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™M the date of its CHARTEK, OCTOBER 8. ,. 

PKESENT TIME ' ^^^^' '^^ ™ 



™ co..Tr or ABB™"' ''''''■' ^^' 

BY SAMUEL SWIFT, ll. B. .;■■•"•,•. 






Soon after the death of Gov. Silas H. Jenison, who had before 
been appointed to that service, the author of the followinof work 
was requested by the Committee of the Middlebury Historical So- 
ciety to write a history of the town of Shoreham. He soon becan 
to make mquiries and to collect materials to form into a history • 
but it was not until all those persons who first settled in this town 
were dead, with the exception of a single individual, that he en- 
tered upon the duties assigned him. The difficulties attending the 
prosecution of such an undertaking, under such circumstances, may 
easily be conceived, but these were aggravated by the absence of all 
records dating back beyond the year 1783. His only resource 
therefore, was to consult the only living man who had been here be- 
fore the Revolution, and a few of the older inhabitants who came 
soon after. It was a happy circumstance that Major Noah Callender 
had not then passed away, whose memory, though he was then more 
than eighty years old. remained unimpaired. The author held fre- 
quent conversations with him, and noted down whatever he deemed 
important for the prosecution of his work, and it is with pleasure 
he is able to state that on no important point has he found Major 
Callender's statements to be erroneous, after having been subjected 
to the severest tests. After his death many points of inquiry came 
up which were not anticipated previously. If he had lived, it 
would doubtless have been an easier task to remove obscurities 
in which the early history of the town is involved, and the labor of 


writing it Avould have been lighter. In the year 1853 the' author 
prepared a discourse on the earlj history of the town, and deiiv- 
ered it to a large concourse on Thanksgiving Day of that year 
with a view to be corrected if he erred in any of his statements.' 
A copy of it was requested for the press. Instead of complying 
with this request at the time, the author conceived that it would 
contribute to a higher usefulness to enlarge the discourse and give 
it more the form of a regular history, such as it now assumes. 

Various causes contributed to delay the execution of his desicm, 
until the commencement of the year 1857, when his decision was 
adopted to remove from the State. The numerous papers contain- 
ing all the materials he had collected for a history, he transmitted, 
not long after he left the State, to persons most competent in his 
opmion to prepare the work. These, finding greater difficulties 
than had been anticipated, declined the task, and the Town, at the 
last March Meeting, made an appropriation to pay the ch'ar-e of 
writmg It, and instructed the selectmen to engage some suitable%r- 
son to do the work. At their request, I ventured to undertake it 
Had I then understood its intrinsic difficulties as I now do I should 
have shrunk from the attempt. The limited time, scarcely three 
months, which I could possibly devote to it, is one cause, doubtless 
of Its many imperfections. A year would scarcely suffice to do it jus- 
tice. Imperfect, however, as it is, the author, who has done what 
he could, consigns it to the charitable opinions of those who en 
gaged him in this difficult work. Consisting so much of details as 
a work of this kind necessarily must do, he fears that it will be dry 
and uninteresting to many, who may undertake to read it 

The writer has undertaken only to relate the simple story of the 
town s history in plain language. He has had neither the taste nor 
inclination to adorn any thing. He has aimed to write a history 
and not a romance. He has sought to give a statement of facts 
and nothing more. Errors may undoubtedly be discovered, but 
much pains have been taken to avoid them, and it is believed no" 
important ones will be found. 

Some of the Biographical Notices, particularly the briefer ones 
lYhen connected with the thread of the history^ are inserted in 


the body of the work, partly to relieve the tedium of bare details 
but the most of them have been placed together toward the close. 
Other characters,doubtless as worthy as many noticed, are not men- 
tioned, either because the author had not the materials with which 
to delineate them, or that there was not incident enough to render 
them interesting. In this part of the work, it would have been 
better perhaps, if the writer had confined himself within narrower 
limits. His only apology for the space which the biography fills, 
is that chiefly in this direction are the objects found adapted to ex- 
cite interest. 

The author has attempted carefully to illustrate the settlement 
of the town, its industrial, moral and social progress, and has done 
something to commemorate the early founders and pioneers of socie- 
ty here. However in these or other respects he may have fallen 
short of what is desirable, it will be seen that the undertaking was 
voluntarily begun, from a sense of its importance, and from a 
deep interest in men and things with which he had long been famil- 
iar. When his work was adopted by the Town, his responsibility 
was more clearly defined towards the liberal spirit thus manifested, 
in the cherishing of which he hopes what is valuable in his work 
may find a position of future usefulness. 


Shoreham, August, 1859. 

By vote of the Town in the annual meetings, 1859, 1860, ap- 
propriations were made to procure the completion and publication 
of this History, and Messrs. Ebenczcr Bush, Isaac Chipman, Davis 
Rich, E. B. Chamberlin and R. Bircliard, in the latter year, were 
appointed a committee on the subject. In obedience to a request, 
the author returned from his present residence in Whitewater, Wis- 
consin, and devoted several weeks to the completion of the work. 
It has been put to press under the direction of the publishing com- 
mittee. By the author's request, certain deficiencies of statistical 
matter have been supplied, and the examination of one or two topics 
has been procured, which the limited time at the author's com- 
mand prevented him from pursuing. 


Tlte copy ©f the Charier, Extracts from the To^vn and Proprie- 
tors' Records, Lists of Town Officers, and various statistical items, 
have been furnished by the Town Clerk. The statistics supplied 
from the Executive Departments at Washington, were obtained 
through the attention of our Representative in Congress, and are 
properly acknowledged where they occur. Chapters XIX., XX., 
on Burying Grounds and the War of 1812, were supplied, by re- 
quest, by Rev. Edward B. Chamberlin. The Miscellaneous De- 
partment in Chapters XXIII., XXIV., was extended by the addi- 
tioJi of several particulars and anecdotes, obtained from Joseph 
Smith, Esq., Isaac Chipman, Esq., and other gentlemen. The gen- 
eral historical data, in Chapters VII. and XIV., have also been 

The Note on Page 42, was given on the authority of a Manu- 
script Address of Rev. Joseph Steele, late of Castleton, delivered 
in that place ; that on page 61, was compiled from Morr ell's Amer- 
ican Shepherd and the American Historical Magazine for 1860-61 ; 
that on page 152, was obtained from'^a note of conversations with 
Mrs. M., one of the parties mentioned. 

Portraits of Gov. Jenison and Rev. Mr. Goodhue, are inserted 
under the direction of the committee, as a part of the expense of 
publication ; other illustrations are furnished by the liberality of 

Errors of the press, which occur, will lead, it is believed, to no 
serious misapprehension ; errors in names'or their orthography are 
intended to be corrected in the Index of Names. 


Description and Charter of the Town, 1 

Settlement of the Town under the Charter — Settlers previous to the Revolution, 6 

The capture of Ticonderoga in 1775, 12 y 

Settlement subsequent to the Revolution — Additional settlers previous to 1786, 18 

Town organized— Improved condition — Progress of settlement from 1786 to 1800, 26 

Settlement at the Center and at Richville — Larrabee's Point — Watch Point, ... 35 


Relation of Ticonderoga to the settlement — Escape of Hall and Kellogg — Events 
of the War, 39 


Civil History — Proceedings of Proprietors' and Town Meetings, 45 

Town Officers — Population from time to time, 52 

History of Agriculture— First Products — Wheat— Sheep — Horses — Cattle 57 

Merchants — Character and amount of trade, 67 

Lawyers — Practitioners in Shoreham — Change in legal business, 71 


Physicians and Diseases, 74 


Political History— Town Representatives— County and State Officers— Party 
diviiiong, 76 



I'rogress of Education — Schools — Teachers — Newton Academy, 81 


Economical History — Soil — Face of the Land — Timber — Crops— Value asd 
quality of Lands — Census of Farm Products .... 8G 

Roads — Streams — Mills — Minerals — Manufactures, 91 

Mails — Post Offices — Postmasters, 96 


Burying Grounds, 08 

War of 1812— Enlisted Soldiers— Volunteers— Plattsburgh, 100 


Religious History — Meetings — Plan proposed — Congregational Cliurch — M'nis- 
ters — Meeting-Houses— BaptLst Church — Methodist Church— Universalist 
Chuixh — Miui^ters and statistics, 109 


The Temperance Reform, 129 


Social and Miscellaneous — Trials — Traits — Localities — Facts — Incidents — 

Habits, 131 


Miscellaneous — Additional Facts and Anecdotes— Money Digging 141 


Statistical — Population — Property — Taxes — Wages — Registration Returus — 

Graduates, 147 

Biographical Sketches — Paul Moore — Col. Pond — James Moore, 151 


Biographical Sketches continued — Thomas Rowley, Esq., the Poet, 162 


Biographical Sketches continued — Job Lane Howe — Ebenezer Turrill — Timothy 
F. Chip^ian — Elisha Bascom — Stephen Cooper — Nathan Hand, 180 

Biographical Sketches, concluded — Hon. Silas H. Jenison — Hon. Charles Rich 

— Conclusion of the Work, 187 

Index ot Names, 193 

Portrait of the Author, 

Larrabee's Point with United States Hotel, 37 

Watch Point and Residence of John Simonds, Esq. , 69 

Public Buildings in Shcreham Village 109 

Portrait of Hon. Silas H. Jenison, 185 




The To-\vn of Shoreham, in the County of Addison, State of Ver- 
mont, is in Latitude 43° 53', and Longitude 3° 45', and is bounded 
north by Bridport, east by Whiting and Cornwall, south by Orwell, 
and west by Lake Champlain. which separates it from Ticonderoga, 
N. Y. It lies 40 miles south of Burlington ; 12 south-west from 
Middlebury ; removed from eight to ten miles from the Green Moun- 
tain range. 

It was chartered by Benning Wentworth, Governor of the Prov- 
ince of Kew Hampshire, on the eighth day of October, A. D. 1761. 
The names of sixty-four persons appear in the charter as the 
grantees of the township, most of whom, it is believed, had no per- 
sonal interest in the grant. The charter was obtained through the 
agency of Colonel Ephraim Doolittle, and bears an earlier date than 
that of any other town west of the Green Mountains, lying north of 
Castleton. It in the usual form of charters of townships granted 
by New Hampshire; and reads as follows : 



George the Third, 

By the Grace of God, of Great Britain^ France and Ireland, 
King, Defender of the Faith, ^'c. 


Greeting : 
Know ye, that We of our special grace, certain knowledge and 
mere motion, for the due encouragement of settling a new Planta- 
tion within our said Province, by and with the advice of our trusty 
and well beloved Penning Wentworth, Esq., our Governor and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of our Province of New Hampshire in New Eng- 
land, and ot our Council of said Province, Have, upon the Condi- 
tions and Reservations, Hereinafter made. Given and Granted and 
by these Presents for us our Heirs and successors, do Give and 
Grant in Equall shares unto our Loving Subjects, Inhabitants of our 
said province of New Hampshire and our other Governments, and 
to their heirs and assigns forever, whose names are entered on this 
Grant to be divided to and amongst them, Into seventy equal shares, 
all that tract or Parcel of land, situate Lying and being within our 
said Province of New Hampshire, containing by a measurement, 
twenty-five Thousand aeres, which tract is to contain something 
more than six miles square and no more : out of which an allowance 
to be made of Highways and unimproved Lands by Rocks, ponds, 
Mountains and Rivers, one Thousand and forty acres free, accord- 
ing to a plan and survey thereof, made by our said Governor's or- 
ders and Returned mto the Secretary's office and hereto annexed, 
Butted ^and Bounded as follows, viz : Beginning at a tree marked 
standing by the vrater side of the wood creek, so called, on an East 
point from Ticonderoga fort, from thence running east seven miles, 
then beginning again at the aforesaid tree by the wood creek, thence 
Running Northerly by the waters of the wood creek or bay, so far 
as to make up six miles on a straight Line, from thence East seven 
miles, and from thence Southerly to the end of seven miles from the 
bounds begun at; and that the same be and hereby is incorporated 
into a township by the name of Shoreham, and the inhabitants that 
do or shall hereafter Inhabit the said township are hereby declared 


to be enfranchised with and entitled to all and every the privileges 
and immunities that other towns within our province bj Law exer- 
cise and enjoy, and further, that the said town, as soon as there 
shall be fifty families Resident and settled therein, shall have the 
Liberty of holding two fairs, one of which shall be held on the 

and the other other on the annually, which fairs 

are not to coutinue Longer and that as soon as the said 

town shall consist of fifty families, a market may be opened and 
kept one or more days in Each week as may be thought more ad- 
vantagieous to the inhabitants, Also that the first meeting for the 
choice of Town officers, agreeable to the laws of our said Province, 
shall be held on the second Tuesday in January, which said meet- 
ing shall be notified by Gardner Chandler, Esq., who is hereby al- 
so appointed moderator of the said first meeting, which he is to No- 
tify and Govern agreeable to the Laws and customs of our said prov- 
ince, and that the annual meeting forever hereafter, for the choice 
of such officers for the same town, shall be on the second Tuesday 
of March annually. To have and to hold the said tract of land as 
above expressed, together with all Privileges and appurtenaces to 
them and their Respective heirs and assigns for ever, on the follow- 
ing conditions, viz : Ist, that Every Grantee, his heirs or assigns, 
shall plant and cultivate five acres of Land within the term of five 
years for every fifty acres contained in his or their share or pro- 
portion of Land in said Township, and continue to improve and set- 
tle the same by additional Cultivations, on penalty of the forfeit- 
ure of his grant or share in said township, and of its reverting to 
us our heirs and successors to be by us or them regranted to such 
of our subjects as shall Efiectually Settle and cultivate the same. 
2d. That all the white and other pine trees within the said Town- 
ship, fit for masting our Royal Navy, be carefully preserved for 
that use, and none to be cut or felled without our special license for 
so doing first had and obtained. Upon the penalty of the forfeiture 
of the Right of such Grantee, his heirs and assigns, to us, our heirs 
and successors, as well as being subject to an act or acts of Parlia- 
ment that now are or hereafter shall be enacted. 3d. That before 
any division of the Land be made to and among the Grantees, a 


Tract of land as near the center of the said Township as the Land 
will admit of, shall be reserved and Laid out for Town Lots, one of 
which shall be allotted to Each Grantee of the contents of One 
Acre. 4thly. Yielding and paying therefore to us, our heirs and 
successors for the space of ten years, to be computed from the date 
hereof the rent [of one Ear of Indian corn only on the twenty-fifth 
day of December annually. If lawfully demanded, the first pay- 
ment to be made the twenty-fifth day of December, 1762. 5thly. 
Every proprietor, settler or inhabitant, shall yield and pay unto us, 
our heirs and successors yearly, and forever from and after the Ex- 
piration of ten years from the above said twenty-fifth day ot De- 
cember, Namely, on the twenty-fifth day of December, which will 
be in the year of our Lord 1772, one shilling proclamation money, 
for Every hundred acres he so owns, settles or possesses, and so in 
proportion for a greater or lesser tract of said Land, which money 
shall be paid by the respective persons aforesaid, their heirs or as- 
signs, in our council chamber in Portsmouth, or to such officer or 
officers as shall be appointed to Receive the same, and this to be in 
Lieu of all other rents and services whatsoever. 

In testimony whereof, we have caused the seal of our said province to be hereunto 
affixed. Witness, Benning Wentworth, Esq., our Governor and Commander- 
in-chief of our said province, the 8th day of October, in the year of our Lord 
Christ One thousand, Seven hundred and Sixty-one, and in the first year of 
our Reign. 

By His Excellency's Command, with -o WENTWORTH 

advice of Council, 

Theodore Atkinsox, Secretary. 

Province of New Hampshire, October, 9th, 1762. Recorded in the book of Char* 
ters, page 233 and 234, Attest, Theodore Attkinson, Secretary. 


John Chandler, Esq., James Forbes, Joseph Perry, 

John Chandler, senr., Esq. James Forbes, Jr., Jonathan Perry, 

Gardner Chandler, Esq., Jonathan Gates, Daniel Waier, 

Zerubabel Snow, Asa Moore, Jabez Swan. 

John Knap, Jabez Sargeant, Timothy Pain, 

Samuel Chandler, John Marsh, John Waters, 

Epbraim Doolittle, John McRakin, Samuel Curtis, 

Ebenezer Warren, Thadeus Bigelow, Thomas Brown, 

Daniel Boyden, Philip Roberts , Absalom Rice, 



Jacob HemDtnray, 
Robert Gray, Jr., 
Silas Ilathhorne, 
Reuben Rice, 
Jonathan Morton, acnr., 
Joshua Dickinson, 
Elijah Morton, 
Sarauel Smith, 
Dauiel Warner, Esq , 
William White, 
Caleb Til ton, 
David Morton, 

Thomas Wheeler, 
Matthew Gray, 
William Kennedy, 
Charles Richardson, 
Enos Cook, 
Benjamin Flag, 
Samuel Brooks, 
Cornelius Stowel, 
John Godai'd, Junr. , 
Richard Wibard, Esqr,, 
Jonathan Tilton, 
John Goddard, 


Joseph Curtis, 
Cornelius Colman, 
Jonathan Stone, 
Jonas Newton, 
Ebenexer Starns, Jr., 
Francia Han-ington, 
Ephraim Starns, 
William Ward, 
Wm.Tenenson Steams, 
Ephraim Curtis, 
Daniel Tilton, 
John White, 
Samuel Goddard. 

His Excellency, Benning Wentworth, Esq., a tract of Land to 
contain five Hundred Acres as marked B. W. in the plan, -which is 
to be accounted t^YO of the within shares. One share for the Incor- 
poration for the propagation of the Gospel in Foreign parts. 
One share for the Glebe for the Church of England, as bj law Es- 
tablished. One share for the first settled minister of the Gospel, 
and one share for the Benefit of a school in said Town. 

Province of New Hampshire, October 9, 17G2. 
Recorded in the book of Charters, page 23? and 234: 

TnEODORE Attkinson, Secretary. 

The above is a true copy of the Original Charter, Carefully Ex- 
amined and Compared by me. 

THOS. ROWLEY, Proprietors' Clerk. 




CoL. Epiiraim Doolittle was the most prominent and active man 
in procuring the Charter and effecting the first settlement of the 
town. He was a Captain in the army under General Amherst, in 
the French war of 1755, and served under him at the capture of 
Ticonderoga and Crown Point. While the English forces lay at 
the latter place in 1759, Amherst sent out a detachment to open" and 
complete a road from thence to Charlestown, N. H.. then called 
Number Four. It passed from Chimney Point, in Addison, through 
Bridport and Shoveham, and Doolittle and many of his men, it is 
said, were engaged in this enterprise. Col. Doolittle, and many of 
the men who served under him from Worcester County, Mass., had 
passed over this road on their way to and from the seat of war on 
Lake Champlain, and having favorable impressions of the country 
bordering on the lake in Vermont, on their return after the conquest 
of Canada in 1760, through their influence a company of gentle- 
men in Worcester, Shrewsbury and Petersham, Massachusetts, 
united for the purpose of obtaining a charter from the government of 
New Hampshire for the towns of Shoreham and Bridport. Having 
accomplished this object, he became proprietor of six rights of land 
in each town, with the intention of commencing a settlement with 
as little delay as possible. But the continuance of the war between 
England and France til] 1763, and the conflicting claims of New 
Hampshire and New York to the territory, rendered the enterprise 
unsafe. It was not until the issuing of the order of the King and 
Council in 1764, prohibiting further grants of land in Vermont by 
the government of New York, that it was considered safe to com- 
mence settlements on unoccupied lands in this State. That order 
of the government in England having been regarded as settling the 


chartered rights of lands granted by New Hampshire, the owners 
thereof began to take measures to secure their settlement, and 
people in the older and denser settlements of Massachusetts and 
Connecticut began to look for a future home in the wilderness of 

Early in the year 17G6, Col. Doolittle with twelve or fourteen 
other persons, among whom were Daniel and Jacob Ilemenway, 
Robert Gray, James Forbush, Paul Moore, John Crigo, Daniel 
Southgate, Nahum Houghton, Elijah Kellogg, and others, came to- 
gether in a company from Worcester County, in Massachusetts, and 
selected a spot on which they built a log house. This was situated 
a few rods east of a stream called Prickly Ash Brook, which flows 
from the northern extremity of what is called the Great Swamp, on 
land now occupied by B. F. Powers, known as the Doolittle farm. 
The house stood upon ground which rises gradually from that stream 
as it leaves the Swamp, on the cast side, near a spring at the base 
of Mutton Hill, at its northern extremity. In this they all lived 
the first year in one family, the men taking turns in doing the cook- 
ing. These men had agreed to make a joint interest in the enter- 
prise ; to place their labor and expenses in a common stock, with a 
view at some future time, when the settlement should advance, and 
lands should increase in value, to share ecjually in the profits, and 
not, as it is stated in Tompson's History of Vermont, " On the 
Moravian plan." Tiiey entertained no peculiar religious or politi- 
cal views respecting the organization of society, or the holdinor of 
property. They adopted this plan merely for their own convenience ; 
to lighten and facilitate the labors of settlement. 

During the first summer, this company cleared about twenty-five 
acres of land, lying at the base of Mutton Hill on the north and 
east of Prickly Ash Brook. The greater part of that piece of land 
afterwards belonged to the fiirm of Noah and John Jones, and is 
now occupied by Franklin Moore. It was soon stocked down to 
grass, and for many years furnished fodder for the cattle and teams 
of the first settlers. During the first season, several persons be- 
longing to this company suffered from fevers and agues, and regard- 
ing the country unhealthy, they left it, receiving pay for their la- 


bor of Col. Doolittle, who liad promised to purchase their interests 
in the improvements, if they should not wish to remain. In conse- 
quence of this, the number of residents in the town was consider- 
ably diminished. Col. Doolittle did not move his family into town 
until after the Revolution, but spent much of his time here, with 
several hired men, who were employed in clearing lands and mak- 
ing improvements. 

Col. Ephraim Doolittle, from Worcester, Mass., was a Captain 
in the service of the Colonies in the French war. He was with 
Gen. Amherst at the takins; of Ticonderon;a and Crown Point, in 
1759, and was Colonel of the Massachusetts Militia in the Revolu- 
tion. He was the largest land holder in town, as one of the orig- 
inal proprietors and by large purchases from other proprietors, be- 
fore the settlement commenced. After the settlement commenced 
in 1766, he spent a large portion of his time here, until the war 
commenced, and moved his family here in 1783, and owned the 
mill-place and mills, and built a house where Alonzo Birchard now 
lives. He died in this town, A. D. 1807. 

Col. Joel Doolittle, his son, came and lived with his father in 
1783, and in 1784 became joint owner with him of the mills and all 
his real estate in this town. He also died in this town, in the year 

Paul Moore, from Worcester, Mass., was one of the most prom- 
inent characters engaged in the early settlement of the town, a 
more particular notice of whom may be found in the biographical 
sketches. He came with the first company in 1766, and lived in 
the first log house that was built, until it was burnt by the Indians. 

John Crigo, who was also one of the first company, with his fam- 
ily, lived in the same house with Mr. Moore, who was then a bach- 
elor, and carried on his farm several years, before and after the Rev- 
olution. Moore afterwards built a log house some distance north of 
the first one, which stood on his own farm, several rods west of the 
brook, in which he and John Crigo's family lived ^several years. 
Some time after the revolution, Moore built a large two story frame 
house near the same spot, which was, after his death, moved by 


John Doolittlo to the west side of the turnpike road, and is noT\- oc- 
cupied by B. F. Powers. 

Before the Revolutionary War commenced, Col. Doolittle built a 
saw-mill, situated near the site of the lower mill now owned by 
Alonzo Birchard, Esq. At this place there is a fall in the stream, 
by which the mill was run, of about eighty feet, in the distance of 
about ten rods. In this work Doolittle was assisted by Marshal 
Newton from Shrewsbury, Mass., one of the original proprietors of 
the town. He did not move his family to this tov/n, but for several 
years spent much tame here ; labored one summer on the mill and 
furnished the mill irons. As he was a large owner of lands in the 
town, he was very active in promoting the interests of the settle- 
ment, both before and after the war. The first saw-mill that was 
built was burnt by the Indians during the Revolution. 

In the fall of the year 1773, Samuel Wolcott, from Goshen, Ct., 
settled with his family on the farm on which Deacon Almon Wol- 
cott now lives, and had one hundred acres of land given him by one 
of the proprietors as an inducement to settlement. He and his son 
Samuel belonged to Allen's party and went with him into the fort. 
Becoming alarmed by a party of Indians that appeared in the vicin- 
ity, he and his family fled for safety to Berkshire County, Mass.. and 
remained there during the war. He returned in 1783, with his 
family, to the farm he had left in 1777, where he resided until near 
the time of his death, which occurred while he was on a visit to his 
friends in Massachusetts and Connecticut. 

Amos Callender came with his family from Sheffield, Mass., in 
the winter of 1774. He came by the way of Albany, from thence 
to Fort Ann, from which place there was then no traveled road fur- 
ther north. From Fort Ann he traveled on the ice upon Wood 
Creek to Whitehall ; from that place on the Lake to Bridport, and 
thence he beat his own path through the snow, which was three or 
four feet deep, to Shoreham, where he settled on the f.irm now own- 
ed by Col. Bela Howe. In June, 1777, the family, becoming 
alarmed by the appearance of a party of Indians, buried their brass 
kettle, and some other household utensils in the ground, which 
they found on their return after the close of the war. They fled at 


once to the south for safety. Mrs. Callender rode on horseback^ 
carrying a child in her arms, her husband leading the horse. They 
made no stop, until they arrived at Poultney, a distance of about 
thirty miles. The most part of their way was through an unbroken 
forest From that place they "went to Sheffield, where they re- 
mained until the close of the war, when they returned by way of 
Bennington, Whitehall and the Lake, and arrived in Shoreham, 
'Peb. 14th, 1783. In 1793 he built the brick house in which Col. 
Howe now lives, and kept a tavern many years. In that early day 
it was the most elegant house in this part of the country, aad par- 
ties of pleasure were often attracted to it from this and other towns. 

Elijah Kellogg, some say, was one of the company that came in 
1766. He was from Sheffield, Mass., and was one of Allen's par- 
ty in the capture of Ticonderoga in 1775. and is said to have been 
the first man who entered the fort after Allen and Arnold. He and 
Paul Moore apent the winter of 1778 in the same cabin, while there 
were no other persons in this town. After Moore was captured by 
the Indians, he spent another winter entirely alone. Not long af- 
ter Ticonderoga was evacuted by St. Clair, he was taken prisoner 
by the enemy at Castleton, and detained awhile at Ticonderoga, 
from which place, he and two men of the name of Hail made their 
escape across the lake. The detail of the circumstances in an au- 
thentic form, will be found in a future chapter. Mr. Kellogg, who 
had previously lived with Paul Moore, not long after his escape oc- 
cupied a log house on the farm which Amos Callender had left in 
June 1777, and took care of his cattle. He was afterward allowed 
to remain unmolested, under British protection, till the close of 
the war, when he settled on a farm where his son Daniel Kellogg 
now lives. 

Thomas Rowley, Esq., and Samuel Beman, and Nathaniel Be- 
man settled before the Ptevolution in the vicinity of Larabee's 
Point, and returned to their several places after the war in 1783. 

John Reynolds, from New Concord, N. Y., settled on Five Mile 
Point, not far from Horace Lapham's, on land now owned by him, 
in 1774. He left in 1777, and returned in 1783, to the place he had 
left, where he died at an advanced age as early as 1800. 


William Reynolds, son of John, settled on the same place, before 
the Revolution, was a toiy, the only one -who ever lived in this 
town. Some time after the war, he went to Canada, and settled on 
land given him by the British government. 

Daniel Newton,' from Shrewsbury, Mass., was here some time be- 
fore the Revolution, and was employed in surveying lands allotted 
to proprietors betore and after the Revolution. He took up several 
lots in town, commenced an improvement on Cream Hill, east of 
the road, nearly opposite to the house of the late Hiram Rich ; sold 
that place and began to mal<e another improvement on the farm now 
owned by Benjamin Hurlburt : joined Allen's party ; was a servant 
to Gen. Artemas Ward, while a portion of the American army was 
stationed in Philadelphia ; returned to this town in 1783, and final- 
ly settled on the farm where Edson D. Bush now lives, where he 
died in 1834, aged 80. 

Only six families are known to have lived in this town previous 
to 1775 A few persons were here looking for land, or employed as 
laborers by Col. Ephraim Doolittle in clearing land and erecting his 
saw-mill. Before the commencement of the war, no settlement had 
been made east of the old turnpike road, except that commenced by the 
first company in 1766, and no family lived east of that except John 
Crigo's, who occupied the first improvement. In nine years the 
whole number of inhabitants did not probably exceed thirty. 




As Shoreham \Yas the final point of rendezvous for the men Allen 
had collected, and several men belonging to his partj were either 
then or were afterward inhabitants of this town, and as some errors 
have crept into history in relation to that enterprise, it may not be 
out of place here to give a brief account of that bold adventure, 
which secured to the colonies one of the most important fortresses 
held by the British Crown on this continent. 

Nine men, either then or afterward, inhabitants of this town, 
are known to have been with Allen when he entered the fort,' viz : 
Nathan Beman, Thomas Rowley, Jr., John Crigo, Elijah Kellogg, 
Amos Callender, Samuel Wolcott, Samuel Wolcott, Jr., Stephen 
Smith, then of Manchester, and Hopkins Rowley, then of Pittsford. 
Rev. Hoaea Beckley in his History of Vermont, has shown that the 
expedition for the purpose of capturing the forts of Ticonderoga and 
Crown Point, was not, as several historians say, set on foot by the 
Legislature of Connecticut, but by several gentlemen in that State, 
the expenses for which were furnished by public spirited individuals, 
on their own responsibility, and were afterwards paid by the gov- 
ernment of that State. " A number of men were raised and came 
on to Berkshire County, Mass., where they were joined by many 
others in the expedition, and arriving in Vermont they chose Ethan 
Allen as their commander. He conducted them as far as Castleton, 
at which place he halted and sent Captain Noah Phelps, of Simsbury, 
Conn., to Ticonderoga, to examine into its situation and condition, 
and make report to his associates." }' He passed over the Lake in a 
boat, in the rustic garb of a farmer, and put up at a house near the 
fort for the night, where several of the officers were collected for a 
supper party. He listened to their conversation respecting the com- 


motions in the colonies, and the defenceless condition of the post, 
without taking any apparent interest in what they said. In the morn- 
ing he gained admission into the fort for the purpose of being shaved, 
and having made what observations he could, he engaged the boat- 
man to take him across the lake. Having learned the number of 
men in the garrison, and that their ammunition was in a damaged 
condition, ho returned to Castleton and reported what he had seen 
and heard. Allen immediately despatched Maj. Beach as a messen- 
ger to collect men, to meet his party at a place since known as 
Hand's Point, in the town of Shoreham. Beach went on foot to 
Butland, Pittsford, Brandon, Middlebury, Whiting and Shoreham, 
making a circuit of sixty miies in twenty-four hours. "While in 
Castleton, Allen was joined by Arnold, who claimed the command 
of the party by a commission, as he said, from Massachusetts ; but 
as this claim was resisted by the men, he finally consented to join 
them as a volunteer. They took the the old Crown Point road in 
Sudbury, and came to Lake Champlain — not in Orwell, as is stated 
in Williams' History of Vermont, nor at Larabee's Point, as has 
been said by others, but at a place called since Hand's Cove, where 
the men lay concealed from the view of the enemy in a ravine. "Find- 
ing here no sufficient means of conveying his men across the lake, 
messengers were sent to Bridport and Addison to procure boats. 
They came to a Mr. Stone's in Bridport in the night, and making' 
their object known, they aAvakened two young men^ who were sleep- 
ing in the chamber above them. They at once arose, and proceeded 
to the fort at Crown Point, and persuaded a negro man, who had the 
charge of the boats belonging to the garrison, to row them as far as 
Shoreham, where they pretended there was to be a squirrel hunt the 
next]day, promising him as a compensation a jug of rum." The 
boats did not arrive until towards morning of the next day. There 
were 270 men in all, 230 of whom were Green Mountain Boys, all 
eager to embark and share in the perils and honors of that daring 
enterprise. The boats, however, were insufficient to carry all. On- 
ly 83 of the 270 passed over, leaving 187 behind. Those remaining 
expected to be sent for immediately after the landing of the first 
party ; but as they had to row nearly two miles before ihey reached 
the shore on the west side of the lake, a little north of Willow Point, 


it began to be light ; Allen therefore determined not to await the ar- 
rival of the rest of the men, from the other side, but to push on im- 
mediately to the attack. When Allen gave the word of command 
to march forward, Arnold, contrary to the arrangement made at Cas- 
tleton, interposed and claimed his right to take command and lead 
the men, and swore he would go into the fort first. Allen swore 
he should not, but that he himself would first enter. The dispute 
running high, Allen, turning to Amos Callender, of Shoreham, said, 
" What shall I do with the damned rascal ? Shall I put him under 
guard?" Callender, regretting such an occurrence, at such a criti- 
cal time, and feeling the importance of setting forward immediately, 
and of acting in perfect harmony, advised them to settle the diffi- 
culty, by agreeing to enter the fort together. They both assented, 
and set forward under the guidance of a young man named Beman, 
about eighteen years old, who had spent much of his time at the 
fort, and was well acquainted with all the passages and buildings, 
and the quarters of the ofiicers and soldiers. Allen and Arnold, 
followed by their men, proceeded on through a covered passage into 
the fort, under the direction of Beman. The sentinel unaware of 
their approach, had not given the alarm, but upon the impulse of 
the moment, caused by the sudden appearance of an enemy, he 
snapped his fusee at Allen, who parried the weapon with his sword. 
and struck a blow at the soldier's head, and inflicted a wound there- 
on, which would probably have killed him, if the force of the blow 
had not been obstructed by a comb with which the soldier's hair 
was done up. The above statements I had from Major Noah Cal- 
lender, son of Amos Callender, who was with his father at the time, 
and saw the wound. Allen pushed on to the apartment occupied 
by Captain De LaPlace, who was yet in bed, and demanded the im- 
mediate surrender of the fort. The Captain asked, " by what au- 
thority he demanded it ?" To whom Allen replied, " By the Great 
Jehovah and the Continental Congress." With such celerity had 
the men, under Allen, entered and paraded themselves in the open 
area within the fort, while the soldiers were yet sleeping in their 
barracks, that aroused thus suddenly from their slumbers, no oppor- 
tiinity was afforded them to organize : and resistance in such cir- 


cumstances, being impracticable, was not for a moment to be thought 
of. In few minutes the officers and men were paraded on the square 
embraced within the walls, and surrendered themselves, forty-four 
in number, to the Hero of the Green Mountains. 

In a short time the men, who had been left on the opposite shore 
of the Lake, under command of the brave Col. Warner, come over 
and joined their comrades in celebrating a triumph achieved without 
the cost of a single life or drop of blood on their part, and with do 
essential injury or suffering on the part of the enemy. On the 
same day, Warner was sent with a detachment of men to take Crown 
Point, which, with a sergeant and 12 man in it, was surrendered 
without^resistance. Amos Callender wag also despatched immedi- 
ately in command of a small party, to take the fort at the head of 
Lake George, which was easily accomplished, as there were then on- 
ly one man and one woman in it. By these bold enterprises, pushed on 
with such celerity and secrecy, as not to awaken suspicion or alarm 
in the ranks of the enemy, were three important posts secured to 
the cause of America, on the 10th day of May, 1775, only twenty days 
after the shedding of the first blood in the war of the Revolution 
at the battle of Lexington. Amos Callender, with a party of men, 
was sent to conduct the prisoners, 52 in number, to Hartford, Con- 
necticut. In a few days, all the vessels, boats and warlike stores, 
belonging to the enemy, wore taken, and the command of the lake 
secured, and the inhabitants ot Shoreham permitted to remain un- 
molested, on their farms, for more than two years. Some of them 
engaged in the regular service, but most of them continued to im- 
prove their lands, until the approach of Burgoyne, in July, 1777, 
when all, excepting Paul Moore and Elijah Kellogg, fled to the 

Thompson, in his History of Vermont, states that " it was with 
difficulty that boats could be obtamed to carry over the troops. A 
Mr. Douglass was sent to Bridport to procure aid in men and a scow 
belonging to Mr. Smith. Douglass stopped by the way to enlist a Mr. 
Chapman in the enterprise, when James Wilcox and Joseph Tyler, 
two young men, who were in bed in the chamber, hearing the story, 
conceive i the design of decoying on shore a large oar boat belong- 


ing to Maj. Skene, and which then lay off against Willow Point. 
They dressed, seized their guns and a jug of rum, of which they 
knew the black commander to be extremely fond ; they hailed the 
boat, and offered to help him row to Shoreham, if he would carry 
them there immediately to join a hunting party, that would be wait- 
ing for them. The stratagem succeeded, and poor Jack and his 
two men suspected nothing, till they arrived at Allen's head-quar- 
ters where they were made prisoners of war." 

It has been stated in history, and the common opinion hag been 
that the boat belonging to Major Skene, was decoyed from Willow 
Point, near Fort Ticonderoga. But this is a mistake. The oar- 
boat, of which the black man was commander, lay near Crown Point 
arid was decoyed over to Willow Point, which is on the farm of Hi- 
ram Smith, in the extreme north-west corner of the town of Brid- 
port. The confounding of two points on the Lake bearing the same 
name has led to this error. Major Noah Callender, who was with 
Allen's party at the time, said to the author, some time before his 
death, that the boat with the negro in it, was decoyed from the vi- 
cinity of Crown Point, and all historians agree in stating that both 
the boats arrived at Allen's head-quarters, nearly the same time in 
the latter part of the night. The idea that those two young men, 
with the four men who joined them on the way, should come from 
Bridport in the night on the east side of the lake, and pass Allen's 
party, which lay concealed about two miles north of Fort Ticonder- 
osa, is incredible. Willow Point a little north of that fort, was not 
the usual place of landing. The testimony of several persons who 
settled near the place where Allen's party lay, soon after the Revo- 
lution, Avas that both of the boats came from the north, to Hand's 
Cove in Shoreham. 

Williams and Thompson, in their Histories of Vermont, and Cook, 
in his history of Ticonderoga, state that Allen with his party reached 
Orwell, opposite to Ticonderoga, in the evening of the 9th of May, 
and crossed the lake there. This is an error. Allen's party did 
not come through Orwell. On leaving Castleton, they directed 
their way to the old Crown Point road, which they reached in Sud- 
bury, and pnrsued through Whiting into Shoreham. They came 


n-sar the Lake on the farm former] j owned bj Abel Randal], on 
which Benjamin Hurlbut now lives, where they found Daniel New- 
ton chopping, who set his axe by the side of a tree, and joined the 
party, which went on directly to Hand's Cove, and lay concealed 
during a part of the day and niglit in a ravine, more than two miles 
north of the tort. That was the point from which Allen and his 
men embarked in tlie boats and not any place in Orwell. 




In the "winter Oi 178C, and in the succeeding year, most of the 
families returned to the lands on -fthich they had lived before the 
Revolution, and many others from Massachusetts, Connecticut and 
New York soon joined them. In enumerating these, I shall pass 
over the names of those who remained here only for a few years, 
and did not become permanent residents of the town, and have left here 
no members of their families to perpetuate the memory of their an- 
cestors, and perhaps others who were not in any way distinguished 
for the interest which they took or the part which they acted in 
building up the town. In fixing the year in which the several fam- 
ilies came, no small difiiculty has been found. The recollection of 
different individuals, who have been consulted for information, often 
varies from that of others. In determining dates, I have extensive- 
ly consulted the records of deeds and conveyances found on the rec- 
ords of the original proprietors, and of the town ; also lists of town 
officers, and proceedings of the proprietors and town meetings, in or- 
der to determine as nearly as possible, the year in which each indi- 
vidual and family came into town, leaning, in all instances, in which 
the recollections of persons differ, to the written record. But after 
all the inquiries I have been able to make, I dare not flatter mybclf 
that I have not fallen into some mistakes. In some instances the 
best I could do was, by a careful examination of conflicting recol- 
lections, and weight of circumstances, to make as near an approxi- 
mation to truth as was in my power. 

As it has already been stated, Samuel Wolcott with his family, 
returned in 1783 to the place they occupied before the war. 


Ilis son, Jesse Wolcott had fifty acres of land given him by one 
of the proprietors in 1783, and settled on the farm •where his son 
Calvin Wolcott now lives, and continued there until his death. 

Samuel "Wolcott, who, with his father, was one of Allen's party, 
settled "on land adjoining Col. Howe's, on the south, soon after the 
Revolution, and died there, a devoted and consistent christian. 

"William Wolcott, son of Samuel, Senr., settled at an early day in 
the village, at the center of the town. He subsequently sold his 
place to Levi Wolcott and went to live with his son, Dr. William 
G. Wolcott, at Whitehall, N. Y. 

Alvia Wolcott, a son of Samuel, settled on the farm now owned 
by his son Samuel, where he died. 

Deacon Philemon Wolcott, took the place on which his father set- 
tled, after his death. He was a deacon and active member of the 
Congregational Church. He died on that place of the cholera, Sep- 
tember 1st, 1832, aged 63. 

Thomas Rowley, Esqr., returned in 1783 to the farm he had left 
at Larabee's Point, where he lived with his son, Nathan, some time ; 
sold that place in 1787 to John S. Larabee, and went with his son 
Nathan, in the same year, and lived on the place where Lot Sanford 
now resides, until about the year 1795. when he went to the place 
called Cold Spring, in the town of Benson, where he died about the 
year 1803, being then over 80 years old. 

Thomas Rowley, Jr., settled on the place now owned by Edwin 
•Douglass, built the large house there and kept a tavern in it many 
years. He left that place in 1814, and moved near to Buffalo, N. 
Y., where he died many years since at an advanced age. 

Samuel Beman, grand-father of Rev. N. S. S. Beman, D. D., of 
Troy, N. Y., returned in 1783 to the place he had left ; stayed there 
a few years, and went to the River St. Lawrence, where he died at 
an advanced age. 

Daniel Newton, who first began an improvement on the place 
■where the late Hiram Rich lived, and another on the place now 
owned by Benjamin llurlbert, before the war, went soon after on to 
the place now owned by E. D. Bush, where he died in 1831, aged 
80. He was one of Allen's party ; a soldier in the Revolution, 

£0 iiisTonY OF snoREnAii, 

and for many jears was a practical surveyor in this town. During 
his life he kept a diary, but that part of it which comprised the his- 
tory of events which occurred in the early history of this town, is 
supposed to have been lost. That part of it which he kept while 
he was a soldier, and acted as a servant to Major General Ward, 
I have seen, in which he notices the vmusual season of atten- 
tion to the subject of religion then prevalent in that portion of the 
army stationed in the city of Philadelphia, and among the inhabi- 
tants of that place. In that diary, he records the texts of all the 
sermons he had heard : some of which were delivered by the most 
eminent preachers in the country in that day, and relates the sub- 
stance of conversations which he had with Gen. Ward and Samuel 
Adams, then a member of Congress, on the subject of religion, 
while his own mind appears to have been deeply impressed concern- 
ing his own state. These conversations show the deep interest which 
those two eminent men felt in the work of grace then prevalent in 
that place. The frequent counsels which they gave him, evince their 
sincere and ardent piety and devotedness to the cause of Christ. 

Nathan Herrick, son of Col. Samuel Herrick, an officer in the 
army of the Revolution, settled on Larabee's Point, in 1783 ; sold 
out to John S. Larabee, and left town in 1787. 

Rufus Herrick, from Duchess County, N. 11., settled near Hand's 
Point in 1783, on the farm afterwards owned by Deacon Nathan 
Hand and Capt. Samuel Hand. He died on that place about 1787. 

John Larabee, from New London County, Conn., settled on the. 
iarm now owned by Benjamin Hurlbert, in 1783. He was a sur- 
veyor, and is said to have been a man of more than common educa- 
tion in his day. 

John S. Larabee came from Pownal, in 1783, at the age of 19^ 
He spent most of the summer of that year, in assisting his father 
in surveying lands in the northern part of the State, but in the au- 
tumn came and lived with the family. In 1787 he settled on 
Larabee's Point, then called Rowley's Point, where, with the excep- 
tion of six years ^-hich he spent in Middlebury, while he held the 
office of Clerk of the County Court, he resided during the remain- 
der of his life. He established the first regular ferry at Larabee's 


Point, under a grant of the Legislature. It was under his manage- 
ment during his life. He was a man who made manj friends by 
his fine social qualities, and quiet, genial disposition, and was much 
respected and honored by all who made his acquaintance, as an in- 
telligent and trustworthy man. He held, at difierent times, the 
office of Town Representative, was Clerk of the County Court six 
years, was Judge of Probate and of the County Court, and was well 
versed in the early history of the town and State. Late in life, he 
united with the Methodist Episcopal Church, and died in the hope 
of the gospel, Nov. 28th, 1847, aged 82. 

Abijah North, from Farmington, Conn., came to this town in 
1774 ; went on to fifty acres of land given him by one of the pro- 
prietors, belonging to the farm of the late Hiram Rich ; cleared a 
piece of land that summer ; planted apple seeds for an orchard ; 
built a log house a little west of said Rich's house, and returned in 
the fall of that year to Connecticut. The war having broken out 
the next year, he did not come on with his family as he had expect- 
ed, but remained till after the peace, when he returned with his 
wife and six children, to his former residence, March 12th, 1783. 
He lived on that place over two years, and then went to the Mose- 
ley place in Bridport, where he died May od, 1785, in less than 
two months alter his last removal. A little before his death, Seth 
North, John North and Simeon North, came with their families, 
and John North took the farm of Abijah North in Shoreham, and 
died there at an early day. The wife of Seth North, immediately 
on her arrival, took the home-sickness, and the same day she arrived, 
declared to Samuel Wolcott's family, she would start for home the 
next day, and. true to her word, home she went, by the same team 
by which she came, notwithstanding the efforts of Mrs. Wolcott, on 
the next morning, to quiet her mind, and persuade her to remain. 
Simeon North remained a short time and went to Ticonderoga ; re- 
turned here again, and lived here several years, then went to Or- 
well, wiiere he died. The apple seeds which Abijah North sowed 
in 1774, sprang up and became a nursery after the Revolution, as 
did seeds planted by Samuel Wolcott on his place the same year, 
furnishing trees and fruit for the neighborhood at an early date. 


After the death of Abijah North, his family was broken up, and 
his son, Nathaniel North, went to live with Isaac Flagg. He mar 
ried Sally Bateman, and lived with her flither, Thomas Bateman, 
on his farm and in bis house, which stood where the parsonage house 
of the Congregational Society now stands. Col. Nathaniel North 
built the parsonage house in 1818 ; left town in 1831 and moved to 
Ticonderoga, where he died, July 9th, 1838. 

Col. Josiah Pond, from Lenox.Mass.. came to this town in 1783. and 
carried on Paul Moore's farm one year ; purchased the farm where 
William and Edwin Johnson now live, in 1784, and built upon it a 
framed house and barn ; sold that place afterward to Isaac Flagg and 
went on to the place now owned in part by Henry Bush, cleared up 
a lai'ge farm and built a saw -mill on Lemon Fair River, about 1790. 
He lived on that place the greater part of his life, and died in this 
town August 8th, 1840, aged 83. A notice of his character will 
be found in the Biographical Sketches. 

Gen. Timothy F. Chipman, from Sheffield, Mass., assisted in the 
surveys of the town in 1783. and in the same year settled on the 
farm now owned by his son Isaac Chipman. See Biographical 

Stephen Barnum came here from Lanesboro, Mass., in 1784, and 
moved his family in 1785. He settled on land now owned by Lo- 
ren Towner ; had a large farm ; raised a numerous family of children, 
all of whom except his son Stephen, have removed from the town. 
He was born in 1757. He was a soldier in the Revolution ; came 
to Ticonderoga the latter part of December, 1776, at the age of 19, 
with a company of militia, and stayed until the next spring. The 
soldiers suffered much from the want of comfortable shelter and 
wholesome food. A part of the time they were compelled to sub- 
sist on horse-beef There was much dissatisfaction among the sol- 
diers, with the treatment they received from the officers, who were 
thought to have been unwilling to share with them in their priva- 
tions. This occasioned some pilfering by the soldiers, from the bet- 
ter stores, which some of the officers had appropriated to their own 
use. So great was the dissatisfaction, at one time, that a company 
<3f men, headed by young Barnum, paraded with arms in their hands, 


■vrith the avowed intention to marcli for home ; whereupon they were 
promised better treatment, and they consented to remain. Mr. 
Barnum was a deacon of the Congregational Church many years, 
and died in this place August 24th, 1834, aged 77. 

Four brothers of the name of Smith settled on tlie lake- road, 
fi'om which circumstance, it took the name "Smith Street," which 
it still retains. They all originated from Nine Partners, Duchess 
Co., N. Y.; went from that place to Spencertown N. Y., and from 
thence to Manchester, Vt. From the latter place they came to thia 

Stephen Smith commenced an improvement, and built a log house 
on the farm now owned by Marvin North, in 17S4, and moved his 
family into it in 1785. 

Deacon Eli Smith came also in 1784, and settled with his fami- 
ly on the farm where Joseph Smith, Esq., his son, and Orville 
Smith his grand-son, now live, in 1785. He was in the battle at 
Stillwater, and witnessed the surrender of Burgoyno and his army 
at Saratoga. lie was born Nov. 10th, 1751, and died June 16th, 
1816, aged 65. 

Major Nathan Smith came and settled on the fiirm now owned by 
Joseph Smith, his son, and Sereno Smith, his grand-son, in 1792. 
He was in the battle of Bennington ; he and Benjamin Vaughan , 
were the two first persons who scaled the breast-works in pursuit 
of the enemy. He died here previous to 1800. 

Amos Smith came in 1793 ; was a carpenter and joiner ; set up 
a store about 1795. in a house owned by Jordan Post, in which he 
did business about three years, and afterwards lived some time on 
Smith Street. He moved to Canada about 1808, where he died 
about 1810. 

Nathan Smith, Jr., son of Nathan Smith, one of the brothers, 
settled on the farm now owned by Joseph Smith and Sereno his 
son, about 1786, and sold the place to his father about 1792. He lived 
several years after at different places in town, and at an advanced 
age, moved to Lyons, N. Y"., where he died. He was with Allen's 
party at the taking of Ticonderoga, and served in the army after 


that. He heard Ethan Allen address the people and soldiers from 
ai stump in Manchester, and followed him from that place. 

Philip Smith, brother of Nathan Smith. Jr., came to town in 
17SG, and lived awhile near the school house on Barnumllill, and 
in several other places in Shoreham. He was Constable and Deputy 
Sheriff several years, and died here February 4th, 1847, aged 82. 

Timothy Larabee settled first on the farm adjoining Deacon Hunt's 
on the west, about 1784, and sold it to Hopkins Rowley in 1792, and 
went to Georgia, Vt. He returned and settled on the farm now 
owned by his son Timothy Larabee, in 1798. He was born in 
Plainfield, Conn., July 6th, 1753 ; came first to Pownal, and from 
thence to this town, and died here August 21st, 1831, aged 78. He 
was a man of more than common education ; was for some years a 
Justice of the Peace, and a member of the Methodist Church. 

David Russell came here from Chesterfield, Mass., in 1784, and 
settled on the farm since owned by his son, Oliver Russell, lately 
deceased, and moved his family in 1785. 

Jabez Hcaly came from Chesterfield, Mass., and settled a little 
east from where John Jones now lives, about 1785 ; soon sold that 
place, and settled on the farm now owned by Ira Bascom. 

Samuel Dunbar, from Warwick, settled on the farm now owned 
by German Cutting in 1785. He was the first constable of the town. 

Amos Stone, Esq., for several years a Justice of the Peace, 
came from Cavendish, Vt., and settled on the east side of Lemon 
Fair River, about one mile east of where Deacon James Moore now 
lives, on the road leading to Cornwall, in 1785. 

Andrew Wright came from Lenox, Mass., and settled about three- 
fourths of a mile east of the mills at Richville, on the road leading 
to Whiting, in 1785. 

Joshua Dunbur, from Warwick, Mass., settled where German 
Cutting now lives, in 1785, and sold to Benjamin Healy, who took 
his place. 

Reuben Callender, from Sheffield, Mass., settled on the lot north 
of John N. Hunt, Esq., about 1785, and soon sold to John Tracy, 
and left town. 

Up to this time the town had remained unorganized ; no town of- 


ficers had been chosen, and no taxes had been laid for the purpose of 
constructing roads, building bridges, or for supporting schools, ex- 
cept those laid bj the proprietors. 

The progress of the settlement from its commencement in 1766, 
to the beginning of the year 1786, was so slow that the whole num- 
ber of families at the close of this period was only eighteen. It 
we reckon five persons to a family, the whole number of inhabi- 
tants did not exceed ninety. 



MEJT^FROM 1786 TO 1800. 

rRETious to this period, the settlers had labored v.ndcr great dis- 
advantages and hardships. After the first saw-mill was burnt, it 
■was diffieult to procure boards for building their bouses. They 
Vere under the necessity of going to Whitehall, Yergennes or Pitts- 
ford, to get their grain ground. But now a saw-mill had been put 
in operation, and measures taken for building grist-mills. The 
titles to the lands were considered more safe, under an independent 
government which had been regularly and efficiently administered 
for several years. These circumstances combined to render the pro- 
gress of the settlement much more rapid. During the year 1786, 
sixty-three families, it is said, moved snto this town. During this 
year, the town was regularly organized and town officers chosen. 
Thomas Rowley was the first Town Clerk, chosen Nov. 20th, 1786, 
and Jaaies JNIoore the first Town Representative, chosen, probably, 
in 1787, though the records, for that year and several other years, 
do not sliow Avho was elected. 

Among the families that settled here during this period, the fol- 
lowing may be named : 

Noah Jones, from Worcester, jSIass., moved his family here m 
March, 1786. He came alone in 1784, and purchased a lot of land 
on which Edwin Northrup now lives ; afterward exchanged thai lot 
for another, and returned ; came again in 1785. and worked on a lot 
of land on Worcester Hill, through the summer ; built a log house 
and moved his family into it the next year. He died in this town 
September, 18o0, aged !J2. on the place on which he first settled, 
where Franklin Moore now lives. 

irrsToRY OF siiorvEiiAM. 27 

Eleazer Holbrook came -witU Mr. Jones at the age of fifteen, and 
lived with him until he was twenty-one. After that time he lived 
a while in Bridport, but settled at an early day on the farm now 
owned by Edwin Cudworth. He is now living with his son, David 
Holbrook, in Orwell, and is 88 years old. 

John Smith, from Worcester, Mass., moved his family into town 
in 1786 : was bere himself one or two years before; built a house 
on the farm now owned by Royal Witherell. He afterwards sold 
tliat place to Sylvester Witherell, and settled on the farm now owned 
by John Jones. He died in this town, Aug. 31st. 1810, aged 73. 
His wife survived him, and died on the same place, September 15th, 
1838, aged 88. 

James Moore settled with his family on the farm now owned by 
his son, Samuel Moore, in 1790. See Biographical Sketches. 

Gideon Tower settled on the south-west corner lot, in this town, 
about 1787, and died here in 1814. 

Ebenezer Turrill, Esq., from Lenox, Mass., built a log house in 
1786, near the large two-story house, built by hmi in 1795, occu- 
pied many years as a tavern, more commonly known as the Hill 
House. See Biographical k^ketches. 

Daniel Turrill, his son, soon after settled on the farm now owned 
by Edwin H. Northrup. 

Beebee Turrill, son of Ebenezer Turrill, settled on a farm now 
owned by Dca. Royal Turrill, in 1792. 

Thomas Rica and Nathaniel Rich, from Warwick, Mass., pur- 
chased a tract of land in and near the present village of Richville, in 
1785. These two brothers, says one of their descendants, were great 
hunters, and had been in these parts before they made their pur- 
chase. Thomas Rich had previously been to New Hampshire, with 
a view to purchase the land lying about the falls in Salisbury, Vt.; 
but the property had been sold the day before he arrived. He went 
from there to Middlebury to look at lands lying on the north side of 
the falls in that village, which were then in the market, but finally 
concluded to purchase in this town. In the year 178G, he came 
with several hands, and labored through the summer and autumn in 
clearing lands and preparing the way for a settlement and the eree- 


tioa of mills. The next year, 1787, he and his brother came on 
\vith several hands, among whom was Charles Rich, a son of Thomas, 
afterward a Representative in Congress, who did the cooking far 
the company, lie was then sixteen years old. Mrs. Andrevy 
Wright, then living about three-fourths of a mile distant, baked 
their bread. That season Thomas Bich built a saw-mill, it is said, 
alone, and did much work on the grist mill, of which Nathaniel 
Rich was owner. lie got out and shaped a set of mill-stones at 
Pittsford, turning over the stones without any assistance from oth- 
ers. These two brothers moved their families here in the winter of 
1787, and the grist-mill was completed in the spring or summer of 
that year. 

Jacob AtwooJ, came with his family, from Warwick, Mass., in 
1789, and occupied a log house which he had built the summer be- 
fore, situated about four rods south-west of the house in which 
Francis Atwood recently lived. That year the adjacent lands were 
all in flames, in consequence of which the grist-mill, in which many of 
his goods were stored, was burnt, and little or nothing in it was 

Ebenezer Bush, from Becket, Mass., settled in 1789. on the farm 
now owned by Oliver Barnum. In January, 1791, he started on a 
journey to Massachusetts, with five persons in a sleigh with him. 
While passing along the road in Fairhaven, he was suddenly killed 
by the fall of a tree. No other person in the sleigh with him was 
injured. His funeral was attended in this town, and the sermon 
■flras preached by Elder Skeels, a Baptist minister, who lived at that 
time on the place where Eliakim Culver settled, now owned by 
Samuel Jones. 

Zacheus Barnum, from Lanesboro, Massachusetts, bought fifty 
acres of land of Thomas Rowley, in 1786, lying on the west side of 
the road leading north from Deacon Lewis Hunt's, now owned by 
A. W. Perry. He built a log house on it, and in 1789, married a 
daughter of Samuel Wolcott, who died in October, 1790 ; in Octo- 
ber, 1791, he married for his second wife, the widow Sarah Bush, 
and moved on to the farm that Eben Bush settled on, in 1792. He 
sold the fifty acres that he first purchased to Zebedee Goodwiiij and 


purchased fifty acres of land of Nathaniel Pond, on what is called 
Baa-num Hill, now owned by Oliver Barnum, where he died, Au- 
gust 28th, 1840. aged 77 years. 

William Jones, from Worcester, Mass., purchased a lot of land 
on which Stephen Barnum now lives, and settled upon it for a short 
time, in 17ci7. He soon after purchased the lot where Schuyler 
Doan now lives. He died in this town, Nov. 27th, 1833. 

Asa Jones, from Worcester, Mass., settled, in 1788, on the farm 
where his son, Asa Jones, now lives. He died here, April 21st, 
1841, agedje. 

Elder Samuel Skeels settled on the farm now owned by Samuel 
Jones, about 1789, and sold it to Eliakim Culver, and left town 
about 1793. 

William Willson, was born in Rehoboth, Mass. At the age of 
eight years became to Warwick, Mass.. and lived with his father in 
that town, until 1789, when he settled on the farm now owned by 
bis son, William G. Willson, ""where he died, May 30th, 1858, aged 
89. His father, Jonathan Willson, who was a soldier in the French 
war two years, under Gen. Putnam, and also in the war of the Rev- 
olution, came and lived with his son, William, in 1820, and died in 
this town, in 1830, at an advanced age. 

Dea. James Baker removed from Bridport to Shoreham in March, 
1816. and was the same year appointed Deacon of the Baptist 
Church in the latter place, and served as such till 1830, in April, 
when he removed from Shoreham back to Bridport and resided there 
till July, 1847; when he removed to Geneva, Wisconsin, where he 
died, October 10th, 1851, aged 72 years, 6 months and 22 days. He 
was born in Morris Co., New Jersey, the 18th of March, 1779, and 
removed from the city of New York to Bridport, Vermont, in 1805. 

Ebenezer Wright came from Lenox, Mass., and worked for Dan- 
iel TurriU, in 1786 ; took the lot where Benjamin Bissell formerly 
lived, in 1788, and in 1790 settled on the farm now owned by Hon. 
M. W. C. Wright. 

Levi Birchard, from Becket, Mass.^ came in 1787, and purchased 
the lot on which Nathan Birchard, his son, lived after him, and 


commenced an improvement ; he settled thereon with his family in 
1789. He died in this town, January 14th, 1844, aged 84. 

Andrew Birchard, from Eecket, Mass., came with Levi Birchard 
and -worked with him two years. He first purchased the lot where 
Lorenzo Q. Chipman recently lived, and sold the same to Russel 
Chipman, and then Avent on the farm where he spent the remainder 
of his life, now owned by his son, Horatio Birchard. He died in 
this town, December 31st, 1857, aged 89. 

Matthew Stewart came from Becket, Mass., in 1788, and settled 
on the farm on which Q. C. Rich now lives. He sold out to An- 
drew Birchard about 1800, and settled in or near Waterford. N. Y., 
■where he soon after died. 

Thomas Barnum came from Lanesboro, Mass., and settled on land 
now owned by Levi 0. Birchard, a little north of the school house. 
He died here February 17th, 1836, aged 84. He was a soldier in 
the^Revolution ; was in the battle at Trenton, and in several other 
engagements. He was a member of the Congregational Church, 
and universally esteemed as a worthy and good man. 

William Watson came from Becket, Mass., in 1790, and settled 
on the farm where Andrew Birchard lived. He was a soldier in the 
Revolution, and was stationed some time at Ticondei'oga. He died 
March 15th, 1817. 

Jabez Barnum, from Lanesboro, Mass., settled on the farm where 
Deacon Lewis Hunt now lives, in 1787 ; left that place about 1796, 
when he moved on to the the place now owned by William Penn 
Frost. He died at that place. 

Liberty Newton, from Shrewsbury, Mass., settled on a place a 
little east of the house in which Hiram Rich lived, in 1789. He 
left town about 1801, and went to Ticonderoga, and built a forge at 
the upper falls. He died at Champlain, N. Y. 

Joseph Denton, from Bedford, N. Y., settled on the farm now 
owned by LoreHzo D. Larabee, about 1791, and built a saw-mill on 
the small stream that runs through it, a short distance below the 
road that crosses it. Another saw-mill was also built still further 
down the stream. When the country was new, this stream, which 
is insignificant now, furnished water enough in the spring and fall 


to saw a considerable quantity of lumber. Mr. Denton removed to 
Hague, N. Y., where ho died in 1814. 

William Denton settled on the same farm in 1792, and died in 
this town in 181-4. 

Samuel Tower, from Rhode Island, settled on land now owned by- 
Lot Sanford, on the north side of the road nearly opposite to the house 
of A. W. Perry, about 1787. 

Benjamin Tower, from Rhode Island, settled where A. W. Perry- 
now lives, in 1787. 

Samuel Rockwell settled on the farm now owned by Charles 
Ilunsden, about 1786 or 1787, and sold it to Allen Hunsden, about 
1800. lie left town about the same time, and went to Pennsyl- 

Samuel Hunt came originally from Ilardwick, Mass.; thence to 
Pawlet, and from that town to Shoreham, and settled first on the 
farm now owned by Nazro Northruf , in 1787. He afterwards sold 
that place to Jeremiah Northrup, and settled on the farm now owned 
by B. B. Tottingham, where he died February 15th, 1825, aged 
62. His father, Samuel Hunt, came several years later, and lived 
with his son, and died in this town in 1799, a^ed 66. 

Jeremiah Northrup, from Lenox, Mass., first settled a little south 
of B. B. Tottingham's, but soon went on to the place now owned 
by Nazro Northrup, about 1791. He died April 12th,1840, aged 
74 years. 

Samuel Northrup, from Lenox. Mass., first settled in a small 
house a little south of B. B. Tottingham's, where he carried on tho 
blacksmithing business, about 1793; about 1815 he settled where 
his son, Edwin II. Northrup now lives. He died January 17th. 
1839, aged 66. 

John Treat, from Lenox, Mass., settled on the east side of the 
creek, near the site of the first house built in town, about 1795. 

Deacon Stephen Cooper, from East Hampton, Long Island, came 
and purchased about five hundred acres of land, in 1788^ and moved 
his family here in 1789. See Biographical Sketches. 

Samuel Hand came from East Hampton, Long Island, in 1789, 
and purchased the place owned by Rufus Ilcrrick. His father Dea. 


Nathan Hand, came from the same place in 1790 ; and lived with his 
son, Samuel. Deacon Hand died May 11th, 1811, aged 64, and 
Samuel died September 13th, 1845, aged 76. Capt. Hand com- 
manded a company of Militia that went from this town to Platts- 
butgh, on the approach of the British army, in 1814. 

Levi Jenison, from Shrewsbury, Mass., settled, in 1790, on the 
farm afterward owned by his son, Silas H. Jenison. 

Gideon Jennings went from Natic, Mass., to Bedford, N. Y., 
and settled in this town on the farm now owned by his son Isaac D. 
Jennings, in 1787. He served as a soldier in the armies of the 

Joseph Butler, from Goshen, Conn., settled near the place where 
Col. Clark Callender recently lived, about 1784. He stayed a few 
yenrs and moved to Grand Isle. 

Manoah Willson settled on the firm recently owned by James F- 
Frost, about 1785, and went to Pennsylvania in 1801. 

Samuel Ames settled on the farm, now owned by Charles Bowker, 
in 1787, where he died in 1833. 

Barnabas Ames settled, in 1788, on the farm now owned by 
Henry Walker, and died there about 1829. 

Elijah Ames, settled, in 1788, on a farm about half a mile east 
of Richville, and went many years ago to St. Lawrence Co. N. Y. 

Henry Ames settled on the farm now owned by Richard N. At- 
vrood, in 1797 ; went many years since to Potsdam, N. Y. 

Silas Brookins settled on the place now owned by his grand-son, 
Thurmon Brookins, about 1788. 

William Johnson, from Worcester, Mass., settled on the farm, 
■where his son William now lives, in 1788. 

Joseph Fuller, from Bedford, N. Y., settled near Mr. Jennings' 
present residence, in 1 788. 

James Fuller settled on the farm where Jason Jones now lives, 
about 1788. 

John Ormsbee, Esq., from Warwick, Mass., settled, about 1788 
or 1789, on the farm now owned by Earl R. Delano. 

Timothy Goodale, from Warwick, Mass., settled on the farm now 
owned by David Cutting, in 1788 or 1789. 


Jo8eph Bailey, from Becket, Mas3., settled on the Doaue farm, 
flow owned by J. T. and V. Rich. 

Benjamin Bissell, from Lebanon, Conn., settled on the farm now- 
owned by his son, Salmon L. Bissell, in 1787, and died there De- 
cember 8th, 1850, aged 84. 

Thomas Bissell, from Lebanon, Conn., settled on the farm east of 
Salmon L. Bissell's, in 1787, and died there in 1857, aged 84. 

Jonas Marsh, carpenter and joiner, from Warwick, Mass., settled 
on the farm now owned by J. A. Marsh, son of his brother, Leon- 
ard Marsh, about 1800. 

John Ramsdell, from Warwick, Mass., settled on the farm where 
Nelson Jones now lives, about 1800. 

Ebenezer Hawes, from Worcester. Mass., settled on the farm now 
owned by Gasca Rich, in 1795. He died in this town. 

David Ramsdell, from Warwick, Mass., settled on the farm where 
Upton Waite now lives, in 1788. 

Ashbel Catlin, ?enr., from Litchfield, Conn., came to this town 
in 1800 ; lived for some time with his son, Ashbel, in a house near 
Parker Atwood's. He went from that place to live with his son, 
John B. Catlin, in Bridport, and died in Crown Point. N. Y. 

Ashbel Catlin, Jr., went from the place near Atwood's, on to the 
farm recently owned by Reuben Doane, and moved to the village 
in 1819, where he now lives. 

Elijah Wright, from Ticonderoga, N. Y. , settled on the farm now 
owned by George W. Doane, in 1790. 

Ebenezer Atwood, Esq., from Warwick, Mass., settled on a lot 
next south of the farm on which Reuben Doane formerly lived, 
now owned by J. T. and V. Rich, about 1787. He was for many 
years a Justice of the Peace and Selectman. 

Solomon Barnum, from Lanesboro, Mass., settled a little north 
of the farm on which Deacon Stephen Barnum lived, about 1789, 
and died some years since in Elizabethtown, N. Y. 

Amos Stanley, from Lenox, Mass., settled on the farm now owned 
by his widow, Anna Gardner. He accumulated a handsome prop- 
erty during his life ; was a consistent christian, distinguished for 
his benevolence ; left a handsome legacy to the Congregational So- 


ciety, and as he had no children, he gave directions, on his death-bed, 
that, on the death of his wife, a large portion of his estate should 
be devoted to benevolent objects. 

Nehemiah Wallace, from Pownal, Vt., settled on the farm on which 
Jasper Barnum now lives, as early as 1789. He sold to Jehiel 
Beadle, in 1814, when he left town. 

Jeremiah Brown, from Long Island, settled on the south-west 
corner of Daniel Newton's farm about 1790, and afterward built 
the house in which Edward Harrington now lives, and lived there 
several years. He died in Benson. 

Isaiah Wallace, from Pownal, settled on the farm now owned by 
Jasper Barnum, in 1788. 

Samuel Hemenway, Esq., from Shrewsbury, Mass., came to 
Shoreham in 1792 ; settled on the farm now occupied by Edson A. 
Birchard. He died January 26th, 1813, aged 68 years. He was 
for many years a Justice of the Peace, and an influential man in 
town. His wife, who was much esteemed, died March 11th, 1842, 
in the 80th year of her age. 

Abraham Lawrence, with his son Aaron Lawrence, Esq., from 
New Jersey, settled on Five-mile Point about 1798 ; owned a large 
farm; sold it in 1834 and went to Ann Arbor, Michigan, where 
they both died at an advanced age. 

Allen Hunsden and John S. Hunsden, his son, from Salem, N. 
Y., settled on the farm upon the Lake shore, now owned by Charles 
Hunsden, in 1800. They both died in 1833. John S. Hunsden^ 
represented the town in the State Legislature three years. 




George Leonard built the first house in the village, which was of 
logs, as early as the year 1786. It stood where Levi Wolcott's 
house now stands. About 1798, he built the framed house after- 
ward occupied by Rev. Mr. Beardsley and Dr. Needham, now 
owned by Edwin J. Severance. Mr. Leonard was a German by 
birth, and a soldier in Burgoyne's army. By trade he was a tailor, 
the only one in town for many years. 

Joseph Collins built a framed house near the present residence of 
Mrs. Everest, in 1799. Oliver Howe built a framed house, near 
where Ebenezer Bush, Esq., now lives, about 1795. 

Isaac Elagg built a framed house where the parsonage of the Con- 
gregational Society now stands, as early as 1794 ; Jonathan Bate- 
man lived in it several years. About 1818, Col. North built the 
parsonage-house and occupied it till he removed from town, as else- 
where stated, in 1831. 

Joseph Miller built the large tavern-house in the village, in 1800, 
and sold it to T. J. Ormsbee in 1802, who occupied it as a residence 
and store, till 1804. It afterwards had several owners. Robert R. 
Hunsden owned it from 1828, and kept a public house there tiUhia 
death in 1845. 

William Larabee, the first physician in the village, built a house 
where Samuel 0. Jones lives, in 1803, and sold it to T. J. Orms- 
bee, about 1805. 

Elisha Lewis built the house in which Rev. Lathrop Birge now 
lives, in which he carried on his trade of saddle and harness making. 


Spaulding Russell built the house in which Ashbel Catlin lives 
about 1815. ' 

Hezekiah Beardsley built the house in which Mr. Decelles lives 
in 1809, and sold it to Samuel H. Holley, Esq., in 1810, and then 
built the house where Levi Wolcott now lives. Ashbel Catlin built 
the store now occupied by Hunsden and Hall, in 1833. 

Kent Wright built the brick store now owned by Edwin S. At- 
wood, about 1838. 

Twentj-three acres, on which the Congregational and Universalist 
Churches and the Academy stand, were given to the Town by the 
Proprietors for the purposes of a common, sites for churches and 
other public buildings, and a burying-ground. It was cleared by 
Ebenezer Turrill, Esq., in 1786, at the expense of the Proprietors 
A few persons were buried on it, but it soon ceased to be used for 
that purpose. It is a beautiful location, rising gradually from the 
east and west to a moderate elevation at the centre, on which the 
public buildings stand. Beyond these, as the ground risf-s to the 
south, a few residences are placed. At the north, the street 'on 
which the village principally is built, extends, at a right an^le with 
the range of public buildings, to the east, till it meets the mahi north 
and south road or turnpike through the town. A plank walk has 
recently been built through this street and over the public ground 
past the buildings referred to. Young trees have been set over the 
common during the present year, 1859, in addition to a few of older 
date which were growing there. A spirit has been manifested which 
gives good assurance that a spot, to which the associations of so 
many are destined to be attached, will not be neglected. 

The occupation of the water-power at Richvilfe, has been spoken 
of in a previous chapter. Thomas Rich purchased the land around 
the falls at the upper dams in 1785, and built a house a little east 
of the school house, south of the^alley, and moved his family into 
It, in 1786. The same year he built the saw-mill. 

Jacob Atwood built a log house about four rods south-west from 
the late Francis Atwood's dAvelling house in 1788, and moved his 
family into it in the summer of 1789. The same year the mill- 
house was burned, in which he had a portion of his goods stored 



and four bushels of salt, then -worth four dollars a bushel, all of 
■vrhich were consumed. The house took fire from the adjacent lands, 
Avhich were all in flames. As all the men were at the grist and 
saw -mills, endeavoring to save them, no efforts Avere made to save 
the house. Two or three years after this, Jacob Atwood built a 
foro-e at the north end of the lower dam. This was soon burnt 
down and rebuilt. Blacksmithing was soon commenced by him in 
the same building. Soon after this, a large building, with four 
fires, was erected about four rods below, furnished with two setts of 
bellows, Avorked by water, and a trip-hammer. Russel Harrington 
started smithing in the same building, using two of the fires, and 
built a dwelling house on the side hill, north. People then came 
here for smith's work from Crown Point, Bridport and adjacent 

Nathaniel Atwood worked at smithing for Jacob, and lived in a 
house near the present site of Thomas Atwood's barn. There were 
then two other dwelling houses on the flat. 

Ebenezer Markham built a nail and trip-hammer shop in 1797, 
on the north side of the upper dam, afterward used for clothiers' 
works. Two large logs were thrown across from the nail shop on 
the north side of the river to the saw-mill on the south side, which 
were used for a foot bridge for nearly twenty-years. 

In 1797 a house was built by John B. Catlin, where Davis 
Rich's house now stands, which was soon burnt by the slacking of 
a quantity of lime contained in the building. About this time, Ira 
Hickok built a part of the house in which Clark Rich lately lived, 
and used it for a nail shop. The place had at this time a consider- 
able business : a forge, supplied with ore from Crown Point, a black- 
smith's shop with four fires, a nail shop and two stores for country 
trade. It has continued to be a resort for milling and other busi- 
ness in which water-power is employed, and for trade. 

Samuel Beman is said to have kept a tavern in a log house at 
Larabee's Point. lie was here, as elsewhere stated, both before 
and after the Revolution. Thomas Rowley also returned to his 
farm at this place in 1783, and lived with his son, Nathan. The 
place -was then known as Rowley's Point. The late John S. Larabee, 


then a young man, bought out Rowley in 1787, kept a tavern and 
established the ferry. He built an addition in two stories to the 
house, and]made it a prosperous and popular establishment. This 
house was burned about 1838. The brick house in which Judge 
Larabee lived in his later years, was built by him some years pre- 
viously ; the stone store and wharf in 1823. For a few years the 
tavern was kept in the small house opposite the old site. The ele- 
gant Hotel now occupied by H. S. Gale, was built by Samuel 
H. Holley and B. B. Brown, in 1847. The first tavern in town 
would seem to have been at this point ; the best early business was 
from the winter travel on the Lake. The first store was here in 
1789, as is elsewhere noticed ; goods were landed here early for in- 
terior places, coming in part by water. Since 1809, the steamboats 
of Lake Champlain have always touched here, a stage, in later years, 
meeting them from Middlebury. A quarry of fine, black marble has 
been wrought with profit. This has long been a well known point 
with travelers to Lake George and Ticonderoga. and is one of the 
most attractive andings on Lake Champlain. 

Watch Point is two miles north from Larabee' s Point, and has 
also a ferry. The building of the wharf at Watch Point, was com- 
menced about 1825. A small store-house was commenced the same 
year, and business on a small scale was done by William S. Higley, 
until about 1828. The wharf was afterward enlarged, and business 
was done by Turrill and Walker from 1828 to 1831, and continued 
from 1831 to 1831 by M. W. Birchard, by whom the business of 
slaughtering and packing beef was commenced. John Simonds 
purchased the place in 1835. and by him the business of packing 
beef for market has been extended and continued to the present 
date, 1859, constituting one of the leading business enterprises of 
the time in the State. The steamboats have sometimes touched at 
Watch Point ; a stage was run here for a single season. The store 
fcr trade has been continued of late years. 




The position of Ticonderoga had, of course, an important rela- 
tion to the early settlement of Shoreham. The fort was built by 
the French, then the possessors of Canada, in 1756, and left by 
them, together with Crown Point, on their retreat before Lord Am- 
herst, in 1759. After the conquest of Canada by the English, 
which occurred in 1760, and was confirmed by treaty in 1763, gar- 
risons were maintained in care of both forts, which offered some ad- 
vantages to the settlers in procuring supplies and mechanical work, 
and furnished a market for some of their products. An accidental 
fire occurred at Crown Point about 1773, by which the magazine 
was exploded and other damage occasioned. The garrison there 
was subsequently reduced and the business associated with it dimin- 
ished. The visit of Major Phelps, before alluded to, in farmer's 
dress, shows that the terms on which the people lived with the gar- 
risons were familiar and friendly. The mention of Major Skene's 
boat, in the same narrative, suggests another idea of business and 
occupation in the neighborhood. The transit by the lakes was hab- 
itual, especially by Lake George, both for purposes of intercom- 
munication and trade. 

The capture of Ticonderoga, as before related, occurred May 10, 
1775. Command of the lake was at the same time secured by the 
Americans, and preparations were shortly commenced for the inva- 
sion of Canada. Stores were forwarded from the south to Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point, at both which places boats were built and collect- 


ed for the expedition. General Schuyler, as first in command, had 
the charge of conducting these preparations. Two thousand men 
were assigned to his division, of whom one thousand sailed from 
Crown Point, August 21st, with General Montgomery. Reinforce- 
ments and supplies continued afterwards to arrive. April 26th, 
1776, Rev. A. R. Robbins, afterwards on missionary duty in Shore- 
ham, arrived at the Fort, as chaplain with the troops, having cross- 
ed Lake George with one hundred large batteaux in company. 
This gentleman accompanied his regiment, descending the St. Law- 
rence with the reinforcements, till met by the news of the relief of 
Quebec by the English fleet of war vessels. May the 4th. The re- 
treat was favored by the wind, which detained the English shipping, 
but, attended by sickness and disorder, was full of misery. The 
chaplain arrived at Ticonderoga at six P. M., May 23. A great 
force had formed in Canada, under Sir Guy Carleton. They were 
detained by the want of shipping on the Lake. In the meanwhile 
Ticonderoga became the chief point of rendezvous for the Ameri- 
cans. Mount Independence was occupiod, the two shores being con- 
nected by a bridge, floating, but held by piers of wood. Lieutenant 
McClintock, of one of the New Hampshire regiments, writes from 
here July 23d, attributing the failure of the expedition to Mont- 
gomery's brave temerity and his neglect of the Canadians. He says 
thousand of bushels of grain will be lost on this lake, on account 
of the retreat of the army. Gen. Gates was now in the command. 
General Arnold reached the fort October 15th ; General Carlton 
followed him to Crown Point, and alarms from scouts of the enemy 
were occurring daily. Though much distressed by sickness, the 
force of General Gates was competent in nnmbers to man the works 
of the fort, requiring from eight to twelve thousand men. General 
Carlton retired, however, in November down the lake, and the 
American force was immediately reduced. The New Hampshire 
officer was at the affairs of Princeton and Trenton, during the win- 
ter. June 14th, 1777, being returned, he writes that some in au- 
thority have much to answer for, for the neglect of the post ; that 
the people at large seem to have lost the generous spirit with which 
they entered upon the struggle. He writes from Stillwater, Au- 


gust 19th, '-We had forts and lines requiring twelve thousand men, 
and had not three thousand effectives. A retreat was determined on 
by the general officers in council the 5th of July, and about day- 
break on the morning of the 6th, we began it." The troops under 
St. Clair must have numbered near four thousand iu all, chose of 
General Rurgoyne, still in the best condition, exceeded seven thou- 

The new settlers in Shoreham did not generally retire till the ad- 
vance, up both shores of the lake, of the army of Burgoyne. The 
retreat at that time was universal, only two men of the inhabitants 
remainino; durincr the followinfjf winter, and but one during the sec- 
end winter subsequent. The retreat in general was sudden, also, in 
some cases families fleeing from instant danger, with bread half 
baked in their hands. Their simple valuables were sometimes bu- 
ried, their ci'ops and implements and often their cattle left. As fiim- 
ilies retired to their former homes or other places of refuge, the 
men, in a larger proportion than usual, may have joined the army. 
We have a trace of one of them, Elijah Kellogg, in the following 
letter of Elias Hall, late a worthy and respectable citizen of Cas- 
tleton, published in the Voice of Freedom, at Brandon, April 29th, 
1847. Others, no doubt, belonged to that cloud of rebels, of which 
Burgoyne complained, which hung upon his left in the Grants 
,of New Hampshire. The relation is simple, and illustrates the 
spirit with which the efforts and misfortunes of the period were met 
by those whose all was implicated in the strife. 

Castleton, April 20th, 1847. 

Mr. Editfr : Dear Sir, — You will find in Morse's Universal 
Geography, Vol. 1, page 504, an account of General Burgoyne's 
■conveying a quantity of ammunition and stores, a number of can- 
non and a portion of his troops to the summit of Mount Defiance. 
You will also see that it there states that he raised them to that 
position by means of brass tackles, over rocks, from tree to tree, 
and over dens of rattle-snakes, to the summit, which commanded 
the works of Ticonderoga. You will also notice that this circum- 
stance was in itself a justification of St. Clair's retreat, from the 
fact that he saved a Statr although he lost a post to save it. 


In 17T7, I was taken a prisoner at the battle in Castleton,* with 
my brother and Elijah Kellogg, in the month of July, the 6th day. 
We were taken to Ticonderoga, and confined in a barn in company 
■with some three or four hundred others, with double sentries to 
guard us on the outside. 

What I wish to lay before your readers is this : — I was one of 
those who helped to get a single cannon on to the top of that sum- 
mit, and this was drawn by a span of horses, instead of being hauled 
up by tackles, and our business was to lift at hard places. A kind 
of a road was made on the- north-east side, instead of the south, as 
stated by Mr. Morse. This took place on Friday, August 10th, 
1777. On Sunday, the 12th, we had to do some work, such as 
landing stores, hauling in boats. &c. We were allowed to go off at 
some distance, if we had a guard, and we accordingly w^ent to a spot 
of woods. While taking this walk, we found that our guard had 
not got his musket loaded, and on our return, Elijah Kellogg, my 
brother and myself ran for the woods, and secreted ourselves as it 
■was nearly dark. At our escape, we were loudly hailed to return. 
We crossed the path which led to the spot where the cannon ■was 
placed, at a distance of forty rods, I should judge. A halt was- 
made when we arrived at the height of the land, to devise the best 
moms of miking good our escape, and we accordingly made an ar- 
Fangem3nt t3 go off the declivity and follow down the lake, until 
we should arrive at a certain place two miles below, where we in- 
tended to make a raft and cross over to Vermont. With much 
trouble we descended the steep, by letting ourselves down by means 
of bushes, and dropping from rock to rock, until we found ourselves 
at the bottom, by the lake shore. The windings were intricate, and 
attended with some danger ; yet it was a trifle when compared with 
our former condition, and the prospect of escaping from bondage 
and of seeing our friends, were strong incentives for running many 
hazardous risks, saying nothing of the state of our little patriot 
band, who were suffering for want of our assistance. As I have stated, 
we had made our calculation to go down by the lake shoi'e for some two 
miles and construct a raft. But fortune favored us. for we had gone 
but a short distance, when we found two boats lashed together and 
drifted ashore. We cut them apart, and with muffled oars made 
preparations for our escape. You might suppose no danger at- 

*Thc aff lir thus ^poken of, occurred between a foraging party of Burgoyne's ar- 
mv under Captain Frasier, and ssme twenty Americans from a recruiting post at 
Cistleton. On the side of the latter, a Captain William-^ of Halifax, Vt., was 
killed. Captain John Hall of Castleton, wouudod; his two sons and "another man" 
taken prisoners. !^t. Clair encamped the same night on the ground of the skirmish. 

r.ieut. Elias Hall, the writer of the letter in the text, died not long after its date 
at the age of ninety-four. He had an officer's pension from Covernment, and was 
a worthy representative of the b«roic time. 


tended us now. But the Royal George lay in the middle of the 
lake below us, with ample means to take us back again^ or to de- 
stroy us at pleasure But we silently passed down on the west side 
of them, under the cover of night, for half a mile below, and cross- 
ed over to the east side where we landed, pushed off our boat, and 
lay down, with no British sentries for protectors ! and slept till break 
of day, when we again took up our march, and arrived in Castleton a- 
bout eleven o'clock the same day. Our mother was overjoyed to see us, 
as she had feared we should have been carried to England. Yet a sor- 
ry season awaited ouv return. The first expression of joy was hardly 
passed, when the sad and mournful intelligence of our father's death 
gave fresh grief to our hearts. My father received a wound in the 
lower portion of the abdomen and died of the wound a few weeks 
after. My mother had all her furniture taken away, and was thus 
plunged from a state of comfort and plenty to want and destitution. 
The British drove off five cows, a yoke of oxen and same young cat- 
tle. About this time I became a volunteer in General Gates' army, 
where I remained until Burgoyne was beseiged and taken. 

At the surrender of Burgoyne, I was in a manner satisfied for 
my loss and injury. I was standing near the staffer head-quarters, 
when Burgoyne, at the head of his army, rode out for a surrender; 
and a noble sight it was too. I soon after went to Massachusetts 
and stayed until the next March, when I came home to Castleton : 
and long may I remember the time when I again entered the log 
hut which my father built, for I wept like a child. The main part 
of the northern army joined General Washington's troops soon af- 
ter. When General Burgoyne surrendered, there was but one can- 
non on the summit before mentioned, and had not been. I think I 
can bring many witnesses in regard to the possibility of conveying 
stores to that position on the summit of Mount Defiance. Thus far 
I have stated facts for your readers, as I have long thought that the 
statement first mentioned should be corrected by some one. 

I have other information of a similar, and some of a different 
character, that, should it be acceptable, may be hereafter transmit- 
ted to your readers. 

I remain, with much respect, your humble and obedient servant. 


P. S. Elijah Kellogg was uncle to General Amos Kellogg, who 
died at Pittsford some time since. E. H, 

After the advance of Burgoyne down the Hudson, an attempt 
was made for the recovery of Ticonderoga by a side movement from 
Manchester of reinforcements of militia under General Lincoln. 
The posts on LakeGeorge were taken, the commanding positions oc- 


cupied, and the fort itself and work at Mount Independence sum- 
moned to surrender. General Powell, the British oflScer in com- 
mand, resisted the summons, and the Americans, without heavy can- 
non, were compelled to withdraw. The British finally withdrew their 
stores from the fort, with the retreat of St. Leger's expedition, in 
October, 1781, on the news of the fall of Cornwallis, yet they retaining 
the command of the lake with vessels of war, and a strong force in 
Canada, the settlement was not resumed at Shoreham till the war 
was over. 




The Records of the Town afford but little matter of general in- 
terest, but present very fully the usual routine of business from 
time to time. The Proprietors' Records are more inviting to curi- 
osity, as exhibiting the proceedings of an earlier condition of socie- 
ty. Such selections have been made from both these sources of in- 
formation, as seemed in themselves to contain something of impor- 
tance or to indicate something of character. 

There is no record of any meeting of the Proprietors previous to 
the one mentioned below : 

At a meeting of the Proprietors of the Township of Shoreham, 
legally warned, holdon in Clarendon, at the house of Elihu Smith, 
Esq., 28th of April, A. D., 1783, Col. Ephraim Doolittle was 
chosen Moderator to govern said meeting. 

Voted, Thomas Rowley, Proprietors" Clerk; Voted, Mr. Daniel 
Hemenway, Treasurer ; Voted, Asa Hemenway, Collector of Taxes. 

Voted, To allow and approve of the survey of the outlines of 
the town already made, and also the survey of the square of one 
hundred acres to each right, or share of land in the middle of the 
town ; the survey of said square and the lots contained therein, are 
hereby confirmed as the first division, being seventy-two lots of one 
hundred acres each, with the allowance of five acres of each lot. for 
the use and benefit of the town forever for highways, if needed. 

Voted, To lay out to each proprietor a lot of twenty-six acres 
adjoining the lake shore, twenty-six rods in width north and south, 
and one half mile in length east and west, the Governor's right and 
the public rights excepted, called the second division. 

Voted. That those Proprietors who have made improvements on 
the lake shore, shall have their twenty-six acres to cover their im- 


provements, and no more, in equal width with the other lots for 
their draft in said division, in proportion to one right of twenty-six 
acres as above mentioned. 

Voted, To lay out a third division of one hundred acres to each 
right or share of land in the township of Shoreham, to be laid out 
in parallel lines with the lines of the lots that are laid out in the 
first division, adjoining the lots laid out in the first division. 

Voted, To lay out a fourth division of one hundred acres to each 
right or share of land in the township of Shoreham. to be laid out 
in parallel lines with the lines of the first and third divisions, and 
adjoining the same. 

Voted, That there be allowed in each lot of the third and fourth 
divisions, five acres for the use and benefit of the town for highways, 
if needed, forever. 

Voted, That there be reserved two acres of each and every one 
of the lake lots, for the use and benefit of the town, if needed, for- 

Voted, Mr. Daniel Hemenway be a superintendent to oversee the 
business of laying out of lands voted to be laid out by the Proprie- 
tors of Shoreham. 

Voted, Thomas Rowley, Esq., be the surveyor to lay out the 
lands voted to be laid out in Shoreham. and hisAvages to be one dol- 
lar per each day while in service. 

Voted, To lay a tax of Five Spanish Milled Dollars on each right 
or share of land in Shoreham, to defray the charges of laying out 
the lands now voted to be laid out, and other back charges against 
the Proprietary, and that said tax be collected by the first day of 
October next. 

Voted, That this meeting be adjourned to the sun's rising to- 
morrow morning. 

The meeting opened according to the adjournment, on the 29th 
April, A. D., 1783. 

Voted, The first division lots be now drawn by lottery to each 
Proprietor, reserving out of the draft No. 87 for a town plat, and 
No. 28 for the first settled minister; Nos. 35, 30, 29, 19, 34, 31, 
16 and 17 to be left out of the draft for the present. 

Voted, A committee of three be appointed to prepare and super- 
intend the draft. 

Voted, Col. Doolittle be one of the committee, for the purpose 
mentioned in the above vote ; Voted, Mr. Roswell Brown be one of 
the committee; Voted, Mr. Hemenway be the third committee-man, 
and that the Clerk be directed by the committee to make entry on 
the record to each original Proprietor, the number drawn to his 

Voted, That each Proprietor, or his representative, shall pay one 


flollar to entitle him to the privilege of drawing his or their lot, 
which dollar be one dollar paid in part on account of the five dol- 
lar tax on each right, voted to be raised for defraying the cost of the 
proprietary, and the collector's or treasurer's receipt shall be his or 
their discharge for so much. 

Voted, That the Surveyor be directed to lay out one hundred 
acres of land, in proper form, in prallel lines, that shall enclose 
each mill place that may be found, and thought proper for the use 
of building mills in the township of Shoreham. 

Voted, That one hundred acres be surveyed and laid out as afore- 
said, to enclose the place where the saw-mill formerly stood, and 
the same be set to the right of which Ephraim Doolittle was the 
original grantee : And it is expected that the said Doolittle cause 
a saw-mill and a grist-mill to be built at said mill place as soon as 
possible, and that there be reserved, for the use of said mills, suf- 
ficient pond room for the use of said mills forever. 

Voted, That this meeting be adjourned to the first Monday of Oc- 
tober next; at one o'clock in the afternoon, then to meet and open 
at the house of Amos Callender in Shoreham. 

THOMAS ROWLEY, Proprietors' Clerk. 

The above is a complete transcript of the proceedings of the first 
Proprietors' meeting of which a record remains. Doubtless meet- 
ings had previously been holden, perhaps in Massachusetts, before 
emigration took place, to prepare measures for that object, and in 
the town after the settlement was commenced. 

Tiie next meeting was held accordingly, at the house of Amos 
Callender in Shoreham, October 6th, 1 71^8. Certain official appoint- 
ments were made, and the following votes passed : 

Voted, That the lake shore shall be free for each and every of 
the inhabitants of Shoreham, for fishing by drawing seine, &c., ex- 
cepting what is wanted for the building of wharves. 

Voted, That the Five jNIile Point, so called, in Shoreham, be 
laid out in acre lots ; to each Proprietor one acre, exclusive of a 
two-rod road to the end of said Point, and that each acre-lot be 
drawn in a lottery to ascertain each original right, and that the oth- 
er lake lots extend east of said acre division, so far as they may lie 
back of said acre-lots, and also on the whole of the lake shore, ex- 
cepting the Governor's lot, in equal shares to be divided to each 
proprietor, equal in width, in parallel lines with the south line of 
the town, extending so far east as to contain twenty-five acres, to be 
drawn by lottery, and ascertained to each original right, and called 
the second division. 


The next meeting was held, by adjournment, at the same place, 
October 16th, 1783. Various lots were assigned by vote to differ- 
ent rights ; an additional tax of five dollars on each right was laid, 
and certam accounts allowed as follows : 

Voted, Paul Moore's account against the proprietary of the 
town of the Township of !^horeham, being Five pounds law- 
ful money principal, and Five pounds eight shillings, being the in- 
terest eighteen years, the same to be allowed and paid. 

Voted, Daniel Newton's account, exhibited m behalf of the es- 
tate of Marshall Newton, deceased, for the labor of two men twen- 
ty-five days each at four and six pence per day, for the proprietary 
of the township of Shoreham, Ten pounds and the interest for 
eighteen years, at 10-16-0. Voted, The above account be allow- 
ed and paid. 

The above votes show that a company was engaged in surveying 
in this town in 1765, one year before the first company came, in 
1766. Paul Moore was one engaged in that service, and doubtless 
remained through the winter of 1765 and 1766, evidence of 
M'hich has been derived from other sources. The surveyors' accounts 
of Roswell Brown and Timothy Chipman Avere also allowed at the 
same meeting. 

Sept. 22d, 1784. Six lots were voted to be included in the Fourth 
Division, along the upper falls of Lemon Fair, to accommodate the 
mills on those falls, and that a dam ten feet high be allowed to be 
built at the head of the falls, from the bottom of the channel ai the 
lower dam, for the benefit of flowing a mill-pond, and that the priv- 
ilege be allowed for flowing a pond for the benefit of mills forever . 
and these six lots to follow the stream where it covers the most of 
the pond. 

June 7th, 1786. A large number of accounts were examined 
and allowed, chiefly for work done upon the roads,and at an adjourned 
meeting, on June 21st, it was voted to lay a tax upon the Proprietors 
of Shoreham to raise the sum of <£128, 5s, 3d, lawful money, to 
pay the back cost, voted to be paid for surveying and laying out 
their lands and making roads, &c. 

The last meeting of which there is a record existing on the Pro- 
prietors' Book, was held November 4th, 1793. 

The first Town Meeting of which there is any record was held> 


as legally warned, for the purpose of organizing the town, choosing 
and qualifying Town Officers, &c., November 20th, 1786. Present : 
Nathan Manly, Esq., Justice of the Peace. Thomas Rowley, Esq., 
was chosen Moderator, and Town Clerk ; Selectmen, Amos Callen- 
der, Ebenezer Turrill, Eli Smith ; Town Treasurer, Ebenezer Tur- 
rill ; Constable, Elijah Kellogg. The remainder were chosen by 
nomination, to wit : Daniel Newton, Stephen Barnum, John Laro/- 
bee. Listers ; Elijah Kellogg, Collector ; Stephen Barnum, Grand 
Juror ; David Russel, Daniel Newton, Nathan Rowley, Ebenezer 
Turrill, Josiah Pond, Surveyors of Highways, 

The above officers were sworn before Nathan Manly, Justice of 
the Peace. 

May 30, 1791. A committee of seven was appointed to divide 
the town into convenient School Districts, to wit : Noah Jones, 
Amos Callender, Jacob Atwood, Ebenezer Turrill, Thomas Barnum, 
Nathan Rowley and Thomas Fuller. 

January 31, 1792. At this meeting, a religious constitution was 
reported by a committee, previously appointed, and adopted, styled 
" The Constitution of the Shoreham Christian Society." It pro- 
vides that the First Division lot of the Minister's Right should be 
conferred on the first^settled minister ; that he shall be bound to 
deed the Second and Fourth Division lots to the next sectled minis- 
ter of a separate religious society, if any, and the remainder of 
said right to the town for the use of schooling ; that the salary of 
the first minister shall be " sixty pounds," to be paid in wheat at 
four shillings per bushel, or in other articles to his acceptance. 
These measures seem to have been adopted with a view to the set- 
tlement of Rev. Joel West. See Religious History. 

March 4, 1793. A report was received and adopted, dividing 
the town into eight School Districts 

July 14, 1810. A controversy had existed many years in rela- 
tion to the claim of Elder Abel Woods, minister of the Baptist So- 
ciety, to the ministerial right of the town. This claim had been 
contested in the courts, on the part of the town, and no satisfactory 
decision attained. At the meeting of this date, Charles Rich, Sam- 
uel Hunt. Samuel Hcmenway. Job L. Howe and Thomas J, Orms- 


bee were appointed a committe to settle with Elder Abel Woods, by 
agfeement or otherwise, as they shall judge proper. No subsequent 
action m the matter is observed in the records. 

March 3, 1323. A committee was appointed to build, or other- 
wise procure, a Poor House, for the reception of the poor, with dis- 
cretionary power to expend not exceeding Six Hundred Dollars for 
the same. 

September 1, 1829. The Selectmen of the town of Shoreham. 
Messrs. Kent Wright, Silas H. Jenison and Isaac Chipman, made 
a report ascertaining and defining the rights of the Town to the 

March 1, 1830. Voted to raise one cent on the general List for 
painting Newton Academy, and procuring a bell for the same. 

December 20, 1836. Elisha Bascom, Levi 0. Birchard and John 
Baird, were appointed Trustees to receive and manage such portion 
of the public money, as may be deposited in the town agreeably to 
the provisions of an act (of the General Assembly) to provide for 
the receipt and disposition of the Public Money of the United 
States which may be deposited with this State, approved November 
14th, 1836. 

April 29, 1844. A motion being made to approbate Inn-keepers 
to sell spirituous liquors for the ensuing year, after discussion, it 
was decided in the negative by vote, 14 to 87. On motion, it was 
Resolved, That the civil authority be instructed to approbate such 
perons as they may judge expedient, to sell spirituous liquors, by 
retail, who will pledge themselves to sell only for medicinal and 
manufacturing purposes. Passed unanimously. 

March 1, 1859. Voted to appropriate ^150 for the purpose of 
procuring tie writing of a History of the Town of Shoreham.* 

March 6, 1860. The sum of ^100 dollars was voted as a con- 

*Rev. Mr. Goodhue having removed with his family to Wisconsin, this vote was 
obtained to provide for the exjienses of his retui-n and temporary absence from 
ln)me,Tvhilc engaged in completing the work referred to. 


tribution of the Town, to be appropriated for the purpose of pub- 
lishing said History. 

Messrs. Ebenezer Bush, Isaac Chipman, Davis Rich, E. B. 
Chamberlin and R. Birchard, were appointed a committee to carry 
into effect the above votes. 





Thomas Rowley, 
Eliakim Culver, 
John Smith, Junr., 
John B. Catlm, 
Thomas J. Ormsbee, 
Charles Rich, 
Bela Bailey, 
Joseph Smith, 2d, 
Ebenezer Bush, 
Samuel H. HoUey, 
Levi 0. Birchard, 
RoUin Birchard, 

Ebenezer Turrill, 
■William Jones, 
Samuel Hemenway, 
Jacob Atwood, 
Samuel Hunt, 
James Fisk. 
Joseph Smith, 2d, 
Ebenezer Bush, 
Hiram Everest, 
Elisha Bascom, 
Edgar S. Catlin, 
Edwin S. Atwood. 
Rollia Birchar(jl, 

Eli Smith, 
Ebenezer Turrill, 
Jesiah Fond, 

1802, 1806-08, 

1810,11, 18-26, 

1793-95, 1801, 
1812-23, 24-26, 
1848-56, 59-80, 


2 years. 










• 1 





6 years. 





















2 years. 





Isaac Flagg, 
Amos Callender, 

1788-89, 94, 
1788, 92, 

3 years. 
2 " 

James Fuller, 
Stephen Smith, 


4 •• 

Thomas Barnum . 


2 «• 

Thomas Rioh , 
James Moore , 


2 •' 
7 " 

Jacob Atwood, 


4 " 

Timothy Page, 
John Larrabee. 


3 " 
1 " 

John Ormsbee, 


2 " 

Timothy Chipman, 
Samuel Hemenway, 
John B Catlin, 

1794, 98, 1808, 
1795-96, 98, 

3 •• 
8 " 

Amos Stone, 

1797, 1802, 

2 " 

William Jones, 
Charles Rich, 


1 " 
4 •• 

Samuel Hunt, 

1799-1800, 04-06, 

6 " 

Elijah Wright, 
Stephen Barnum, 
John S. Larrabee, 


1799, 1802, 05, 14, 

1803, 04, 

4 •• 
4 " 

2 " 

Ebenezer Atwood, 

1805-07, 12-19,21,22. 

13 " 

Timothy Larrabee, 
Aaron Lawrence, 

1807, 09, 

2 " 

Andrew Birchard , 


Barzillai Carey, 


3 " 

William Willson, 


2 " 

John Baird, 

1810-11, 24-25, 

4 " 

Elisha Bascom, 

1811-13, 20-23, 25, 

8 " 

Hopkins Rowley, 
Joseph Smith, 
Samuel Hand, 




6 «« 
6 " 

Samuel Northrup, 
Kent Wright, 
Silas H. Jenison, 


1827-87, 40. 42, 43, 47, 


15 •• 
9 " 

Isaac Chipman, 
John T. Rich, 

1835-36,38,42,42, ' 

8 " 
6 " 

Marvin North, 
Lewis Hunt, 

1837, 49, 

7 " 
2 «• 

M. W. C. Wright, 
Levi B. Harrington. 
Elmer Jones, 
Horace Lapham, 
Orvel Smith, 
Naaro Northrup, 

1888, 39,141, 55, 

1839, 40. 43, 
1844, 45, 52, 
1844, 45, 52, 

4 " 

3 " 

3 " 



Alonzo Biri;hard, 

1815,46, 52, 

^Sasea Rich, 


Jasper Barnum, 


Lynde Catlin, 

1848, 49, 59, 

Bela HoTve, 

1849, 50, 56, 

Schuyler Doane, 

1850, 51, 

A. W. Perry, 


John S. Ward, 


A. B. Bascom, 


David Cutting, 

1853, 56, 

James F. Frost, 

1853, 55, 

Lewis Treadway, 

1856, 57. 59, 60, 

Hiram Rich, 


Thurmon Brookins, 


James M. Lamb, 


EU Ray, 


Edwin B. Douglass, 


Stephen Barnum, 


Julius N. North, 


John T. Rich, 



Elijah Kellogg, 


Ensign Colver, 


Timothy Chipman, 


John S. Larrabee, 


S5.muel Donbar, 


John Treat, 

1792. 93, 95, 

Samuel McClellan, 


Joshua Healy, 

1796, 98, 

Charles Rich, 


Philip Smith, 

1799, 1800-06, 7, 

Thomas J. Ormsbee, 


Ebenezer Atwood, 


Samuel Rich, 

1809, 10. 

William Wolcott, 

1811, . 

Jeremiah Cutting, 


Silas H. Jenison, 

1818, 15, 

David Barnum, " 


Zorastus Culver, 


Jonathan Wright, 


Robert R. Hunsdon, 


William Wolcott, 

1819, 20, 

David Hill, 

1821-24, 26, 

Jesse C. Higley. 


3 years. 

2 «• 

3 " 
3 '• 

3 '« 

2 " 

3 yearj , 
2 " 

2 « 

2 « 

2 «t 

.5 K 


Marvin North. 


L B. Harrington, 


Amos D. Callender, 


Reuben Smitii, 


Alphonzo B. Bascom, 

1841-45, 47, 

Lorenzo D. Larrabee, 


Otis S. Barrett, 


Myron B. Randall, 


Carlos'H. Jones, 


Ira G. Bascom, 



3 years. 
6 " 

4 " 
6 " 

As has already been stated, at the commencement of the year 
178G, there were but eighteen i^imilies in town. During that year 
there was an addition of sixty-three families. The following table 
shows the number of inhabitants at different periods, as given by 
tho United States Census : 

Year. No.inli. Year. No. inh. 

1791— 721 1830—2137 

1800—1-447 1840—1674 

1810—2043 1850—1601 

1820—1881 1860—1382 

Thus it appears, that, in five years, from 1786 to 1791, the number 
of inhabitants had increased more than ten fold : in nine years, from 
1791 to 1800, it had doubled, being at the commencement of the 
present century, the most populous town in the county. From 1800 
to 1810 it had increased more than 47 per cent. From 1810 to 
1820 it had decreased about 162, 12 1-2 per cent. This was caused, 
in part, by the prevalance of a fatal epidemic in 1814, but mostly 
by the emigration of many families and young men to the county of 
St. Lawrence in the State of New York. In 1830 the population 
of the town stood higher than at any other time in its history, hav- 
ing increased 256 in ten years, or about 8 1-2 per cent. From 
1830 to 1840 it had decreased 463, caused by a large emigration to 
Michigan and Illinois, which commenced about the year 1831. 
From 1840 to 1850 there was a decrease of 72 in ten years; of 
442 in forty years, and only a gain of only 156 in fifty years. 
The more serious decrease of the last decade of the census, may 
yet be modified in the official report. It has been observed that 


■while the policy of land-holders extends the size of farms, their 
numbers must diminish in proportion. Since the commencement 
of the present century, it is believed more than Five Thousand per- 
sons have emigrated from this town to other parts of the country. 




From the first settlerjent of the town the people with few ex- 
ceptions were devoted to agricultural pursuits. Most of the early 
settlers came here poor, with means barely sufficient to purchase fifty 
or one hundred acres of land. At an early day they had to struggle 
on tlirough many difficulties ; but by persevering industry and econ- 
omy, most of them in a few years became independent, and a few 
of them Avealthy farmers. At first a large amount of labor was ex- 
pended in clearing the land of a dense forest. To us this must ap- 
pear to have been a work requiring the life time of the laborer to 
accomplish. But in the manner in which they proceeded, it Avas a 
work of less time and difficulty, than we of the present day can 
easily imagine. The early settler in these forests cut at first only 
the small timber, and left the larger trees standing. The general 
practice was to cut all the trees which were sixteen inches in diam- 
eter and under, and to pile the brush around the larger timber, or 
girdle it. In burning the brush the larger trees were killed. A 
portion of the logs were drawn off and laid into fences, to enclose 
the fields, and the remaining timber was piled in heaps and burnt 
on the ground. By pursuing this method much labor was saved. 
In some instances contracts were made for clearing land in this 
manner, as low as four dollars and fifty cents per acre. As a remu- 
neration for this labor, the owner of the land was almost sure of a 
crop of wheat the next year, yielding from twenty-five to forty 

bushels to the acre. After the first or second crop, the land was 


usually stocked -with grass, to which the soil is remarkably adapted. 
The dead standing timber was gradually removed in the winter, to 
supply the family with fuel, of which great quantities were con- 
sumed in their large open fire places. The pine trees, as their pro- 
gress to decay was more slow, were permitted to stand longer ; but 
in a few years were cut and split into rails and laid into fences, 
many of which remain sound now, after the lapse of sixty years. 

At an early day a market vvas opened for lumber at Quebec. 
Many of the early settlers employed their winters in drawing im- 
mense quantities of pine logs and square timber to the lake, to be 
sawn into deal or plank three inches thick, which were floated in 
rafts through Lake Champlain. and down the Sorel and St. Law- 
rence to that mart. It was but a small compensation which the la- 
borer received for his time and toil, though he was ultimately en- 
riching himself by clearing his lands, and thus extending the area 
©f cultivation. The oak timber was cut and squared, or split into 
staves, and was sent in the same direction for a market. Eefore 
the forests Avere cleared the quantities of these two kinds of timber 
were immense, and the farmer at an early day was essentially aided 
in bringing his lands mto a state of cultivation, by devoting his 
winter seasons to the timber business. 

From the year 1783 to 1791, the productions of the land were 
mostly wanted for home consumption. Wheat was the principal 
production at that early day, and as there was little money in cir- 
culation, contracts were made mostly to be paid in that article, or in 
ireat cattle. The necessities of the farmer often compelled him to 
part with his wheat to the merchant, ia the fall or early winter, at 
prices varying from thirty-seven and a half to seventy-five cents 
per bushel, while many who lacked a supply were under the neces- 
sity of purchasing it from him before harvest at $1 or $1.25. 

From the year 1797 to 1810, wheat was the principal staple of 
the farmer. During this period, the high prices caused by the wars 
in Europe, brought him a rich reward for his labors. The land for 
tkis crop was generally plowed in June, and laid in fallow during 
the summer, plowed again the latter part of August or first of Sep- 
tember, and soAved with winter wheat. The snows of winter were 


generally a suiTioient protection from frosts ; and a large crop, of 
the finest quality known in our markets, was secured at the next 
harvest, and the winter employed in getting it out and drawing it 
to Troy, where it found a ready market at prices varying from one 
dollar twenty-five cents to two dollars per bushel. The restrictions 
put upon our commerce about the year 1810. seriously embarassed 
this branch of industry. 

Previous to the last war with Great Britain, very few sheep had 
been kept. In the suspense of importations caused by that war and 
the restrictive measures which preceded it, more wool was wanted 
for domestic use and to supply the infant manufactures to which 
that war had given rise. The common wool of the country sudden- 
ly rose as high as one dollar per pound. The high price of the article 
stimulated the farmers to increase their flocks, and a general desire 
Avas awakened to make wool growing a leading business. The in- 
terest of the farmer soon prompted him take measures to improve 
the quality of his staple in order to meet the demands for the finer 

In the year 1816 the merino sheep were introduced into this 
town from Long Island, by Zelulon Frost and Holier Thorn, and 
considerable numbers were sold by them to our farmers for about 
forty dollars each, and some bucks for a much larger sum. One 
buck was sold to Refine Weeks for fifteen hundred dollars. The 
destruction to the wheat crop from the year 1824 to 1837, by the 
midge or weevil, induced almost every farmer to stock his farm 
mostly with sheep. While wool sold for fifty and seventy-five cents 
per pound wealth rapidly increased ; the farms were enlarged and 
this soon became the largest wool growing town of equal extent in 
territory, in Vermont, and probably surpassed in the quantity of 
this product, any town of the same area in New England, or in the 
United States. According to the census of 1840, the number of 
sheep in this town was 41,188, and the number of pounds of wool 

The fall in the price of wool about the year 18 39-' 40, from 
which it has never fully recovered, caused a very serious interrup- 
tion to the business of the farmer. Those who had run in debt for 


lands, in the hope of being able to pay for them from the produce 
of their flocks, suifcred severely. EiForts now began to be made to 
improve the breed, with a view both to greater uniformity in the 
quality of staple and greater weight of fleece, and in both of these 
respects many have met with great success. The excellence of their 
flocks, as well as those of many other towns in the county, has giv- 
en to their sheep almost a world wide celebrity, and drawn hither 
purchasers from almost every section of our country, south and west, 
at prices which have made this as yet the greatest of any one of the 
branches of our husbandry. It will be percived that according to 
the census returns of 1840, the average weight of fleece was only a 
fraction over two pounds and five ounces to each sheep. There may 
have been some error in the returns. Some may have counted in their 
lambs. But it may be safely stated that the average weight of fleece 
was at that time considerably less than three pounds. The light- 
ness of the fleece must be attributed principally to the mixture of 
the Saxon blood with most of the flocks, which commenced a few 
years before. The farmers were not slow to perceive the loss which 
they had sustained by their attempts to produce a finer staple, as 
the higher price of this did not compensate for the loss sustained by 
a diminution of the weight of fleece. They began, therefore, about 
this time, to pursue such a system of breeding with Spanish bucks 
as would be most likely to result in an increased weight of the wool 
per head. With what success this has been done, the returns of the 
census of 1850 will show in part. The average weight of fleece in 
the county of Addison according to the census of 1840 was a trifle 
over two pounds and five ounces to each sheep. In 1850 it was a 
trifle less than three pounds and five ounces to each sheep. Show- 
ing a gain of nearly one pound per head on the whole number kept 
in the county, in the space of ten years. It is believed that the 
gain in fleece, since 1850 in this town, has been nearly, if not quite 
equal to that of the ten years between 1840 and 1850, being at the 
present time not less than four pounds to the fleece. Some of the 
best graded flocks shear on an average five pounds, and some of the 
pure blooded Spanish merino flocks more than six pounds to the 
fleece, of washed wool. 



Gov. Jenison, in bis address delivered before tbe Addison Coun- 
ty Agricultural Society in 1844, sbowed by the United States 
Census of 1840, that "Addison County had in the latter year, in 
proportion to territory or population, a greater number of sheep, and 
produced more wool than any other county in the United States." 
" Taking eleven towns," he says, " most favorable to the keeping 
of sheep, one half of the number in the county, they will be found 
to have possessed more than one sheep to each acre of improved and 
unimproved land in those towns, or more than six hundred and forty 
to the square mile." At the taking of that census, Shoreham had 
more than one sheep and five-eighths to each acre of land, improved 
and unimproved, which shows a greater number then in this town 
than in any other town of equal extent in the United States, and a 
greater amount of wool, and more than twenty-four sheep to each 
inhabitant. A comparison of the census returns of the several 
towns, in 1850, would doubtless lead to the same result. And it 
may be safely predicted, that the census of 1860 will show that 
this town has not fallen behind any other town in this or any other 
State, in improving her flocks. 

Spanish Merino Shebp.* — As this town has not probably been 

*The Merino Sheep of Spain gave charactei- to the woolen manufactures of Se- 
ville as early as the thirteenth century, during the occupation of the Moors Their 
name is taken to indicate a foi-cign origin, — Mareno,Jrom the sea,— and they are 
supposed to be traced to the Tarentine species, introduced from Italy into Spain by 
the Roman Emperor Claudius. In modern times, the race was preserved in Spain 
m the hands of royal and distinguished fomilies, as an exclusive source of revenue, 
protected by peouliar legal privileges, and its exportation strictly forbidden. In 
1723 it was first introduced into Sweden; in 1765, into Saxony by the£lector,where 
the breeding has been carefully conducted; in 1786, into Prussia; into France in 
the same year, which importation was the foundation of the Rambouillet flock; into 
England successfully in 1791. These exportations weie made by special favor of 
the government of Spain, under the governmental patronage of the several coun- 
tries mentioned, when the stock in the former kingdom exceeded ten millions of an- 

In 1801, M Delessert, a French Banker, purchased two pairs of Rambouillet 
sheep, and shipped them early in that year for New York. He succeeded in pla- 
cing a single ram, th« survivor of them, on his farm near Kingston, N. Y. Mr. 
Seth Adams, since of Zanesville, Ohio, claims to have obtained a premium offered 
by the Massachusetts Agricultural Society for the first importation of Merinos, for 


surpassed by any other town in the country in successful efforts to 
improve the pure Spanish breed of sheep, I have carefully sought 
to give a truthful history of their origin, and the manner in "vvhich 
they have been kept pure by the owners of a few of the most cel- 
ebrated flocks. These all originated from the celebrated flock bred 
by Andrew Oocks, of Flushing, Lt)ng Island, who made his first 
purchases from the importations of Richard Crowninshield, as the 
following certificate will show, published in the Albany Cultivator^ 
in New Series, Vol. 1, 1844. 

Judge Lawrence s Statement. 

Yours is duly received in which you refer to a conversation we 
had on the subject of jNIerino Sheep, and particularly of the quality 
and purity of the flock of Andrew Cocks, who was my near neigh- 
bor. We were intimate, and commenced laying the foundations of 
our Merino flocks about the same time. I was present when he pur- 
chased most of his sheep, which was in 1811. He first purchased 
two ewes at ,$1,100 per head. They were very fine, and of the 
Escurial flock, imported by Richard Crowninshield. His next pur- 
chase was thirty of the Paular breed, at from fifty to one hundred 
dollars per head. He continued to purchase of the diflerent impor- 
tations until lie run them up to about eighty, always selecting them 
with great care. This was the foundation of A. Cocks" flock, nor 

a pair also from France, imported into Boston in the same year. Chancellor Liv- 
ingston, then United States Minister to France, purchased at Chalons near Paris, 
two pairs, which he shipped for New York, and placed three of them on his own 
farm. Gen. David Humphreys, at the close of his term as Minister to Spain, was 
permitted to purchase a flock of one hundred pure Leonese Merinos, which were 
shipped at Figueira at the mouth of the Mondego in Portugal, April 10, 1802, and 
arrived at New York in the last week of May. The enterprise was pursued by 
Gen. Humphreys in the establishment of a manufactory of fi^ie woolens at Derby, 
Conn. Hon. William Jarvis, then Consul at Lisbon, in 1809 obtained by special 
favor two hundred Escurials, and soon after, upon the second French invasion, be- 
came interested in large purchases at the sale of four distinguished flocks, confis- 
cated by the ruling Spanish Junta and sold with the permission of exportation. 
Twenty-six hundred Merinos of pure blood, of these purchases, ivere shipped to 
the United States and distributed from different ports between Portland and Nor- 
folk, in 1809, 10 and 11; and an equal number,by other parties, in the same years. 


(lid lie ever purchase anj but pure blooded sbeep to my knowledge 
or belief. Andrew Cocks was an attentive breeder, saw well to his 
business, and was of unimpeachable character. His certificate of 
the kind and purity of blood, I should implicitly rely on. I recol- 
lect of his selh'ng sheep to Leonard Bedell, of Vermont. 

Flushing, 1844. Effingham Lawrence. 

In 1823 Jehicl Beedle, Elijah Wright and Hon. Charles Rich, 
sent Leonard Beedle, son of Jehiel Beedle, to Long Island, to pur- 
chase the flock of Andrew Cocks. He took the whole flock, con- 
sisting of abou^ one liundrcd, and brought them to Shorcham. In 
the division, Beedle took one half, Wright one fourth and Rich one 
fourth. Those belonging to Beedle were bred pure for a few years ; 
but after his death they were separated, and became mixed with 
other blood. The portion belonging to Wright was mingled with 
Saxony, and ceased to possess a distinctive character. 

After the death of Judge Rich, in the division of the estate, his 
whole flock was assigned to his two sons, John T. Rich and Charles 
Rich, and divided equally between them. After the death of J. T. 
Rich, his flock went into the hands of his two sons, John T. and 
Virtulon Ricli, and has been bred pure by them in the same flock 
to the present time. No ewes were sold from the flock originally 
belonging to Judge Rich until 1844, when that portion owned by 
John T. Rich amounted to more than five hundred, which, he says, 
in a certificate published in the same volume of the CuUivati ?•, al- 
ready referred to, ''I have kept pure to this day. Some of the 
flock have recently been -crossed by bucks of the importation of 
Consul Jarvis, which said bucks were purchased from the flock 
of, and regularly attested by said Jarvis, as being pure Spanish 

The flock belonging to John T. and Virtulon Rich, now numbers 
about two hundred and fifty, and for several years has yielded on an 
average over six pounds of washed wool per head. 

The portion of the flock that went into the hands of Charles Rich, 
son of Judge Rich, was sold by him about him, about 1835, a por- 
tion to Erastus Robinson, and a part to Tyler Stickney, whick have 
been bred pure Merinos to the present time. 


The Rich, the Robinson, and Stickney flocks are now held to be 
among the best in the country, and command high prices. S ince 
1844 sheep from these flocks have been distributed among many of 
the farmers in this and the adjoining towns, and in the far west , 
from which many valuable flocks have sprung. 

Horses. — From an early period much attention has been given 
to improvement of the breed of horses by the farmers in this town. 
It is believed that no other town in the State, previous to the intro- 
nuction of Black Ilawk into Bridport, could exhibit a greater num- 
ber of valuable horses than this, during the last sixty years. Many 
of them have originated from the best races ever bred in America, 
as the following list of celebrated studs, kept at different times in 
this town will show. 

A horse named Brutus, of pure English bloody was brought to 
this country by a British officer in the time of the war of the revo- 
lution. Gen. Timothy F. Chipman became the owner of him at an 
advanced age, and kept him eight or ten yeprs. He was said to be 
of the hunting breed, of a red roan color, about fifteen and a half 
hands high ; in every point well proportioned, and in form and 
movement was regarded as a perfect model of his race. In activity 
and gracefulness, he was never excelled by any one ever kept in 
this State. \Yith Gen. Chipman mounted on him, he would leap 
almost any fence or ditch, enjoying such feats as a pastime. He 
left much of his blood here, traces of which the author of this work 
has frequently seen within the last twenty-five years. To him, as a 
sire, Ave attribute that superiority in the race for which this town 
was noted at an early day. He was as celebrated at that tin^, for 
his quaLties, as Black Hawk is now. 

Bishop's Ilamiltonian was introduced about forty years since, and 
was kept here several years. His progeny were of a dark bay col- 
or, well formed ; rather tall in proportion to weight of body ; were 
good travelers, high spirited ; among the best horses for the road, 
and were favorites in the market in their day. Much of the valu- 
able stock in this town originated from him. 

Post Boy, introduced by Col. Joel Doolittle, was kept here sev- 
eral years. He was the sire of a race compact in form, of hardy 


constitution, -which were regarded as a valuable stock for all pur- 
poses, and bj some thej are thought not to have been excelled by 
any other. 

The Jr'ir Charles was introduced about the year 1825. by Abraham 
Frost, and was kept several years in this town by David Hill, Esq. 

Tippoo Saib was brought to this town soon after, from Long 
Island, by Abraham Frost. The progeny of both these horses were 
generally dark bays, well formed, stout, capable of performing much 
service, good for the carriage and the road, and were highly esteemed 
for their many valuable properties. Their sires were of pure Eng- 
lish blood. 

About fifteen years ago David Hill's Black Hawk began to at- 
tract attention, at first from beauty of form and speed, without ref- 
erence to the purposes of farm work. A thorough trial, however., 
has produced a general conviction that the mode of breeding pur- 
sued here, by judicious crosses of Morgan blood, of variousTamilies, 
and other breeds, has produced a race superior to any other in this 
country, combining all the qualities requisite for speed and work on 
the farm, the most perfect docility with life and spirit, ease of ac- 
tion with unsurpassed power of endurance, easy keeping with hard 
every day work and good condition. It Avas feared at first that the 
Morgan horses would not be heavy enough for the draft. But it is 
now a well known fact that the old Justin Morgan, from which the 
i*ace now in this country sprang, could beat any other horse in 
Eastern Vermont in pulling at a log. Though smaller in size than 
iti;iny others, they will generally draw heavier loads than most of 
those of greater weight, and travel over greater distances without 
tiri]:;i\ They are, at the same time, fancy horses and horses of all 
work, combining soundness of wind and limb, and proportions of 
bone and muscle, that it would be difiicult to improve upon. 

The introduction of this breed of horses has proved highly bene- 
ficial to the farming interest in this town. They have found a ready 
sale at high prices, ranging from $150 to $2500 each. 

Ethan Allen, sired by old Black Hawk, has been kept here by 

his owners for three years past, and has done a large business at one 

hundred dollars the season. Messrs. R. S. Dana and E. D. Bush, 


also Mr. Orvin Rowe, one of the owners of Ethan Allen, have 
large farms stocked almost exclusively with horses, and furnish the 
market with many of the finest animals to be found in the country. 
Several other farmers keep from ten to fifteen horses on their farms, 
and attract purchasers from every State in the Union. 

Cattle. — There have been no herds of pure blood imported cat- 
tle kept in this town ; but several bulls and a few cows, pure blooded 
Durhams and Devons, have been owned by a few individuals, and 
for many years valuable crosses have been made with these breeds. 

Joseph Smith, Esq. and John N. Hunt, Esq. purchased a full 
blooded Durham bull, and kept him some time in this town, whose 
stock proved valuable. 

Hon. John S. Larabee kept a bull of the Durham stock many 
years ago, which was a fine animal. 

Azel Chipman had a full blood Durham bull, celebrated for the 
excellence of his stock. 

At a still later period, James F. Frost & Co. purchased of John 
Rockwell, of Cornwall, a full blood Durham sire, — a superior 

Marvin North has some pure blood Durham cows, and others of 
mixed blood, from which he breeds from pure Durham bulls. 

Orville Smith has a few full blood Durham cows, from which he 
is raising a valuable stock. • 

By the introduction of the animals named above, and perhaps of 
others, not known to the author, the stock of cattle in town has 
been much improved, and it is thought by those better qualified to 
judge than the writer of this article, that the native stock and im- 
proved breeds, will compare favorably with the three towns in the 
county that are reputed to stand highest for the excellence of their 




The first store kept in this town was by George and Alexander 
Trimble, at Larabee's Point. They commenced business about 
1789, and closed about 1800. 

Josiah Austin at the Doolittle place, about 1792, continued in 
trade one or two years, and removed to Orwell. 

John B. Catlin, from Litchfield, Conn., at Richville about 1795; 
did a successful business for about five years, and left and went to 
Orwell in 1800. 

Nathaniel Callender on Cream Hill, in 1798 ; left and went to 
Burlington in 180 L 

John McLaren kept a small store of goods on the place recently 
owned by Mrs. Zerubah King, from 1793 to 1795 or 1796. 

Charles Rich commenced selling goods at Richville in 1799, in 
the old house next east from the grist mill, and kept tavern in the 
same building at the same time. He closed his business March, 1811. 

Page and Thrall at Richville, for a short time, from 1811 to 1813. 

Davis Rich at Richville, from 1815 to 1821. 

D. Rich and K. Wright did business from 1821 to 1830. 

K. Wright from 1830 to 1833. 

D. and G. Rich at Richville, from 1833 to 1861. 

Union Store, at Richville, from 1851 to 1860. 

Barzillai & Eleazur Gary, at the four corners, from 1808 to 1819, 
did business on a small scale. 

Jesse and Alvin Wolcott on Cream Hill, for a short time in the 
house now occupied by Calvin Wolcott, about the year 1802. 


Philemon Wolcott and John Sunderlin, on Cream Hill, closed 
their business about 1818. 

Augustus Hand at Larabee's Point, from 1817 to 1821. 

Thomas J. Ormsbee, from Warwick, Mass.. set up the first reg- 
ular store at the centre of the town in the year 1802, and did a 
successful business about two years. 

Alvin and William Wolcott at the centre in 1804 or 1805, con- 
tinued about one year. 

Dr. Luther Newcomb at the centre, from 1805 to 1815. 

Spaulding Russell, where Ashbel Catlin now lives, from 1818 to 

Truman Turrill at the centre, from 1816 to 1823. 

Samuel H. and John Holley, at the centre of the town about 
1819 ; continued one or two years. 

Ansel Chipman on Cream Hill a short time; afterwards at the 
centre of the town about 1820. 

Perez Sanford in the same place previously. 

James Rossman at Larabee's Point about 1802, continued two or 
three years. 

Hiram Everest at the centre from 1816 to 1830 or 1831, when 
he removed to Moriah, N. Y. 

Abiel Manning at Larabee's Point, from 1826 or 1827, continued 
about two years. 

David Hill, James Turrill and Levi Thomas at the centre from 
1830 or 1831 to 1832.- 

Moses Seymour at the centre, 1829, 30. 

Delano, Hitchcock & Co. at the centre, from 1830 to 1832. 

A. C. & E. S. Catlin at the centre, from 1832 to 1836. 

Kent Wright, for a short time in company with Loyal Doolittle, 
and afterwards in his own name from 1832 to 1849, excepting one 
year, during which he was connected with E. D. Bush. 

E. S, & L. Catlin commenced in 1839, and continued less than 
a year. 

Atwood & Jones commenced in 1843 and continued to 1846. 
E. S. Atwood from 1846 to the present time. 
Brookins and Birchard from 1849 to 1850. 


Union Store at the centre, from 1851 to 1858. 

Wright & Hall, 1858, one year at the centre. 

Hall & Hunsden, at the centre, 1859. 

Among those who have done business at Larabee's Point, we 
mention Joseph Weed from 1828 to 1830. Afterwards in different 
years, Walter Chipman & Co., Azel Chipman, P. W. Collins & 
Rockwell, .John B. Chipman, Abbott and Brown. 

About 1825, a small storehouse was built at Watch Point, in 
which business was done by William S. Higley, until about 1828. 
The accommodations were extended, and business was done by Tur- 
rill & Walker, from 1828 to 1831 ; from 1831 to 1834 by M. W. 
Birchard ; by John Simonds from 1834 to 1849; John Simonds & 
Son, from 1849 to 1853; J. J. & W. C. Simonds, from 1853 to 
1857; W. C. Simonds & Co., from 1857 to the present time. 

Respecting the amount of business done by the several merchants 
and firms named in the forgoing list, I have been able to obtain but 
little information. George and Alexander Trimble, who kept the 
first store at Larabee's Point, it is said, sold a large amount of 
goods. They received for pay large quantities of wheat, ashes, 
salts of ley and potash, in exchange for goods, especially for heavy 
articles, such as iron, nails, salt, &c. They drew trade from most 
of the towns east of this to the Green Mountains. While the in- 
habitants were clearing their lands, vast quantities of ashes were 
saved and worked up into potash, in this and all the adjoining towns. 
The places in this town where potash was made, were too numerous 
to be particularized. Great quantities of this article were sent to 
Quebec to market, where it was sold at a much higher price than it 
commands now. It was an important article of production and 
commerce, while the circulating medium here was so limited and diffi- 
cult to be obtained. The traffic in this article was mutually benefi- 
cial to the merchant and farmer. 

The opening of the Lake Champlain Canal, from Whitehall to 
Albany, gave a great impulse to mercantile business in this town, 
especially to that portion of it done on the Lake shore. The mer- 
chants received large quantities of grain in exchange for goods, and 
sold the leading heavy articles, such as flour, salt and iron for cash, 



or its equivalent, at a small advance from cost and transportation. 
Trade was drawn from a distance of twenty or thirty miles to this 

The Messrs. Chipmans, Walter, Azel and John B., did a large 
business for several years at Larabee's Point, as also did Kent 
Wright at the centre of the town ; the Messrs. Riches at Richville, 
and John Simonds at Watch Point. 

Mr. Simonds sold in one year 2400 barrels>f flour.^ lUh sales 
of this article have of late years been very much diminished, fall- 
ing sometimes as low as 400 barrels a year. Mr. Simonds has, 
since the year 1 834, been largely engaged in the packing of beef in 
this town. During the last twenty-five years he has killed 86,645 cat- 
tle, costing one million eight hundred fifty-nine thousand seventy-four 
dollars and twenty-nine cents, (.$1,859,074,29,) and filling 159,- 
216 barrels. He has^ in the same time, sold and used in the busi- 
ness of packing, more than two hundred thousand bushels of salt. 
For several years he was engaged in purchasing wool in this town 
and vicinity, and has paid for this one article more than one million 
of dollars. 

Both of the above branches of business have been pursued by 
others, on a more limited scale, but to what extent, and with what 
success, I am not informed. 

Since the Rutland & Burlington Railroad went into operation, 
trade with the eastern towns has been diverted to places on the line 
of that road, and has been considerably diminished in this. There 
are, however, four stores now in town which are doing a fair busi- 
ness. In all its diversified interests of husbandry and trade, 
this may still be considered as a prosperous and thrivint^ town. 





Moses Strong was the first Lawyer established in this town, 
lie was a son of the Hon. John Strong, of Addison, the first Chief 
Justice of the County Court ; was licensed at the March Term of 
the County Court in 1797, and commenced practice at Richville in 
1800. The town was then rapidly filling up and advancing in re- 
sources, and Mr. Strong engaged in an extensive professional busi- 
ness, which continued until 1810, when he removed to Rutland. 

Samuel 11. Holley commenced practice at the centre of the town 
in 1809. He was from Bristol in this County ; studied at the Ad- 
dison County Grammar School and was an early graduate of the 
Military Academy at West Point. He was licensed at the Febru- 
ary Term of Addison County Court in 1809 He received a com- 
mission in the army in 1812 ; served during a considerable portion of 
the war with Great Britain ; resigned and resumed his professional 
business here. In 1821 he removed to Middlebury, but after 1824 
relinquished professional business. He was repeatedly in public of- 
fice, and a resident at difierent times both of Bristol and this town. 
He died March 20th, 1858, at Whitehall, on his return from a 
visit at the West, and was buried at Bristol. His wife Sophia, a 
daughter of Hon. John S. Larabee of Shoreham, survived him 
about two years, and died leaving a son and daughter residing at 
Larabee' s Point. 

Udney Hay Everest commenced business here in 1812, and con- 


tinued in it until the time of bis death, -which occurred January 
1st, 1845, and was engaged in most of the cases arising here in 
his profession. He was born in Addison, January 18tb, 1785 ; 
fitted for college with Rev. Dr. Swift, of Addison ; graduated at 
Middlebury College, 1808. He read law with Chipman and Swift, 
Middlebury, was licensed August, 1811 ; practised a year at Mid- 
lebury, and removed to this place. 

These gentlemen all sustained positions of influence in society in 
their respective spheres. Only Mr. Everest continued for many 
years exclusively in the social relations which they successively es- 
tablished here, and these Avere habitually cherished with the warm 
regard of those whom he most respected. The career of each was 
protracted through the active period of life, and all were favored to 
its conclusion with the respect and attachment of friends and the 
confidence of the public. 

Samuel Wolcott commenced practice in Shoreham, his native 
town, in 1821. He graduated at Middlebury College in 1817, and 
studied his profession at the Litchfield Law fc'chool, in Connecticut. 
He was a fine classical scholar, a man of superior genius, possessed 
of many excellent social qualities ; had a pleasing manner of ad- 
dress and great facility in the use of language. He was in the 
class in college with Silas Wriglit, the distinguished and influential 
Senator of the United States, from New York, and Governor of 
that State, who, at the time of his death, in 1847, though not in 
office, was universally regarded as enjoying the highest position, in 
respect to the confidence of his party and his own future prospects. 
In scholarship, Wolcott had excelled him, and in quickness of per- 
ception, vigor of intellect and power in debate, was not his inferior. 
But the want of steady aim and of self-command, was fatal to the 
hopes cherished for him. But for an unfortunate habit into which 
he was early drawn, he might have risen to any position of emi- 
nence in political or private life, or in the practice of his profession. 
His career was short and its termination a melancholly one, in his 
death, which occurred February 20th, 1828, in the 34th year of 
his a2e. 


Albert G. White, practised from 1845 to 1847, and removed to 
Whitehall, N. Y. 

Charles K. Wright, born in Shoreham, 1825, graduated at Mid- 
dlebury College, 1844 ; read law with Hon. E. N. Briggs, of Bran- 
don ; practised in this town from 1847 to 1855. He now resides 
in California. 

The change which occurs in legal business, is incidental in our 
country to the progress of society. At first there is the expense, to 
the settler, of the cost of land and a simple outfit for clearing it ; 
perhaps some difficulties in obtaining necessaries. There follows 
but little expense for living, but little variety of business^ and 
though much of debt may exist, but little urgency for collec- 
tions. Crops are waited for, labor is sought in payment, and a 
spirit of accommodation prevails. A second period comes of more 
activity in business, but of greater stringency of means. There is 
more to be done, more to be had from abroad, while the general sys- 
tem of credit and narrowness of circumstances weighs upon the en- 
terprising and liberal. Debts are incurred to supply the means of 
improvement, to meet the wants of living, and collections must be 
made to' pay them. Where there has been universal credit, there 
must be an universal enforcement of demands. One demand is met 
by the assignment of others, all go together to the lawyer, who is 
the medium of settlement, and the process of suing becomes an hab- 
itual refuge of delay. A change is effected gradually, for it is long 
before the prudent and prosperous obtain a surplus, or that the habit 
of debt is corrected so that arrearages are generally wiped away^ 
This has been the harvest time of lawyers, who have become the 
wealthy citizens of the period in some districts, where trade has of- 
ten been the grave of enterprise. As the point of greater maturity 
is reached and exchanges at home become reliable, the business of 
the courts i- rapidly diminished to the permanent standard of that, 
in which legitimate questions of the rights of parties unavoidably 
arise. * 

*Tlie number of new entries of suits in a single term of Addison County Court, 
ml787, was 44; 1790, 47; 1801,247; 1806, 227; 1811,301: 1818,403; 1820, 
220; 1827,227. Ai preseut tbe usual number of new oases is less thau lOO. 





Timothy Page, the first regular physician in town, came from 
Troy, N. Y., in 1788 or 1789. He lived the first winter in the 
same house with Thomas Biirnum ; afterwards built the house 
•where Orrin Cooper now lives. For many years he had an exten- 
sive practice, and died in this town in 1810. 

l^yler Stickney practised from 1798 to 1800 or 1801. 

John McLaren from 1792 to 1800. 

John Willson, at Richville from 1801 to 1822. Dr. Willson was 
born at Oxford, Mass.; studied medicine with Dr. Campbell of Ox- 
ford ; married Cynthia Gould, of Sturbridge, Mass., and settled, 
professionally, in Warwick, Mass., in 1781. He removed to Shore- 
ham in 1800 ; from this place to Greenfield, Erie County, Pa., in 
1822 ; to Detroit, Mich., in 1825, where he died February 6th, 
1829, aged seventy-four. 

Erastus Blinn entered into practice with Dr. Willson some time 
before he left, took his place, and continued it, with the exception 
of about one year, until his death. Dr. Blinn was born in Great 
Barrington, Mass., August 29th, 1786, and removed with his fa- 
ther's family to Pownal, Vt.; thence to Orwell, in 1800. He mar- 
ried the daughter of Dr. Willson, mentioned above, and commen- 
ced professional studies with him in 1809; was licensed by the Ad- 
dison County Medical Society, January 1st, 1813. He formed a 
partnership with Dr. Willson which continued for three years, and 


subsequently continued his practice here till his death, March 2Sth, 
1842, at the age of fifty-seven. 

William H. Larabee, for a short time, about 1802. 

Nicanor Needham, from 1808 to his death, in 1847. He was re- 
puted to be a skillful physician, and for many years did a large bus- 

Caleb Hill, from 1826 or 1827 to 1833, when he went to Me- 
dina, N. Y. 

Nelson G. Chipman, from 1833 to 1834. 

William A. Hitchcock, from 1824 to the present time. 

David E. Page, from 1842 to 1856. 

Diseases. — When the country was new, it was accounted un- 
healthy. This opinion operated for a while to retard the progress 
of the settlement. The diseases which most prevailed at an 
early period, were bilious fevers, and fever and ague, Avhich few 
were fortunate enough to escape ; but since the land has been most- 
ly cleared, this may be regarded as a healthy town, the number of 
deaths averaging, generally, about 15. The last year the number 
of deaths returned was 27, a number unusually large, many of 
them aged people. Most of the early settlers lived to a very ad- 
vanced age, as will be seen in looking over the catalogue of names. 

The dysentery prevailed in 1798, and many children died of that 
disease. It appeared again in 1803, and proved fatal in an unusu- 
al degree. In School District No. 10, twenty-seven children, un- 
der ten years of age, died of that disorder that season. For many 
days in succession, Thomas Bissell says he made two coffins a day. 

In 1812-13. what was called the spotted fever prevailed, which, 
in many cases proved fatal in a few hours. In the winter of that 
term, over sixty persons died of this disease, mostly in middle life 
and heads of families. 

In the years 1841-42, the erysipelas prevailed, and proved fatal 
in many cases. 

From the records of the town, it appears that it has not been 
wholly exempt from the visitations of the small-pox, though I have 
not been able to learn that it proved fatal iu any considerable num- 
ber of cases. 




As with many other towns in Vermont, there has always been a 
lively interest taken by the people of this in political affairs. The 
people of this State, individually, were called early to contend for 
both personal and political rights. A spirit and aptitude for pub- 
lic questions may naturally have arisen from this fact, and may 
continue to characterise the communities whose own institutions were 
founded amid agitations so critical. The leaders, also, of the early 
settlers, to a larger extent than in older states, belonged to the pop- 
ular class, and the general sympathy of those engaged with them, 
of course, was more intimate, and their influence more cordial with 
those so nearly identified with their success. This fact has given 
a general unity to the movement of the people of Vermont in 
public afiiiirs. a sense of design and character animating the pop- 
ular body, and depending less than is usual upon the conceded m&r 
dom of unknown guides. In Shoreham this has been peculiarly 
and honorably so. From the class, of which the people almost uni- 
versally were members, their leaders have sprung, and in obtaining 
the public approval have honored the confidence of the town. 

In the early conventions of the settlers upon the Grants, we 
have no evidence of any immediate representation from this town. 
The first convention was held at Manchester, in the Fall of 1766, 
the first year of the settlement of Shoreham. This was attended 
by delegates from towns west of the Green Mountains, and was the 
first development of that spontaneous principle of order, which, 
with a free and thoughtful people, assumed as -was necessary the 


direction of public affairs. A similar convention was held at Man- 
chester, August 27th, 1772, at which eleven towns were represent- 
ed, including Rutland, Pittsford and Castleton. Through Town 
Committees of Safety delegates were obtained or appointed, and a 
general committee constituted, which sat at different times. By this 
the executive posse, known as the Green Mountain Boys, was 
duly organized, with which individuals in Shoreham are known 
to have been connected. A convention was called at Dorset, July 
24th, 1776, intended to consider the question of a government, and 
was held at that place, by adjournment, September 25th, at which 
thirty-five towns, of both sides of the mountains, were represented, 
including Addison, Middlebury, Panton and Bridport, in the pres- 
ent Addison County. Only preliminary measures were considered, 
and the weiglit obtained to their proceedings which is due to delib- 
eration. The independence of the State Avas declared at an adjourn- 
ed meeting, held at Westminster, January loth, 1777, and its char- 
acter as a free political jurisdiction asserted. A Declaration ami 
Petition was addressed to the American Congress, itself the deputed 
organ of a new nation. By adjournment, a committee was appoint- 
ed at Windsor, in June, to prepare a draft of a Constitution, and a 
new convention was summoned to meet at the same place, July 2d, 
1777, to consider it. Amidst the pressure resulting from war, the 
constitution was adopted : subsequently, the first elections under it 
were ordered to take place on the succeeding first Tuesday of March. 
The Town was legally organized November 20th, 1786 ; Addison 
County had been established previously, October 18th, 1785. The 
first Reprepresentative was chosen in September, 1787, thus accept- 
ing a place in the councils of the State. March 4th, 1791, by the 
Act of Congress, Vermonc was '• received as a new and entire mem- 
ber of the United States," the sister first-born of the Revolution, 
and thus was the circle of those wide political relations completed 
in which the humblest member bears so high a part. 


James Moore, 

1787,91, 92,94, 

4 years. 

Josiah Pond, 

1788, 90, 95, 96, 97, 99, 

6 " 

Thomas Rich, 




Ephraim Doolittlc, 

harles Kicb, 
John S Larabee, 
Elish Bascom, 
Joseph Smith. 
Silas 11. Jenison, 
John S Hunsden, 
Isaac Chipinan, 
Davis Rich, 
Kent Wright, 
Bela Howe, 
Myron W. C. Wright, 
Alonzo Birchard, 
Alphonzo B. Bascom, 
James M. Lamb, 
Gaeca Rich, 

1800-02,04-12,15, 13 years. 

1803, 21, 23, 3 " 

1813.17,18,20,22,25,39-41, 9 " 

l-a4, 16 19, 23, 24, 5 " 

1-26-30, 5 " 

1831-33, 3 " 

1834-36, 3 •• 

1887-38, 2 •' 

1842.43.49, 3 " 

1844.45.50, 3 «« 
1846,59,60, 3 " 
1847. 48, 51, 53, 4 " 
1853, 54, 2 " 
1855, 56, 2 ••• 

1857,58, 2 " 

The following persons have represented the town in the several 
Constitutional Conventions, called bj the Council of Censors ; 

Josiah Pond, 1791 ; Ephraim Doolittle, 1791 : Charles Rich, 
1814; Elisha Bascom, 1822, 1829; Kent AVright, 1836; Silas 
H. Jenison, 1843 ; Davis Rich, 1850 ; Bela Howe,* 1857. 

The following persons have held the offices annexed to their re- 
spective names, in the County and State : 


Charles Rich. 1807-12, 6 years. 

John S. Larabee, 1824. 

Elisha Bascom, 1822 23, 

Silas H. Jenison, 1829-34, 

Davis Rich, 1838-41, 

Myron W. C. Wright, 1858-59, 

Isaac Chipman, 1849, 41, 

Davis Rich, , 1844-46, 

Bela Howe, 1851,52, 

John S, Larabee, 

Silas H. Jenison, 



















Charles Rich, 


'Chosen from Addison County, as a District. 


Silas H. Jcn'ison,* 1834,35, 2 years. 

Silas tt Jenison, 183(5-40, 5 years. 

The usual divisions of the people into political parties, have been 
duly represented here. Leading men have been found on both sides, 
especially of the old dividing line, and the controversy was conduct- 
ed both -with zeal and intelligence. 

A majority of the early settlers of this town, were exceedingly 
jealous of the exercise of power by the general government. Many 
of those who came here from Massachusetts, were dissatisfied with 
the high taxes imposed upon them by the government of that State, 
and were in favor of stay-laws to relieve the debtor, in a time of 
unprecedented pecuniary distress, or of laws compelling the credit- 
or to take lands, or other kind of property, in satisfaction for debts, 
at some affixed or appraised value. They urged a restriction of the 
e.xercise of power, and a reduction of the salaries of government of- 
ficers. At the breaking out of the French Revolution, a majority 
of the people here fell into the current of popular sentiment in that 
country, as more favorable to liberty, and looked with a jealous eye 
upon England as the great, leading representative of kingly gov- 
ernment. They were also suspicious that the general government 
was arrogating to itself the exercise of power, that would prove dan- 
gerous to the independence of the States and the liberties of the 
people. When, therefore, the linos were drawn between the old 
federal and democratic, or republican parties, a majority of the vo- 
ters in this town was found to side with the latter. Mathew Lyon 
Avas their favorite candidate for Congress, and in 1797 and 1799, 
he received a decided majority of the votes in this town. Charles 
Rich, the youthful and popular leader of the democratic party, was 
chosen to represent the town in the State Legislature, and continued 
as its most prominent and influential loader so long as that distinc- 
tinction of parties was known. 

*At the election in Septerabei', 1835, there was no choice of Governor made by 
the people, and as the Legislature failed to elect one, Mr. Jenison performed the 
duties of the office durinjr that year. 


From about the year 1830 to 1886, the Anti-Masonic party had 
the ascendancy, and when that party lost its distinctive name, and 
was merged in the Whig and Democratic parties, the former had a 
majority of the votes. After 1.836, the Whig party had a decided 
majority, while it remained a distinct organization. Since the organ- 
ization of the f'epublican party, after the repeal of the Missouri 
Compromise, taking as its distinctive principle, opposition to the ex- 
tension of slavery in the Territories of the Union, nearly all the votes 
have been cast for its candidates. 

At the annual elections of the several years stated below, the di- 
vision being between the Federal and Democratic parties, the latter 
being called Republicans, of that day, the vote for Governor in this 
town stood as follows : 


90 d 

38 f 


175 d 

99 f 


102 d 

44 f 


206 d 

109 f 


70 d 

50 f 


183 d 

113 f 


145 d 

102 f 


192 d 


In 1831, William A. Palmer, the Anti-Masonic candidate, had 
203 votes, and Heman Allen, Whig, 120. 

Two principal national parties again divided the vote of the town 
in the following years, as follows : 

1836, 199 Whig. 49 Dem. 1841. 155 w 46 d 

1837, 220 w 61 d 1853, 122 w 23 d 
1843, 241 w 55 d 1854, 121 w 3d 

1858, 120 Republican, 5 Democratic. 

The Congressional vote, of different periods, for the two highest 
candidates, is given below, the candidate elected being first named. 
In 1814, and for three succeeding terms, the election was made by 
general ticket. Mr. Rich was first elected in 1812. 




Matthew Lyon, 
Daniel Chipman, 




Rollin C. Mallo.'y, 
Ezra EutleV; 


Martin Chittenden, 
Ezra Butler, 



William Slu.le. 
Robert Picrpuint, 


Daniel Chipman, 
Charles Rich, 



Geo'ge P. Marsh, 
John -mith, 


Charles Rich, 161 
David Edmond, 105 

E. P. Walton vpas e' 

lected in 

James Meacham, 
Heman K. 13eardsley 

. 19 




The first school in town was taught by a ladj on Cream Hill, 
probably as early as 1785 or 1786. A school was kept up in that 
neighborhood a portion of every summer and winter, for three or 
four years before there was any other in town. 

About 1789, a log school-house was built at the Four Corners, 
near Deacon Lewis Hunt's. For several years the children in tlie 
Birchard and Larabee Districts were sent to the school kept thei c. 
A school was also commenced about the same time on Smith Streec. 
The log school-house in the Birchard District (No. 2,) was built 
in 1794. Gideon Sisson. who had a knowledge of the Latin and 
French languages, taught a school there in 1785, and was employ- 
ed as instructor several years. Since that time, school districts have 
been formed in different parts of the town, sufficient in number to 
brino; the advantafjres of common school education Avithin the reach 
of all. At one time the number of districts was fourteen. Li con- 
sequence of the great decrease in the number of children, during 
the last twenty-five years, in some instances two districts have been 
merged into one. The number of districts is now twelve. 

Forty years ago the number of scholars attending school was 
twice as large as it is now. Some schools, which once had eighty or 
ninety scholars, arc noAV reduced to twenty-five and thirty-five. In 
other districts the diminution has been in a like proportion. 

At an early day, little was taught in our common schools be- 
yond the rudiments of Reading, Spelling and Arithmetic. The 


number of branches of education had been increased since, includ- 
ing Geography, English Grammar, and in some instances Geometry 
and Algebra. The studies and manner of teaching are not dissim- 
ilar to those in the schools in other towns in the county. The time 
the schools are kept in the d^fierent districts varies from three to four 
months in the winter, and from four to six months in the summer. 
There are no children among us, who are not taught reading and 
writing, and the use of figures, sufficient to answer the practical 
wants of life. 

The name of the first female teacher has not been obtained. It 
has been suggested to the author, that a brief notice ought to be 
inserted in this place of Gideon Sisson, who was so early employed 
in this town, and continued in the avocation of a School-master so 
many years. He is said to have been a thorough scholar, and one 
of the best disciplinarians, in the common school, that has ever been 
employed in this town. He was a proficient both in the Latin and 
French languages, in the latter of which he could converse with 
as much ease and propriety as if it had been his vernacular tongue, 
understood and was capable of teaching, in the best manner, the 
sciences of Geometry and Algebra ; of A stronomy and the Nature 
and Use of Logarithms : of Navigation and Surveying. He had the 
happy art of inspiring his scholars with an enthusiastic love of study 
and desire to excel, and to make them masters of all the branches 
he taught. He had a clear, sonorous voice, pleasant to the ear and 
well modulated to the expression of every sentiment, and was one 
of the best of readers. He wrote a hand that in legibility and ele- 
gance has been rarely surpassed. It was under his training that so 
many young men in the vicinity in which he lived became good 
readers, and wrote a hand that is seldom equaled at the present day. 
Several young men, at an early period in the history of Shoreham," 
when they could not be spared from the labors of the fiirm to attend 
school, were in the habit of reciting to him the lessons which they 
had learned at home, feeling the most perfect liberty in resorting to 
him at any time to have the difficulties resolved which they met 
with in their studies. As a teacher, Mr. Sisson was for several 
years highly useful. He was extremely fond of books ; and, a& 


remembered by the author in his old age, vras not a little egotisti- 
cal and vain of his acquirements. He was irritable in temperament 
and at this time in many respects singular. Some anecdotes are re- 
lated of him, of which one will be found in another place. 

The school funds, and tax appropriated by the Town for the sup- 
port of Common Schools, are stated below. That called the Pro- 
prietors' Fund, is the share realized for schools in the disposition 
of the ministerial right ; the school lands were assigned by the 
charter. Other support is furnished by the Districts. 


Proprietors' Fund, ^2682.31, Income, $160.94 
Rents of School Lands, - - - - - 199.23 
U. S. Surplus Fund, - - - Interest, 205.06 
1 1-2 per cent. Tax, 92.83 


The pay of Teachers at present varies much ; of male teachers, 
from fourteen to twenty dollars per month ; of female teachers^ 
from one dollar twenty-five cents to three dollars per week. The 
school-houses, with two or three exceptions, are good, costing from 
four hnndred to seven hundred dollars. 

Newton Academy was incorporated in 1811. Whether it was 
so named in honor of an early citizen of the town, from whom a 
benefaction may have been expected, or of Sir Isaac Newton, has 
been a disputed question. From the time of its organization, a 
school of the common order of our Academies has been kept up, 
with a few intermissions. The enterprise was undertaken with a 
liberal spirit, th'^ original building having cost two thousand dollars. 
In 1853, a subs • "iption of sixteen hundred dollars having been pre- 
viously raised, a new organization was formed, called the "Newton 
Academy Association," to which the existing property was convey- 
ed. Measures were adopted for effecting repairs already in contem- 
plation. A boarding-house was attached to the Academy building, 
and an expenditure made of two thousand two hundred dollars. The 
work was accomplished in 1854, and has left no debt upon the asso- 
ciation. The premises are inviting in appearance and furnish 


J. B. Eastman, 



Eber Douglass Hunger, 



Patrick Henry San ford, 



Stephen Martindale, 



Asa StoTvel Jones, 



John Ormsbee Haven, 



Edson Fobes, 



Rev, Archibald Fleming, 



E. J. Thompson, 



for school purposes a large room for recitations, a hall for public 
declamations, a chapel, and private rooms for students. An appa- 
ratus for chemical and philosophical purposes was formerly procured 
at a very liberal expense : this is still respectable. The blioreham Un- 
ion, Library has recently been removed to the Academy for the ben- 
efit of the pupils, and has a good selection of five hundred volumes. 
The present Principal is Mr. E. J. Thompson. 

The following list is given of the Principals of the School : 

Benjamin Nixon, 
Alonzo Chui'ch, 
Samuel Wolcott, 
Asa Messer, 

Jonathan Coleman Southmayd, 1818. 
David Laurens Farnham, 
Amzi Jones, 
Hiram Carlton, 
Peola Durkee, 
David Mason Knapen, 1839 or 1840. 

The Academy has an attractive situation, and if duly cherished, 
cannot fail to impress itself upon the highest interests of the com- 
munity, in those things which pertain to character and prosperity. 
With cultivated intelligence, the common mind's treasures assume 
a preciousness and interest analogous to the artificial value which 
jewels receive from filing and polishing. The business of life is 
equally aided by the amount of information which study may have 
elicited, with regard to the subjects and processes with which it is 
employed. Eventually it is to be hoped, perhaps from many bene- 
factors, who have enjoyed its advantages or appreciate its benefits, 
the Academy may receive such an endowment as shall relieve it 
from the implication of past neglect, and give it the permanent hon- 
or it deserves. It has exerted a salutary influence upon the youth 
of the town, in disciplining their minds, enlarging the sphere of theij 
knowledge, elevating their taste, and forming them for usefulness 
i n the difierent departments of life. 

The Shoreham Union Library Society was formed December 
31st, 1821. Its collection now consists of five hundred volumes. 
The second article of its constitution prescribes the character of the 


•works of which it is to be formed. "The Library shall consist of 
books in 'real History, Theology, Natural Philosophy, Poetry, 
Ethics. Geography, Astronomy, Botany, Zoology, Chemistry, Hus- 
bandry, Travels, Journals, Periodical Publications, and such oth- 
ers as may serve to improve the mind in useful knowledge, excite 
benevolence and humanity, and inspire pious devotions, endear the 
rights of society by the consideration of mutual dependence and 
mutual advantage, with the exclusion of all such as may have the 
least tendency to corrupt the morals, establish erroneous principles, 
or mislead the imagination, by ficticious, false or imaginary repre- 
sentations of human nature." The design of this limitation, if lib- 
erally construed will exclude but little material of true interest, and 
may lead at least to discrimination in that department of literature 
usually esteemed the most dangerous. 




The soil on the Lake shore is generally a strong, fertile clay, 
until an elevation of two hundred and fifty or three hundred feet is 
reached above the surface of the lake. This prevails through the 
greater part of the township, where the land lies below the eleva- 
tion just mentioned. About one mile east of the lake, the land 
rises above the clay formation, where an argillaceous slate appears, 
in a range of hills, occasionally broken, extending more than half 
way through the town, commencing near the south line. Beyond 
the first range of hills there is a depression into vallies, in which 
are the beds of small streams, the clay soil predominating ; and 
thus there are alternate depressions and elevations forming hills, gen- 
erally running north and south, until the east line of the town is 
reached. Most of the higher portions of the land are constituted 
of a strong loam, good for grains of all kinds, as well as grass. 
Cream Hill, which is two miles in length and one in breadth, lying 
more than one mile east of the Lake, in the north part of the town, 
is of this class. It received its name from its remarkable fertility. 
Its slopes are very gradual on every side, and it affords sites for 
beautiful and rich farms scarcely surpassed in New England. Bar- 
num Hill, south of the centre of the town, extending to Orwell, 
and Worcester Hill, north-east of the centre, and extending nearly 
to Bridport, present a similar soil, still more free from admixtures 


of clay, and are good lor all kinds of crops congenial to the climate. 
In these locations are some of the 'oest farms in town. About three 
miles east of the lake, there is a range of hills and bluffs, where 
the limestone crops out and the land is rough and stonej, not ad- 
mitting of cultivation ; but valuable for tiiu wood and timber which 
it furnishes. Mutton Hill, lying in the north part of the town, 
east of the road leading to the centre, is a rocky elevation covered 
^Yith timber. It is said to be indebted for its name to the reputa- 
tion of a family residing on one of its declivities, that was thought 
to have made too free with the neighbors' flocks. Barnum Hill 
took its name from that of a number of families who first settled 
on it. Worcester Hill was settled mostly by families from Worces- 
ter, Mass., and hence its name. 

The Pinnacle, about two miles east of the centre of the town, 
is the highest elevation in the township, rising probably five hun- 
dred feet above the level of the Lake. From the top there is a 
fine view of Lake Champlain at several points ; of the Old Fort, 
at Ticonderoga ; of the Green Mountains on the east, from Killing- 
ton Peak at the south, to Camels Hump, and Mansfield at the north; 
and the Adirondacs beyond the nearer elevations, at the west. It 
commands a view, almost unsurpassed in beauty, of several neigh- 
boring towns, with Otter Creek and Lemon Fair, with their mean- 
dering and rich vallies. From the same stand-point there may be 
counted the spires of nine meeting houses, and several villages are 
seen in the surrounding towns on both sides of the lake. In these 
views, in each direction, as much that is graceful in outline, attrac- 
tive in social, or impressive in historical association, or allurino- iu 
extent, may be seen as from any elevation in the scenery amid 
which it rises. 

In some of the vallies, of this town, there is a rich alluvial soil, 
composed in great part of decayed vegetable matter, which, when 
properly drained, produces a great growth of corn. Near the centre 
of the town, north-westerly, commences what is called the Great 
Swamp, containing about seven hundred acres covered mostly with 
a dense growth of pine, black-ash and cedar timber, which is di- 
vided up into small lots of about seven acres^ and parceled out to 


the farmers, from which they procure timber and boards for building 
and rails for fencing, sufficient to supply their wants. The land 
adjacent to this Swamp, which has been cleared up, now yields from 
two to four tons of hay to the acre. The vallies lying along Lemon 
Fair River, and Prickley Ash Brook, produce an abundant and 
unfailing supply of grass, without the aid of the plow or manure, 
and are not surpassed in value by any other grass lands in any part 
of the Avorld. The slaty lands are productive in early spring crops 
and with the aid of a little manure, improve by cultiva- 
tion, the soil becoming finer by the constant action of the 
plow, frosts and rains. The timber was originally a growth 
of pine and oak on the clay grounds, of maple, beech, black oak, 
ash, basswood, &c., on the higher grounds, and elm, black ash, 
tamarack, &c., in the vallies and swampy lands. The value of the 
lands in the township may be fairly computed from the products, as 
stated in the census returns of the number of cattle, sheep, horses , 
tons of hay. and quantities of grain of the several kinds. 

Previous to the Revolution, lands were consideved of little value 
in this town. The doubtful nature of title, while New Hampshire 
and New l^ork both claimed to hold jurisdiction over the territory, 
deterred settlers from coming in and prevented sales. The Proprie- 
tors regarded their rights as of little or no value, and many of them 
sold out for a mere trifle. Paul Moore bought one right in 1767 
for twelve shillings, and three rights in 1768 for thirty-six shillings. 
James Moore bought one right of land of Daniel Ward in 1773, for 
twelve shillings. John Reynolds, then of New Concord, N. Y., ' 
paid to Roger Stevens, of Pittsford, £35 for one right, May 15th, 
1775. For another right he paid X40 in 1776. 

Samuel Wolcott had one hundred acres of land given him in 
1774. by the Proprietors, to induce him to settle here; his son, Jesse 
Wolcott, had fifty acres given him in in 1783, by David Hemen- 
way, one of the Proprietors, and Seth and Abijah North had a 
hundred acres given them, in the same year, by the same individual. 
In 1783, the price of land was from one to two shillings per 
acre, and in 1784 from three to six shillings. In 1785, Ebenezer 
Turrill paid £130 for one right, which was about $1,30 per acre. 


From 1785 to 1791. tlie price was from one to three dollars an 
" acre, according to quality and location. After 1791, when Ver- 
mont was admitted into the Union, and the claims of New York 
were adjusted, the price of lands rose very rapidly. About the 
year 1800 improved farms were wortli from fifteen to twenty-five 
dollars per acre. In 1803 Mathew Stewart sold to Andrew Birch- 
ard one hundred acres for ^2700. Lands near the village, in small 
parcels of five or six acres, sold from forty to fifty dollars an acre. 
At the present time farms, with good buildings, sell at prices vary- 
ing from thirty to forty dollars per acre. 

The soil is naturally fertile, in favorable seasons producing grass 
in abundance, and unsurpassed in richness of quality. For graz- 
ing purposes, it is not excelled by any other portion of our country. 
Some of the natural meadows have been mowed without intermission 
for more than sixty years, and without any supply of manure yield 
a crop of grass scarcely diminished in quantity. In the year 184 G, 
Hon. John S. Larabee said an upland meadow of his, lying ni-ar 
the lake, without the aid of manure or irrigation, had annually 
yielded two and a half tons of hay to the acre for forty years. ]\i .-. 
Samuel Northrup said he had kept, through the whole season, four 
hundred sheep on a pasture containing forty acres, and that through 
the whole time ic furnished them with an abundant supply of feed. 
This was in the year 1833: a year in which there was a gi-eat 
abundance of ruin. The old pastures now yield much less feed 
than they did then. As the soil is for the most part a clayey loam, 
the grass crop and pastures are sometimes greatly injured by the 
prevalence of an early drought, followed, as it sometimes is, by 
myriads of grasshoppers, destroying almost all kinds of vegetation. 
In no other portion of the globe, out of some river's bottom, can 
there be found a soil, which, without the aid of manure or irriga- 
tion, or rotation of crops, could better sustain its fertility for so long 
a time. 

Some of the farms are, doubtless, less productive now than they 
were formerly. But the cause is obvious. What else could have 
been expected, from the practice of some, who have year after yeai', 



without intermission, dra^Yn all the manure made on large farms,- 
upon a few acres better adapted to tillage than their stiffer soils ? 

Our Work is indebted to the Census Office, Department of In- 
terior, through the Hon. J. W. G. Kennedy, Superintendent, for the 
favor of the following summary of the Returns of Property 
and Products of Shoreham, by the Census of 1860. In respect 
to production, the year 1859 was esteemed very seriously below the 
average ; (one-third less was the estimate.) The closing item is 
properly to be credited chiefly to the commerce of the town. 

Productions of Agriculture in the Toimi of Shoreham, Addi- 
son County, Vermont. 

Acres of Land, improved, . . . 23,292 
" ♦« unimproved, 4,393 

Cash value of Farms f 975,660 

Value of Farming Implements 

and Machinery, $25,625 

Horses, 610 

Milch Cows, 1,138 

Working Oxen, 124 

Other Cattle, 1,476 

Sheep 11,168 

Value of Live Stock, $189,291 

Wheat, bushels of, 4,132 

Rye, " 845 

Indian Corn, bushels of, 5.252 

Oats, bushels of, 21,185 

Wool, pounds of, 54,353 

Peas and Beans, bushels of, . . 1,370 

Irish Potatoes, bushels of,. . 11,947 

Barley, bushels, of, 961 

Buckwheat, bushels of, 61 

Value of Orchard Preducts, . . $484 

Wine, gallons of, 14 

Butter, pounds of, 1 15,986 

Cheese, pounds of, 97,475 

Hay, tons of, 7,669 

Grass Seed, bushels of, 49 

Maple Sugar, pounds of, ... . 5,490 

Molasses, gallons of, 18 

Honey, pounds of, 1,555 

Swine, 233 

Value of Home-made goods, $175 

Value of Animals Slaughtered $70,514 




The Old Military or Crown Point road, leading from Chimney 
Point, in Addison, to Charleston, N. H., (Old Fort Number Four,) 
Was commenced in 1759, by a detachment from General Amherst's 
army, but was not completed until some time after. It passed 
through Bridport and crossed the present read a short distance north 
of Daniel N. Kellcgg's dwelling house ; thence through a pasture 
belonging to Isaac Chipman, Esqr., where it struck the north line 
of this town, and run thence through a pasture belonging to Mr. 
Kellogg, and a pasture belonging to Stephen Barnum, crossing the 
road leading from the village to Bridport. a little south of the small 
brook and ravine north of said Barnum's house. Thence it ran 
through Mr. Barnum's land, on the east side of the road, through 
Alonzo Birchard's pasture, and crossing the road between Asa Sun- 
derland's and the mill place, it passed a little west of said Birch- 
ard's barn, on the west side of the brook, through a pasture be- 
longing to B. F. Powers, on the old Paul Moore place, to Prickly 
Ash Brook, where not long since there were the remains of the old 
bridge across that stream. Thence it ran through a pasture form- 
erly owned by Noah and John Jones, on the north-east side of 
Roaring Brook, so called ; crossed the road about half way between 
Samuel Moore's and Franklin Moore's ; passed near William John- 
son's house, and from thence to the old Pond place, running on the 
side of the hill a short distance west of Henry Bush's iiouse, until it 
reached the Lemon-fair, a short distance above the Pail Factory, and 

92 HISTORY OF sriorvEiiAM. 

crossing that stream by a bridge, it passed the place -where Rim- 
mon Benton formerly lived, through land belonging to Reuben Cook, 
and the north part of M. W. C. Wright's farm, and over the hill 
by a spring, a few rods west of Solomon Bissell's waggon shed, 
where, evidently, parties of Indians, and the troops in the French 
and Revolutionary wars encamped, or stopped for refreshments. 
Indian relics, such as arrow-heads and pipes, gun flints, knives, 
broken earthen-ware and parts of soldiers" arms, were formerly 
found there. The road ran thence through part of Whiting, west 
of the old Walker place, in Sudbury, by the Sawyer tavern, and 
thence to Otter Creek, crossing that stream a short distance below 
Miller's bridge, and from that place passed on through Brandon to 

The first road, laid out by the Proprietors of this town, was that 
which leads from Bela Howe's over Cream Hill and by Lot San- 
ford's and Deacon Lewis Hunt's, into Orwell. In early times, at 
several points, it ran further east than it now does. Work was done 
on that road at the expense of the Proprietors, in 1775. This was 
a part of the old Basin Harbor road, for many years the only north 
and south road through the town and the principal road for travel. 
In 1781 the road was worked which led from Colonel Ephraim 
Doolittle's to the site of the bridge across the Lemon-fair, at the 
DcLong place. In 178G, the first bridge at that place was built, 
and not long after thih a road was opened from Shoreham to Mid- 

The road leading north from Shoreham village, formerly passed 
ea^t of Edsou Birchard's. by the Landers' place, over Mutton Hill, . 
till it struck the old Crown Point road, on the Paul Moore, or 
Doolittle place. The road leading from Cream 11 ill to the middle 
of the town for many years passed by Andrew Birchard's late resi- 
dence, and Q. C. Rich's. The road from Smith Street to the cen- 
tre of the town, for many years, passed by John N. Hunt's andAl- 
vin Clark's. The road from Reuben Smith's by Levi 0. Birch- 
ard's, was opi'ned about 1798. 

The old Turnpike road, leading from Bridport to Orwell and 
Benson, was comj^leted in 1810. It comm.Miced at the Cloves farm 


m Britlport and ran to tlie north line of Fairhaven, being intended 
to Ci^ord a more direct and level route through the intermediate 
towns, than any previously in use. The road Avas Avorked by >'o- 
5es Strong, the charter obtained in 180 i The road from Lara- 
bee's Point to Middlebury was laid out at different times, each por- 
tion finding strong opponents to the straightening process. Tbe 
road by Eichville to Whiting and Brandon, has also more than 
local importance. 

Few of the existing roads follow the lines of the lots, and but 
few are run straight for any considerable distance. Their length, 
when surveyed by Mr. Prescott in 1856, was reported to be eighty- 
eight miles and forty-nine rods. 

The chief route for northern business, for many years, was that 
by the Basin Harbor road, by Avliich the great amount of trans- 
portation passed to and from market. Its general direction Avas 
preserved, and seeking rather than avoiding the high lands, its condi- 
tion was the more easily maintained. It AVas for years tJie thorough- 
fare of many tOAvns : farm-houses upon it became taverns : over it 
the wheat ef the north for many years Avas exchanged for cash and 
the heavy and lighter imported goods of the distant markets below. 
In Avinter a share of this business passed by Smith Street to the 
Lake, striking it at Hand's or Larabee's Points. 

Lemon Fair River has its sources in Sudbury, Orwell and Whit- 
ing, passes through this toAvn, Bridport and Connvall, and empties 
into Otter Creek in Weybridge. AtRichville a dam extends across 
the river, which raises a pond extending nearly three miles up the 
stream, for the supply of mills below. There are at this place tAvo 
saAV-mills, tAvo shingle-mills, one grist-mill and flouring-mill, and 
one tannery. Formerly this stream furnished an unfailing supply 
of Avater for the use of the mills the year around : but in dry sea- 
sons, of late years, notwithstanding the large pond, there is some- 
times a deficiency. Two miles below this place, there is a saw-mill, 
and a small works for carding wool and manufacturing cloth. 

On Prickly Ash Brook, Avhich floAvs north from the Great Swamp, 
Alonzo Birchard, Esqr., has two saAV-mills situated at the falls, and 
a run of stones in one of the mills for grinding corn. The supply 


of water here is sufficient to run these mills only in the spring and 
fall. Formerly there was a grist-mill which did considerable busi- 
ness. The other streams are small, and furnish no water power. 

There is iron ore found in a bed lying a hundred or a hundred 
and fifty rods nearly east from lion. M. W. C. Wright's, on land 
now owned, it is believed, by him. At an early day, some of the 
ore was worked .n combination with ore from Crown Point, into 
bar iron, at the forge in Richville. It was thought, however, that it 
contained too great a quantity of sulphur to admit of being work- 
ed into wrought iron. Considerable quantities of it were made in- 
to cast iron at the furnace in Orwell, erected by Mathew Lyon, be- 
fore 1800, and it is said to have made good castings. 

Limestone abounds in most parts of the town. At an early day 
there were several kilns for burning lime, but none is now made. 

Black Marble is found in inexhaustible quantities on the shore of 
the Lake a little south of Larabee's Point. Considerable quanti- 
ties of it wore quarried nearly thirty years since, and drawn to 
Middlebury and wrought into elegant tables and chimney pieces, at 
the factory of Doctor E. W. Judd. =' This marble," says Doctor 
T. A. Merrill, " is a beautiful black, often equal to the Irish mar- 
ble. Though it is not capable of enduring the changes of the 
weather, and, of course, unfit for gravestones, it still makes very 
elegant inside work." A few years since a company was formed 
for quarrying this marble on an extensive scale, and considerable 
quantities were taken out in blocks and sent to market, but for some 
reason the enterprise was soon abandoned. Shells embedded in 
limestone and petrified branches of cedar have been found in rock 
by Mr. Herod Newell, where he is now excavating for a mill-race. 
Marble is also found, it is said, near Mr. Isaac Jennings' but its 
value has not been tested. If any important profit is to be devel- 
oped from resources of so choice and delicate a character as these 
deposites of nature, it may be when our own sons shall have mas- 
tered elsewhere the details of developing and working them, and 
may devote the intelligence it is so easy to command, to the achiev- 
ment of that prosperity which is seldom bestowed by strangers. 
The report of Industrial, other than Farm Products in Shore- 


ham, in the Census of 1860, gives the investments of E. S. New- 
ell and Davis Rich in lumber manufactures, and the cost and pro- 
duct for 1859, as follows : 

Capital invested, - - - $3,400 
Value of logs consumed, - - 1.674 
Cost of labor, - - - . 1.440 
Value produced, - _ _ 4.100 


criArTEK win. 


The mail \vas first caiviod tlirongli tliis town on liorsc-back, once 
a ■\vcck, until a stage was put on by Comstock, of Whitehall, be- 
tween that place and A'ergcnncs, about 1816 or 1817. The mail 
was then delivered tri-weekly. After the establishment of the 
Post Office at Larabee's Point, a daily mail was received. The 
stage to INIiddlebury commenced about 182r>. The first Post Office 
was kept at a tavern at the Four Corners, on the Basin Harbor 
road, and continued there till the Turnpike road was opened and the 
third Postmaster opened his office at the present hotel place at the 
centre. Newspapers were distributed by post-riders having regular 

In the earlier volumes of the Middlvbanj Mercury^ commenced 
in 1801, letters for Shoreham, as iox many other towns in the 
County, are advertised quarterly by the post office at Middlebury. 
This continued as late as 1800. The number advertised is never 
large, and it is probable that letters received at such a distance were 
carefully sought and by some system at least of good neighborhood 
regularly obtained. At how early a date they were obtained there 
we are not informed. 

This work is indebted to the Appointment Office of the Post Of- 
fice Department at Washington, for the complete statement of the 
time of the appointment and term of office of tlie several Post- 
masters within the town, from the first in 1806. More than Usual 
cai-e was necessary in meeting the inquiry, the books of that date 


in ihr office referred to having been burned in 1836, and those of 
the Auditor's office being consulted. The inquiry was made 
througli {Ton. J). P. Walton, M. C, and answered under the^direction 
of Hon. St. John B. L. Skinner, Assistant Post Master General. 


Office established, probably, in April or May, 1806. 

Gilead^A. Lcssey appointed Postmaster May, 1806. 

Reuben Baldwin do do November, 1809. 

From this time on, the records of the office furnish the exact 


Barzillai Carey, appointed 2d September, 1811, 

Perez S. Sanfjrd, do 4th May, 1819. 

Udiiey II. Everest, do 11th January, 1820. 

Hiram Everest, do 28th December, 1820. 

Moses Seymour, do 5th May, 1827. 

David Hill, do 6th February, 1830. 

Edmund B. Hill. do 29th March, 1833. 

Asaph Brookins. do 18th May, 1849. 

Thomas H. Goodhue, do 6th October, 1851. 

Edwin S.Atwood, do 30th March, 185j. 

Charles Hunsdon, do Pith July, 1859, who is the pres 

ent incumbent. 

Office established on the 3d February, 1831, 
Walter Chipman, appointed Postmaster, 3d February, 1831. 
H.F.Johns, do do 17th November, 1837. 

On the 19th December, 1838, the office was discontinued, but 
was re-established on the 8th June, 1840. 

James H. Chipman, appointed 8th June, 1840. 
Charles W. Larabee, do 1st March, 1842. 

On the loth of April, 1842, the office was again discontinued, 
but was re-established on the 23d July, 1849. 

Charles S. Abbott, appointed 23d July, 1849. 

Charles W. Larabee, do Ut October, 1849. 

Henry S. Gale, do lOih January, 1852, who is the pres 

cnt incumbent. 





The first place in town where the dead were bmried, was on the 
farm recently occupied by Hiram Rich, on ground nearly opposite- 
the Cream Hill school house. 

Quite early in the history of the town, there was a burying place- 
on the land now lying east of the area between the two churches at- 
the centre. Those interred here were removed to the yard now 
called the " Centre Burying Yard," in the year 1800. 

The small lot on the " Goodrich place,"' in the west part of the 
town, has been used for burial purposes from 1790 until the present 
time. Mrs. L'Homodieu was the first person buried in it. Here 
Governor Jenison's remains lie, near the monument erected by hiS' 

The West or Birchard yard was laid out as a place for the dead 
near the beginning of the present century. The bounds have since- 
been enlarged so that it now contains two acres. Mrs. Stephen 
Barnum was riding by this place as early a& 1798 ; casting her 
eyes upon it she remarked, "What a beautiful spot this would be 
for a grave-yard." Subsequently it was selected for this use, and 
Mrs. Stephen Barnum was the first person whose grave was made 
in it. Capt. Samuel Hand, Elder Chamberlin, — at an early day, a 
Baptist minister in town, — Capt. Lot Sanford, and Eli B. Smith, 
D. D., for twenty-eight years Principal of the New Hampton In- 
stitution, and members of the Birchard, Larrabee, liunsden and 
SiiiinniH fumilic:; nio buried, here- 


The grav« yard at the centre began to be used as a place for the 
dead about 1800. It has been enlarged from the original dimen- 
sions. Mrs. William Johnson's remains were the first interred here. 
Amos Stanley, an early settler, and Zeviah his mother, were buried 
laear the monument erected by his widow. This is the burial place 
of the Bascom, Blinn, Chipman, Bush, Jones, Hemenway, Hunt, 
Moore, North, Northrup and Turrill families. 
" The east or " Cutting yard," was originally a lot given by An- 
drew Wright, and was long since used as a burying ground. It has 
been enlarged at two different times. Members of the Bissell, Cutting 
and Wright families lie here. " Bowker yard" is a small burying 
ground in the south east corner of the cown, and was used before 
1800. There are several graves, made at an early day, on the 
beach, fifty rods north of Larabee's Point. There are several 
graves on the farm of Orville Smith, made before the public yards 
were laid out. Besides these public burying places, the Rich fam- 
ily have a tomb, and the Atwood. Callender and Russell families 
private burying grounds. 




The second war of the United States with Great Britain was de- 
clared by Congress June 18tb, 1812, and was concluded by nego- 
tiations at Ghent, December 14th, 1814. In this war, Shoreham 
Avas liberally represented by volunteers on difierent occasions, and 
by officers and soldiers in the regular army. The following list 
contains the names of men from this town, who are known to have 
entered the United States service, in connection with thit war. 

Samuel H. Holley, Captain, was a resident of this town in the 
practice of Law ; had received a military education. He obtained 
a commission, and raised a company of a hundred strong, chiefly in 
Addison County. He was with them in command at Champlain, 
in the winter of 1813-14, but soon after resigned. A civilian, sup- 
posed by political influence, was introduced into the regiment as 
Major. Captain Holley, as the senior Captain, felt bound to notice 
the injury, and resigned. Captain McNiel, with the approval of 
his friend, retained his position in the regiment on account of his 
family, and was soon after promoted. Captain Holley received an 
intimation that his rank should be restored to him, but did not re- 
gard it. and returned to his profession. This statement is made from 
a memorandum obtained from the late Gen. Samuel H. Holley in 
1850. His name is mentioned in another place. 

Jason Ager, entered the army under Captain Holley, was or- 
dered to the Niagara frontier; participated in all the severe and 


daiKTerous service under Generals Scott, Brown and Ripley in that 
quarter; at the sortie of Fort Erie, September 17th. 1814, was 
wounded by a ball which shivered his right ancle, so that it was 
necessary to amputate the foot. He returned home, and died on 
Chilson Hill, Ticonderoga. 

Hiram Ager, son of Jason, enlisted with his father and accompa- 
nied him, sharing the same dangers- In one of the battles he ^vas 
shot through the left foot. He returned and afterwards resided in 
St. Lawrence County, N. Y. 

Enoch Cooper, was a journeyman wheelwright, entered the army 
as sergeant, served in the battles of Chippewa and Bridgwater. In 
the official report of the battle at Bridgwater, in which all of the 
field officers were either killed or wounded, is found the following — 
•• Eleventh Infantry, Officers wounded. Second Lieutenant Cooper, 
slightly, contusion in the breast." He returned home, married, re- 
moved to Orwell where he resumed his trade, still later removed to 
Palmyra, N. Y., where he died of consumption. 

Davis Conant, at first volunteered to go to the Vermont and Can- 
ada frontier, afterwards enlisted for the war, and served through it, 
livinf' to come back, and died of a brain fever the winter after. 

Stephen Conant, a brother of Davis, enlisted as a fifer at fifteen, 
was sent home as too young for the army, stayed four months and 
re-entered the service as a soldier, and remained till the peace. The 
brothers belonged to the Second Regiment, Light Artillery, and 
took part in the hotly contested battle of Williamsburgh, on the St. 
Lawrence, November 11th, 1813. 

William Eldridge, served on the Niagara frontier under Generals 
Brown and Scott. While in the army suffered severely from the 

camp disease. 

Eldridge, son of the preceding, served with his father in 


Samuel Extell, died not long after entering the service. 

Odell Fleming, fought at Chippewa, Bridgwater and Fort Erie. 

Isaiah Gooodnow, was enlisted by Captain Holley. He came 
home siok ; subsequently removed to Steuben County, N. Y., where 
he died about 1857. 


Marcus Hewitt, belonged to the Second Regiment, Light Artil- 
lery, and died at Sackett's Harbor the winter after his enlistment. 

Henry Jones enlisted under Captain Holley, March, 1813, with 
the rank of >ergeant ; was in the skirmishes at Odeltown and ( hat- 
eaugay river under General > ampton, in Scott's brigade at Lundy's 
Lane, Chippewa and Fort Erie in 1814 ; was wounded in the right 
arm, in the siege of the latter : after the war returned, and is now 
living in this town at the age of 73. 

Pardon King, entered the army as an artificer under Captain 
Jonathan Stark of New [lampshire, was in the Niagara campaign, 
in the battles under Brown and Scott, at the sortie of Fort Erie 
was wounded in the ancle by the explosion of a shell, from which he 
has never fully recovered ; was discharged at Greenbush at the 
close of the war, and is now living in town at the age of 73. 

Aaron Morse, entered the army for five years, was stationed at 
Burlington; died in St. Lawrence County, N. Y. 

David Older, was one of Captain Holley's recruits. 

Francis Puan, enlisted under Captain Holley. 

John Rich, went into the service for five years, and died in Green- 
bush, N. Y. 

Samuel Rich, acted as Lieutenant under Captain Holley ; was 
stationed at Burlington, General Hampton commanding. Died in 
St. Lawrence County, N. Y. 

John B. Reed, enlisted under Captain Holley, lost his left hand 
at the siege of Fort Erie. 

Silas Rowley, enlisted for one year ; fought at La Cole, and on 
Chateaugay river. 

Lewis Smith, was one of Captain Holley's company. 

Philip Smith, attained the rank of Lieutenant. 

Samuel Smith, engaged for eighteen months ; was killed in the 
battle of Bridgwater. 

Amasa Snow, enlisted as sergeant, was under Wilkinson on the 
St. Lawrence, and in the battles of the Niagara frontier. 

Eli Snow, brother of Amasa, acted as recruiting sergeant, gaw 
no active service. He died in thin town. 


Calvin Stewart, was sergeant in the light troops ; in the Indian 
slaughter, on the Chateaugay, was wounded in the neck. 

John B. Taylor, enlisted as corporal, saw much severe service, 
returned sick to Greenbush at the end of the war, and was honora- 
bly discharged. 

Horace Tower was kJled in the sanguinary battle of Bridgwater, 
and was buried in " the corn-field," as the soldiers were accus- 
tomed to denominate the grounds where the slain were interred. 

William Wait, resided on Five Mile Point, entered the army, was 
at the battles of Chippewa and Lundy's Lane. Luring the fifty 
days' seige of Fort Erie by the British and Canadian forces, his 
head was taken off by an eighteen pound shot, while Corporal Reed 
was shaving him, whose left hand was cut away by the same ball. 
The day of his death. Wait was oppressed Av'ith a belief that some 
calamity awaited him, and was constantly asserting to his comrades 
that he should never live to visit home and the scenes of his child- 
hood again. 

Horace Witherell, was with General Wilkinson on the St. Law- 
rence, and in most of the battles under Brown and Scott on the Ni- 
agara frontier ; returned and resided here many years before his 
death, which occurred in 1858. 

Seymour Wolcott, was connected with the Second Regiment, 
Light Artillery ; acted as gunner at the mouth of Otter Creek, 
May 14, 1814, in the repulse of the British flotilla at that point. 
In March, of the same year, he had directed one of the two field 
pieces in the affair of the Stone Mill, and remained alone to give the 
enemy the last gun. He served also at the Beaver Dams, Lit- 
tle York and the capture of Fort George. He died at Little Falls. 

Most of the soldiers who entered the regular army from Shore- 
ham, belonged to the Eleventh Regiment, U. b. Infantry. This 
regiment received the highest oflBcial praise of the commanding 
Generals at Chippewa, Bridgewater and Fort Erie. Nothing more 
brilliant in military service has been knowu than this celebrated 
campaign, for discipline, alertness and gallantry in the field. In 
these brief notices, the realities of military service are brought 
home to the apppreoiation of townsmen of another generation. 


Thej may recall the severe hardships of the struggle which pre- 
ceded,, even a generation earlier, of which so few personal notices 
can now I>o supplied. 

A company of volunteers from ; horeham was stationed upon the 
< anadmn frontier, during the disturbances preceding the war oc- 
casioned by the system of non-intercourse. This engagement was 
for SIX months ; a portion of the service was in gun-boats. In the 
sprmg of 1814, a sufficient number of men to form a company vol- 
unteered from Shoreham and Bridport,as part of the force required 
to protect the building of the American naval vessels at Vergennes 
Ihis company was commanded by Captain Gray, of Bridport Lieu- 
tenants Bosworth and Merrick, and was twice called out. Some of 
them were pre-sent at the affair at the mouth of Otter Creek. 

The Battle of Plattsburgh connects itself with the history "of all 
the patriotic communities of this portion of Vermont. Before the 
news arrived in town that the British were approaching Platts- 
burgh m force, General Timothy F. Chipman, then a Brigadier 
General m the militia of Vermont, received a letter from General 
McComb, commanding the United States force at Plattsburcrh so- 
hotmg volunteers. General Chipman replied, that he should be 
ready at all times to start at the order of Governor Chittenden, his 
Commander -in Chief 

P^-iday, about mid-day, September 9th, 1814, two days^ before 
the battle, the news came through the central part of the town, that 
the British were advancing rapidly upon Plattsburgh. Friday af- 
ternoon, couriers were sent out into the remote districts of the town 
to scatter the news and rouse the people to a sense of duty. Some 
left the plough in the field, where there they had been preparing for 
fall sowing, started Friday afternoon and traveled all night. 

At this time, there were three military companies in town, one 
of cavalry and two of infmtry, belonging to the regiment compris- 
ing Shoreham, Bridport and Addison. The company of horse of 
which a few members belonged in Bridport, was organized in 1802 
and was commanded in 1814, by Captain Nathaniel North, Ebene- 
zer Bush being Lieutenant. This troop started for Burlington on 
Saturday morning, going in citizens' dress and taking their own 

IlISTOllY or SlIOilKllAM. 105 

horses. General Chipman and Elisha Lewis, his aid, rode with 
them. There were two full companies of infantry in town, the 
East, commanded by Captain Halladay, the West, by Captain Samuel 
Hand. The two were merged into one for the expedition, Captain 
Hand commanding, and Captain Halladay being Lieutenant. All 
the men that were liable to do military duty, and many who were 
exempt from it, volunteered and went. But few men were left at 
home. In the Cutting District, Benjamin Healy, an aged man, 
was the only one remaining. The people were cheerful, and all 
engaged in assisting to prepare their friends to leave early next 
morning. The women were busy getting provisions and clothes in 
readiness, and as the horses required were many of them unprepar- 
ed, the blacksmiths worked incessantly night and day to fit them 
for service. Friday night, there was very little sleep in Shoreham, 
and many anxious hearts ; before daAvn, the town was all alive. The 
farmers went with their teams to carry the inftmtry and their sup- 
plies. The provisions taken were of the most substantial kind, be- 
ing chiefly pork and bread. A few of the men took equipments at 
home, but the majority obtained them from the L^nited States de- 
posit at Vergennes. 

The cavalry and infantry reached Burlington Saturday evening. 
Sunday morning, September 11th, there were three vessels in readi- 
ness to take men on board to cross to Plattsburgh. Two of them 
were already filled with others ; the Shoreham men. now fully sup- 
plied with provisions and ammunition, embarked on the third. At 
the same time the sound of the British long guns, as their fleet 
rounded Cumberland head, came booming over the placid lake. So 
distant as was the scene of action, the troops of Shoreham arrived 
too late for any part in the collision on shore. They were near 
enough to the engagement between the fleets to see the flashing of 
the guns, and when the smoke lifted, the vessels in clear view. 
After the firing ceased, the side of victory remained still uncertain 
to them, till a little sail-boat, with the stars and stripes floating, 
came bearing down towards them under orders from the commodore, 
and announced the result of the battle and directed them where 


to land. The place was in Pe: i, four miles south of Plattsburgh. 
They passed the night in barns, '-at formed earlj in the morning, 
their captain directing them to eat as they marched, and met the 
news of the British retreat a mile (ivm Plattsburgh. They Avere 
attended into camp by a party of rcgalars. which had come out to 
escort them. 

One company of nine men, from a distant part of the town, left 
Shoreham Monday, and went as far as Vergennes, another party of 
six as far as Addison, before they received reliable intelligence from 
the battle. The booming of cannon, fired to celebrate the victory, 
was heard in the town, but as no tidings had yet been received 
from the scene of action, those at home apprehended that the sounds 
came from the guns of the enemy advancing through the lake, and 
Avere in great alarm for themselves and their absent townsmen. Re- 
liable news came at length, and these fearful anticipations were dis- 
sipated. Old and young gave themselves to glad congratulations, 
and as rapidly as the good tidings were spread through the country 
by couriers, all participated in the rejoicings of those nearer the 
scene of victory. 

On Tuesday or Wednesday, the volunteers re-crossed the lake in 
rough weather, and returned home in a violent rain storm. General 
Chipman took a severe cold on this journey, from the eflFects of 
Avhich he suffered until his death ;* his Brigade Major, died from a 
similar cold, soon after reaching home. The rally from Shoreham 
Avas a patriotic one, of a Avhole community at the call of their coun- 
try, at the alarm of invasion approaching tOAvards their homes. 
The toAvn was then more populous than now, but if the spirit re- 
mains and all answer to the same obligation, Shoreham will never 
blush to recall with interest the part she took in this stirring episode 
of war. 

*0n his arrival at Plattsburgh the command of the Vermont ^'olunteers had 
been conceded to General Chipman, as due to his rank) with the army title of 
Colonel. See Biographical Sketches. 

Gen. C, Ebcuezer Bash and S. II. Jenison were present at an intcrvie'v\ vith Gov. 
Chittenden at Burlington, in which he expressed no disposition to hinder the cross- 
ing of the volunteers, but that he had no authority to order the militia out of the 
State. This view was licld by many at that period. 



The following lists embrace the names of volunteers from Shore- 
ham, of the different classes mentioned, so far as thej have been re- 
covered : 

SIX months" mex. 

.IoKk Robbins, Captain, Ezra Rich, Elliott Armstrong, 

Ru-isell Ames, John Knox, Jeremiah Cutting, 

David Cudworth, William Reynolds, Benjamin Bisscll, 

Ebenezer Willson, David Dameny. 

[Two brigades of volunteers were authorized by the Legislature 
of 1812, their terras of service to expire May 1. 1813 ; there were 
previously detachments of the militia stationed on tiie frontier. 
Three of the individuals above named, served on the Grovrler, 
sloop-of-war, their term of service expiring before the capture of 
that vessel. June 2d, 1813.] 


James Willson, 
Kent Wright, 
Elliott Armstrong, 
Chauncey Armstrong, 
Charles Oliver, 
Benjamin llealey, 
Joshua Healey, 

Nathaniel Willson, 
Jonathan Willson, 
John Knox, 
Ebenezer Dutton, 
Silas Brookins, 
Dat Williams, 
Joseph Tame, 

Jehlel Gates, 
Nathan Ball, 
Aiistin Woodford, 
Davis Rich, 
Samuel Robinson, 
Alexander Reynolds, 
David Reynolds, 

Nathaniel North,Captain, Noah Jones, Ross Barrows, 
Ebenezer Bush, Lieutenant, Asa Sunderlin, Oliver Harnden, 
Asa Jones, Waterman Sunderlin, Samuel Northrup, 
Samuel Moore, Sewall Wood, Keep, 

Jacob Elithorpe, Benj.uuin Landci-s. 

Samuel ITand, Captain, 
Theo. Halladay, 1st Lieut.. 
AndrewWright. jr, 2d " 
John Bobbins, 3d " 
•George Cutting, Ensign, 
Jacob Atwood, Sergeant, 
Luther Bateman, " 
Levi B.Harrmgton, " 
Davis Rich, «' 

AllenHnnsden.jr. Corpor'l 
Gross Gates, " 

William Baily, " 

Marshall Newton, Corp'l. John G. Smith, 

Ariel Wolcott, 
Thomas Atwood, 
Joseph Ball. 
Joseph Tame, 
Farrington Ramsdell, 
John Knox, 
David Cu Isvorth, 
Reuben Cc^k, 
Samuel Culver, 
Thomas Bateman, 
Gid.'on M. Leonard, 

Ezra Snow, 
Benjamin Larrabee, 
Ctary Damon, 
Elisha Bascom, 
John King, 
Stephen Smith, 
Daniel Stickney, 
Charles Oliver, 
Daniel Baird, 
Joseph AtwootL 
Jabcz Knapp, 



John Pond, 
Gad North, 
Horace Cotton, 
Orestes Hard, 
Nathan Bingham, 
Amos Wheeler. 
John Cozzens, 
Manoah Hunter, 
Truman Barnum, 
Hiram Allen, 
Joseph Hunter, 
Aaron Wheeler, 
David Ram sd ell, 
Lewis Hunt, 
Chauncy Armstrong, 
John Chellis, 
Erastus Mazouson, 
Levi Landers, 


Harvey Page, 
Ashley Cooper, 
Amasa Atwood, 
John Hoyle, 
Elijah Wright, 
Philip Reynolds, 
Ezic^. Rich, 
AVilliam Gaylord, 
Jonathan AV right, 
Daniel Fenn, 
Edmund Newton, 
Jeremiah Cuttiag, 
John Child, 
David Ward, 
James Willsor, 
John Royce, 
Horace Ball, 
Joseph Smith, 2d, 
Halsey, Parker 

Charles Bacon, 
Thomas Turner, 
Jonathan D. Hunter, 
Alanson Hunt, 
Darius Cooper, 
David Reynolds, 
Silas Rowley, 
Hiram Rowley , 
Ebenezer Dntton, 
Elisha Rohinson, 
Ansel Barber, 
Benjamin Tower, 
Benjamin Healy, jr , 
Jeremiah S, Healey, 
Amasa Moses, 
Joseph Smith, 1st, 
Ashley Leonard, 
William Cooi)er, 

fm- p' 




A considerable number of the early settlers of this town were 
either officers or soldiers in the contest between the Colonies and 
the French and Indians in Canada, or in the war of the Revolution. 
This period, it is Avell known, was very unfavorable to the interests 
of religion in this country. Not only had religious principle lost 
much of its power over a large portion of the people of New Eng- 
land, but loose and skeptical sentiments became very common among 
the officers and soldiers in our armies. Several of those who were 
most active in promoting the settlement of this town, having spent 
considerable time in the service of the army, in those wars, had lit- 
tle regard to the sentiments or piety of their fathers. There were, 
however, a few of the early settlers who were devotedly pious men, 
under the influence of religion, and were disposed co favor its in- 

Before the Revolution, it does not appear that any religious meet- 
ings were held in this town ; but a few years after, ministers of the 
Congregational and Baptist denominations occasionally visited the 
people and preached to them. The earliest preaching of which I 
have any account, was by Elder iamuel Skeels, a Baptist minister. 
He came here about the year 1788 or 1789. He remained here 
about three years. He preached the sermon at the funeral of Eb- 
enezer Bush, Senr,, in the winter of 1791. He purchased a lot of 


land on which Eliakim Culver afterward settled, now owned by 
Samuel Jones. He labored to the acceptance of the people. He 
left this town about 1792. 

After this, there was no stated preaching for some time ; but the 
people were in the habit of assembling together on the Sabbath for 
worship, in private houses in the winter and in barns in the sum- 
mer. Deacon Stephen Cooper and Deacon Nathan Hand, who 
wore Congregationalists, and Deacon Eli Smith, who was a Baptist, 
usually conducted the meetings, and led in the devotions ; and, gen- 
erally, a sermon was read by Thomas Rowley, Esqr., or Deacon 

A few devotedly pious men were accustomed, at that early period, 
to meet in social religious circles in private houses, and frequently 
traveled several miles on foot, in the darkness of night, through the 
woods, to attend them. These meetings contributed much to pro- 
mote the interests of religion at that early period. While there was 
no minister, and no church had been organized, there was a season 
of special religious interest, in which a considerable number of 
persons became hopefully pious. During this period, the different 
religious denominations worshipped together with a commendable 
degree of harmony. For several years the people were favored 
Avith occasional preaching by traveling ministers. Among those 
who occasionally visited the town, were Elders Sawyer, Green, and 
Chamberlain of the Baptist denomination, and Marshall and Uaynes, 
the black preacher, of the Congregational order. 

In the year 1792, a Congregational Church was formed on what 
was formerly called the half-way covenant scheme, by a minister 
whose name cannot now be ascertained, consisting of fifteen mem- 
bers, seven males and eight females. This organization was never 
efficient, and continued but a short time. In the year 1791, the 
Rev. Joel West preached for some time in this town. On the 9th 
of -January, 1792. in a Town Meeting; a motion was adopted — 

" That Rev. .Joel West be requested to preach in this town for 
the term of four Sabbaths from this date, on probation, provided a 
subscription be raised to his satisfaction in compensation for bis Ser- 


On the 24th of January, a Town Meeting was held, and acted 
on the following articles in the warning : 

2d. " To form a religious constitution according to the rights of 
Christianity, to govern such inhabitants, and if they please to give 
Mr. Joel West a call to settle with tliem as their minister, and to 
invite him to join them in such religious constitution or compact.'" 

3d. "To agree on measures for his support." 

4th. " To choose a committee of the inhabitants and church, or 
separate committees from each body, to confer on measures respect- 
ing uniting said bodies in one compact, and report tlieir doings to 
the town and church for their acceptance, if they please." 

The only action taken on these articles, at this meeting, was the 
appointment of a committee of six persons — '• To form a Religious 
Constitution agreeable to the Rights of Christianity '" — consisting 
of Ephraim Doolittle, Thomas Rowley, Josiah Pon<l, Thomas Bar- 
num, Doctor Page and James Moore. Not more than one of this 
number was at that time a member of any church, and the proba- 
bility is no one of them was. The meeting adjourned to January 
31st, 1792. At the adjourned meeting held on that day, the com- 
mittee chosen at the previous meeting, reported the form of a Re- 
ligious Constitution, the design of which was to embrace all the in- 
habitants of the town without any distinction of religious belief. 
This was adopted by a vote of the town, and the remaining articles 
"were laid over to an adjourned meeting, to be holden on the 2Sth of 
March, 1792. No further action of the town is to be found on the 
Records, and the presumption is, that it Avas impracticable to raise 
the money by subscription to pay Mr.We^t for preaching four Sab- 
baths on probation ; and that the different sects in town could not 
be brought into union in one society on common ground. 

The design of those who favored this measure, doubtless was to 
unite all the people in one society, and thus prevent the multiplica- 
tion of sects, as set forth in the 9th article of the constitution, 
which is in the following words : 

"That all the suitable means ought to be attempted, to collect all 
the inhabitants of this town into this society;, but if there must, of 
necessity, be any other religious denomination, there shall be a 
standing committee of this society to treat with such denomination, 


on measures for maintaining harmony between the societies on prin- 
ciples of eqnahty." ^ 

Rev. Joel West is said to have been a Methodist minister, and a 
worthy man; and the attempt was made to unite the Congregation- 
alists and Baptists, and the people generally, in one society for his 
support; a measure which, on trial, probably found little favor w'ith 
any of the denominations in town, and which, therefore, was soon 
relmquished as impracticable. 


The following extract from the Records, will show the time of its 
organization, and its progress for a few years while without a pas- 
tor : 

" In March, 1794 the people were favored with the labors of 
Rev. Ammi R Robbms, and Rev. Peter Starr,* Missionaries from 
Connecticut. On the 2oth of this month, fifteen persoTs wer 
added to this church, and the present Articles of Faith and Cove- 
nant were adopted._ In 1797 there were four persons added to the 
church, and seven in 179o. In the latter part of the year 1802 a 
revival of rehgion commenced and continued into the year 1803 
A revival also commenced in the latter part of the year 1804 and 
cont.nued during the whole of the year 1805." 

Not long after the church was formed, Paul Menona, a native 
Indian, whose wife was a daughter of the celebrated Sampson Occum 
preached for them two or three years, and received his support from 
voluntary contributions of the people. They built a house for him 
in the valley a little north of Penn Frost's dwelling, house 
where he lived some time. He is said to have possessed "superior 
powers of native eloquence ; had a ready command of lano-uacre a 
sweet, melodious voice; was sometimes agitated to tears in hi° ad- 
aresses, and more frequently drew tears from his auditors. Like 
many of his race, he was occasionally beguiled by the intoxicating 
cup; but always manifested, after undue indulgence, the deepest 

*Rev Ammi R. Robbins, of Norfolk, and Rev. Peter Starr, of Warren . were"^s 
tors :n those tow.s respectively, in LUchfielcI County, Connecticut, for more than 


contrition, and was thought by all classes to have been a sincere 
christian . 

He went from this place to the vicinity of Lake George, where he 
resided and continued to preach many years, and there he closed his 
life, which was generally regarded as in the main upright, notwith- 
standing the few instances of aberration alluded to. 

The church was occasionally favored with the preaching of Mar- 
shall, Haynes and Bushnell^ previous to the year 1800, and after 
that time, at intervals, by missionaries from Connecticut. When 
without a pastor, they uniformly met together for public worship 
on the Sabbath. From 1795 to 1800, they generally held their 
meetings in the log school house near the dwelling house of the late 
Andrew Birchard. 

Rev. Evans Beardsley was ordained first Pastor of this church, 
December 26th, 1805, and was dismissed May 9th, 1809. At the 
time of his settlement, the church numbered sixty members. Du- 
ring his ministry seventeen persons were added^^to the church. As 
a preacher, he was said to have been sound in the faith, but dry 
and metaphysical in the manner in which he handled his subjects. 
His usefulness, he thought, had become impaired by a disaffection 
which had sprung up between him and his people, in consequence 
of which he requested the church to unite with him in calling an 
ecclesiastical council for the purpose of dissolving the pastoral re- 
lation. After patiently examining the allegations ot both parties, 
the council found nothing to criminate the character of the pastor, 
and expressing their unanimous opinion that he had given no just 
cause of disaffection witli his people, they gave him honorable tes- 
timonials as a minister "in whose labors any people might be hap- 
py." After his dismissal, he preached several years in the western 
part of the State of New York, were he died. 

In the autumn of the year 1809, Rev. Samuel Cheever was em- 
ployed to preach, and continued his labors until 1812. At the 
time of his coming, there was much alienation of feeling existing 
among the members of the church, which appeared to many to por- 
tend a permanent division, and to peril its very existence. In the 



latter part of the month of November, or the fore part of Decem- 
ber, 1809, a meeting of the church was held, when there was, to 
the surprise of every one, the most manifest tokens of the pres- 
ence of the spirit of God in their midst. Every mind was deeply 
solemnized, in view of the omnipresence of that Being who searches 
the heart, and by a personal sense of guilt. Instead of complaints 
and criminations against each other, as had been witnessed in 
their meetings for months before, each one began to confess his sins 
and ask forgiveness of his brethren. The whole season was spent 
in humble confessions, mingled with many tears that fell from al- 
most every eye, and ere the meeting was closed, the church felt it to 
be their duty to make a public confession in the congregation on'the 
ensuing Sabbath. When assembled in the house of God on that 
day, the members of the church presented themselves in a body in 
the broad aisle, and a confession was read by Mr. Cheever, to which 
the assent of the church was given. The effect on the congre elation 
w as electrical. Many were deeply convicted of sin, on that day. 
Soon after, evening lectures were appointed, and numerously at- 
tended, in private dwellings in different parts of the town, several 
times during the week. The meetings were thronged, and the 
minds of nearly all who were present were deeply solemnized, and 
the cases of conviction and conversion were numerous through the 
winter and ensuing summer. Mr. Cheever has been described by 
many of the older people as a fluent, animated, pungent preacher, 
whose discourses, always delivered extempore, were peculiarly 
adapted to awaken the thoughtless, and convince the sinner, and 
lead him to the Saviour. The revival of religion under his labors 
was the most extensive of any with which the town had be fore been 
favored, and in its influence over the religious interests of the town, 
the most important one which has ever occurred. It was remark- 
able not only on account of the numbers hopefully converted, but 
for the unusual proportion of heads of families, and persoie of 
standing and influence, who were subjects of the work. On the 4th of 
February, 1810, sixty-one persons were added to the church, and 
i\Iarch 26th, the same year, forty-six, and before the close of the 
year eight more, making an addition to the church in 1810 of one 


hundred and fifteen. Four were added in 1811, and eight in 1813 
and 1814, all probably fruits of the same revival. 

Rev. Samuel Cheever was a practising physician before he 
became a minister, and preached some time in Rochester, 
Vt., before he came to this tovfn ; but I have no evidence that he 
was ever settled as pastor over any church. He is said to have 
been better adapted to labor in revivals of religion than to perform 
the duties of a permanent pastor. After leaving this place, in 1812, 
he preached in Hubbardton, and Stillwater, N. Y., in both of which 
places there were revivals under his preaching. He died at the lat- 
ter place in 1814. 

July 19th, 1813, the church united with the society in extend- 
ing a call to Rev. Amos Pettingill to settle with them in the gospel 
ministry, by the unanimous vote of both bodies. He preached three 
months, but declined the call. He was an eminent minister, and 
was afterward settled at Plattsburgh, N. Y., and died in early life. 

On the 6th of ]\Iay, 1814, the church and society voted unan- 
imously to call Mr. Daniel 0. Morton to the work of the ministry 
among them, and on the 30th of June, of the same year, he was 
ordained as their pastor. He was dismissed after a successful min- 
istry of more than seventeen years, October 13 1831. There were 
partial revivals of religion under his ministry in 181G and 
1817 ; also in 1830, but the one of greatest power and interest was 
in 1821. September 2d, of that year, twelve persons were admit- 
ted to the church, and November 4th, of the same year, eighty - 
nine, and several afterward as the fruits of the same revival, amount- 
ing in the whole to about one hundred and twenty members added 
to the church. Other denominations shared largely in this work of 
grace. The whole number of converts was more than t^vo hundred. 
There were admitted to the church, during his ministry, two hun- 
dred and seventy-seven members, two hundred and thirty by pro- 
fession and forty-seven by letter. After his dismission, Mr. Mor- 
ton labored for about one year in the service of the Vermont Do- 
mestic Missionary Society, and was its Secretary. In 1832, he 
was installed pastor of the Congregational Church and Society in 
Springfield. Vt.. where he remained about five years. He then 

11^ HISTORY Of ^ilOREHAii. 

moved to Winchendon, Mass., -where he also labored five years. 
Prof. Eli B. Smith, D. I>., in an address delivered at his fu- 
neral, thus speaks of his successful labors in these two places : "In 
Springfield, the work of grace, while he was pastor, was both con- 
stant and powerful.*' Speaking of one season of special refreshing, 
he says: " The whole number of hopeful conversions, exclusive of 
children under fourteen years of age, is, as nearly as we could ascer- 
tain, from three hundred and fifty to four hundred. For seven days 
in succession they averaged more tlian thirty a day, and one day 
there were forty. On one Sabbath, ninety-three were received in- 
to the church ; on the succeeding Sabbath, forty-five; on another, 
shortly after, skteen. During the five years of his labors in Win- 
chendon, there were yearly additions ; in all, one hundred and 

Daniel Oliver Morton was born in the town of Winthrop, in the 
State of Maine, December 21st, 1783. V/henhe was quite' young 
his parents moved to Middleboro, Mass , which had been ths home 
of his ancestors for many generations." 
^ "In March,;i807, while engaged in teaching school, at the age of 
eighteen," he says in a letter to his daughter, " here the Lord met 
me; convinced of sin ; of righteousness and judgment, and gave 
me peace and joy which the world knoweth not of" " Promlhat 
time, I indulged a hope in Christ, and have never for a moment 
thought of giving it up." " For several years I have seldom had 
a doubt of the work of the Holy Spirit on my heart." The sin- 
cerity and truthfulness of this declaration could never be called in 
question by any one acquainted with Mr. Morton. Dr. Smith 
President of the New Hampton Literary and Theological Institu^ 
tion, located at Fairfax, Vt., under the patronage of the Bap- 
tist denomination, who from his boyhood, was intimately acquainted 
with him, for nearly forty years, and who was for several 
months a member of his family, gives the following truthful repre- 
sentation of his character : " Mr. Morton never, in any place for- 
got that he was a Minister of Jesus Christ. No one could see him aa 
he passed among his people, or in his own house, without feeling 
that he was in the presence of an aceredited ambassador of God 


No man ever had to inquire whether he was a minister. The coun- 
tenance, the whole style of the man, showed that. Such an intro- 
duction to those he met, gave him an immense advantage. It al- 
ways produced the expectation that if he opened his lips, it would 
be to give utterance to thoughts of solemn and worthy import. 
The way was prepared for him to say whatever he wished to say, 
in respect to the relations of men to God, to Christ, to the Boly 
Spirit, or to the eternal state ; and it is worthy of remark that the 
expectation was rarely disappointed." 

Mr. Morton relied greatly upon pastoral conversation with his 
people, for fixing divine truth upon their consciences and hearts. 
He spent more time than most ministers in visiting from house to 
house. It was in this department ]_of ministerial labor, more than 
in the preparation of elaborate sermons in the study, that Mr. M. 
excelled most ministers. His social and genial disposition, easy and 
pleasing manner of address, readiness of utterance __in terms ^un- 
studied and natural, in tones of voice dictated by the spirit of kind- 
ness, that ever seemed to be a law of his nature, eminently qualified 
him for such work, and he appeared greatly to delight in it. Says 
Dr. Smith, " Religious conversation seemed perfectly natural to 
bim. It came forth like Avater from an overflowing fountain. It 
seemed to cost him no effort.'' It was the possession of these quali- 
ties that contributed so much to render his ministry successful in 
his several fields of labor. It was probably the consciousness that 
in this direction lay his greatest power of usefulness, rather than in 
superior genius, or intellectual vigor, that led him to devote a por- 
tion of time to visiting among his people. Avhich some thought to be 
disproportionate to the demands of the study ; and this probably 
led him to change his field of labor so often during his ministry, 
impressed with the belief that in so doing he could accomplish great- 
er good, than by a longer pastorate. Dr. Smith further says, that 
'' Mr. Morton was a frequent visitor of the children in the common 
schools. These visits were anticipated with pleasure, and they were 
seldom without profit." His happy talent in addressing children 
and youth, says Dr. fc^mith, " gave him a hold upon the young peo- 
ple, such as we have rarely seen surpassed. The impression made 



was tlms deepened by his frequently, on the Sabbath, pointing to the 
young people in the gallery and addressing them especially, and 
turning towards any part of the house in which there were children 
saying to them a few words, thus assuring them that they were not 
forgotten, and that they had souls to save or lose." The estimate 
of character which he had formed of Mr. Morton in his youthful 
days, Professor Smith says, " has only been confirmed by the ac- 
quaintance of the last ten years. In old age I have seen the ful- 
filled promise of early manhood. The path of the righteous has 
shone brighter and brighter unto the perfect day." In person. Mr. 
Morton was a little above the common height, rather slim and erect 
in form ; had dark hair, and eyes, and a countenace indicating be- 
nignity and kindness. "In his intercourse with his brethren," 
says Rev. Dr. Bouton, who preached at his funeral, " he seemed 'to 
be free from selfish and ambitious ends : never harsh and censorious 
m judging ; but in his words and manners combined mildness, ur- 
banity and decision. The pleasant smile that lighted up his face, 
was a true index of the charity that ruled his spirit. This impart- 
ed an agreeable suavity to his couversation, and gave him ready ac- 
cess to others." "As a preacher, he was sound in doctrine, instruc- 
tive and practical ; his style of writing flowing and diffusive, rath- 
er than terse and argumentative." 

His last sickness and death were in keeping with the whole his- 
tory of his ministerial life. A few days before his death, he was 
asked, " What is the state of your mind ?" He replied by saying, 
" Sing the hymn, 'The man is ever blest ;' after that, 'Behold the 
morning Sun ;' then, ' How calm and beautiful the morn,' " adding 
after the singing, " There, now you know my feelin-s." To a sis- 
ter in the church, he left this his last message : " Give my love to 
the church ; to the Sabbath school ; to the singing choir, and to the 
people. Peace be with them all, now and forevermore." 

In this frame of mind, in the assured hope of a blessed immor- 
tality, Mr. Morton died at Bristol, N. H., where he had labored in 
the gospel mmistry ten years, on the 25th day of March, 1852 
aged sixty-four years. He was a good man and just, who will be 
long held in grateful remembrance by many in this town, where he 


spent the first seventeen years of his ministry. For nearly two 
years after the dismission of IMr. Morton, the pulpit was supplied 
most of the time by President Bates and Professor Fowler of Mid- 
dlebury College, and Rev. N. C. Clark. During this period seven 
members were added to the church. 

On the 1st day of September, 1833, Rev. Josiah Fletcher Good- 
hue received an invitation to supply the pulpit, and commenced 
preaching on the 8th of the same month. On the 14th of Novem- 
ber, 1833, he received a unanimous call of the church and society 
to take the pastoral charge over them, and on the 12th of February, 

1834, he was installed pastor. Mr. Goodhue, in March, 1857, 
asked of the church and society a dissolution of the pastoral rela- 
tions, on the ground that he could no longer be useful to them in the 
ministry ; a mutual council was called, by which he was dismissed 
with the usual recommendations of good standing in the ministry, 
and his services as pastor were to be closed on the first of October 

On the 13th of September, 1857, Mr. Goodhue preached his last 
sermon. Rev. Archibald Flemmiug supplying the pulpit two Sab- 
baths, until the 1st of October, when his pastorial duties ceased. 
He had preached statedly to the same congregation more than 
twenty-four years. During his ministry, one hundred and seven- 
ty-three persons were added to the church. In the latter part of 
the year 1834 and the fore part of 1835, there was more than usual 
seriousness in the congregation, and a few persons united with the 
church. This seriousness continued through the summer of the 
latter year, until a protracted meeting was commenced October 27th, 

1835, during which, Rev. Jedediah Burchard preached and held 
meetings for inquiry sixteen days in succession. A general revival 
of religion accompanied and followed his labors, as the fruits of 
which, fifty-four persons were added to the church at one commun- 
ion season, November 8th, 1835 ; and on November 11th, 1835, 
twenty-eight were received on profession of their faith^ and fifteen 
more were admitted, mostly the fruits of this work, January 3d, 

1836, In the years 1838 and 1839, there was more than common 
attention to the subject of religion, and at two communion seasons 


in these two years, seventeen persons were added to the church. 
In 1850 and 1851 there were several additions. During the whole 
period of Mr. Goodhue's ministry there were added to the church, 
one hundred and seventy-three members. 

He was born at Westminster, Vt., December 31st, 1791 ; enter- 
ed Midelebury College in 1817, and graduated there in 1821 ; 
studied Theology one year at Andover Theological Seminary; was 
Tutor in Middlebury College one year, in 1822 and 1823 ; was li- 
oensed to preach September 1823, and in the same month began 
to preach in Williston. Vt.; in June, 1824, he was ordained Pastor 
of the Congregational church and society in that place, and was 
dismissed in September, 1833, having labored among thct people 
ten years. He now resides in Whitewater, Wisconsin, and is with- 
out pastoral charge. 

After Mr, Goodhue's dismission , Rev. A. Flemming supplied the 
pulpit, the most of the time, unt.l May, 1889, when Rev. E. B. 
Chamberlin commenced his labors here. 

Edward B. Chamberlin, the fourth pastor of the Congregation- 
al church, was born in Strafford, Vt, January 18th, 1826. He 
prepared for college at Royalton and Montpelier Academies ; enter- 
ed University of Vermont, in 1844 ; gi'aduated in 1848 ; Ayas en- 
gaged in teaching in Gloucester, Newburyport and Bolton, Mass., 
from 1848 until 1851, when he entered the Theological Seminary 
at Andover, where he graduated in 1854. Before ordination, he 
supplied the churches in Lee and Lancaster, N. H., Barnstable, 
Mass . and Ann Arbor, Mich.; began ministry in Plattsburgh, N. 
Y., January 1st, 1856 : was ordained and installed pastor of the 
Presbyterian Cliurch by the Presbytery of Champlain, March 12th 
1856. He was dismissed, at his own request, by the Presbytery of 
Champlain, June 15th, 1858, and from July, 1858, until May, 
1859. he supplied the Presbyterian church in Green Bay, Wis., 
when his ministry began in Shoreham. Having received a unani- 
mous call of the church and soeiety to settle as their pastor, he was 
installed by an ecclesiastical council. September 27th, 1859. 

In December, 1356, he was married to Miss Mary Jane Mooore, 
of Lancaster, N. H. 


Since the first organization of this church, there has been re- 
ceived, up to this time, August 1859, as nearly as can be ascer- 
tained, six hundred and seventy-four members, of whom one hun- 
dred and eighty are known to be dead ; three hundred and twenty- 
nine have been dismissed by letters to other churches ; thirteen have 
gone out without letters ; twenty-four have been excluded, and the 
names of some, whose places of residence are not known, are dropped 
from the record. Of the whole number, added since the church 
was formed, more than three hundred probably are dead. 

The first Meeting House was built in 1800, by a society formed 
for that purpose. The subscribers of the constitution were to be 
stockholders in the same. At their first meeting they voted to call 
it a " Congregational House," but did not designate in their con- 
stitution by what society or denomination it should be occupied. 
Some time after it was finished, the Universalists petitioned for the 
use of the house a part of the time on the Sabbath. The society 
voted not to grant that petition, but gave them the privilege of using 
it for public worship on week days, when not occupied by themselves. 
That house was located on the common, on the site of the present 
Universalist Meeting House. It was sixty feet long and well propor- 
tioned. There was a porch on the north and south ends, through which 
there were entrances to the main body of the house below, and to 
the gallery above, which ran around the east, north and south sides 
of the house. On the outside of the gallery there were square 
pews, all around, which were entered by a broad aisle, and 
inside of that there were three rows of seats, designed for the ac- 
commodation of singers and others. There was in the south gal- 
lery one pew, in the centre, elevated several feet above the others, 
to which there was a separate entrance from the porch, called the 
negro pew. There was an entrance to the main body of the house 
below, by a large door in the centre of the front side, east. The 
lower floor was occupied by one broad aisle, leading from the front 
door to the pulpit, on the west side, and two aisles, running par- 
allel with that, east and west, and three other aisles running north 
and south. The pulpit was elevated nearly as high as the galleries. 


In the year 1847. that house was taken down and put up ao-ain at 
Larabee's Point, and used some time as a wool depot. ThiTmodel 
of that house is>aid to have been taken from a meeting-house in 
Worcester, Mass. It was capable of seating one thousand persons 
andcost more than $6000. "' 

The present Congregational Meeting Plouse was built in 1846 
and IS about seventv-two feet long by fifty-four wide.' The walls' 
are of brick, twenty-seven feet high. The ]>asement is divided into 
a furnace room, and a large room for the transaction of town busi- 
ness and for other purposes, and a smaller room for church meet 
ings, lectures and conference meetings. The house was built by 
James M.Lamb, Esq., the architect ; of the best materials, and 
finished inside and outside in the best style of workmanship and 
does great credit to the builder as one of the best edifices of the 
kind in the State. The whole cost of the building with its appur- 
tenances,^was over $-8000, It has seats for the accommodation of 
abou five hundrecl persons. It has a bell of fine tone, weighing 
about 1600 pounds. a = 


The nmterials for which were famished by Joseph Smith.' Esq. 

About the year 1788 or 1789, Elder Samuel Skcefe can^e to this 
town and preached in this and other towns. His labors were ac- 
ceptable to the people, but as the Baptists were then few m „„m 
bcr, and unable to give him a comfortable support, after remaining 
two or three years he loft the town. About that time there were 
what were then called traveling preachers, from diflerent parts visit- 
ing ano preaching in the new settlements. Those of the Baptist 
denommation were Elders Ephraim Sawyer, Henry Green, Henry 
Chamberlam and others, generally traveling on foot. They preach- 
ed mth,s and other towns. The meetings were well attcnde| with- 
out d,stmct.on of name. The people were conveyed to meeting with 
oxen and sleds m winter, or on foot in summer, two or three miles 
male and female, and thought it a great blessing that they had 
heart, to do their duty, and strength to perform it 
In the year 1784, Eli and Stephen Smith, who, previous to the 


Revolution, had removed from Nine Partners, Ducliess Co., N. Y., 
to Spencertown. and thence to Manchester, Vt. , came to this town ; 
cleared three acres of land and put up a house that season, and in 
March, 1785, moved their families here. June 2d, 1794, these 
leading men in the denomination, with other Baptists, who had set- 
tled in town, and were members of churches, whore they had pre- 
viously lived, were formed into a church, consisting of fifteen mem- 
bers — eight males and seven females, and appointed Eli Smith Dea- 
con. At the same time, Mr. Abel Woods was preaching with 
them, and by request of the church was ordained their pastor, Feb- 
ruary 26th, 1795, and continued to preach with them until the 
year 1811, when he asked of the church to be released, and re- 
moved to Panton. and from thence to Albany. N. Y., where he 
died. During his residence in Shoreham, one hundred and seventy 
members were added to this church. After he left, the church was 
supplied with preaching by Elder Ephraim Sawyer, about three 
years, from 1813 to 1816. Elder John Spaulding preached about 
three years, from 1817 to 1820. and Elder Thomas Ravlin three 
years, from 1820 to 1823, and Elder Henry Chamberlain for some 
time, when he became unable to preach on account of the infirmi- 
ties of ago. He died in this town. Elder Henry Green began to 
preach in 1824, and continued about three yecrs. After he left 
there was only occasional preaching, until about the year 1887. 
Eighty members were added to the church after Elder Woods left 
making in the whole period of the existence of this church, the 
number of members admitted about two hundred and fifty. In con- 
sequence of removals by death and otherwise, at the time just re- 
ferred to, the church lost its visibility, though there are several 
members of that denomination still residing in town, several of 
whom are connected with other churches. 

In the records of this church, it is stated, August 5th, 1798, 
" this is the second revival with which the church has been favored." 
There were revivals also in 1810, 1817 and 1821, in which the 
church received valuable accessions, and gained much strength. 
Among the ministers of this denomination who have preached in 
town, there were several men eminent for their ability and useful- 


ne33. Elder Epliraim Sawyer was distinguished as a preacher, 
and v;as very successful in his labors while here. He was a zeal- 
ous and devoted servant of his ]\Iaster ; held still in grateful re- 
membrance by those whose recollections extend so far back in the 
history of the church, as the time in which he labored here. Elder 
Chamberlain was sn eminently meek and godly man, and was re- 
spected by all. Elder Henry Green possessed strong native pow- 
ers of mind, energy of character, and a commanding eloquence. 
He is still remembered as a very efficient preacher, while he labored 
in this town. He went from this town to Malone, N. Y.. as it is 
thought, and is supposed to have died there many years since. 

Among others eminently pious and useful in this church were 
Deacon Eli Smith, the first elected to that office in 1794, and Dea- 
con James Baker. Of the early members, Deacon Smith was the 
most active and influential man of his denomination in sustaining meet- 
ings before any church was formed, and was afterward looked up to 
with deference for counsel and as an example of consistent christian 
character, worthy of imitation. 

Deacon James Baker came from Bridport in 1814, and in 1816 
was chosen Deacon ; a lovely man, eminently gifted in prayer and 
exhortation, against whom no one ever had anything to say. After 
a few years he returned to Bridport,and from there went to Geneva, 
Wisconsin^ where he recently died. 


Materials furnished by Mr. Lorenzo Larabee. 

The ancient records of this church are lost, and therefore a full 
account of its history cannot be given. From inquiries made, it ap- 
pears that Elders Chamberlain, Shepherd, Wickton and Mitchell 
preached here at an early day. Lorenzo Dow, celebrated for his 
eccentricities, often preached here between the years 1805 and 
1810. About the year 1804 or 1805, it is thought that Jabez 
Barnum, Samuel Ames, Ezra Snow, Timothy Larabee, Jonathan 
and Lemuel Barlow, Isaiah and John Wallace were among those 
first formed into a church. 

Between the years 1807 and 1820, Rev. Tobiafc Spicer, Rev. 


Stephen Boynton and Rev. Samuel Draper, with others, -were pre- 
siding elders of this district, and the society was regularly supplied 
with preaching part of the time. Meetings were held at a School 
House, near the house formerly owned by Elijah Wright, and now 
by ^George W. Doane, and at a School House at the Four Corners 
near Deacon Lewis Hunt's. 

In the year 1832, the records to which access has been had, show 
that there were then forty members in regular standing in the 
church, and this, it is thought, is the greatest number it has ever had 
at any one time. It has been favored with several seasons of re- 
vival, and it may be safely said that since its organization, it has 
had in its [communion more than one hundred members. Since 
about 1837, it has decreased by removals and deaths, until at the 
present time very few remain, and for the last two years the society 
has not been supplied with regular preaching. 

To the three churches already named, there have probably been 
added since their ^organization more than one thousand members ; 
but now, by reason of frequent removals and deaths, it is probable 
that the whole number of church members, of these denominations, 
is considerably less than two hundred. 


By their Pastor, Rev. K. Haven. 

Of those who embraced the sentiments of this sect, a larger 
number originally settled in this town, than probably in any other 
town in the State. Immigrating from the towns of Warwick, Ox- 
ford, Sutton, Hardwick, &c., in the County of Worcester, Mass., 
where they had listened, more or less, to the promulgation of the 
sentiment of the final holiness and happiness of all mankind, on the 
broad Trinitarian Substitution Platform, they imbibed, retained and 
disseminated the same when settled here. 

Elder Caleb Rich, who was born in Sutton, in 1750, and who 
located himself in Warwick in 1771, commenced proclaiming that 
sentiment there and in the vicinity, as early as 1773. About 1775, 
Mr. Thomas Barnes and Adam Streeter embraced, that faith, and 
assisted Elder Rich, laboring in that county and throughout the 


State. A churcli was gathered in Warwick, and Elder Rich was 
ordained its pastor in 1781. 

About this time, Rev. Elhanan Winchester embraced this faith, 
and resigned his pastorate over a Baptist Church in Philadelphia. 
He also visited and labored some in the aforesaid County and in the 
State. In 1791, Rev. Hosea Ballou commenced preaching in said 

Now it appears that quite a number of persons of this faith set- 
tled in this town, from that county, prior to 1800. Lieut. Thomas 
Rich, brother to Caleb Rich, and his son Charles Rich, came from 
Warwick and settled here in 1787. The father was for a few years 
united with the Baptists here, yet from the time of the organization 
of the Universalist Society in 1806, he was a supporter and con- 
stant attendant on their meetings. His son Charles, (who subse- 
quently filled high stations of honor and trust in the town, and in 
the State, and in Congress,) cherished the' faith' of his^^uncle, Caleb 
Rich, when he emigrated here. And his eight children, who gen- 
erally settled in this town, and had fimilies, were of the same faith; 
as were also all the sons and daughters of Lieut. Thomas Rich. 

Jonathan and William Willson senrs., and also Dr. John Will- 
son, came from Warwick, and also Ebenezer Atwood and Amos At- 
wood were from the same place. The first named person 
held many offices of trust in this town. 

To this list may be added the names of the following persons, 
who originated mainly from Warwick and vicinity, though some of 
them were from other parts of New England : John Ormsbee, Ben- 
jamin Healy, Daniel Newton, Timothy Goodale, Noah Callender, 
Wm. J. Bailey, Benjamin Bailey, Bealy Bailey, Benjamin Bissel, 
Jonas Marsh, Leonard Marsh, John Ramsdell, Ashbel Catlin Sen., 
Ebenezer Hawes, John Board, Ebenezer Wright, Joel Doolittle and 
Levi Jenison, the father of Silas H. Jenison. The latter was six 
years Governor of the State, and to his death a truly valuable 
member of the society, and constant attendant on its meetings. 

These men were open avowers and supporters of the aforesaid 
sentiments, and so were, generally, the large families whfch many 
of them gathered around them here. 


From 1795 to 1806, the Universalists of Shoreham had, occa- 
sionally, the services of Elders Rich, Hilliard and Farewell, and 
their meetings being held at Richville, were numerously attended. 

In 1806 they effected a society organization, and they secured 
the services of Rev. Richard Carrigue as their pastor. He resided 
with them until about 1814. In 1810, feeling the necessity of a 
more convenient place of worship than District School Houses, the 
Hon. C. Rich presented the plan of an Academy to be erected on 
the Common in the central village. The building was to be sixty 
by forty feet, with a chapel above of the same dimensions. This 
was to be used by the religious societies who desired it, according to 
the shares they owned, for Sabbath worship. Forty of the fifty- 
six stockholders either belonged to the Universalist society or fa- 
vored their meetings, and fifty-five of the seventy-one shares sold 
were taken by the aforesaid subscribers, which secured the occu- 
pancy of the chapel to them three-fourths of the time, though it 
was not always improved by them to this amount. They subse- 
quently erected better free seats, and added a pulpit and an organ, 
which improved it much as a place of worship. This was their 
place of worship until 1852, when having completed a commodious 
brick church, in the most modern style, forty-four by sixty-six feet, 
they vacated the former, and commenced and still continue to wor- 
ship in " the latter house." 

From 1814 to 1825 the society was supplied with the labors of 
Mr. Johnson, Barzillai Streeter, S. C. Loveland, and James Bab- 
bitt. They resided with them more or less, and also visited them 
as opportunity offered. 

From the commencement of 1825 to the close of 1827, they were 
supplied a few Sabbaths each year by Rev. K. Haven, then residing 
at Bethel, Vt. In the commencement of 1828 he located with 
them, and is their resident clergyman. 

It may be well to state that during their existence of rising half 
a century, as a religious society, they have not been exempt from 
the reverses and changes common to such bodies. Death has been 
in their midst, taking yearly valuable members from their ranks, 
till the last in the preceding list of original settlers has departed. 


Others, not named, who came into town prior to 1800, with their 
parents, and were among its most worthy citizens, have been also 
taken from them : — yet their ranks have, generally, been well sup- 
plied by their descendants. 

Considering the decrease of native population, which has been 
going on for years by emigration, and the consequent influx of for- 
eign help, who give no support to Protestant societies, — and also 
the aggregation of land into large farms, thus reducing the number 
of freeholders in town, (an operation in which they have fully par- 
ticipated.) they may consider their condition, numerically, fiscally 
and socially, quite as eligible as the average condition of religions 
bodies in town : — while harmony has crowned all their fraternal in- 
terests and religious efforts. 





At an early day, the use of ardent spirits was almost universal. 
They were sold at all the stores and taverns, and many men be- 
came confirmed inebriates, and were reduced from a state of afilu- 
once to poverty, by their habits of dissipation. About the year 
1826, it was ascertained that more than six thousand gallons of ar- 
dent spirits were sold in one year by the merchants of this town. 
Large quantities of cider brandy were manufactured and used in 
families, contributing greatly to aggravate the evil. The following 
facts were furnished by Mr. Clark Rich, for insertion in the history of 
this town, a short time previous to his death. " About the year 
182 j^ Rev. Daniel 0. Morton lectured on this subject, and by his 
efforts a Temperance Society was formed, and a considerable num- 
ber of signatures was obtained to a pledge to abstain from the use of 
distilled spirits, both as a beverage and a medicine. The first year 
only seven names were obtained to this pledge. A larger number 
joined the society afterward, and many of the farmers, after this, 
dispensed with the use of distilled spirits in haying and harvesting. 
The great body of the people, however, stood aloof from the society, 
because the pledge prohibited the use of ardent spirits for any pur- 
pose whatever. The society soon became inactive, and very little 
was done to check the evil. In 1831 it was ascertained that forty 
hogsheads of distilled spirits were sold in this town. In the year 
1833, the society was induced to modify the pledge, so as to allow 
the use of spirits as a medicine, and the author of this history lec- 
tured on the subject of temperance in nearly every school district 
in town, during the winter and spring of 1834, and obtained nearly 


five hundred signatures to the new pledge. Clark Rich was one 
of the number who signed it, at the lecture delivered at Richville in 
the spring of 1834. He enlisted in the cause with indefatigable 
zeal and industry. The next year, through his efforts a petition 
was circulated among the ladies of Shoreham, and signed by 
nearly all, requesting the merchants to discontinue the sale. 
Much to their credit, they all acceded to the request, and a great 
advance was made toward universal reform. About the year 1838 
or 1839, a similar effort was made to exclude the sale from the 
taverns, which did not prove equally successful. At the town 
meeting next held, a board was elected favorable to gran ti?ig free 
licenses to tavern keepers, and the prohibitionists for three 
years failed to elect their candidate to the State Legislature. After 
the Maine "Law was passed, by frequent lectures on the subject, the 
circulation of temperance publications among the people generally, 
and much personal effort, the principle of that law was sustained by 
the votes of the people, and has become the general sentiment of 
the inhabitants of the town, and the reformation has been as thor- 
ough as in any other town in the county. The evil, however, to a 
limited extent still remains in clandestine sales, and the ready ac- 
cess which drinkers have to the un suppressed traffic in the State of 
New York. A great reform has already been effected, which has 
contributed much to the temporal prosperity of the inhabitants. A 
flourishing Temperance Society is now in existence, and it is hoped 
that in a few years the greatest evil that has ever prevailed here 
will be entirely abated. 




The earl J settlers had many hardships to encounter for the first 
few years. They had to carry their grain on horseback to Pittsford 
to be ground. Many of them were often short of provisions befor-e 
the return of harvest, and without money to purchase grain else- 

In 1790 there was so great an access to the number of inhabit- 
ants by immigration, and so short a crop of wheat, that the inhab- 
itants were reduced nearly to a state of starvation. The following 
instances will show the state of suffering to which many of the peo- 
ple were reduced. One family in the west part of the town was 
entirely destitute of bread for the space of six weeks. They used 
boiled greens as a substitute. It was with great difficulty that 
bread could be obtained by travelers passing through the town. A 
man of the name of Philip Smith had a family of three or four 
children. He took a job of chopping and clearing a piece of land 
of Levi Jenison, for which he was to receive four dollars and a half 
per acre, one half to be paid in cash and one half in sole leather. 
While performing his work, he stinted himself to an allowance of 
half a pint of meal, and milk as much as he wanted, for breakfast 
and supper, going without his dinner. He took the portion of 
money which he received for his work, and started off for Troy on 
horseback to purchase either grain or fluur, but could find none 
there for sale ; he learned, however, that it could be obtained at 


Hoosic. There he purchased flour at seven cents a pound, and 
thought it cheap at that. Returuing by Manchester, his father 
loaded a horse with corn and went with him to Shoreham. On his 
return, he found the last of the meal in the house was cooking. 

The same year Samuel Hunt and Thomas Rowley had the ear- 
liest wheat. On a day fixed upon for the purpose, these fields were 
parceled out, and people came from several towns to reap, each one 
the portion allotted to him. Several persons had to cut their grain 
before it was fairly ripe, and so pressing were the demands of hun- 
ger, that they dried it just enough to shell it, and then boiled it for 

At an early day the country was much infested with wolves, 
which were very destructive to the small flocks of sheep, on which 
the farmers depended for wool, that was worked into cloth in the 
family. Their frequent depredations often drew out great numbers 
to engage unitedly in what was called a wolf hunt, in which the 
men, at a certain distance from each other, would surround a piece 
of woods, and in advancing would gradually close up their ranks. 
For several years this did not succeed, as some wouldj advance 
ahead of others, and thus break the lines, giving the wolves an op- 
portunity to escape. At length Charles Rich proposed a plan ever 
after pursued, which made success certain against their enemies, if 
they weie within the forest that was surrounded. The plan was 
this: one man went in front of each line, making a track for each 
line to march to and then reform. This method preserved the lines. 
The first time the plan was tried, three wolves were shot. The 
bounty was then twenty dollars for each wolf killed. The money 
thus obtained, was, by vote or general custom, expended in fur- 
nishing liquors at wolf hunts. Sixty dollars we should think would 
furnish a rather liberal supply. If it were but twenty, we should 
be left in doubt which of the two was the greatest evil, the wolves 
or the rum. 

One of the great evils felt by the early settlers, was the want of 
a sound currency, and a good market for the products of their farms. 
Says one, who was a youth in those days, " I can remember when 
a large share of the deal was_made for cattle pay, due October 1st, 


and much of it was delivered at my father's. In my mind's eye, 
I can now see from fifty to one hundred head of cattle, say October 
1st, 1798, in the lot between Davis Rich's house and the school- 
house, and nearly as many men and boys, singly and in groups 
through the lot, in the store or in the bar-room, where the flip- 
iron was kept red hot, to season the trades ; — one cow, steer, yoke 
of oxen, colt, &c., would, in many instances, pay a dozen different 
debts ; and, perhaps, in the end, be driven back by the same per- 
son who drove it to the market fair," Another person, who was 
then older, says that similar scenes were yearly witnessed in the 
west part of the town, where Captain Thomas Barnum was gener- 
ally the appraiser for all parties. A large part of the new lands 
purchased were paid for in cattle. Colonel Ephraira Doolittle fi-e- 
quently received on the 1st of October, one hundred head of cattle 
in payment for lands he had sold. 

For years after 1800, the times were famous for petty suing and 
taking to jail, and swearing out of after twenty days. Under the 
laws at that time a man could be sued in any county, however dis- 
tant it might be from him, if not without the limits of the State. 
This was semetimes very harrassing. John S. Larabee was sued 
before a court at Bennington, on a note given for twenty dollars. 
Larabee had paid the note, but he having dropped it somewhere, as 
he supposed, the finder brought his suit in the extreme south part 
of the State, at a distance of ninety miles, hoping, doubtless that 
the signer would choose rather to pay it, than to suffer the incon- 
venience and cost of contesting it so far from home. Larabee, how- 
ever, chose to let justice take its course, rather than to submit to 
such an imposition, though greatly to his own cost, and happily 
succeeded in proving payment. This attempt was one of the op- 
erations of Comfort Carpenter, who was notorious in this town for 
many evil practices, and was afterward an inmate of the State Prison 
at Sing Sing, N. Y. 

There was little which the farmer raised that would command 
money, except at prices ruinous to his interests. This rendered it 
exceedingly difficult to many to meet their demands by cash pay- 
ments. When collections were enforced by attachment on person- 


al property, as they often were, the sale at auction was made at an 
immense sacrifice to the debtor. 

In the fall and early part of winter the merchants fixed the price 
of wheat often at fifty cents, and might sell the same perhaps be- 
fore another harvest for a dollar. The only cash market for wheat 
was Troy. There was a time when the roads were such that twenty 
bushels were called a good load for a span of horses, and fre- 
quently it was sold there for seventy-five cents per bushel. A 
few who had means to purchase and could wait for a better market, 
•grew wealthy ; but the great mass of the people were poor, and it 
was a long time before they could rise to a condition of independ- 
ence and comfort. 

Paul Shoreham Crigo was the first male child born in this town, 
probably before the Revolution. Paul Moore gave him his name, 
and one hundred acres of land. Daniel Newton Kellogg was the 
first male child born after the Revolution. Daniel Newton gave 
him his name and twenty-five acres of land. 

Sally Smith, now living at the age of seventy-four, was the first 
female born in this town. The wife of Abijah North was the first 
woman of the families of the settlers who died in this town. She 
died in 1783. Isaac Chipman, brother of Gen. T. F. Ch.pman, 
died m 1786. 

The first marriage in town is not reported. 

The site of the saw-mill, built by Col. Ephraim Doolittle pre- 
vious to the Revolution, is said to be noted on the map accompanying 
the Narrative of Burgoyne's Expedition, published in London in 
1780. The saw-mill was burned by a scouting party of Indians 
during the war, and afterwards rebuilt by Doolittle, and another 
saw-mill and grist-mill added. The supply of water for these mills 
is insuflScient in the summer : in spring, when set back, it becomes 
injurious to the grass lands affected by it, so that, by an act of the 
Legislature, the gate which controls it is annually to be set open on 
the first day of May. 

Indian relics are found at various places, almost the whole length 
of the Lake shore in this town, on what is called the Doolittle farm, 
i a the vicinity of the Lemon Fair and many other localities, in the 


shape of arrow-heads, knives, pestles, axes, gouges, many of them 
curiously wrought. On the farm of Orville Smith. Esq., a stone 
is found, of about one hundred and fifty pounds weight, rounded 
and smoothed like a cannon ball, unlike to any other rock in this 
vicinity, bearing all the signs of having been shaped by the action 
of water. It is not supposed to be meteoric, but has been brought 
from a distance and deposited probably by some agency of nature, 
where it is now found a few rods from Mr. Smith's house. 

Several springs and wells on Cream Hill are so strongly impreg- 
nated with Epsom Salts as to make them unfit for family use. 

Five Mile Point has its name from its reputed distance from the 
"Old Fort " at Ticonderoga. It is more extensive than other low 
promontories or capes of the lake border, though comprised within 
the limits of a farm or two, and recently, chiefly within the large 
farm of Horace Lapham. It appears probable that this ground was 
intended by the Proprietors of the town for a town plat. Lots of 
one acre to each right were surveyed and reserved here, as appears 
from the Proprietors' records copied in another place. Other 
lots of twenty-six acres to each right, twenty-six rods wide, 
were reserved and assigned in like manner along the whole lake 
shore, but only Five Mile Point has the idea attached to it of a city 
that might have been. 

The name Hackley-burnie was long popularly given to what is 
now Richville. A destructive fire prevailed early in the settlement 
and vicinity, spreading a scene of desolation. Daniel Newton, it is 
said, coming among those who were laboring here, reiterated the 
exclamation. Hackle and burn ! The expression gave the idea of 
the name, by which the place was familiarly called till that of Rich- 
ville was substituted, given it out of regard to the family who 
were the first founders of the settlement. 

A similar explanation has been given of the origin of the name of 
Lemon Fair river. The late Hon. Samuel S. Phelps, of Middlebury, 
repeated one which he had heard, which has more the air of histor- 
ical probability ; that the name Limon Faire, to make mud, was 
originally given by the French, who were the first civilized occu- 


pants of the country near the stream, and made grants in which it 
was included. 

The settlement two miles below Richville, on the Lemon Fair, 
including the water-power and works of Herod Newell, has been 
named Unionville. 

The timber trade with Canada was chiefly a cash trade. In thia 
Frazer and Bostwick were most largely engaged, commencing as 
early as 1 789. Thomas Delano of Cornwall was in the business 
about 1806 ; David Turrill, also, and John B. Catlin were in it. 
The principal timber was of white oak, both in staves and square 
timber. The farms generally abounded in white oak trees : the 
rafts were made up along the Lake shore, those of Delano chiefly 
at Hunsden's cove. A single tree from the farm of Levi Birchard, 
measuring two feet square, was bought for forty dollars, delivered 
at the Lake. The delivery was effected by a spell of the neighbors, 
for which Delano found the liquor. 

Furs were an article of traffic to some extent in early times, 
Musk-rat, Fox and Wolf skins The profit was chiefly enjoyed by 
the lads and young men of the families, and was an important re- 
source to them. They were sold for cash for the markets below. 

The Lake fishing was a source of family supplies^ both for fresh 
and salt fish. Nets were introduced about 1800. Pike, pickerel 
and bass were salted for summer's use. The price of salt was as 
high as two dollars and fifty cents, when wheat was forty-six cents ; 
or a dollar in Troy, when wheat was seventy- five cents. 

Flax was an important product, every family cultivating for 
themselves from a half acre to an acre, which was dressed on the 
place and spun and wove in the family. This continued up to about 

Orchards, set from the first nurseries of apple trees cultivated in 
town, are still in existence. Trees, in certain instances, planted sev- 
enty years since are yet in bearing condition, producing excellent 
fruit. For a few years passed, the crop has failed in part, and orch 
ards need to be renewed. 

The maple in early times was the sole dependence for molasses and 
sugar, and introduced the farming year annually with its labors, 


and its own peculiar Arcadian delights, in which all of every fam- 
ily had some part. Some diminution of the amount and importance 
of the product occurred, but of late years the business has revived 
from the second growth of trees, and promises to become more val- 
uable than ever. 

Wool in 1837, was at its highest point both in price and quantity. 
Seventy-five cents a pound was paid for it. In 1840, the number 
of sheep by the census was 41,188, the product of wool 95,276 
lbs. The price had already declined. At the late census, the 
number of sh«ep was 11,168, the quantity of wool 54,853 lbs. 
The quantity of wool to the sheep bemg so much increased, the 
profit of the crop may be greater than before. The improved 
quality of the animal may make the present reduced number of 
sheep equal to the larger number in value. Tliis improvement is 
steadily advancing. The price of wool in 1840 was forty cents, in 
1860, forty-five cents. 

The amount of transportation in former years made many tav- 
erns, and these modified the social habits of the country. Infor- 
mation came by travekrs, and a knowledge of the world was got in 
long journeys in the carriage of produce. All this was by teams, 
and ehiefiy in winter. Seventy teams a night, are spoken of as 
stopping at the Larabee house by the Lake, and an equal number 
at one of the taverns about Cream Hill, of which there were five 
in the same vicinity. These Avere Major and Nathaniel Callen- 
der's, Philemon and Jesse Wolcott's and Gen. T. F. Chipman's. 

A change in the military spirit of the country occurred about 
twenty-five years ago. The display of the militia became unfash- 
ionable. So long as there were regular soldiers in the ranks, says 
a citizen of this town, the companies here took great pride in train- 
ing, and their neighbors, all the town came out to sec the soldiery. 
There were two companies of infantry. The cavalry wore the bear 
skin mounted cap, red woolen coats, blue pantaloons, bore a valise 
at the croup, and were armed with the cutlass, pistols in their hol- 
sters, and spurs at their heels. The impression of half fear of the 

dtrooers is not easy to be lost, by one who was young enough to 


have felt it, or of admiration for the exercises of eithe? corps. 
Training days certainly were holidays. 

The Fourth of July, rather as Independence day happened, the 
fifth, was celebrated in Shoreham, in 1802, on the principle of the 
exclusion of party. The procession was conducted by Col. Pond 
and Gen. Ghipman. The second place was assigned to Martial Mu- 
sic — 3d, Sixteen Musketeers — 4th, A flag with the inscription, We 
are one — 5th, the Clergy and Orator — 6 th, the Singers — 7th, the 
Married Ladies and Young Misses— 8th, the Magistrates and Elders' 
— 9th, the Citizens in general. The whole moved to the Meeting. 
House, where the exercises were as follows : 1st, Sacred Music — ^ 
2, Prayer by Rev. Abel Woods — 3, Declaration of Independence^ 
read by the Town Clerk — 4, A conciliatory Oration, read by Mr. Sis- 
son — 5, Appropriate Music. The procession returned in their pre- 
vious order to the Common, were formed in a hollow square, th©' 
flag and Toast-Master in the centre, when the toasts were announced 
accompanied with discharges of musketry. An entertainment fol- 
lowed provided by Mr. Ormsbee and Mr. P. Smith, at which other 
toasts were contributed. The Oration, written by Dr. Timothy 
Page, was subsequently printed. 

Dancing prevailed as a social amusement with the young, up to 
1810. The first party in which the late Judge Larabee had shar- 
ed, as he said, was at Hoolbrook's, on a floor of squared logs. 
There was but one room for the dancers, but a pleasant starlight 
without, as in gayer gardens before and since. There were quilt- 
ings always, of solemn purpose and gay pastime ; riding-parties, 
as all had horses and the fairest horse-woman was exempt from fear ; 
and apple-bees, of simple name enough, which gave the spring 
sometimes to earnest feeling. 

Athletic sports prevailed formerly more than now, ball-playing 
for all classes, so that there were many accomplished players, and 
match-games were played for the honors and the supper, on a chal- 
lenge with neighboring towns. On training days, the companies 
felt injured if not dismissed in season for a game ; at raisings, the 
sport was in order when the work was done. Wrestling had its 
champions, coming down from the first generation, and their imita- 


tors rising in the third. Captain Thomas Barnum excelled in this 
class of exercises, and was said to clear forty-five feet at a hop, 
step and jump. His sons, Truman and Simeon, inherited this ath- 
letic vigor. They would cut and cord their four cords of hard 
wood per day, and be on hand for the favorite sport when the feat 
was over. The first named of the sons died at Chicago some fifteen 
years since, while engaged upon the street improvements of that 
young metropolis. 

The Ladies of the early settlement are less often commemorated 
than the men, whose names they bore. There was much sickness 
which prevailed, and the memories of some survive to this day, em- 
balmed in charity. Mrs. King and Mrs. Hunt were daughters of 
James Moore. Mrs. Gardner is still living at the age of ninety, 
who has brought up eleven children, none of them her own. The 
charm of youthful beauty patriarchal times has been recorded. It 
has glowed and attracted here, and not a virtue has been wanting 
in the household, of which the promise seemed to whisper in the 
bloom of youth. 

Somewhat of the dignity and display of dress accompanied the 
emigrants from the older States, but the habits of the new country 
favored a simplicity which grew out of their position. Furs were 
more worn for dress, than they had ever been in Massachusetts or 
Connecticut. These, taken and prepared by the settlers, were fitted 
into articles of comfort and ornament. The beaver hat, made in 
the older region, better than any now worn, was preserved by some 
men of magisterial dignity, the gold beads, all but universal with the 
sex at that period, could not be relinquished, shoe and knee buckles 
of silver tempted the sedate gaze of those who aimed to set a salu- 
tary example before the young, and the scarlet cloak of wool, spun 
and wove in the family, as if bought with a great price, set off tha 
person of the maiden with credit that was preparing to be saluted 
with reverence in lighter years. The short-gown at home was uni- 
versal, the great and little spinning-wheels made their seasonable 
music during the year, the loom filling up the intervals. Deer 
skin, the tanning of which was an art of the day, was worn for 
nethor garments by the men, and for gaiters and moccasins by both 


sexes. Chintz had the place of style of damask elsewhere, for the 
simpler calico was not yet introduced, but the usual summer wear of 
both sexes was of linen wrought in the family. 

Clocks were rare up to 1805 or 6, when they were introduced 
by a Mr. Pope of Connecticut, who made head-quarters at GeD. 
Chipman's and sold them about the country at twenty-three dol- 
lars. The time before this was taken from noon-marks and the 
position of the sun, but watches were carried by the men. 

The first two-horse waggon, remembered in Shoreham by one o f 
our oldest citizens, was introduced from New Jersey. About the 
year 1810, the first one horse waggon was brought into town. Be- 
fore that the people mostly performed their journeys, visited an# 
went to meeting on horse-back, two persons often riding on one 
horse. If the two were a gentleman and lady, the gentleman rode 
on a saddle before, and the lady on a pillion behind him. I have 
been informed by one man, that in 1793, while he was an infant, 
he was carried by his mother on horse-back one hundred and ten 
miles to Warwick, Mass. Another, the parental hive of whos e 
family was in Sheffield, tells the same experience of infant history 
at about the same time. It was the way of such journeying in 
that day. 





When Allen's party came on from Castleton, Daniel Newton 
was chopping on the place afterward owned by Captain Cutting and 
by Mr. Randall, now by Benjamin Hurlbert. He set his axe up 
by the side of a tree, and joined the party. He went into the 
army and did not return to hia place till seven years afterward, 
when he found the axe where he left it. He took it up, when it 
dropped from the helve and cut him on the back part of his ancle 
as it fell. 

At the time of the Plattsburgh alarm, Captain Nathaniel North, 
in company with neighbors, was making a log coal-pit, on the south 
part of the farm now occupied by John Ward. The news of the 
threatening invasion was communicated to him by his son Marvin, 
then a lad of fourteen years. All immediately stopped work, and, 
with one exception, said they would go immediately to repel the 
hostile invaders. The hesitating individual had made an engage- 
ment of a more amicable nature, having the claim of priority, and 
may perhaps be forgiven that he preferred the banner of rosy Cupid 
to that of bloody Mars. 

A traditional anecdote of Gideon Sisson furnishes an illustration 
of trouble under the gentler standard, perhaps for want of the coun- 
tersign : — A gentleman from Canada, a native of France, as he was 
traveling through the country, put up in the north part of the 
County for the night, where he was hospitably entertained by the 
lady of the house. On taking his leave in the morning, he ven- 


tured the salutation common in his own country, with which sho 
thought herself to have heen grossly insulted. The family were 
indignant, had him arrested by an officer, conducted to Middlebury 
and lodged in jail. Being unable to make himself understood in 
the English language, it was not in his power to explain his con- 
duct. His case excited considerable attention, and became the topic 
of conversation, while Hon. Charles Rich was present. Pitying 
the condition of the stranger, who appeared to be a gentleman in 
his manners, about to be brought forth for trial without the power 
to plead his own case, or to employ counsel to whom he could ex- 
plain his conduct, Mr. Rich remarked that there was a man in 
Shoreham who well understood and could talk the French lan- 
guage, and he thought he ought to be sent for. A messenger was 
accordingly dispatched who brought Mr. Sisson, the learned teach- 
er, who immediately held an interview with the prisoner, and at 
the proper time went with him before the court, and stated in his 
behalf that he meant no incivility, and that as he had been hospit- 
ably entertained, he had only done that which the laws of courtesy 
required in his own country. The explanation given by Mr. Sis- 
son was satisfactory, and the accused was immediately released. 
The stranger was deeply affected, parted with him, who had inter- 
posed as his friend, with many expressions of gratitude for his kind- 
ness, and generously rewarded him for his services. 

On the Plattsburgh expedition, the infantry might have crossed 
the Lake on Saturday night, but their captain refused to go for- 
ward without a full supply of ammunition and provisions, leav- 
ing the proper stores of his company behind him. A portion of 
them blamed his untimely prudence, but a brief experience of mil- 
itary service satisfied them of his sagacity and foresight, and they 
frankly asked his pardon for their impatience. When their land- 
ing had been made, and, early in the morning of the next day, a 
•quick march was to be made. Captain Hand directed his men to eat 
as they marched, and while others halted for their breakfast, his 
company had taken the lead of those who were hastening to the 
aid of their countrymen. As it happened, they were the first to 
jaaeet the news of the retreat of the enemy. 


Thomas Barnum, on the same expedition, went with his team to 
carry the volunteers, and, though aged, was so enthusiastic as to cross 
over with them to the seat of war. The story is told of Deacon 
Stephen Barnum, in the Revolution, that he was on guard on 
Mount Independence at a pile of Avood. The commanding General 
was known to him, and approached him without being challenged, 
and while praising his gun, got possession of it. The General, af- 
ter alarming him for his carelessness, restored it on the promise 
that he would never fail in his duty again, and said he would take 
a stick or two of the wood. The wood being in hand, the General 
■*a9 biddesi t© stand, and marched at once to the guard-house, and 
detained till the Captain of the Guard chose to come and release 

T. J. Ormsbee was a humourist, and many good stories are re- 
peated of his practical jokes. The most extraordinary, on account 
of the parties concerned and the peculiar excitement said to have 
been occasioned, was that which related to a pious Elder and his 
wife of Bridport, of whom Ormsbee reported they were seen pulling 
hair in their own door-yard. The matter spread, and though whispered 
at first, the scandal became violent and in due time raised an appro- 
priate inquiry in the church. Ormsbee was called to testify, and 
went as soon as practicable to the point : He had reported the fact, 
he saw it himself, the lady pouring scalding water, and the Elder, 
with a hoe, pulling hair from a slaughtered pig lying on an ox 
sled. This unequivocal testimony quieted the scandal which had 
arisen, and satisfied the public. 

In the Canada trade, oak timber, as has been said, was a favorite 
article, and brought an impoa'tant return of money. Ashbel Catlin, 
Senior, went in for his son with this article, and in leaving the 
Province had some close adventures in running out his specie. The 
export of this was forbidden, and at the suggestion of his son, John 
B., it came out as powder, the first layer in the cask being well cov- 
ered with that article. What is this ? said the ofiicer of customs, 
examining it. John B. says it is powder; said the veteran without 
flinching. This was not satisflictory to the officer, who was proceed- 
ing to examine further, when the carrier drew his pistol, and point- 


ing the muzzle at the contents of the cask — Touch it, said he, an^ 
we all go together ! The officer passed him. 

A story is told, recited imperfectly in its important circumstances 
from a very dim tradition, of the earlier mail-carrier, trained to 
bring out the weekly budget of letters, in the days when they were 
received at Middlebury, The fact seems incredible, but not the 
incident, which was that the dog, a Newfoundland, passing the Lem- 
on Fair, saw a mink which had just been shot, floating at the sur- 
face. His package was about his neck, but unmindful of his re- 
sponsibility, in he plunged and brought the mink safely to the gun- 
ner, but his mail a little the Avorse for the water. Others say, it 
was a child that was fillen in the water, and that the dog laid down 
the bag. in which his trust was carried in his mouth, and rescued 
the boy, and then shook himself and went on his way with his 
burden. So difficult it is to get at the truth of so doubtful a mat- 

When the first Meeting House was raised in 1800, the people 
were assembled from all the country around to witness the proceed- 
ings, deeply interested in so rare an occurrence in those early days, 
all participating in the joy and hilarity of the occasion. After the 
last timber had been laid upon the belfrey, a man of the name of 
Mark Mazouson went up and stood with his head downward on 
the cross timber, and his feet in the air. It Avas the proper posi- 
tion for his feet, if his head was heavy enough to steady them. 
Some say he stood thus on the shoulder of the post. This was 
thought at the time a wonderful feat and greatly amused the spec- 
tators, but was greatly out-d^ne about four years afterward, when 
the cupola was finished, by Randall Wells, an apprentice, who went 
up the lightning rod and stood with his foot in the forks. 

Money Digging. — About the year 1792, many people were 
much excited by one of those occurrences, which at an early day 
were not very rare in some other parts of the country. 

A Scotchman of the name of Robert Barter, who then lived 
where Mr. Dennis formerly lived, dreamed three times in one night 
that he saw a pot of money deposited under a log on land now 
owned by Penn Frost, a few rods north of his barn on the east side 

HisTOP.Y or .siioiiEnA;\i. 145 

of the road. He bcfran to disj for the moncv, but got friii;htened 
by some strange appearances. He afterward purchased the land, 
and let others dig upon it, on condition of sharing with them in 
the treasure if any should be found. 

Jabez Barnum afterward purchased the land, and engaged in 
digging, and permitted others to dig. The digging was generally 
done in the night, and many strange fancies occurred, such as at- 
traction of mineral rods, the movement of the money from one 
place to another. This excitement lasted seven or eight years, and 
men came to dig there from the distance of thirty or forty miles. 

About the year 179-1 many people in this and the neighboring 
towns were excited, by one of those singular instances which in 
former times was regarded as an omen of some hidden treasure, re- 
vealed hy a mysterious supernatural agency. Tiie cause of this 
excitement, which lasted several years, and induced many to dig 
for money, is thus given by one living near the scene of operations. 
"A man of the name of John M'Ginnis dreamed one night that 
a man came to him and said if he would, in the morning, take his 
butcher knife and go to Mr. Treadway's and grintl it, and not tell 
any one why he did so, a large dog would come to him w^hile grind- 
ing the knife, and if then he would go alone to a certain place and 
commence dioicrino; by the side of a loo;, a small sized man would 
ccme to him just as he should get near the money, and that if ho 
would not speak to him, but kill him, he would succeed in getting 
it. The next morning M'Ginnis began to follow out the suggestions 
of his dream. While grinding his knife, Treadway's dog came to 
the grind-stone. He then went to the place designated and com- 
menced digging. After digging for a while, he took his crow bar, 
and striking; it into the ci;round ho thou";ht he heard a noise, like 
the jingling of dollars, when he involuntarily exclaimed, ''There, 
I've found it!" and looking behind him, ho saw Mr. Trcadway close 
by him, answering in appearance to the vision of his dream. Instead 
of killing the man, as directed, he kept on digging, but heard no 
more jingling of dollars, and found no money. But others, excited 

to dig for the precious trcasurc,saw strange sights, and heard strange 


sounds, which for a long time kept up the mania for money digging." 
Monej digging was also carried on at a place called stony spring, 
near Solomon Bissell's waggon shed. It is said that parts of shov- 
els, sleeve buttons, knives, &c., were found there, which is not im- 
probable, as that spring affords a convenient place for refreshment 
and encampment of the troops, employed in the opening of the Crown 
Point road in the time of the French war, and was a common rest- 
ing place for the soldiers, and parties passing that way, in the time 
ot the Revolution. That there was much deception and imposition 
practised in getting up the excitement at first is doubtless true, and 
still more were probably employed to keep it alive. Old Mrs. 
M'Ginnis affected to be much displeased that others should come to 
get away her sons treasures. One night she frightened away a 
party of diggers, by carrying a torch, elevated upon a long pole. 
Mrs. M'Ginnis and a woman of the name of Hogle, in that neigh- 
borhood, were professed fortune-tellers, to whom multitudes at one 
time resorted to have the future of their lives revealed to them. 
Even members of the church became implicated in patronizing their 
arts of necromancy and delusion. So great had the evil become, 
that the Congregational church passed a resolution making it a 
disciplinable offence in any member who should consult a fortune- 
teller. How much those families, in which this delusion originated, 
were interested by the money which they might have received, for 
refreshments furnished and aid rendered to those who resorted to 
this place to dig for money, we have no means of judging. It was 
no doubt a sufficient motive to prompt them to use every art to keep 
the excitement alive, which it was not difficult to accomplish, 
when so many believed in apparitions, ghosts and witchcraft. 




Statistical — population— property — taxes — wages — reg- 
istration RETURNS — graduates. 

population of SHOREHAM — SUMMARY. 
From the United States Census for 1860, 

Whole number, 






Farm Laborers, 






Over 70 years, 




Born in Vermont, 




Lower Canada, 




New York, 










Dress Makers and Milliners. 


New Hampshire, 




Other N. E. States, 




Other States, 




Other Foreign, 




In School, 


Cannot read and write. 


A slight deficiency appears, in the sheets of the Census deposited 
in the County Clerk's office, in, noting the place of birth of the 
younger members of a few families : some omissions may occur in 
transcribing. Sons of farmers, in a few instances, may be num- 
bered in their class, without implying ownership of farms. 

" social statistics," of u. s. census of 1860. 

From Assessors Books. 

Real Estate, 
Personal " 


True Valuation, $931,690. From Census Returns. 


TAXES FOR 1859. 
Town Tax, $!1250 00, paid in Cash School Tax, jaSSS 00, paid in Cash 

State " 1316 00, " Road " 1184 00,paid in Work 

Academy— 2 to 4 Teachers, GO Pupils, Income from Quarter Bills. 
Common Schools 12 in number. Pupils 350. 
Paid from Taxes $1060, Public Funds $000. 


Congregational, No. of Sittings, 400 Universalist, No. of Sittings, 850 

Value of Property, $8,500 Value of Property. $8,000 


Town. 650 Tolumes. Univ. Sunday School, 150 -volumea. 

Cong. Sunday School, 225 " Five Private Libraries, 1500 '• 

PAUPERS, JUNE i, 1860. 
4 Native, 3 Foreign. Average cost per year, $550 00. 
Farm Laborers from $12 to 16 2-3 per month, per year. 
Female Domestics, 1 to 2.00 per week. 

Carpenters, without board, 1 to 1,75 per day. 
Laborers. " " av. 1.00 per day. 

Board for Laborers, 2.00 per week. 

A portion of the estimates above given, from the Census returns, 
are here corrected from other sources. 


A synopsis of the official reports, made under the Registration 
Act of 1856, is given below in a communication from Prof. Charles 
L. Allen, M. D., of the Castleton Medical College, by whom, as 
Chairman of a Committee of the Vermont Medical Society, the 
Reports, heretofore published by the State, have been prepared and 
presented. It is hinted that the returns may not be wholly perfect, 
and that the time under consideration is too limited to warrant very 
positive inferences : 

During the years 1857 to 1860 inclusive, the returns to the of- 
fice of the Secretary of State, from the town of Shoreham, show 
Births 115 — males 63, females 52. 
Marriages 32. 
Deaths 95 — males 42, females 53. 

This indicate? one birth to have taken place annually among ev- 
ery forty-nine persons ; one marriage among every one hnndred and 


seventy-two persons ; and one death among every fifty-seven per- 
sons of the population, or a mortality of a little less than two per 
cent. The ordinary mortality of rural regions ranges from one and 
one-half to two per cent. 

The average age of those dying was a trifle over thirty-eight 
years, being a little above the average for the State. 

About one quarter of the deaths were of children under five 
years of age. A little more than one quarter were of persons over 
seventy years of age, being about five per cent, more than the gen- 
eral average for the State. 

The greatest number of deaths occurred in the month of March, 
the next greatest in October, and the least number in December. 

Consumption, although the most prominent cause of death, does 
not seem to be as prevalent in this town as in many other parts of 
the State. Seventeen per cent, of the deaths were from this dis- 
ease. The general average of the State exhibits about twenty-two 
per cent, of the deaths from this cause. 

One tenth of the deaths were attributed simply or mainly to old 
age, considerably above the average in this or other States. 



Edward S. Stewart, Middlebury College, 1803. Lawyer. 

Silas Chipman, " I8l5. Cong. Minister. 

Samuel Wolcott, " 1815. Lawyer. 

JoelTurrill, '« 1816. Lawyer. 

Henry Howe, " 1817. Cong. Minister. 

Richard C, Hand , " 1822. Cong. Minister. 

Henry Lewis, , " 1822. Lawyer, 

John S. Chipman, " 1823. Lawyer. 

Edgar L. Ormsbee, " 1823. Lawyer. 

Eli B. Smith. D. D., " 1823. Bap. Minister. 

Joseph N. Chipman, '' 1828. Lawyer. 

Sendol B . Munger, " 1827. For. Mission'y. 

Samuel S. Howe, " 1829. Cong. Minister. 

Asa Hemenway, " ] 835. For. Mission'y . 

Lo^is Doolittle " 1836. Lawyer. 

John Ramadell " 1837. Lawyer. 

William Wines, " 1337. Teacher. 




Byron Sunderland, Middlebury College, 1838. Pres. Minister 

Daniel E. Morton, '• Lawyer. 

William Schuyler Martin •• 1836. Teacher. 

Charles K. Wright, " 1844. Lawyer. 

Gustavus B. Wright, «• 1848. 

DavisJ.Rich, " 1848. Lawyer. 

Henry Barnum, " 1858. Teacher. 

Alva Wood, Yale College, 1 810. Pres't College. 

Henry N. Kellogg, Union College, 1857. 

.John T. Wolcott, " Lawyer. 

Vernon Wolcott, Cong, Minister. 

Benjamin Lai*rabee, Wesleyan Seminary, Prest. Sem, 

Charles W. Rich University of Vermont, 1856. 

Romeo B, Petty, " 1857. .Lawyer. 

Robert E. Hitchcock, Norwich University, 1860. 

Eli Hunter, Middlebury College, Cong. Minister. 

Joseph Hurlburt, " Cong. Minister 


George Cutting, Baptist Minister. Minor Y. Turril!, Physician. 

Henry Hunter, Cong. Minister. Milo Smith, Engineer. 

George Rowley, Cong. Minister. 

Augustus C. Hand, Lawyer. Ladies, became Foreign MiBsioNAKisa. 
Thomas J. Ormsbee, Lawyer. 

Eli Smith, Physician. Mrs. Ann (Hemenway) Caswell, Siam. 

John Smith, Physician. Mrs. Lucia (Hunt) Hemenway, Siam. 

Nelson Chipman, Physician. Mrs. Jenette (Jones) Winchester, Turkey 





Paul Moore was one of the company who came in 1766. His 
character is interesting chiefly as a daring and fearless adventurer, 
and for the conspicuous part which he acted in the settlement of 
this town. He was born in Worcester, Mass., in 1731. He ran 
away from his parents at the age of twelve years, and went to sea. 
He spent more than twenty years of his life on the ocean. Once 
the vessel in which he sailed had sprung a leak, and all on board 
were in peril of their lives, when Moore jumped overboard and 
stopped the leak, by a cake of tallow thrust in at the breach 
in its planking. After his return from sea, he went to Vermont 
with some of the soldiers in the French war. He had two brothers 
in the service, one of whom was a Lieutenant, and commanded a 
company near Lake George, and was killed in an engagement with 
the enemy. After the close of that war, he spent much of his time 
in hunting in the vicinity of the lake, probably as early as 1763, 
or 1764. In the fall and winter of 1765 he spent six months in 
Shoreham, in a hut which he constructed of pine and hemlock 
boughs, without seeing a human being the whole time. 

That winter he caught seventy beavers. For several winters af- 
ter that, he spent his time in hunting for furs, in which he was so 
successful as to accumulate a small property. Some time after the 
year 1766, Moore happened to be at Fort Ticonderoga, and got into 
a dispute with Colonel Hayes, the commander. The story is that 
Hayes asked Moore what he was there for, and that he otherwise 


insulted him, calling him a liar, &c. Moore ansAvered him, much 
in his own style, whereupon Hayes struck him. Moore, being 
lame, carried a cane, with which he struck back. The affair re- 
sulted in a suit, in which it was necessary to prove who struck first. 
One of the witnesses testified that he saw the affray, but could not 
tell who struck first. One thing he knew, Mr. Moore struck two 
blows to Col. Hayes' one. 

During the contests between the Green Mountain Boys and the 
Yorkers, as they were called, Ethan Allen, Seth Warner and one 
Smith were frequently at Moore's house. He strongly sympathised 
Avith them in their efforts to maintain the rights of those who held 
their lands under the grants of the Governor of New Hampshire. 
As he was lame, he took no active part with them in their expedi- 
tions to dispossess the settlers under the grants of the New York 
government. lie claimed, therefore, the rights of a privileged 
person, a neutral, under no obligation to enter into the contests of 
either party, so long as he was permitted to remain on his own 
lands unmolested. In the years 1772 and 1773, Allen, Warner, 
Baker and others, in their expeditions to the North to dispossess and 
drive off the New York intruders, often shared in Moore's hospi- 

In the year 1772, Ethan Allen and Seth Warner put up for the 
night at the house of Mr. Kichards,* in Bridport. In the evening 
six soldiers irom Crown Point, all armed, as were Allen and War- 
ner_ stopped also for the night, having come with the intention of 
apprehending them, and securing the bounty which had been offered 
by the Governor of New York. Different versions have been given 
of the manner in which those two men effected their escape. One 

*Ricliardson is said to have had a soldier's grant of one hundred acres in what 
is now Bridport, four miles south of the Fort at Crown Point. Of those grants, 
made for military service, under the crown, there were many on both sides of the 
Lake. The late Mrs. Markham of Middlebury, a s'ster of Judge Kellogg of Ti- 
conderoga, whose father, Benjamin Kellogg, settled in Addison about 1770, was, 
when very young, a foster child of the family, and for years afterwards a favorite 
with Kate Kichar.lson, the warm hearted Irish wife of the soldier. During the war 
the family removed to St. Johns. Eli Roberts of Vergennes, is sometimes said to 
have been Allen's companion in the adventure. 


is, that being lighted to bed, thej passed out at a window; the other, 
that Mrs. Richards set the guns of Allen and Roberts by the side 
of a window, with their hats placed on them. While the lady was 
busy about the house and the company engaged in conversation, 
Allen stepped out without taking either hat or gun, and in a short 
time Warner followed in the same manner, "without attracting atten- 
tion. In a short time the Yorkers remarked to each other, " They 
hav'nt their hats ; they hav'nt their guns," and went to talking 
again. As they did not return, they at length examined into the 
matter, and found both hats and guns gone. The latter is the ver- 
sion of the story as given by Moore to his family and to others, 
and is probably the true one. Whatever might have been the way 
in -which they effected their escape, they fled immediately toMoore'a 
in Shoreham, Avho hospitably furnished them with bear's meat for 
supper, and with a bed of corn stalks, in another apartment, to sleep 
on. The next day with the daring and jubilant spirit of the men 
and times, outlaws, as they had been proclaimed to be, and the 
Yorkers seeking for them every where, they went out into the pas- 
ture and fired at a mark, each report of their guns saying as loud 
as it could speak, " Here we are, and enjoying ourselves finely too; 
come and take us if you can." 

The cause of Mr. Moore's lameness which prevented him from 
engaging in the active duties of the soldier's life, as related by his 
children, and others who had heard the story from him, was this. 
He was sawing alone in his mill, and while attempting to run the 
carriage back, his ancle was caught by the saw block, and badly 
broken. As he could avail himself of no assistance, he crawled out 
of the mill and called to him his mare, which was accustomed to 
come to him on hearing her name pronounced. Pie mounted her 
and rode to his house a half a mile distant, and as there was no 
surgeon near, he afterwards rode to Vergennes, or to Crown Point, 
it is uncertain which, and had it set by a doctor, whom he after- 
ward called a butcher. It was so badly managed, that the main 
bone, and part of the shin bone, came out below his knee, and a 
new substance formed. This accident made him a cripple for life, 

though it did not wholly incapacitate him for labor. In the latter 

154 nisroiiY or shoreiiam. 

years of bis life, it became much more troublesome, and before bis 
deatb, tbe foot and ancle were separated entirely from tbe leg. 

Mr. Moore was twice taken captive by tbe Indians, during tbe 
war of tbe Revolution. 

Tbe first winter after tbe otber inhabitants left, he and Elijah 
Kellog lived together in tbe same log but. Early tbe next winter, 
there were a few soldiers, probably a scouting party, vrbo turned in 
to spend the night with him. A large party of Indians surrounded 
the house, which Moore and the men defended. The night was 
very dark, and v/bile the Indians surrounded the house so as to ren- 
der escape impossible, Moore slipped outside, and took a side shot 
at them, by which it was thought two of their number were killed, 
from traces of blood wbich appeared upon the ground in tbe morning. 
When day light came, a large body of the Indians broke down the 
door, and rushed into tbe house. One of their chiefs, whom Moore 
had known, rushed toward him, as if to kill him. He at once bared 
his bosom, and looking hira in tbe face, dared him to strike. 
Anotber chief interfered, and proposed to burn him. The Indians 
had previously taken his horse, and had put on the saddle and 
bridle. Before starting they had a dispute about tbe ownership of 
the property, one claiming tbe horse, anotber tbe saddle, and another 
the bridle. One finally took tbe horse, and mounted it, with a strip 
of bark for a bridle ; anotber took tbe saddle and carried it on his 
back, and a third person took tbe bridle in bis band, and set forward 
on their march, after having set fire to Moore's house, and burnt 
the saw-mill, and killed his hogs. Tbe singular appearance of a 
man riding without a saddle and bridle, and the otber two carrying 
those two articles in triumph, made the old sailor laugh. In this 
w^ay they proceeded on with the prisoner. Pi^etending to be more 
lame than he was, they finally put him on the horse, and tbe same 
day they arrived at Crown Point, and encamped for tbe night. 
Some of the young men were set to guard him, but as bo was lame 
they did not take tbe precaution to bind him. Being weary, his 
guard fell asleep. Moore regarding this as a favorable opportunity 
to escape, took bis gun and blanket, and some Canada biscuit, and 
set off for the lake, in a direction different from that in which he 


cam?, through a thick growth of young saplings, bringing into 
exercise his sailor habits, making his way for some distance by 
swinging along from one sapling to another, without touching the 
ground, until at length he reached the lake. There was at that 
time snow on the ground, but none on the ice upon the lake. On 
the shore there was a log reaching out to the ice, he placed himself 
upon this, and put on his creepers, and walked down the log, and 
jumped off on the glare ice, leaving no tracks behind him by which 
he could be traced. After walking far on the ice, he came to one 
of those cracks which are made by the change of temperature 
between day and night, being open in the day, and slightly frozen 
over in the night. Not being able to cross there, he made marks 
upon the ice with his creepers, and then took them off, and follow- 
ing down the crack, until he could step across, he went back on the 
other side until he had arrived opposite to the marks he had made, 
as if he had crossed there, and putting on his creepers again he 
walked off just out of gun shot, and lay down on his blanket as if 
asleep. When the Indians awoke in the morning, and discovered 
Moore had escaped, they sent two or three of their number in pur- 
suit. On coming to the crack in the ice where Moore had made 
the marks, they concluded if he had passed over at that place 
safely, it would be safe for them to pass. One attempted it and 
fell in, when Moore with his long gun shot one, and reloaded and 
shot the other. Having thus disposed of his pursuers, he came to 
the lake sliore in Bridport, so weary that he could go no further. 
There he concealed himself under a stack of straw, and slept through 
the night. On awaking the next morning, he was pleased on 
finding that as it had snowed during the night, no other party could 
follow his tracks. From thence he proceeded to the place of his 
former residence, dug out his dried beef from the snow and fled for 
safety to Brown's camp, which was situated near Miller's bridge in 
Sudbury, on a high rock nearly perpendicular on the east side, from 
the base of which issues a large spring. He returned the next 
season early, and built him a log house. 

Some time in the year 1780, as nearly as can now be ascertained, 
Mr. Moore went on business to the Scotch settlement, at the outlet of 


Lake George, where he was taken by a band of Tories and Indians. 
He was told by them that his head would be a button for a halter, 
because he had killed the Indians who were sent after him the year 
before. He was taken by them to Quebec, and held a prisoner for 
about six months. While there he learned of the Squaws to make 
baskets. He sold his rations to them, and got them to sell his 
baskets, by which means he purchased milk and such other food as 
he could eat. Vv^iile there he wrote a letter to the provincial Gov- 
ernor, requesting new straw and more blankets for himself and 
the other prisoners, who were suffering. The Governor sent him an 
unkind answer, accusing him of impudence. A second letter of 
Moore, in terras still more decided and bold, induced the Governor 
to send the straw and blankets. 

During his captivity, Mr. Moore wrote a letter to Gov. Chitten- 
den, giving an account of the sufiering condition of the prisoners. 
This, with an application of their friends, induced the Governor to 
send a flag, with a letter to the commanding officer in Canada^ 
requesting their release or exchange. A favorable answer was 
returned by Gen. Ilaldimand, who came up Lake Champlain with 
great force, and sent a flag at the same time to Ethan Allen, pro- 
posing a cessasion of hostilities with Vermont, during the negotia- 
tion for the exchange of prisoners. This proposal was acceded to 
by Allen, on condition that the adjacent territory of New York 
bhould be included. Early in 1781, Ira Allen was appointed to 
settle a cartel with the British for an exchange of prisoners. This 
was efiected, and Moore and his fellow prisoners were released, and 
an arrangement was entered into between the authorities of Ver- 
mont and Canada, by which hostilities ceased to a very great extent, 
and an army of ten thousand men in Canada was kept in a state of 
inactivity for the space of nearly three years. If that force had 
been sent forward to co-operate with the British army in New York, 
the result of the effort to establish American Independence might 
have failed entirely, or have been delayed to a longer period. 

That Paul Moore was looked to by his fellow prisoners as the 
most suitable person to be employed to write to Gov. Chittenden on 
their behalf, there can scarcely be a question. He was personally 


acquainted with Allen, and other leading men in Vermont at that 
day. He was a conspicuous character at that time for his boldness 
and intrepidity, and probably better qualified to conduct such a 
correspondence than any other one of the prisoners. Many of his 
letters were preserved for years by his friends, addressed to his 
brother James Moore, then living in Massachusetts, in which he 
described many of his exploits and sufferings ; but they are now 
irrecoverably lost. They are said by those who have read them, to 
have been written in excellent penmanship, and in vigorous style. 
He is described by the surviving members of his family, and others 
who knew him, " as a man of more than ordinary mind, of a good 
practical education, as well read, and a close observer of men and 
things ; and though brave and daring, his sympathies were easily 
awakened, and he was generous even to a fault." The part which 
he performed in writing to Gov. Chittenden, and his correspondence 
with his friends, to enlist them in eflorts to obtain a release from 
captivity, formed an element in that chain of causes, whch secured 
to this nation the recognition of its independence. On his return 
from captivity, it is said that he revisited the place of his former 
residence, and in taking a survey of the desolations around him, as 
he walked up back from his former dwelling, he fixed his eye on a 
singular looking object, which upon more careful observation he 
found to be a colt, which being very poor, presented a nondescript 
appearance, its hair shaggy, and lying in every direction ; and at 
a little distance from the colt, what should he see, but his old pet 
mare. lie called her by her name, and as soon as she heard the 
old familiar voice, she ran to her master, and laid her head on his 
shoulder as if she would most fondly embrace him, who was dead 
but now alive. This affected him to tears. The old favorite beast, 
that he thought had perished, had not only supported herself by 
pawing through the snow for grass, but had sustained the life of 
the strange looking colt, which was seen by her side. 

Moore's life was one of bold adventure, and marked with singular 
perils and vicissitudes. While at S(>a, it is said he often made a 
competence and lost it again. More than once he suffered shipwreck 
with the loss of all he had. lie was in perils in the wildnerness, 


both by savage beasts, and more savage men. It is said there were, 
among the papers which he left, several letters from a lady, to whom 
he had been warmly attached for thirty years, and though more 
than once they were just on the eve of marriage, yet on account 
of his frequent losses, the matter was deferred and never consumma- 
ted. He lived to an advanced period of life a bachelor, and was 
married when past fifty years of age. He was once a large pro- 
prietor of lands, which if he had retained, ^vould have made him 
we.althy. Some of these he gave away at an early day, as an 
inducement to settlement, and others he sold for a merely nominal 
sum. His sacrifices of time and property for the sake of the pub- 
lic welfare, and the expences of a long sickness preceding his death, 
left little for his family, consisting of a wife and four children. He 
died in 1810 aged 79. 

Colonel JosiAH Pond, Avas one of the most eminent and influential 
men among the early settlers of this town. He Avas born in Brad- 
ford, Conn., and from thence came to Lenox, Mass., and from Lenox 
to Poultney, Vt. At the age of twenty-six he came to this town, 
in 1783. He possessed many of those qualities, both physical and 
mental, which at first siglit attract attention. He was tall in per- 
son, over six feet high, of a large robust frame, erect in stature, 
and with features indicating a noble and generous disposition, and 
at the same time an ability to command. He possessed a sound 
judgment, united with uncommon energy and perseverance, tempered 
Avith prudence and discretion. These qualities secured to him some 
of the most important offices in the town, at an early day. He was 
the first militia Captain, and was the Colonel of the first regiment 
of militia in Addison County. He was chosen to represent the 
town in the General Assembly in 1788, and was the second person 
elected to that trust in town. Six times his fellow citizens con- 
ferred on him the honor of that office. In 1791, he represented the 
town in the General Convention, called by the Council of Censors 
for revising the Constitution of the State. He was at the Battle 
of Bennington, and served his country for a few months after in the 
army of the Revolution. He became a member of the Congrega- 
tional Church, in 1810. and was soon after chosen one of its deacons, 


and until made infirm bj age, was active in all the concerns of the 
church and society. He died in this town August 8th, 1840, 
aged 83. 

James Moore, from "Worcester, Mass., spent much time in this 
town, both before and after the Revolution, with his brother Paul 
Moore, in catching beaver, lie made considerable improvements, 
and built a house and represented the town, before he brought his 
flimily. in 1787. That he was held in high estimation bj his fel- 
low citizens, appears from the fact, that he was their choice first for 
representative of the town, and was thrice chosen to that oflBce 
afterwards. lie was for several years select man, and Justice of 
the Peace. He was confided in as a man of superior discretion and 
judgment, and maintained the character of a peace-maker, and con- 
sistent christian. He took a deep interest in the settlement and 
prosperity of the town, was a liberal patron of civil and religious 
institutions, and before his death bequeathed the sum of one hun- 
dred and fifty dollars to the Congregational Society. 

The records, kept by him for many years while he was Justice of 
the Peace, confirm what is elsewhere said respecting the frequency 
of suing for small demands, and the large number of petty law- 
suits previous to 1800. During the years 1794, and 1795, suits 
were brought before him for a considerable portion of the time, as 
often as once in four or five days, and in a majority of cases for 
sums ranging from one shilling and six pence to eight shillings. It 
was Esqr. Moore's practice, in all cases of litigation which came 
before him, to endeavor before the trial to effect a settlement, and 
generally he succeeded. In order to effect his object, he would kindly 
advise the parties, and suggest terms of reconciliation, after propo- 
sing to relinquish his own fees if the parties would agree to a set- 
tlement before trial. To show the confidence which was placed in 
his judgment and integrity, it may be stated that in only one case 
among many tried by him in two years, did I find on a hasty peru- 
sal of the record, was a jury called for. He was regarded by 
all as eminently a peace maker. He was quick of perception, kind 
and genial in his dispositoin, benevolent to the poor, sometimes 
facetious in conversation, sound in judgment, and regarded by all 


as a consistent christian, and a worthy member of the church, with 
which he united m 1810. 

Esqr. Moore had a poetic turn of mind, and often indulged in his 
leisure hours in writing short pieces of poetry, on a great variety 
of subjects, most of which are irrecoveraby lost. Only a few verses 
have I been able to obtain, from the recollections of others, which, 
like most which he wrote, were of a humorous character. 

The following scene is thus described by him. John Smith, who 
went by the name of " Hatter Smith," one day shot a fox, and 
thought he would have a little sport Avith three young men, who 
were engaged by him in building a house. As they had to pass a 
pair of bars on their Avay home, after their day's Avork was done. 
Smith took the dead fox, and placed his head between two of the 
bars, in such a position as to face them on their approach. Their 
names were Joshua Johnson, John Smith Jr., called little John, 
and David Pratt. On coming in sight of the bars, espying Rey- 
nard, and supposing him alive, they consulted how they might take 
him. The manner in which they proceeded to get him is thus hu- 
morously described by Esqr. Moore, only partially, because two or 
three of the stanzes, cannot be recalled to the memory of the person, 
who furnishes the following : 

Tliree valiant folks once saw a fox, 

Caught in a pair of bars, 
Two did not run, it was such fun. 

Each was a son of Mars. 

John being spry, he first came nigh. 

And seized him by the tail, 
The next came on was little John, 

Whoso courage did not fail. 

David they say did sheer away, 

For fear the fox would bite, 
He curst and swore, and did no more, 

He was in such a fright. 

When home they'd got and found him shot, 

They hung their heads in a pout ; 
The family all both great and small, 

Did raise a hearty shout 


At an early day it was the custom in the district in which Esqr. 
Moore lived, to close the school by a public exhibition, in which 
dialogues and single pieces, either original or selected, were spoken 
by the scholars. He had two daughters in the school, one about 
five and the other seven years old. As they were both bright 
scholars, he wished that they should have some part assigned them 
in the exhibition, and the little girls expressed their father's desire 
to the teacher, who declined on the ground that they were too 
young, to their great disappointment. On being told the result of 
their application to take parts in the exhibition, Esqr. Moore sat 
down in the evening and wrote two pieces for the little girls, and 
sent them next day to the teacher, who readily assigned them as 
parts in the exhibition, and they were so well spoken as greatly to 
amuse the audience. 

The closing part of one of the little performers, was as follows : 

As learning is my chief delight 

'Twas that which brought me here, 
And those who think I am not right, 

I wish they'd disappear. 

But those that with me do agi-ee 

And think me not a fool, 
I wish they constant here might be 

Or in some other school. 

For learning serves to make us bold 

And scares away our fright, 
So all of those who me behold, 

I wish you now good night. 





Thomas Rowley was originally from Hebron, Conn. lie came 
first to Danby, some time before 1769, and was somewhat conspicu- 
ous as one of the leading men in resisting the New York claimants. 
He was the first town clerk of the town of Danby in 1769, and 
was its first representative. He also represented that town in the 
State Legislature, twice in 1778, also in 1779, 1780, and in 1783 
was chairman of the Committee of Safety. He lived also for a time 
in Rutland, and was first Judge of the special court for the county 
of Rutland, elected by the people. He was associated with Chit- 
tenden, Allen and Warner, that noble band of men, who acted so 
conspicuous a part in vindicating the rights of the people against 
the aggressions of New York ; and participated largely in the delib- 
erations of those who declared Vermont a free and independent 
State, and aided in forming its first constitution. While a member 
of the General Assembly, he was appointed to serve on the most 
important committees ; and frequently he was made chairman when 
a resolution was referred with instructions to report a bill. He 
came to this town before the Revolution, in what year it is impos- 
sible now to ascertain, but as early as 1774, and settled first at 
Larabee's Point, and with his son Thomas, belonged to Allen's 
party. He returned to Danby in 1775, and remained there till 
near the close of the war. He then returned to the farm at Lara- 
bee's Point, on which he had settled before the Revolution. The 
place for some years was called Rowley's Point. He built there 


two log houses, and made some improvement. lie lived there with 
his son Nathan for several years, and about 1790, settled on the 
place now owned by Lot Sanford. 

Daniel Chipraan, in his life of Warner, states that '* in the Sum- 
mer of 1775, a man by the name of John Hart, went to Albany 
and took out a capias against another man by the name of Roger 
Williams, also of Danby, and put it into the hands of a deputy 
sheriff, who with Hart, and some assistants from New York, arres- 
ted Williams in his bed, and started for Albany City Hall. An 
alarm was immediately given, and settlers in Danby and Tinmoutli 
were one after another armed, mounted and in eager pursuit of the 
Yorkers, whom they overtook at White Creek, (now Salem, N. Y.) 
and brought back, Hart among the number. The Committee of 
Safety had previously assembled with a great concourse of Green 
Mountain Boys, myself among the number. As soon as the shouts 
which burst forth on the arrival of the prisoners had subsided, and 
the echoes from the mountains had died away, the Judges took their 
seats on the bench in the bar-room, the prisoner was arraigned, 
and without loss of time convicted ; and by Thomas Rowley, 
chairman of the committee, was sentenced to receive thirty-nine 
stripes, with the beach seal on the naked back." "As this was 
the first punishment of the kind which I ever witnessed, I felt it 
was inflicted Avith the most cruel severity." 

He was clerk of the Proprietors of Shoreham till 1786, then 
Town Clerk two years, and surveyor to set off the Proprietors' 
rights, and surveyor of the town, several years after it was organi- 
sed. He had then arrived at that age Avhen men usually cease to be 
active in public affairs, and afterwards held no important office in 
this town. For several years he led a quiet and peaceful life in 
this town, till about 1800, when worn out with age an infirmities 
he went to reside with his son Nathan, at a place called Cold Spring, 
in the town of Benson, where he died about 1803. 

His remains were interred in a small burying ground, which once 
constituted a part of his own farm, which was given by him to his 
son Thomas. There is a small stone erected to his memory which 


records nither the daj of his birth nor that of his deaths nor his 
aore "when he died. 


In the early vigor of life he acted no unimportant part in the 
history of Vermont, among its public men ; but he was chiefly dis- 
tinguished in those times as a wit and poet. If Ethan Allen 
roused up every Green Mountain Boy in his log cabin, and called 
him forth armed to the teeth, in defence of his hearth and home, by 
the vehemence of his appeals in his homely prose, Rowley set the 
mountains on fire by the inspiration of his muse. The writings of 
both were circulated every where among the people. Though much 
of the success which attended the efforts of the friends of Vermont 
against New York, is now attributed to the writings of Ethan 
Allen, it is by no means certain that Rowley's poetry^ which was 
every where read and every where sung, effected less. The stir- 
ring appeals of the former have been carefully collected and made 
permanent in history, and his name rendered imperishable in the 
annals of his country ; the poems of the latter, nearly faded out of 
the memory of men, mostly scattered and lost, his verse and name 
are almost forgotten and unknown. 

That Rowley's poetry was not always elegant, that some of his 
verses violated the rules of correct taste will not be denied, but it 
must be considered, that he lacked the advantages of early educa- 
tion ; that he had neither access to books, nor time to devote to 
them ; that he made most of his verses impromptu, throwing them 
out as they were formed in the laboratory of thought, and that he 
never polished or corrected a line. That he was a man of genuine 
wit, and had the true spirit of the poet, there can be no doubt. 
Under more favorable circumstances, he might have vied with the 
most distinguished authors of satirical poetry. Some few specimens 
of his muse, I have succeeded after much inquiry and search, in 
rescuing from oblivion, collected in part from the recollections of the 
aged, and in part from an old worn out pamphlet and magazine, 
published at Rutland near the close of the author's life. A por- 
tion of these are here inserted, not all of them as claiming for their 
3,uthor superior merit, but as furnishing to those who may take a» 


interest in our early history, a fair specimen of the Viit and genius 
of "The Shoreham Bard." 

The following, from Slade's State Papers, is the only scrap of 
his poetry which I have found permanently recorded. It was writ- 
ten and annexed to the remonstrance, signed by Ethan Allen and 
others, against what was called the New York Sanguinary Law, 
and circulated among the people in 1774. 

When Ctosar reigned King at Rome 
St- Paul was sent to hear his doom ; 
But Roman Uxws in a criminal case 
Must have tho accuser face to face. 
Or CiBsar gives a flat denial. 
But here's a law, made now of late, 
AVhich destines men to awful fiite. 
And hangs and damns without a trial ; — 
Which makes me view all nature tliruugli 
To find a law, where men were tied 
By legal act, which duth exact 
Men's lives before they're tried : 
Then down I took the sa;red book, 
And turned the pages o'er. 
But could not find one of this kind, 
By G^d or man before. 


" An Invitation to the poor Tenants that live under the Pateroons in the province? 
of New York, to come and settle on our good lands, under the New Hampshire 
Grants : Composed at the time when the Land Jobbers of New York served 
their wiits of ejectment on a number of our settlers, the execution of whioh we 
opposed by force, until we could have the matter fairly laid be.'bre the King and 
Board of Trade and Plantations, for their direction." 


Come all ye laboring hands 

That toil below, 
Amid the rocks and sands 

That plow and sow. 
Come quit your hired lands. 

Let out by cruel hands, 
'Twill free you from your bands- 

To Rutland go. 



Your pateroons forsake, 

Whose greatest care 
Is slaves ol you to make, 

While you live there : 
Come quit their barren lands 
And leave them on their hands, 
'Twill mi ke you great amends ; - 

To Rutland go. 

For who would be a slave. 

That may be free ? 
Here you good land may have, 

But come and see 
The soil is deep and good. 
Here in this pleasant wood, 
AVhere you may raise your food 

And happy be. 

West of the Mountain Grem 

Lies Rutland fair, 
The best that e er was seen 

For^soil and anv 
Kind zephyr's pleasant breeze 
Whispersamong the trees, 
^\ here men may live at ease, 

W' ith prudent care. 
Here cows give milk to eat, 

By n;tture fed ; 
Our fields afford good wheat, 

And corn for bread. 
Here sugar trees they stand 
Which sweeten all our land. 
We have them at our hand, 

Be not afraid. 

Here'stands the lofty pine 

And makes a show ; 
As strait as Gunter's line 

Their bodies grow. 
Their lofty heads they rear 
Amid the atmosphere 
Where the wing'd tribes repair, 

And sweetly sing. 


The butternut and beacli, 

And the elni tree, 
They strive their heads to reach 

As higli as they ; 
And falling much be'ow, 
They make an even show, — 
The pines more lofty grow 
And crown the woods. 
Here glides a pleasant stream, 

Which doth not fail 
To spread as rich aa cream 

O'er the intervale ; 
As rich as Eden's soil. 
Before that sin did spoil, 
Or man was doom'd to toil 
To get his bread. 
Here little salmon glide, 

Fo neat and fine. 
Where you may be supplied 

With hook and line ; 
They are so fine a fish 
To cook a dainty dish, 
As good as one could wish 
To feed upon. 

Here's roots of every kind, 

The healing anodyne 
And rich costives: 
The balsam of the tree 
Supplies our surgery ; 
No safer can we be 
In any land. 

11 ^ 
We value not New York 
With all their powers. 
For here we U stay and work, 

The land is our's. 
And as for great Duane* 
With all his wicked train ; 
They may eject again ; 
We'll not resign. 

~ #One of the New York land jobbers. 




This is that noble land 

By conquest won. 
Took from a savage band 

With sword and gun ; 
■\Ve drove them to the west, 
Tliey could not stand the test ; 
And from the Gallic pest 

The land is free; 

The four following pieces of poetry were furnished from the rec- 
ollections of Rev. Samuel Rowley, of Whiting, Grandson of Thomas 
Rowley, now seventy-five years old. 



Tho water deep is fast asleep 

Beneath tliis icy band, 
i-o we can pass upon lier face, 
As on the solid land. 

When Sol displays his warmer rays 

And leaves his southern house, 
He'll penetrate this icy plate 

And set the water loose. 

To our surprise the winds arise 

And put it all in motion ; , 

Here waves will run as they have done 

On the Atlantic ocean. 

The mighty hand that formed the land 

And set the seas their bound, 
lie at his will can hush it still. 

As is the solid ground. 

Then Boreas sends his freezing winds 

Upon our Lake Champlain, 
Whose dreadful frost will bind her fast — 

So we may ride again < 

Now Where's the man that dare attend 

And view creation over, 
And then reply, he doth deny 

The Great Supreme Jehovah. 


Who sits above in light and love 

And views his glorious plan, 
All on a scale that does not fail, 

Yet never learned by man. 
The great Supreme is clearly seen 

In all the works of nature, 
The planets rolj around the pole 

Like those at the Equator. 

Ten thousand globes in shining robes 

Revolve in their own sphere, 
Nature's great wheel doth turn the reel 

And bring about the year- 


It was my lot to visit Scott 

In a cold winter storm ^ 
I did propose to dry my clothes 

And my cold body warm- 
I step'd in door and on the floor 

A herd of swine there met me, 
Some I did stride, some on each side, 

Till they almost o'erset me. 
Beyond that herd a man appear'd, 

Like one that had no soul ; 
He hung his head, like one that's dead, 

Over a fire of coal. 
His loving wife to save her life 

Sat in the dirt and sand ; 
Her knees erect her chin protect, 

Her nose she held in hand. 

Poor souls, they'll freeze, unless the breeze 
Should drop some limbs down chimney; 

Or some kind friend doth lend a hand 
To succour them right nimbly • 


Old seventy-five is still alive , 

A poor declining poet ; 
These lines he sends unto his friends 

That they who read may know it. 

He is so blind he is confin'd, 

His pen he cannot use ; 
What he indites he cannot write 

And that obstructs lus muse. 




Rowley's friends in Connecticut opposed his emigrating to Ver- 
mont, on the ground that there were no gospel privileges there. 
He however persisted in going, and upon leaving gave them the 
following verses, which he thought suited to their condition, which 
was not altogether peaceful. 

'Tia but a jest to have a priest, 
If you pay him for his labor, 
And lie and cheat in every street 
And vilify your neighbor. 

Never be willing to expose 
The little failings of your foea ; 
But of all the good they ever did 
Speak much of that and leave the bad. 
Attend fo this and striie will cease. 
And all the world will live in peace. 

Thomas Rowley rode up to tho grist-mill at Richville, and asked 
Isaac Jones to put a bag of meal on his horse. Jones told him he 
would not, unless he would make a verse first, upon which Rowley 
im-mediately said : 

Isaac J ones has got great bones, 
I know it by his shanks ; 
If he puts my bag upon the nag, 
I'll give him hearty thanks. 

On a certain occasion a hunter sat in the stone house at'the Old 
.Fort in Ticonderoga, with one foot clothed in a bear skin, and a 
boot on the other. There were several men present, who started 
the question whether Rowley could make a verse applicable to^is 
strange appearance ; whereupon one of the number proposed a 
wager of a gallon of rum, that Rowley, if he were sent for, would 
make a verso appropriate to the man's condition, without being ap- 
prised beforehand of any of tho circumstances in relation to him. 
Rowley was sent for accordingly, being told he must make a 
verse on the first object he should see, on entering the bar-room in 
the tavern. On his arrival he opened the door, and saw the hunter 


in his strange garb, purposely seated in front of him, with his feet 
on a chair. Rowley addressed him in the following lines : 

A cloTen foot witliout a boot, 

A body full of evil, 
If you'd look back upon liis track 

You'd think it was the devil. 

One day Rowley went into ApoUos Austin's store in Orwell, 
wearing a shabby old hat. Austin began to joke him about it, and 
ashed him why he did not get a better one, Rowley replied he was 
not able to buy one, upon which Austin told him if he would make 
a verse, instanter, he would give him a new one. Rowley at once 
responded to the condition. Taking oiF his hat and looking at it, 
he said : 

Here's my old hat, no matter for that — 

'Tis good as the rest of roy raiment ; 

If I buy me a Ijetter 

You'll set me down debtor, 

And send me to jail for the payment. 



My head contains my sight and brains, 

And many other senses, — 
As taste and smell, I hear and feel. 

And talk of vast expenses. 

It doth exert each active part 

Of human nature's whole ; 
Reason and sense are its defence. 

Which some have term'd the soul. 

The noblest name of human frame, 

With sense and reason bound — 
Our men of state say it shall rate 

At half a dozen pound. 

My real estate I have to rate, 

The public ai-e partakers ; 
I plant and sow, and feed and mow, — 

Not far from twenty acres. 

My herd allows two stately cows 

As neat as woven silk ; 
They seldom fail to fill my pail 

Up to the brim with milk. 


Also two mures, good iu the gears, 

To plow the clay or gravel ; 
^Vhen drest with saddle, and mounted straddle. 

Are very good to travel. 

Here's my whole list, I do protest ; 

I shall not add a line ; 
No more this year that can appear. 

That is my Dad's or mine. 

3\Iy whole estate you have to rate 

As here I've set it down ; 
The whole account you see amounts 

To eight and twenty pounds. 


ESQ. Rowley's list. 

My poor old mare, her bones are bare. 

The crows begin to sing ; 
If the old brute does not recruit 

They'll feed on her next spring. 

As for her age I do engage 

She's eighteen years or more, 
And just as free from the list should be 

As man is at three score. 

Six persons, residents of Shoreham, met together for an evening 
drink, as was customary in those days, and as it was thought they 
indulged rather freely, Tho. Rowley, who was witness of the scene 
described, by request, composed the following lines : Their names 
were Wallace, Tower, Denton, John Larabee, called young John, 
and Cooper: 

Old cruel Bacchus was pleased to attact us, 

He wounded our men in the head ; 
He fell with such power on Wallace and Tower, 

He presently laid them for dead. 

Then Denton was found with a terrible wound, 

'Twas just over his right ear, 
Young John he was touch'd, but wasn't hurt much. 

He happen'd to fall in the rear. 

Then Cooper came on just after young John, 

Was determined to keep the field, 
But Bacchus shot off his bottle and hit 

Cooper s noddle, and forced him to yield. 


The mighty campaign was near Lake Champlain, 

Where the battle of Bacchus was fought, 
And Bacchus like Nero, he conquer'd each hero 

And now they must all pay their groat. 

The following pieces were selected from an old worn out pam- 
phlet, of twenty-three pages, published in 1802, entitled, " Selec- 
tions and Miscellaneous Works of Thomas Rowley," They have 
seriousness and a degree of force. 


I've foes without and foes within. 

To lead me captive into sin ; 

'Tis from the Spirit and the Word 

I must receive the conquering sword, 

By humble prayer the cause engage 

Or fall a victim to their rage. 

'Tis hateful pride that heads the band, 

And he resolves to have command ; 

In my own strength I oft have tried 

To stay this dreadful monster pride ; 

He's fixed his fortress in my heart 

Resolving never to depart. 

And nothing can this monster move 

But sovereign grace and melting love. 

Another band comes on afresh, 
The lust of eye, and of the flesh ; 
And they lay siege on every side 
For to assist their general. Pride ; 
If will should join and take their part, 
They'll make a havoc in my heart. 

As I lay musing on my bed, 
A vision bright my woes o'erspread 

Amidst the silent night ; 
My second self lay by my side. 
An angel came to be her guide, 

And soon she made her flight ! 
Methought I saw her passing high, 
Through liquid air, the ethereal sky. 

And land on Canaan's Shore ; 
Where shining angels singing sweet, 
Bade her welcome to a seat 

And join the heavenly choir. 


I 'm too unholy and unclean 

Of these bright heavenly things to dream. 

Till grace refines my heart ; 
The dying gifts of Christ our King 
Must tune my heart in every string, 

To sound in every part. 

O, how sweetly now She sings ! 
Her harp is strung on goldeu strings 

The melody to grace ; 
Prep ii-e me, Lord, that I may go 
And take a humble seat below, 

And sing upon the Bass, 

Come Holy Spirit, Heavenly Dove 
Give me a taste of Sovereign love. 

Then I can safely go ; 
My soul would swiftly wing its way 
Into Ihe realms of endless day, 

And sing Hosannas too. 


The Most High God hath shook his rod, 

Over my heavy head, 
And took the life of my dear wife 

The partner of my bed. 

Full fifty years we've labored hero, 

In wedlock's silken chains ; 
No deadly strife disturbed my life, 

Since Cupid join'd our hands. 

A faithful mate in every state, 

In afl[luence as in need ; 
Free for to lend a helping hand. 

With prudence and with speed. 

Some years ago, she let us know, 

In visits from above 
Her Savior's voice made her rejoice, 

And sing redeeming love. 

Almost four years grim death stood near 

As loth to lift his hand ; 
But now at length put forth his strength, 

As he received command. 


Amd now, alas ! the crystal glass 

Is by death's hammer broke, 
And I am left sorely bereft ; 

And 'tis a heavy stroke. 

My tears like rain I can't refrain , 

To think that we must part; 
To see her breath dissolve in death, 

The sight affects my heart. 

To see my dead lie on her bed . 

I feel a sore dismay, 
For to bohold the finest gold 

Reduced to mouldering clay. 

All round the room, a mournful g'.oom 

Affects the liqu'd air, 
In every place and empty space 

For lu ! she is not there. 

Her place before knows her no more. 

In vain I look to find ; 
No more hei- voice doth me rejoice, 

There s nothing left behind. 

I'm like a dove that's lost her love, 

Mourns in the lonely tree ; 
Such is my case in every place. 

There's no more love for me. 

A virtuous wife through all her life, 

A mother kind likewise, 
A neighbor good she alwa.vs stood ; 

This truth no one denies. 

No slander hung upon her tongua, 
To wound her neighbor's breast ; 

Honest and true to pay her due 
And do the thing that's just. 

Her noble mind was so refined, 
Her reason turn'd the scales ; 

The tattling train she did disdain 
Nor would she tell their tales. 



Farewell my dear and loving wife, 
So long as death shall us divide ; 
Farewell thou much loved lump of clay, 
Farewell till resurrection day. 

Farewell until the trumpet sound. 

And shake the earth and cleave the {tround ; 

Then may we rise and wing our way,- 

To regions of eternal day. 

On yonder hill in silence lays 

My friead, my youthful bride ! 
In a short space 'twill be my place 

To lie down by her side. 

Our bones must rest in funeral chest,- 

Until the judgment day — 
When call d from dust our bands shall burst 

To assume our forms of clay. 

Then shall we go to weal or woe, 

Just as we leave this world; 
Either above in light and love, 

Or down to darkness hurled. 

Then to behold what here was told, 

That nature must expire : 
There may we stand at Christ's right hand 

And see this world on fire. 

This solemn thought to me is brought 

And may it long abide. 
That I through grace may find a place 

By my Redeemer's side. 



While I reflect on mis-spent days, 

I fear thy dreadful rod ; 
So many spent in mirth and plays, 

So little done for God. 

A silver-gray o'erspreads my face 

The hoary head appears, 
Which calls me^loud to seek for gi'ace 

With penitential tears. 


I fiuJ a sore corrupted will, 

But little faith is foumJ : 
But there is balm in Gilead sti'l, 

To heal the deadly wound. 

Should I be lost in long de-^pair, 

"lis hell withiu my breast ; 
But unto Jesus I'll i-epair. 

As he can give me rest. 

May God uphold me all day long, 

By his supporting grace ; 
And I iiim praise with heaven-taught song. 

And speed the heavenly race. 

The ;ige of man is past with me; 

l\y soui 1 be it thy «are 
From sin and Satan to get fi'ee ; 

To meet thy God prepare ! 

This day 'tis three score years and ten, 

Since I receiv'd my breath ; 
And very slothful I have been 

preparing for my death. 

A thousand dream.s have filled my miuii , 

As days came rolling on ; 
Like one that's deaf, or one that's blind, 

I know not how they've gone. 

Kow the full age of man is come. 

Tills is the very day ; 
But, 0, my God, what have I done 

To speed my time away ? 

If God should add unto my days 

And give me longer space, 
! may I spend them to his praise 

Attl seek his pardoning grace . 


Now ®nto thee, my God! I cry. 

While thou shall give me breath ; 
O may my soul to thee be nigh, 

AY hen I expire in death. 

Could I but taste my Saviour's love, 

'Twould sweeten dying pain ; 
^ly soul could smoothly soar above, 

And death would be mj gain. 



But if my Savior hides his face, 

What terrors do appear ; 
Ten thousand sins here find a place, 

And sink me in despair. 

My sins o'erwhelm me like a flood, 

Aud poison every vein, 
But the sweet balm of Jesus' blood 

Can wash out every stain. 

And how can I expect such grace, 

By sin so much defil d, 
Since I began my sinful race 

When I was but a child. 

But Jesus calls. Make no delay ; 

liesign thy stubborn will ; 
Forsake your sins and come away. 

And there is pardon still. 

Then .' dear Jesus, [ am thine, 

I'm coming at thy call ; 
Into thine arms now I resign. 

My Spirit and my all. 

There are a considerable number of other poems written by Kow- 
ley, published in the pamphlet already referred to, but enough have 
been embodied in this work to indicate the peculiarity of his genius; 
some perhaps, which possess no particular merit, have been inser- 
ted, in which his friends may be interested, that Avould in a few 
years have been irrecoverably lost, if not inserted in this biographical 

Mr. Rowley was not merely a wit and a poet. He was a man of 
sound judgment, of quick apprehension, of kind and benevolent 
feelings, and though destitute of the privileges of early education, 
he obtained a knowledge of the art of surveying, and was much 
engaged for several years as a practical surveyor. The several 
important offices to which he was promoted, show in what estimation 
he was held as a man of sound judgment and ability. 

In stature he was about the medium height, rather thick set, 
rapid in his movements, had light eyes, sprightly and piercing, in- 
dicating rapidity of perception. Though sometimes facetious, in 


the exercise of the poetic faculty, he was still a sedate and 
thoughtful man, and a firm believer in the Christian religion. In 
sentiment, he was a Wesleyan, and if there had been a society of 
that denomination in this town in his day, he would probably have 
been a member of that branch of the Church. 

180 inSTORY OF SliOREIIA?^. 





Col. Job Lane Howe was born in K'orth Brookficld, Mass., 
September 10th, 1769, and. after his father, Capt. Abner Howe, 
of the revolutionary army, died of the small pox, contracted in the 
service of his country, he lived in Mansfield, Con., and was a house 
carpenter and wheelwright by trade. He came to this town in 
1793, built the Congregational Meeting-house, (the first church 
edifice in town,) and many private mansions in the vicinity ; and 
carried on extensively the carriage-making business, having numer- 
ous apprentices who became the first mechanics of the region around, 
in this particular branch, to which he was devoted many years. 
He became a member of the Congregational Church, and was the 
active^ agent of that Society and of the town, with Esq. 
Samuel Hemenway, in prosecuting the claim against Rev. Abel 
Woods for one half of the lot given by the town charter for the 
first settled minister, which to the amount of three thousand dol- 
lars, was recovered and put into the Common School fund of the 


In 1818 he extended his business into Crown Point, N. Y., and 

erected mills there and the first Congregational Meeting-house, giv- 
m'y not only the site, burying ground and common, but largely for 
the edifice. He finally removed his church relation and residence 
thither in 1836. He was a man of great enterprise and persever- 
ance in business, generous and public spirited, a worthy patron of 
religious and civil institutions, and was much respected by his fel- 


low citizens. He was especially careful of the morals of appren- 
tices and workmen in his employ, in leading them to habits of in- 
tegrity and virtue. He died in Crown Point, Nov. 29th, 1838, 
aged sixty-nine. 

Ebenezer TuRRiLL Esq., was born in New Milford, Conn., in 
1742; came to Lenox, Mass., in 1759, and settled in this town in 
1786. He lived till 1795 in a log house situated near the large 
two story house, commonly called the old tavern, which he built 
that year, and moved into it. The house has recently been sold to 
the Roman Catholics, which they design to fit up for a church. 
His son Truman Turrill lived with him in that house, and com- 
menced keeping tavern in it about 1810. It was occupied as a pub- 
lic house, by several persons, until about the year 1849. 

j\Ir. Turrill was an enterprising, industrious man, made pot-ash 
for several years from ashes saved in clearing his own lands, and 
purchased ashes of his neighbors. Immediately after coming to 
this tovf-n he was appointed Justice of the Peace, which office he 
held several years. While there was no minister in town ho fre- 
quently performed the marriage ceremony, and it is said sometimes 
took ashes for pay. The following amusing anecdote is related of 
him. At one time in solemnizing a marriage, he made a mistake 
and bound the woman first, and then the man, of which he was re- 
minded at the time ; " All right," he replied, •' for sheVas the'first 
transgressor." He was a member of the Congregational Church 
at an early day, was fond of reading metaphysical and controversial 
works, as well as other books, and held an honorable position amono- 
the early settlers of this town. He died here in 1825, aged eighty- 

Timothy Fuller Chipman, son of Thomas and Bethia Chip- 
man, his wife, was born in Barnstable, Mass., February 1st, 1761, 
and died in this town. May 17th, 1830, aged sixty-nine. He was 
one of a family of fifteen children, of the same parents, a lineal 
descendant of John Chipman. born in or near Dorchester, England, 
in 1614, who came to this country in 1631, from whom it is 
supposed that all who bear the name Chipman in this country are 
lineally descended. 


The subject of this notice at the age of sixteen, a stripling youth, 
entered the army of the American Revolution in 1777. His father, 
belonging to the militia, was drafted to defend his country against 
the enemy, and having a large family depending on his daily toil 
for support, in consequence of which it was difficult to leave home, 
his son Timothy F. took his father's place, and served on the re- 
treat of the American forces before Burgoyne's army, between Ti- 
conderoga on Lake Champlain and Fort Schuyler on the Hudson, 
and was employed in felling trees into Wood Creek and across the 
road, to obstruct the passage of boats by water and the army by 
land. Being placed as sentinel on an outer post at Fort Anne, he 
was in the skirmish at Battle Hill, and a comrade was shot at his 
side. Having served the period of his engagement, he was honor- 
ably discharged a few days before the battle of Saratoga and the 
surrender of Gen. Burgoyne and his army ; after which he re- 
turned home to the aid of his father, in providing for the wants of 
a numerous household. In 1782, at the age of twenty-one, he 
went to Samuel Chipman's in Tinmouth, Vt., and was employed 
by his kinsman upon his farm as a hired man. In 178-3 he came 
to Shoreham, with little else than a pack on his back. He and 
Marshal Newton were employed by the Proprietors to carry the 
chain in the surveys of the townships of Shoreham and Bridport, 
into their original lots. In this service, he selected a lot in Shore- 
ham which he afterward purchased, and on which he settled, built 
him a plank house where he lived, and assiduously toiled in clearing 
and improving his farm until his decease. 

On the 24th of May, 1786, he married Polly Smith, daughter 
of Capt. Stephen Smith. To them were born eleven children, two 
sons and nine daughters. By persevering industry and economy 
he succeded in subduing the forest ; in bringing under cultivation 
fruitful fields ; in adding lands from time to time to his original 
purchase, until he had one of the most valuable farms in the town, 
with Commodious buildings erected thereon. For many years he 
kept a public house, and sustained it as a quiet home for the 
weary traveler. 
He was honored by the confidence of his fellow citizens, in being 


selected to several offices of trust in the town, and by the General 
Government of the United States in appointing him assistant asses- 
sor of lands and dwelling District No. 1, in the Fourth Di- 
vision of Vermont, the duties of which office, he discharged satis- 
factorily to the people and government. 

At a period in the history of our country when military honors 
were held in higher estimation than at present, he was raised 
through various grades, from a private soldier to the rank of Major 
General of the Fourth Division of Vermont INIilitia. At the invasion 
of our country by the British forces under Gen. Provost, as they 
crossed the line on our northern frontier, he volunteered his services 
in the defence of his country, took a musket from the stores at 
Vergennes, crossed Lake Champlain at Burlington into the State 
of New York, beyond the limits of his Vermont commission, and 
Avith the rank of Colonel, was placed at the head of the Vermont 
Volunteers there assembled. The enemy commenced their retreat 
the day before he arrived at Plattsburgh. 

In his declinmg years, he resigned his public stations and retired 
to private life. In the year 1810, during a revival of religion, he 
became a hopeful convert, and with his wife and several of his chil- 
dren, united with the congregational church in Shoreham. He sus- 
tained his christian profession unblemished, and found the doctrines 
and promises of scripture the joy of his soul, until the day of his 
death, which occurred at his homestead on his original purchase, in 
the seventieth year of his sge. His widow survived him until 
March 5th^ 1849, when she died at the homestead, aged 81. 

Hon. Elisiia Bascom, was born in Newport, N. H., in 1776, 
from which place he came with his father Elias Bascom, to Orwell. 
From Orwell he came to Shoreham, and settled on the farm now 
owned by his son Ira Bascom, in 1806. 

In person Judge Bascom was very tali and erect in stature, not 
corpulent, but of a large frame, well proportioned in every part, 
adapted at once to attract attention. His countenance, w hich was 
a true index to his mind, wore an expression of benignity, self pos- 
session, and sound judgment, and freedom from all base and malig- 
nant passions : his whole appearance making the impression on all 


who saw him, that he was an intelligent, discreet and honest man, 
who could be safelj trusted in any position. His conduct was in 
good keeping with such an outward manifestation. These qualities 
won him favor vrirh his fellow-citizens, who conferred upon him 
many important offices of trust and honor, at different times during 
his life, lie was chosen by them Town Representative, nme times. 
He was Judge of the County Court two years. He was often'se- 
lected to administer on the estates of deceased persons, and the wid- 
ow and orphan confided in his good judgment and integrit3\ feeling 
that their interests were safe in his hands. Judge Bascom was 
twice married, first to Charlotte Hawley, Dec. 30th 1802, and the 
second time to Loura Bash, October 20th 1806. He had many 
friends, and no enemies. With limited means, he was still libei'al. 
He was a member and a supporter of the Universalist Society, and 
died in this town August 1st 1850, aged 74. 

Deacon Stephen Cooper was born in East Hampton, Long 
Island, June 22nd, 174G, and became a hopeful subject of divine 
grace at the age of eighteen, but on account of his great distrust 
of himself he did not unite with the church until twenty years 
after, although pious people thought favorably of his christian 
character, and often requested him to take part in their social relig- 
ious meetings. Soon after he united with the church in that place, 
he was chosen to the office of deacon, the duties of which he dis- 
charged for five years. " In the autumn of 1789, says Rev. Mr. 
]\Iorton, in the sermon delivered at his funeral, he removed with his 
family to this town, then a wilderness. After his removal, for some 
time his mind was seriously disquieted. He had left a highly favored 
people, who enjo^^ed all the ordinances of the gospel, and had from 
time to time been favored with the special visitations of the Holy 
Spirit. But here, no place was recognised as the hill of Zion ; 
here was no sanctuary, no preached gospel ; no ordinances. The 
religious prospects of the people looked for more dreary than the 
wilderness which surrounded them. Indeed, Deaoon Cooper began 
seriously to suspect he had done wickedly in leaving his native 
town ; that he had come- away from the presence of the Lord. He 
did not however sink dovrn in sluggish and gloomy discouragament. 

HisTOB-Y or .snuiiEil.ui. 185 

The solemn fears and inward searcbings, wbicli agitated his mind, 
excited to vigorous effort. lie spent much time in looking over the 
town, and in visiting the scattered population, for the sole purpose 
of finding some followers of Christ, who would unite Avith him in 
statedly maintaining the worship of God. He spent three succes- 
sive days in this service. These labors of love were in some degree 
successful. lie found some scattered sheep, who, like himself, had 
been called in Providence to wander far from the fold where formerly 
they were nourished. These lonely disciples assembled, and in the 
name of the Lord, they set up their banners. From that day to 
the present, the public worship of God has been statedly maintained 
in this town. 

" For thirteen years he led the Congregational Church as first 
Deacon and Moderator. By re(|uesfc of the people he visited the 
sick and attended funerals, with nearly or quite as much regu- 
larity and frequency as if Le had been a minister of the gospel." 
Deacon Cooper was distinguished for meeknesi, fervor of devotion, 
Christian prudence and love for the cause of Christ: and had the 
happy faculty of kindling in the hearts of his brethren the same 
glowing emotions which were ever cherished in his ov^n. The 
closing scene of his life was invested with a peculiar interest. A 
short time before his death be took his final leave of his family, 
taking first the grand-children of one family and then the grand- 
children of another family, and then his own children each by the 
hand, saying to them, '• God bless you — I have prayed for you — I 
have warned you — remember what I have said." "His partin-Tf 
with his aged and beloved companion was the most affecting part 
of the whole scene. He pressed her hand a long time, and then 
very earnestly and devotedly commended her to Go.d,." as he did 
likewise the whole family circle. Being then very feeble, he Avas 
occupied in this service about three hours. " He had now in bis 
own estimation finished his last work. His mind appeared to be in 
a remarkably elevated and delightful frame. Every cloud had 
vanished. He said he longed to go, and take his wliole family to 
Heaven." January 29th, 1827, he gently breathed out his spirit, 
and entered into rest. 


JJeacou Cuoper found worthy companions in his labors of love in 
Deacon Eli Smith, of the Baptist Church, noticed elsewhere, and 
Deacon Nathan Hand, of the Congregational Church. 

Deacon Nathan Hand, was also from East Hampton, and came 
a year or two after Deacon Cooper. Though he was less fluent, on 
account of an impediment in his speech, he was superior to him in 
education, and not inferior to him in strength of mind or consis- 
tency of Christian character. He served his day hnd generation 
faithfully, and is held in grateful remembrance by those who were 
intimately acquainted with him. To these three men, and others 
associated with them, the town is no less indebted for the salutary 
influence w^hich they exerted, than to others who acted a more con- 
spicuous part in civil life. It was by such men that the public 
worship of God was instituted, and maintained for many years 
without a minister, and a healthful tone of religious feeling and 
action kept up. Seasons for conference and prayer were held so 
hio-hly in estimation, " that individuals, after having literally borne 
the burden and heat of the day, would walk cheerfully from one 
to four miles to attend these meetings. Frequently did a lighted 
torch guide individuals in a foot-path through miles of wood to the 




Silas IIemenway Jenison, son of Levi Jenison and Ruth 
Heraenway his wife, was bom in this town May iTth, 1791. Wlien 
he was about a year old his father died, and he was left an only son 
to the mother's care. IIow perilous to the youthful boy is such a 
circumstance, is known to all. The farm on which his father com- 
menced only two years before his death, was at the time of his set- 
tlement an unbroken forest. Only a small improvement had been 
made when he was taken away. The widowed mother, who is still 
living at the advanced age of eighty-nine, was a woman of uncom- 
mon energy and industry. By the strictest economy, and good 
management of affairs in the house and on the land, in neither of 
which did any sense of delicacy restrain her from labor, she not 
only succeeded in retaining the flirm, but lived to see, before her son 
arrived at manhood, most of that which was a forest at her hus- 
band's death, turned to fruitful fields. Thus did she secure an 
inheritance for herself and her son. 

In his youthful days. Gov. Jenison had very limited advantages 
for attaining an education. While quite young he attended the 
district school, where he learned to read and spell, during the brief 
season in which the school was kept ; but as soon as he became able 
to labor, his services were needed at home, and after that only a few 
weeks in a year did he enjoy the benefits of school instruction. 
While very young, he developed a decided taste for reading and 
study. The company and sports of other boys had little attractions 


for him. Most of his time be spent at home, as a matter of choice. 
Rarely did he come into the house, and sit down without a book in 
liis hand. While a youth, he was more interested in reading than 
in the affairs of the farm, though in after life he took much satis- 
faction in the study of agriculture as a science, and in making 
improvements in all the various branches of farm husbandry. This 
early predilection was fostered by School-Master Sisson, who was 
ever ready to furnish him with books, or render assistance in his 
studies. His evenings, and his leisure hours, which were not 
greatly restricted by the authority of the mother, who it may be 
natural to suppose, took no little satisfliction in witnessing her son's 
progress, were devoted to his books. Some kind of study engaged 
his attention, and during some portions of the year v.dicn business 
was not urgent, he went to Mr. Sisson, who was a near neighbor, 
to recite his lessons. It was doubtless from him that he learned to 
write that round and beautiful hand ; becam.e expert, in all the 
rales and questions of arithmetic, and became so perfect a master of 
the theory and practice of surveying, in which he was so often em- 
ployed in this and other towns, after he became Governor of tlie 
State. Governor Jenison kept up his habit of reading and study 
through life, and had a mind well stored Avith general information. 

In person he was tall, stoutly built, had a large well formed 
head; was simple, unaffected, and pleasing in his manners. He was 
easy in conversation, but through distrust of his powers or extreme 
caution, he never ventured to engage in public debate. If he pos- 
sessed little of the brilliancy of genius, he had what is no less val- 
uable, in a sound judgment, great prudence, a correct, though not 
the most highly cultivated taste ; and what contributed most per- 
haps to his advancement in public life, facility and accuracy in the 
transaction of business, and general knowledge of matters pertaining 
to civil government and its administration. 

The first office of any importance to which Mr. Jenison was 
elected, was that of Representative of the Town in the State Legis- 
lature in 1826, which office he held six consecutive years. He 
was Assistant Justice of the County Court six years, member of 
the State Council tliree vears. Lieut. Governor two vears. the 


last of which, he acted as Governor, no choice of Chief Magistrate 
havin;^ been made either bj the votes of the people, or bj the Leo"- 
islature. In 1836 he was elected Governor by the popular vote, 
and discharged the duties of that office six years. The issuing of 
his proclamation at the time that the sympathies of many were 
enlisted in favor of the insurgents in Canada in 1837, warning 
the citizens against violationg the neutrality laws, was censured by 
some, and contributed for a time, to diminish his popularity : but 
when the subject came to be better understood, the course he took 
was approved by the people ; and the firmness and good judgment 
which he displayed at that critical time rendered him one of the 
most popular Governors the State has ever had. In the year 1840, 
in the most exciting canvass ever witnessed in Vermont, Gov. Jen- 
ison's majoi'ity over the administration candidate, was 10 798, much 
larger than it ever had been before, when the lines of party were 
distinctly drawn. In that year he declined a re-election, but for 
six years after was Judge of Probate for Addison Tistrict, the 
duties of which office he discharged to universal acceptance. .After 
a protracted season of sickness and suflering, ho closed his life in 
this town in September, 1849. 

Charles High, son of Thomas Rich, was born in Warwick, 
Mass., September 13th, 1771, and died October IGth, 1824. He 
arrived in this town in August 1787, having traveled all the way 
from his native place, in company with some others, on foot. He 
labored diligently here four or five years, assisting his father in 
erecting his mills, and clearing up the land around them, until he 
was married at the early age of twenty, to a lady born in his native 
town, daughter of Nicholas Watts, a Avorthy neighbor of his father. 
Between them there had grown up an ardent attachment from the 
day3 of their childhood, although from feelings of delicacy, it had 
not been distinctly avowed by either party, until a few months pre- 
vious to their marriage. In a series of letters addressed by Judge 
Rich, while he was a member of Congress at Washington, to his 
daughter then residing in Montreal, I find many interesting facts in 
relation to this early attachment, to his family history, and to the 
labors and privations of himself and companion, with whom he 


lived until the time of her death on the 24th of April 181T, in the 
reciprocation of the most tender affection, and confidence. It is but 
justice to say, that though there is a free and unreserved expression 
of thought and feeling given, there is not the slightest tinge of 
egotism, for it is of the wife and mother that he writes, whose death 
both the fiither and daughter deeply deplored.* On the 1.6th of 
April 1791, they commenced house-keeping in very humble cir- 
cumstances, " possessed of no other property than one cow, one pair 
of two year old stears, six sheep, one bed and a few articles of 
household furniture, all which were valued at sixty-six dol- 
lars, and about forty-five acres of land, given him by his father 
and valued at two hundred dollars." The first year he took the 
izrist mill to tend, of his uncle Nathaniel Rich, who owned but one 
half of it, and when not engaged there, he worked on his land, and 
cleared six acres and a half that season, and sowed it with wheat. 
He says, " While at the mill, I constructed a number of articles of 
furniture which have been in daily use from that time to the pres- 
ent." Though not bred to a trade. Judge Rich was remarkably 
ingenious in the use of tools. It is said that while engaged in 
tending his sugar- works he constructed a water pail, which was 
afterward used in the family for many years, with no other 
instrument than a jack knife. 

While a boy, he had very little opportunity to attend school, his 
services being much needed at home. After the age of fifteen, he 
attended school only throe months. But limited as his opportuni- 
ties were, he was often called upon, before he attained the age of 
thirty years, to deliver orations on the Fourth of July ; was chosen 
to represent the town in the General Assembly when he was twenty- 
nine, and received that ofiice twelve times. He was one of the Judges 

*A political correspondence, of an earlier date, occurred between Judge Rich 
and Samuel Hemenway, Esq., on the questions which at the time divided the Fed- 
eral and Republicaa, or Democratic, parties. It was conducted in an amicable spirit 
and with no little resource and acumen on either side. For some years a copy of 
this correspondence was accessible to their friends, and regarded with much inter- 
est, and if not now lost wou'd be of still higher value, as a key to the real senti- 
ment of an earnest time. 


of the County Court six years, a Representative in Congress 
ten years, and a ready debater in all public bodies, and useful and 
popular in every station •which he occupied. 

If it be asked to what it was to which he was indebted for such 
honors, I answer, not to any peculiar brilliancy of original genius, 
for nothing of this appears in any of his writings which I have 
seen, or have been able to learn of him, but to diligent application 
of leisure hours, especially of his evenings ; for though he labored 
during the day as many hours as others, he took less sleep. With 
diligence, he had the strong desire and determination to understand 
and master whatever he undertook to investigate, which is indispen- 
sible to eminence in any station. He formed in early life the habit 
of writing down his thoughts, and kept it up till life Avas closed, 
and cultivated his taste by reading works of such easy and pure 
style as Addison's Spectator, of which he was very fond. An orig_ 
inally well-ballanccd mind, sound common sense, intuitive knowl- 
edge of human nature, kind disposition, and native benevolence of 
heart, retentive memory, honesty of intention, simplicity of char- 
acter, open and bland personal appearance, ease of address and 
pleasing manner of communication, were some of the mere promi- 
nent qualities which won him favor, and not anything which was 
dazzling and great. If there were found in him no very uncommon 
powers, no thrilling and overpowering eloquence, there was a happy 
union of those qualities, whicli form the man of usefulness and 
intelligence. By industry and economy he acquired a handsome 
property. In all the relations of domestic and social life, he was 
an example worthy of imitation. It was by such qualities as these, 
united with habits of self cultivation, early formed, and sustained 
Avithout remission, that he held for so long a time, a distinguished 
station among his fellow citizens. During the vacations of the sit- 
tings of Congress, he was found at home, laboring diligently, and 
overseeing his business, until the autumn of the year 1824, when, 
in consequence of working in the water for several days in repairing 
his mill-dams, he caught a cold, followed by a fever, which put a 
speedy end to his life, in the fifty-third year of his age. dying 
respected and lamented by all Avho knew him. 


I here close this history, with the delineation of the characters of 
a portion of those persons who contributed most to forward the set- 
tlement of a town, which ninety-three years ago was an unbroken 
wilderness, now turned into productive farms, dotted over with com- 
fortable, and in many instances with spacious and tasteful dwellings, 
that have taken the place of the rude log huts of former days : who 
in their time toiled to open for their posterity and to others, a ter- 
ritory, which in the productiveness of its soil and in all the elements 
which contribute to material prosperity, is scarcely excelled by any 
other. We have reason to recognize with gratitude the" toils and 
sufferings of those, who laid the foundations of all that we now en- 
joy here ; to emulate their virtues, and avoid their errors. Let us 
be thankful for the rich legacy they have bequeathed to us : for all 
they transmitted to us through the schools and churches which they 
established. Be not in haste to relinquish advantages, with the 
hope of finding better elsewhere. Strive to improve upon what was 
so nobly and so well done by those who have passed away and left 
us their worthy example, that when we shall leave the inheritance 
they left us, others, who shall follow us. may find it still more highly 
advanced toward the ideal perfection, to which it is the dictate of 
true wisdom to aspire. 


Of Residents of Shoreham and others mentioned in this work, not occurring in 
special lists or tables. Those of persons not residents are distinguished by 
an asterisk. 

Abbott & Brown, page 30. 
*Adams, Samuel 20 

* Seth 61 

* Allen, Ethan 12, 14, 152, 156, 164 

* Ira 106 

* Heman 80 
Ames, Barnabas 82 

Henry S2 
Elijah 32 
*Amherst, Lord 39 
*Arnold, Benedict 13, 14, 20. 
Atwood, Jacob 28, 36, 49 

Ebenezer 33, 126 

Parker 38 " 

Francis 28, 36 

Edwin S. 36, 68 

Amos 126 

Nathaniel 37 

Thomas 37 

Samuel 124 

Richard N. 32 
Atwood & Jones, 68 

Babbitt, Rev. James 127 
Baird, John 51, 126 
Bailey. Joseph 33 

William J. 126 
Benjamin 126 
Bealy 126 
*Ballou, Rev. Hosea 125-6 
Barnum, Stephen 22, S3, 49, 143 
Mrs. Stephen 98 
Zaccheus 28 
Thomas 30, 49, 74, 110, 133, 

139. 143- 
JabezSO, 124, 145 
Solomon 33 


Barnum, Jasper 34 

Oliver 29 
Barter, Robert 144 
Bascom, Elisha 50. 123, (B. S.) 
Ira 21, 183 
Ellas 183 
Bates, Rev. Joshua 119 
Bateman, .Jonathan 35 
Beadle, Jehiel 63 
Beardsley, Hesekiah 36 

Rev. Evans 35, 113 
*Beach, Major 13 
*Beckley, Rev. Hosea 12 
Bedell, Leonard 63 
Beman, Samuel 10, 12, 14, 16 

Nathan 12, 14 
* Rev. N. S. S. 14 

Benton, Rimmon 92 
Birchard, Levi 29 

Andrew 30, 89 

Nathan 29 

Horatio 30 

M. W, 38, 69 

Levi 0. 30, 50, 92 

RoUin, 51 

Alonzo, 8, 9. 93 
Birge, Rev. Lathrop 35 
Bissell, Benjamin 26, 33, 126 
Thomas 33, 75 

Solomon L. 33 

Henry 29 
Blinn, Erastus 74 
Brooking, Silas 32 

Thurmon 32 
Brookins & Birchard, 68 
Brown, Jeremuh 34 
Roswell 46 
Bosworth, Lieutenant 104 



Bowker, Charles 32 
Boynton, Rev. Stephen 125 
*Burchard, Rev. Jcdediah 109 
Bush, Ebenezer Senr. 28, 109 

Ebenezer 35, 51, 104, 106, 109 

Edson D 11, 19, 65, 68 

Henry 22 

Sarah 28 
*Bu8hnell, Rev. Jedediah 112 
Butler, Joseph 32 

Callender, Amos 8, 12. 14, 15, 47, 49 
Mrs. Amos 10 
Noah 14. 16, 126,137 
Reuben 24 
Clark 32 

Nathaniel 67, 137 
L,^ Carey, Barzillai 67 
Eleazer 67 
Carleton Sir Guy 40 
Carpeuto) . Ctimiort 133 
Carrigue, Rev. Richard 127 
Camnbell. D'icior 96 
Catli'n, Ashbel, f'enr. 33, 126, 143 
Ashbel 38. 36 

John B 33, 37, 67, 130, 143 
A. L & E. S. 68 
E. y. & L. 68 
Chamberlain, /•?/ ,Vr 98, 110, 128-4 
Chamberlin, Rev. E. B. 51, 120, 149 
*Chandler, Gardner, 3 
Cheever, Rev. Samuel 113-14 
Chipmaii, Timothy f . 22, 48, 64, 106, 
137-8, 181 (B. S.) 
Isaac 1st 134 
Isaac 22, 50, 51 
John B. 69, 70 
Ansel 68 
Azel 66, 69, 70 
Nelson G. 75 

* Daniel 163 

* John 181 

* Samuel 182 
» Thomas 181 

* Bethia 181 
Lorenzo 30 
Russell 30 

*Chipman & Swift, 72 
♦Chittenden, Gov. Truman 106, 150 
*Cocks, Andrew 62 
Collins, Joseph 35 

P. W. 69 
Conant, Davis 101 

Stephen lOl 
Cook, Reuben 92 

Alvin 92 
Cooper, Stephen 34, 110, 184 

Enoch 101 

Cooper, Orrin 74 
Crigo, John 7, 8, 11,12 

Paul Shoreham 134 
*Crowninshield, Richard 62 
Cudworth, Edwin 27 
Culver, Eliakim 28-9, 100 
Cutting, David 32 

German 24 


Decelles, Mr. 36 
Delano, Earl R. 32 

Thomas 136 
Delano, Hitchcock & Co. 68 
Delaplace, Captain 14 
Denny, R. L. 65 
Denton, Joseph 30 

William 30 
Doane, Schuyler 29 

George W. 83.125 
Doolittle, Ephraim 1, 6, 8, 45, 46, 47, 

Joel 8, 64, 126 
Douglass, Edwin 19 
*Dow, Lorenzo 124 
Draper, Rev. Samuel 125 
*Duane, 168 
Dunbar, Samuel 24 

Joshua 24 


Eldridge, William 101 
Everest, Udney H. 71 
Mr?. 35 
Hiram 68 
Extell, Samuel 101 
Eager, Jason 100 
Hiram 101 


Farwell, Elder 127 
Flagg, Isaac 22, 35 
Fleming, Odell lOl 

Rev. Archibald 119 
Forbush, James 7 
*Frasier, Captain 42 
Frost, Zebulon 59 

Abraham 65 

William Penn 30 

James F. 32 

James F. & Co. 66 
Fuller. Joseph 32 

James 33 
Thomas 49 


Gale, Henry S, 38 

Gardner, Mrs. Anna 33, 139 

Gooda'e, Timothy 33, 126 



Goodeno, Isaiah 101 
Goodhue, Rev. J- F. 50, 119, 120 
Goodwin, Zebedee 28 
Gray, Robert 7 

* Captain 106 
Green, Rev. Henry 122-24 

*Hall, Lieut.Wms 41-2-3 

* Capt, Jolin 42 
Hall & Hunsden, 69 
Halladay, Theodore 105 
*Haldimand, General 156 

Hand, Nathan 32, 100, 186, (B. S.) 
Samuel 98, 105, 142 
Augustus 68 
Harrington, Edward 34 

Russel 37 
Hart, John 163 
Hawley. Charlotte 184 
Haven, Rev. K. 127 
*Hayes, Colonel 151 
*Haynes, Rev. Lemuel 110 
Healey, .Jabez 24 

Benjamin 24, 105, 120 
Hemenway, Samuel 34, 49, 180. 190 
Daniel 45-6, 88 
Asa 45 
Jacob 7 
Herrick, Nathan 20 
Rufus 20,31 
Samuel 20 
Hewitt, Marcus 102 
Hickok, Ira 37 
Higley, William S. 38, 69 
Hill, David 05, 68 

Caleb 75 
Hillard. Elder 127 
Hitchcock, William A. 75 
Holbrook, Eleazer 27, 138 

David 27 
Holley, Samuel H. 71, 100 
S. H & J. 68, 100 
Houghton, Nahum 7 
Howe, Job L. 49. 180, (B. S ) 

Bela 9, 10 
*Humphreys, Gen. David 62 
Hunsden, Charles 31, 34 
Allen 31 
John S. 34 
Robert B. 35 
Hunt, Samuel Senr. 31 

Samuel 31, 49, 132 
John N. 24, 06, 92 
Lewis 30, 81 
Mrs. 139 

''Jarvia, William 62 

Jenison, Levi 32, 50, 61, 106, 187 
Ruth 187 

Silas II, 3ii, 187, (B, S.) 
Jennings, Gideon 32 

Isaac D. 3'2 
Johnson, William 22, 32 
Henry 22 
Mr. 127 
Joshua 160 
Jones, Noah 7, 2G, 49 
William 29 
Asa 29 
Jason 32 
Nel&on 33 
Samuel 29, 110 
Samuel 0. 35 
*Judd, E. W. 94 


Kellogg, Elijah 7, 10, 12, 15, 4l, 49 
Daniel N. 10, 91, 134 

* Benjamin 152 

* Judge Isaac 152 
^Kennedy, J. W. G. 90 
King, Mrs. Zerubah 67 


Pardon 102 

Lamb, James M, 122 
Lapham, Horace 10, 135 
Larrabee, John 20, 49 

Johns. 20, S7, 66, 71, 133, 
138; 172 

William H. 35-7, 75 

Lorenzo 124 

Timothy 24, 124 
Lawrence, Abraham 40 

Aaron 40 
* Effingham 63 

Leonard, George 35 
Lewis, Elisha 35, 105 
L'Homidieu, Mrs. 98 
*LincoIn, General 43 
♦Livingston, Chancellor 62 
Loveland, Rev, S. C. 127 


Manly, Nathan 49 
Markham, Ebenezer 37 

Mrs. Sally 152 
Manning, Abiel 68 
*Marshall, Rev. Mr. 124 
Marsh, Jonas 33, 126 

J. A. 33 

Leonard, 33, 126 
*Macomb, General Alex. 104 
McLaren, John 67, 74 
McGinnis, John 145 



McGinnis, Mn^. 145 
Menona, Rev. Paul 112 
*Merrill, Thomas A. 94 
Miller, Joseph 35 

Moore, Paul 7, 8, 15, 48, 88, 134, 151, 
(B. S.) 159 

James 26, 27, 88, 110, 157. 159, 
(B a.) 

James (;2d) 24 

Franklin 7, 26 
* Miss Mary J, 120 

Morse. Aarun 102 
Morton, Rev. Daniel 0. 115, 129, 184 

Needham, Nicanor 35, 75 
Newell, Herod 94, 136, 141 

E S. 95 
*Newton, Sir Isaac 83 
•Marshal 0, 182 
Liberty 30 

Daniel' 17, 19. 49,-126, 135 
North, Abijah 21, 88 

Mrs. Abijah 134 
Simeon 21 

Nathaniel 22, 35, 104, 141 
Seth 21, 88 
Marvin 141 
Northrup, Jeremiah 31 
Samuel 31 
Edwin 20 
Edwin H. 27,' 31 

Occum, Rev. Sampson 112 
Older, David 102 
Ormsbee, John 32, 126 

Thomas J. 35, 68. 138, 143 

Page, Timothy 74. 110, 138 

David E. 75 
Page & Thrail, 67 
^Palmer, William A. 71 
*?lielps, Maj. Noah 12, 39 
* Samuel S. 135 

Perry, A, W. 31 
*Pettingill, Rev. Amos 115 
Pond, Josiah 22, 49, 110,138,158.(3 S.) 
*Pope, Mr. 140 
Post, Jordan 23 
PoTvell, General 44 
Powers, B F. 7, 9 
Pratt, David 160 
Prescott, Mr. 93 
*Prevost, Gc7icrai 163 
Puan, Francis 102 
Putnam, General 29 


Ramsdell, John 33, 126 

David 33 
Randall, Abel 17 
*Kavlin, Elder Thomas 1213 
Reynolds, John 10, 88 
William 11 
Rich, Thomas 27, 36 125 

Nathaniel 27 

Charles 28, 49, 63, 67, 125, 127. 
132, 142 

Davis 37, 51,67, 132 

Charles {2d) 68 

John T 63 

Quintus C. 92 

Hiram 11, 19 

John 102 

Samuel 102 

Clark 129, 130 

Elder Caleb 125, 127 
*Robbins, Rev. A. R. 40, 112 
*Roberts, Eli 152 
Robinson, Erastus 63 
Rockwell, Samuel 31 
S. B. 69 

* John 66 
Roe, Orvin 66 
Rossman, James 68 

Rowley, Thomas 10, 19, 26. 37 45-6 -9 
lie, 132, 162, (B.,S.) 
Hopkins 12 

Thomas Jr. 12, 19, 163 
Nathan 37, 163, 171 

* Rev. Samuel 168 
Russell, David 24, 49 

Oliver 24 
Spaulding, 36, 68 

Sanford, Lot 31, 98 

Perez 68 
Sawyer, Elder Ephraim 100, 122-3-1 
*Schuyler, General 40 
Severance, Edwin J. 35 
Seymour, Moses 68 
Skeels, Elder Samuel 28, 29, 109, 122 
*Skene, Major Philip 16, 39 
*Skinner, St John B. S. 97 
Simonds, John 38, 69, 70 
J . J. 69 
W. 0. 69 
Sisson, Gideon 81-2, 138, 141, 188 
Smith, Stephen 12, 2.3, 122 18'> 

Eli 23, 49, 110, 122-3 186 

Nathan 23 

Nathan Jr.' 23 

Amos 23 

PhiUp 24, 102, 131, 138 

John 27, 160 



Smith, John W. 160 

Joseph 23, 66, 122 
Orville66,99, 135 
Sereno 23 
Lewis 102 
Samuel 102 
Sally 134 
Polly 182 
Rev. Eli B. 98, 116 

* Elihu 45 

* Hiram 16 
Snow, Amasa 102 

Eli 102 

Ezra 124 
Southgate, David 7 
Spicer, Rev. Tobias 124 
Stanley , Amos 33 

Mrs. Zeviah 99 
*Stark, Jonathan 102 
*Starr, Rev. Peter 112 
Stevens, Roger 88 
Stewart, Calvin 103 

Matthew 30-8-9 

* Ira 170 
Stone, Amos 24 
Streeter, Rev Barzillai 127 
Strong, Moses 71,93 
Stickney, Tyler 63, 74 
Sunderlin, John 68 
Sunderland, Asa 91 

Taylor, John B. 103 
Thomas, Levi 68 
Thompson, E. J. 84 
Thorn, Hallett 59 
Tottingham, B. B. 31 
Tower, Gideon 27 
Samuel 31 
Benjamin 3l 
Tracy, .lohu 24 
Treat, John 31 
Trimble, George 67 

Alexander 67 
Trimble, G. & A. 69 
Turrill, Ebenezer 27, 
Daniel 27 
Beebe 27 
Truman 68 
James 68 
Royal 27 
David 136 
Turrill & Walker, 69 
*Tyler, Joseph 15 

36, 49,|88, 181, 

*Vaughan, Benjamin 23 ■ 


Waller, Henry 32 
Waite, Upton 33 
Wait, William 103 
Wallace, Isaiah 34, 124 

John 124 
*Walton, E. P. 97 
Ward, John 141 
* Gen. Artemas 11, 20 

*Warner, Seth 15, 152 
Watson, William 30 
Watts, Nicholas 189 
Wells, Randall 144 
*Wentworth, Benning 1, 2, 4, 5 
*West, Rev. Joel 49, 110-11-12 
Weed, Joseph 69 
Weeks, Refine 59 
White, Allen G. 73 
Wickton, Elder 124 
*Williams, Roger 163 
Witherell, Horace 103 
Royal 27 
Sylvester 27 
Willson, William 29, 126 
William G. 29 
Jonathan 29 
Manoah 32 

John 74, 120. f 

Jonathan 126 
Wolcott, Samuel 9, 12, 18, 28 

Samuel Jr. 9, 12, 19,88 
Almon 9 
William 19 
William G. 19, 68 
Alvin 19 

Philemon 19, 137^ 
Levi 35, 36 ^ 
Samuel 72 
Jesse 19 
Calvin 19 
Seymour 103 
Wright, Andrew 24 

Mrs. Andrew 28 
Elijah 33, 63, 125 
Kent 36, 67, 68 
M. W. C.29, 92,94 
Charles K. 73 
Ebene^r 126 
* Silas 72 

Wright & Hall, 69 
Woods, Elder Abel 49, 123, 18S 



Grantees of Shoreham, P*ge 45 

'iown Clerks, 52 

Treasurers, 02 

Select-Men, 52-4 

Constables, 64-5 

Kepressntatives, 77-8 

in Convention, 78 

County and State Officials, 78-9 

Members of Congi-ess, 80 

Principals of Academy, 84 

Postmasters, 97 

Sii Months' Soldiers, 107 

Vergennes Volunteers, 107 

I'lattsburgh Volunteers, 107-8 

Graduates of Colleges, 
Female Foreign Missionaries, 


Population at different times, 55 

Political Party Numbers, 80 

Funds for Common Schools, 83 

Agricultural Productions (1859), 90 
Lumber Products, 95 

Summary of Population, (1860) 147 
Census Social Statistics — Valuation, 
Taxes, Schools, Churches, Libra- 
ries, Paupers, Wages, 147-8 
Births, Deaths and Marriages, 148-9 









KntereJ accordiug to Act of Congress, in tlie year 1859, by 


la tJie Clerk's office of the District Court of the United States for the District of 




lu writing the " Statistical and Historical account of tlie County of Addison,'' 
it has not been my intention to interfere with the histories of the several towns, 
which may be published ; nor state any facts or Statistics, exeept such as have 
some reference to the County generally. I should have been gratified to notice 
some of the distinguished citizens in the several towns, especially such as have been 
in office in the county ; also the Academies and other High Schools, which have 
been established in several towns. But I was unwillicg to take these out of the hands 
of the historians of the several towns, which they will be much better qualified to 
de^ribe, and which are more properly within their province. 

This work was written, when the materials were collected, in 1855. Since that 
gome changes of a public character have taken place, and some information ha« 
been received, which I have inserted in the test or notes ; but most of the chapters 
remain as they were irritten, — no new materials have been collected. 



(county of ADDISON.) 



Territory — Face of the Country — Soil — Original Forests — Lime — Marble — 

Streams 5 


County Seats — County Bmldings— Courts— Changes of the Judiciary 19 


Indians — ^Indian Relics 29 

French Settlement in Addison County — Conquered by the British and their 

Retreat— Grants of Land by the French 44 


New Hampshire Charters — Controversy with New York . . , 51 


Opposition West of the Mountain — Negotiations with the Inhabitants of Ben - 
nington — Aflair at Walloomsic — Capture and trial of Hough— Col. Reed's 
Claim — Captain Wooster's Grant— Dunmore's Grant 59 

Ellects of the War and the Declaration of Indcpendencfi on the Controversy — 

Conclusion of the Controversy , 70 


Incidents of the War in the County of Addison 80 

Agriculture— Wheat — Transition from Grain to Stock— Sheep 94 

Cattle— Horses 106 

Agricultural Society— Medical Society 113 


Population — Character — Advantages — Dangers 121 


No. I.— Chief Judges of the County Court — Assistant Judges of County Court 
— County Clerks— State's Attorneys — Sherilfs — High Baili&'s — Judges of 
Probate District of Addison, — District of New Haven 125 

No. II.— Statement of Agriculture, Farms and Implements, Stocks, Products 
&c., taken from Census of 1850. . . . ; 130 

No. III. — A Table showing the population of the several towns in the County 
of Addison, at each United States Census, since Vermont was admitted into 
the Union 131 




Soon after the organization of the Historical Society of Middle- 
bury, the importance of procuring, as early as possible, histories of 
the several towns in the County became a subject of consideration. 
Already nearly all the men who had shared in the occurrences 
and toils of the first settlement had passed away ; and their imme- 
diate descendants, who are the next best witnesses, will soon follow 
them. It is known to all, who have any knowledge of the subject, 
that no histories are so interesting to residents, especially descend- 
ants of the early inhabitants, as the history of the perils and hard- 
ships of the first settlement in their respective towns. Yet this 
subject hud been everywhere too much neglected, and was lil^^ (q 
be neglected, unless some exterior influence^,«l-j;^- ^^^^ distinctly 

bear upon it. The subject was. t^ "^ ' ,i oq+i, /i^^ r^f "Ho 
, „ ^, o • . . .1 -^ annual meetmg on the 29th day ot JJe- 
beiore the feociety, at +^" . • j. i +^ ^^,ioi. 

v. . -i^ip. it this time a committee was appointed to consider 

tT^'^ubject and make report at the next meeting. At a subsequent 
meeting, on the 23d of February, Professor Stoddard, one of the 
committee, made a report, which was accepted, and the plan recom- 
mended was adopted, and a committee appointed to carry it mto 
effect. This committee appointed competent agents in the several 
towns, and sent to them circulars, embvoKjing the plan recommended. 


by the society. But the cominittee have found it a more difficult 
task than they had anticipated to accomplish so desirable an object. 
Some of the agents declined the undertaking, and others, who had 
given encouragement, neglected the task so long that all hope from 
them vras given up. In many of the towns new agents were ap- 
pointed, and requested to perform the cervice. In two of the most 
important towns, gentlemen, fully competent to the undertaking, 
had collected materials, and made progress in the work ; but in the 
midst of their labors, one of them was arrested by death and the 
other removed from the State. Notwithstanding the faithful exer- 
tions of Philip Bx\ttell, Esq., Secretary of the society and one 
of the committee, a few only of the histories have been completed. 
But it was thought best to delay the publication no longer. On 
examination and inquiry, however, no person could be found willing 
to undertake the publication of the whole together, as was proposed, 
or separately, on account of the limited sale which must attend the 
work. Since the passage of the act of the Legislature at their ses- 
sion in 1858, it is proposed to commence the publication of the his- 
tory of each town separately, as fast as they are written, and the 
towns shall furnish the requisite encouragement. The histories are 
obtained through the agency and published under the direction of 
the society. But it is to be understood that the society take to 
themselves none of the credit or responsibility of the composition. 
These belong exclusively to the several authors. 
jj\.s the plan is designed to embrace the histories of all the towns 
with somTo^Mi-'^^^^^^^^^' ^^ ^^ thought proper to introduce them 
properly h^s no history ' It li¥ ^^^^^^'^ ^^ ^ ^^^°^^- ^he County 
it has no active independent existencr?o^'^ ^"^ ''' S'"^"^^' ^""^ 
to be recorded. It is a field rather, in which th7sttr "^ '? T 
Its acts and laws. It has its courts, but they are establisledly Z 
State ; and it has its officers, but they are appointed or commissioned 
by the State. Its history is only the history of a part of the State 
and the history of the State is its history. This fact may justify 
the record we make of incidents, which properly belong to the his- 
tory of the State. In doing so we have relied on original docu- 


ments, and do not design to give any general history, but to confine 
ourselves chiefly to such incidents as are not contained in our present 
State histories, and thus perhaps correct some views and facts stated 
by them. 

The County of Addison is situated on the west line of the State 
and nearly in the centre north and south; between 43'^ 50' and 
44'^ 10' north latitude. It is bounded on the west by Lake Cham- 
plain, the western boundary of the State ; on the north by the towns 
of Charlotte, Hinesburgh and a part of Huntington, in the County 
of Chittenden ; on the north-east by a part of Huntington, and by 
Fayston, Warren and Eoxbury, in the County of Washington ; on 
the south-east by Braintree, in the County of Orange, and Roches- 
ter, in the County of Windsor ; and on the south by Benson, Sud- 
bury, Brandon and Chittenden, in the County of Rutland, It em- 
braces at the present time the following towns : 
Addison, Granville, New Haven, Starksborough, 
Bridport, Hancock, Orwell, Vergennes, 

BmsTOL, Leicester, Panton, Waltham, 

Cornwall, Lincoln, Ripton, Weybridge, 

FerrisburgHjMiddlebury, Salisbury, Whiting. 

Goshen, Monkton, ShorehaxM, 

The County formerly embraced an unincorporated tract of land 
known by the name of Avery's Gore; the east part of which, by 
act of the Legislature passed November 6, 1833, was added to the 
town of Kingston, now Granville, and the north part was added to 
Lincoln, by act of November 12, 1849. 

This County was established by act of the Legislature October 
18, 1785, and the territory which it contained is described in the 
act as follows: "Beginning at the northwest corner of Orwell, 
then running eastwardly on the north line of Orwell, Sudbury, 
Brandon and Philadelphia, and then so far east as to intersect the 
west line of the first town, that is bounded in its charter, or some 
town or towns, which are dependent for their original bounds on 
Connecticut River as aforesaid, to the south line of the Provirice of 
Quebec, which is the north line of this State ; then westwardly in 
said line through Missisque Bay, &c., to -tii© centre of the deepesli 


channel of Lake Champlain ; then southwardl j in the deepest chan- 
nel of said lake till it intersects the west line from the northwest 
comer of said Orwell ; then east to the bounds begun at ; which 
territory of land shall be known by the name of the County of Ad- 
dison ; and the east line of said County of Addison shall be the 
west line of the counties of Windsor and Orange, so far as they join." 
The County by this act embraced the territory to the north line 
of the State, so far east as to include a large part of the Counties of 
"Washington and Orleans. The town of Kingston, now Granville, 
not included in the original boundaries, was set off from Orange 
County to this, by act of the 19th of October, 1787. The act es- 
tablishing the County of Chittenden was passed on the 22d of Octo- 
ber, 1787, making the north line of this County the same as at 
present, except that it embraced the town of Starksboro, which af- 
terwards by the act of 1797 was included m this County. The 
town of Warren, which was included in this County, by act of the 
Legislature in 1829, was annexed to the County of Washington ; 
and the town of Orwell, then in the County of Rutland, was, on 
the 13th November, 1847, annexed to this County. These 
constitute all the changes made in the territory of the County since 
its first establishment, leaving in it the towns above enumerated. 

The eastern part of the County extends over the first range of the 
Green Mountains ; and five of the towns are situated on, or among 
the mountains, and others extend their eastern borders up the west- 
ern slope. About a quarter of the county is mountaiuous, or has 
a soil of similar chai-acteristics. The soil of this tract is generally 
loam of variable compactness, and some is gravelly or sandy. Some 
of the hills are so stony or steep as to be better suited for pasture 
than for tilling. But large portions are not too stony or steep to be 
excellent tilling lands, and are quite productive of many valuable 
crops. "V^Tien opened for a season to the influence of the sun, they 
produce good crops of com, spring wheat and other grains, and they 
are especially valuable for grazing. The alluvial land,<} on the 
branches of White River in the eastern towns, and on other streams, 
are especially valuable for these purposes. The towns west of the 
jmountains are in part very level, and in part, vhat may be called 


rolling, ^vitli a few hills too prominent to bear that designation. 
Among which is Snake Mountain, a long ridge of moderately ele- 
vated land, lying on the borders of each of the towns of Addison, 
"VVeybridge and Bridport. In these towns, the prevailing soil is 
clay, of different degrees of stiffness, with some loam, gravelly and 
sandy land, on the more elevated portions, which rise above what is 
said by geologists, to have been once covered with water. 

On the borders of Lake Champlain, especially in the towns of 
Addison, Panton and Ferrisburgh, are very extensive flat lands, 
composed of clay, with a mixture of vegetable substances, which 
were obviously once the bottom of the lake. These lands, when 
cleared are remarkably productive of grass ; but for other crops are 
too stiff for easy cultivation, and are liable to suffer when the season 
is too wet or too dry. In this tract are several sluggish streams. 
One of which especially, being of greater extent than the others, 
bears the name of Dead Creek. It rises in Bridport, and runs 
northerly, through Addison and Panton and empties into Otter 
Creek in Ferrisburgh. This, as well as the others, is supplied to a 
moderate extent, from small springs at the bottom of the channel, 
but principally by rain water and melted snow, collected from an 
extensive surface in small ravines. The stream being nearly on a 
level with Otter Creek, the water is increased or diminished by the 
rise or fall of the latter stream, whose waters set up into it. An- 
other called Ward's Creek, also rises in Bridport, and runs through 
a corner of Addison and empties into the lake about a mile south of 
Crown Point, and another called Hospital Creek empties into the 
lake a short distance north of Chimney Point. The quantity of 
water in these depends on the height of the water in the lake. 
These sluggish streams afford water for cattle in their neighborhood, 
through the summer, except in the driest seasons. 

Lemon Fair rises in Orwell and runs through the eastern part of 
Shoreham, southeast part of Bridport, and northwest part of Corn- 
wall, and empties into Otter Creek in Weybridge. In Shoreham 
there is a considerable water power on this stream, but below that it 
is very sluggish, and its quantity of water depends much on the 
height of the water in Otter Creek, in the spring and other freshete. 


On the borders of this creek are also extensive flat lands, which 
have no superior for the production of grass. 

On the borders of Otter Creek are also extensive flats, which in 
the spring and other high freshets are overflowed by the waters of 
the creek. A part of the tract, especially in Cornwall and Whiting 
on the west side, and Middlebury and Salisbury on the east side, is 
so low as to be called a swamp, and, except small patches called 
islands, consists of vegetable substances to the depth, in some places, 
of ten feet. These lands when cleared and thoroughly drained be- 
come very productive. 

The natural growth timber on the flat lands last mentioned, was 
pine, cedar, tamarack, soft maple, black ash and elm, with an occa- 
sional mixture of other trees. And similar timber was the growth 
of a similar swamp in New Haven, and another in Shoreham. On 
the flat lands on the border of the lake, the original timber was 
pine, oak, soft maple, black ash, and some other trees in smaller 
numbers. On the western slope of the mountain were a few patches 
of pine, and in other parts of the mountainous region were fine 
groves of maple, beach, birch, black cherry and hemlock, and a very 
handsome growth of spruce, which has become an important article 
for building and for exportation. In other parts west of the moun- 
tains were considerable tracts of pine and oak. Besides these the 
principal trees were maple, beach, ash, basswood, butternut, walnut 
and hemlock. The large quantities of pine and oak have been so 
freely used for building and for exportation, that they have akeady 
become scarce and high in price. 

In the western part of the County, the lands on the borders of the 
lake, especially in the towns of Bridport, Addison and Panton, are 
greatly deficient in water. There are no considerable running 
streams, except the dead streams we have mentioned. The living 
"water from springs is very limited ; and some of these are so strongly 
impregnated with Epsom Salts, that the inhabitants have evaporated 
the water to procure the salts for medicine. It is said that cattle 
are fond of the water, and that the springs were much visited by 
the deer before the settlement of the country. In some parts the 
inhabitants are obliged to resort, to a great extent, to rain water foar 


family use ; and farmers, who live at a distance from the lake and 
creeks, are much troubled in dry seasons to obtain water for their 
cattle. Except the limited water power on Lemon Fair in Shore- 
ham, there is none in that town or either of the towns above men- 
tioned of much value. And yet these towns are among the most 
wealthy agricultural towns in the County. 

The range of granular lime stone, which enters this State from 
Berkshire County, Mass., at Pownal, and passes through the Coun- 
ties of Bennington and Rutland, passes also through this County. 
The lime produced from it is of a very superior quality, and is 
thought, by those acquainted with it, to be much superior to the lime 
from Maine, which is common in the Boston market. Considerable 
establishments, — one especially, near the Whiting Railroad Station, 
built by L. P. White, Esq. — have been formed for manufacturing 
it ; and large quantities are already exported by the railroad to the 
eastern towns ; and the demand is such as to authorize an extensive 
enlargement of the business, Avhere the requisite fuel is not too ex- 

From this range large quantities of marble are taken out and 
manufactured in Bennington and Rutland Counties, and exported to 
every part of the United States. The marble improves, in its fine- 
ness and compactness, as it advances north, and it is believed that 
the best in the whole range is to be found in Addison County. It 
is of a finer quality than any which has been discovered, unless it 
be the quarry in Sudbury near the south line of this County. It is 
pronounced by competent judges to be superior to the Italian marble 
for statuary, and the only doubt is, whether large blocks can be ob- 
tained sufficiently sound. No sufficient exploration has been made 
to settle that question. No persons have been able and willing to 
invest a sufficient capital for that purpose. Some injudicious ex- 
penditure was made on a quarry about a mile east of the village of 
Middlebury. But it has been in hands not yet able U make a thor- 
ough exploration. Another quarry, on which there has been some 
expenditure, is at Belden's Falls, two miles north of the village of 
Middlebury. It was purchased, together with the water power, by 
the lat« Col. Perkins, of Boston, and Perki^^ Nichols, of New 


York, both too far advanced in life to engage personally in the 
business. Under a contract made with them, a company of men 
undertook to make an examination of the quarry, under the super- 
intendence of a scientific gentleman, Professor Foster. The ex- 
amination was continued for several weeks, and a considerable num- 
ber of blocks were taken out, and the Professor, to the very last, 
expressed entire confidence that the marble was sound, and that a 
large establishment would soon be made for the purpose of working 
it. But the work was suddenly stopped without any reason known 
to us. 

Doct. Eben W. Judd, of IMiddlebury, was the first person who 
wrought marble by water power in this State. He and his son-in- 
law, Lebbeus Harris, carried on the business extensively for sev- 
eral years ; but both dying, the business was closed. They wrought 
principally the blue and clouded marble in their neighborhood, as 
more easily obtained. They in the meantime purchased the quarry 
of beautiful black marble on the lake shore in Shoreham, large 
quantities of Avhich they wrought at their works in Middlebury. It 
was used principally for chimney pieces ; for which purpose we think 
there is none superior. Doct. N. Harris, who afterwards owned 
the quarry, in company with one or two associates, got out consid- 
erable quantities of the marble, and, in unwrought blocks, put it on 
board boats and sent it to New York, where it is understood there 
was a large demand for it. We believe the quarries in Addison 
County will yet be a source of wealth, as well from the lime as the 
marble to be obtained from them. 

There are also, in several places, valuable quarries of limestone 
suitable for building purposes. The most important are in Panton 
and neighborhood, from which are taken the beautiful building stone 
much used in Vcrgennes ; and a quarry of excellent dark blue stone 
in the south part of Cornwall, in convenient layers for building, 
with a handsome natural face, which was used for the front of the 
College Chapel, and for underpining of many other buildings in Mid- 
dlebury. In Weybridge and some other towns is found valuable 
building stone. 

The County does not abound in metallic ores. " Iron ore is found 


in the south part of Monkton in large cjuantities. This ore makes 
.excellent iron," and has been extensively manufactured at Vergen- 
nes, Bristol and other places. But it is said, that it is not rich, 
and is therefore usually mixed with ore from Crown Point, and other 
places "west of the lake, in order to manufacture it economically. 

About a mile north of the ore bed, on the east side of a ridge 
running north and south, is an extensive bed of kaolin. It is white, 
sometimes grayish white, dry to the touch and absorbs water with 
rapidity. It is said, ' ■ It might be manufactured into the best China 
ware." Under this conviction a factory for the manufacture of por- 
celain ware, from this material, was many years ago established at 
Middlebury, on the bank of the creek about a mile south of the 
village. But it did not succeed, either through a defect in the ma- 
terial, or the inexperience of the manufacturer. But it has been 
extensively used for the manufacture of stone ware, and fire brick. 
Notwithstanding the deficiency of water in some of the western 
towns, Ave are not acquainted with any equal extent of country, 
which furnishes a more abundant supply of water power than the 
eastern and northern parts of the County. Otter Creek is one of 
the largest rivers in the State. It enters the County from the south 
in Leicester, through a part of which it passes, and is in part the 
boundary between that town and Whiting ; runs between the towns 
of Salisbury and Cornwall ; through the west part of Middlebury, 
between the towns of New Haven and Weybridge, and the towns of 
Waltham and Panton, and through Vergennes into Ferrisburgh, 
where it empties into Lake Champlain. There are few rivers, of no 
larger size, which afibrd, in the same distance, so much safe water 
power. From the head of the falls in Middlebury, to the foot of 
the falls in Vergennes, there is a descent of about three hundred 
feet, in a distance of about thirteen milos, divided into six or seven 
falls convenient for mills. In some of these, the water has a per- 
pendicular descent, in others it falls over precipitous rocks, and in 
some the fall is sufficient to allow the use of the water several times. 
Mills on none of them are endangered by sudden and violent fresh- 
ets. For twenty-five miles above the falls of ]Middlebury, the banks 

are low, and very extensive level flats adjoin them through the whole 


distance. In a violent rush of Avaters from the mountains, from 
melting snows or heavy rains, the water in the creek, instead of 
rushino- in a swollen current down its channel, rises but little before 
it sy reads over an immense extent of country, and is not wholly 
drawn off until the stream is reduced nearly to its common level. 
This of course is a protection to all the falls below. Similar flats 
above the falls at Vergennes, extending far up the Lemon Fair, 
furnish a similar security to that power. The waters on some of 
these falls are but partially used, and on several not at all. 

At Middlebury, there is on the east side a cotton factory in full 
operation, and a large grist or flouring mill. On the west are a 
woollen factory, a grist mill, saw mill, pail factory, a plaining ma- 
chine and other machinery for working wood, besides another wool- 
len factory not now in operation. At the Paper Mill falls, three 
quarters of a mile farther down, there are on the east side, a paper 
mill, oil mill, saw mill, carding machine and trip hammer shop : 
and on the east side a furnace and machine shop. Belden's falls a 
mile and a half further north, is a very valuable water power, on 
which there are no works. A mile or two further, and four miles 
from Middlebury, is Painter's falls in a similar condition. One or 
two miles further down the stream is the Quaker Village falls, 
where are a grist mill, two saw mills and some other works, and on 
the rapids, just above, there was, if not now, a saw mill. 

Philip C. Tucker, Esq., at our request, has obligingly furnished 
us the following account of the falls at Vergennes and the works on 
it. " The falls of Great Otter Creek at Vergennes, are divided by 
two islands mto three separate parts. The width of their head is 
about three hundred and ten feet. The height of the fall is thirty 
seven feet. The creek furnishes an ample supply of water through 
the year. On the westerly shore is an iron foundrey, a forge with 
four fires, and saw mill owned by the Vergennes Iron Company, 
and carried on by William H. White, Esq., There is also a 
machine shop carried on by Mr. William Ross. On the west 
island, there is a large grist and flouring mill, with five runs of 
stones, and a plaster mill owned and carried on by Capt. Charles 
W. Bradbury. On the east island there is one saw mill and a 


manufactory of haines. .The property on this island is owned by- 
Gen. Samuel P. Strong. The hame factory is carried on by Wil- 
li a Ji R. BlXBY, Esq., On the easterly shore, is a large building 
erected in 1854 for manufacturing purposes, and a saw mill. The 
manufacturing building is one hundred and thirty-five feet long, 
thirty eight wide, and four and a half stories high on the water 
side, and three and a half stories on the land side. A portion of 
this building is now used for the manufacture of Sampson's patent 
scales, a new article lately patented. The saw mill is sixty-four 
feet long, thirty feet wide, and fitted for a gang of twenty-four saws. 
These buildings are the property of Green, Roberts and Willard, 
but the scale business is carried on by a stock company in connec- 
tion with the patentee." 

A large amount of power is also furnished by the tributaries of 
Otter Creek, which come down from the mountain on the east. The 
first in order from the south is Leicester River, which issues from 
Lake Dunmore, runs through Salisbury village, and five or six 
miles from the lake empties into the creek in Leicester. From the 
lake to the foot of the falls below the village, about a mile and a 
half, is a fall of 150 or 200 feet, available for mills, almost the 
whole distance. The stream, although not large, has some advan- 
tages peculiar to itself. The water, like that of the lake, from which 
it issues is very pure, and being furnished by springs under the 
lake or in its neighborhood, is so warm, that it does not freeze in 
winter, and obstruct the wheels by ice, as is common in other 
streams. Besides, when the water is raised by freshets from the 
mountain, it spreads over the whole surface of the lake, and does 
not rush in sudden and violent torrents into the stream ; and it can 
be controlled by a dam and gate at the outlet, so as to let into it only 
what is needed, reserving the surplus for future necessity. There 
is now on the stream a saw mill near the outlet. About half a 
mile further down, on a fall of 15 or 20 feet, are a forge and shingle 
machine. Less than half a mile below this is a large woollen fac- 
tory, with a fall of about 20 feet. At the first fall at the village 
of about 15 feet, is a large mill pond, on which are a saw mill, trip 
hammer shop and a woollen factory. Lnmediately below this, 


Tvith a fall of 25 or 30 feet is a grist mill, and immediately below 
the last mentioned, with a &11 of 20 feet is a saw mill, and below 
this at the bottom of the descent, is a fall of seven or eight feet, on 
which a forge formerly stood, but is not now in operation. 

Middlebury River rises in the mountain east of Middlebury, in 
two branches : the principal of which rises within the limits of 
Hancock. These unite in Ripton, and the stream descending the 
west slope of the mountain, empties into the creek near the south 
line of INIiddlebury. At the village of East Middlebury, at the 
foot of the mountain, is a series of falls, which furnish several val- 
uable sites for mills. On these are now a forge, two saw mills, a 
grist mill, tannery, two shops with machinery for boring, sawing 
and turning timber for waggons, a machine for sawing shingles, a 
sash factory and a factory for sawing and fitting barrel staves for 
the Boston market. Tor two or three miles on each branch in Rip- 
ton, are convenient mill sites nearly the whole distance ; and there 
are now, on the main branch four saw mills, two shingle machines 
and a grist mill ; and on the north branclv three saw mills. 

New Haven River rises in the northeast part of Ripton, and runs 
northwesterly through Lincoln, Bristol and New Haven, and emp- 
ties into Otter Creek at Brooksville, in the southeast corner of New 
Haven. In its course it receives several streams, on all of which 
are mills or forges ; one in Lincoln, called Downing Brook, which 
rises in the northeast part of Starksborough, one in Bristol, called 
Baldwin Creek, and another in the south part of Bristol, called 
O'Brian Brook. On this stream and its tributaries, are now in Bris- 
tol, seven saw mills, two grist mills, one trip hammer, one sash and 
door factory, one chair factory, one carding and clothing factory and 
two forges. In Lincoln, there are six saw mills, one shingle and 
one clapboard machine, and two forges. At East Mills in New 
Haven, are a grist mill, saw mill and woollen factory. At the lower 
falls at Brooksville, is a very extensive axe factory, established and 
owned by Brooks Brothers, which, from time to time, from small 
beginnings, has been greatly enlarged by its enterprising proprie- 
tors. On the same falls is a saw mill. Along the whole line of 
this river, is a large amount of water power yet unemployed. 


To these streams may be added Little Otter Creek, which has 
considerable water power and a number of mills in Ferrisburgh ; 
and Lewis Creek, which rises in Starksborough, and after running 
a considerable distance, through Hinesburgh and Charlotte in Chit- 
tenden County, returns into this County in Ferrisburgh, On this 
latter stream in Starksborough, are a saw mill, grist mill, carding 
machine, works for dressing cloth and a furnace, which is employed 
principally for casting plough shares. In Ferrisburgh also, there 
are several mills. Both these streams empty into Lake Champlain 
near each other in Ferrisburgh. 

The Brook Trout is the most common and nearly the only fish 
found in the streams, which come down from the mountains and 
hills. Li the early settlement they were found in great abundance, 
often weighing two or three pounds. But being a favorite fish for 
, the table, great havoc has been made of them by the fishermen, and 
the number and size have greatly diminished. It is rare to take one 
weighing half a ponnd, and they are generally much smaller. In 
Lake Dunmore, the source of Leicester River, at an early day, 
were found large quantities of Lake Trout. The water being pure 
and clear, like that of Lake George, the fish were of the same qual- 
ity and size. They were frequently caught weighing fifteen or 
twenty pounds, and it has been said sometimes twenty-five pounds. 
It has been said also, that formerly some trout were found in Otter 
Creek. But we are not aware that they have been found for many 
years past. The principal fish found, until lately, in this Creek or 
Lemon Fair, are bull-heads, suckers, rock-bass and eels. The fol- 
lowing communication from our friend, Dr. Russell, will give some 
idea of the fish, which now prevail in both these streams. 

" Hon Sajiuel Swift — Sir ; — Agreeable to your request, I herewith communi- 
cate the facts, connected with the introduction of Pickerel into Otter Creek: In the 
spring of 1819, Hon. Daniel Chipjian and others, induced the formation of com- 
mittees in the towns of Middlebury, Salisbury, Leicester and Whiting, to visit 
Lake Champlain to procure fish for the purpose of putting them iato Otter Creek. 
The arrangement was successfully carried out ; and at that time large quantities of 
the different varieties of fish usually taken in Lake Champlain were placed in Otter 
Creek. From the diary of our deceased townsman, Eben W. Judd and others, I 
learn, that the committee for Middlebury, consisting of James Satxebly, Harvey 


WiLLSON, Daniel L. Pottek, George Chipman and Chauncet W. Fuller, on the 
12th of May visited Lake Champlain, and fished with seines at Chimney Point. 
The party camped out the night of the 13th, and did not reach JJiddlcbury, on 
their return, until the middle of the next night. The fish taken ■were transported 
in water, which was frequently changed on the passage. They were placed in Ot- 
ter Creek above Middlebury Falls, the same night. Of the many varieties, brought 
from the lake, all have disappeared, except the Pickerel. They have greatly in- 
creased, both in size and quantity. Some weighing over twenty weight, — notwith- 
standing, the largequantity annually taken from the creek. They are found through 
the creek, the whole length, from Sutherland's Falls to the Vergennes Falls, and 
the whole length of Lemon Fair. They are as much improved in quality as in size. 
It is said that those taken above the Great Falls at Vergennes, are greatly superior 
in quality to those taken below, which come up from the lake. 

Too mush praise cannot be rendered those far seeing and disinterested men, who 
exerted themselves so successfully for our benefit, and placed within the reach of 
every resident of the valley of Otter Creek and Lemon Fair, a luxury not to be' 
exceeded from any other water. KespestfuUy your friend, 





The act incorporating the County in 1785, established the towns 
of " Addison and Colchester to be half shires," " for the time being," 
and directed " that the times and places for holding County Courts, 
or Courts of Common Pleas annually, be as follows, viz., at Addi- 
son aforesaid, the first Tuesday of March, and at Colchester the 
second Tuesday of November, and that the Supreme Court be held 
on the second Tuesday of August^ alternately at Addison and Col- 
chester." The Governor and Council were authorized " to appoint 
County Officers and commissionate them for the time being." The 
Judges of the County Court, appointed under this provision " for 
the time being," were John Strong of Addison, Chief Judge, and 
Gamaliel Painter of Middlebury, and Ira Allen of Colchester, 
side or Assistant Judges, and Noah Chittenden Sheriff. 

The first term of the Court was held at Addison, on the first 
Tuesday of March 1786. An act passed in February 1781, had 
provided that the freemen should elect four Assistant Judges of the 
County Court ; and before the next term of the Court, the freemen 
of the County had elected William Brush, Hiland^Hall, Sam- 
uel Lane and Abel Thompson, Assistant Judges, and the Court 
was held by them " at Captain Thomas Butterfield's in Colches- 
ter," on the second Tuesday of November 1786. The March term 
1787 was held according to the act at Addison ; and the County of 
Chittenden, which included Colchester, being established before No- 
vember, that term was also held at Addison. The Judges chosen 
by the freemen in 1786, held the court in 1787 ; and since that 
time, only two Assistant Judges have been appointed. Until the 
alteration of the constitution, in 1850, these with other Couniy Offi- 


cers were appointed by the Legislature. The Court continued to be 
held at Addison until the September term 1792. At their October 
session in 1791, the Legislature passed an act removing the Court 
to ]\Iiddleburj, but providing that it should not take effect until 
"April next," and of course the March term 1792 was held at 
Addison. Since that time the Courts have been uniformly held at 

There were no County buildings in Addison, and the Court held 
its sessions at the houses of Benjamin Paine at Chimney Point, 
of Zadock Everest, Esq., of Jonah Case, and of his widow after 
his decease, all on the shore of Lake Champlain. The Courts were 
also held for some time at public houses in Middlebury ; in the 
years 1792 and 1793 at the public house of John Deming, which 
stood on the ground now occupied by the Congregational Church; 
and afterwards until the Court House wo^ completed, at the public 
house of Samuel Mattocks. The first Court House was com- 
menced in Middlebury in 1796, but was not occupied by the Court 
until 1798, It was built by subscription of the citizens of Middle- 
bury and vicinity. The jail had been previously built. 

Hon. Gamaliel Painter, who owned a large tract of land on 
the east side of Middlebury Falls, on the second day of INIay 1791, 
and previous tothe removal of the Courts to that place, executed to 
" John Willard, Benjamin Gorton and Jabez Rogers, together 
with all the rest of the inhabitants of the County of Addison, and 
to their successors forever," a quit claim deed of the following tract 
of land in Middlebury, " viz., beginning at the southeast corner of 
a half acre lot of land, that he the said Gamaliel sold to Samuel 
Miller, Esq., and is the same lot where the said Miller now 
liveth ; thence south 30 minutes east, eight chains and ten links to 
a stake standing on the east side of a road ; thence east one chain 
and six links to a stake ; thence north 30 minutes west eight chains 
and ten links to the south line of Miller's lot ; thence west one 
chain and six links to the bounds begun at," "for the only expressed 
purpose and use of a Common never to be divided, or put to any 
other use." This tract is in the form of a parallelogram, about 
four and a quarter rods wide, extending from the house lot owned 

ms'ToiiY or addison couNTf . 21 

fcj the late Edward D. Barber, Esq., in front of Mr. Warxeu'i^ 
lot and the Addison House, to the house lot owned by the late R.U- 
FU3 Waixwright, and now occupied by his widow. 

On the 22d of May 1794, Judge Paixter executed another deed 
to " Jabez Rogers, Joseph Cook and Eleazer Clagkorx, to- 
gether with all other inhabitants of the County of Addison," of a 
tract of land in Middlebury, " bounded as follows, beginning at a 
heap of stones at the southwest corner of an acre lot of land, which 
said Paixter formerly sold to Simeon Dudley ; thence running 
south, 30 minutes east, on the east line of a certain piece of land 
said Paixter formerly gave to the people of said County, three 
chains and seventy-eight links to a stake ; thence east 30 minutes 
north three chains and seventy-three links to a stake ; thence north 
30 minutes west three chains and seventy-eight links to a stake, 
standing in the south line of said Dudley's lot ; thence a straight 
line to the bounds begun at, containing one acre and sixty-five rods," 
"for the express use and purpose of erecting a court house and 
jail thereon, and as a common, never to be divided or put to any 
other use." This lot lies east of, and adjoining, the lot first men- 
tioned ; and on this lot the court house and jail were erected. The 
Dudley lot, which forms the northern boundary, is that on which 
Samuel Mattocks built his public house, and on which the Ad- 
dison House now stands ; and it is understood that in erecting the 
present house, it was extended south several feet beyond the limits 
of the lot, on the land of the County. 

The court house was built on the brow of the hill five or six 
rods north of, and nearly in a line with, the house occupied by Mrs. 
Waixv/rigiit. The jail house had been previously built of wood 
on the same line, and within a rod or two of the south line of tliu 
Dudley lot. It contained a tenement for the family of the jailor, 
as well as a dungeon and other rooms for prisoners. This jail was 
built by a '• tax of two pence on the pound" on the list of tho 
County for the year 1793, granted by the Legislature in November 
1792, and payable into the County Treasury by the first day of 
December 1794." '• Eleazer Claghorx, Gamaliel Paixter, 
Samuel Miller. Jabfz Rogers, Josei'ii Cook, Samuel Jewett 


and Elijah Foot were appointed a committee to receive and lay 
out the money.*' 

The legislature at that time being in the practice of removing 
their annual sessions from one principal to^vn to another, the court 
house was ?juilt with reference to their use. One high room arched 
overhead, with long windows, and seats rising towards the rear, and 
a gallery over the entrance at the west end, constituted the whole 
interior of the building. The General Assembly held its session in 
it in the years 1800 and 1806. The inhabitants of the town having 
contributed towards its erection, it was used also as a town room. 
And until the completion of the new church, in 1809, it was occu- 
pied by the Congregational Society as a place of worship, and for 
all meetings of the society. There being no other suitable room in 
the village, it was used for public meetings of every character. 

By the arrangement of the roads in .the vicinity and the busi- 
ness, which centered there, these buildings were left in an exposed 
condition, without enclosures, and the whole grounds around them 
became a thorou2:hfare for teams and other modes of travel. The 
jail, especially, came to be regarded as too unsafe and uncomfort- 
able for the purpose for which it was designed. Accordingly, in 
November 1809, the legislature passed an act assessing a tax of 
one cent on a dollar on the lists of the several towns in the County 
(except the city of Vergennes, which maintained a Jail of its own) 
for the purpose of erecting a jail in Middlebury, to be paid into the 
treasury of the County, by the first day of February 1811, and 
authorized the Judges of the County Court to appoint an agent to 
superintend the erection. They appointed Hon. Daniel Ghip^.ian, 
wio proceeded to procure a suitable lot for its site, and in Decem- 
ber 1810, received a deed from Aktemas Nixon, of a vacant lot 
on the corner made by the road leading east from the Court House, 
and another leading thence north. On this he erected a jail house 
of stone, at a cost of about four thousand dollars. After the com- 
pletion of this building, the old jail house was sold to Capt. Jus- 
tus Foot, and by him was removed to the lot east of the hotel, 
repaired, fitted up and occupied by his family for a dwelling house. 
It is now owned by Calti^t Htll, Esq. 


In 1814 the Court House, in its exposed condition, came to be 
regarded as a nuisance, rather than an ornament, and was removed 
to the place where it now stands. On the first of January, 1816, 
and after the Court House was removed, Judge Painter deeded to 
the County a tract of land, " being that piece or parcel of land, on 
which the Court House now stands in Middlebury, together with a 
free and open passage on the whole front of the same to the Center 
Turnpike road, so called, with a pqissage around the said Court 
House on the north, east and south sides of the same, for the pur- 
pose of repairing or fitting up the said House, or for the erection of 
a new Court House on the premises at all times," " for the express 
purpose of erecting, keeping and having a Court House for the 
County of Addison aforesaid, on the said premises, where the same 
is now erected, so long as the premises shall be used for the purpose 
aforesaid, and no longer," with a quit claim of the right to erect 
buildings on the neijjhboring lands within certain distances. The 
width of the " free passage around " the House was fixed by a deed 
from the Corporation of Middlebury College, who received the land 
by will from Judge Painter to R. and J. Wainwright, at one rod. 

The Court House having so high a room for the sessions of the 
Courts, having been much racked by the removal, and being other- 
wise out of repair-, was found to be not only inconvenient, but so 
cold that it could not be kept comfortable m the cold weather in 
winter, when most of the Courts were held ; and for that reason the 
Supreme Court held its sessions, for several winters, at the public 
houses. The County Court therefore, in the year 1829, ordered 
Samuel Swift the Clerk, and Seymour Sellick the Sheriff, to 
divide the building into two stories. The Agents accomplished this 
purpose during that season, finishing the upper story for the ses- 
sions of the Courts, with one room adjoining for a consultation room, 
and three rooms below for Jury rooms and other uses, in the style 
in which it still remains. When finished, the Court Room was said 
to be the best room for the purpose in the State. The expense of 
the alteration was $1250,11. The town of Middlebury paid toward 
this expense $250, in consideration that they were to have the use 
of the large room in the lower story for a town room, and a sub- 


Fcription was made bj the citizens to the amount of .$113.50. The 
balance Tras paid from the funds of the County, received for licen- 
ses, without any tax, and a large share was advanced by the clerk 
in anticipation of future receipts. 

In the year 1841: the belfry and roof Avere found to need repair, 
and other parts of the exterior were regarded nearly as offensive, 
on account of its stylo, as the interior had been ; and the court or- 
dered the clerk to make the requisite repairs and alterations. This 
was accompliohed the same season at an expense of $822,70, of 
which the town paid $137. The balance was paid from the County 
funds, as in the case of former alterations. By means of these al- 
terations nothing remains of the first Court House but the frame. 

In the meantime the stone jail built in 1811 was found, like the 
old one, unsafe and entirely uncomfortable and oppressive to pris- 
oners confined in it, and not in accordance with the philanthropic 
views, which prevailed ; and it had been many times indicted by the 
grand jury. The legislature, in October 1844 therefore granted a 
tax of six cents on a dollar of the lists of the several towns in the 
County except the city of Yergennes, for the purpose of erecting a 
new jail, provided the inhabitants of Middlebury would, before the 
first day of February 1845, procure conveyed to the County of Ad- 
dison a suitable piece of land, to the acceptance of Silas H. JenI" 
SON, HiRVEY MuNSiLL and Silas Pond, and appointed Samuel 
Swift and Austin JonxsoN Agents, to superintend the erection. 
The lot now occupied for that purpose was purchased and paid for 
by the citizens of Middlebury, and accepted by the above mentioned 
commissioners. The agents believing that, as the population and 
business of the County should increase, and a more speedy commu- 
nication by rail roads should be opened, the number of criminals 
would increase ; and desiring to erect a prison, which would be ad- 
equate to such an emergency, and not require to be soon replaced, 
adopted a plan larger than present circumstances requu'ed. They 
accordingly erected a large brick buildmg, the front of which was 
designed for the residence of the Sheriff's family, with an office for 
the sheriff. Through this room is the only communication with 
the prison from the outside. The prison is in the real* of the build- 


ing, in -wiiich arc twelve cells for securing each prisoner by himself 
in the night, six in the lower and six in the upper range, with a large, 
well lighted and ventilated room in front of them, for the occupation 
of the prisoners in the day time. The prisoners in this room are, 
at all times, subject to inspection, by means of a grated opening, 
from the rooms occupied by the family. By the same means the 
least disturbance or noise, by night as well as by day, may be heard. 
The expense of the cells was much larger than was anticipated. The 
iron work alone cost about $1500 ; and slabs of strong stone were 
purchased and hauled from Brandon, for the jSoors, caps and sides 
of the cells, from six to eight inches thick, and of the size of the 
length, width and height of the cells. When the legislature as- 
sembled in October 1846, the tax had been expended, the agents 
were largely in debt and the jail not completed. Application was 
therefore made for a further tax._ The representatives from the 
County, to whom the application is by law referred, consented to 
another tax of five cents on a dollar. — wholly inadequate for the 
purpose, — on condition that the town or village or citizens of Mid- 
dlebury would give a bond to the satisfaction of the judges of the 
County Court, to secure the payment of all the debts, and the com- 
pletion of the Jail, and by the act, Rufus Wainwright was ap- 
pointed an additional agent. To him the other agents committed 
the whole management of the business. A subscription v\-as raised 
among the citizens, the debts were paid and the prison completed, 
but the plan was not carried out to its full extent. The whole ex- 
pense was about ^8000. After the completion of this building, the 
old stone jail house was sold to Mr. Oliver Vf Ellington, Avho, 
after great alterations and at great expense, has since occupied it as 
a dwelling house. 

From the year 1787 to the year 1825, the County Court consis- 
ted of a chief judge, and two assistant judges, appointed expressly 
to those oiEces, and was independent of the Supreme Court. Li 
November 182-4, the Legislature passed an act reorganizing the 
Supreme and County Courts, and providing, that the Supreme Court 
should consist of a chief judge, and three assistant judges, and 
that the County Court, '• from and after the third Thursday of Oc- 


tober then next," should consist of a chief judge, who should be one 
of the judges of the Supreme Court, for each circuit, and two as- 
sistant judges, appointed as before required by lavr. And the State 
was for that purpose divided into four cu-cuits. The number of 
Judges of the Supreme Coui-ts and of the cu-cuits was afterwards 
increased to five. To the County Courts, by this act was given 
"original and exclusive jurisdiction of all original civij actions, 
except such as are cognizable before Justices of the Peace," "and 
appellate jurisdiction of all causes civil and criminal appealable to 
such Court," and " original jurisdiction of all prosecutions for crim- 
inal offences, except such as are by law made cognizable by justices 
of the peace ;" and in such cases the jurisdiction of the Supreme 
Court extended only to questions of law, arising out of the trial in 
the County Court. The clerk, to be appointed by the County 
Court, was to be also clerk of the Supreme Court. 

At the session in October 1849, the Legislature made a further 
alteration in the organization of the judiciary system. The act 
passed at that session provided, that the State should be divided into 
four judicial circuits, and that one circuit judge should be appointed 
for each circuit, and these judges were constituted chief judges of 
the County Court in each County, and chancellors in their re- 
spective circuits. These were distinct from the Judges of the 
Supreme. Court, and, with the two assistant judges, constituted the 
County Court. The first circuit was composed of the Counties of 
Bennington, Rutland and Addison. 

The Legislature at their session in October 1857, repealed the 
law last mentioned, and provided that the Supreme Court shall con- 
sist of one chief judge and five assistant judges. These judges 
are constituted chief judges of the County Court and Chancel- 
lors in the several Counties ; and for this purpose it is made the 
duty of the Supreme Court to assign one of the judges to each 
County. This act substantially restores the system adopted in 1824, 

By the first constitution of the State, adopted in 1777, it was 
provided " that the General Assembly when legally formed, shall 
appoint times and places for County elections, and at such times 
and places the freemen in each County respectivelyj shall have the 


liberty of choosing the judges of the Inferior Court, or Court of 
Common Pleas, Shcrius, Justices of the Peace and Judges of Pro- 
bate, commissioned by the Governor and Council, during good be- 
havior, removable by the General Assembly upon proof of malad- 
ministration." By the amended constitution, adopted by the con- 
■\Tntion in 178G, it was provided, that the above mentioned officers 
should be annually elected by the General Assembly, " in conjunc- 
tion with the council." And they continued to be thus elected, 
imtil the amendment of the constitution adopted in 1850. Until 
this time no provision was made in the constitution for the election 
of a state's attorney or high bailiff. An act passed in February 
1779, provided " that in each County there shall be one State's 
Attorney, and that they be appointed by the respective County 
Courts." Col. Setii Stores, then residing in Addison, was ap- 
pointed by the Court in 1787, the first State's Attorney of Addison 
County. Afterwards the State's Attorney, as well as the High 
Bailiff, was appointed in the same manner as other officers. 

At the time of the election of the Council of Cengors in 1848, 
the evils of the then existing mode of electing County Officers by 
the legislature, had become more and more apparent for several 
years, and had come to be condemned generally by the people. The 
nomination, according to practice, being made by the County mem- 
bers had become a subject of trafic between the parties interested, 
and was subjected to an influence, which could not be made to bear 
upon the mass of the people. It also occasioned much delay of the 
appropriate business of the Legislature. Accordingly the conven- 
tion, Avhich was held in 1850. in pursuance of the recommendation 
of the Council of Censors, adopted the amendment now in force. 
This provides, that the assistant judges of the County Court, 
Sheriffs, High Bailiffs and State's Attornej^s. shall bo elected by the 
freemen of the Counties, the Judges of Probate by the freemen of 
their respective districts, and Justices of the Peace by the freemen 
of the several towns. The votes are to be given at the freemen's 
meeting on the first Tuesday of September, to be sent to the next 
session of the Legislature, and there canvassed by a joint committee 
of tlK- Senate and House of Representative?. The officers clm^en 


are commissioned by the Governor, and hold their offices for one 
year from the first day of December following. 

By an act of the legislature in February 1787, the County of 
Addison was constituted a Probate District, and Probate Courts 
were established in it, and until the year 1824, the whole constitu- 
ted but one Probate District. The Legislature, at their October 
session in that year, divided the County into two Districts, by the 
names of Addison and New Haven. The District of New Haven 
embraces the towns of Addison, Panton, Vergennes, "Waltham, New 
Haven, Bristol, Lincoln, Starksborough, Monkton and Fcrrisburgh. 
The remainder of the County constitutes the District of Addieon.* 

•Seo Appendix No. J, for list of County Officers. 




In what we have to say of the Indians, the original inhabitants of 
the County of Addison, it is not our purpose to enter into any , 
learned dissertation on their character, customs or history. Such 
treatises may be found elsewhere. We regard it as belonging to 
our province to speak only of their residence in the County, and of 
their depredations so far only as they affect the County and its set- 
tlement, and that not in detail. It is bi^t a very short time since 
we commenced any inquiries on the subject. But from the accounts 
we have obtained, during our short examination, we find satisfactory 
evidence, in the Indian relics found in different towns, that the 
County of Addison Avas the established residence of a large popula- 
tion of Indians, and had been for an indefinite period. The borders 
of Lake Champlain, Otter Creek, Lemon Fair and other streams, 
furnished a convenient location for that purpose.* 

Previous to the discovery of Lake Champlain, in 1609, the 
Iroquois, or Five Nations, which together formed a powerful Indian 
tribe, claimed and occupied an extensive country south of Lakes 
Erie and Ontario, and the River St. Lawrence, and extending to 
and including Lake Champlain and Western Vermont, and previously 
had been undoubtedly settled in this County. It is supposed by 
many, that their settlement extended as far north as the River 
Sorel, which forms the outlet of Lake Champlain, and that the 

*Iii a conversation, which Philip Battell, Esq., had. several years ago, with 
an intelligent Indian -woman, she stated that the Indian names of all the streams 
and waters in this region were familiarly known among the Indians, and that the 
old Indian, who died at Bristol, as mentioned elsewhere, could have given the names. 
She said the name of Otter Creek, was Wunageequ'tuc, which the French called 
La Riviere aux Loutres, both which mean The River of Otters. The name of Lake 
Dunmore, she said, was Moosalamoo, Salmon Trout Lake. 



river was called the Iroquois for that reason, and Champlain so rep-- 
resents it. But others suppose, that it was called by that name, 
because it came from the country of the Iroquois. When Samuel 
Champlain, the French leader, came up the lake on his tour of 
discovery, in 1609, the Iroquois had withdrawn from the islands in 
the north part of the lake, which now constitute the County of 
Grand Isle, and which the Indians, with Champlain, represented, 
had been inhabited by them. He says, in his account of this excur- 
sion : "I saw four beautiful islands, ten, twelve and fifteen leagues 
in length, formerly inhabited, as icell as the Iroquois River, by 
Indians, but abandoned, since they have been at war, the one with 
the other." " They retire from the rivers as far as possible, deep 
into the country, in order not to be soon discovered."- And again 
he says^ " Continuing our route along the west side of the lake, I 
saw, on the east side, very high mountains capped with snow. I 
asked the Indians, if those parts were inhabited. They answered, 
yes ; and that they were Iro(|Uois, and that there were in those parts > 
beautiful vallies, and fields fertile in corn, as good as I had ever 
eaten in the country." In anticipation of this expedition, Cham- 
plain, had entered into a treaty with the Algonquins, who dwelt 
along the north bank of the St. Lawrence, between Quebec and 
Montreal, in which " they promised to assist the stranger, in his 
attempt to traverse the country of the Iroquois, on condition, that 
he should aid them in a war against that fierce people ;" and he and 
the two Frenchmen with him, came armed for the conflict, with 
muskets. The Indians described the place, where they expected to 
meet their enemies, and they, as well as the French in Canada, 
spoke of this as the country of the Iroquois. On the border of the 
lake, near Crown Point,* as they expected, they met a war party 

* flistorians generally represent that this battle took place at Lake George. The 
editor of the Documentary History of New Yoi'k, says in a note, " The reference in 
Champlam's map locates this engngement between Lake George and Crown Po nt, 
probably in what is now the town of Ticonderoga, Essex County " We find no 
authority, in Champlain's account fur either of these opinions. He says they 
met their enemies, "at a point of a cape, which jets into the lake on the west 
side."' Vi'c know of no other point, which better answers the description than the 


of the Iroquois, who defied them. But, when Champlain, at a 
single fire of his arquebus, killed two chiefs and mortally wounded 
another, and another Frenchman fired from another quarter, they 
fled in alarm, at the new and unheard of weapons of war, and were 

Previous to this, incessant wars were carried on between the Al- 
gonquins, aided by the Ilurons, a powerful tribe, occupying an 
extensive country in Canada, extending as far west as the lake from 
■which they derived their name, on one side, and the Iroquois on the 
other. For many years subsequently, the latter had no aid from 
European Colonies or European arms. When the Dutch had pos- 
session of New York, they were too much engaged in commerce, 
and traffic with the Indians, to take part in their wars. But the 
wars still continued with great fury, between the French colonists 
and Indians, and the Iroquois unaided and without fire arms. The 
latter were particularly hostile to the French, because they had fur- 
' nished their enemies with their new and deadly weapons. After 
the English in 166-1, obtained possession of New York, they enlisted 
in the wars, which were still continued between the French colo- 
nists and their Indians on the north, and the English colonies and 
their Indians on the south, until the conquest of Canada in 1760. 
The Iroquois still claimed this territory, and their claim was ac- 
knowledged by the government of New York. But it does not 
appear, that after the discovery of the lake and their retreat on 
that occasion, they ever had any permanent settlement here. The 
Mohawks and the other confederate tribes seem to have occupied the 

eape, which runs up between the lake and Bulwaggy Bay, at Crown Point. Hon. 
John W. Strong, thinks the place of this battle was "on Sandy Point, being the 
extreme north-western terminus of Crown Point, and the entrance of Bulwaggy 
Bay." In one of his numbers in the Vergennes Citizen on " Local History," 
after describing the place as such " as would be chosen by the Indians for defence," 
and giving other reasons for his belief, he says : " The writer, in passing this place, 
several yeai-s ago, was surprised at the number of arrow heads, that lay on the 
shore and in the water, and on examining closely he found several pistol and mus- 
ket balls, two French military buttons, a copper coin of the fifteenth century and 
two clumsev musket flints." 



region of the jSIohawk River, and the territory south of Lakes Erie 
and Ontario.* 

In the mean time, Lake Champhiin and its neighborhood was a 
thoroughfare, through which the hostile parties made their excur- 
sions in their alternate depredations on each other. In the latter 
part of the 17th century and the fore part of the 18th, many of 
these incursions took place. In 1689, while the French and Indi- 
ans were making fruitless arrangements to invade the settlements in 
New York, at Albany, and its neighborhood, the Iroquois fitted out 
an expedition, invaded Canada, plundered and burnt Montreal and 
destroyed other settlements in the neighborhood. The next year, 

1690, the French and Indians fitted out two expeditions. One pro- 
ceeded into New Hampshire, destroyed the fort at Salmon Falls, 
killed many of the inhabitants and took many prisoners ; the other 
proceeded by the way of Lake Champlain, attacked and burnt Sche- 
nectady, and killed and captured many of the inhabitants. In 

1691, the English and Irocjuois made an excursion into Canada, 
through the lake, and made a successful attack on the settlements 
on the River Richelieu, and killed many of the settlers. In 1695, 
the French and Indians invaded the territory of the Iroquois, and, 
after several battles, in which the latter were aided by the English, 
under Col. Schuyler, they were driven back. In 1704, the Eng- 
lish settlements on Connecticut River, having extended as fiir as 
Deerfield, the French and Indians, coming up the lake to the mouth 
of Onion River, and following up that river, invaded and destroyed 
that place, and killed and took captive many of the inhabitants. 

In the meantime the English had come to the conclusion, that 
there would be no security from the ravages of the Indians, but by 

* It is universally admitted, that the Iroquis claimed the whole of this territory. 
We think also that their claim extended, along the River Richelieu, as far as the 
St Lawrence, and that they had a permanent residence here. No history pretends 
that any other tribe settled here. But it is not improbable, that on account of the 
■wars, which had for some time been carried on between them and the Algonquins, 
they had been induced to remove their residence further from the neighborhood of 
their enemies, at least, from the borders of the lake, before Champlain's discovery 
of it. They had at least left the islands at the north part of the lake before that, 
and Champlain'3 party did not meet any enemy until they reached Crown Point. 


conquering the French, as well as the savages. In 1709 and sev- 
eral following years, attempts were made, through the lake, to in- 
vade and conquer Canada. And while the English and French gov- 
ernments were at peace^ for some years previous to 1725, wars were 
still carried on by the Indians, aided occasionally by the English 
and French colonies. In 1746, while the French were in posses- 
sion of Crown Point, an expedition from that place was fitted out 
by the French and Indians, who captured Fort Iloosick, which be- 
fore that had been built at Williamstown, Massachusetts, near the 
southwest corner of Vermont. 

During all these expeditions and until the French were driven 
from Crown Point in 1759, this territory, including the whole of 
AVestern Vermont, was exposed to the depredations of the Indians, 
and settlements in it were wholly unsafe. Even the proprietors of 
Bennington, who had obtained a charter in 1749, did not venture 
to commence a settlement of that town until 1761, after the conquest 
of Canada. 

In the short time, in which our attention has been directed to the 
subject, we have collected such information as we have been able, 
respecting the Indian relics found in the County, as the best evi- 
dence of the extent of Indian settlements. Our inquiries have not 
extended to all parts of the County. They have generally been 
made of those farmers and others, whom we have incidentally met. 
And now the printers threaten to tre.vd upon our heels, and we are 
compelled to stop our inquiries. But such facts as we have obtained, 
we present below, and we trust the reader will find in them satis- 
factory evidence, that the Indians once had a permanent settlement 
here. But the permanent settlement, we think, must have closed 
with the discovery of Lake Champlain, by the French leader, Sam- 
uel Champlain, two hundred and fifty years ago, and the manu- 
facture of the implements we describe, of course ended then. 
There may have been a temporary residence of some tribes, while 
the French had possession of Crown Point, or during the Revolu- 
tionary war, while the British had the control of the lake. But 
we have, we think, the testimony of history, that after the Iroquois 
■were first overcome ofi" by the fire arms, which were used by Cham- 


PLAIN and his Frenchmen, they never returned to occupy this region 
by a permanent settlement. Besides, after the Indians were fur- 
nished by Europeans with fire-arms and other needed implements, 
they had no occasion to manufacture them. 

The main object of our inquries has been to find evidence of the 
extent of Indian settlements in the County. But, if our time had 
permitted, we might have presented some other views of the subject. 
The want of time also has prevented our giving illustrations of some 
of the less common manufactures, as we intended. The following 
are the results of our inquries, and the sources of our information : 

Professor Hall, in his account of Middlebury, in 1820, states 
that on the farm in the south part of the town, on which Judge 
Painter, first settled, now owned by William F. Goodrich, on an 
alluvial tract, near Middlebury River, — and his statement is con- 
firmed to us by Mr. Goodrich, — "are found numerous articles of 
Indian manufacture, such as arrows, hammers, &c., some being of 
flint, others of jasper. A pot, composed of sand and clay, of curious 
workmanship, and holding about twenty quarts, has recently been 
dug up here nearly entire." 

Almon W. Pinney, states, that in an old channel of the same 
river, on the old Sm alley farm, and not far from the same place, 
the water had washed away the bank and uncovered parts of a 
broken " camp-kettle," as he called it, holding about a pailful and 
a half, of the same material as the above, curiously ornamented by • 
flowers or leaves wrought on the sides. There were also found 
there half a bushel of perfect and imperfect arrow heads, one of 
which was four inches lon^. 

Enoch Dewey, states, that on his farm, in Middlebury, on which 
his father was an early settler, two miles southeast from the village, 
and west of his house, on dry land near a brook between the hills, 
he has ploughed up on two separate spots, chippings, or fragments 
of stone, obviously made in manufacturing arrow heads and other 
implements, together with a bushel or more ofperfect and imperfect 
arrow heads all of grey flint. 

On the house 'lot of the writer, in the village of Middlebury, 
several years ago, was ploughed up an Indian pestle of hard grey 


Stone, made round and smooth, and rounded at the ends, about fif- 
teen inches long and t^YO and a half inches in diameter. 

Mr. RuFUS Mead, editor of the Middleburj Register^ states, 
that on the farm on -which his father lived, and his grandfather was 
an early settler, in the west part of Cornwall, have been found 
large numbers of arrow and spear heads, from two to five inches in 
length, and, among them, stone chips, worked off in the construc- 
tion of arrow heads, and many imperfect arroAV heads, apparently 
made by unskilful artists, or spoiled in the manuficture ; that at 
every ploughing for many years, these relics have been ploughed 
up. This locality is near a spring, and on ground sloping to 
Lemon Fair Flats. On this slope for some distance, the land is 
springy, and on several of the neighboring farms, similar relics are 
found. In that neighborhood was also found a stone gouge, in the 
regular shape of that tool, six or eight inches long, and two and a 
half inches Avide. This tool Mr. Mkad thinks, was used for dig- 
ging out their canoes, the wood being first burnt and charred by 
fire. The arrows, he says, were of flint, partly light and partly 
black ; and he is confident they were made of materials which are 
not found in this country. Otter Creek, and Lemon Fair, which 
empties into it, are navigable for boats from the head of the falls at 
Vergennes to this place. 

Deacon "Warner states, that on his farm in Cornwall, first set- 
tled by Benja:\iix Hamlin, were found, at an early day, a great 
variety of Indian relics, arrow heads, spear heads, and other imple- 
ments of which he docs not know the use : also chippings and frag- 
ments of stone, made in the construction of the articles, and defect- 
ive and broken implements. Some of the articles were made of 
flint stone, and some, designed for ornament, of slate. This locality 
is on a rise of ground near a Beaver Brook and Beaver Meadow. 
The brook empties into Lemon Fair, and is navigable for boats from 
that stream, except in dry weather. 

About three quarters of a mile from the above, on the same 
Beaver Brook, and on the farm of Ira Hamlin, is found similar 
evidence of the manufacture of Indian relics, among other things, 
gouges, chisels and arrows, of three or four different kinds of stone. 


This Statement was rececived from Mr. Hamlix, and communicated 
to us, with specimens of the manufacture, by RuFUS ]\Iead, Esq., 
who Avas also personally acquainted with the locality, and generally 
with the ficts. 

Major OiiiN Field, of Cornwall, states, that on his farm, on the 
road leading south from the Congregational Church, scattered arrow 
heads have been frequently found, and Judge Tilden says, that on 
his farm, not far distant, similar discoveries have been made. Major 
Field also says, that on the same fiirm, then owned by Benjamin 
Stevens, he Avas shown by Mr. Stevens, in 1807, what was re- 
garded as the foundation of an Indian wigwam or hut. It Avas a 
ridge of earth, about six inches high, in a square shape, the sides 
of which Avere eight or tweh'e feet long, the ridge running all around 
except at the east end was a vacant space, apparently designed for a 
door way. The earth Avas throAvn up, to form the ridge on the out- 
side. The ridges have noAv disappeared. 

Major Field also says, that on the farm of his father, on which 
liis grandfather Avas an early settler, in a burying ground on sandy 
land, in digging a graA^e in 1802, there were thrown up three Indian 
relics, of the same size and shape and in the form of a heart, about 
five inches long and three wide at the top. A smooth and straight 
hole, one-half incli in diameter, Avas bored through the length, the 
exterior surface being swollen to accommodate the hole. The sides 
Avere Avorked to an edge. 

Austin Dana, Esq., of Corn Avail states, that on his farm, Avhich 
adjoins Lemon Fair, he has often ploughed up large numbers of 
points, from one and a half to seven inches long, all which he 
thinks Averc designed for arrow heads, intended for shooting animals 
of different sizes, together with some which were broken, and a stone 
gouge eight or ten inches long, in the proper shape of that instrument. 
Pieces of the arrow heads he has often used for gun flints. He has 
also found, at three different springs on his farm, as many different 
pavements of stone, designed and used for fires in their huts, which 
haA^e evident marks of the effects of fire. They are made of cob- 
l^le stones, pounded down and made level and solid, like a pave- 
ment, six or seven feet in diameter. He says also, that on several 

iiiSTOiiY ur al;;i,>(j:n couxty. _ o( 

iavms lying TiOrth of his, he has seen hearths formed in the same 
way, and obviously for the same purpose. These are always on the 
border of the Fair, or of brooks runnini^ from the hills into it. 

Jesse Ellsworth, of Cornwall, states, that on his farm, near 
Lemon Fair, on low ground, he has found arrow and spear heads 
often, and a pestle. Some of the spear and arrow heads are grey, 
and others black.. 

On the farm of the late Joseph S:MiTn, in Salisbury, and other 
uirms in the neigliborhood, have been found also similar relici scat- 
tered over the laud. But we do not regard it necessary to mention 
further cases of this kind. Almo3t every farmer of whom we have 
inquired, has found them, more or less, scattered over his farm. 

Deacon SamuEL James, whose farm ia in the south part of Wey- 
bridge, and whose house is at the east foot of a ridge of land, about 
,0 miles west of the village of jMiddlebury, states that on the east 
side of the road, Avhich passes by his house, on a dry sandy hill, 
near a Bea^'el» Brook and meadov/, are found many arrow heads, 
many of them imperfect, together with chippings and fragments of 
stone, which furnish evidence, that "it had been a place for the man- 
ufacture of Indian, implements. On the hill west of his house, was 
found a. rounded relic, two inches in diameter, about a foot long, 
rounded at one end, and the other end made in the form of a gouge, 
two and a half inches v/ide, but not wrought to an edge. 

Philo Jewett, Esq., o" Yv^eybr^dge, gave us a pa: ticular account 
of his discovery of Indian relic:., but unfortunately our memoran- 
dum of his statement has been mislaid. He stated however, that on 
his farm, in the ne'ghborhood of Lemon Fair, and at a place near a 
large spring, at every ploug^-^ing, he has ploughed up large quanti- 
ties of arrow and spear heads, and fragments of the materials of 
which they were made, and some broken and imperfect articles ; on 
the whole, furnishing evidence o;^ one of the most extensive manu- 
factories. He says also, that he has often used pieces of the stone, 
of which the articles were mrde. for gun flints. 

CnLLiMBUS J. Eo.VDiSH, Esq., of Weyb^idge, states,, that on h-'s 
farm, next north of Mr. Jewett s, and also on Lemon Fa-r, and near 

a spring, ho. ha.s often ploughed up arrow and spear heads, and chip- 



pings and fragments of the materials of Trliicli tlicj ■were composed 
furnishing satisfactory evidence, that that -was a phico -where the 
relics -were manufactured. He says also, that in plougliing at one 
time, his plough hit a stone, at the bottom of the furroAV, -which 
he dug up, and found to be a stone gouge, about a foot long. He 
also states, that he has found on his farm, and in the locality of the 
arrow heads, places designed for fires in the Indian huts, -which 
showed the effects of fire. These resemble those described by 
Austin Dana, except that they are made of ledge stone, and raised 
a little above the level of the ground. 

'My. Samuel Wright, resides on the farm in "Weybridge, between 
Otter Creek and Lemon Fair, and at their junction, on which his 
father Capt. Silas Wright, formerly lived, and on which his 
brother Hon. SiL.iS Wright, Jun.,* was brought up from his in- 
fancy. It is the same farm, on which Thomas Sanford was the 
first settler, in 1T75, and on which he was captured and carried to 
Canada, and imprisoned. Mr. AYright says, that he has often 
found, and ploughed up on the farm, Indian arrow and spear heads, 
some of which were broken, also pestles and other implements. He 
ploughed up, in one place, where they had been buried, a collection 
of them, consisting of fifteen or twenty articles, some of which ho 
presented to us. And he says, similar relics are found on all the 
neighboring farms. We have a perfect spear head picked up on 
the farm of his neighbor, Jehiel Wright, who says that other 
relics have often been ploughed up there. He says also, that on the 
narrow strip of hard land, on the border of the streams, formed by 
the overflowing of the water, he has seen evidence of tillage, such 
as corn hills and potato hills, and that on the neighboring lands are 
heaps of stone, which show evidence of being burnt by fire kindled 
about them. These he supposes were built for their fire in the huts, 
to secure them from being burnt. He states also, that he learned 
from Mr. Sanford, that sugar was made by the Indians, in an ex- 
tensive forest of maples there, and that their sap troughs vrere made 

*Iii the Largo open ground, in the centre of Weybridge, in front of the Congre- 
gational chiircli, the friends of Hon. Silas WracHT, have erected a Aery handsome 
marble monument, and surrounded it hy an iron fence. 


of l)ircli bark. If there is no mistake in tliis, the sugar, at least, 
ma:;t have been made on a temporary residence of Indians, during 
the Revolutionary war, or Avhile the French were in possession of 
Croviii Point. All signs of sugar making, by the original inhabi- 
tants, must have disappeared. 

Hon. riARVEY MuxsiLL, of Bristol, at our request has sent us 
the following communication : 

" Eeistul, April 22(1, 1830. 
" Hox. pAiiuEi, £-\viFT — Dear Sir : — As it regards the Indians ever having made 
Bristol their permauei t place of residence, for any length of time, I cannot say ; 
but there is strong presumptive evidence tending to show, that it has been, at least, 
temporarily their residence and hunting ground. For traces of their presence are 
marked by their having scattered prcmiscously over the country many of their 
Indian relics, such as the stone axe, grooved gouge, chisel, spear and arrow points, 
and some others, the names and uses to us unknown. A stone resembling a rollin."- 
pin, was found sevei'al years ago at the Loutherly part of the (own ; and a very 
perfect grooved gouge was found by my father, in his life time, and since my re- 
membrance, v^hich, according to the best of my recollection, was about fifteen 
inchcA in length, which was deposited by him in the museum in Hartford, Connec- 
ticut, L'om(f twelve or fourteen of the specimens, that I left with you, a short 
time since, — some perfect and some partly made, — were picked up by me, on my 
own premises in Bristol village, within a short distat;ce of each other, that i."-, 
witliin twenty or twenty-five feet of each other, arid from the chips, and broken 
fragments of the same kind of stone, I have come to the conclus'oa, that they 
were made on the spot. I have found many others, within a short distance from 
this location, when ploughing, which I have from time to time given away. About 
twenty years ago, there were two or three families of Indians, that came from Can- 
ada, and stopped a few weeks in the woods, a liitle north of Bristol village, between 
the road leading out of the village north to Monkton. and the mountain east, and 
among them was a very old man, who called himself about ninety-eight years of 
age, and who was quite intelligent, and could speak our language so as to make 
himself well understood. While they were stopping near our village, Capt. Nonm 
MuxsoN, and Abraham Gaige, two of my nearest neighbors, and myself, visited 
them for the purpose of making some inquiries respecting the Indian habits and 
customs ; and among other inquiries, how the stone spear and arrow points were 
made, and where the stone, from which they were made, was obtained. To these 
inquiries, he said he could give us no information, for he had no knowledge on the 
subject. He also informed us that he had himself used a steel arrow point, made 
in the same shape of the stone arrow points, when he was quite young. He said 
it had often been a subject of conversation among their people, how the arrow and 
spear points were made, but he had never seen any one, who could give any infor- 
mation on that subject, not even that which was traditionary^ The stone, which' I 
left with you, which some call an axe, he said was used for sk'nning deer and otlif r 


j;amc. The old man died very su:lJcn{y, while stopping near us, n,ad was buried iu 
(;ur bur3'ing ground ; the Rev. IY.axcis Wiiitxky preached a funeral sermon, and 
all the Indians attended. IlespectfuUy your."?, 

The stone left Avitli us and called by some an axe, is about five 
inches loner, two wide and three fourths of an inch thick, and re- 
duccd to an ed^e on one cud. \sg have several instrumento o" 


the kind, but generally of smaller size, and thinner. The relic 
•which Judge Munsill describes " as resembling a rolling pin," 
Avould Avell sen'e the use of that household implement, and we might 
judge it to be designed for that purpose, if we could suppose the Indi- 
ans made much use of " pie crust.'' As their history now is un- 
derstood, it has generally been called a po3tle. It is a smooth round 
stone, twenty inches in length, two and a quarter inches in diame- 
ter in the centre, and tapering slightly tovrard the ends, which arc 
rounded. It is now in the possession of the Historical Society of 

Yv'hile commencing our inquiries on the subject of Indian relics, 
we saw in the po-isession of Justus Cobb, E£q., of the late firm of 
Cobb and Mead, an instrument ingeniously wrought, in the shape 
of a double hatchet, but" the edges on each side were only worked 
down to the eighth of an inch. It is five inches long and two wide. 
In the centre is a smooth hole obviously designed for a handle, three 
fourths of an inch in diameter, and of about the same depth, the 
surface of the stone around the hole being swollen accordingly. It 
might have been intended to bore the hole through, or perhaps to 
fasten the handle with thongs. This relic, we understood, was 
found at the mouth of Otter Creek. Knowing that our friend, 
Philip C. Tucker, Esq., is much devoted to similar inquiries, and 
believing him to be acquainted with all the discoveries in that neigh- 
borhood, we wrote to him for such information as he might have. 
His letter in answer to our request, is dated March 24, 1859, and 
encloses a letter from Mr. J.uies Crane, who calls it a " battle axe," 
and says it was picked up by his brother, George F. Crane, at Fort 
Cassin, mouth of Otter Creek, '-on the embankment thrown up 
during the last "\var, to prevent the British fleet from ascending to 
Vergennes;" that he left it in the hands of Mr. Co^B,andhe 


acids, ■•! have picked up many indian relicj at Fort Ca^sln, and r.t 
other point;Son Otter Creek, in the vicinity of the Lower Falls, rnany 
of v^diieh are now in possession of P. C, Tuckeh, Esq." 

The first part of Mr. Tucker's letter, relates to the same subject. 
He then adds : — 

" This point appears to have been a place long occupied by the native inhabitants 
of this region. JNJany arrow heads and some spear lieads have been found there, 
and T.-henever the ground is ploughed, even to this day, it is not uncommon to find 
some things of that kind. Indian implements have been found in Addison, Panton, 
Ferrisburgh, Waltham and Yergennes. I have stone arrow heads, spea,r heads, a 
hatchet, a gouge, and some other articles, which I cannot give names to, ficni those 
diilerent towns. Some of the latter, I showed to the celebrated Ojibvv^ay chief, 'who 
was here several years since, in the hope, that he could enlighten no as to their 
intended uses. After examining them cai-efully, he observed, that he had never 
seen any article like them among the Indians, and could not imagine what they 
were designtd for. 

Among other relics, I have a roughly formed arrow head, made of copper. Thero 
s no appearance of any metallic tool having been employed in its formation, and 
it appears to have been pounded into form with stone. I think it an undoubted ui;- 
tique, and that it was made before the discovery of the continent by Europeans. 
It vras 1 loughed up in Ferrisburgh, not more than one and a half mdes from here, 
some eighteen or twenty years ago. As no known locality of copper exists in this 
region, it seems difficult to make even a rational guess, as to where ihc material 
for this arrow head came from. I have .sometimes made a visit to drrfnn l/md, on 
this matter, and fancied, that it originated at Lake Superi r, from the mines of 
Avliich I have a specimen of native copper, which any one could readily jjouud even 
with a stone, into this or any other plain form." 

" From the mouth of Great Otter Creek, through Ferrisburgh, Panton and Ver- 
genneS; to Waltham, say thirteen or fourteen miles, Indian relics exist upon both 
banks, and have often been discovered. I doubt not they extend much further, 
probably as ftir towards the head waters as comfortable canoe navigation extended. 
ISIany yi^ars ago, I think in 1829 or 1830, I had quite a favorable opportunity to 
examine one of these localities. At the arsenal gi'ound in this place, some forty 
rods below the s'eam boat wharf, there is a bluff of land on the bank of the creek, 
a portion of which was ploughed up at the time referred to, for the purpose of 
using the earth to fill the arsenal wharf. While it was loose from the efiFjcts of the 
plough, a very heavy rain fell, and thoroughly drenched it, disclosing quite a large 
number of arrow heads, and a great amount of chippings, or fragments, establish- 
ing beyond a question, that one manuflvctory of arrow heads, at least, was upon 
this identical spot. And a most lovely spot it must have been too. when that man- 
ufacture was going on " 

" Perhaps it would not be inappropriate to say a few words about the material 
used for arrow and spear heads, and other relics. The larger- portion of the arrow 
heads in my poisession, ai-e made of that kind of boulder, common upon our lands. 


v;u;;'a the farmci'S tligaify with t'ae name of " hard heaus," and which is a very 
liai'd silioious ruck. OtiiCrs are made from v/hat I call black ja;'pcr, ■Rhicli is not 
an uQCommon boulder I'ock in this region. I have one, which I am inclined to call 
cldjrlte JaLc, and several which, with my limited knowledge of mineralogy, I do 
not assume to name My best spear head, is of a light colored stone, and is seven 
inches long My hatchet appsars to be a very fine grained clay slate stone, and is 
five inches long My gouge is a line one, thirteen inches long, and over two inches 
wide, at tho cutting end, and looks as much like chlorite as any other rock." 

' To what uses the hatchets, gouges and spear heads were put. it is very difficult 
to s:iy. Coriaiuly the former could have done nothing efrcctually with wood, and 
tr.idition, I think, his not told us, that th? Indians ever used the spear as a weapon 
of W.U-. Jiy own rough impression is, that the .spoar heads meant fish and not 

At the time of our first application to Mr. Tccker, a request 
■wa.5 published in the Vergennes Citizen, that any persons having 
information of Indian relics, would communicate it to him. On the 
2Gth of April, 1850, he v.-roto us again on the subject, and among 
other thin^rs sa3'-3 : " The notice in the Citizen, had no other result^ 
than brin.7;incf in a fevN' additional arrow head.^. One piece of in- 
formation however, grew out of it, Avhich I believe to be true, that 
my copper arrow head, has another of the same metal to match it, ' 
and a far better one." It was ploughed up a few years ago, in 
Ferrisburgh ; and, although he has not been able to see it, he says, 
'' I have no doubt of its existence." In speaking of the Indian 
relics in Bristol, which Judge Munsill has described, he says, " I 
have very reliable information as to the existence of similar relics 
in Monkton, and particularly in the region of the pond. Some 
thirty years ago, an Indian burying ground was disclosed in that 
vicinity, and some four or five skeletons discovered, which were 
much talked about at the time, and Avhich I quite well recollect." 
Mr. Tucker states also, that about thirty-five years, ago, he was 
shown on the farm of Norman Muxsox, Esq., in Panton, what was 
called an " old Indian fire place," which he thinks ''showed evi- 
dence of fire," and he thinks it could not have been made by any 
body but Indians. 

In the possession of the Historical Society, are a mortar and 
pestle, found several years ago, on the farm owned by the late Col. 
Jonx Hackett, on White River, in Hancock. The pestle is twelve 
inches long and two inches in diameter, and undoubtedly of Indian 


miirausturo. The mortar consists of a stone, eiglit incIicG square, 
and eiglit and a half inches deep. In the top is a round smooth 
cavitj,. vvdiich constitutes it a mortar, five and a half inches in di- 
ameter, and three and a half inches deep. This hollo-n- Tvas prob- 
ably wrought hj th*e Indians, but the shaping of tho stone shows 
rather evidence of civilized manufacture. We do not mention either 
of these as evidence of a permanent and ancient residence. They 
vrere probably left by the Indians in some of their cxcur-sions against 
the settlers at the east. The White Iliver would form a commodi- 
ous route for that purpose. 

We have indeed little confidence in any thing, except the articles 
composed of stone, and those obviously made on the ground, as evi- 
dence of such residence. The forests must have covered and oblit- 
erated, and time wasted all other satisfactory evidence. 

Anticipating the very natural inquiry, of what materials these 
relics were composed, and where the Indians found them, we 
Vv'ishcd, in addition to the information given by Mr. Tucker, relatin,r>- 
to those in his possession, to furnish satisfactory testimony respect- 
ing those in our possession. We accordingly requested Rev. C. F. 
Muzzy, who^has made mineralogy, for many years, a prominent 
subject of examination and study, to examine the specimens, and give 
us the requisite information. Mr. Muzzy, was graduated at Middle- 
bury College in 1833, has since been a missionary in Southern In- 
dia, and is now on a visit to this country for his health. The fol- 
lowing is his reply : 

" Hon. S. Swift — Mii Dear Sir : — The slight es;aniination I have been ahle to 
make, of those arrow heads and other curiosities, in your possession, has convinced 
me, that they are composed of Quartz Rock, Flint or Horn-stone, sometimes called 
Corneus Limestone, Chlorite Slate, and a species of Feldspathic, or Gianitie Rock, 
and that they are found in this vicinity, either in situ, or as eratic bowldei's. Of 
most, if not all of them, I have found specimens in this town. 

Believe me youi-s, very respectfully. 

C. F. MUZZY." 





The first settlement bj EtTropeans in the County of Addison, -was 
made bj the French, on the east shore of Lake Champlain. opposite 
CroTrn Point, in pursuance of their plan to extend their settlements, 
and fortifications, and set limits to those of the English. In the 
year 1730; a few individuals or families, came up the lake from 
Canada, and established themselves at Chimney Point, in Addison, 
and built a block house and windmill, on the point where the tav- 
ern house now stands. The next year troops were sent out and 
erected Fort Frederic, on the west side of the lake, now known as 
Crown Point. They afterwards in IToG, built a fort at Ticonder- 
oga. Other settlers followed in the train of the army, and prob- 
ably most of them were in some way attached to the garrison. Both 
the French and English, regarded the control of this lake of great 
importance, as one of the most convenient lines of communication 
into each other's territory, in the northern part of America. The 
British, in the early part of that ceatuiy, planned several expedi- 
tions through the waters of the lake to Canada, for the purpose of 
subduing that province to the crown of England, but they uni- 
formly failed. After the treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, a season of 
peace prevailed, between the English and French, which gave the 
French in Canada, an opportunity to improve their condition ; and 
when wars afterwards succeeded, they were confined to other dis- 
puted territories, on this continent, by Avhich the French Avere ena- 
bled to extend themselves in this direction without opposition. But 
during the French and Indian war, which commenced in 1755, one 
of the principal objects of the British, was to make an effective de- 
scent upon Canada, and for that purpose an expedition was set on 


foot every year from the commencement of the war, to proceed with 
a large force through the lake. A disgraceful failure attended them 
all, until the expedition under treneral Amherst, in 1759. These 
failures occurred througli the ignorance and indiscretion of ministers 
at home, or the imbecility of the officers entrusted -with the com- 
mand of the troops. In the year 1758, more efficiency was given 
to the war by the appointment of Mr. Pitt to the ministry. General 
Abejrcrombie was that year appointed to command the expedition 
against the French forts on Lake Champlain, and prosecuted the 
enterprise with more vigor than his predecessors. He advanced as far 
as Ticonderoga, and made a violent assault on the fort ; but meet- 
ing with unexpected obstacles, he retreated without taking the place. 
In the year 1759, General Amherst, commander in chief of the 
British forces in America, took command of the expedition, reached 
Ticonderoga, and without much opposition captured the fort there 
on the 27th of July, and before he reached Crown Point, the French 
garrison had burnt their forts on both sides and al>auuoned them. 
The settlers also in the neighborhood retreated Avith the army, and 
thus ended the French settlement in the County of Addison. 

The French settlers had cleared off the timber along the 
shore of the lake, three or four miles north of Chimney Point. 
Most of it probably had been used in erecting the forts and other 
buildings connected with them, and the cabins of the settlers, and 
by the garrisons and families in the neighborhood. This was prob- 
ably the extent of the settlement, although the population was 
rather thickly crowded together. The cellars and other remains of 
numerous huts were found afterwards by the English settlers, scat- 
tered over the whole tract, and njany of them are still seen there. 
On the Strong farm were four, on the A^allaxce farm three or 
four, and on others two or three. The buildings of the French set- 
tlers were burnt the next year after their retreat, by the Mohavrks. 
Kalmek, the author of an early history, which Hon. Jonx W. 
Srong found in Montreal, gives an account of his visit to the place 
in 1749. He says, " I found quite a settlement, a stone windmill 
and fort, with five or six small cannon mounted, the whole inclosed 
by emb;-)nkment3."' The rcm;iinr- of these embonkraent-. surround- 

46 HTSTOiiY or i^DDLSO]^ Cju:sty. 

ing Chimney Point, wc have seen within a few yearS; and they are 
probably still to be seen. Kalmer further says, that, within the 
enclosure, they had a neat little church, and through the settlement 
well cultivated gardens, and good fruit, such as apples, plums and 
currants. Old apple trees and plum trees, planted by them are 
still standing. 

The first permanent settlement by the English in this County, 
was on that tract. This clearing and its beautiful location on the 
borders of the lake, were the occasion that a prosperous neighbor- 
hood was found here earlier than elsewhere, and it was for some 
time considered the most eligible place for holding the courts, when 
the County was first organized. In the spring of 17G5, ZadoCK 
Everest, David Vallance and one other person came from Con- 
necticut, and commenced a clearing on their respective farms, on 
which they lived and died, about three miles north of Chimney 
Point. They put in some crops and remained until fall. In Sep- 
tember, of the same year, John Strong and Benjamin Kellogg, 
came on by the lake to Crown Point, then in possession of the Brit- 
ish. After stopping a day or two, they extended their explorations 
cast and south, and went as far east as Middlebury Falls. While 
on this expedition, they were delayed by a violent storm and sv/ollen 
streams for several days, until their provisions were exhausted, and 
they were tvro days without food. When they returned to the lake, 
Strong concluded to settle on the ferm on which he resided until 
his death, and which is still in the possession of his grandson. Judge 
Strong. With the aid of the settlers, Strong erected a log hoiise 
around an old French chimney, near the lake. Vallaxce, in a 
similar manner, converted the remains of another French hut into 
a tenement, which he afterwards occupied, for some years, with his 
family. In the fall they all returned to Connecticut. In February 
following, Strong came on with his family, and was the first Eng- 
lish settler, it is said, in Western Vermont, north of Manchester, 
and his fourth son, John Strong, Jun., in June 1765, was the first 
English child born north of that place. Everi-st and Kellogg, 
who were married during the winter, came on with their wives in 
the spring. an<l Yallance also returned with his family the same 


season. From John W. Strong, mentioned above, we have obtained 
many of the above details. His father's family resided in the house 
with his grandfather, and he learned the facts from his grand- 
parents, and especially from his grand-mother, who lived to a great 
age, and often amused him in his childhood with the stories of their 
early history. 

The result of Amherst's expedition was, that on the opening of 
the campaign of 1760, Montreal was surrendered to him; and Que- 
bec and every other French, post in Canada having been conquered 
and captured, the whole province, by the treaty which followed on 
the 10 th day of February 1763, was surrendered to the British 

The French, having had uninterrupted possession of Lake Cham- 
plain for nearly thirty years, not only claimed the control of its 
waters, but the right to the lands on both sides of it, and made 
grants of seigniories to favorite nobles and officers, and of smaller 
tracts to others. The grants in the County of Addison were less 
numerous than at the north part of the lake. As early as the year 
1732, a grant had been made to one Contre Couer, Jun., lying on 
both sides and including the mouth of Otter Creek. On the 7th 
day of October 1743, a grant was made to " Sieur Hocquart In- 
tendant of New France," of a tract " about one league in front by 
five leagues in depth, opposite Fort St. Frederic, now Crown Point, 
bounded on the west by the lake, east by uuconceded lands," north 
and south the lines running east and west. And on the first of 
April 1745, another grant was made to Hocquart, lying north of 
and adjoining the other tract, three leagues in front on Lake Cham- 
plain, by five leagues in depth. Both these, making four leagues 
on the lake, and five leagues east and west, constituted the " Seign- 
iory Hocquart," which extended from Willow Point, near the south 
line of Addison, north, and included the whole of the towns of Ad- 
dison and Panton, and is represented on an old English map, as ex- 
tending, as it must, some distance beyond Otter Creek, and inclu- 
ded Middlebury and other lands east of that stream. Soon after 
the execution of the treaty, by which the French government sur- 
rendered Canada to the British, on the 7th of April 1763, Hoc- 

48 miTJllY OF Ai)l>ISOX COUNTT. 

QUART conveyed his seigniory to Michel CiiiRTiEK LoTBiNiERE. 
As the inhabitants of Canada, by the treaty, became the subjects of 
the British government, it was claimed that the grants by the French 
government were valid, and should be confirmed by the British 
government, and Lotbiniere prosecuted his claim perseveringly 
before the latter govcenment, from the time of his purchase until 
the year 177G, before it was settled. 

LoTSiNiKRE claimed, as evidence of his title, the "frequent 
clearances," and "various settlements,'' on these lands, vrhich the 
war had not Avholly obliterated ; although it is probable that none of 
them were made under the authority of this grant. It is stated by 
Governor Tryon of New York, in a letter to Lord Dartmouth, 
president of the board of trade and plantations, "that when the 
French, on the approach of Sir Jefi-hey AiiEERST, in 1759, aban- 
doned Crown Point, there were found no ancient possessions, nor 
any improvements worthy of consideration, on either side of the 
lake. The chief were in the environs of the fort, and seemed in- 
tended mostly for the accommodation of the garrisons." 

The lines between the provinces of Quebec and New York, had 
been settled by the British government on the 20th of July 1764, 
at the latitude of 45° on the lake. It was finally decided, that as 
the territory south of the Eiver St. Lawrence, including the lands 
on Lake Champlain, was owned by the Iroquois, or Five Nations, 
and that these tribes, by treaty, had submitted to the sovereignty 
and protection of Great Britain, and had been considered subjects, 
all the possessions of the French on Lake Champlain, including the 
erection of the forts at Crown Point and Ticonderoga, were an in- 
trusion and trespass, and of course that government had no right to 
make grants there, and therefore the British government denied 
the claim of Lotbixiere, as they did all others, for lands south of 
latitute 45^^, but consented to give him lands in Canada. 

In the meantime, all the lands, which had been granted by the 
French government east of Lake Champlain, had been granted 
anew by the governor of New Hampshire, in the name of the Brit- 
ish crown, and the governor and council of Nev/ York had spread 
their grants to the reduced officers and soldiers of the army, which 


had been disbanded after the conquest of Canada, on the top of 
the New Hampshire grants. 

And previous to all these, and many years even before the settle- 
ment of the French, in 1696, Godfrey Dellius purchased of the 
Mohawks, who claimed the whole of this territory, a large tract of 
land extending from Saratoga along both sides of Hudson River and 
Wood Creek, and on the east side of Lake Champlain, to twenty 
miles north of Crown Point, and the purchase was confirmed under 
the great seal of New York; but in 1699, the grant was repealed 
by the legislature, " as an extravagant favor to one subject." 

The Mohawks also, on the first day of February 1732, sold to 
Col. John Henry Lydius, a large tract of land embracing most of 
the Counties of Addison and Rutland. There is a map of this tract 
in the possession of Henry Stevens, Esq., President of the State 
Historical Society, of which we have a copy, laid out into thirty- 
five townships, with the name of each. The southeast corner is at 
the sources of Otter Creek, and the northwest at its mouth, and the 
territory embraces the whole length of that stream, running diago- 
nally through it. The west line — and the east is parallel with it — 
is marked as running from the north, south 10 degrees west 58 
miles 20 chains. On the back of the map is the following certifi- 
cate. "Feb. 2. 1763. A plan of a large tract of land, situated 
on Otter Creek, which empties itself into Lake Champlain, in 
North America, easterly from and near Crown Point, purchased by 
Col. John Henry Lydius, of the Mohawk Indians, by deed dated 
Feb. 1732, and patented and confirmed by his Excellency Wil- 
liam Shirley, Esq., Governor of the Province of Massachusetts 
Bay, August 31, 17-4:4, divided into townships, and sold by the said 
Lydius, to upwards of two thousand British subjects, chiefly be- 
longing to the Colony of Connecticut. ' ' 

The New York town of Durham, and probably other towns in 
Rutland County, were originally settled under this grant. Two of 
the citizens, Jeremiah Spencer and Oliver Colvin, belonging to 
that town, in their petition to the General Assembly of New York, 
dated OctoW 17, 1778, say, " That the township of Durham was 
originally settled by the late inhabitants, under Col. John LydiuS: 


That discovering the imperfection of their title, they applied to and 
obtained letters patent under New York. That many of the inhab- 
itants (of which your petitioners are) have since been compelled to 
purchase the New Hampshire title to their lands, under a penalty 
of being turned out of their possessions by a mob." 




Bennixg WcNTWORTn was appointed governor of New Hamp- 
shire, in 1T4:1, with authority from the King to issue patents of 
unoccupied lands within his province. Ckiiming that that province 
extended tlie same distance west as the provinces of Connecticut and 
Massachusetts, that is, to within twenty miles of Hudson Eiver, on 
the third day of January 1749, he granted the charter of Benning- 
ton, on that line, to which he claimed the province extended, and 
six miles north of the line of Massachusetts. This grant occasioned 
a correspondence and mutual remonstrances between the governors 
of New York and New Hampshire, in relation to the rights of their 
respective provinces. The governor of New York claimed and con- 
tended, that the grant to the Duke of York in the year 1663, which 
was confirmed to him in the year 1674. after the conquest of the 
Dutch in 1673, and extended to the west bank of Connecticut 
Kiver, settled the claim of New York.* 

Notwithstanding the controversy between the governors of these 
two provinces, and the opposition made by New York, to the issuing 
of grants by New Hampshire, Governor ''Y en i worth continued to 
grant charters of townships, as applications were made for them. 
During the following five years, frcm 17^0 to I7i^4 inclusive, sixteen 
townships were chartered, principally on the east side of the moun- 
tains. From that time to the year 1761, during the prosecution of 
the French war, the territory became a thoroughfare for the excur- 
sions of French and Indian scouting parties, and was, on that ac- 

* Nearly the whole hstoiy, which we have ghen of the controversy between the 
gov mors of New Hampshire and i^ew York, and subsequently, between the latter 
and the Green ountain Boys, is taken from original documents, m the Docime .- 
tary History of New York. 


count, in so disturbed a state, that no grants were made or asked 
for. After the conquest of Canada, in the year 1760, and after quiet 
and security liad been restored to the territory, numerous applications 
were made, and in the year 1761 no less than sixty towns -were char- 
tered. In that year, all the towns in the County of Addison were 
chartered, except as follows : Ferrisburgh, Monkton and Pocock, 
now Bristol, were chartered in 1762, Orwell, and Whiting, in 
August 1763, and Panton, was re-chartered on the 3d of November 
1764. And this was the last charter granted by the governor of New 
Hanipshire, within the territory. The whole number of charters 
of towns granted by him in this State, is one hundred and thirty- 
one, besides several others to individuals. 

Lieut. Governor Coldex of New York, disturbed and alarmed by 
the great number of grants made by New Hampshire, isiiued his 
proclamation on the 28th day of December 1763, warning all per- 
sons agoinst purchasing lands under those grants, and requiring all 
civil officers ' to continue to exercise jurisdiction in their respective 
functions, as far as to the banks of Connecticut River,'' and enjoin- 
ing the sheriff of Albany to rctur n to him '• the names of all and 
every person or persons, Avho under the grants of New Hampshire, 
<lo or shall hold possession of any lands westward of Connecticut 
Eivcr, that they may be proceeded against according to lavr." 

On the 19th of March, 1764, the governor of New Hampshire, 
issued a counter proclamation, in which he contends, '• that the 
jjatcnt to the Duke of York is obsolete, and cannot convey any cer- 
tain boundary to New York, that can be claimed as a boundary, as 
plainly appears by the several boundary lines of the Jerseys on the 
west, and the colony of Connecticut on the east," and encourages 
the grantees under New Hampshire, " to be industrious in clearing 
and cultivating their lauds."' and commands '"all civil officers to 
continue and be diligent in exercising jurisdiction in their respective 
offices, as fur westward -as grants of land have been made by this 
government, and to deal with any person or persons that may pre- 
sume to interrupt the inhabitants or settlors on said lands, as to law 
and justice doth appertain." 

^Vt an early period of the controversy, and soon after the first 

HISTORY or Al'])l.-'•0^ COL■^'TY; 53 

grant was made by New Hampshire, it was agreed by the gover- 
nors of the two provinces, to refer tlie question in dispute to the 
king; but no decision had yet been made. The king had, on the Tth 
of October 1763, issued a proclamation in behalf of the reduced 
officers and privates of the lately disbanded army, directing bounty 
lands to be granted them. In view of this order, and the great 
number of grants made by New Hampshire, in the disputed terri- 
tory, Governor Colden, about the time of issuing his proclamation, 
above mentioned, wrote several pressing lettci's to the board of trade 
in England, insisting on the grant to the Duke of York, as conclu- 
iiive of the right of Ncv/ York, and urging a speedy decision of the 
question. In his letter of the Gth of February 1764, he represents, 
that great numbers of the oHicers and soldiers had applied to him 
for grants ; and in his letter of the 12th of April, of the same year, 
he sa^'s, " about four hundred reduced officers and disbanded sol- 
diers, have already applied to mo for lands, pursuant to his Majesty's 
proclamation, which at this time are to be surveyed for them in that 
part claimed by New Hampshire. Your lordships will perceive the 
necessity of determining the claim of New Hampshire speedily." 
It was charged also, at the time by the claimants under New liamp- 
ghire, and stated by historians of that period. — on what authority 
we know not, — that a petition, with forged signatures of many of 
the New Hampshire settlers, was sent v.ith the governors letters to 
England, requesting that the territory should be annexed to iS'ew 
York. In the public remonsti-ances of the New Hampshire claim- 
ants, conjectures Avere expressed, that there were '-more or less 
Avroug representations made to his majesty to obtain the jurisdiction," 
and that his " majesty and ministers of State had been egregiously 
misinformed." However that may be, in pursuance of the urgent 
solicitiitious of Governor Coldex, the king in council, on the 20th 
day of July, 1764, without notice to the opposite party, adopted an 
order, settling the west bank of Connecticut River as the boundary 
of the two provinces. 

The only charter of which we have knowledge, as being issued, 
by the governor of New Hampshire, after the king's order, was that 

of Pan ton. as herefore mentioned, dated November 3. 1764. which 

8 ' ■■ ' 


was before notice of the order had been received in this country, 
that not arriving until the following spring. On the receipt of the 
order, Governor Wentworth, as well as the governor of Ncav 
York, issued his proclamation, giving notice to all persons concerned, 
of the decision of the King in council, fixing the boundary. And 
in all his subsequent transactions, he seems to have acquiesced in 
the decision, and recognized the jurisdiction of iSI"eTV York over the 
territory. The claimants under New Hampshire expressed no op- 
position to that jurisdiction at the time, not suspecting that the titles, 
which they had derived from the British government through one 
agent, and had paid for, would be superceded by grants from the 
same authority, through another agent, and that, under these cir- 
cumstances, they should be compelled to re-purchase their lands, 
under much more oppressive conditions, in order to hold them. 

And such would seem to have been the views of the British gov- 
ernment at home. The order in council settling the boundary does 
not seem to be a decision, as to what had been or legally was the 
boundary, but it says, the King "doth hereby order and declare 
the western banks of the river «Connecticut," '• to be the boundary 
line between the said two provinces." On the 11th of April 1767, 
Lord Shelburne, president of the board of trade, wrote to Gover- 
nor Moore, of Tsew York, reciting that two petitions had been pre- 
sented to the King, '• one by the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, and the other by Samuel Robinson, in behalf of himself 
and more than one thousand other grantees," says, •' In mj letter 
of the 11th of December, I vras very explicit upon point of former 
grants ; you are therein directed to take care, that the inhabitants 
lying westward of the line, reported by the Lords of Trade, as the 
boundaries of the two provinces, be not molested, on account of ter- 
ritorial differencee, or disputed jurisdiction : for v.hatever province 
the settlers may belong to, it should make no dificrence in their 
property, provided their titles to their lands should be found good 
in other respects, or that they have been long in uninterrupted pos- 
session of them." And he adds, '• the unreasonableness of oblirrins: a 
very large tract of country to pay a second time tlie immense sum 
of thirty three thousand pounds in fees, according to the allegation 


of this petition, for no other reason than its being found necessary 
to settle the liuo of boundary between the colonies in c|uestion, is so 
unjustifiable, that his majesty is not only determined to have the 
strictest inquiry made intu the circumstances of the charge, but 
expects the clearest and fullest answer to every part of it." 

On the 24th of July 1767, the King in council, adopted an order 
on the subiect. This order, after reciting at length the report " of 
the committee of council for plan tationaftairs," says " His Majesty, 
with the advice of his privy council, doth hereby strictly charge, 
require and command, that the governor of New York, for the time 
being, do not (upon pain of His Majesty's highest displeasure) pre- 
sume to make any grant w'hatever, of any part of the lands de- 
scribed in said report, until His Majesty's further pleasure shall be 
known concerning the same." 

While the controversy was pending between the two governments, 
and before the King's order settling the boundary was known, a 
collision arose out of it in Pownal. But the facts in the case pre- 
sented a dififerent question from that, which so extensively prevailed 
afterwards among other patents granted by New York. One called 
the Hoosick patent was granted as early as 1688. The charter of 
Pownal, when granted by New Hampshire, included part of this 
patent ; and the New Hampshire grantees claimed possession of 
certain lands, on which several Dutch flimilies had settled under the 
lioosick patent. In August 1761, the sheriff of Albany, in pur- 
suance of the proclamation of Governor Golden, before mentioned, 
hearing that the New Hampshire claimants had dispossessed several 
of the Dutch families, and were about to drive off others, went in 
pursuit, taking with him " two of the justices and a few other good 
people," and arrested '' Samuel Ashley, who called himself a 
deputy, Samuel Robinson, a justice .of the peace," and others, 
who claimed the land, and committed them to the jail in Albany. 
But they were afterwards bailed and not further prosecuted. Gov- 
ernor Wentworth being informed of this transaction, wrote to 
Oovernor CoLDEN, remonstrating against it, and requesting him to 
release the prisoners. To which the governor, with the advice of 
the council, replied, that as the offence was committ<?d " within the 

Ob jir^TORT or addison coiwrv. 

undoubted jurisdiction of Xew York, he /Dould do no further therein, 
than to recommend that the bail be moderate,"' and added that the 
controversy respecting the boundary "already lies "withKis j^ilajesty." 

As soon as the boundary -was settled by the king's order, a large 
number of grants "were made by the governor of New York, to re-^ 
duced officers and disbanded soldiers, and others, who made appli- 
cation for them, and soon extended over nearly the whole territory 
chartered by New Hampshire. The valleys of Lake Cbamplain 
and Otter Creek, were granted principally to reduced officers, and 
a large territory, north of Addison County, was reserved for non- 
commissioned officers and soldiers. A small tract also reserved 
for them in the County of Addison, near the bend of the creek in 
Weybridge and New Haven, and perhaps some contiguous territory. 

At first the governor and council of New York, seemed desirous 
to encourage actual settlers under the New Hampshire grants to 
take out new charters under Kew Y'ork, in confirmation of their 
former titles. On the 22d of j\Iay 1765. the following order was 
adopted : 

" The council taking into consideration the case of those persons, 
who are actually settled on the grants of the governor of New 
Hampshire, and that the dispossessing of such persons might be 
ruinous to themselves and their families, is of opinion, and it is ac- 
cordingly ordered by his Honor, the Lieutenant Governor, with the 
advice of the council, that the surveyor general do not, until fur- 
ther order made, return on any warrant of survey, already or which 
may hereafter come to his hands, of any lands so actually possessed 
under such grants, unless for the persons in actual possession thereof 
as aforesaid." 

Another order was adopted, July 11, 1766, by which it was 
ordered, that all persons holding or claiming lands under " the New 
Hampshire grants, do as soon as may be, appear by themselves or 
their attorneys, and produce the same, together with all deeds, con- 
veyances, or other instruments, by which they derive any title or 
claim to said lands, before his Excellency in council, and the claim 
of such person or persons, which shall not appear as aforesaid, with- 
in the space of three months from the date hereof be rejected." 


In pursuance of these order*, several individuals in the tovrns 
■west of the mountains, made application for a confirmation of their 
New Hampshire titles ; but much larger numbers, and nearly all 
in some towns east of the mountains, took confirmations of their 
titles from Nevv^York. "VYe have no documents which enable us to 
ascertain the number or dates of the grants made, from the time of 
tlie order establishing the boundary to that which forbid further 
grants. It seems there was some delay on account of the stamp act 
til en in force, the governor being " determined not to issue any 
papers except such as were stamped," and " the people refusing to 
take them on that condition ;"' '• of course the offices were shut up," 
as represented by Governor jNIoore, in his letter of the 9th of June 
1767, in answer to Lord Siielburxe's letter above mentioned. But 
he adds, " yo sooner was the stamp act repealed and the offices 
opened again, but petitions were preferred, by many of the inhabi- 
tants here for grants of land l^'ing on Connecticut Hiver.'' Again, 
refering to the order limiting the time for making application, he 
says, " This had the desired- effect, and in a few^ months, petitions, 
memorials, &c., were lodged by persons sent up from thence, Setting 
up claims to ninety-six townships.-' 

Petitions had been sent up from the towns east of the mountains, 
for establishing one or more counties in the territory, and on the 
22d of October 17G5. the committee made a rei^ort to the governor 
and council, that, on account of the state of the country, it was in- 
expedient to establish counties, but they recommended to the gover- 
nor to ' ' appoint a competent number of fit persons for conservation 
of the peace and administration of justice in that part of the prov- 
ince."' And on the 11th day of July 1766, an ordinance was 
adopted," for establishing a court of common pleas and a court of 
general sessions of the peace," and judges and other officers were 
appointed. On the 19th of March 1768 " a large tract of land 
containing forty townships," was by letters patent " erected into 
a County by the name of the County of Cumberland." This 
County was bounded east by Connecticut River, south by Massa- 
chusetts, west by the highest part of the Green Mountain, and 
north by the same, or nearly the same, line which divides the present 


Counties of Windsor and Orange. .On tuo 2Cdof December 1772, 
it Tvas ordered, that writs issue for the election of ■t^vo representa- 
tives to the general assembly from that Countj. 

On the 16th of March 1770, all the territory east of the moun- 
tains, and north of the County of Cumberland, waiB formed into a 
County, by the name of Gloucester, and the usual county officers 
■were appointed. Soon after the territory west of the mountains, 
and north of the north lines of the towns of Sunderland and Arling- 
ton, and embracing considerable territory also west of the lake, was 
established as a County by the name of Charlotte ; and the re- 
mainder of the New Hampshire Grants was embraced in the Countj 
of Albany. Previous to this division into counties, the whole terri- 
tory was regarded as belonging to the County of Albany, and jus- 
tices of the peace, and other officers of that County, exercised 
authority in that territory. By order of the governor and council, 
September 8, 1773, an ordiance was issued establishing courts, to 
lie held in the County of Charlotte annually, " at the house of 
Patrick Smith, Esq.. near Fort Edward." 

The order of the king in council, staying further grants of land, 
seems not to have been very satisflictory to Governor Mooke, but 
he and his successors professed to regulate their proceedings by it, 
and applications were frequently made by succeeding governors to 
the board of trade, urging that the order might be rescinded. But 
the board of trade, instead of rescinding it, complain that the gov- 
ernor of New York " had taken upon him," contrary to the instruc- 
tions, " to pass patents of confirmation of several of the townships," 
and had ''also made other grants of lands within the same." 




YfiiiLE a considcraule portion of the settlers on the east side of 
tlio mountain, seemed thus inclined to submit to the claims of Xcvf 
York, and accept confirmations of their charters, nenrlj all on the 
west side refused to take such confirmations under the governors 
proclamation, with "a quit rent of half a crown or two and sixpence 
sterling,'*' for each hundred acres, and v>'ith the exhorbitant fees of 
the jzovernor and other ofBeers concerned in comnletins; the titles, 
wliich it is said, amounted to one or two thousand dollars for each 
charter. And the controversy with ITcw York was transferred from 
the governor of New Hampshire, to the claimants under his grants. 
These chose, rather than submit to the terms leouired. and pay for 
their charters a second time, under less lavorable con<litions, to de- 
fend the titles they had in such way as they must; and accordingly 
made their preparations for that purpose. They proceeded to 
organize the several towns and appointed the requisite officers, and so 
fir as their circumstances allowed, adopted the laws of Nov/ Hamp- 
shire ; but, being without any established government or law, where 
their peculiar circumstances required, they became " a law unto 
themselves." To be the better prepared for the impending cricis, 
the several towns west of the mountains appointed committees of 
safety, and these occasionally met in convention, to consult for the 
general defence. For this purpose they organized a military force, 
'• of which Ethan Allen was appointed Colonel Commandant, and 
Seth YfARNER, Remembrance Baker, Robert Cgckran and 
Others were appointed captains." Under these leaders every able 

60 HLiTJUY or ADD1S0> CoU.VTY. 

bodied man stood read}', when called on, to enter tlic service. TiiuS 
organized they waged an exterminating war against all settlers, 
■under a New York title,, on lands which were claimed under a 
New Hampshire grant, and against all persons actmg officially with- 
in the territory, under the laws of tlic former State. All rights 
and powers, claimed under the authority of that State were denied 
and resisted. If survej'ors were sent to survey lands granted under 
that authority, they were met by a competent force and expelled 
from tlie tenitory. If justices of the peace, or constables living in 
the territory, who had taken office under the government of New 
York, attempted to discharge thc-ir several duties, or otherwise in- 
terested themselves in favor of that government, the leaders Avith a 
competent force visited and arrested them, and having administered 
sufficient punishment, Ijanished them from the territory. If any 
man, claiming title under that State settled himself down in his hut 
on lands claimed by the '• Green ^.lountain Boys,"' they appeared 
on the ground, and. if he hesitated to relinquish his claim, leveled 
his cabin to the ground, desolated his land and crops, and left him 
and his family, houseless and destitute, to seek a shelter where else 
he might. No sheriff or other officer was permitted to serve process 
from the courts of Albany. If by any means writs of ejectment 
had been served, as was the case in the early state of the contest, 
and judgments obtained in the courts at Albany, or if any of the 
active agents, in defence of their claims, had been indicted as riot- 
ers, and the sheriff had been sent, with the posse comitaWs, to ex- 
ecute the writs of possession, or arrest the riotors, he was set at 
defiance by a superior force and prevented from serving his process. 
The inhabitants called out from tlie neigh];oring towns in New York, 
to constitute a posse, were too little inclined to use force against the 
Green Mountain Boys, to be relied on, and generally fled before 
they came to close quarters, and left the sheriff, with his few friends 
from Albany to fight the battles. At a general meeting of the 
committees at Arlington, in March lTT-1, it Avas, among other things, 
resolved, " That as a country, we will stand by and defend our 
friends and neighbors so indicted, (as rioters) at the expense of our 
lives and fortunes." 


The claimants under New Hampshire, were not permitted, in 
the Courts of New York, to give their grants in evidence in defence 
( f their claims. The Green jNIountain Boys therefore, decided to 
make no further defence there, but to defend themselves, as they 
might, bj force. Whenever the leaders chose to give their proceed- 
ings the forms of law, they established a court among themselves, 
and constituted themselves the triers, as well as complainants and 
executive officers, and passed and executed their own sentence. 

While these proceedings were going on in the " New Hampshire 
Grants," the friends of New York were constantly plying the gov- 
ernor and council and legislature of that State for relief by com- 
plaints, petitions and remonstrances, accompanied with affidavits to 
sustain them, while the government looked on with amazement and 
v\-cre puzzled to find means adequate for a remedy. The ''Ben- 
nington Mob," as they were called, had not only inspired the 
"Yorkers" in the territory with terror and dismay, but satisfied 
the New York government, that the means within their control 
were insufficient to meet the force brought against them. On the 
19th of May, 1772, Governor Tryox of New York wrote a letter 
to Rev. William Dewey, minister of Bennington, and other in- 
habitants of that place and vicinity, inviting them to lay before the 
government '"the causes of their illegal proceedings," and request- 
ing them to appoint Mr. Dewey and certain others, as agents to 
lay their grievances before the governor und council, and giving 
assurance of '-full protection to any persons they should choose," 
" except Robert Cochran, as also Allien, Baker and Sevil, men- 
tioned in his proclamation of the 9th of December last, and Setu 
Warner, whose audacious behavior to a civil m?gistrate has sub- 
jected him to the penalties of the laws of his country." 

Sr^PiiEN Fay and his son Dr. Jonas Fay were appointed agents, 

and by them was sent a general answer to Gov. Tryon's letter, dated 

June 5, 1772, explaining the grounds of their grievances, signed 

by Mr. Dewey and others ; and of the same dite a mare detailed 

reply, in explanation of their proceedings, signed by Ethan Allen, 

Seth Warner, Remembrance Baker and Robert Cochran. 

These letters were laid by the governor before the council and refer- 


red to a committe3, who recommended that the governor "should 
afford the inhabitants of those townships all the relief in his power, 
by suspending, until his Majesty's pleasure should be known, all 
prosecutions in behalf of the crown, on account of the crimes with 
which they stand charged by the depositions before us, and to re- 
commend to the owners of the contested lands, under grants of thi& 
province, to put a stop during the same period to all civil suits con- 
cerning the lands in question." This recommendation was adopted 
by the council, and when communicated, through the agents, to 
the people of Bennington and vicinity, was received with enthusi- 
asm and accepted by them as entirely satisfactory. But this prom- 
ise of peace was soon disturbed and the controversy was renewed 

and prosecuted as fiercely as ever. 

The governor of New York, with the advice of the council, 

issued one proclamation after another, offering large rewards for the 
apprehension of Allex, Baker, Warner, Coceran, and other riot- 
ers to no purpose. To as little purpose the legislature passed severe 
resolutions; and on the 9th of March, 1774, a law, which, for its 
savageness, has no superior in the legislation of any civilized com- 
munity. Referring to the riots which had taken place in the 
counties of Albany and Charlotte, by certain of the leaders, naming 
Ethan Allen and others, it enacts, among other provisions, that 
" as often as either of the above named persons, or any other person 
shall be indicted in either of the counties aforesaid, for any offence 
perpetrated after the passing of this act, made capital by this or 
any other law," the governor is authorized "to make his order in 
council, requiring and commanding such offender or offenders to 
surrender themselves respectively, within the space of seventy days 
next after the first publication thereof," "to one of his Majesty's 
justices of the peace for either of said counties respectively, who 
are hereby requh-ed to commit them without bail or mainprize," 
to the jail in New York or Albany. "And in case the said offend- 
ers shall not respectively surrender themselves pursuant to such 
order," "he or they shall from the day to be appointed for his or 
their surrendry, as aforesaid, be adjudged and deemed to be con- 
victed and attainted of felony, by ■\'erdict and judgment without 
benefit of clerccv." 


Governor Tkyon bad before that, on the 31gt of Aiagust, 1773, 
called on Gen. Haldimand, commander of the British forces, for 
a sufficient number of regular troops to quell the riots, and after- 
wards, September 1, 1774, a similar application was made to Gen. 
Gage, both of which were declined. Application was also made to 
the home government for regular troops and declined. 

The first open and forcible collision, arising out of this contro- 
versy, subsequent to the occurrence of the Hoosick patent, as men- 
tioned above, occurred on the Walloomsic patent. This pa-tent was 
granted to Jamh.3 Delancy, Ge rardus Stuyvesaxt and others, 
Julj 15, 1739, about ten years previous to the first charter granted 
by iNTew Hampshire, and was the field on which Bennington battle 
was fouo;ht, Au";ust IG. 1777. The charters of Benninsfton and 
Shaftsbury covered a part of this tract, and the farm of James 
Breckenridge was laid on this interfering territory. "Commis- 
sioners and a surveyor were appointed to make partition of certain 
lots," on this tract, "for the mors effectual collecting of his Majes- 
ty's quit rents." Lieut. Governor Golden in his proclamation of 
December 12, 17G9, states that "the said commissioners, being 
employed in surveying the said lots, were on the 19th day of 
October last past, interrupted and opposed by a number of armed 
men, tumultuously and riotously assembled for the declared pur- 
pose of preventing the said partition, who by open force compelled 
the commissionors and surveyor to desist from their survey, and 
by insults and menaces, so intimidated the said commissioners, 
that, apprehensive for the safety of their persons, they found it 
necessary to relinquish any further attempt to perform their trust," 
and represents "that James BRECKExarDGE, Jedidiah Due, 
Samuel Robixson and three others were among' the principal authors 
and actors in the said riot," and commands .and requires the sherifi" 
of Albany to apprehend and commit " the before named rioters 
and oiienders," and if necessary to .take the posse comitates. 
B:ieckene,idge and Bobinsox, in their affidavit, deny that they 
resisted the surveyor, but say " a few more people assembled, a 
few of which had guns ;" that they "forbid their running, for we 
held our lands by our New Hampshire charters," "and if they run, 


tbev must run it as disputed knds." Vriiatcver the facts were, the 
commissioners and surveyor quit the premises. 

Actions of ejectment were soon after commenced against Bkkck- 
ENIUDGE and eight others, whose land had been granted to reduced 
officers and others, and at the succeeding term of the circuit court 
at Albany, judgments were obtained against him and three others. 
It is said " that Brecxenridge made no defence, being within 
twenty miles of Hudson's Eiver;" but more probablj because his, 
land was included in the Walloomsic patent, granted prior to tho 
charter of Bennington. 

From the result of these legal proceedings, " It was hoped that 
the riotous spirit would subside," and commissioners were again 
sent to make partition of the patent, who made complaint, that ''on 
the 20th of September they were again opposed and prevented 
from effecting said partition by a riotous and tumultuous body of 
men," '"among whom was SiLAS Roi!iN\SoN," and three others 
named. And thereupon Governor Dunmoue issued a new proclama- 
tion for the apprehension ,of the rioters. The slier iiF afterwards 
reported, that in obedience to the proclamation, he liad arrested 
Silas Robinson, one of the rioters; and thereupon the governor 
and council made an order directing the attorney general to prose- 
cute him. He was afterwards bailed but never tried. 

The follovnng case, among numerous others which we might re- 
cord, will illustrate the character of the proceedings of the " Green 
Mountain Boys," or at least show how they were regarded and 
represented by the "Yorkers." Bkn-tamin Hough, who repre- 
sented himself as an " Anabaptist preacher of the gospel,'*' resided 
in Sccialborough, a New York tov/n on Otter Creek, embracing 
the whole or a part of each of the towr.s of Clarendon and Rut- 
land, had accepted a commission of justice of the peace, and was 
an active friend of New York. In March, 1775, he preferred his 
petition to Governor Tryon, stating his sufferings, and praying for 
relief, accompanied by his own affidavit, and those of other per- 
sons to sustain his petition. In his own affidavit he states, among 
other things, ''that he was attacked by about thirty persons, a 
jium])er of whom vrcre armed with firelocks, swords and hatche ts, 


Tras soizoJ ami carried a prisoner to Sunderland,'" where lie wai 
kept in custody vtutilthey sent to Bennington '^ for Etilvn Ai-Lkv 
and .'-^ET!! Warner;" that on the SOth day of January 1773, 
" the rioters appointed a court for the trial of this deponent, -which 
consisted of the following persons, to wit : Ethan Allen, Robert 
CocnR\N'' and four others, "and they being seated, ordered this 
deponent to be brought before them:"' "that Ethax Allex laid 
the throe foilov-dng accusations to the charge of this deponent, to 
Avit : 1. This deponent had complained to the government of New 
York of their (the rioters) mobbing and injuring Bexjajiin' Spen- 
CEii and others : 2. That the deponent had dissuaded and discoura- 
ged the people from joining the mob in their proceedings ; and 
3rdly, That the deponent had taken a commission of the peace un- 
der the government of New York, aivl ercercised his oiTicc, as a 
magistrate in the County of Charlotte, allcdging that this deponent 
well knew, that they (the mob) did not ailovr of any magistrate 
there;" that the judges having coniultod together for some time, 
Ethan Allen pronounced the following sentence, vrhich he read 
from a paper, v/hich he held in his hand, to wit : " That he should 
be tied up to a tree and receive two hundred lashes, on the naked 
back, and then, as soon as he should be able, should depart the New 
Hampshire Grants, and not return again, upon pain of five hundred 
lashes." After the execution of this sentence, Allev and Waiixei; 
gave a certificate, that he had "received a full punishment for his 
crimes," and tlie inhabitants were directed to erive him " a free and 
urimobited passport toward the city of New York," " he behaving 
as becometh.''' 

Bat not to trespass farther upon the province of State history, 
in detailing the incidents of this controversy, we add only a fev/-, 
which occurred within the limits of the County. 

Colonel Reid, of a Royal liighland regiment, had received from 
the government of New York a grant of land, as a voducod, or half 
pay officer, on Otter Creek, including the falls at Vergennes, whose 
tenants had been dispossessed, in August 1772, by IitA Allen^ and 
others. This 033urr3d, while the agents, who had been appointed 
by the iuliabitauta of Bennington, at the req[uest of Governor Tryon, 


as stated in a former page, were in a negotialion v.itli the governor 
and council; Svhich resulted in the conciliatory measure by them 
adopted. This proceeding, when it came to the kno^vlcdgc of Gov- 
ernor Tryox, so irritated him that ho wrote a severe letter to the 
" inhabitants of Bennington and the adjacent country," charging 
them with a " breach of faith and honor, made by a body of your 
people in dispossessing several settlers on Otter Creeh," at the very 
time the negotiations were going on, and requiring their " assistance 
in putting Ibrtlnviih those families, who have been di.spossessed, 
into re-possession of the lands and tenements." 

The following is the substance of the answer of the committees 
of " Bennington, and the adjacent country " to this letter, signed 
by Ethan Allen, clerk, on the 25th of August 1772, in explana- 
tion of the proceedings complained of The people, having noticed, 
that " Mr. CocKBURN. a noted surveyor," had taken " a tour to the 
northerly parts of the New Hampshire Grants," (on Onion River) 
'• to survey and make locations on lands," which had been granted 
by New Hampshire, " rallied a small party and pursued and over- 
t )ok him and his party, and in their pursuit, passed the towns of 
Panton and New Haven, near the mouth of Otter Creek, dispos- 
sessed Col. Reid of a saw mill in said Panton, which by force," 
and without right, " he had taken from the original owners more 
than three years before, and did, at the same time, extend his 
force, terrors and threats into the town of New Haven," " who so 
terrified the inhabitants, (which were about twelve in number) that 
they left their possessions and farms to the conquerers, and escaped 
with the skin of their teeth." " Col. Reid, at the same time, and 
with the same force, did take possession of one hundred and thirty 
saw logs, and fourteen thousand feet of pine boards," and converted 
them to their own use. In 1769, a man by the name of Pang- 
born, built there a saw mill, and a few claimants under the New 
Hampshire grant, were in possession of the lands in that year. 
After they were driven off, Rl;id's men built a grist mill. The 
committees also deny, that there was any breach of faith, as the 
result of the nesrotiations between Governor Tryon and the dele- 
gates from Bennington was not known at the time, and the agents 


were not authovkoJ to complete any arrangements, so as to be bind- 
ing on the peoijle of the Grants, until ratified by them. Thej also 
promptly refused to obey the governor's requisition to afford assis- 
t;ince in restoring Col. Rj:id's men to the possession of the lands. 
And thus ended the result of the negotiations for conciliatory meas- 
ures between the parties in 1772. 

The latter part of Juno, or the fore part of July 1773, Col. 
R,E[D, engaged several iScotch immigrants, lately arrived at Noav 
York, to settle on his lands, of which he had been dispossessed, as 
above mentioned, and went with them to Otter Creek. On entering 
upon the lands, they found several persons settled on them, claiming 
title under the New Hampshire charters. One of them was Joshua 
Hyde, who afterwards removed to Middlebury, and settled in the 
south 'part of that town. Col. lliiiD, in some way, got rid of these 
tenants, and entered into possession of the mill and lands claimed 
by him. The Green Mountain Eoys, learning this fact, Allen, 
"Wahxer and Baker, with a strong force, consisting, as represented 
by the Scotch tenants, of more than one hundred men well armed, 
marched for Otter Creek, and on the 11th day of August, appeared 
on the ground, drove off the Scotchmen, burnt their houses and 
other buildings, tore down the mill, which, it was said, Col. Eeid 
had lately built, broke the mill stones in pieces and threw them 
down the falls. Joiix Cameron, one of the Scotch tenants, in his 
affidavit, as to the manner in w hich they went into possession under 
Col. Reid, states, " That the persons " (the tenants in possession) 
"did agree voluntarily, to remove from Col. Reid's land, till the 
King's pleasure should be known, provided Col. Reid would pur- 
chase their whole crops then on the ground, that they might not 
lose their labor, which Col. Reid consented to, and paid them the 
full value for it accordingly." The affidavit also states, "That the de- 
ponent was much surprised to see, among the rioters, Joshua Hyde, 
one of the three men, who had entered into a written obligation 
with Col. Reid, not to return agam, and to whom Col. Reid, on 
that account, had paid a sum of money for his crops." * 

* >Ir. Thompson, ia his history of Vermont, in stating this transaction, eays 
nothing about the voluntary removal of the New Hampshire claimants, and » 

68 nisTor.Y or al^iison county. 

A tract of " three thousand acres of land on the east haiik of 
Lake Champlain, "within a mile and a quarter of the fort there," 
■was .(^ranted under tlie irroat seal of the Province of New York. " to 

o o 

David 'rVtosTiai, f of New Haven, in the Colony of Connecticut, 
Esc'uirc, being a captain on half pay, reduced from His Majesty's 
fiifty-first regiment." This tract in the north part of Addison 
and probably extended into a part of Panton. In his deposition 
laid before the governor and council, dated February 20, ITTo, he 
states, among other things, that '• on visiting these lands | he found 
five fiiniilies, -which had then lately settled," " some of them, pre- 
tending to have no right at all promised to leave said lands. The 
others the deponent then served ejectments on, vrhich issued out of 
the inferior court of common pleas of Albany. Whereupon they 
also submitted, and desired the deponent to give them leases of part 
of said lands, which this deponent consented to ; gave them per- 
mission to remain on the lands, acknowledging him to be their land- 
lord, until it was convenient for him to return and give them leases 
in form." He states also, '^ that in the month of September pre- 
ceding, he went to his lands in order to give leases to the settlers," 
and '• that upon the deponent's arrival on his lands, the settlers 
thereon and others, collected together in a body, about thirteen in 
number; when the deponent offered those who had settled on his 

promise not to return on being paid for their crops, but says, " On their arrival, 
the New JIanipshire settlers were a second time compelled to abandon the place, 
llev. Dr. JIeri;i:.l, in preparing his history of JMid llobury, obtained from Hyde's 
family, after his decease, also a dillcreut account of the manner in which he was 
dispossessed of his farm. This states, that he was arrested and made his escape, 
and sent back word to Col IIeid, that, if he was allowed to depart in peace, he 
would never comeback to his land, and soon after sold it, cud the purchaser took 
possession. Hyue, on his way to Connecticut after his expulsion, met Alle^^'s 
comjjany at Sudbury and returned Avith h m. 

t This Captain David Wooster, at the commencement of the revolutionary war 
was appointed by the legislature of Connecticut a major general of the troops of 
that State. Being at home in New llaveu in April, 1777, when the British troops 
came up the sound and burned the town of Danbury, he volunteered and joined 
the troops suddenly raised to oppose them, and wliile rallying the troops under Lis 
command, received a mortal wound, of which he soon died. 

t This first visit was in 1767 or 1768. ' 

niSTOPA' or .\DDI;>0^- COUNTY. G9 

lands, leases, wLich thej absolute! v refused to accept, en any terms 
Vy'hatever ; but declared that tbcj would support themselves there 
by force of arms, and that thej would spill their blood before they 
Avould leave the said lands.*' Whereupon, '• being well armed with 
pistols," he "proceeded to serve two declarations in ejectment on 
two principal ringleaders," "notwithstanding they continued their 
firelocks presented against him during the whole time; that after 
the deponent had served the said ejectments, they declared with one 
voice, that they would not attend any court in the Province of !N^e^v 
York, nor would be concluded by any law of New York respecting 
their lands." 

Among other grant.-3 by Xev.- York, within the present limits of 
Addison county, a considerable tract of land was granted or re- 
served to the Earl of Dunmore, who was governor of that State in 
1770 and 1771, embracing, as it appears by an ancient map, the 
town of Leicester and at least a part of Salisbury, from Otter 
Creek to the Green 3Iountains, and including the lake which still 
bears his name. On the borders of this beautiful lake, and in the 
midst of the romantic scenery which surrounds it, a large establish- 
ment has been recently built, as a retreat for the accommodation of 
summer visitors, and for the resort of pleasure parties at other sea- 
sons, by an incorporated association, chiefly under the superintend- 
ance of the late Edwaed D. Barber, Esq. The establishment 
has since been purchased by a company of southern gentlemen, 
who are still enlarging and ■ ornamenting it, intending to make it a 
summer residence for themselves and a large number of others. 

While the question was pending in 1772, as to the location of 

the public buildings for the county of Charlotte, Lord Dunmoiie"s 

land was proposed for that purpose, especially for the reason that it 

was as central at that time as the state of the population would 

allow, and because it was near Crown Point, where military aid 

could be obtained to quell riots of the disafiected, if necessary. 

Lord Dunmore offered, that if his lands were fixed on,, he would 

"most cheerfully build a court house or other building?, which 

may be thought requisite.'' 

^Q mgtORT 07 ADr'T;jON COUNTY. 



It was well, proba,blj, fo? the contcnuing parties, that the com- 
mencement of the revoiutionaiy war opened a new field and pre- 
sented a new object for their efforts and anxieties, and checked the 
asperity of the controversy and the violence of the collisions. 
The controversy, which in the outset, was sufficiently complicated, 
had become more and more entangled and hopeless of settlement 
by every movement which had been made on either side. 

Bat, although the commencement and continuance of the vrar 
changed in some measure the position and operations of the parties, 
it did not change their settled and unwavering determination to 
maintain their several claims. The State of New York had no 
thought of surrendering their claim to jurisdiction over the New 
Hampshire Grants. And the inhabitants of the Grants had as 
little thought of ever submitting to that jurisdiction ; but they 
began more openly and boldly to insist on establishing themselves 
as a separate and independent State. And several circumstances 
at this time occurred to encourage their hopes. They had before 
acknowledged the sovereignty of the British government, and their 
right to dispose of their destiny. By the declaration of indepen- 
dence, that sovereignty was thrust out of the way, and Congress 
had taken its place. They had renounced all allegiance to New 
York, and did not acknowledge that government as having any 
authority over them. And as they had not been received into the 
Union, in the capacity of a separate State, they denied the au- 
thority of Congress to exercise any authority over them, until 
they were placed upon the footii^g of the other States, as a part of 

nrsTORY OF ADmsoy. c-uxty. 71 

the confedoracj bj which that body had been coastitated. They 
were of course, in their own view, without a government. 

Until this time the counties of Cumberland and Gloucester had 
generally submitted to the government of ISTew York, Tv'hich had 
established courts and appointed the officers of those counties. 
But there were always many individu?Js opposed to that jurisdiction. 
The idea of establishing a separate government led the inhabitants 
to look around them and consider their state. The condition of 
their land titles was uncertain. Many of them, from various causes 
had failed to obtain a confirmation of their titles, and they began 
to discover that the heavy quit rents and expenses which would be 
required would be an unreasonable burthen, "Avhicli," in language 
not very different from that of more modern land reformers " they 
consider an innovation upon the rights of mankind, for whose use 
such lands were given by a bountiful Providence, without reserva- 
tion, and which ought not, in their opinion, to be charged w"ith 
taxes, other than for the general support and defence of the State 
and government." They discovered also that the seat of govern- 
ment was so remote that "the obtaining of justice is rendered labo- 
rious, tedious and expensive," and that the influence of the govern- 
ment is "weak and dissipated," "to the great encouragement of 
the lawless and wicked." 

It is understood that the excitement which raised the mob in 
March, 1775, to stop the proceedings of the court at Westminster, 
and arrest and imprison the judges and other officers, had no refer- 
ence to the question of land titles, or jurisdiction. But it is not 
improbable, that the scarcity of money, and their inability to pay 
the heavy amount of debts put in suit, which produced that excite- 
ment, might have stimulated an opposition to the government, 
whose courts and sheriif were a terror to the whole community. 
Accordingly, " a meetmg of the committees appointed by a large 
body of inhabitants, on the east side of the Green Mountains, "Was 
held at Westminster, on the 11th day of April, of that year, which 
adopted spirited resolutions against the government of New York. 
In the meantime, agents were sent from the west side of the moun- 
tains to encourage those rising dispositions, and ascertain the pre- 

72 niSTorvY -of al)Di,?on ccu::ty. 

vailing sentiments of those counties, as to the esiablishment of 
an independent government. 

Soon after Etha.^ Allen and'SETii YfAPtXER returned from the 
capture of Ticonderoga and Crown Point, they '• set off on a 
journey to the Continental Congress, with the design of procuring 
pay for the soldiers under them, and soliciting authority to raise a 
new regiment in the l^evf Hampshire Grants. In both these objects 
they were successful." The Congress "recommended to the Pro- 
vincial Congress of ISFew York, that after consulting General 
Schuyler, they should employ, in the army to bo raised for the 
defence of America, those called ' Green Mountain Boys,' under 
such ofScers as the said ' Green Mountain Boys' should choose." 
Allen and Warner, notwithstanding their outlawry, repaired with 
the recommendation, to the Congress of New York ; and that body 
with some delay and reluctance, resolved that a regiment of Green 
Mountain Boys should be raised, not exceeding five hundred men, 
and to consist of seven companies ; who were to choose their own 
officers, except the field officers. "A lieutenant colonel was to bo 
the highest officer." The committees of several tovt-nships assem- 
bled at Dorset, and made choice of " Seth "Warner, lieutenant 
colonel and Samuel Sateord for major." 

"Knowing the value of Colonel Allen's experience and activity, 
General Schuyler persuaded him to remain in the army, chiefly 
with a view of acting as a pioneer among the Canadians."* On 
the 24th of September. 1775, in an attempt to capture Montreal, 
with a small body of troops, he was taken prisoner through the 
failure of Major Brown to co-operate with him, as agreed betAveen 

By virtue of his election as lieutenant colonel, Warner prompt- 
ly raised his regirnxnt, and joined the forces under General Schuy- 
ler, in the invasion of Canada, and performed very active and 
useful services. But neither he or his officers had received their 
commissions from the government of New York. On the 16th 
day of September, 1775, General MontCtOMERY commanding the 

* Spaek's Memoir of Etqan Allen. 


forces, wliiali were beseiging St. John's, '-issued an order appoint- 
ing Warner colonel of a regiment of Green Mountain Rangers, 
requiring that he should be obeyed as such." This, it is presumed, 
was designed only as a temporary appointment, and on the 20th 
day of November following, on account of the destitute condition 
of his troops. General Montgomery discharged them, and they re- 
turned home. But Warner was not long permitted to remain in- 
active. In January, 1776, he received a letter from General 
WoosTER, after the defeat of the Americans at Quebec, commend- 
ing him and his " valiant Green Mountain Boys," in which he says, 
" let mc beg of you to raise as many men as you can, and have 
them in Canada with the least possible delay, to remain till we can 
have relief from the Colonies. You will see that proper officers 
are appointed under you," and promises, that his troops should 
" have the same pay as the Continental troops." Waiiner promptly 
complied with the request, and he and his troops were in Canada 
in a very short time, and remained there until the retreat of the 
American army. Through the hostility of the government of 
New York toward the Green Mountain Boys, or for some other 
culpable cause, he had received no commission, and he and his 
troops performed those services as volunteers. "Congress, on the 
Gth day of July, 1776, resolved to raise a regiment out of the 
troops Vi'ho had served with so much reputation in Canada, to be 
commanded by a lieutenant colonel. Warner was accordingly 
appointed lieutenant colonel and Samui£L Safford, major." * 

No event had more decided tendency to strengthen the cause of 
the Green Mountain Boys, and encourage them to hope that Con- 
gress would finally recognize their independence, or to exasperate 
the people and government of New York, than the raising of this 
regiment, separate from and independant of that government. Com- 
plaints were made by the Yorkers on the Grants, that this measure 
rendered their condition more uncomfortable and hopeless ; and the 
government of New York sent frequent remonstrances to Congress, 
demanding that the regiment should be disbanded. 

* D. CniPiiAN's Memoir of Wahner. 


Ill the racantims. reports Avere in circulation, that a consiilerable 
number of the members of Congress, -were in favor of admitting 
Vermont into the Union, as an independent State. On the 11th 
day of April 1777, Thomas Touxg, of Philadelphia, an ardent 
friend, -wrote a letter to the inhabitants, that after learning "the 
minds of several of the leading members," he could assure them, 
that they had nothing to do but to choose delegates to a convention, 
who should choose delegates to the General Congress, and form a 
constitution for the State." And .he added, as a reason, Avhy noth- 
ing more had been done in their behalf, '• until you incorporate, 
and actually announce to Congress your having become a body poli- 
tic, they cannot treat you as a free State " 

In tlie meantime measures had been taken preparatory to a dec- 
laration of independence, and at an adjourned meeting of the con- 
vention, held at Westminster, on the loth day of January, 1777, 
composed of delegates from all the Counties, a formal declaration 
Avas adopted, •' that the district of territorj', known by the name 
and description of the New Hampshire Grants, of right ought to 
be, and is hereby declared forever hereafter, to be considered as a 
free and independent jurisdiction or State, by the name of New Con- 
necticut, alias Vermont'." And at a meeting of the convention 
afterwards, on the 4th day of June follov.'ing, it was resolved that 
the State should be called Vermont. JoNAS Fay, Thomas Chit- 
tenden, Hem.\n Allen, and Reuben Jones were appointed a com- 
mittee to present to congress the above declaration, with the reasons 
which induced it. 

In pursuance of the advice of Mr. Young, the delegates who had 
been chosen for that purpose, met at Windsor, on the 2d day of July 
1777, and adopted a constitution, fixed a time for the choice and 
meeting of the legislature under it, and appointed a committee of 
safety to act in the meantime. The session of the convention was 
closed in haste, occasioned by the news of the invasion of the country 
by a formidable force under General Burgoyne ; and by reason of 
that event and the movements which followed, notice for the election 
and meeting of the legislature was not seasonably given. The con- 
vention was therefore again called together, revised the constitution, 


and appointed tlic second Thursday oi^ Murcii 1778, for tlie meeting 
of the Assembly. !Mr. YouNG had recommended the new consti- 
tution of Pennsylvania, providing for a single legislative body, -with 
some alteration of the powers of the governor's council. This rec- 
ommendation was adopted. But the people of Pennsylvania soon be- 
came dissatisfied with their constitution, and added a senate to the 
legislature. Ours remained with little alteration until the year 
1835, when it was also amended so as to provide for a senate. 

Against all these proceedings the Xew York government sent to 
Congress their remonstrances. On the other hand, the Green j\Ioun- 
tain Boj-s, continued to urge their claims to be acknov«ledged as an 
independent State, and to be admitted into the Union. They 
claimed, that in declaring their independence, they only imitated 
the example of the Continental Congress : that the colonies were 
oppressed by the British government, and they had been oppressed 
by the New Y^'ork government ; that all the civil and political insti- 
tutions of the country, Avhich had been established under the author- 
ity of the crown of Great Britain, had been dissolved by their sep- 
aration from that government, and so far as the government was 
concerned, all v/ere reduced to a state of nature, and were left to 
form such government as they might choose : and that, in this re- 
spect, the people of Y'ermont were in the same condition as the 
other territories, and had the same right to establish their own gov- 
ernment. As early as the 15th of May 1776, and before the dec- 
laration of American independence, the Continental Congress, re- 
cognizing the disorganized state of the country, and the propriety 
of a legal organization, before the adoption of such declaration, had 
' • resolved, that it be recommended to the respective assemblies and 
conventions of the United Colonies, where no government, sufficient 
to the exigencies of their affairs, has been hitherto established, to 
adopt such government as shall, in the opinion of the representatives 
of the people, best conduce to the happiness and the safety of their 
constituents in particular, and America in general."' 

But Congress was placed in an embarrassing and delicate position, 
'•between two fires." They saw the danger of irritating either 
party. Their proceedings were therefore vacillating in the extreme. 


What the J did at one time vras undone at the next : and no final 
decision Tras ever adopted bj that body. 

In the meantime the Vermontcrs continued to adopt measures to 
reduce the government to system and order, in its operations over 
all parts of the State. The inhabitants were also becoming, not 
only accustomed to, but satisfied with, its operation. The settle- 
ment of the State and its population were rapidly increasing and 
adding strength to the government, and the claims of New York 
were thereby becoming every ^^car more hopeless, and the condi- 
tion of the friends of that government more uncomfortable. 

Ethan Allen, wlio had been captured in Canada in 1773, and 
held by the British a prisoner of war, being exchanged and re- 
leased in May, 1778, soon returned home and resumed his posi- 
tion as leader of all the active operations of the State. 

The government of Vermont did not hesitate to extend its juris- 
diction and authority over the adherents of New York, as well as 
others. There still remained in Brattleborough, Guilford, and other 
towns in Windham county, in the year 1770, many individuals of 
this class, Y,dio endeavored to oppose the proceedings of Vermont. 
These were taxed and drafted into service as others, and "a sum of 
money was assessed on those who were supposed to have done least 
in the war." Some " acquiesced in it rather than contend." 
Among other acts, the Vermont party, in the spring of that year 
"ordered Capt. James Clay, Lieut. Benjamin Yv^ilson" and 
another, who were militia officers appointed by New Y^'ork, "to 
provide a man to go into the service." But they failing to obey the 
order, two of their cows were seized, and ordered to be sold, to pay 
the man hired by the Vermonters. On the day appointed for the 
sale, Colonel PATTErvSON, who commanded the regiment of militia 
under New York, with his " field officers and a considerable part 
of the reo-iment," assembled and rescued the cattle, and delivered 
them to the owners. Within a week or two, Etean Allen, with 
an armed body of troops, appeared there and arrested and imprisoned 
Colonel Patterson, and nearly all the officers of the regiment. 

The legislature of Vermont, at their session in February, 1781, 
passed "a general act of amnesty in favor of such persons," who 


had opposed its aullioritj. Upon which lliosc persons submitted to 
the authority of the State, and 'took the oath of allegiance. After- 
wards, the legislature, for the defence of the frontiers, ordered '• a 
quota of men to be raised in the several towris throughout the State."" 
And thereupon the same "disaffected persons," '• in the town and 
vicinagc'bf Guilford, in the southern part of the County of Wind- 
ham " raised a frtrmidablc opposition "to the raising and paying 
of them," and for the purpo.^e of aiding the opposition, the govern- 
ment of New York appointed sevei^al of the disaffected persons to 
'' civil and niilitrir}' oilices," who undertook to use the laws of the 
State of New York over the citizens of this State. Upon which 
Em AN" Allen, at the head of a military lorce was sent by order 
of the governor "to assist tlie sheriflf of Vrindham County, in the 
execution of the laws." TiMoTiiY PiiSLPS, sheriff. Timothy 
CiiuiiCH, colonel, and m.ore than one hundred civil and military 
ofiicers and privates, were arrested and brought before the courts, 
and five of them were sentenced to banishment, and confiscation of 
property, and others to fines and imprisonment. 

These proceedings wore occasions for now appeals from Governor 
Clinton to Congress for their speedy and cificient interference. 
On occasion of the latter proceeding. Congress, on tlio 5th day of 
December, 1782, adopted resolutions, condemning, in severe terms, 
the action of Vermont, and among other things, requiring the peo- 
ple of that State, " vvithout delay to make full and ample restitu- 
tion to Timothy Church, Timothy Phelps, Henry Evans, 
"William Siiattuck, and such others as have been condemned to 
banishment, or confiscation of estate, or have been otherwise de- 
prived of property," " and that they be not molested in their per- 
sons or properties, on their return to their habitations in tlie said 

These resolutions were answered in a very spirited letter from 
Governor Chittendev, denying the authority of Congress to in- 
terfere in the internal proceedings of Yo'mont, containing a very 
able argument in justification of their measures, and promptly re- 
fusing to ohov tlie i-ffpiiromont of Cougrcs;-. The Genora] •.Vs.-cm- 



hly also adopted a letter to Congress, embracing more concisely the 
same sentiments. 

These are among the last acts of interference, in the affairs of 
Vermont, on the part of Congress, or the New York government. 
The legislature of that State, on the first day of March, 1786, 
thought proper to make the compensation, Avhich Vermont had re- 
fused, to the last mentioned sufferers ; and granted them a township 
of land in the [county of Chenango, eight miles square, named 
Clinton, now Bainbridge. 

In the meantime the people of Vermont, with quiet and undis- 
turbed prosperity, continued to press forward in their career of 
separate and independent existence, with increasing indifference to 
the hostility or favor of any exterior power. At length on the loth 
day of July, 1789, the legislature of New York, tired of the 
fruitless controversy, giving up all hope of reducing the territory 
to her jurisdiction, and desirous, it is said, of increasing the north- 
ern influence in Congress, which Vermont might bring, passed 
an act appointing commissioners, with full power to acknowledge 
her independence, and settle all existing controversies. On the 
22d of October following, the legislature of Vermont appointed 
commissioners on their part with similar povrcrs.* On the 7th of 
October, 1790, the commissioners agreed upon the boundaries and 
the terms of settlement ; that Vermont should be admitted into the 
Union, and on such admission all claims to jurisdiction on the part 
of New York, should cease, and as a compensation to those, who 
claimed lands under New York, Vermont should pay thirty thou- 
sand dollars. On the 28th of the same month, the legislature of 
Vermont passed an act, accepting the boundaries and settlement, 
and agreeing to pay $30,000. On the 10th of January, 1791, a 
convention of delegates chosen for the purpose, passed and sub- 
scribed a resolution, " approving, assenting to and ratifying " the 

* The commissionei'S appointed on the part of New Yoi'k ivere Kobkf.t Yati^s, 
JouN Lansing, Jr., Gulien Verplaxk, Simeon De Witt, Egbert Benson, and 
iVJELAKCTON Smith, and on the part of Vermont, Isaac Ticuenor, Stephen R. 
Lradlet, Nathaniel Chipjun, Elijah Paine, Iea Allen, Stephen Jacob and 

Is.-'Ael Smitu. 


Constitution of the United States ; and on the 18th day of Februa- 
ry of that year. Congress passed an act, ''that on the 4th day of 
March " following, " the State of Vermont shall be received and 
admitted into the Union, as a new and entire member of the United 
States of America." 

so IIISTU'IY OF Al)])l;ji)X COLNTV, 

CIIAPTEll viir. 


TfiE revolutionar_)Mvra-, wliich had been ended, some years before 
Vermont -was admitted to the Union, furnished but few incidents, 
which can properly constitute a part of the history of Addison 
County. Very few permanent settlements had been made in the 
county before its commencement. It is said that James McIntosii, 
a Scotcliraan, commenced a settlement in territory now in the 
city of Vergennes, in the year 1766 ; and other settlements were, 
made on the creek above the foils in New Haven, now Waltham, as 
early as 1769, Col. John Ciiipsian, in 1766 made a small clear- 
ing on his farm in Middlebury, but did not return to it, Avith his 
f;imily, until 1773 ; and in the latter year several other families 
were settled in that town. And it is said that in the charter limits 
of D.Iiddlebury, there were thirteen families, and in that part of 
Cornwall, afterwards annexed to ISIiddlebury, eight families, before 
the war. Col. Piiilip Stoke commenced preparation for a settle- 
ment on the border of the lake in Bridport in 1768, and several 
other families were settled in that town before the war. John" 
Chartier also commenced some improvements, on the south end 
of Mount Independence in Orwell some years before the war, 
but no permanent settlements, we believe, were made in that town 
until after the war. 'As stated on a previous page, John Stuong, 
Zadoc Everest, David Vallaxge, Benjamin Kellogg, and 
probably a few others, had made preparations for a settlement, 
on the borders of the lake in Addison, in 1765, and took posses- 
sion with their families in 1766. The late Squire Ferris, of 
Vergennes, in a statement made to Philip C. Tucker, Esq., to 
which we have referred elsewhere, says that his father, Peter 


Fr:uiis, came to and settled ou the shore of the lake in Panton, in 
17B5. Mv. FE:iias, and his -wife came through the ■woods from 
Bennington County, on horse back, he carrying his son Squib e 
then two years old in his arms ; and that there were then no settle- 
ments on the lake, and that the nearest, and only neighbors were the 
British garrison at Crown Point. A few other families were settled 
there before the war. The first settlements, by families, in Whiting 
and Leicester, were in 1773, in Cornwall and Monktcn in 1774; 
in Wcybridge, and in that part of New Haven, since annexed to 
Wcybridge, in 1775. In no other towns in the County had perma- 
nent settlements been made at that time ; and in the towns men- 
tioned, the number of families was small. 

After the retreat of the American troops from tlie disastrous ex- 
pedition into Canada, in 177u, and especially after General Bun- 
GoYNE, in 1777, with his formidable army, came up the lake, 
sweeping away every resistance before him, a large proportion of 
the settlers deserted their farms, and remo\ed to places of gre;itcr 
safety at the south. The lake and its forts being in possession of 
the British, the w'hole country lying opposite was exposed to ma- 
rauding and foraging parties of British, Indians and tories, who 
plundered and carried off all such moveable property as was left 
behind and desired by them. And in 1777, while the British 
were in quiet possession of the forts, before the surrender of Bur- 
GOYNE in October of that year, several of the men were taken 
captive ; and such as remained in captivity until the occurrence of 
that event were then released. The family of Col. Stone, livinc: 
on the lake shore, in Bridport, was, among others in that region, 
frequently annoyed by bodies of Indians, who visited them for 
plunder. But as they did not generally, molest the women and 
children, except for plunder, he kept out of the way and remained 
safe for some time. But in October 1777, having been falsely 
charged by a tory, as being concerned in burning his house, a 
British vessel in the lake sent a boat on shore, captured him and 
carried him a prisoner to Ticonderoga, where he was confined about 
three weeks, and until the fort was evacuated after the surrender 



Samuel Blodgett, a son of Asa Blolgett, an early settler in 
Cornwall, now Middlebury, bad built birti a log house, just over the 
present line between Middlebury and Cornwall, where he resided 
many years afterwards. About the same time, in 1777, a scouting 
party came upon him and took him prisoner, tied him to a tree, and 
threatened to burn him. But being a freemason, he made himself 
known to tlie British officer commanding the party, avIio w^as also a 
mason, and he was released and taken to Ticonderoga, Avhere he 
was set to work with a team. 

At the same time James Bentley senior, who had settled in 
Middlebury, and his daughter were at the house of Blodgktt, and 
to escape from the Indians, he crawled into a hollow log, and the 
women thrcAV brush over the entrance and so effectually concealed 
him, that he escaped. 

The following account of the capture of Eldad Andrews, taken 
in 1777, at the same time as Samuel Blodgett, was furnished by 
Mr. RuFUS MilAD, who obtained it from those who received it di- 
rectly from Mr. Andrews : 

Eldad Andrew's, one of the first three settlers in Cornwall, Avas 
taken by Indians, and carried across the lake. The savages came to 
his house, Avhile he Avas in the field at Avork ; finding Mrs. A. en- 
gaged in making cheese they deA'oured the curd and everything eat- 
able in the house, without committing any personal violence. Leav- 
ing the house, they captured Mr. A. and took him to Ticonderoga. 
He was at length released and an Indian deputed to row him across 
the lake. IMr. A. had not gone far before he discoA'ered the Indian 
on his trail, and the conclusion was that the Indian coveted his scalp. 
He made no sign hoAAXver, but armed himself with a heavy club. 
As twilight came on, he passed a deep ravine, in going into which 
he passed over a large fallen tree, and laid down behind it concealed. 
His pursuer was soon standing over him on the log. Andreavs was 
a man of great physical strength, and did not give the savage a long 
time to ascertain his whereabouts, when with a heaA^y blow Avith his 
club on the side of his head, he leveled the Indian, and marched 
home without further molestation, and without inquiring the fate 
of his pursuer. 

lllsTJllY OF ADl^ISO^' COUNTY. 83 

Joshua Graves and his son Jesse Graves, wliile lioeing corn 
on the bank of the creek in Salisbury, on the farm since owned by 
the late J^^skpii Smith, on which they were among the earliest set- 
tlers in that town, Avere captured at the same time by about two 
hundred Indians. The widow of Joseph Smith was a daughter of 
the younger, and grand-daughter of the elder, Graves; and the 
farm has ever remained in the family. The captives were taken to 
the settlement of Jekemiah Parker in Leicester, where he and his 
son. Jeremiah Parke h, Jun. were also captured, and all the pris- 
oners were taken to Ticonderoga. The two elder captives were soon 
released ; but the two younger were detained prisoners, on board a 
vessel, for three weeks, until there was time to send to Canada and 
get a return. 

Asa Blodgett, father of Samui l Blodgett, above mentioned, 
who had settled on the creek in the south part of Cornwall, and re- 
mained after the general retreat of the inhabitants, was taken pris- 
oner also by the Indians. Ilis captors placed him on a stump, Avitli 
a rope around his neck, the end of which was thrown over the limb 
of a tree. He remained in this position for some time, expecting 
instant death, with which the Indians threatened him ; but he was 
afterwards released. The facts we have stated relating to the cap- 
ture of Asa and Samuel Blodgett, and the escape of Bextlby, 
were received from the late Abraila,m YfiLLiAMSON of Cornwall, 
and his wife, who was a daughter of Samuel Blohgett. 

But the most serious and extensive depredations, on the inhabit- 
ants of the County were committed in the fall of 1778. In the 
early part of November in that year, a large British force came up 
the lake in several vessels, and thoroughly scoured the country on 
both sides. Such of the men as had the temerity to remain on their 
forms until that time they took prisoners, plundered, burnt, and de- 
stroyed their property of every description, leaving the women and 
children to take care of themselves as they could, in their houseless 
and destitute condition. Not a town in the County, where any set- 
tlements had been made, escaped their ravages. The only building 
in Middlebury, not wholly destroyed, except two or three in the 
southeast part of the town, which they seem not to have found, was 


11 barn of Cul. John Crtpman, -which hud been lately built of green 
timber, whicl^they could not set on fire and Avhich tliev tried in vain 
^\•itil tlieir i'liperfect tools to cut dovvu. The marks of their hatchets, 
On the timbers, are still to be seen. 

As there arc no public documents or history, Avithin our know- 
ledge -which give any general account of these proceedings, in other 
to-ivns, and all the persons concerned in the transactions are supposed 
to be dead, we have collected information from such sources as v,-ere 
in our power ; and instead of condensing it into a continuous narra- 
tive, wo choose to give it as we have received it from the several 

The following statement was niade by Philip C. Tucker, Esq., 
of Yergenncs, principally from information obtained by him, at our 
request, from Nathax (Iriswold and Asaph GiusrivoLD, sons of 
KAthan GKisVt'OLD, one of the captives: 

"In the month of November 1'7T8. the following persons of the 
north and west portions of Addison County -were taken prisoners by 
the British forces, and transported on board British vessels to Can- 
ada : Nathan Griswold, taken in that part of Ncav Haven which 
is noAv Yergennes, John Gri.s»\'CLD and Adonijak Griswoli:), in 
that part of Ncav Haven which is now Waltham, and DA"\'rD 
WOLD, of New Haven. These four men were brothers ; Eli Rob- 
erts and Durand Bobkrts, father and son, v.ei-e taken at Yer- 
gennes; PiTKR Ferris and Bquire Ferhis, fiither and son, of 
Panton. were taken on the west side of Lake Champlain. while 

hunting: Jo.seph Holcomb. Elijah Granly and Spalding 

at Panton, John Bishop at Monkton and Hopkins at New 

Haven. These were part of the captives taken during the fall of 
1778, consisting in all of tv\'0 hundred and forty-four. They were 
all taken to Quebec and imprisoned. Tradition says, that but forty- 
eight were brought back in June 1782. and exchanged as prisoners 
of war at AVhitehall." 

'•Of the thirteen persons above named, all returned but one. 
John Griswold Jun. enlisted on board a British vessel at Quebec, 
upon a promise, that he should be restored to his liberty, on the ar- 
I'ival of the vessel in Ti-eland. Tic w:it? nevei' heard of afterward 


All thcso men are believed to be noAV dead. The deaths of those 
known are as follows : Nathan Griswold, died at Waltham, 
July 17, 1811, aged 85 years; David Guiswold, at New Haven, 
August 11, 1820. in his 60th year; Adonijah Griswold, at 
Green County, Illinois, in 1847, aged 88 years ; Eli Roberts, at 
Vergennes, in 1806, age unknown ; Durand Roberts, at Ferris- 
burgh, in 1817, aged 57 years ; Peter Ferris, at Panton, in 
1811. aged 92 years ; Squire Ferris, at Vergennes, March 12, 
1849, aged 87 years." 

The following information vras communicated by MiLo Stow, 
Esa, of Wey bridge, son of Clark Stow, one of the captives men- 
tioned below, and published in the Middiebury Register, August 
80, 1854. A short memorandum, which we have seen in their 
family records, of their capture, imprisonment, and the death of 
David Stow, in the hand-writing of Clark Stoav, authenticates 
the principal facts. 

" November 8, 1778, a marauding party of British, Indians 
and tories, invaded the quiet of four families in this vicinity, 
being the only inhabitants in Weybridge, burned their houses and 
eifects, killed their cattle and hogs, and took Thomas Sanford, 
and his son Robert, David Stow and his son Clark, Claudius 
Brittel and his son Claudius, and Justus Sturdevant, and car- 
ried them prisoners to Quebec. The four wives and their young 
children, for eight or ten days, occupied an out-door cellar of Mr. 
Sanford, at this place, till our troops from Pittsford came to their 
rescue. David Stow died in prison, December Slst, 1778. 
Thoaias Sanford, and two others from Vermont, Gifford and 
Smith, escaped from prison, and after wandering through Maine 
and New Hampshire, reached their families. The rest of the 
prisoners, after extreme suffering were discharged in 1782." * 

* A handsome marble monument has recently been erected on the site of the 
out-door cellar, in which the women and children found shelter, in memory of 
the captivity of these men. The pedestal, base, die and cap, make the height 
about eight feet. The above is the inscription on one side. 

Not far from this monument, is a remarkable slide, on the bank of Otter Creek. 
It occurred in the fore part of July, 1819. Charles Wales, with his family and 
mother resided in a house on the ground, and in the course of the day, the house 



The following, in addition to the above, we have received directly 
from Mr. Stow. The prisoners, on their arrival at Quebec, were 
for a time kept on board a prison ship ; but were afterwards re- 
moved to a prison on laud. While there thej dug through the 
walls of the prison and escaped, but were retaken and recommitted, 
except Thomas Saxford and one or two others from Vermont, who, 
after wandering a long time througli the wilderness of New Hamp- 
shire and Maine reached their families.* Those who were recom- 
mitted dug nearly through the wall a second time, and a large pro- 
portion of them, in the spring of 1780, were sent ninety miles 
down the St. La,wrence, and were there set to work. But Clark 
Stow, being then young, was selected by a French lady, and em- 
ployed by her as a house servant, until he, with the rest, was ex- 
changed and released in 1782. After his release in October he 
went to Great Barrington, Mass., to which the family had removed, 
and in March, 1783, they returned to Weybridge. 

The following account of the capture of some of the inhabitants- 
of Bridport. their imprisonment and escape, we have abridged from> 
the account of Bridport, given by Mr. Thompson, in the first edi- 

seemed to tremble and crack, for which the inmates could not account. But in the 
e.ening they bcci^.me alarmed, and left the house, biU .Mr. Vv'ales stood still on the 
ground. Between nine and ten o'clock in the evening, the land, to the extent of 
nearly two acres, suddenly sank about eighteen feet perpendicularly, the man 
going down with it was not hurt, but escaped to the bank. The house v,-ent duwa 
and was shattered to pieces, and the cellar and chimney were never found. The 
bank of the creek rested on a body of blue clay, which was crushed out by the 
incumbent soil and ejected into and across the river, forming a solid and imjene- 
trable dam, which stayed the whole current of the creek, until nine or ten o'clock 
the next morning. A similar slide of less extent took place since, near by, on the 
farm of Bknjamjn Wales, and near his house. 

* We have the following story from undoubted authority. When Mr. Paxfokd 
was captured he had two horses and a colt which were left behind without any 
one to take care of them, lie returned, as related alo\e, r.ftcrthice ycais absence, 
expecting to find his horses dead. But he found them alive, except the colt, which 
the Indians shot. They had lived on the Beaver Meadows, in the neighborhood, 
and were found some distance from where Sanford left tliem. They had become 
very wild; but Sanfobd had given each of them a name, and when he called 
them by their names they came to him and were easily ta,ken, they recognizing 
either their names or their master's voico. 


tion of his Gitzettecr. The fuels, it is presumed, were obtained 
from some of the partj, as all but one ^'ere then alive. 

Nathax Smith, Marshall Smith and Jonx "Ward, who had 
just been married, who had venturetl to remain on their farms, in 
Bridport. while most of the irJiabitants had removed, being together 
on the 4th day of November, 1778, were taken hy a party of 
British, under Slajor Carletox. He collected in that vicinity 
thirty -nine prisoners, men and boys. They were put on board a 
vessel in the lake and carried prisoners to Canada. They reached 
Quebec December 6. and were kept in prison sixteen months and 
nineteen days. In the spring of 1780, after two dreary winters, 
in which several of the party died, the prisoners had liberty to 
remove thirty leagues down the River St. Lawrence, to work. 
About forty went, among whom were the two Smiths and Ward. 
They landed the first of ^lay, on the south side, where the river 
was twentv-seven miles wide. In the nicrht of the loth, ei2;ht of 
the prisoners took a batteau and crossed the river and landed in a 
perfect wilderness. They here separated into two parties, JiSTUS 
Stukdev.ant. of Weybridge joining the three Bridport men. They 
traveled by night, and when in the neighborhood of settlements, 
secreted themselves in the Avoods by day. They occasionally met 
Frenchm^en, who appeared friendly ; but on the 20th, when nearly 
opposite Quebec, they called on two Frenchmen for aid in crossing 
a swollen river. One of them stated that he was an officer, and 
dared not let them pass. He seized his gun and declared them 
prisoners. The other took up an axe, and both stood against the 
door to prevent their escape. Nathan Smith said to his comrades, 
"we must go," and seizjd the man witli the gun, and the other 
prisoners laid hold of the other Frenchman, and they thrust them 
aside, and all escaped except Sturdevaxt, who remained a prisoner 
until the close of the war. Some days after, four Indians, armed 
with guns and knives, came upon them, but they sprang into the 
woods and e33apcd, and traveled all night until noon the next day, 
when being not fir from Three Rivers, they lay down and slept. 
But soon each was awakened by an Indian having fast hold of him. 
They were committed to prison at Three Rivers. Three sides of 

88 insTonY o? addison county. 

the prison were of stone, the other of wood. After being in 
prison three weelis, they began to cut into the -wooden wall with a 
jack-knife, and in a week had cut through it sufficiently to escape into 
an adjoining room. Having drawn a week's provisions, they cut 
up their bed clothes, and let themselves down, so near the window 
of the room below, that they saw the officers there assembled, and 
were not more than a rod from the sentinel in his box. Thence 
they continued to travel by night, and lay by in the day time. 
To supply themselves vfith food, they took a lamb in one place and 
a turkey and other fowls in others. They kept off from the river 
to avoid the Indians, who they learned were in pursuit of them, 
and had been offered a bounty for their apprehension. They at 
length crossed the St. Lawrence and traveled to the River Sorel, 
and thence through the wilderness, with incredible hardships and 
Buffering, having killed an ox on the v^'ay for their sustenance, and 
at length arrived at the house of Asa Hem en way, in Bridport, 
which alone had survived the desolations of the war. The next 
day they reached the picket fort at Pittsford. From the time of 
their escape, ninety miles below Quebec, including their imprison- 
ment, they had not changed their clothes, and had few left to be 

The following graphic account of the capture and imprisonment 
of Peter Ferris, and his son Squire Ferris, with some antece- 
dent and accompanying events, is an extract from an article pub- 
lished in the " Vergennes Yermonter^'' February 26, 1845, which 
was written by Philip C. Tucker, Esq. The facts contained in 
it were communicated to him by Squire Ferris in his lifetime. 

" In October, 1776, upon the retreat of General Arnold up 
the lake with the American fleet, after the battles fought near Val- 
cour Island, he run the remaining part of his vessels, four gun 
boats and the galley, " Congress," which Arnold himself com- 
manded, into a small bay, which still bears the name of "Arnold's 
Bay," and the shores of which were upon Mr. Ferris' s farm. 
Some of the remains of those vessels are yet visible, though they 
were all partly blown to pieces and sunk when Arnold abandoned 
them. An incident of their destruction, not known to history, is 


related by Ferris, a son of Mr. Fkrris, then in his four- 
teenth year. Lieutenant Goldsmith of Arnold's galley had been 
severely wounded in the thigh by a grape shot in the battle near 
Valcour Island, and lay wholly helpless on the deck, when the or- 
ders were giv^en to blow up the vessels. Arnold had ordered him 
to be removed on shore, but by some oversight he was neglected, and 
was on the the deck of the galley when the gunner set fire to the 
match. He then begged to be thrown overboard, and the gunner, 
on returning from the galley, told him he would be dead before she 
blew up. He remained on deck at the explosion, and his body was 
seen when blown into the air. His remains were taken up and 
buried on the shore of the lake. To the credit of Arnold, he showed 
the greatest feeling upon the subject, and threatened to run the gun- 
ner through on the spot. The British fleet arrived at the mouth of 
the bay before the explosion of Arnold's vessels, and fired upon 
his men on the shore, and upon the house of Mr. Ferris, whicii 
stood near the shore. Some grape shot and several cannon shot 
struck Mr. Ferris's house. Mr. Ferris and his family returned 
with Arnold to Ticonderoga ; from whence they afierwards went, 
for a short time for safety, to Schaghticooke in the State of New 
York. All Mr. Ferris's moveable property at Panton was either 
taken or destroyed by the British. His cattle, horses and hogs 
were shot, and his other property carried off. His orchard trees 
were cut down, his fences burnt, and nothing left undestroyed, but 
his house and barn." 

" After some weeks had elapsed Mr. Ferris returned to the re- 
mains of his property, and endeavored to repair his injuries, so 
far as possible. He had restored his fences to preserve a crop of 
winter grain sowed the previous autumn, and had got in his spring 
crops, Avhen in the month of June following, the army of General 
BuRGOYNE came up the lake. A- considerable portion of the army, 
commanded by General Fraser, landed at Mr. Ferris's farm, en- 
camped there for the night, and utterly destroyed them all. Two 
hundred horses were turned into his meadows and grain fields, and 
they were wholly ruined. Gen. Fraskr had the civility to promise 
indemnity, but that promise yet waits for its fulfilment. 

90 nisTOKY or addl^ox county. 

'•Ill the autumn of 17 To. Mx*. Ferris ami his son, Squire Ferris, 
assisted in the escape of Joocph Everest and Phineas Spalding from 
the British schooner Maria of sixteen guns, then Ijing at anchor off 
Arnold's Bay. These tv.o men were Americans, who had been 
seized in Panton and Addison, and made prisoners fur favoring the 
American cause. Both were taken from the scliooner in a dark 
nit^ht and conveyed on shore in a small canoe. Sc-uire Ferris, the 
son, was also of a small party in the winter of l7Tt5-T7. who seized 
upon two Englishmen, supposed to be spies, near the mouth of Otter 
Creek, and delivered them into the hands of Gen. St. Clair at Ti- 

"In the year 1773, the British made a general capture of all the 
Americans they could reach on the shores of Lake Champlain, who 
were known to be friendly to the revolutionary cause. In ]!^ovem- 
ber of that year, ]\Ir. Ferris and his son started upon a deer hunt, 
on the west side of the lake. Yrhen near the mouth of Putnam's 
Creek, about six miles south of Crown Point, they were seized by 
a body of British soldiers and tories, commanded by Colonel Carle- 
ton, and carried on board the schooner Jlaria, then lying at Crown 
Point, near the mouth of Bulwaggy Bay. They were the first 
prisoners taken in the great attempt of the British to svreep the 
shores of the lake of those inhabitants, who were friendly to the re- 
publican cause. On the same night, detachments from this vessel 
burnt nearly all the houses along the lake from Eritlport to Ferris- 
burgh, making prisoners of the male inhabitants, and leaving the 
women and children to suffering and starvation. Mr. Ferris's house 
and all his other buildings were burnt. Forty persons were brought 
on board the next day : and within a few days, the number reckoned 
two hundred and forty- four ; part of which were put on board the 
schooner Carleton of sixteen guns, which then lay at the mouth of 
Great Otter Creek. The forces, .which came out in the Maria and 
Carleton, were originally destined for an attack upon Rutland, but 
their object having become known by the escape of an American 
prisoner, Lieut. Benjamin Everest, that project was abandoned, and 
they were employed in desolating the country, and stripping it of 
its inhabitants. The vessels proceeded with their prisoners to St. 


Johns ; from thence thcj were marched to Sorel, and it was the in- 
tention of the captors to have continued their march down the St. 
Lawrence to Quebec. At Sorel they crossed the St. Lawrence, and 
soon after a heavj snow storm came on, which making it impossible 
to continue the marcli, trains were seized in all directions, and on 
tliese thcv were driven to Quebec. Here thcj were confined in pris- 
on. Soon after some of them having contr'.ved to escape, they were 
divided, and about one hundred of them were .sent down the river 
one hundred miles and employed in getting out timber for building 
barracks. Islr. Ferris and his son were sent among tliis number in 
tlie month of January 1779. Li the spring follovdng nine of thep ris- 
oners, among whom wore Mr. Ferris and his son, seized a batteau 
in ti'.e night, in which they crossed to the east side of the river, 
where it was fifteen miles wide. On landing they set the batteau 
adrift, separated into two parties, and made the best of their vray 
up the river. They had brought provisions with them, and avoid- 
ing the settlements, and traveling only in the night, the party, with 
which the two Ferrises remained, arrivc<l opposite the Three Eivers 
on the fourth day. They crossed in the night, but were discovered 
and retaken. The remainder of the party did not get so far, hav- 
ing been retaken by a body of Indians in the neighborhood of Que- 
bec. The party of the Fei-rises were put into jail at Three Eivers, 
where they remained eighteen months. During this time they made 
one attempt to escape, but were discovered and were then placed in 
a dungeon for seventy- two days. At this time the father and son 
were separated. 

'■ Squire Ferris, the son, describes the dungeon v.'here he was 
confined, as an apartment eight feet by ten, and so low that he 
could not stand up in it. and that the one occupied by his father 
adjoined it, and was of the same character. The only light was 
admitted by a small hole about eight by ten inches in size, which 
was crossed by iron grates. The hole which admitted this light 
was level with the ground, and the water from the eaves of the jail 
poured through it into the dungeon, whenever it rained. The straw 
given them to sleep on was frequently wet in this way, and the 
confined air, dampness and filth, not to be avoided, made their suffer- 


ings of the severest kind. "While they were confined here, another 
place was prepared for them, to which they were transferred after 
the dungeon suifering of seventy-two days. This place was oppo- 
site the guard room, and upon being removed to it, they were told, 
' you daunied rebels, you can't get out of this.' Here the father 
and son were again put together in the same room. The place was 
not however so impregnable as was supposed, for in about six weeks 
the prisoners made an excavation under the wall, in the night, and 
made their escape. There were six prisoners in the room at this 
time. Upon escaping, the parties separated, Mr. Ferris and hia 
son remaining together. They went up the river nearly opposite 
Sorcl, where, two days afterwards, they crossed the St. Lawrence 
in a canoe, and took to the woods. Their design was to reach 
New Hampshire, but having lost their way in the woods they 
struck Missisque River, down which they went a few miles, and 
were again retaken by a British guard, who were with a party 
getting out timber, and by them were carried again prisoners to 
St. Johns. They were taken twenty-one days after their escape, 
and had been nineteen days in the woods, during all which time 
they had only a four pound loaf of wheat bread, one pound of salt 
beef and some tea for food. They made their tea in a tin quart 
cup, and produced fire by a flint and the blade of a jack-knife. 
For four days before they were retaken, they had nothing for food 
but tea, and were so weak they could hardly walk. The forces at 
St. Johns were then commanded by Col. St. Leger, a brutal drunk- 
ard, who ordered the prisoners to be ironed together, and put them 
in a dungeon for fourteen days. At the end of Avhich time, and 
ironed hand in hand to each other, they Avere sent to Chamblee, 
and from there by the rivers Sorel and St. Lawrence to Quebec. 
At Quebec they were returned to their old prison, in which they 
remained until June 1782, when they were brought from thence to 
Whitehall and there exchanged for British prisoners. From their 
capture to their exchange was three years and eight months. 

After the escape of the Ferrises from below Quebec, the prisoners, 
which remained in prison at Quebec were divided, and a part placed 
on board a prison ship in the river. Soon afterward, camp fever, as 


it was then called, broke out among tliem, and many of them died. 
Of the two hundred and forty-four prisoners taken in the neighbor- 
hood of Lake Champlain, in November 1778, and carried to 
Canada in the schooners Maria and Carleton, only forty -eight were 
knoAvn to have returned. The elder Ferris died in the year 1811, 
at the age of ninety-two ; and of the other forty-seven, Squire 
Ferris, of Vergennes, his son and fellow prisoner, is supposed to be 
the only survivor. * Several of these prisoners received pensions 
from the general Government, but Squire Ferris, their com.panion in 
sufferings, though poor and needy, and though an applicant for 
many years, has never received the bounty of iiis country." Besides 
those mentioned above, the following persons, of whose captivity we 
have no definite information, were taken and carried to Quebec at 
the same time : Benjamin Kellogg and Joseph Everest, of Addison. 
Major Orin Field, of Cornwall, has furnished us with a detailed 
and interesting account of the capture and imprisonment of the 
late Benjamin Stevens, of that town, as he received it from Mr. 
Stevens, a relative, in whose flimily he resided. lie was captured 
with three others, in a boat on Lake Champlain, near Split Rock, 
in Charlotte, in May, 1779. Being pursued hj the tories and 
Indians from the shore, and one of the men, Jonathan Rowley, 
being killed by a shot from the pursuers, they surrendered. Ste- 
vens was then seventeen years old and resided in Rutland County. 
He not then residing m this County, and therefore not strictly 
Vfithin our province, we give only an abstract of Major Field's 
narrative. The prisoners were taken to Chamblee, "thrust into a 
small prison, ironed two together and fed for nine days on no other 
food than dry peas uncooked. Fror^ thence they were taken to 
Quebec, v/here Mr. Stevens spent three 'Neyf Year's days in one 
room." Twice they made their escape, and after traveling a long 
time in a destitute and suffering condition, at one time in the dead of 
winter, and a part of the time living on roots and the bark of trees, 
until one of the party died, they were retaken and recommitted, 
and in June, 1782, were exchanged at Whitehall. Mr. Stevens 
settled in Cornwall in 1792, and died June 16, 1815, aged 5-3 years. 

* t^QUiHE Ferris died at Vergonnes, Mai'ch 17, 1810, aged 87 years. 





The tract of land west of the moiintains, embracicg the valleys 
of Lake Champlain and Otter Creek, when first cleared up, was as 
celebrated for the production of wheat as "VYestem New York has 
since been. It was the principal staple among the productions of 
the County. The following facts Aviil give some idea of the value 
of this crop. At the close of the last war with Great Britain, the 
people of the County were almosi hopelessly in debt. At the June 
term of the County Court in 1817, the number of civil causes en- 
tered at that term, amounted to more than five hundred, and nearly 
all for the collection of debts. This pressure of indebtedness was 
wholly relieved by the crops of wheat raised in the County. The 
very cold, dry and unproductive season of 1816, had rather in- 
creased than diminished the pressure. But the following season 
of 1817, brought to the relief of the farmers more luxuriant crops, 
cs|)ecially of wheat, than any other within our recollection. The 
excessive di'outh of 1816 had prepared the stifTest soils to be 
thoj'oughly pulverized by tilling. Large fields were sown : the 
season, with its gentle and frequent showers and genial sunshine, 
was most favorable, and *he crops singularly abundant. The 
winter following, the price of wheat in Troy, the principal market, 
was from two dollars to two dollars and twenty-five cents a bushel ; 
the sleighing was excellent, and was faithfully and industriously 
improved by the farmers, and the large returns brought great 
relief to them. The favorable crops which followed had, three years 
after, in June, 1820, reduced the whole number of new causes 
entered, to ninety-eight. 

But the insects^ rust and frost hare, in late years, greatly dimin- 


islied the crop and discouraged the farmers. But it is thought the 
farmers might,, without much trouble, raise sufficient for the bread 
of the County, if they did not choose to direct their attention to 
more profitable husbandry. Good crops of corn and potatoes, and 
large crops of beets, carrots and other roots for stock are produced, 
and the latter are becoming common among the farmers. Except on 
the hills and rising grounds, the soil is generally too stiff to be 
advantageously cultivated for these crops. But most farmers have 
patches of land suitable for raising them in sufficient quantities for 
their own use. Oats are produced on almost any of the lands, 
which the farmers have courage to till sufficiently. Rye, barley 
and buckwheat are also raised to some extent. 

But the soil of the County is best adapted to the production of 
grass a,nd the raising of stock. And no County perhaps, in this or 
any other State can exhibit a finer or more abundant display of 
horses, cattle or sheep. It is the common opinion of farmers, that 
grass, grown on the clay or marl lands of the County, is much 
more nutricious, than that which is grovrn on lighter soils. The 
editor of the Albany Cultivator, in the number for July, 1845, 
after visiting Addison County, says : " Judging from appearances, 
it is our opinion, that we have never seen any other land, which ia 
capable of sustaining as much stock to the acre." "Stock of ail 
kinds will and do actually fatten on this hay. It is a fact that oxen 
bought in the fall, in only store condition, if properly sheltered and 
fed on this hay, become in the spring fit for slaughter, and are sent to 
Brighton market without any other feeding." For this reason, and 
because of the failure of the wheat crop, the farmers have, for the 
last twenty or thirty years, directed their attention to the raising of 
stock, and especially of sheep. One evil has resulted from this 
change in the agriculture of the County. The business of grazing 
requires large firms to satisfy the ambition of the enterprising ; and 
the large profits have enabled the more wealthy to crowd out the 
smaller land owners and send them to the Avest. The result has 
been, that, in several of the principal agricultural towns, the 
number of the farmers, and of course of the population has con- 
siderably diminished. 

9(5 nisTGiiY OF adijtson county. 

Instead of going into a detailed history of the transition from 
the former to the pre.sent branch of agi'iculture : or the cause of 
the change, we take the liberty to quote several passages from an 
excellent ''address delivered at the annual fair of the Addison 
County Agricultural Society, October 1st, 1844," by Hon. Silas 
H. Jenison, late governor of the State, then a resident of Shore- 
ham, but since deceased. He was a practical farmer and "well 
acquainted with the subject. 

Referring to the earliest history of agriculture in the County he 
says : "Among other products of the soil, it was found as favora- 
ble to the production of wheat as any other section of tlie country 
then open to the agriculturist. Wheat consequently early became the 
staple product of the county." "Addison County became noted 
for the quantity and quality of the wheat. The whole force of the 
farm was directed to the increase of this crop." "During the 
third period of ten years, extending to 1820, the high price of 
wheat continued to influence the business of the farmer. Many 
fields had been by successive cropping, exhausted of their native 
fertility. Wheat, Avhen sowed to the extent it had been raised 
for years before, became a less profitable crop. Farmers were 
awaking to the importance of manuring their old fields." And 
this conviction, Governor Jenison represents, was a reason that 
the farmers gave more attention to the raising of cattle for the 
purpose of providing manure for their wheat crops, and he adds : 

" The number and quality of our cattle was increased and im- 
proved. With many farmers, the raising of cattle for market 
became the leading business. The cattle from the County began to 
be prized in market, and Addison became as noted for the excel- 
lence of its cattle, as for its wheat. The excellent grazing qualities 
of the soil were known and appreciated. Indeed, I have heard it 
remarked, that the butchers of Brighton could distinguish, by the 
appearance and feel, the fat cattle from this part of Vermont, 
from those in market from other places ; and that cattle from this 
part of the State, of the same apparent flesh, had the preference 
with them, opening better, having a greater quantity of tallow and 
beef of superior quality and flavor." 


" A circumstance, referable to this period, has had great iniluence 
on the subsequent pursuits and prosperity of the farming interest 
of the County. Several individuals, awakenetl to the wants and 
capabilities ox the country, by privations and embarrassments expe- 
rienced during the interruption of our commerce with foreign 
countries before and during the war with Great Britain, did, at 
great expense, and incurring the penalty of all innovators — being 
laughed at by their neighbors — introduced into the County the 
Merino sheep. Among the foremost in this beneficent work, were 
Refine Weeks, Daniel Chipnian, George Cleveland, and Horatio 

"During the next period of ten years, bringing us to 1830, the 
agriculture of the County appears to have been in a transition 
state." " While some of the farmers had, as a main business of 
the farm, embarked in rearina; cattle, and others in increasing; their 
sheep, many had not abandoned the idea, that wheat might still 
be a staple product of the County for exportation. They still per- 
sisted in the business, notwithstanding the increasing failures of the 
crop, caused by the exhaustion of the soil, ravages of the Hessian 
fly. spring killing, blight or rust. But in 1827 or 1828, an ene- 
my to the wheat crops appeared, which baifled ail the efforts of the 
farmer to evade. The insect commonly, but improperly, called the 
weevil — that name belonging to an insect that preys on the wheat 
after it is fully ripened and harvested. The insect alluded to is a 
small, orange-colored maggot, and commits its depredations on the 
berry, while in the milky state, leaving the head and almost disap ■ 
pearing from the grain, Avhen ripe. By a late writer in the Cnl- 
tivator^ it is called the wheat midge. As early as 1829, its rav- 
ages had increased so that, in some towns, in the County, scarcely a 
field escaped." 

" When the wheat crop failed, those engaged in the business had 
to resort to some other branch of farming. The tenacious quality 
of much of the soil of the County, forbid the cultivation of hoed 
crops, and the raising of pork, as a substitute. I have before 
remarked, that the Merino sheep had been spread through the 
County with wonderful rapidity. Indeed, so rapidly was the char- 


acter of tlie floclcs changed, that as eari}^ as 1824. in many toAvns, 
a considerable flock of natJN'c sliccp could not be found."' 

Of the raising of horses, as a department of agriculture, Gov. 
Jenison has not particularly treated. In what we have further to 
say, we propose to speak, separately of sheep, horses and cattle. 
And first of 


In the address from which we have so largely quoted, Governor 
Jenison siiys, " The increased prices obtained for wool, and the 
avidity with which it was sought in market, after the passage of 
the tarifi' act of 1828, pointed to that business as more lucrative 
than any other. A majority of the farmers eagerly engaged in 
increasing their flocks of sheep. The result has been, that Addi- 
son County had in 1840, in proportion either to territory or popula- 
tion, a greater number of .sheep, and produced more wool than 
any other county in the United States. To shov,' the truth of 
this remark, I refer to facts drawn from the statistical tables ac- 
companying the census returns of 1840, and from other sources. 
There are nine States which had more than one sheep to each in- 
habitant, to-wit : Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maine, Kentucky, Con- 
necticut and Ohio, with a portion more than one ; New Hampshire 
and New York had about two and one-fourth, and Vermont had 
five and three-fourths to each inhabitant. Should territory be 
regarded, Vermont will be found to have 185, New York 112, 
and New Hampshire Go to the square mile." 

" Addison County, when compared with the other counties in 
the State, will be found to have eleven and six-hundredths, Rut- 
land eight and eighty-five hundredths. Grand Isle seven and four 
hundi-edths, and Bennington six and nineteen hundredths to each 
inhabitant. If territory be regarded, Addison has three hundred 
and seventy-three, Grand Isle three hundred and thirty-four, 
Hutland two hundred and eighty-three, Windsor two hundred and 
sixty-one. Orange two hundred and forty and Chittenden tvro hun- 
dred and twenty-one to a' square mile." " This array of figures is 
no idle speculation. They represent facts, which show the immense 


stake tlic farmers of Addison County possess in this biMiich of 

If we had the time and the resolution, wo should like to draw a 
similar comparison from the census of 1S50. Eut we have neither. 
In order, however, to give as good an idea as we are able, of what 
hd-s been and is the amount of transactions in this department, wo 
have collected from a fevf of the principal farmers, who arc engaged 
in this business, some facts relating to their operations. The design 
of them all has been to improve their flocks, as well bj breeding as 
purchasing, that thej maj be able to supply the market with the 
best wool and best sheep. 

Itollin J. Jones, Esq., of Cormvall, liaving decided in 1S44, to 
engage in sheep liusbandrj, proceeded to make careful selections 
from several of the best pure blood Spanish Mciino flocks in Nevr 
England, in every instance paying for a first choice. In his first 
purchase, he expended about t^vo thousand dollars. From these 
have been bred his present fiock, and tliose he has sold of that breed. 
And his experience in breeding this class of sheep, has more and 
more confirmed him as to their value. Sales have been made of 
these in most of the New England, Middle and Vv'estern Sta,tes. 
In many places, where they have been introduced, they have ob- 
tained premiums at State and County fairs over numerous compet- 
itors. In 1849, S. B. Rockv;ell, Esq., of the same place, now re- 
siding ia Middlebury, associated v/ith him as a partner. 

Messrs. Jones and RockwVil, since their connection, have been em- 
inently successful. In 1852, owing to repeated applications for 
French Sheep, which had been introduced into the country about 
six years before, they invested in the purchase of these sheep 
^2,200 ; a part of v/hich included a first choice from the flock of 
Merrill Bingham. These sheep, they say, vrerc the m.ost perfect of 
the kind they had ever seen. In 1853, they purchased of Soloman 
Vi. Jewett, of Weybridge, one entire shipment of French Sheep, 
imported by him in April of that year. These purchases, with 
some subsequently made, cost ^18,000. For several years previous 
to the spring of 1855, when this information was communicated, 
their annual sales varied from cisjht to twelve thousand dollars. For 


the cylitscn raontlis next preceding, they amounted to ,9 20.000. 
Tbej have hecn in the practice, as many of the principal dealers 
Lave been, of taking their sheep for sale to the "Western States, es- 
pecially to Ohio. Their flock on hand, at the date above mentioned, 
numbered six hundred, one half imported Trench Merinos, and their 
descendants. They have a high opinion of the French as well as 
Snanish Merinos, and th".nk a cross between these breeds v^'ould be 

William R. Sanford, Esq., of Orwell, and Messrs. William S. 
and Edwin Hammond of I-liddiebury, have, for several years, been 
extensively engaged in breeding and dealing in sheep. For our 
convenience we treat of the operations of these parties together, as 
they have been, to some extent, connected, and much of cur infor- 
mation relating to both, has been obtained from Edwin Hammand. 
Esq. They both breed the pure Spanish Merinos, descendants of 
the flock, which Col. Humphreys, who was at the time American 
Minister to Spain, imported into Connecticut in 1802, or of the 
flocks, which Y\llliam Jarvis, Esq., then American Consul in Spain, 
imported in 1809, 1810 and 1811. These they greatly prefer to 
any more recently imported, or to any other breed. The usual flock 
of Mr. Sanford numbers from 250 to 500. Messrs. Hammond's 
flock, at this time, (1855) numbers 400, including lambs. The 
sales of both have been uniformly made at home. 

In a communication from Mr. Sanford, published in the Albany 
CnJtlvator, for September 1844, he says : "In 1829, I purchased 
of Messrs. Grant and Jenison of Walpole, N. H., twenty old full 
blood Merino ewes, which were purchased by them, when lambs, of 
Hon. Mr. Jarvis, and warranted full blood. These I have kept dis^ 
tinct and pure, and from them have reared a flock. The ewes yield 
an average of four pounds and over to the fleece of clean, hand- 
some wool. Messrs. Grant and Jenison, bought these sheep from 
Mr. Jarvis before the Saxony sheep were introduced into the coun- 
try, and were of course pure ; and since I have had them, I have 
taken a good deal of pains and trouble to keep them so. I have 
purchased three superior bucks from Mr. Jarvis, and by using them 
and my own rearing have kept them pure." Since the above. Mr. 


Sanfovd iias made several purjiiasas, to a larg3 amount, of Josccnd- 
ants of Col. Humphreys' flock. At tae National Exhibition of 
cattle and horses, at Boston, in October 1855, Mr. Sanford obtained 
the second premium on Spanish Merino bucks, tAvo years old and 
over ; the first premium on bucks under two years old, and on ewes 
the two first premiums: and at the Vermont State Fair at llutland, 
in September of that year, the first premium on Spanish Merino 
buck lambs and ewe lamb.s. 

In 1844, Messrs. Hammond, wishing to improve their flock and 
extend their operations, examined the most important flocks in 
several New England States, and among others, that belonging to 
Stephen Atwood, of Vv'atertown, Conn., and selected and purchased 
from his flock, thirty, and in the next four years several more. 
These Mr. Atwood had from Col. Humphreys' flock, under such 
Gir cum stances, that he had satisfactory assurance that they were 
pure and free from Saxony and other breeds. From these their 
present flock has been bred. 

Mr. Sanford and the Messrs. Hammond, having for several yeara 
increased and improved their flocks by breeding " in and in," were 
desirous of finding other sheep, at least as good as theirs, to cross 
with them, and Mr. Sanford, in behalf of both parties, went to 
Europe for the purpose of examining the best flocks in the difierent 
countries, and of purchasing the best he could find. He examined 
the most distinguished in Spain and France. In the former country 
he found none which he was willing to import ; in the latter he 
purchased twenty French Merinos. He went then into Germany, 
and, with the advice and aid of the American Consul, at Stuttgard, 
who had made himself thoroughly informed on the subject, and who 
accompanied him for a fortnight, he examined the most celebrated 
flocks in the diflerent States of Germany, and extended his examina- 
tion as far as Prussia, and there purchased twenty Silesian sheep. 
These and the French sheep he imported. The French are much 
larger than the Spanish ]Merinos, or their descendants, with fleeces 
in proportion. But Mr. Hammond states, that the wool is not so 
even, varying in diflerent parts of the body. The Silesian sheep 
are smaller than the Spaniph. but the wool is fine. Thev did not 
14 ' 


re<Tard either of these as an improvement of their fioclcs and in^.me- 
diatelj sold them. 

i\Ir. Edwin Hammond thinks the Spanish sheep have improved 
greatly since their importation^ into this countr3^ and especially in 
this County; and that there are better sheep in the County of Addi- 
son than in any other part of the ivorld. This opinion is founded 
on his own personal examination of many of the best fiocks in this 
country, and the examination by Mr. Sanford and others of the 
most celebrated flocks in Europe. He offered, he said, to Mr. 
Sanford, on his going to Europe, one thousand dollars for a pair of 
imported sheep, as good as his, w'ith a view of crossing them with 
his present flock ; but jNIr. Sanford found none such during his tour. 

The price of Mr. Hammond's sheep has increased every year. 
In 1853 their sales amounted to $'7,000 : in 1854 they sold two 
ewes for $1200, and six others for ,^1200. Their bucks that year 
•were sold from ^500 down to $10 — the latter being culls. The 
whole averaged ^29, each. They have this year (1855,) sheared 
from two two year old bucks, 22 and 23 pounds : in 1854, from 
one yearling ewe 12, and from one two year old ewe 13 jjounds. 
The wool was not washed on the sheep, but was clean. 

Solomon W. Jewett, Esq., of Wcybridge. had for many years 
been an extensive dealer in grade shesp. In 1843 he began to 
interest himself in pure blood sheep. He purchased of the de- 
scendants of the Merinos imported by Col. Humphrej^s, Mr. Jarvis 
and others. Among others he purchased the celebrated buck 
" Fortune,'' a descendant of Mr. Jarvis's importation. Mr. Jewett 
raised from that buck about 200 lambs annually, which he sold 
from ten to twenty-five dollars, and some as high as ^50 each. 
He sold several sheep sired by this buck, to Henry S. Randall, Esq., 
of Cortland Village, N. Y., on which he received the first and 
second premiums at the State Fair at Poughkeepsie in 1844, and 
with which, together with ]\Ir. Jewett's buck, he published a 
challenge for competition^ to the vrhole country. 

In 1845, Mr. Jewett imported from England ten Spanish Meri- 
nos from the flock of Lord Weston, of Essex, who was the most 
noted i,re?der. and hnd the best flock of Spanish sheep in England. 


Six iiunurecl of these sheep, he states, having been presented, in 
1803, to George III. That king gave Lord Weston the privilege 
of selecting from the flock, when first landed at Plymouth. These 
Mr. Jewett thinks were much inferior to the best flocks in this 
country. From the above, and some other additions, he kept for 
several years a flock of from 500 to 600 blooded sheep. 

In 1851, j\rr. Jewett went to Europe, for the purpose of examin- 
ing and purchasing sheep, and has been twice since for the same 
purpose. In France he purchased, at fifteen or twenty shipments, 
seven hundred French Merinos, which he selected from the three best 
flocks in that country, owned by Llessrs. Gilbert, Cugnot and 
Guerin, and a few from the government flock at Rambouillet. These 
sheep, including expenses cost about ^55,000. He has sold most 
of these at an average of about .^jilOO, each, the sales amounting to 
from 15 to 20,000 dollars annually. He sold one pair, a buck and 
ewe at .f 600. He also imported from Spain in 1854, ten sheep, 
through Mr. Haddock, the American Jlinister to Portugal ; but not 
being such as he Avished to keep, he butchered them. 

As to the relative value of the different bree<ls of sheep. Mr. 
Jewett's opinion is, that, if the farmer's object is to raise mutton, 
as well as wool, the French Merinos of the first quality are the best ; 
but for wool only, the Spanish. He has had an opportunity, not 
only for a personal examination of the best flocks iu this country 
and in Europe, but has examined the published accounts of the 
weight of the fleeces of Spanish sheep in both countries, and his 
opinion is that they have greatly improved in this country since 
their importation. Referring particularly to the flock of the Messrs. 
Hammond of Middlebury, he expressed the opinion, that the fleeces 
of their sheep exceed, by one third or more, the fleeces of the native 
Spanish sheep. Indeed he expresses the decided opinion, that their 
flock is the best flock in the world. 

Alonzo L. Bingham and Merrill Bingham, brothers of Cornwall, 
have been as long and as extensively engaged in the sheep business as 
any other farmers in the County. They have been not only large 
breeders but large purchasers : and have sold large numbers for 
many years in the vVestern, Middle aiid Coutheru States. From 


]\Ierriil Bingliam personally, we have had no information. From 
Alonzo L. Bingham, we learn that he has been engaged in the 
breeding, purchasing and soiling sheep for twenty years. IJe, for 
many years and until 1846, devoted his attention exclusively to 
Spanish Mei-inos, purchased from diifei'ent importers. 

In 1848, he commenced breeding French Merinos, and has im- 
ported large numbers through John A. Tainter, Esq., of Hartford, 
Conn. lie now prefers the French &heep, and gives his whole at- 
tention to them. When his attention was given to the Spanish, he 
had a flock of trrelve hundred. — although not always so many — 
and raised annually from four to five hundred. Since he com- 
menced with French sheep, his flock has been less ; but he has 
raised from them annually more than he has ewes, — many of them 
having twins. At the State fair in the fall of 1855, he received 
not less than nine premiums on diftcrent classes of French sheep. 

In the Vermont Register of May 31st, 1854, we find an article 
containing a statement of his sales from September 1st 1853, to 
May 1st, 1854, from which we collect the following summary. 
The sheep were French Merinos, and the amount of sales, during 
the above mentioned eight months, was ^43,302,50. All but the 
amount of ^-7,038, which were sold by an agent at the west, were 
sold by himself on his farm in Cornwall, to persons living in each 
of the States of Virginia, Ohio, ^Michigan, Pennsylvania, Illinois, 
New York, Missouri, Connecticut and Vermont. He states also, 
that his sales of sheep for the last year,* have amounted to 
between thirty and forty thousand dollars ; and that the average 
price for which his French sheep have been sold, is $175. Mr. 
Bingham thinks, that both the Spanish and French sheep are 
greatly improved by being raised in this County. He says it is 
admitted, all over the west, that the sheep of Addison County are 
superior to any others ; and that Mr. Tainter, who has been a large 
importer, says, that he found no such Spanish sheep in Europe, as 
in this County, and that French sheep are also greatly improved here. 

* We wish the reader to bear in mind, that the materials for these chapters were 
obtained in 1855 and the chapters written at that time, 


As a speciiiion of the Aveiglit of JNIr. Bingham's fleeces, at his 
sheep-shearing in 1852, (we have no hiter information) we give the 
follo^Ying extract from an editorial article in the Middlebury Reg- 
ister of May 26th of that year. "We select the following particu- 
lar instances from those sheared on the first day. 





107 pounds. 

21 pounds. 


91^ " 

20 " 


1U\ '■ 

23i " 


89i " 

19i " 


111! " 

18 " 

There were thirty-three sheared on that day, '• nearly or quite all 
yearling ewes." 

The agriculturists named, are probably the most extensive deal- 
ers in the County. But there are many others, who are largely 
engaged in breeding and in tlie improvement of their fiocks, in every 
]>art of the County; some of Avhom are more or less also employed in 
the trafic. But we are not able to detail their operations. Tho 
raising of wool takes precedence of all other branches of farming in 
almost every town. We should be glad to avail ourselves of any 
means in our power to give a definite statement of tho number of 
sheep, and the annual amount of the crop of wool in tho County. 
We have spoken of the extensive trafic as an historical fact. But 
it is the breeding and improvement of the flocks, which is the more 
appropriate business of tho agriculturist. The success Avhich has 
attended this department has induced the trafic, to which we have re- 
ferred. The speculations and th^ extravagant prices and profits, 
which have arisen from this source may to some extent die away, 
when the country is more generally supplied with the best breeds ; 
but while the County sustains the reputation of raising the best 
sheep, there will be a market for them for recruiting and improving 
the flocks in less favored regions of the country. 




Tiii: standing of Vermont is generally strikingly shov/n Lj the 
reports of the Boston cattle market ; in which the number from this 
State appe;irs, from week to week, to be nearly double those of any 
other New England State. Of these, Addison County, we believe, 
furnishes its full share : and it is represented, that the exhibitions, 
at the annual County fairs, arc not inferior to those of any other 
County. But the farmers have made fewer efforts in that depart- 
ment, than in those of sheep and horses. We regret that, with all 
our diligence, we have not been able to ascertain, from those who 
best know, Avhat eHbrts have been made and the success which has 
attended theni. At an early day, Thomas Byrd, Esq., of Vergen- 
ues, and soon after General Amos "\V. Barnura, of the same place, 
introduced into that neighborhood a considerable number of import- 
ed English breeds , and the full blood and cross breed of Ayer- 
shires, Ilerefords and Durhams, are quite common in the north part 
of the County, and, to some extent, prevail in other parts. Wight- 
man Chapman, Esq., then of Weybridge. kept on his farm, for 
eight or ten years, a very celebrated Ayershire bull, presented to 
him by John P. Cushing, Esq., of Massachusetts, which was es- 
teemed by many the best bull in the country. The editor of the 
Albany Cidtivator, who had examined him, in the number for 
August 1845, says : '■ He is a good bull, has a small clean head, 
clean limbs, a well shaped body and mellow skin. With the excep- 
tion of Mr. Archibald's bull, sent to the Poughkeepsie Show from 
iMontreal, he is decidedly the best bull v.'e have ever seen." The 
blood of this animal has been extensively diffused through the 
cattle in the central parts of the County. Governor Jenison, in the 

nr3To:iY or adi^i.^on couxty. lOT 

address, from v.Licli avc Lave so largely quoted, in referring to tbo 
" effects and general results of the introduction " of foreign breeds, 
sajs : "I venture tlie assertion, tliat ^vbere a favorite individual is 
found, could the pedigree be traced in most instances, you would 
not go many removes back before you "would run against some 
one of the imported improved breeds of stock.'' But the num- 
ber of fall bloods of any of these breeds is quite limited. Cyrus 
Smithy Esq., of Vergennes, has a celebrated Durham bull, which 
took the Srst premium at the State fair in Rutland, and at the Ad- 
dison County fair at Middlebury this year, (1355) Alonso L. Bing- 
him of Cornwall, obtained ssveral premiums, at the State fiilr, on 
D.irhaai, iljrefjrd Devon cittle. Horatio Plumley of New 
Haven, has a full blood Durham cow, from Avhich he has raised 
several excellent calves, and obtained, at the Count}^ fair, the sec- 
ond premium on a bull, which Avas one of them. W. R. Sanford, 
Es'p. of OrTv'ell. tvro or thrc^ years since, imported two cows and 
one calf of the Devonshire breed, has bouglit a few since, and now 
jUs eight full bloods, besides two. which he lately sold to the ^.lessrs. 
Hammond of I^Iiddlebury, who from them have raised two calves. 
Mr. Saiiford says, that the beef of this breed sells higher in Eng- 
land than any other. At the National Exhibition in Boston, and 
at the Vermont State fLiir, he received sevt.ral premiums on Devon 
cattle. At the State fair Messrs. Hammond obtained the first pre- 
mium on bull calves of this breed. 

Yf e are glad to learn that a movement is in contemplation for the 
improvement of cattle in the County. 

The reputation of the County, and the enthusiasm in the breed- 
ing of horses, among the farmers, do not suiler much in comparison 
wdth those in regard to sheep. Vermont horses have a reputation 
through the v/hole country. The original stock consisted of such 
as were common in the States from which the emigrants came. 
In some of these States, and especially Connecticut, considerable 
oiForts had been previously made to improve the stock. In the 
year 1810, Ep. Jones, Esq., introduced and kept in Middlebury. 
f >r tb.ree or f()ur rear-^ a verv Ijcautiful. full-l;>lood Arabian horse. 


called lliG "Young Dcy of Algiers." His clcscenuents funned a 
very excellent breed. But tlie furmers had not then come to ap- 
preeiate sufuciently the improvement in horses to patronize the high 
prices, Avhich his services required, and he was removed. Since 
that, at various times, different stallions have been kept in the 
County, and among them the •' Old Messenger," an imported En- 
glish horse, and his descendants : from which the stock has been 
from time to time improved. 

The wre.icnt prevailing stock consists of the diiTerent branches of 
the rJorgan horse. These originated from the horse generally 
known by the name of the "Justin Tuorgan." This horse was 
brought, when two years old, by Justin Morgan, from Springfield,' 
Mass., from v.-hich place he removed to Randolph, Vermont, in 
the year 1795, and was kept by him there until March, 1798, 
w^hcn jMr. Morgan died. He was then sold to William Rice, of 
Woodstock. It does not appear that he was much thought of, or 
that much care was taken of him, until the excellence of his stock 
was revealed by his colts. His sire was the " True Britain, or 
Boautiiul Bay," which was raised by Gen. Delancey, commander 
of the refugee forces on Long Island, and was aftervrards kept one 
season by Justin Morgan. The True Britain was sired by the 
Traveller, an imported horse also owned by Gen. Delancey. The 
dam of the Justin Morgan was said to be a descendant of Wild Air, 
imported also by Gen. Delancey. ±sh\ Joshua Scott, of VergenneSj 
who has been acquainted with the Morgan horses from the first of 
that breed, has a record which traces back the pedigree of the sire 
and dam of the first Morgan to the Arabian Horse Godolphin, in 
England, which we do not think of importance enough to insert 
here. ISIr. Scott states that four of the colts of Justin Morgan 
were kept as stallions, and from them were derived the several 
branches of that breed ; to-wit : " Woodbury," ovrned and kept by 
Mr. Y>"oodbury, at Rochester, Vermont, until twelve years old, and 
afterwards owned successively by j^.Ir. Walker, of Chelsea, and Peter 
Burbank, of Newbury; "Sherman," owned by Mr. Sherman, of 
Barre, and afterwards kept by John Bellows, Esq., of Bellows 
Falls: "Bulrush," raised in Williarastown. and "'Revenge," kej^t 


for a wliile. in this State, aud afterwards removed. The dams of 
the Woodbarj and Sherman were of English descent. Mr. Scott 
thinks that three-fourths of the horses now generally knovrn as 
Morgan, are of the Woodbury branch. Among the colts of the 
Vroodbury was the Gifford. This was the sire of the Green j^.Ioun- 
tain Morgan, whose dam was also of that breed. This horse is or 
was owned by Silas Hale, of Barre, Mass., and, we believe, is the 
most noted of those known as Morgan horses. He was kept two 
seasons, a few years since, in Lliddlebury, in this County. The Gif- 
ford was also kept by Mr. Scott, in 1831, in the same place. The 
Ilacket Horse, owned and kept by Col. Hacket, in Middlebury, for 
several years, was sired by the Gilford, from a Woodury dam. The 
Flying Morgan, sired by the Hacket horse, and owned by Riley 
Adams, of Burlington, and distinguished for his speed in trotting, was 
for some time kept in this County. Woodbury 2d, raised by Mr. 
Scott, and now eight years old, is still kept by him in Vergennes, 
and is the only real AYoodbury horse kept for mares in the County. 

Mr. Weissinger, one of the editors of the Louisville, Ky., Jour- 
nal^ Avho, some ten years ago, made a tour through Vermont, and other 
eastern States, and took pains to examine the best horses of the 
general Morgan breed, as quoted by the Cultivator, saj^s, "There 
is no doubt whatever of this, that the breed of the IMorgan horse 
was and is now, in the few instances where it can be found, far the 
best breed of horses for general service, that vfas ever in the United 
States, probably the best in the world; and it is remarkable, 
that this breed was and is now known by many striking peculiari- 
ties, common to nearly every individual." 

The old "\f oodbury Morgan, at twenty years old, was sold for 
$1300. Mr. Hale says, " several stallions, begotten by Green 
Mountain Morgan," of which he was the owner, "have sold as 
high as $1500 ; many have brought prices ranging from $800 to 
$1200 ; geldmgs and mares from $300 to .$800 ; few less than 
$200. The Woodbury and other breeds generally designated as 
Morgans, are less generally found in this County than in the eastern 
part of the State ; and in New Hampshire and Massachusetts, 
having been generally sold and removed. 
J 5 


The Black Hawk and his descendants are more generally found 
here. This horse was sired bj the Sherman Morgan, then ov,ned 
by John Bellows, Esq., of Bellows Falls, and his dam was a large 
black mare and fast trotter, and is said to have been a half-blood 
English, raised in New Brunswick. He was raised by Mr. Twom- 
bly, of Greenland, N. H.. ancf when four ^^ears old, was purchased 
by Benjamin Thurston of Lowell, Mass. lu the year 1844, 
David Hill, Esq., of Bridport in this County purchased him of 
Mr. Thurston, and has kept him in that place ever since. Mr. 
AVeissinger, from whom we have before quoted, says of him, "I 
think he deserves all the praise that has been bestowed on him. 
He is the finest stallion I ever saw. His legs are flat and broad, 
shoulders well set back, loin and back bone very strong, length of 
hip beyond anything I ever saw, as quick in breaking as the bullet 
from the rifle, head and neck faultless ; in motion, mouth open, 
crest sublime, legs carried finely under him, square and even, and 
fore legs bending beautifully." Wc might quote other printed 
descriptions and recommendations of him, but it does not comport 
with our design. 

Nearly all his colts more or less exhibit his traits. In this 
County they have become very common. Almost every farmer 
is anxious to obtain a Black Hawk colt. He has also a high repu- 
tation in almost every State. Probably the stock of no horse, ever 
kept in this country, has been so extensively known and so highly 
appreciated. Mv. Hill says, — " It is claimed by many of our best 
judges, that this is a new and permanent variety or breed. By 
this is meant that they possess peculiar points so uniform and dis- 
tinct from the immediate ancestors of Black Hawk, that he is justly 
entitled to be considered the parent or head of a distinct class." 
He says also, " Black Hawk has sired, I think, fully one hundred 
colts a year, since I owned him. His colts are now distributed 
throughout nearly all, if not all, the States of the Union, and 
several are in Canada. I know of some owned in every State 
except" five southern and south-western States. He says, "this 
breed of horses have great beauty and symmetry, are high-spirited, 
yet docile and tractable: are more generally adapted for light and 


rapid driving ; have great courage and endurance ; many are adapted 
for the farmer's '' all work " horses, and few or none for the slow 
and heavy coach." 

Mr. Hill has furnished us the following information of the prices 
at which some of Black Hawk's colts have been sold. Fifty 
colts, including a few geldings, and mares, sold in Bridport, have 
averaged over .^600 each. Eight, sold by himself, consisting of 
four fillies, one gelding, two three year old and one four year old 
stallions have averaged over $700 each. " The following," he 
says, "area few of the most noted of this horse's stock, Avith prices 
paid or offered for them. Ethan Allen, ,flO,000, Red Leg, a geld- 
ing, fd,750, Black Hawk Maid, a mare, $1,600. The above 
were all from the same dam, and raised by Joel W, Holcomb, of 
Ticonderoga. N. Y.. Belle of Saratoga, a mare raised by David 
Hill, $4,200: Know Xothing, a gelding, ,$5^500; David Hill, now 
in California, .|10,000 ; Ticonderoga, $5,000; Hammitt colt, 
$5,000; Sherman Black Hawk, $5,000 ; Plato, three years old, 
$3,000; Flying Cloud, of Ohio, $3,000; Rip Van Winkle, two 
years old, $2,000." 

Black Hawk * is now (1855) twenty-one years old, and there is 
so great demand for his services, that the price charged for each 
mare the present season is one hundred dollars. 

The Rutland and Burlington Rail Road, from Burlington to 
Bellows Falls, and passing through the whole length of this County, 
which was first opened about the first of January. 1850, has ad- 
vanced the prosperity of agriculture beyond any other influence. 
It has opened a direct and rapid communication with Boston and 
New York, which are adequate markets for all the agricultural 
productions of the County at high prices. The result has been to 
raise the price of all agricultural products. The price of lands in 
the vicinity, by the same means, has also been raised from 25 to 50 
per cent, and in some cases doubled. And if those who have con- 
tributed so liberally for the construction of the road, have lost their 
whole investment, the firmers have gained as much. One obvious 

* Black Hawk has died since the above was written. 


benefit, resulting from this influence, has been to raise the amount 
and quality of the productions of the dairy. There is now no 
danger of getting any but good butter from any farmer. * 

* fc'ee Appendix No. 2, for agricultural and other products in the County. 




An agricultural society, at an early day, was formed in this 
County, and continued an annual fair for several years ; but soon 
declined for want of legislative encouragement. 

The legislature in 1843, passed an act to give cricouragement for 
forming agricultural associations. This act authorizes the formation 
of agricultural societies in each County, which, when organized, 
become legal corporations with the usual powers necessary to accom- 
plish their design, and the object of them is declared to be " to en- 
courage and promote agriculture, domestic manufactures and the 
mechanic arts." The treasurer of the State is authorized to pay 
annually to each society a share of two thousand dollars, appropri- 
ated for the whole State, in proportion to the population of the 
County, in which it is established, provided that as large a sum 
shall have been otherwise raised. 

Under this act, a society was formed by a convention held at Mid- 
dlebury, on the 22d of January 1844, by the name of •' The Addi- 
son County Agricultural Society.'' By the constitution adopted on 
that occasion, its object is declared to be " the improvement of agri- 
cultural productions, useful domestic animals, domestic manufac- 
tures and the mechanic arts, so far as they concern the interest of 
agriculture." The payment of one dollar is made the condition of 
annual membership, and the payment of fifteen dollars, the condi- 
tion of life membership. The officers of the society, are to be 
a president, two vice presidents, secretary and treasurer. A board 
of managers is constituted, consisting of the above officers, and one 
member from each town, where ten members reside ; who are author- 
ized "to have a general supervision of the affairs of the society, 


fix upon such productions, experiments, iliscoveries or att:unment3 
in agriculture and horticulture, and upon such articles of manufkc- 
ture, as shall come in competition for premiums at tlie agricultural 
fairs, also upon the number and amount of premiums, and the time 
and place of holding fairs." The officers are to be chosen at an 
annual meeting, to be held at Middlebury, on the first Wednesday 
of January, -svhich was afterwards altered to the fourth \Vednesday 
of that month. The first meeting Avas held on the same day the 
society -was organized, and Hon. Silas IL Jenisou was elected presi- 
dent, and Harvey Bell, Esq., secretary. 

The first fair was held at the court house and adjoining grounds 
in Middlebury, October 1st 1844, and an address was delivered by 
Hon. Silas H. Jenison, which was printed, and from which we have 
already largely quoted. The fairs in 1845 and 1847, were held at 
Vergcnnes : at the former of which an eloquent and interesting ad- 
dress was made by Eev. Dr. "Wheeler, President of tlie University 
of Vermont. Addresses have also been made at other fairs ; of 
which we have not now sufficient information to give a correct state- 
ment. The fair in 1849 was held in Shoreham. All the others have 
been held in Middlebury. At the annual meeting in January 1852, 
the constitution was so altered as to authorize the managers to fix 
on a permanent location for the annual exhibitions : and they, at a 
meeting in June of that year, fixed on Middlebury for that purpose, 
provided the citizens should provide suitable grounds and fixtures, 
and pay one hundred dollars annually toward the expenses. Since 
that time the fairs have been held on grounds leased from Gen. 
Nash, in the north part of the village, where temporary fixtures 
were erected. These grounds have now been sold and appropriated 
to another use. 

Several gentlemen in the County have recently purchased a tract 
of twenty-two acres, south of the court house, which formerly 
belonged to Jonathan Wainwright, including the barns and exten- 
sive sheds, erected for keeping and preparing for market his horses, 
when he was largely engaged in that trafic. Here they design to 
erect permanent fixtures upon a large scale for the accommodation 
of the annual exhibitions. Arrangements are in progress to raise 


the requisite funds to transfer the title to the corporation ; but, until 
this is accomplished the society will pay rent to the proprietors. 

Hitherto the fairs have fully met the expectations of the most 
sanguine. Many of them have been interesting and extensive, and, 
we think, have produced a favorable effect in stimulating efforts for 
improvement, and securing advancement in all the departments 
Avithin the province of the society. There have been exhibited an 
extensive variety of the products of agriculture, horticulture, and 
of domestic and other manufactures ; and very often of numerous 
and fine specimens of painting, drawing and various kinds of orna- 
mental work by native artists. After what we have said of the stock 
department of agriculture, none will be disappointed when we say, 
that the exhibitions have been largo and splendid in cattle, horses 
and sheep. Vv hatcver others may say, the citizens of Addison 
County will not shrink from a comparison with the exhibitions of stock 
of any other County in the State, or perhaps of any other State. 

The follov^-ing have been the presidents and secretaries of the 


1844 Harvey Bell, 1847. 

1847 E.W. Blaisdell,Jr.l850. 
1850 Joseph H. Barrett, 1857. 
1857 Justus Cobb, still in office. 

1857 William R. Sanford, still in office. 


The legislature, at their session in 1813, passed an act author- 
izing several physicians in each county by name, to form themselves 
into County Medical Societies, by the name of the Medical Society 
of the County in which they should be formed. And the societies 
were severally to be corporations with the usual powers, necessary 
for the purposes, for which they were designed ; and were author- 
ized to adopt and alter a corporate seal. They were to have power 
to assess taxes on the members, " for the purpose of procuring a 
library- and suitable apparatur-^. and for other n?»ep." providcn^l the 





Silas H. Jenison, 



Elias Bottum, 



Charles L. Smith, 



Harvey Munsill, 



Edwin Hammond, 




tax shall not exceed three dollars. The officers authorized by the 
law are a president, vice president, secretary, treasurer, librarian 
and three or niore censors. to hold their offices for one year, or until 
others are chosen. The several societies were required to " hold 
Bcmi-annual meetings in the shire town in each county, at the time 
of the sitting of the County Court, for the purpose of establishing 
and regulating the libraries of said society, receiving and communi- 
cating medical information, examining students," and any other 
proper business. The act requires that students examined and ap- 
proved by the censors " possess a good moral character," and '• have 
pursued the studies of physic or surgery at least three years ;" and, 
being approved, shall receive a diploma from the president, which 
shall entitle him to all the privileges of a mefliber of the' society. 
The act authorizes the formation of a State Society, to consist 
of three delegates from each County Society. 

The physicians named in the act for this. County are William 
Bass^ Edward Tudor, Ebenezer Huntington, Asher Nichols, John 
Wilson, Nicanor Needham, Frederic Ford Jr., John Lyman, 
Frederic Ford, William Guile, John Willard, Luther E. Hall, 
James Day, Dan Stone, Levi Warner, David McCollister, Martin 
Gajj Zenas Shaw, Josiah W. Hale. 

In pursuance of this act the physicians named met at Middle- 
bury on the 15th of December, 1813, and organized the Addison 
County Medical Society, and elected the following officers ; Ebene- 
zer Huntington, of Vergennes, President, ^Villiam Bass, of Mid- 
dlebury. Vice President, Luther E. Hall, Vergennes, Secretary, 
Frederic Ford, Cornwall, Treasurer, AVilliam Bass, Librarian, Dan 
Stone, Edward Tudor, Frederic Ford, Jr., John Lyman and David 
McCollister, Censors. Luther E. Hall and Dan Stone were ap- 
pointed a Committee to report a code of by-laws. It was further 
voted, that future meetings shall be held at Dr. William Bass's, in 
Middlebury, and that the President deliver an inaugural address, 
before the society, at their next meeting. This meeting was ad- 
journed to the 19th of January, 1814. At this meeting the Presi- 
dent delivered his inaugural address, and a code of by-laws, reported 
by the committee, was adopted. William Bass and Luther E. 


Hall and Dan Stone were also appointed a committee, to "present 
to the Societj a device for a seal and form of diploma." At the 
Srst meeting a tax of one dollar was assessed, which at the next 
was increased to one dollar and fifty cents : and at both these meet- 
ings, candidates were examined and licensed. 

The societj thus organized continued in full life and vigor until 
about the year 1824. Dissertations and addresses on medical sub- " 
jects, under appointment for that purpose, were read ; difficult and 
uncommon cases of disease and their treatment reported by the 
members ; new members admitted, candidates examined and ap- 
proved by the censors received diplomas, taxes were assessed, 
a library collected and delegates regularl}^ elected to the State 
Society. In 1822, the State Society commenced a series of resolu- 
tions proposing measures for the regulation of the County Societies: 
One requiring the County Societies to make an annual report of 
the " diseases prevalent in the County during the year," "under 
a penalty of five dollars fine on failure ; " one prescribing new 
qualifications for the admission of candidates for license ; and 
another afiixing a penalty of five dollars for a neglect of the County 
Society to " send their proceedings to the State Society, annually, 
as required by law;" also a regulation respecting the dismission 
or withdrawing of m.embers from the County Societies. 

These proceedings were not received with much favor by this 
County Society ; and at the annual meeting in December, 1824, 
a committee was appointed to take into consideration the proceed- 
ings of the State Society, and "report some plan of management for 
our Library." At an adjourned meeting the committee reported, 
recommending a dissolution of their connection with the State 
Society ; and another committee was appointed to confer with the 
other County Societies on the subject. At a meeting in June, 
1825, a resolution was passed instructing the delegates to request 
the State Society to " petition the Legislature so to alter the act of 
incorporation as to render the County Societies independent of the 
State Society." 

The result of the proceedings, so far as appears of record, was 

that, at a meeting in May, 182G. a resolution was adopted to "put 


up our library at auction to the iiiemTjcrs of tiiis Society :" and tlie" 
sale took place in June following. In the meantime, several mem- 
bers had Avithdra-vvn with the consent of the Society few attended 
the meetings, and the measure above mentioned Avas adopted, we 
suppose, to close the existence of the Society. The last meeting of 
which there is any record, was in October 18£6 ; when the whole 
business related to closing the financial aiiairs of the Society. 
The organization of subsequent societies seem to have been regarded 
as a revival of this society, formed under the act of 1813, although 
at each of these organizations, new constitutions were adopted. 

Dr. Ebenezer Huntington, the first president, was continued in 
that office until 1823, when Dr. Luther E. Hall was appointed, 
and continued president until 182G, v.hen Dr. Tnlliam Bass waa 
appointed the last president. Dr. Luther E. Hall was secretary 
from 1813 to 1820, when Dr. Thomas P. Matthews vras appointed 
and continued to the close. 

On the 24th of December, 1835. a County Medical Society waS' 
organized and adopted a Constitution, and on the same day held its 
first meeting. Dr. Jonathan A. Allen was chosen President, Dan C. 
Stone and E. D. Warner, Vice Presidents, Kalph Gowdey, Secretary", 
and Atherton Hall, Treasurer. About six months after, in June, 
1836, another meeting was iield, and this closes its wi;itten. hi story. 

"The Addison County Medical Society" was re-organized by a 
convention held at Vergenncs on the 30th day of June 1842, 
adjourned from a preliminary meeting held at Middlebury two 
weeks before. A new Constitution was then formed, by which the 
object of the organization is declared to be, " to promote a knowledge 
of medical and surgical science, and' a friendly intercourse among 
the members of the fliculty." The officers of the Society are '"a 
President, Vice President, Secretary, Treasurer, Librarian, and 
three Censors, together Vt'itli the President and Vice President, who 
shall be ex-officio Censors," and they are elected annually. "Any- 
regular practicioner of medicine, a graduate of any legally author- 
ized medical institution, who resides within the State, and shall 
sign the constitution and by-laws, and conform to the objects de- 
signed, may be a member of the society : and any person, who sus- 



tains a good moral cbara-cter may become a member, wbo shall 
have studied the science of medicine and surgerj three years under 
the direction of a regular practicioner, and attended at least one 
coiirse of medical lectures, in some legally established institution, 
and has passed an examination by the censors, and by them recom- 
mended." Any person having passed such satisfactory examination 
'• may become a member by signing the constitution and by- 
laws, and receive, if he wish, a diploma by paying five dollars." 
According to the by-laws, meetings are to be held "at Middlebury 
semi-annually, on Thursday of the first week of the County Court." 
The first meeting was held on the day on which the Constitution 
was adopted, and Dr. J. A. Allen of Middlebury, was chosen 
President, Dr. Dan C. Stone of Vergennes, Vice President, and 
Dr. Do-vid C. Goodale of Addison, Secretary. 

Since the last organization in 1842, the society has been in 
efficient and successful operation. The meetings have generally 
been regularly held and attended ; and we judge many of them 
most interesting and profitable. A member at one meeting Avas often 
appointed to make an address or read an essay on some important 
subject at the next, and at all the meetings it was made the duty 
of eacli member to report such interesting and difiicult cases of 
disease as had occurred in his practice, and each case was discussed 
by the other members of the society. It was one of the rules of 
the society that each person appointed president should make an 
address at the close of the term for which he was elected. At the 
annual meeting in June, 1847, Dr. Jonathan A. xVllen, having 
officiated as President the previous year, read an address which 
w^as published. From this we make a quotation, principally to 
show how^ he regarded the influence of the organization. He says, 
"It is now five years since the Addison County Society was 
organized in its present form. During this period twenty meetings 
have been held, generally well sustained by the attendance of the 
members. Many facts, highly interesting to the profession, and 
conseoAiently useful to the public, have been presented. Much 
valuable information has been elicited by our discussions, and we 
V' rfiber has failed of adding 


to his general stock of practical knowledge. In addition to these 
advantages, valuable acquaintances have been formed, generous, 
elevated and kind professional feeling promoted. Many of these 
•endearments will reciprocally remain among our members until the 
closing period of their existence. Jealousy, suspicion and want of 
confidence have been almost entirely removed from our ranks. 
Our members meet as friends. Consultations now, in lieu of being 
objects of bickering, are generally des*ired, and usually, by the 
mutual and kind expression of opinion, result beneficially to the 
sick." The whole community would feel safer if such an influence 
should prevail generally among the doctors. 

At a subsequent meeting in February, 1848. the death of Dr. 
Allen was announced by Dr. Russel, who stated that "the princi- 
pal object of the meeting was to adopt measures suitable to the 
occasion" of his death. "The President, Dr. Bradford of Ver- 
gennes, read a short but expressive paper concerning his life and 
death;" and appropriate and commendatory resolutions were adopted. 
The Society also appointed Dr. S. P. Lathrop, of Middlebury, to 
prepare a biographical sketch, which was afterwards ordered to be 
published in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. 

The following have been the Presidents and Secretaries of the 


18-12 Joim'n A. Allen, Middlebury.l 844. 1842 David Goodale, Addison, 1844, 

1 844 Joel Rice, Bridport, 1845. 1844 S. Pearl Lathrop, Middlebury,1846. 

1845 Dan C. Stone, Vergennes, 1846. 1846 W. P. Russsl, " 1847. 
184G Jonathan A. Allen, 1847. 1847 Charles L. Allen, still in office. 

1847 A, Bradford , Vergennes, 1848. Dr. Alien is also Treasurer and Librarian. 

1848 E. D. Warner, New Haven, 1850. 
1850 Earl Cushman, Orwell, 1856. 
1856 E. D. Warner, still in office. 




The population of Addision County does not materially difier 
from that of the other Counties in this State, and other Nevr Eng- 
land States. The whole exhibits the inSucnce of the spirit of emi- 
gration and colonization, which has prevailed and increased since 
the first settlement of the country. The character of the whole 
population of the country has been modified and, in many respects, 
we think, improved by this disposition, especially in its spirit of en- 
terprise and individuality. An individual, who has courage to leave 
the place of his birth, and remove three hundred or a thousand miles 
to the outskirts of civilization to better his condition, learns that there 
are other places and people besides those he has left behind, and per- 
haps equal or superior to them. His views are enlarged, and his inqui- 
ries are no longer confined to the limited sphere of his early home, 
and he begins to think there may be still other regions beyond and 
elsewhere. If he has energy to remove once, he has still more to 
remove again, when profit or pleasure tempt him. He learns also 
that there are other countries beyond the oceans, which encircle 
hiffij and he looks to them as fields for indulging his thirst for spec- 
ulation or his curiosity. Wherever he locates himself, he finds 
other men and other customs and manners and ideas which are 
new to him, and which he studies, and thus improves his own, and 
shakes off his provincial habits and prejudices. 

Added to this cause, which to some extent is common to all the 
States, the early settlers of Vermont experienced a long course of 
discipline in the hardships and self-denial and energy required for 
their hard contested controversy, in defending themselves and their 
property against the oppressive claims of exterior powers, and 
ef^pecially in the contest few: their separate independence. 


Altliougli we cannot boast of large nuniLers of learned men, liLe 
some other States, more favorably situated, Ave do not shrink from 
a comparison of the mass of our population, for general intelligence 
and practical energy, with any other. Not a few intelligent men, 
who have lonii resided in othei New England States and elsovrhere. 
have expressed to the writer of this sketch the con^'iction, that in 
no State is the population of the same classes, and especially the 
farmers, superior, if equal, to that of Vermont. No State, we 
believe, has sent out more efficient, practical and useful emigrants to 
people the "new countries." Vermont is an inland State, and 
agriculture is the pursuit of the great body of its inhabitants ; aad 
she has no foreign commerce to build up large cities, whei'e great 
wealth is accumulated, and learned men congregate. 

Among the most important influences, which operate in modifying 
the character of our population, are our liberal institutions, placing, 
as they do, every man in the dignity and re.sponsibility of a man. 
And paramount to all others perhaps is that of town corporations, 
which are common and almost peculiar to New England. They are 
not only pure democracies, but they are schools, in which the prin- 
ciples of democracy are taught ; where all meet on a common plat- 
form, with equal rights and powers, not only as voters, but as can- 
didates for office. So numerous and extensive are the legislative 
and administrative powers within their limits, that all have an* 
opportunity to become acquainted Vfith our laws and institutions, 
acquire habits of public business and qualify themselves for higher 
political trusts. 

Our common schools and seminaries of learninsrfor the instruction 
of all classes, and our churches of various denominations, where all 
may meet for public worship and for instruction in their religions, 
social and civil duties, are means of spreading general intelligence 
and virtue through the community. Besides these every family is 
more or less supplied with books and periodicals, which keep them 
informed of the passing events, and remind them of tlieir duties to 
their country and the world. The writer of this sketch has been as 
long and as advantageously situated as any one to ascertain the 
ability of all classes of men in this County to write, and he has no 


fOGollGStioa of more tiian one or two native Americans, residing in 
the County, "wbo could not -write his own signature; and these were 
brouglit up in regions remote from schools. The twenty-five native 
Americans, who are' reported in the census of 1850, in this County, 
as being unable to read or write, were probably similarly situated 
in the early settlement of the country. 

If the population of Addison County is distinguished from that 
of any other County, it is occasioned by the influence of Middlebury 
College situated among them. This influence is not confaied exclu- 
sively to this County ; b"ut no person, who has been long acquainted 
with the history of that institution, has fliiled to observe its influ- 
ence upon the intelligence of the community in its neighborhood, 
and in I'aising the standard of education in the subordinate institu- 
tions. FcAV towns, if any, in the country, have afforded a larger 
number of young men for a collegiate education, in proportion to 
their population, than many of the towns in Addison County. 

It may be mentioned as an evidence of tlie peaceable and orderly 
character, as well as prosperity of the inhabitants, that courts of 
justice have less business in this County, in proportion to its popu- 
lation, than in any other County. l\o person has ever been 
convicted of a capital offence in the County. Four have been 
tried for murder, one in 1815 and one in 1825 ; but both were con- 
victed of only manslaughter. Another was since tried twice, but the 
jury failed in both cases to agree on a verdict, and he vras dis- 
charged ; and the other was acquitted on account of insanity. 

From the foregoing sketches, it will be seen, that the County of 
Addison has sufficient resources for wealth and material prosperity, 
and that its citizens have sufficient intelligence and enterprise, in 
due time to develope them. It will be seen also, that they have 
the means of intellectual, moral and religious improvement. And 
we may well congratulate ourselves that we live in an agricultural 
district, where there is a general social equality ; where there are 
few so rich as to excjte the envy and ill-will of their neighbors, or 
to be free from the necessity of some active occupation, or so poor as 
to need charity. We have no large cities with their accumulated 
masses of wealtli, poverty and crime. "We have no such wealth to 


foster extravagance, luxury and a factitious aristocracy, \\'itli it3 
arbitrary conventional ceremonies, as in large cities sets at naught 
the equality, simple manners and sober verities of the country. 
We are not like them, beset on every hand by temptations to dissi- 
pation and debauchery, and we have no such masses of corruption 
to spread a moral pestilence through the atmosphere. We have no 
such large collections of the refuse population of Europe — its 
paupers and criminals — broke loose from the restraints of govern- 
ment and law at home, that they may riot here in their imaginary 
freedom from all restraints ; *who nightly disturb the peace of the 
community with riots and quarrels and murders ; and who are 
ready at the call of designing politicians, to control our elections. 
The institution of the family, so important in the country, for its 
restraints and the cultivation of the social affections, is to a great 
extent obliterated in some of the large towns. There hundreds of 
children have no home but in the streets, and no associates but their 
fellows in the same condition. The crowded population everywhere, 
and the artificial conventionalisms of the more wealthy households 
forbid the salutary restraints and separate and undisturbed inter- 
course of the family circle. And thus the young grow up with 
the feeling that they belong rather to the great public than to the 
family in which they were born. These evils are not to be 
charged to the inhabitants generally of larger towns, but are inci- 
dent to, and inseparable from, their position. No more moral, 
pious and philanthropic men are anywhere to be found. And yet 
the evils exist. 

Wo ought to bear in mind, that there is danger from this source 
to the whole country, and that a serious responsibility rests upon 
the people in the rural and agricultural districts, like the County of 
Addison, in relation to them. The influence of large commercial 
towns is gradually extending itself over the country for evil, as 
well as for good. The evil influence may, and should be counter- 
acted by an influence from the country. A large proportion of the 
teachers and influential professional and business men, and of the 
annual increase of the population, in the large towns, are educated 
in, and are emigrants from the country. There is besides a constant 


intercourse and mutual influence going on between the city and 

country. From tho distinguished advantages enjoyed by the rural 

districts, it is, we think, their province to save the rest of the 

country. Our free institutions, as every one understands, will 

depend on the intelligence and virtue of the people. It is therefore 

the first duty of all patriotic citizens of Addison County, as well 

for their own safety as for that of the country, to encourage and 

support all needed educational and religious institutions in efiicient 


17 ,.:.- .:. vl, 


No. 1. — CuiBi" Judges ov the Couxty Court until the new okgamzation or 


Na-mes. Rendcnce. Appointed. Lf.ft. Yean, in Ojlce 

Johu Strong Addison, 17S5 1801 16 

Joel Linsley, Cornwall, 1801 1807 G 

Uenry Olin, Leicester, 1807 1 308 1 

Joel Linsley, Cormriill, 1808 1810 2 

Henry Olin Leicester, 1810 1824 14 

Lorastiis Wooater, Middlebury, 1824 1825 1 

Assistakt Judges of Codkty Couirr. 

Gamaliel Painter, Middlebury, 1 785 1786 1 

Ira Allen, Colcltester, 1785 1786 1 

William Brush Vergennes, 1785 1787 1 

Abol Thompson Panton, 1786 1787 1 

liiland Hall, Cornwall, 1786 1789 3 

Samuel Lane, '• 1786 1787 1 

Gamaliel Painter, Middlebury, 1 787 1 795 8 

Abel Thompson, Panton, 1789 1801 12 

Joel Liusley, Cornwall, 1795 1801 6 

Abraham Dibble, Vergennes, 1801 1805 4 

Henry Olin, Leicester, 1801 1807 6 

Samuel Strong, Vergennes, 1805 1808 3 

Charles Rich Shoreham, 1807 1813 6 

Henry Olin, Leicester, 1808 1810 2 

Mathew Phelps, Jiui., New Haven, 1810 1812 2 

Samuel Shepard, Panton, 1812 1813 1- 

Samuel Strong, Vergennes, 1813 1815 2 

Ezra Iloyt, New Haven, 1813 1818 5 

Charles Rich, Shoreham, 1815 1816 1 

William Slade, Jr Middlebury, 1816 1322 6 

Stephen Ilaight, Jr Monkton, 1818 1823 5 

Elisha Bascom, Shoreham , 1822 1824 2 

•£;ira Hoy t, New Haven, 1823 1824 1 

.John S. Larabec Shoreham , 1 ^21 1825 1 


Xa-ncs. Residence. Appointed. 

Daniel Collins, Monkton, 1824 

Dorastus AVooster, ■Middleburr, 1825 

Eben W. Judd, "■ 1825 

Silas H. Jcnison, Sliorehcam, 1829 

Vrilliam Myrick, Bridport, 1831 

Samuel H. Holley Bristol, 1833 

Calvin Solace, Bridport, 1885 

Davis rdch Shoreliaui , 1 838 

Calvin Solace, Bridport, 1812 

Fordjce Huntington, Vergennes, 1842 

Dorastus Wooster, Middlebury^ 1844 

*'Jessa Grandey, Panton, 1 8 14 

*Ville Laurence, Vergennes, 1845 

George Cliipman, Ripton, 1846 

Elias Bottum, New Haven, 1847 

Calvin G. Tilden, Cornwall, 1849 

Nathan L. Keese, Ferrisburgh , 1849 

Josepli Haywood, Panton, 1851 

Eoswell Bottum. Jr.. Orwell, 1851 

i'Dorastus Wooster, Middlebury , 1 854 

Erastus S .Hinman, New Haven, 1854 

% Samuel Swift, Middlebury , 1 855 

John W. Strong, Addison, 1856 

M. W. C. Wright Shoreham, 1857 

Harison 0. Smith, Monkton, 1858 

Cod NTT Cleeks. 

Samuel Ciiipman, Jr., . . ..Vei'gennes, 1785 

Eoswell Hiopkins, " 1786 

Darius Matthews , IMiddlebury , 1 803 

Martin Post " 1808 

John S. Larabee, " 1810 

Samuel Swift, '' 1814 

George S. Swift, " 1846 

John W. Stewart, " 1855 

Dugald Stewart, " 1855 

State's Attorn'eys. 

Seth Storrs, Addison, 1 787 

Daniel Chipman, Middlebui-y, 1797 




riin Office 








































Jan. 1855 






























* Judge Grandt died befoi-e June 1st, 1845; Ville LAWRENCBwaa appointed 
by the Governor in his^place. 

t Died January 1853. 

i Appointed in place of D. Wooster 



Names. ItC-u'ence. Appointed. 

Loyal Case, Middlcbury, 1804 

David Edmond, Yei'gonnes, 1808 

Horat'o Seymour Middlebury, 1810 

David Edmond Yergcnncs, 1813 

Horatio Seymour, Middlebury, 181 5 

*David]Edmond, Vergennes, 1819 

tNoah Ilawley " 1824 

Enooh D. Woodbridge, .... " 1824 

George Cliipman, Middlebury, 1827 

William SJade, " 1830 

Ebenezer N. Briggs, Salisbury, 1821 

Ozias Seymour Middlebury, 1839 

George W. Grandey, Vergennes, 1845 

JohnProut, Salisbury, 1848 

Jobn W. Stewart, IVIidJlebury, 1851 

Frederic E. Woodbridge, . .Vergennes, 1854 


Noah Chittenden Jericho, 1 785 

Gamaliel Painter, Middlcbury, 1786 

Samuel Strong, Vergennes, 1787 

John Chipman, Middlebury, 1789 

William Slade, Cornwall, 1801 

Jonathan Hoyt, Jun., New Haven, 1811 

John Willard Middlebury, 1812 

Samuel Maltocts, " 1813 

Jonathan Hoyt, Jun., New Haven, 1815 

Abel Tomln"son, Vergennes, 1819 

Stephen Haight Monkton. 1824 

SojDioar Scllick, Middlebury, 1828 

.Mai ■ '.1 ill S. Doty Addison, 1831 

Azariah Rood, Middlebury, 1833 

Will iam B . Martin " 1835 

Azariah Rood, " 1836 

EthanSmith Monkton, 1837 

William B. Martin, Middlebury, 1639 

Aduah Smith, " 1840 

Caius A. Collamer, Bristol, 1842 

David S. Church, Middlebury, 1844 

rjrWilliam Joslia, Vergennes, Jan. 1859 
















5 mo 







































. 1831 


















Jan. 1859 


* Died in spring of 1824. 

t Appointed by Court in place of D. Edmond. 

% Appointed by the Governor on the death of D. S. Church. 


High Bailuts. 

I\~amcs. Residence. Appointed. 

Samuel Mattocks, Middlebury, 1798 

Jolin V.'arren, " 1806 

Artemas Nixon, " 1808 

Moses Leonard , " 1810 

James Jewctt, " 1812 

Benjamin Clark, Weybridge, 1813 

Eliakim Weeks, Salisbury, 1814 

Wiglitman Chapman, Weybridge, 181G 

Natlianiel Foster, Middlebury, 1826 

John Howden, Bristol, 1829 

Jlarshall S. Doty, Addison, 1830 

Myron Bushnell, Starksboro, 1881 

Mdo Winslow, Middlebury, 1833 

Gaius A. CoUamer, Bristol, 1835 

Wightman Chapman, "Weybridge, 1837 

Harry Goodrich, Middlebury. 1830 

Asa Chapman, " 1940 

George C. Chapman " 18-49 

William Joslln, Vergcnnes, 1850 

G A. Collamer, Brislol, 1853 

JtJDQES OP Probate — District of 

John Strong, Addison, 1887 

Darius Mathews, Cornwall, 1891 

Samuel Swift Middlebury, 1819 

Silas H. Jenison Shoreham, 1842 

Horatio Seymour, Middlebury, 1847 

Calvin G. Tilden Cornwall, 1855 

DisTKiCT OF New Haven. 

Ezra Hoyt, New Haven, 1824 

Noah Hawley Vergennes, 1829 

Jesse Grandey, Panton, 1831 

Adin Hall, New Haven, 1833 

Harvey Munsil, Bristol, 1835 




























































NO. 2. 

The following statement of "Agriculture, Farms and Implements, Stock, 
products," &c., is taken from the census of 1850. 

Addison County. Acres of improved land 2J:G,012, tmimproTcd 115,287. Cash 
value of farms ^7,799,257. Value of farming implements $2.56.270. Horses 
5,921. Asses and Mules 1. Milch Cows 10,091. Working Oxen 2,815. Other 
Cattle 13,248. Sheep 188,'54. Swine 5>822. Value of Live Stock gl, 280,608. 
Value of animals slaughtered §176,856. "Wheat, bushels of 103,44. Bushels of 
Rye 20,0DG. Bushels of Indian Corn 175,478. Bushels of Oats 211.385. Pounds 
of Wool 622,594. Peas and Beans 26,355. Bushels of Irish Potatoes 318 421. 
Of Barley-, 149. Of Buckwheat 15,659, Value of Orchard products $41,630. 
Gallons of Wine 114. Pounds of Butter, 876J71. Cheese 817,149. Tons of 
Hay 88,793. Bushels of Clover Seed 5. Other Grass Seed 1,589. Pounds of 
Hops 5,002. Of Flax 1,232. Busheis of Flax Seed 51. Pounds of Silk Coccoons 
76. Of Maple Sugar 205,203. Gallons of Mol.ieses 05:>. Beeswax and Honey 
pouuas of 40,654. Value of Home Manufactures $0,648. 


NO. 3. 

The following table shows the population of the several towns in the County of 

Addison, at e.v^li United States Cansus, since Vermont was admitted into the Union. 

17Q1 1830 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 

Addison, 401 734 1100 1210 1306 1223 1273 

Avery's Gore, 13 20 78 

Bridport, 449 1124 1520 1511 1774 14S0 1393 

ISristol, 211 6C5 1179 1051 1274 1233 1344 

Cornwall, 826 11G3 1279 1120 1264 11G3 1155 

Ferrisburgh, 481 956 1647 1581 1822 1755 2075 

Goshen, 4 8G 290 555 621 4SG 

Granville, 101 185 324 828 403 545 603 

Hancock,.- 56 149 311 442 472 455 430 

Leicester, 343 522 GOO 543 63 i 602 536 

Lincoln, 97 255 278 039 770 1057 

Middlebnry 395 1263 2138 2535 3468 3162 3517 

Monkton, 450 880 1248 1152 1384 1310 1246 

New Haven, 723 1135 1688 1566 1834 1593 1G63 

Orwell, 778 1386 1849 1730 1598 1504 1470 

Panton, 220 363 520 546 605 670 559 

Ripton, 15 42 278 357 567 

Salisbury, 416 644 709 721 907 942 1027 

Shoreham, 721 1447 2033 1881 2137 1675 1601 

Starksboro, 40 359 726 914 1342 1263 1400 

Vergenucs, 201 516 835- 817 999 10J7 1378 

Waltham, 247 244 264 301 283 270 

TVeybridge, 175 502 750 714 850 797 804 

Whiting, 259 404 565 609 653 660 629 

7,267 14,745 21,643 21,879 26,503 25,074 26,549 


Adilison, . ..... 










Middlebury, 1730 


New Haven, , , , . 








Waltham, • 




CENSUS OF 1850. 


Free Colop. 







, Total 






. 735