horseback, Sunday evening or Monday morn- 
ing, he passed through Center Harbor, Sandwich, Wolfeborough, 
Middleton, Farmington, Rochester, Dover, to Portsmouth, thence 
returning to Rochester, he took a diffi?rent route through Milton, 
Wakefield, Ossipee, Tamworth, Conway, to Plymouth, where he 
arrived in season to commence the same circuit the following week. 
In 1825 a two-horse stage was started running twice a week each 
way between Dover and Wakefield. The business men of Roch- 
ester, Moses Hale, J. H. Woodman, and the Barkers, were con- 
cerned in this enterprise. Failing of success the owners, after a 
year or two, persuaded Jonathan T. Dodge, who as a stable-boy 
had saved a small sum of money, to buy out the line. In 1829 
we find him with a partner advertising in the "Dover Gazette" a 
stage from Dover to Conway, three days each week, returning 
alternate days ; and promising as attractions of the route " a view 
of the sublime and interesting scenery of the White Mountains" 
and also of " the lead mines of Eaton." Mr. Dodffe was eno-ae-ed 
in this business most of the time till the opening of the railroads. 
At the latter part of this period, he had seventy-seven horses and 
was running four and six horse coaches daily each way between 
Dover and Ossipee. The stage business had become immense, — 
" the great thoroughfares " of travel from . northern Xew Hamp- 
shire converging to this village as a focus, — and when the heaA^ly 
loaded six-horse coaches arrived from Wakefield, and from Con- 
way, and from Wolfeborough, and from Sandwich, with others 
less grand from Farmington, and from Gilmanton, our village 
presented a lively, business-like appearance. With the completion 
of the railroads to the towns above Rochester, these lively scenes 
passed away to return no more. 

The transportation of heavy merchandise through this town 
was carried on to an extent almost incredible. These streets were 



136 ROCHESTEK. 

then alive every winter from December to March with long pro- 
cessions of single and double pungs and sleighs, from early morn 
till late at night. Like caravans in length, an unbroken line 
could frequently be seen from half a mile to more than a mile 
in extent. They brought produce from Vermont and even from 
Canada across the frozen Winnepisseogee, and passed on through 
Rochester to Dover and Portsmouth. There they exchanged their 
hogs, butter, and cheese, for iron, salt, rum, and molasses, and 
then made their toilsome journey back. The building of the 
Concord and Montreal Railroad and the roads through Maine, 
has diverted all this business into other channels. But these are 
events of comparatively modern date, within the memory of man}- 
people by no means old. Returning to the times of 1785 let us 
look within the dwellings. The work of the men was mostly 
out of doors. The women prepared food and clothing for the 
family. Cotton was bought unginned and the seeds were picked 
out by hand, after which it was washed and spun and used with 
flax in making shirts and summer clothing. The cultivation of 
flax and the manufacture of linen were universal. It is doubted 
if a bushel of flaxseed has been raised in town for many years ; 
yet some of our older traders can remember when the chambers 
of their stores were tilled with it, and hundreds of bushels were 
annually bought and sold. Every farmer set apart a portion of his 
land for flax. It was an indispensable crop, and the manufacture of 
oil from the seed became a profitable business. It was carried on 
for many years at Gonic by William Currier, and after him by N. V. 
Whitehouse. The flax was carefully pulled up by the roots and 
stacked in the field till thoroughly dry, when the seed was thrashed 
out. It was then soaked in water several days and spread on the 
ground to be rotted, frosty nights helping to whiten it. After a 
suitable time it w^as stowed away till spring, when it was brought 
out to be dressed by use of the brake, the hatchel, and the swingle. 
By this means the flax was thoroughly bruised without cutting, 
and the tow and coarse woody parts separated from the finer 
fibers of true linen. It Avas then combed to complete the separ- 
ation and was ready for the wives and daughters to spin and 
weave into garments. Woolen garments also were made at home. 
The wool was carded into rolls by hand. The first carding- 
machine was introduced by Eliphalet Home in 1811. It caused 



LIFE OF EARLY SETTLERS. 137 

much excitement, and set the old people to shaking their heads 
and asking what the girls would have to do now. The business 
now carried on by our great factories was then all performed in 
the hundreds of homes through the town. Manufacturing in all 
its diflcrent stages, from the wool on the back of the sheep, and 
the flax waving in the field, was conducted at home. There were 
made all their garments, not only for every-day wear, but the 
go-to-meeting dresses of the women, and the breeches for the men, 
even the suits that the minister wore into the pulpit, and Mr. 
Upham to Congress. Every house had cards and great wheel 
and little wheel, reel and swifts and dye-tub in the kitchen, and 
scarn, warping-bars, and loom in chamber or garret, and the women 
all understood the art of making cloth. 

At a later period, the cloth woven by the women was carried 
to the village, and colored and finished at Dame & McDuffee's 
fulling-mill, where a large business was carried on, a number of 
apprentices and journej-men being constantly employed. Home- 
made cloth became a staple article of trade at the stores, and rolls 
of cloth finished here often found their way back many miles into 
the country. Dame was a popular man. So when the winter 
teams came down to break out the roads from Chestnut Hills, 
the hands would strike into the growth then standing just at the 
upper end of the village, and with their axes quickly load the 
sleds with logs which they took to Dame's mill, who in payment 
took the boj's to the store and gave them what rum they could 
drink. Thus by exchange of fuel his fires and their fires were 
both well supplied. 

After the cloth came home from the fulling-mill, the tailor was 
sent for to cut garments for the family. He came with his goose 
("whipping the goose" they called his trade), and between his 
shears and the busily plied needles of the women, the family 
were in due time clothed. The boys now felt proud in their new 
jackets with brass buttons. 'No sooner would the tailor be gone 
than the shoemaker would be sent for. He came with his tools 
tied up in his leather apron, and measured the feet, cut the leather, 
and made up the shoes for the household. His business was 
called " whipping the cat." Three shoes were a day's work. At 
the earliest period they were sewed, but pegs soon came into use. 
Then every shoemaker made his own pegs. From the end of a 

10 



138 EOCHESTER. 

stick of maple or birch a piece was carefully sawed of just the 
right thickness for the length of the pegs. It was then split into 
thin strips, and the edge of each strip shaved to a sharp edge, 
after which the pegs were split off singly, all sharpened ready 
for use. Machine-made pegs were introduced about 1817-18. 
As each family laid in a supply of cloth for the tailor, so each 
secured a supply of upper and sole leather for the cordwainer. 
Thus the family were clothed, unless perhaps the men wanted 
hats. The hatter did not go round. But any one could be sup- 
plied with hats of the latest style, by calling upon Haynes & Ela 
at " the Plains," who commenced hatting as early as 1806, and 
perhaps earlier. 

The long winter evenings of those days have been so often and 
so vividly described that imagination easily pictures them like 
present realities. We can see the large chimney-place, — almost 
large enough for a tenement for a small family, — with its broad 
hearth, the back-log of green oak or maple, often requiring two 
strong men to bring it to its position, the fore-stick, the top-stick, 
the crackling, blazing brushwood. "Whittier has embalmed the 
scene in his vivid verse : — 

" We piled with care our nightly stack 
Of wood against the chimney back; 
The oaken log, green, huge, and thick, 
And on its top the stout back-stick; 
The knotty fore-stick laid apart ; 
And filled between with curious art 
The ragged brush ; then, hovering near, 
We watched the first red blaze appear, 
Heard the sharp crackle, caught the gleam 
On whitewashed wall and sagging beam, 
Until the old, rude-furnished room 
Burst flower-like into rosy bloom." 

From each side of the chimney-place rose the music of the wheel, 
where mother and daughters would vie with each other to see 
who could spin the most. Before the first snow fell the boys 
would be sure to provide a good cart-load of pitch wood split 
from old stumps, wliich better than candle or kerosene gave light 
to the whole household, by which the women saw to work, and 
the boys to study their lessons. The younger children were often 
amused by the mother's stories, who, 



LIFE OF EARLY SETTLERS. 139 

" while she turned her wheel, 
Or run the new-knit stocking heel, 
Told how the Indian hordes came down 
At midnight on Cochecho town." 

• 
While the mug of cider " between the andirons' straddling feet " 

was slowly warming and the apples "sputtering" on the hearth, 
the men talked over the day's work, and the morrow's plans, and 
drank and talked, and talked and drank, and replenished the mug 
from the hogshead in the cellar as often as it was exhausted. 
So the evening wore away, till at nine o'clock the family went to 
bed. The red log had crumbled to pieces, the men had knocked 
the ashes from their pipes, and it only remained to rake up the 
hot coals and cover them over that the fire might keep till morn- 
ing; for there were no lucifer matches then, and the flint and 
steel and tinder-box were very patience-trying. In summer the 
fire would sometimes go out, and one of the boys vp-ould be dis- 
patched half a mile or more perhaps, with a closely wound linen 
rag to borrow fire of a neighbor, or if the distance was short 
live coals would be obtained. This helped to keep up an intimacy 
between neighbors, and short calls for borrowing fire became 
proverbial. 

The cooking of those olden times by the huge fire-place it is 
not necessary minutely to describe. There were the Indian cakes 
tilted upon the flat irons on the hearth. There was the turkey 
suspended by a tow string from a gimlet in the mantel-piece, so 
that twisting and untwisting by its own weight it kept revolving 
before the fire till all sides were well browned ; or else, as at Mr. 
Haven's, transfixed by a long spit which rested on pins in the 
andirons, so that a girl, in the middle of the room, turning a long 
handled crank kept the meat revolving. Then there were the 
potatoes roasted in the ashes, — not bad eating they say. We 
can see the girls shaking them back and forth through a long 
stocking-leg to clean off the ashes. And there was the hasty- 
pudding boiled in the kettle on the crane, and the baked sweet 
pumpkins and milk, a delicious dish. Then pea and bean por- 
ridge, the great staple of life, the chief article of food morning, 
noon, and night. The boys were fond of it, whether it was — 

" Pea porridge hot, pea porridge cold, 
Or pea porridge in the pot nine days old." 















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LIFE OF EARLY SETTLERS. 141 

The meeting-house then stood upon the common with the front 
end toward tlie road leading to Dover over the hiU. It was un- 
painted and without a steeple or bell. They voted a steeple in 
1803, but it was not then built. The following is the action of 
the town in reference to a bell : — 

Dec. 30, 1S22. Voted not to raise money to purchase and hang a bell in belfry 
of the Meeting House. Sept 1, 1823. Voted to raise $475 to purchase and hang 
a bell, &c. Sept. 22, 1823, the town voted to reconsider the previous vote and 
to dismiss the article. 

The bell, however, was added by the Congregational Parish in 
1823. March 9, 1824, a ballot was taken to see if the town would 
pay for ringing the bell at the meeting-house. There were 121 
yeas to 120 nays. At an adjourned meeting the article was dis- 
missed. The Congregational Society was accustomed to pay the 
expenses of having the bell rung. 

Near by stood the pound, and some years the town chose the 
same man pound-keeper and " Saxton," and voted that he should 
lock and unlock and sweep the meeting-house in consideration of 
his fees as pound-keeper. There was a large gallery extending 
round on three sides of the house. The pews were high, square 
boxes, while the middle of the house was devoted to free benches. 
The plan on the page opposite will give an idea of the ground 
floor. The lofty pulpit with its sounding-board was at the center 
of the upper side, instead of one end, and looked down the broad 
aisle to the main entrance. Furnaces and stoves were unknown, 
and the congregation sat and listened to a two-hour service in 
the unmitigated cold. Think of this, ye shiverers of to-day, who 
sit over warm draughts of air from hot furnaces, and yet are 
always complaining of the cold. A stove was not introduced till 
near the close of Mr. Haven's ministry, and that was procured 
more for his comfort than that of the congregation. Small foot- 
stoves of perforated tin or sheet iron containing a pan of live 
coals were brought by the old ladies to keep their feet warm. If 
they came from a distance, they could till their pans at some 
neighboring house. The old bald-headed men wore flannel caps, 
and the deacons occupied a bench directly in front of the pulpit. 
Facing the congregation, they presented an imposing and venerable 
appearance. It was the custom for the deacon to " line the hymns." 



142 ROCHESTER. 

Deacon Chamberlin would give forth the first two lines in a sol- 
emn manner : — 

""While shepherds watched their flocks by night 
All seated on the ground," 

which the singers would sing after him, when he would continue 

" The angel of the Lord came down, 
And glory shone around," 

and so on through each hymn. At first, the music was entirely 
vocal, but a few instruments were introduced soon after the time 
of which we are speaking. The first was the bass-viol bought 
by subscription, and played for many years by John Smith, the 
blacksmith. Of course such an upsetting of the ways of their 
fathers and mothers as a " fiddle " in the church was not suffered 
without commotion. Some averred that it made the music sound 
like dancing tunes, while others as loudly declared that it was a 
great improvement. Afterwards flutes, clarionets, and melodeons 
were introduced. The oldest leader of the choir and teacher of 
Binging now living is Thomas Wentworth. 

Throughout the meeting the services are orderly, and the au- 
dience generally attentive. But our unaccustomed eyes are startled 
to inquire who this man is with a black rod, moving quietly 
about, now touching gently some snoring or nodding person, and 
now punching roughly some mischievous boy. That is the tithing- 
man with his badge of office. An ancient law prescribed that the 
tithing-man should have a " black staff' two feet in length, tipped 
at one end with brass or pewter," to be provided by the select- 
men at the town's expense. Tithing-men were regularly chosen 
for nearly a hundred years, — from 1737 to 1829. The number 
was several times changed by law, varying from one to eleven. 
Their duty was to prevent work or travel or amusements on the 
Sabbath, and to preserve order both in and around the meeting- 
house during church service and also during intermission. They 
were to see that there was no loafing at public houses on the 
Lord's day, and to stop all travelers, though in eases of sickness 
or errands of mercy justices of the peace could grant permission to- 
travel. The law required tithing-men to be " of good substance 
and sober life." The office finally fell into ridicule and disrepute. 



LIFE OF EARLY SETTLERS. 143 

The last person who held it was Eben D. Trickey in 1828. The 
next year the town voted to dispense with titliiiiii-nien. 

In those days there were no wagons for traveling, no chaises, 
no carriages. The people came to meeting on horseback or on 
foot. But far more than now, it was then esteemed a valuable 
privilege to attend meeting. Sunday was the only day when the 
people met from all parts of the town. The meeting was a social 
institution and the intermission was a favorable opportunity to 
make acquaintances, and talk over all the news of the week. There 
being but one meeting in town a majority were compelled to 
travel long distances. Those who had horses rode horseback, the 
wife seated on a pillion behind her husband with arm encircling 
his waist. There was a horseblock near the meeting-house to aid 
the women in mounting and dismounting, and a long shed oppo- 
site for the shelter of the horses. Young persons generally walked. 
They thought nothing of walking three or four miles to church, 
or even farther. The girls (they were always (jhis till they got 
married) came barefooted, or wearing old shoes and stockings 
till they arrived near the meeting-house, when they sat down in 
the shade of a tree, or went into some house near by, and drew 
on their clean white stockings and new shoes which they had 
brought in their hands. On returning home they changed again 
at the same place. The boys came barefooted bringing their shoes 
to put on in the same manner. 'An old oak was standing a few 
years ago, a little below the village, which was almost revered 
by the old people as the place where in their youthful days they 
were accustomed to make these changes. Chaises were the first 
vehicles for traveling. The first in town was owned by Capt. 
Benjamin Page. In 1806 Capt. Page, Lawyer Tilton, and Joseph 
Hanson, were taxed for chaises. Next year Moses Hale had one. 
They had large round windows behind, and were great curiosities, 
so that the boys ran after them in the streets. Twelve chaises were 
taxed in 1811. At funerals, instead of hearse or wagon, bearers 
carried the corpse on a bier to the place of burial, and if the 
distance was long, a sufiicient number was provided to relieve 
each other at intervals. 

The Inn situated near the brook was another representative 
village institution suffo-estins: a different class of thoutrhts from 
fulling-mill or meeting-house. Habits of smoking and drinking 



144 ROCHESTER. 

were deplorable. People who used tobacco cultivated their own 
weed to a considerable extent. Small patches could be seen grow- 
ing here and there all over the town. At the stores could be found 
tobacco braided or twisted and rolled into immense balls, from 
which it was measured off to customers and sold by the yard. One 
William Pigeon carried on the business of tobacconist for a short 
time in 1806. No particulars are known, and it is no ground of 
regret that he did not succeed. There have been two brandy distil- 
leries in this village, which, happily, succeeded no better than the 
tobacconist. An Englishman named King first carried on the 
business a short time, where the factories now are. The other 
distiller was Benjamin Tebbetts, and his place of business was 
where the Silas Wentworth house stands near the Town Hall. He 
was so good a customer to his own still, that the business proved 
unprofitable. More facts in regard to the drinking habits of those 
days will be given in a subsequent chapter. 

If we are candid and thoughtful, we cannot review the lives 
of the generations gone before us without being more strongly 
impressed vAih the sense of our own duties. "We live not for 
ourselves, nor for our own day, but our lives will bestow happiness 
or misery upon those who follow to occup}^ our places. For them 
we are preparing institutions; for them we are strengthening the 
institutions which our fathers have given to us. From this point 
of view, what then are we doing? It is not wealth, it is not 
manufactures, it is not keenness in trade, it is not railroads, it is 
not development of mere business resources of any kind, that will 
make 7nen of our children. These things may make a city where 
there is but a village, they may make five-story blocks where 
are now humble shops, but unless other and higher objects are 
first sought they will make only narrow minds and selfish hearts. 
Solomon tells us, " By lawwkdge shall the chambers be filled with 
all pleasant and precious riches." 



144 ROCHESTER. 

were deplorable. People who used tobacco cultivated their own 
weed to a considerable extent. Small patches could be seen grow- 
ing here and there all over the town. At the stores could be found 
tobacco braided or twisted and rolled into immense balls, from 
which it was measured off to customers and sold by the yard. One 
William Pigeon carried on the business of tobacconist for a short 
time in 1806. ^o particulars are known, and it is no ground of 
regret that he did not succeed. There have been two brandy distil- 
leries in this village, which, happily, succeeded no better than the 
tobacconist. An Englishman named King first carried on the 
business a short time, where the factories now are. The other 
distiller was Benjamin Tebbetts, and his place of business was 
where the Silas Wentworth house stands near the Town Hall. He 
was so good a customer to his own still, that the business proved 
unprofitable. More facts in regard to the drinking habits of those 
da3's will be given in a subsequent chapter. 

If we are candid and thoughtful, we cannot review the lives 
of the generations gone before us without being more strongly 
impressed with the sense of our own duties. We live not for 
ourselves, nor for our own day, but our lives will bestow happiness 
or misery upon those who follow to occupy our places. For them 
we are preparing institutions; for them we are strengthening the 
institutions which our fathers have given to us. From this point 
of view, what then are we doing? It is not wealth, it is not 
manufactures, it is not keenness in trade, it is not railroads, it is 
not development of mere business resources of any kind, that will 
make men of our children. These things may make a city where 
there is but a village, they may make five-story blocks where 
are now humble shops, but unless other and higher objects are 
first sought they will make only narrow minds and selfish hearts. 
Solomon tells us, " By knowledge shall the chambers be filled with 
all pleasant and precious riches." 







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144 

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CHAPTER IX. 
FROM THE REA^OLUTION TO THE REBELLION. 

This chapter is designed to record some of the principal events 
affecting Rochester from 1783 to 1861, which cannot so Avell he 
presented under a more specific heading. 

History continually repeats itself. One cannot read the history 
of the country during the years immediately following the Revo- 
lution, without heing impressed with the similarit}' hetween that 
period and the present time (1868), — the distress of the people, 
the burden of taxation, the scarcity of money, the depression of 
business, the clamor for relief, and the methods proposed. In 
fact, if we change the dates, it would be difficult to realize that 
we were not reading the history of our own time. During the 
war the people had become accustomed to paper currency based 
on landed property as security, — a currency which was legal 
tender for all debts. They had seen this currency depreciated till 
it became worthless. They had been used to the attempts of 
legislators to establish prices under severe penalties. They had 
seen an attempt to prohibit auctions, because, it was said, they 
depreciated the currency, whereas they only showed its real want 
of value. They had known Congress issue a circular to be read 
in all the churches, declaring that paper monej' was the only 
kind of money "which could not take to itself wings and fly 
away." Frequent meetings were called to consult on practical 
modes of relief. The resumption of specie payments had not 
furnished a remedy. In 1781, as if by general consent, the paper 
money had suddenly dropped out of circulation, and coin had 
succeeded; yet the crisis of suffering seems not to have been 
reached till 1786. In that and the preceding year, conferences 
of the people were held to devise means of redress. iN'aturally 
the first expedient which suggested itself was to return to paper 
money founded on real estate. The cry for paper money was 



146 ROCHESTER. 

incessant. The " greenbackers " of that day said that rich spec- 
ulators had a monopoly of everything good, while the poor were 
distressed for means to pay their debts, and loudly called on the 
people to assert their majesty. This clamor for paper money 
increased till in every town there was a party in its favor. The 
following specimen of their arguments reads as if written by the 
" greenbackers " of to-day : — 

" Paper money would give a spring to commerce and encourage agriculture, 
the poor would be able to pay their debts and taxes, all arguments against 
issuing it are framed by speculators, and are intended to serve the wealthy 
part of the community, who have monopolized the public securities that they 
may raise their value and get all the good bargains into their own hands. The 
people have a right to call on their representatives to stamp a value on paper, 
or leather, or any other substance capable of receiving an impression, and a law 
should be passed to punish with banishment and outlawry every person who 
shall attempt by any means to lessen its value." 

County conventions in favor of paper money were held. In 
this county, the convention was called to meet at Capt. John 
Goodwin's, in Rochester, on the 5th day of September, 1786. 
The town held a special meeting on the day previous, and voted 
to have a paper currency, and chose Capt. John Goodwin, Lieut. 
James Adams, and Josiah Folsom, delegates to the convention. 
Capt. Goodwin's house was near the house built by the late John 
R. Roberts at the lower end of the village. 

On the 20th of September, the Legislature at Exeter was sur- 
rounded by a body of men formed in military order, armed with 
muskets, swords, and clubs, and marching to the music of the 
drum. The President tried calmly to reason with them. But 
their drum beat to arms, and the men were ordered to load their 
guns with balls. They raised a demand for paper money, for an 
equal distribution of property, and a release from debts. They 
were finally dispersed by the approach of militia. 

To still the clamor, the Legislature prepared a plan for paper 
currency, and sent to all the towns for their action. There were 
two questions submitted : — whether the Legislature could consti- 
tutionally make paper money legal tender, and whether paper 
money should be issued on the plan proposed. " In compliance 
with a request from the General Court," these questions were 
submitted to the town of Rochester at a meeting holden Nov. 20, 
178G, and it was 



ADOPTION OF CONSTITUTION. 147 

"put to vote to see if there should be a paper currency made; and voted in 
the affirmative." It was " unanimously voted that the plan for making a paper 
currency be submitted to the determination of the General Court at the next 

sitting." 

By the returns received from all the towns, however, both ques- 
tions proposed were decided in the negative, and this seems to 
have ended the paper money contest in Xew Hampshire for that 
time. 

The following is taken from a Portsmouth paper : — 

" Rochester, Feb. 5, 1787. A number of respectable gentlemen having met 
at the house of Col. John Goodwin in Rochester, in the County of Strafford 
and State of New Hampshire, by adjournment, have unanimously agreed to 
act agreeable to the Constitution of said State, and adjourned said meeting 
until the last Monday in February inst., at the house of said Goodwin, at 12 
o'clock A. M. precisely, when they request all members chosen by the several 
towns in said County to meet at time and place to take into consideration such 
things as may be for the benefit of the Community, and they earnestly recom- 
mend to those towns in the County which have not sent members (chosen by 
legal town meetings) to attend said meeting for the above purpose, to choose 
proper persons to attend at time and place." 

A sermon preached by Mr. Haven, April 29, 1789, contains 
the following words, doubtless referring to the " greenbackers " of 
that time : — 

" If we take a view of the plots which have been laid against us by designing 
men, and how they have been prevented from working our ruin, if not baffled 
in tlieir scliemes, we shall see great matter of admiration and thankfulness. If 
■we consider how our streets for a long time have been patrolled by armed men 
•who have looked upon us as marked out for their prey, and yet how they have 
been restrained by the Supreme Ruler (for it is he that hath done it), we may 
justly wonder at all his goodness, and bless his name for this instance of his 
goodness. I mention these things because they are well worthy of our notice, 
and what we should ever truly be thankful for." 

The adoption of the Constitution in 1788, was the occasion of 
great rejoicing throughout the country. Celebrations were almost 
universal. In Rochester, Thursday, Nov. 27, was observed for 
this purpose. Parson Haven preached a sermon, from which the 
following extract is taken : — 

" We have been loaded the past year with temporal blessings. We have enjoyed 
peace, — an important blessing, — and a Constitution is adopted which fills the 
world with admiration, as we have no account of such an event before. The 
most have been forced upon people by a conquering power, but ours has been 
collected from the wisdom of liie nation, where about three millions have been 
represented, and the matter has been debated once and again; no slaughter has 
ensued, uor even dangerous divisions. Has there not been an overruling power 



148 ROCHESTER. 

in this, and are we not now called upon to make our grateful acknowledgments ? 
This event is important, and a thing before unheard of, and we trust that the 
same God who has ever had us under his fostering care, has also in this. But 
some are afraid of this Constitution, and suppose it may be an evil. No doubt 
it may, for the wisest and best institutions have been sadly perverted, as I have 
observed before, not that I pretend to say that this is to be numbered among 
such, for now we do well to try the event, yet with all proper care to have men 
of wisdom, religion, and virtue put into posts of trust: if we can only have 
such, I dare say we shall be happy. Let our condition be what it will, still 
much depends upon us. There is not any power anywhere lodged by this Con- 
stitution but originated first from the people, and if we are wise, we shall be 
■cautious whom we delegate it to. We shall not look out for those to serve 
private ends but the public good, nor shall we let private friendship interfere, 
nor private interest bear too much sway. Notwithstanding all the fears and 
jealousies which have prevailed, we have a fair prospect of becoming of some 
consequence among other nations, and of being happy. If wisdom, virtue, and 
integrity, and a public spirit prevail : in short, if we observe the Christian reli- 
gion, we shall be a happy, a flourishing, wealthy, and renowned people. But if 
we give up ourselves to vice and folly, to cheating and defrauding, to ground- 
less and unreasonable jealousies, to contention and strife, to idleness and extrav- 
agance, to intemperance and debauchery, we shall banish our religion, and become 
the most miserable and contemptible people on earth. It is of consequence to us 
that we be good. Do we complain of our rulers? When they are chosen by a 
free people they must be in a great measure characteristic of the people. This, 
perhaps, we do not consider. If we had a real and sincere regard to the 
Christian religion, if we were ourselves wise, virtuous, just, and good, we should 
seek for such men to represent us. But if we have no regard to Christianity, such 
as have none we may most likely think will best serve our own cause. But I 
shall dismiss this and attend to other things." 

Scarcely thirty years had elapsed from the close of the Revo- 
lution, when the United States was confronted with another war 
with England. A long series of insolent aggressions on the part 
of Great Britain forced us at length to the last extremity of appeal 
to arms. Party spirit at this time became very intense. Feder- 
alists and Democrats abused each other in the most approved 
style of political animosity. The Federalists were strongly opposed 
to the war, and denounced the embargo and other acts of the 
administration in no measured terms. Rochester at this time had 
a strong Democratic majority, and as before and since was ready 
to do her part in defense of the country. No extended history 
of the war can here be given, nor even many items concerning 
the part taken by Rochester. The present sources of information 
iire very meager. Our town records contain only two items re- 
ferring to this war : — 

"July 20, 1812. Town voted to give each militia man belonging to this town 
who has already been or may hereafter be detached to go into the army under 
the present six months establishment the sum of ten dollars per month including 
the sum voted by the United States." 



WAR OF 1812-15. 149 

" Sep. 29, 1814. Voted to raise SlOO for procuring arms & ammunition of 
war for defense of this and adjacent towns, in tlie present critical & alarming 
times." 

The following- persons from Rochester served as soldiers in 
this war : — 

Gapt. Andrew Pierce's Company. 
Name. Rank. Time of Service. 

John Xutter, Lieutenant, May 24, to July 3, 1814. 
Ebenezer Plumnier, Corporal, " " " " 

Ei:)hraini Piuinnier, Private, " '' " " 

John Roberts, " " " '• " 

Thomas Roberts, " " " " " 

Israel Whitehouse, " " " '• " 

Capt. Vincent Meserve's Company. 
John Place, Corporal, May 25, to July 3, 1814. 

Capt. John D. Harty's Company. 

Benjamin Hanson, 4th Corporal, Sept. 28, 1814, 60 davs. 
Phineas Hoit, Drummer, Sept. 29, 1814, " '' 

Samuel Spinny, Private, Oct. 4, 1814, " " 

Capt. John Haven's Company. 

Name. Rank. Time of Service. 

John Haven, Captain, Sept. 12 to Sept. 29, 1814. 

Samuel Jackson, Private, " " " " 

Benjamin Roberts, " " " " " 

Israel Whitehouse, " " " " " 

AVilliam Pearl, " " " 

George Varney, " " " " " 

Joel Varney, " " " " " 

These are all that can now be identified, though there were prob- 
ably others, and some of these may have been only transient 
inhabitants of this town. 

The annexation of Texas, with a boundary not fully settled, led 
to the Mexican War in 1846. There is nothing upon our records 
to show that Rochester had any connection with this war. It 
would be strange, however, if no native of this town was in service 
at that time. But neither records, nor traditions, have been found 
to indicate that Rochester was represented in the Mexican War. 
The only evidence extant is an item from the "Dover Enquirer": — 
" Died in Rochester, Dec. 1, 1848, after a lingering illness, Joshua 
Locke, age 23, a soldier of the Mexican War." lie was probably 
a native of some other town, as his history cannot be traced here. 



150 ROCHESTER. 

At the close of the last centuiy, Rochester was a large town. 
Of ]^ew Hampshire towns, Portsmouth alone exceeded it in popu- 
lation, and an idea of its extent in territory may be formed by 
referring to the charter. The line of Barrington, before Strafford 
was severed from that town, formed our western boundary, while 
on the east, the Salmon Falls river flowed along the whole length 
of the town, a distance of more than twenty miles. Between 
these limits, according to the charter, Rochester extended from 
Dover so far north as to include ten miles square. At this time 
the whole tract was a wilderness. Land was limitless and of little 
value, and surveyors were not merely careless, but intentionally 
liberal in their measurements. The first division lots, designed 
to contain sixty acres each, are found to contain several acres in 
excess. The territory was ample for three large towns. 

The lower section of the town increased in population much 
faster than the more remote parts. It was long apparent that a 
division would be necessary, but the subject was agitated many 
years without result. So large a territory was the occasion of 
many inconveniences to the people. Some were doubtless political, 
or such as related to the management of town afl:airs. But the 
most influential consideration was in connection with public wor- 
ship and taxation for the support of the ministry. The Puritans, 
driven by persecution to seek freedom of worship in America, 
impressed a religious character upon the governments which they 
formed. Church membership was made a condition for the exer- 
cise of political rights. Early charters show that the support of 
the ministry was a prominent object in the organization of towns. 
Town privileges consisted largely in voting for a minister, voting 
and paying taxes for his support, and building and repairing the 
meeting-house. Towns had a regular progress or growth based 
upon the idea of supporting a gospel ministry. Wild land granted 
by the Crown or the State was called a " township." When the 
number and ability of the inhabitants became suflicient to build 
a meeting-house and support a minister, they were incorporated 
as a " town," with authority to assess taxes for these objects. As 
towns increased in population, and it became diflScult for the more 
distant settlers to attend the same meeting, the "town" was divided 
into " parishes," never very thoroughly organized, but which, by 
suflicient growth, in their turn became "towns." Thus, Somers- 



DIVISION OF ROCHESTER. 151 

wortli was a parish of Dover before it became a town ; Milton 
was the " North East," and Farmington the " South West " parish 
of Rochester, before they were incorporated as towns; while the 
present town of Rochester was often called the "First Parish," 
to distinguish it from the others. In this state of affairs a large 
proportion of the inhabitants were annually taxed to support a 
ministry the benefits of which they were unable to enjoy or un- 
willing to pay for. This inconvenience was the beginning of a 
desire for division, the progress of which can be easily traced till 
separation was accomplished. The subject was earnestly discussed 
as early as 1774, in connection witli the attempt to build a new 
meeting-house. As reluted in a preceding chapter, it was agreed 
to divide the town into three parishes, one third of the whole 
number of acres to constitute the first parish. A division line 
was run, and the house was finally built by the first parish only. 
No division, however, was observed in raising money for the sup- 
port of the minister, but Mr. Haven was authorized by vote of 
the town, to divide his preaching among the different parishes in 
proportion to their taxes. In 1783 the upper parts of the town 
petitioned to be set ofi by themselves but without success. In 
1787 the accounts of the first parish were separated from those of 
the town, and the minister's salary raised wholly in that parish, 
the inhabitants of the other parishes being taxed in like propor- 
tion, and their tax paid over to them to hire their own preaching, 
but after one year the old method was resumed. 

In 1788 a petition for disannexing two ranges of lots from the 
southwest corner of the town and annexing them to Dover was 
presented to the Legislature by Joseph Pierce and others. Roch- 
ester sent an agent to the General Court to oppose the petitioners 
and the [>lan was defeated. The town was petitioned to consent 
to a division in 1790, and an eftbrt was made to get a vote to 
divide the town into three towns, but without success. The 
dissatisfaction was now becoming mutual, and even the first parish 
petitioned for some difierent method. Before 1794 it had been 
unanimously voted to divide the town into three towns, and a 
committee had run out the lines. In 1794 a committee from out 
of town was appointed to run the line between the supposed first 
and second parishes. They reported the same line already fixed 
by Jonathan Dame, which was accepted. In 1797 a petition from 



152 EOCHESTER. 

the South "West parish for a division was dismissed, but in the 
following year, the consent of the town was voted, and on the 
first of December, 1798, Farmington was incorporated as a town, 
its population being about 1000. After the separation of Farm- 
ington, there was little to bind the ISTorth East parish to Roch- 
ester. The town approved the petition presented to the Legisla- 
ture, and on June 11, 1802, Milton was incorporated with a pop- 
ulation less than 1000. Claims and property questions between 
the old and new towns were settled by committees appointed for 
the purpose. 

It seems proper at this point that some facts should be given 
relating to the settlement and history of Farmington and Milton 
previous to their separation from Rochester. These new towns 
could easily throw off the burden of taxation for the ministry. 
Puritanism had largely lost its power. The old church system, 
which had been the foundation of all things political as well as 
religious, had lost its hold. The war of the Revolution had given 
its remains a severe shock. Patriots who had fought against 
Eno;lish taxation found relio;ious taxation irksome. Meetino^-houses 
were indeed built in these towns, soon after their incorporation, 
but meeting-houses, in those days, were town halls. According 
to ancient custom the house at Farmington was erected on a high 
hill near the center of the town, about two miles below the 
present village. After remaining unfinished about fifty years it 
was moved to Rochester, and is now the currying shop of E. G. 
& E. "Wallace. As early as 1797 meetings were held in barns at 
Farmington, by Benjamin Green, then preceptor of Berwick 
Academy, afterwards a lawyer and judge. He is said to have 
been a man of witching eloquence, whom the people from great 
distances flocked to hear. JSTo church was formed till 1819, when 
James Walker from Concord preached alternately at Farmington 
and Milton. In 1834 a meeting-house was built a short distance 
below Farmington village, by several denominations unitedly, but 
no regular preaching was sustained till 1840, and then only by aid 
of the N. H. Missionary Society, so great was the declension 
from the puritanism of the fathers. By the division of the town 
many individuals, whose names had long been associated with the 
history of Rochester as honored citizens, fell within the limits of 
the new towns, among whom may be named Dea. James Knowles, 



FARMIXGTON. 153 

Hon. Aaron Wingate, and Jonas C. March, sketches of whom 
are elsewhere given. 

The vinao-e of "Farmington Dock" is situated on what was 
formerly known as the " Old John Ham Farm."' The first house 
was a log house occupied by one Berry, on the lot where the 
Eastman house now stands. The first frame house was erected 
nearly opposite, where H. B. Edgerly now lives. John Roberts, 
who was born on Dover Xeck, May 19, 1752, had this house so 
nearly completed that he moved into it, at the time of his mar- 
riage in 1782. Here he reared a numerous family, and his de- 
scendants are among well-known citizens of Rochester. He died 
July, 1837. The second frame house was built by Jonas C. March 
upon the Eastman lot, sometime before 1792. Nehemiah Eastman 
afterw^ards owned the house and sold it about 1812 to Josiah 
Edgerly who moved it away, and it is now" Josiah B. Edgerly's 
house. Mr. March built a store near his house, and was succeeded 
in trade by Hiram Ward, — Ward, Roberts & Co., Read & Fabins, 
John W. Gookin, Jeremy "Wingate, and others. This store was 
burned a few years ago. The "Dock" is indebted to Mr. March for 
its peculiar sobriquet. He dealt extensively in lumber, and at Ports- 
mouth, where he had previously resided, the word '■'■dock" was a 
familiar appellation given to yards near the water where lumber 
was deposited. On the confines of the swamp back of his store, 
Mr. ^larch had such a lumber yard which the teamsters and traders 
called " March's Dock." From this the name was naturally trans- 
ferred to the village. The word first occurs in the town records 
in 1792. After the March house and store, others were erected 
in nearly the following order. Benjamin Jones built a " half 
house " which was afterwards the rear part of Barker's store, called 
the " Old Smith Store," on the spot now occupied by the Congre- 
gational Church. The next was Eleazar Pearl's house, where 
the Peter Pearl house now stands opposite the Ridge road. 
A blacksmith's shop was then built by Benjamin Jones, on the 
corner of the Ridge road. This was afterwards Lemuel Rand's 
dwelling house, and at one time Dr. Libby's store. Dr. Libby 
was probably the first physician in Farmington. He located there 
about 1800, entered the army in 1812, and left Farmington in 
1816. Lemuel Rand built a house called the red house, on the 
Ridge road, where M. L. Hayes afterwards built. About 1800, 
11 



154 ROCHESTER. 

John Will gate, Esq., built a house, and a blacksmith's shop where 
he carried on his trade. The shop stood on the corner of the 
street, and the house, now the Iliram Barker mansion, was on a 
part of John Ham's field back of the Eoberts lot. This was long 
noted as " Wingate's Tavern," where " Squire Wingate dealt out 
justice " and supplies for the hungry and thirst}'. He was a 
stanch Federalist, and a great admirer of Gen. Washington. A 
branch of the Washington Benevolent Society held its meetings 
here in a room which he had fitted up for the purpose. During 
the War of 1812-15 party spirit ran high and Federalism was 
very unpopular in Rochester. At one time a company of Dem- 
ocrats having imbibed rather freely, found this room, and seeing 
the cabalistic letters W. B. S. on the chairs concluded thej- be- 
longed to some accursed Federalist society. In their rage they 
were proceeding to demolish the chairs and hurl them through 
the windows, when the " Squire " suddenly appeared on the scene, 
and persuaded them to desist by telling them they all could see 
that W. B. S. stood for Wingate's Best Seats. In front of the 
tavern was an open square long known as " Wingate's lane." It 
has since been narrowed, one part now forming the street which 
extends to the river. Benjamin Canney soon after built on the 
new street nearly opposite Wingate's. Capt. Josiah Edgerly built 
a cabinet shop where J. B. Edgerly's oflice is. This shop is now 
a dwelling back of the store which Eleazar Pearl built near his 
house in 1807-8, and where Gilbert Horney traded about 1815-20. 
Dr. Hammond's house built by a Mr. Home, on the Ridge road, 
and subsequently owned by the widow of Levi Hayes, was more 
recently used as a boarding-house known as Central Cottage, and 
is now converted into a hotel. 

Milton. 

We have less complete information in regard to the first set- 
tlements in Milton. At an early date the Plumer and Jones 
families, and others of considerable influence, settled upon the 
Ridge, and the intelligence and character of these men, with the 
valuable farms they possessed, made this at all times an important 
section of the town. Immediately after the separation from Roch- 
ester, measures were adopted for building a meeting-house, which 
was located on the Ridge, and is now used for a town hall. The 



MILTON. 155 

valuable mill privilege at the Three Ponds naturally made this 
the trading center, and a considerable village gradually sprang 
up, its growth being accelerated, at periods, b}' the prospect of 
large manufacturing establishments. Among the earliest traders 
were Joshua Hartford, John Fish, and a Mr. Hove}'. In 1810 
Simon Chase, who had been a clerk Avith Joseph Hanson in 
Rochester, commenced business there, being the only trader at 
that time. There was a fulling mill operated by John Fish, and 
the houses of Hartford, Gerrish, Fish, Palmer, and perhaps one 
or two others. Samuel Palmer and John Fish engaged in several 
diving-lx'll adventures, endeavoring to raise the cargoes of sunken 
vessels, one at Portsmouth, and one upon a western lake, but 
were unsuccessful in both. Various kinds of manufacturing have 
been established at Three Ponds, at different times, among which 
were several cotton mills. At one time the manufacture of shoes 
was quite extensive. But, notAvithstanding the tine water privi- 
leges and railroad conveniences, these attempts have until recently 
met with poor success. Since 1883 business has become more 
prosperous. A shoe shop and a leather board factory have been 
built, and are conducting an extensive and flourishing business. 



CHAPTEE X. 

EDUCATIONAL AND LITERARY. 

" Education alone can conduct us to that enjoyment which is at once best in 
quality and infinite in quantity." — Horace Mann. 

"Education is the only interest worthy the deep controlling anxiety of the 
thoughtful man." — Wendell Phillips. 

Very early in the history of the Province of ]^ew Hampshire 
a law was enacted requiring public schools to be opened in all 
settlements of sufficient population. The preamble of this law is 
in the characteristic style of Puritan theology which was always 
quick to perceive the agency of the Devil, through all his disguises 
of hypocrisy and ignorance : — 

"It being one chief point of that old deluder, Satan, to keep men from the 
knowledge of the Scriptures, — as in former times by keeping them in an un- 
known tongue, so in these latter times, by persuading from the use of tongues, 
that so at least the true sense and meaning of the original might be clouded 
by false glosses of saint-seeming deceivers;* — that learning may not be buried 
in the grave of our fathers, in the church and commonwealth, the Lord assisting 
our endeavors, — 

"It is ordered, that every township in this jurisdiction, after the Lord hath 
increased them to the number of fifty householders, shall then forthwith appoint 
one within their town to teach all children as shall resort to him to write and 
read." 

Notwithstanding this law there was, as now, a class of persons 
who did not realize the great importance of public instruction, 
and felt it too great a burden to maintain the schools required. 
Consequently the law was not thoroughly enforced. It was ob- 
served or neglected according as the leading men of a town 
appreciated the advantages of education. 

Though numbering many more than fifty fixmilies, the settlers 
of Rochester, amid the hardships and sufferings of an Indian war, 



*The modern opposers of "dead languages" would do well to study these words and see 
under whose leadership they would have been classed by our fathers. — [Editor.] 



EDUCATIONAL AND LITERARY. 157 

did not even ao-itate the question of schools. But in the interval 
of peace in 1750, the suhject was brought directly before them, 
for decision. They voted to have a school, and appointed Timothy 
Roberts and Isaac Libbey to hire a school-master. No regard was 
paid to this vote, and in 1751 they openly delied the law by voting 
not to have a school. There was evidently, however, a determi- 
nation on the part of some of the citizens that the statute should 
not be disregarded. They caused a special meeting to be called 
to see if the town would vote to hire a school-master three or 
four months. Again voting that they would not have a school 
the meeting dissolved. In less than three months another meeting 
was called to choose agents to defend the town which " lies under 
a presentment for want of a school being kept, and to be heard 
and tried at the next court of quarter sessions." If ever the 
excuses of poverty and grievous taxation were true and weighty 
in justification of such neglect, they were in this case ; yet the 
law was inexorable and they were compelled to pay the fine. 
The courts had a deep sense of the importance of this subject, 
for grand juries were 'particularly charged to present all violations 
of school laws. '^o town can justly plead that it is unable to 
support schools : the richest community cannot atford to do without 
them, — much less those that are poorer and stand more in need 
of the elevating and enriching influences of education, for they 
are a source of intelligence, enterprise, and happiness. 

The next year after the indictment there was a school of six- 
teen weeks. The master's name was John Forst, now written 
Foss. He was paid in all fifteen pounds, or — allowing for the 
depreciation of the currency — less than ten dollars in silver. He 
"boarded round," four families taking him each a month, for 
which the}' were paid by the town at a rate equal in silver to 
thirty cents a week. For a few j^ears after this the town con- 
tinued to maintain a school, and then relapsed. Several persons 
threatened them with prosecution, in consequence of which a 
special meeting was called in 1755. They were determined not 
to sustain the school ; they had avoided it thus far whenever 
the}' could, and now they stubl^ornly voted that there should be 
no school-master hired, but that they would pay the fine if recovered 
by presentment. The next year, however, they repented and hired 
a master. This irregularity continued for some time, until the 



158 ROCHESTER. 

town was in more prosperous circumstances, or had learned that 
it was impossible to evade the law with impunity. 

In reviewing these facts, there may be danger of being unchar- 
itable towards the men of that day. They probably felt they had 
all the burdens they could bear, and w^e should not criticise them 
"ungenerously. Yet, who can but admire the perseverance and 
zeal of those who kept this subject continually before the people 
until schools were permanently established, and who, though 
aware of the extreme poverty of the town, realized that this was 
no adequate excuse for failing to provide suitable means for the 
mental and moral instruction of the young? Such are the men 
in all times, who are often an unpopular minority, but who com- 
prehend the true interests of their own and future generations. 

In 1767 the town was divided " into six equal parts as nearly 
as could be," and each part had the liberty to hire a school- 
master two months. These were not school districts as afterwards 
established by law, but simple divisions for convenience. One 
of the six was on the i^Teck, one at Gonic, one at Chestnut Hills, 
and one on Salmon Falls road. 

In 1774 a Grammar School was kept three months, after which 
the town voted not to continue it any longer. At that time the 
Grammar School was at the head of the public school system, as 
the High School is now. Every town of one hundred householders 
was required by law to maintain such a school. The master was 
to be " a man not vitious in conversation, and able to instruct 
youth so far that they might be fitted for the university." Dur- 
ing the Revolution, except one year, no money was raised for 
schools. At the annual town meeting in 1775 the usual sum had 
been voted, but after the battles of Lexington and Bunker Hill as 
" the prospect looked dark and gloomy with regard to the drout, 
famine and the wars," the Selectmen were instructed not to assess 
the tax. Before the war closed an attempt was made to get a vote 
to dispose of the first division school lot for support of the schools, 
but it failed. After the war, a Grammar School was not estab- 
lished till 1783, when the town w^as presented for not having one, 
and to avoid paying a large fine it was voted to hire a master. 
The next year, though money was raised, the Selectmen neg- 
lected or refused to use it for that purpose, and one article 
in the notification for the next meeting was, to see if the town 



EDUCATIONAL AND LITERARY. 159 

would oblige the Selectmen to expend the school money tor school 
purposes, or pay the cost of presentment for their neglect. After 
this schools were regnlarly maintained. 

The schools of those early days have often been described. 
^^Iiittier has given the key to the situation in the couplet, — 

" Brisk wielder of the birch and rule, 
The master of the District school." 

The teacher's chief business in those days seems to have been 
the wielding of the birch and rule. One of the early school- 
masters who tlogged our fathers in this village was a Mr. Tanner, 
who the boys thought was rightly named. He had lost an arm 
in the war, but could administer the birch with the remaining 
arm, vigorously enough to satisfy even the parents, who had 
never thought of discussing the question whether corporal pun- 
ishment in school is or is 7wt beneficial. He was very cruel, 
though his school numbered onl}- twelve or fifteen pupils. After 
him came Master Orne, who taught in different districts for a 
long time. He flogged singh', and by classes, and by the whole 
school; just as officers review their soldiers, by squads, by com- 
panies, by regiments, and by battalions. The boys rebelled, but 
the parents sustained the master, for they knew no other way to 
have a good school. They went to just such a school when they 
were boys and girls, and why should not their children ? So the 
old dyspeptic flogged on. 

In the " Autobiography of a Landlady of the Old School," 
published by Mrs. Samuel Wyatt in 1854, we find the following 
account of " Teaching School at Meaderborough.'.' The time 
referred to must have been before 1800 : — 

" Before I was thirteen I had an invitation to teach a school in Meader- 
borough in the upper part of Rochester, X. H. I commenced the school under 
favorable auspices ■with eighteen or twenty scholars, young men and women, 

and three babies Schools then were not as now filled up with all 

branches necessary to make a finished education in these modern times. The 
only branches taught were reading, spelling, and wiiting. But little was thought 
in those days of the education of daughters. To read and write, with a smat- 
tering of geography and aritiimetic were considered the ne plufi ultra of female 
education. The minds of girls were then considered to be inadequate to struggle 
with the higher branches of education which they now master so readily. The 
only books then used in school were Webster's Spelling Book, tlie Testament, 

and the Third Part for the upper class Special attention was given 

to the manners of the pupils. They were taught how to enter and leave the 
school-room. They were not allowed to run in and out, like a flock of sheep 



160 ROCHESTER. 

passing over a gap of wall. The how of the little boy was something more than 
a nod over the shoulder by just turning the neck askew and bending it to one 
side. The courtesy of the little girl was attempted till it could be gracefully 
performed. The manner even of walking to and from their seats was not for- 
gotten to be taught. By strict attention to these little matters, the young 
' school-marm ' soon gained an enviable pre-eminence. Her school was famous 
throughout the whole region, A school-mistress in those days was a wonder, 
and especially one so young. I closed this my first school with more than the 
approbation of all concerned." 

As seen by the charter one whole share of the town was set 
apart for a Grammar School. The history of these school lands 
cannot now be traced. In the "first division" the school lot 
was ISTo. 39, the location of which can be seen on the map. 

"March 12, 1749. Voted that the Selectmen of this town Let out the School 
Lot to those that will Give the most for it for the present year. And the Rent 
to be Convarted to the towns Youce." 

There is no evidence however that any rent was ever received. 
A certain degree of lawlessness in regard to public property 
prevailed then as well as now, and these school lands like the 
parsonage lands were subject to frequent trespass. The town 
records for 1785 and for ten years after show legal proceedings 
against trespassers. In 1791 it was voted to sell the fourth 
division school lot " in the best manner for the interest of the 
town." This vote was not executed, for in 1796 it was voted to 
sell the same lot " to build Court houses." I^o account of the 
sale has been found. ITeither records nor tradition give us any 
further clue to the disposal of these lands. Certainly no fund 
from their sale has been available for school purposes within the 
memory of the oldest citizens. 

In 1795 a committee of eight was appointed to divide the town 
into school districts, to fix the center of each, and to appoint 
a committee in each district to build a school-house. The 
number of districts is not on record. In 1805 the State passed 
a law empowering towns to establish school districts. This was 
really the beginning of the district system which prevailed in Ncav 
IIam[)sliire for almost exactly eighty 3'ears. The Selectmen of 
1806 were directed to divide the town into eighteen school districts, 
which remained Avith only slight changes till 1853, when another 
district was added, and still another in 1855. Excepting the year 
1882, these twenty districts remained nearly the same till abolished 
by law in 1884. 



i 



EDUCATIONAL AND LITERARY. 



161 



The lirst Superintending School Committee was appointed 1809, 
and consisted of the Rev. Joseph Haven, John P. Hale, Dr. 
Samuel Prav, Jacoh McDuitee, James Tebhets, and Moses Rob- 
erts, Jr. In 1810-11 the office was held by the Rev. Joseph 
Haven, Dr. Samuel Pray, and Jeremiah II. Woodman, Esq. l^o 
more were appointed till required by law in 1828. 

So far as can now be ascertained the following is the list of 
persons who have served the town as Superintending School 
Committee : * — 



Joseph Haven, 1809 to '11. 

John P. Hale, 1809. 

Samuel Prav, 1809 to '11. 

Jacob McDuffee, 1809. 

James Tebbets, 1809. 

Jeremiah H. Woodman, 1810, '11. 

John McDufeee, Jr., 1828, '38. 

Jonathan Dame, 1828. 

Winthrop A. Marstou, 1828. 

Joseph H. Smith, 1829, '30. 

Thomas Stackpole, 1829. 

Louis McDuffee, 1829, '33. 

Isaac Willev, 1833. 

Cyrus Jenness, 1833, '34. 

John H. Smith, 1834. 

John Meader, 1834. 

John M. Berry, 1838, '39. 

Richard Kimball, 1838. 

A. H. Worthing, 1839. 

Francis V. Pike, 1839, '41. 

Noah Tebbets, 1841. 

llufus K, Pearl, 1841. 

O. C. Baker, 1845. 

John Pray, 1845. 

J. C. Garland, 1845. 

J. E. Farwell, 1851. 

J. M. Hackett, 1851. 

Joel Bean, 1851. 

D. J. Parsons, 1853, '54, '61, '68 to '71. 

George Spaulding, 1853, 

H. H. Hartwell, 1853. 

W. A. Kimball, 1854, '56, '64, 

Tobias Foss, 1854, '55. 

J, C. Seagraves, 1855. 

Nathaniel Hayes, 1855, '57, '58. 

Zebadiah Sargent, 1856. 

Jesse Meader, 1856. 

John W. Pray, 1857, '58. 



David Hayes, 1857, '58. 

James M. Palmer, 1859 to '62. 

Harvey Brewer, 1859. 

Daniel W. Hayes, 1859. 

J. H. Edgerly, 1860, '61. 

Wm. Hewes, 1860. 

Charles S. Whitehouse, 1861, '71, '72. 

Thomas Bartlett, 1861. 

Hiram N. Sanborn, 1862. 

Wm. T. Smith, 1863, '64. 

Calvin Holman, 1864, 

Joseph H. Worcester, 1865, '72. 

George J, Abbot, 1866, 

Isaac Hyatt, 1867. 

A. F. Marsh, 1868, '69, 

A, Lovejov, 1870, '71. 

Henry Kimball, 1873 to '76, '78 to '81, 

'83 to '85, 
Daniel J, Smith, 1872, '73. 
Charles Blazo, 1873, '74. 
George S, Lindsey, 1874, '75. 
Ezra Prav, 1875 to 77. 
A. P. Tracy, 1876. 
J. H. Wardwell, 1877. 
Ezekiel True, 1878 to 'SO. 
Arthur L. Morev, 1879. 
^Vallace W. Browne, 1880 to "82. 
Sidney B. Hayes, 1881 to '87. 
Emma J. Wentworth, 1882. 
Wm. Rand, 1882. 
Sarah C. Home, 1882. 
Frank E, Whitnev, 1882. 
Willard S. Packard, 1883 to '84. 
Stephen C. :Meader, 1885 to '86. 
Wm. N. Hastings, 1886. 
Edward H. :Meader, 1886. 
Dudley B. Waldron, 1886, '87. 
Louis Richardson, 1886 to '88. 



This list includes many of the leading men of the town, those 



In this and similar lists the year named is understood to begin from March meeting. 



162 ROCHESTER. 

who have made its history, — ministers, lawyers, physicians, and 
men of business. A careful compilation of all their suggestions 
for the last sixty years would doubtless furnish an elaborate system 
of pedagogy. In the reports which have been preserved there is 
frequent evidence of sound judgment, an insight, and a foresight 
which the town might have heeded to the great improvement of 
its schools. The first written school report ever presented to 
the town was at the annual meeting in 1829. It is from the pen 
of John McDuffee, Jr., whose colleagues were Jona. Dame and 
"Winthrop A. Marston, then a law student in David Barker's office. 
The report specifies the condition of each of the eighteen schools, 
and complains of the lack of suitable text books. " Morse's Geog- 
raphy, old edition," is named as one that "should not be used," 
and the following are recommended : — " The Sequel to the Ana- 
lytical Reader, Analytical Eeader, and Marshall's Spelling book, 
— also Putnam's Murray's Grammar, Colburn's Intellectual Arith- 
metick, Adams' Arithmetick, and Woodbridge's Geography and 
Atlas." They report 616 pupils in attendance, 13 between the 
ages of 4 and 14 not attending, and none between 14 and 21 
who cannot read and write. The practice of printing the annual 
school reports is of only recent date, so that but few of them 
are now extant. In those which we have, the following points 
are worthy of notice. One of the most frequent suggestions is 
the need of new and better school-houses. This is declared to 
be " a great and pressing need." " The want of suitable school- 
rooms is a great hinderance to good schools," says one committee. 
Another declares they " lay like blotches on the landscape, uncouth 
and hideous without and within." A few years later it is said 
that they were "poorly built at first, now of venerable age and 
in various stages of dilapidation." Perhaps no one thing shows 
more clearly the good judgment of the men selected for this 
office than the frequency with which they recommend the con- 
solidation of districts. This advice has been reiterated many times, 
bcffinnino; Avith the modest suggestion of uniting some small 
districts, and advancing to the only true position of their entire 
abolition. When this plan was adopted in 1882 the committee 
commended it as successful. But the town disregarded their 
advice and went back to districts. After the abolition of districts 
by the state law, the committee speak of the evils of the old 



EDUCATIONAL AND LITERARY. 163 

system iiiuler prudential committees and evidently touch the gist 
of the whole matter when they say that " ' civil service reform ' 
is needed in the selection of teachers."' This could never be 
accomplished under the old system. Very sensibly the committee 
say " The advantages to be derived from this new law make it 
possible for our schools to enter upon a new era of prosperity." 
As in all the country towns of Xcav Hampshire the schools had 
been rapidly diminishing in size. In many districts through the 
State where once were large schools of from iifty to ninety pupils, 
there had come to be less than a dozen. In some districts there 
were absolutely no pupils at all. Here in Rochester the diminu- 
tion was not so great as in some smaller towns, but in 1869, one 
school had but seven and another only nine pupils. In 1878 
twelve schools had less than twenty each, of which six had between 
ten and twelve each, and four had less than ten each. In 1880 
one district reported a school of only two pupils with an average 
attendance of one. In 1884 there were eight schools in Rochester 
numbering less than ten each. Surely the time liatl fully come 
for a change of S3-stem. 

Prior to about the beginning of the present century the amount 
of money appropriated to school purposes was left to the discre- 
tion of the Selectmen. The " literary fund " set apart for schools 
by state law is first mentioned in 1829. Rochester raised no 
more than what the law required till 1848, when |300 was voted 
for schools. In 1849-50 this was increased to 8400, and from 
1851 to 1881, §500 was the annual appropriation. In 1882, when 
the town was merged into one district, $6,000 was raised for 
schools, and §1,000 aiinuallv since that time. The school money 
was always divided eipially among the districts, the village re- 
ceiving no more than any other. 

At Gonic the earliest school of which there is any remembrance 
was kept in the old Henderson house, a little below the village. 
!N'ot long before 1800 the first school-house was built by Micajah 
Hussey, between Main street and the Barrington road. The floors 
were raised on three sides two or three feet for high seats and 
" writing boards." Wood was plenty and there was a huge fire- 
place "giving the large boys a chance to toast their shins, and 
the smaller ones a chance to get theirs switched, if they moved 
their feet to warm their toes or to get an easier position." In 



164 ROCHESTER. 

1800 this school was kept by Martha Evans of Dover, afterwards 
Mrs. Benjamin Hayes and mother of Stephen E. and James D. 
Hayes. In 1802 the teacher was " Master Main." Among the 
larger pupils at that time were Tristram Tucker, Jacob Heard, 
John and Daniel McNeal, Israel and John Henderson, most of 
whom read in the Psalter or the Bible. Isaac Place, Hannah 
Hussey, Sarah Ham, and Sally Chesley were the best readers, and 
had the American Preceptor or Webster's Third Part, books then 
just coming into use. From this time to 1813 the teachers in 
this school were Amos Main, Dr. Jacob Main, Daniel Dame, 
Pierce P. Furber, Levi Hayes, Robert Gray, " Old Junkins," and 
a Mr. Merrill. This first school-house was in use as late as 1816, 
and perhaps later, and is still standing as a dwelling on the same 
spot, with little external change except paint. The next school- 
house was of brick, on the opposite side of the street, and a little 
above the first. The third and present school-house was built on 
the same spot in 1858, and dedicated in December of that year. 
The services on the occasion were prayer by the Pev. Mr. Brewer, 
singing by the Glee Club, report of the Building Committee, 
Charles S. Whitehouse, an address by Dr. J. T. W. Pray of Dover, 
School Commissioner for the County. An Ode written for the 
occasion by the Rev. T. J. Greenwood, was then sung. IST. V. 
Whitehouse then made a speech in which he said this was the 
third school-house in that district since his remembrance. There 
were only two of his early school-mates present, — his wife and 
Deacon Ham. Contrasting the past with the present, he said he 
remembered when there were only six weeks schooling in the 
winter. The writing-desks were coarse benches ranged on the 
sides of the room. A huge fireplace filled with wood scorched 
those on the front seats, while cracks in the floor and badly fitted 
windows chilled those on the back seats. Other speeches were 
made by Dr. Stackpole of Dover, C. K. Sanborn, Esq., W. A. 
Kimball, G. F. Hobbs, and the Revs. J. M. Palmer, Dearborn, 
and Brewer. In 1886 this district was annexed to district No. 8. 
What is now known as East Rochester was formerly a part 
of District jSTo. 9, and the children had to go a mile away to 
school at "Adams Corner." In March, 1853, on petition of the 
inhal)itants, the Selectmen set ott' the village, then known as 
Garland's Mills, as District No. 19. A school-house costing about 



EDUCATIONAL AND LITERARY, IG-S 

$500 was built in August following on the south corner of what 
is now the yard of the Free-Will Baptist Church. There were 
15^ weeks of school that year, taught by Harriet Corson. In 
1868 the house was enlarged and a second story added at a cost 
of about ^1,700 including furnishing. In 187*J about two acres on 
Cocheco Avenue was bought for §1,100, and in the summer of 
1880 a school-house containing three rooms well furnished and 
heated by steam, was built thereon at a cost of about .^6,000. 
About 115 pupils are enrolled in primary, intermediate, and 
grammar grades. In 1886 this, together with " Adams Corner "■ 
and one other district, was annexed to the High School district 
Ko. 8. 

Norway Plains early became one of the most important school 
districts. Among the papers of the late Hatevil Knight is found 
the following record : — 

" At a meeting of the School District at Norway Plains on the 31^' day of 
March A. D. 17% held at the dwelling house of Peter Cashing — for the pur- 
pose of compleating the School House now raised and boarded on said Norway 
Plains — 

Voted, That the said School House shall be Compleated in a good workman- 
like manner, after the model of the Dover School House near the Quaker 
Meeting House and as near like it as may be excepting the chimney which is 
to be made of good Brick — the painting also to be excepted. 

Voted That said School be Compleated by the setting of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas in said Rochester in June next." 

The job was " set up at Vendue to the lowest Bidder," and 
was taken by Peter Cushing for one hundred and six dollars. 
Hatevil Knight was his bondsman in the sum of $100 that it 
should be finished at the time appointed. This school-house was 
very small and stood on the same lot with the court house. 
It evidently failed to accommodate the increasing numbers, for it 
is remembered that Edward C. Piper kept the school for some 
years in the court house. The boys would sometimes hide in 
the sheriff's box, and some by this means escaped reciting for 
a week together. In 1815 a new school-house was built where 
the Main-street house now stands. It was a wooden building 
with two rooms, and was occupied while yet uniinished, the 
teacher using the carpenter's workbench for a desk. Jared Sparks^ 
afterwards president of Harvard University, taught here at that 
time. He used to ferule the boys' feet, and set them between 



166 ROCHESTER. 

the girls for punishment. Boys were about the same then as 
now, as it is remembered how they were in the habit of stoning 
the school-house vane, which was in the form of a huge goose- 
quill. This school-house is now the blacksmith's shop on Went- 
worth street. In 1829 two schools were kept in this house, one 
by Dr. M. R. Warren, the other by Sally Pray. His wages was 
$15 a month and board. ISTot long after this a brick school-house 
having three rooms was built on this spot in the form of a cross, 
and continued in use till 1856. In the summer of 1844 three 
schools were kept here, one by Moses T. Gate at $28 per month, 
one by Caroline Knight at $16 per month, and the other by 
Eliza A. Pray at $14 per month. These schools kept increas- 
ing as the village grew till there was urgent need of more room. 
Formerly the law did not permit school money to be used for 
instruction in any but the common branches of stud}^ In 1848 
what was called " the Somersworth act " was passed enabling 
districts which should adopt it to have higher branches taught, 
grading their schools, and appointing a Superintending Committee 
separate from the town. This act was adopted here in 1849, 
and in April, 1850, thirteen hundred dollars was raised for a 
new school-house, containing two rooms, on Wakefield street, and 
E. J. Mathes, John INIcDuflee, and John Legro were appointed 
building committee. Their work was accomplished so that the 
house was occupied in the fall of 1851. At this time there 
435 children in the district, and they were very soon again 
straitened for room, and the school-house question was contin- 
ually agitated. Some thought two more houses were needed, 
some wanted to build one in the cheapest manner, and some 
wanted only t" to repair the old brick school-house." For nearly 
five years meeting after meeting was held to discuss this ques- 
tion. Important votes would be passed only to be reconsidered 
and rescinded, either at the same meeting, or one immediately 
called for that purpose. Thus nothing was accomplished till 
April, 1856, when it was voted to raise $4,000 to build a new 
school-house "where the brick School-house now stands." This 
meeting proved illegal, and another was called for ]\Iay 15, when 
the same votes were renewed, and J. D. Sturtevant, J. McDutfee, 
J. Legro, J. H. Edgerly, and C. K. Sanborn, were chosen building 
committee. This house is the one now standing on Main street. 



EDUCATIONAL AND LITERARY. 167 

The same year another school-house was built on Elm street. 
This now stands on School street, to which place it was moved 
in 187G, at a cost of $650 with repairs. After a year's struggle 
on the part of those who wished to build "a brick house two 
stories high . . . and a wooden house above the bridge/' it was 
voted in April, 1875, "that a new school-house be built above 
the brido^e . . . and that the old house be moved to Portland 
street," and $6,300 was raised for these purposes. The new 
house, located on Maple street, was of two stories, with 112 seats. 
The building committee consisted of C. W. Bradley, J. D. Evans, 
and J. L. Duntley. In 1878 ]^athaniel Burnham, John T>. 
Parshley, and Geo. C. Pinkham were chosen committee to build 
a school-house on Pound street. This house is two stories high, 
with 104 seats, and cost $2,558.61. The next year $300 was voted 
for high school apparatus, and $300 to furnish a recitation room 
for use of the high school. Tlie school -house question was again 
agitated, but nothing resulted till 1883 when it was voted 

" that we build a School house of brick near the central portion of the dis- 
trict, of sufficient size to accommodate at least the present High and Grammar 
School scholars and such increase to their numbers as may reasonably be ex- 
pected for several years to come, with suitable laboratory, etc., etc., at a cost 
not to exceed twenty-five thousand dollars." 

The building committee consisted of Chas B. Gafney, Geo. F. 
Richardson, and Wm. G. Rankin. The house was located on 
"the Hale lot so called" which contained over five acres, and 
cost 82,000. Five hundred dollars was afterwards voted for im- 
provements on the lot. " The building will accommodate 344 
scholars, single desks," besides two recitation rooms. " All modern 
conveniences have been introduced," and the committee believe 
it is " the best school-house in IS'ew Hampshire built at its cost." 
The total expenditure including purchase of the lot was $25,540. 
This house was first occupied in the fall term of 1884 by 285 
pupils. 

In 1850 the Legislature enlarged the powers of districts adopting 
"the Somersworth act," so that if they had a hundred pupils 
within their limits, they could raise money to support a High 
School. At the next annual meeting of this district an eftbrt was 
made to do so. This failing, a special meeting was called in 
April, when the proposition was again rejected. These etibrts 



168 ROCHESTER. 

were renewed from time to time without success till 1868, since 
which time the following sums have been raised for the High 
School: — 1868, $500; 1869, $1000; 1870, none, as the last year's 
money had not been expended; 1871, $1200; 1872, $1000; 1873, 
$1500; 1874 to 1876, $2000; 1877-78,82500; 1879, $2000; 1880, 
$2500; 1881-82, $3500; 1883 to 1885, $5000; 1886, $6500. 

The only advantage which the district derived for many years 
from the adoption of " the Somersworth act " was the opportunity 
afiorded a few bright and persevering pupils to pursue studies 
above the common branches, without resorting to private schools. 
The first school which was called a High School was in the 
brick school house in 1857. It was taught by Wm. A. Kimball 
at $40 per month. The year's schooling was only 22 weeks, and 
there were less than 70 pupils, very few of whom studied any- 
thing above the common branches. Though there was nominally 
a High School from this time, it differed from a district school 
only in affording opportunity for individual pupils to pursue higher 
studies. As late as 1869 there were only ten who desired these 
branches. In 1873 a new departure was made by grading all the 
schools and establishing a regular four years' course of study for 
the High School. Another year of Grammar School work was 
for several years assigned to the High School. There were fifty 
two pupils this year, and two teachers. From this time the 
schools of lower grade in this district rapidly improved and have 
been doing excellent work. The High School, however, did not 
flourish. Pupils dropped out all along the course till none were 
left to graduate. The committee grew discouraged, and in 1877 
not only reduced the English course to three years, but allowed 
all who had studied any course for three years in the High 
School to receive diplomas in 1878. (See Appendix.) Four years 
were still required for all except the English course, and for 
this also since 1886. The High School is now in a very pros- 
perous condition, with over one hundred pupils, and three teachers. 
Its graduates have been as follows: — 1878,8; 1880,4; 1881,. 
13; 1882,4; 1883,16; 1884,14; 1885,16; 1886,16; 1887, 13. 
The following list of principals of the High School is as nearly 
accurate as it can now be made: — Wm. A. Kimball, 1857-58; 
Henry Dudley, one term in 1859 ; Hiram M. Sanborn, 1859 to 
'62 ; John S. Warren, 1863 ; Charles E. Lane^ James J. Header,. 



i 



EDUCATIONAL AND LITERARY. 169 

John Runnclls, Mr. Hazen, and Owen Cobb for difteront })Ci'io(ls 
till 1866, Avhen James P. Dixon came for two years; then ]SIr. 
Kennedy and Mr. Anderson; AVm. H. Farrar, 1869-70; then 
John C.'^Pike and Geo. E. Smith ; A. N. Marston, 1871-75 ; M. C. 
Lamprey two years ; Rev. Mr. Pitkin, one term ; Prank P. Sheii- 
ard, 1877-78; Charles E. Hussey, 1879-83; Warren O. Plimpton, 
1884 ; Alfred B. Morrill, 1885 ; Wm. H. Allen, 1886-87. 

Under " the Somersworth act " the district first appointed five 
persons as Superintending Committee. In 1863 the number Avas 
reduced to three. There were eight years during which the ofiice 
was left vacant, as \A'ill appear by the following list : — 

Asa P. Hanson, 1849. Charles E. Johnson, ISOl. 
William A. Kimball, 1849 to '51, '55 to Franklin McDuffee, 1861 to '67, '70. 

'62, '71. James Farrington, 1862, '63. 

John E. Farwell, 1849 to '51. Joseph H. Worcester, 1864, '65, '67, '69 
Jeremiah C. Garland, 1849, '50. to 71. 

Nathaniel D. Wetmore, 1849. Frescott Fay, 1866. 

George B. Roberts, 1850, '55, '61. Moses R. Warren, 1867 to '69. 

Silas Green, 1850. A. F. Marsh, 1868. 

J. C. Cromack, 1851. Lewis P. Cushman, 1869. 

Jesse Meader, 1851. Henry Kimball, 1871 to '76, '78 to '81. 

John Nutter, 1851. II. M. Stone, 1872 to '74. 

J. C. Seagrave, 1855. Daniel J. Smith, 1872, '73. 

C. K. Sanborn, 1855. Susan M. Warren. 1874 to '81. 

John W. Prav, 1855. E. C. Cook, 1875 to '77. 

Reuben Tilton, 1855. John H. Ward well, 1877. 

Jeremiah D. Evans, 1855, '62. Ezekiel True, 1878 to '80. 

James M. Palmer, 1861. Charles W. Folsom, 1881. 
Jas. H. Edgerly, 1861 to '66, '68 '70, '71. 

In 1877, a law was passed enabling this district to appoint a 
a Board of Education having entire control of the schools, and to 
consist of six persons, two to be elected each year. This law was 
adopted by the district in 1883, and the following persons have 
constituted the Board : — 

Charles W. Folsom, 1883 to 1885. Henry M. Kellev, 1883 to 1886. 

Joseph H. Worcester, 1883 to 1885. Henry Kimball, 'l883 to 1886. 

John L Copp, 1883 to 1887. Julian II. Cutler, 1886 to 1888. 

Charles W. Brown, 1883 to 1887. Frederick H. Lunt, 1886 to 1888. 

In 1885, four other districts united with this. It is to be hoped 
all the rest will follow their example, constituting the whole town 
but one district. Thus all would have as nearly equal school 
privileges as their locations will permit. In 1886 the Board of 

12 



170 ROCHESTER. 

Education recommended the introduction of music into the schools, 
and secured a vote to furnish reading books at public expense. 

At the annual town meeting in March, 1886, there were re- 
ported eighteen schools outside the High School District with an 
enrolment of 468 pupils. The ten smallest schools numbered 
respectively 3, 4, 5, 5, 6, 6, 9, 11, 11, and 13 pupils. The amount 
expended for each pupil was ^45.73 in one school, and over $30 
in three others. Total amount expended in these schools for the 
year |4,333.35 or an average of $9.25 for each pupil. In the 
High School District, which for this year included ISTos. 8 and 18, 
there were enrolled 131 pupils in the High School, 215 in the 
five Grammar Schools, 163 in the three Intermediate Schools, 
and 324 in the six Primaries, making a total of 833. Total 
expenditures $9,574.35, making an average of $11.49 to each pupil. 
The last few years have witnessed a great advance in the educa- 
tional facilities of this town. While credit is due to many for 
their share in the work, it cannot be deemed invidious to say that 
the people of Rochester are specially indebted to Plenry Kimball, 
Esq., for his enthusiastic and persistent efforts for the improvement 
of the schools. 

Rochester Academy. 

In the spring of 1820 a petition was put in circulation, addressed 
to the Trustees of the Newmarket "Weslej^an Academy, asking 
for the removal of that institution to Rochester. Being one of 
the county towns, Rochester was a place to which, during the 
sessions of the court, visitors were drawn from all parts of the 
county then comprising the present counties of Strafford, Carroll, 
and Belknap. It was therefore well adapted to become the seat 
of a flourishing school. The subscribers obligated themselves to 
pay certain sums, amounting to about $1,200 to secure this insti- 
tution. Joseph Hanson subscribed $150 ; Moses Hale, $125 ; Wm. 
Barker, $120 ; Charles Dennett, James C. Cole, Jabez Dame, $100 
each; John Roberts, Jr., John Plumer, 3d, David Barker, Jr., 
Ilatevil Knight, Jonathan II. Torr, William Ilurd, $50 each ; 
and others smaller sums. The town also voted the use of the 
Court House to Wesleyan Academy. The failure of this effort 
seems to have been due to objections raised by some influential 
persons against a school controlled by a religious denomination. 



EDUCATIONAL AND. LITERARY. 171 

" The Proprietors of the Rochester Academy " were incorpo- 
rated June 30, 1827, and lield their first meeting September 19. 
The only business transacted was a vote to call a general meeting 
of persons interested in the subject. Afterwards committees were 
appointed to recommend suitable measures, and to circulate sub- 
scription papers. Two papers were prepared, one to raise money 
for erecting a building, the other to establish a fund for the 
support of the school. Twenty-five dollars was agreed upon as 
the price of a share, the payment of which constituted any person 
a proprietor. Rochester people were appealed to more especially 
to provide for the building as they would reap peculiar advan- 
tages from the efi:brt, 

" in the addition of good society, in affording their children a good education 
with diminished expense, in the increased value of their real estate, and in the 
rare and distinguished ornament to their village of a respectable school." The 
subscribers were as follows: — David Barker, Jr., Nathaniel Upham, Jeremiah 
H. Woodman, 4 shares each ; Charles Dennett, John Greenfield, Closes Hale, 
Joseph Hanson, Jr., William Hurd, John Roberts, Jr., William B, Smith, 2 shares 
each; Benjamin M. Akerman, George Barker, Simon Chase, James C. Cole, 
James Cross, Joseph Cross, Peter Folsom, Benjamin Hayes, Jr., Richmond Hen- 
derson, Charles Hoyt, Joseph D. Hurd, Nathaniel H. Hurd, Lowell Kenney, 
Hatevil Knight, David Legro, Lydia March, John McDuffee, Jr., Louis McDut- 
fee. Ivory M. Nute, John Nutter, Jr.. Sarah Odiorne, Benjamin Page, Elijah 
Roberts, John Smith, Jonathan iL Torr, Simon Torr, W. & E. D. Trickey, 
Daniel Waldron, Isaac Willey, John York, one share each; and Samuel Header 
12 dollars, making in all |1412. 

The proposed fund for the support of the school was not secured. 
A lot just below the court house, where Wallace's Shoe Factory 
now stands, was presented by the town and at first accepted by 
the proprietors, but not being considered an advantageous location 
it was abandoned, and the lot on which the Academy now stands 
was purchased of John Roberts, Jr., to pay for which four dollars 
was assessed on each share. The subscriptions were nearly all 
expended in buying a lot and erecting a two-story brick building, 
which was completed in 1828. 

James Towner, A. M., who for some years had been a very 
acceptable instructor at Wolfeborough Academy was secured as 
first preceptor. The school was formally opened October 31, 
1828, with an elaborate address by Rev. Baron Stowe of Ports- 
mouth. The preceptor was a man of literary culture, and under 
his management the school was large, many of his former pupils 
having followed him to his new field of labor. The only quali- 



172 ROCHESTER. 

fications required for admission were " to be able to read and 
spell well and to write a legible hand." The more advanced 
branches pursued were such as were then necessary as a prepara- 
tion for college. The teacher's salary was $500. After two 
years Mr. Towner left Rochester because the scanty funds of the 
Academy could not insure a suitable support. He removed to 
the West and died there. His successors were as follows : — 

Charles William Woodman a native of Rochester, a graduate 
of Dartmouth in 1829 ; formerly Judge of Probate, and afterwards 
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, now a lawyer in Dover. 
He taught the Academy one or two terms. 

Lewis Turner, a graduate of Bowdoin, took charge of the Acad- 
emy in Februar}^, 1831, and remained two terms. Instruction in 
French announced. 

Ingersoll, afterwards a lawyer in Bangor, Maine. 

F. Goodwin of South Berwick, Me., afterwards an Episcopal 
minister in Brooklyn, 'New York. 

Levi l!»[elson Tracy, then a student, afterwards, in 1834. a grad- 
uate of Dartmouth. He possessed much energy of character, 
teaching and singing himself through college. He died at Hart- 
ford, Conn., in 1846, aged 39. 

Cyrus W. Hamlin taught here three months in 1832. He was 
a young man of only nineteen or twenty years, the first scholar 
in his class at Bowdoin, of rare piety, and as remarkable for his 
modesty as for his intellectual attainments. He is now well known 
as having been for many years one of the foremost missionaries 
in Constantinople. Besides being a scholar, he is a practical man 
of much mechanical ingenuity, by which he rendered much ser- 
vice to the English during the Crimean war. He has since been 
President of Middlebury College. 

A. P. Chute, also of Bowdoin, came in September, 1832, and 
was recommended as " eminently qualified to promote the moral 
and literary improvement of his pupils." 

George Pickering Mathes followed. He was a native of Dur- 
ham, prepared for college at Rochester Academy under Mr. 
Towner, and graduated at Dartmouth in 1834. He died at Dover 
in 1836, while a law student in the office of Daniel M. Christie. 

About this time the Trustees gave up the control of the insti- 
tution, and thereafter each preceptor took upon himself the respon- 



EDUCATIONAL AND LITERARY. 173 

fiibility ot conducting the school. The Trustees were J. II. Wood- 
man, Nathaniel Upham, Rev. Isaac Willey, David Barker, Jr., 
Closes Hale, Joseph Cross, James C. Cole, Nehemiah Eastman of 
Farniington, Daniel M. Christie of Dover, Rev. Josiah T. Ilawes, 
Jeremiah Kingman of Barrington, and Rev. Enoch Place of Straf- 
ford. Sept. 4, 1829, Ilatevil Knight was chosen to fill the vacancy 
occasioned by the death of Nathaniel Upham. Sept. 3, 1830, 
John Greenfield was chosen to fill the vacancy occasioned by the 
resignation of Rev. J. T. Ilawes. J. H. Woodman was president; 
Moses Hale, treasurer; and Rev. Isaac Willey, secretary. No 
other Trustees were appointed. 

In September, 1835, John C. Ingalls was announced as Prin- 
cipal ; Alonzo Jackman, Teacher of Mathematics ; Betsey Dow, 
Instructor in French and Painting. " French, Greek, Geometry, 
Trigonometry, Surveying, Navigation, Book-keeping, Belles-Let- 
tres, Botany, Logic, Painting, Music, Latin, Logarithms, Chro- 
nology, Stenography, Rhetoric, Declamations, Conic Sections, 
Moral Philosophy, Chemistry, exercises in Calisthenics, and the 
formation of aftable manners," are among the attractions oflered. 
Students assembled every morning at sunrise for reading the 
Scriptures and prayer. Mr. Ingalls remained two and a half 
years. 

In January, 1838, Harrison Carroll Hunt, a native of Ash- 
burnham, Mass., took the school. He was a highly successful 
teacher, remaining for about three years. While here his name 
was changed to Hobart. He graduated from Dartmouth in 1842 ; 
became a prominent lawyer and politician in Wisconsin ; was 
speaker of the Wisconsin House of Representatives, a member of 
the State Senate, and Democratic candidate for Governor; was 
Lieut. Col. of a Wisconsin Regiment in the Rebellion, and was 
■one of the captured Union ofiicers who escaped from Richmond 
l)v tunneling the Libbey prison. He has since })ractised law in 
Milwaukee, Wise. 

In November, 1841, the school was taken by Jeremiah Hall 
Woodman Colby of Sanbornton, Avho graduated at Dartmouth 
the next July. He studied law with Daniel M. Christie, and settled 
in Manitowoc, Wise, where he died in 1853. " His standing as 
a lawyer was high, and his character exemplary." 

From March, 1844, to the latter part of 1845, David Fogg 



174 ROCHESTER. 

Drew, son of Dr. Stephen Drew of Milton, was principal. After 
graduating at Dartmouth in 1842, he read law and practised five 
or six years, when he studied medicine, and settled in practice 
at Lynn, Mass. 

He was succeeded by Joseph W. Drew, who remained about 
two years, and was assisted by Miss Caroline Knight. Mr. Drew 
was a native of Dover, graduated at Dartmouth in 1844, read law 
one year, studied medicine two years, went to California in 1849^ 
removed to Oregon in 1850, where he held important U. S. offices, 
and was afterwards a clerk in Washington, D. C. In February, 
1847, he announced " instruction on the piano by a competent 
teacher." 

In May following " Rochester Institute " was advertised by Eev, 
G. C. V, Eastman who had " ten years' experience as principal 
of boarding and day school in Connecticut." He described Roch- 
ester as " pleasant, healthy, and easily accessible, containing few 
incentives to vice, and having a large proportion of educated and 
refined society." 

Jarvis McDuflee, who had been an instructor in the U. S. IS^avy^ 
announced himself as Principal of Rochester Academy for the 
Fall Term, 1847, but a " veto " announcement appeared on the 
part of the proprietors. The female department was continued 
under Miss Knight, the former assistant. By some arrangement, 
however, Mr. McDuftee held the principalship for a few terms, 
and afterwards removed to Exeter, where he became a farmer. 

The Spring Term of 1848 was taught by James Wingate Rol- 
lins and Miss Knight. Mr. Rollins was from Somers worth, grad- 
uated at Dartmouth in 1845, taught South Berwick Academy two 
years before coming to Rochester, afterwards read law with Hon. 
William A. Hayes of South Berwick, Me., and settled in Boston, 
Mass., where he still practises. 

In March, 1849, Rev. A. B. Worthing was principal, with J. 
B. Wentworth, associate. This was the last term taught by a 
male teacher. In fact the Academy may properly be said to have 
ended its existence here. Miss Caroline Knight however continued 
a private school for both sexes till 1872. She was the third 
daughter of Hatevil Knight, and was born in Rochester, May 17, 
1806. She early manifested superior mental and moral endow- 
ments. With a determination that pressed through difficulties 



EDUCATIONAL AND LITERARY. 175 

\\'lncli would have dislieartened most girls, she acquired a supe- 
rior education for those days. In 1826-27 she taught school in 
Exeter. When the Academy opened in 1828, she returned home 
and was assistant pu}iil for a time with ^Ir. Towner, for whom 
she ever retained a high regard. In 1830-31 she taught in the 
Academy at liopkinton. IShe afterwards taught in Canandaigua, 
N". Y., where she improved the opportunity to gain a better 
knowledge of French under a native teacher, and of Mathematics 
under the well-known Prof. Robinson, who testified to her superior 
ability in that department. In 1840 she returned to ITew England 
and taught two seasons in ISJorth Conway, when she opened a 
private school for girls in her father's house. This continued till 
she took the position of assistant to Mr. Drew. Wlien the Odd 
Fellows bought out the shareholders of the Academy, she secured 
enough with her father's share to retain the use of one room 
where she continued to teach till failing strength compelled her 
to retire. She was a self-denying Christian woman who devoted 
her life to doing good. She gave instruction not onh^ in the 
common branches but also in Latin, French, Algebra, and Geom- 
etry for twenty-five cents a week, and even this was sometimes 
abated that the poorest might be able to avail themselves of the 
privilege of instruction. Her work was of a high order. One 
who was specially interested in education remarked that Kochester 
could never establish a public High School while Miss Knight 
continued hers, for she used all the material. Her religious influ- 
ence was positive and wholesome. Many of her pupils, some 
now in high positions, can still testify to the deep and lasting 
impressions there received. In 1854 she adopted two children 
whom she trained and educated for lives of usefulness. One 
known as Mary M. Knight is now Mrs. Alvan S. Pratt of Wor- 
cester, Mass. ; the other, John H. Wardwell, graduated at Dart- 
mouth College in 1870, and is now a teacher at Medford, Mass. 
He still owns the old Knight house built in 1790, where his 
adopted mother died, Aug. 8, 1882, in the same room in which 
she was born 76 years before. 

For about twenty years Rochester Academy was a flourishing 
and useful institution, the benefits of which were felt and appre- 
ciated by the people of this and neighboring towns. No catalogues 
were published, so that it is now impossible to obtain accurate 



176 ROCHESTER. 

information in regard to the number of pupils, names of grad- 
uates, or courses of study pursued. As each principal conducted 
the school according to his own ideas, its character for the time 
depended upon his ability and aptitude in his vocation. 

Among the many students of this institution may be named 
the following : — George Mathes already noticed ; Elijah Martin 
Hussey a graduate of Dartmouth in 1852, now a lawyer in IsTew 
York city ; George L. Hayes a graduate of Bowdoin of more 
than ordinary ability, who died in Kentucky a few years after 
graduation ; Theodore Chase "Woodman a graduate of Dartmouth 
in 1835, a lawyer of Bucksport, Me., has been a member of the 
Executive Council, and Speaker of the Maine House of Repre- 
sentatives; Rev. Worster Willey for many years a missionary 
among the Cherokees ; Hon. Edward Ashton Rollins a graduate 
of Dartmouth in 1851, Speaker of the ^N'ew Hampshire House of 
Representatives, U. S. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, and 
who gave funds to build the Rollins Chapel at Hanover wdiere 
he died Sept. 7, 1885; Sylvester Waterhouse, Ph. D., a graduate 
of Harvard in 1853, professor in Washington University, St. 
Louis, Mo.; John P. ]^ewell who graduated first in his class at 
Dartmouth in 1849, a successful teacher at Derry and Manchester, 
of which city he has since been Mayor; John Noble of Great 
Falls a graduate of Harvard, a teacher in Boston, Clerk of the 
Supreme Court in Mass. ; Tolman Willey, an able lawyer in 
Boston; J. H. York, M. D., a successful physician in Boston; 
Hon. J. H. Ela; Hon. J. H. Edgerly; and many others. Many 
ladies also now exerting a salutary influence in society were 
educated here at least in part. Among them was Caroline Bodge 
a graduate of South Hadley, who with great self-denial taught 
for several years in the most ignorant parts of New Jersey. She 
was teacher of Latin in the female seminary at Rockford, 111., 
and afterwards principal of a female college in Wisconsin where 
she died. 

In 1846 the proprietors voted to lease the upper story of the 
Academy building for ten years at twenty dollars per annum to 
Motolinia Lodge I. O. of Odd Fellows. This Lodge eventuall}- 
botight out the rights of the various subscribers to whom the 
[jroperty reverted when it ceased to be used for a school. Having 
erected a much larger building in the front yard the Lodge sold 



EDUCATIONAL AND LITERARY. 177 

the old acaclemy which is now fitted up into a two-tenement 
dwelling facino; on a new street called Academy street. 

The first and most important cause which led to the decline of 
the Academy was the want of a Fund by which talented teachers 
might be secured and retained. Being without this permanent, 
independent basis, the division of the County into three, and the 
removal of the courts from Rochester, dealt the final blow. This 
chan2:e occurred when the institution was in the height of its 
l)rief prosperity, and not only diverted patronage to other insti- 
tutions but was the beginning of an entire revolution in the char- 
acter of our population and societ}'. In the early years of the 
school such men as Mr. Woodman, David Barker, Jr., Judge 
Tebbetts, the Uphams, and the Hales, not only appreciated edu- 
<?ational advantages for their own town, but their extensive 
acquaintance as lawyers and })ul)lic men would naturally increase 
the })atronage of the scliool. The courts having been removed, 
the death of any one of these men was a loss not to be repaired. 
The change of Rochester from being almost exclusively an agri- 
cultural to a manufacturing town ; the establishment of Academies 
at Lebanon, Me., and at Strafford; improved High Schools at 
Great Falls and Dover; the introduction of more advanced studies 
into the public schools ; the increased facilities for traveling to 
and from institutions of established reputation and ample funds; 
all combined to diminish the prosperity of this school. 

After the decline of the Academy, though possessing abundant 
elements of material wealth and prosperity, Rochester was for 
many years sadly deficient in the means of aftbrding a good 
education to the young. Many citizens appreciated the value of 
such advantages, mourned over the deficiency, and used their 
best endeavors to rouse others from their apathy and to provide 
the much-needed facilities for education. After long delays their 
ettbrts were crowned with success in the establishment of a Public 
High School with excellent accommodations far superior to the 
" Academy " in its best days. 

Social Library. 

An essential element in the education of this town is " The 
Rochester Social Library Company. ^^ Next to churches and schools, 
libraries are the most important factor in the education of any 



178 ROCHESTER. 

community. "When this company was formed libraries were even 
more a necessity than now. Books were scarce and costly. As 
for newspapers, a few families received the " 'New Hampshire Ga- 
zette," and later, the " Dover Sun." But the great variety of 
weekly, monthly, and quarterly periodicals, which we now esteem 
lightly because so cheap and common, was then unknown. The 
press did not teem with productions which railroads and coaches 
could convey to every door, but the family reading was narrowed 
down to the Bible, the Almanac, a school book or two, and in 
families that could afford it, a few religious works, reminding us 
of Whittier's lines : — 

" The Almanac we studied o'er, 
Read and re-read our little store 
Of books and pamphlets scarce a score." 

Almost every intelligent family of to-day has more books than 
could have then been collected from the whole town outside the 
libraries of professional men. Yet there was a general desire for 
information, and the people understood, perhaps even better than 
now, the great value of books. The excitement of the revolution 
which awakened and absorbed all their energies had subsided; 
the ncAV government was firmly established and had ceased to 
excite speculation. Mental activity therefore sought new objects 
and new channels, and the arts of peace were pursued with un- 
wonted ardor. In almost every town of Kew Hampshire will be 
found traces at least of a Social Library started at about this 
period. Rochester is one of the favored few which have kept up 
the institution to the present time. 

On the twelfth day of March, 1792, a few persons assembled at 
the house of Col. John Goodwin and subscribed a paper in which 
they declared that learning tended to enlarge the views and soften 
the tempers of mankind; that it was more profitable and more 
pleasant when enjoyed in a social manner, and as social libraries 
had been found in other places to serve the cause of learning 
and virtue, they were agreed to form such a society in this town. 
Each member was to pay eighteen shillings towards the first pur- 
chase of books. Only ten jjaid their tax before the time appointed,, 
and in all twenty-three paid before the end of the year, some by 
turning in, at a fair price, such books as they could contribute. 



EDUCATIONAL AND LITERAKY, 



179 



The first book mentioned was presented by Mr. Haven, and is 
entitled " The Principles of Natural and Political Law," — a work 
then esteemed of great merit. The following titles will show to 
admirers of the ephemeral literature of the present day, what our 
fathers considered a substantial nucleus for a imblic library: — 



Butler's Annlogy of Xatural and Revealed Religion, Foster's Discourses upon 
the Principal Branches of Natural Religion and Social Virtue, Scott's Christian 
Life, ilorse's Geography, Chesterfield's Principles of Politeness, Goldsmith's Ro- 
man History, Robinson's Histoi-y of Charles V., Voltaire's Charles XII. & Peter 
the (ireat, Brydone's Tour, Robinson's America, Tom Jones, etc., etc. 

Xot one in t^^'enty of those early volumes was in the department 
of fiction. The first book presented b}^ an author was "A Com- 
pendium of Military Duty," the first of its kind ever published 
in this country. This was by Jonathan Rawson, an aid of Gen. 
Sullivan, and a lawyer at Dover. The society voted thanks, and 
elected him a member of the association. 

The list of members on the first book of records evidently in- 
cludes many who did not sign at first, as well as some who soon 
dropped out of membership. It is as follows : — 



John McDuffee, 
Aaron Wingate, 
Richard Furber, Jr., 
Joseph Clarke, 
Benj" Odiorne, 
John Brown, 
David Place, 
Daniel McDuffee, 
Moses Horn, Ju""", 
John McDuffee, 3^ 
Daniel Hayes, Jun'', 
Beard Plumer, 
Jotham Nute, 
Hateval Knight, 
James How, 
Isaac Brown, 
Jacob Hanson, 
Daniel Dame, 
Banabas Palmer, 
Ephraim Kimball, 
Jacob McDuffee, 



Joseph Haven. 
Daniel McDuffee, Jun"", 
L'. William Palmer, 
Ephraim Blasdell, 
Samuel Palmer, 
Paul Dame, 
L'. Edward Rollins, 
Peter Cushing, 
Esther Copps, 
Joshua Lane, 
Hezekiah Cloutman, 
Joshua Harford, 
Ephraim Twombly, Jun"", 
James McDuffee, 3'*, 
Daniel Rogers, 
Jonathan McDuffee, 
Col. Jon* Palmer, 
John Plumer, Jun"", 
Jonas Clark March, 
Daniel Hayes, 3'', 
Amos Main, 



Sam'. Chamberlain, Jun', 
Richard Dame, 
Wm. W. Blasdell, 
Rev-i. Robert Gray, 
Thomas Bancroft, 
Josiah Edgerly, 
John Plumer, 3'', 
John Downs, 
Thomas Tash, Jr., Esq"", 
Hannah Rawson, 
Thomas Roberts, 
Joseph Walker, 
Dearborn Jewitt, 
Moses L. Neal, 
Edward Cole, 
Levi Jones. 
Moses Roberts, Jun"", 
Joseph Hanson, 
John Haven, 
Polly Bell (Dover), 
Daniel McDuffee. 



This list includes the most prominent and respectable citizens of 

that day, and it is evident from the first, that they felt they had 

founded an institution not merely for themselves but for posterity. 

During the summer of 1792 the first purchase of books was 



180 ROCHESTER. 

ordered, and the Rev. Joseph Haven was invited to deliver an 
oration before the Society. On the first of October this oration 
was delivered, and a copy was solicited for the press. It was 
published in the " Rochester Courier," but not until nearly seventy- 
fi.ve years had passed away, when all who voted at that meeting 
were sleeping in their graves. In the introduction he said : — 

'• We are now assembled in order to open a Social Library in this town ; 
and though it may be looked upon as a day of small things, our hopes are raised, 
and we expect, with reason, that from a small beginning, happy effects will 
follow ; that our society will increase, our library multiply, and literature so 
prevail, that this town will rise in honor and usefulness; have a better knowl- 
edge of mankind, and the important doctrines of Christianity ; that religion, 
virtue, morality, and the arts and sciences will flourish." 

He then spoke of the general benefits of literature, as shown 
in the history of mankind, tracing the influence of learning from 
Chaldea and Egypt through Greece and Rome, the darkness of 
the middle ages, the crusades, and the great reformation, to our 
own land. 

" Even in the wilds of America a seminary of learning was early founded, 
and many of note have there received their education, that the old world have 
been no less surprised at our knowledge than firmness ; nor have we lacked 
men of great abilities to conduct us safely through our struggles with Great 
Britain. France for a number of years has been celebrated for the progress 
she has made in the arts and sciences ; and the consequence is like to be 
liberty, freedom, happiness, and glory. I hasten over other matters to attend 
to things that may appear more connected with the designs of this day. When 
we take a view of this town from its first settlement, we shall have little cause 
to look for the propagation of the arts and sciences. It was for many years a 
frontier town, struggling with poverty and a savage foe ; [so] that the people could 
attend to but little but their safety and support. Necessity led them into the 
habit of neglecting the education of youth, which is not yet conquered or i-e- 
moved. The Amercan war, high taxes, and the distressed situation of the in- 
habitants of the town have been looked upon as sufficient excuses for the neglect 
of public schools. But now an institution is formed and a library founded, 
which we hope will give a greater thirst for knowledge, and tend to promote 
literature. 

" There are few able to purchase many books of their own, but the common 
stock, if our laws are well observed, will soon be sufficient to open a fountain 
of knowledge, of whose stream we may all freely drink. To do this, for a 
small sum each member of the town and others may have free access; and the 
more there are come, the larger and more valuable will it be, and will descend 
a rich inheritance to our sons and daughters. Enthusiasm seems to fire my 
soul, when I consider the usefulness of this library to this and future genera- 
tions; when I see those hours now spent in idle diversion or hurtful sports, 
laid out in useful studies ; when I behold the long and perhaps tedious winter 
evenings rendered pleasant and profitable by reading history, moral and religious 
essays, with other instructive writings ! 

" Will not the ignorant soon see the advantage of our present institution, and 
even the covetous think our money well laid out? We may now have an op- 



EDUCATIONAL AND LITERARY. 181 

portunity of soaring above the common country education ! which is to be able 
to read the plainest books, to write a legible hand, and to practice in a few 
plain rules of arithmetic. With this scanty pittance of learning launch forth 
the quack doctor, lawyer, and divine, and puff out their nostrums, law phrases, 
and nonsense. But 'more knowledge will check these pretenders, and bring 
fortli men of skill, ability, and worth. We have now an opportunity of ob- 
taining an acquaintance with mankind, by viewing them in all periods of the 
world, as well as in different ages and stations of life. Virtue will be set 
before us in all its alluring charms ; while vice will be clothed with shame, 
and strike with horror and detestation. This will be the case if we have 
authors well chosen, and historians who draw characters to the life. Then 
shall we behold the characters of great men portrayed in their true colors ; 
and in some their virtues and vices will be pretty equally blended together. 

'* Yet most of the ancient heroes of the world will appear no better than arbi- 
trary and despotic tyrants, tho' flattery once set their names high in the 
catalogue of fame, at the head of which we shall find an Alexander and C;esar, 
the one a madman, the other a secret tyrant, ambitiously undermining all laws 
and deluging the earth with blood to ' raise himself to the head of empires. 
These with many others once famous in the world, are now sunk into contempt, 
and their names will be held in eternal execration. But the names of Wash- 
ington, Paine, and De Lafayette will ever be revered and held dear for their 
important struggles in favor of the rights of mankind, and their laying the 
foundations of freedom, liberty, peace, and happiness in America, Europe, and 
the world. Here are great talents blended together, and shining in the scholar, 
statesman, and soldier. Here we behold what literature and true virtue can do. 

" But perhaps we think these characters too high for our imitation ; that like 
the eagle in the air they have soared beyond our reach. Yet what is beyond 
the reach of virtue, resolution, and perseverance? Was not David (the best 
and greatest of Israel's kings) from the shepherd's cot? Was not Cincinnatus, 
one of the most celebrated Romans, repeatedly called from the plow and his 
little farm to command in the army and senate, and to rescue his country from 
ruin and destruction ? Was not our American Cincinnatus, the great Wash- 
ington, in like manner called from his farm to command the army, and then 
to preside in the senate, again and again to redeem his country from the greatest 
dangers and calamities ? And may none in the humble, tho' most useful and 
honorable employment of agriculture, seek to copy after these great men in 
their knowledge, virtues, usefulness, and dignities? 

'•If we wish to rise in the world, it must be by labor, watchfulness, and 
study. 

'• Wliile we are diligent in our proper callings, we must spend our vacant mo- 
ments in collecting the flowers and fruits of literature. If without knowledge 
we rise high in office, shall we not be like the ass in the fable with the trap- 
pings of royalty, witliout skill or ability to fill the station, and therefore be 
the sport and ridicule of all ? 

" But reading when properly managed, will tend to store the head with useful 
knowledge and to mend the heart. And when a good head and heart come 
together, the person is fit for posts of honor, trust, and importance ; that with 
pleasure we can anticipate the public utility of our library, and hail the day 
that has set it open to our view. Cordially we invite others to join, that they 
may prepare themselves for office, at present engrossed by a few, because few 
only have knowledge sufficient to make a figure in our Congress, courts, or 
general assemblies. 

'* Let our young men now rouse from sloth and inactivity, and emulate the 
greatest and best of characters. This can be done not by pride or vanity, but 
a humble deportment, and a long and close application to the siudy of mankind. 
Many are ruined by a small tincture of learning, but a flood of pride. Their 
vanity keeps them ignorant, and self-importance renders them contemptible. If 



182 ROCHESTER. 

we ever become great or wise, humility will lay the foundation, and diligence, 
prudence, and study raise the superstructure. 

'• Let us not be afraid of a little time and expense, if thereby we can promote 
and cultivate useful knowledge. We may think hard we have not our share in 
government, when the only reason is, we do not prepare ourselves for it. Read- 
ing, though it may be hard and tiresome at first, will become easy and pleasant 
and fit for the important duties of great men. 

" As knowledge increases, our desires after it will become more strong ; but 
sloth is the bane of learning, and indeed of every useful calling and employment. 
Then let us exert every faculty of the soul to become wise, good, and useful. 
And that we may gain knowledge, let us pay a strict attention to our present 
institution; seek to support every good regulation, and to increase our stock of 
books. And that our children may be benefited by it, we should early and 
closely attend to their education ; instill into their tender minds a love of knowl- 
edge, religion, and virtue. That they .may venerate the character of the Deity, 
and live in the faith and practice of his holy religion. 

" May this society and this institution long flourish and be of great utility; 
this town be a seat of the muses, and this land, under the kind auspices of 
heaven, rise far superior to all others. May the world now become wise and 
better, throw aside the sword and attend to the useful arts and sciences, that 
the happy time may be present, when peace, plenty, happiness, and concord 
may reign over America, Europe, and the world." 

Mr. Haven was always deeply concerned for the moral and 
social improvement of his people, and if this idea of a Library 
was not first suggested by him, he was certainly one of its earliest 
advocates and patrons. He was the lirst-named grantee of the 
charter, and the style of composition of the articles of association 
indicates that he was their author. History was a favorite sub- 
ject with him, and his discourses made frequent allusions to the 
advantages derived from its study. That these advantages might 
be within the reach of all, he urged the establishment of this 
Social Library. 

Li 1794 the Association was incorporated by the Legislature, 
and continued to maintain some degree of life and interest till 
1823. At that time there were about four hundred volumes in 
the library, but for eleven years following it was sadly neglected. 
No records were kept, and the books were scattered into all parts 
of the town. Through the efforts of Charles Dennett and others 
an act was passed in 1834 giving the society a new charter. At 
the first meeting, Doc. 8, 1834, J. H. Woodman, J. H. Smith, 
and Charles Dennett were appointed to collect all books belonging 
to the library, and to make out a list of members. This was a 
diflicult matter as the records failed to show who had paid 
assessments. The committee reported the names only of " those 
who had taken books within the last ten years," and it was voted 



EDUCATIONAL AND LITERARY. 183 

to remit all fines incurred during that period. The following is 
the list : — 

Louis ^IcDuffee, Jeremiah II. Woodman, Jonathan H. Henderson, 

Heirs of Jonas C. March, Heirs of John Plumer, 3d, James Adams, 

Moses Page, Charles Dennett, Levi Hayes, 

Heirs of Natli'l Uphara, John H. Smith, Joseph Hanson, Jr., 

James Tebbetts, Samuel Chamberlain, Isaac Jenness, 

Heirs of David Birke, Jr., Ira Fish, Moses Roberts, Jr. 

Heirs of Richard Dame, John McDuffee, Jr., 

Moses Hale, Walter B. Knight, 

With a new charter, new by-laws, and a librarian thoroughly 
in earnest, new life was imparted to the society, and an interest 
was then aroused which has never since wholly died away. 
From this time the society has been prosperous, with an increasing 
membership, and respectable yearly additions to its library. The 
present fee for membership is $5.00, with an annual tax of one 
dollar. Non-members can use the library by the payment of 
^1.50 per year. The number of volumes is not far from 2,200, 
and about sixty persons avail themselves of their use. 

The following is the list of librarians of this society, with the 
date of their election : — Joseph Clark, 1792; Joseph Haven, 1797; 
Joseph Hanson, 1798; Thomas Shannon, 1799, who died in otlice, 
and William Shannon served until another was chosen ; Joseph 
Ballard, 1801, who was re-chosen in 1802, but " suddeidy ab- 
sconded," or " found it inconvenient to continue in said office," 
and Samuel Adams took his i:)lace; Joseph Clark, 1803; Andrew 
Pierce, 1804 ; Joseph Sherburne, 1805 ; Jeremiah H. Woodman, 
1806; Joseph Haven, 1809; Joseph Cross, 1813; John Smith, 
1814; David Barker, Jr., 1819, served till 1823. From 1823 to 
1834 there is no record. The following were under the new 
charter:— Noah Tebbetts, 1834, died in office 1843; liufus K. 
Pearl, 1843; Daniel J. Parsons, 1844; Cyrus K. Sanborn, 1854; 
Henry Kimball, 1869; A. S. Parshley, 1872; Henry Kimball, 
1875. 

At East Rochester a circulating library containing about 600 
volumes was opened May 13, 1885. A free reading-room is con- 
nected with it, which is open every afternoon and evening. The 
Cocheco Woolen Manufacturing Co. furnish the rooms warmed 
and lighted. The citizens of the village have furnished voluntary 
contributions to purchase books and periodicals, and for other 



184 ROCHESTER. 

expenses. Nov. 2, 1886, the town voted $100 "for the use and 
benefit of the East Eoehester Free Reading-Room and Librarj-." 
In no way can towns more wisely expend their money than in 
thus furnishing the means for popular improvement. 

Some thirty years ago Gonic seems to have made a move to- 
wards a library, for " in the winter of 1857-58 the Gonic Library 
Association gave a course of four home lectures, and in 1859-60 
a course of eight lectures." 

In Jul}^, 1885, the Woman's Christian Temperance Union 
and Union Mission Band opened a public reading-room in Cocheco 
Block at Norway Plains. It has two rooms suitably furnished, 
pleasantly situated, and well supplied with newspapers and other 
periodicals. 

Lyceums or debating societies, with occasional lectures, were at 
one time prevalent throughout New England, and were a valu- 
able means of education. Rochester was not behind other towns 
in this respect. No complete history of those lyceums can now 
be given. The first of which we have record was formed in 
January, 1839. Richard Kimball was president, Noah Tebbetts 
vice-president, John McDufiiee, Jr., secretary, and H. C. Hunt, 
treasurer. The first question discussed was : — "Is there more 
happiness connected with celibacy than the married state?" Dis- 
putants, Afl[. Louis McDufiee ; Neg. II. C. Hunt. Decided in the 
afiirmative. 

More than twenty years after, in the Fall of 1861, the Roch- 
ester Lyceum was reorganized with a new constitution. President, 
J. H. Edgerly; vice-president, James M. Palmer; secretary, Frank 
McDuffee; treasurer, Charles Dennett. Nothing better illustrates 
the change of times in twenty-one years than the character of 
the first question discussed: — "Would it be right and advisable 
to abolish Slavery as a means of ending the War?" Life had 
become a serious matter, and they had no time to spend on ques- 
tions designed to afiford only amusement. It is altogether probable 
that Ij^ceums were organized many other winters than these. 
Lecturers were procured from abroad, and there is no doubt 
much help was given to those who were then young by taking 
part in discussions and listening to valuable lectures. 



i 



educational and literary. 185 

Rochester Newspapers.* 

The first newspaper printed in the town of Rochester was issued 
by D. Warren Furber, on Sept. 16, 1858. It was called " The 
Rochester Review," and underneath the newspaper head was added 
in much smaller type the words : " And Carroll County Adver- 
tiser." This additional head was probably due to the fact that 
the printing material and two hand-presses, which composed the 
ofiice, were purchased at Wolfeborough and removed to Rochester. 
The}^ formed the outfit of the old " Carroll County Pioneer," a 
newspaper formerly printed in Wolfeborough. 

The " Review " was published every Thursday, and purported 
to be neutral in politics. It was a 6-column paper (24 columns 
in all) about 22x32 inches in size, and its subscription price was 
" one dollar a year in advance, or $1.25 at the end of the year." 
In his introductory in the first issue " To the Public," the pub- 
lisher said, among other things : — 

"... We have looked over the ground with some care, and calculated the 
results with what little of judgment we may possess, and have arrived at the 
conclusion, that with the unusual business facilities with which this town is 
favored, together with the manifest disposition on the part of our citizens to 
increase business in this town, as well as the fact that this community is noted 
for wealth and intelligence, — all these are favorable to the success of a news- 
paper. . . . Without further remarks we launch upon the broad tide of popular 
favor, and await the verdict of the public." 

Its motto under the editorial head was : — " Encourage Your 
Own," and the paper met with fair success for two years, its ad- 
vertising columns being patronized by many of the local store- 
keepers. Under a more thrifty and energetic management, it 
would doubtless have been continued until this time. 

Mr. Furber, the publisher of the " Review," was comparatively 
a young man when he started the paper, being about twenty- 
three years of age. He had learned the printing business in the 
Great Falls "Sketcher and Journal" ofiice, under James T. Furber, 
its proprietor then, and the same who is now the general manager 
of the Boston & Maine Railroad. Furber (D. "Warren) after leaving 
Great Falls, had been employed at his trade in Dover, X. H., 
and in Lawrence, Mass. He was the son of Benjamin Furber, 
who formerly lived at Gonic, and afterwards at Great Falls. 



♦The rest of this chapter is from the hand of J. F. Place, Esq. 
13 



186 ROCHESTER. 

"While he was a pretty good printer, he gave but little attention 
to his newspaper, and it drifted along not possessing that hold on 
the community due to local interest and influence. 

Furber had in his employ a part of the time, James Jasper 
Henderson, and two boys, — Russell B. "Wentworth, and Charles 
S. Giles, afterward superintendent of the ISTorway Plains Manu- 
facturing Company. Henderson did most of the editorial work 
on the paper, usually " setting up " at the case such " items " as 
he picked up, without bothering to prepare " copy." He had 
just before then published a paper himself at Great Falls, and has 
since been connected with most of the newspaper ofiices of Roch- 
ester, Great Falls, and Dover, where he has been familiarly 
known to the craft for nearly fifty years as " Jim." Mr. Hen- 
derson still resides in Rochester, on his farm on the Gonic-hill 
road, where he has lived for nearly forty years. 

The "Review" printing-ofiice was in the second story of what 
was known as Cole's building, — a brick building on Main street, 
opposite the Methodist Church. The last issue of the paper was 
Sept. 6, 1860, The presses and type were taken to Great 
Falls where Furber changed the name of the paper to " The ]^ew 
Hampshire Review," but it was soon discontinued altogether. 
Furber, who never afterwards engaged in the newspaper business, 
died in Boston in 1886, and was buried in Great Falls. A com- 
plete file of the paper for the two years while published in Roch- 
ester, is in possession of the Rochester Social Library. 

For a short time in 1859-60 John H. Fuller published a small 
monthly sheet, called the " Workman's Protest," which was printed 
in the " Review" oflice. It was not intended as a local newspaper, 
bufpurported to advocate the interests of journeymen shoemakers. 
Its circulation was very small, and it was soon discontinued. 

The first number of the "Rochester Courier" was issued on 
Jan. 22, 1864, by J. Frank Place. The paper was a six-column 
sheet, 22x 32 inches in size : the present size of the paper is 27x 40, 
with eight columns to the page. It has been published continuously 
every Friday since the first issue. Mr. Place was a native of 
GoniCj'a great-grandson of Capt. David Place, and, at the time of 
starting^the paper, twenty-seven years old. He had learned the 



EDUCATIONAL AND LITERARY. 187 

printing business in the office of the " Lawrence (Mass.) Courier," 
and had subsequently engaged in the publication of the "Daily 
Journal " in Lawrence, in company with C. A. Dockham, now 
of Boston. In settlement with his partner he had become possessed 
of a lot of type and printing material, which he shipped to Roch- 
ester, and with about $300 in money bought a Washington hand 
press and sufficient new type, etc., to get out the paper and do a fair 
amount of job work. 

The printing office was on the second floor of W. B. K. Hodg- 
don's building, next to the Great Falls & Conway R. R. depot — 
about where the easterly platform of the present union depot now 
stands. The Hodgdon building was cut in two some years ago, 
and one part removed to Portland street for a dwelling house ; the 
other part is now used as a storehouse at Meserve's planing mill. 

Mr. Place canvassed for the paper, and issued a prospectus, a 
reduced fac-simile of which is given on the following page. The 
names appended to the card were in fact the original local sub- 
scribers to the " Courier." To this list was added after the first 
issue, a large number until between five and six hundred were 
obtained. 

The editorial articles were mostly written by Mr. Place. John 
D. Lyman, then cashier of the Farmington Bank, contributed weekly 
" locals " and an occasional editorial of general interest. The edi- 
tion of the paper circulated in Farmington was called the " Farm- 
ington Advertiser " — hence the change over the editorial head in 
after years to " Courier & Advertiser." Benj. Barnes, Jr., of Dover 
furnished an occasional letter, while others furnished items from 
surrounding towns. Frank McDuffee and J. H. Ela (who was 
afterward elected Representative to Congress) contributed largely to 
its columns from time to time, and the " Sketches," out of which 
the present History has been developed, first appeared in the 
" Courier," and attracted much attention. 

The paper was set up by two girls and a boy, with the assistance 
in busy seasons of J. J. Henderson. The paper had considerable 
" snap " and doubtless made for its editor many warm friends and 
some bitter enemies. During the presidential campaign in the fall 
of 1864, the " Courier" took a strong stand in favor of the second 
election of Lincoln, and in consequence the McClellan Club passed 
resolutions condemning its course and withdrawing all support from 



188 



ROCHESTER. 




The undersigned proposes to commence the publication ia Rochester on the Ist of JaDuarj- next of a weekly 
newspaper, if sufficienl encouragement ii obtained ia the way of tubicriptions and adcerlising patronage, bearing the 
above caption, and to bo issued every Friday evening. 

The need of a local journal in KocheBtcr is perhaps qacstionable with a few ; but the undersigned docR not 
purpose here to discuss tlic question, knowing as he docs the value and influence to every commnnity of its local 
paper, and he feels assured that, with the experience of the past three years in connection with the daily and tri- 
weekly Press and the Printing business, and with energy of purpose and an undivided attention tu the daily wants 
of the public, a weekly newspaper can be established in which every citizen of Kochester and its neighboring 
precincts will feel that be has a special interest — one which can bo well sustained, and which will prove a credit 
to the publisher, give reputation to the place, and b« a source of gratiGcation and profit to all p.inies. 

The paper will be neatly gotten up, and will be about 22 by 27 inches, containing twelve and often fourteen of 
the twenty ccilumna of interesting locals, choice selected reading, latest news, etc., etc. Corrcspotidents have 
been engaged in the neighboring towns to give the columns of 7he Courier the first benefit of such items and 
daily affairs of a public character as may transpire in the county, and this in connection with the Editor's own ex- 
clusive attention to the local interest of its columns, it is conGdeotly believed will make the paper an interesting, 
readable and popular one. It will be the aim of the publisher to make The Courier a liigh-toned and good local 
journal. Politically the paper will be perfectly though loyally independent (not neutral),— acting with and advo* 
eating the claims of no particular sect, creed nor party ; communications upon all subjects that divide public 
opinion will be welcomed, but political controversies will not be suflercd in its columns under any consideration. 

' The undersigned enters upon the undertaking knowing well the care, labor and responsibility attending the 
publication of even a weekly paper ; and he trusts the public will see the value and importance of the enterprise 
to them, and will cheerfully render him the patronage necessary for its success. 

The Courier will be delivered to village subscribers, and mailed to others, at ono dollar as J a half per yc9r, 
payable promptly ia advance,! or duiiDg>the-Urst month of pablicatioa. ^* Your patronage' ia toliciled. ' 

J. F*. I*LA.CE. 

BocUciter, N. H., Kov. 1 803. 



To the Pablic. 

The uodcrsigned. Citizens of Rochester and vicinity, take pleasure in heartily recommending and co-operating 
in the Proposition contained in the foregoing Prospectus, knowing well the value and influence of a good local 
journal ; and they feel f roud furthermore to add their most hearty encouragement to the eflbrts of the Projector 
of the enterprise, Mr. Place, who comes to Kochester' (his native place) with the highest recommendatioos from 
the leading citizens of Lawrence; where he has been connected as local editor and associate proprietor of the 
daily press of that city for the past three years. His csperienco iu this respect and in the Priming business 
commends itself to the Public, and they trust the generoua and universal support which the enterprise deserves, 
and which is necessary to the establishment of a good country paper, will be beartily and promptly extended b^ 
their fellow citizens of whatever political or rcligiuae creed by at least a geoCf»l Md large local 8ub8Cripti9.n to 
^hc Courier. 



Chas S. Whitehouse, 
•lames 11. Edgerly, 
Thos. C. Davis. 
John McDiifTce. 
Walter B. K. Uodgdon.' 
William J. Roberts, • 
C. K Sanborn, 
Ceo. A Neul. 
William 0. Keroold, 
K. J. Mathcs, 
tloo. C Pinkham, 
John i}. Mason, 
Jonathan T. Dodge, 
Charles K. Chase, 
Thos. Brown. 
Hev. 0. Holman, *' 
John Hall. 
N. V. Whitchouso, 
F. B. Moore, 
Franklin McDuflcc. 
Charles Henderson, 



N. T. Kimball, 
Jonathan Wentworth, 
David Legtv. 
Dr. D. FuM. 
Jaa. B. Place, 
Isaac Wentwortb, 
Geo. B. Roberts. 
tSilas W«ntworth, 
J. Edwin Cbesley. 
AWab M. Kimball. 
Silas J. Wentwortb, 
Nicholas H. Vamey, 
Wm K. Kimball, 
William Rand, 
Watson Bsy(>a. 
Stephen D Wentworth, 
John F. Torr, 
S. H. Feioemaa it Bro., 
Francis Orr, 
Jacob H, Elo, 
Benj. Bariier, 



Micajah H. Wentwortb, 
E. Q. & K. Wallace, . 
J D. Evans, 
E P. Whitehouse, 
J. R Marshall, 
Henry Nye, 
J. H. Fuller, 
J. S Warren, 
Charles Dennett, 
Dr. Jas. Farrington, 
M. H. Scavey & Co 
Dominicus Hanson, 
Rev. W. T Smith, 
' Daniel McDuffec, 
Geo. Corson, 
Rev. J. M. Palmer, 
Enoch Whitehouse, 
John Manson, 
Dr. M. R. Warren, 
Levi Ncadcr. 



EDUCATIONAL AND LITERAKY. 189 

the paper. Mr. Place regretted afterward the 'personalities growing 
out of this affair, but by this united action of the leading Democrats 
of the town the "Courier" lost very considerable of its business, 
and had it not been for a largely increased circulation among Kepub- 
licans it is doubtful if the paper could have been continued. In the 
election of a member of Congress in March, 1865, a " bolt " was 
organized against the Republican candidacy of Gen. Gilman Mars- 
ton — the bolters being largely among the "Courier's" principal 
patrons. The " Courier " supported Marston, however, with a good 
deal of spirit, and this caused the paper to lose ground again, and 
that among the strongest friends it had made when the McClellan 
Club tabooed it. 

In 1865 an active temperance movement was started in Rochester. 
Union meetings were held by the two principal churches. Citizens' 
meetings were also held, and lecturers obtained from abroad. In 
addition, one or two special town meetings were called to consider 
the matter. One of the results was the guaranteeing of a good 
fund by subscription to close up the liquor saloons, and the appoint- 
ment of a citizens' prosecuting committee consisting of Frank 
McDuffee, Robert Mcllroy, Charles K. Chase, Charles W". Brown, 
and J. F. Place. Any one now living who remembers the time 
will doubtless remember that that committee was very active in its 
work, and that it was pretty effectual. The " Courier " took a hand 
in this work, and supported the movement heartily, and of course 
came in for a good share of abuse. The paper, however, continued 
to thrive ; its independence now counted in its favor ; and in spite 
of a libel suit in 1866, the vicissitudes of politics and the constant 
opposition and hatred of the saloons, it paid a comfortable income. 

Mr. Place sold the "Courier" and job printing office May 31, 
1867, to George C. Foster of Acworth, K H. Mr. Foster a few 
months afterw^ards sold half of the establishment to Charles W". 
Folsom, who on Oct. 1, 1868, bought his partner's remaining half 
interest. 

Mr. Folsom " was born under the shadow of Mt. Chocorua, the 
only mountain in New Hampshire that has a legend, but came to 
Rochester when less than a year old." He received an academic 
education at "West Lebanon, Me. His father, David J. Folsom, was 
one of" the thirteen who signed the original 'Hale' call, when John 
P. Hale came out of the Democratic ranks and formed the Free Soil 
party of !N'ew Hampshire." 



190 ROCHESTER. 

Mr. Folsom continued editor and proprietor of the "Courier" 
for nearly eighteen years. His special forte was local news, and he 
made his paper in that respect one of the best in New England. 
Edwin E. Small at Farmington, Charles E. Drayton at Gonic, and 
Miss Addie Cowell of Lebanon, Me., were the local correspondents 
for a lona: time. Edward F. Ricker was assistant in the office for 
several years; afterwards Thomas C. Hennem had charge of the 
office, where he still remains. 

In 1871 the office was removed from the Dodge " Bank building" 
(so called, next to Dodge's Hotel) to the second jQoor of D. Hanson's 
building on Central Square, corner of Hanson's street, where it 
now is. The paper was enlarged to a seven-column paper in 1870. 
A Fairhaven cylinder power press was put in in 1872, and soon 
after a steam engine. In 1878 the paper was jagain enlarged to its 
present size — eight columns to a page. The " Courier " during 
Mr. Folsom's management was invariably on the moral side of every 
question. Mr. Folsom twice represented the town in the Legislature, 
and was a member of the State Senate in 1883, where he introduced 
and advocated earnestly the passage of the bill providing for the 
compulsory teaching in the public schools of the effect of the use of 
narcotics on the human system. 

Mr. Folsom sold the " Courier " and its printing office Dec. 4, 
1885, to Dr. L W. Lougee, for $3,500. Dr. Lougee still conducts 
the paper, which maintains its reputation for local news, so well 
earned under Mr. Folsom's management. 

The first number of the " Anti-Monopolist," a greenback news- 
paper, so called, was issued Oct. 19, 1878, by George G. Eerry & Co. 
— a politician named Moses Hull being the " Co." Hull did the 
editorial work, and Berry the mechanical work and looked after the 
" locals." 

Hull, prior to this, owned a small printing office in Boston, and 
Berry had been carrying on a job printing office for several years in 
Rochester — his office being in the Ela building on Market street. 
Hull's materials were moved from Boston, and the two combined 
formed the "Anti-Monopolist" office, which was located in Mc- 
Duffee block. In a few months after the paper was started, Hull 
retired and turned over his interest in the concern to his brother, 
Dr. D. W. Hull of Michigan. In August, 1881, Dr. Hull sold his 
interest to Mr. Berry, and Frank H. Berry (son of George G.) was 



EDUCATIONAL AND LITERARY. 191 

then taken into partnership, and the paper has since then been pub- 
lished by Geo. G. Berry & Son. Mr. Berry, senior, died Oct. 25, 
1885. He was a native of iN'orth Strattbrd, and above forty-five 
years of ago at time of his death. 

The " greenback party " was made up from that extreme wing of 
the Democratic party known as "soft money" Democrats, who 
favored the payment of all government bonds and obligations in 
paper money, or United States paper currency, bearing no interest 
and not redeemable in coin. The "Anti-Monopolist" was started 
to represent and advocate the opinions of that political class. The 
paper has also given considerable attention to local news. It has 
been much improved in this respect, and as a newspaper of general 
interest, since Mr. F. H. Berry has conducted it. 

It is issued every Saturday, its subscription price being one dollar 
a year. The paper has been twice enlarged, and is now an eight- 
column newspaper, 26 X 39 inches in size. For the first three years 
it was printed in the "Courier" office, afterwards in McDuftee 
block on a Washington hand press. The oflice is now in Went- 
worth block, on the second floor, and the paper is printed on a 
Whitlock cylinder press, run by steam power. 

In May, 1884, the Union Mission Band commenced the publication 
of a small monthly paper called " Missionary Echoes," 13x22 in 
size. It was edited by Mrs. J. G. Harvey, the president of the 
organization, and was printed in the "Courier" oflice. Its object 
in the main was to raise funds for the establishment of a public 
Reading Room. The paper was continued for a year, and the pro- 
ceeds turned over to the Women's Christian Temperance Union, 
and used for the above purpose. It was a very creditable work by 
the young ladies of the " Band," and the editing by Mrs. Harvey 
compared favorably with much more pretentious publications. 

A weekly newspaper called the " Rochester Leader " was started 
Dec. 2, 1885, by H. L. Cate and Irving E. Home, under the firm 
name of Cate & Home. Home soon after retired, and the paper 
has since been published by Mr. Cate. It is an advocate of the 
labor interest. Mr. Cate is a native of Reading, Mass., and was 
twenty-seven years old when the "Leader" was first issued. He 
learned the printing business under Mr. Folsom in the " Courier " 
office, where he served for ten years. 



192 ROCHESTER. 

The " Leader " is 26x40 inches in size, and the subscription price 
is $1.25 per year. It is printed in the " Anti-Monopolist" office in 
Wentworth block on Main street. 

The newspaper business of Rochester has one peculiar feature — it 
has been largely conducted by native talent. Both Furber and Place 
— the first the pioneer of the " Review," and the latter the founder 
of the "Courier" — were born in Gonic, and went to the district 
school in that village. Henderson was a native of Rochester, and 
learned his trade with S. J. Yarney, another " Rochester boy," who 
was at that time publishing the " Gazette," at Methuen Falls, Mass. 
Mr. Yarney learned his trade in the " Dover Gazette " office, and 
thus gave the name " Gazette " to his new venture at Methuen. 
This was years before the great manufacturing city of Lawrence 
was thought of, which has since grown almost around the little 
village at Methuen Falls, and was before Mr. Place was born, who 
a quarter century later learned the business in the " Lawrence 
Courier " office, about a mile or so from Methuen, and afterward 
gave the name " Courier " to his individual enterprise at Rochester. 
Mr. Yarney after leaving Methuen established the " Yox Populi " 
at Lowell, which is still continued by some of his family. Mr. Fol- 
som who conducted the " Courier " for eighteen years, was raised 
" above the bridge," as that part of Rochester village is still known. 
The Berrys of the " Anti-Monopolist," both father and son, were 
born close to the Rochester line. 

Among others who have been identified with the business, may be 
mentioned J. T. S. Libby, for many years connected with the " Dover 
Enquirer," who was born in Rochester. Hon. J. H. Ela, so long 
a resident of Rochester, and a native of the town, learned the print- 
ing business in Concord, and did eminent service on the " Herald of 
Freedom," in molding public opinion which finally resulted in the 
formation of the Republican party and the overthrow of slavery. 
Edwin A. Fernald now of the " Detroit Tribune," and George E. 
Place, a Directory publisher in Los Angeles, Cal., are both jwoteges 
of the "Courier" office, and natives of Rochester, Mr. Fernald 
was the founder, and for several years publisher, of the " Great 
Falls Journal." 



CHAPTER XI. 
ROCHESTER IN THE REBELLION. 

" Hark I I hear the tramp of thousands, 
And of armed men the hum; 
Lo ! a nation's hosts have gathered 
Round the quick-alarming drum — 
Saying ' Come, 
Freemen, come ! 
Ere your heritage be wasted,' said the quick-alarming drum. 

And they answered, hoping, fearing, 
Some in faith, and doubting some. 
Till a trumpet-voice proclaiming. 
Said, ' My chosen people, come !' 
Then the drum 
Lo 1 was dumb; 
For the great heart of the nation, throbbing, answered, ' Lord, we come !' " 

The election of Abraham Lincoln to the presidency in 1860 
was regarded by the Sonth as threatening to their interests in 
the triumph of freedom over slavery. They therefore proceeded 
to execute the threat of dissolution which they had so long bran- 
dished over the terrified politicians of the North, The passage of 
ordinances of secession, the establishment of the Confederacy, the 
resignation of Southern officers in the United States naval, mil- 
itary, and civil service, the Peace Congress, the various compro- 
mises proposed and rejected or abandoned, the warlike attitude 
hastily and angrily assumed by the South, the gathering of troops 
at Charleston, the hesitation of the government, the bombardment 
and capture of Sumter by which war was fairly inaugurated, are 
now familiar events in the general history of our country. In 
them Rochester took her due proportion of interest, and manifested 
her full share of political and patriotic ardor. At the presidential 
election this town had cast 376 votes for Lincoln, 268 for Douglas, 
and 22 for Breckenridge. Thus the party which had elected 
Lincoln was strong here at the beginning of the crisis, and when 



194 ROCHESTER. 

war actually burst upon the land, and the question became one 
of maintaining the government against its deadly enemies, party 
differences were for the time laid aside, and all were of one heart 
and soul. Who that was then living has forgotten those early 
days in the war? the wild excitement when news reached us that 
Beauregard had opened his batteries, and each mail for two days 
told us that the brave Anderson still held the fort ? Hopes were 
raised only to be blasted with consternation when the little band 
of 70 surrendered at last to 7000. Then still more thoroughly 
were the people aroused at the President's call for 75,000 troops. 
And as news came of hundreds of thousands of men with money 
and munitions of war quickly offered to sustain the government, 
daily and hourly the excitement grew. The riot at Baltimore, 
the telegraph cut, the first bloodshed, made the people wild with 
patriotic frenzy. The present generation cannot understand it. 
But who then living has forgotten that terrible Sunday ? As if 
the truth itself were not bad enough, the air was filled with most 
astounding rumors from the telegraph office at Great Falls, whence 
couriers were continually arriving. " Baltimore on fire." " The 
city shelled from Fort McHenry." " Gen. Butler shot dead on 
the street." Then the people were ready to believe anything. 
But after a while telegrams became a by-word of untruthfulness, 
to be received with distrust, or like dreams to be interpreted by 
contraries. 

In this crisis what was Rochester doing? "When the battle of 
Lexington opened the revolution ninety years before, the energy 
and alacrity of Rochester in raising and forwarding volunteers 
calls forth our admiration. Did the spirit of the fathers still 
survive ? Our record shows no diminution of patriotism or zeal. 
Immediate steps were taken to raise volunteers. But some could 
not be persuaded to wait a single day. A young man at Gonic, 
named Joseph D. Home, upon learning the fall of Sumter, 
started the same afternoon for Lawrence, Mass., where he volun- 
teered to fill a vacancy in the 6th Regiment, which started early 
the next morning for "Washington. In the Baltimore fight a 
comrade (Needham) fell by his side. This was the first full regi- 
ment that reached the capital, and Rochester was honored with 
a worthy representative. Home proved himself a brave soldier 
and died in the service of his country. 



ROCHESTER IN THE REBELLION. 195 

On reception of the President's proclamation a public meeting 
was at once summoned at the town hall. The call for this meeting 
was signed by a large number of the leading citizens without 
distinction of party. A reduced fac-simile of this call is seen on 
the following page. At the appointed hour the hall was crowded. 
The meeting was called to order by Jacob H. Ela. James li. 
Edgerly was called to preside, with a list of vice-presidents and 
secretaries chosen alternately from each political party. The fol- 
lowing resolutions, presented by Mr. Ela, breathe the same spirit 
of lofty patriotism which pervaded those passed at the dawn of 
the revolution. (Page 52.) 

" Whereas, after numerous acts of war upon the government, which if perpe- 
trated by a foreign power would have been promptly redressed, and after for- 
bearance which would be characterized as imbecility, war exists and has been 
wantonly urged against the government and its authority, and upon principles 
which lead to anarchy and despotism, therefore 

" Resolved, that we will sustain the administration in the most vigorous prose- 
cution of all the means necessary for maintaining the authority of the gov- 
ernment, protecting the public property, and maintaining the honor of the na- 
tional flag. 

" Resolved, that the Selectmen be requested forthwith to call a town meeting 
for the purpose of appropriating and authorizing the Selectmen, or a committee 
of citizens, to use at their discretion such sums as may be necessary, not ex- 
ceeding two thousand dollars, for the purpose of securing the pay of all such 
persons as may volunteer, until otherwise provided for, and for the benefit of 
such families as may need it. 

" Resolved, that a committee of five be appointed to receive the names of vol- 
unteers, and make such arrangements as may be necessary to secure prompt 
compliance with the requisition of the government." 

These resolutions drew out eloquent and patriotic speeches from 
many citizens. A few thought that since the banks had made 
liberal offers of loans for war purposes, it was not necessary to 
call a town meeting at once, and proposed an amendment to the 
effect that a committee be appointed to have a town meeting 
called if it should prove necessary. The people, however, were 
in no mood for delay, and promptly voted down the proposed 
amendment. The resolutions were then adopted with unanimous 
enthusiasm. The firing of a cannon was agreed upon as a signal 
to summon the people to the town hall, and from this time spir- 
ited meetings were held nearly every week. Men of both parties 
from this and other towns addressed these meetings in the most 
fervent manner, making earnest speeches upon the duty of sus- 
taining the government. At one meeting N. V. Whitehouse 



196 



ROCHESTER. 



PUBLIC 





Fellow Citizens ! 

The time has come when by the 

bombardment ot it*) Forts and organized resistance to it8 authority — War 

exists against a Gorernment which has conferred onlj benefits. "She President calls upoa 
the country for aid. to maintain that Gorernment and its authority. In this. trial hoar which 
tests oar capacity for self government — when an armed conflict is upon us — politic«l differ* 
ences should give way to patriotism, and all who recognize the ballot box as the rightful 
means of revolution in a Free Government— -who prize the blessings of Liberty over usur> 
pation and anarchy-r-should unite together to sustain the Gorernment All citizens anima- 
ted by such a purpose, are invited to meet at the 



Hall 

In RoGliBStGr, Thursday Evening, April IStb, 




to, take such action as they may deem proper. 



WATSON HAYES. 
NICHOLAS R. VARNEY, 
BENJAHOBBS, 
CHARLES K. CHASE, 
JOHN MANSON, 
IRA DOE, 
DAVID AUSTIN, 
JOHN STOTT, 
J. WESLEY HORNE, 
W. K. KIMBALL, 
S. D. WENTWOBTH, 
JOSIAH B. K1>IBALL, 
JOHN FOLSOM, 
JOHN W. SANBORN, 
JOHN CORSON, 
SAMUEL JELERSON, 
R J. MATIIES, 
E. L. GLIDDEN, 
DAVID J. SANBOBN, 



BENJA BARKER, 

DANIEL McDUFFEE. 

F. McDUFFEE, 

JOHN LEGRO, 

J N WILKINSON, 

J O HOWARD, 

R McDUFFEE, JR 

B FLETCHER, 

T C DAVIS 

J FARRINGTON, 

JACOB H ELA, 

JAMES H EDGERLY, 

EDWIN WALLACE. 

E G WALLACE, 

J WENTWORTU, 

T BROWN, 

S H FEINEMAN. 

GEO F GUPPY, 

F FEINE.HAN, 



SIMON CHASE, 
GEO B ROBERTS, 
M H WENTWORTH, 
WALTER B K HODGDON, 
CHAS E BLACKMAR, 
CH.4S W FOLSOM, 
H.4RRIS0N H.4L£;, 
J D PiLLSBURY, 
JABEZ D.4ME, 
EPHR.nM H^MMETT, 
D^VID J FOLSOM. 
J D EV^NS, 
JOHN McDUFFEE, 
G D PLUME/J. 
SIL.4S HUSSEY jr. 
CH,iS DE.\NETT, 
REVBEX TILTON, 
THOS S auSSEY, 
CHAS HENDEitSON.. 



i 



ROCHESTER IN THE REBELLION. 197 

displayed a piece of a rebel flag which he had obtained in Boston, 
and offered to give a bounty of twenty dollars each to the first 
five who would enlist from Rochester. The highest degree of 
enthusiasm prevailed. Processions marched through the streets 
to the stirring sound of fife and drum, frequently meeting other 
processions coming in from ditferent parts of the town. A com- 
mittee was appointed to present each Rochester volunteer with a 
revolver, and to furnish such personal comforts as might be needed. 
It was voted to revive the Rochester Phalanx as a company of 
minute men if called for. April 30th a committee of women 
was appointed to provide each man with two flannel shirts, two 
pairs of woolen drawers, two pairs of woolen stockings, and a 
supply of handkerchiefs, towels, etc. Mrs. Anna Hanson, in her 
94th year, offered her services and made up half-a-dozen shirts. 
Her memory of the revolution doubtless increased her patriotic 
zeal. In a very few days the above-named articles were furnished 
to our soldiers then about lea^'ing Dover. Meanwhile young men 
were continually enrolling themselves. The first volunteers enlisted 
at Dover, and went daily to that place for drill, receiving free 
passage on the railroad. 

When the call for 75,000 troops was first received, and one 
regiment assigned to New Hampshire, it w^as thought that our 
town's proportion would be eight or ten, and the question was 
often asked, "Who will go? War was a new thing, and though 
there was much enthusiasm and people loved the old flag, yet 
visions of battle, blood, and death would intrude themselves. 
Who would go? The question was speedily answered. It was 
no longer asked what our proportion was, but men pressed in so 
rapidly that the first regiment was organized and sent forward 
leaving many enlisted men behind who saw no service. The 
first legal action of the town was on May 11th, when three 
thousand dollars was appropriated to procure whatever was needed 
for the comfort and safety of the soldiers and for the support of 
their families during their absence. The selectmen were instructed 
to pay for the revolvers presented to the first twenty volunteers, 
and to provide all necessary articles of clothing. J. H. Edgerly, 
Richard Cross, and C. K. Chase were appointed to distribute 
what sums should be needed for the support of soldiers' families. 
The people largely shared in the sanguine expectations of Secre- 



198 ROCHESTER. 

tary Seward, that thirty, sixty, ninety days, or at most a few- 
months would suffice to crush the rebellion. These hopes were 
very soon blasted, and it is no wonder that some few began to 
falter. The flush of the first glorious excitement had passed. 
Such as had more emotion than sturdy principle proved recreant 
when brought face to face with continued sacrifices and persistent 
struggles. But these were comparatively few. The people as a 
whole in Eochester stood loyally and magnificently by the old flag. 
They were ready to do and to sufier all that the heroes of '76 
had done and endured for their country. The second battle of 
Bull Run had taught both government and people that they had 
no holiday task before them. Volunteers again pressed forward 
in larger numbers than before. During August about forty, and 
in September many more Rochester recruits hastened to the fleld. 
And their enthusiastic support at home was by no means lacking. 
The Sanitary Commission had now become thoroughly organized 
for its beneficent work, and the women of Rochester were sending 
frequent supplies for the comfort of their brave volunteers, and 
the necessities of the sick and wounded. 

At the annual town meeting, March 11, 1862, 

" Voted that the Selectmen be authorized to hire $5000 to furnish necessary 
aid to wives, children, or parents of volunteers in service from Rochester, and 
that the aid rendered families shall be to the extent which with their own 
reasonable efforts shall maintain them in comfortable circumstances." 

With such noble and loyal support of the citizens at home, no 
wonder patriotic young men were ready to march to their coun- ' 
try's defence. 

In June four soldiers returned wounded at the battle of Fair 
Oaks : — Stephen D. Avery who had been shot through the body 
and taken up for dead, Charles H. Bliss badly wounded in breast 
and thigh, Charles W. Gilman whose right thumb had been shot 
oft", and James W. Blaisdell who had lost hiis right fore-finger in 
the same way. Every such return helped to stimulate and con- 
firm the determination of the people. In a few days came the 
President's call for 300,000 more three years' men, followed a 
month later by the call for the same number of nine months' 
men. If there were less of outward excitement and noisy demon- 
stration than a year before, the people were more deeply aroused, 



ROCHESTER IX THE REBELLION. 199 

and more thoroughly imhued with a firm-set purpose to conquer 
the rebeUion at whatever cost. N. V. AVhitehouse ofi:ered $^100 
to be divided among the first twenty who should enlist. Enthu- 
siastic war meetings were now occurring daily all over the state. 
Scarcely a week passed without a crowded meeting at our town 
hall, many not being able to get in. Stirring speeches were made 
by men of both political parties from this and neighboring towns. 
At one meeting thirty enlistments were made, and at every gath- 
ering rousing and repeated cheers for the Union testified to the de- 
termined lo^'alty of the people. The women were actively engaged 
in making lint, bandages, etc., and soliciting funds from every 
quarter with great success, for " none could withstand their ap- 
peals." The last week in Jul}^ they sent two large boxes to the 
Sanitary Commission. The " Dover Enquirer " for Aug. 14, con- 
tained the following item : — 

" Forty-seven recruits from Rochester went up [that is to Concord] Monday 
for the 9th N. H. Capt. C. W. Edgerly raised in a short time thirty-five young 
men, some of the best in tovpn, some of whom never used intoxicating drink, 
and not even tobacco." 

By this time the ranks of young men were becoming depleted, 
volunteering flagged, prices for substitutes began to advance, and 
the government ordered a draft to begin Sept. 15. This was 
deferred, however, for nearly a year. Two special town meetings 
were held in August, at which $200 bounty was voted to each 
volunteer, and the selectmen were instructed to hire $8000 for 
this purpose. Samuel Jones, Daniel McDufiee, Daniel Young, 
Charles Chisholm, and Rufus Clark were appointed a committee 
to assist in raising volunteers. The prospect of a draft roused 
the people to still deeper earnestness. The 9th of September was 
devoted to a military drill of the citizens at large, all the mills 
and places of business being closed, and the evening was spent 
in speech-making and other patriotic demonstrations. 

September 22d, the President's preliminary proclamation of 
Emancipation was issued, and three days later the citizens of 
Rochester met to express their views on the subject. J. D. Sturte- 
vant was chosen to preside. Resolutions introduced by J. II. Ela 
were adopted by an almost unanimous vote. They declared that 

"with profound satisfaction we hail the proclamation as a measure calculated 
to cripple the rebellion, defeat the intrigues of foreign intervention, and bring 



200 ROCHESTER. 

the war to a speedy and triumphant close, and that these and all other consti- 
tutional measures meet our approval, and we pledge the President our hearty 
support," etc. 

The meeting was largely attended, harmonious, and enthusiastic, 
though not so crowded as previous war meetings. 

October 25th valuable swords and sashes were presented by the 
citizens to Capt. G. E. Pinkham, and Lieuts. A. M. Kimball and 
L. F. Place. Charles S. Whitehouse presided, and spoke of the 
ready liberality of the citizens in presenting swords, not only at 
this time but previously to Capt. C. "W. Edgerly, and Lieuts. 
Henry "W. Locke and Samuel F. Varney, saying that Rochester 
had done her duty nobly and was willing to do it till the Stars 
and Stripes should wave in peace over the whole country. 
Cyrus K, Sanborn eulogized the zeal and energy of Capt. Pink- 
ham in encouraging men to enlist and now going himself with 
the confidence and respect of his men, and the best wishes of his 
fellow citizens. He said that Lieuts. Kimball and Place had 
already done honor to the town ; leaving home a year ago as 
Sergeants, their faithfulness, courage, and ability had won their 
present position. Presenting the swords in behalf of the citizens 
he said he committed them to good hands of loyal men who had 
taken them in defense of a righteous cause, and hoped the splen- 
did gifts would inspire them with renewed exertions in crushing 
out the wicked rebellion. The recipients responded in fitting 
words amid repeated applause. 

Aug. 19, 1863, the town voted $300 bounty to each drafted 
man or substitute, to be paid ten days after being mustered in, 
and the same aid to families of drafted men as heretofore to 
families of volunteers, and the selectmen were authorized to hire 
$30,000 for that purpose. December 5, another $30,000 was voted 
to be employed in the same way. In August the long-deferred 
draft took place at Portsmouth. Rochester reported 322 liable to 
military service, out of whom 97 were drawn. Only three of 
these, Henry Grant, George F. Guppy, and Ichabod "Worster 
entered the service. Two, Otis Meader and John C. Shorey, 
paid the commutation fee of $300. Twenty-six procured substi- 
tutes. The remaining sixty-six were rejected for disability, or 
declared legally exempt for family reasons. 

The war " dragged its slow length along " far beyond the ex- 



ROCHESTER IN THE REBELLION. 225 

Jahez :McDltffee. Private, Co. D. 5th Reg't. Mustevecl Oct. 2:^, 1861. 
Deserted Dec. 13, 18(J2. Returned May 10, 1805. ^Mustered out May 11, 18G5. 

Simon Curtis ]\[cDu1''fek. Son of Louis and Lovcy, was born in Rochester, 
May 12, 1814. Private, Co. II, 9th Reg't. Mustered Aug. 13, 18G2. His con- 
stitution was not fitted for hard service, and the surgeon of the Reg't said he 
ouglit not to have been accepted. lie, however, pei'formed such service as he 
was able and bore liis lot cheerfully. From Aj^ril, 18G4, was in the Ambulance 
Corps, and died of disease at Washington, D. C., Aug. 14, 1864. Buried there, 
but afterwards brought to Rochester. 

i\Ii(HAEL ]\IcHrGii. Private, Co. A, 4th Reg't. ]Mustered Sept. 18, 1861. 
Mustered out Sept. 27, 1864. 

Geouge AV. Mellen. Private, Co. D, 6th Regt. INIustered Oct. 23, 1861. 
Promoted Sergeant. "Wounded June 6, 1864. Mustered out Oct. 29, 1864. 

Geokge II. IMeserve. Private, Co. A, 1st Reg't. Mustered April 29, 1861. 
Mustered out Aug. 9, 1861. Re-enlisted pi'ivate, Co. A, 4th Reg't. INIustered 
Sept. 18, 1861. Re-enlistcd Feb. 15, 1864. Taken prisoner at Drury's Bluff, and 
endured the horroi's of Andcrsonville and Salisbury. Paroled Nov. 1864. Pro- 
moted Sergeant. Mustered out Aug. 23, 1865. 

Jacoi; C. Mesekve. Private, Co. A, 1st Reg't. Mustered April 29, 1861. 
Mustered out Aug. 9, 1861. Re-enlisted private, Co. A, 4th Re"-'t. INIustered 
Sept. 18, 1861, Wounded July 30, 1864. Mainly on guard cfuty, or cook, 
Brigade headquarters. Mustered out Sept. 27, 1864. 

Walter S. Meserve. Landsman in Navy. Enrolled April 5, 1864. On 
ship " Vandalia." Discharged for disability June 20, 1864. 

James Morrison. Substitute for Dudley B. Waldi-on, 1863. 

James W. Morse. Substitute for Jeremiah Randall. Private, Co. F, 14th 
Reg't. Mustered Aug. 14, 1863. Lost a leg Sept. 19, 1864. Discharged for 
disability June 9, 1865. 

Hiram P. Murphy. Private, Co. I, 3d Reg't. Mustered Aug. 24, 1861. 
Re-enlisted Jan. 1, 1864. Promoted Sergeant May 1, 1865. Mustered out July 
20, 1865. 

John A. INIurray. Substitute for Joseph H. McDuffee. Private, Co. D, 8th 
Reg't. Mustered Aug. 14, 1863. 

James Neeland. Private, Co. H, 6th Reg't. Mustered Nov. 28, 1861. 
Wounded in right shoulder at Antietam. Transferred to Veteran Resen'e Corps, 
Jan. 15, 1864. Discharged Nov. 28, 1864. 

Solomon Moses Neavland. Boi*n in Sehrberg, Bavai-ia, about 1841. Had 
been in this country two or three years and worked in Wallace's tannery. Pri- 
vate, Co. I, loth Reg't. Mustered Oct. 14, 1862. Wounded in arm and chest at 
Port Hudson, May 27, 1863. Died of his woimds July 4, 1863, and was buried 
in the National Cemeteiy at Baton Rouge, La. 

James T. Nichols. Private, Co. G, 8th Reg't. Mustered Dec. 23, 1861. 
Transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, May 1, 1864. Slightly wounded below 
knee while in camp. Mustered out Jan. 8, 1865. 

George H. Nickerson. Private, Co. I, 15th Reg't. Mustered Oct. 14, 1862. 
Mustered out Aug. 13, 1863. 

John R. Nute. Carpenter in Construction Corjjs about five months. 

John H. Nutter. Enlisted in Navy Aug. 25, 1861. On receiving ship 
"Ohio" one month. On store ship " Brandywine," mostly at Fortress Monroe. 
Witnessed "Monitor" fight. Discharged Aug. 28, 1864. Re-enlisted private, 
Co. K, 18th Reg't. Mustered March 22, 1865. Mustered out May 6, 1865. 

Frederick A. Orne. Sergeant, Co. I, 15th Reg't. Mustered Oct. 14, 1862. 
Mustered out Aug. 13, 1863. 

16 



226 ROCHESTER. 

James Burleigh Osgood. Son of James H., was born in Rochester, 1841. 
An experienced seaman before the war. Enlisted in Navy at Boston. On receiv- 
ing ship "Ohio." On the "Hartford," the flag ship of Admiral Farragut. 
Served nearly three 3-ears in many of the most exciting naval battles of the war. 
Was first gnnner of the forecastle gun. " Showed himself a brave man, — was 
a favorite with the whole crew." At the storming of the Forts in Mobile Bay he 
was killed with 12 others by the explosion of a shell, Aug. 5, 186-1. 

Francis L. Otis. Private, Co. I, 3d Reg't. Mustered Aug. 24, 1861. 
Wounded July, 1863. Promoted Corporal Sept. 17, 1863. Resigned Oct. 15, 

1863. Re-enlisted in same Co. Jan. 1, 1864. Wounded Aug. 17, 1864, Mus- 
tered out July 20, 1865. 

Frederick Otis. Private, Co. I, 3d Reg't. Mustered Aug. 24, 1861. Dis- 
charged for disability May 9, 1863. Re-enlisted j^rivate. Veteran Reserve Corps. 
Mustered Dec. 22, 1863. 

Orange B. Otis. Sergeant, Co. D, 6th Reg't. Mustered Nov. 27, 1861. 
Promoted 1st Lieutenant Nov. 4, 1863. Wounded in left leg June 3, 1864. 
Discharged for disability Nov. 28, 1864, 

Alphonzo Page. Private, Co. I, 6th Reg't. Mustered Jan. 1, 1864. Dis- 
■charged for disability Jan. 19, 1865. 

James W. Page. Private, Co. H, 9th Reg't. Mustered Aug. 2, 1864. Mus- 
tered out June 10, 1865. 

Robert M. Palmer. Musician, Co. A, 1st Reg't. Mustered April 29, 1861. 
Mustered out Aug. 9, 1861. Re-enlisted private, Trooj) K, 1st Reg't Cavalry. 
Mustered Oct. 7, 1861. Captured at Columbia Furnace, Va., Oct. 9, 1864. Five 
iveeks in Libbey prison, then exchanged. Mustered out Oct. 24, 1864. 

Charles H. Parker. Substitute for William P. Abbott. Private, Co. B, 
5th Reg't. Mustered Aug. 14, 1863. Promoted Corporal. Wounded June 3, 

1864. Deserted while on furlough from hospital, Oct. 30, 1864. 

Bradley F. Parsons. Enlisted in Navy Sejat. 1861. Served 7 or 8 months 
on sailing vessel " Onward," visiting Western Islands and the Mediterranean. 
Re-enlisted Aug. 1864, and served on "Colorado"; Avas at Fort Fisher; after- 
wai'ds Paymaster's Steward on "Winona"; in Saotee River expedition. Dis- 
charged June, 1865. 

Charles Patterson. Substitute for Charles F. Hayes. Private, Co. C, 6th 
Reg't. Mustered May 18, 1864. Deserted near Petersburg, Va., Sept. 26, 1864. 

William A. Peabody. Private, Co. F, 35th Mass. Reg't. 

Abram Pearl. Son of Isaac and Rachel, was born in Rochester, 1812. Pri- 
vate, Co. I, 3d Reg't. Mustei'ed Aug. 24, 1861. Wounded in hip and captured 
at James Island, S. C, June 16, 1862, while he with John Yelden was trying to 
remove their fallen Caj^tain from the field. Died of wounds June 20, and was 
buried in National Cemetei'y at Charleston, S. C. Left a wife and five children. 

Abram Welch Pearl. Private, Co. H, 9th Reg't. Mustered Aug. 13, 1862. 
Captured at Spottsylvania Court House, May 12, 1864, and died in Sept. or Oct. 
following, at Charleston, S. C. 

George O. Pearl. Private, Co. H, 18th Reg't. Mustered Feb. 9, 1865. 
Mustered out July 29, 1865. 

Charles C. Perkins. Private, Co. D, 2d Reg't. Mustered June 1, 1861. 
Deserted Aug. 24, 1862. Returned and was mustered out May 9, 1865. 

DuANK T. Perkins. Sergeant, Co. H, 6th Reg't. INIustered Nov. 28, 1861. 
Discharged for disability Nov. 17, 1862. 

James II. Perkins. Private, Co. A, 4th Reg't. Mustered Sept. 18, 1861. 
Deserted at Cold Harbor, Va., June 5, 1864. Returned and was mustered out 
May 9, 1865. 



ROCHESTER IX THE REBELLION. 227 

Xatiiaxtel W. Perkins. Substitute fov William Toben. Private, Co. B, 1st 
Reg't. ]Mustered May 2, 1861. :Mustered out Aug. 9, 18G1. 

CiiAiu,KS F. PiCKEKixG. Private, Troop A, 1st Cavalry. Clustered May 21, 
1804:. Mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Geokge W. PiCKEitixG. Private, Co. D, 5th Reg't. Mustered Oct. 23, 1861. 
Discharged for disability. 

Theopiiilus Pickekixg. Private, Co. A, 2d Mass. Reg't. 

Ebenezer H. Piekce. Corporal, Co. A, 4th Reg't. Mustered Sept. 18, 1861. 
Re-enlisted in same Co. Feb. 15, 1864. Employed as baker. Absent, sick, after 
I\Iay 21, 1865. Mustered out Aug. 23, 1865. 

JOHX C. Pierce. Corporal, Co. D, 5th Reg't. Mustered Oct. 23, 1861. 
Wounded at Antietam, Sept. 17, 1862. Discharged for disability June 13, 1863. 

Charles E. Pike. Private, Troop A, 1st Cavalry. Mustered March 19, 
1864. In hosi)ital four months. Mustered out July 15, 1865. 

George E. Pixkiiam. Captain, Co. I, loth Regt. Commissioned Xov. 3, 
1862. Had sword i^resented by citizens. " A popular officer. " INIustered out 
Aug. 13, 1863. 

JoHX M. Pexkham. Private, Troop E, 1st Cavalry. Mustered April 5, 1865. 
Xever reached hisKeg't. IMustered out May 6, 1865. 

Hexry Pitciiexgek. Substitute for William Rand. Private, Co. K, 5th 
Regt. Mustered Sept. 17, 1864. Transferred to Co. I. Absent in arrest June 
28, 1865. 

James F. Place. Private, 4th Mass. Reg't. Editor of "Lawrence Daily 
Journal." In camp at Wenham, Mass., performed duties of Provost-Marshal. 
Went to New Orleans imder Gen. Banks. On detached service as Clerk under 
Capt. Swift of Gen. Emery's staff, engaged two months clearing a bayou on 
Atchafalaya River. Captured at Springfield, four miles beloAv Port Hudson, but 
re-captured in a few hours. After the taking of Port Hudson, had charge of gov- 
ernment printing-oflice there a few^ weeks. Enlisted for nine months, but 
remained a year, returning home enfeebled by severe disease. 

Leoxard F. Place. Sergeant, Co. I, 3d Reg't. Mustered Aug. 24, 1861. 
Promoted 2d Lieutenant July 4, 1862. Had sword jiresented by citizens. Pro- 
moted 1st Lieutenant Aj^ril 15, 1863. Resigned July 22, 1863. 

Joiix M. Plumer. Private, Co. D, 1st Heavy Artilleiy. Mustered Sept. 4, 

1864. Mustei'ed out June 15, 1865. 

Joseph Hartford Plumer. Son of Ephraim, was born in Rochester, July 
31, 1841. Was wool-sorter in factory. Private, Co. B, 1st Reg"t. ^Mustered 
May 2, 1861. Mustered out Aug. 9, 1861. Re-enlisted Corporal, Co. A, 4th 
Reg't. Mustered Sept. 18, 1861. Discharged for disability Oct. 26, 1863. Died 
Dec. 6, 1863, twelve days after reaching home. 

Narcisse Praugh. Private, Co. F, 2d Regt. Mustered Nov. 25, 1863. Dis- 
charged for disability. 

Sidney Prince. Substitute, 1864, for three years. Regt unknown. 

George Prover. Substitute, for three years. Reg't unknown. 

Frank Pugsley. Private, Co. I, 3d Reg"t. Mustered Aug. 24, 1861. Xurse 
in hospital. Discharged for disability Oct. 17, 1861. Re-enlisted i)rivate, Co. 
D, 1st Heavy Artiller}-. Mustered Sept. 4, 1864. Promoted Corporal ilarch 22, 

1865. Mustered out June 23, 1865. 

John Plgsley. Private, Co. D, 1st Heavy Artillerv'. Mustered Sept. 4, 
1864. Transferred to Co. B, June 10, 1865. Mustered out Sept. 11, 1865. 

James Ramsbottom. Son of John, who came to Rochester about 1840, was 
born in England about 1826. Was in the U. S. Xavy for about 20 j^ears before 
the war. Went by the name of Charles Melvin. Was on board Admiral Farra- 



228 ROCHESTER. 

gut's flag ship "Hartford." Was at the capture of Xew Orleans, and the attack 
on the Forts in INIobile Bay. The same shell Avhich killed J. B. Osgood (q. v.) 
so injured him that it was probably the remote cause of his death. After aa 
apparent recovery he re-shipped at Portsmouth, but in about two weeks had a 
shock of paralysis and was sent home insensible and helpless. He remained in 
this condition about 14 months, when he died, Jan. 5, 1867. 

Horace Randall. Private, Co. D, 2d Reg't. Mustered June 1, 1861. Dis- 
charged for disability Aug. 21, 1861. Re-enlisted private, Co. H, 9th Reg't. 
Mustered Aug. 13, 1862. Promoted Sergeant April 1, 1865. Mustered out June 
10, 1865. 

Charles O. Rankins. Private, Co. F, 4th Reg't. 

Enos Reavitzer. Born at Bamberg, Germany. Private, Co. I, 8d Reg't. 
Mustered Aug. 24, 1861. Discharged for disability July 29, 1862. Re-enlisted 
private, Co. I, 15th Reg't, Mustered Oct. 14, 1862. Promoted Corporal Nov. 1, 
1862. Wounded in left ankle at Port Hudson and suflered two amputations. 
Discharged Aug. 13, 1863. Built a house in Rochester after the war. 

Charles E. Ricker. Private, Co. A, 4th Reg't. Mustered Sept. 18, 1861. 
Discharged for disability Sept 20, 1863. 

Isaac E. Ricker. Private, Co. F, 7th Reg't. Mustered Nov. 7, 1861. De- 
serted at Manchester Dec. 30, 1861. 

Thomas P. Ricker. In Navy. 

William Ricker. Private, Co. D, oth Reg't. Mustered Oct. 23, 1861. 
Wounded June 3, 1864. Mustered out Oct. 29, 1864. 

Harrison Roberts. Carpenter in Construction Corps about five months. 

John Harrison Roberts. Son of John L. and Rebecca, was born in Roch- 
ester July 30, 1840. Member of Senior Class in Bowdoin College. Said his 
country needed his services more than he needed an education. Corporal, Co. I, 
15th Reg't. Mustered Oct. 28, 1862. About the time his term of service ex- 
pired was taken with diphtheria in Louisiana, but lived to reach Concord, Avhere 
he died Aug. 13, 1863. "An ambitious, patriotic, and every way worthy yoimg 
man." 

John W. Roberts. Corporal, Co. H, 9th Reg't. Mustered Aug. 13, 1862. 
Womided May 18, 1864. Mustered out June 10, 1865. 

James Robertson. Substitute, Marine Corps, for four years. Mustered 
Aug. 23, 1864. 

Nathaniel D. Robinson. Son of David and Martha H., was born at Roches- 
ter May 9, 1830. Resided in Lawrence, Mass., where he had a family. Private 
in a Mass. Reg't. Died at home March 29, 1869. 

Samuel Robinson. Brother of preceding, was born Dec. 19, 1840. Private, 
Co. I, 3d Reg't. Mustered Aug. 24, 1861. Promoted Corporal March 15, 1862. 
Promoted Sergeant Oct. 15, 1862. Promoted 1st Ser£;eant. Re-enlisted in same 
Co. Feb. 12, 1864. Severely wounded in thigh atl)rury's Bluft", Va., May 13, 

1864. Promoted 2d Lieutenant May 24, 1864. Died of wounds in Hospital at 
Hamjiton, Va., June 2, 1864. He was specially eared for by his Masonic breth- 
ren, and his body was sent home and buried by them in Rochester. "Avery 
commendable young man, universally esteemed." 

Calvin Rogers. Private, Troop K, 1st Cavalry, aftenvards N. H. Battalion 
of 1st N. E. Cavalry. Mustered Oct. 7, 1861. Promoted Corporal Oct. 8, 1861. 
Promoted Sergeant March 1, 1863. Captured at Kelley's Ford March 17, 1863. 
Prisoner at Belle Isle till exchanged in Fall of 1863. Mustered out Oct. 24, 1864. 

Stephen Henry Rogers. Son of Edmund and Nancy, was born at New 
Durham, 1843. Private, Co. A, 4th Reg't. JVIustered Sept. 18, 1861. Re-enlisted 
in same Co. Fob. 17, 1864. Died of disease at Point of Rocks, Va., Jan. 13, 

1865. Buried in National Cemetery there, grave No. 134, Section F, Division 1. 



ROCHESTER IX THE REBELLION. 229 

James Ross. Private, Co. D, 7th Ee^'t. Substitute for John F. Hoyt. JNIus- 
tered Aug. 14, 18G3. Severely -\voundea Feb. 20, 18G4. Deserted at 'Beaufort, 
S. C, Dec. 1804. 

William Rosier. Substitute for John W. Tebbets. Private, Co. F, 14th 
Reg't. :Mustered Aug. 14, 18Go. Deserted at Washington, D. C, Nov. 30, 1863. 

Samuel C. Rowe. Pi-ivate, Co. H, 6th Reg't. Mustered Nov. 28, 1861. 
Wounded Sept. 17, 1862. Mustered out Nov. 27, 1864. 

James Russell. Substitute for John F. Low. Enlisted Aug. 9, 1864. 

Akdkew Sampson. Brother of the following. On " Mohican," in Nav_y. 

John Calvin Sampson. Son of Luther and Mary E., was born in Dover, 
Dec. 1, 1839. Resided in Rochester since 1857. Went to Europe as a sailor 
twice before he was 17. While at work in the shop the paper brought discour- 
aging news from our army. Removing his aj^ron, he turned to his enii)loyer and 
said, " This must be fought out. Somebody must go to the front. You have a 
family to sui)port and care for, and must remain ; but it is my duty to go." En- 
listed in Navy, 1861, and served a year on board U. S. Man of War " Bainbridge." 
Re-enlisted Sergeant, Co. H, 9th Reg't. Mustered Aug. 13, 1862. Promoted 2d 
Lieutenant, Co. B. Commissioned April 1, 186;). Promoted 1st Lieutenant, Co. 
E, Jan. 1, 1864. When at home on a furlough, learning tiiat his Reg't was 
about to go to the front, he hastened back before his time was up. ^^'as killed in 
a charge on the enemy's works at Petersburg, ^'a., July 30, 18(14. Ills body, re- 
covered under flag of truce, was found within the rebel intrenchments, pierced 
by two minie balls. He was buried in Rochester with both INIasonic and military 
honoi's, the former conducted by Humane Lodge under Franklin IMcDuftee, 
W. ]M., the latter hj Straftbrd Guards of Dover under Lieut. Yittum. " All 
who knew him speak in terms of unfeigned praise of his rare personal merits, 
his excellence of chai'acter, his pleasing, modest demeanor, his warm, generous- 
hearted friendshij), his determined patriotism and unflinching bravery." 

LuTiiEK B. Sampson. Brother of j^receding. Sergeant, Co. K, 84th Penn- 
sylvania Reg't. Mustered Oct. 24, 1861. Promoted 2d Lieutenant June 21, 
1862. Promoted 1st Lieutenant May 3, 1863. Promoted Captain, Co. F, Sept. 
3, 1864. Was in 37 battles. His superior oflicers testify that he Avas " esteemed 
and admired for gentlemanly deportment, coolness and bravery on manj- a hard 
fought battlefield." 

James Sandeks. Private, Co. H, 6th Reg't. Mustered Nov. 28, 1861. Re- 
enlisted Jan. 4,1864. Promoted Corporal July 1, 1865. Mustered out July 17, 
1865. 

Betton W. Sargent. Appointed, 1862, Surgeon, 30th Missouri Reg't. AYas 
at siege and capture of Yicksliurg. Afterwards Surgeon on Staff" of Gen. 
Thomas while organizing colored Regiments in Tennessee. 

Zebadiah Sargent. Corporal, Co. H, 6th Reg't. Mustered Nov. 28, 1861. 
Discharged for disability ]\Iay 16, 1863. 

William N. Sarles. Private, Co. I, 3d Reg't. Mustered Aug. 24, 1861. 
Slightly Avounded June 16, 1862. Re-enlisted Feb. 14, 1864. Slightly wounded 
May 13, 1864. Promoted Corporal March 22, 1865. Resigned June 1, 1865. 
Mustered out July 20, 1865. 

Jackson Shaw. Private, Co. I, 15th Reg't. Mustered Oct. 14, 1862. Mus- 
tered out Aug. 13, 1863. Re-enlisted jH'ivate, Co. H, 18th Reg't. Mustered 
Jan. 28, 1865. Wounded in hand. Mustered out July 29, 1865. 

George Edwin Shorey. Son of Jeremiah and Eliza, was born in Rochester 
Oct. 184S, Private, Troop C, 1st Cavalry. :Mustered :March 30, 1864. Cap- 
tured June 13, 1864, on account of his horse's failing him. Died of cruelty and 
starvation amid the hoiTors of Andersonville prison, Aug. 12, 1864. Buried'there 
in grave No. 5405. 



230 ROCHESTEK. 

Nathaniel Siiorey. Private, Co. D, 3d Reg't. Mustered Aug. 23, 1861. 
Re-enlisted Feb. 19, 1864. Wounded Aug. 16. 1864. Promoted Corporal Aug. 
24, 1864. Promoted Sergeant March 2, 1865. Mustered out July 20, 1865. 

Walter Shurhan. Substitute for Noah A. Jenness. Marine Corps. Mus- 
tered Aug. 23, 1864. 
Howard O. Simon. Private, Co. F., oth Reg't. Mustered April 20, 1862. 

Harlow Simonds. Substitute for G. H. Tilton. Private, Co. B, 5th Reg't. 
Mustered Aug. 14, 1863. Died at Brattleboro', Vt., Oct. 18, 1864. 

Samuel S. Simonds. Substitute for Charles W. Bickford. Private, Co. C, 
6th Reg't. Mustered Aug. 14, 1863. Promoted Sergeant. Promoted 2d Lieu- 
tenant, 36th U. S. Colored Reg't, July, 1864. 

John T. Sinclair. Private, Co. I, 15th Reg't. Mustered Oct. 22, 1862. 

Edwin E. Small. Private, Co. K, 18th Reg't. Mustered April 1, 1865. 
Mustered out May 6, 1865. 

James Farrington Smith. Son of Charles and Nancy, was born in Roch- 
ester June 21, 1823. Private, Co. K, 12th Re^'t. Mustered Sept 10, 1862. 
Killed instantl}'- at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863. Left a wife and five children. 

John W. Smith. Enlisted March 30, 1867. Served in Indian war in Iowa. 
Discharged April 8, 1870. 

Joseph Smith. Substitute for George E. Nye. Private, Co. C, 5th Reg't. 
Mustered Aug. 14, 1863. Wounded June 3, 1864. Promoted Corporal Oct. 20, 
1864. Mustered out June 28, 1865. 

Richard Smith. Son of Timothy. Enlisted as substitute under name of 
Charles Hoyt, Sept. 1863. Discharged July, 1865. Afterwards served three 
years in regular army. 

Woodbury Smith. Son of John R. and Lavinia, was born in Rochester 
Jan. 7, 1845. Enlisted as substitute^for Alanson B. George of Lempster, under 
name of William Sanborn. Private" Co. K, 5th Reg't. Mustered Oct. 7, 1863. 
Severely wounded at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864. Captured and died in prison at 
Richmond, Va., June 17, 1864. Buried there in National Cemetery. 

Joseph F. Spinney. Private, Co. E, 17th Illinois Reg't. Enlisted for three 
years. May 25, 1861. Re-enlisted private, Co. D, 1st Heavy Artillery. Mustered 
Sept 4, 1864. Discharged May 16, 1865. 

Henry Stansbury. Substitute for J. W. Ham. In Navy three years. Mus- 
tered Aug. 22, 1864. 

Edward Stanton. Substitute for Edward C. Hurd. Marine Corps four 
years. Mustered Aug. 16, 1864. 

James B. Stevens. Corpoi-al, Co. I, loth Reg't. Mustered Oct. 15, 1862. 
Mustered out Aug. 13, 1863. 

J. D. Stillinkamp. Substitute. Reg't unknown. 

Lyman D. Stone. Substitute for Joseph W. Hurd. Private, Co. F, 5th 
Reg't. Mustered Aug. 14, 1863. Wounded June 3, 1864. Mustered out June 
28, 1865. 

John S. Sullivan. Private, Co. D, 5th Reg't. Mustered Oct. 23, 1861. 
Discharged for disaljility Jan. 2S, 1863. Re-enlisted, as substitute for Lafayette 
Wiggin, in Marine Corps. Mustered Sept. 16, 1864. 

Augustus Taylor. In Navy, 1864. 

Charles Teague. Private, Co. C, 18th Reg't. jNIustcred April 6, 1865. 
Mustered out ]\lay 6, 1865. 

INLvTTHEW Teague. Private, Co. I), 1st Heavy Artillery. Mustered Sept. 4, 
1864. Mustered out June 15, 1865. 



ROCHESTEll IN THE REBELLION. 231 

Chakles E. Teduets. Private, Trooi) A, 1st Ciivalry. ^Mustered ^larch 9, 
ISG-t. :Mustereil out July 15, 18(35. 

Jeuemiah II. W. TEBiiETS. Sergeant, Co. I, 15th Reg't. Mustered Oct. 14, 
18G2. Promoted Sergeant Major Jan. 18, 1863. Afterwards reduced to ranks. 
Mustered out Aug. 13, 18(33. 

Noah Tehuets. Corporal, Co. I, loth Peg't. INIustered Oct. 22, 18()2. Mus- 
tered out Aug. 13, 1S()3. Re-enlisted Private, 5th Reg't. Clustered Feb. 21, 
18G5. Is member of the U. S. Grant Post, G. A. R., and was one of the thirteeu 
detailed to guard the body of Gen. Grant and aceom])any it to the tomb, and 
■whose portraits aj^peared in Harper's AVeekly of that date. 

Samuel H. Tehuets. Private, Co. B, 1st Reg't. Mustered May 2, 1861. 
Mustered out Aug. 9, 1861. 

"William Thomas. Substitute for Charles H. Willey. IMarine Corps four 
years. Mustered Aug. 19, 1864. 

JOHX Thompson. Private, Co. H, 9th Reg't. Mustered Au^. 21, 1862. 
Wounded at Antietam in ri^ht foot, Sept. 17, 1862. Discharged for disability 
^larch 17, 1863. Re-enlisted pi*ivate, Veteran Reserve Coi'ps. Mustered Dec. 
29, 1863. 

Andrew Jackson Thurston. Son of Oliver and Susan, was born in Eaton. 
Substitute for Augustus J. Rogers. Private. Co. B, 5th Reg't. Mustered Aug. 
14, 1863. Severely wounded at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864. Ilip bone broken. 
Died of wound at City Point, Va., June 25, 1864. Buried in National Cemeteiy 
at Arlington, Va. Left a wife, Priseilla, and four children. 

Edward D. Tilton. Musician, Co. I, 11th Reg't. Mustered Jan. 2, 1864. 
Transferred to Co. C, 6th Reg't, June 1, 1865. Mustered out July 17, 1865. 

George W. Trickey. Private, Co. K, 2d Reg't. IMustered June 8, 1861. 
Discharged for disability July 15, 1861. Re-enlisted private, 12th Maine Reg't, 
Oct., 1861. Discharged for disability Ajiril, 18()2. Re-enlisted Cori)oral, Co. I, 
15th Reg't. Mustei'ed Oct. 14, 1862. Wounded at Port Hudson in left arm, June 
13, 1863. Promoted Sei'geant. Mustered out Aug. 13, 1863. Re-enlisted pri- 
vate, Co. I, Veteran Reserve Corps. Mustered Sejit. 14, 1864. Discharged 
Aug. 22, 1865. 

John P. Trickey. Private, Co. G, sth Reg't. Mustered Dec. 23, 1861. 
Promoted Sergeant Dec. 1, 1862. Transferred to Cavalry in Fall of 1863. 
Re-enlisted Sergeant in same Co. Jan. 4, 1864. Wounded in arm and foot. 
Discharged Jan. 1, 1865. 

Joseph Trickey. Son of Jacob and INIaiy, was born in Rochester Aug. 1, 
1820. Private, Co. D, 5th Reg"t. Mustered Oct. 23, 18(51. Promoted Corporal. 
Was in 16 or 17 battles. Wounded at (iettj-sburg, and bled to death on the field, 
July 3, 1863. Buried in grave No. 2513 National Cemetery, Alexandria, Va. 
Left a wife and one child, 

Alonzo H. TwoMiiLY. Private, Co. D, 6th Re^"t. Mustered Dec. 31, 1863. 
Wounded July 8, 18G4. ^Mustered out July 17, 18G5. 

Joseph B. Twomi-.lv. Sergeant, Co. H, 9th Regt. IMustered Aug. 13, 1862. 
Slightly wounded at Fredericks! )urg, Dec. 13, 1862. Discharged for disability 
March 18, 1863. Re-enlisted in Navy Sept. 3, 1864. Discharged July, 1865. 

James Franklin Tucker. Private, Co. B, 1st Reg't. IMustered IMaj" 2, 
1861. IMustered out Aug. 9, 1861. Re-enlisted Corporal, Co. H, 6th Reg't. 
Mustered Nov. 28, 18G1. Re-enlisted private, Co. D, Dec. 25, 1863. AVounded 
near Spottsylvauia IMay 18, and died of wounds May 22, 1864, aged about 28. 
Left a wife. 

George W. Varxey. In Navy. 

James R. Varney. Private, Co. B, 1st Reg't. Mustered IMay 2, 1861. IMus- 
tered out Aug. 9, 1861. Re-enlisted Corporal, Co. H, 6th Regt. Mustered Nov. 



232 ROCHESTER. 

28, 18G1. Transferred to Veteran Reserve Cori^s, July 1, 18C3. Discharged for 
disability April 15, 1SG4. 

John B. Varney. Private, 1st Light Battery. Transferred to Co. M, 1st 
Heavy Artillery. Mustered Jan. 4, 1864. Mustered out June 9, 1865. 

Samuel F. Varney. 2d Lieutenant, Co. D, 6th Reg't. Commissioned Aug. 
12, 1861. Had sword i^resented by citizens. Resigned April 13, 1862. 

John H. Wardwell. Private, Co. I, 15th Reg't. Mustered Oct. 14, 1862. 
Transferred to Signal Corj^s, where he served till the Reg't was mustered out, 
Aug. 13, 1863. After war graduated at Dartmouth College with high rank. 

Charles H. AYarren. Corporal, Co. K, 2d Reg't. Mustered May 21, 1861. 
Wounded at Williamsburg, May 5, 1862. Discharged Jan. 26, 1863. 

James E. Warren. Private, Co. B, 7th Reg't. Mustered Nov. 19, 1861. 
Detailed from comjjany as a carpenter most of the time. Mustered out Dec. 22, 
1864. 

John S. Warren. Appointed Ass't Surgeon, 120th U. S. Colored Reg't, 
Aug. 27, 1864. Post Surgeon at Paducah, Kj., while Gen. Thomas was organiz- 
ing colored Reg'ts. Post Surgeon at City Point, Va., for 6 or 8 weeks after 
Lee's surrender. 

Osman B. Warren. Private, Co. H, 9th Reg't. Mustered Aug. 13, 1862. 
Promoted 1st Sergeant March 1, 1864. Captured at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864. 
Suffered the indescribable horrors of Andersonville. Was taken to Charleston 
and afterwards to Florence, where he was exchanged. 

Wilbur F. Warren. Private, Troop C, 1st Cavalry. Mustered March 30, 
1864. Promoted Cori^oral June 1, 1865. Mustered out July 15, 1865. 

John Watson. Li Navy. 

Robert Watson. Substitute for Hiram S. Osborne. 

Morris Welch. Private, Co. H, 14th Reg't. Substitute for B. L. E. Gowen. 
Mustered Aug. 14, 1863. Deserted Nov. 3, 1863. 

Charles F. Wentworth. Private, Troop L, 1st Cavalry. Mustered Dec. 
27, 1861. Mustered out Dec. 27, 1864. 

Charles H. Wentworth. Private, Co. H, 9th Reg't. Mustered Aug. 13, 
1862. Wounded in shoulder at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862. Promoted Corpo- 
ral Aug. 1, 1864. Mustei-ed out June 10, 1865. 

George S. Wentworth. Enlisted 1861, private, 5th Reg't U. S. Light Ar- 
tillery in regular army. Wounded in left shoulder at Gettysburg. Discharged 
Oct., 1864. 

LoREN n. G. Wentworth. Enlisted Aug. 5, 1862. Private, 5th N. Y. 
Heavy Artillery. Taken j^risoner when Gen. Miles surrendered at Harjier's 
Ferry, and paroled on the sjjotto prevent re-capture. He says of this surrender, 
" It was the meanest thing I ever saAV." Served three years. 

Roland C. Whicher. Substitute for John M. Avery. Private, Co. B, 5th 
Reg't. j\lustered Aug. 15, 1863. Wounded June 3, 1864. Deserted from hos- 
pital Dec. 4, 1864. Returned and was mustered out May 25, 1865. 

John White. Private, Co. K, 13th Illinois Reg't. Enlisted April 1, 1861. 
Re-enlisted in same Reg't. Discharged for disability June 4, 1864. 

Patrick White. Substitute for George W. Wentworth. 

Geoijge Whiteeield. Substitute for D3'er p. Hall, 1863. 

Nathaniel H. Willard. Private, Co. A, 4th Reg't. Mustered Sept 18, 
1861. Deserted while on furlouyh, July 24, 1864. Returned and mustered out 
Sept. 18, l,s(i4. 

CiiAKi.K.s E. Wilkinson. Son of William. Private, Co. B, 1st Reg't. Mus- 
tered I\lay 2, 1861. Mustered out Aug. 9, 1861. Died Jan. 26, 1863, ix't. 31. 



ROCHESTER IN THE REBELLION. 233 

Wextwokth Willey. Son of Enoch T. and Sarah, was born in Dover, June 
1, 1837. House carpenter in Koehester since l^VJ. Private, Co. I, loth Reg't. 
Mustered Oct. 1-1, l!^(i'2. Died of disease in hospital at Memphis, Tenn., Aug. 
3, 1863, and was buried there. 

CiiAKLES H. WiLEiAMS. IMvatc, Co. K, 4th Regt. Mustered Sept. 18, 1861. 
Re-enlisted Feb. 15, 1861. 

Joiix "Williams. Private, Co. B, Gth Reg't. Mustered Dec. 31, 1863. De- 
serted at Camp Nelson, Ky., Jan. 16, 1864. 

Harry '\A'ilson. Private, Troop K, N. H. Battalion 1st New England Cav- 
alry. ISIustered Sept. 6, 1862. 

Henuy Wilson. Private, Co. B, 1st Reg't. Mustered ]\Iay 2, 1861. Cap- 
tured July 4, 1861. Released on parole June 3, 1862. Captured again June 16, 

1863. After two months at Belle Isle and Libbey prison was exchanged. 
John Wilson. Substitute for John F. Twombly. Private, Co. F, 9th Reg't. 

Mustered Aug, 17, 1864. Deserted en route to Reg't, Dec, 1864. 

Joseph AYingate. Private, Co. A, 4th Reg't. Mustered Sept. 18, 1861. Pro- 
moted Corporal. Severely wounded at Pocotaligo Bridge, Oct. 22, 1862. Re- 
enlisted Sergeant in same Co. Feb. 15, 1S64. Wounded in right arm at Drury's 
Bluff, jNIay 16, 1864. Promoted 1st Lieutenant, Co. K, Feb. 17, 1865. Com- 
manded the Co. at Fort Fisher, also at Raleigh, Aug. 10, 1865. Mustered out 
Aug. 23, 1865. 

ICHABOD Worcester. Private, Co. F, 5th Reg't. ISIustered Aug. 14, 1863. 
Wounded June 3, 1864. Discharged for disability May 18, 1865. 

Philbrick M. Worcester. Private, Troop C, 1st Cavalry. Mustered April 
12, 1864. Mustered out June 8, 1865. 

John Yelden. Son of James, was born in Barnstead, C. E., about 1837. 
Had lived in Rochester seven years with his mother, whom he supported. Pri- 
vate, Co. I, 3d Reg't. Mustered Aug. 24, 1861. Killed at James Island, June 
16, 1862, while he with Abram Pearl was trj'ing to I'emove their fallen Captain 
from the field. 

Charles York. Son of Stephen and Kezia, was born in Newfield, IMe., 
Dec., 1843. Had lived in Rochester about two years. Private, Troop B, 1st 
Cavaliy. Mustered March 30, 1864. Captured, and died under the tortures and 
stai'vation of Andersonville jDrison, Sept. 14, 1864. Buried there in grave No. 
8736. 

George Frank Young. Son of Alfred A. and Abbie E., was born at Great 
Falls, Feb. 14, 1842. Private, Co. I, 15th Reg't. Mustered Oct. 14, 1862. Died 
of disease en route from Port Hudson to Yicksburg, July 29, 1863. Buried on 
bank of Mississippi. 

Joseph Young. Private, Co. D, 1st Heav}- Artillery. Mustered Sept. 4, 

1864. Mustered out June 15, 1865. 

In due time after the close of the war every town of thorough 
loj'alty and genuine patriotism erected a monument of some kind, 
in honor and commemoration of their fallen heroes. At the annual 
meeting in March, 1871, this town appointed Franklin McDuffee, 
M. II. AVcntworth, and Silas Ilussey a committee to investigate and 
report in reference to plans and the cost of a Soldiers' Monument. 
At an adjourned meeting in August they made an elal)orate report 
which was ordered to be printed and distributed among the voters. 



234 ROCHESTER. 

At the next annual meeting §3,000 was appropriated " for enclosing 
the Common and erecting a Soldiers' Monument according to the 
plan recommended," and the same committee together with the 
selectmen were directed to carry out the vote. The completed 
monument was dedicated Sept. 6, 1872. The oration on the occa- 
sion was by Gen. Griffin. C. K. Sanborn was President of the 
day, and made a very appropriate introductory speech. Franklin 
McDuffee, chairman of the committee, then formally delivered the 
monument to the town with fitting remarks, including the follow- 
ing statement : — 

" There are inscribed on this monument the names of 54 men — all either natives 
of this town or residents therein. They did not all count on our quota, but all 
were in one sense or another the sons of Rochester. These men all died in the 
service, or were discharged on account of disease or wounds received in the ser- 
vice, and which resulted in death. This is the rule by which the committee have 
been governed in determining whose names should be inscribed on the monument. 
We have not placed on the monument the names of any substitutes or non- 
residents, but have left spaces on each tablet, so that if it shall appear that names 
have been omitted accidentally or wrongfully, they can be inscribed at any time 
with little expense." 

Edwin Wallace responded with a patriotic and appreciative 
speech, in behalf of the town. 

At the annual town meeting in 1884 it was 

" Voted that the Soldiers' Monument be re-modeled and the statue of a soldier 
be erected thereon . . . and S3,000 be appropriated for the same. 

" Voted to pay the Freight on four Cannon donated by the Government to 
Sampson Post G. A. R. to ornament the Soldiers' Monument." 

The following March $500 more was raised to complete the Sol- 
diers' Monument, which was re-dedicated May 30, 1885, under 
direction of the G. A. R. The account is condensed from the 
" liochester Courier." 

The procession formed an imposing array, with sixty Grand 
Army boys, Sturtevant Guards, Montolinia and Kennedy Lodges of 
Odd Fellows, and St. Jean Baptiste Societe, with the American 
and Murphy Bands. At the common was a throng of people num- 
bering nearly 5,000. Prayer was offered by Rev. Dr. Bass, followed 
by singing by the Rochester Choral Union of seventy voices, under 
direction of Col. Whitehousc. The presiding officer was Ezra 
Pray, -who made the opening address in commemoration of the 



ROCHESTER IN THE REBELLION. 235 

dead, after which the monument was unveiled by A. S. Parshley. 
Silas Hussey then delivered the monument in brief words to the 
town, and John L, Copp replied in an eloquent and patriotic 
speech. The Grand Army ceremony of dedication was then per- 
formed by Department Commander Collis of Portsmouth, Senior 
Vice-Commander "Wyatt of Xorthfield, and Adjutant George Hodg- 
don of Portsmouth. The placing of the emblems of the army and 
the navy, the musket and anchor, surrounded by a guard of honor, 
was a beautiful portion of the exercises. The oration by Major 
George S. Merrill was a masterpiece of eloquence. Only a full 
report could do it justice. The music was excellent, and every- 
thing was conducted in an appropriate and satisfactory manner. 

As after the Revolution the Order of Cincinnati was established 
to stimulate and perpetuate patriotism and to relieve the necessities 
of families of fallen or destitute defenders of liberty, so after the 
Rebellion sprang up the Grand Army of the Republic to stimulate 
and perpetuate loyalty to the !N'ational government, and to assist 
worthy defenders of the Nation's honor or their needy families. 

The ritual of the order was written by Col. B. F. Stephenson of 
Springfield, 111., who had served as Surgeon of the 14th Illinois In- 
fantry, and enjoys the distinction of having organized the first post 
April 6, 1866, at Decatur, 111. From this small nucleus developed 
the now widely extended and magnificent order of the Grand Army 
of the Republic. 

Sampson Post No. 22 * was instituted in Rochester Feb. 3, 1870, 
being named from Lieut. John C. Sampson whose war record has 
already been given. Noah Tebbetts was its first commander. In 
1874 the interest in the organization had decreased here as else- 
where, and it was thought best to reorganize. A new charter was 
obtained Dec. 30, since which time the organization has been kept 
alive, though at times through the efforts of a very few. There 
are now 84 members, and a good degree of interest in the order. 

Decoration day has always been observed. For several years in 
its early history the post was enabled to conduct suitable services 
by the aid of generous subscriptions obtained mainly through the 



•The following record of Sampson Post was prepared by T. H. Edgerly. 



236 ROCHESTER. 

efforts of Hon. James H. Edgerly who, in common with many- 
prominent citizens, took much interest in its welfare. Of late years 
the sum of one hundred dollars has been annually appropriated by 
the town for this purpose. 

A large amount of money has been expended by this post in aid- 
ing needy comrades, and its charity has not been confined to its 
own membership, but other needy comrades or families of those 
who once wore the blue have been dealt with generously. Indeed 
the books show that more money has been expended for their aid 
than for that of members. Funds for this purpose have been ob- 
tained by means of Fairs and other entertainments, and the citizens 
of the town have never failed to respond liberally to appeals in its 
behalf. 

The post has naturally taken much interest in such town affairs 
as the erection of a Soldiers' Monument. The original monument 
was dedicated under its auspices Sept. 5, 1872, and largely through 
efforts of its members the present monument was erected, and dedi- 
cated May 30, 1885. The cannon near the monument were applied 
for on suggestion of Cyrus K. Sanborn, Esq., and were given by 
act of Congress to the Post and by it to the town. 

Sampson Post attended the ISTational Encampment of the G. A. R. 
at Portland, Me., in 1885, accompanied by the American Band, whose 
services were paid for by the citizens. The post was also at the 
Soldiers' Reunion at Manchester, and in 1884 and 1886 at the Re- 
union at the "Wiers. It has also been present on other patriotic and 
military occasions, notably the dedication of the Soldiers' Monu- 
ment at Dover. 

The annual Camp Fire of the post is an occasion of great interest 
not only to its members but to its numerous friends as well. Then, 
as on other suitable occasions, its members have sought to teach the 
great lessons of its motto, " Fr'aiernity, Charity, and Loyalty.'' 

The post has had the following Commanders : — 

Noah Tebbetts, 1870. John F. Billings, 1876, 77, '78. 

Osman B. Warren, 1871, '72. Charles W. Dame, 1881, '82. 

Wilbur F. Warren, 1873. Thomas H. Edgerly, 1883, '84. 

Sherwood W. Goodwin, 1874. Charles E. Pike, 1885. 

Edward L. Kimball, 1875, '79, '80. Ira B. Dennett, 1886, '87. 

The following list includes all who have been members from the 
beginning. 



ROCHESTER IN THE REBELLION. 



237 



The * denotes present members (1887). 



Edward F. Ricker, Corp., 29th Me. 

* Osman B. Warreu, 1st Serg't, 9th N. H. 

* Wilbur F. Warren, Serg't, 1st K. H. 

Cavalry. 
Noah Tebbetts, 15th N. H. 
Charles R. Brackett, 4th X. II. 
James McCrellis, 3d N. H. 

* Lewis ^IcD. Hussey, 1st N. H. ; Capt., 

4th N. H. 
James Howell. 
John Beecher. 

* John F. Billings, Serg't, 14th Mass. 
John Burke, Gth N. H. 

Cyrus Brackett, 18th N. II. 
*G. E. Butler, 15th Mass. Bat. 
Owen Carroll. Navy. 
B. F. -Chesley. 
H. M Coffin. 

* Charles W. Folsom, Navy. 
Edward Hornev, Mus. 9th N. H. 
Harland P. Horne, 18th N. H. 
Charles G. Horney, 15th N. H. 
Albert Horney, 1st N. H. Art. 

* James Xealand, 6th N. H. 

*G. W. Rollins, 1st U. S. Art.; Corp., 
200th Penn. 

* J. L. Rollins, 19th Mass. 
Horace Randell, 9th N. H. 

B. W. Sargent. 
George W. Trickey. 
Matthew Teague. 

♦John P. Trickey, 1st Serg't, 8th N. H. 

* John White. 

Charles E. Hammett, 15th K. H. 

* George W. Kurd, 4th N. H. 
Luther B. Sampson, Capt., 84th Penn. 

* J. B. Stevens, 15th N. H. 

C. W. Johnson. 

Enos Rewitzer, 3d N. H. ; 15th N. H. 
Charles Wentworth, Corp., 9th N. H. 

* Sherwood W. Goodwin, 8th N. H. 

E. E. Small, 18th N. H. 
G. W. Tanner. 

Charles Teague, 18th N. H. 
W. C. Tufts, 27th Me. 
Charles Dore, Corp., 2d N. H. 
William S. Hixon, Navy. 

F. A. Orne, 15th N. H. 
Stephen Colby. 

♦Albion N. Goodwin, 8th N. H. 
Joseph Spinney, 17th 111.; 1st N. H. 
Heavy Art. 

* Charles E. Blackmar, Serg't, 9th N. H. 
F. S. Giles, Corp., 17th U. S. Inf. 
Fred A. KimbaU. 31st Me. 



Charles W. Thompson, Navy. 
Hiram W. Ellis, 15th :\Ie. 
George Blackmar, 35th Mass. 
Fernando Gale, 2d Conn. ; 2d 111. Light 
Battery. 

♦ J. C. Logan, 2d N. 11. 
*W. C. Mallette. 31st Me. 

Frank Mathes, 7th U. S. Inf. 
♦Thomas 11. Edgerly, Yeom., Navy. 

John Collins, Navy. 
♦Charles E. Pike, 1st N. H. Cav. 

♦ William H. Watson, 13th N. H. 
♦Thomas S. Pease, 13th N. H. 

William H. Randall, 1st N. H. Heavy 

Artillery. 
Sylvester Ham, Serg't, 9th N. H. 
♦Edward L. Kimball, Serg't, 1st N. H. 

Cavalry. 
♦Marion H. Osgood, 14th Me. 

♦ James Collins. 

John D. Murrey, Surgeon's Steward, 
Navy. 
♦J. L. Davidson, F. C. Fireman, Navy. 

Justin M. Leavett, 1st Me. Heavy Art. 
*Ira B. Dennett, Corp., 30th Mass. 
♦Thomas C. Henham, 5th Mich. Cav. 
♦Henry AVilson, Corp., 1st N. H. Cav. 

Fred Otis, 3d N. H. 

William H. Drew, Drummer, 18th 
N. H. 

A. J. Harriman, 18th N. H. 

Joseph Burckstead, 1st N. H. Heavy 
Artillery. 
*I. E. Watson, 24th Me. 

William B. Kennard, Serg't, 16th Me. 

William Watson, 13th Me. 

Bart Welch, Serg't, 3d Vt. 

George F. Hurd, 1st N. H. Heavy Art. 

Amos Gale, 8th N. H. 

James McDonald, 51st N. Y. 

John Fletcher, 2 1st Me. 
♦Kings. Hill, 31st Me. 
♦Charles W. Dame, Corp., 26th Mass. 
♦Lewis F. Horne, 15th N". H. ; 18th 

N. H. 
♦John D. Parshley, Serg't, 13th N. H. 

James Finnegan, 7th N. H. 

♦ Jeremiah Hall, Corp., 3d N. II. 
Patrick O'Gorman, Music, 13th N. J. 
Frank L. Avery, 1st N. H. ; Corp., 5th 

N. H. 

♦ James F. Mclntire, 1st N. H. Heavy 

Artillery. 
John F. Thompson, 16th Me. 

♦ Walter Meserve, Navy. 



238 



ROCHESTEK. 



James W. Rollins, 12th N. H. 
*Zebadiah Sargent, 6th N. H. 
Charles S. Burnham, 8th N. H. 
Warren S. Whitehouse, 1st N. H. 

Heavy Art. 
Joseph M. Cleare, 2d Mass. Cav. 
Calvin Rogers, Serg't, 1st N. H. Cav. 
Kehemiah Colbath, 2d K. H. 

* John W. Chesman, 1st Mass, 
George B. Jenness, 5th N. H. 

* James F. Marshall, Corp., 12th N.'H. 

* Owen Henwood, 10th N. H. 

* Stephen Brock, 15th Mass. Bat. 

* Walter S. Hussey, 3d N. H. 

* Lewis D. Yeaton, 8th Me. 
George D. Clark, 15th I^. H. 

*Enos L. Glidden, 1st N. H. Heavy Art. 

* A. S. Parshley. 

* Frank Sleeper, Corp., 8th N. H. 
*E. S. Moore, 1st Me. Cav. 
*Elbridge W. Howard, 3d N". H. 

* John H. Kutter, 1st N. H. Heavy Art. 

* Charles A. Glidden, 11th N. H. 

* Edward F. Goodwin, 2d Mass. Heavy 

Artillery. 

* Sylvester O. Boody, 27th Me. 

* Horace L. Worcester, Navy. 

* Daniel M. Philbrick, 18th N. H. 
*!N'. C. Phillips, Quartermaster, Navy. 

* John Pugsley, 1st N. H. Heavy Art. 



* Oliver Hussey, 8th N. H. 

* George W. Pickering, 5th N. H. 

* Nicholas Brock, 1st N. H. Heavy Art. 

* George A. Bennett, 50th Mass. 

* Charles C. Rowe, 8th N. H. 
*A. L. Abbott, 2dN. H. 

* Charles W. Edgerly, Capt., 9th N. H. 

* James T. Nichols, 8th N. H. 
*S. E. Root, 9th Mich. 

*J. H. Duntley, 5th N. H. 
George L. Hersom, 2d Lieut., 5th N. H. 

* Charles F. McKusick, 6th Me. 
*A. F, Berry, 8th N. H. 

* Lewis A. Chesley, Serg't, 5th N, H. 

* Wesley R. Home, Corp., 5th N. H. 

* George F. Richardson, Capt., 8th N. H. 

* Albert F. Seavey, 13th N. H. 

* John A. Dillingham, 27th Me. 

* Charles G. Jenness, Corp., 1st N. H. 

Cavalry. 
*B. Frank Grover, 4th Mass. Heavy Art. 
*L. D. Hamlin, 20th Mass. ; 7th Penn. 

* Andrew R. Hayes, 1st R. I. Cav.; Ist 

N. H. Heavy Art. 

* Riley H. Parker, 9th N. H. 

* Charles B. Gafney, Capt., 13th N. H. 

* Daniel Hussey, 15th N. H. 

* John H. Pingree. 

* Patrick Foy. 

* Maynard Russell, 1st Mass. 



CHAPTER XII. 
CHURCH HISTORY SINCE 1819. 

" Over the roofs of the pioneers 
Gathers tlie moss of a hundred years ; 
On man and liis works has passed the change 
Which needs must be in a century's range. 
But fresh and green from the rotting roots 
Of the primal forest the young growth shoots ; 
From the death of the old the new proceeds, 
And the life of truth from the rot of creeds ; 
On the ladder of God which upward leads 
The steps of progress are human needs." 

As already noticed, the year 1819 marks the transition from a 
6ome^Yhat compulsory support of religious institutions to a system 
entirely voluntary. Many Christian people were discouraged and 
disheartened. They feared not so much for their own particular 
church, as for the cause of religion itself. They were certainly 
grieved that other sects were coming in to divide the field, hut the 
best people were far more anxious lest many should drift away 
entirely from the house and the worship of God. Results have long 
since demonstrated that though their fears were by no means 
groundless, yet on the whole the free system secures a higher degree 
of purity in the church, and consequently more reverence for real 
religion among the people at large. Notwithstanding the prevalent 
neglect and the various evils that infest modern society, we have 
no reason to look back with regret to the days of the fathers. 
For the best church work, and the highest types of Christian life 
and character, we have no need to turn lamenting to the past, 
but rather rejoicing and hopeful to the present and the future. 

The parish accounts had been kept separate from the town 
accounts since 1791, and the two bodies were legally separated 
in 1819. But the Congregational Society had no corporate exist- 
ence till four years later, as shown by the following records. 

" Ap. 4, 1823. At a Meeting of a respectable number of the inhabitants of 
Rochester assembled at the Meeting House, — Voted to form themselves into a 



240 ROCHESTER. 

Society by the name of the first Congregational Society in the Town of Roch- 
ester." ... A Constitution "offered by Mr. Thomas C. Upham" was adopted 
and the meeting adjourned to April 9. At the adjourned meeting the society 
was formed " under the Act of this State passed February 8'^ 1791 ; subject 
only, however, to the limitations in the Act passed July 1^', 1819." 

In May, Tobias Twombly, Wm. Hurcl, and Samuel Allen were 
appointed " to make arrangements for the accommodation of the 
Singers." This committee built pews in the gallery and sold 
them at auction agreeable to the following notice. 

" Don't Forget. 

" Will be sold at Publick Auction on Friday 4* of July Next thirteen new & 
elegant Pews in the Gallery of the Meeting House. Sale to commence on the 
premises at 8 O clock forenoon and will be closed with dispatch. As the 
order for celebrating the day will about this time demand particular attention. 
Terms liberal and made known at the sale. 

"Rochester June 28, 1823. "Hatevil KxXight Auctioneer, 

"By William Hurd." 

These pews sold at prices varying from §7.50 to §22.50 each. 
The plan preserved in the records is on the opposite page. 

" Aug. 9, 1824, Voted to alter the original Plan of the back privileges in the 
North East and South West galleries So that there be only Six Pews instead 
of eight in each gallery," also " to build a line of Free Pews on the back of the 
Frontt Gallery, and to use the Old Seats in the Galleries in building the line of 
Free Pews." 

May 3, 1823, it was voted to raise $175 for preaching. The 
Massachusetts Society for promoting Christian Knowledge had 
made them a grant of one hundred dollars annually for five years, 
on condition that they should settle " Thomas C. Upham or some 
other minister approved by this board." This offer was accepted 
with thanks " for their generous proposal." In June a call was 
extended to Mr. Upham to become colleague pastor with Mr. 
Haven, who " is so worn out with age that he feels no longer 
able to perform the duties of his station and wishes to have a 
Colleague in his day to take the duties of a Gospel Minister upon 
himself" The salary ofl:ered was §350 in addition to the §100 
granted by the Christian Knowledge Society, with four Sabbaths' 
leave of absence. 

The Ordination took place July 16, 1823. Rev. John Tompson 
of South Berwick, Me., was Moderator of the Council, and Eev. 
Jona. French of North Hampton, Scribe. The services were as 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 



241 



Passage. 



-o o 

c - 

PS • 

" o 



"•Hz 



^- 






-^ 



"iz 



-J ./I 



•E.Z 



PLAN OF PEWS IN GALLERY. 



17 



242 ROCHESTER. 

follows : — Introductory Prayer, Rev. Josiali Prentice of North- 
wood; Sermon, Rev. I. W. Putnam of Portsmouth; Consecrating 
Prayer, Rev. Asa Piper of Wakefield ; Charge, Rev. John Tomp- 
8on ; Right Hand of Fellowship, Rev. Jona. French ; Concluding 
Prayer, Rev. Samuel Chandler of Eliot, Me. 

The ministry of Mr. Upham, though short, was of great value 
to the church. Probably no man could have been found better 
adapted for the work needed at that time. His relations to the 
senior pastor were thoroughly harmonious and cordial, and the 
discourse he gave at Mr. Haven's funeral showed how well he 
appreciated the work and character of his father in the ministry. 
Oct. 23, 1823, the Church met at Mr. Haven's house and adopted 
a new Covenant and Confession of Faith. The latter was quite 
elaborate, containing eleven articles. At the same meeting Ensign 
Nathaniel Hayes was chosen deacon. Perhaps the most important 
act of the church for half a century was the following : — 

" Voted, that the system of Church fellowship, called the Half-way Covenant, 
being found to be prejudicial to the interests of religion be discontinued." 

As seen in a preceding chapter, this old usage had divided and 
almost dissevered the church a generation before. Its root was 
in the quasi union of Church and State, and when this union was 
wholly severed, almost no one had any interest in retaining the 
disastrous custom. So passed away quietly one of the worst evils 
that ever infested the church. 

The next church record is as follows : — 

" March 23, 1824. Voted also to purchase a silver cup or tankard, as might 
be thought best for the use of the Table from money left by our deceased 
brother, Mr. Buzzel, with a suitable inscription on the same." 

"Voted that after purchasing the silver cup . . . the remainder of the hundred 
dollars left with Mr. Hurd, who should take from the same whatever he might 
want in order to make out the sum Given by him for the Bell on the Meeting 
House, agreeably to Mr. Buzzel's Will, and that whatever then remained should 
be returned to the Church." 

" The Above votes are connected with the fact, which ought to be recorded 
here in honor of the memory of the deceased, that John B. Buzzel, a member 
of this Church, who died Jan. 6, 1824, left at his decease an hundred dollars 
for the use of the Church." 

As far as can l)e ascertained no one now knows anything of this 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 243 

bequest. The January following, Maj. Samuel Allen was chosen 
deacon. 

Mr. Upham having been appointed to a professorship in Bow- 
doin College was dismissed by a Council Feb. 11, 1825, closing 
his labors in May. The following record is in a fair, clear hand, 
neither the pastor's nor the clerk's: — 

" Rochester May 29 — 1825. 
" This day the Rev. Thomas Cogswell Upham closed his labours in the pas- 
toral office, by delivering a farewell discourse to the people of his charge, he 
having accepted the Professorship of Melaphysicks and Moral Philosophy in Bow- 
doin College. During his residence at Rochester, as pastor of the church, which 
continued 22 months, there were 12 communion seasons, at which 53 ^Jersoiis 
were admitted to the church, of which one was by letter, and one upon her 
dying bed. There was but one communion season at which no addition was 
made to the church. Forty-five baptisms were administered, viz., 12 children 
and 33 adults ; 3 were baptized by Mr. Haven, the rest of the adults and the 
children by Mr. Upham." 

Thomas Cogswell Upham, son of Plon. Nathaniel and Judith 
(Cogswell) Upham, was born in Deerfield Jan. 30, 1799, but 
removed with his parents to Rochester in infancy. He graduated 
at Dartmouth College in 1818, and at Andover Theological Sem- 
inary in 1821 ; was Professor of Moral Philosophy and Metaphysics 
in Bowdoin College from 1824 to 1867; received the degree of 
D. D. from Wesleyan University in 1848, and LL. D. from Rut- 
gers College in 1870. In 1867 he removed to Kennebunkport, 
Me., and died in New York City April 1, 1872. He married 
Phebe, daughter of Nathaniel Lord of Kennebunkport, Me., in 
May, 1825. He was the author of a large number of valuable 
books, the most noted of which are " Elements of Mental Philos- 
ophy," with an abridgment of the same, a " Treatise on the Will," 
the " Interior or Hidden Life," and the " Life and Religious 
Opinions of Madame Guyon." He published also a series of 
poems entitled " American Cottage Life," and " Letters from 
Europe, Egypt, and Palestine." He combined in a remarkable 
degree keenness and depth of thought with simplicity and clear- 
ness of expression. When he came to Rochester Mr. Haven had 
become old and somewhat broken with years. Mr. Upham said 
afterwards " the preaching had so run down that the people did 
not expect much." It was his custom to spend four days of each 
week walking and visiting from house to house, talking religion 
wherever he went. In the two remaining days he would hastily 



244 ■ ROCHESTER. 

" scratch off" two sermons for the eneuing Sunday. Visiting 
Rochester in 1868 he said that people had now become trained 
to expect good sermons and would not tolerate such as he then 
gave. In his visits he was in the habit of saying to the people 
that it was only fair, as he had taken so much pains to come 
and see them, that they should return the compliment by coming 
to see and hear him the next Sunday. In two or three weeks 
the house was filled, and, as already noticed, a continuous revival 
followed. Mr. Upham was eminent for the fervor and depth of 
his piety. He made a written consecration of himself " unreserv- 
edly to his Redeemer" at the age of eighteen. Throughout his 
life he was in the habit of talking directly of personal religion 
wherever he went. At the college he kept a list of the students, 
and called every day upon some of them for the purpose of relig- 
ious conversation. In his latter days he was frequently meeting 
persons who had been converted through the influence of his 
writings. The mystic " quietism " of Madame Guyon fascinated 
his mind by its agreement with his own deep experience. He 
died, as he had lived, peaceful, quiet, wholly trusting in his divine 
Redeemer. " A good man, full of the Holy Spirit and of faith." 
He was among the great men of his generation, whose memory 
will not soon fade away. 

After Mr. Upham left, the church remained six months without 
a pastor, and the Society voted that they preferred to hire rather 
than to settle a minister. But in l^ovember the Church extended 
a call to Isaac "Willey, who was then a young man just finishing 
his theological studies. After several meetings and conferences 
with Mr. Willey, the Society joined in the call, and voted to pay 
him $500 per annum. Mr. Willey hesitated, thinking the salary 
too small. The Society stated that they were sensible the sum 
was small, but " should it be inadequate, it is not to be doubted 
that there are many persons who would voluntarily contribute in 
order to make the salary equal to the exigencies of their minister." 
In these circumstances Mr. Willey signified his acceptance Dec. 
25, 1825. David Barker, Jr., James Tebbets, Samuel Page, ITa- 
thaniel Upham, and Tobias Twombly were appointed to make 
arrangements for the Ordination, which occurred Jan. 18, 1826. 
Rev. Dr. Tyler, President of Dartmouth College, was Moderator 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 245 

of the Council, and Hev. Jona. French, Scribe. The services 
were as follows: — Introductory Prayer, Rev. Geo. AV. Campbell 
of South Berwick, Me.; Sermon, Kev. Bennett Tyler, D. D., of 
Hanover; Consecrating Prayer, Rev. Joseph W. Clary of Dover; 
Charge, Rev. Jona. French of North Hampton; Right Hand of 
Fellowship, Rev. Jona. L. Hale of Campton ; Address to Church, 
Rev. Federal Burt of Durham ; Concluding Prayer, Rev. James 
Walker of Farmington, 

Mr. Willey remained here nearly eleven years, and his pastorate 
left a marked practical impress on the church and people. It 
was just the period when the temperance reform began, and he 
took up the work with enthusiastic determination. He obtained 
noted lecturers from abroad, and by persistent effort at last aroused 
the church to take a square stand on the subject. The year 1832 
was one of special activity. At a church meeting May 4, 

" Two subjects were brought forward by the pastor. One the importance of 
the church's taking some decided measures in i-egard to temperance, the other 
the importance of taking some measures in regard to the better observance of 
the Sabbath." 

More particulars will be given in another chapter. About this 
time there were extensive revivals throughout the country, and 
Rochester shared in the work. Protracted meetings were held, 
and the house was crowded. On one Sabbath Mr. Willey asked 
those who were interested to rise, and more than a hundred re- 
sponded. There were only nine male members of the church at 
that time. Two of these, including one of the deacons, had been 
disciplined for intemperance, and the others were more or less 
guilty of the same offence. The church was considerably purified 
and strengthened by the revival. 

In 1827, under the direction of Mr. Willey, was made the first 
canvass of the town for the distribution of Bibles. Seventh' fam- 
ilies were found without a Bible, thirteen in one school district. 
After the distribution it w-as known that some copies were sold 
for rum, and one, at least, was burned. 

In the first year of Mr. Willey's pastorate this church united 
with the Methodists in a Union Sabbath School, probably the 
first Sabbath School in Rochester. At the end of a year it was 
decided to hold Sabbath Schools in each church separately. (See 
Appendix.) 



246 ROCHESTER. 

In 1833 a meeting was called " to determine whether the rela- 
tions of Mr. Willey and this Society shall cease by mutual consent." 
A week later it is recorded that " arrangements having been made 
for securing the payment of Rev. Mr. "Willey's salary," he was 
requested to remain. 

The next year, Mr. Willey having been chosen Secretary of 
the N. H. Missionary Society, a Council was called to advise con- 
cerning his dismission. This Council met Sept. 22 and 23, 1834, 
but came to no decision, and adjourned one month. Oct. 22, 
" after much deliberation and prayer " the Council advised his 
dismission. Thus closed the longest and in many respects the 
most important pastorate of the modern period of this church 
history. 

Isaac "Willey, son of Darius and Mary (Pulsifer) Willey, was 
born at Campton Sept. 8,1793; graduated at Dartmouth College 
in 1822 ; studied Theology with President Tyler and Prof. Shurt- 
leff at Hanover, spending the year 1825 as a resident licentiate 
at Andover, Mass. ; was Secretary of the K H. Missionary Society 
from 1834 to 1837, and then pastor of the Congregational Church at 
Goffstown, for fourteen years; was agent of the American Bible 
Society, and Secretary of the New Hampshire Bible Society from 
1850 till 1875; removed from Goffstown to Pembroke in 1865, 
where he died Oct. 24, 1883, at the age of ninety years. He 
was a man of excellent spirit, devoted to the service of Christ, 
thoroughly in earnest in every good work. His work here in the 
temperance cause cannot soon be forgotten. He was generally 
wise and prudent, and was rarely at a loss what to do in an 
emergency. In one case, however, he was completely foiled. 
Calling on one of his deacons who was badly given to drink, at 
the tea table he asked him this question : " Deacon, if you had 
a dog who had become mad, and had bitten your own and the 
neighbors' children, would you kill him or keep him?" The 
deacon perceiving the drift of the question, instantly replied, "I 
would keep him!" and for once the parson had nothing to say. 

Mr. Willey published a History of the New Hampshire Bible 
Society, and of the Congregational Churches in Campton and 
Pembroke. 

Mr. Willey was a true man, kind, helpful, and encouraging to 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 247 

the younger brethren in the ministry, sincere, earnest, faithful in 
all liis public and private relations. All who knew him regarded 
him with respect and atfection. Many can still " bear witness to 
his sound doctrine, his cheerful faith, his gospel gentleness, his 
tender fidelity, his willingness to spend and be spent in every 
good work, and his strong practical common sense in the pulpit." 

I^ov. 21, 1836, the Church voted to call Edward Cleveland at 
a salary of $500. He was ordained and installed Jan. 11, 1837. 
Rev. Jonathan Ward of Barrington was Moderator of the Council, 
and Eev. Mr. Smith of Great Falls, Scribe. The services were 
as follows: — Introductory Prayer, Rev. Alvan Tobey of Durham; 
Sermon, Rev. Mr. Fitz of Ipswich, Mass. ; Ordaining Prayer, Rev. 
Mr. Holt of Portsmouth ; Charge, Rev. Jonathan Ward ; Right 
Hand of Fellowship, Rev. Mr. Smith ; Address to People, Rev. 
David Root of Dover; Concluding Prayer, Rev. Benjamin Gt. 
Willey of Milton. 

October 30 of the same year Mr. Cleveland was dismissed at 
his own request on account of insufficient salary. 

Edward Cleveland, son of Hosmer and Flu via (Bissell) Cleve- 
land, was born in Shipton, C. E., Dec. 9, 1804; graduated at 
Yale College 1832; received his Theological education at Yale 
Seminary, and preached a year in Hanover, Conn., before coming 
to Rochester. After leaving here he was engaged in teaching for 
five years ; was six years pastor and teacher in Bath, ^N". H.; and 
afterwards spent a long and laborious life in preaching and teaching 
in Vermont, Canada, and the West. He published a history of 
his native town, also a poem entitled " The Stream of Time." 
He died in Burhngton, Kan., Sept. 29, 1886. 

In Januar}', 1839, a call was extended to Francis V. Pike ofi:ering 
a salary of $600, and he was ordained and installed Feb. 20, with 
the following services: — Invocation and Reading Scriptures, Rev. 
Alvan Tobey of Durham; Introductory Prayer, Rev. Joseph 
Loring of Lebanon, Me.; Sermon, Rev. Edwin Holt of Ports- 
mouth; Ordaining Prayer, Rev. Benjamin G. Willey of Milton; 
Charge, Rev. Andrew Rankin of South Berwick, Me.; Right 
Hand of Fellowship, Rev. John R. Adams of Great Falls; Con- 
cluding Prayer, Rev. Samuel Xichols of Barrington. 



248 ROCHESTER. 

About this time the Piscataqua Association of ministers pre- 
pared, a series of Articles and Confession of Faith which they 
recommended to the churches for adoption. This church referred 
the matter to a committee, who reported in favor Jul}^ 5, 1839. 
Action was, however, deferred, and they were finally adopted 
Jan. 8, 1843. 

In 1840, after " a day of fasting and prayer," a protracted meeting 
was held which resulted in a revival whereby twenty-one were 
added to the church. 

The relations between Mr. Pike and the church were entirely 
harmonious, but in September, 1841, he was dismissed at his own 
request, because they found themselves unable to continue the 
same rate of salary. 

Francis Vergnies Pike was born at ISTewburyport, Mass., Jan. 
2, 1813; graduated at Yale College 1831; at Andover Seminary 
1835; and died at N'ewburyport, Sept. 4, 1843. 

At a meeting of the Society July 25, 1842, the following vote 
was passed : — 

" Whereas the Congregational Meeting House has been long built viz, in 
1780 & two Towns have since been taken off this Town & what more effects 
the interest of the Society is that the number of those that attend meeting in 
said House are greater that live North of said House & it would convene & 
accommodate the Society better to have the Meeting House removed further 
north into or near the centre of the Village & nearer the centre of the popu- 
lation of the Parish — 

" Therefore resolved That this Society deem it necessary for the best interests 
of the Society to remove their Meeting House from its present situation to 
some situation neai-er the Centre of the Village & that the house be thoroughly 
repaired and fitted up in modern style. 

^'- Also resolved and voted that in consideration that James Tibbets, Samuel 
Stackpole, Benj=^ Barker and others associated with them propose to the Society 
and have mutually agreed with each other to provide a lot and house for public 
worship nearer the centre of the village than the house stands and appropriate 
it to a place of worship for the Society, that in Consideration of these promises 
the Society does hereby absolutely & wholly so far as the right in said House 
pertains to them, relinquish and quit-claim said right to said Tebbets and those 
associated with him, and give them liberty to remove said House at their 
pleasure." 

The parties to whom the meeting-house was thus convej-ed 
divided the expense into shares of |50 each. They were to build 
and own the house, selling the pews to help pay for it, and if 
there should be any money over expenses, it was to be divided 



I 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 249 

among them in proportion to their several shares. The subscription 
list, dated August, 1841, is as follows : — 

" Ezra Hayes, Jonathan T. Seavey, Widow Sarah McDiiffee, Aaron Flagg, 
George W. Flagg, Benjamin Hayes, Widow Mehitable Young, one half share 
each; James Tebbitts, Benjamin Barker, Charles Henderson, Jonathan T. Dodge, 
John McDnffee, Jr., Lydia March, Stephen M. Mathes, John F. Folsom, Jacob 
Smart, N. V. Whitehouse, James Y. Hayes, Calvin Hale. Elizabeth Hale, Luther 
Hale, Alfred Hale, one share each ; Samuel Stackpole, John Roberts, Jr., Francis 
V. Pike, Mrs. E. Ilale, two shares each; and J. H. Woodman, three shares." 

Mr. Pike having left was not called on for his subscription, 
but Prof. T. C. Upham gave one share, making the whole amount 
$1,425. The sale of pews netted $2,265, just about covering the 
whole expense. 

In October, 1842, a call was extended to Rev. John E. Farwell 
of Castine, Me., offering $500 salary. John McDuftce, Jr., Richard 
Kimball, and J. H. Woodman were the committee of arrangements. 
His acceptance was dated July 22, 1843, and he was installed 
Aug. 16. The council met Aug. 15, the new house was dedicated 
in the forenoon of the next day, and the installation services were 
in the afternoon, as follows : — Reading Scriptures, Rev. Joseph 
Loring of Lebanon, Me.; Introductory Prayer, Rev. E. D. Eldridge 
of Hampton; Sermon, Rev. J. S. Young of Dover; Installing 
Prayer, Rev. Benjamin G. "VYilley of Milton ; Charge, Rev. Charles 
Walker of Wells, Me.; Right Hand of Fellowship, Rev. Samuel 
Bean of Great Falls; Address to People, Rev. Isaac Willey of 
Goffstown ; Concluding Prayer, Rev. Samuel Nichols of Barrington. 

Prof. Upham never lost his interest in the home of his child- 
hood and the church of his early manhood, as the following 
record plainly attests : — 

" By the persevering assistance of Prof. T. C. Upham the subscription for the 
parsonage was completed & the conveyance made to the Chh. & parish May 27, 
1845." 

Though the meeting-house had been moved, repaired, and ded- 
icated, there was still great need of a room for social meetings. 
By special effort of the ladies this was secured, as seen by the 
following record : — 

Feb 26, 1846, " Held our Monthly Chh. meeting for the first time in our 
vestry which was finished off under the Chh. by the united avails of a Tea- 
party on the 4"^ of July last & a Singing School this winter." A part of the 



250 ROCHESTER. 

basement was still used for a store room, as the Society voted in April, 1849, 
" that fifty cts be required of all persons for the storage of each sleigh under 
the Meeting House during the Summer & seventy five cts for each Carriage 
during the Winter." 

At the annual meeting in 1846 the Society found they were 
owing Mr. Farwell over $460 on his salary, which they paid by 
borrowing money. This course naturally led to the next year's 
record of notice to the pastor that they could thenceforth pay no 
more than $425 with the use of the parsonage. The final result 
could not have been otherwise than a dismission of Mr. Farwell, 
which occurred in January, 1852, he having preached here nine 
years. 

John Edward Farwell was born at Ashby, Mass., Dec. 9, 1809, 
and graduated at Amherst College 1836, and at Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary 1839. " He became interested in personal re- 
ligion " while a student in the Academy at New Ipswich, "and 
after a period of darkness and doubt, he found the light which 
shone more and more brightly to the end." He was ordained as 
an Evangelist at Ashby Oct. 30, 1839, being under appointment 
as a missionary of the American Board, but his failing health 
compelled him to relinquish the purpose. He preached for two 
years at Castine, Me., before his settlement here. After leaving 
Rochester he was for a time at St. Johnsbury, Vt., where he ac- 
cepted a call to settle, but by advice of physicians finally gave it 
up. He became acting pastor at Pelham, where he continued to 
preach as long as his failing strength would allow. The last time 
he preached was while on a visit at Rochester. " He was then 
very feeble and it was known he could not recover. He was the 
personification of patient resignation and devotion to the cause of 
his Master. He told his doctor that if there was any encourage- 
ment that by rest and care he might recover, he would cease 
work, but as he could not get well, he desired to labor to the 
last." He died at Fitchburg, Mass., Dec. 24, 1858, leaving a widow 
and two sons. 

After Mr. Farwell left. Rev. George Spaulding was acting pastor 
for about a year, when he withdrew on account of poor health. 

In January, 1854, Rev. James C. Seagrave accepted a call to 
the pastorate with a salary of $540 and use of parsonage. A 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 251 

provision in the call whereby the connection could be terminated 
on six months' notice by either party was seriously objected to by 
the Council " as uncougregational in principle and pernicious in 
practice." ^Nevertheless they voted to proceed to the installation, 
but Rev. Asa Mann of Exeter withdrew lest he should seem to 
sanction the provision. The installation occurred May 25, 1854, 
with the following services : — Reading Scriptures, Rev. Joseph 
Loring of Lebanon, Me.; Sermon, Rev. I. P. Cleveland, D. D., of 
iN'orthampton, Mass. ; Installing Prayer, Rev. D. D. Tappan of 
Farmington; Charge, Rev. B. R. Allen of South Berwick, Me.; 
Right Hand of Fellowship, Rev. William D. Hitchcock of Exeter ; 
Address to People, Rev. Alvan Tobey of Durham ; Concluding 
Prayer, Rev. Isaac C. White of Newmarket. 

In December, 1855, the church voted "with regret" to accept 
Mr. Seagrave's resignation " on account of necessity for his wife 
to remove to a milder climate." 

James Carter Seagrave was born April 14, 1821, at Uxbridge, 
Mass. ; graduated at Brown Uiiiversity in 1845 ; at Andover The- 
ological Seminary in 1849 ; and was ordained and installed pastor 
of the Fifth Congregational Church in Providence, R. I., Dec. 3, 
1851. Since leaving Rochester he has been acting pastor in 
various places, and removed to Peru, Mass., in 1884, where he 
f remains acting pastor of the Congregational Church. 

In 1856 the meeting house was struck by lightning and very 
narrowly escaped entire destruction. The belfry was badly dam- 
aged, necessitating repairs at a cost of §160. 

After more than two years of unsuccessful effort to obtain a 
pastor, the church secured the services of Rev. James M. Palmer. 
Having officiated as acting pastor for nearly a year, he was in- 
stalled April 26, 1859. The sermon was by Prof. George Shepard, 
D. D., of Bangor Seminary, and the installing prayer by Rev. Alvan 
Tobey of Durham. The record of the other parts is missing. 

In the second year of Mr. Palmer's ministry here, an organ 
was purchased by subscription obtained, as the parish records 
state, by "the exertions and perseverance of Miss Anna McDuffee." 
About the same time William Tebbetts of Boston presented this 
church with a clock, which was placed in front of the organ. 



252 ROCHESTER. 

Some years later the same gentleman presented also a valuable 
communion service and table. 

Jan. 28, 18G1, the following satisfactory statement was placed 
on the parish record : — 

" This Society is now nearly free from debt, and in better condition than it 
has been for the last twenty yeai's, and better than any other Congregational 
Society in the county." 

During the six years of Mr. Palmer's ministry here, seventy- 
three persons were added to the church, but there are no church 
records for the whole period. In war time Mr. Palmer was out- 
spoken and unwavering in loyalty to the country. He also spent 
six weeks in the army, in service of the Christian Commission. 
He was dismissed July 14, 1864, and soon after became pastor of 
the Second Congregational Church in Biddeford, Me. After a 
few years he was obliged to give up preaching on account of a 
throat trouble, and has since been engaged in business in Boston, 
Mass. 

May 4, 1865, a call was extended to Rev. Prescott Fay of Lan- 
caster, offering a salary of |1.000 and use of parsonage. He was 
not installed, but was acting pastor for a little more than two 
years. The second year $100 was added to his salary. Mr. Fay 
has since served several other churches, and is at present residing 
without charge in Cambridge, Mass. 

In September, 1867, A. F. Marsh, then just graduated from 
Bangor Theological Seminary, accepted a call to the pastorate of 
this church, on a salary of $850 with use of parsonage. He was 
ordained Oct. 31, 1867, with the following services: — Invocation 
and Reading Scriptures, Rev. T. S. Robie of Salmon Falls; Ser- 
mon, Rev. A. S. Walker of Dover; Ordaining Prayer and Address 
to People, Rev. Alvan Tobey, D. D., of Durham; Charge, Rev. 
James Merrill of Andover; Right Hand of Fellowship, Rev. George 
H. Pratt of Harvard, Mass.; Concluding Prayer, Rev. Silvanus 
Hay ward of South Berwick, Me. 

At the coming of Mr. Marsh a new interest was awakened, 
and the attendance so increased that the enlargement of the house 
of worship became an immediate necessity. A committee was 
appointed consisting of Nathaniel T. Kimball, Enoch "SVhitehouse, 
and James H. Edgerly. Under their direction the meeting house 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 253 

was raised three feet and a more convenient vestry finished off 
in the basement. The expense was about $8000, and brought the 
parish heavily into debt. Previous to this time this Society had 
received from thirty to fifty dollars annually from the town, being 
their share of the interest of the funds derived from the sale of 
the original parsonage lands. In 1869 the whole fund was divided 
among the several religious societies of the town, the Congrega- 
tional Society receiving $1,056.46, which was applied to reduce 
the debt on repairs. The remainder of the debt was about $3,000, 
which was soon diminished one half by a subscription, ninety-five 
dollars of which was raised by a ladies' festival. Five persons, 
Benjamin Barker, James Pirie, Charles W. Brown, Caroline H. 
Turner, and Franklin McDuffee, paid the remaining $1,500, receiving 
therefor the pews belonging to the Society, on conditions that 
when the rents of these pews should amount to the $1500 with 
interest and expenses, they should convey them back to the So- 
cietv. This arrangement continued till the sum was reduced to 
about $1,100. Three of the five persons had already died, when, 
in 1880, Franklin McDuftee left by will the remainder of the 
debt as a gift, the pews then reverting to the Society. 

After three years' service Mr. Marsh resigned, and was dismissed 
Oct. 11, 1870. His pastorate was one of activity and success, a 
large revival bringing in valuable accessions to the church. Forty- 
seven w^ere received on confession of faith. Mr. Marsh has since 
been settled in several places, and after a four year's patorate at 
Neligh, N'eb., settled in Pittsfield, BL, January, 1888. 

In February, 1871, Rev. Harvey M. Stone of Laconia was called, 
at a salary of $1,050 and use of parsonage, and was installed the 
18th of the next May, with the following services: — Invocation 
and Reading Scriptures, Rev. Ezekiel True, pastor of Free- Will 
Baptist Church in Rochester; Prayer, Rev. W. S. Kimball of 
Farmington ; Sermon, Rev. Silvanus Hayward of South Berwick, 
Me.; Installing Prayer and Charge, Rev. Alvan Tobey, D. D., of 
Durham ; Right Hand of Fellowship, Rev. Clark Carter of Great 
Falls; Address to People, Rev. W. S. Kimball of Farmington; 
Concluding Prayer, Rev. D. J. Smith, pastor of Methodist Church 
in Rochester. 

The parsonage was repaired at an expense of about $140, and 
" the ladies provided means to enclose the church with a neat 



254 ROCHESTER. 

fence, level the grounds, and put in walks to the entrances, the 
whole cost of which was $361.05." 

During Mr. Stone's ministry there was an extensive revival in 
town, and twenty-four were received to this church. In January, 
1875, Mr. Stone resigned. 

Harvey Merrill Stone, son of Col. John and Betsey (Huntoon) 
Stone, was horn in Cabot, Vt., Sept. 1, 1819; graduated at Bangor 
Seminary in 1847; was ordained at Bluehill, Me., Nov. 2, 1848; 
served as pastor in various places for about thirty years; and 
died at Saundersville, Mass., Oct. 21, 1881. He was a man of 
pleasant, genial manners, with unusual power of winning the per- 
sonal regard of many people. Soon after coming here, the busi- 
ness men of the place presented him a gold watch and chain as 
a spontaneous token of their esteem. 

In January, 1875, the Society received a legacy of $1000 from 
Zenas Hayes, which they applied to the reduction of their debts. 

In July, 1875, Rev. Abram J. Quick of Belle Isle, N. Y., was 
invited to become pastor of this church. He began his labors 
here in October following, but for some reason did not choose to 
be installed, although the Society renewed the request in 1880. 
About the time of his coming the parsonage was repaired at an 
expense of $180. 

In August, 1875, it was voted to omit the afternoon service, 
which had been kept up from the beginning of the church, save 
for a few weeks in the summer. 

In 1880 the Society recorded a vote of thanks to some unknown 
person who had contributed $250 towards the liquidation of the 
debt. 

About this time the interior of the church was repaired by re- 
plastering, painting, etc., at an expense of about $500, which was 
raised by the ladies. The work was superintended by T. H. 
Edgerly and Henry Kimball. 

Centennial Sunday, July 9, 1876, was observed by this church, 
the pastor giving an historical discourse, which was printed in the 
" Courier." The text was Psalm 77 : 10. 

During Mr. Quick's ministry a revival occurred, bringing about 
forty additions to this church. In October, 1881, Mr. Quick re- 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 255 

signed. He went from here to the church at Hillsborough Bridge, 
and is now pastor at South Coventry, Conn. 

In February, 1882, Rev. Henry S. Kimball became acting pastor 
of this church, and remained about two years. He is now settled 
over a church in Killingly, Conn. 

Januar}', 1885, a call was extended to Rev. George A. Mills of 
the Dutch Reformed Church at Bacon Hill, Saratoga Co., N. Y., 
offering a salary of §1,000 and use of parsonage. He was installed 
June 9, 1885, with the following services : — Invocation and 
Reading Scriptures, Rev. E. C. Bass, D. D., pastor of the Meth- 
odist Cluirch in Rochester; Sermon, Rev. Isaac P. Langworthy, 
D. D., of Chelsea, Mass.; Installing Prayer, Rev. C. S. Sherman 
of Manchester, Conn. ; Charge, Rev. J. M. Dutton of Great Falls ; 
Right Hand of Fellowship, Rev. George Hall of Dover; Address 
to People, Rev. Walter E. Darling of Farmington ; Concluding 
Prayer, Rev. S. H. Barnum of Durham. 

About this time the meeting house was repainted at a cost of 
nearly S240. 

May 11, 1887, being near the date of the ordination of the first 
pastor, one hundred and fifty years before, was observed as an 
anniversary by this church. An historical address was presented 
by Rev. Silvanus Hay ward of Globe Village, Mass., being mainly 
a resume of the facts recorded in this history. Remarks were 
made by Revs. J. M. Palmer, Prescott Fay, A. J. Quick, and 
others. Announcement was made that $100 had been given for 
the Sabbath School Library by Orrill H. Hayes of Philadelphia, 
also that the debt of the Societ}' had been cancelled. This was 
accomplished through the persistent efibrts and generous aid of 
William Tebbetts of Boston in securing the following subscriptions : 
John McDuff'ee, $500; William Tebbetts, $450; Edwin Wallace, 
$250; J. D. Sturtevant, $100; H. M. Plunier, $100; smaller sub- 
scriptions, $314 ; making in all a little more than $275 above the 
debt. Mrs. C. K. Sanborn also presented the Society a house lot 
valued at $250. 

The following Sabbath, Rev. Mr. Mills gave a valuable and 
interesting anniversary discourse from Psalm CL. 

In June, 1887, Mrs. Watson Hayes left the church a legacy 
of $200, the income of which is to be used toward the minister's 
salary. 



256 ROCHESTER. 

In October, 1887, a Christian Endeavor Society was formed in 
connection with this church with a membership of thirty -five. lu 
]^ovember following, a new furnace was placed in the church 
edifice. 

At the close of 1887 Mr. Mills resigned, and is now pastor in 
Newport, Vt. 

The deacons of this church with dates of election have been 
as follows : — 

Stephen Berry, 1737 ; Joseph "Walker, 1737 ; James Knowles, 
1761; William Chamberlin, 1768; Samuel Chamberlin, 1783; 
Samuel Plumer, 1783; William Trickey, 1806; iTathaniel Hayes, 
1823; Samuel Allen, 1825; Benjamin Barker, 1834; Samuel Stack- 
pole, 1844; Thomas Brown, 1859; Frankhn McDuflee, 1872; 
Charles W. Brown, 1872; A. J. Whittemore, 1882; Henry M. 
Plumer, 1882. 

In coming to the close of the history of this church we should 
guard ourselves against any spirit of self-exaltation in contrasting 
the present with the days of our fathers. We should rather reflect 
that it is to their wisdom, to their labors, and to their manage- 
ment, under God, that we owe all that we have of religious or 
political freedom. They labored and we have entered into their 
labors. Much of what we call their ignorance and narrow-mind- 
edness was necessary then to lay the foundations on which we 
stand. Had they been no more rigid, no more exclusive, no more 
severe, in their beliefs and policy of action than their descendants, 
it is difficult to see how churches and states could have been 
established. It needed the sturdy conviction that could tolerate 
no truce with heresy, the iron will that would not yield to even 
the most plausible demands for an easier type of religion, and the 
sinewy arm that could strike valiant blows against the devil, to 
found and protect the infant church in the wilderness. However 
much we pride ourselves on our broadness and liberality, our 
wider views, and more tolerant spirit, we should always remember 
that a weaker system or less severe discipline than theirs would 
have been fatal then. It is only through what some deem their 
hardness, and narrowness, and intolerance, that we have been 
able to rise to our present degree of freedom and power. 



modern church history. 257 

Friends or Quakers. 

A considerable number of Friends settled in liocliester <|uite 
early in its history. In 1751 the Dover Monthly Meeting granted 
them " the liberty to keep a meeting there on first days." This 
permission was renewed from time to time for more than thirty 
years. In the 7th month, 1781, they asked advice about building 
a meeting-house. A committee was appointed who reported at 
the next monthly meeting, " They think it may be best for them, 
to build a house on the South East corner of Jona. Dame's land 
on iN'orth side of the road that leads by his house from Cochecho."' 
In the 9th month the desired permission was granted, and the 
house was probably built about that time. It was a two-story 
house, and some years after was taken down and made into a one- 
story house at Pine Grove. Still later it was removed to Gonic, 
where it now stands, and where First day meetings are still 
held. 

The northwest part of Rochester was first settled by Benjamin 
Meader, who was soon followed by four brothers. From these 
families that part of the town was called Meaderborough, a name 
which appears in the town records as early as 1784. From these 
brothers '• descended the extensive Quaker family of Meaders, 
who for many years have been greatly respected for uniform 
integrity and Christian benevolence." Judith, daughter of Ben- 
jamin Meader, and wife of David Green, died March 30, 1855, 
aged 79, and was " remarkable for her charitable qualities and 
kindness of heart." 

The Friends had a meeting-house on the Meaderborough road 
near Farmington line, certainly before 1805, as it appears on a map 
of that date. How early it was built cannot now be ascertained. 
Here "preparative," and afterwards " monthly meetings," were held. 
Two " overseers " are mentioned in 1819. In 1835 a new meeting- 
house was built on the same lot, where a "monthly meeting'* 
still holds its sessions. According to Job Varney, " they held 
meetings in his father's house for many years, and afterwards till 
his father's death, in a little building on the other side of the 
street." 

In 1776 there were twenty-two adult males belonging to the 
Society of Friends, (p. 62.) In 1823, twenty families were reported 

IS 



258 ROCHESTER. 

as beloiio;ino^ to one meeting and fifteen to the other. At the 
division of the parsonage fund in 1869 the Friends received 
^173.10. In 1838^ they established a circulating library. They 
also had a Sabbath School and a Sunday School library. Xot 
having a regular ministry, but little can be gleaned of their society 
history. 

One of their most prominent men was John 3feader, who was 
born in Eochester and resided in Dover for some years, but about 
1840 removed to Providence, E. I., where he died at the age of 
60, Jan. 7, 1860. " He was a well-known and highly esteemed 
minister of the Society of Friends, and traveled extensively in the 
exercise of his ministry both in this country and in England, 
Ireland, and some other parts of Europe." The " Providence 
Journal " says : " His death removes another of the upright 
Quakers of the olden time, whose firm devotion to the principles 
of George Fox aflbrds landmarks to determine the position the 
Society once occupied in contrast with the conforming tendency 
so prevalent at the present day." 

Methodist Church. 

To understand the history of the rise and growth of Methodism, 
it is necessary to give some account of the state of society and of 
churches at that period. It would probably be impossible to write 
a fully correct statement of these matters without giving some 
offence to both Methodists and Congregationalists. But a sincere 
desire of impartiality and justice without flattery is the onl}' true 
guide in this as in all other history. Let us be willing to 
know the truth, and while we give ample credit to excellence 
wherever we find it, let us not fear to look at faults and imper- 
fections wherever they exist. The present generation can hardly 
understand the great excitement created by the advent of Meth- 
odism. It was not because any new doctrine was promulgated. 
Religion had existed before. Free agency was not a new and 
startling idea. It had been taught for centuries. Reformations, 
and revivals were certainly nothing new under the Christian dis-J 
pensation. They had been in the churches from the days of the] 
apostles. It was not therefore these things that led people toj 
declare that the new sect was a fire of shavings which would] 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 259 

soon go out, or that led to attempted mobs. It was not the 
fundamental and essential elements of their religion that lu'oduced 
the excitement. But they introduced new forms, and these exter- 
nals raised the ferment. It was because the. new sect denounced 
church steeples as sinful vanities, — because they forbade the 
wearing of silks, ribbons, and jewelry, and disciplined their mem- 
bers for curling their hair, — because they professed to have 
religious dreams and visions, — because of their ecstasies and par- 
oxysms in worship, their opposition to an educated ministry, and 
their requirement that members should patronize their own sect 
in business. These external things, which to-day are scarcel}' more 
noticeable among Methodists than among other sects, were what 
then aroused ridicule and dislike. On the other hand the great 
and abiding excellence of the new church sprang from the same 
spirit out of which grew these faults, — its enthusiasm. Without 
enthusiasm, religion sinks to formality. Although noise is not 
enthusiasm it may be a sign of its presence. It is not the best 
wood which crackles most in the fire, yet there is no crackling 
where there is no fire. It is not the noise of the wheels that 
makes the coach move, yet the noise is a sure sign that the coach 
does move. The condition of the other churches at this time 
gave Methodism its opportunity. Congregationalism was largely 
in a state of spiritual deadness. The Methodists charged that 
there had not been a reformation in town for thirty years. It 
was too true that there had been no great awakening on religious 
subjects. There was little or no enthusiasm in their worship. 
They had fallen into ruts. They had no prayer-meetings or other 
means which brought home the question of personal religion to 
the individual members. Congregationalism a hundred years 
before had been filled with enthusiasm. It was the religion of 
the Puritans, than which nothing could be more rigidly spiritual. 
But earnest piety had degenerated to moralit}' and formality, and 
morality was fast becoming indiiference. Spiritual aggressiveness 
was lost. This gradual subsidence of heat has been the history 
of all sects. Methodism was simply the reaction from this spiritual 
deadness, and like all other reactions it was extreme at the outset. 
But it has accomplished a noble mission. Aside from the work 
within its own membership, it gave new life to the old sects with 
which it came in contact. Its own enthusiasm in some decree 



260 ROCHESTER. 

reached others. The special power of the Methodist church was 
in its class meetings. By them it kept alive the spiritual condi- 
tion of its members and prepared them to go into the world and 
make proselytes. Prayer and conference meetings were soon 
established in other churches. JSTor is it too much to say that so 
far as human instrumentality is concerned the Congregationalists 
of to-day owe their prayer-meetings to the influence of the early 
Methodists. It is noticeable that any new sect will grow 
strong under opposition, and the very year Mr. Haven attacked 
Methodism (p. 107) was the year in which it was specially dis- 
tinguished for growth and prosperity. * 

Methodism was introduced into i^ew England in 1790 by Rev. 
Jesse Lee. At the first session of the ]^ew England Conference 
in 1797, " Chesterfield Circuit " in Kew Hampshire was reported 
with a membership of sixty-eight. Kew Hampshire was first made 
a separate district in 1804. In 1807 this district contained twelve 
preachers, of whom Revs. Warreii Banister and Ebenezer Blake 
were appointed to the Tuftonborough circuit, which included 
Rochester. They traveled the circuit together and preached in 
Rochester once in four weeks. The only preaching place at first 
was a schoolhouse on the " Squire Dame lot " on Haven's Hill. 
Perceiving no fruits of their labors after several months, the young 
preachers decided that after one more visit the place should be 
abandoned unless some proofs of their usefulness appeared. At 
this supposed final visit, a meeting continuing throughout a whole 
night was held at the house of Paul Place, now the residence of 
Bidfield Meserve, during which several persons were soundly 
converted, and at sunrise the next morning the first class was 
formed with shouts of triumph. The first members were Paul 
Place, leader ; Lydia Place ; Betsey Place ; Hannah Jackson, after- 
wards the wife of Rev. Benjamin Burnham; and Meribah Dame, 
afterwards the wife of Rev. Harvey Morey. Before the end of the 
year the first Quarterly Conference was formed at the same house, 
both preachers being present. As the work increased Caleb 
Dame at the " Plains " opened his house (still standing at the 
corner of Market and Union streets) as a preaching place. 



* The following sketch of the Methodist Church in Rochester was substantially prepared by 
John S. Parsons, Esq., for the History of Methodism in New Hampshire by Rev. George H. 
Hardy. I am indebted to the kindness and courtesy of these gentlemen for the privilege of 
using the material here. — [Editor.] 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 261 

Meetings were also held at John Hanson's, where the late Charles 
K. Chase afterwards resided on Elm street. 

Having an appointment to preach in Barrington, Mr. Banister 
was entertained at the house of a good sister whose conversation 
was more abundant than profitable, so falling suddenly on his 
knees, he praj-ed as follows : — " O Lord, help this sister to pray more 
and talk less. Amen." After leaving this circuit he preached many 
\'ears, his last work being in Nashua, where he died in 1834. 

Mr. Blake was born in 1786, and labored many years in Maine, 
where he died. One who was his colleague for a time, and knew 
him well, says : — " He stands now, after the lapse of years pho- 
tographed before me, as he poured out argument, appeal, invita- 
tion, and denunciation, his large body swaying under the inHuence 
of his impassioned periods. His audiences seemed spell-bound. 
If the eyes of others were dry, his were not, and mine certainly 
were all ' teary round the lashes.' " 

In 1808 Bevs. Lewis Bates and Ebenezer F. JSewell were appointed 
to this circuit, and many were the trophies of their toil in this 
humble lield of labor. The lirst Quarterly Meeting was held this 
year in Paul Place's house, Elijah Hedding, presiding Elder. 

Mr. Bates was a descendant of the martyr John Rogers, and 
was born in Massachusetts, March 20, 1780. After sixty-one 
years' service in the ministry he died March 10, 1865. He was 
a man of much cheerfulness of spirit, delighting to sing " Now " 
"I can read my title clear." Biding one afternoon on the road 
from Rochester to Dover he overtook a young man whose 
heavily loaded team was stuck fast in the mud. Dismounting 
from his horse he put his shoulder to the wheel, and with one 
strong pull all together the load moved on to the geat joy of the 
young teamster, whose heart was completely won by this act of 
kindness which resulted in his conversion. His name was Tliomas 
Wentworth, and is still remembered by many. 

Mr. Kewell was born Sept. 1, 1775, and died March 8, 1867, 
after an earnest and faithful ministry of sixty years. 

In 1809 Bevs. Hezekmh' Field and Amasa Taylor were on this 
circuit. Mr. Field devoted most of his time to this section. A 
second class was formed, and meetings were held at Silas Dame's 
house on the Ten-rod road. During the next year Rochester was 
made a separate appointment under the name of "Norway Plains," 



262 ROCHESTER. 

with Mr. Field as preacher in charge. It is not strange that some 
opposition was aroused among those unaccustomed to such preach- 
ing. On one occasion, when Mr. Field had an appointment to 
preach in the Court House, threats having been made to mob 
him, a large crowd came together with far from peaceable inten- 
tions. But the preacher went as usual to his appointment, Thomas 
Wentworth and David McDaniels standing as a body guard on 
either side during the service. Since God has said that " one 
shall chase a thousand," it is no wonder that the enemy remained 
quiet. 

In 1811 Rev. Leonard Frost became pastor, the membership 
having increased from four to ninety-one. The next year seven- 
teen were added under the ministry of Rev. Abner Clark. 

Rev. Jacob Sanborn, a young man of remarkable ability, was 
stationed here in 1813. He performed a large amount of work 
with much profit to the society. After many years of service he 
died at Concord. 

In 1814 Rev. Harvey 3Iorey was the pastor. He was a man of 
great physical strength and a successful minister. He married 
Meribah, sister of Caleb Dame, and after some years located in 
Rochester where he died Oct. 29, 1830. His wife was one of the 
first who helped to plant Methodism in this town, and her life 
was that of a consistent Christian. Their bodies rest in the old 
cemetery on Haven's Hill. 

Rev. Noah Rigelow, from the New York Conference, was pastor 
in 1815. As a minister, and presiding Elder, he was abundant 
in labors. He was born in Conway, Mass., March 4, 1783, and 
died Aug. 2, 1850. His testimony was, " My only hope is in the 
atonement, on that I really lean, through that I expect to be 
saved." 

He was followed in 1816 by Rev. John Lord who commenced 
his labors under some discouragements, but so overcame difficul- 
ties that this was regarded the most prosperous year in the history 
of the society. A great revival occurred in which more than a 
hundred persons were converted, and sixty added to the member- 
ship. He was presiding Elder many years in the Maine Con- 
ference where he died. 

During 1817-18 Rev. Philip Munger was stationed here. He 
was a physician as well as a preacher, and is said to have excelled 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 263 

in both professions. He was born in South Brimfield, Muss., in 
1780; joined the New Enghxnd Conference in 1802; and the Maine 
Conference at its formation in 1824 ; and died Oct. 19, 1846. He 
had labored forty years in the ministry, and was a studious, gifted, 
and successful preacher, and a writer of very marked ability. 

Bev. John F. Adams was pastor in 1819-20. The increasing work 
on the charge, which then included parts of adjacent towns, caused 
the appointment of Rev. Samuel Xorris as a colleague in 1820, 
but after six months he was transferred to the Landaft" circuit. 
After a ministry of sixty-nine years, Mr. Adams died in 1881 at 
the age of 91. 

In 1821-22 Rev. Damon Young was pastor and left the society 
in a prosperous condition. 

In 1823 Revs. Jot ham Horton and William McCoy were colleagues, 
alternating in their pulpit ministrations to the entire satisfaction 
of the people. While here Mr. Horton organized the M. E. Church 
at Dover. He was twice Delegate to the General Conference, and 
in 1842 was one of the first to withdraw on account of Slavery. 
He afterwards returned and was stationed at Dorchester, Mass., 
where he died in 1853. His last testimony was, " All my hope 
is in Christ. My sins, my labors, my righteousness, my unright- 
eousness, I lay at the feet of Christ. I trust only in him." 

In 1824 Rev. Benjamin Jones was pastor. He was a faithful 
preacher for many years in the Maine Conference, and died in 
Friendship, Me. From 1810 the meetings had been held in the 
old Court House. Here were held the old-fashioned quarterly 
meetings which were usually occasions of great power. As in the 
old meeting-houses of that day, so here in this old court-room no 
fire was thought of, even in midwinter. But the time had now 
arrived to arise and Iniild, and measures were taken to secure by 
subscription the necessary funds. The site of the old Barker 
tavern which had been recently burned, was purchased as the 
most desirable location. Charles Dennett, Simon Chase, William 
Trickey, Daniel Waldrou, and James C. Cole were the building 
committee. It was agreed that the house should be 42 by 55 feet 
in size, and of "a plain and decent style." The subscribers were 
10 pay in building material, labor, grain, or cash, as they preferred. 
Rev. Herschel Foster was appointed pastor in 1825, and the corner- 
stone of the new church was laid with Masonic ceremonies by 



264 ROCHESTER. 

the Grand Lodge of ISTew Hampshire, on the anniversary of Saint 
John the Baptist. Hon. James F. Dana was the Grand Master, 
who commissioned Major Pierce P. Furber to conduct the cere- 
monies. General Lafayette being entertained at a pubhc dinner 
at Dover, the day before. Major Furber invited him to be present 
and participate in the exercises. The deputation from Humane 
Lodge who bore the invitation consisted of Charles Dennett, James 
Farrington, and John T. Paine. The answer was received in 
Rochester on the evening of June 23, and was engraved by E. S. 
Moulton on a plate of copper in season to be deposited under 
the corner-stone on the 24th. The following is the answer : — 

" I much regret the impossibility I am under, in consequence of previous and 
positive engagements, to attend my brethren of the Masonic Humane Lodge of 
Rochester at the celebration which they contemplate on the 24th. My heart 
will be with them, and I beg them to accept my fraternal regard and good 

^i^^^s- La Fayette." 

Another plate of the same dimensions bearing the following 
words was also deposited : — 

" Wesleyan Chapel 

Erected by the Methodist Episcopal Church of Rochester, N. H., which was 
instituted 1807. This Corner Stone was laid by Humane Lodge, No. 21, in 
the presence of many Brethren of the mystic tie, and a large assemblage of peo- 
ple, A. L. 5825. James C. Cole, Secretary:' 

Other articles deposited were names of preachers with dates, Z)is- 
cipline of the M. E. Church, Bible, N. H. Register for 1825, Zion's 
Herald June 15, 1825, Journal of the Ghnnd Lodge of New Hamp- 
shire, By-Laws of Humane Lodge, New Hampshire Republican, 
2)rinted at Lover, June 21, 1825. (See Appendix, also page 131.) 

The whole cost of the house was $1,923. It was dedicated in 
October, Eev. Ebenezer F. ISTewell of the Maine Conference 
preaching the sermon. 

In the erection of this house, Simon Chase, Charles Dennett, 
and James C. Cole assumed all responsibihty, and carried the 
enterprise to a successful completion. These three men are worth}- 
of special notice as principal characters in the history of this 
society, who have ever commanded admiration and respect. 

Simon Chase was born in Berwick, Me., Sept. 30, 1786. He 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 265 

first came to Rochester in 1806 as clerk for Josepli Hanson, at 
S72 a 3"ear and his board, and remained fonr years. Joined the 
church here in 1808. After twelve years in trade at ^Milton, he 
returned, went into company with Jonathan Torr for two years, 
when he bought Torr's house and in 1835 built a brick store, where 
he continued business till his death Jan. 21, 1878. 

James C. Cole was born in Boston, Mass., in 1791, and came 
to Eochester at an early age and learned the trade of clock-maker 
with Edward S. Moulton. He had been baptized when an infant 
in the Episcopal Church, and joined the church here at the age 
of eighteen. He began business for himself about 1813, and died 
Dec."l2, 1867. 

Charles Dennett was pre-eminent among the three, and an 
extended notice of him will be given in another chapter. 

These three men each acquired wealth, and had the confidence 
of all, holding man}' positions of honor and trust. Their places 
of business were each a brick building of about the same size 
and style, with old-fashioned gambrel roof, and all situated on 
the west side of Main street. Their names ^vill not be forgotten. 

In 1826 an act of incorporation was granted to James C. Cole, 
Charles Dennett, Simon Chase, Ebenezer D. Trickey, and Abner 
Hodgdon, as Trustees of this society. Rev. Charles Baker was the 
preacher in charge. Two years after, he went to Maine where he 
was for many years a popular preacher and presiding Elder. He 
died a few years since in Somerville, Mass., leaving two sons who 
are members of the Baltimore Conference. 

Rev. John E. Risky was pastor during the years 1827-28. The 
former year was not prosperous, being disturbed by the " come- 
outers " under the lead of the notorious " Abby Folsom," then a 
member of this church. The latter year, however, was one of 
great prosperity. More than fifty members were added, and a 
parsonage was built at a cost of .§400. 

In 1829-30 Rev. Sanu/el Norris was the preacher in charge, and 
organized the first Sunday School in connection with this society. 
Prior to this time, however, a Union Sunday School had been 
held in the village school-house. It is to be regretted that the 
Sunday School records for these and manv subsequent years are 
now lost. (See Appendix.) 



266 KOCHESTER. 

Mr. Forris was born in Dorchester, N. H., March 8, 1801. At 
the age of seventeen he joined tlie New England Conference, and 
was in active service as a minister for twenty-two years. He was 
dignified, gentlemanly, and fearless, commanding the esteem of 
friends and the respect of opponents. He was twice Delegate to 
the General Conference. On account of defective hearing he held 
a superannuated relation for forty years. His name appears on 
the general minutes for sixty-two years. He died in South New- 
market June 23, 1880. 

In 1831-82, Rev. Benjamin C. Eastman, better know^n as " Father 
Eastman," was the pastor. He was a man of great energy and 
devotion. His principal theme was Holiness, and it is believed 
that he had a greater influence for the spiritual improvement of 
the people than any preceding pastor. Mr. Eastman was born 
in Canterbury June 16, 1788. He joined the New England Con- 
ference in 1825. His first wife died in Rochester Oct. 5, 1832, 
and the following year he married Mary, sister of Rev. James 
Warren of Rochester. He was thirty-three years in the ministry, 
and died in triumph July 12, 1858. 

In 1833 -Rev. Leonard Bennett was pastor. A religious work of 
unusual interest was in progress. But the year closed unfavor- 
ably both to pastor and people. Mr. Bennett was born in Dublin, 
Ireland, June 16, 1786, landed in America June 16, 1807. In 
1841 he removed to Illinois, where he died in 1846, having been 
thirty-six years in the ministry. 

Rev. James G. Smith was warmly welcomed as his successor, 
remaining two years. In 1834 is the first mention of raising 
money for missions. His pastorate was successful. 

In 1836-37 Rev. Silas Green was the pastor. He was a good 
man, and an earnest and successful worker. Many excellent people 
were converted through his influence. He was born at Chichester 
Feb. 10, 1801, was baptized by Rev. Jotham Horton in 1823, 
spent forty-three years in the ministry, and died Nov. 10, 1874. 
His preaching was emphasized by a holy life. His native modesty 
and polished manners rendered him agreeable to all classes in 
society. 

Rev. Am.os II. Worthing was pastor for the next two years. 
Though struggling with poor health he labored faithfully and was 
highly esteemed by his people. In the financial exhibit for 1839 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 267 

we find the preacher's entire salary was $383. It was evidently 
with good reason that the Conference that year issued an address 
to the churches urging them to a more adequate support of the 
ministers. " What are dollars and cents when thrown in the 
balance against immortal interests?" 

In 1840-41 Bev. Elijah 3Iason was pastor. He was specially 
active in the cause of Temperance, holding temperance meetings 
in the school-houses. During his iirst year a vestry was built at 
a cost of 1400. 

Mr. Mason was born in Cavendish, Vt., in 1807, and died March, 
1868, having been thirty-seven years in the ministry. 

The next two years Bev. William D. Cass was the preacher in 
charge. He was a strong man. The Millerite excitement was 
very intense at this period in Rochester, and but for his fearless 
efforts the church would have been hopelessly divided. He was 
born in Bradford, Vt., April 2, 1797, joined the New England 
Conference in 1827, serving in the ministry forty years, eleven 
of which he was presiding Elder. He was a delegate to the Gen- 
eral Conference in 1844, at the time of the secession of the M. E. 
Church South, where he distinguished himself by his courage and 
zeal in debate in opposition to slavery. He had remarkable rea- 
soning powers, and could always speak sensibly and profitably for 
liberty, temperance, education, or the Christian religion. He died 
suddenly while working in the field. May 7, 1867. 

In 1844 Bev. Osmon C. Baker was appointed pastor, and did 
excellent work here. He was afterwards a Theological Professor 
in the Biblical Institute at Concord, and in 1852 was chosen 
Bishop. His eminent labors are too well known to need further 
mention here. 

Much to the disappointment of the people, Mr. Baker was not 
returned, but after a little time they rallied around the new pastor, 
Bei\ Henry Drew, who remained two years. The latter year the 
chapel was improved by the removal of the galleries and the 
addition of four pews with other general repairs at a cost of .^700. 

Bev. Samuel S. Matthews followed in 1847. His work was hin- 
dered by sickness ending in his death Sept. 6, in the thirty-second 
year of his age, after having been in the ministry only three 
years. Just before his death he said to a friend, "If my death 
can glorify God more than my life, Amen !" 



268 ROCHESTER. 

Rev. P. Wcdlingford of Claremont was acting pastor during the 
remainder of the year, and was followed in 1848 by Eev. Daniel 
31. Bogers who also supplied a part of the time at Milton Mills. 
This division of labor was an embarrassment to the work in both 
places. Two years later the name of Mr. Rogers disappears from 
the roll of Conference. 

In 1849 Rev. Silas Green returned and the year was one of pros- 
perity. 

In 1850-51 Rev. Joseph C. Cromack was appointed pastor. He 
gave special attention to the finances of the society with gratifying 
results. Religious interests were no less carefully attended to, and 
many of the present members were then added to the church. 
He reported after the close of his pastorate, 250 members, and 
43 probationers. His salary was ^450. 

The next two years were notable ones in the history of this 
<;hurch. Rev. Henry H. Hartwell was the pastor. He had week- 
day appointments at Barriugton, Strafford, Farmington, Union, 
Milton, and East Rochester. At most of these places he preached 
regularly once in two weeks, holding a class meeting after the 
preaching, besides preaching and lecturing occasionally in other 
places. He preached twice and often three times on the Sabbath, 
and never had such a thing as a vacation. After twenty years' 
work in New Hampshire he was transferred to the California 
Conference on account of a throat trouble which was the natural 
result of his unremitting labors. After four 3'ears in California 
xmd Nevada with no prospect of recovery, he returned to New 
Hampshire in 1867. His work in Rochester was characteristic of 
the man. The house of worship was enlarged by the addition of 
twenty pews. Up to this time the house had been externally very 
plain and unornamented. An extensive addition was now made 
to the front, surmounted by a tower, presenting a very attractive 
appearance. The cost of these improvements was greater than 
that of the original " Chapel " in 1825. An organ was also pur- 
chased at a cost of ^600. 

In the spring of 1854 the Annual Conference met here for the 
first time, Bishop Baker presiding. Rev. Sullivan Holman was 
appointed pastor. This year the benevolent contributions of this 
church included $100 for missions, and $1,000 for the Seminary 
at Tilton. The pastor's salary was $500. 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 269 

Mr. Holman was born in Hopkinton, N. H., June 13, 1820 ; began 
to preach at the age of twenty-one; joined the Conference in 1843; 
was chaplain of the IS". H. Legislature in 1858 ; chaplain of the 
K. H. State Prison in 1867, '68, '69; was six years member of 
the Kansas Conference ; returning to New Hampshire in 1877, 
was again appointed chaplain of the State Prison, which position 
he held till 1883. He has ably filled many of the best appoint- 
ments in the State. He is a man of much energy and Christian 
zeal. He served this society faithfully and was highly esteemed 
by the people. 

In 1855-56 Bev. Henry Hill was pastor. ' He was an incessant 
worker. Much sickness and many deaths greatly increased his 
labors. His pastorate was highly successful, many being added 
to the church. Through his efforts $500 was raised which freed 
the society from debt. 

Mr. Hill was born in Claremont, X. H., Feb. 13, 1819. He 
was forty-five years in the work of the ministry, filling many 
prominent appointments. He was one of the first to offer his 
services to the nation in the late war, v/as appointed chaplain of 
the Third X. H. Regiment, and had part in thirty-three battles. 
In 1869 he went West, and was for three years pastor of Simp- 
sou M. E. Church in Chicago. He was a man of great mental 
endowments, thorough culture, and rare Christian attainments. 
He died in Chicago, 111., Sept. 1, 1885. 

The pastorate of Rev. George S. Dearborn, covering the years 
1857-58, was very successful. He was a strong man of excellent 
ability, and a strict disciplinarian, correcting some evils which 
had crept into the society, and left it peaceful and prosperous. 
He was one of the pioneers of Methodism in Kansas, taking high 
rank in church matters. 

His successor here was the Rev. William Hewes, who was pastor 
in 1859-60. He was an able preacher constantly drawing large 
audiences. He is now residing in Lawrence, Mass. His grand- 
father, Joseph Hewes of jSTorth Carolina, was one of the signers 
of the Declaration of Independence. 

Rev. John Lacis TVefren was pastor in 1861-62. Xear the be- 
ginning of his ministry here, a remarkable re%nval occurred and 
many members were added. During his pastorate the old par- 
sonage was sold and removed to Union street, and a new one 



270 ROCHESTER. 

built at a cost of $3,000. In 1862 Mr. Trefren spent six weeks 
with the New Hampshire soldiers in Virginia, as a member of the 
•Christian Commission. After the war he went to the California 
Conference of which he is still a member. 

He was followed by Rev. Calvin Holman in 1863-64. In many 
respects these were years of hardship and sorrow. Sunday services 
in memory of the soldier dead were frequent. Tears of anguish 
testified to the devoted loyalty with which many parents had 
sacrificed their loved ones on the altar of their country. 

Mr. Holman was brother of Rev. Sullivan Holman alread}^ men- 
tioned, and was born' in Hopkinton, N. H., July 7, 1823; joined 
the Conference in 1846 ; was presiding Elder of the Dover district 
for four years beginning in 1859. In 1866 he removed to South 
Carolina and became presiding Elder of the Florida district. In 
1872 he joined the Kansas Conference which he represented in 
the General Conference in 1876. He resides in Topeka, Kan. 

In 1865-66 Rev. Elijah Wilkins was pastor. The society at this 
time began to agitate the question of " rebuilding the house of the 
Lord." Mr. Wilkins showed much skill in managing the pre- 
paratory steps, securing from the pew-holders the legal settlement 
necessary for removing the old " Chapel." He was an excellent 
pastor, especially sympathizing in sorrow. He is now chaplain 
of the New Hampshire State Prison. 

He was followed in 1867 by Rev. Frank K. Siratton, under whose 
auspices the new house was built, Nathaniel Burnham and John Hall 
being joined with the pastor as building committee. In the mean- 
time the society held its meetings in the Town Hall. The corner- 
stone of the new edifice was laid Aug. 1, 1867, in the presence 
of not less than five thousand persons. The religious services 
were conducted by Rev. James Pike, presiding Elder, according to 
the ritual of the M. E. Church. Masonic ceremonies were per- 
formed by the Grand Lodge of New Hampshire, M. W. John H. 
Rowell of Franklin, Grand Master. The box of documents was 
deposited by John McHuifee, Esq., who was an oflicer of the 
Lodge and had assisted in laying the old corner-stone in 1825. 
An address was given by Governor Harriman, of which no report 
has been preserved, though it is remembered as in every way 
admirable. In the evening a grand festival was given by the 
Methodist Society in the new building of the Messrs. Wallace, 



MODERN CHURCH UISTORY. 271 

eight hundred persons being present. The new house was 
dedicated March 26, 1868. The sermon was by Rev. J. M. 
Chapman. During the evening there was a reunion of former 
pastors and friends. In addition to the other literary exercises, 
the venerable Samuel jS'orris wlio had been pastor here in 1829 
and 1830, read a versified " Tribute to the Memory of the departed 
Heroes of Methodism, both Ministers and Laymen in Rochester." 
(See Appendix.) 

In 1868 Rev. Lewis P. Cashman came and remained three years. 
In 1869 the parsonage funds of the town were divided to the 
several parishes, this society receiving $864.29. During this pas- 
torate the several churches united in a series of revival meetings 
conducted by Henry F. Durant, which resulted in many conver- 
sions. Mr. Cushman was an able and faithful minister and left 
the society in harmony and prosperity. He is now laboring among 
the colored people of the South. 

After an interval of seventeen years the Annual Conference 
met with this society in April, 1871. Rev. Daniel J. Smith was 
pastor for the next three years. His pastorate was a grand suc- 
cess. During the autumn of 1873, Rev. C. J. Fowler labored 
with the churches here with excellent results. 

From 1874 to 1876 Rev. Silas G. Kellogg was stationed here. 
His work was fearlessly and conscientiously performed. His 
sermons were able and scholarly, drawing large and intelligent 
audiences. He left as warm friends here as he has outside the 
heavenly gates. He has been in the ministry thirty-six years. 

Rev. Moses T. Cille)/, who was pastor in 1877-78, was one of 
the most diligent of men, always at work. He cleared up the 
last remnant of indebtedness on the meeting-house, some §2,000, 
and did excellent work for the spiritual welfare of his people. 
He joined the Conference in 1861. 

Rev. Jesse M. Durrell became pastor in 1879 and remained three 
years. He w\as very popular. Pie excelled in Sunday School 
work, securing great interest, and the largest attendance for man}- 
years. His pastorate was eminently successful. 

Rev. William Eakins was appointed in 1882-83. Being a man 
of broad culture and superior gifts, his labors strengthened and 
built up the church to a remarkable degree. He is now in the 
!N"ewark Conference, Xew Jersey. 



272 KOCHESTBR. 

In 1884-85 the church was favored with the ministry of Bev. 
E. C. Bass, D. Z)., whose work was faithfully and lovingly per- 
formed. His pulpit ministrations were of the very highest order, 
and much appreciated in the community. At the close of his 
lahors here, a local paper voluntarily gave the following tribute : 
" Dr. Bass by his genial Christian deportment, scholarly attain- 
ments, and ability as a preacher, has commanded the respect of 
all classes. Should he at any time get tired of the Methodists 
we know we can say in behalf of the Congregationalists of Roch- 
ester, that he would find a home and warm welcome should he 
knock at their doors." 

During this pastorate about $1,600 was expended in repairs on 
the church edifice, and the necessary funds were raised to purchase 
a piano for the vestr}'. But its most striking feature was the 
unusual mortality among the members of the society. Twenty 
died whose ages averaged more than 73 years, sixteen averaging 
above 78, and only four were less than 70. Most of them had 
been members of the church for more than half a century. 
Although these two years left the society numerically weaker, yet 
we trust those who remain are stronger in Christian character 
because of the faithful ministrations of Dr. Bass. 

In the spring of 1886 Dr. Bass was transferred to Gardiner, 
Me., and in return the Bev. Charles W. Bradlee came from Augusta, 
Me., to Rochester. In July following the church organ was 
removed from the gallery to a level with the pulpit platform 
which was lowered about one third, and the old pulpit replaced 
by a neat cherry desk. By the will of Miss Martha Robinson, 
the society received a valuable bequest which was in part expended 
in improvements on the church edifice. Mr. Bradlee took great 
interest in these improvements, and the next year the gallery at 
the rear of the audience was removed, the angles of the ceiling 
were arched to improve the acoustic efl:'ect, the walls were refres- 
coed, and a new carpet provided. Several new pews and nine 
memorial windows were put in. The names commemorated are : — 
Dorothy Jenness, James C. Cole, Simon Chase, Albert C. Manson, 
Charles Dennett, Martha Robinson, Sophronia E. Bradley, 
Elizabeth Waldron, and Mary Esther Tebbetts. The house was 
rededicated on Thursday, November 17, 1887. The "Rochester 
Courier " says : — 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 273 

" At 2.30 o'clock a good-sized audience listened to a masterly sermon from 
Rev. Dr. Richards of Lawrence on the words ' Show us thy glory.' Following 
the sermon came the ritualisiic service of dedication, conducted by Rev. C. U. 
Dunning, P. E. 

" The visitors and families which entertained them then repaired to the vestry 
where a bountiful supper was provided, after which there was a most delightful 
' feast of reason and flow of soul.' Rev. Mr. Durrell presided, and speeches were 
made by Revs. H. Hartwell, M. Howard, J. B. Davis, G. A. Mills, I. Luce, J. 
Cairns, M. A. Richards, and Mrs. J. M. Durrell. Letters were read from a 
number of ex-pastors. 

"In the evening at 7.30, to a full house, Rev. J. M. Durrell (a former beloved 
pastor) preached a scholarly and inspiring sermon from ' The just shall live by 
faith.' Quite a number of the visiting brethren took part in the services, and 
the singing of a large chorus choir led by Mr. Arthur Osgood added much to 
the interest of the occasion." 

This society has furnished ten ministers to the M. E. Church, 
as follows : — 

James Warren was born in Lebanon, Me., March 13, 1802. 
His early life was spent in Rochester, where he was converted 
and joined the church. His life as a preacher began in the old 
Xorthfield circuit, where he was widely known and respected. He 
was one of the pioneers of the Maine Conference, an earnest co- 
laborer with the heroes of Methodism in early times. He acquired 
a wonderful familiarity with the Scriptures and the sacred songs 
of the Wesleys, so that his sermons and exhortations had the solid 
foundation of God's "Word, and his songs of triumphant joy were 
only excelled by those he now sings in heaven. After his active 
life was over, he returned to Rochester, where he died Feb. 5, 1880. 

Eben D. Trickey, who with his faithful wife was a member of 
this society, began preaching in 1830, and spent sixteen years in 
the itinerant work within the bounds of the xTew Hampshire and 
Providence Conferences. He resided for a time in Brewerton, 
X. Y., and afterwards went to California, where he died. 

Elihu H. Legro was licensed as a local preacher in 1853, sup- 
plying various appointments until JSTovember, 1861, when he entered 
the service of his country in Co. D, Sixth N. H. Regiment. He 
died in Washington, D. C, Jan. 1, 1863. 

Ira J. Tebbetts was a native of Dover, but lived in Rochester 
from early boyhood, and joined the K H. Conference in 1871. 
He is a faithful, earnest preacher, and is now stationed at North 
Salem, i^. H. 

19 



274 ROCHESTER. 

David W. Downs received his license during the pastorate of 
Rev. G. S. Dearborn in 1858. He served in the Second Massa- 
chusetts Cavahy during the war, and joined the N. H. Conference 
in 1869, and is now stationed at Newmarket. 

Edwin S. Chase, youngest son of the late William Chase of 
Rochester, began preaching in Chester, N". H., in 1862, remained 
several years in Massachusetts, then went to the Southern Cali- 
fornia Conference, where he has ministered to some of the largest 
churches on the Pacific coast. 

Eben C. Berry licensed in 1869, joined the Conference in 1876. 
In 1885 he was transferred to the Iowa Conference. 

James Cairns was a native of Scotland, came to America about 
1865, licensed by Elder Jasper while Rev. D. J. Smith was pastor 
here, joined the Conference in 1875, and is now stationed at 
Suncook. 

Henry E. Allen has been in the ministry since 1884, and is 
stationed at Milton Mills for the third year. 

George S. Wentworth also joined the Conference in 1875. 

Among the local preachers who have lived and died here was 
Abraham Richards, who was ordained about 1825. 

East Rochester Methodist Church. * 

There were Methodist people residing in East Rochester before 
the village, mills, shops, or railroad had been built. And it is 
difficult, if not impossible, to determine when or by whom the 
first Methodist sermon was preached in this place. Abraham 
Richards, mentioned above, was an ordained local preacher residing 
here before 1825. From 1840 to 1855 there were living in Leb- 
anon and Berwick, Me., and in Rochester, within a few miles of 
East Rochester, five local preachers, Abraham Richards, Lewis 
Tibbetts, Charles Tibbetts, Lewis Wentworth, and Thomas Fall. 
These ministers occasional!}' preached, held prayer and class 
meetings in school-houses and private dwellings, and sometimes 



* Condensed from a sketch by Rev. J. W. Presby. 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 275 

conducted a Sunday School either at the East Rochester or Adams 
Corner school-house. 

In 1853 Rev. H. H. Hartwell came occasionally from Rochester 
Village to hold services at East Rochester. From this time the 
Methodist pastors at Norway Plains frequently held meetings 
here. In June, 1854, Rev. Sullivan Holman haptized four persons, 
two of whom are still worthy members of the Free Will Baptist 
Church. Others were baptized by Mr. Holman and his succes- 
sors, some of whom are now members of the M, E. Church. 
Having no regular services of their own, the Methodist people 
residing here were in the habit of attending services at the Free 
Will Baptist Church, which had been built about 1865. But they 
could not long remain satisfied without the enjoyment of that 
peculiar means of grace, which has been so abundantly blessed, 
the Methodist class-meeting. Accordingly a class was formed in 
1867, with John Hall for leader. Two years later, A. D. Faunce 
became leader. About 1870, thinking they could thus accomplish 
more for the glory of God, the Methodists began to hold Sunday 
evening meetings by themselves. Through the divine blessing 
their little company gradually increased until April, 1871, w^hen 
the services of Joseph Doicns, a local preacher living at Pine Hill, 
Berwick, Me., were secured, and regular preaching and a Sunday 
School were commenced in Washington Hall. April 8, 1872, Bev. 
A. A. Cleveland was appointed to East Rochester by Bishop James. 
The first Quarterly Conference was held June 28, 1872, at the 
house of A. D. Faunce, Rev. 0. H. Jasper, D. I)., being the pre- 
siding Elder. It was voted to make East Rochester " a separate 
and distinct station or pastoral charge," and the church was organ- 
ized with the following members: — John Hall, Mary Hall, Aaron 
D. Faunce, Emily J. Faunce, Orin I. Richards, Eliza Richards, 
James Copeland, Hilda R. Copeland, John W. Dame, Samuel 
Driver, Addie M. Cleveland, Eliza Xoyes, Lupira M. Eaton, Eliza 
A. Varney, Mary Tibbetts, Rachel R. Wakefield. Several more 
united within a few months. Sidney B. Hayes was elected treas- 
urer at this conference, and has held the office to the present 
time. 

In Xovember, 1872, special revival services were conducted by 
the pastor, assisted by Revs, L. P. Cushman of Lawrence, Mass., 
and Hugh Montgomery of Seabrook. Al)out one hundred were 



276 ROCHESTER. 

converted, some of whom are still among the most faithful and 
efficient members of this church. Others are accomplishing good 
in other parts of the Lord's vineyard, and one. Rev. F. H, Corson, 
is a member of the New Hampshire Conference. 

Through the jealous opposition of enemies, the church was forced 
to abandon their place of worship in Washington Hall, in Feb- 
ruary, 1873. One week later it was unanimously voted to build 
a house of worship, and $1,380 was subscribed on the spot. On 
this occasion, as well as others, Bro. Hall's enthusiasm and lib- 
erality were an inspiration to others. E. W. Tibbetts, John Hall, 
and Orin I. Richards were chosen building committee. For over 
three months the Sunday School was kept together and meetings 
sustained at private houses. March 5, 1873, a lot of land cen- 
trally located on Main street, was bought of A. D. Gerrish for 
$250, and as early as possible in the spring the foundations were 
laid. The work was pushed vigorously, so that the building was 
dedicated June 5, 1873. The presiding Elder, Rev. 0. H. Jasper, 
D. D., preached the sermon. In the evening, after a sermon by 
Rev. L. P. Cushman, the first Quarterly Conference was held in 
the new house. The total cost, including the land and the fur- 
nishing, was $3,543. At the Quarterly Conference in January, 
1874, it appeared that there was a debt of $1,166.81, of which 
$346 was provided for by reliable subscriptions, leaving $820.81, 
of which John Hall ofiered to assume $500, if the church would 
pay the balance, and within one year the whole was paid. 

In 1883 a subscription was raised for building a parsonage, and 
J. D. Fogg, S. B. Hayes, and L. D. Smith were appointed building 
committee. The house was built beside the church, on the same 
lot, and was completed in July, 1884. The total cost was $960. 

The list of pastors, with dates of appointment, is as follows : — 
A. A. Cleveland, April, 1872; A. W. Bunker, April, 1874, now in 
California; J. Thurston, April, 1876, resides in Dover, on super- 
annuated list ; A. A. Caswell, April, 1877, died at Chichester June 
18, 1881; W. C. Bartlett, April, 1878, now at Hampton; H. H. 
French, April, 1881, now at Haverhill, Mass. In 1884 the church 
was supplied by Prof. Bich of Great Falls, L. L. Eastman of 
Methuen, Mass., and C. A. Littlcjicld, now at Cliftondale, Mass. 
Bev. J. W. Presby came in April, 1885, removed to Kansas in 
June, 1886, and is now in Connecticut. After Mr. Presby left, 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 277 

Rei\ W. H. H. McAllister of Old Orchard, Me., and others, supplied 
till the last of October, when A. L. Chase, a student in the Theo- 
logical School of Boston Universit}', took charge, and served as 
pastor till April, 1887. During his stay the debt on the parsonage 
was paid, and the spiritual and social condition of the church 
was much improved. F. I. Wheat, another student from Boston 
Universit}', took charge in April, 1887, and during the conference 
year now closing (April 1, 1888), the spiritual and financial 
condition of the church has been well sustained. There have 
been full congregations on the Sabbath, the evening prayer and 
class meetings have been well attended and full of interest, and 
the Sunday School has increased. A new furnace has been placed 
in the church, and other repairs have been made, and all paid for. 

An important auxiliary to this church is the Ladies' Social Circle, 
organized Oct. 18, 1882. They have raised about $300, which 
has been expended on the parsonage and furnishing, and have 
some $650 in their treasury, $500 of which was presented by 
Frederick H. Rindge of Oloverdale, Cal., the largest stockholder 
of the Cocheco Woolen Manufacturing Compan}^ at East Rochester. 
It is intended to use this money for remodeling the church at an 
early date. 

The membership of this church has been small, and composed 
mostly of those who earn their living by daily labor. The present 
membership is sixty-seven, with a Sunday School of one hundred 
and three. 

This church has earned a reputation for liberality, promptness, 
and reliability in financial matters which might well be emulated 
by some of our large and more pretentious churches. With the 
exception of one year, there has never been a deficit in the 
preacher's claim, and several times the pastor has received con- 
siderable more than his claim. The first year of its existence 
this church contributed $43 for the missionary cause. 

This church is a child of Providence, and the hand of God has 
been plainly visible in its history from the first. Under the same 
guiding hand an unlimited career of usefulness and prosperity 
seems opening before it. 



278 rochester. 

First Free "Will Baptist Church. 

One result of an extensive revival of religion in this town was 
the formation of the First Free Will Baptist Church of Eochester, 
April 15, 1829, under the leadership of Rev. James J. Wentworth. 
The following is the covenant with a list of the seventeen original 
members who adopted it : — 

" We do now declare that we have given ourselves to God; and do now agree 
to give ourselves to each other in love and fellowship, and do also agree to take 
the Scriptures of truth for the rule of our faith and practice, respecting our 
duty toward God, our neighbors, and ourselves. 

" We do promise to practice all the commands in the New Testament of our 
Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, to bear each other's burdens and so fulfill the law 
of love, which is the law of Christ. We do further agree to give liberty for 
the improvement of the gifts in the church, both male and female, and to keep 
up the worship of God, and not to forsake the assembling of ourselves together, 
as the manner of some is. We do likewise further agree not to receive any 
person into fellowship except they give a satisfactory evidence of a change in 
life and heart, and promise to submit to the order of the gospel as above. 
Amen. 

" Jesse Meader, John York, John York, Jr., Benj. Page, Jr., Joseph Page, Jasper 
York, Meshach Robinson, Sarah W. Meader, Hannah D. York, Maria J. York, 
Kezia Foss, Drusilla Pickering, Matilda Pickering, Rebecca York, Sarah Hodg- 
don, Kezia Jenness, Sarah Robinson." 

During the year 1829 the membership was nearly doubled, and 
continued prosperity with frequent additions marked the history 
of this church for a long period. Regular monthly conferences 
were held for some years at the house of Mrs. Bickford, one of 
the members. 

Rev. J. J. Wentworth continued his labors till September, 1832, 
when Hev. Jesse Meader, one of the original members, was chosen 
pastor. March 6, 1833, it was voted to hold the conferences half 
of the time at Bro. John York's, in another part of the town. 

In December, 1838, the brethren and sisters of this faith from 
different parts of the town, having met to consider the question 
of organizing a new church, unanimously agreed to join this church, 
and that it should consist of several branches, each branch having 
the privilege of holding meetings as they shall think proper, and 
that they should hold a quarterly union conference at the Court 
House. 

In 1840 a house of worship was built at Gonic Village, at a 
cost of about $2,000, and the conference was held there in Jan- 
uary, 1841. The church was fairly prosperous under Mr. Meader's 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 279 

ministry, which closed with the year 1841. In the following spring 
Hev. David Sweti became pastor. During his pastorate of two years 
a powerful revival extended over nearly the whole town, as a 
result of which about sixty united with this church. 

In April, 1844, JRev. Aaron Aycr began a successful pastorate 
of two years. During this time the church took decided action 
in relation to temperance, in the following votes : — 

" Dec. 5, 1844. Voted not to receive any person as a church member who 
shall make use of distilled liquors or wines as a beverage. 

"Also Resolved that it is improper for church members to make use of Cider 
as a beverage." 

Rev. Stephen Hutchinson became pastor in the spring of 1846. 
He was an excellent man universally respected, but his feeble 
health compelled him to resign in the middle of his second year 
of service. 

Bev. George W. Whitney came in December, 1848, and remained 
pastor for five years, which was a season of prosperity to the 
church. Mr. Whitney was an able preacher and was highly ap- 
preciated by the people. 

The next pastor was Rev. Tobias Foss, who began his labors in 
the fall of 1853 and remained two years. Mr. Foss was thoroughly 
faithful and conscientious, but his decided and outspoken anti- 
slavery views gave ofience to some. His labors on the whole 
were successful, bringing nearly twenty new members into the 
church. 

For the next three years the church had no regular pastor, but 
was supplied by Revs. J. Meader, D. Swett, and others. In 
1857 the meeting-house was repaired and refitted at an expense 
of several hundred dollars. 

In 1858 Mr. Harvey Brewer began a two years' service of preach- 
ing with this church. May 12, 1859, he was ordained with the 
following services: — Reading Scriptures, and Sermon, Rev. J. M. 
Durgin; Ordaining Prayer, Rev. E. Place; Charge, Rev, M. A. 
Quimby ; Right Hand of Fellowship, Rev. S. Cotfin ; Address to 
People, Rev.^ C. E. Blake. 

In May, 1861, Bev. J. R. Cook was engaged as pastor of this 
church, and died in service July 1, 1862. Mr. Cook was an 
excellent man, successful in his labors, and universally respected. 



280 ROCHESTER. 

In March, 1863, Eev. Wm. T. Smith became pastor and remained 
three years. During this period occurred a very gracious revival, 
and fifty-seven were added to the church. 

Rev. George J. Abbot succeeded Mr. Smith in the spring of 1866. 
Mr. Abbot was a faithful and judicious laborer, and during his 
four years of service twenty-three united with the church. In 
1869 this church received ^524.80 from the division of the par- 
sonage fund. 

Rev. G. W. Wallace was next employed for four months, and 
Rev. Ezekiel True for the rest of the year. There was quite a 
revival in the " Jenness neighborhood," and several joined the 
church. In February, 1871, Mr. True left and established a 
meeting in Rochester Village, where he remained till his death. 

Rev. G. S. Hill was pastor for the next four years, beginning 
in the spring of 1871. During these years several were added 
to the church. In 1872, largely through the eiforts of Mr. Hill, 
the church building was remodeled and enlarged at a cost of about 
$5,500, leaving the society some $3,000 in debt. 

In the spring of 1875 Rev. A. P. Tracy became pastor and 
remained till the fall of 1877. He was an able and faithful 
preacher. Several were added to the church, and largely through 
his efforts about one half the debt was paid. 

In October, 1877, Rev. A. L. Morey began a pastorate of two 
years. He was a hard-working, energetic man. A revival occurred 
through which ten united with the church. 

In the fall of 1879 Mr. W. W. Brown was employed, and in 
August, 1880, he was ordained by a Council from the New Durham 
Quarterly Meeting. Mr. Brown continued here till Februarj", 
1882. 

March, 1882, Rev. W. S. Packard was settled as pastor and 
remained three years. In 1884 a revival added several to the 
church. Mr. Packard succeeded in raising a subscription by which 
the balance of the debt was paid and the church building was 
painted and frescoed. The society was thus placed in good financial 
condition, with a neat, pretty church all paid for. 

In March, 1885, the present pastor, Rev. L. Given, began his 
ministry here. Some additions have been made, and the church 
enjoys a fair degree of prosperity. 



moder^• church history. 281 

Walnut Grove Free Will Baptist Church. 

This church grew out of a Sabbath School which was organized 
through the efforts of Miss Alsaida Ra}- in June, 1861. Levi W. 
Allen was superintendent ; George Tebbetts, librarian ; and Samuel 
Meserve and wife, teachers. The school grew and prospered till 
in January, 1863, they secured the services of Her. Harrey Breioer 
as preacher. During the succeeding fall and winter a re\'ival 
occurred, and on May 1, 1864, the following persons were bap- 
tized: — Levi W. Allen, Ellen Bean, Ellen Brewer, Elizabeth C. 
Hanson, Frank P. Meserve, Mary C. Mills, Wesley B. Mills, Hattie 
Roberts, Amanda Tebbetts, George Tebbetts, Sarah Tebbetts, 
Charles Thurston, Abbie A. Wingate, and Francis E. Wingate. 
A committee from the New Durham Quarterly Meeting, consisting 
of the Revs. Ezekiel True, Enoch Place, and J. H. Brown, organ- 
ized these fourteen persons into a church June 29, 1864. August 
6, Elizabeth A. Allen, Sarah A. Allen, Samuel R. Hanson, Sarah 
Locke, Mary Meserve, Samuel Meserve, Benjamin Mills, Sarah 
Mills, Eliza Roberts, Deborah R. Wentworth, and Samuel jST. 
Wingate were received by letter. Benjamin Mills and Samuel 
^leserve were chosen deacons; Samuel N. Wingate, treasurer, and 
Samuel R. Hanson, clerk. 

Rev. Harvey Breioer remained pastor till 1865, when he resigned, 
and Rev. Isaac Pinkham took his place, remaining about a year 
and a half. In October, 1866, Rev. David B. Coivell became pastor 
for one year. Up to this period they had used the school-house 
as a place of worship. In the fall of 1867 a chapel containing 
eighteen pews was built at a cost of $1,500. This house was 
dedicated Feb. 27, 1868. Rev. Mr. Snow of East Rochester 
preached the sermon, Revs. Marsh and Abbot of Rochester, Rev. 
A. Lovejoy of Great Falls, and Revs. Smith and Pinkham ot 
South Berwick participated in the services. The next year, 1869, 
this church received 8101.57 from the division of the parsonage 
fund. 

For the next four years the church remained without a pastor, 
being supplied by different ministers. January 1, 1872, Rev. 
Plummer Chesley was chosen pastor and remained for seven years. 
After Mr. Chesley's resignation the following pastors served about 
one year each : — Rev. W. H. Ward, Rev. E. P. Moidton, Rev. 
Ezekiel True, Rev. Harvey Brewer, and Rev. F. H. Peckharn. 



282 ROCHESTER. 

In April, 1885, Rev. G. N. Musgrove became pastor, and remained 
till October, 1887. During his ministry a revival interest prevailed, 
and fifteen were added to the church. In 1885 Amasa Allen was 
chosen deacon. Some additions have been made in almost every 
pastorate since the beginning, and the church numbers about fifty 
at the present time. 

Free "Will Baptist Church of East Rochester. 

In 1864 Rev. Bial Hobhs began preaching in the school-house 
at East Rochester. The congregation increased till a house of 
worship became a necessity. In August, 1865, land was bought, 
and a building was erected during the following year at a cost of 
about $6,000. A Free Will Baptist Society had been holding 
meetings for several years in a school-house at Blaisdell's Corner 
in Lebanon, Me. They now disbanded to unite with those of 
like faith in East Rochester, and on ]^ov. 22, 1866, was organized 
the " East Rochester and Lebanon Free Will Baptist Society.^' October 
1, Rev. Isaac Hyatt was called as pastor and remained one year. 
In April, 1868, he was followed by Rev. Plummer Chesley, who 
resigned after a little more than a year. In 1869 this church 
received §107.01 from the division of the parsonage fund. Rev. 
A. Lovejoy served as pastor for the next three years. In 1872 
Rev. Thomas Keniston began a pastorate of some over two years. 
Rev. George W. Hill was pastor from 1875 till 1878, in which year 
Rev. Ezekiel True supplied the pulpit. In April, 1879, Rev. W. H. 
Ward became pastor. During his ministry the church building was 
repaired and a fine-toned bell placed in its tower. The next pastor 
was Rev. George W. Pierce, who began in April, 1881, and remained 
two years. Rev. R. McDonald came in the spring of 1883, and 
after one year was followed by Rev. B. F. Durgin. Rev. G. N. 
Musgrove was called in the spring of 1885, and remained pastor 
till August, 1887, since which time there has been no regular 
pastor. 

One of the founders of this church, and during his life-time its 
most liberal supporter, was Deacon Stephen Shorey. He was always 
deeply interested in the welfare of the village and did much to 
advance its interests and promote its growth. He died Sept. 15, 
1879. 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 28B 

Deacon Briant Peavei/, cue of the principal benefactors of this 
church, lived on the Lebanon side of the river in the settlement 
known as Peaveyville. He presented an organ to the church and 
built a parsonage which his widow presented to the society in 
accordance with his expressed intentions. He died July 22, 1886. 

Rochester Village Free Will Baptist Church. * 

The growth and pfosperity of the Rochester Village Free Will 
Baptist Society has been phenomenal. Its founders had neither 
silver nor gold in abundance, but they had intelligence, integrity, 
and Christian enterprise. Few in number, they were nevertheless 
powerful in being united, and in comprehending the duties and 
responsibilities they owed to the church they were founding for 
the service of God. There are very few brighter or more prac- 
tical exhibitions of self-denying devotion to a holy cause than are 
found in the organization and support of this church. 

The seed of this church was planted in 1870, and watered by 
the tears and sustained by the prayers of the faithful few, it ger- 
minated during the winter's frosts and took deep root in the early 
spring. One winter evening five persons met at a private house 
and talked and prayed over the project of organizing a society to 
represent the faith of Randall. The matter was thoroughly dis- 
cussed at frequent prayer-meetings held with increasing attendance 
at the house of Rev. George W. Whitne}-, then eighty years of 
age. He entered heart and soul into the work, and let no oppor- 
tunity pass without saying a word for the cause. 

Rev. A. Lovejoy, then of East Rochester, preached two Sundays 
in the Town Hall, to a handful of believers. This strengthened 
the little band and encouraged one of the number to write to 
jRev. Ezekiel True, then pastor at Saco, Me. Mr. True came to 
Rochester, saw the land that it was a goodly heritage, and returning 
to Saco resigned his pastorate with a good salar}^ in that city, for 
the purpose of uniting here with a people who could pay but a 
meager sum. At the dwelling of Mrs. F. C. Hayes twenty-seven 
persons met informally to welcome and confer with Mr. True. 
Twelve of these were eligible to church membership, besides a few 
who could soon obtain letters from churches elsewhere. I^early 
all present signified their wish to become members of the society. 



*The following sketch was substantially prepared by Hon. C. W. Folsom. 



284 ROCHESTER. 

April 2, 1871, Mr. True held his first meeting at Wentworth 
Hall, which had been engaged, but for no specified period. The 
" Rochester Courier," which had been very friendly to the project 
from its inception, had the following "local" in its next issue: — 

" The Free Will Baptists held their first meeting on Sunday, and the attend- 
ance and interest shown was all that could be reasonably expected. The hall 
was rather more than half full in the forenoon, and in the afternoon was well 
filled by an attentive audience who listened to the word preached with power. 
The singing was by the congregation, good old fashioned tunes and hymns being 
in vogue. In the evening about eighty persons were present, twenty-five at 
least of whom took part, exhortations and prayers following each other in quick 
succession. Our friends were very successful in their first Sunday's exercises." 

On the first of May, Ezekiel True, Larkin B. Moulton, Eben 
S. Dj'er, Gershom D. Plumer, Amos Tufts, Lewis A. Chesley, 
George W. Hurd, and Charles E. Varney signed articles of agree- 
ment assuming the corporate name of " The Rochester Village Free 
Will Baptist Society." Legal notice having been published, the 
society was thus enabled to transact business as a corporated body. 

Meetings were well attended during the summer, and on Tuesday, 
Oct. 31, 1871, a church was organized with a membership of 
sixteen persons. In a few weeks several more were added by 
baptism and letter. The original members were as follows : — 
Ezekiel True, George W. Whitney, Sylvia M. True, Angelina H. 
Whitney, James T. ISTichols, Charles E. Yarney, Daniel McDufiee, 
Lydia S. McDufiee, Ezekiel Ricker, Lorinda Ricker, Eben S. Dyer, 
Maria E. Dyer, Francis C. Hayes, Mary Johnson, Larkin B. 
Moulton, Eveline Moulton. Of this number, seven have crossed 
the valley of death, two have been transferred to another church, 
and seven still remain members here. 

The society worshiped in Wentworth Hall about a year, and 
then went to McDuffee Hall for Sunday services, holding their 
prayer-meetings in Hook-and-Ladder Hall. 

Rev. Ezekiel True retired from the pastorate after three years' 
eflicient service, and May 1, 1874, Rev. E. C. Cook of Steep Falls, 
Me., was settled and remained here till April, 1877. 

The church and society had been steadily gaining, and felt 
deeply the necessity of owning a place of worship for themselves. 
A committee was appointed to see what could be done. After 
overcoming many obstacles with much labor, they purchased of 
the Eastern Railroad Company a lot of land on Hanson street for 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 285 

§1,400. Oil this lot a plain white building for a vestry was com- 
pleted in October following. The entire cost of the building and 
its furnishing was a fraction less than §1,100. It was dedicated 
on Thursday, Nov. 12, 1874, Rev. E. True preaching the sermon. 
The pastor, Rev. E. C. Cook, together with the venerable George 
W. AVhitney, Rev. Mr. Tracy of Gonic, and Rev. H. M. Stone, 
pastor of the Congregational Church, also took part in the services. 

Rev. B. A. Sherwood of Richmond, Me., succeeded Mr. Cook July 
1, 1877, and continued his pastorate till September, 1878. Mr. 
Sherwood made great exertions to build a church, and at one 
time had four thousand dollars pledged for that purpose, but the 
undertaking proved too large for so small a society. Debts had 
been gradually increasing till the vestry and lot had to be sold, 
and the society found itself without property and §200 in debt. 

In October Mr. True again took the helm as pastor, and Chase's 
Hall was hired as a place of worship. Greater eftbrts were made 
and a season of prosperity followed. Mr. True was desirous that 
a younger man should take up the work, and introduced Her. E. 
P. 31oidton, who began here in October, 1879. Mr. True did not 
abate his interest, but with the new pastor and the church acting 
in perfect harmony, continued to labor with unselfish devotion, 
unflinching courage, and untiring energy. During the next four 
years the old debt was paid, a lot at the corner of Liberty and 
Charles streets purchased for §1,435, and a very handsome church 
built at a cost of §7,346.51. It is a matter of wonder that so 
beautiful and commodious a church could be built for so small a 
sum. The church debt was less than §1,500. The dedication 
took place Jan. 23, 1884, Rev. C. A. Bickford of Dover preaching 
the sermon. Rev. Messrs. Wood, Quimby, Moulton, Eakins, of 
the Methodist Church, and Kimball of the Congregational Church 
took part in the services. Rev. E. True, to whose eflbrts so 
much was due, had been suddenly called to his heavenly home, 
Feb. 18, 1883. Very appropriately the front of the l)uilding bears 
the clear cut inscription, " True Memorial Church,"' thus perpet- 
uating the memory of him who was faithful even unto death. 

June 1, 1885, Mr. Moulton resigned to take charge of a strug- 
gling church at Pittsfield. He was at once succeeded by Hev. 
J. B. Dads of Meredith, the present pastor. The church mem- 
bership has been of a steady and sure growth, and now (1887) 



286 ROCHESTER. 

numbers one hundred and tliirt}-. The Sunday School, which in 
its beginning consisted of four teachers and twenty scholars, had, 
in 1886, a membership of 264, with an average attendance of 155. 
It has been steadily increasing since then, and an attendance of 
over 200 is frequent. The ladies of this church have been efficient 
and untiring workers in the cause of the Master, and have ren- 
dered valuable service in upbuilding the church and sustaining 
its worship. The present condition of the church is prosperous, 
and the outlook hopeful. 

Universalists. 

It was more than fort}' j^ears after the introduction of Univers- 
alism into this country before it gained any considerable foothold 
in Rochester. The first record is the following notice : — 

" Be it known that on the twenty-seventh day of March, 1841, Benj° Hayes, 
Silas Wentworth, and others, their associates agreed to form themselves into a 
religious Society to be known by the name of the First Universalist Society of 
Rochester, and have organized said society as the Statute of the State in the 
case provides. William Jackson, Clerk." 

A constitution was adopted and signed by the following per- 
sons : — Edward Tebbets, Paul Libby, William Jackson, Silas 
Wentworth, Jonathan H. Henderson, Jacob J. Garland, James M. 
Garland, Joel Varney, Lemuel B. Ham. Others whose names 
are not on the records are known to have taken a very active 
part in sustaining meetings of this society, among whom were 
Asa P. Hanson, Charles G. Giles, IST. V. Whitehouse, James H. 
Place, Noah Place, Richard Cross, and Charles W. Edgerly. 

For more than thirty-five years there are recorded only two 
meetings of this society, and the onl}' business was the choice of 
officers, William Jackson remaining clerk. There were doubtless 
informal meetings of which no record was kept, as enough money 
was raised and expended to secure preaching by the following 
persons during a part of each year named : — Rev. R. O. Williams, 
1841 ; Rev. Eben Francis, 1842 ; Rev. George C. Strickland, 1843 
and 1845; Rev. Mr. Cilley, 1844; Rev. E. Coffin, 1844; Rev. G. 
Anderson, 1845; Rev. E. H. Lake, 1847 and 1848; Rev. Thomas 
J. Greenwood, 1850, 1855, and 1865; Rev. A. A. Miner, 1850; 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 287 

Rev. Mr. Pettee, 1852; Rev. Mr. Hicks, 1859; Rev. Mr. Eaton, 
1862; Rev. Mr. Patterson, 1862. In 1869 this society received 
336.70 as its share of the parsonage fund. 

In the summer of 1877, at a meeting held in the counting- room 
of E. G. and E. Wallace, Charles W. Edgerly and Albert T.^^olton 
were chosen to solicit funds to establish meetings once in two 
weeks. Many responded, and the iirst preacher was Rev, E. L. 
Conger, followed by Rev. James Gorton of Nashua, Rev. Mr. 
Ralph of Columbus, Ohio, and Rev. Mr. Powers from Vermont. 
Sept. 11, 1877, a call was issued signed by Paul Libby, Jauies 
H. Place, Edward Tebbets, and Silas Wentworth, for a meeting to 
re-organize the Universalist Society. The meeting was held Sept. 
22. Charles W. Edgerly was chosen clerk, and it was " voted to 
hold meetings every other Sunday for the present, and to hire 
McDuffee Hall." The society was for a time aided by the New 
Hampshire Convention of Universalist Churches, who sent from 
time to time the following preachers as supply : — Revs. G. L. 
Demarest and L. F. McKinney of Manchester; E. M. Grant, W. 
S. Vail, Benton Smith, George W. Quinby, and Dr. Sawyer of 
Boston; Mr. Spalding of Peabody, Mass.; "W. S. Perkins and 
H. ^y. Smith of Tufts College; Mr. Eddy, Mr. Bowles, and Mr. 
Magwire. 

Dec. 8, 1878, the society voted to accept and adopt the consti- 
tution recommended by the General Convention, and from this 
time the name of Ira Doe appears as clerk. 

" Dec. 20, 1879, it was voted to hire Bev. W. S. Perkins to supply 
till June next." 

Sept. 19, 1880, a call was extended to H. W. Smith, then a student 
at Tufts College, to settle as pastor, with the offer of S800 salary. 
This call was accepted and Mr. Smith began his work Oct. 3, 
1880. A Council called for his ordination met in McDuffee Hall. 
The following ministers conducted the services : — Prof. Leonard 
of Tufts College; Rev. E. M. Grant of Portsmouth; Rev. Benton 
Smith of South Newmarket ; Rev. G. L. Demarest and Rev. L. F. 
McKinney of Manchester, 

Mr. Smith's pastorate ended July 9, 1882, and the records for 
that date close with these words: — ""When we shall have another 
meeting, time alone will tell ; the want of unity now existing does 
not seem to warrant one very soon." 



288 ROCHESTER. 

In 1882-83 the Unitarian Convention of !New Hampshire repeat- 
ecll}' sent its emissaries with offers of aid to induce this society to 
employ one of its preachers. But their offers were rejected " as 
our parish thought we had been known as Universalists for over 
forty years, a time too long to think of now making the change." 
Aside from these Unitarian meetings for five Sabbaths, there were 
only three preaching services for two years and a half after Mr. 
Smith left. These were conducted by Revs. S. H. McCollester of 
Dover, G. H. Shinn of Plymouth, and H. S. Fiske of IsTewmarket. 

Mr. Shinn supplied the pulpit about four months, beginning Jan. 
1, 1885, and an unsuccessful effort was made to secure his services 
as permanent pastor. 

J. S. Cutler, then of Tufts College, began to supply in May, 1885, 
and accepted a call to become pastor. " Having been duly exam- 
ined by the Council at South Newmarket, and being approved 
by them he was duly installed" Dec. 17, 1885. Sermon by Prof. 
Leonard of Tufts College, Charge by Dr. Demarest of Manchester, 
Address to People by Rev. W. S. Vail, and Right Hand of Fel- 
lowship by Rev. James Eastwood of Kingston. 

In June, 1886, the parish committee were instructed " to investigate 
the different lots named by persons in the meeting," with the idea 
of " building a church on the same." Thus far nothing has come 
of this movement. In the summer of 1887, Mr. Cutler accepted 
a call to Marblehead, Mass., and the society has since remained 
without a pastor. 

Second Adventists. 

Ever since the ascent at Bethany there have been those in the 
churches who have been looking for the speedy return of the 
Lord. From time to time in the history of Christianity have 
arisen those who by their earnest zeal on this topic, and espe- 
cially by fixing a definite time for the advent, have aroused wide- 
spread excitements. The first extensive movement of this kind 
in America was produced by the preaching of William Miller, 
who had served as a captain in the war of 1812, but about the 
year 1833, by a carefully studied and very ingenious and plausible 
interpretation of Scripture, announced the very day of the Lord's 
coming in April, 1843. Traveling from place to place his preaching 
" moved the people mightily." " Farmers, mechanics, teachers, 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 289 

and many ministers of various denominations left their homes 
and scattered through tlie country preaching this doctrine, and 
converts were made everywhere." Many yet rememhor the great 
excitement of those times. The immense comet which appeared 
in the winter of 1842-43 added to the flames. People deserted 
their homes, and gave away their propert}', so that not a few who 
had been in comfortable circumstances found themselves reduced 
to actual want, when the set time passed, and the world still went 
on. Other times were set, but as one day after another failed to 
bring the promised glory, still a remnant clung to the faith, ^o 
longer setting the exact day, they still proclaim the very speedy 
" coming of the Lord Jesus Christ to raise the dead, to judge the 
world, to cleanse the earth by fire, to give his saints immortalit}', 
to set up his kingdom, and to fill the earth with his glory." 

Rochester, like almost every other town, had its share of those 
who accepted this doctrine. Meetings were first held in the school- 
house at East Rochester. Earnest believers, prominent among 
whom were the present church elders, John C. Shorey and James 
Quimby, procured preachers, and after a time " quite a company 
were drawn together." About 1867 a chapel was built, and reg- 
ular meetings have been kept up since that time. There is " quite 
a thrifty church," and a Sabbath School, of which George Mc- 
Crillis is superintendent. 

Another company of Second Adventists held their meetings for 
a time in the house of Moody Smith, about three miles below 
the village. About 1867 a small chapel was built on the back 
road to- Dover, where meetings have been held ever since. Among 
the prominent members here are J. W. Whipple, Ira Bickford, 
and Mr. Ramsbottom, Preaching is kept up by Elder Joseph T. 
Libby, Elder Enoch Morrill, Elder Charles Willand, and other 
occasional supplies. 

Still another company of Second Advent believers, prominent 
among whom were J. H. F. Varney and Jonathan Home, both 
of whom became preachers, held meetings at the house of Wells 
Pinkham, and afterwards at the school-house on the Ten-rod road. 
In 1854 Elders James G. Smith, Jonathan Cummings, and others 
held a tent-meeting in that neighborhood, which brought in quite 
a number of converts. In 1866 " a missionary spirit got into 
them for labor in Rochester Village," and Elders J. II. F. Varney, 

20 



290 ROCHESTER. 

Jonathan Horne, and Joseph Piukham of Dover held a protracted 
meeting in the Town Hall. Among the converts at this time 
were Mary Anna Sanborn, a prominent school teacher, and her 
sister Sarah, both of whom went to Virginia with Mrs. H. L. 
Hastings to labor as missionaries among the Freedmen. 

From this time the interest was moved from the Ten-rod road 
to the village, and meetings were held in the Town Hall until 
the fall of 1868, when Elders Daniel Leavitt of Ashland, Mass., 
and H. L. Hastings of Boston, with others, held a tent-meeting 
in the rear of the Mansion House. Among the converts was a 
Toung intidel by the name of Parsons. While sitting in his room 
reading a novel, he heard the preaching from the tent, and became 
a firm believer. Having both education and natural ability he 
became a successful Advent preacher. After this meetings were 
held in different halls of the village with fair success for a few 
years, when divisions arose and two meetings were established. 
Both were soon suspended, though prayer-meetings were still held 
in private houses. 

In 1875 Elder Varney invited Elder Enoch Morrill, then of 
South Deerfield, to hold a protracted meeting with him in the 
Town Hall. A public discussion followed between Elder Morrill 
and Rev. Mr. Tebbets concerning conditional immortality and the 
state of the dead. As a result of these efforts the meetings were 
revived and continued till a church was organized in 1879. Under 
the faithful and earnest labors of Elder Varney, followed by Elder 
Smith, a fair degree of prosperity was enjoyed. In 1884 Elder 
Morrill removed to Rochester and devoted a part of his labor to 
this church. The next year he pitched a large tent near the rail- 
road station, where historical and prophetic lectures were given 
by Elder and Mrs. McKinstry. Again in the fall of 1887 Elder 
Morrill pitched a large tent at Cold Spring Park, where he with 
Elders Warren, Tenney, Stevens, and others held meetings which 
resulted in strengthening the church, and converting others to the 
Advent faith. Since then the "Advent Christian Church" has 
held meetings in Odd Fellows Hall, with regular preaching by 
Elder A. A. Robinson of Dover, Elder Mark Stevens of Ossipee, 
Elder Morrill and Elder J. E. Clough of Dover. George T. Dem- 
ming is superintendent of the Sabbath School, and a fair degree 
of prosperity is enjoyed. The Second Adventists received $72.57 
from the division of the parsonage fund in 1869. 



MODERN CHURCH HISTORY. 291 

EoMAX Catholic Church. 
Irish. 

In 1860 there were only eight or ton families of Irish Catholics 
in Rochester. These were visited occasionally by the l^cv. Father 
Lucy of Great Falls. As their numbers increased the Rev. Father 
Walsh of !N'ewmarket held services in some hall regularly once a 
month. He was followed by the JRev. Father Dumane, who acted 
as curate for the Hev. Father Canovan of Great Falls. Then the 
latter attended the charge himself for a time. After a few years 
Father Walsh returned with orders to build a church. He suc- 
ceeded in erecting a wooden building 30 by 50 feet, with a vestry, 
at a cost of §2,100. This was called St. Mary's Church. Mass 
was first celebrated in it Dec. 25, 1868. Father Canovan was 
again in charge for a time. There were at this time about four 
hundred and eighty persons belonging to the parish, including a 
few Canadian French. The next pastor was the Rec. Father Pagh, 
who died here after about a year and a half, and was buried at 
Dover. After him came the Rev. FatJicr Games, who was followed 
by the Rev. Father Louis Wilde. In the spring of 1884 the Rev. 
Father John T. 31cDonnell took charge, and under his direction 
the new church was built on Charles street at a cost of §10,000. 
The corner-stone was laid in August, 1885. This new St. Mary's 
Church has a seating capacity of four hundred, and is a beautiful 
edifice, second to none of its size in the State. It contains a fine 
new pipe organ, and a bell weighing 1,965 pounds, which was 
consecrated Xov. 25, 1886. Services were held in the new 
church for the first time by Bishop Bradley of Manchester, Dec. 
5, 1886. Two days later Father McDonnell died and was buried 
here. Jan. 1, 1887, the Rev. Father John I. Bradley took charge 
of the parish, which now numbers about six hundred. 

Roman Catholic Church. 

French. 

The French Catholics worshiped with the Irish till the Rev. 
Father Urbain Lamy was appointed their pastor, who held his first 
service in McDuffee Hall, March 22, 1883. A subscription was 



292 ROCHESTER. 

at once started to build a church, and §4,500 was raised for that 
purpose during the year. In May a lot was bought for $640, and 
the foundations were laid in June. The building, 75 by 45 feet, 
was finished in December. It afibrds four hundred and fifty sit- 
tings, and is furnished with an organ, three altars, and the statues 
of St. Mary, St. Ann, and the Sacred Heart of Jesus. The cost 
was $8,000, most of which has been already paid. The Eev. Father 
Lamy celebrated the first Mass in this church on Christmas day, 
1883. The church is called '-'■Notre Dame du Saint Eosaire,'' and 
was dedicated in May, 1886, by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Bradley of 
Manchester. A fine bell of 1,600 pounds was consecrated by him 
at the same time. When Father Lamy first came his congrega- 
tion numbered about two hundred and fifty, but has now increased 
to six hundred. It is expected that a parochial school will be 
opened in the summer of 1888. The building, containing four 
rooms, is located near the church, and will cost about two thou- 
sand dollars. Both French and English will be taught. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

LIGHTS AND SHADOWS. 

" The wings of Time are black and white 
Pied witli morning and with night." 

" Wine is a mocker, strong drink a brawler ; and whosoever erreth thereby 
is not wise.'' 

It is proposed in this chapter to treat of intemperance, crime, 
and reform. From the early days down through the first third 
of the present century, the drinking habits of the people were 
deplorable. Every store and tavern sold rum. 'Not a temperance 
man, as we understand the term, could be found. The most 
respectable church members, men who afterwards became conspic- 
uous for their temperance efforts, would get more than merry, 
and to be assisted home at night was only a subject of playful 
banter the next morning, and then forgotten. The minister drank 
with the rest, and it was a source of deeper mortification to a 
family to be out of rum when he called, than to be out of meat 
or flour. It was customary for the deacons and other male mem- 
bers of the congregation to spend the Sabbath noon at the store, 
drinking, or sometimes to repair to the spring near the church 
to mix their grog with the cool water. Rum was always used at 
funerals, and it was common for the neighbors to get merry and 
talkative coming l^ack from the grave. A bearer has been known 
to tumble into the grave from intoxication, and the bottle has 
been set on the coflin of the dead. Bo3's drank with their fathers 
at home, with the minister at the parsonage, with oflicers on the 
training field. No frame could be raised without rum. The town 
accounts show that thirty-four gallons of rum and a barrel of cider 
were bought for the raising of the Congregational Church in 1780. 
Even as late as 1825, when the corner-stone of the Methodist 
Church was laid, punch was made by tubfuls in the stores near 
by. According to the custom previously mentioned (p. 131), the 



294 ROCHESTEK. 

frame was christened by an elfusion of doggerel, with an effusion 
of rum on the ridgepole. No Thanksgiving or Fourth of July 
could be properly observed without intoxicating drinks, and on 
no occasion were they more freely used than at ordinations of 
ministers, when a large compan}^ of people assembled from neigh- 
boring towns. School-masters would be drunk at school. One 
Junkins, who taught at Gonic some sixty to seventy years ago, often 
got drunk and slept it off sitting in his chair. The boys once 
tied him into his chair, and hung a dead puppy about his neck. 
On the farm rum was indispensable. It took a barrel of '' West 
India" for some farmers to get through haying. Beginning to 
use it regularly in the field at hoeing, when haying commenced 
the hands must have their " bitters " before grinding their scythes 
in the morning. At ten or eleven o'clock rum was sent to the 
field, when they would seat themselves in a circle on the grass 
and drink. The same thing was repeated in the middle of the 
afternoon. Sometimes the " second corner " was turned, as it was 
called; that is, the bottle having passed around one way, was 
turned in its course and passed back the other, the men laugh- 
ingly clasping as much of the tumbler as they could in their 
hands so as not to show how deep were their potations. The 
boys who spread the hay were expected to drink with the men. 
When the traders came home from Boston, whither they went 
twice a year to buy goods, it was an event of great consequence. 
All over town, weeks before they started, it was known and 
excited much talk. When they returned, the best judges of 
liquor went around and tasted the Jamaica and Santa Cruz, and 
reported who had the best liquors, and to that store the trade 
was sure to go. 

In 1829 the trouble Avas taken to ascertain how much liquor 
was consumed in town yearly. It was found from the statements 
of the merchants themselves, that about eleven thousand six hundred 
gallons had been consumed, costing $8,000, being more than five 
gallons for every man, woman, and child in town. This fact was 
stated in a Fourth of July address by Mr. Towner, principal of 
the Academy, and although it excited some comment, its truth- 
fulness has never been questioned. Nor was Rochester worse in 
this respect than other towns. Wherever the facts were investi- 
gated similar results were obtained. 



LIGHTS AND SHADOWS. 295 

Many specific accounts might be given to illustrate the condi- 
tion of society. About 1822, there lived in a small house close 
to the river bank, just above the bridge, a hard drinker, who, 
while intoxicated one winter night, lay so exposed that his limbs 
were frozen, and he nearly perished. The event caused consider- 
able excitement. People felt that something ought to be done 
about it; at least that there should bean investigation. Some of 
the citizens accordingly held a meeting at the Barker tavern, just 
below where the Methodist Church now stands. AVe can imagine 
the meeting, probably the first ever called here to deal with such 
a subject. It comprised the wisdom and enterprise of the town. 
There were present business men well known for cnerg}' and 
ability to carry through whatever they undertook. Of course 
from such a gathering great things might well be expected. It 
was voted to prosecute all violations of law. A committee was 
appointed to report at an adjourned meeting the next Saturday 
night. When Saturday evening came, the chairman of the com- 
mittee. Squire Upham, arose to excuse himself. He said it was 
known he was a trader, and of course sold liquor, and it would 
not look just right for him to be prominent in such a movement. 
Every member of the committee was a rumseller, and one after 
another followed his example, asking to be excused. The meeting 
itself was being held in a rum-selling tavern. It would seem that 
there must have dawned on the minds of these men some feeling 
of inconsistency between the business they were pursuing, and the 
welfare of the community which they were supposed to have at 
heart. However this may have been, nothing came of the effort. 

Soon after this it was found that the young men of the village 
were frequenting the house of this same drunkard, whom they 
would send to the stores for liquor, and spend the night in ca- 
rousals. The house becoming disreputable in other respects 
besides rum-drinking, the people resolved to endure it no longer. 
A private invitation was sent round to many of the principal 
citizens to meet at the saw-mill, just below where the upper factory 
nosv stands. One prominent man tried to avoid any share in the 
proceedings by going to bed early, but he was called up and 
rather reluctantly joined the company. Meeting at the appointed 
place, they armed themselves with bars and levers, and chose 
William Hurd as captain. He was an active, public-spirited man, 



296 ROCHESTER. 

very liberal and earnest in all things relating to the church of 
which he was a member. He was a trader, and of course sold 
rum. His store being near the meeting-house he had the pat- 
ronage of the church members, especially on Sundays. Xobody 
seemed to perceive any inconsistency in these things; and Hurd 
was always ready to be a leader in whatever promised good to 
the community. The party marched to the house, and Hanscam, 
the millwright, was appointed spokesman to address the family. 
Hanscam himself was a hard drinker, but that was thought no 
disqualification. The family were allowed twenty minutes to get 
out of the house with their goods, and the men helped them 
move. Then, as the house was small, they tried to topple it into 
the river with their levers and bars, but being unsuccessful, they 
tore off the boards and pried out the braces, till the building was 
leveled to the ground. The party then dispersed to their homes, 
unless they went to the nearest store for a drink. The house 
was owned by one Page on the Meaderborough road. Coming 
to the village the next morning, Page first observed the ruins. He 
set himself to gather information for the purpose of prosecuting 
the rioters, but the ejected tenant told him the leading men of 
the village were there, naming all the principal men, (many of 
whom were present, and many more absent,) until Page thought 
it would be a hopeless task to bring such men to punishment, 
and concluded to quietly bear his loss. 

In 1806 there was living at the lower end of the village a man 
M^ho, having fitted up the front part of his house as a store, had 
gradually increased his business till he had one of the largest and 
best-selected stocks in the village. He became deranged, his dis- 
ease at first taking the form of religious insanity, accompanied 
with a great facility of quoting Scripture. It was found necessary 
to appoint a guardian to manage his property. He left his store, 
and in 1825 was living in a neat and comfortable house on the 
point of land where the road divides at the head of "Wakefield 
street. The removal from the old home to the new well illus- 
trates the peculiarities of the man. As the prophet Ezekiel was 
a sign to the house of Israel, so he was to be a sign to the people 
of Rochester. He carried out literally the command to the prophet 
to "bring forth his stuft' in their sight as stufl' for removing; to 
go forth at even as they that go into captivity; to dig through 



i 



LIGHTS AND SHADOWS. 297 

the wall and cany it out thereby, and carry it out in the twilight," 
etc. The family moved in procession at twilight through the 
village. Hardly had they become settled in the house at the head 
of AVakefield street before it became notorious not only for liquor 
selling, which was regarded as no crime in those days, but for 
the grossest immoralities. The house also became known for 
miles around as a receptacle for stolen goods. On the beams of 
his barn he had built an office which he called his " sanctum, 
sanctonan," where the stolen goods were carefully stored. Having 
been a very methodical man iu trade, he carried his business 
methods into his new occupation, keeping a journal in which was 
recorded a minute description of all stolen goods, with dates when 
received and when sold. It included a record of all visitors, and 
an exact cash account. One of his children being very sick. Parson 
Haven visited and prayed with the family. That day in his cash 
account he made the following entry: — "Parson Haven, Cr. By 
one long, sanctimonious prayer, 20 cents." 

* The public good required that a stop be put to his proceed- 
ings. The first move was to arrest him for keeping stolen goods. 
He had received some intimation of what was coming, and had 
prepared for the attack. Anticipating a long siege he stored a 
barrel of crackers and half a barrel of brandy in his " sanctum "; 
neither did he neglect means of defense, but supplied himself 
with guns and ammunition in abundance. On the appointed evening 
a large party under the lead of Capt. Hurd forced an entrance 
into the barn, filling the barn floor. From the door of his loft, 
the old man demanded, "Come ye peaceably, or come ye in war?" 
He was assured that they came peaceably. It soon becoming 
evident that they could capture him only by strategy. Squire Upham 
advanced and called for a parley. Knowing the old man's hospi- 
tality was never at fault, he made bold to ask him for a drink. 
He at once retired and drew a glass of brandy, but was careful 
not to expose himself to chance of capture. There was nothing 
to do but to drink the brandy, and immediately ask for another 
glass. While this was being drawn, a tall young man named 



* In the original sketch but one visit from the citizens is recorded. But in a note the au- 
thor savs "It is evident I have pot two events mixed. They doubtless went twice to the 
house, "once to arrest him for stolen goods, and once to tear it down." The story is here 
remodeled to conform as nearly as possible to the author's marginal notes. — [Editor.] 



298 ROCHESTER. 

Simon Ross concealed himself, so that when he again stepped out 
on the beam, he reached up and caught him firmly by the ankle. 
When he found himself taken, the old man exclaimed, "Ye have 
dealt deceitfully with me." An action was brought against him 
for having stolen goods in his possession. John P. Hale was 
retained for his counsel and made insanity the ground of defense. 
His journal was put in evidence, but nothing resulted from the 
case. 

Capt. WilHam Hurcl and Charles Dennett were the selectmen 
in the village this year. As " Fathers of the Town," they felt 
responsible for the public morals. The man had returned to his 
house, which still retained its ill-savored notoriety for corrupt 
morals. Taking a broad view of their official duties, these select- 
men felt that the summary destruction of such houses came fairly 
within the scope of their powers. An evening was agreed upon, 
and Capt. Hurd, who had led the before-mentioned attacks, now led 
a large party of young men to complete this work. On arriving 
they found the house securely fastened, but they at once began 
its demolition. None of the family showing any disposition to 
help themselves, they were taken from their bedrooms through 
the windows at some peril during the destruction of the house, 
which was soon leveled to the ground. The children were struck 
oflf at auction to those families who agreed to bring them up on 
the best terms, and all found good homes. The owner of the 
house, who lived in Portsmouth, dared not make any trouble 
with the rioters. 

After the destruction of the house the old man built himself a 
cabin, half under ground and covered with earth, back of where 
the house stood, and surrounded by a growth of birch and pine. 
Here he lived many years and died at an advanced age. He 
indulged in writing poetry, especially acrostics, for those who would 
give him a few cents, and occasionally his rhymes appeared in 
the papers. He was commonly known as " the hermit," and his 
cabin as "the hermitage," and it was one of the amusements of 
the wicked boys of the last generation to toss brickbats down 
his chimney. 

The following incident illustrates the power of the imagination : 
Among the Rochester traders of seventy years ago was a waggish 
young man who delighted in practical jokes. His store was the 



LIGHTS AND SHADOWS. 299 

favorite resort of young men who enjoyed his stories and his fun. 
Every trader then dealt in ardent spirits, and among this man's 
customers was an old fellow named Meshach. Seeing him cominor 
one evening he said to the bystanders, " ZSTow we '11 have some 
fun. I "11 bet a bottle of wine that I will get Meshach drunk on 
sweetened water." The bet was at once taken. " Meshach," said 
the trader, as he entered, " go to the pump and get a pail of 
cool water, and I '11 give you something to drink." Delighted at 
the promise Meshach started off, and while he was absent the 
decanter was tilled with water tinged with molasses enough to 
give it the right color. Old age and unremitted use of iSanta 
Cruz and Jamaica had somewhat deadened the old man's sense 
of taste, and he drank his glass without discovering the decep- 
tion. It had an apparent effect on his brain and he soon began 
to be talkative, as usual. One glass after another was taken, 
till he became very merry and loquacious, and the compain- of 
course equally so as they saw the joke proceed. It was acknowl- 
edged that the young trader had won the bet, for the old man 
had every appearance of intoxication. 

This ^Meshach, after taking his drams, would fall asleep and sit 
snoozing in his chair till time to shut the shop. One evening 
when the usual time for closing arrived, the trader with the help 
of a companion took chair and sleeper and placed them quietly 
down on the sidewalk. It was chilly and dark, and the cold soon 
slightly aroused the sleeper. isTow Meshach had a young sprig 
of a son who had been christened in honor of his sire, but was 
commonly known as " Mish." As the old man's obfuscated senses 
gradually returned, while shivering on the sidewalk, he broke 
forth in a bellowing tone, " Mish I Mish ! I say, Mish ! shut the 
door, you rascal !" The laughter of the company revealed the 
joke, and he made his way home somewhat mortified. 

One of the earliest attempts to check intemperance by legisla- 
tion was a law forbidding the sale of liquor in small quantities, 
by the pint or half-pint. This law was evaded by many ingenious 
devices. One trader sold his rum like calico, by the yard. 
He had a long tube made containing just a pint. Customers 
understanding the trick called for their liquor by the yard, and 
the quantity was measured by the yard-stick. The kind of liquor 
was designated by the name of some kind of cloth. Trousers 



300 ROCHESTER. 

cloth was brancl}^, chintz was ISTew England rum, and so on. 
Many dealers would sell a cracker for five cents and throw in 
a glass of rum. (See Appendix.) 

These accounts help to show the condition of society at the 
commencement of the temperance reform, indicating the great 
obstacles to be overcome, and the severity of the approaching 
contest. 

In 1792 the state laws punished drunkenness with fines graded 
according to the degree of the offense, and if the fine was not paid, 
by setting in the stocks or imprisonment. Although the law 
continued in force as late as 1815, yet the stocks were probably 
never used in Rochester, for drunkenness was looked upon with 
universal indulgence, and public sentiment was hardly up to 
punishment of even a few shillings' fine. In the same year (1792) 
a law was passed, requiring taverners and retailers of spirituous 
liquors to be licensed by the selectmen. In the first year of this 
law, sixteen licenses were recorded in Rochester; in 1793, six; 
in 1794, sixteen ; and in 1795, four. 

It was not till the year 1827 that the agitation of the temper- 
ance question commenced in earnest. Then men began to think 
and talk of the evils of intemperance, and public sentiment was 
gathering strength to demand that the liquor traflic should be 
restrained, — not prohibited, for this was not thought of for many 
years. Active efforts were made to discourage intemperance. 
Lecturers took the field, and the subject soon found its way into 
the town meetings. Appeals for more stringent laws were made 
to the Legislature, and, after considerable opposition, a law was 
passed regulating licensed houses and retailers of spirituous liquors. 
In Portsmouth it was voted, eight hundred to four, to refund the 
money paid by those who had bought licenses. In Dover, a town 
meeting called for the same purpose adjourned without action. 

One section of the new law authorized the selectmen to post, 
in all places where liquor w^as sold, the names of drunkards, and 
it was made unlawful to sell to such persons. Under this section 
the selectmen of Rochester posted, in the nine drinking places of 
the village, the names of three well-known drunkards. This pro- 
duced much excitement, as one of the three was a genial, good- 
natured man of some property. Ever^'body sympathized with him, 
as they usually do with genial, whole-hearted drunkards, and felt 



LIGHTS AND SHADOWS. 301 

that the selectmen had been guilty of a great wrong in thus 
publicly disgracing him. So much was said, that one more weak- 
kneed than his colleagues, went round and cut his own name 
out from all the notices. This was probably the first attempt to 
restrain liquor selling in Rochester, by force of law. 

The " Dover Gazette " of Oct. 21, 1828, contained the following 
item : — 

" Found Dead, at the door of Susan and Phebe Richards, in Roch- 
ester, on the morning of the 17th inst., Mr. Joshua Trickc}-, in a 
situation that indicates that he must have been dead before he 
was left there. An inquisition was held on the body, and it was 
ascertained that Trickey bought two quarts of rum as late as 
half-past nine o'clock the evening before, and went towards the 
house of the above-named Susan and Phebe, who bought that day 
one quart, and were the only residents of the house." 

It was supposed that Trickey got drunk in the house and died 
from the elFects of the liquor, and that the Richards girls dragged 
him out and left him at the door. The house, which was situated 
a little below the village, where the Great Falls road branches 
from the main road, was afterwards destroyed by the citizens, as 
had been others of like character. This event occurring^ so near 
the beginning of the temperance movement, added not a little to 
the excitement which already existed. 

Prominent in the good work of that period was Rev. Isaac 
"VVilley. Young, enthusiastic, radical in his temperance views, he 
stood for awhile almost alone. He had been settled as pastor of 
the Congregational Church in January, 1826, and when the tem- 
perance cause began to engross public attention, he entered into 
it with all his soul. Mainly through his efforts was formed the 
first temperance organization in town, called the " Society for the 
Suppression of Intemperance.^' Its constitution is still in existence, 
in the handwriting of William G. Webster, then a lawyer in this 
village, who entered actively into this and other worthy move- 
ments. The constitution, which is not dated, provides that meetings 
should be held once in three months, and the first meeting was 
to be held on the third Tuesday of January, 1828. Only ardent 
spirits were forbidden, which did not include wine or cider. The 
members were not to use ardent spirits themselves, allow them 
to be used in their families, ofier them to their hired laborers, 



302 ROCHESTER. 

nor to their friends, and were to do all tliey could to discontinue 
the use of them at funerals. Twent^^-nine names are affixed. 
Signatures were not easily obtained. Only one trader appears on 
the list, and against his name is written the word " expelled." 
Traders who would have joined the society, and left off the use of 
liquor themselves, refused to do so because the}^ were forbidden 
to give it to their customers, it being the uniform practice when 
a man settled his account to set on the bottle and tumbler for a 
drink. If this were discontinued, they were afraid their customers 
would go elsewhere to trade. 

The article forbidding the use of spirits at funerals shows the 
strong hold of another custom of the day. Charles Dennett, one 
of the signers, was fond of relating how with much difficulty he 
persuaded one family to offer coffee instead of liquor to the friends 
at a funeral, but it was ventured on with much fear and hesita- 
tion. Among other signers were M. R. Warren, then a teacher 
of a district school, Samuel ISTorris the Methodist minister, Charles 
W. Woodman, and Thomas Brown. The fourth name on the list 
is John Parker Hale, written in a school-boy hand, not much like 
the " frank " of our late illustrious senator. 

This constitution was soon superseded by a similar one changing 
the name of the society to " The Rochester Temperance Society " 
auxiliary to the ISTew Hampshire Temperance Society. The num- 
ber of names is increased. Among the additions are James H. 
Edgerly, then a student at the Academy, ]^. V. Whitehouse, 
Louis McDuffee, Asa Hanson, and his brother Dominicus, who 
has, until lately, thought he never belonged to a temperance society, 
and who could even now easil}^ deny the signature, as it bears 
no resemblance to the bold autograph so familiar to our people. 

Mr. Willey secured the best temperance lecturers in the country, 
such as Dr. Edwards of Andover, and Mr. Hewitt of Connecticut, 
wlio was considered a giant in the work. At these lectures the 
meeting-house would be crowded. Rum-sellers and rum-drinkers 
attended in large numbers, and sometimes interrupted the speakers, 
but the work advanced. In 1829 the Fourth of July was observed 
by an address before the societ}- by James Towner, principal of 
the Academy. The statistics presented by him have already been 
given. Mr. Willey made a canvass of the town about this time, 
and stated publicly, that every iifth man in town was a drunkard; 



LIGHTS AND SHADOWS. - 303 

not merel}' a hard drinker, but one who got drunk and " lost his 
feet." Almost, if not quite, the only man who did not drink 
was an old man who had been intemperate, but having dreamed 
that the devil had bargained for his soul, became frightened, and 
to cheat the devil of his bargain, left oli* drink altogether. Mr. 
AVilley's course naturally aroused some opposition, though he 
encountered nothing verv serious. One dav, as he was returninsr 
from Farmington, he was met a little above the village by a 
company of men " well set up." To give the temperance parson 
some trouble, they joined hands and formed a barricade across 
the road. He had a quick little mare and carried a cow-hide 
whip. Touching the pony, he charged through the line, giving 
a sharp cut to the right and left as he passed. Relating this in 
his old age, Mr. Willey said, " I was a boy then, and probably 
should not do so now." 

In 1830 Mr. Willey began with still more determination to 
fight intemperance within the church. When he came to Roch- 
ester every male member of his church used intoxicating drinks. 
True there were onh' nine or ten male members in all ; but the 
influence of the church cannot be measured by its numbers, and 
the pastor urged that since many irreligious persons were leaving 
the use of ardent spirits, public opinion required of professed 
Christians the total abandonment of the article. The church were 
not ready to adopt his views. They could not see why they 
should give up the moderate use because others destroyed them- 
selves by excessive indulgence. On I^Tov. 12, 1830, the pastor 
addressed to one of his deacons a note directed "For the male 
members of the church," The note reads as follows: — 

" Mr. Willey would wish the male members of his church to understand that 
the charges preferred against them are: — 1st, That there is reason to believe 
that they make habitual use of intoxicating drinks. 2d, That there is reason 
to believe that some of them are using them to their injurj-. 3d, That they 
frequently procure such drinks, and use them during the intermission of public 
worship on the Sabbath. 4th, That there is reason to fear from these facts 
that some of them at least will become intemperate. 5th, That their influence 
and example go to perpetuate the dreadful evils of intemperance in this place." 

At the next meeting he appealed to them personally to give 
their influence in favor of temperance. At a subsequent meeting 
he stated that in his opinion one of the members had come to an 
untimely end in consequence of the use of liquor. Repeatedly 



304 ROCHESTER. 

tlie subject was brought before them, and articles prepared for 
their adoption. June 14, 1832, the church voted unanimously to 
take into prayerful consideration the articles on temperance, sub- 
mitted by the pastor, and at the next communion season, July 8, 
these articles were signed by many of the members. In the same 
year two members, one of them a deacon, were, by unanimous 
vote, suspended for intemperance. Having afterwards reformed 
they were both restored. 

In 1830 the first county temperance convention was held at 
Rochester, and a county society organized, which held its annual 
meetings here for three years. In 1833 temperance meetings had 
become common throughout the country. Addresses were deliv- 
ered in every town of Strafford county, then including Belknap 
and Carroll. There were over thirty-six thousand members of 
societies in the State. There were more than two hundred town 
societies, and it was reported that about three hundred and fifty 
stores and taverns had abandoned the trafiSc. School districts had 
their societies. One of the most flourishing of these in Rochester 
was at Chestnut Hill, where meetings were held and addresses 
delivered in Trickey's Hall. 

Thus far by the use of " moral suasion " only the temperance 
reform had been begun, and had made great progress. No pro- 
hibitory law, nor legal measures, had been employed to help the 
cause. It would be interesting to watch the rise and growth of 
prohibition and prosecution, the twin measures which have since 
taken so prominent a part in the work. In a county convention 
as early as 1837, eighteen years before the enactment of a pro- 
hibitory law, Josiah H. Hobbs urged prohibition. In 1839 the 
town voted to instruct the selectmen not to license. Years before 
prohibition, legal measures were first resorted to under the license 
law, but the law was not very earnestly enforced until the Wash- 
ingtonians sprang up. Although a cardinal principle of these 
societies was " moral suasion enforced by deeds of benevolence 
and kindness," yet many of the members rebelled against such 
restrictions. At a county convention in Dover, May 31, 1843, the 
moral resolutions met a warm discussion, and the legal suasionists 
succeeded in tacking on an addition, declaring the rumseller to be 
the chief obstacle to reform, and that the laws ought to be put 
into immediate execution. It was a lion and lamb partnership. 



LIGHTS AND SHADOWS. 305 

At another county convention in Dover, Xoah Tebbets of Roch- 
ester was appointed a committee on the expediency of adopting 
legal measures, while another committee was sent to confer with 
rumsellers and persuade them to cease their business. Both com- 
mittees recommended the use of the law as a last resort. Judge 
Tebbets' report, published in the " Enquirer," is a document rarely 
surpassed, and reflects much credit on Rochester as the production 
of one of her citizens. 

In the same year, Hawkins, one of the reformed " seven hard 
drinkers of Baltimore," was lecturing in this part of the country, and 
Washingtonian societies were being formed. The first reform wave 
had been subsiding, but a new enthusiasm was now being kindled. 
Reformed men took the platform. Temperance stores and hotels 
were advertised in every paper. Many churches set apart one 
Sabbath every month for temperance meetings, l^ow and then 
some sudden death or case of violence, brought about by alcohol, 
would startle the community and send up the excitement to fever 
pitch. About this time two men, named Page and Hayes, were 
riding together at night upon the high ground just behind the 
Sanborn brick-yard. They were both intoxicated, but seeing the 
village lights, it was proposed to ride over and get another drink. 
Turning the horse they drove off the clay bank, falling into the 
brick-yard below. Page had his neck broken. Hayes, though 
somewhat injured, was able to find his way to Gonic, where he 
obtained help. 

In 1842 the elections in most towns of this county turned upon 
the temperance question, and in nearly every place the reformers 
prevailed. Rochester elected temperance selectmen, and instructed 
them not to license. A letter of this year, dated at Rochester, 
says, " Strong drink is done away with us." 

The records of the " Rochester Village WasUngtonian Total Absti- 
nence Society'' began Jan. 2, 1843, though the organization may 
have been earlier. The meetings were held publicly once a week, 
and anybody could become a member by signing the pledge. The 
exercises consisted of speeches and public discussions, and were 
shared by the principal citizens of the town. The records also 
speak of a reading-room. A committee was appointed to consider 
" what method should be taken to suppress the selling of ardent 
spirits at the taverns in this village." The plan adopted was to 

21 



306 ROCHESTER. 

send a committee to persuade the rumsellers to better their ways. 
The same course was taken on several subsequent occasions. 

In February, 1843, two dealers agreed to quit the business, for 
^hich the society passed them a vote of thanks. Their liquors 
were examined, their value reported, and the plan tried of buying 
out such as would abandon the traffic. At the town meeting in 
March following, on motion of Richard Kimball, the selectmen 
were authorized to purchase the liquors of those who would sell, 
and to appoint an agent to sell for mechanical and medicinal 
purposes, who was to keep a public record of all sales. They 
were also instructed to prosecute all unlicensed retailers. This 
-jpolicy of buying out rumsellers, after having been thoroughly tried, 
^was abandoned. 

In March, 1843, the society adopted a constitution. The pledge 
forbids " all intoxicating drinks," and not merely " ardent spirits," 

a decided step forward. The society endorsed " moral suasion, 

enforced by deeds of benevolence and kindness," but added, " that 
nothing in this article shall restrict the right of the society, or 
any person in their individual capacity, of making use of any 
other lawful means that the circumstances of the case may require." 
At times the legal outran the moral means, and the society ap- 
pointed committees to collect evidence and prosecute offenders. 
Rochester sent a large delegation to the Dover convention in May, 
and James Hurd presented a report showing the prosperous con- 
dition of the Rochester society. July 4th there was an enthusiastic 
celebration, Salmon Falls and Rochester societies uniting in the 
exercises, with J. H. Edgerly as marshal, and a band of music 
to enliven the occasion. The society paid Watson Hayes to furnish 
cloth for decorations. Another grand celebration occurred in 
ISTovember when the county society met here. Five hundred 
■delegates were present. A juvenile choir from Great Falls and 
the Columbian band from Dover furnished the music. The stars 
and stripes floated from the steeple of the Congregational Church, 
where the meetings were held. The discussions were spicy. A 
motion to keep out politics, religion, and law, as tending to dis- 
turb harmony, was voted down. 

All things considered, the year 1843 may be set down as one 
of the most eventful and exciting in the history of the town. 
Besides the organization of the Washingtonians, the public celebra- 



LIOHTS AND SHADOM'S. 307 

tions, the enthusiasm now at its highest pitch, the agitation of legal 
suasion, followed by one hundred and forty-four indictments in 
this county, being the first courageous resort to law, there were 
also other events to render this year memorable. In June a man 
named Pierce fell from the scatfold of his barn while intoxicated, 
receiving injuries from which he soon after died. In this year 
the jewelry store of James C. Cole was robbed of a large amount 
of valuables. There was an unsuccessful attempt to blow open 
the vault door of the Rochester bank, and especially is the year 
remembered for the murder of Phebe Hanson at Meaderborough. 
At Great Falls an attempt was made to blow up the house of 
John B. Wood on account of his temperance activit}'. Thus while 
the temperance men were putting forth vigorous eiForts to subdue 
rumselling, a carnival of crime seemed to prevail. 

Of the one hundred and forty-four indictments at the January 
term, 1844, only twelve were tried, and ten convictions secured. 
The remaining cases were continued. This policy of delay has 
prevailed ever since in our courts, and has been one of the greatest 
obstacles to the temperance work; yet the efforts put forth had 
a wholesome effect. A letter written from Rochester in April 
following, alludes to the great change which a year had wrought, 
and adds, " ISTo liquor of an}- kind for drinking can be procured; 
the apothecary sells only by prescription from a physician." 

Interest in the Washingtonian society soon subsided, but there 
was a partial revival in the fall. New officers were chosen, and 
meetings held more regularly. Another committee was appointed 
to visit the rumsellers, but they reported no success. The ministers 
were invited to give lectures. In the fall of 1845 there was another 
partial revival, which spent itself quickly after voting the " rum- 
sellers a curse and a nuisance," and that " the sale of liquor ought 
to be ^prohibited under a penalty of ten years' imprisonment." This 
is believed to be the first recorded mention of prohibition in our 
town. 

Early in 1846 the interest in the languishing society was sud- 
denly revived. One bitter cold morning, January 29, the com- 
munity was startled to learn that the dead body of a man named 
Henderson had been found lying face downwards in the brick- 
yard near Walker's bridge, only a few feet from the spot where 
Page broke his neck five years before. Henderson had been 



308 ROCHESTER. 

hauling hay to Dodge's Hotel, from his home below Gonic, and 
on his way back at night, had fallen intoxicated from his sled, 
crawled into the brick-yard, and there perished. The Washing- 
tonians appointed a committee, of which Henry Drew, the Meth- 
odist minister, was chairman, to investigate the circumstances, and 
the leadins: men again took hold of the work. Another com- 
mittee consisting of Louis McDuffee, J. M. Hackett, Charles Den- 
nett, John McDuffee, and Bidfield Meserve issued a lengthy notice 
offering rewards for the detection of persons who violated the law, 
appealing to the citizens, the traveling public, the families of 
drunkards, and the victims of drink themselves to co-operate with 
them. Every word indicates the excitement which prevailed. The 
notice was posted in conspicuous places, and all the newspapers 
in the State were requested to publish it. For a few weeks a 
sharp controversy raged in the "Great Falls Transcript" and the 
" Dover Enquirer " over the question, " Who sold the man his 
liquor?" Six or eight persons published what they knew about 
it, but the statements were very contradictory. Wliatever the 
truth might be, there was no doubt that his death was caused by 
rum. Three rumsellers at this time gave bonds to sell no more. 
Others refused to bind themselves. Before the excitement had 
subsided, the annual town election came on. This election has 
been known as "the three days' fight." Twelve ballotings were 
necessary before the first selectman was chosen, the question being 
between a board that would license, and one that would not 
license. The contest was bitter and exciting, but the temperance 
party at last triumphed. 

The last record of the Washingtonians is dated Jan. 5, 1847, 
when Reuben Tilton was president, and Charles G. Horney, sec- 
retary, the meetings being held in the Methodist vestry. 

In this place it may be proper to refer to other sudden deaths 
from alcohol, though not belonging to this period. More than 
sixty years ago a man named Richardson was found dead near 
the Hall place, back of the Louis McDuffee farm. He had been 
butchering, and perished on his way home. Not many years later 
a man named Howard, living above Meaderborough, being intox- 
icated town meeting day, started to go home, and it is supposed 
that having taken the wrong road he attempted to cross the river 
on the rotten ice, and was drowned. His remains were afterwards 



LIGHTS AND SHADOWS. 309 

found by some one out lishing. The case of Lawrence Murphy 
run over by the train on the Great Falls & Conway Railroad a 
few years since, and another case on the same road thirty or forty 
years ago, are fresh in the recollection of many. 

No one can measure by these few cases the havoc of intoxicating 
drinks. They are only occasional freaks of the fiend. His regular 
work is not less deadly, but only less startling. It is concealed from 
view, like some terrible diseases which now and then send their 
marks to the surface. The misery caused by alcohol no history 
can record. 

About a mile above the village, on the road to Chestnut Hill, 
may be seen the grave of Andrew F. Howard. A rough field- 
stone without inscription marks the spot. He was not over 
twenty-two years of age, and had it not been for conditions which 
surrounded him from birth, — conditions for which society is not 
blameless, especially in its toleration of ignorance and rum-shops, — 
lie might have been living to-day, a respectable man. According 
to the testimony of those who knew him, he could neither read 
nor write. According to his own confession, although not intox- 
icated at the time of the deed, yet several previous days of hard 
drinking had thoroughly fitted him for the terrible crime. He 
was under a spell, as he said. Jacob and Phebe Hanson, brother 
and sister, lived a short distance beyond the school-house on the 
Meaderborough road. They were plain, peaceable, industrious 
members of the Society of Friends. By their habits of industry 
and economy it was supposed they had laid by a considerable 
sum of money. Howard, who knew them well, having worked 
for them and also for other persons in the neighborhood, had 
heard this report. He was living with his brother on the road 
to Great Falls, near the bridge over the Salmon Falls River. 
Discouraged and utterly desperate he had formed a plan to 
improve his lot by shipping for New Orleans, provided he could 
get the money to pay his passage. In this state of mind, on the 
morning of September 19, 1843, taking down his gun he started 
for Meaderborough, determined to have the money of the Hansons, 
by whatever means might be necessary. The Hansons had always 
treated him well, and he bore them no malice; their money was 
what he wanted. The distance was some ten miles. Arriving at the 
house about noon, he learned that Jacob Hanson had gone to Great 



310 ROCHESTER. 

Falls, or lie may have known it before starting. At the door he 
made his demand for money, accompanied by threats. Miss 
Hanson gave him a small sum saying it was all she had, but not 
believing her, Howard took deliberate aim, and, while she 
stood in the entry with arm uplifted to avert the danger, fired. 
The charge entered the neck, and she fell dead on the floor. 
Finding a trunk he took it a short distance away and broke it 
open with an ax, obtaining about twenty-nine dollars in money, 
and a pocket knife, with which he fled. Another trunk said to 
contain a large sum of money was overlooked. The murder was 
discovered by James Page, a neighbor who came to the house 
for some cider. Entering the kitchen, he found three men sitting 
there with their guns, who said they had been hunting, and came 
to the house also to get some cider. To his inquiry for Phebe, 
they replied that she was asleep in the entry. He went and 
discovered that she was dead. The alarm w^as given, and the 
town was thrown into intense excitement. The three hunters 
were arrested and examined before a justice, but their story 
appearing truthful, and there being no evidence against them, 
they were discharged. Suspicion fixed upon Howard, who had 
been heard to utter threats against the Hansons, and officers were 
put upon his track. In the meantime Howard had returned and 
informed his brother of his crime. When the officers appeared 
they escaped through the cellar door, and fled to the woods. 
The next morning they were arrested at the station in Dover, 
just as they were taking the train for Boston. Andrew at once 
made full confession. The stolen money and knife were found 
where he said he had hidden them. He was brought to Rochester 
the same day, examined before Richard Kimball, Esq., and com- 
mitted to jail to await trial, his brother being also committed to 
appear as witness. In October following, Howard attempted 
suicide by hanging himself with his handkerchief, but was cut 
down barely in season to save his life. The trial commenced in 
August, 1844, Attorney-General "Walker and Solicitor Woodman 
appearing for the State, and D. M. Christie and John P. Hale for 
the prisoner. Both Christie and Hale made powerful arguments, 
Hale directing all his efforts against capital punishment, while 
Christie endeavored to prove that the crime was only murder in 
the second degree. The jury were understood to be equally divided, 



LIGHTS AND SHADOWS. 311 

six voting to convict of murder in the first, and six in the second 
degree. In connection with this case a very strong agitation of 
the question of capital punishment sprang up throughout the 
State. The entire want of moral training in his youth, the fact 
that he was not known ever to have attended school, aroused 
some degree of sympathy for the criminal. On the day of the 
presidential election in November, 1844, the sense of the people- 
of the State was taken upon the question of abolishing capital 
punishment. Rochester voted thirty-eight in favor to one hundred 
and eighty-four against its abolition. The majority in the State- 
against its abolition was nine thousand eight hundred and eighty- 
one. 

In February, 1845, Howard had a new trial. Two hundred 
jurors w^ere summoned before a panel could be completed. The 
trial occupied more than a week. Hale and Bell appeared for 
the prisoner, and attempted to prove an alibi by testimony of 
relatives. After a brief consultation the jury returned a verdict 
of murder in the first degree, but motion was made in arrest of 
judgment, and sentence deferred. At the July term, the motion 
for a new trial was overruled, and Howard was sentenced to be,- 
executed Wednesday, November 12. He received his sentence 
with apparent indifference. In October petitions were circulated 
for his reprieve. 

When the 12th of November arrived, the gallows having been 
erected, and all arrangements for a public execution completed, six 
or eight thousand persons assembled to witness the final scene. But 
Governor Steele had come to Dover the day before in order to 
satisfy himself in regard to the propriety of a reprieve. After a, 
private interview with Howard, he decided to reprieve him om 
the ground that his natural lack of intellect, and the evil influences: 
that had surrounded him from infancy, rendered him an improper 
subject for execution, but that his case should be submitted tO' 
the Legislature. During the interview Howard was unmoved as; 
a block, and seemed only anxious to know whether a reprieve- 
w^ould be granted before or after he was placed upon the scaftbkL 
Governor Steele waited till the last moment in order that the 
sentence might have its fullest effect upon the criminal, the only- 
person in the world, says a Dover paper, whom the eftect wa& 
not calculated to benefit. He did not even express thanks for the 



812 ROCHESTER. 

new lease of life. By the reprieve the execution was postponed 
to July 8, 1846, so as to afford ample time for the Legislature to 
consider the matter. At the next term of the superior court the 
indefatigable counsel for the prisoner had him brought before the 
court on a writ of habeas corjms, contending that there was no 
authority to reprieve a man under sentence, and therefore that 
the reprieve was either a nullity, or had the effect of a pardon ; 
if the latter, Howard was entitled to his freedom ; if the former, 
then the day appointed for execution having passed, the sheriff" 
had no^further authority to detain him. But the court did not 
sustain the writ. When the Legislature met in June, the subject 
of capital punishment in general, and the case of Howard in par- 
ticular, engrossed a large share of attention. Both Christie and 
Hale were members of the House, and Hale was chosen speaker. 
Christie, from the judiciary committee, reported a bill to abolish 
capital punishment, which failed to pass. A special committee 
reported a bill giving power to the governor to commute sentences, 
but it was indetinitely postponed. Petitions came in for the com- 
mutation of Howard's sentence to imprisonment, one from Dover 
being signed by Abraham Folsom and one hundred and ninety-six 
others. A special bill was introduced authorizing the Governor and 
Council to commute Howard's sentence, but it was not passed. The 
8th of July was drawing near, and nothing had been accomplished 
toward staying the execution. On the Sabbath before, a public 
meeting was held in the town hall at Dover, and a petition pre- 
pared asking the Legislature to suspend the sentence. The judi- 
ciary committee was instructed by the House to report a bill to 
that effect. They reported the bill Jul}^ 7, with a recommendation 
that it should not pass. There was an exciting debate, Hale 
leaving the speaker's chair to take part, and the bill was rejected. 
Of the two Rochester representatives, Daniel Lothrop voted in 
favor, and Richard Kimball against. The last effort had failed, 
and on the next day Howard paid the penalty of the law. He 
was attended by Dr. Sweetlove and Elder Elias Hutchins. He 
stated that, had he heeded his mother's advice and shunned bad 
companions, he would not have been in such disgrace. His death 
appeared to be instantaneous. It was designed this time that the 
execution should be private, but persons on the fences could see 
over the walls of the jail. To prevent this, canvas had been 



LIGHTS AND SHADOWS. 313 

spread, but so great was the clamor of the crowd, with threats 
of demolishing the jail-yard fence, that the otHcers removed the 
canvas, and a part of the spectators were gratified. Of the three 
thousand persons present about one third were women. 

For several years an unremitted war against rumsellers was 
waged, principally by two men, iSToah Tebbets and Charles Den- 
nett. Tebbets was an excellent lawyer, and afterwards judge of 
the court of common pleas. Dennett was a deputy sheriff and a 
fearless officer. Both were thoroughly hostile to rum and what- 
ever corrupted the morals of the community. The annual trainings 
and musters were occasions of drunkenness and rowdyism, and 
the great battles with rum were on the muster-field. Persons 
came to these musters expecting to see Dennett killed, and once 
or twice the report of his death was circulated. He always suc- 
ceeded, however, in driving the rumsellers from the field. Too often 
they would set up their carts and continue their traffic in the woods 
at the outskirts of the village, but the stream of drinkers going and 
coming would soon lead to detection. After the death of Tebbets 
in 1844, the traffic went on for a time unhindered. The last 
muster of the old Thirty-ninth Regiment in Rochester was in 
September, 1847, on the field near the factory of E. G. & E. Wal- 
lace. Drinking, gambling, and fighting fully maintained the bad 
reputation of an old-fashioned militia muster. Rum was early 
driven from the field, but found safe refuge in the woods and 
bushes near by. The artillery company was the only one in 
uniform, and of this only twenty or thirty out of one hundred 
and fifty members paraded. By a premature discharge of the 
cannon, Thomas Henderson of Farmington had his face mutilated, 
and a part of his arm blown away. 

About this time the temperance cause began to revive. For a 
few years many rumsellers in the county were indicted. Divisions 
of the Sons of Temperance, the earliest secret temperance organ- 
ization, began to be formed. Gaining rapidly in popi^larity they 
continued a beneficent work for many years. Pass-words, signs, 
grips, and secret rites of initiation added a certain charm to their 
meetings. Cadets of Temperance for boys. Sisters of Cadets for 
girls, and Daughters of Temperance for women, became flourishing 
branches of the main order. These societies occupied a room in the 
old Court House. At the burning of this building in 1850 their 



314 ROCHESTER. * 

regalia and records were destroyed. The subject of prohibition 
had been so extensively agitated that in 1848 the question was sub- 
mitted to the people, " Is it expedient that a law be enacted by 
the General Court prohibiting the sale of wines and other spirit- 
uous liquors, except for chemical or mechanical purposes ? " Roch- 
ester voted one hundred and fifty yeas, and seventy-four nays. 

In February, 1850, some of the citizens, impatient of the slow 
processes of law, undertook more summarily to " stamp out " the 
liquor trafiic. A band of men, led by the deputy sheriff, visited 
an Irish house in what is now Factory Court, seized the liquor 
and burned it on the brow of Mill Hill, They then visited sev- 
eral other houses, seizing and destroying the liquor. One man 
met them at the door with an ax, but was overcome and his 
liquor captured. As they went from house to house the mob 
increased to a large number, including spectators, many of whom 
were among the most respectable people in town. Their presence, 
however, made them accessory. Solomon M. Hall, whose house 
on Frog Pond Hill, now Washington street, had been attacked, 
took legal steps against the raiders, and at the August term of 
court thirteen persons were indicted for " riotously, tumultuously, 
unlawfully, and outrageously attacking and besetting the house " 
of said Hall at 10 o'clock at night, " injuring property and breaking 
windows." A long trial followed, the rioters being defended by 
Daniel M. Christie. The verdict was against them, and they 
were fined five dollars each, with very heavy costs. They secured, 
however, an order for a new trial, and in the meantime settled 
upj some paying as high as $180 each. At the same term of 
court twenty indictments were found against Hall for selling 
li<|Uor. At the next annual meeting after the riot, the town 
appointed L. W. Allen, J. H. Ela, and Louis McDufl:ee a prose- 
cuting committee. The}" checked the sale of liquor for about a 
year, when the matter was dropped. 

In 1851, the subject of a law similar to the "Maine Law" was 
much discussed, and a convention was held at Dover to consider 
the subject. The Legislature submitted to the vote of the people 
an "act for the suppression of tippling shops and drinking houses." 
It appears to have been unsatisfactory to the people, as only about 
five thousand votes were cast in the State. Rochester indefinitely 
X)ostponed action. In 1855 there had come a complete political 



LIGHTS AND SHADOAVS. 315 

revolution in the State. The temperance sentiment had secured a 
large majority in the Legislature. A prohibitory law was enacted 
substantially as it stands on our statute book to-day. The tem- 
perance people were much elated, and held a congratulatory 
convention at Great Falls. 

So long as the community were united and determined in 
enforcing the law it worked well, but it ceased, at length, to be a 
new thing. Temperance efforts were relaxed, and a long period 
of free rum followed. 

In the winter of 1864-65 people were stirred to more active 
efforts, and formed a private association to suppress the sale. 
Committees were appointed to procure evidence and carry on the 
work of prosecution. Out of these committees the following per- 
sons were specially active, and accomplished much for the tempo- 
rary suppression of the traffic : — Charles "W. Brown, Charles K. 
Chase, Frank McDuffee, Robert Mcllroy, J. F. Place, and Jona- 
than "Wentworth. In the summer following, a public meeting was 
held in the Methodist Church, but the names of the committees 
were kept as secret as possible. The meeting served to keep public 
sentiment aroused, while the committees carried on the work of 
prosecution. A liquor dealers' association in Massachusetts under- 
took to protect its members by transferring actions to the United 
States courts under provisions of the internal revenue laws. Many 
hundred cases were thus taken out of the State courts, and the 
power of the law was thereby crippled. It was said that some of 
the dealers in Rochester had joined this association, and able Massa- 
chusetts counsel was employed to defend them. At the February 
term of 1866 about thirty indictments were obtained by the 
Rochester committee. Before the grand jury rose. Judge Doe, 
with the Attorney-General, caused injunctions to be served on the 
U. S. Marshals, clerks of courts, and lawyers expected to defend 
the persons indicted, restraining them from any attempt to transfer 
the cases. The sherifi' and his deputies being all assembled, were 
suddenly dispatched in every direction to serve these injunctions. 
The grand jury rose and reported. Many of the indicted parties 
finding themselves out-generaled escaped into Maine. By this 
means, several of the worst places in Rochester were closed, and 
some of the proprietors never returned. Over 3600 was paid into 
the county treasury for fines and costs. This committee continued 



316 ROCHESTEE. 

to work for two years. Public meetings were frequently held in 
the churches on Sabbath afternoons, the ministers being especially 
zealous in the cause. Eumsellers were greatly enraged. The 
principal hotel was fenced up, and refused for a long time to 
entertain travelers. The store of C. K. Chase, one of the com- 
mittee, was fired into in the night, causing much damage to his 
goods. Great efforts were made about this time to secure a law 
for a State constabulary for the better enforcement of prohibition, 
but without success. 

The rum party was long able to defeat every attempt to get 
the authority of the town to sanction the efforts of the committee. 
At the annual meeting in 1866 the town refused to appoint a 
prosecuting committee. At a special meeting in June following, 
articles to prosecute at the town's expense, and to reimburse Mr. 
Chase for the destruction of his property, and to establish a night 
watch, were defeated by adjournment. In April, 1867, however, 
the town instructed the selectmen to appoint a prosecuting com- 
mittee, and also voted unanimously to instruct the representatives 
to use their eftbrts to secure the passage of a constabulary law. 

In 1865 Concordia Lodge of Good Teinplars was organized, and 
was very flourishing and useful till it was disbanded in May, 
1869. There were over one hundred and fifty members in its 
best days. Soon after its discontinuance, Dennett Division of Sons 
of Temperance was instituted, through the efibrts of the celebrated 
Canadian temperance orator, Edward Carswell. This Division 
had a very useful career till the surrender of its charter in August, 
1879. It was composed largely of young people, and combined 
literary and social entertainments with its efforts to save the young 
from intemperance. This institution was too much neglected on 
account of the attention given to other organizations connected 
with the temperance reform. Dennett Division has, however, 
been largely instrumental in giving an impetus to all the others. 
The Temperance League of 1872, with its monthly meetings in 
McDuffee Hall, and the various clubs and societies which have 
since taken up the work, mainly owed their existence and success 
to members of the Division. 

As our population has increased, the "lights and shadows" 
which variegate our history have multiplied also. It would be 
difficult to say which generation has the advantage. Though 



LIGHTS AXD SHADOAVS. 317 

drunkenness is not universal and respectable as formerly, still 
the liquor dealers continue their diabolical traffic; still they sow 
the seeds of violence and crime ; still death suddenly claims the 
victims which rum has marked for his own. The shadows of the 
past are already spread upon these pages ; those nearer the present 
should not be omitted. 

In the winter of 1870-71 a man and his wife, having become 
drunk on cider, got into a quarrel in which he beat her so that 
she died. In July, 1871, a man died very suddenly of deUrium 
tremens. A post mortem examination showed that his stomach 
was nearly eaten through with liquor. Sept. 9, 1871, a man who 
was suffering from delirium tremens shot himself and died the 
next day. Xot long after, a shoemaker died of sudden attack of 
lung fever directly induced by drunkenness. His wife died the 
day before and they were buried at the same time. All these 
events occurred within a year, and though this may have been a 
little unusual, still if the full record of rum's doings were kept, 
every year would be spotted with its murderous list. We are apt 
to think of the evils of intemperance only in connection with 
violence, crime, and the extremes of exposure and poverty, and 
overlook the more numerous deaths really caused by strong drink, 
which occur every season, not only among the poverty-stricken 
and degraded, but in the highest circles of fashion and culture. 

About 1874 the popular wave introduced Eeform Clubs all over 
the country. May 29, 1875, twenty delegates from Dover held 
an enthusiastic meeting in the town hall, George Fox Guppy pre- 
siding. Eighty-eight signed the pledge that evening, a majority 
of whom had been habitual drinkers. A week later The Rochester 
Reform Club was permanently organized, with Dr. T. J. Swcatt, 
president, and Charles C. Wingate, secretary. Weekly or fort- 
nightly meetings were held for more than a year, with temperance 
discourses from the village pastors and addresses of laymen from 
abroad and at home. In the fall of 1875 and subsequent months 
this Club made special efforts to enforce the laAV. The town was 
rife with controversy and excitement. Mr. Lamprey, principal of 
the High School, was a leader in the movement. His firm prin- 
ciple and sturdy bravery fitted him specially for the work, in 
which he never flinched. His untiring devotion to the cause led 
to his removal in the spring of 1877, the liquor interest having 



318 ROCHESTER. 

gained control of the school board. Frequent prosecutions roused 
the liquor dealers to deeds of rage and violence. In public meetings 
there were bitter denunciations of the clergy and the " Courier " 
for their activity in the cause. Nov. 5, 1875, Charles "W. Bradley, 
who had been faithful as a policeman in suppressing the liquor 
traffic, while quietly passing along the street was struck violently 
from behind by the keeper of a low groggery, causing the blood 
to flow freely from a gash in his cheek. A crowd of roughs 
speedily gathered, who had singled out Mr. Bradley for special 
hatred on account of his activity in the reform movement. But 
with unswerving pluck Mr. Bradley seized his assailant and had 
him bound over to appear at the higher court. Three weeks 
after this, while he was at a temperance meeting, some cowardly 
miscreant threw several bricks through the plate glass in Mr. 
Bradley's front door. The excitement of this period extended 
through the town. Public meetings were held at Gonic. Many 
signed the pledge, and the rum traffic in that village was 
" squelched " for a time. Mention should here be made of 
Squamanagonic Lodge of Good Templars, which was organized 
May 24, 1876, and has continued in active existence to the present 
time, doing a, good work for that village. 

In 1879-80 there was considerable activity on the part of tem- 
perance people. Meetings were frequent, with lectures from Neal 
Dow and others. The " blue ribbon " movement sent its apostles, 
Booth and Smith, and many signed the pledge. The " Courier " 
says Frank McDuffee delivered " a powerful lecture on temper- 
ance," March 14, 1880. This renewed activity had salutary results 
in closing saloons and diminishing drunkenness. 

June 12, 1881, The Rochester Total Abstinence Society was organ- 
ized with about two hundred and fifty members, some of whom 
were reformed men. The president was John B. Kelley, and 
secretary Charles H. Dore. This society met nearlj^ every week 
for more than two years, with discussions, lectures, sermons, and 
addresses from various persons. 

Oct. 18, 1881, a well-known citizen of East Rochester was thrown 
from a wagon while intoxicated, receiving such injuries that he 
died after three days of terrible suffering. 

For several years about this time there seems to have been but 
little activity in the cause of temperance. The ministers continued 



LIGHTS AND SHADOWS. 319 

to preach plainly on the subject, and there was an occasional 
outspoken article in the " Courier." In the summer of 1885 it 
was publicly charged that seventy-five rum-holes were in active 
operation. Some of the temperance organizations still maintained 
their existence. But it was for the most part a time of general 
quiet. 

This quiet was suddenly' broken by a fatal drunken aftray, Oct. 
16, 1885. A party of seven men had come up to " the Plains " 
from Gonic early in the evening. After a little trading and 
drinking several times, they started for home. On the way they 
got into a drunken squabble, in which James McKee stabbed 
Michael Crannon so that he died in a short time. At the trial 
it was shown that the parties had been on friendly terms, and 
Mclvee had no remembrance of the act. He pleaded guilty of 
manslaughter in the second degree, and was sentenced to the 
State Prison for seven years. 

This affair aroused the people to action. Many places were 
searched for liquor, and several dealers fined or put under bonds. 
Frequent meetings were held, with stirring addresses from nearly 
all the prominent citizens, and a great improvement was manifest. 
John Young, J. P. Swasey, C. H. Hodgdon, Silas Hussey, and 
C. W. Edgerly were appointed to draft a constitution for a Law 
and Order League, which was presented I^ov. 22, 1885, and signed 
by over one hundred persons. Meetings continued with good 
work through the winter. In September, 1886, the League was 
revived with the special purpose of aiding the selectmen to enforce 
the law. Charles C. Hodgdon was president, and J. J. Abbott 
secretary. Meetings were continued for about three months. 

A party of four or five men were engaged in a drunken broil 
May 5, 1887, when Elmer Tebbetts was fatally stabbed by some 
unknown person. 

Among the forces at work for the suppression of intemperance 
the Woman's Christian Tenijoerance Union should not be overlooked. 
This was organized Oct. 11, 1876, with Mrs. A. J. Quick, pres- 
ident. The next year Mrs. Edwin Wallace became president and 
held the oflice over five years. Like the other organizations the 
Union has had its times of declension and revival. Lecturers 
have been secured from time to time. By earnest, self-denying 
efforts sufficient money was raised to open a reading-room July 5, 



320 ROCHESTER. 

1885. This reading-room has since been supported in part by the 
Union Mission Band, and since 1887 the town has made an annual 
appropriation of |100 for that purpose. The Union also established 
an evening school in 1887 which has been quite successful. 

At the annual meeting in March, 1888, the town adopted the 
following resolution by a large vote, no one voting against it : — 

" Besolved, that it is the sentiment of the town in this meeting 
assembled, that the law relating to the sale and keeping for sale 
intoxicating liquors, and to the keeping, maintenance, and letting 
of places defined by law as nuisance, shall be rigidly enforced by 
the selectmen." 

Accordingly notice was served on all known liquor dealers that 
the selectmen would carry out these instructions after the first 
day of April. 

Those who have carefully followed the history of the temperance 
cause cannot fail to note one fact. Amid all the vicissitudes 
attending the work, the friends of temperance from the beginning 
of the reform sixty years ago have labored persistently and hero- 
ically. The work has scarcely been remitted during the whole 
time, and if there have been occasional periods of apparent rest 
and slackness, the work has been speedily taken up with increased 
earnestness and determination. When one band of fighters has 
become weary or passed away in death, others have quickly 
sprung to the front, and resumed the battle. And if for the last 
few years there has seemed to be a lull in the fight, and drunk- 
enness has seemed to increase, yet even now (1888) there are 
not wanting those who are ready to deal vigorous blows in behalf 
of temperance, and tokens of renewed activity are manifest. 



CHAPTER Xiy. 

LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 

" In the race and not the prize 
Glory's true distinction lies. 
And the generous and the good, 
In the crowd or solitude, 
Stand in modesty alone 
Still serenely struggling on. 
Planting peacefully the seeds 
Of bright hopes and better deeds." 

RICHARD DAME. 

Richard Dame was born at Rochester in 1756, and died Sept. 
19, 1828. He was a very prominent man in his day. He repre- 
sented the town in the Legislature in 1800-01-03 ; was a member 
of State Senate from 1807 to 1809; a councilor from 1809 to 
1811 ; and justice of the Court of Common Pleas from 1817 till 
his death. 

Judge Dame was universally esteemed for the purity and integ- 
rity of his character in all the public and private relations of life. 
He always desired to be a peacemaker. A near neighbor of his 
was a very irascible, passionate, quarrelsome man. "While work- 
ing together on the highway he got in a rage and threw some 
snow upon the Judge. Desiring to live in peace with all men, 
the Judge thought this afibrded a good opportunity for reconciling 
his unkind neighbor; so he sent him a note stating that by 
throwing the snow he had rendered himself liable to punishment 
under the law, and informing him that he might take his choice, 
to be reconciled and live thereafter on peaceable terms with him, 
or pay five dollars as a penalty for the assault. The plan, how- 
ever, failed, as the messenger returned bringing the money. 
Judge Dame was an exemplary and highl}- respected member of 
the Society of Friends. During his last illness he exhibited that 
patient resignation which might have been expected from the 



322 ROCHESTER. 

uniform tenor of his life, and which happily illustrated his char- 
acter as a pious and devoted Christian. 

JON'AS C. MARCH. 

Clement March, father of Jonas C, was six feet and a half in 
height, and of very commanding presence. When any disturbance 
was heard among the iimiates of his house, he would say, " Nat, 
take my cane there." The boy, shouldering the long, mj'sterious 
wand and marching through the room, would restore quiet without 
a word. He was an agreeable, social man, whose company was 
sought at all merry-makings. In 1758 he was constable of the 
North Parish in Portsmouth, and his duty was to keep the unruly 
boys in and out of church in good order. He had three sons : — 
John, JSTathaniel, and Jonas C; and four daughters: — Margaret 
married a Mr. Maloon, Sarah married B. Akerman, Hannah 
married a Mr. Clark, and Elizabeth married J. Akerman. 

Jonas C. March was born at Portsmouth in 1764, and married 
Sally, daughter of Judge Aaron Wingate, who was the mother 
of his eight children, and died at the age of thirty-six. He after- 
wards married Lydia, sister of his first wife, who died in this village 
about 1865. Mr. March removed from Farmiugton to Rochester 
in 1803, and commenced trade on the present site of Feinemau's 
clothing store. As a business man he was very methodical, 
his books being kept with great precision and neatness. His 
semi-annual visit to Boston to purchase goods was a great event 
in Rochester. On these occasions lie was always accompanied by 
his firm friend and neighbor tradesman, Joseph Hanson. As great 
preparation was made for the trip as would now be made for a 
journey to Europe. For a week previous the old horse was 
allowed an extra quantity of oats, the chaise was inspected and 
put in thorough order. Two days were occupied in going and 
the same in returning. 

For the poor, Mr. March had always a kind word and good 
advice, with not unfrequently more substantial assistance. He was 
a good friend to the young and deserving, ever ready, even unso- 
licited, to assist those who were striving to rise. His benevolent 
traits of character rendered him universally respected and greatly 
beloved. He was register of deeds for Strattbrd county from 1803 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 323 

to 1811, and state senator from 1813 to 1815. He died after a 
sliort illness, Aug. 20, 1820, and his funeral was attended by mul- 
titudes of people from far and near. The names of his children 
were Eliza, Hannah, Jonas C, Jr., Caroline, Sarah Ann, Aaron 
Wingate, Emily, and John Plumer. 

The last named is a successful merchant in New York city. 
Jonas C, Jr., inherited many traits of his grandfather, being fond 
of merry-makings, and abounding in practical jokes. He suc- 
ceeded his father in the store, and was representative to the 
Legislature in 1827. After leaving Rochester he was for many 
years a salesman in Boston. 

U P H A M . 

BY F. W. UPIIAM, LL. D. 

As the story of Greece is that of the states of Greece, so the 
story of Xew England is that of her towns; and of few is the 
story of more curious interest than that of Rochester, New Hamp- 
shire, and of the village on what of old was known as Norway 
Plain, from its stately pines, a few relics of whose pride stood, 
in our youth, like motionless sentinels near the burying ground. 
De Tocqueville, the traveler who looked with truest philosophic 
insight into what here is best worth seeing, saw and regretted 
that our history was fast perishing. "Wise and worthy, then, the 
sentiment that led Franklin McDufFee to eave the traditions of 
his native town I It is well that the work he well began should 
be his lasting monument ! 

Of the time of the Revolution, in which our town had its share, 
my mother told me a family story, so characteristic of the men and 
women of that heroic age, that, had he known it, Bancroft would 
gladly have told it in his history. To test the feelings of the 
country people, not long before the fight at Lexington, the patriots 
in Boston sent out word that the British troops were marching 
out. Everywhere the minute-men sprang to arras. Her fixther 
was not enrolled among them, as he was waiting for his commis- 
sion, and his wife thought he would not go, for she was sick, 
and in the house there lay in its coffin the body of one of the 
children. He came in; he took down his pistols from over the 



324 ROCHESTER. 

mantel-piece. " You are not going ?" she said, and this was the 
answer, " / would rather die than be a slave." No other word passed 
between them. Their feelings were too much for words, and they 
understood each other. She was willing he should go, though, 
too sick to rise from her couch and left with their unburied dead, 
she listened to his horse's hoofs while he rode down the little hill 
where the house stood, as to a knell ! He came back before night, 
but soon went away again to serve through the seven years of 
war and to receive the commendation of Washington. He was 
worthy of the love of my mother, who in her written farewell 
to her children told them to inscribe on her gravestone that " she 
was the daughter of Hon. Thomas Cogswell of Gilmanton." 

One fact in the annals of Rochester, in its date, at least, is 
almost unique. There the union of Church and State long survived; 
for, born in A. D. 1817, I was baptized by old Parson Haven, 
after whom the hill that on the south overlooks the village is 
named. And in town meeting the town voted that for life he 
should be the town minister. Quakers came and settled in Meader- 
borough. Baptists in the south of his parish, in force the Meth- 
odists contested the village, and Parson Haven out-preached his 
eyesight, his voice, and his congregation, yet the town faithfully 
paid him his stipend till he died ! 

The town that in town meeting voted for its minister, cared so 
well for its town school that scholars were there fitted for college. 
My memory runs not back so far as to that sternest and best of 
schoolmasters, Henry Orne, but one of his pupils told me, that 
when to the common regret he gave up his honorable oflice — 
for the schoolmaster then was one of the grandees of the town — 
he was so worn out, that when a man whom he loved in his 
boyhood sought him out in his strict seclusion, saj^ing he must 
see his old friend, this answer came back, " Tell him, what is left 
of Henry Orne is not worth the seeing!" 

Of his boys he made men, and of them there were some who 
came to honor. Of one of these I may speak — my oldest brother, 
Thomas Cogswell Upham (p. 243). I have traveled far in many 
lands, but not so far as the bounds of his fame. A Brahmin 
told a missionary in India that he had read his religious works 
with, more satisfaction than any others in the English tongue. 
Going up to the Black Sea, I saw on heights overlooking Con- 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 325 

stantiiiople the lofty towers of Robert College; his Philosophy, 
trauslated into one of the principal languages of the Ottoman 
Empire, was there taught by its founder, Cyrus Hamlin, whose 
name, clarum et vcnerabile, here may well be named, as for a short 
time he was master of the Academy on Norway Plain. 

Thomas was a grandson of the first minister of the fine old 
town of Deerfield, K. II., and a graduate of Harvard. He was born 
in that town, in a house that still looks out on Pleasant Pond; 
but all his childish recollections and life-long love were of and 
for the hills and streams and the people of Kochester. Giving up 
much from a sense of duty, he became assistant to old Parson 
Haven, and soon filled the deserted meeting-house. Thence called 
at the age of twenty-five to Bowdoin, his fame as a discoverer in 
philosophy and a religious writer became the rich possession ot 
the college, in whose graveyard, shaded by his native pine, his 
body now waits for the resurrection. He was so widely known 
that I give two incidents in his life — one of which were other- 
wise too trivial. So well-mannered and studious a child was he, 
that for a long while he, alone, of the pupils of Henry Orne, 
escaped the flogging administered for cause to every other one. 
When at last his time came, to the amazement of all the school, 
of its stern master, too, the gentlest of the village boys so stoutly 
resisted, that for once Henr}' Orne gave in, feeling that there 
must be some mistake, as there proved to be. 

As to himself the Professor was reticent ; and till near the end 
of his days may never have told what is too honorable to him 
that with me it should perish. In Bowdoin there were professors 
only, and to each a special field was given ; as, to Henry W. 
Longfellow that of modern languages, to him, that of mental phi- 
losophy. What then was known as such, was a chaos. It then 
bore (as it still bears in some treatises) much the same relation 
that alchemy bore to chemistry, astrology to astronomy. With iron 
industry, fourteen hours a day for ten years he labored to bring 
order into its confusion, and with results so little satisfactory that 
with a high sense of honor, feeling that he could not master the 
life work given him, he silently made up his mind to resign his 
professorship. Just then there came into his mind a perception 
of the truth, that while the spirit there is in man is one spirit, 
it has three phases of being, — the mind, the heart, and the will. 



326 ROCHESTER. 

equal in breadth of manifestation, and each with powers and laws 
of its own. In the light of this idea, with fresh courage he began 
to classify all the many facts he had gathered, and "praying all 
the time," clear through the realms of the intellect and of the 
passions he carried the science which before had for the most 
part stopped with imperfect attempts to survey the mind; and 
thus far he made an accurate map of the soul. Then, on the will, 
as equal in the breadth and complexity of its manifestations and 
laws, he wrote a treatise, the first ever written with any such 
broad purpose in any language under heaven. 

He was a great man, but his father, Hon. Kathaniel Upham 
of Rochester, was by nature greater than any of his seven sons. 
His mother, who was brought up in the house of her aunt, the 
wife of Col. Timothy Pickering of Salem, was a woman of quick 
intellect and unpretending piety. The eldest of her two sons* 
was of great energy, so controlled by common sense, that he suc- 
ceeded in whatever he undertook. In my childhood he was so 
much in Washington, where for six years he was the representative 
from the old county of Strafl:brd, that my remembrances of him 
are few till after a long and severe fever, from which he but par- 
tially recovered, to die at the age of fifty-five, July 10, 1829. He 
was a personal friend of two statesmen, very unlike and bitterly 
hostile, Henry Clay of Kentucky and Andrew Jackson. His pri- 
vate secretary told me that the old General, in the last years of 
his life at the Hermitage, often pleased himself with calling over 
the roll of his friends, and among them always named my father. 
In the attacks made in Congress upon the militar}- conduct of the 
General, no doubt my father gave him earnest support, for he 
ever stood in opposition to the Federalists, who before and in the 
war of 1812 went, as he thought, to the very verge of treason. 
Rightly to state the value of his political influence, the story of 
a strife as severe, as bitter, and as important in its principles as 
any in our annals, would have to be written; but here it can 
only be said, that in 1811 he was one of the Council of Governor 
Langdon, and that when he ran for Congress, this was the sig- 
nificant heading of the ticket : — " The union of the States." 



*NoTE. — The other son was Col. Timothy Upham of rovtsmouth. He was distinguished 
for bravery and s'Jod conduct in the war of 1812. In the sortie from Fort Erie he led tke 
reserve, aiid in tlie bloody battles on the Niagara frontier his regiment from twelve hundred 
■was cut tlown to three hundred and fifty men. 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 327 

In person he was tall and commanding, above the average of 
men, six feet four inches in height, straight as a dart, and said 
to have been the finest-looking man in the house. The only 
portrait of Mr. Upham now in existence may be seen in the 
Corcoran Art Gallery, in a picture of the House of Representa- 
tives in session in the old hall as it was in 1817. It was painted 
by Morse, since so famous, then a young artist, and a son of a 
friend of my father. He is in the front circle, the only one of 
the members standing, and, consequently, he is the most con- 
spicuous figure in the picture ; but all the figures are so small 
that no one of the portraits is of much value as a likeness. 

The town that in town meeting chose a minister for life, and that 
for its school-master selected one who could fit boys for college, 
and kept him in otRce till his strength was worn out, provided 
a town library, and the spirit of the early dwellers on the Norway 
Plain is proved by those three facts. Very small and very well 
selected that library was the delight of my boyhood, for there with 
histories and travels were "Don Quixote," " Gil Bias," " Waverley," 
and the "Lay of the Last Minstrel." It was then kept in the law- 
office of Hon. David Barker, a native of the town and one of the 
boys of Henry Orne, — a successor to my father in Congress, a 
graduate of Cambridge, a favorite pupil of Dr. Abbot of the Exeter 
Academy, he was a gentleman of fine nature and fine culture. 
My oldest sister Mary was his wife. I was up at his house one 
afternoon, and, as at the usual hour Mr. Barker did not come 
over to tea, we knew that something unusual had happened. 
After a long while he came in and told his wife that he had 
been with a boy who had walked down from Farmington, some 
eight miles, to consult with him as to what to read and how to 
improve his mind. Walking such a distance was less common 
then than now, and a sign of utter poverty. " Why did you not 
send him back in the wagon?" among other tilings was asked, 
and there was a depth of meaning in the answer, " He was not that 
kind of a boy!'' That boy lived to be Senator, and to die Vice- 
President of the United States — Henry Wilson — and the book 
selected for him was Marshall's Life of Washington. 

In that library was "The Monastery," the first of Scott's novels 
read by me, and always for that reason a favorite, as, for the 
same reason, Ruskin says it is with him. i^ow, Scott's glowing 



328 ROCHESTER. 

descriptions of scenery in " The Monastery" and in the "Lay of the 
Last Minstrel " led me, as a boy, to imagine that his marvelous 
genius might have been quickened by the natural beauty of the 
valley of the Tweed and the country around Abbotsford; and much 
surprised, delighted, and perhaps incredulous I should have been, had 
any one told me the truth, that the natural beauties of the Lowland 
of Scotland are surpassed b}^ those of the old county of Strafford; 
that few of their inland prospects equal the far-reaching view 
from the top of Haven's Hill ; that the Cocheco is very much as 
the Tweed, and that, at a like distance, the Eildon Hills are not 
finer than iSTew Durham Eidge and Blue Job as seen from the 
Norway Plain. 

Several others of the seven sons of Hon. IS'athaniel Upham 
attained considerable distinction. The writer of the above sketch, 
Francis William Upha?n, LL. D., a lawyer of some note, and for- 
merly partner of Eobert Eantoul of Boston, is now Professor of 
Mental Philosophy in Eutgers College. 

Dr. Alfred Upham graduated at Dartmouth Medical College in 
1833, and was for more than forty years a successful physician in 
New York City. He died in November, 1878, and " his funeral 
brought together a large number of persons of solid worth as well 
as venerable age." Dr. Upham was highly esteemed by his many 
acquaintances, one of whom says that " his house was a fountain 
of healing, and also of kindness and sympathy to all who knew 
him." 

Dr. Albert Gallatin Upham studied his profession in Paris, was 
elected Professor of Pathological Anatoni}' in the Medical College 
of Castleton, Vt., and was corresponding member of the National 
Institute of the United States. He died in Boston in the spring 
of 1847, of typhus fever contracted in discharge of his professional 
duties. He was a man of high moral worth and of great promise 
in his profession. 

Tim.othy Upham was also a physician. 

Joseph Badger Upham was a merchant. 

Hon. Nathaniel Gookin Upham. was born in Eochester in 1801, 
and graduated in 1820 from Dartmouth College, from which he 
received the degree of LL. D. in 1862. He began the practice of 
law in Bristol but removed to Concord in 1829. He was for 
twelve years judge of the Superior Court of New Hampshire. In 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 329 

1836 he was appointed by Governor Badger to deliver a eulogy 
on Lafayette before the State Legislature, He was for several 
years president of the Concord Railroad. Li 1853 he was appointed 
commissioner to England for the adjustment of claims between 
Great Britain and the United States, which position he filled with 
honor to himself and full satisfaction to our government. He died 
at Concord in 1869. "Judge Upham was a man well known, 
and of large influence throughout JSTew England for many years. 
He was a Christian, a scholar, a statesman, a man without 
reproach." 

MOSES HALE. 

Moses Hale, the second son of Eli[>halet and liachel Hale, was 
born in Bradford, Mass., July 23, 1775. He was a direct descend- 
ant of Thomas and Thomasine Hale, who came from Hertfordshire, 
England, and settled in ISTewbury, Mass., in 1635, afterwards 
removing to Bradford. 

About the year 1800 Moses went to Durham, and in April, 
1804, was married to Elisabeth De Merritte of that village, and 
settled in Rochester, where he continued to reside till his death. 
Here he established a leather business — tanning and currying — 
which he carried on with great success for over thirty years, fur- 
nishing a large part of the leather used in the adjoining towns 
and counties, and indeed all over the State. He also dealt largely 
with several Boston houses, carrying the goods ordered in two- 
horse teams, which occupied a week in making the round trip. 
In this business he acquired what in those days was considered 
a fortune, and retired from active life before he was sixty years 
old. His two sons, Luther and Moses, Jr., continued the busi- 
ness till the death of Luther in 1842. The store on Market street 
owned by the late Lewis Hanson, with the house in the rear 
occupied by him, was built by Mr. Hale for leather storage, and 
used for that purpose till the business was closed. The other 
buildings were taken down or removed, and the tannery converted 
into a fruit garden. 

Mr. Hale also carried on farming to quite an extent, owning 
and working several farms in Rochester. He was a kind, devoted 
husband, an indulgent father, belie^'ing it his first duty to care for 



330 ROCHESTER. 

those nearest him. He was always a friend to the needy, and the 
occasions were not rare when in some snowstorm such as were 
frequent in those days, he would request " the boys " to harness up, 
and taking with them food and fuel, would go to some lone widow 
or spinster, shovel away the snow from her door, and replenish 
her wasted stores. The widow and orphan found in him a true 
friend, and a wise adviser. He was an honest man, and much 
relied on for his sound judgment and his conservative policy. 
He held oifiees of trust at home, and represented the town in the 
State Legislature. He was always interested in the prosperity of 
the town. When it was proposed to locate a woolen mill in 
Rochester there was much opposition, but Mr. Hale encouraged 
it by his word, and leased, at a low rate, land on which to erect 
some of the buildings. 

Though not a member of any church, he was a religious man, 
a strict observer of the Sabbath and its institutions, regular in 
attendance at church, and requiring the same of every member 
of his household. Bible reading occupied the entire day, and he 
was never seen with any other book on the Sabbath. He was 
never heard to criticise the creeds or opinions of others, but 
accorded to them that which he desired for himself — liberty. 

He contributed generously to the support, not only of his own 
society, but of each in town. He died in 1839. His wife, Elisa- 
beth, was the daughter of Israel and Lois De Merritte of Dur- 
ham, and grand-daughter of Major John De Merritte of Madbury, 
who rendered valuable service in the taking of Fort "William and 
Mary in 1775. 

They had nine children. Alfred, Luther, and Hoses, Jr., were 
never married, and lived to the ages of forty-six, thirty-live, and 
twenty-nine respectively. Clara died in infancy. Caroline married 
Louis Turner of Bangor, Me., and upon the death of Mr. Turner, 
about six years later, she removed to Rochester. She was greatly 
respected and beloved, a woman of strong, decided convictions, 
always found on the side of truth and justice, whether popular 
or unpopular, and never afraid of expressing her convictions to 
others. At the commencement of the anti-slavery struggle she 
came out Ijoldly on the side of the oppressed, and was active in 
forming the lirst anti-slaver}" society in Rochester, of which she 
was the first secretary. " Kind, genial, sympathetic, and strong, 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 331 

all within her circle sought her counsel, and none were refused 
its benefits. For strength of judgment, liberality of sentiment, 
broad charity, general knowledge, courageous expression, just 
discrimination, tact, command, and executive ability she had few 
equals." She was foremost in all works of benevolence, and 
greatly appreciated by the church of which she was a member. 
She died in 1873. 

Elisabeth married Richard Kimball in December, 1843. She 
possessed rare beauty of face and feature, and in character seemed 
almost faultless. Though never possessing strong health, she was 
always forgetful of self, and helpful to others. To several lone 
women she was sole provider, and to her they alwaj's looked for 
food and raiment, which never failed. Her sweetness of temper 
and disposition, her loving thoughtfulness for the feelings of others, 
won her friends everywhere. Her life, counting it by years, w^as 
short — for she died at the age of twenty-seven — but it was filled 
with tender ministry to others. 

Calvin was for a time a clerk in the dry goods store of Jona- 
than H. Torr of Rochester, and afterwards opened a store at Dover, 
where he continued business till elected cashier of the Langdon 
bank, and later of the Dover i^ational Bank and treasurer of the 
Dover Savings Bank. He married Martha Chace of Berwick, 
Me., and died at Dover, May 16, 1887. 

Harrison remained a farmer at the homestead. He married 
Abby Wadleigh of Union, and died in 1879. 

Sarah married, in 1850, J. A. N'ewell of Boston, Mass., and 
took up her residence in that city, but latterly has lived in West 
I^Tewton, Mass. 

WOODMAN. 

Bev. Joseph Woodman^ the first settled minister of Sanbornton, 
was the son of John Woodman of Newbury, Mass., and gradu- 
ated at Xassau Hall in 1766. His wife was the daughter of Rev. 
Aaron Whittemore of Pembroke. He was a distinguished divine, 
and a fearless patriot. His name stands at the head of the list 
of signers to the test declaration sent out by the committee of 
safety in 1766. He had a small salary, with the farm set apart 
for the first minister, and it was with difiiculty he reared and 



332 ROCHESTER. 

educated his family of nine children, sending the oldest son to 
college. 

Jeremiah Hall Woodmax, the eldest son of " Parson Wood- 
man," was born in Sanbornton April 18, 1775. He prepared for 
college nnder the tuition of his father, and the Eev. Dr. Woods 
of Boscawen. At the age of fifteen he started for Hanover on 
horseback, with saddle bags to hold his scanty outfit of books 
and clothing. Dartmouth College was then literally " vox clamantis 
in deserto." Mr. Woodman was very studious and graduated in 
1794, holding the second rank in his class of forty-five. His 
democratic principles did not affiliate with the Phi Beta Kappa 
Society, and he joined a large number of students in raising an 
opposition to it. He opposed it because of what he thought were 
its aristocratic tendencies, and not because of its secrecy, for later 
in life he was one of the founders and the first Master of the 
Humane Lodge of Masons in Rochester. 

After leaving college, Mr. Woodman taught the Academy at 
Hallowell, Me., for two years. From there he went to Franklin, 
then a part of Salisbury, and read law with Hon. Thomas W. 
Thompson, and afterwards with Judge Jeremiah Smith at Exeter, 
where he was admitted to the bar. About this time he traveled 
through Vermont and a part of New York, looking for a desirable 
location, but concluded to return to New Hampshire, and in 1799 
began practice in Warner. After one year he removed to Mere- 
dith Bridge, now Laconia, where he soon had a large practice, 
and was highly esteemed for fidelity, uprightness, and ability. 

In 1806 he came to Rochester, where he was a prominent lawyer 
for nearly fifty years. He had a large circle of warm friends, 
particularly among the leading men of the Federal party with 
whom he associated. Distrusting the policy of Jelferson, he was 
conspicuous for his ardent and vigorous support of the Federal, 
and, afterwards, of the Whig party. In middle life he took active 
part in their conventions, but residing in a strong democratic 
town, county, and State, he was called to few elective offices. 
In 1824-25 he was elected representative to the Legislature. lu 
town affiiirs, apart from politics, he was much consulted and trusted 
by the people, and in their meetings was listened to with great 
respect and confidence. Particularly in everything relating to the 
schools, he was a directing spirit, and with other sound men of 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 333 

the village, insisted upon procuring teachers who were thoroughl}'' 
educated, and most of whom were college graduates. The good 
results of this policy are plainly seen in the distinguished men 
whom Rochester has sent out, many of whose names appear in 
the sketches of this chapter. Mr. Woodman was one of the 
founders of both AYolfeborough and Eochester academies. He 
gave much attention to forming, and was one of the originators 
of the Countv Ao;ricultural Societv, of which he was also president. 

Mr. Woodman was distinguished for his urbanity and kind and 
familiar intercourse with people of all classes. He was a social 
man, fond of humor, and exceedingly hospitable. There are few 
private houses where so many guests have been entertained, not 
grudgingly, but with a genial kindness that made them feel at 
home. 

Soon after settling in Rochester, Mr. Woodman bought the 
large Mansion House which had been erected by Captain Storer 
in 1799. This was his life-long residence, and here he died in 
1854. His widow occupied it till her death in 1866, at the age 
of eighty-six. It is now a hotel, on the west side of Main street, 
just north of Liberty street. 

About the time he came to Rochester, Mr. Woodman married 
Sarah, daughter of Rev. Stephen Chase of Newcastle. Descended 
from distinguished ancestry. Col. Joshua Wingate of Hampton, 
Hon. John Frost of l^ewcastle, and the elder William Pepperell, 
she was eminent for her christian character, her genial hospitality, 
her refined intellect, and her helpful sympathy for the sick and 
the needy. She instilled into her children a laudable ambition to 
be useful and honorable in every position in which they might 
be placed. 

The children of Jeremiah H. and Sarah C. Woodman, who 
survived infancy, were the following, all of whom were married 
and had children : — 

1. 3I(ay Esther, wife of Judge Xoah Tebbets, born Jan. 12, 
1808, died Jan. 8, 1879. 

2. Charles William, born in Rochester Dec. 7, 1809, gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth College in 1829. He read law with his father, 
Hon. Ichabod Bartlett of Portsmouth, and Hon. Richard Fletcher 
of Boston, and was admitted to the bar in 1833. After one year's 



334 ROCHESTER. 

practice in Somersworth he removed to Dover, where his remaining 
Ufe was spent. He was solicitor for Strafford county from 1889 to 
1844; judge of probate from 1846 to 1853; judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas in 1854, the office being abolished in 1855. In 1861, 
'62, '78 and '79, he represented Dover in the Legislature, following 
his first term with service in the army as United States paymaster. 
For many years he was commissioner of the Circuit Court of 
the United States. He was always a prominent citizen, highly 
respected and honored. He was for a long time law partner with 
Hon. John P. Hale, and in later years with Arthur G. Whittemore. 
He was a member of Sawyer Post, G. A. R., and also of Straflbrd 
Lodge of F. & A, Masons, and Wecohamet Lodge of Odd Fellows. 
Judge Woodman married, first, in 1840, Charlotte, daughter of 
Stephen Pierce of Portsmouth, and second, in 1866, Frances J., 
daughter of John J. Loren of Roxbury, Me. He died Jan. 24, 
1888, leaving a widow and two daughters. 

3. Jeremiah Hall, born Aug. 1, 1811, resides in Ashtabula, Ohio. 

4. Theodore Chase, born in Rochester April 10, 1815, fitted 
for college at Exeter, and graduated at Dartmouth College in 1835. 
He read law with Hon. Daniel M. Christie and Hon. IToah Teb- 
bets of Dover. He began practice in Haverhill, but removed to 
Bucksport, Me., in 1839. 

In the earlier part of his professional life Mr. Woodman took 
an active interest in politics, though he never sought office, only 
serving the public faithfully and honestly when duty seemed to 
call. He was a member of the Legislature in 1857-58, 1866-67 
-68, being speaker of the House the last year. From this time 
he retired definitely from public life, steadfastly refusing every 
office except that of moderator of town meeting, to which he was 
elected thirty-four times, and in which he exhibited rare talents 
and tact. The confidence of his fellow-townsmen shown in the 
constant regularit}' of conferring this office upon him was a special 
gratification to Mr. Woodman, and he frequently referred to it in 
his later years as the acme of his political ambition. He was 
always regarded a safe counselor in matters of law and business, 
and a great discourager of litigation. Pre-eminently a peace-maker, 
he habitually urged would-be clients to settle their difierences 
without recourse to law, if possible, consequently his court prac- 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 335 

tice was never large. His principal business was office practice, 
and the settlement of estates. His reputation for financial sagacity 
and faithfulness brought him man}' trusts, which he administered 
with that high sense of honor and integrity which characterized 
the whole course of his life. The widow, the orphan, and the 
needy found in him a wise adviser, a sympathizing, generous 
friend, a courteous gentleman, to whom a selfish motive or an 
unkindly act seemed impossible. " He left behind him memories 
of a clear, strong mind, a sparkling social wit, an unselfish, gen- 
erous character, an upright, noble life." 

Mr. Woodman married the daughter of Dea. Henry Darling of 
Bucks[)ort, Me., whom he left a widow with three daughters and 
one son, the Rev. Russell "Woodman of Albany, X. Y. 

5. Sarah Jane^ born Nov. 5, 1816, married Russell Bradford, 
Esq., whom she survives, and resides at Cambridge, Mass. 

6. Harrieite Crosbi/, born May 31, 1818, married Dr. Jeremiah 
H. Garland, and resides at Nashua. 

7. Maria Barker, born Dec. 31, 1819, married John P. Rogers, 
a merchant residing in Boston, Mass. 

8. Charlotte Cheecer, born Oct. 10, 1821, married Hon. Moses 
Howe of Haverhill, Mass. 

9. Samuel, born June 27, 1824, in trade at Haverhill, Mass. 

CHARLES DEXNETT. 

The ancestry of the subject of this sketch is traced back through 
five generations in this country. In tracing the Dennetts in Eng- 
land, it is found that they originated in Sussex county. A coat 
of arms belonging to a soldier of the name is described in Guil- 
liunfs Heraldry, edition of 1(338. For those interested in such 
things an engraving of the coat of arms is here given with the 
description in its quaint old English spelling. 

Description of (he Coat of Arms of (he English Denneds. 

" HE BEARETH SABLE, GUTTE D'EAU, ERMYXE, BLACK UPOX WHITE, BY THE 
NAME OF DAXXET. THE WORD EAU IS A FRENCH WORD, AND SIGNIFYETH THE 
SAME AS AQUA DOTH IN LATIN, WHICH IS AS MUCH AS TO SAY HE BEARETH 
DROPS OF WATER; IF HE SHOULD P.LAZON IT IN ENGLISH THE PROPER COLOUR 
THEREOF IS ARGENT. 



336 



ROCHESTER. 



" THIS HAS BEEN A WORTHY ESCUCHEON FOR A SOULDIER OF THAT CHRISTIAN 
LEGION CALLED THE FULMINATRIX, AT WHOSE PRAYERS IN A GREAT DROUGHTH, 
GOD POURED DOWNE RAINE IN THE SIGHT OF THE HEATHEN, AS EUSEIJIUS TES- 
TIFYETH ; AND YET THEY WERE NO FRESH WATER SOULDIERS, BUT WERE AS 
READY TO HAVE EMBRUED THEIR ESCUCHEONS WITH DROPS OF BLOOD AS TO 
HAVE THUS SPRINKLED THEM WITH DROPS OF RAINE." 




An English authority of modern date says, " The family arms of 
Dennet or Dennett, agreeably to the fashion of the time, — le tem.jjs 
Elisabeth, — is — sable, gutte d'eau, a canton Ermine ; crest, boar's head, 
erased yro'per ; motto. Per Dei Providentiam." 

The name is Normandie French, and was originally D'Anet; 
then Danet, then Dannet, then Dennet, and finally Dennett. 

Two brothers, Alexander and John Dennett, came from England 
somewhere about 1660, settling in Portsmouth, N. H. Alexander, 
born about 1635, died in ISTewcastle in 1698. John died May 1, 
1709, and was buried in Portsmouth. 

Alexander, Jr., born about 1660, died June 7, 1733, at Ports- 
mouth, leaving seven children ; he married, as second wife, Esther 
Cross, Dec. 2, 1728. 

His oldest son, Closes, born 1695, married Lydia Fernald of 
Kittery, Me., Feb. 11, 1723, and died in 1749. A copy of his 
will, dated 1745, and the inventory of his property after his de- 
cease, valued in pounds, shillings, and pence, and dated at Ports- 
mouth, province of New Hampshire, shows that he left an estate 
of $26,000. His name is on record as selectman, justice of the 
peace, etc. Five of his nine children died in early childhood. 
His oldest son, David, born March 15, 1727, was a soldier in the 
Revolutionary war, and died in hospital at Falmouth, Me., in 
1778. 

Charles, second son of Moses, born April 21, 1729, married 
Hannah Nutter of Newington, Sept. 13, 1753, and died April 6, 




E}iq ^yy AJiRitChU 






LEADIX(; MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION, 337 

1763, leaving two dau,o-hters and a son, Closes, born in 1758, in 
Portsmouth, died in Biirnstead Dec. 28, 1810. Moses married, iu 
1781, Betsey, daughter of Samuel Gutter of Portsmouth, where 
she was born Ma}' 3, 1762. She died in Barnstead, Jan. 19, 1852, 
nearly ninety years of age. She was a Avomau of ver}' strong 
and positive traits of character, many of which were inherited by 
her son Charles, the subject of this sketch, and the fourth of the 
eight children of this marriage. 

Charles Dennett, sixth in descent from the first Alexander, 
was born in Barnstead, Sept. 28, 1788. The younger son, Oliver, 
remained upon the home farm, which is still in possession of the 
family. Charles, who had much mechanical ingenuit}', was appren- 
ticed at the age of fourteen to a cabinet-maker in Gilmanton, 
where he remained through the period of seven years, which was 
then considered requisite to mastering an}' trade. An incident 
which occurred during his apprenticeship foreshadows the future 
man. He learned to play cards, but finding they were absorbing 
too much of his time and attention, he decided to give up playing, 
and never touched cards again. 

When he had completed his time, he was hired by his master 
at the munificent sum of eight dollars per month, and board, 
having to take his pay partly in clock-cases, and trust to selling 
them if he could ! 

In 1812 he came to Rochester, and soon began cabinet-making 
for himself. It was then considered a diificult task to veneer 
with mahogany, but he laid his first veneer successfully without 
ever having seen it done. He was a very nice and tasteful work- 
man. Many inlaid clock-cases, sideboards, secretaries, bureaus, 
and tables, with exquisitely carved and twisted legs, still exist to 
testify to his skill and thorough workmanship, being hand-made 
by himself and his apprentices. 

His upright habits and stead}' industry soon won the respect 
of his townsmen. He had been in Rochester but a brief time 
when Mr. Upham, one of his neighbors, came and oftered him a 
loan of money; he replied that he "would like it very much, but 
could give no security." Mr. Upham responded, " So long as I 
hear you at work every morning at four o'clock I wish no other 
security." 

Xov. 11, 1813, he married Abigail Ham, daughter of Israel 

23 



338 ROCHESTER. 

Ham of Eochester Neck and Mehitable, daughter of Daniel Hayes 
of Madburj. She was born Jan. 8, 1792. 

Just before his marriage Mr. Dennett erected the dwelhng- 
house on Main street, which was his home for nearly fifty-four 
years. There nine children were born to him, and there he 
celebrated his " golden wedding." The brick building, which he 
used for a shop, was built about two years later than the dwelling- 
house. 

Their children were as follows: — 1. Israel Ham, born Dec. 5, 
1814, died Dec. 3, 1817. 2. Eliza, born Sept. 19, 1816, died 
Aug. 14, 1817. 3. Charles, Jr., born Aug. 4, 1818, died Oct. 19, 
1829. 4. John Plummer, born Oct. 15, 1820, died Feb. 24, 1836. 
5. Adalme, born Aug. 19, 1822, now living in Concord, is the 
wife of G. S. Dennett. Of her three children, Herman W., Ida 
F., and L3'ford P., only one is living, viz., Herman W. Ida 
F., wife of Dr. H. A. Dalrymple, left three children, one of 
whom, Albert H., lives in Concord with his grandmother; Alice 
E. resides in Rochester; and Bertha has died. 6. Oliver, born 
March 21, 1825, died April 10, 1843, at Union College, Schenec- 
tady, E". Y. Entering college at sixteen years of age, he died at 
eighteen of brain fever. He was an exceptionally fine scholar, 
unusually modest, retiring, and amiable. His death was a heavy 
blow to his parents, and they never fully recovered from its efl:ects. 
7. George Henry, born May 8, 1827, is a successful merchant in 
"Rockford, Illinois, where he has resided over thirty years. He 
married Climena M. Kelly in 1853. 8. Abbie Ham, born Feb. 24, 
1831, graduated at New Hampshire Conference Seminary in 1851, 
taught a year in Manchester High School, and afterwards in a 
family school in Virginia. She now occupies the homestead on 
Main street, having adopted Alice Edissa, great-grandchild of 
Charles Dennett. 9. Harrieite Frances, born ISTov. 16, 1833, died 
Nov. 30, 1868. She possessed rare traits of character, but was 
so retiring that her virtues were fully appreciated only by those 
who knew her most intimately. 

The al»ovc record shows that time brought many sad burdens 
to the heart of Charles Dennett; but such was the elasticity and 
natural cheerfulness of his disposition, that he always impressed 
those with whom he came in contact as being uncommonly happy 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 339 

and free from care ; his vivacious manner, and merry laugh as he 
poured forth a rich fund of anecdotes, ever made him a welcome 
addition to any circle, whether of old or young. His early 
advantages were limited, ])nt he was a close observer, fond of 
reading, and keenly interested in all modern discoveries. Even 
after his marriage he attended writing-school, and to his latest 
days his legible penmanship was remarkably fine. 

From his first coming to Kochester he identified himself with 
the moral interests of the town, and Avas deeply anxious to do 
all in his power to uplift the community. He was greatly inter- 
ested in the schools, and did much in sustaining the old academy 
during its existence. 

He became a Methodist soon after coming to Eochester, and 
was largely instrumental in establishing the church there in its 
infancy. He, with James C. Cole and Simon Chase, took charge 
of building the first Methodist Episcopal Church, erected in 1825 
(p. 263). He always contributed largely, for his means, toward 
its support. His house was a home for the ministers who traveled 
horseback " on a circuit," before the church was able to support 
a settled pastor. Many times did he and his self-sacrificing wife, 
who emulated his example in devotion to the church, arise from 
bed near midnight to admit some weary itinerant, and provide 
for the wants of man and beast. Mr. and Mrs. Dennett were 
literally pioneers in the early days of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in Rochester. Just beginning life, with limited means, 
they denied themselves in manifold ways, and labored hard to aid 
the church they loved so tenderly. 

As we look back upon the period when Mr. and Mrs. Dennett 
began life in Rochester, it is astonishing to note the difierence in 
the whole mode of existence compared with that of the present day. 
Stoves were wholly unknown. Open fires were used for cooking 
as well as warmth, the bellows being plied to fan the dying 
flames. About 1823 Mr. Dennett bought the first cooking-stove 
ever used in town ; and people came quite a distance to see it, as 
a curiosity, often declaring they'd " iiecer have such a black, dismal 
thing in their homes." Candles and whale-oil lamps gave dimly 
flickering light in public places as well as private houses. The 
convenience of Lucifer matches was unknown. For some years 
the tinder-box and flint were in requisition in the home of 



340 ROCHESTER. 

which we speak, and must have been a sore trial to the patience 
in times of haste. When they commenced housekeeping it was 
customary to keep hquors in the house to offer guests; ministers, 
as well as others, being then unenlightened as to the evils of the 
social glass. In later days, when speaking of the olden times, 
Mr. and Mrs. Dennett often said they would then have felt as 
mortified if without some kind of spirits for guests, as in after 
years if they had had no food to set before them. 

Afterwards Mr. Dennett became widely known as a most zealous 
temperance advocate, time, strength, and money being freely 
expended in the cause. Of course railroads and telegraphs did 
not approach the town for many years after their marriage, the 
lumbering stage-coach being the only public conveyance. 

Kot long before Mr. Dennett's death he was asked if he thought 
there could be as many wonderful discoveries in the fifty years 
to come as in the past half century. He was of the opinion that 
there could not be as many that would be generally useful to all 
classes, and probably he was correct. Mr. Dennett had quite an 
amount of inventive talent. In 1822 he constructed a corn-sheller 
that would shell a bushel of corn in three minutes, separating 
the corn from the cobs; but he did not attempt to secure a patent 
on it. He also made a lock which was used many years upon 
the vault of the bank in which he was a director, and which 
repeatedly defied the efforts of burglars. 

When about forty-one years old Mr. Dennett gave up cabinet- 
making, on account of machine work coming in competition with 
hand-made furniture. He then devoted himself to surveying land, 
administering upon estates, drawing up wills and other legal 
documents, giving so much attention to probate business that he 
became quite an authority in such matters. He had great versa- 
tility of talent, and generally succeeded in whatever he undertook. 
He was eminently a man of action, — not simply of ideas. One 
who knew him well said " he could do, thoroughly, a greater 
variety of business than any three average men." 

He filled various offices of trust : as selectman, town clerk, 
county treasurer, representative to the State Legislature, and was 
deputy sheriff" for eighteen years. He was on the first board of 
directors of the Rochester Bank, organized in 1835, and was 
counected with it during its existence. When the Norway Plains 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 341 

Savings Bank was incorporated in 1851, he was on the first board 
of trustees, of which he was president for many years. His strict 
conscientiousness was manifested in all his business relations, 
whether in public or private life. His integrity and sound judg- 
ment were so fully recognized that he was often chosen as arbi- 
trator in disputed cases among his townsmen, and he frequently 
acted as guardian for children. 

He did much good, in a quiet way, by giving advice freely to 
the many who came to him for counsel; indeed, he was many 
times imposed upon by persons wishing to borrow money, winning 
his ready sj'mpathy by pleas of distress and misfortune, and too 
often his kindness was repaid by the total loss of sums loaned in 
the hope of helping others in the struggle of life. Thus " his 
very failings leaned to virtue's side." Being thoroughly honest 
himself, it was hard for him to believe in, and guard against, the 
knavery that would deliberately obtain money with no intention of 
payment. His, truly, was mens sibi conscia recti. He was a close 
economist in man}- ways in order to be able to give liberally to 
every cause that seemed worthy. The modest 'competence he 
acquired would have been much larger had it not been for his 
generosity in business transactions. If a note written at annual 
interest was paid, he would frequently cast it at simple interest 
for a large part of the time it had run, or give outright several 
years' interest. If a mortgage was foreclosed, instead of taking 
full possession of the property, he would allow the incumbent to 
remain, and pay up by degrees on easy terms. As a matter of 
course, riches do not come by such methods; but he left the 
unselfish example of one who constantly strove to benefit others. 
In these grasping days his course may be worthy of consideration, 
if not of emulation. 

Mr. Dennett was a prominent Free Mason and Odd Fellow; 
he joined the Free Masons early in life, and always said he had 
derived much benefit from the teachings of the order; he was 
Master of the Lodge fifteen years, treasurer fourteen years, and 
District Deputy Grand Master four years. He was a charter 
member of Motolinia Lodge, L 0. 0. F., and was permanent 
secretar}' twenty-one years. 

Mr. Dennett was in early life a Democrat, but feeling that iu 
course of time the party had degenerated, and forsaken their 



342 ROCHESTER. 

original principles, he joined the Free Soilers when John P. Hale 
made his great departure, and was ever after an earnest Kepublican. 

When the Eebellion broke out and goverment bonds were issued, 
many feared to invest lest the government should be defeated, 
and they should suiFer loss in consequence. Mr. Dennett, with 
the spirit of a true patriot, bought the earliest bonds issued, saying 
if the government went down all would be lost, and no invest- 
ment would be of any value. He felt it a duty to aid, to the 
small extent of his means, by purchasing bonds issued to obtain 
needful funds for prosecuting the war. 

It is difficult to give any adequate idea of the sturdy manliness, 
the strict sense of justice, the unswerving fidelity to right, the 
swift indignation at wrong or meanness of any kind, that charac- 
terized the whole life of Charles Dennett. ISTot that he was that 
impossible being, a perfect man; far from it; he had the faults 
incident to a quick, impetuous nature. He was prone to use very 
strong and outspoken language when roused to ire by anything 
that outraged his high ideal of right. 

He seemed utterly destitute of any fear of man. In his zealous 
efforts for temperance he merely smiled when informed of threats 
against his life and property, and probably never had a moment 
of real anxiety in consequence. As sheriff, also, he was often 
placed in perilous positions without flinching. It is sometimes 
said of people that " they have no back-bone." The man of whom 
we write seemed to have been gifted by Dame Nature with a 
double allowance of that important portion of the human structure. 
Of course such a man could not fail to have enemies; yet it is 
not too much to say that he possessed the respect and confidence 
of all right-minded people in the community. 

He could boast of no renowned ancestry, but he was one of 
nature's noblemen. His life was not brilliant with great deeds, 
but he was a just and upright man of the people; the widow and 
the fatherless found in him a safe guide and counselor. He was 
loyal to his town, his country, and his God. 

He died March 4, 1867, being seventy-eight years and five 
months old, and in full possession of all his mental faculties, 
attending to business until a brief time before his death. His 
memory is still precious to the few left who knew him. 

His wife survived him over nine years, dying Sept. 24, 1876, 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 343 

at the age of eighty-four years and nine months. She was a 
sweet, unobtrusive, unselfish woman, faithful in all her duties to 
her family, and the church, of which she was an exemplary 
member for over sixty years. " Their works do follow them ! " 



REV. e:n"och place. 

Enoch Place, the oldest of ten children of James and Abigail 
Place, was born in Rochester, July 13, 1786. In early life he 
was of feeble constitution, but by laboring upon the farm his 
system was strengthened, so that he enjoyed good health through 
his subsequent life. He had an eager desire for knowledge, but 
his opportunities were limited. He attended the district school 
every winter and learned what he could, but not a sentence of 
grammar was taught, and the other common branches were taught 
very imperfectly. His father kept him at work on the farm, 
intending, however, to give him education sufficient for ordinary 
business. This did not satisfy his aspirations, and he determined 
that he would get more education, cost what it might, even if he 
must wait till he was of age. Dr. Howe (p. 121), understanding the 
case, otfered to take him into his family, that he might attend 
the village select school. To his great joy his parents consented, 
and he made good progress. The next term he walked two miles 
to attend school at Gonic. In this way he qualified himself to 
teach school winters while helping his father on the farm during 
the summers. 

After several seasons of deep religious conviction, beginning 
even in childhood, he was converted in March, 1807, while teaching 
in the upper part of Barrington, now Strafford. From this time 
he bore a living testimony for the Saviour, praying in his school, 
at his boarding-house, and among citizens of the place as he had 
opportunity. He took some part in every meeting, and resolved 
to neglect no known duty. In May following he united with the 
Free Will Baptist Church at Crown Point, and " went on his 
way rejoicing." 

Soon after this he became satisfied that it was his duty to 
preach the gospel, and made his first attempt in the very neigh- 
borhood where he was converted, taking Gen, 3:9 as his text. 



344 • ROCHESTER. 

This was June 3, 1807, from which time he continued for fifty- 
seven years in the work which was his great delight. He was 
ordained at a Quarterly Meeting at Crown Point, Jan. 22, 1813. 
He removed to Strafford in 1814, having for many years the 
charge of both the second and the third churches there. Here most 
of his Sabbath labors were performed ; but his missionarj^ labors 
through all the neighboring towns were almost unremitting during 
the week days. Jan. 12, 1865, he performed his last public service, 
preaching at the funeral of an aged widow, from the text " Blessed 
are the dead who die in the Lord." After a distressing illness 
he died at Strafford Ridge, March 23, 1865, and was buried at 
Crown Point. 

He was married Sept. 29, 1808, to Sally, oldest daughter of 
Capt. Daniel Demeritt of Barrington, and had nine children. She 
died at Strafford Jan, 4, 1880. 

" Father Place "' was a good man. He was kind, courteous, 
and obliging. His love of social converse was seldom equaled. 
His piety was warm and earnest, abounding in labors for the 
conversion of sinners. He took ffreat delight in adminif>terin2: 
the consolations of religion to wounded hearts everywhere. Many 
remember him to bless his memory. His gifts and position qual- 
ified him for eminent usefulness. His services were much sought 
for at funerals, of which he attended not far from sixteen hundred. 
He was secretary of the N'ew Hampshire Charitable Societ}- ; for 
many years clerk of the New Hampshire Yearly Meeting; also 
of the ISTew Durham Quarterly Meeting; one of the trustees of 
the Free Will Baptist printing establishment at Dover; and mod- 
erator of the first General Conference at Tunbridge, Vt., in 1827. 
As a preacher he was warm and earnest. He welcomed Bible 
truth, and gave it faithful utterance in his sermons. His voice 
was clear and sonorous, and his presence commanding. He was 
a man of progress. " Onward " was his motto. He entered into 
the best element of the spirit of the times. In the dark days of 
the war, though feeble with age, he Avas found standing erect for 
God and his countr}'. 

Prof. T. C. Upham says : — " He was a man of more than 
ordinar}' intellect, of great benevolence of heart, and a zealous, 
self-sacrificing, and devoted follower of Christ. The whole region 
round about, including Rochester, Barrington, Strafford, Farm- 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 345 

ington, Barustead, and New Durham, were made wiser, better, 
and happier through his faithful teachings and Christian benevo- 
lence. ... I thank God that he has lived; I thank God for all 
the good he has done ; I thank God that he is in glory. Let us 
follow on."" 

FAERIXGTO^^. 

Stephen Farrington, born at Andover, Mass., about 1707, settled 
as a farmer in Concord, N. H. He married Apphia Bradley, 
whose two brothers were massacred by the Indians on the road 
from HopkintQn to Concord, Aug. 11, 1746, and had eight chil- 
dren : — Stephen, John, Jeremiah, Samuel, and four daughters, 
whose names are not known. He died at the residence of his 
son Samuel at Hopkinton in 1791. 

Jeremiah Farnngton, third son of Stephen, in early life removed 
from Concord to Conway, where he settled as a farmer on the 
Saco river. He married Molly Swan and had seven children : — 
Hannah, Polly, Stephen, Elijah, James, Xancy, and Jeremiah. 
He Avas a member of the Congregational Church, and died at 
about the age of eighty-four. 

James Farrington, the third son of Jeremiah and Molly, was 
born at Conway Oct. 1, 1791. He was fitted for college at Frye- 
burg Academy in 1814, and on the following February began the 
study of medicine under the tuition of Dr. Moses Chandler of 
Fryeburg, Me. He finished his studies with Dr. Jabez Dow of 
Dover, and was examined in the science of medicine and surger}' 
by Drs. Crosby and Pray, the censors of the New Hami»shire 
Medical Society, July 18, 1818. On the 9th of August following, 
he began practice in Rochester. He became a member of the 
I^ew Hampshire Medical Society, in which he held the oflices of 
censor and counselor. He was also president of the Straftbrd 
District Medical Society. He had many students in medicine, 
among whom were Drs. Joseph H. Smith, and Timothy and Alfred 
Upham. He was for some years on the examining board at 
Dartmouth Medical College. In 1845 he was appointed by the 
Governor one of the trustees of the ]N'ew Hampshire Asylum for 
the Insane. His practice was extensive, and he ranked high as 
a physician and surgeon of superior skill and judgment, being 



346 ROCHESTER. 

often called long distances for consultation. His professional 
record included many surgical operations regarded at that time 
as specially difficult. 

Dr. Farrington was a man of great social and political influence, 
a strong man, and a zealous supporter of the Democratic party. 
He was representative and afterwards senator in the New Hamp- 
shire Legislature, and in 1837 was elected to represent his district 
in the Twenty-lifth Congress of the United States. He joined with 
his brother-in-law, John McDuffee, in organizing the Rochester 
Bank, in which he held the office of president till his death. He was 
very methodical in his habits, a marked gentleman, kind-hearted 
and generous, ready to render assistance whenever, needed. 

Dr. Farrington was married March 8, 1827, to Mary D., daughter 
of Joseph Hanson of Rochester, who died in April, 1853, leaving 
three sons and one daughter. After a practice of more than fifty 
years he died in Rochester Oct. 9, 1859. 

Elijah Farrington, second son of Jeremiah, was born at Conway 
in 1784, and married March 5, 1814, Lois L. Farrington, who 
was born Dec. 25, 1793. He was an industrious, thrifty farmer, 
respected by all. He died June 3, 1863. His widow resided with 
her youngest son in Rochester, where she died May 29, 1888, in 
the full possession of her faculties, at the age of ninety-four years 
and five months. She was for over sixty years a worthy member 
of the Congregational Church, in the welfare of which she always 
took a deep interest. They had three children: — Albert E., who 
has resided in Minneapolis, Minn., since 1855; 3fary H., deceased, 
the wife of Capt. Samuel Hazelton of Conway; and James. 

James Farrington, youngest child of Elijah and Lois L. Far- 
rington, was born in Conway June 10, 1822. Reared on the 
farm, he early learned those cardinal principles of success, industry 
and economy. Attending the common school till the age of 
sixteen, he fitted for college at Fryeburg Academy. While getting 
his education he was obliged to teach winters to obtain funds to 
pursue his studies. He was a good, faithful boy on the farm, a 
diligent student at school, and a successful teacher. Li 1841 he 
began the study of medicine with Dr. Ira Towle of Fryeburg, 
Me., and remained with him nearly five years, attending one 
course of lectures at Dartmouth Medical College in 1844. He 
graduated from the Medical Department of the University of New 





/:t^<^-''>^ ^^ ;/^^^:t/2^ c^ 



I 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 347 

York City, and also from Dr. Whittaker's Medical School, in the 
spring of 1847. In May foUoAving he began practice in Rochester, 
being associated with his uncle of the same name. Upon the 
death of his uncle in 1859, he succeeded to the entire practice, 
which extends into all the adjoining towns. His advice is often 
sought in consultation. He is a member of the New Hampshire 
Medical Society, and was for some years president of the Straf- 
ford District Medical Society, and has contributed valuable essays 
on subjects of interest to the profession. His intluence has always 
been in favor of the cause of temperance. A Democrat in politics, 
he has held some of the more important town offices, and repre- 
sented the town in the Legislature of 1863. For many years he 
has been a director in the First National Bank, and the Norway 
Plains Savings Bank of Rochester. He was the first High Priest 
of Temple Chapter of R. A. Masons, holding the office for many 
years. He is also a member of St. Paul Commandery of K. T. 
of Dover. 

Dr. Farrington married Feb. 27, 1851, Harriette L., daughter 
of Simon Chase of Rochester. She died April 7, 1887, leaving 
two daughters : — Ellen Florence, born Nov. 18, 1854, married 
Dec. 25, 1879, George, son of John McDuffee; and JoseiMne Chase, 
born Sept. 13, 1859, married Dec. 25, 1879, Arthur V. Sanborn, 
a furniture dealer in Rochester. They have one son, James Far- 
rington Sanborn, born Sept. 1, 1880. 

JONATHAN PETER CUSHING. 

On the twelfth day of March, 1793, was born in Rochester, 
Jonathan P. Cushing, the son of Peter and Hannah (Hanson) 
Cushing. His father owned a saw and grist mill where the mills 
of the Norway Plains Company now stand. His mother died 
before he was seven years old, and four years later his father 
died also, leaving him without friends to support or to offer kindly 
encouragement. His guardian proved both morally and pecuni- 
arily unfaithful. He took Jonathan to New Durham, and made 
him a mere drudge on the farm and in the mill, without even 
the ordinary privilege of attending school in winter. After a year, 
Jonathan very properly refused to remain, and began to look out 
for himself After visiting various mechanical shops to see what 



348 ROCHESTER. 

he could do, he finally decided to come back to Eochester, and 
at the age of thirteen bound himself as an apprentice to his uncle, 
Mr. Odiorne, who lived where Dodge's Hotel now stands, and 
had a saddler's shop close by. His prospects were the same as 
those of other apprentices, simply to serve out his time till he 
could go into business for himself; but he had far higher pur- 
poses in view. The mere drudgery of money-making could not 
satisfy his aspirations. One day he suddenly rose up from his 
bench and exclaimed to a companion, " I am determined to have 
a college education, if it takes forty years of my life to get it." 
Boys with such determination are sure sooner or later to attain 
their purpose. This resolution never forsook him, and he seized 
every means in his reach to carry it out. Boys of this generation 
know little of the difficulties he encountered. He had no friendly 
assistance, and it was his almost constant meditation how to 
accomplish his design. Apprentices were entitled by law to six 
months in the public schools. Availing himself faithfully of this 
privilege, he was stimulated to greater endeavors. Bound by his 
apprenticeship he took no dishonorable means to get free, but 
by working extra hours he at length purchased his time. He 
then went to Phillips Academy at Exeter, where he paid his way 
by working at his trade out of school hours every day during 
his course. After a year and a half his health became somewhat 
impaired, and he returned to Eochester for rest, taking charge of 
the village school for about eighteen months. With health renewed 
he w^ent back to Exeter, pursuing his trade and his studies together 
till he was fitted for college. About this time he was taken sick 
with symptoms threatening consumption. A course of treatment 
was prescribed which he was told would relieve him provided the 
disease was not already seated upon his lungs, but otherwise 
would hasten his end. He did not hesitate to take it, saying "I 
am determined to have a liberal education or die in the attempt." 
He entered the junior class in Dartmouth College and graduated 
in 1817. After graduation he intended to fit himself for the legal 
profession, and went South, as the climate was more favorable to 
his health. While at Eichmond, Va., he learned that a young 
man froiTi New Hanii)shire was there confined with sickness. He 
at once sought him out, and they became warm friends. This 
stranger had been appointed tutor in Hampden Sidney College. 



LEADINC. MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 349 

After much persuasion he prevailed on Mr. Gushing to take his 
place till he should regain his health. Instead of recovering, he 
soon after died, and Mr. Cashing was permanently established in 
the institution. This was in the November after his graduation, 
and two years later he was chosen professor of chemistry and 
natural philosophy. In 1821, at the age of twenty-seven, he 
became president of the college, which office he held for fifteen 
years. The college had very much run down, with few students, 
and with no graduations for several years. Under his manage- 
ment it immediately began to improve, and became one of the 
leading institutions of the South. President Gushing by his per- 
sonal efforts raised $45,000 to establish professorships and purchase 
needed apparatus, and the number of students increased to one 
hundred. He became a man of note in the State, and exerted a 
great influence in behalf of public schools in Virginia. He first 
suggested the formation of the " Historical and Philosophical So- 
ciety of Virginia," and delivered the first annual address before 
that body. " He obtained high repute in literature and science." 
Much space would be required to give a complete record of the 
benevolent, Ghristian, and philanthropic enterprises in which he 
was conspicuous. In 1827 he married Lucy Jane, daughter of 
Carter Page of Cumberland County, Virginia. He died at Raleigh, 
]Sr. G., April 25, 1835, while on his way to the West Indies in 
hope of recruiting his broken health. His life affords a striking 
illustration of what can be accomplished by genuine Yankee 
"pluck"' in spite of adverse circumstances. 



BARKER. 

Benjamin and Deborah Barker resided in Stratham, and had 
five children: — Benjamin, born Aug. 29, 1756, died Jan. 5, 1786; 
Debby, born July 5, 1760; Phebe,^boru July 2, 1762, died Oct. 
15, 1797; David, born Feb. 2, 1765; Willianu born Sept. 9, 1767. 

The two younger sons settled in Rochester about 1798, and 
built the " Barker Tavern," which was burned, near where the 
Methodist Church now stands (p. 131). David Barker kept the 
tavern for many years. He was a prominent man, and was high 
sheriff of the county. He married June 30, 1793, Ann Pros 



350 ROCHESTER. 

Simpson, who was born March 24, 1771. Their children were 
the following: — 

1. Louise A. Barker, born Stratham, Aug. 17, 1794; married 
John Chapman, who was a trader in Eochester, and afterwards 
in Boston, and had five children: — Maria, Thomas, Henry, Wil- 
liam, and Anna. Mrs. Chapman died July 28, 1837. 

2. David Barker, Jr., born Stratham, Jan. 8, 1797. His natural 
taste for learning was manifest at an early age. After three years' 
preparation at Exeter, he entered Harvard College at the age of 
fourteen, where he graduated in 1815 with the hie-h esteem of 
his instructors and classmates, among whom were John G. Palfrey 
and Jared Sparks. After leaving college he studied law in the 
ofiice of the elder John P. Hale, Esq., of Rochester, where he 
began practice in 1819. 

Mr. Barker was for several years a prominent member of the 
Legislature of ISTew Plampshire, and in 1827 was elected repre- 
sentative to Congress. He was extensively acquainted with the 
science of politics in general, and particularly acquainted with the 
political history of his own country. He was a politician of inde- 
pendent principles and enlarged views, a ripe and finished scholar, 
a sound, correct, and able lawyer. Few men possessed more of 
the benevolent and amiable virtues. His promptness in all the 
duties of life, his uncompromising integrity, his unostentatious 
deportment, and his urbanity of manners won the respect and 
esteem of all who knew him. He was a Christian man, of deep 
and thorough conscientiousness. In all the relations of life he was 
a man his friends could least bear to part with. He was an 
original member of the New Hampshire Historical Society, and 
the present sketch is largely taken from a notice in their fourth 
volume of New Hampshire Collections, written b}- his pastor, 
Rev. Isaac Willey. 

Mr. Barker married Oct. 2, 1823, Mary, eldest daughter of Hon. 
Nathaniel Upham, and died April 1, 1834, leaving two children : — 
David, who died at the age of thirteen, and 3Iary. 

3. Benjamin Barker, born Rochester Oct. 16, 1799. He lived 
for a time at Great Falls in the employ of the manufacturing 
company, but soon returned to Rochester. In 1838 he went as 
far West as St.^Louis, thinking to find a place to locate, but was 
disappointed in the countr}', and was glad to get back. He and 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 351 

his brother soon after began the manufacture of blankets, but 
were not very successful. He then " kept store " for some years, 
and was afterwards in the lumber business with his brother. He 
owned a sawmill and gristmill for many years, and at one time 
manufactured lasts, in the upper part of the mill. In 1834 he 
was chosen deacon in the Congregational Church, and few men 
ever tilled that otHce more worthily; for the most prominent 
thing in Deacon Barker's life was his religion. He was a praying 
man, constant at the social meetings of the church, and in his 
closet, or " prayer retreat," still reverently remembered by his 
surviving daughter. He was also a working man, holding Sunday 
Schools for years in Milton and other out-districts. The good 
results of his labor cannot be estimated. A man who met him 
in Boston said " Mr. Barker, I owe all my success in life to you, 
— to that Sunday School at Milton." 

Deacon Barker married first, Aug. 13, 1827, Eliza W. March, 
who died Jan. 14, 1836 ; second, Jan. 14, 1839, Charity Tebbets, 
who died Sept. 1, 1874. He died Dec. 18, 1873. He had three 
children : — George W., Caroline M., and Miza 31., only the second 
of whom is now living. 

4. Thomas Simpson Barker, born Rochester July 24, 1802 ; went 
South and died there March 31, 1826. 

5. William Barker, born Rochester Dec. 23, 1804; went South 
to settle his brother's estate, and died there Sept. 23, 1827. 

6. George Barker, born Rochester Oct. 19, 1807. He was in 
business, as mentioned in previous sketches, with his brother 
and brother-in-law, in trade and manufacture. He resided seven 
years in Dover, and later in life removed to South Berwick, 
Me., where he died Oct. 18, 1880. He married, June 25, 1831, 
Emily J. March, who died at South Berwick, Me., Aug. 6, 
1871. She was a lovely Christian woman, and much lamented. 
They had six children: — Charles A., Anna 6'., residing in South 
Berwick, Me., George F., residing in Chicago, El., Jonas 31., 
John 31., and Emilg 31., of whom only two survived childhood. 

7. 3Iaria Barker, born Rochester Dec. 14, 1810; died Oct. 1, 
1819. 



352 ROCHESTER. 

HON. N'OAH TEBBETS. 

XoAH Tebbets, the youngest son of James and Mary (Xiitter) 
Tebbets, was born Dec. 26, 1802, at Rochester, where his ancestors 
had lived for more than one hundred years. • His father, James 
Tebbets, was a blacksmith, and had his "shop" for many years 
on Main street where the old " Union Store " building now is, 
and was a man noted for his industry and integrity. He died at 
Rochester in Xovember, 1854, aged eighty-two years. 

j^oah Tebbets as a boy was fond of books, quick to learn, and 
determined to be educated. He was prepared for college at 
the academies at Wakefield, iST. H., and Saco, Me., and entered 
Dartmouth University, but when the Supreme Court of the United 
States demolished the University, he, with others, entered Bowdoin 
College, where he graduated in 1822. In college his scholarship 
was extensive and thorough. He was the third scholar in his 
class at graduation. At commencement the salutatory was assigned 
him, and later a Latin " Master's oration." 

After his graduation Mr. Tebbets studied law in his native 
village with Jeremiah H. Woodman, Esq., for three years, and in 
1825 was admitted to the bar of York County, Me., and com- 
menced practice at JSTorth Parsonsfield, Me. In 1827 he moved 
to "Middle Village," Parsonsfield, Me., and entered into part- 
nership with the Hon. Rufus Mclntyre, then a member of Con- 
gress. His practice extended through York County, Me., and 
" Old Strafiford " in N'ew Hampshire. 

June 3, 1828, he married Mary Esther, the eldest daughter of 
J. H. Woodman, Esq., of Rochester. He remained at Parsons- 
field seven years, where he was superintending school committee 
nearly all the time, and by his labors and care brought the schools 
of Parsonsfield to a very high degree of excellence. 

In 1834 Mr. Tebbets removed to his old home, Rochester, where 
he continued the practice of his profession until his death. As 
a lawyer he never favored litigation, nor allowed his clients to 
become involved in the law, if he could keep them out of it. He 
believed that his highest duty as a lawyer was to be a peacemaker. 
As a citizen he was public spirited and constantly striving to 
advance all social and educational enterprises. He was promi- 
nently active in re-establishing the social library in this village, 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 353 

and was the first librarian under the new charter (p. 183). He 
was ever the friend of progress, and believed that ancient ideas 
should give way to a more liberal policy, and did much for the 
improvement of schoolhouses, teachers, and scholars. lie was an 
active temperance man in those early days Avhen it cost something 
to denounce the sale of liquors, and by his addresses throughout 
the State sought to interest the people in the temperance cause. 
His svmpathy with his fellowmen was unbounded, and was shown 
not alone in words but in action as well. 

In politics Mr. Tebbets was a Democrat and received the full 
confidence and support of his party, while he did not hesitate to 
oppose the party leaders when their actions seemed to him unwise 
or unfair. He had no taste for political preferment, and though 
often urged to be a candidate for ofiice, he refused to leave the 
(piiet and peace of private life. He loved his home and his family, 
and would not have surrendered them for all the shadows of 
fame that might flit across his path. In 1842, when the laws 
of the State were to be revised, and a great struggle was 
made in the temperance interest, he consented to be a candidate 
for the Legislature, and was elected by a large majority. In the 
Legislature he was a member of the judiciary and banking com- 
mittees. In January, 1843, Mr. Tebbets was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Hubbard a circuit justice of the Court of Common Pleas. 
He accepted the position with feelings of great distrust of his own 
ability, but how well he discharged the duties of the oflice can 
be told by the following tribute to his memory from his life-long 
friend, the late Hon. John P. Hale, who, in speaking of Judge 
Tebbets's appointment and character as a jurist, said: — " Perhaps 
injustice is done to no one else when it is said that no appoint- 
ment is recollected to have been made by the Executive of this 
State, within the memory of the speaker, which was received with 
more satisfaction by the whole community than was that of Judge 
Tebbets. His character, disposition, and habits of thought emi- 
nently qualified him for success in the office to which he was 
promoted. His great integrity, his even temper, his suavity of 
manner, his clear perception, his modest distrust of his own powers, 
which induced him to listen patiently and respectfully to the 
arguments and suggestions of others, and the clearness and dis- 
tinctness with which he announced the results to which his reflec- 

34 



354 ROCHESTER, 

tions had led him, were such estimable and rare qualities for a 
judge, that his friends and the public had already formed and 
were cherishing the most favorable anticipations of his reputation 
and usefulness in his judicial career. He never sank the gentle- 
man in the judge, but always treated every one who had occasion 
to transact business with him on the bench, with such urbanity 
and kindness, that it is believed he never, even by accident, 
wounded the feelings of the humblest individual who approached 
him." 

A friend who knew him from childhood says that " the trait of 
character which most eminently distinguished him was, after all, 
his integrity. It seemed impressed on his whole mien, and to be 
beaming forth in all his actions. Even a stranger when intro- 
duced into his presence seemed at once to feel the assurance that 
he was dealing with an honest man, and that no concealment or 
disguise was necessary." 

While holding a term of court at Gilford, in August, 1844, he 
was suddenly attacked with typhoid fever, which compelled him 
to adjourn the court and return home on the 30th of August. 
He died Sept. 9, 1844, at the age of forty-one years and eight 
months, and his body lies buried in the " Old Graveyard " in 
Rochester. 

Judge Tebbets had six children, one of whom, 'James, ^died in 
infancy. 

His eldest son, Theodore Tebbets, was born in Parsousfield, 
Me., April 1, 1831. A studious and scholarly boy, he found 
himself at his father's death mainly dependent upon his own exer- 
tions to secure an education. He fitted for college at Phillips 
Academy at Exeter, and graduated at Harvard with high honors, 
in the class of 1851. He was professor in the classical depart- 
ment at Phillips Academy one year, and graduated from the 
Divinity School at Cambridge, Mass., July 17, 1855. On the 19th 
of September following he was ordained pastor of the First Uni- 
tarian Society at Lowell, Mass. After preaching two Sundays he 
was prostrated by a severe illness which compelled his resignation. 
He so far recovered that he was installed pastor of the First Uni- 
tarian Parish at Medford, Mass., April 15, 1857. He was forced 
a second time to resign on account of failing health, and died in 
New York City, Jan. 29, 1863. He married, in 1857, Ellen, 



LEADINT. MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 355 

dautrhter of John Sever, of Kingston, Mass., whom he left a widow 
with one son, John S. Tchbets, now residing in Kansas City, Mo. 

The only danghter of Judge Tobbots, Sarah C, is now living 
in Kochester. She married Hon. George C. Peavey of Stratford, 
who diod in 187G. 

IIoll W. Ttbbds, his third son, died at Lynn., Mass., in 1880, 
leaving a widow and four children, 

Charles B. Tcbbefs, the fourth son, is one of the wealthiest and 
most extensive shoe manufacturers in Lynn, Mass. 

The youngest son, Noah Tebbds, bears the name of his honored 
father, on the day of whose burial he was born. He is now a 
lawyer residing in Brooklyn, N. Y. Two of these sons, Hall W. 
and Xoah, were in the Union army in the war of the Kel)ellion, 
and Xoah Tebbets was one of the " Guard of Honor " over the 
remains of the late General U. S. Grant from Mt. McGregor to 
Riverside Park (p. 231). 

Judge Tebbets's widow died at Rochester aged seventy-one years, 
beloved and blessed by all who knew her. She was indeed a 
fitting companion for such a man as Judge Tebbets, and her 
memory will ever be precious to the many who came in contact 
with her. 

In conclusion it can be truthfull}' said that the fine qualities of 
Judge Tebbets's character were harmonized and crowned by a 
religious consecration. He reverently attributed all that was good 
and true in his character, to God working in him to do and to 
will, while he humbly confessed how far he fell below the stand- 
ard of Christian manliness presented in the Gospel and life of 
Jesus. Li public and in private, at fitting times, he avowed his 
dependence on God for all his happiness in this life, and for all 
his hopes of immortality, and he trusted in the love of our Savior, 
always seeking to cherish a sense of his accountability to the 
Giver of every good and perfect gift. 

WHITEHOUSE. 

BY HON. CHARLES S. WHITEHOUSE. 

The village of Gonic (an abbreviation of the Indian name Squam- 
anagonick) is pleasantly situated in the southerly part of Roch- 
ester, on the banks of the Cocheco river. Sixty years ago it had 



356 ROCHESTER. 

only a dozen or so houses of the old-fashioned New England type 
and value. It had two small stores, where the farmers of that 
neighborhood exchanged their limited produce for an equally 
limited amount of calico, pins, needles, molasses, salt fish, and 
New England rum. It had no village church, no commodious 
schoolhouse, no flourishing factory, no neat dwelling-houses. It 
had a sawmill, which was run in the spring and the fall of the 
year to get out the small quantity of lumber required by the 
farmers. It had a gristmill, which was run the year round, " by 
fits and starts," as the harvest of corn, wheat, and rye required. 
It had a brickyard Avhere some one, usually the village store- 
keeper, nearly every summer made a small kiln of seventy-five 
or a hundred thousand bricks, to be peddled out the following 
fall and winter. Its few inhabitants had but a limited amount of 
this world's goods, and not very exalted aspirations for the treas- 
ures of the world to come. The neio-hborino; farmers were fore- 
handed, well to do, had good farms, were fairly industrious, went 
to church once in a while, were politically zealous at town meetings, 
patriotic at fall musters, and generally bibulous and hilarious at 
both, paid their taxes (with some grumbling), and were sublimely 
indifferent to doing things in any way different from the way 
their fathers did before them. 

In this year of our Lord 1888, Gonic presents a very different 
appearance from sixty years ago. Its pretty, modern-built church, 
with an average congregation of nearly two hundred, its Sabbath 
School of seventy-five or more children, its convenient school- 
house with ninety to a hundred scholars, its prosperous factory 
paying over $4,000 monthly for labor to its one hundred and fifty 
industrious and contented operatives, its seven brickyards making 
from sixteen to twenty million bricks yearly, and consuming 
eight to ten thousand cords of wood in burning them, its stores, 
post-oflice, and at one time a bank, its public hall, engine company, 
machine shop, blacksmithy, railroads and depots, neat dwelling- 
houses, social and moral societies, make it what it is, a pleasant 
and thriving New England village. And this change, this growth 
in moral, intellectual, and material prosperity from sixty years 
ago, is largely if not wholly the result of one man's enterprise 
and energy, and that man was Nicholas Varney Whitehouse. 

The Whitehouse family is supposed to be of Welsh extraction, 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 357 

and tradition has it that three brothers (the common legend of 
American ancestry) emigrated to this country in its early settle- 
ment, and made homes in different parts of New England, and 
that from these descended all who bear the name of Whitehouse. 
This tradition is vague, as most traditions are. 

The parents of the subject of this paper were Israel and Olive 
(Varney) Whitehouse. The father, Israel Whitehouse, was born 
near Gonic in 1778, and died March 1, 1841. He was l)rought 
up a shoemaker and cobbler, in the fall, winter, and spring going 
from house to house, with his kit of tools rolled up in a leather 
apron, repairing the old and making new boots and shoes for 
the neighboring families. He was a well-meaning man with but 
limited education, simple in his habits, somewhat choleric in tem- 
per, as his sons often found out, contented to drift along in the 
world if he had enough to eat and drink, and indifferent in some 
ways about his family. The mother, Olive (Varney) Whitehouse, 
was ambitious, and as far as the limited means at her command 
would permit, strove diligently to better her own and her chil- 
dren's welfare, and it was from her that two of the boys derived 
many of the qualities which afterwards made them prosperous 
business men and respected citizens. Their children were three 
sons, Xicholas, Enoch, and Silas. The youngest [Silas) learned the 
trade of shoemaker, as did his brothers, and worked at it most of 
the time in the winter. In the summer he was a brickmaker. 
He was a pleasant, amiable man, kind and obliging, but with little 
force and energy. He was never married, and died of coi^.sump- 
tion April 1, 1854, aged 43 years. Enoch, who was born Sep- 
tember 1, 1807, left the family roof when sixteen or seventeen 
years of age, to learn the hatters' trade with his uncle, Isaac 
Varney, an honored, influential, and wealthy Quaker of North 
Berwick, Me. After completing his apprenticeship, he worked as 
a journeyman in Haverhill, and in Chelmsford, now Lowell, Mass., 
for a few years, when his health becoming impaired, he returned 
to Gonic. He was in company with his brother Nicholas a few 
years as a country storekeeper. Afterwards he had a store in 
Dover, N. H., for a short time, and finally moved to Rochester, 
where he ever after lived. He was a very industrious and prudent 
man, keen at a trade, and_ saving of his gains. The stinted ad- 
vantages of his boyhood life and early manhood made him so. 



358 ROCHESTER. 

And the prosperity of later life failed to eradicate or modify these 
qualities. He did not possess the restless enterprise and energy 
of his elder brother, Nicholas, nor that buoyant, enthusiastic spirit 
which characterized the latter, but his careful business habits, 
joined with a naturally cautious judgment and frugal tastes, brought 
him a handsome competence. He married Mary Ann McDuiFee 
of Rochester, daughter of John McDuiFee, in 1837, and died 
March 8, 1879, aged seventy-two years, leaving a widow, but no 
children. 

Nicholas, or as he was generally known by his simple initials, N. V. 
"Whitehouse, was born in Gonic, Oct, 22, 1802, in a house that stood 
on the spot now occupied by the dwelling of William H. Felker. 
His early boyhood was one of deprivation and neglect, with but 
little effort on the part of his father to give him the benefit that 
the district school of six weeks in summer, and the same number 
in winter, might have afforded. It was work, work, from his 
earliest remembrance. When twelve years old he was put to 
work, like most boys of poor parents, either helping his father 
or the neighbors in such work as a boy of that age could do. 
After this time of life the six peeks' summer schooling was dis- 
pensed with, and what education he obtained was from the winter 
term. When fifteen years old he had learned something of the 
shoemakers' trade and often accompanied his father in his shoe- 
making trips among the neighboring farmers. When but seven- 
teen years old he walked to Boston, the journey occupying two 
days, and found work with one " Master Griggs," in Brookline, 
Mass. Here he remained two years, working on a farm for $10 
per month, and his board. At this early age he showed a marked 
abilit}^ for general business matters. This, united with a genial 
manner and unquestioning honesty, gained the confidence of 
" Master Griggs " so fully that, in a month or two after hiring 
with him, he was intrusted with the driving of the market wagon 
into Boston every other morning and selling the products of the 
farm. At the end of two j^ears he returned to Gonic. The fol- 
lowing spring he worked in Salmon Falls, in the wheel pits and 
foundation trenches of the factory which was being built there 
that season. He remained at such rough work but a few 
weeks, as it was gradually breaking down a constitution which, 
at this period of his life, was rather delicate. Again he returned 




( u /r rr^j e^ 



I 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 359 

to Gonic, and this time ]»cc;une clerk for John Plummer, in the 
village store, a cheap wooden building which then stood on what 
is now the village square. Here he exhibited the same aptitude 
for business, the same energy and enthusiasm, that characterized 
him all through life. When not quite twenty-three years old he 
built the brick store, still standing, though recently greatly im- 
proved and modernized by his son, stocked it with the goods 
re(|uired at that time in a country store, and began trading for 
himself. 

The following year he fitted up the story over the store as a 
dwelling, furnished it in a simple manner, and on the 31st day 
of July, 1825, did what he used to say was " the best day's work 
of his life," by marrying Susan, the daughter of Stephen and 
Elisabeth (Chesley) Place. 

For the following three or four years he was busily engaged 
in trading, when, having trusted out much of his stock and " hard 
times " coming on, he failed. His creditors took what remained 
of his stock and, in the language of those days, " shut him up." 
Nothing daunted or discouraged, he began to look about to get 
started again, and about this time went to N^ew York to try for 
something, but getting homesick after three weeks' absence from 
his young wife and family, he returned. His well-known integrity, 
energy, and ability soon brought to his assistance friends who 
helped him start again, and in 1830 he was once more embarked 
in trade. In the fall of 1833 he closed up his store in Gonic, 
moved to Dover, and opened a store on " the Landing," as it was 
called, in the Sawyer brick block. The surroundings being dis- 
tasteful to him, or the business not proving all he anticipated, he 
moved back to Gonic the following spring. 

For the next five or six years he made business lively in the 
little village. He bought the old sawmill and privilege, enlarged 
and improved that and the gristmill attached, built an addition 
for making linseed oil, another addition for making plow handles 
and plow beams, enlarged the gristmill and improved the pro- 
cesses for making flour and meal, bought and operated wood lots, 
manufactured lumber, and dealt largely in wood with parties in 
Dover, made bricks, ground plaster, and established wool carding 
and cloth dressing. This latter business gave him reputation 
beyond the limits of his native town. The mill was esteemed the 



360 ROCHESTER. 

best equipped for those times, doing the best work of any in the 
county, and brought custom from every town in the county, and 
many beyond. It was the beginning of what was to be the 
leading occupation of his life, and the present Gonic Mills. 

About 1838 certain parties by the name of Hibbard and Carr 
leased the wool-carding rooms, and persuaded him to enlarge 
them and put in additional machinery for the manufacture of 
guernsey cloth, and also to become responsible for some of their 
wool purchases. Things went along smoothly for a while, when 
one night Hibbard and Carr ran away, leaving him a small lot 
of stock, supplies, and unfinished goods, some debts, and but a 
slight knowledge of the details of manufacturing. Not a whit 
discouraged by the unpromising outlook, he quickly took in the 
situation of affairs, and soon after associated himself with John 
Lees and Edmund E. Thompson, two practiced manufacturers, 
and continued the business for a few years, but soon became 
embarrassed again. The business was badly managed, a vexatious 
lawsuit growing out of the loan of the surplus revenue from the 
town followed, and he was again harassed. His property was 
attached, and complete failure again stared him in the face. Many 
of the older citizens of the town can yet recall the intense feeling 
raised by this quarrel over the " surplus revenue," which was 
intensified by Mr. Whitehouse's pronounced partisanship as a 
"Whig. The town meetings, quari'els, lawsuits, discussions, and 
wrangles were interminable. The town sold his property at auction, 
his credit was gone, and his honesty and integrity impeached. 
In spite of all this, good was to come out of it. His energ}- and 
activity disarmed his enemies, his patience and fortitude shamed 
the lukewarm and indifferent, and a small circle of stanch friends 
stood by him through thick and thin. It showed his townsmen 
the kind of man they had to deal with, and that however adverse 
circumstances might combine to prostrate him for the time, he 
couldn't be kept down, l^o sooner was the pressure slacked 
than he was on his feet again. He never lost his pluck and 
energy. When matters looked the worst, his life-long friend, 
John McDuffee of Rochester, bought up the whole property, leased 
it to Mr. Whitehouse, and relieved him from his perplexities and 
embarrassments. This was about 1843, and for the next five j^ears 
he had prosperous sailing. He enlarged and improved the mill 



LEADIXC MEN SINCE TUE KEVOLUTION. 361 

property, changing much of the old machinery and adding new, 
converted the mill into a woolen Hannel mill, discarded some of his 
minor operations, and settled down to he a iiannel manufacturer. 
Parker, Wilder & Co. of Boston were associated with Mr. White- 
house, and the husiness connection formed then continued for 
thirty-five years, almost to the time of Mr. Whitehouse's death. 
This business association with Parker, Wilder & Co. has been of 
incalculable benefit to the town of Rochester. From it have 
grown the present extensive establishments at Gonic and East 
Rochester, and, consequently, two thriving villages. But Mr. 
Whitehouse's success was doomed to a fresh misfortune. It 
seemed as though the " fickle jade. Fortune," was determined to 
test his powers of endurance and fortitude, for on the night of 
the 20th of June, 1848, the whole property was consumed by 
fire — not a stick left standing, and only a small amount of un- 
finished goods and stock being saved. This was a severe blow, 
and lor a few days this earnest, intrepid man seemed crushed. 
But his mental depression was brief. In less than a month he 
had made a settlement with the insurance companies, cleared 
away the wreck, and was cheerily preparing plans for rebuilding. 
The following year (1849) found a new mill built and four sets 
of machinery in successful operation. He continued till August, 
1859, when, with Parker, Wilder & Co., he organized the present 
Gonic Manufacturing Company, and became its president, agent, 
and manager, and continued so until his final retirement from 
the company in 1877. 

In 1861, on the breaking out of the war of the Rebellion, he 
made extensive improvements about the Gonic privilege, and 
during the seasons of 1863-64-65, laid the foundations and built 
the present large four-storied brick mill, connecting it with the 
mill built in 1849. The close of the war brought about a severe 
depression in business, and the new mill remained idle for several 
years. He finally closed out all interest in the corporation to 
Parker, Wilder & Co. of Boston in 1877, as before stated. 

In 1863, in connection with Mr. John Hall, Mr. Samuel B. 
Rindge of Boston, and four others, he obtained the charter for 
the Cocheco Woolen Manufacturing Company at East Rochester, 
and helped organize that corporation. He was elected its first 
president and remained such till his death. He took great interest 



362 ROCHESTER. 

in the development of that fine property, and always evinced 
great pride in the thriving village that was growing up, and the 
signs of material, social, and moral prosperity that had sprung 
into life from the wise forethought and management of his friends, 
Hall and Rindge, with himself. To these three men is due very 
largely the credit of making East Rochester a model New Eng- 
land village. 

In 1856 the Farmers and Mechanics' Bank was chartered, largely 
through his efforts, and located in Rochester village. After a few 
years dissensions arose in the board of directors, and in 1860, he 
and his friends having purchased a majority of the stock, a new 
board of officers was elected and the bank removed to Gonic 
village, he becoming its president and continuing so till his death. 
His son, E. F. Whitehouse, was made cashier. "When the gov- 
ernment established the national banking system this bank was 
merged into the Gonic National Bank, continuing under his 
management to the day of his death, and shortly after was wound 
up. The Gonic Five-Cent Savings Bank was established by him. 
He was one of the original directors in the Nashua & Rochester 
Railroad, a position he held at the time of his death. 

In early life he took much interest in military affairs, and was 
made quartermaster sergeant of the 39th Regiment in 1826. In 
1829 he was commissioned captain and adjutant in the same regi- 
ment by Gov. Benjamin Pierce, and all through life was an earnest 
advocate of a citizen soldiery. He was never happier than when 
attending gatherings where martial music was a feature. It seemed 
to be the very thing his enthusiastic and energetic spirit craved. 

In politics Mr. Whitehouse exercised a leading influence, not 
only in his own town, but throughout the county and State. In 
his early manhood he was an Adams man, as the party was known 
in New Hampshire at that time, and afterwards a Henry Clay 
Whig, and always a stanch advocate of the American system of 
protection to home industries as promulgated by the great Ken- 
tucky statesman. In 1837 he, with John McDuffee, John Chapman, 
and a few other leading men of the town, was instrumental in 
wresting the political control of the town from the Democratic 
party, who had held it for ten years or more previously, and 
was elected moderator, and representative to the Legislature, that 
year and the next. When the Know-Nothing party sprung into 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 363 

existence, in 1855, he, with other far-seeing men, saw the oppor- 
tunity to wrest the control of the State from the Democrats, and, 
entering heartily into that campaign, was a prominent candidate 
hefore the convention for member of Congress. He did not receive 
that nomination, but was nominated and elected a member of the 
Governor's Council. The following year he was defeated, but re- 
elected the next year, serving under Governors Kalph Metcalf 
and William Haile. Ilis keen perceptions of the peculiar situation 
of political affairs at this time, united with excellent judgment of 
men, made him an important factor in preparing the way for the 
Republican party, and from this time to tlie day of his death he 
was a Republican of the most pronounced type. In 1876 he was 
elected a member to revise the constitution of the State, the other 
members from Rochester being Ebenezer G. Wallace, James H. 
Edgerly, Franklin McDuffee, and Charles E. Jenkins. On more 
than one occasion he was favorably talked of for Governor of the 
State. When the war of the Rebellion broke out he took an 
active part in everything relating to raising the quota of the town, 
and in all things pertaining to the comfort and welfare of the 
soldiers and their families, and gave $100 to the first twenty men 
who enlisted from Rochester. Though never connected with any 
church, he was always a liberal friend to all. In early life he 
was a constant attendant at the Congregational Church, but in 
1840 he was instrumental in building the Free Baptist Church in 
Gonic, and ever after identified himself with that society, giving 
largely to its support, and for remodeling and rebuilding the 
same at difterent times. The hospitable doors of his own house 
were always ajar, and ministers and laymen always foiind a warm 
welcome. Many a worthy minister has enjoyed his hospitality, 
and, departing, been cheered with more substantial assistance. 
In the family he was generous, self-sacrificing, considerate, and full 
of the tenderest affection ; in society, a genial, bright, and generous 
spirit. This disposition led him to seek public gatherings, and 
he was frequently to be seen at fairs, camp-meetings, church 
festivals, and other social entertainments. He was frequently 
called to preside at public meetings, and always acquitted himself 
with tact and ability. Few men have been born in Rochester 
who have excelled him in deeds of unostentatious charity, or who 
have more impressed themselves upon the community in every way 



364 ROCHESTER. 

to promote the business interests of the town, or the good of 
society. Many a young man starting in life has been indebted 
to him for advice, encouragement, and money, which eventually 
led them to success as business men ; and more than one young 
man owes his education to the pecuniary aid he furnished gra- 
tuitously. The pleasant village of Gonic has been almost wholly 
built up by the manufacturing business he created and conducted 
for so many years. Everything that was calculated to promote 
its prosperity received his enthusiastic support. His energy and 
courage, his public spirit and generous kindness, are worthy the 
emulation of every young man. He died Nov. 21, 1878, leaving a 
widow, who died May, 1888. Their children were as follows : 

1. Elizabeth Ann married Henry W. Locke, of Gonic, and died 
1855, leaving a daughter Fann}^, wife of George Johnson, of Boston. 

2. * Charles Sidney Whitehouse, writer of the above sketch, 
was born at Gonic September 3, 1827. Attended the district school 
until 1840, when he went two terms to the academy at Center Straf- 
ford. In the summers of 1841 and '42, he was at the academy in 
Durham, and in the winters attended the academy in Rochester. 
In 1843 he entered Phillips Exeter Academy, where he remained 
two years, and then became clerk with E. & W. Andrews, of Dover. 
In the latter part of 1846 he went to Lowell as clerk for Benjamin 
T. Hardy. In January, 1848, he entered the mill of his father to 
learn the business. Being of an active temperament, he took ear- 
nest hold of all matters connected with the village, and as soon as 
he was twenty-one years old, engaged in the political affairs of the 
town and county. In 1854 and '55, he was energetic in the political 
revolution, which, resulting in the birth of the Republican party, 
upset the Democratic party in both town and State. When the 
presidential campaign of 1856 opened at "Wolfeborough, September 
8, he joined, with his brother Freeman, George and Smith Scates 
(two young men from Milton, then at work in Rochester), and Wil- 
liam Beedle, in organizing a Fremont glee club, and sung at that 
gathering which was presided over by the Hon. John P. Hale. Mr. 
Hale was so impressed with the power and influence such singing 
would exert in a political campaign, that he urged them to con- 
tinue in the work, and from that date till after the election in 
November, their services were in constant demand at mass-meetings, 

*Thi8 sketch prepared by C- W. Folsom. 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 365 

flag-raisings, and other political gatherings. He represented Roch- 
ester in the Legislature of 1862, and was a meniher of the I^ew 
Hampshire Senate in 18(53-64. For the next ten years he devoted 
himself to the factory with his tatlK-r, l)at all the time was foremost 
in all matters pertaining to the general prosperity of the village of 
Gonic, and of the whole town. In 1875 he was nominated by the 
Republicans of the tirst congressional district for member of Con- 
gress, and though he conducted his part of that campaign with vigor 
and credit to himself, he was defeated by his Democratic opponent, 
Frank Jones, of Portsmouth. Declining a renomination, which 
meant an election, in 1877, he devoted himself to manufacturing. 
In 1875, he assumed charge of the woolen mills at East Rochester, 
where he remained five years, and then retired from the business. 
In 1882 he received the appointment of United States Aveigher in 
the Boston custom-house, where he remained till he was removed by 
the Democratic administration in 1886. In 1882 he was apjiointed 
by Governor Charles Bell, the first State Auditor under the new- 
law, and was reappointed for 1883. He was also a delegate to the 
national Republican convention, at Philadelphia, which nominated 
General Grant for the second term. 

Since 1886 he has not been engaged in active business beyond at- 
tending to his private afiiurs. Few men have been more active in the 
politics of the town than he, and he has always been public-spirited 
in his acts and liberal in his views. In many ways he has served 
his neighbors and townsmen faithfully and well. He married Ellen 
Frances Foster, of Norway, Maine, Sept. 30, 1852, and has two 
children — Walter Barker Whitehouse, born Sept. 25, 1854, now in 
Chicago, Illinois, and Alice Atherton "Whitehouse, born Nov. 9, 
1862. The latter married AV. C. Sanborn, druggist, and lives in 
Rochester. 

Colonel Whitehouse's life has been one of ceaseless activity. His 
mental energy, indomitable will, tenacious memory, his habit of 
investigating all theories before accepting them as facts, and his 
diligence in studying all intellectual, as well as commercial or polit- 
ical questions, have marked him out as a predestined leader in 
society. His sharp insight into the character of the many classes of 
people with whom his business has brought him into contact, has 
enabled him to maintain a strong bond of sympath}' between him- 
self and those whom he has employed. Few men have a more 



366 ROCHESTER. 

genuine regard for the common brotherhood of man than he, and 
to this fact much of his popularity is naturally due. 

He has great local pride, and as a recognized leader, quick in 
thought and prompt in action, he awakens sluggish minds and even 
old-fogyism into useful activity. His influence induced the people 
to plant shade-trees and ornament their houses and grounds, till the 
result is a beautiful little country village. The meeting-house at 
Gonic was dilapidated, the services thinly attended, and the faithful 
few much discouraged. Becoming superintendent of the Sunday 
School, Mr. Whitehouse organized and led a choir, and then very 
materially aided in rebuilding the present beautiful church edifice. 
He has been interested and active in school affairs, and in the fire 
department of the town. To his executive ability as superintendent 
of the first town fair was due in a great measure its success. 

His natural musical gifts have enabled him to create a healthy 
musical sentiment in the community. As far back as 1842 or '43, he 
sang in the old Congregational Church on the common. From that 
time till the present, there has not been an " Old Folks' Concert" or 
a choral union in the details of which he has not had a prominent 
part. His earnest work in all these public affairs has not been for 
notoriety, but to accomplish results for the public good. 

He is a writer of no small ability, pleasing and convincing as a 
speaker, and generally carrying his point. 

Rochester has been fortunate in having a citizen so thoroughly 
public-spirited, and possessed of so solid sense as Charles Sidney 
Whitehouse. 

3. Enoch Freeman Whitehouse, born 1830, was a musical genius. 
He was one of the finest and sweetest ballad singers the country 
ever produced. He first traveled with " Ossian's Bards," under the 
leadership of the noted Ossian E. Dodge. Then he managed a 
company called " Whitehouse's New England Bards." After a few 
years at home, he started alone with his guitar, drawing large houses 
wherever he went. He was afterwards cashier of the Farmers and 
Mechanics' Bank of Rochester, which became the First JSTational 
Bank of Gonic. He married Mary Abbie McDufiie Dec. 3, 1861, 
and was drowned near the Isles of Shoals Aug. 28, 1865. 

His power as a singer was wonderful. Few Rochester men have 
been more widely known and beloved than he. The press was 
everywhere enthusiastic in his praise. One paper says, " He is cer- 



I 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 367 

tainly a very remarkable singer. ' The Dying Boy,' as sung by him, 
is one of the best things we ever heard. All seemed to hold their 
breath in sasi)ense, and every heart swelled with silent and inex- 
pressible emotion under the sad, jjlaintive power. To us it was 
wondertul." Another says, "The unostentatious gentleness of his 
disposition, the tenderness of his feelings, his thorough sensibility 
to the emotions of the heart, fitted him admirably for his work, and 
as a ballad singer he was without a rival in the land. It was his to 
sway the souls of the throngs who gathered to hear him, as the harp- 
strings are swayed to sweetest vibrations by the touch of a master- 
hand.'' 

His personal qualities also attracted many friends. Tender-hearted 
and generous to the extreme, he was constantly giving away large 
sums to assist the unfortunate. At the time of the Pemberton Mill 
disaster, he sang in Salem to a "thousand-dollar house." The next 
day he went to Lawrence and gave every cent of it to relieve the 
sufferers. With such rare gifts, such tender sympathies, and such 
open-handed generosity, it is not strange that his sad death sent a 
thrill of sorrow not only throughout Xew England, but to many 
hearts throughout the land. 

4. Emily J. married Joseph Varney, of Wolfeborough, and lias 
a daughter Lizzie. 

5. Albert died in childhood. 

6. Arthur married Ida, daughter of George Pierce, of Dover, and 
died leaving one child. 

JOHN McDUFFEE. 

BY ALOXZO H. QUINT, D. D. 

To men of their own energetic stock, who, refusing all political 
preferment, have given comprehensive abilities, sterling integrity, 
and sagacious industry to the development of business, many New 
Hampshire towns owe an imperishable debt. John McDuffee's 
record is in the prosperity of Rochester. 

The name itself suggests that strong Scotch-Irish blood which 
endured the siege of Londonderry, in which were Mr. McDuffee's 
ancestors, John ^IcDufcc, and his wife, Martha, honored in tra- 
dition. John and Martha McDuffee had four sons: — Mansfield^ 



368 ROCHESTER. 

Archibald, John, aud Daniel. Mansfield went to London, England; 
the other three came, with their parents, to America, in the emi- 
gration which gave Xew Hampshire the powerful stock of Derry 
and Londonderry, John, the father of these sons, settled in Eoch- 
ester in 1729, on land on the east side of the Cocheco river, ad- 
joining Gonic Lower Falls — the farm of eighty-five acres remaining 
without break in the family, and now owned by the subject of 
this sketch. The Eochester settler was, as just stated, the father 
of Ca2')L Daniel McDuffee, and also of Col. John McDuffee, a gallant 
officer in the old French and Eevolutionary wars, lieutenant-colonel 
in Colonel Poor's regiment — who, never marrying, adopted his 
brother Daniel's son John, and eventually made him his heir. 
John McDufee, the colonel's heir, was a farmer in good circum- 
stances, married Abigail, daughter of Simon aud Sarah (Ham) 
Torr, and was father of John McDuffee, the subject of this sketch, 
who was born on the farm once the colonel's, about a mile and 
a half from Eochester village, on the Dover road, Dec. 6, 1803. 

Of course, while working on the farm more or less, he had, 
for five or more years, the advantage of a good school, kept at 
the village by " Master " Henry H. Orne (D. C. 1812), of severe 
discipline and good scholarship, who supplemented the public 
school with a private one each autumn. Mr. Orne was a very 
successful teacher, and among the associates of John McDufl:ee in 
this school were Thomas C. Upham, ISTathaniel G. Upham, John 
P. Hale, and Noah Tebbets. In 1818, at the age of fifteen, the 
boy entered Franklin Academy in Dover, the first day of its 
existence, Thomas E. Sawyer and Eichard Kimball being among 
his associates, and Eev. Mr. Thayer being its principal. Here he 
fitted to enter college as sophomore, but returned home, and at 
the age of eighteen went into the store of his uncle, John Green- 
field, at Eochester. It was a large country store, where every- 
thing was sold. After two years' experience, being only twenty 
years of age, he began the same business for himself on the same 
square; was successful, and, after two years, took into partnership 
his uncle, Jonathan H. Torr. During this period he was com- 
missioned postmaster of Eochester, being not of age when ap- 
pointed, and held the oflice until removed on Jackson's accession 
to the presidency. 

In the spring of 1831 he went to Dover and began the same- 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 369^ 

business on a broader scale, lirst in the "Perkins l^lock," and in 
the autumn, as the lirst tenant of the nortlicrn store in the new 
" "Watson block," on the Landing, Ira Christie being his next 
southern neighl)or. This locality, now at an end for such purposes^ 
was then the place of business and offices. Steady success con- 
tinued to reward his energy and industry; but in Februar}', ISSS"^ 
selling to Andrew Pierce, Jr., he returned to Rochester to settle 
the large estate of his wife's father, Joseph Hanson, who dying 
in December previous had made him executor. Mr. Hanson^ 
whose daughter Joanna (by his marriage with Charity ])ame) Mr. 
McDuftee had married June 21, 1829, was one of the three old 
and Avealtliy merchants of Rochester, Kathaniel Upham and Jonas 
C. March being the other two. The settlement of this extended 
estate and business was completed and the accounts settled by- 
Mr. McDuffee's energy in seven months; and it caused his 
entire abandonment of trade, although he had been eminently 
successful. 

There was no bank in Rochester. Old traders had some con- 
nection with the Strattbrd Bank in Dover, and the Rockingham 
Bank in Portsmouth. They loaned money instead of getting dis- 
counts. Mr. Hanson's safe, where he kept all his securities, was 
a small brick building back of his store, with a sheet-iron door 
fastened by a padlock. He kept some deposits, however, in 
Strafford Bank, and was a stockholder in that and in the Rock- 
ingham Bank. The three i)rincipal traders used to go to Boston 
twice a year on horseback, to buy goods. Mr. McDutfee saw that 
a l)ank was needed. He prepared the plans, secured signatures, 
obtained a charter from the Legislature in 1834, and the Roch- 
ester Bank was organized with ninety stockholders and a capital 
of one hundred thousand dollars, later increased to one hundred 
and twent}' thousand, with one hundred and thirty stockholders. 
Of the original ninety, only one besides Mr. McDuffee now survives. 
On the organization he became cashier, his brother-in-law, Dr. 
James Farrington (p. 345), being president. This bank was the 
frontier bank, no other existing between Rochester and Canada, 
and it was the first bank which the counterfeits from Canada 
naturally but uselessly struck. It was a fiivorite of the [)eople^ 
and was so managed that its dividends were eight or nine per 
cent. It is well known that the business was really left to the 

25 



370 ROCHESTER. 

probity and skill of its cashier. Cashier for twenty years, on the 
then renewal of its charter, Mr. McDufiee resigned the cashier- 
ship in favor of his son Franklin, and became president. The 
bank did not become a national bank nntil 1874, and in the six 
years previous he and his son formed the house of "John 
McDufiee & Co., private bankers," took up the old bank's busi- 
ness, and successfully carried it on. In 1874 they merged it in 
a national bank, the one being president and the other cashier, 
as before, and the two taking two fifths of its stock. It is an 
interesting fact that no bill has ever been issued by either Roch- 
ester bank without the well-known signature of John McDuftee, 
either as president or cashier; and he still actively administers 
the interests of the bank he originated in another form sixty-four 
years ago. 

In addition to this Rochester interest, Mr. McDuffee was one 
of the original grantees of the Dover National Bank, and for a 
short time was a director; but his interest became more in the 
Strafford Bank at Dover, of which, under its new charter, he was 
the second heaviest stockholder, Daniel M. Christie being the first. 
He became a director in the Strafford National Bank in 1870, 
and still actively holds that position. The stock of this bank has 
recently sold at one hundred per cent above par. 

The Norway Plains Savings Bank at Rochester was chartered 
in 1851, and Mr. McDuffee became its treasurer, being succeeded 
by his son Franklin in 1867, and himself becoming president — 
an office in which he still remains. It is worth recalling, that, 
although this bank was ordered in the panic to pay out only 
five sixths of any deposit, it subsequently petitioned for leave to 
pay, and did credit to every person att'ected, the remaining sixth. 

Mr. McDuftee early saw the advantages of manufacturing to a 
community. By his own means and a liberal allowance of 
banking facilities he has greatly aided tlieir development, the first 
such enterprise in Rochester, the Mechanics' Manufacturing Com- 
pany, being decided to locate there by the new banking facilities. 
Mr. McDuftee was a director. Its businesss was the manufacture 
of blankets, and its successor is the Norway Plains Manufacturing 
Company. The original company Mr. McDuftee carried safely 
through the crisis of 1837. The mill property at Gonic Mr. 
McDuftee bought in 1845, to lease to N. V. Whitehouse, that 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 371 

business might not be given up. He held the purchase for about 
ten years. The effort was successful, and the i)ropert3- was 
eventually taken by a Joint stock company. ^Stephen iShorey, 
owning some facilities tor manulheturing at East Rochester, came 
to Mr. MoDutlee to see if the bank would advance means to build. 
Mr. McDuffee at once pledged the means, and the mills were built. 
A stock company afterwards purchased mills and machinery, and 
the thriving village of East Rochester owes its prosperity to Mr. 
McDutlee's liberal policy. Thus have been developed the three 
principal water-powers of Rochester. 

Mr. McDutfee's personal interests in manufacturing were also in 
the Great Falls Manufacturing Company, in whose extensive busi- 
ness he was a director for four years; capital, one million five 
hundred thousand dollars. In 1862 he bought large interests in 
the Cocheco Manufacturing Company at Dover, and since 1874 
has been a director of that corporation. As such, he advocated 
the erection of the great mill, now No. 1, and the replacing of 
all the old buildings by new and magnificent mills, unsurpassed 
in the United States. The remarkable success of this company 
certifies alike to the sagacious boldness and the considerate policy 
of its directors. 

The need of railroad facilities at Rochester was early apparent 
to Mr. McDufi^'ee. In 1846 he entered into two enterprises — the 
Cocheco road, from Dover to Alton Bay, and the Conway road, 
from Great Falls to Conway — each of which passed tlirough 
Rochester. In each road Mr. McDufl:ee was the largest individual 
stockholder, and of each was the first treasurer. "When the Con- 
way road reached Rochester, Mr. McDufiee resigned its treasurer- 
ship. The other road, after various difliculties, became the Dover 
& Winnipesaukee, by the incorporation of the bondholders, and 
Mr. McDufFee continued to be a director. With "Friend" William 
Hill, he visited Boston more than thirty times to treat for the 
lease of this road to the Boston & Maine. The eftbrt was finally 
successful, and the road, by itself weak, became a fine piece of 
property. Rochester was thus doubly accommodated ; but another 
avenue was needed, and Mr. McDufiee took part in the Portland 
& Rochester, which secured a route eastward, of which road he 
was a director; and he invested liberally in the Rochester & 
Nashua, which opened a line to the West. The result has been 



372 ROCHESTER. 

that Rochester is a " billing-point," and its various manufacturing 
interests have felt its impetus. 

The beauty of McDuffee block, in Rochester, built by him 
in 1868, exhibits the owner's public spirit. It is an elegant brick 
building of four stories, containing six stores, twelve offices in the 
second story, a public hall in the third, and a Masonic hall, one 
of the finest in the State, in the fourth. In the use of the public 
hall the liberality of its owner to benevolent objects is well known. 

As a Mason, he joined Humane Lodge on the very day he be- 
came " of lawful age." Just sixty years later, Dec. 6, 1884, the 
brethren gave him a commemorative reception in Masonic Hall. 
Interesting reminiscences, congratulatory addresses, appropriate 
songs, and a supper occupied the evening. He is the only survivor 
of the members of the lodge of 1824. 

Of other real estate, besides various pieces in Rochester, includ- 
ing such as the Gonic farm, Mr. McDuffee owns the New Durham 
" powder mill " estate of nine hundred acres of land and eleven 
hundred acres of water; and in Barrington, two hundred acres 
on Isinglass river, held with a view to future manufacturing 
needs. 

In religion, Mr. McDuffee was brought up under good old Parson 
Joseph Haven, and has remained a liberal supporter of the Con- 
gregational society. In politics, he was an earnest Whig. His first 
vote was for the electors who chose John Quincy Adams president, 
and his postmastership was ended by Andrew Jackson. He has 
always been a decided Republican. 

Mr. McDuffee's great amount of labor has been possible only by 
the vigorous constitution which he inherited. The boy who, before 
he left home, " carried the forward swath " in the hayfield, made 
the man who now accomplishes an amount of work which would 
surprise many younger men. Monday is always given to the 
Stratford Bank at Dover; Tuesday he presides at the Rochester 
Bank meeting; Wednesday at the Savings Bank; and no day is 
idle. 

Feeling the need of some relaxation from business, in the winter 
of 1885 he visited the Pacific coast, and spent two months in 
California. In the autumn of the same year he represented his 
native town in the Legislature, was chairman of the committee 
on banks, on whose recommendation many bank laws were enacted 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 373 

for the interest and protection of the savings hanks and their 
depositors. 

Jndged hy the success of liis work as the hanker, as developing 
by a liheral and wise lielp every worthy manufacturing enterprise, 
and as foremost in the huilding of tlie various railways centering 
in Rochester, it is clear that Mr. McDutfee nohly comes into the 
list of those spoken of in our first paragraph, whose record is in 
the prosperity of his native town, where ability, sagacity, integrity, 
and kindliness have united to make that record, as well as his 
own personal success. 

Of Mr. McDuifee's happy domestic relations nothing need be 
said. Of his eight children, — naming them in the order of their 
birth : — 

1. Joseph Hanson McDuffee, who followed the sea, remained 
single, and was drowned olt the Isles of Shoals Aug. 29, 1865, 
at the age of thirty -five. 

2. Franklin McDuffee * was born at Dover, Aug. 27, 1832. 
"When six months old he removed with liis parents to Rochester. 
He entered Gilnianton Academy at the age of twelve years, and 
graduated with lionor at Dartmouth College in 1853. lie read 
law six months with lion. Daniel M. Christie of Dover, and in 
May, 1854, accepted the position of cashier in the Rochester State 
Bank. In 1857 he went on a foot trip to the White Mountains. 
Owing to the wrong directions of a guide, he was lost in the 
forest a night and a day, almost perishing from cold and exhaus- 
tion. The first house reached was that of Dr. Bemis then absent. 
Acting under strict orders to admit no one, the family utterly 
refused to furnish him food or shelter, so that he was compelled 
to go six miles further, to the Notch House, before obtaining relief. 
This exposure weakened his constitution, impaired his hearing, 
and was doubtless the remote cause of his death. In 1858 his 
health was greatly improved by a voyage to Europe. He applied 
for passage home on the ill-fated Austria, which was burned with 
all her passengers, but failing to secure a satisfactory berth he 
escaped. Dec. 4, 1861, he married Miss Mary F. Hayes of Roch- 
ester. Their children are : 1. John Edgar, who was for two years 
a member of the class of 1883 in the Chandler Scientific Depart- 



• This sketch is by the Editor. 



374 KOCHESTER. 

ment of Dartmouth College, but was compelled to relinquish his 
studies on account of poor health. He has since developed a 
delicate taste and marked ability as a musician, particularly as a 
pianist. Having taken lessons for several years under the instruc- 
tion of J. W. Hill of the 'New England Conservatory of Music at 
Boston, he began regular work as a teacher in 1885. Thorough- 
ness and exactness characterize his methods of instruction, in 
which he is meeting increasing and well-deserved success. Pur- 
suing the study of Harmony under the direction of Stephen A. 
Emery of Boston, he has already done something as a composer, 
especially in song music. 2. Willis, a member of the class of 
'90 in Dartmouth College. 

Franklin McDufFee was appointed treasurer of the ISTorway Plains 
Savings Bank in 1866. Two years later he joined his father in 
establishing a private banking institution under the name of John 
McDutfee & Co., bankers. In 1874 this company merged into 
the Rochester jSTational Bank, of which he became cashier. 

He was initiated in Humane Lodge of Free and Accepted 
Masons, Dec. 9, 1856. The next year he was chosen secretary, 
and after filling other offices was Master of the Lodge in 1863-64. 
In 1866-67 he officiated as District Deputy of the Grand Lodge 
of New Hampshire. 

He served the town as selectman, and for many years as super- 
intending school committee. He was a member of the State Leg- 
islature of 1862, and the Constitutional Convention of 1876. 

He joined the Congregational Church in 1868, and four years 
after was chosen deacon, which office he held through the rest 
of his life. After a sickness of a few weeks he died at Rochester 
Nov. 11, 1880. 

The character of Deacon McDuffee was one of rare excellence, 
blending many valuable traits. As a lad he was studious, thought- 
ful, kind, and mature beyond his years. He was well fitted for 
college at the age of sixteen, but delayed entering till a year later. 
He was thorough and exact in his studies and ranked high at 
graduation. One of his instructors writes: "I remember Mr. 
McDutt'ee well, as a thoughtful and exemplary student, deserving 
and receiving the esteem of his instructors ynd associates. It was 
always a pleasure to me to see him in the class-room." Another 
writes, " I recall him as a good scholar, industrious, faithful, and 



LEADING MEN SINCE TUE REVOLUTION. 375 

honest; but very modest iiiul rotirine^." Iliglil}- esteemed In' all 
his classmates, he had but few intimates, but those few were deeply 
attached to him, and the ties then formed were never broken. 
He always loved his Alma Mator, and when, unsought by himself, 
liis name was prominently mentioned in alumni eireles as a can- 
didate to till a vacancy in the board of trustees, he remarked to 
a friend that he should regard such an appointment a greater 
honor than to be Governor of New Hampshire. He took deep 
interest in national atfairs and had a clear understanding of polit- 
ical issues. He was no managing politician, but simply from force 
of character he was a leader in his party. Men irrespective of 
party recognized his leadersiiip in atfairs of public interest. He did 
not win men by flattery, nor by neutrality on important questions. 
All knew him for a stanch liepublican, an untiinching friend of 
temperance and good order. He had decision, energy, and sturdy 
pluck, without malice or bitterness, so that even his oi»ponent8 
res[iected his conscientious integrity. He was not unfrequently 
able to carry a vote against a current already strongly set the 
other way, simply by his strong, honest, clear way of stating the 
case. Men always listened when he rose to speak, knowing his 
words would be sincere and to the point. He never attempted 
to speak when he had nothing to say. He studied no graces of 
oratory. He indulged in no flowers of rhetoric. He drove like 
a rifle-ball straight for the mark, which he never failed to hit. 
Hence he was recognized as one of the best and most entertaining 
lecturers in Straftbrd county. He took a deep interest in edu- 
cation, and was zealous and untiring in eftbrts to elevate the 
schools of Rochester. To no one more than to him the high 
school owes its standing and success. 

From his well-known ability and interest in historical research 
he was elected a member of the New Hampshire Historical Society. 
In 1865 he began a series of historical sketches in the " Roch- 
ester Courier" which were models of simplicity, conciseness, and 
accuracy. It was his intention to re-write and enlarge these 
sketches into a complete history of Rochester, but his premature 
death left the work unfinished. He had, however, collected with 
great labor much material for this purpose, out of which has grown 
this present volume. 



376 ROCHESTER. 

Mr. McDuflee's mind was essentially mathematical, with, keen 
powers of analytic thoughit. Flowers of rhetoric could not cover 
false logic from his eyes, which detected shams at a glance. His 
power of methodical analysis was well illustrated in his mountain 
adventure. When he found that he was lost, he realized not 
only the danger from unseen precipices, but that the attempt to 
go on would certainly add to his perplexity. Having no means 
■of kindling a lire, he could ward off a fatal chill only by continued 
•exercise. He therefore chose a level spot between two trees and 
paced back and forth from one tree to the other all night. While 
thus walking he went over in careful thought the whole day's 
journey, studying step by step to find his error. In this way he 
came to a definite conclusion as to just where he had left the 
true' road, and just what course to pursue in the morning. The 
theory proved true in every particular, and brought him out in 
■safety. This quality of mind turned to mechanics might have 
made him distinguished as an inventor. In 1876 he invented and 
patented a valuable " Improvement in Combination and Chro- 
nometer Locks," which he sold to a lock manufacturing company 
for $500. This invention secures two principal advantages : First, 
that any accidental stopping of the clock-work will not prevent 
i;he opening of the lock. Second, that it can be opened between 
the hours for which it is set, only by assembling too many persons 
for a burglar's safety. His methodical mind fitted him especially 
for business, in which he was a model of diligence, exactness, and 
integrity. No crookedness or obscurity ever darkened his financial 
transactions. 

His partial loss of hearing, added to his retiring nature, withdrew 
him somewhat from social life, and his quiet, unobtrusive ways 
ieft others of far less merit to be more widely known than he. 
But his neighbors and townsmen highly appreciated his sterling 
worth, and his intimates prized his friendship as of one of the 
-aincerest and most lovable of men. 

He was pre-eminently meek under abuse. When a temporary 
cloud came upon the Savings Bank, conscious of integrity he was 
■calm and quiet under vituperation. He would patiently answer 
■questions and explain affairs again and again to every interested 
party, but when, leaving inquiry, any began to rage and revile, he 
would turn quietly to his books, as if not hearing a word. 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 377 

Quick in sympathy, he was iiohly generous in every worthy 
cause. The poor were among his sincerest mourners. Unosten- 
tatious in his gifts, many a needy one was relieved, only suspecting 
whence the favor came. 

His firm and generous character was heautified and crowned by 
the graces of a Christian life. Ilis religion, like every other jtart 
of his character, was geimine. Xo affected holiness, no pious drivel 
marred its excellent simplicity. Shrinking and sensitive, his reli- 
gion avoided all boastful display. It was, nevertheless, all-[)er- 
vading, shining in and through his life, leaving a light behind to 
still guide others to the heavenward path. He was long distrustful 
and doubting in regard to his own experience, but when he once 
decided to identify himself with the church of Christ it was a 
transaction forever. His daily life exemplitied the truths he be- 
lieved. He was emphatically a pillar in the church, an active 
sup[iorter of every good, a mo<lel church officer, the friend and 
helper of every pastor. One pastor says: "That noble man of 
God, Frank McDuitee. He was the prince of deacons. We are 
all better for having known him." 

His death was a severe loss, not only to family and church, but 
to town and State as well. Few worthier or more valuable men 
ever claimed the Granite State for their home than Deacon Frank- 
lin JlcJJufee. 

" The memory of the just is blessed." 

3. John Randolph McDuffee, born in Rochester Sept. 5, 1834, 
gcraduated from the Chandler Scientific School at Dartmouth Col- 
lege in 1857, and opened an office in Rochester as civil engineer. 
In 18,38 he went with his brother Franklin on a voyage to Europe. 
On his return he immediately fell into a decline, and died May 14, 
1859. 

4. Aima 31. McBuJfee married Frank S. Brown of the firm 
Brown, Thompson & Co., Hartford, Conn., and has one son and 
two daughters. 

5. 3Iari/ Abbk 3IcDuJfec married, first, E. Freeman Whitehouse 
(p. 366) ; second, Charles K. Chase (see sketch), and survives him 
with one daughter. 

6. Sarah Finances 3IcDuJf'ee died unmarried at the age of thirty- 
three. She was of sensible, well-balanced mind, quiet and unob- 



378 ROCHESTER. 

trusive in manner, affectionate and self-sacrificing among her 
friends, and exceptionally lovely in her whole character. 

7. George McDuffee has been engaged in extensive grain and 
lumber business in Rochester. He married, first, Lizzie Hanson, 
who died leaving a son ; second, Nellie, daughter of Dr. James 
Farrington of Rochester, her father being nephew of Dr. James 
Farrington, M. C. 

8. Oliver McDuffee died in infancy. 

ADAMS. 

Isaac Adams was born in 1803, at Adams Corner, in a house 
still standing on the right going towards East Rochester. He was 
well known as an inventor, and " his peculiarities gained for him 
an extensive notoriety among strangers as well as those who knew 
him best." In boyhood he was employed in factory work, but at 
the age of eighteen went to Sandwich, where he learned the trade 
of cabinet-making. After a few years he went to Dover, where 
he worked at his trade till 1824, when he found work in a machine 
shop in Boston, Mass. In 1827 he invented the famous printing- 
press bearing his name and which soon came into almost universal 
use, having even now no superior for fine book-work. When he 
left Sandwich he said he would not return till he had money 
enough to buy the whole town, and sure enough, when he retired 
from business he had from one to two millions. He bought up 
many farms and planted them to white pines. The stone wall 
around a part of his grounds in Sandwich " has considerable local 
fame, being broad enough to drive a horse and buggy on top." 
He died in Sandwich July 19, 1883, where he was buried, several 
tons of stone being put upon his grave by his direction. 

Seth Adams, brother of Isaac, was associated with him in the 
manufacture of printing-presses, and also acquired great wealth. 
He founded a nervine hospital in Boston, and contributed gener- 
ously to various charities. He also bequeathed a fund of ten 
thousand dollars, the interest of which is to be divided among 
widows and maiden ladies of Rochester. He lies buried in the 
new cemetery at Rochester, where a beautiful granite monument 
has been erected bearing his portrait in a finely finished bas-relief. 







r^^^^ 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 379 

DR. JOSEPH HAVEN SMITH. 

Ellas Stnifh was born in Ei)pini,^ but reniovod in early lit'o to 
Moultonborough, where the poverty and sacrifices incident to the 
settlement of a new country served to develop patience, perse- 
verance, and encrtry of character. In a time of great scarcity of 
provision he went on foot to Exeter, where he procured half a 
bushel of Indian com and bore it home on his shoulder, a distance 
of nearly seventy miles through a dense and almost pathless wil- 
derness. 

His son, John Smith, was born in Moultonborough and brought 
up to a mechanical calling. He married Betsey Roberts of the 
same place and removed to Rochester about 1706, where he reared 
six sons and three daughters. He was through life an industrious, 
hard-working mechanic, of strong mental powers, ready for every 
emergency. Proverbially an honest man, he was endowed with 
a keen, intuitive sagacity, and manifested great independence of 
mind in the choice and maintenance of both religious and political 
principles. He had the confidence of the whole community, and 
those who knew him the most intimately, yielded him the largest 
homage and respect. Of an inquiring spirit, and gifted with happy 
conversational powers, his society was much sought, and he was 
alwa^'s listened to with interest and profit. His opinions, formed 
only after due investigation, became incorporated into his very life. 
His Avife was remarkable for her domestic and stern republican 
virtues. Caring always for her household with true maternal ten- 
derness, she cherished to the last a most sacred regard for the 
memory of the patriots of the Revolution. Remotely of blood kin 
to the immortal Warren, she partook largely of those strong and 
sterling qualities which characterized the women as well as the 
men of the Revolutionary era. 

Joseph Haven Smith, the youngest of the six sons of these pa- 
rents, was born in Rochester Nov. 17, 1805. His early life was 
characterized by a thirst for knowledge, which increased with his 
advancing years. Many discouragements were in his path, and 
greatly to his regret he was compelled to relinquish the hope of 
a collegiate education. His parents did all in their power for his 
help and encouragement. His eldest sister, Arabella Smith, who 
early began teaching, and was for many years principal of the 



380 ROCHESTER. 

" Ontario Female Seminary," at Canaudaigua, N. Y., rendered Mm 
much assistance. The village school at Eochester was at that time 
far in advance of any public school in this part of the State, em- 
ploying liberally educated teachers, and fitting those who wished 
to enter college. Making the very best improvement of all the 
means atibrded by the " poor boys' college,'' he began teaching a 
district school at the age of eighteen. A j^ear later he commenced 
the study of medicine under the tuition of James Farrington, M. D., 
of his own village, and graduated at the Medical College in Bruns- 
wick, Me., in 1829. He also followed his vocation of schoolmaster 
during the whole five years of his medical studies. 

After his graduation he practiced for three years in his native 
town, and in 1832 removed to Dover. A Democrat, who inherited 
his political ideas from a Democratic father, he early took an 
active interest in the politics of the town and State. He was a 
speaker of convincing power, and his abilities were not slow to 
receive recognition. In 1837 he was elected a member of the 
Legislature, and in 1848 and 1855 his name appeared on the 
list of State senators. In 1848 he was chosen a presidential elector, 
and cast one vote for Lewis Cass. He was appointed by President 
Pierce inspector of drugs in the custom house at Boston. He 
was a member of the gubernatorial councils of 1851 and 1852. 
In 1848 he delivered the annual address at the commencement 
exercises at Dartmouth, and for many years was president of the 
Dover bank. He was for several years a member of the school 
board, and it was through his unceasing efl:brts that the district 
system was broken up and the high school erected. He was a 
member of the district and state medical societies, and during 
his active political career never relinquished his enthusiastic love 
of his profession. He was largely instrumental in the erection of 
the Pierce Memorial Church, of which he was a member. 

In 1867 Dr. Smith removed to Lowell, Mass., and for a time 
devoted his whole attention to the practice of his profession. The 
exigencies of the Grant and Greeley campaign, 1872, however, 
aroused the old political fire, and he entered vigorously into the 
contest. Eecognizing the fact that the local Democracy was 
without an organ, he started the " Middlesex Democrat," of which 
he was proprietor and editor. Eleven months later he merged 
the organ into the " Morning Times," which he soon afterwads 




Sn^aveo.'by J C Suttee 




- ^.^^'C^.^. 



I 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 381 

sold out to the Hunt Brothers. In 1876, durino; the Hayes and 
Tilden campaign, he resumed the responsibilities of editor and 
manafror of the " Times," his assistants being D. W. O'Brien 
and Frank Wood. In 1880 he sold out to Messrs. Canipbcjjl & 
Hansconi, tlie present proprietors. He was a member of the 
school board at Lowell for one term, and was connected with 
Monomake Encampment, I. 0. 0. F. He was a man of unim- 
peachable character and inherent attractions, whose word was a 
guaranty of good faith, and whose friendshij) was a privilege 
worthy the highest appreciation. His disposition was of the kind- 
liest nature. He was scrupulous in his adherence to truth, and 
never countenanced or gave currency to any statement, however 
fiivorable it might be to the party he advocated, unless he was first 
satisfied of its truth. 

Dr. Smith married, first, Meribah Hanson, and, second, Mrs. 
"Wiggin of Dover. He died, in a good old age, at Lowell, Mass., 
Feb. 25, 1886, leaving a widow and tliree children: — Dr. II. J. 
Smith of Lowell, Mass., and Mrs. Edwin Hills and Miss Lizzie 
Smith of Washington, D. C. 

HON. JOHN P. HALE. 

BY HON. JACOB H. ELA. 

John Parker Hale was born in Rochester, N. H., March 31, 
1806. His father, John P. Hale, was a lawyer of much ability 
and influence, and of great personal })opularity, who died in 1819, 
at the age of forty-two years, leaving a large family in limited 
circumstances, the subject of this sketch being then but thirteen 
years old. As a boy he was popular among his fellows — active, 
fond of sport, quick to learn, courageous, kind, and free from 
vindictiveness — qualities which adhered to him tlirough life, 
making him very popular in the community in which he lived, 
and in the counties where he practiced at the bar, and com- 
manding the good will and respect of the men whom his convictions 
led him to oppose. From the public schools of his native village 
he went to Phillips Academy at Exeter, and graduated at Bowdoiu 
College in 1827. 

Mr. Hale, on leaving college, entered upon the study of the law 



382 ROCHESTER. 

in the office of J. H. Woodman, Esq., in Rochester, and completed 
his studies with Daniel M. Christie, Esq., of Dover, where he had 
the advantage of the instruction of one of the ablest lawyers ever 
at the bar in the State. He began to practice in Dover in 1830, 
and for about forty years was the nearest neighbor of his old 
instructor, who was always one of his warmest friends, although 
the two were generally pitted against each other in all the leading 
cases in court, and differed much of the time politically. They 
finally came together, however, the one from the standpoint of an 
anti-slavery Whig, and the other from that of a Democrat with 
anti-slavery tendencies. 

Mr. Hale at once took high rank at the bar, and was noted 
for his tact and skill in handling witnesses, and his great power 
with a jury. Of all the advocates who practiced at the bar of the 
old county of Strafibrd, Ichabod Bartlett of Portsmouth is the 
only one remembered who equaled him in skill with witnesses, 
or possessed that wit and humor, burning indignation, and touch- 
ing pathos which were often brought out in his appeals to the 
jury. His practice rapidly extended outside his own county into 
Belknap, Carroll, and Rockingham. In 1834 Mr. Hale was ap- 
pointed United States District Attorney by General Jackson, and 
was re-appointed by President Van Buren. 

In all his ideas Mr. Hale was democratic, and jealous of every 
encroachment upon popular rights. As a lawyer he contended 
for the right of the jury to be judges of the law, as well as of 
the facts, and protested against their being instructed by the judges 
how they must construe and apply the law, leaving them only to 
find a verdict on the facts. He won reputation as a lawyer outside 
the bar of New Hampshire, in the Supreme Court at Washington, 
and in the celebrated Fugitive Slave rescue cases in Boston. 
When Shadrach was rescued in 1851 from the court house in 
Boston by Lewis Hayden and others, and sent to Canada, great 
excitement arose over the country, and especially in Washington, 
where the President issued a proclamation commanding "all officers, 
civil and military, and all well-disposed citizens in the vicinity ot 
the outrage to assist in capturing the rescuers and quelling all 
similar combinations." The Senate took up the matter on a res- 
olution of Mr. Clay's calling on the President for information, 
and a special message was received in answer, with the facts and 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 383 

assurance that the hiw should be executed. The debate that fol- 
lowed Avas tierce and exciting, many senators participating. Mr. 
Hale said he thought " the I*resident felt pretty sure he liad made 
the administration ridiculous by his proclamation, and had sent a 
labored essay to vindicate what could not be vindicated." Hayden 
and Scott, the leaders in the rescue, were indicted and tried, but 
the jury failed to agree, notwithstanding the character of the testi- 
mony and the strong charge of the judge. Mr. Hale, who was 
leading counsel for the defense, made one of the most noted eiforts 
of the times, addressed to the jury and the country. When the 
case of Anthony Burns came up in Boston, three years later, 
there was a still greater excitement. Theodore Parker, accidentally 
hearing of the arrest, with difficulty got access to the man, and 
with the aid of counsel procured a continuance that Burns might 
make defense. An immense meeting was held in Faneuil Hall 
to consider what the crisis required. A party who were too impa- 
tient to wait for the slower plans of the Anti-man-hunting League, 
battered down with a stick of timber the outer doors where Burns 
was confined. The garrison inside made a stand in the breach, 
and one of the marshal's assistants, James Batchelder, was killed. 
The noise drew the police to the scene, and a military company 
marching into the court-area as they were returning from target 
practice, being accidental!}' mistaken for a company of marines 
coming to strengthen the garrison, the attacking party did not 
feel strong enough to follow up their first success, and the rescue 
failed. The President ordered the Adjutant-General of the army 
to Boston, and the troops in New York were kept under orders 
to march upon call, in addition to other preparations to prevent 
a rescue. 

Indictments were found against Theodore Parker, Wendell Phil- 
lips, Martin Stowell, Thomas Wentworth Higginson, and others 
— some for murder, and others for assault and riot — mainly for 
the speeches they made at Faneuil Hall meeting. Mr. Hale was 
again secured as leading counsel for the defense, assisted by Charles 
M. Ellis, William L. Burt, John A. Andrew, and Henry F. Du- 
rant. The indictments broke down, and the parties were never 
brought to trial. Theodore Parker afterwards published the 
" Defense " he had prepared, and dedicated it to his lawyer, John 
P. Hale. 



384 ROCHESTER. 

From the time of his graduation Mr. Hale took great interest 
in political matters, and in 1832. two years after commencing the 
practice of law in Dover, was elecfted to the Legislature, at the 
age of twenty-six. Having identified himself with the Democratic 
party, he became one of its most able and eloquent supporters, 
and in 1843 was elected a representative to Congress on a general 
ticket with Edmund Burke, Moses N^orris, Jr., James H. Johnson, 
and John R, Reding. On the assembling of Congress in December, 
an exciting debate arose on the report made by John Quincy 
Adams, chairman of the committee on rules, which left out the 
famous twenty-first rule, known as the Gag rule, that had been 
adopted in 1838 by a resolution introduced by Mr. Atherton of 
New Hampshire, which required that " every petition, memorial, 
resolution, proposition, or paper, touching, or relating in any way, 
or to any extent whatever, to slavery or the abolition thereof, 
shall, on presentation, without any further action thereon, be laid 
on the table, without being debated, printed, or referred." During 
the debate Mr. Hale, with Hamlin of Maine, and a few other 
Democrats, avowed their opposition to the longer suppression of 
the right of petition. The report was laid on the table, and the 
rule continued by a small majority. It had originally been adopted 
by a vote of about two to one. This was the beginning of Mr. 
Hale's anti-slavery action in Congress, which was destined to bring 
him so conspicuously before the country. 

In the presidential campaign of 1844, Mr. Hale took an active 
part. He distinguished himself as a political s])eaker, and contrib- 
uted much to the success of his party. The question of the 
annexation of Texas had exercised a controlling interest in the 
South, from the necessity of obtaining more slave territory, if they 
would maintain their power, in view of the growing anti-slavery 
sentiment in the North, which was beginning to afi:ect the action 
of Democrats. Mr. Clay had lost the State of New York, and 
with it the election, in consequence of his hesitating position of 
opposition to the measure, which sent enough Whig anti-slavery 
votes to Birney to have elected him. Mr. Hale was known to 
be opposed to annexation, as were many other New Hampshire 
Democrats; but no opposition was made to his re-nomination to 
Congress, as fealty to that measure had not yet become a shiboleth 
of the party, as it did soon after. On the assembling of Congress 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 385 

in December, 1844, the advocates of annexation at once entered 
upon the work for its consunuuation. i^residcnt Tyler in his 
messai^e called for immediate action, and during that month several 
schemes for annexation were submitted. In part to show the 
pro-slavery character of the movement, and to fix a western limit 
beyond which slavery should not go, Mr. Hale, on the 10th of 
January, moved a suspension of the rules to enable him to intro- 
duce a proposition to divide Texas into two parts by a line be- 
ginning at a point on the Gulf of Mexico, midway between the 
northern and southern boundaries, and running in a northwesterly 
direction. In the territory south and west of that line, it was 
provided that there should be neither slavery nor involuntary 
servitude; and that the provision was to remain forever an invi- 
olable contract. The motion had a majority of eleven, but tailed 
to receive the requisite two thirds. The necessities of the South 
now made it necessary to suppress all opposition to the scheme of 
annexation. The election had put the control of the government 
in the hands of its friends, and all its patronage was to be wielded 
to secure that result. The Legislature of Xew Hampshire was in 
session, as was then the custom every winter of the presidential 
year, to provide electors in case of failure to elect by the people, 
and resolutions were at once introduced and pushed through, 
favoring annexation, and instructing the delegation in Congress 
from the State to sustain it. " Obev or resign " had long been a 
Democratic doctrine in the State ; and while most of the members 
might not have so understood it, the leaders were aiming at Mr. 
Hale, who had favored that doctrine. He met these resolutions 
with defiance. He stood by the record he had made against any 
further strengthening of the slave power, while mortified to see 
so many of his associates going down before it, among them the 
editor of the Democratic paper in his own town, who had expressed 
the desire that an impassable gulf might forever exist to prevent 
annexation, while another leading Democratic editor declared the 
whole scheme " black as ink, and bitter as hell." It was a great 
step to take, and a less daring spirit would not have ventured it. 
Poor in property, with a family to support — the most popular man 
in his party — with power to command and ability to adorn any 
position his ambition might seek, on the one side — with alienation 
of social and political friends, ostracism in business and politics 

26 



386 ROCHESTER. 

by a party which for sixteen years had held unbroken sway and 
remorselessly cut down every man who dared to oppose its declared 
will, on the other — were the alternatives. Few men have shown 
such greatness of soul and loyalty to convictions under such 
temptations. While most men would have yielded, Mr. Hale did 
not falter, but at once wrote his celebrated letter to the people of 
ITew Hampshire against the action of the Legislature in its reso- 
lutions, in which, after setting forth the aims and purposes of 
annexation, and the reasons given by the advocates and supporters 
of the measure, he declared them to be " eminently calculated to 
provoke the scorn of earth and the judgment of heaven." He 
said he would never consent by any agency of his to place the 
country in the attitude of annexing a foreign nation for the avowed 
purpose of sustaining and perpetuating human slavery ; and if they 
were favorable to such a measure, they must choose another 
rejDresentative to carry out their wishes. 

The Democratic State Committee immediately issued a call for 
the re-assembling of the Democratic Convention at Concord on 
the 12th of February, 1845, and every Democratic paper which 
could be prevailed upon to do so, opened its battery of denunci- 
ation, calling upon the convention to rebuke and silence Mr. Hale. 
To show what eiforts were made to crush him, it need only be 
said that such leaders of the party as Franklin Pierce, who had 
been his warm friend ever since they were fellow students in col- 
lege, went forth over the State to organize the opposition. At 
Dover he called in the leaders of the party, and the editor of the 
" Dover Gazette," who had taken such strong grounds against 
annexation, and under their influence the "Gazette" changed 
sides and went over to Mr. Hale's enemies. He then went to 
Portsmouth and brought over the leaders there, with the exception 
of John L. Hayes, then clerk of the United States Court. The 
same result followed at Exeter, with the exception of Hon. Amos 
Tuck. In this way the convention was prepared to throw over- 
board Mr. Hale and put another name on the ticket in place of 
his. Expecting no other fate when he wrote his letter, Mr. Hale 
remained at his post in Congress and only assisted his friends 
from that point, making arrangements at the same time to enter 
upon the practice of law in New York city upon the close of his 
term. But resolute friends, who believed with him, rose up in all 



LEADING MEN SINCE TUE REVOLUTION. 387 

parts of the State to defeat the election of John Woodbury, who 
had been nominated in place of Mr. Hale. Prominent among 
these, in addition to those named above, were Nathaniel D. "VVet- 
more of Rochester, John Dow of Epping, George G. Fogg, then 
of Gilmanton, James M. Gates of Claremont, James Peverly of 
Concord, John Brown of Ossipee, George W. Stevens of Meredith, 
John A. Eollins of Moultonl)orough, James W. James of Deerlield, 
]Sr. P. Cram of Hampton Falls, and Samuel B. Parsons of Cole- 
brook, with others of like stamp, who organized the first successful 
revolt against the demands of the slave power, which, until then, 
had been invincible. Through their efibrts, Woodbury, the nom- 
inee of the convention, failed to secure the majority over all others 
needed to elect him, and another election was called to fill the 
vacancy. Great excitement pervaded the State during the canvass, 
into which Mr. Hale entered with spirit, giving full play to all 
those characteristics which made him the foremost orator of the 
State before the people, as he had been before juries. 

The canvass opened in Concord in June, on the week for the 
assembling of the Legislature, in the old North Church. To break 
the force and effect of Mr. Hale's speech there, the Democratic 
leaders determined that it should be answered upon the spot, and 
selected Franklin Pierce for the work. On his way up to the 
church, Mr. Hale saw no people in the streets, and he began to 
fear there might be a failure in the expected numbers in attendance, 
as there had been once before in the same place in 1840, when 
he and other leaders of the party were to address a mass meeting, 
but when he reached the old church he saw why the streets were 
vacant; the people had all gone early to be sure of getting in, 
and the house was full to overflowing. Aware that he was ad- 
dressing not only the citizens of Concord and adjoining towns, 
and members of the Legislature, but the religious, benevolent, 
and other organizations which always met in Concord on election 
week, he spoke with more than his usual calmness and dignity. 
He created a profound impression, and made all feel, whether 
agreeing with him or not, that he had acted from a high sense 
of public duty and conviction. 

Mr. Pierce, ^vho had few equals as a speaker, saw the marked 
effect of Mr. Hale's address, and spoke under great excitement. 
He was bitter and sarcastic in tone and matter, and domineerinff 



388 ROCHESTER. 

and arrogant in his manner, if not personally insulting. The 
convention was wrought up to the highest pitch of excitement when 
Mr. Hale rose to reply. He spoke briefly, but effectively, and closed 
by saying : — 

" I expected to be called ambitious, to have my name cast out 
as evil, to be traduced and misrepresented. I have not been dis- 
appointed. But if things have come to this condition, that con- 
science and a sacred regard for truth and duty are to be publicly 
held up to ridicule, and scouted without rebuke, as has just been 
done here, it matters little whether we are annexed to Texas, or 
Texas is annexed to us. I may be permitted to say that the 
measure of my ambition will be full, if when my earthly career 
shall be finished, and my bones be laid beneath the soil of IsTew 
Hampshire, when my wife and children shall repair to my grave 
to drop the tear of affection to my memory, they may read on 
my tombstone, ' He who lies beneath surrendered office, place, and 
power, rather than bow down and worship slavery.' " 

The scene which followed can be imagined, but not described, 
as round after round of applause greeted this close. At the end 
of the canvass in September, with three candidates in the field, 
there was again no election. A second effort in November ended 
with a like result. JSTo other attempt was made until the annual 
March election of 1846, when full tickets were placed in the field 
by the Democrats, Whigs, Free-Soilers, and Independent Demo- 
crats. The issue of no more slave territory was distinctly made, 
and a canvass such as the State had never known before, in which 
Mr. Hale took the leading part, resulted in a triumphant vindi- 
cation of his course, and the complete overthrow of the Demo- 
cratic party, which was beaten at all points. Mr. Hale was elected 
to the House from Dover, on the Independent ticket, and on the 
opening of the session was made Speaker of the House of Rep- 
resentatives, and during the session was elected United States 
senator for the full term of six years. . It was on this occasion 
that John G. Whittier wrote that very gem of political squibs, 
beo'innino;, " 'T is over, Moses ! — all is lost!" Durino- this session 
of the Legislature an incident took place which exliibited the 
independent spirit of the man. Dr. Low, a member from Dover, 
introduced resohitions upon the tariff", slaver}-, and annexation, 
taking the ultra-Whig view of the tariff" question, and intended to 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 389 

bring Mr. Hale and his friends to their support as the condition 
upon which he could have the vote of a considerable portion of 
the Whig party. But instead of yielding his convictions for the 
consideration of their support, he and his friends declared they 
would submit to no shackles ; they had fought successfully against 
the tyranny of one political organization, and no allurements of a 
senatorship should stifle their convictions and bind their judgment 
to the dictations of another. Much excitement followed, but the 
counsels of the liberal "Whigs prevailed. The resolutions were not 
called up until after the senatorial election, when Mr. Hale left 
the speaker's chair, and ofl:ered amendments, which were adopted 
after a strong speech by him in their favor. He was supported 
by his old friend and instructor, Daniel M. Christie of Dover, also 
a member of the House, who had done much to quiet the opposition 
and induce it to vote for Mr. Hale. 

The hearts of the friends of liberty all over the country were 
filled with joy at the auspicious result of this first victory over 
the slave power after repeated, prolonged, and excited struggles 
both before the people and at the polls. Mr. Hale entered the 
Senate in 1847, and for two years stood alone, with unfaltering 
courage, battling the aggressive measures of the slave power with 
surpassing eloquence, keen wit, unfailing good humor, and bound- 
less resources for any and every emergency. He drew the attention 
of the country, during this session, by the telling blows he struck 
for the great cause of human freedom, to which he dedicated all 
the noblest powers of his mature manhood. He stood fearless 
against every threat and all combinations. It was of his debates 
during his first senatorial term, after his return from Spain, broken 
in health, that Charles Sumner said to the writer: — "Poor Hale! 
It is sad to see his manly form crippled and shrunken. He stood 
up bravely and alone before the rest of us got there to aid him, 
and said things on the spur of the moment, that will last and be 
remembered when the labored efforts of the rest of us are for- 
gotten." Chase of Ohio, a sturdy son of New Hampshire, came 
to the Senate in 1849 to stand beside him, and two years later, 
in 1851, Sumner of Massachusetts. They constituted a trio of 
great ability, but were treated as interlopers and refused positions 
on the committees of the Senate for the reason, as alleged by 



390 ROCHESTER. 

Bright of Indiana, that " they belonged to no healthy organization 
known to the country." 

One of the first debates in which Mr. Hale distinguished him- 
self, after entering the Senate, was on the admission of Oregon, 
when he proposed to add the ordinance of 1787, excluding slavery, 
which drew on a fierce debate. When accused of provoking a 
" useless and pestiferous discussion,'' he told them with his accus- 
tomed good nature, that he was " willing to stand where the word 
of God and his conscience placed him, and there bid defiance to 
consequences." 

Early in April, 1848, the year of popular upheavings and rev- 
olutions in Europe, President Polk sent a message to Congress 
announcing, in glowing terms, the uprising of the French people 
■ — the peaceful overthrow of the monarchy, and the establishment 
of a republic. Resolutions were introduced in the House of Rep- 
resentatives, tendering their warmest sympathy with the struggling 
patriots, and expressing the hope " that down-trodden humanity 
may succeed in breaking down all forms of tyranny and oppres- 
sion." Similar resolutions were introduced in the Senate. Speak- 
ing on the question in a sad strain Mr. Hale said : — 

" I have sometimes thought, in dwelling upon the history of this 
republic, that I have seen indications, fearful and fatal, that we were 
departing from the faith of our fathers ; that instead of living true to 
the first principles of human liberty which we have proclaimed, we 
were cutting loose from them ; that the illustration we were about 
to give of the capability of man for self-government was to be 
the same as that of all other nations that have gone before us; 
and that after our failure the hope of freedom would indeed be 
extinguished forever. But in the dawning of this revolution in 
France I behold the sun of hope again arise, his beams of golden 
light streaming along the eastern horizon. I am now inspired 
by the hope that even if we fail here, if liberty should be driven 
from this, her chosen asylum, the divine principle would still live 
and would find a sanctuary among the people of another land; 
and when our history shall have been written, and our tale told, 
with its sad moral of our faithlessness to liberty, — boasting of 
our love of freedom, while we listened unmoved to the clanking 
of chains and the wail of the bondmen, — even then, in a con- 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 391 

tinciit of the old world, light would be seen breaking out of 
darkness, life out of death, and hope out of despair." 

There was a municipal celebration of this event in Washington, 
with torchlight procession and other out-door demonstrations, the 
houses of the President and heads of the departments being illu- 
minated. During these demonstrations the schooner Pearl came 
to Washington loaded with wood, and when she left took away 
seventy-seven slaves. Such an exodus caused great commotion, 
and an armed steamer was sent in hot pursuit, which overtook 
the schooner at the mouth of the l*otomac and brought her back 
with her ill-fated company. The greatest excitement prevailed, 
and out of it came a mob, which, after partially exhausting its 
fury, started for the ofHce of the " National Era " to destroy it, 
but were frustrated in their purpose. In Congress the excitement 
was as fierce and intense as outside. In the House the debate 
was especially bitter. In the Senate Mr. Hale offered a resolution, 
copied from the laws of Maryland, providing that any property 
destroyed by riotous assemblages should " be paid for by any town 
or county in the district where it occurs." Mr. Calhoun was 
" amazed that even the senator from New Hampshire should 
have so little regard for the constitution of the country as to 
introduce such a bill as this without including in it the severest 
penalties against the atrocious act which had occasioned this 
excitement," and said he " would just as soon argue with a maniac 
from Bedlam, as with the senator from New Hampshire on the 
subject." Foote of Mississippi denounced the bill "as obviously 
intended to cover and protect negro stealing." Turning to Mr. 
Hale he said: — "I invite him to visit Mississippi, and will tell 
him beforehand, in all honesty, that he could not go ten miles 
into the interior before he would grace one of the tallest trees ot 
the forest with a rope around his neck, with the a})probation ot 
every honest and patriotic citizen ; and that, if necessary, I should 
myself assist in the operation." Jefferson Davis, and Butler ot 
South Carolina, joined in the attack upon him in the same strain, 
while he stood alone. Mr. Hale explained his purpose in intro- 
ducing the resolution, and in replying to the assaults said : — 
" The notes of congratulation sent across the Atlantic to the 
people of France on their deliverance from thralldom have 
hardly ceased when the supremacy of law and the freedom ot 



392 ROCHESTER. 

the press are threatened in the capital of the nation." Refer- 
ring to Foote's threatened reception in Mississippi, he invited the 
senator to visit " the dark corners of ISTew Hampshire, where 
the people in that benighted region will be very happy to listen 
to his arguments and engage in the intellectual conflict with him 
in which the truth would be elicited." Turning to Calhoun, he 
said : — "It has long been held by you that your peculiar insti- 
tution is incompatible with the right of speech ; but if it is also 
incompatible with the safeguards of the constitution being thrown 
around the property of the American citizen, let the country know 
it. If that is to be the principle of your action, let it be pro- 
claimed throughout the length and breadth of the land, that there 
is an institution so omnipotent, so almighty, that even the sacred 
rights of life and property must bow down before it. There could 
not be a better occasion than this to appeal to the country. Let 
the tocsin sound; let the word go forth." He further told Calhoun 
that it was " a novel mode of terminating a controversy by char- 
itably throwing the mantle of a maniac irresponsibility upon one's 
antagonist." Adjournment closed the discussion, and the Senate 
refused to take it up afterwards. 

In December, 1850, Mr. Foote of Mississippi introduced a reso- 
lution declaring it to be the duty of Congress to provide terri- 
torial government for California, Deseret, and 'New Mexico. Mr. 
Hale ofl:ered an amendment, that the ordinance of 1787 should be 
applied. It was during the debate which followed that Mr. Web- 
ster made Lis 7th of March speech. During the discussion Mr. 
Hale occupied two days in an argument vindicating the measures 
and acts of the anti-slavery men. Replying to Mr. Webster, he 
said: — "Yet the senator declares he would not re-enact the laws 
of God. Well, sir, I would. When he tells me that the law of 
God is against slavery, it is a most potent argument why we 
should incorporate it in a territorial bill." 

In closing he said: — "And firmly believing in the providence 
of God, we trust the day will dawn in this country when the 
word ' slavery ' shall be a word without a meaning, when any 
section of the Union will join hands with another in spreading 
abroad the principles of humanit}', philosophy, and Christianity, 
which shall elevate every son and daughter of the human race to 
that liberty for which they were created, and for which they were 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 393 

destined by God. These opinions, sir, we entertain, and these 
hopes we cherish ; and we do not fear to avow them, here, now, 
always, and forever." 

Mr. HaniUn and Mr. Hale presented petitions for the repeal of 
the fugitive slave act, one of which was referred to the judiciary 
committee. A debate sprang np on a motion for reconsideration, 
which gave rise to a spirited controversy, Butler of South Caro- 
lina declared he " was tired of casting impediments in the stream 
•of anti-slavery agitation ; they might as well attempt to put a 
maniac asleep by lullabies." Mr. Hale, in reply, said " agitation 
was the great element of life. It gave birth to the revolution 
and the constitution, and none but those who hug fatal errors 
have anything to fear from that life-giving element, which will 
impart its healing as did the waters at the beautiful gate of the 
temple, when the angel had gone down and stirred them. As for 
myself, I glory in the name of agitator." 

The period of greatest interest in Mr. Hale's senatorial career 
centers around his first term, when he stood alone, or almost 
alone, in the thick of the conflict, undaunted, and dealing blows 
to the oppressor on every side. There were no weak places in 
his armor, and neither threats, attacks, nor allurements could 
shake his constancy. When this term expired, the Democratic 
party had obtained control in New Hampshire ; but two years 
later, in 1855, they lost it, and Mr. Hale was again elected for 
four years, to fill a vacancy occasioned by the death of Charles 
G. Atherton. He was again re-elected for a full terra in 1858. 
He was conspicuous in this term for his integrity and fearless 
independence in exposing the mal-administration and extravagance 
of the navy department, while acting as chairman of the naval 
committee of the Senate. 

Mr. Hale was nominated as the Free-Soil candidate for the 
presidency in 1847, but declined after the nomination of Mr. Van 
Buren at the Buftalo convention in 1848. He was again nom- 
inated for president by the Free-Soil convention in 1852, with 
George "W. Julian for vice-president, and received at the Xovem- 
ber election 155,850 votes. 

At the close of his senatorial career in 1865 Mr. Hale was 
appointed Minister to Spain by President Lincoln, and was absent 
five years, much of the time in ill health. He came home with 



394 ROCHESTER. 

a broken constitution. His health, which had always been perfect 
up to the time of the well-remembered National Hotel sickness, 
was never so good afterwards. 

He lived to see the full triumph of his efforts to rid the land of 
slavery, and the freedmen, with the ballot, placed as citizens under 
the protection of the constitution, and died November 19, 1873, 
bearing with him the blessings of millions who had been raised 
from the sorrow and degradation of human servitude, and of mil- 
lions more who had admired his unselfish fidelity to the cause he 
had espoused, and his unwavering integrity. 

DOMINICUS HANSON. 

DoMiNicus Hanson, son of Joseph and Charity (Dame) Hanson, 
was born Aug. 23, 1813, in the same house in Rochester where 
he now (1888) resides. 

His father was born in Dover Dec. 18, 1764, and died at Roch- 
ester Dec. 19, 1832. He married Charity Dame March 4, 1798. 
She was born in Rochester Sept. 1, 1775, and died Feb. 3, 1833. 
They had ten children. 1. Humjjhrei/, deceased, a druggist. 2. 
Mca^i/ B., deceased, wife of Dr. James Farrington, deceased, of 
Rochester, a distinguished physician and member of Congress from 
New Hampshire (p. 345). 3. Hannah, died in infancy. 4. Joseph 
S., died at twenty-five; was a druggist. 5. Merihah, deceased, wife 
of Dr. Joseph H. Smith, late of Lowell, Mass. (p. 300). 6. Joanna^ 
deceased, wife of John McDuffee of Rochester (p. 380). 7. An 
infant, not named. 8. Hester Ann, deceased, wife of Daniel M, 
Mooney. 9. Dominicus, the subject of this sketch. 10. Asa P., a 
corn and flour dealer in Newton City, Iowa. 

Joseph Hanson came to Rochester from Dover when a young 
man, and immediately engaged in the general grocery and mer- 
cantile business, which he successfully followed till within a few 
years of his death. He was a man of excellent judgment, good 
common sense, shrewd, cautious, industrious, and economical. 
He built the first brick store ever erected in Strafford county, 
probably about 1810 or 1812. The roof, doors, and window-shutters 
were of tin. At a very early day he made a brick vault for the 
safe deposit of his papers, etc. He inaugurated many useful 
schemes which have had a tendency for good, and his name is 




'^C6^ /^^-u^?^ 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 395 

held in grateful remembrance by those who knew him. lie was 
justly considered one of the best business men of his day, and the 
ample fortune left to his family fully attests this estimate of him. 
He was a Whig in politics, but was averse to holding any office, 
preferring to attend to his own i)rivate matters, hence his great 
success for one of those days. 

Mrs. Hanson was a member of the Methodist Church, and he 
was an attendant and supporter of the various churches, tliough 
not a member of any, rather leaning towards ITniversalism. 

DoMiNicus Hanson received the advantages of a common-school 
education until he was some fifteen years of age, and this was 
supplemented by an academic education at Rochester Academy, 
Parsonstield Seminary, Me., and Hopkintou and Pembroke, N". H. 
In 1830 he commenced the drug business as an apprentice to his 
brother-in-law, Dr. Smith, and served him two years, when in 
1832 he bought Dr. Smith's interest, and continued in the business 
till the fire of December, 1880, except some two or three years 
when away at school. Immediately after the fire he built on the 
same spot a fine store now occupied bj' Burnham. 

As an evidence of the confidence reposed in Mr. Hanson as an 
honest and trustworthy gentleman, we may mention that at the 
earnest solicitation of the business men of his native town, he 
issued scrip of the respective denominations — 10 cts., 25 cts., and 
50 cts., — to the amount of $8,000, which reads as follows: — 

"State of New Hampshire, Rochester, Sept. 27, 1862. 

"For value received, I promise to pay on demand, in current 

Bank Bills, in sums of one dollar and upwards, at my place of business. 

"DOMINICUS HANSON." 

This scrip was issued when there was a scarcity of circulating 
money during the great civil war, and before the general govern- 
ment had issued any money. Circulating throughout New England, 
it was never refused, and was promptly redeemed when the general 
government made its issue. " Honest Dominicus," as he has been 
known by his friends for long years I Who ever saw the goodly 
village of Norway Plains but recalls his prim, pressed-brick 
two-story apothecary store, with its circular front, once the most 
stylish store in the whole State of New Hampshire ? its long- 
remembered and excellent brick sidewalk in front, dating back 



396 ROCHESTER. 

to time immemorial, before this prospective city knew the luxury 
of sidewalks ? its broad stone steps, always a delight to the innu- 
merable patrons of this popular resort, who climbed them with the 
assurance of safe foothold and excellent reception beyond ? 

If Noah could by any means be compelled to refit and re-arrange 
the ark, and take in all that he considered necessary to stock a 
new world, he couldn't collect the six or eight million invaluable 
articles which were here gathered together from the four corners 
of the earth (or " coming the next day ") unless he had the nearly 
miraculous experience of our subject, and to acquire such an expe- 
rience would cost a frightful expenditure of both time and money. 

Mr. Hanson is now (1888) seventy-five years of age, a little less 
than six feet in height, stands erect, possesses rather a commanding 
figure, moves quickly like an active young man of twenty-five. 
His hair, always inclined to brown, is silvered with age. He is 
of a markedly nervous organization, his thin-cut face bearing its 
certain evidence. N'othing about his face or general appearance 
is strongly marked above many other men you may meet in the 
course of a day's ride in any portion of Yankee land; by that 
sign you can judge the man. 

If ever wit and drollery overflowed in one person, here it is. I 
know of no two faces in the country that so nearly resemble each 
other as that of " Honest Dominicus " and the happy countenance 
of America's humorist, " Mark Twain." The general impression 
left by the two faces is the same, — the same mysterious gleam, 
sure token of the mental flash, occurs in each, and the wit and 
humor of each are fully recognized among his friends. The par- 
allel holds good still further : in neither case can the purpose or 
intent be solved. A matter of the lightest import may be treated 
with ponderous gravity befitting a funeral oration, and while either 
of the two is discoursing with lengthened face upon the topic, the 
bystanders are convulsed with laughter. On the contrary, many 
things which bewilder the brains of common people are heartily 
laughed at by them. Like all puzzling human enigmas both these 
worthies have become idealized in the aft'ectionate regard of many 
friends. But Mr. Hanson is a study. In him lie the gentle graces, 
geniality, cute Yankee sense, and the subtile and evanescent essence 
of fun. In him dwells a constant gleam of drollery, always 
welcome as sunshine in winter, or flowers in May. The mirth 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 397 

which overflows in his happy moments is all the more welcome 
because of the uncertainty of its aim. It may be gentle invective 
of society's shams ; perhaps a tinge of sarcasm wittily said lightens 
his ettbrts. 

In politics he has been a life-long Democrat of the old school. 
He was an earnest supporter of General Jackson for the presidency 
for the second term, though not old enough to vote. He cast his 
first presidential vote for Martin Yan Buren, and has voted at 
every election since. Without his knowledge he was appointed 
postmaster of his native village by President Jackson, ere his 
majority, and he continued to hold the same position under Van 
Buren's and Harrison's administrations. He has been director of 
the Norway Plains Savings Bank for many years. 

He married Betsey S., daughter of Simon Chase, a prominent 
merchant in Rochester, Sept. 19, 1839. She was born in Milton, 
August 4, 1814. Of this union two sons have been born, — Charles 
A. C, born in Rochester, August 18, 1844, and George W., born 
July 6, 1854, and died January 6, 1856. 

JAMES HERVEY EDGERLY. 

BY HON. C. W. FOLSOM. 

The character and prosperity of every community depend largely 
upon a few leading minds that to a great extent form and mold 
public opinion. Rochester has been specially fortunate in devel- 
oping men illustrious for their energy, industry, and integrity. 
Prominent among these stands James Hervey Edgerly, who for 
half a century has been thoroughly identified with every step of 
progress pertaining to the best intereets of the town of his adoption. 
His good sense and wise counsels have had much to do in shaping 
the destinies of Rochester, in whose activities and advancement he 
has always borne an honorable and conspicuous part. 

James H. Edgerly was born in Farmington, Jan. 28, 1814, of 
the seventh generation from Thomas Edgerlij, an Englishman, who 
settled in Durham in 1665. On his maternal side his ancestry in 
the Roberts line contained a mixture of Scotch-Irish blood. At 
the age of ten years he removed with his parents to Great Falls, 
where they remained nine years, and then returned to Farmington. 



398 ROCHESTER. 

Having acquired a good common school education lie satisfied his 
higher aspirations by attending the academies at Wolfeborough 
and Rochester, and the Institute at New Hampton, supplementing 
a thoroughly practical education by teaching school winters. His 
father intended him for the law, but his tastes were for mechanics, 
and he was apprenticed to his uncle, the late Hon. Josiah B. 
Edgerly, a carriage manufacturer at Farmington. In January, 1835, 
he went to Great Falls, where he worked at his trade for one 
year. The next year he was a journeyman in Boston at good 
wages. Then came the financial crash of 1837, when business was 
at a stand-still, and workmen all over the country were thrown 
out of employment. The young man from the granite hills with 
indomitable will and laudable ambition took up his march to the 
westward, and found employment in St. Louis, Mo. After about 
a year he again migrated to Burlington, Iowa. After a few months' 
labor he was attacked with fever and ague, and, as the only chance 
of recovery, was finally obliged to return home in the fall of 1838. 
In September, 1839, he came to Rochester, where he opened a 
carriage shop, and began also the business of an undertaker. Here 
for nearly fifty years he has honored an honorable employment 
by a life of industry and usefulness. In all his business relations, 
as well as in the various positions of trust to which he has been 
called, he has been guided by that noblest of virtues, fidelity. 
Lacking neither the information nor the courage to maintain his 
principles, his sphere of usefulness may have been greater than 
as if he had been a lawyer. 

Possessed of a military spirit even from boyhood, in 1834 he 
was commissioned captain, in 1840 adjutant of the Thirty-ninth 
Regiment, and three years later was appointed brigade inspector. 
In 1849 he was unanimously chosen captain of the "Rochester 
Phalanx," an independent company composed of many of the first 
young men of the town, and continued in command till the military 
system of the State was changed in 1856. 

He held the ofiice of deputy sherifl:' from 1844 to 1847, and acted 
as guard at the execution of Andrew Howard (p. 312). He had 
been selected by Sherift' Hoyt to assist in the execution, but another 
deputy asked Mr. Edgerly to change places with him. " Certainly," 
said Mr. Edgerly; "while I would not shirk my duty, I have no 
wish to be particularly prominent in swinging a poor wretch into 
eternity." 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 399 

In 1844 Mr. Edgerly was appointed justice of the peace, and 
acted as such forty years, declining to again quahty in 1884. In 
1853 he was made an associate justice of the Court of Common 
Pleas, and remained a sound adviser until the system of courts 
was changed. 

Mr. Edgerly was made a Mason 'Nov. 16, 1850 ; was Master of 
Humane Lodge from 1854 to 1858, and again in 1861 ; was treas- 
urer from 1873 to 1884 ; and D. D. G. Master in 1858-59. He 
was a charter member of Temple Chapter of R. A. M., and is a 
Knight Templar. 

In politics Mr. Edgerly was originally a Democrat, but dissented 
from his party in regard to the Fugitive Slave Law, the Dred Scott 
Decision, and the repeal of the Missouri Compromise. After its 
repeal, believing that " squatter sovereignty " applied to Kansas, 
he became a "Douglas Democrat." But when rebellion arose 
he laid aside all party affiliations, and to the full extent of his 
power and influence supported the administration in its suppression, 
and advocated the second election of Abraham Lincoln. The pres- 
ervation of the Union, with its flag floating over the whole country, 
was to him the paramount principle, and no man in the town of 
Rochester is held in higher esteem by the soldiers of the Grand 
Army than he. They remember him as one who stood by them 
and their families, and in word and deed proved himself the patriot- 
citizen, the friend who fought for them at home while the}' were 
tightiiig for freedom at the front. 

In 1866 he was appointed judge of probate for Strafford county, 
and held the office till removed for political reasons by the Dem- 
ocratic State administration in 1874. 

The life of Judge Edgerly has been long and eventful, full of 
interesting incidents which illustrated the character of the man. 
Just after the passage of the Fugitive Slave Law, a slave fleeing 
to Canada came one night to the house of the late Hon. J. II. 
Ela. The United States officers were in close pursuit, and as Mr. 
Ela was a noted abolitionist, he feared they would find their victim 
without fail if he kept him in hiding at his own house. So he 
went to Mr. Edgerly, who being a well-known Democrat would 
be unsuspected, and stated the case : how the poor fellow had 
been hunted from the rice swamps of Carolina, chased by blood- 
hounds, and traveling by night with the Xorth star for his guide, 



400 ROCHESTEK. 

resting in the woods by day, laad now so nearly reached the land 
of freedom, and what a death blow to his hopes it would be now 
to be captured and sent back to slavery. Mr. Edgerly had been 
walking the room with rapid strides, his great heart filled with 
indignation against the law, and Avith no hesitation became " a 
conductor on the underground railroad." By his aid, advice, and 
money the slave escaped to Canada. This is only one of many 
incidents showing that his heart was always in the right place, 
and by which he won a firm hold on the love and respect of his 
fellow townsmen. 

The writer of this hasty sketch remembers him best when, as 
a member of the school committee, he made frequent visits to 
the schools, and became almost a father to hundreds of boys and 
girls who are now men and women. Though the silver threads 
are mixed with the dark ones of our heads, and many have left 
the old home for other States, yet none of those who attended the 
Main-street school in those days will ever forget honest-hearted, 
free-spoken, bluff, good-natured Judge Edgerly, who made all their 
interests his interests. 

SAMUEL JAMESOIT VAEITEY. 

Samuel J. Varney, son of CcqA. Pkineas Varney, was born at 
Gonic in 1814. His father sailed in command of the privateer 
brig Mars from Portsmouth, and was never heard from. Mr. 
Varney left home in 1831, and served an apprenticeship in the 
" Dover Gazette " ofiice, with John T. Gibbs. In 1835 he purchased 
" The Iris," at Methuen, Mass., and changed it to the " Metlmen 
Falls Gazette." After four years he sold out, and having spent 
a short time in the West, he bought the " Vox Populi " at Lowell, 
Mass., which he published from 1841 to 1850, when he bought 
the "Lowell Courier and Journal." In 1855 he bought back the 
" Vox Populi " and published it till his decease, ITov. 11, 1859. 
In 1836 he married Mary Jane, daughter of Stephen Place of 
Rochester. She died in 1850 leaving five children. In 1851 he 
married Ruth Stewart, who survived him with two children. In 
1850-51 he was a member of the common council, and of the 
board of aldermen in 1852 and 1859. The printers of Lowell and 
other citizens in large numbers attended his funeral. An obituary 




^^^ Cp^ c^<^<^ ^Z^z^-t^^ 




LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 401 

notice says: — "All works of benevolence and philanthropy were 
sure of his co-operation. In social life he was unusually happy 
and considerate of the comfort of others. The needy never came 
to him in vain, and the sick and suffering never lacked his ten- 
derest care. His place is not easily tilled. The good he did will 
long survive him, and there are many of our citizens who will 
till life's end consecrate a warm corner of their liearts to his 
memor}'." 

REV. EZEKIEL TRUE. 

Hairy 7)'ue came from England and settled in Salem, Mass., 
where he married a daughter of Capt. Robert Pike and had two 
sons, the elder of whom was Cajyf. Henry True. lie married Jane 
Bradbury and had four children, among whom was Dca. John True^ 
who married Martha Morrell and had five children. Their second 
son, Ezekkl, married Mary Morrell and settled at Salisbury Plain, 
Mass. Among their ten children was Jacob, who settled in Salis- 
bury, X. H., and married Lydia Dow. The fourth of their six 
children was JEzeJdcI, born at Salisbury, Feb. 6, 1780. He married 
N'ancy i^utting, daughter of one of the first settlers of Corinth, 
Vt., and had eight children. He owned a farm but was a house 
carpenter by trade, and his four boys did most of the farm work. 

EzEKiEL True, the youngest of the four, was born at Corinth, 
Vt., June 5, 1814. In his boyhood he had a great liking for 
books and study, and farming was to him a tiresome drudgery. 
From twelve years of age he cherished an intense purpose to 
obtain education enough to teach a common school. His school 
privileges were limited to about two months each winter, and j^et 
by his persevering energy he passed the examination, obtaining a 
teacher's certificate at the age of seventeen, and taught a two- 
months' school with commendable success, receiving eight dollars 
a month and board. For the next four years he worked on the 
farm in the summer, attended the Academy at Bradford, Vt., in 
the fall, and taught school in tlie winter. 

From a very early age he was seriously inclined, aud deeply 
anxious in regard to personal religion. He was converted in 1828, 
and joined the Free Will Baptist Church in Corinth, March 20, 
1830. Impressed with the conviction that the ministry must be 
his life work, he preached his first sermon July 5, 1835, from 

27 



402 ROCHESTER. 

Matthew 16 : 26. He continued to preach through the summer, 
and in the winter traveled, holding meetings in various places 
through ^Northern Vermont, but with no marked success. Feeling 
the need of a better education he went to ISTorth Parsonsfield 
Seminary in Maine, the only academy then belonging to his 
denomination. His father gave him twenty dollars, and by the 
aid of teaching winters, he acquired a common academic education. 
After leaving school he held meetings in Cornish, Me., resulting 
in sixty or seventy conversions. 

He was ordained at Corinth, Yt., June 22, 1837, and in Jan- 
uary, 1838, became pastor of the Free Will Baptist Church in 
Portsmouth, where he remained three years, adding the labors of 
a city missionary to the regular pastoral work. During this time 
about one hundred were added to the church. For thirty-five 
years he preached without the loss of a single Sabbath, and was 
in labors abundant for nearly ten years more. Having been pastor 
in "Wells, South Berwick, and Saco, Me., and in .Portsmouth, 
Ashland, Pittsfield, Lake Village, Alton, Gilford, and Farmington, 
N. H., he spent his last years in Rochester, where he founded the 
Rochester Village Free Will Baptist Church, and where he died 
Feb. 18, 1883 (p. 283-5). 

In I^Tovember, 1839, he married Sylvia M. Hobbs of Wells, Me., 
whose natural abilities, education, and rare spiritual gifts qualified 
her to be a most efiicient helpmeet in all his work. She died April 
30, 1881. In June, 1882, he married Mrs. Clara D. Smith, who 
survives him. 

Mr. True was a man of untiring energy, wholly devoted to his 
work. He served on the school board in most of the towns where 
he resided. He preached not less than four thousand and five 
hundred sermons, attended about five hundred funerals, married 
three hundred and fifty couples, and baptized about three hundred 
persons. His genial, social disposition won him many friends who 
still hold his name in afl:ectionate remembrance. 

DR. JASPER H. YORK. 

Jasper Hazen York was born in Lee, Feb. 27, 1816, and died 
in Dover, April 7, 1874. When he was two years of age his 
parents moved from Lee to Rochester, which place remained his 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 403 

home till he made one for himself in South Boston. lie was 
the third son of John and Rebecca York. His father was a suc- 
cessful farmer, retiring in his disposition, hut widely known and 
respected for his honesty, integrity, and good common sense. His 
mother was a woman of great strength of character and wonder- 
fully successful in impressing her own superior mental power upon 
her children. 

In early boyhood he was noted for his love of books and stu- 
dious habits. As he grew older the passion for an education took 
complete possession of him, and nothing short of a profession 
would satisfy his ambition. His father used every inducement to 
have him remain on the farm, but when he became convinced 
that this was utterly repugnant to the boy's desires, he reluctantly 
gave his consent that this son should choose his own life work. 

After leaving the public schools he continued his studies at 
Phillips Exeter Academy. Then for several years he taught school 
in Kittery, Me., Dover, N'. H., and other places. As a teacher he 
was wonderfully successful, not only in the public schools but in 
after years when he had a continuous succession of medical students 
in his office. He always took great interest in educational affiiirs, 
servins: with sis-nal success on the school committee in Boston for 
many years, proving himself one of the most efficient men that 
board ever had. 

He graduated from Harvard Medical College with honor in the 
year 1845. He soon settled in South Boston and immediately 
acquired a good practice. He was early noted for his surgical skill 
— in fact he had nearly all the surgery in South Boston — and 
also for his skill in diagnosis, seeming to arrive at correct conclu- 
sions almost intuitively. In every way he proved himself an able, 
skillful physician, winning the confidence of his patients and the 
respect of other medical men. Soon after he settled in South 
Boston he entered heartily into the anti-slavery movement, using 
freely his influence and his money to advance the interest of the 
cause, and ardently supporting Garrison, "Wendell Phillips, Charles 
Sumner, and Theodore Parker in their warfare upon the great 
evil of slavery. 

His parents were Free "Will Baptists and he had been brought 
up in that faith, but about this time his religious thought under- 



404 EOCHESTER. 

went a change, so that he connected hhnself with the society over 
which Theodore Parker was pastor. 

When the Know-Nothing party sprang into its ephemeral exist- 
ence, and the Roman Catholics of Boston and elsewhere endeav- 
ored to put it down, Dr. York took strong sides with that party, 
because he believed in free thought, free speech, and absolutely 
free government, and did not believe in uneducated, irresponsible 
men from other countries dominating and ruling native-born 
citizens. For the active part he took in this he came near being 
mobbed by the Catholics. He was fearless to the highest degree, 
a man of decided convictions, and always ready to defend them, 
with his life if necessary. 

A large number of medical students graduated from his office 
with honor both to themselves and to him, among whom may be 
mentioned his nephew, Dr. John Colby York, Dr. "W. H. Page 
of Rochester, Dr. William Sprague, Dr. J. F. Frisbie of Rochester, 
Dr. S. C. Whittier, Dr. W. H. Westcott, and others. 

When the civil war broke out he was intensely loyal, believing 
the end of slavery would result. Having offered his services to 
the United States government, he Avas stationed at Fairfax Semi- 
nary Hospital, Va., and Armory Square Hospital in Washington, 
D. C. 

In 1865, following a too close application to his professional 
work, he was prostrated with disease of the stomach from which 
he never recovered. Several times he relinquished practice and 
partly regained his health, but his active disposition would not 
long allow him to rest, and a return to his work brought back 
the disease, and after a lingering and painful illness he died in 
Dover. He had removed to that city several years before, where he 
purchased a small fiarm, hoping the out-door life might prove bene- 
ficial. For a short time his difficulty to some extent abated, but 
the disease proved too deeply seated to be easily eradicated. In 
1860 he married Mary Elsie Watts, daughter of Charles S. Watts, 
Esq., of South Boston, who, with one daughter, survives him. 

FRANCIS ORR. 

Francis Orr was born in Topsham, Me., in 1816. At the age 
of fourteen he went to Boston to obtain a commercial education. 





^^^^^^il^^e/ ^^^^^^,^^:^^^ 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 405 

and found employment in a dry goods jobbing house. He showed 
an aptitude for business and soon became an excellent accountant. 
While book-keeper at the factories in Dudley, Mass., he married 
the daughter of Col. John Eddy. After this he was clerk and 
paymaster of the mills at Barre, Mass., and came to Rochester in 
December, 1847, to take the position of clerk and book-keeper for 
the i^orway Plains Company. Here he continued for just thirty 
years, when he was stricken with paralysis which confined him 
to the house. After an illness of more than six years he died 
Xov. 16, 1883, leaving a wife and two children. 

Notwithstanding the constant .pressure of his counting-room 
duties, he was an active man in the interests of the community. 
For many years he was an engineer in the fire department, and 
always took a deep interest in the welfare of the fire companies. 
He was a director in the old Mechanics' Bank, and afterwards a 
corporator and director in the Rochester Savings Bank. He was 
a member of the Legislature in 1871 and 1873. The latter term 
he was chairman of the committee on incorporations and one of 
the most valuable members, speaking rarely but always to the point. 
Mr. Orr was thoroughly identified with the business of Rochester 
for many years, and was well known as a progressive and euer- 
ffetic business man. 

CHARLES MAIN^. 

Charles Main, son of David and Esther (N'orwood) Main, and 
great-great-grandson of Rev. Amos Main (p. 83), was born in 1817, 
orphaned at an early age, and apprenticed to learn the saddlers* 
trade at Dover, when fifteen years old. He showed at once an 
ambition to master every detail of the business. With only an 
ordinary English education, this thoroughness in whatever he 
undertook was the foundation of his subsequent success. At the 
age of twenty-one he went to Pittsburg, Penn., and soon after to 
Xashua, where he worked for several years at his trade. In 1845 
he formed a partnership with M. S. Mayo in the manufiicture of 
carriages and harnesses at Boston. AVhile in the height of busi- 
ness success, he was seized with the gold fever, and joined a com- 
pany of one hundred young men, who purchased the ship Leonora, 
laded her with merchandise, and started for California, Feb. 4, 1849. 



406 ROCHESTER. 

Sailing around Cape Horn they landed at San Francisco, July 5, 
where they made a handsome profit on the cargo. After one 
week he went to Benicia, where he built the steamer New Eng- 
land, the parts of which they had brought in their ship. This 
was the first side-wheel steamer on the Sacramento. After boating 
provisions and supplies to settlements along the river for a short 
time, Mr. Main sold the steamer and went to mining with fair 
success. He, however, preferred a business life and formed a 
partnership Vv'ith E. H. Winchester of Fall River, Mass., which 
has continued from 1850 to the present time. Both were active, 
industrious, closely attentive, and courteous to all customers, and 
were soon compelled to enlarge their business. Their trade em- 
braces the wholesale and retail business of everything pertaining 
to saddlery wares, and they carry the heaviest stock of any in 
America. Thorough workmanship, excellence of material, prompt- 
itude, and absolute truthfulness have achieved success and carried 
their goods to every part of the known world. 

Mr. Main married Feb. 8, 1847, Mary A. K"orton of Providence, 
R. I. In 1874 he traveled in Europe. He was several years 
president, and always director of the Central Railroad Company 
of San Francisco; also president of the wire-rope Railroad Com- 
pany; and a founder and one of the first directors of the Cali- 
fornia Insurance Company. He is an attendant and supporter ot 
the Unitarian Church, and was conspicuous for his liberality to 
the Christian Commission in the time of war. He is widely known 
as a public-spirited citizen, identified with the best interests of 
California, and active in all enterprises for the public good. He 
now stands among the very first of the manufacturers and im- 
porting merchants of San Francisco. 

DR. ISAAC W. LOUGEE. 

Joh7i Lougee, born in the island of Jersey in 1695, came to this 
country in 1713. He settled in that part of Exeter which is now 
Newmarket, where he married a Gilman. Their grandson, Joseph 
Lougee, with his wife and eight children lived to an average age 
of eighty-three years and three months. The oldest of their eight 
children, JoJm F., was born at Exeter, and died in Rochester Jan. 




^:sZ.^;/^-'t^c^^^ c^.^.^. 




LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 407 

16, 1880, aged niuety-tliree years. He settled on a farm at Gil- 
manton, where he married a daughter of Dr. William Smith, who 
had settled there as the first })hysiciaii in 17G7. Dr. Snuth was a 
man of sterling principle and did much for the educational, moral, 
and religious interests of the town in its early history. lie lived 
to the age of ninety-three years and six months. He had ten sons 
and seven daughters, who, with the exception of four who died 
in childhood, lived to an average of eighty-four years, and were 
all memhers of the Congregational Church. John F. Lovjjec had 
four children : — Joseph, who died at twenty-five ; Isaac W. ; Wil- 
liam S., who died at twenty-nine; and Elizabeth 3L, wife of L. S. 
Xute of Alton. 

Isaac W. Lougee, the second sou, was born at Gilmanton Aug. 
1, 1818. Having received a common school education, he attended 
select schools taught by Rev. C. G. Saflbrd and Hon. George G. 
Fogg, and also the Gilmanton Acadeni}-. He began the study of 
medicine with Dr. Otis French of Gilmanton, and attended lectures 
at Hanover and at Woodstock, Vt. He graduated from Dartmouth 
Medical College in 1845, and the following N"ovember began the 
practice of medicine at ]S!'ew Durham. In 1847 he located in Alton, 
where he continued for twenty-one years, and then bought out 
Dr. James Farrington of Rochester. Subsequently they formed a 
partnership, and were in practice together for ten years under the 
firm name of Farrington & Lougee. 

Dr. Lougee is a member of the Strafiford District Medical So- 
ciety, of which he has been president, besides holding minor oflices. 
He is also a member of the State Medical Societ}^ in which he 
has held responsible positions. In 1862 he was appointed exam- 
ining surgeon for Belknap county. As a physician Dr. Lougee 
excels both in diagnosis and the selection of suitable remedies. 
By close observation he has been able early to learn the ty[)e, 
and successfully to treat epidemics of a severe character. 

He is a Republican in politics. Very early in life he espoused 
the cause of freedom, and was always bitterly opposed to the 
extension of slavery. He was postmaster at Alton during the 
administration of Presidents Taylor and Fillmore. In 186<j and 
1867 he represented Alton in the State Legislature, during which 
time he had the satisfaction of voting for the fourteenth amend- 
ment of the United States Constitution. In 1877 and 1878 he 



408 ROCHESTER. 

represented Rochester in the Legislature, the last year serving as 
chairman of the Committee on Asylums for the Insane. In 1885 
he purchased the " Rochester Courier," which is still (1888) under 
his management. He is also one of the directors of the Norway 
Plains Savings Bank. 

He has been twice married, — first to Julia A., daughter of 
Thomas Ross of Gilmanton. Of this union one child, Mary A., 
was born, who died at Rochester Jan. 8, 1883. Mrs. Lougee died 
Aug. 8, 1865, and he married for his second wife, Ellen, daughter 
of Hazen Wheeler of Barnstead. Their children are William W. 
and Arthur J. The elder graduated from Dartmouth College in 
the class of '88, and the younger graduated from the high school 
in Rochester, June, 1888. 

ELA. 

BY MRS. MARY H. ELA. 

The first mention of the name of Ela in America occurs in the 
town records of Haverhill, Mass., under date of Oct. 19, 1658, as 
follows : — "It is voted and granted by the town, that Daniel Ela 
shall have four and one half acres of land north of Abraham 
Tyler's land, next to the little pond, in the way of exchange for 
Abra. Tyler's land, which he, Ela, hath bought by Samuel Geald 
at the pond meadow." 

The name of Daniel Ela occurs frequently in the town records 
from this time, he having been elected many times to offices of 
trust by his fellow citizens. Daniel Ela and Elizabeth Baxter were 
married in Haverhill, Aug. 28, 1698. 

That Daniel Ela was the father of Israel Ela, and the progenitor 
of the Ela family in this countr}^, seems almost certain, as he is 
the only person of that name mentioned in the records until Israel 
is made a freeman in 1677. The descendants of Israel were for 
several generations in possession of lands originally granted to 
Daniel. From these ancestors can be traced a numerous fixmily, 
reaching down to the present time, in one branch of which we 
find Enoch Ela of Rochester, K II., who in 1813 married Mary 
Hart of Rochester. One son was born of this union whose life 
is the subject of the following biographical sketch, for much of 
which we are indebted to excellent and appreciative obituary 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 409 

notices which appeared in many of the iN'cw Hampshire weekly 
papers. 

Jacob Hart Ela was horn in Rochester on the 18th of July, 
1820. The house in which liis parents lived during his infancy, 
stood on what is now known as the John Roherts place, at the 
south end of the town. Many of his townsmen can remember 
the large-hearted, good-natured boy, who was a favorite with his 
companions at the village school, where he made the most of the 
few advantages alibrded for an education. One says " he was not 
a brilliant scholar; but all that he knew he knew thoroughly, and 
he wanted to argue with his teacher about everything that was 
debatable." His parents were poor, and he had to struggle for 
the little education he obtained. AVhen only fourteen years old 
he was apprenticed to a woolen manufacturer, and worked in a 
factory until he was seventeen, when he went to Concord to 
learn the printers' trade with his cousin George W. Ela, who then 
owned and published the " Statesman." Though but a boy in 
years, he was then a man in stature, with a mind that was broad- 
ening day by day, and a heart always warm with generous im- 
pulses. He inherited from his mother not only his large frame 
and sound mind, but a love for the eternal principles of right, 
and the strong will which could carry these convictions into effect. 
He belonged to a juvenile anti-slavery society at this time, and by 
its earnest debates was making ready for the more serious warfare 
into which he entered later. The first address he ever wrote he 
delivered before this society at its aimual meeting in the Methodist 
Church at Concord in the year 1839. That interest in politics 
which was so strong throughout his life was shown at this early 
age, when in 1840, with John H. George, Lewis Downing, Jr., 
Daniel J. Abbott, and other young men of Concord, he was active 
in forming a " Young Men's Tippecanoe Club," which was of 
some account in its day. On attaining his majority, he became 
for a time one of the publishers of the " Statesman," but sold out 
his interest when it changed hands in 1844. In a letter to N. P. 
Rogers, pubHshed in the " Herald of Freedom," Dec. 6, 1844, he 
says : — "I have belonged to anti-slavery societies for the last nine 
or ten years, and have been a member of one with y(Hi, I think, 
for the last five years, and for six years have attended and taken 
part in the meetings of the State society." This shows his interest 



410 ROCHESTER. 

in anti-slavery to date back to the year 1835, a year memorable 
for its pro-slavery mobs and attacks upon free speech, when the 
young advocate for freedom, burning with sympathy for the en- 
slaved, must have longed to be a man that he might take an active 
part in the brave work of the Abolitionists. In 1844 he was chosen 
recording secretary of the Xew Hampshire Anti-Slavery Society, 
and was also one of the executive committee and secretary of the 
board of managers. In December of that year he became the pub- 
lishing agent of the " Herald of Freedom," and held that position 
until the paper suspended publication July 3, 1846, and the society 
ceased to exist. In later years, in speaking' of his work with the 
Abolitionists, Mr. Ela said : — "I owe everything to it. A man 
never fights for great principles without gaining more good for 
himself than he can give to the cause." 

May 10, 1845, while living in Concord, he married Mrs. Abigail 
M. Kelley, who had then three children, who were warmly wel- 
comed to his heart and home. In 1847 he returned with his family 
to Rochester, and here three sons were born : — Frederic Parker , 
May 30, 1848 ; Wendell Phillips, August 20, 1849 ; and Charles Sum- 
ner, May 2, 1853. Mrs. Ela was a woman of rare excellence, and 
of strong character and intellect. She sympathized heartily with 
her husband in every philanthropic work, being especially inter- 
ested in the cause of anti-slavery. 

In the last years of his life, while living in Washington, Mr. 
Ela was the friend of the freedmen, as he had formerly been the 
friend of the slaves. They came to him for aid in every enterprise, 
and the assistance he freely gave was always accompanied with 
kind words of sympathy and encouragement. Probably no other 
department office could show upon its roll the names of so many 
colored men and women as did his; and he would point with 
pride and pleasure to some of them as among his best clerks. 

Mr. Ela was not only interested in the moral phase of the anti- 
slavery movement, but he also took an active interest in its political 
influence. "When John P. Hale was dropped by the Democratic 
party as a candidate for Congress because of his opposition to the 
annexation of Texas as a slave State, Mr. Ela was one of his most 
ardent supporters ; and it was largely due to his eflibrts in printing 
and circulating votes throughout the State that the Democratic 
candidate nominated in place of Mr. Hale was thrice defeated at 



LEADING MEN SINCE TUE REVOLUTION. 411 

the polls, and that political revolution took place in Xew TIanipshire 
which resulted in sending Mr. Hale to the Cnited States Senate 
instead of to the House of Representatives. Mr. Ela visited several 
parts of the State in the interest of the movement, and when he 
reached his old home he was made glad hy finding that some of his 
townsmen had issued the celebrated " Hale Call " for a meeting, 
and were already organized and aggressive. In his last visit to Roch- 
ester he recounted these scenes, and said it had always afforded 
him the greatest pleasure to remember those men of Rochester 
who stood up so squarely against the encroachments of the slave 
power. Mr. Ela had printed a prospectus for a cam})aign paper 
to be called " The Hale-Storm," in the editorials of which Moses 
A. Cartland and others had promised assistance; but before the 
new enterprise was fairly begun the " Independent Democrat " 
was removed from Manchester to Concord, and it was deemed 
wiser to abandon the project, and join in strengthening that by 
making it the campaign paper. Mr. Ela became a partner in its 
publication, and organized the combination which united with it 
" The Granite Freeman " and " The Xew Hampshire Courier." 
He was engaged in this work when it became necessary for him 
to return to Rochester in 1847. After this, while engaged to some 
extent in farming, he was employed as station agent on the rail- 
road. 

In 1855 Mr. Ela was appointed State Bank Commissioner, and 
was one of the selectmen of Rochester in 1856. He represented 
the town in the Legislature of 1857-58, and was chairman of the 
Committee on Retrenchment and Reform, and also of the Com- 
mittee on Elections. One who was in the Legislature with him 
says : " Mr. Ela took a very advanced position on the Northern 
side of the great national questions which were then prominent, 
and was from the first a conspicuous leader in the advance guard 
of the Republicans. I remember well his bold and forcible speeches, 
which did much to form and sustain measures in opposition to 
the dominant Xational party." In common with all otlier Abo- 
litionists, Mr. Ela's indignation was greatly excited by the Dred 
Scott Decision, which, if enforced, would oblige every State to coun- 
tenance slavery by protecting the slave-holder, and the following 
resolutions from the Journal of the 'New Hampshire Legislature in 
1858, introduced by him while a member of the Dred Scott com- 



412 ROCHESTER. 

mittee, are interesting, as they recall the moral warfare, now almost 
forgotten, which was raging thirty years ago : — 

" Whereas, Every person born and living within this State and owing allegi- 
ance to no other government, is a citizen of the State, and by the National 
Constitution a citizen of the United States, therefore 

" Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives in General Court con- 
vened, — That the action of the State Department of the United States in refusing 
to grant passports to persons of African descent contrary to previous practice; 
and of the Treasury Department in refusing to grant them registers for their 
own vessels, with the right to navigate them as masters ; and of the Interior 
Department in refusing them the right of entry upon the public domain to be- 
come purchasers, is an unjust and illegal denial and an invasion of the rights 
of citizens of New Hampshire. 

" Resolved — That we are compelled to believe that these invasions of the rights 
of our citizens, are the result of the Dred Scott decision, coupled with a desire 
on the part of the National Administration to favor and strengthen the slave- 
holding interest, which will be continued so long as slavery remains a ruling 
element in the government of the country. 

" Resolved, That these and other aggressions of the slave power make the 
prohibition of the future extension of slavery a necessity, and its abolition, where 
we have the power, a duty. 

" Resolved, That the State Government, so far as it has the power, should 
secure by its own authority those rights which are denied them by the General 
Government. 

"Resolved — That our Senators be instructed and our Representatives requested 
to use all proper efforts to procure such legislation by Congress as shall secure 
to every citizen of the State the full enjoyment of his rights." 

Mr, Ela made an able speech in support of these resolutions. 
He also drew up the National resolutions which were adopted by 
the Legislature of that year. 

In 1861 Mr. Ela was appointed by President Lincoln United 
States Marshal for 'Sew Hampshire, and held the office until he 
was removed by Andrew Johnson in 1866. The duty of trans- 
porting prisoners of war from one fortress to another was a trying 
one to his sympathetic nature; he saw and heard much of the 
suffering in both armies, and his heart was stirred with pity for 
the brave Confederates, as well as for our own boys in blue. 

The glorious Proclamation of Emancipation, by which on the 
Ist of January, 1863, President Lincoln gave immediate liberty to 
four million slaves, was the end for which Abolitionists in the 
North had suffered, and hoped, and striven so long; but it came 
in the midst of the horrors of civil war, when their joy was tem- 
pered by sympathy with mourning hearts and the sight of homes 
made desolate; and it was not until the smoke of battle had 
cleared away, and they could look back with quiet hearts to the 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 413 

triumph achieved, that an}* real satisfaction was felt. Mr. Ela 
lived to hear the South rejoice in its freedom from the institution 
which had put chains ujiou the souls of the masters as heavy as 
those they had forged for the slave; to see good schools estab- 
lished for the children of freedmen, and many of them coming 
forward, with good education, to fill places of usefulness. He was 
always patient ^^^th their faults, and charitable in his judgment 
of even the vicious among them, remembering that the moral 
nature which had been so strained and dwarfed by the vice and 
degradation of generations of servitude must be developed slowly. 

Mr. Ela was nominated for Congress in the district which then 
comprised the counties of Rockingham, Stratford, Belknap, and 
Carroll, by the Republican convention at Dover, in 18G7, having 
a majority of but one vote. When he learned how close the vote 
had been, he turned with a smile to a friend and said, " It has 
always been so in my life; I have had just enough, and nothing 
to spare." He received a majority of one thousand votes over 
Daniel Marcy, and was re-elected in 1869 over Ellery A. Hebbard 
by a majority of seventeen hundred. After his first election his 
friends from Portsmouth and adjoining towns gave him a com- 
plimentary banquet at the hotel in Rochester. Addresses were 
made by prominent men of Rockingham county, and Mr. Ela 
often referred to it in later years as one of the pleasantest events 
of his life. While in Congress he served on several committees, 
and took part in gome important debates. He was an economist, 
and his blameless life, sound judgment, and good sense made him 
respected by all his associates there. 

In January, 1872, Mr. Ela was appointed Fifth Auditor of the 
Treasury at Washington, and held that position until the summer 
of 1881 when, during the Star-Route trial. President Garfield re- 
quested him to take the place of Sixth Auditor, or Auditor of 
the Treasury for the Post-Office Department. Although loth to 
exchange light duties for heavy ones, and old friends for new, Mr. 
Ela cheerfully accepted the burden of increased responsibility and 
hard work imposed upon him by this change, and here he labored 
faithfully during the remainder of his life, never sparing himself, 
and finding little time for rest or recreation. 

A great sorrow came to Mr. and Mrs. Ela in the spring of 1873. 
Their eldest son, Frederic, a young man of great promise, — sunny- 



414 ROCHESTER. 

hearted, affectionate, and brave, — had gone to Japan on his first 
YOjSige as Lieutenant in the ITavy. While there a serious illness 
had attacked him, caused, it was believed, by the effect of the cli- 
mate and the water of the country. Hoping to save his life, his 
physicians ordered his return, and he had sailed from Hong Kong 
for San Francisco ; but he was destined never to reach that harbor. 
The voyage for him was to the port of Heaven. 

In September, 1879, Mrs. Ela, who had been an invalid for many 
years, entered into the rest for which she had waited long and pa- 
tiently. 

In his religion Mr. Ela was not sectarian. Early in life, when 
he saw churches either upholding slavery, or keeping silence when 
they should have denounced it, he turned from them and espoused 
a better and a nobler faith than any he saw there — the religion of 
Humanity. That high authority which said " pure religion and un- 
defiled is to visit the widow and the fatherless in their affliction, and 
to keep himself unspotted from the world," would have found no 
fault with his. His sympathies were generous and world-wide ; he 
was independent in all his views, and maintained them with the 
courage of clear conviction. His only creed was the simple one 
of " love to God and love to man," and this he lived up to in 
every hour of his life. His modest charities were bestowed wil- 
lingly and unceasingly. He was so simple and retiring that the 
full beauty of his character was revealed only to those who knew 
him most intimately. He was the children's friend; his winning 
smile and the kindly glance of his blue eyes from beneath the 
overhanging eyebrows gained their confidence at once ; and no 
wonder, for at heart he was always a child himself. His nature 
was too large to harbor any petty feelings of jealousy or revenge. 
If an offence or slight was intended, he never seemed to see it. 
And yet beneath his habitual serenity there burned a fire which 
could on a sudden leap to the surface and blaze hotly for a mo- 
ment ; but these rare surprises only served to deepen one's admi- 
ration for his usual self-control. His conscience was quick to 
administer its own rebuke, and his self-judgments were searching 
and just. He rarely sought to defend himself if the honesty of 
his motives was questioned, or any slur was cast upon his char- 
acter, as will sometimes happen to every man in public life. 
"They hurt themselves more than they can hurt me," he said, 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 415 

"when urged to do so; "a uiau who has done nothing wrong has 
nothing to fear," Truly, 

" His armor was his honest thought, 
And simple truth his utmost skill ! " 

Mr. Ela believed in total abstinence, and many will remember 
how hard he strove to keep the town free from the scourge of 
intemperance when he lived in Rochester. lie was deeply attached 
to his native town and, in all the years of his enforced absence, 
would call no other place home. He had the best interests of the 
town always at heart, and many improvements in and around the 
village w^ere made through his persistent eftbrts. One of his fellow 
townsmen said of him : — " The people of Rochester knew Mr. 
Ela well. He had been an active man all his days; his neighbors 
knew him and believed in him. and respected him for his whole- 
heartedness. His friends were found in the common walks of life; 
they were men who had known him all his life, and they loved 
to tell of his success." Mr. Ela had faith in the principles of the 
Republican party. He took an active part in every political cam- 
paign in Xew Hampshire for more than thirty years, and often 
assisted in those of other States. He had not the gift of eloquence, 
but he seemed always to know upon what points his hearers most 
needed to be enlightened, and his ripe experience, sound sense, 
and a simple directness of speech, to which his evident sincerity 
gave dignity and power, made him a popular and influential 
speaker. The workingmen always saw in him a true friend who 
had their best interests at heart, for he had fought their battles 
and helped to secure the passage of tlie law which reduced the 
day's work from twelve hours to ten. When the Xorth was 
electrified by the first call for volunteers to march against the 
Rebels, it was he who wrote the call for Rochester's first war 
meeting and carried it to other citizens for signatures (p. 196). 
He drew up the patriotic resolutions which were adopted, including 
a call for a towm meeting to encourage volunteers by providing 
for their families in their absence. 

Mr. Ela used to recall with pleasure the fact that he secured 
the services of Anna Dickinson at the outset of her public career, 
and made arrangements for the first ten political speeches ever 
made by her. They were made in his own Congressional District 



416 EOCHESTER. 

in 1863. The eloquence which, a little later gained the admiration 
of the country, arousing the patriotism and thrilling the hearts of 
all who heard her, was a revelation of the power of woman which 
will never he forgotten. 

In the last years of his life Mr. Ela made the right relations 
between labor and capital a constant study. He deplored the 
injustice of monopolies and the greed of capitalists, and longed to 
see laws enacted which should help the workingman. 

The instinctive love of liberty and of justice he showed in other 
things made him a friend to the cause of woman's suiFrage. He 
believed that the natural and inalienable rights of man and woman 
were the same, and that she could decide for herself whether her 
happiness and welfare would be helped or hindered by the ballot. 

In each office where Mr. Ela was auditor, he seemed more like 
a father among his children than like a chief with his subordi- 
nates. If any were in trouble, he listened patiently to their griefs 
and gave them good advice. If a man was in debt, with a family 
to support, he lent him money, and tried to see that he used it 
wisely. With infinite patience he strove to reform the intemperate^ 
forgiving offences again and again for the sake of the wife and chil- 
dren who would suffer if the man should lose his position. Often,, 
in such a case, he would oblige the delinquent to allow his wife to 
come to the office and take his salary when it was due. Such an 
office is a community in itself, and there was hardly a man or wo- 
man there who did not feel sure of a firm friend in the good au- 
ditor, and try to serve him well. One who was associated with him 
there expressed this feeling in a letter written soon after Mr. Ela's 
death, as follows : — " Erom the first day of his coming here I have 
been attached to him, and my regard has grown with the passing 
months and years. I early learned to respect his exact justice to 
all, and to love him for his childlike simplicity, and his tenderness 
to those in trouble and distress. He was the kindest and best of 
men, and loved to go out of his way to do good whether appre- 
ciated or not. Until forced to do so, he never believed evil of any 
one. I wish all the world knew his real sterling worth, his purity, 
honesty, simplicity, and love of right and justice, as I knew it. 
How patient and long-suffering he was! And yet with all his 
loving-kindness, tenderness, and gentleness, he was possessed of 
a rare discriminating business tact, decision, judgment, and power 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 417 

of mind given to but very few men. He came to the duties of 
this ofHce unacquainted with its details, precedents, and usages, 
and yet his decisions of vexed questions stand confirmed and sus- 
tained by high authority in ahnost every instance." 

Mr. Ela loved all animals. lie was a judge of horses, and liked 
to own a good one. In the last years of his life he kept one in 
Washington, which he had raised himself, and a pleasant drive 
was the recreation of ever}' day. He enjoyed " a good brush " 
on the road, and was not often beaten in a race. As he flew 
along the road, he would seem to feel the excitement of it in every 
nerve, and his fine face would glow with pleasure. He loved the 
beautiful in everything. He knew every drive for miles around 
the city, and no tine view or picturesque point escaped his notice. 
He knew, too, where the wild flowers grew, each in its season, 
and took pleasure in gathering them for his friends. Xo enjoy- 
ment of any kind was ever complete to him unless he could share it 
with some one. In one of the last weeks of his life, when I think 
he knew the shadow of another world had fallen upon him, he said : 
" The greatest happiness I have had in life has conic from doing 
good to others." He seemed to walk by a clearer light than is given 
to most of us, and he was at all times *' a tower of strength " to 
those about him. 

In October, 1880, Mr. Ela married Miss Mary Handerson ot 
Keene, N. H., youngest daughter of Hon. Phiuehas Ilanderson, 
who, many years ago, was a distinguished member of the Cheshire 
bar. In the winter of 1882-83 Charles S. Ela went to Colorado 
on some business for his father, and in the hope that the change 
of climate might also benefit his health, which had for some time 
been delicate. He gained in health so fast for a time that he 
wished to live in Colorado for a few years. He became interested 
in cattle raising, and induced his father to form a company for 
that business, of which he was to be superintendent. In the sum- 
mer of 1883 Mr. Ela went to Colorado to visit his son and see 
for himself how matters looked there. He was a good deal worn 
by bis official work when he started, and the journey was taken 
too hurriedly. It was many years since he had been much on 
horseback, and the rough ride of thirty or forty miles from Grand 
Junction to the cattle-range was too hard for him. He was so ill 
in the little cabin on the mountain that he feared he should not 

28 



418 ROCHESTER. 

live to see home again. He did return, but he was never well 
again, for just as he was beginning to seem more like his old 
self news came that his son was very ill in Denver, and was fol- 
lowed soon by the terrible tidings of his death. From this time 
Mr. Ela lost much of his courage and his interest in life. The 
daily work of his office was more than he was equal to, and with 
the faithfulness to every duty and the disregard of self which 
characterized his life, he took no rest, — postponing the summer's 
vacation until the overtaxed system could not resist the insidious 
disease, facial erysipelas, which at last attacked him. He was at 
his desk for the last time on the 13th of August, 1884, and on 
the morning of the 21st the brave soul, for which death had no 
terrors, passed peacefully away into another life. 

From a brief memorial which accompanied resolutions adopted 
by his brother officers of the Treasury Department after Mr. Ela's 
death, we copy the following : — 

"Mr. Ela was appointed Fifth Auditor of the Treasury in January, 1872, and 
held that office until June 2, 1881, when he was appointed Auditor of the 
Treasury for the Post-Office Department. He brought to these positions a ripe 
experience in public affairs, both State and National ; and throughout his con- 
tinuance in the Treasury service, extended far beyond the average term allotted 
to the Head of a Bureau, his conduct of these offices commends him as a con- 
scientious and faithful official. In some respects he was a man of marked 
characteristics. His modest demeanor, his honesty of purpose, and his official 
integrity won for him the confidence of all ; while his kindness of manner 
secured their high regard. His relations with those immediately connected with 
and subordinate to him were especially happy. Affable in his intercourse, just 
in his methods, and quick in his sympathies and appreciation, he was esteemed 
the friend of each, and none to-day mourn with us his loss more sincerely." 

One of the resolutions adopted by the sorrowing friends in his 
own office reads as follows : — 

" That we esteem it a privilege, individually and collectively, to have known 
and been associated with an official of such marked ability, sympathetic nature, 
and purity of character ; and while we feel that his death is in a peculiar sense 
our personal loss, we realize that the public service has been deprived of one 
of its ablest and best servants, whose long service has been distinguished by 
great simplicity and purity of life." 

The good words which were written and spoken of Mr. Ela in 
sincerest grief and ai)preciation by many warm personal friends 
might till a volume, but the limits of this sketch will not permit 
us to print them. 

The news of Mr. Ela's death was heard in Rochester with heart- 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 419 

felt sorrow. Her citizens gathered in Hayes Hall on the evening 
of the 23d and adopted resolutions expressing their affection and 
respect, the first of which we give here : — 

'" Resolved, That it is with deep sorrow we learn of the sudden death of our 
beloved townsman; and while in this dispensation we acknowledge the hand of 
a wise and overruling Providence, we feel that we liave lost a kind neighbor, 
a true friend, and a fellow citizen ever faithful to his convictions of right, and 
one who has spent the years of an active life with no seliish purpose, but with a 
paramount desire to relieve the burdens of others, as at all times manifested 
by bis acts in behalf of struggling humanity." 

On the 25th places of business were closed from 12 to 5 o'clock 
p. M., and at the funeral services the old Congregational Church 
was tilled with mourning friends from Rochester and the neigh- 
boring towns. liev. Mr. Mellen of Dover preached an inijiressive 
sermon from the simple text " A good man,'* and a long proces- 
sion, escorted by the Sampson Post, G. A. R., which had asked 
the privilege of thus showing its respect, moved slowly and sadly 
to the cemeter}'. 

" Alike are life and death 

When life in death survives, 
And the uninterrupted breath 
Inspires a thousand lives. 

Were a star quenched on high, 

For ages would its light, 
Still traveling downward from the sky, 

Shine on our mortal sight. 

So, when a good man dies, 

For years beyond our ken 
The light he leaves behind him lies 

Upon the paths of men." 



GREENFIELD. 

John Torr, tlie oldest son of Simon and Sarah (Ham) Torr (p. 
428), born in 1781 on the old Torr farm in Rochester, had liis 
name changed to Johi Greenfield, because soon after he began 
business in Rochester his brother, Jonathan Torr, opened a store 
in the same place, and their goods would get badly mixed. He 
was reared as a tanner, shoemaker, and farmer, and very early 
showed signs of great foresight. About 1812 to 1813, he com- 



420 ROCHESTER. 

menced trading in Rochester, and for nearly or quite fifty years 
was one of the most successful business men in town. He was 
full of energy, and possessing a sound judgment was always able 
to make good investments. He was somewhat advanced in years 
when he married Phebe Wentworth and had four children : — 
Charles; Sarah E., wife of E. G-. Wallace of Rochester; JElla G., 
Mrs. Daniel J. Parsons, who died November, 1886 ; and George, 
who married Mary F., daughter of John Parshley of Strafford, 
had five children, and died September, 1871. John Greenfield 
died at seventy-five years of age, Jan. 13, 1863, leaving his family 
an ample fortune, and what is much better, a good name. Some 
of his children are among the most highly educated people of 
Rochester, and all are good, worthy citizens. 

Charles Greenfield was born in Rochester Feb. 18, 1826, and 
received a common school and academic education till he was 
fourteen, when he commenced farming, which has been his prin- 
cipal employment since. Upon the death of his father in 1863 
he received his proportion of his father's estate, and this has 
accumulated till now (1888) he is considered one of the wealthy 
men of the town. He possesses quick perception, clear judgment, 
and sound reason. He has seldom, if ever, made a financial 
mistake, and his word is as good as his bond. He owns several 
hundred acres in Rochester, and though nominally a farmer, yet 
he makes his money otherwise. In politics he is a Republican. He 
is a director of the Rochester National Bank, trustee in the Nor- 
way Plains Savings Bank, and stockholder in various railroad and 
manufacturing interests. He married Aroline B., daughter of 
Gershom and Sally P. Downs of Rochester, July 5, 1846. She was 
born in Rochester May 17, 1826. Their children are : — 1. 31illie A.^ 
wife of Horace L. Worcester, a newsdealer in Rochester. 2. John, 
who fitted for college at Phillips Academy, Exeter, and entered 
Dartmouth in 1868. In 1876 he was elected a member of the board 
of selectmen, and has since been four times re-elected. He has 
also served the town as tax collector and as chief engineer of the 
fire department. In 1879 he was elected high sheriff" of the county, 
and was twice re-elected. 3. Ella S., wife of Justin M. Leavitt 
of Buxton, Me., who is now register of deeds for York county, 
Maine. 4. Sarah E., wife of George W. Young of Lowell, Mass., 
an otficer in the Massachusetts Reformatory at Concord, Mass. 




'^^ ^^cef /VA ^eje^ ^t.-^-^ 



^ 





'/^ 



t^/i^^^y^y 



LEADIXiJ iMEN SINCE THE llEVOLUTION. 421 

5. Hattk A. 6. Frank, now in business at the West. 7. A son, 
wlio ilied in infancy. Mrs. Greenfield is a member of tlie Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. Mr. Greenfield is very reticent in all 
matters, modest, not given to show or ostentation, intelligent and 
jn-udent, and commands the esteem of all. 

LOTIIROP. 

From the parish of Lowthorpe, Yorkshire, England, came 3Tark 
Ijothrop, the grandson of John Lowthorpe, and settled in Salt'in, 
Mass., about 1643. His grandson of the same name married 
Hannah Alden, great-granddaugher of John and Priscilla. Their 
great-grandson, Daniel Lothroj), settled in Rochester, where he mar- 
ried Sophia, daughter of Dea. Jeremiah Home. She was a beau- 
tiful woman of lofty thoughts and noble aspirations. Her influence 
had great power in molding and directing the character of her 
sons. He was loved and respected for his many excellent traits 
of character, and repeatedly represented the town in the Legis- 
lature. His wise, practical sense did good service in defending 
the rights of liberty for all men. The home on Haven's Hill was 
in many respects an ideal one, a center of moral and religioua 
influence, and of general intelligence. 

James Elbridge Loturop, the oldest son of Daniel and Sophia, 
was born in Rochester j^ov. 30, 1826. The father, adding the 
trade of a mason to his care of the farm, was frequently absent, 
consequently James, as the eldest son, had much responsibility 
and care at an early age. He attended school winters, and did 
a man's work on the farm summers. At ten years of age he 
would take a load of wood to Dover and sell it before seven 
o'clock in the morning. Sturdy and self-reliant, at nine years of 
age he walked to Dover and returned bringing a large Latin 
lexicon for liis own use. From the district school he went to 
the academies at Rochester and Strafford. At sixteen years of age 
he taught the winter school in the upper district in Rochester, 
following with a private school in the same place. He was then 
fitted to enter college a year in advance. By the advice of his 
uncle. Dr. Jeremiah Home of Fall River, Mass., he began the study 
of medicine in his office, where he also learned the drug business. 
After two years he returned home with fifteen dollars in his 



422 ROCHESTER. 

pocket. Borrowing three liiindred dollars from his father he 
opened a drug store at Dover in the fall of 1845, From that 
simple beginning at nineteen years of age, has grown a business 
of nearly a million dollars annually. The Lothrop clothing house 
now occupies the spot where this drug store then stood. For 
more than a year he conducted the business entirely alone, doing 
all the regular w^ork by day, and distributing his own advertise- 
ments by night to the houses of the citizens. Such energetic 
industry of course commanded success, and he soon repaid the 
borrowed money. Desiring to complete the study of medicine, 
he invited his younger brother Daniel to take charge of his drug 
business, holding out the inducement of an equal share in the 
profits, and that the firm should be known as "D. Lothrop & Co." 

Having attended lectures at Bowdoin Medical College he went 
also to Philadelphia, where he graduated with the degree of M. D. 
from the Jefferson Medical College in 1848. Returning to Dover 
his business increased so rapidly that he gave up all thought of 
medical practice. It was decided that Daniel should open a drug 
store at I^ewmarket under the same firm name, and another 
brother, John C. LothrojJ, was received into equal partnership. 
The drug store at Dover still continues under the name " Lothrops 
& Pinkham." For forty years these brothers have presented a 
remarkable instance of family union. There has been an absolute 
unity of interests, though established in different cities, each having 
direction of the business best suited to his own tastes and ability. 
Other stores w^ere subsequently opened at Meredith Bridge, now 
Laconia, Amesbury Mills, Mass., and at Great Falls, where John 
C. still remains, who is prominent in church and Sabbath school 
work, and influential in all matters of public interest. 

About 1855, their father desiring to enter trade, they opened a 
clothing house in Dover as " D. Lothrop & Sons," and soon estab- 
lished branches at Rochester and Great Falls. It is not necessary to 
follow minutely all the changes in their widely extended business. 
Another brother, M. Henry Lothrop, who has been president of the 
common council of Dover, after a service of eight years as sales- 
man took a half interest in the clothing store at Dover. In 1880 he 
was transferred to the Boston department, and the Dover clothing 
business is now conducted under the name of " Lothrops, Farn- 
ham & Co." 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 423 

In 1873 there was added to the Dover business a musical de- 
partment, which is now the hirgest of its kind in the State, and 
perhaps in Xew Enghmd. 

James E. Lotiirop, being the senior partner, has always retained 
a general financial leadership in all the departments of the firm. 
His business capacity is remarkable, even in these days of mer- 
chant millionaires. Never disturbed, never hurried, never rutHed 
in temper, fertile in plans, ready for all emergencies, he never 
seems in the least burdened with his multi[>lied cares. He has 
been constantly sought for to fill places of responsibility, \\here 
integrity and business capacity were needed. He has been 
director in the Cocheco National Bank from 1858, and its presi- 
dent since 1876. In 1871 he became a director in the Cocheco 
Aqueduct Association, and its president since 187.5. He has also 
been a director in the Portsmouth & Dover Railroad, in the Eliot 
Bridge Company, and in the Dover Horse Railroad, and president 
of the Dover Board of Trade. 

In 1872 Dr. Lothrop was chosen to the Legislature. In 1883 
he was elected Mayor of Dover. His uniform business success, 
due to organization, forethought, energy, and integrity, eminently 
fitted him for the position. He managed the city aftairs precisely 
as he would his own business, and with such success as to win the 
highest regard and confidence of the citizens, irrespective of party, 
who re-elected him with an increased majority. His inflexible 
determination that the city should not be imposed upon won the 
victory in the noted valve case, which was tried at Dover prepar- 
atory to an attack on Boston. The most important measure of 
his administration as mayor was the establishment of a free public 
library. He brought forward the subject in his inaugural address, 
and with determined energy pressed the matter to final success. 
His name will always be identified with tliis most vahiable public 
institution. " Foster's Democrat," an intensely partisan sheet, 
nevertheless spoke of Maj'or Lothrop in tliese words : — " He does 
not agree with us in politics, but Dover never had a better mayor, 
in our judgment. A good, practical, energetic, and successful 
business man, a man of public spirit and enterprise, a man who 
knows the principles of true economy and how to practice them 
without being penurious, a man of honor and integrity, who can 
safely be trusted with the control of all city improvements and 



424 KOCHESTER. 

•enterprises without being continually suspected of having a 'job' 
to feather his own nest, a man who can be trusted in private 
affairs and is known to be good for his word of honor every time, 
— a good, fair, and square representative of the intelligence and 
business of our honorable business people. We know him in a 
business way like a book, and a squarer and more honorable man 
does not exist." Dr. Lothrop married Mary E., the daughter of 
Joseph Morrill of Dover. In politics he is a Republican, in religion 
a Methodist, and has been a teacher in the Sunday School for 
more than forty years. 

Daniel Lothrop, son of Daniel and Sophia, was born in Roch- 
ester Aug. 11, 1831. As a boy he was studious and unusually 
successful in acquiring knowledge. He had a quick and retentive 
memory and a remarkable mathematical intuition. He had a natural 
taste for trade, and when only five years of age played the man of 
business, having the sign " D. Lothrop & Co." nailed on the door of 
his playhouse, little dreaming of the renown that coming years 
would bring to that very name. Fitted for college at the age of 
fourteen, his somewhat slender physique led his friends to advise 
him to remain out of college a year. His brother James at this 
time invited him to take his drug store at Dover, offering the 
firm name of his boyhood as an inducement. Here his knowledge 
of Latin was a great help, and from this time began his distin- 
guished business career. To the varied experience gained in the 
several drug stores which he conducted, Avas now added that of 
a new business. In 1850 a large stock of books was purchased, 
and thus began the great book trade by which the firm is most 
extensively known. Enterprise, energy, sound judgment, and 
unwavering integrity characterized all his dealings from the first. 
In 1856 Daniel Lothrop visited the West. He decided to locate at 
St. Peter, in Minnesota. Here he established a banking house 
which proved a great success, his uncle, Jeremiah Home, being 
the cashier, and a book and drug store in which he gave one of 
his former clerks an interest. The opening of his store at this 
place was an illustration of his characteristic energy in the exe- 
cution of his plans. The early freezing of the Mississippi pre- 
vented the arrival of his goods at the time expected. Having 
contracted with the St. Peter Company to erect a building and 
open his store on the first of December, he went several hun- 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 425 

(Ired miles down the river to the various landings searching for 
his goods. Xot finding them, he honght out the entire stock 
of a drug store at St. Paul, and with several large teams started 
for St. Peter. A fearful snow storm prolonged tlic trip ol" two 
<lays to five. AVithiu a mile of their destination it was necessary 
to cross the Minnesota river on the ice, which was thought to be 
too thin to hear the heavy teams. Conse(iuently they were all 
unloaded and the goods transported on light sledges, and //" dnig 
store was opened on the rev)/ dai/ agreed upon. The financial crisis of 
1857-58, together with an Indian raid, and the change of tlie 
capital from St. Peter to St. Paul, caused the failure of many firms 
Avliich had represented millions. Great loss came to Mr. Lothrop, 
but he met every liability in full. On his annual business visit 
to Xew England, allowing himself no rest, he was prostrated with 
congestion of the lungs. A consultation of physicians gave no 
hope of his recovery. The celebrated J)r. Powditch having been 
called, with no knowledge of his patient's histor}^ said, on exam- 
ination, " He has been doing twenty years' work in ten." 
He, however, gave encouragement, and under liis treatment 
Mr. Lothrop so far recovered as to be able to take a trip to 
Florida, where the needed rest restored his health. 

From this time his energies were more and more concentrated 
upon the book business, to which his mind had long been attracted. 
This must be regarded as really his life work. Into this he has 
put the matured forces of his manhood. For this w^ork he was 
peculiarly fitted by natural abilities, by the foundation of a clas- 
sical education giving him judgment and literary taste, by his 
business tact and energy, and a practical experience of the markets 
find the popular tastes. He entered upon this great work of a 
pu1)lishing house not hastily, but tlrst laying carel'ully the founda- 
tions. His aim was not merely financial success, but with broader 
purpose to help mankind. At the start he laid down as a prin- 
ciple from which there should be no swerving, "-Never to publish 
a work purely sensational, no matter ichat chances of monei/ it has 
in it, and to piihlish. hooks that will make true, steadfast growth in right 
living." From this principle he has never departed. He has bent 
the energies of his mind to this one object, to put good whole- 
some literature into the hands of the people. Turning naturally 
to the vouns: as those throuirh whom he could best influence 



426 



ROCHESTER. 



society, his publications have been largely of Sunday school books. 
The Sunday school library was a channel through which he could 
reach the largest audiences of the young. The family and house- 
hold library was another practical channel of paramount import- 
ance. In the spring of 1868 Mr. Lothrop selected three men, 
w^hose judgment he deemed worthy of trust, and laid before them 
his plans and purposes, — Rev. George T. Day, D. I)., Prof. Ilemau 
Lincoln, D. D., and Rev. J. E. Rankin, D. D. While they frankly 
told him the undertaking was very difficult, his intentions met 
their cordial approval, and every book since published has been lirst 
read and approved by one or more of these men. Establishing 
his business on Cornhill, the first book published was "Andy 
Luttrell," which proved a great success. It was well said, " The 
series of which this is the initiatory volume marks a new era 
in Sunday school literature." To establish a new publishing 
house in competition with old and long-known firms, besides new 
ones ready to contest ever}' inch of ground, required pluck and 
energy beyond that of most men; but Mr. Lothrop had no 
thought of failure. He began with a courage that could face the 
utmost, and a determination that had already won the battle. He 
had a remarkable instinct to discern real ability in a new writer,, 
and great enthusiasm, which proved a stimulus and encourage- 
ment to timid beginners. He had a hopeful word for every 
applicant, and knew how to bring out the best of every one's- 
talent. His before unprecedented oft'er of $1,000 and $500 prizes- 
for manuscripts seemed a wild experiment to many; but it proved 
eminently successful. It would be a surprise to many to read a 
list of authors, now noted, who brought their first manuscripts tO' 
Mr. Lothrop with fear and trembling. 

The great fire of 1872 brought him severe loss. A large quan- 
tity of paper intended for the first edition of the sixteen $1,000 
prize books was replaced within two weeks, when it was again 
lost by another fire; but a third lot was procured and the printing- 
went on with but little delay. It was well renuu'ked in the 
newspapers that " Mr. Lothrop seems warmed up to his work." 

We cannot here attempt to give any impression of the number 
and variety of his publications in historj*, biography, and general 
literature. The names of the most distinguished authors are in 
his catalogue. Visiting Europe he made the acquaintance of 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 427 

Georjre MacDonald, who arranojed -.vith liiui that lie should 
publish the luauuscripts of liis latest novels before they were 
issued in England, Thus Mr. Lothrop has published the entire 
series of his novels. The number of books printed in a single 
year is upwards of a million and a half. About 1S85 " The 
Interstate Publishing Company" was incorporated in Illinois, 
with headquarters at Chicago, and a branch in Boston. The 
object is educational, especially to supply for schools first-class 
literature supplementary to regular school work. Of this company 
Mr. Lotliroi» is president, and to it he has transferred some of his 
best oduL-ational l)ooks. 

One of his most important enterprises was the establishment in 
1874 of the popular nuigazine for young people, " Wide Awake." 
After this came " Babyland," a marvel of attractive l»eauty for the 
little ones. Then followed " Our Little Men and Women," " The 
Pansy," for Sunday Schools, and " The Chautauqua Young Folks' 
Journal." All these are full of pure and noble thought, yielding 
great pleasure and amusement, with excellent instruction. They 
mark a most valuable new departure in the periodical world. 

Hard, unflinching devotion to work, and determination to excel 
in all that is best, a steady perseverance through discouragement 
and loss, have brought him well-earned renown and success. 

Daniel Lothrop's first wife was Ellen J., daughter of Joseph 
Morrill of Dover. She died in 1880 and he afterwards married 
Harriet Mulford, daughter of Sidney Mason Stone of Xew Haven, 
Conn. She is widely known and beloved under her pseudonym, 
" Margaret Sidney." The author of " Five Little Peppers " will 
always be a favorite. "The Pettibone Xame," " A New De- 
parture for Girls," and many other stories indicate the unusual 
versatility and attractive power of her genius. She has also writ- 
ten some fine poetry, and is justly ranked among the very best 
writers of juvenile literature. She is well known also for her 
interest and activity in all church and missionary work, and is 
a prominent contributor to " Life and Light." 

The summer home of Daniel Lothrop is the well-known " Way- 
side," at Concord, Mass., forever fragrant with tender memories 
of the gentle Hawthorne, whose " study in the tower " is certainly 
a fitting workshop for " Margaret Sidney." It is worthy of men- 
tion that the first child born in this house within a century is- 



•428 ROCHESTER. 

their little daughter, Margaret Lothrop, Here " host and hostess 
•dispense a wide hospitality, for the genial, sunny nature, and warm, 
responsive friendliness of heart and manner, so marked in each, 
■creates an atmosphere both attractive and wholesome, one that 
.both the new friend and the old are glad to tarry in." 

TORR. 

Vincent Torr came from England and settled in Dover, on the 
farm still owned by one of his descendants. His son Simon settled 
in Rochester in 1775 on the farm still owned by his grandson. 
A part of the house then built is still standing, and the same old 
clock which he brought is still in use there. He married Sarah 
Ham and had four daughters and three sons. The oldest son, 
.John, became John Greenfield (p. 419). The youngest son, Jonathan 
H., married Sally McDufFee, purchased the Jabez Dame store, 
where he carried on the dry goods business with Simon Chase 
and afterwards John McDuffee as partners. He subsequently traded 
in Dover and in Portsmouth, and then returned to Rochester, 
where he died Jan. 25, 1881, at the age of eighty-seven. He re- 
membered being taken by his father and mother on horseback 
to Dover, and thence by boat to Portsmouth, to see General Wash- 
ington, who smiled and patted his head. The second son, Simon 
Torr, Jr., followed farming and tanning, as did his father before 
him. He married Betsey, daughter of Thomas Davis, and had 
four children : — Charles and Simon A., both of whom died young; 
John F.; and Sarah E., who married Lewis E. Hanson. 

John F. Torr, whose portrait is here given, was born in Roch- 
ester April 8, 1829, and still occupies the old homestead. With 
very limited advantages for education, yet inheriting man}- of the 
.qualities of his ancestors, he is highly respected for his energy, 
financial ability, and business success. He is a Republican in 
politics, and though never an office seeker has served the town 
;a8 selectman. March 17, 1868, he married Mary C. Downcs of 
Farmington. Their children are Charles C, Simon A., and 
George A. 





"-^fi^^i^ (y"^ cJt 




LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 429* 

CHASE. 

Her. John Chase was a settled iiiiiiister at Spruce Creek, Kittcry, 
Me., and had four sous: — Josiah, John, Thomas, aud Bradstreet, 
Josiah settled at York, Me., Thomas aud Bradstreet remaiued on 
the old houiestcad, Joh>i married Harriet Deuuett of Kitterv aud 
moved to Berwick, Me., which at that time Avas a wilderness. 
He had six sous and two dauu-htcrs : — Sally, Betsey, ThouuiSy 
John, Josiah, Simon, Mark, and Abraham. 

Tliomas and John remaiued at home, Josiah settled at Limiug- 
ton, Me., Mark at Xewfield, Me., aud Simon at the age of thirteen 
was bound out to Reuben Tabor, a hatter, where he remaiued 
four years. He then went to Portsiuouth aud worked with a Mr. 
Kelley as a journeyman hatter. In the winter of 1805 he attended 
Berwick Academy, aud in the spring of 1806 went to Rochester, 
being recommended to Joseph Hanson by Joshua Meader, aud 
entered Hanson's store as a clerk, receiving ninety -six dollars the 
first year. He remained with Mr. Hanson four years, and in 1810 
went into business for himself at ]\lilton. 

Simon Chase was born Sept. 30, 1780, and married Sarah AViu- 
gate, daughter of Enoch Wingate of Milton, Oct. 28, 1813. He 
removed to Rochester in 1822, aud went into business in company 
with Jonathan Torr. In 1825 he bought Torr's interest in the 
business, and built a new brick store. The same year he bought 
the house on Central Square which was his home until his death, 
which occurred January 31, 1878. His wife died June 14, 1870. 
Together with Charles Deuuett and James C. Cole he was instru- 
mental in building the first Methodist Church in Rochester, of 
which he was an active member (p. 263). He had ten childi-en : 
— Beteey E., Wingate, George W., John D., Mary Y., Harriet L., 
Charles K., Sarah F., Maria Josephine, and one who died in 
infancy. 

CuARLES K. Chase was born in Rochester March 17, 1830. At 
the age of seventeen he left Warren Academy at Woburn, Mass., 
and entered his father's store as clerk, aud at the end of four 
years bought the store and business. In April, 1855, he married 
Ellen M. Burleigh, youngest daughter. of John and Phebe Burleigh 
of Sandwich. He liad five children: — Charles S., Grace M. J., 
Xellie, Jessie, who died in infancy, aud Harry W. Dec. 26, 1876, 



430 ROCHESTEK. 

he married Mrs. Abbie McD. "Whitehouse, daughter of John 
McDuffee (p. 367), and had two children, Sarah McD., who died in 
childhood, and Maud H. 

During the first year of the war he was elected one of the com- 
mittee to pay out the funds due the families of soldiers who had 
enlisted in the service of the United States. He took a decided 
and unflinching stand for temperance, rumshops and rum drinking 
having increased to an alarming extent as one of the results of 
the war. He was appointed by the town one of a committee of five 
to prosecute all violations of the prohibitory law (p. 315). They 
were in a great measure successful in their work, having closed 
all the liquor saloons in town. The credit, however, was not due 
to the committee alone, but to the temperance part of the com- 
munity, backed by the strong arm of the law and the sympathy 
of the court, especially Hon. Joshua G. Hall, county solicitor, and 
Judge Doe. They were threatened many times with violence, and 
Mr. Chase's store was damaged one Saturday night by being fired 
into with a gun in the hands of some person employed to do it. 
The shot went the entire length of the store, which did not take 
fire, as was probably the intention. A reward of two hundred dol- 
lars was offered by the selectmen of the town for the conviction of 
the person who did it, but without success. The friends of temper- 
ance made up the loss to Mr. Chase. At the call of the first State 
Temperance Convention Mr. Chase was present in sympathy with 
the movement. Believing in the ballot box as well as the law to 
suppress the evil, he voted with that party as long as he lived. 

In August, 1878, the old brick store built by his father was fired 
by an incendiary and destroyed with its contents. The loss to Mr. 
Chase was very heavy, but he was not discouraged. As soon as 
possible the ruins were cleared away, and October 1, 1878, the 
foundation was laid for a fine new block. The work was pushed 
rapidly, and the new store was opened with a new stock of dry 
goods April 29, 1879. 

Mr. Chase soon after retired from business with failing health, 
and died after a long illness, Feb. 13, 1887. As a trader he excelled 
in his fine taste in selecting goods, and was widely known for his 
honest dealing. Many of his customers could never be induced to 
trade elsewhere. 

In politics he was originally a stanch Whig, casting his first 





^.'^>^:^<-t^ y U 




<i:^-c;?. 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 431 

vote for James Bell for governor, aiul while his father and hrothers 
voted witli tlie Free-soilers he coutiinicd to vote the Whig ticket 
till the advent of the Re[>ul)liean party, of which he became an 
active member. He served the town as clerk, and was elected to 
the Legislature. 

He was a member of Humane Lodge of Masons, and also of 
the Royal Arch Chapter. He was for fifteen years an earnest and 
efficient member of the Methodist Church, to whom his death was 
a great loss. 

PLACE. 

John Place came from Devonshire, England, and settled in !N^ew- 
ington, X. II., about 1688. About 1700 he removed to Rochester, 
and built a log house not far from the old burying ground on 
Haven's Hill, where he died at a great age. llichard Place, son 
of John, is su[)posed to have come from England with his father. 
He was a man of great strength and athletic pro[)ortions, weighing 
about two hundred and fifty pounds, and over six feet two inches 
in height. He was a terror to the Indians for miles around, and 
was much respected by his townsmen. He lived to the age of 
one hundred and five years. A daughter of Richard Place mar- 
ried Xoah Thompson of Berwick, Me. John Place, son of Richard, 
settled on the Barrington road, where au old cellar can still be 
seen near the corner on the Roberts homestead where the old 
road from Rochester abruptly turns to the west. He was born 
about 1716, and died in his seventy-first year, leaving five children : 
— JJavid, Samuel, Jolni, Betty, and Susannah. Samuel went to 
Kewburyport, Mass., and afterwards to Portsmouth, and served his 
country in the battle of Bunker Hill. John settled in the west 
part of Rochester, and the Rev. Enoch Place (p. 343), Xoah, and 
Moses Place were among his descendants. Betty married Ephraim 
Ham, grandson of Eleazer, and lived on the old homestead near 
Gonic. Susannah married the Rev. Jeremiah Wise of Sanford, 
Me. David Place, known as captain, and afterwards colonel, served 
as captain in the Revolution (p. 59). He was born February, 
1741, and married about 1762 his cousin Susannah, daughter of 
Noah Thompson of Berwick, Me. He settled on a farm of three 
hundred acres given him by his father, now known as the " Went- 
worth farm," on the north side of the old road from Gonic to 



432 ROCHESTER. 

ISTorwaj Plains, and then including the " Chesley farm" on Hus- 
sey Hill. He died May, 1821, and was buried in the old grave- 
yard just below Rochester village. On this farm his seven children 
were born and reared : — Mary, James, David, Stephen, Mehitable, 
Elizabeth, and Isaac. Mary married Barnabas Palmer and removed 
to Athens, Me. James and David died at the ages of sixteen and 
six respectively. Mehitable never married, but lived on the home- 
stead with her brother Isaac. Elizabeth married a Mr. Evans 
and lived at Gonic. They had five children, — three daughters,, 
and two sons, Rufus and John. The latter was in trade in Roch- 
ester for several years. Rufus settled in Macon, Georgia, and 
married and raised a family there. His posterity still reside there. 
Isaac, who was given the homestead by his father. Captain Place,, 
married and raised a family of four sons and a daughter. His 
eldest son's name was David, who settled in Dover, and left two 
sons, — Delmore and Henry. The latter is now teller in the 
Franklin Savings Bank in Boston, Mass. 

Stephen Place was born March 26, 1770, and married in 1799 Eliz- 
abeth Chesley, whose father, James Chesley, lived to over one hun- 
dred years of age. His father gave him the " Chesley farm," where 
his children were born. He afterwards built a house in Gonic, 
where he died April 9, 1858. He and his wife lie buried in 
the gravej-ard at Gonic. They had seven children: — Eliza F.. 
married William S. Ricker of Rochester; Susan A. married IT. V. 
Whitehouse (p. 355); Charles; James H. married Lydia A. 
Chesley of Rochester; Isaac married Abigail Willey of Durham;. 
David married Caroline Crockett of Dover; and Mary Jane 
married Samuel J. Varney (p. 400). Charles Place married Maria 
G., daughter of James Willey of Durham, and had eight children,, 
the third of whom, 

James Franklin Place, was born at Gonic Jan. 16, 1837. At- 
tending the village school at Gonic till fourteen years of age, he 
then removed with his father to Lawrence, Mass., where he com- 
pleted a course of study in the Oliver High School. He then 
went to Boston and was employed four years in the grocery store- 
of I. S. Trafton on Harvard street, in whose family he lived. Mr.. 
Trafton was deacon in the Christian Church on Kneeland street, a. 
member of the City Government, and a very prominent and active 
anti-slavery Republican. Young Place here received his strongest. 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 433 

political impressions, and as an editor years after made use with 
telling effect of many points remembered from the earnest political 
discussions in Trafton's store. 

In 1860 Mr. Place returned to Lawrence and formed a co-part- 
nership with C, A. Dockham in the puldication of the " Daily 
Journal " of that city. This business venture lasted till just before 
he established the " Rochester Courier " in 1864 (p. 186). In the 
meantime he spent a year in the army in Louisiana, being assigned 
to clerical duty in the Brigade Quartermaster's Department of the 
Third Division under General lianks (p. 227). This position gave him 
special opportunities for his constant newspaper correspondence. 
Wliile before Port Hudson he was captured by a raid of Confed- 
erate Cavalry, but was soon released. He was among the very 
tirst to enter Port Hudson after its surrender, and sent early details 
of the capture to his paper. 

The "Rochester Courier," which he established on returning 
from the army, he soon placed on a paying basis, and took an 
independent and active part in local and State politics. In 1866 
he was appointed postmaster at Rochester, but resigned in about a 
year, having purchased a half interest in the " Journal " at Bid- 
deford. Me. 

In 1868 Mr. Place removed to San Francisco, Cal., where he 
entered upon a career of great business prosperity, as a member 
of the firm of " Berry & Place," and afterwards of the house of 
"Treadwell & Co.," extensive dealers in machinery and agricultural 
implements. After fifteen years, his partners having died, he dis- 
posed of his business and returned to Xew York City, where he 
has since been engaged in superintending the manufacture and 
sale of machinery of his own invention. 

While publishing the " Rochester Courier " Mr. Place married 
Miss Sara Potter, a graduate of the same school he attended, 
and daughter of George W. Potter. They have two children, a 
daughter Laura, born in Rochester Sept. 2, 1866, and a son 
Clarence, born in Oakland, California, Nov. 2, 1872. Two other 
children, Ethel, the second child, aged three and a half years, 
and the youngest, an infant girl, lie buried in "Mountain View" 
Cemetery at Oakland. 

Mr. Place is a Republican of the old school, and intensely Amer- 
ican in all his views, — a cardinal principle of his being never to 

29 



434 ROCHESTER. 

buy anything not made in liis own country ; a believer in a strong 
federal government, — a Nation, and a State subordinate thereto ; 
a tariif for protection only, a one-term presidency, and an educated 
ballot. He still frequently contributes to the press, but close ap- 
plication to his private business prevents his taking that prominent 
part in public affairs for which he is eminently qualified. 

OSMAN B. WARREN. 

OsMAN B. Warren is the present quartermaster of Sampson 
Post, G. A. R. He was born in Rochester, Sept. 15, 1845. His 
parents were James and Lydia Warren. His father was well 
known as a Methodist minister, both in this section and in Maine. 
As soon as Mr. Warren became old enough he attended the public 
schools, where he remained until 1860. He then went to work 
for George Johnson & Co., one of the first of Rochester's shoe 
firms, who then manufactured in Dodge's building, at the lower 
end of the village. He afterwards left this firm and went into 
the employ of E. G. & E. Wallace, the well-known shoe manufac- 
turers, where he remained until August 1, 1862, when he enlisted 
as a private for three years in the ISTinth New Hampshire Volun- 
teer Infantry, and was mustered in at Concord, August 11. He 
left the State August 25th and arrived in Washington the 27th. 
The regiment encamped on the estate of General Lee, which is 
situated on Arlington Heights, on the Virginia side of the Poto- 
mac river. September 1st the Ninth Regiment was assigned to the 
First Brigade, Second Division, Ninth Army Corps. September 
14, 1862, Mr. Warren took part in the battle of South Mountain, 
Md., and on the 17th in the terrible slaughter at Antietam. Later 
on he was in two skirmishes, once at Wheatland and once at 
White Sulphur Springs, Virginia. He participated in the battle 
of Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862. l\\ March, 1863, he went down 
the Potomac to Fortress Monroe and camped at Newport News, on 
the James river. From there the regiment was ordered to Coving- 
ton, Ky. Then they went down on the Kentucky Central Railroad 
to Lexington and Nicholasville, and drove the famous rebel general, 
John Morgan, and his raiders from the State of Kentucky. In 
June, 1863, the Ninth Corps was ordered to re-enforce General 
Grant at Vicksburg. They landed at Haines's Blutt', twelve miles 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 435 

ill the rear of Vicksburg, facing that part of the Confederate army 
coniniunded by General Johnson. Mr. AVarren was present at the 
surrender of Vicksburg July 3, 1863. The Union army then 
followed Johnson to Big Black river, where a battle took place 
in which Mr. Warren participated, and he was also present in the 
battle of Jackson, Miss. In the middle of July they were again 
ordered to Kentucky, and from thence to Eastern Tennessee for 
the purpose of relieving General Burnside. At Knoxville Mr. 
AVarren was promoted to orderly sergeant. In the spring of 1864 
they were ordered to join General Grant's command at "Wash- 
ington. On May 5th and 6tli they took part in the terrible battle 
of the Wilderness, one of the fiercest of the war, in which thirty 
thousand men were sacrificed. In this battle they were on the 
left of the line under command of General Burnside. On May 
12, 1864, at the battle of Spottsylvania Court House, Mr. Warren 
was taken prisoner in a charge upon the enemy's intrenchments. 
He was marched from the battlefield to Gordonsville, Va., where 
he took the cars to Lynchburg, and from thence he was taken 
to Danville, Va. At the last named place he, in company with 
twelve hundred prisoners, was confined in an old tobacco ware- 
house until May 24. He was taken to Andersonville, Ga., the 
worst prison pen of ancient or modern times, a name to be re- 
membered throughout all time with the utmost horror. The 
sufferings he endured during these long months, and saw others 
endure, are too horrible to relate. Here he remained until the 
latter part of September, when he was taken to Charleston, S. C. 
and, in company with other Union prisoners, was confined in the 
city under fire of the guns from Morris Island. He was kept at 
Charleston until the latter part of October, when he was removed 
to the famous Florence prison. South Carolina, remaining here until 
February, 1865, when he was sent into the Union lines at Wil- 
mington, N. C, under parole. Mr. Warren was then sent to parole 
camp, Annapolis, Md. Here he was furloughed and sent home 
in the latter part of March, 1865. He was discharged from the 
United States service at Concord, X. IL, in June, 1865, and came 
home with a war record which few men are able to excel. 

Mr. Warren was a charter member of Sampson Post No. 22, 
and was its first quartermaster. He has been commander three 
terms. He was a delegate from the Department encampment to 



436 ROCHESTER. 

the I^ational encampment when it met at Indianapolis, Ind., in 
1881. He was elected representative to the Legislature from this 
town in 1875 and 1876. He served on the committee on military 
affairs. He was appointed postmaster of Rochester by President 
Hayes March 25, 1878, and was reappointed by President Arthur 
March 31, 1882. In this position he served faithfully until Sept. 1, 
1886, when, under the administration of President Cleveland, he 
was ordered to " step down and out." 

Mr. Warren is a member of Kennedy Lodge No. 57, I. 0. 0. F., 
and also belongs to Norway Plains Encampment. He has filled 
the principal chairs in both orders. He is Master of Humane 
Lodge No. 21, of Masons, and is also a member of Temple Royal 
Arch Chapter. He is now proprietor of Warren's Rochester, 
Dover & Boston Express. Mr. Warren has always been one of 
the old standbys of Sampson Post, and has long been active in 
the different orders which have been named. 

CLERGYMEN. 

The following lists of professional men and college graduates, 
though necessarily incomplete, are intended to include not only 
natives of Rochester but those also who for any considerable 
period resided in Rochester. For pastors see the history of the 
several churches. 

Daniel Wentworth was born at Rochester in 1783; was ad- 
mitted to the New England Conference in 1809 ; ordained elder 
in the M. E. Church by Bishops Asbury and McKeudree at Salem, 
Conn., June 27, 1813; served on various appointments in Maine; 
and died at Skowhegan, Me., Oct. 20, 1869. He married, in 1814, 
Elizabeth Holt of Hampden, Me., who died April 7, 1887. 

John Walker, son of Robert, was born at Rochester in 1785 ; 
began preaching about 1806, and labored in Alton, Tuftonborough, 
and neighboring towns for more than twenty years. In 1827 he 
was ordained by several Free Will Baptist elders at Ossipee, where 
he was pastor from 1833 till his death, June 1, 1870. He married 
Betsey Piper in 1807 and Betsey Healey in 1820. 

Enoch Place, (p. 343.) 

John Meader married Elizabeth, daughter of Joseph and Huldah 
(Case) Hoag of Charlotte, Vt. (p. 258.) 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 437 

Luke Waldron was born at Rochester in 1799 ; ordained in 1837; 
preached in Sanford, Me., and vicinity from 1837 to 1840, when he 
became pastor of the Second Free Will Baptist Church in Provi- 
dence, R. I. He afterwards became a Methodist, and died at New- 
port, R. L, Jan. 10, 1858. 

Jesse Meader, son of Lemuel and Mary (Kiml)all) Meader, was 
born in Rochester Dec. 12, 1802; was ordained as a Free AVill Bap- 
tist minister at Barnstead, May, 1830 ; labored in Candia and vari- 
ous parts of New Hampshiue and Maine till 1858, when he retired 
to Dover, where he died July 11, 1881. He married Hannah D. 
York, Oct. 8, 1832. 

John C. Holmes, son of Joshua and Polly (Carter) Holmes, was 
born in Rochester Oct. 1, 1804; ordained a Free Will Baptist evan- 
gelist at Iliram, Me., Dec. 24, 1840: labored in that vicinity several 
years, when he removed to Wakefield, and preached in many New 
Hampshire towns during the remainder of his life. Revivals fol- 
lowed his labors in many places. He died at Nottingham, Sept. 13, 
1866, and his wife, Hannah F., died there May 23, the following 
year. 

Hiram Holmes, brother of the preceding, was born in Rochester, 
Oct. 3, 1806 ; ordained at Strafford Feb. 8, 1831 ; preached in vari- 
ous parts of New Hampshire ; was clerk of Wolfeborough Free Will 
Baptist Quarterly Meeting four years ; was delegate to three general 
conferences ; married Susanna, daughter of Josiah and Lydia (New- 
ton) Brown of Weare, Oct. 19, 1837 ; and died at Bradford, May 1, 
1863. 

George Washington Dame, son of Jabez and Elizabeth Hanson 
(Cushing) Dame, was born in Rochester July 27, 1812 ; graduated 
at Hampden Sidney College, 1829, where he remained as tutor and 
professor till 1840, when he took charge of the Female Academy at 
Danville, Va. He entered the Medical School and received a 
diploma, but never practiced. Through his agency an Episcopal 
Church was organized in Camden Parish, of which he has been 
rector since 1840, having been ordained as deacon by Bishop R. C. 
Moore, Jan. 15, 1840, and as priest, Aug. 10, 1841. He was super- 
intendent of schools for Pittsylvania county, Va., 1870-82. He 
married, July 22, 1835, Mary Slaria, daughter of Maj. Carter and 
Lucy (Nelson) Page of Cumberland county, A"a. 

John Hanson Twombly, son of Tobias and Lois (Wentworth) 



438 ROCHESTER. 

Twombly, was born in Rochester July 19, 1814 ; was a member of 
Dartmouth College in 1839-40; graduated at Wesleyan University, 
1843 ; was teacher in Wilbraham Academy three years ; was or- 
dained elder in the M. E. Church April 9, 1848 ; has been stationed 
in many of the larger places of Massachusetts; is now (1888) at 
Brookline, Mass.; was president of Wisconsin State University, 
1871-74 ; chaplain of Massachusetts House of Representatives, 1857- 
58; superintendent of schools at Charlestown, Mass., 1866-69; 
received the degree of D. D. from Wesleyan University in 1871 ; 
married Betsey, daughter of Rev. John G. and Betsey (Lane) Dow 
of Montpelier, Vt., I^ov. 26, 1844. 

Charles Munger, son of Rev. Philip and Zipporah Munger, was 
born in Rochester Oct. 29, 1818. After studying several years at 
the Maine Wesleyan Seminary he was admitted to the Maine M. E. 
Conference in 1841 ; was ordained elder by Bishop Janes, at Port- 
land, Me., July 20, 1845; has served on various appointments 
from 1841 ; is now (1888) stationed at Cornish, Me. He visited 
England in 1848 ; has twice been delegate to the General Confer- 
ence; and received the honorary degree of A. M. from Bowdoin 
College in 1868. He married, Aug. 8, 1841, Celia J. Anderson of 
Fayette, Me., who died July 1, 1885. 

Elihu Hayes Legro. (p. 223.) 

George S. Wentworth, son of Luther, was born at Milton in 
1836. While preparing for college he enlisted in the service of his 
country (p. 232). Was in every battle in which his regiment en- 
gaged, and refused a pension. After the war he entered Wesleyan 
University, where he graduated in 1871 ; was admitted to the New 
Hampshire Conference in 1873 ; was ordained elder in the M. E. 
Church by Bishop Peck, at Dover, in 1877. After filling several 
appointments in New Hampshire, he located in 1880 ; graduated 
from the Boston School of Oratory June, 1888 ; and stumped New 
York State in the presidential campaign of that year in behalf of a 
protective tariff. 

Edwin S. Chase, son of William and Harriet Chase, was born in 
Rochester November, 1838. He is very earnest and enthusiastic in 
the work of the ministry, and has been instrumental in the estab- 
lishment of several Methodist churches, (p. 274.) 

Herbert Morton Scruton, son of Hiram W. and Rachel (Rob- 
erts) Scruton, was born in Rochester Oct. 17, 1846; graduated at 



LEADING MEN SINCE TUE REVOLUTION. 439 

Auclover Theological Seminary, 1878; was ordained an evangelist 
iu the Congregational Church at Deansville, N. Y., Aug. 1, 1878; 
was acting pastor there for two years, and at Copenhagen, N. Y., 
from 1880 till his death, March 14, 1883. He married, Feb. 26, 
1877, Susie A., daughter of Francis and Flizaljcth A, Turner of 
Stoneham, Mass. 

Samuel Henry Anderson, eldest son of James and Laura A. 
Anderson, was born in Rochester April 26,1847; graduated from 
Eastman's Business College at Poughkecpsic, N. Y., in 1866; en- 
gaged with his father in manufacturing for a time ; having fitted for 
college, attended the University of Rochester, N. Y., about two 
years; graduated from Rochester Theological Seminary May 17, 
1876; was ordained at Fairfax, Vt., Feb. 28, 1877, and in the fol- 
lowing month became pastor of the Baptist Church in East Wash- 
ington, X. H., where he remained two years. He was subsequently 
pastor or acting pastor of churches in Middlebury, Montgomery, 
and East Hardwick, Vt. In 1882 he left the pastorate with somewhat 
impaired health, and is now residing in Newport, Vt., occasionally 
supplying churches in the vicinity. He married, June 18, 1877, 
Miss Josephine Stacy Goodwin, born in Xorth Berwick, Me., April 
22, 1858, daughter of Daniel L. and Elizabeth A. Stacy, and adopted 
daughter of Samuel and Sarah A. Goodwin. Their children are 
Gertrude Laura, born at East Washington, April 30, 1878, and Ethel 
Daisy, born in Craftsbury, Vt., March 24, 1883. 

Arthur Dorm an Kimball, son of Joseph P. and Lucy M. Kim- 
ball, was born in Marlborough, Mass., Jan. 31, 1862. His parents 
died when he was an infant, and he was adopted by his great-uncle. 
Dr. Dorman (who had adopted and brought up his mother and her 
two sisters), with whom he removed to Rochester about 1865. He 
graduated from Tufts Divinity School in 1885, and during that 
summer supplied the pulpit of the L^niversalist Cljurch at Marlow, 
where he died Aug. 13, 1885. 

PHYSICIAXS. 

In the earliest days the ministers were usually the physicians 
also, and the people seem to have been well satisfied with their 
medical skill, (p. 85.) 

Samuel Merrow, son of Henry, was born in Reading, Mass., 
Oct. 9, 1670; was a practicing physician at Oyster River Parish, 



440 ROCHESTER. 

now Durham, in 1720 ; removed to Rochester about 1734, where he 
died about 1740. 

James Jackson in 1768 inserted in the " New Hampshire Ga- 
zette" the first business advertisement from this town, as follows: — 

" The Public is hereby informed that James Jackson, Physician, late of Con 
necticut, now of Rochester, in this Province, has for a number of Years with 
great Success, and Ease to the Patient, Killed and drawn out Wens, tho' ever 
so large, and Cancers, by the Use of a Plaister. Also cures Persons of the 
Colic &c. &c. Any Person inclining to apply to him in Season, may doubtless 
have relief." 

This Dr. Jackson asked the town to give him a house lot behind 
the meeting house to encourage his remaining, but they refused. 
So he turned his back on their " wens and cancers " and returned 
to Connecticut. 

James Howe. (p. 121.) ^ 

Samuel Pray was born at South Berwick, Me., July 3, 1769; 
studied medicine with Dr. Jacob Kittredge of Dover three years, 
and settled in practice at Rochester September, 1792, where he died 
in 1854. He was one of the original members of the Strafford 
County Medical Society in 1811, of which he was secretary for sev- 
eral years ; was elected Fellow of the New Hampshire Medical So- 
ciety in 1816 ; in 1821 an honorary member of the Dartmouth 
College Medical Society. In 1797 he married Frances B. Farnham 
of Boston, Mass., who died in 1847, leaving six children. 

Jacob Maine, son of Josiah, and grandson of Rev. Amos Main 
(p. 83), was born in Rochester; graduated from Harvard College in 
1800; studied medicine with Dr. Amnii R. Cutter of Portsmouth, 
whose daughter, Sarah Ann, he married; began practice in Dover 
in 1803, where he kept an apothecary store ; died at Dover in 1807. 

Timothy Farrar Preston, son of Dr. John and Rebecca (Farrar) 
Preston, was born at New Ipswich June 2, 1780. He had ten 
brothers and sisters, among them a twin brother. He was named 
for his uncle. Judge Timothy Farrar of the Supreme bench, who 
lived to his 102d year. Dr. Preston probably studied medicine with 
his father, practiced in various places, and came to Rochester in 
1807. After a short stay he returned to N'ew Ipswich, where he 
died Dec. 4, 1857. 

John Perkins was a native of Jaffrey ; studied medicine at Ha- 
verhill, Mass.; came to Rochester in 1807, and after eight years 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 441 

returned to Jattrey. lie married Susauua Ivelley of Metliuen, 
Mass., and died in Slatersville, R. I., leaving a son, Roderick R. 
Perkins, M. D., and two daughters. 

James Farrington 1st. (p. 345.) 

Asa Perkins, son of William, was born in Dover April 5, 1793; 
read medicine with Dr. Jabez Dow of Dover; began practice in 
Rochester in 1816; returned to Dover in 1818; relinquished practice 
in 1830 on account of poor health, and died in Dover May 3, 1850. 
He was a Fellow of the New Hampshire Medical Society, and a 
member of the Strattbrd County Medical Society. 

Samuel Pray, Jr., was born in Rochester March 4, 1799, and 
died there Aug. 18, 1874. 

Moses R. Warren was born at Alton in 1804. While securing 
his education he had to struggle through hardships common to boys 
of Xew Hampshire farms. Attending medical lectures at Dartmouth 
and Bowdoin, he graduated at the latter in 1832, and soon after 
settled in practice at Middleton. In 1851 he removed to Wolfebor- 
ough, and after ten years came to Rochester, where he regained in 
active practice for the rest of his life. He Avas a member of the 
Stralibrd County Medical Society and maintained a lively interest in 
its meetings. " 'No man in his sphere of life had more or truer 
friends than Dr. Warren. He was a man of sterling worth and 
integrity, appreciated not only as a good physician, but as a society 
man interested in everything that would make the community bet- 
ter." Dr. Warren married Hannah Scates, a teacher of some note, 
and died in Rochester June 26, 1881, leaving two children, Susan 
31. and John Sidney. The latter graduated at Dartmouth College in 
1862, also at Jefferson Medical College in 1866. He stands high 
in his profession in New York City, where he has regular hospital 
work, in addition to a good general practice. 

Joseph Haven Smith, (p. 379.) 

Calvin Cutter, son of John and Mary (Bachelder) Cutter, was 
born in Jaftrey May 1, 1807; studied medicine with Dr. Nehemiah 
Cutter of Pepperell, Mass.; attended lectures at Bowdoin, Harvard, 
and Dartmouth Medical Colleges ; received his degree from the 
latter in 1832, and immediately began practice in Rochester. The 
next year he went to Xew York University, where he became the 
private pupil of Dr. Valentine Mott. After practicing a few years 
at Xashua, he pursued his studies still further with Dr. McClellan of 



442 ROCHESTER. 

Philadelphia. After a few years' practice in Dover, he began lec- 
turing on physiology for about twelve years in all parts of the United 
States. In 1847 he published a text-book on physiology, which was 
extensively used in public schools in this and other countries. He 
became prominent in the Kansas struggle, emigrating thither with 
a coffin filled with rifles. In 1861 he became surgeon of the 
Twenty-first Massachusetts Kegiment, and afterwards brigade sur- 
geon of the Ninth Army Corps ; was wounded at Bull Run and at 
Fredericksburg. " He was a man of enterprise and skill, who 
delighted in a life of well-doing." While at Nashua he became 
personally responsible for building a house of worship for the 
Baptist Church, of which he was a member, and was thereby 
reduced to poverty. He married, first, in 1834, Caroline, daughter of 
Nathan and Ruth (Waterman) Hall of Milford, a M^oman of " beau- 
tiful character," who died in 1842, aged thirty-three. He wrote a 
very remarkable epitaph, still to be seen in the old cemetery at 
Milford, stating that she was " murdered " by the church to which 
she belonged in Nashua. They had two children : Eliza died in 
infancy ; Caroline Eliza, born July 29, 1842, died March 24, 1862, 
while accompanying her father on the Burnside expedition to North 
Carolina, — "young, talented, cultured, patriotic." Dr. Cutter 
married, second, Dec. 10, 1843, Eunice N., daughter of Chester and 
Eunice (Hadkell) Powers of Warren, Mass., and had John Clarence, 
born July 10, 1851, a physician highly distinguished for his services 
to the Empire of Japan, receiving from the Mikado the " Fourth 
Order of the Rising Sun," and for his revised edition of his father's 
Physiologies; and Walter Powers, born April 28, 1857, died Aug. 1, 
1871. He died at Warren, Mass., June 20, 1872. 

Theodore Wells was a practicing physician in Rochester in 
1832-33. 

Turner, a physician from Massachusetts, came to Roch- 
ester in 1832, and remained about a year. 

Alfred Upham. (p. 328.) 

Albert Gallatin Upham. (p. 328.) 

Timothy Upham. (p. 328.) 

John M. Berry advertised in March, 1836, that he had again 
taken an office at Rochester with Dr. A. Upham. In the latter part 
of 1837 he was a dentist at Dover, and in January, 1838, advertised 
particular attention to spinal curvature, with use of machinery, etc. 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 443 

Enoch C. Dow was born in Wakctiekl in 1813; read medicine 
with Dr. Jeremiah F. Hall of "VVolfeborough ; attended seven 
courses of medical lectures at Dartmouth, Bowdoin, Philadelphia, 
and Harvard ; came to Rochester in 1859 ; and was United States 
examining surgeon for Strattbrd county during the war. His second 
wife was Lucy Tebbets of Rochester. Dr. Dow was one of the old 
type of " family physicians " who by years of sympathetic practice 
in the same families, presiding over the advent of the younger gen- 
erations, and the departure of the old, won his way into many 
hearts, and was the confidential friend of his employers. At his 
death, in 1876, many tears were shed, and his place was hard to fill. 

Paul Augustine Stackpole was born in Rochester Feb. 12, 1814; 
graduated from Dartmouth Medical College in 1842; settled in 
Dover; has been president of the Xew Hampshire Medical Society, 
and also of the Strattbrd District Medical Society ; is a member of 
the Massachusetts Medical Society, and of the American Medical 
Association. He was a delegate from the New Hampshire Medical 
Society to examine the graduating class of Dartmouth Medical 
School in 1858, and to deliver the address to the same ; served on 
the Dover school board for several years ; was also an editor of the 
" State Press," and a member of the iSTew Hampshire Press Asso- 
ciation. He married, July 9, 1845, Elizabeth Hills, of Haverhill, 
Mass. 

John W. Pray, son of Dr. Samuel Pray (p. 440), was born in 
Rochester, August, 1814 ; studied medicine with his father ; attended 
lectures at Dartmouth, and began practice at Barrington in 1840. 
In 1843 he returned to Rochester, where he was in partnership with 
his father for eleven years. He removed to Alexandria in 1801, but 
afterwards returned to East Rochester, where he died April, 1871. 
He married Lizzie, daughter of Stephen Mathes, and had four 
children. 

Jeremiah Caverno Garland, son of ITathaniel, was born at Straf- 
ford Sept. 23, 1814. Studied medicine with Drs. Kittredge of ISTew- 
market, Haynes, Chadbourn, and Buck of Concord. Attended two 
courses of medical lectures at Dartmouth Medical College and Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, graduating from the 
latter in 1844; commenced the practice of medicine at Rochester in 
August, 1844, and remained there over five years. Was at Nashua 
six and a half years ; at Plymouth six years, and again in Nashua 



444 KOCHESTER. 

since 1868 ; is a member of the Northern District and !N'ew Hamp- 
shire Medical Societies, having been president of the former society ; 
has been examining surgeon for pensions, city physician of ISTashua, 
assistant surgeon United States army, councilman, alderman, and 
member of board of health of ]!^ashua. He married Harriet C. 
Woodman of Rochester, Dec. 5, 1849, and had five children : — Celia 
Tamer, Willard Parker, George Lincoln, Theodore Woodman, and 
Claudius Webster. 

RuFUS K. Pearl was born in Farmington Feb. 6, 1815 ; attended 
lectures at Bowdoin and Dartmouth, and studied medicine with Dr. 
Wright of Gilmanton. In 1840 he began practice at Rochester, but 
left his profession on account of ill health and went into trade in 
this village, where he died. 

Jeremiah Horne, Jr., was born in Rochester Jan. 29, 1816; read 
medicine with Dr. Richard Russell of Great Falls, and Dr. Winslow 
Lewis of Boston, Mass.; graduated from Bowdoin Medical College 
in 1840; began practice in Lowell, Mass.; removed to Dover in 
1846, where he has been alderman, member of the State Legislature, 
and city physician for many years ; is a member of the Massachu- 
setts and the ISTew Hampshire Medical Societies, and of the Strafford 
District Medical Society ; is now at Melrose, Mass. 

Jasper Hazen York. (p. 402.) 

Richard Russell resided in Concord a short time prior to 1824 ; 
was in practice at Rochester about 1841-44, but spent most of his 
life in Wakefield and Great Falls, and died at the latter place May 
22, 1855, aged about seventy. 

Isaac W. Lougee. (p. 406.) 

Hiram Gove was the first homeopathic physician in Rochester, 
about 1846. He removed about 1862, and was afterwards in Salem, 
Lynn, and East Boston, Mass. 

Ebenezer Jenness followed Dr. Gove as the second homeopathic 
physician in Rochester. He went from here to Great Falls. 

Charles Trafton came to Rochester from IS'ewfield, Me., and 
after a short but successful practice died of diphtheria in 1877. 

Thomas J. Sweatt, of French ancestry, was born in that part of 
Gilmanton which is now Belmont, in 1819. He was remarkably 
studious as a boy, and grew up highly respected. Having fitted for 
college at Gilmanton Academy, he entered Dartmouth in 1840, 
where he remained two years. He studied medicine with Dr. Enos 



LEADING MEN SINCE THE REVOLUTION. 445 

Hoyt of Xortlifield, whose tlauirhter he married, and commenced 
practice iu Canterbury, but after a few years removed to Saiidwieli, 
where he became second to no man in his profession in Carroll 
county. He was a prominent Odd Fellow, a leader of the Free-Soil 
party in his section of the State, and in all respects a man of great 
influence. A man of strong faith in the gospel, his prayers accom- 
panied his medicines, and he filled the pulpit of the Fr