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Full text of "History of the town of Winchendon"

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Book_jA/j_iJll 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



TOWN OF WINCHENDON, 



FROM THE 



GRANT OF THE TOWNSHIP 



BT 



THE LEGISLATURE OF MASSACHUSETTS 

IN 1735, 

TO THE PRESENT TIME. 



BY EZRA HYDE, 



j!^*fTO» 



WORCESTER: 
PRINTED BY HENBY J. HOWLAND, 
199 Main Street. # 






Eatered according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1849, by 
EZRA HYDE, 

in the Clerk's OflBce of the District Court of Massachusetts. 



TO THE YOUTH OF WINCH ENDON. 



Having a desire of rescuing from oblivion a series of 
facts, many of which u^ill be interesting to the inhabitants 
of Winchendon, when the present generation shall be gone, 
it is believed, is a sufficient apology for publishing the fol- 
lowing history. 

The editor would rejoice with you, that our happy lot is 
cast in such a land as this, in which is the knowledge of 
the glorious gospel of Jesus Christ, a land of liberty both 
religious and civil. 

Let us, for a moment, take a retrospective view of the 
time when our forefathers fled from persecution in Eng- 
land, their native country, and sought an asylum in this 
then barren wilderness. Here they patiently endured al- 
most intolerable hardships. But they flourished and grew 
to a people and a nation. 

At length, being oppressed by the mother country, they 
resisted her unjust encroachments and tyrannical usurpa' 
tions, and would not submit to her unjust demands. And 
what was the consequence ? Why, a long, a destructive, 
a terrible war ensued, in which many lives and much prop- 
erty were lost. Our fathers fought, they bled, they con- 
quered ; and obtained for their posterity that invaluable 
blessing, Independence. 

Surely, these considerations cannot do less than excite 
in us the warmest emotions of gratitude towards the mem- 
ories of those who, under God, obtained for us our Free- 
dom and Independence. 



IV TO THE YOUTH OF WINCHENDON. 

Beloved youth, you are the hope of your country. But 
all depends on your improvement of early instruction. 

The diligent study of the Bible ought, in the first place, 
to be most earnestly recommended to you. From that 
sacred fountain you will learn what you ought to believe, 
and what is your duty towards your Creator, your neigh- 
bor, and yourselves. In the Bible are made known the 
mind and will of God, and our duty, and the way of sal- 
vation by Jesus Christ. 

The care of education is a work of the highest mo- 
ment ; as all the advantages, or miscarriages, of man's life 
are, in a great measure, dependent on it. 

That man cannot be conceived to be absolutely com- 
plete, whose natural endowments are not assisted and cul- 
tivated by learning. 

No stronger incentive to learning is needed, than to 
know what a figure a man will make in the world without 
this great accomplishment ; and how by the labor of a few 
years' erudition, he stands possessed of advantages, that 
will stick by him to his latest hour. 

By laying in a store of useful knowledge, adorning your 
minds with elegant literature, improving and establishing 
your conduct by virtuous principles, you will be a comfort 
to those friends who have supported you, happy within 
yourselves, and well received of mankind. 

Beloved youth, to you especially is the following history 
cordially inscribed by 

THE AUTHOR. 



PREFACE 



The writer has been induced to undertake the present 
work by the solicitation of many of his friends, and by a 
desire to save from oblivion, to which they were hastening, 
some of the events connected with the history of this town. 
After collecting materials to a considerable extent, he felt 
ready to abandon the project, wishing that it might be 
prosecuted by some abler hand. But he has at length 
come to the decision to prepare the work for the press 
without further delay. The knowledge of some events 
treasured up in the memories of a few aged people, must, 
in the course of nature, soon be inevitably lost, if not pre- 
served in a connected and tangible form. Though the 
number of these relics of other days is now small, much 
information has been derived from them ; and much more 
might have been obtained, had the enquiries commenced 
a few years earlier. 

The difficulty of preparing a work of this nature, can 
only be conceived of by one who has attempted it. The 
mere collectmg of the scattered materials is some labor. 
It is a greater toil to arrange them in proper order when 
once they are collected. The settling of doubtful and con- 
tradictory statements is sometimes a perplexing business. 
And then comes the writing, which the author must ac- 
complish as he can. 

The writer has had free access to the Records of the 
Proprietors of Ipswich Canada, and to the Town Records 
of Winchendon. Oral and written information has been 
furnished with the utmost cheerfulness, by all those pos- 
sessed of facts worthy of note. 

It has not been thought necessary to descend into the 
particulars of the unhappy difficulties, which this town has 
experienced in its ecclesiastical affairs. The recital of 



VI PREFACE. 

them at the present time, would prove to be rather painful 
than interesting, and perhaps an impartial account would 
give satisfaction to neither party. When it is recollected 
that these divisions commenced about the year 1798, dur- 
ing the ministry of Rev. Mr. Brown, and continued, with 
more or less excitement, though with some intervals, till 
the ordinations of Rev. Messrs. Marvin and Bullard, dur- 
ing which period difficulty after difficulty arose, and coun- 
cil after council was called, it will be seen that a strictly 
impartial account of them would be a task of no small 
difficulty, and would extend the limits of this work much 
too far. It will be enough to state, generally, that angry 
feelings were sometimes indulged to an inexcusable ex- 
tent. If this excited state of feeling has now passed 
away, the writer would not incur the hazard of disturbing 
the calm by galling a tender wound. 

To Mr. Webster Whitney, the Town Clerk of Winch- 
endon, Windsor N. White, Esq., Mr. Ezra Porter, Mr. M. 
S. Morse, Chairman of the Assessors the present year, 
Mr. Elisha Murdock, Rev. A. P. Marvin, Rev. Malachi 
Bullard, and Rev. J. M. Whiton, D. D., of Antrim, N. H. 
(who is a native of this town — the son of the late lamented 
Israel Whiton, Esq. — who was our physician, beloved and 
highly respected for his piety, talents, and usefulness,) this 
public expression of the thanks of the writer is due for the 
readiness with which they have afforded him every facility 
in their power, in the compilation of this work. To other 
persons, to whom he is more or less indebted for informa- 
tion, he tenders his grateful acknowledgements. 

If the following pages afford satisfaction to the inhabit- 
ants of the place, and furnish the writers of general his- 
tory with any facts before unknown, the writer is rewarded 
for his labor. 

E. II. 

WiNCHENDON, Sept. 28, 1848. 



CONTENTS 



Dedication, ...... 


. Page 3 


Preface, ....... 


5 


Notes, 


67 


Grant of Ipswich Canada by the General Court of Massachusetts, 9, 67 


Meetings of the Proprietors, .... 


. 9, 69 


Rights entered on—persons' names and places of abode, 


70 


List of the Proprietors, and of their lots of land, . 


80 


' Old Tenor' and ' Lawful Money' explained, 


85 


' Old Style' and ' New Style' explained, . 


86 


First saw mill, ...... 


. 12, 88 


First Settlers, 


. 13, 91 


Measures taken regarding the preaching of the Gospel, • 


. 13, 92 


The first meeting of the Proprietors in the Township, . 


14 


Fortifying the Township, ..... 


. 14, 94 


The first grist mill, ... ... 


. 14, 95 


The first meeting house, ..... 


. 15, 96 


Cemeteries, ..,*.. 


. 15, 97 


Incorporation of the Town, . 


. 15, 98 


Origin of the name, ..... 


99 


Annexation of Royalsten Leg, .... 


16 


Land set off to Gardner, ..... 


16 


Wood and timber, ...... 


16 


Face of the country, . . . ; . 


17 


Soil and productions, ..... 


17 


Ponds, springs, rivers and brooks, .... 


. 18, 100 


Town meetings, ...... 


. 20, 100 


Affairs connected with the American ReYolution, 


. 21, 103 


Continental money, ...... 


. 32, HI 


State Constitution, ...... 


32 


Peace with Great Britain, ..... 


32 


Winchendon Lottery, ..... 


33 


Facts connected with the Insurrection in Massachusetts, 


35 


Meetinghouses, ...... 


38 


Congregational meeting house of the first parish, 


38, 113, 119 



Vlil CONTENTS. 








Baptist meeting houses, ...... 38 


Methodist meeting houses, . 








38 


North Congregational meeting house, 








39 


Ecclesiastical History, 








40 


First Church, 








40, 120 


Baptist Church and Society, 








45 


Methodists, .... 








45 


Universalists and Unitarians, 








46 


North Congregational Church, 








46, 126 


Early Settlers, . .• . . 








46 


Schools, ..... 








56 


Winchendon Academy, 








57 


Collegiates, .... 








59 


Seasons of great mortality, sudden deaths, 


&c., 






60, 128 


Popxilation, and other statistics, 








60 


Winchendon Village, 






, 


61 


Spring Village, . . . , 








62 


Waterville, .... 








63 


Remarkable events, 








64 


Memorable winds, . 








64 


Hard winter, 








64 


Dark day, . . . . 








64 


Total eclipse of the Sun, June 16, 1806, . 








65 



HISTOEY OF WINCHENDON. 



Grant of the Territory of Ipswich Canada. 

On the 10th of June, 1735; a grant of land to be 
equal to six miles square, was made by the Legislature 
of Massachusetts, to Abraham Tilton and others. 
Preference was to be given to those who petitioned for 
the grant, and the descendants of the officers and sol- 
diers, who served in the expedition to Canada, in the 
year 1690. This tract was to be laid out into 63 
equal shares ; one for the first minister, one for the 
use of the ministry, and one for a school ; the others 
for 60 proprietors/ 

Meetings of the Proprietors, and their Transactions. 

March 27, 1736. Thomas Berry, Esq., of Ipswich, 
was authorized to assemble the Proprietors and Grant- 
ees.^ 

April 13, 1736. The Committee appointed to lay 
out the Township met at Ipswich, and admitted a cer- 
tain number of persons as Grantees of the Town- 
ship. ^ 

As all the Proprietors of the Township, excepting 
eight, belonged to Ipswich, in the county of Essex in 

1 See Note A. 2 See Note B. 3 See Note C. 



10 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

Massachusetts, it was called Ipswich Canada, until its 
incorporation/ 

A meeting of the Proprietors and Grantees of the 
new Township, was notified May 20, 1736, by Thom- 
as Berry, Esq., " to choose a Proprietors' Clerk, and 
to pass such votes and orders as may be thought most 
proper for bringing forward the said Township, agree- 
able to the General Court's order :"^ which meeting 
was held in Ipswich, May 31, 1736. Thomas Nor- 
ton, Jun., was chosen Proprietors' Clerk ; and a Com- 
mittee " was empowered to employ two men to burn 
the woods, if, according to their discretion, they shall 
think it best."' 

Another meeting of the Proprietors was held at Ip- 
swich, on the 28th of June following, when a Com- 
mittee of five was chosen " to go and view the land."* 

The next meeting of the Proprietors was held at 
Ipswich, on the 4th of November following ; at which 
time a Committee was chosen to lot and lay out the 
first division. Jonathan Wade, Esq. was chosen Treas- 
urer, and a method was agreed upon for raising money 
for defraying charges.* 

The Proprietors' next meeting was held at Ipswich, 
May 6, 1737, when Assessors and Collectors were cho- 
sen.® 

The next meeting of the Proprietors was held in 
Ipswich, October 27, 1737, at which time many im- 



i See Note D. 2 See Note E. s See Note F. 4 See Note G. 
5 See Note H. 6 See Note L 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 1| 

portant votes were passed ; among others, tjiat reserve 
ing land for building a meeting house on ; Ukewise for 
a burying place, and for a training field ; also that 
giving encouragement to those who first shall build 
three houses in the Township, agreeable to the Gener-^ 
al Court's act, and who shall have a family settled ia 
each house.* 

The next meeting of the Proprietors was held at Ip^ 
swieh, February 13, 1737,^ when it was ''voted that 
there be a cart way cut from Dorchester Canada ' meet^- 
ing house lot, on the nearest and most convenient 
way that can be found from Dorchester Canada road, 
to the center of the lots as laid out in the Township of 
the said Ipswich Canada, and to make such bridges and 
causeys as are absolutely necessary for making the 
way passable." It v/asalso " voted, That four acres be 
cleared in the meeting house lot, in the most conveur 
ient place for erectmg a meeting house, and to be sowr 
ed with herds grass ;" and a Committee of five was 
chosen to agree where to clear, in order for the locar 
tion of a meeting house. '^ 

At a meeting of the Proprietors, February 8, 1738, 
it was voted, That twenty shillings on each original 
Right be raised, for the encouragement of such per- 
sons, as shall build a Saw Mill ; and a vote was pass? 
ed concerning clearing a road from Payqueage/ 

Several meetings of the Proprietors were held ia 



i £ee Note X 2 See Note K. 3 Now Ashburnham. i S.eg j!?^,t$; ^; 
■5 Now A\hol B^& JJlot^ AL- 



Ii2 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

Ipswich in, 1741 and 1742, for the purpose of adopt- 
ing measures for erecting a Saw mill, building a meet- 
ing house and laying out and clearing roads, and to 
encourage the settlement of the Tow^iship. 

The First Saw Mill. 

In 1742 a Saw mill was erected at the place where 
Mr. John Poor's Saw mill now stands. 

At a meeting of the Proprietors, March 14, 1742, 
a Committee was chosen to lay out a second division 
of lots. A Committee was also appointed to build a 
Corn mill in the most convenient place. A Commit- 
tee w^as likewise directed and empowered, to agree 
with some one to do the Proprietors' blacksmiths' work 
in the Township.^ 

After tlie last named date, there is no record of any 
meeting of the Proprietors, for more than eight years. 

The next meeting of the Proprietors was held at 
Ipswich, March 29, 1751 ; and was adjourned to meet 
on the 11th of next iVpril, when a Committee was ap- 
pointed to run the lines, and renew the bounds be- 
tween the Township of Ipswich Canada, and the con- 
tiguous Townships f which Committee made a return, 
and reported their doings at the next Proprietors' meet- 
ing. And at the latter meeting, Francis Goodhue was 
chosen Treasurer, and a Committee was appointed 
to assist the Clerk in making a report to the General 
Court.^' 

1 See N te N. 2 See Note 0. 3 See Note P. 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 13 

It appears from the records of the Proprietors and 
from tradition, that in or about the year 1752, there 
was a small frame raised for a meeting house, about 
100 rods easterly of the present meeting house com- 
mon, near the burying ground ; but it was never oc- 
cupied, or even prepared for the purpose. 

The First Settlers. 

No evidence appears of there being any permanent 
settlement in the Township, previous to the year 1752. 
At length the Proprietors offered greater encourage- 
ment to settlers, and in that year, ten families had fix- 
ed down here.* 

But the settlement of the place was immediately 
retarded, by what is commonly called the last French 
War. Most of the settlers left the place. Those who 
remained were obliged to keep in garrisons.^ 

Measures regarding the Preaching of the Gospel in the Township. 

The Proprietors, at a meeting in Ipswich, July 3, 
1753, took measures to have the gospel preached in 
Ipswich Canada, and voted they would be at the 
charge of four days' preaching. And at this and sub- 
sequent meetings, they agreed to dispose of the meet- 
ing house frame that was before erected, and to 
make preparations for, and to build a new one. They 
also passed votes concerning managing and improving 
the saw mill, and making and mending roads.' 

1 See Note Q, 2 See Note B. 3 See Note S. 



14 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

The First Meeting of the Proprietors in the Township. 

The first meeting of the Proprietors, held in the 
Township, was at the dwelhng house ^ of Richard Day, 
24th Oct. 1753, and was adjourned to the next day, 
tvhen it was voted that the road to the saw mill be re- 
paired, and that the first frame erected for a meeting 
house be granted to Col. Thomas Berry, to enable him 
to build a suitable and convenient room to meet in for 
public worship.^ 

Fortifying the Township. 

It appears that previously to the year 1754, some- 
thing had been done with regard to fortifying the 
Township, against the incursions of the French and 
Indians. On the 31st October in that year, further 
measures were adopted for the purpose, a new Clerk 
was chosen, and money was granted to pay for preach- 

It may be here stated that the Proprietors sustained 
the preaching of the gospel for from four Sabbaths to 
half the Sabbaths annually, for eight or ten years previ- 
ously to the settlement of the first minister.'^ 

The First Grist Mill. 

The first Corn Mill was built on Miller's river, in 
what is now the North Village, about 1759, by Mr. 
Bartholomew Parsons.^ 



1 See Note T. 2 See Note U. 3 See Note V. 4 See Note W. 
5 See Note X. 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 15 

Soon after this, a bridge and a long causeway were 
built over Miller's river and the meadow, on the coun- 
ty road, near where Mr. Phineas Ball now lives/ 

In 1762, a bridge was built over Miller's river, in 
the North Village, against where the wool factory dye 
house now stands.* 

The First Meeting House. 

The Proprietors erected a meeting house in 1762. 
The Building Committee were Benjamin Goodridge, 
Abijah Smith and Philip Goodridge. It was located 
on the south part of the meeting house common. It 
had side and front galleries. It had pews and many 
free seats below and above. The outside of the house 
was clapboarded, but never painted ; the inside was 
unfinished, never having been either ceiled or plastered. 

A Cemetery, or burying place is located about 100 
rods easterly from the meeting house.' 

Incorporation of the Town. 

In 1763 the Proprietors, together with the inhabit- 
ants, triade arrangements releative to applying to the 
Legislature for an Act of Incorporation.* 

On the 14th of June, 1764, Ipswich Canada was 
incorporated by an act of the General Court, when it 
was made a town and called Winchendon.* 



» See Note Y . 2 See Note Z. 3 See Note AA. 4 See Note BB. 
s See Note CC. 



16 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

Annexation of Eoyalston Leg. 

When the township was first located, it was sup- 
posed to extend northerly to New Hampshire ; but up- 
on running the line afterwards between the States, it 
was found that there was a mile in width, the whole 
length of the town, left to Massachusetts. Upon the 
granting of Royalston some years afterward, this strip 
of land was annexed to that town, and called Royal- 
ston Leg. When a number of families had got seat- 
ed thereon, at their request, it was, in 1780, set to 
Winchendon. It contained 3840 acres. 

Land Set oS to Gardner. 

In June 1785, a piece of land of 3680 acres was 
taken from the the southeasterly part of this town to 
help form the town of Gardner. Winchendon, how- 
ever, still remains more than six miles square. 

Distance from Boston and Worcester. 

This town is 60 miles N. W. by W. from Boston, 
and 35 N. by N. W. from Worcester. 

Wood and Timber. 
The general growth of wood on the high lands is 
red oak, beech, rock maple, interspersed with white 
pine and hemlock. On the low lands, white pine, hem- 
lock, hacmatac, ash of all kinds, yellow and white birch, 
interspersed with red oak and beech. On some of the 
low lands there is little or nothing but pine, hemlock 
and hacmatac. In some parts of the town there is 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. IT 

chestnut, and in other parts pitch pine, but neither of 
them in plenty. 

Face of the Country. 

There is somewhat of a diversity in the face of the 
country in this region. A large proportion of the 
town is level, consisting of pretty extensive plains ; 
other parts are diversified by hills and valleys. Some 
of the most notable elevations are Meeting House 
hill, N. W. from the meeting house common, inclosed 
in the farms formerly owned by Rev. Joseph Brown 
and Mr. Levi Nichols ; Prentiss hill, on the south side 
of Miller's river, formerly owned by Dea. Samuel 
Prentiss ; Hyde hill, on the north side of Miller's 
River, formerly owned by Mr. Ezra Hyde, sen. ; Love- 
joy hill, now owned by Mr. Oliver Lovejoy ; Poland 
hill, formerly owned by Mr. William Poland ; Tallow 
hill, formerly owned by Mr. Peter Joyslin, sen. ; Good- 
ridge hill, formerly owned by Mr. David Good ridge : 
Boynton hill, formerly owned by Lieut. Joseph Boyn- 
ton ; Payson hill, formerly ov/ned by Col. John Boyn- 
ton ; Barren hills, south of Monomonac pond ; Hale 
hill, formerly owned by Dea. Moses Hale ; Nineteenth 
hill, formerly owned by Mr. Dudley Perley and Mr. 
James Raymond ; Raymond hill, formerly owned by 
Col. Paul Raymond ; and Birch hill, near where Otter 
river empties into Miller's river. 

Soil and Frodactions. 

The soil of Winchendon, with some exceptions, has 
been accounted good. It produces grass, wheat, rye, 



18 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

Indian corn, barley, oats, potatoes, and many other 
kinds of vegetables. 

Ponds, Springs, Elvers and Brooks. 

There is but one pond, which is wholly within the 
limits of this town ; this was called Denison's^ pond, 
and is sometimes called New Boston pond. It covers, 
perhaps, as much as 70 acres. It has an inlet from 
the north and an outlet towards the south into Miller's 
river, which runs within 100 rods of the pond. It 
abounds in fish of various kinds. 

There is a spring of the mineral kind, in the north- 
easterly part of the town. For many years after its 
discovery, it was called The Yellow Spring. It is of 
a medicinal nature, and rather seems of a chalybeate 
quality. It is not so much visited by invalids, as for- 
merly. 

There is one river known by the name of Miller's 
river, so called by the English, from a man by the 
name of ]\Iiller, who was drowned therein, about 200 
years ago, in attempting to pass the river somewhere 
tow^tirds its mouth, in his way to Northfield. But the 
natives called it Payqueage. From Little Naukheag, 
which is near the centre of Ashburnham, a rivulet emp- 
ties into Great Naukheag, whence a stream issues to 
the west which makes a part of Miller's river. An- 
other source of Miller's river is a large pond, lying 
chiefly in Rindge, N. H., a small part only, (where 

1 See Note DD. 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 19 

the outlet is,) falling within the bounds of Winchen- 
don. Tliis pond is known by the name of Monome- 
noc pond. These two branches, together with some 
other small streams, uniting easterly of Winchendon 
North Village, form Miller's river, which runs west- 
erly, southwesterly, northwesterly, and southerly, near- 
ly half round the town ; in no place nearer than 
one mile of the centre meeting house, and in some 
places three miles and more from it. 

Otter river originates in a small pond in the south 
part of Templeton ; one of its sources, and, perhaps, 
the main one, is found in the swamps of Westminster. 
The Templeton branch flows first in a southeasterly 
direction -into Hubbardston, where it changes its course 
to the northeast and passes into Gardner, where sever- 
al streams join it, and runs into Templeton again. It 
takes a northwesterly course in Templeton, and is 
joined by Trout brook. It just touches on Winchen- 
don in the southerly part thereof, and runs nigh the 
bounds of the town about a mile and a half, and unites 
itself with the waters of Miller's or Payqueage river, 
just before it leaves Winchendon. Miller's river leaves 
the town near the southwest an2;le thereof. 

There are two considerable streams in the westerly 
part of the town, which take their rise in Fitzwilliam, 
N. H. One of them joins Miller's River at the Up- 
per Intervales, towards the northwest part of the town ; 
this is sometimes called Stuart's Brook, on account of 
its running through the farm formerly owned by Jere- 



20 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

miah Stuart. The other comes from FitzwilUam into 
Royalston, and runs a considerable way in the easter- 
ly part thereof, then turns and enters Winchendon, 
and after running several miles, joins Miller's river just 
above Denison's pond. This stream might have been 
denominated a river from its largeness, had it not ear- 
ly received the appellation of Priest's brook. This 
name was given it from the circumstance of its run- 
ning through a tract of land, now lying in Royalston, 
formerly granted by the General Court of Massachu- 
setts to a Joseph Priest, to induce him to set up a 
house of entertainment, for the benefit of travellers 
from this State to the Ashuelots, (Keene and Swan- 
zey,) and to No. 4, (Charlestown,) in the State of 
New Hampshire. The house of this Priest was call- 
ed The Halfway House. Trout, pickerel and perch, 
and various other kinds of fish, are found in the two 
latter streams, as also in many parts of Miller's river. 
Besides the above mentioned streams, there are ma- 
ny other brooks and rivulets running in every part of 
the town, whereby it is exceedingly well watered. 

Town Meetings. 
On the 5th day of November, 1764, the first meet- 
ing, which the town ever held in its corporate capaci- 
ty, was called, according to the act of incorporation, 
by virtue of a warrant issued by Edward Hartwell, 
Esq. of Lunenburg, directed to Richard Day of the 
town of Winchendon. It was held at the dwelling 
house of Richard Day. Richard Day was Moderator 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. ^' 

of tliis meeting, and Abel Wilder was chosen Town 
Clerk.^ 

The next town meeting, which was the first annual 
March meeting, was called by warrant of the Select- 
men, directed to the Constable, who " warned all the 
inhabitants of the town, by themselves, or by leaving 
word at their usual places of abode, to assemble at the 
time and place therein mentioned ;" wliich meeting 
was held at the meeting house, March 11, 1765.' 

Affairs Connected with the American Revolution. 

It is well known, that for some years following 1760, 
the disputes between Great Britain and her Colonies 
were fast approaching a crisis. Soon after the French 
power in Canada had been crushed in 1759, the Brit- 
ish Ministry began to turn their thoughts towards rais- 
ing a revenue in America. Their first step in this pro- 
ceeding v/as to direct the collector for the port of Boston 
to apply to the civil authority for " Tfrits of As- 
sistance,^^ to command the aid of all sheriffs and con- 
stables in breaking open houses, stores, ships and pack- 
ages of all sorts, to search for articles prohibited by 
the " Acts of Trade'^ — a series of acts which had been 
passed to favor the West India merchants, and which 
had nearly annihilated the commerce of the Colonies. 
These acts had been mostly evaded by non-importa- 
tion and smuggling. 

The legality of the '« Writs" was doubted, and the 

1 See Note EE. 2 See Note FF. 



22 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

question came before the Superior Court for decision 
in February 1761. By the powerful assistance of 
James Otis, the Writs were defeated. His masterly 
speech on this occasion, first awakened the Colonists 
to the real danger of the threatened course of the 
ministry. They saw, in the pretended right of Par- 
liament of taxing them to an unhmited extent, the 
germ of tyranny which would destroy their liberties ; 
and they wisely resolved to destroy the monster in its 
shell, before it should acquire sufficient strength to crush 
them in its folds. They knew that their charter gave 
them the right to tax themselves, and that every exer-- 
cise of this right on the part of the parliament, was 
an infringement upon their chartered privileges. They 
were not actuated by the sordid love of money, but by 
the nobler love of liberty. They had freely poured 
forth their treasure and their blood in the preceding 
wars, and now they claimed the privilege of taxing 
themselves. They contended that Taxation and Rep- 
resentation were inseparable ; while Parliament claim- 
ed the risfht to " bind the Colonies in all cases what- 
ever." This was the point on which the dispute turn' 
ed. 

In the years 1763, 4 and 5, the commerce of the 
Colonies was nearly at a stand, in consequence of the 
'' Sugar Act," and the " Stamp Act." Their opera- 
tion was defeated by non-importation and smugghug. 
To the great joy of the Colonists, th€ Stamp Act was 
repealed in 1766, and the importation of goods was 



HISTORY OF VVINCHENDON. S3 

greater than ever. A cloud was soon thrown over the 
prosperity which everywhere began to be visible. The 
"■ Revenue Act" was passed in 1763. Again the peo- 
ple of Massachusetts took the lead in asserting the 
liberties of the Colonies, and they acted promptly and 
effectually. 

By means of associations, speeches, circulars and 
pamphlets, the rights of the Colonies, and the dangers 
with which they were threatened, were fully discussed 
and laid before the people. 

In September, 1768, the Selectmen of Winchendon 
received a letter from the Selectmen of Boston, re- 
questing them to call a town meeting, and then to take 
into consideration the critical condition of government 
affairs, and to choose an agent to come to Boston to 
express there the views, wishes and determination of 
the people of Winchendon, on this important subject. 
A town meeting was accordingly called to consider of 
the Votes lately passed by the town of Boston, and 
act in regard to them ; and " to choose a suitable per- 
son to join the Convention to be held at Boston." The 
town held their meeting on the 19th of the same 
month, and readily and cordially '• consented to the 
several Votes passed by the town of Boston, at their 
meeting on the 12th of September instant." " But," 
in the language of the vote then passed, " being a 
small people, we think it not necessary to send a Com- 
mittee ; but oblige ourselves to consent to those meth- 
ods, tliat the Convention shall come into for the pre- 



04 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

servation of our invaluable rights and privileges." On 
reviewing these transactions, and their subsequent pro- 
ceedings, no doubt is left but that thus early, the peo- 
ple were resolved upon maintaining their rights. 

The firm resistance with which the projects of the 
British government were received, served to strengthen 
the determination of the Ministry to carry their point 
at all hazards. Troops were stationed at Boston to 
overawe the inhabitants. Acts of increased severity 
were passed. The colonists saw that they must yield, 
or maintain their rights at the point of the bayonet. 
They did hesitate between the alternatives. They 
did not prepare for the encounter under the impulse 
of the moment, but calmly deliberated upon the pro- 
priety of every m.easure. The pens of Otis, Adams 
and their associates, were ever busy. The acts of the 
government were severely scrutinized, and the rights 
of the Colonies most ably vindicated and maintained. 
But one sentiment pervaded the community, and that 
was a fixed determination to preserve inviolate their 
freedom. 

The people of Boston took the lead in these meas- 
ures of resistance, and were nobly seconded by the 
inhabitants of the other towns. They sought an ex- 
pression of opinion from every town on the all engross- 
ing subject of dispute, in order that they might know 
what they could rely upon, if it should be necessary to 
meet the obstinacy of Great Britain with open rebel- 
lion. 



HISTORY OP WINCHENDON. 



In January, 1773, another letter was received from 
the town of Boston, containing their statement of the 
rights of the Colonies, and the infringement made up- 
on them, and requesting the inhabitants of Winchen- 
don to pass suitable resolves, as free members of soci- 
ety, and to send them in the form of a report to the 
Committee of Correspondence in Boston. The town 
was not unmindful of this invitation. A town meet- 
ing was speedily called, by Abel Wilder and John 
Boynton, a majority of the Selectmen, agreeable to a 
request signed by ten freeholders,— To see if the town 
will take into consideration the distressing circumstan- 
ces of the present affairs of the province ; and so far 
as concerns particular towns and individual persons, 
to act thereon by choosing Committees, or otherwise, 
as they shall see fit. The meeting was held on the 
15th of February following. A copy of the records 
of this meeting will convey a good idea of the views 
and feelings of the inhabitants, on these importont 
subjects. The record is transcribed in the notes.' 

We hence learn what the sentiments of this town 
were concerning the course which Great Britain was 
pursuing towards her colonies. They believed that it 
was oppressive and unjust, and that they, as freemen, 
ought by no means to submit to it. Though living 
far back in the interior, they heartily responded to the 
noble and patriotic sentiments, which animated the 
bosoms of the people of Boston, and acquired for 



> See Note GG. 



26 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

their favorite place of meeting, (Faneuil Hall,) the 
name of the "Cradle of Liberty." 

A warrant was issued by the Selectmen, for a town 
meeting to be held on the 4th of August, 1774. The 
substance of one article, as stated in the warrant, is, 
that " Whereas the Committee of Correspondence of 
the town of Winchendon, have received a letter from 
the Committee of Correspondence of Worcester, to- 
gether with the Committee of Winchendon, request- 
ing the town of Winchendon to appoint one or more 
of the Committee of the town of Winchendon, to 
meet the other Committees of the several towns in 
this county, at Worcester on the 9th of August next, 
to consult together, and come into some regular meth- 
od to oppose the late Acts of Parhament, the intent 
of which is to bereave us of our rights and privileges" 
— to see if the town will choose one or more of the 
Committee for the above said purpose. A town meet- 
ing was accordingly held, and a delegate chosen. And 
they accepted and adopted a number of loyal as well 
as spirited Resolutions.^ The town meeting was ad- 
journed to the 15th of September following, when the 
town again met, and voted to send a Delegate to the 
Provincial Congress, which was to meet at Concord, 
the second Tuesday of the next October. They then 
voted that every [male] person, from the age of six- 
teen years to sixty, should apf)ear at the meeting 



1 For a particular recital of the transactions of this town meeting, see 
Note HU. 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 27 

house in Winchendon, on the 20th of September cur- 
rent. They also pasi^ed a vote, indemnifying the Con- 
stable in not returning a list of the persons qualified 
to serve as Jurors, agreeable to a late Act of Parlia- 
ment, and directing him never to make such return.^ 

The Provincial Congress had recommended to the 
several towns, to withhold the amount of their annual 
taxes from Harrison Gray, Esq., who was the State 
Treasurer under tiie royal government, before the 
commencement of difficulties in the colonies, and was 
still Treasurer ; and that they should pay them over 
to Henry Gardner, Esq. of Stow, as the Treasurer for 
the province. With this recommendation the town 
complied, and ordered the Constables to pay the mon- 
ey to Henry Gardner, Esq., and engaged to indemnify 
the Constables.^ These were, certainly, very bold 
measures, and well calculated to bring on the struggle 
of war. 

The town, at their meeting January 10, 1775, chose 
a Committee to see that the agreement, and associa- 
tion of the Continental Congress, be put in execution. 

It will be seen that the town was prepared for the 
important crisis, which was now at hand — the opening 
scene of the Revolution. 

On the 19th of April, the troops of Great Britain 
and her Colonies first came in hostile collision. The 
alarm of Lexington was spread in Winchendon, by 



» See Note II. 2 ]\lr Gardner was, afterwards, the first State Treas- 
xirer under the Constitution of 17b0. See Mote JJ. 



28 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

firing guns. Here was one small company of militia, 
of which the Hon. Abel Wilder was Captain. He 
and his company marched immediately. When the 
time of action came, the people of this town did not 
fail to make their deeds correspond with their profes- 
sions. 

There was, in this town, as well as other towns in 
the country, a certain number of men enrolled by them- 
selves, and denominated '^ minute men," ^ whose duty 
it was to be ready to meet any emergency, at a mo- 
ment's warning. 

As there was no immediate need for their services, 
Capt. Wilder and his men soon returned home. Capt. 
Wilder was afterward in the battle of Bunker Hill, in 
which one of his company, Samuel Bradish, was 
wounded in a remarkable manner ; a musket ball, ac- 
cidentally discharged by another of the company, 
entered the back of his neck, and came out at one 
of his eyes ; he of course lost one eye. He got well, 
and lived many years. 

After this period, several of the inhabitants joined 
the army at different periods, and for different lengths 
of time. This people were ever prompt, during the 
whole time of the revolution, in furnishing their quota 
of men. and whatever was necessary, to the utmost of 
their ability. 

The warrant for the annual meeting in March, 1776, 



» Minute men, men ready at a minute's notice j a term used in tho 
American Kevolution. Webster's Dictionary. 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 29 

and previous warrants, had ever commenced in this 
form — " In his Majesty's name, you are required to 
warn," etc. This was the last occasion on which the 
people of Winchendon acknowledged the authority 
of '^ his Majesty's name." 

The warrant for the town meeting which was held 
on the fourth day of July, 1776, and subsequent war- 
rants, ran thus — '^ You are required, in the name of 
the Government and People of the Massachusetts Bay, 
to notify," etc. 

This town meeting shows what was the disposition 
of the inhabitants, when the important question of 
National Independence was submitted to them. The 
General Court, then in session, had assured the Con- 
tinental Congress, that if they, in their wisdom, should 
deem it expedient to declare the colonies free and in- 
dependent, the people of this colony would, undoubt- 
edly, support them in the measure. The State Legis- 
lature, however, to make the thing certain, passed a re- 
solve that each town should act individually, on this 
important question. By virtue of this resolve, this 
town assembled on the 4th day of July. 

The town "unanimously resolved, that if the Hon- 
orable Continental Congress should think it best, for 
the safety of these Colonies, to declare them inde- 
pendent of the Kingdom of Great Britain, that we 
will, with our lives and fortunes, support them in the 
measure."- On the very day, on which the question 

1 See Note KK. 



30 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

was decided, and the Declaration adopted by Con- 
gress, the people of Winchendon declared themselves 
ready to peril their lives and fortunes in the cause of 
freedom. 

The declaration having been adopted, copies were 
sent, by the order of the Council, to the several towns 
of the State, where they were read from the pulpit, 
and then copied into the town Book of Records — 
" there to remain as a perpetual memorial thereof." 

It must strike every one with some surprise, that 
during the suspension of all judicial and executive au- 
thority in the State, the great mass of people should 
have been kept quiet and orderly. The wisdom, and 
power, and goodness of the Supreme Ruler of the 
universe — who has the hearts of all in His hand, and 
turns them whithersoever He will — were herein re- 
markably obvious. It was truly a moral spectacle. 
It was a nation bursting the bands in which they had 
been bound, and ruling and governing themselves in 
an orderly and peaceable manner. The force of pub- 
lic opinion, at any time great, was then irresistible. 
The recommendations of Congress were law, and the 
Committee of Safety saw that the laws were executed, 
against whom no one durst rebel. In this, they were 
fully countenanced by the people, who in their frequent 
meetings and discussions of national affairs, became 
convinced that union and order were necessary to their 
existence as a people, and they had virtue enough to 
guard these most sacredly. 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 31 

The town, at a meeting, September 30, 1776, ''vot- 
ed and consented that the present House of Repre- 
sentatives, together with the Council, in one body, 
form a system of laws, for the regulation of this State ; 
that the same be made public for the inspection and 
perusal of the inhabitants before it be established." 
And the General Court having given liberty to every 
town that was not, at that time, represented in the 
General Court, to send at this time ; this town being 
not now, nor ever before represented, at this meeting 
^' voted to send a Representative, and chose Mr. Rob- 
ert Bradish, to represent this town in the Great and 
General Court, the remaining part of the year." In 
May, 1777, Mr. Bradish was again chosen Represen- 
tative.^ 

Though the burthen of the war was now pressing 
heavily upon the town, which was not highly favored 
in the possession of worldly goods, the people did not 
despair of the cause of Independence. They contin- 
ued to labor steadily to the utmost of their ability. It 
is impossible for us to realize, at the present day, how 
completely that struggle called into exercise every re- 
source, and the whole energy of every individual 
throughout the community. How low soever might 
be his condition, and however scanty might be his 
means of supporting himself and his family, every man 
was called upon to act — to do to the utmost of his 
ability, or to rest'under the imputation of being a tory. 

1 See Note LL. 



32 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

Let it be remembered also, that at this time, when 
all kinds of business had been brought nearly to a 
stand by the operation of the war, when specie was 
almost unknown throughout the country, and the paper 
currency was of but little value, ^ the ordinary expen- 
ses of the town — such as the support of the minister, 
of schools, of the highway and bridges, &c. &c. — 
bore with extreme rigor upon the inhabitants. 

In May, 1779, the town voted in favor of a new 
State Constitution. In August, Abel Wilder, Esq. 
was chosen a delegate to attend a convention, which 
was to meet at Cambridge, on the first of Septem- 
ber, for the purpose of forming a State Constitution. 

State Constitution. 

In May, 1780, the present Constitution of the 
State was submitted to the people for their considera- 
tion. The inhabitants of Winchendon voted in favor 
of adopting it. 

Peace with Great Britain. 

Most welcome was the news of the peace with 
Great Britain in 1782. The days of the Revolution 
had been trying times. In common with others, this 
town had been heavily burdened with the expenses of 
the war. Many of the citizens had engaged at differ- 
ent periods, in the service of their country. Our fa- 
thers experienced trials, and hardships, and sufferings, 

1 See Note MM. 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 33 

of which it is impossible for their descendants, at the 
present day, to have an adequate conception. 

In May, 1781, Abel Wilder, Esq, was chosen to 
represent the town in the General Court, under the 
new Constitution. He represented the town ever af- 
terward, except one year, until 1786, when he was 
elected a member of the Senate of this State, by the 
suffrages of this Senatorial district.^ 

Winchendon Lottery. 

The war, as is well known, left the country in an 
impoverished condition. Poverty was everywhere. 
A sound circulating medium was wanting. 

In this state of things the town chose a committee 
to petition for a lottery, to enable the town to build 
and repair the bridges it was obliged to support. 

Permission for a lottery was accordingly obtained 
in 1783. There were, afterwards, three classes drawn, 
and some money was obtained. In 1785, the bridge 
which is now in the North Village, was erected. It 
is now considered, that no scheme of taxation could 
have been devised more injurious and extravagant. It 
was paying under a fascinating prospect of gain, a 
much larger sum than the citizens would have been 
obliged to contribute by regular rates. Nor was 
this all. Some will now recollect the time consumed 
in drawing the several classes of this lottery, the idle- 

1 The Hon. Abel Wilder wa?, afterward, annually elected a Senator, 
until his decease. He died Nov. 1, 1792, universally lamented. 



34 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 



ness and consequent dissipation it induced, to say 
nothing of its natural tendency to beget a love of 
gaming. 

After the declaration of peace in 1783, a general 
stagnation of all kinds of business ensued. The Uni- 
ted Colonies were burdened with a debt of forty mill- 
ions of dollars, without any means of paying it. Con- 
gress, under the Confederation, had power only to 
advise the several States to adopt certain measures to 
meet the wants of the times. 

But the States, actuated by a spirit of commercial 
rivalry and jealousy, would agree upon no uniform 
system. So far, then, from any measures being adopt- 
ed to pay the public debt, even the interest of it re- 
mained unpaid. 

The whole body of the people became alarmed, and 
all confidence was destroyed. Certificates of public 
debt lost their credit, and many officers and soldiers 
of the late army, who were poor, were compelled to 
sell these certificates at excessive reductions. They 
had fondly hoped that if they could establish their in- 
dependence, and a government of their own choosing, 
public and private prosperity would everywhere abound, 
and that things would go on delightfully. Bitter, now, 
was their disappointment. Of money there was next 
to none. The introduction of the precious metals had 
been prevented by the war and its attendant evils, and 
the paper money in circulation, was of small value. 
Creditors became alarmed, and used every means in 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 35 

their power to collect their debts. Business was at a 
stand — men failed — lawyers were overwhelmed with 
employment, and Courts of justice filled with business. 
Massachusetts, for the purpose of maintaining her 
credit, loaded the people with excessive taxes. It was 
impossible for them to meet the demands made upon 
them. They knew not the origin of the evils, but 
supposed that there was some defect in the laws — that 
there were either too many, or not enough. Petitions 
were poured in upon the Legislature from all quarters, 
but the Legislature, like all deliberative bodies, moved 
slow. The patience of the people was entirely ex- 
hausted, in seeing their property seized on ' executions,' 
issuing from the authorative Courts ; and as petitions, 
remonstrances, and mild measures had failed to work 
out a remedy for their grievances, they were deter- 
mined to seek a remedy by force of arms. Thus 
much it has been necessary to premise, to account for 
the origin of " Shays' Insurrection" in 1786. 

Facts Connected with the Insurrection in Massacliusetts. 
A majority of the people of this, as well as the 
neighboring towns, were ' Shaysites.' In extenuation, 
though not in justification of their conduct, it may be 
remarked that their straight forward way of thinking, 
did not lead them to comprehend the actual state of 
public aflfairs, and the necessity of sacrificing present 
convenience to future good. After a war of eight 
years' duration, to avoid the evils of exctssive and il- 
legal taxation, they could not see what they had gain- 



36 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

ed, if they were now to be subjected to severer taxa- 
tion than ever. 

They did not break out into open rebellion here, 
though many stood ready. However, they put no re- 
straint upon their tongues, and their language savored 
strongly of rebellion. Several persons were involved 
in that unhappy insurrection, whose names are sup- 
pressed from charity to their memories. Their ef- 
forts here were always thv/arted by the firmness of the 
" government men," who were unwearied in their ef- 
forts to quell the spirit of rebellion. 

A few persons, taking advantage of the popular 
excitement, during the time of the insurrection, were 
chosen to offices of profit and trust, from the Insur- 
gent party ; but they generally became satisfied of 
their error, as soon as, by their intercourse with intel- 
ligent patriots, they saw the dangerous tendency of 
their measures. We cannot, at this day, realize the 
horrors of the civil war that then threatened, and, in 
many places, actually distracted the State. A house 
was literally divided against itself. Neither sex nor 
age were exempt from the angry passions tiiat prompt- 
ed the warlike preparations. 

Open rebellion having broken out in several places, 
and threats and demonstrations of warlike movements 
beginning to appear in others, the State authorities 
were compelled to take notice of them, and resolved 
to put them down by an armed force. They had un- 
der their control the militia of the Commonwealth, and 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 37 

on their side all those, who preferred good order and 
an observance of the laws — though somewhat objec- 
tionable — to open rebellion and civil war. 

The insurrection of 1786 being rather a matter of 
State history, than that of any particular town, this 
sketch of it will be brought to a close in a few words. 

The force headed by Shays himself having been 
dispersed, the agitation on this subject principally sub- 
sided in the following year. 

It was customary for the friends of government, to 
wear a fillet of white paper in their hats, while the adhe- 
rents of the opposite party adopted, as a badge of dis- 
tinction, a sprig of evergreen. But, fortunatelv for the 
country, the evergreen, in the language of one in that 
day, soon withered ; the arm of power scattered the 
insurgent forces, and the miserable and misguided ad- 
herents of Day, and Shays, and Wheeler, and Par- 
sons, were glad to sue for mercy to that power, which 
they had so lately risen up to crush. And their 
suit was not in vain ; policy, as well as a predisposi- 
tion to clemency, spared their lives, and they were 
suffered to return to their homes in peace. Those, 
whose reason returned as their passions subsided, be- 
came convinced of their follies and their criminality, 
and many of them became firm supporters of the gov- 
ernment. Happily, quiet and order were restored. It 
seems now to be as generally admitted, that there were 
causes of complaint, as it is that the course pursued 
to remove them was unjustifiable. 



38 HISTORY OF VVINCHENDON. 

MEETING HOUSES. 
Congregational Meeting House in the First Parish. 

The first house of public worship being too small 
for the inhabitants, the town erected a new one in 
1792/ It was raised on the 25th and 26th of May. 
The dimensions of the house are 50 by 60 feet — posts 
28 feet — a porch at each end of the house. It has 
front and side galleries — with square pews, and some 
free seats above and below. ^ Several years after the 
building of the house, a tovver, and steeple, and bell 
were added. ^ The first meeting in this house was on 
the 1st of June, 1793, when it was solemnly dedicat- 
ed to the service of God. 

Baptist Meeting Houses. 

There is a Baptist ipeeting house in the south west 
part of the town. It was erected about thirty years 
ago. 

There is now (1848) being erected, in the Village 
near the railroad depot, a meeting house, by a Baptist 
society recently formed. 

Methodist Meeting Houses. 

The first Methodist meeting house was located near 
the northwest corner of the town ; that house was af- 
terward sold. 

1 See Note NN. 2 See Note 00. 3 See Note PP. 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 39 

The Methodist society erected a handsome and 
commodious chapel in 1833, in the North Village. 

Wincliendon North Congregational Meeting House. 

In the early part of the year 1843, a voluntary as- 
sociation was formed for the purpose of building a 
house of worship in Winchendon Village. The asso- 
ciation consisted of thirty two gentlemen, and was 
termed the North Winchendon Congregational Meet- 
ing House Company. They accomplished their de- 
sign in the course of the year by erecting a beautiful 
house, spacious enough to seat comfortably 400 per- 
sons, including old and young. 

An ecclesiastical society was then formed, denomi- 
nated the North Winchendon Congregational Society, 
to which the Company transferred the meeting house, 
and by which the preaching of the gospel has since 
been sustained. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

The First Church. 

This church was formed December 15, 1762, con- 
sisting of twelve members, including the minister, Mr. 
Daniel Stimpson, who was ordained pastor of the 
church at the same time. Some of the original mem- 
bers were from other churches — some of them made 
a profession at the time. 

Rev. Mr. Stimpson was educated at Harvard Col- 
lege — w^as settled on a salary of £60 — £60 was giv- 
en him as a settlement, besides a lot of land of 100 
acres, which was reserved for the first settled minister.^ 

At the first meeting of the church, of which there 
is any record found, which was held March 24, 1763, 
Mr. Richard Day was chosen Deacon. It was also 
voted at the same time to have the sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper administered on the first Sabbath in 
May, 1763. Mr. Day appears to have been the only 
deacon of the church till November 12, 1767, when 
Mr. Abel Wilder was chosen Deacon.'^ 

Rev. Mr. Stimpson died of a violent fever July 20, 
1768, having performed a ministry of less than six 
years ; during which time, according to Mr. Stimpson's 



1 See Note QQ. ^ See Church Eecords, written by Eev. Daniel 

Stimpson. 



HISTORY OF WmCHENDON. 41 

record, not more than fifteen were added to the church 
in full communionj though many more '' owned the 
covenant."' 

The remains of Rev. Mr. Stimpson were deposited 
in the cemetery near the centre of the town. Not 
even a rude stone marks the spot, where lie the re- 
mains of the first minister who ever statedly proclaim- 
ed the gospel in this town. A little mound of earth, 
only, tells the stranger some one lies there, where tra- 
dition says the first minister was buried. 

After the death of Mr. Stimpson, the church and 
town were in a destitute state only about ten months. 
Then Rev. Joseph Brown, educated at Harvard Col- 
lege, was ordained pastor of the church, May 24, 1769, 
There was no extensive revival of religion during his 
ministry ; yet there were considerable numbers receiv- 
ed into the church by profession, and by letters from 
other churches. Mr. Brown held his office about 
thirty years. 

About the close of his ministry, there was much 
difficulty between him and his people. After much 
altercation, trouble, and expense, he was dismissed 
December, 1799." As the records of the church dur- 
ing the period of his ministry are lost,^it will, perhaps, 
be better to forbear a recital of the origin and progress 
of the unhappy state of affairs, which led to the dis- 
solution of the connection between pastor and people. 

1 Rev. E. L. Clark's centennial Sermon, preached in Winchendoa Deo 
22, 1820. See >;ote RR. 2 See Kote SS. 3 See Note TT. 

4 



42 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

The pastor and most of those to whom he ministered, 
have, ere this, gone to give up their account to Him 
who is the Judge of all the earth. 

After a space of about one year and six months, Rev. 
Levi Pilsbury, educated at Dartmouth College, took 
the pastoral charge of the church. He was ordained 
June 24, 1801. He continued his labors till the pe- 
riod of his death, which occurred April 5, IS 19, in 
the 48th year of his age, and 18th year of his minis- 
try. 

ir- Mr. Pilsbury's labors were greatly blessed to this 
people ; and there are many now, who hold his name 
in affectionate remembrance. During his ministry the 
church and people enjoyed a good degree of prosperi- 
ty. There were one or two powerful (though they 
cannot, perhaps, be considered extensive, or general) 
revivals of religion, which are now remembered with 
lively interest by the elder members of the church. 
During the second year of his ministry, 20 or more 
were added to the church by recommendation and 
original profession. 

In June, 1810, the number of church members was 
130 — 55 males and 75 females. In May, 1815, it 
was only 107 — -30 males and 67 females.^ 

After the death of Mr. Pilsbury, the church was 



1 Eev. Mr. Clark in his centennial Sermons, 1S20 (in M.S.) says, "It 
does not appear that there lias l»een a ceneral revival of religion in this 
place since the gathering of the chui-t;h ; yet the church ha^^ been con- 
tinued and blessed, the subject of church discipline has been regarded, 
several members, from tinie to time, have been adiuonished, and several 
for their disorderly conduct, have been excommunicated." 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 4^ 

destitute of a settled minister about eighteen months ; 
and after making several unsuccessful attempts to set- 
tle another/ the people were united in the choice of 
Rev. Eber L. Clark, to be their pastor. He had pre- 
viously been settled in Chatham, Conn., and Granby, 
Conn. 

Mr. Clark was installed pastor of this church, Oct. 
1.3, 18:20. He was dismissed at his request by vote 
of the church, Jan. 2, 1835. The doings of the 
church, in granting his request, were afterward con- 
firmed by a mutual councif.^ 

During Mr. Clark's ministry, the church was greatly 
mcreased. According to the records, over eighty 
were added in the year 1822; and but three years 
passed, during his labors here, in which there was not 
some addition to the church by profession. 

After the close of Mr. Clark's ministry, the church 
was destitute of a pastor until March 2, 1836, when 
Rev. Daniel O. Morton, who had before been settled 
at Shoreham, Vt. and at Springfield, Vt. was installed. 
Mr. Morton continued pastor of the church till June 
29, 1841, when Mr. Morton having resigned his of- 
fice, and the church having accepted the same, his 
connection with this church was dissolved by a mutu- 
al council.^ 

While Mr. Morton w^as pastor of this church, there 
were received into its communion, by profession and 



1 See Note UU. 2 See Note VV. 3 See Note WW. 



44 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

recommendation from other churcheSj about 130 
members. 

For several years the church and society now re- 
mained without a settled pastor, the pulpit being sup- 
plied by various individuals. Meanwhile, a portion of 
the church and society united in forming a new soci- 
ety in the north part of the town, and consequently 
separated from the first Congregational church and 
society. The formation of this new church and the 
evidence of novelties of other denominations, have 
much reduced this in numbers and in wealth, although 
the society is still abundantly able to support the in- 
stitutions of religion. After the division of this 
church and the separation of a portion of its members, 
which occurred in 1843, the church remained without 
a pastor for about three years. Rev. Benjamin Pcice, 
however, was the stated supply for about two years. 

On the last Sabbath in June, 1846, Mr. Malachi 
Bullard, Jr. the present pastor, commenced his labors 
among this people. Having received and accepted a 
call from the church and society to settle with them 
as their pastor, he was ordained, Nov. 19, 1846.' 

The following have held the office of Deacons of 
the first church. Richard Day, Abel Wilder, Moses 
Hale, Samuel Prentice, Levi Moor, Amos Heywood, 
Israel Whiton, Desire Tolman, George Coffin, Paul 
Raymond, Reuben Hyde, John Cutter and Levi 
Prentiss. 

1 See Note XX. 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. ^ 

The society at present, labor under the embarras- 
ment of a house of worship which very much needs 
rebuilding or repairing. The present place of wor- 
ship, erected in 1792, is, probably, the oldest house 
of worship which has not been remodelled in this re- 
gion : and although it might be desirable for antiqui- 
ty's sake to preserve the original as it is, yet more im- 
portant reasons seem to demand some alteration and 
improvements, which, it is now expected, will soon be 
made. 

^ Baptist Chtircli and Society. 

About 50 years ago a Baptist church and society, 
in the southwest part of Winchendon, were organ- 
ized, which likewise included some members living in 
the southeast part of Royalston. Rev. Mr. Symonds 
was settled and continued their pastor many years. 
After Mr. Symonds' dismission, they had successively, 
Rev. Messrs. Cooper, Brown and Dunn. They have 
now no pastor. 

Methodists. 

About the year 1800 was the beginning of the 
Methodist operations in this town. Being Episcopal 
in their church government, their desk is supplied by 
such preachers as the Conference from lime to time 
may Diuce upon the circuit. They have had many 
wortliy ituierant and local preachers. The present 
preacher is Rev. Mr. Gordon. 



4B HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

Universalists and Unitarians. 

There are a few Universalists and some Unitarians 
in this town, who, respectively, have meetings and 
preaching occasionally among themselves. 
North Congregational Church. 

The Winchendon North Congregational Church 
was organized on the 7th day of December, 1843, by 
an ecclesiastical Council.^ The church consisted of 
sixty-six members regularly dismissed from the first 
Congregational church in Winchendon, and one mem- 
ber from the Congregational church in Rindge, N. H. 
An invitation to settle with them in the gospel minis- 
try, was then extended to Mr. A. P. Marvin, a licen- 
tiate of the New London (Ct.) Association, and a 
graduate of the Seminary connected with Yale Col- 
lege. This invitation being acceded to, religious ser- 
vices were held in the new sanctuary, on the 10th day 
of January, 1844. In the morning the church was 
dedicated to the worship of the triune God; and in 
the afternoon, the ordination exercises were held.^ 
Soon after, brethren Reuben Hyde and Ebenezer But- 
ler were by the church, appointed Deacons. The 
number of this church at the present time, Sept. 25, 
1848, is one hundred and seven. 
Early Settlers. 

The population of this town has, from the first set- 
tlement furnished emigrants to other towns and other 
States. Great indeed, has been the emigration from 

I See Note YY. 2 See Note ZZ. 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 47 

this town for the last sixty years. Yet the population 
of the town has gradually increased in numbers from 
its settlement to the present time ; but much more rap- 
idly of late than at any former period, on account of the 
mechanical and manufacturing establishments, from 
which a large number find employment and support. 

The following persons were among the early set- 
tlers as appears from the records. The first catalogue 
exhibits, at one view, those who were here at differ- 
ent times for 10 or 12 years prior to the incorporation 
of the town ; the other, in like manner, for 10 years 
subsequent to that event. The date against each 
name shews the time when he is ascertained to be 
here, although some of them may have arrived some- 
time previous. To fix the dates at which the differ- 
ent families came into the place, and the particular 
places where they settled, is no easy task. Some, 
and perhaps many of the first settlers, who had fami- 
lies, were in the place a part of one or two seasons 
before they removed their families. If all the partic- 
ulars were known, it would be difficult to say when 
and where certain persons became permanent inhabi- 
tants ; and it is much more diflicult now when most 
of the facts are lost. An asterisk is prefixed to the 
names of those persons in the following list, concern- 
ing whose permanent settlement there rests uncer- 
tainty. 

Richard Day, 1753 *Abijah Smith, 1753 

^Thom^s Wilder, 1753 William Moffatt, 1753 



4o HISTORY OF 


WINCHENDON. 




*Thomas Berry/ 


1754 


Jeremiah Stuart, 


1762 


*Thomas Jewett," 


1754 


Reuben Wyman, 


1762 


John Darling, 


1754 


Thomas Sweetland, 


1763 


Benoni Boynton, 


1754 


Daniel Bixby, 


1763 


Thomas Brown, 


1755 


Theoph's Mansfield 


,1764 


John MofFatt, 


1755 


Seth Oak, 


1764 


Jacob Gould, 


1755 


William Oak, 


1764 


*Nathan'l Burnam, 


1755 


Silas Whitney, 


1764 


*Charles Tuttle, 


1756 


Stephen Choate, 


1764 


Henry Hodgkins, 


1757 


Nathaniel Bixby, 


1764 


Samuel Crag, 


1757 


Amos Spring, 


1764 


John Brown, 


1757 


Jonathan Foster, 


1764 


Gabriel Pouchey, 


1758 


Joseph Boynton, 


1765 


Nathan Pouchey, 


1758 


Joseph Stimson, 


1765 


William Hodgkins, 


1758 


Reuben Burnam, 


1765 


David Poor, 


1758 


Simeon Burnam, 


1765 


Joseph Fuller, 


1758 


Abner Hale, 


1766 


Samuel Titus, 


1761 


James Murdock, 


1766 


Timothy Darling, 


1761 


Levi Bixby, 


1766 


Rev. Dan'l Stimson 


,1762 


James Mansfield, 


1766 


Jonathan Stimson, 


1762 


Thomas Rugg, 


1766 


Ephrairn Stimson, 


1762 


Richard Bailey, 


1766 


Abel Wilder, 


1762 


Isaac Stimson, 


1766 


Daniel Goodridge, 


1762 


Dudley Perley, 


1767 


David Goodridge, 


1762 


John Cheney, 


1767 


Barthol'ew Pearson 


, 1762 


William Porter, 


1767 



1 It appears from the records of the Proprietors, that Col. T. Berry at- 
tended nearly all the meetings of the Proprietors up to Mar. 10, "i756, 
whether held at Ipswich, Lnnenhurtr, or Ipswich Canada, and that he 
owned a house here, which was tortitied 

2 Thos. Jewett owned a house here, which was fortified. 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 



49 



John N. Parmenter, 


1767 


Moses Foster, 


1770 


Richard Pearson, 


1767 


Jesse Fox, 


1770 


Thomas Gary, 


1767 


Samuel Noyes, 


1771 


Jonathan Bixby, 


1767 


James Noyes, 


1771 


Amos Merriam, 


1768 


Jonas Bradish, 


1771 


Thornton Barret, 


1768 


Gideon Fisher, 


1771 


Micah Bovvker, 


1768 


Timothy Kneeland, 


, 1771 


Pvev. Joseph Brown, 


, 1768 


Stephen Boynton, 


1771 


John Boynton, 


1769 


John Porter, 


1771 


Thomas Sawyer, 


1769 


Joseph Fay, 


1771 


Peter Joshn, 


1769 


Edward Payson, 


1771 


Abijah Stimson, 


1759 


John Homer, 


1772 


Ebe'er Sherwin, sen 


.1769 


Matthew Knight, 


J772 


Solomon Bigelow, 


1769 


Zebulon Conant, 


1772 


Eli Smith, 


1769 


Francis Bridge, 


1772 


Phinehas Wheelock 


,1769 


Samuel Mason, 


1772 


WiUiam Joiner, 


1769 


Ephraim Gale, 


1772 


John Joiner, 


1769 


Ephraim Sawyer, 


1772 


Lemuel Sarjent, 


1769 


Antipas Dodge, 


1772 


Moses Hale, 


1770 


Levi Nichols, 


1773 


Jacob Hale, 


1770 


Miles Putnam, 


1773 


Amos Hale, 


1770 


Amos Edmands, 


1773 


Israel Green, 


1770 


Joseph Wilder, 


1773 


Gershom Fay,^ 


1770 


Thomas Beals, 


1773 


Robert Bradish, 


1770 


Daniel Joslin, 


1773 


John Chamberlain, 


1770 


Ebenezer Smith, 


1773 


John Day, 


1770 


James McElwain, 


1773 


Daniel Gould, 


1770 


David Brown, 


1773 



1 Gershom Fay was carried as a pauper to Northborough in 1773. 



50 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 



William Whitney, 1774 
Jona. Broadstreel, 1774 
Eben'r Sherwin, 2d, 1774 
David Stoddard, 1774 
Daniel Balcom, 
Samuel Spring, 
Nathan Green, 



1774 
1774 
1774 



Nathaniel Brown, 1773 

Roger Bates, 1773 

Jonathan Evans, 1773 

Levi Carter, 1773 

Ebenezer How, 1773 

Samuel Steel, 1773 

Josiah Baldwin, 1773 

Ezra Hyde, sen. 1774 

Richard Day lived where Rev. Malachi Bullard 
now lives. He came here from Lunenburg, and was 
one of the first who removed his family into the place. 
As early as 175- he opened a public house, which 
was the first opened in the township. He was an 
industrious, enterprising man, and was frequently em- 
ployed in the public business of the place. In March, 
1763, about three months after the church was or- 
ganized, he w^as chosen a Deacon, which office he 
sustained till his decease in 1774. 

John Darling lived where Jason Keith now lives, 
and was one of the first who removed his family into 
the place. He afterward lived where Calvin Good- 
ridge now lives. 

Charles Tuttle lived where Simon Tuttle, sen. now 
lives. 

Gabriel Pouchey, of French descent, was taken 
prisoner at Cape Breton in the French war — after- 
ward came here — lived in a small house which stood 
where Lyman Raymond's house now stands. He 
died 1775, 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. Sf 

David Poor lived where Simon Poland now lives. 

Timothy Darling lived near where James Murdock 
afterward lived — near where Henry Keith now lives. 

Jonathan Stimson lived where John Esty, sen. now 
lives. He afterward lived on the place now owned 
by Elisha Beaman, where he was killed by the fall of 
a tree blown down by the wind. 

Abel Wilder, whose father Avas Thomas Wilder, 
removed from Leominster — lived where Josiah Brown 
lately lived. He was an active and enterprising man, 
and was one of the most distinguished and influential 
citizens of the town. Called early to public life, he 
became acquainted with public business, and for about 
30 years anterior to his decease, he sustained some of 
the most important offices in the gift of his fellow cit- 
izens. He was chosen a Deacon in Nov. 1767. He 
was Captain of a Company of Militia. During several 
years he filled the office of Town Clerk, and served 
in the capacity of Selectman, and w^as for years a 
magistrate in the place, a Representative to the Gen- 
al Court, and a Senator from 1786 to the close of his 
life. He died in Jaffi-ey, N. H. of the small pox, 
Nov. 1, 1792. 

Daniel Goodridge removed from Lunenburg, and 
lived where the poor-house now is. 

David Goodridge's house stood near where his grand- 
son Jonas Nutting now lives. 

Bartholomew Pearson lived in a small house which 
stood where Geo. S. Coffin's store house now stands. 
He died March 20, 1766. 



52 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

Jeremiah Stuart first settled where Dea. Samuel 
Prentiss afterward lived. He removed to the place 
where Phineas Parks, sen. now lives. 

Theophilus Mansfield was the first Town Clerk. 

Seth Oak lived in a house which stood where Eber 
Arnold afterward lived, west of the bridge and long 
causey. He was a Capt. in the army of the Revolu- 
tion. He afterwards removed out of town. 

William Oak lived east of the bridge and long 
causey, in a house which stood where Phineas Ball 
now lives. 

Amos Spring and Samuel Spring lived in a small 
house which stood where Ephraim Murdock, Esq. now 
lives. They removed out of town. 

Jonathan Foster lived where Barzillai Martin now 
lives. 

Joseph Boynton lived where his son Daniel Boyn- 
ton afterward lived. 

Abner Hale lived where Rev. Levi Pilsbury after- 
ward lived — where the widow Pilsbury now lives. 

James Murdock lived wliere Henry Keith now lives. 

Levi Bixby lived in the north-westerly part of the 
town, about one-fourth of a mile east from where 
Samuel Brown now lives. 

James Mansfield lived in a small house near the 
burying ground. 

Thomas Rugg lived about 60 rods west of where 
Dea. Samuel Prentiss formerly lived. He removed 
out of town. 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. *33 

Dudley Perley removed from Boxford, and lived 
where Joseph Whitney, sen. now lives. 

Amos Merriam lived in a house which stood on 
land which Newall Wyman now owns. 

Rev. Joseph Brown lived in a house in which Rev. 
Malachi Bullard now lives. 

Thornton Barret removed from Hopkinton — lived 
in a house which stood where Jacob Wales, Esq. 
more recently kept tavern. 

John Boynton lived where James Payson afterward 
lived — where Cyrus Grout now lives. He w^as Capt. 
and afterward Colonel in the time of the revolution. 

Peter Joslin, sen. lived in the northwest part of the 
town, in a small house which stood a few rods west of 
where the house of Samuel Brown, 2d, now stands. 

Ebenezer Sherwin, sen. lived where the widow 
Bigelow now lives. 

Eh Smith lived on what is now^ called the Thomas 
place. 

Moses Hale removed from Boxford — lived in the 
house where Seth Maynard now lives. He was chos- 
en Dea. after Dea. Day's decease. 

Jacob Hale removed with his family from London- 
derry, N. H. lived a few years in a block house, which 
had been occupied as a garrison, on land now owned 
by his son, Nathaniel Hale. He afterward built and 
lived in a house which stood where his grandson, 
Merit Hale now lives. 

Amos Hale came to this town from Boxford, and 
lived where Capt. John Raymond now lives. 



o4 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

Robert Bradish removed to this town from Leicester. 

John Chamberlin removed to this town from Tem« 
pleton, lived in a small house which stood about 50 
rods east of where Dea. Samuel Prentiss formerly 
lived. He afterward lived with his son, Benjamin 
Chamberlin in a small house which stood on land now 
owned by Oliver Lovejoy, where he was killed by the 
fall of a tree. 

John Day, son of Dea. Richard Day, became of 
age in 1770, and lived in the hou.-e in which James 
Murdock, 2d, now lives. 

Daniel Gould lived in a house which stood where 
Benjamin Brown, sen. afterward lived. 

Samuel Noyes removed from Andover, and lived 
in a house whicli stood on the hill north of Capt. Geo. 
Alger's house. 

James Noyes lived in a house which stood where 
Capt. Geo. Alger now lives. 

Jonas Bradish came here from Templeton. 

Edward Payson came from Rowley. He lived in 
a house which stood where Barzillai Martin now lives. 

Matthew Knight lived at the tavern house which 
stood where Wm. B. Whitney's house now stands. 

Francis Bridge lived where Asa Perley afterward lived. 

Levi Nichols kept a public house where Capt. Oli- 
ver Adams' house now stands. 

Miles Putnam lived in a small house which stood 
where Geo. S. Coffin's store-house now stands — and 
owned the gristmill and sawmill on that place. 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 66 

Amos Edmands came from Framingham. His 
house stood a few rods westerly of where his son, 
Artemas Edmand's house now stands. 

Joseph Wilder came from Leominster. He lived 
in a house which stood near the house where his son 
Capt. Luke Wilder now lives. He was Capt. of a 
Military Company. 

Ebenezer Smith lived where Isaac Grout afterward 
lived. 

James McElwain lived in a house which stood 
where his son James McElwain now lives. 

David Brown lived where his grandson, Wm. 
Brown Esq. now lives. 

Jonathan Evans lived in a house which stood where 
Benj. Wilder's house now stands. 

Samuel Steel lived where John Crosby now lives. 
He removed out of town. 

Ezra Hyde came from Newton. His house stood 
near the house of Elisha Hyde, his grandson. 

William Whitney removed from Weston. The 
house in which he lived, where his grandson Joseph 
Whitney, 2d, now lives, stands near the line between 
this town and Gardner. 

Jonathan Bradstreet lived in a small house which 
stood where Lyman Raymond now lives. 

Ebenezer Sherwin, 2d, came of age about 1774 — 
lived where -the widow Sherwin now lives. 

David Stoddard removed from Cohasset. His house 
was near where his grandson, Levi Stoddard, lives. 



56 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

Daniel Balcom's house stood where his grandson, 
Lincoln Balcom, now hves. 

Schools. 

In the first settlement of this town, schools were 
very much neglected, as is generally the case in new 
townships. It is probable that something was done 
by private individuals at an earlier period, but during 
the first year of its incorporation, it does not appear 
that there was any school in the town. The first 
appropriation found on record was at a town meeting, 
Sept. 4, 1765, when the town voted to have a school 
in (the centre of) the town, and to have 8 dollars, 
paid out of the land tax, laid out in schooling. 

In 1766 the town granted for schooling ^20 — in 
1767, $13— in 1768, ,f 20, and then voted, that the 
extreme parts of the town have their proportion of 
schooling by themselves, they providing a place and 
a keeper.^ In 1769, .f 13,33— 1770 to 1775, from 
$24 to $61 yearly, 1777-1780 from $100 to $92,00 
yearly, to be paid in paper currency. From this view 
of the subject, we are enabled to judge of the oppor- 
tunities which our fathers enjoyed for acquiring an 
education. The difficulties attendant upon the first 
settlement, and the burdens of the revolutionary war, 
prevented that attention to education which would 
otherwise have been given it. 

After the close of the war, the cause of education 
received more attention, and from that period to this, 

• See Town Records, 



HISTORY OF VVINCHENDON. 67 

our schools have been improving. At the present 
day we have eleven school districts, each of which 
has a good school house. The house in district No, 
2, is calculated for two schools. 

In 1781-5, the town granted ,$120 yearly, 
which then was $20 to each district, to be made 
equal money in 1784,— 1786^8, $167 yearly,— 1789 
-1805, from $200 to 450 yearly,-^! 806-22, $500 
yearly, — for several years up to 1844, $1000 wa3 
annually appropriated,— 1845, $ 1 100,^ 1846^7, 
$1200,-1848, $1500.^ 

In the year 1845-6 our schools were kept in the 
summer 31 months 14 days, by 12 female teachers, 
and in the winter 21 months 21 days, by 9 male and 
3 female teachers ; making the aggregate length of 
the schools 59 months and 7 days. The number of 
scholars of all ages that year was, in summer, 407, in 
winter, 510.' In 1848, the number of persons in the 
town between the ages of 4 and 16 years is 541. 

Winchendon Academy. 

This institution originated in the liberality of 
Ephraim Murdock, Esq. 

The Academy building, which is a finely propor- 
tioned edifice, was erected in the summer of 1843, 
with the intent of having it used for a high school or 
Academy, for the benefit of the town and vicinity, as 



J See Town Records. 2 gee Abstract of the Massachusetts Schooi 
Betiirns for lS4')-6. 



58 HISTORY OF WINCHENDUN. 

long as there shall be a suitable school sustained in 
the building — without any rent or other compensation 
than keeping the premises in repair. 

The building is 30 by 40 feet, two stories high, 
with a projection in front, supported by 4 large fluted 
columns standing on stone pedestals ; and inclosed in 
a yard with a substantial railing on stone posts, and 
ornamented with shady trees, and a gravel walk 
through the centre. 

The donor has also erected a large and convenient 
boarding house, and a stable, for the benefit of the 
institution. The expense of the buildings, including 
the yard, is between three and four thousand dollars. 
Also about ,f 400 has been laid out by the pro- 
prietors, for furniture and apparatus for the Academy 
and boarding house. 

The lower story of the Academy is to be used ex- 
clusively for a school-room, — the upper story or hall 
to be used for lyceums and such other purposes as 
the proprietors may think proper. 

The institution is incorporated, the charter giving 
the power of holding property to the amount of 
$10,000. 

Its design is to furnish facilities for instruction in 
the higher branches of English education, and the 
ancient and modern languages usually taught in 
Academies. 

The first academic term was held in the autumn of 
1843, under the care of Mr. John G. Giles, a gradu- 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 99 

ate of Dartmouth College. During succeeding years, 
the Principals have been as follows : — Mr. Levi O. 
Stevens of Burlington College, Mr. Stephen F. Kel- 
logg and Mr. Charles L. Brace, both of Yale College. 
Since the month of August, 1847, the Academy has 
been under the superintendence of Mr. A. H. Mer- 
riam, a graduate of Dartmouth, and an experienced 
teacher. 

The benfits of the institution are already manifest. 
Many hundreds, of both sexes, ha^e already derived 
grea! advantage from it : and the desire for a higher 
and more thorough education has been excited in 
many a youthful breast. If it shall be sustained ac- 
cording to its praiseworthy design, it will be the source 
of manifold blessings to the community. 

CoUegiates. 

Eight persons, inhabitants (and six of them na- 
tives) of this town have received a collegiate educa- 
tion : Otis Crosby, minister of the gospel in North 
Yarmouth, Me. ; John M. Whiton, minister of the 
gospel in Antrim, N. H.; Sam'l H. Tolman, minister of 
the gospel in Weston, Vt.; Sewal Goodridge, minister of 
the gospel in Canada ; Stephen Emory, Jun. attorney at 
law ; Otis C. Whiton, minister of the gospel in Har- 
risville, (Nelson) N. H. ; Gamaliel C. Beaman, minister 
of the gospel in Indiana; Barret Washburn, sometime 
preceptor of the Academy, Winchendon. 



60 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

Seasons of great mortality, Sudden Deaths, &/C. 

Few towns have been favored with more general 
health than this ; yet there have been seasons of great 
mortality. The disorders which have prevailed to the 
greatest extent, have been the dysentery and the 
canker-rash. In 1775, the dysentery, then called 
* fever and flux,' or ^ camp distemper,* prevailed : 
some aged people, and many children died. In 1786, 
28 persons died of the dysentery. In 1795, the 
canker-rash, formerly called the ' throat distemper,' 
prevailed in the west part of the town : many children 
died. In 1810, the canker-rash prevailed here: the 
whole number of deaths that year, was 54; 45 of 
which were of children. 

There have been many sudden deaths, some of 
which were by violence, some by casualty.' 
Population and other Statistics. 

There are no exact data from which to estimate 
the population till 1790, when the first official census 
was taken. 

The number of inhabitants in this town, was in 
1790,951; in 1840, 1679; in 1846,2020. There 
are 18 persons in this town, who are of the age of 
80 years or more.' There are in the town two physi- 
cians,' and one Attorney.* 

» See Note A A. A. 2 The following gentlemen and ladies are 80 years 
old and upwards, namely: Seth Tucker 91 years of age, Daniel Day 66, 
Jonas Bradish 85, Simon Tuttle 85, John Esty 84, Isaac Taylor 84, Joel 
Butler 83, Jacob Parks 83, Barzillai Martin 83, James Murdock sQ, Asa 
Hale 81, Jacob Scott 80, Daniel May 80, Mrs. Wm. Poland 90, Mrs Re- 
becca Graton 85, Mrs. Abigail Edmunds 83, Mrs. James Murdock 80, Mra» 
Mary Chubb 87. 3 Alva Godding, Ira RusaeL 4 B, 0. Tyler. 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 



Itt 



The ratable property of the town within the last 
ten years, has increased near one third. The stand- 
ard valuation of the town for 1838, ^435,744 ; for 
1848, $642,727 ; number of taxable polls in 1848, 
644. 

There are within the limits of the town (besides 
such as those hereafter stated as being in the three 
principal villages,) 1 grist mill, 16 saw mills, 2 pail 
factories, 2 blacksmiths' shops, and a considerable 
number of carpenters', coopers', turners', and other 
mechanic shops, some of which are worked by 
water power. 

"WiEchendon Village. 

This is sometimes called the North Village. It 
lies on both side of Miller's river. Its extent from 
east to west, is about 1 mile. Some of the streets 
extend from south to north, from one-fourth to one- 
half of a mile. The Cheshire railroad has recently 
been completed through the village, on which, and 
within the limits of the village, is a stately and con- 
venient depot.* 

Within the present limits of the village, there were 
in 1784, but 4 dwelling houses, viz. one where Mr. 
Geo. S. Coffin's store-house stands, occupied by 
Capt. Edward Newton — one near where the depot is, 



I Eegiular Cars first came ob the Cheshire railroad to Winchendon de- 
pot, Monday Uct. 1, 1847. 



$^ HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

owned by Mr. Seth Tucker, sen. — one where Esq. 
Murdock now lives, occupied by Mr. Jeremiah Lord — 
and one where Dea. Reuben Hyde now Hves, occu- 
pied by Mr. Thaddeus Bowman. In 1825, there were 
10 dwelling houses in the place. 

There are now (1848) within the limits of the 
village, 640 inhabitants, 92 dwelling houses, 3 meet- 
ing houses, 1 Academy, I school house, 1 large hotel, 
9 stores, 1 woolen factory,* 1 iron foundry, 1 machine 
shop, 1 grist mill, 2 saw mills, 1 large bobbin manu- 
factory, 1 tannery, 1 tub manufactory, 1 pail manu- 
factory, 2 livery stables, with from 15 to 20 horses 
each, 4 blacksmiths' shops, and various other shops 
for manufacturing and mechanical purposes, occupied 
by carpenters, coopers, wheelwrights, turners, shoe- 
makers, harness-makers, tailors, and other mechanics 
— and many other buildings. 

Spring Village, 

Was so called from its location around the mineral 
springs, which, together with the land in the vicinity, 
were, about the year 1800, owned and occupied by 
Mr. Jacob Whitney. By him the two first buildings, 
which were very small ones, were erected in the place. 
This Village is about 2 miles easterly from the North 



t Owned by the Winchendon Manufacturing Corporation, in which are 
three sets of Machinery. About 200,000 yards twilled fl:innels per year 
we manufactured, employing 15 male, and 13 female bands. Value ol 
goods manufactured, about $50,000 annually. 



I 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 63 

Village, and about 3 miles northeast from the centre 
of the town. 

The north, or Monomenoc branch of Miller's river, 
runs through this village, on v^^hich river has been 
erected a cotton factory. The Spring Manufacturing 
Company has been incorporated, and owns the estab- 
lishment. The factory, now owned by a corporation, 
known as the ' Nelson Mills Manufacturing Company,' 
contains about 6000 spindles, and gives employment 
to 175 individuals. The present number of inhabi- 
tants in the village is nearly 400. There is one 
school-house in the village. Two trading companies 
are doing business in the place. The water power 
1-4 of a mile below the Nelson Mills, is improved 
with lumber apparatus to some extent, though not to 
its full capacity. Should the water power within the 
village be occupied to its full extent, it probably would 
support a population to the number of 1000; as it is, 
the number of inhabitants and dwelling houses are on 
the increase. 

Waterville 

Lies on both sides of Miller's river, about a mile 
westerly from the North Village. In 1810, there was 
no building in the place. 1817, there were only one 
dwelling house and one saw mill. 

Waterville contains now (1848) 34 dwelling houses, 
46 families and 225 inhabitants. It has 2 stores, 1 
saw^ and stave mill, in which a large amount of work 
h done, 3 pail shops, in which about 300,000 pails, 



64 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

tubs, churns, &c. are manufactured yearly, employing 
from 40 to 50 hands. It also contains a box and 
bobbin factory, in which are made annually 400,000 
bobbins and 10,000 nests of boxes, and in which are 
employed 1 1 hands. It has also a machine shop and 
a shoe shop. 

There is not a single mean or worthless dwelling 
house in either of the three above-named villages. 

BEMAaKABLE EVENTS. 
Memorable "Winds. 

There was a hurricane at Winchendon, Oct. 15, 
1795, about 5 o'clock, P. M. Several houses and 
barns were partly unroofed or otherwise injured. One 
house (Mr. Thornton Barret's) was nearly ruined. 
Wool, blown from one chamber, was found adhering 
to apple trees, three or four miles distant. 

A high wind, Sept. 1816, blew down many acres 
of wood and timber in the westerly part of the town. 

The Hard Winter. 

The winter of 1779-80, is memorable as the Hard 
Winter. An immense body of snow covered the 
ground ; and so intense was the cold that for six 
weeks water did not drop from the eaves. 

The Dark Day. 

May 19, 1780, was remarkable throughout New 
England for its unusual darkness. It began about 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 65 

10 o'clock, A. M. ; at 11, the darkness was so great 
that the fowls retired to their roosts, and the cattle 
came to the barns as at night. Before 12 candles 
became necessary. The darkness increased through 
the evening. 

Total Eclipse of the Sun, Jane, 1806. 

In this vicinity, and probably throughout New Eng- 
land, this interesting phenomenon was observed under 
very favorable circumstances. The day was remark- 
ably fine. Not a cloud obscured any part of the 
hemisphere. The air was dry and clear, and the 
heavens, before the obscuration, were in a robe of the 
brightest azure. 

The wind was northwest in the morning, but shifted 
to the northeast after the eclipse commenced, and 
continued easterly until its completion. No dew fell. 
There was a sensible chillness, however, in the air. 
The duration of total darkness was upwards of four 
minutes. 

The departing light of the sun was supportable to 
the naked eye. It was otherwise with the first return 
of light, which was extremely vivid and inexpressibly 
rapid in its access. The portion of the sun which 
first reappeared, was to the naked eye of a globular 
form and seemed like a ball of fire. 

The exhibition was wonderfully magnificient, and 
inspired one universal sentiment of admiration and 
awe. 



66 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

The breadth of the shadow was found to be about 
120 miles, and enveloped the entire territory of Mas- 
sachusetts, except Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. 



NOTES 



At a Great and General Court, in and for His Majesty's 
Province of the Massachusetts Bay in New England, be- 
gun and held at Boston, on Wednesday, the twenty-eighth 
day of May, 1735, and continued by several adjournments 
to Wednesday, the nineteenth of November following. 

In the Hoihse of Representatives, June 10, 1735, in 
alfewer to the petition of Lieut. Abraham Tilton and 
others, 

Voted, That a Tract of Land of the contents of six 
miles square, be laid out in a suitable place in the western 
part of this Province, and that the whole of the Town be 
laid into sixty three shares ; one of which to be for the 
first settled Minister, one for the use of the Ministry, and 
one for the School ; and that on the other sixty shares 
there be sixty admitted ; and in the admission thereof 
preference to be given to the Petitioners, and such as are 
the descendants of the officers and soldiers who served in 
the expedition to Canada in the year 1690, viz : a Tract 
of Land for a Township to the said Abraham Tilton and 
others. And inasmuch as the officers and soldiers [who 
served in] that expedition were very great sufferers, and 
underwent uncommon hardships. 



68 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

Voted, That this Province be at the whole charge of 
laying said Township in a regular manner, and of admit- 
ting the settlers : that the settlers of Grantees hereby are 
obliged to bring forward the settlement of said Township 
in as regular and defensible a manner as the situation and 
circumstances of the place will admit of, and that in the 
following manner, viz : That they be on the granted prem- 
ises, and have each of them a house of eighteen feet square, 
and seven feet stud at the least, that each Right or Grant 
have six acres of land brought to, ploughed or brought to 
English grass, and fitted for mowing : that they settle in 
the plantation or township a learned and orthodox Minis- 
ter, and build a convenient Meetinghouse for the public 
worship of God in the Township: the whole of these con- 
ditions to be duly complied with within five years from the 
confirmation of the Plat. And that Capt. John Hobson 
and Capt. John Choate, with such as the Honorable Board 
shall appoint, be a Committee for laying out the T-^wnship 
hereby granted to Abraham Tilton and others, and admit- 
ting the settlers as aforesaid, who shall take bond of each 
grantee to the value of twenty pounds to the Province 
Treasurer for the respective grantees' fulfillment of the 
conditions of their grant. Each lot as aforesaid to be en- 
titled to, and draw future divisions in equal proportions in 
the township or plantation : and that the Committee return 
the Plat of the said township to the Court, within twelve 
months for confirmation, as also the list of the names of 
the grantees, and their place of residence, into the Secre- 
tary's oflice, that so the same may be examined and regu- 
lated by a Committee that may be hereafter appointed by 
this Court. And further, it is hereby ordered, that in case 
any of the grantees shall neglect or delay to fulfill the terms 



NOTES. 69 

of the grant, such person or persons shall forfeit to the 
Province all his or their right and interest in the land here- 
by granted. 

Sent up for concurrence, 

J. Q,uincy, Speaker. 
In Council, June 18th, 1735. 

Read and Concurred and 
Ordered, that Thomas Berry, Esq., be joined to the 
Committee for laying out the Township. 

J. VVillard, Secretary. 
Dec. 29. Consented to, 

J. Belcher. 
A true Copy, 

Examined, Thads. Mason, Dept. Sec'y. 

A true Copy, Attest, 

Thos. Norton, Jun., Pro. Cler. 

The above document is transcribed from the MS. Book 
of Records of the Original Proprietors of Ipswich Cana- 
da, commonly called The Proprietors' Book. 

B 

In the House of Representatives, March 27, 1736, 
Ordered, That Thomas Berry, Esq be fully authorized 
and empowered to assemble and convene the Proprietors 
and Grantees in Canada Township, on the petition of 
Abraham Tilton and others of Ipswich &c. in some suita- 
ble place and convenient time, to choose a Proprietors' 
Clerk, and pass such Votes and Orders as they may think 
necessary for the regular carrying on the settlement of the 
said Township, agreeable to the conditions of their grant, 
and to agree how meetings shall be called for the future. 
Sent up for concurrence, 

J. duincy, Speaker. 







HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 



In Council, March 27, 1736, 

Read and concurred, 

Simon Frost, Dep. Sec. 
Consented to, J. Celcher. 

A true Copy, Examined, Simon Frost, Dep. Seer. 
Attest, Thos. Norton, Jun., Pro. Cler. 

Propriitors^ Book. 



Essex, ss. At a Meeting of the Committee appointed 
by the General Court for the Province of the Massachu- 
setts Bay in New England, to lay out a Township of the 
contents of six miles square in answer to a petition of 
Abraham Tilton and others, officers and soldiers in the 
expedition to Canada, Anno 1690, the following persons 
were admitted as Grantees of said Township, and gave 
Bonds to fulfill the Court's Order thereon. 
Ipswich, April I3th, 1736. 



■ 




Place of 


Right entered on. 


Persons* names. 


abode. 


Father, 


Thomas Berry, Esq., 


Ipswich. 


Own, 


Jonathan Wade, Esq., 


Ipswich. 


Own, 


John Harris, 


Ipswich. 


Own, 


Thomas Hovey, 


Ipswich. 


Own, 


Abraham Perkins, 


Ipswich. 


Husband and Father, Widow Rachel Rust, 


Ipswich. 


Own, 


Abraham Tilton, 


Ipswich. 


Own, 


Benjamin White, 


Ipswich. 


Own, 


Samuel Poland, 


Ipswich. 


Brother John, 


Thomas Lufkin, 


Ipswich. 


Brother Jacob, 


( Thomas Lufkin is next 
( friend to Mary Lufkin, 


Ipswich. 


Uncle Benedictus, 


Ebenezer Pulcepher, 


Glocester 


Father Moses, 


Jabez Sweet, 


Ipswich. 



NOTES. 



71 



Father's, Solomon Giddinge, 

Brother William, Joseph Goodhue, 

Father's, William Flaskell, 

Brother Thomas, John Ring, 

Uncle Joseph, Benjamin Chadwell, 

Brother John, Edward Nealand, 

T. 1 -rw -rv • ( Nath. Rogers as Guard'n 

Uncle D. Denison, < ^ t t^ • „ 

' ( to J no. Denison, 

Wife's Father Durgee, John Martin, 



Father Servant, 
Father's, 

Uncle Joseph, 

Father's, 

Own, 

Own, 

Uncle Moses Pierce 

Brother Thomas, 

Father's, 

Brother Elisha, 

Brother Benjamin, 

Father's, 

Own, 

Uncle, 

Father Whipple, 

Uncle Freeman, 

Brother George, 

Dil. Caldwell, 

Brother William, 



Isaac Knowlton, 
John Thompson, ||| 
r John Wood in the room 

< of and by the consent of 
( his Father, 

( John Downing byEd.Ev- 

\ eleth his Attorney, 
Thomas Berrin, 
David Low, 

, Moses Wells, 
George Hart, 
William Cogswell, 
Thomas Tredwell, 
Jonathan Jewett, Jun. 
Robert Cross, 
Adam Cogswell, 
Benjamin Chadwell, 
The Hon.Simonds Epes, 
Nathaniel Clark, 
Nathaniel Clark, 

r Capt. Edward Eveleth by 

< and at the request of 
t Dilingham Caldwell, 

Nathaniel Caldwell, 



Ipswich. 

Ipswich. 

Glocester. 

Glocester. 

Ipswich. 

Ipswich. 

Ipswich. 

Ipswich. 
Ipswich. 
Ipswich. 

Ipswich. 

Boston. 

Rowley. 
Ipswich. 
Ipswich. 
Ipswich. 
Ipswich. 
Ipswich, 
Rowley. 
Ipswich. 
Ipswich. 
Ipswich. 
Ipswich. 
Ipswich. 
Ipswich. 

Ipswich. 

Ipswich. 



72 



HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 



Father, 


Henry Wise, 
r Thomas Norton, Jan. at 


Ipswich. 


John Ayers, 


< the request of Samuel 
( Ayers, a Petitioner, 


Ipswich. 


Own, 


John Ross, 


Ipswich. 


Father's, 


Isaac Giddinge, 
j- Edward Eveleth at the 


Ipswich. 


Thomas Metcalf, 


< requestof Jos. Metcalf 
( a Petitioner, 


Ipswich. 


Father's, 


Moses Davis, 


Ipswich. 


Grandfather, 


Ephraim Fitts, 


Ipswich. 


Pearce, W 


Thomas Boardman, 


Ipswich. 




Edward Chapman, 


Ipswich. 




John Goodhue, 


Ipswich. 


Uncle Isaac, 


Abraham Foster, Jun. 


Ipswich. 


Major Ward, 


Doct. Nicholas Noyes, 


Andover. 


Father's, 


John Pindar, 


Ipswich. 


Uncle Samuel, 


Nathaniel Lord, 


Ipswich. 


Uncle Edmond, 


Samuel Ingalls, 


Ipswich. 


Brother Aaron, 


Moses Kimball, 


Ipswich. 


Uncle Cheney, 


John Leighton, 


Ipswich. 


Rob't Nelson, 


Joseph Annable, 


Beverly. 


Math. Hooker, 


Widow Mary Hooker, 
r Thomas Lord, Jun. at 


Ipswich. 


Uncle Saund, 


} his Father Jno. Lord's 
( request, 


Ipswich. 




Proprietors^ Book. 



D 

See the History of the County of Worcester, compiled 
by Rev. Peter Whitney of Northborough, Article Win- 
chendon. 

That History was published in 1793, to which the Edi- 



NOTES. 73 

tor is much indebted, and from which, copious extracts will 
be made in the present work. 

E 

The Proprietors and Grantees of the new Township 
lately granted to Mr. Abraham Tilton and others, officers 
and soldiers in the expedition to Canada anno 1690, are 
hereby notified and warned to assemble and meet at the 
Townhouse in Ipswich, on Monday the thirty-first day of 
instant May at four of the clock afternoon, then and there 
to choose a Proprietors' Clerk, and to pass such votes and 
orders as may be thought most proper for bringing forward 
the said Township agreeable to the General Court's order. 
And to agi'ee how to call meetings of said Proprietors for 
the future. 

Thomas Berry, pr. order. 

Dated at Ipswich, May 20th, 1736. 

Proprietors^ Book. 



At a legal meeting of the Proprietors and Grantees of the 
new Township lately granted to Mr. Abraham Tilton and 
others, officers and soldiers in the expedition to Canada 
Anno 1690, at the Town house in Ipswich on Monday the 
31st day of May, Anno Domini 1736. 

Voted, That Col. Thomas Berry be Moderator. 

Voted, That Thomas Norton, Jun. be Clerk to the 
Proprietors : and he was sworn to the faithful discharge of 
his office, by Thomas Berry, Esq. at the same time. 

Voted, That any two of the Committee, viz : Gol. 
Thomas Berry, Capt. John Choate, and Capt. John Hob- 
6 



74 HISTORY or WINCHENDON. 

son, be empowered to employ two men to burn the woods, 
if, according to their discretion, they shall think it best. 

Voted, That any five of the Proprietors or Grantees 
shall have power to call a Meeting, and five days from the 
date of the notification shall be a sufficient warning. 

Voted, That this Meeting be dissolved : and the Mod- 
erator declared the Meeting dissolved accordingly. 

Attest, Thos. Norton, jun.. Pro. Cler. 

Proprietors' Book. 



To Mr. Thomas Norton, Jun., Clerk of the Proprietors 
of that Tract of Land granted to Abraham Tilton and 
others. These are to desire you to set up a 

Notification to warn said Proprietors to meet at the Town 
house in Ipswich, on Monday the 2iSth day of June instant, 
at 4 of the clock afternoon, in order to choose a certain 
number of the Proprietors to go and view said Tract of 
Land, and to make report how it is accommodated on all 
accounts, and to act and transact any other thing that may 
be proper and necessary to be done to forward the settle- 
ment thereof. Jonathan Wade, 

Edward Eveleth, 
Henry Wise, 
Dated Ipswich, Thos. Hovey, 

June 19th, 1736. Benjamin Chadwell. 

Pursuant to the above written Warrant, to me directed, 
I notified the above named Proprietors to meet at the time 
and place above mentioned, by setting up a notification on 
the meetinghouse door, and by sending one to each of the 
parishes, viz : Chebacco and the Hamlet. 
Dated Ipswich, Attest, 

June 19, 1736. Thos. Norton, Jun. Pro. Cler. 



NOTES. 75 

At a legal meeting of the Proprietors of that Tract of 
Land granted to Lieut. Abraham Tilton and others, at the 
Town house in Ipswich, on Monday the 28th day of June, 
Anno Domini, 1736. 

Voted, That Capt. Edward Eveleth be Moderator. 

Voted, That Capt. Edward Eveleth, Lieut. Solom.on 
Giddinge, Mr. Wm. Cogswell, Mr. John Martin and Mr. 
Isaac Giddinge be a Committee to go and view the land, 
and see the qualifications thereof, and report to the Pro- 
prietors as soon as may be. 

Voted, That the Committee, having performed the ser- 
vice aforesaid, shall have a reasonable satisfaction. 

Voted, That the Meeting be dissolved. And the Mod- 
erator declared the Meeting dissolved accordingly. 

Attest, Thos. Norton, jun.. Pro. Cler. 

Proprietors^ Book. 

H 

The meeting was called by five Proprietors, viz : Thomas 
Berry, Edward Eveleth, Henry Wise, George Hart, and 
Moses Kimball ; and notified by Thos. Norton, jun.. Pro. 
Cler. 

At a legal Meeting of the Proprietors of that Tract of 
Land granted to Lieut. Abraham Tilton and others at the 
Town house in Ipswich on Thursday the 4th day of No- 
vember, Anno Domini 1736. 

Voted, That Col. Thomas Berry be Moderator. 

Voted, That Col. Thomas Berry, Capt. Edward Eveleth, 
and Lieut. Abraham Tilton be the Committee to lot and 
lay out the first division, which is not to be under fifty 
acres, and not to exceed a hundred. 



16 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

Voted, That Jonathan Wade, esq. be Treasurer. 
Voted, That each Proprietor of every original Right 
shall pay into the treasury three pounds to defray the 
charges that have already arisen, or shall hereafter arise in 
lotting the Township or otherwise. 

Voted, That this meeting be dissolved : And it was ac- 
cordingly dissolved by the Moderator. 

Attest, Thos. Norton, jun., Pro. Cler. 

Proprietors^ Book. 



Extracts from the records of the Meeting, 6th May, 1737. 

Voted, for Assessors Col. Thomas Berry, Thomas Nor- 
ton, jun. and Mr. Henry Wise. 

Voted, That Capt. Edward Eveleth and Mr. William 
Cogswell be Collectors. — Proprietors* Book. 



Essex, ss. To Mr. Thomas Norton, jun., Clerk of the 
Proprietors of the Township lately granted to Mr. Abra- 
ham Tilton and others, officers and soldiers in the expe- 
dition to Canada 1690. 

You are hereby required to notify and warn the Gran- 
tees and Proprietors of the Township lately granted to Mr. 
Abraham Tilton and others, officers and soldiers in the 
expedition to Canada Anno 1690, that they assemble and 
meet at the house of Mr. Nath'l Tredwell innholder in 
Ipswich on Thursday the 27th day of October current, at 
4 of the clock afternoon, then and there to receive the re- 
turn of the Committee appointed to lay out the first divis« 



NOTES. 77 

ion of lots, and subdivide the same or part of them, if the 
Proprietors shall think best. 

2. To make proper and suitable provision for ways 
through said lots. 

3. To agree upon some method for clearing to the cen- 
ter of the first division of lots, or where they shall agree 
upon to set the first Meetinghouse. 

4. To fix upon the place to erect ajid build a Meeting- 
house, and to reserve a sufficient quantity of land out of 
some of the lots for a training field and burying place. 

5. To make proper allowance to the person who may 
draw the lot out of which the aforesaid reserves may be 
made. 

6. To give liberty to such of the Proprietors as may 
draw a lot not accommodable for settling, to make a sec- 
ond draft out of the supernumerary lots that are laid out. 

7. To make suitable provision for the erecting and 
building of a Sawmill. 

8. To give such encouragement to the Grantee who 
shall build, agreeable to the General Court's order, the 
first dwellinghouse of 18 feet in length and 7 feet stud, as 
shall be judged necessary and convenient. 

9. For each Grantee to draw his lot in the first division 
now laid out : and such of them as have not already paid 
the three pounds voted at the last Meeting to defray the 
charge of laying out the lots, pay the same before they be 
allowed to draw their lots. 

10. To take some proper method to obtain leave of the 
General Court to dispose of lots that may be lost to any of 
the Grantees who shall neglect and refuse to pay the charge 
that hath already arisen in laying out the lots and other- 
ways. 



78 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

11. To settle and adjust accounts with such persons to 
whom the Grantees and Proprietors are indebted. 

Thomas Berry, 
Edward Eveleth, 
Abraham Tilton, 

Dated Ipswich, Henry Wise, 

Oct. 22d, 1737. Jonathan Wade. 

Pursuant to the aforementioned warrant, to me directed, 
I have notified and warned the aforesaid Proprietors to 
meet at time and place aforesaid, by setting up a notifi- 
cation on the meetinghouse door in the first parish in Ip- 
swich, and by sending one to each of the neighboring par- 
ishes, viz : Chebacco and the Hamlet. 

Dated at Ipswich, Oct. 22d, 1737. 

Attest, Thos. Norton, jun., Pro. Cler. 

At a legal Meeting of the Proprietors of the Township 
lately grranted by the General Court to Mr. Abraham Til- 
ton and others, officers and soldiers in the expedition to 
Canada, Anno Domini 1690, at the house of Mr. Nath'l 
Tredwell in Ipswich, on Thursday the 27th of Oct., A. D. 
1737. 

Voted, That Col. Thomas Berry be Moderator. 

Voted, That the return of the Committee appointed to 
lay out the first division of lots be accepted and recorded, 
being a hundred acres in each lot. 

Voted, That the land left for ways be reserved for the 
Proprietors' use and service, as they shall order and direct. 

Voted, That 5 acres be reserved out of No. 1 in the 
south division, for building a Meetinghouse on, a burying 
place and training field : And that an equivalent be allow- 
ed out of lot No. 30, in the south division, to the Propri- 
etor drawing lot No. 1. 



NOTES. iy 

Voted, That there be a road cut from Earlington* as near 
as may be to the meetinghouse lot, at the charge of the 
Proprietors. 

Voted, That liberty may ye given to such of the Pro- 
prietors as may draw a lot not accommodable for settling, 
to make a second draft out of the supernumerary lots that 
are already laid out : if not in them, then in the undivided 
lands, at his own charge that desires it. 

Voted, that the use of the streams running through the 
Township be reserved to the Proprietors, and they shall 
have liberty to set up such mills as they shall think neces- 
sary for the Proprietors for six years to come. The per- 
son, through whose land the stream shall pass, to erect a 
mill if he think proper : but on his refusal, the Proprietors 
may and shall dispose thereof as they shall think best, 
without making any other allowance to the Proprietor 
of said lot than for such damages as may be done on his 
land, but none for the stream. And that no mill be erected 
on said Township, but by the allowance of the Proprie- 
tors, for the aforesaid term of six years. 

Voted, That the sum of twenty pounds be allowed and 
paid out of the Proprietors' treasury to each of the three 
Grantees who shall first build three houses in the Township, 
agreeable to the General Court's act, and have a family 
settled in them : provided the family be settled there on or 
before the last of October next. 

Voted, That each Grantee pay the sum of three pounds 
before he be allowed to draw his lot. 

Voted, That Mr. Abraham Tilton, the father of thePe- 

* The Editor has not yet discovered what place is here meant by Earl- 
ineton. 



80 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

tition, be allowed to choose his lot. (He chose the lot 
No. 30 in the north division.) 

Voted, That the lots No. 14 and 15 in the south division 
be reserved for the Proprietors' order. 

Voted, That the lot No. 1 in the north division be the 
Ministry or Parsonage lot. 

Voted, That the lot No. 31 in the south division be the 
Minister's lot. 

A list of the Proprietors, and of each Right drawn for 
each Proprietor. 



Names. 


Eights. 


Lieut. Abraham Tilton, 


N. D. No. 30 


Thomas Lord, jun., 


S. D. No. 26 


Moses Davis, 


S. D. No. 27 


Widow Mary Hooker, 


N. D. No. 17 


Isaac Knowlton, 


S. D. No. 16 


Edward Eveleth, 


N. D. No. 35 


John Ring, 


N. D. No. 25 


John Martin, 


N. D. No. 12 


Rev. Nath'l Rogers for J. Denisor 


I, N. D. No. 6 


George Hart, 


N. D. No. 22 


John Leighton, 


S. D. No. 9 


Edward Chapman, 


N. D. No. 2 


John Pindar, 


N. D. No. 23 


Benj. Chadwell, 


N. D. No. 26 


David Low, 


N. D. No. 8 


Benjamin Chadwell, 


N. D. No. 15 


John Ross, 


N. D. No. 18 


Edward Nealand, 


S. D. No. * 


John Wood, 


S. D. No. * 


Moses Welles, 


N. D. No. 3 


* MS. illegible.— Ed. 





NOTES. 81 

Edward Eveleth, S. D. No. 7 

Widow Rachel Rust, S. D. No. 3 

Wm. (^ogswell, S. D. No. 23 

Samuel Ingalls, N. D. No. 24 

Hon. Simonds Epes, esq., S. D. No. 4 

Doct. Nicholas Noyes, S. D. No. 12 

Thos. Norton, jun., S, D. No. 25 

Thomas Perrin, N. D. No. 14 

Robert Cross, N. D. No. 20 

Thos. Luf kin, S. D. No. 33 

Isaac Giddinge, N. D. No. 5 

Thos. Boardman, N. D. No. 32 

Thos. Tredwell, S. D. No. 34 

Nath'l Tredwell, N. D. No. 31 

Hon. Thomas Berry, esq., S. D. No. 2 

Jonathan Jewett, jun. S. D. No. 35 

Joseph Annable, N. D. No. 28 

Henry Wise, N. D. No. 19 

Joseph Goodhue, S. D. No. 20 

John Goodhue, N. D. No. 29 

Moses Kimball, S. D. No. 5 

Adam Cogswell, S. D. No. 18 

Ephraim Fitts, S. D. No. 10 

John Downing, N. D. No. 4 

Thos. Hovey, N. D. No. 21 

School, N. D. No. 10 

Nath'l Clark, N. D. No. 7 

Samuel Poland, N. D. No. 18 

Abraham Perkins, N. D. No. 33 

Jabez Sweet, S. D. No. 13 

Benj. White, S. D. No. 11 

John Thompson, S. D. No. 30 



82 HISTORY OF VVINCHENDON. 



Jonathan Wade, esq. 


N. D. 


No. 4 


Thos. Luf kin, 


N. D. 


No. 16 


John Harris, 


N. D. 


No. 27 


Solomon Giddinge, 


S. D. 


No. 22 


Wm. Haskell, 


S. D. 


No. 29 


Ebenezer Pulcepher, 


S. D. 


No. 32 


Nath'I Clark, 


S. D. 


No. 36 


Abraham Foster, jun., 


S. D. 


No. 6 


Nath'I Lord, 


N. D. 


No. 34 



Voted, That this Meeting be adjourned to Thursday the 
third of Nov. next at four of the clock afternoon, to meet 
at this place. 

At a legal Meeting of the Proprietors of the Township 
granted to Mr. Abraham Tilton and others &c., at the 
house of Mr. Nath'I Tredwell in Ipswich on Thursday, 
27th Oct., A. D., 1737, and continued by an adjournment 
to Thursday 3d day of November following to meet at the 
said Tredwell's, and met accordingly. 

Col. Thomas Berry, Moderator. 
The Proprietors of the Township granted to Mr. Abraham 

Tilton and others, &c.. To Thomas Berry Dr. 

1736, March. To a book of Records, ^1-10-0 

To a journey to Lancaster to secure the laying 

out of the Township, expense, horse, &c., 5-00-0 
To 1 day's attendance on the Grantees and 

admitting, 0-15-0 

To 1-2 day in said service, 0-07-6 

To a copy of the Plan &c. from the Sec'ry's 

office, 0-15-0 

To a journey and service in laying out the 

lots, expenses &-c. 5-00-0 

Errors excepted. 

pr. Thomas Berry. 



NOTES. 83 

The Proprietors &,c., To John Hobson, esq. Dr. 

To 1 day's attendance admitting Grantees, <£0-15-0 

Voted, That the acc'ts of Col. Thomas Berry, and John 

Hobson, Esq., above written, be allowed and paid out of 

the Proprietors' treasury to them in full discharge thereof. 

Ipswich Canada Grantees Dr. 

1736. Paid to the Deputy Sec'ry for Copies, .£0-10-0 
To 1 1-2 days' attendance in admitting 

Grantees, 1-02-6 

To a journey up the country, horse and 

expenses included, 5_00-6 



Errors excepted Total .£6-13-0 

John Choate. 

Voted, That the aforesaid acco't be allowed, and that 
the sum of six poinds and thirteen shillings be paid out of 
the Proprietors' treasury to John Choate, Esq. in full dis- 
charge of his account. 

Voted, That the sum of sixty one pounds and six shil- 
lings be paid out of the Proprietors' Treasury to Thomas 
Berry esq. in discharge of the accounts of Messrs. Wheel- 
er, Parker, Wetherbee, Richardson, Bellows, and the two 
surveyors, for laying out the first division in the Township. 
Oct. 27, 1737. The Community of Ipswich Canada Dr. 

To Abraham Tilton for 17 days' work at 

15s pr. day, ^12-15-0 

Voted, That the sum of twelve pounds and fifteen shil- 
lings be paid out of the treasury to Lieut. Abraham Tilton 
in full discharge of his acccunt. 

Voted, That 13 shillings per day be allowed, and paid 
out of the treasury, to each of those that assisted in lot- ^ 
ting out the Township, being 17 days each, viz : John 



84 HISTORY OF VVINCHENDON. 

Martin, Isaac Martin, Thomas Brown, Francis Goodhue, 

and John Martin jun. amounting to the sum of eleven 

pounds one shilling to each of them. 

Voted, That six pounds be allowed and paid out of the 

treasury, to such Proprietor as shall cut a horse way from 

Earlington road to the Meetinghouse lot. 

Voted, That the sum of i^3-03-2, the expenses of the 

house, be allowed and paid out of the treasury to Mr. 

Nath'l Tredwell. 

The Proprietors of Canada Township granted to Mr. 
Tilton and others, &lC. Dr. 

To the Committee that went to view the Township name- 
ly, Edward Eveleth, Abraham Tilton, Solomon Gid- 
dinge, John Martin and Isaac Giddinge, Sept. 28 to 
Oct. 1736, to 9 days each at 15s pr. day, of 33-15-0 
To paid John Bennett the pilot, ^ 3-00-0 

Errors excepted. Total ^36-15-0 

Edward Eveleth. 
Voted, That the sum of thirty six pounds and fifteen 
shillings be paid out of the treasury to the Committee 
aforesaid in discharge of their accounts. 

Voted, That this meeting be adjourned to this day three 
weeks at 4 of the clock afternoon, to meet at this place : 
And met accordingly. 
Col. Thos. Berry, Moderator. 

Voted, That liberty be granted to draw John Downing's 
lot, but it is not to be recorded till he shall have paid his 
three pounds. 

Voted, That this meeting be dissolved : And it was ac- 
cordingly dissolved by the Moderator. 

Attest, Thos Norton jun. Pro. Cler. 

Proprietors^ Book. 



NOTES. 85 

The above cited extract, together with the following 
note adduced from Mr. Torrey's valuable History of the 
Town of Fitchburg, will show the value of labor and ser- 
vices about one century ago. The currency and common 
mode of reckoning then was old tenor. 

' Old Tenor' and * Lawful Money' explained. 

" As many of my readers, at the present day, would 
probably find it difficult to determine the difference be- 
tween ' Old Tenor' and ' Lawful Money,' I will here add 
that in the year 1702 recourse was had in the New Eng- 
land provinces to a paper currency to support the expenses 
of the government, and furnish a substitute for a circulat- 
ing medium. The bills purported that they would be re- 
deemed at a certain time, which was done at first, but it 
soon became customary to redeem them by new emissions. 
This being done pretty liberally, they began to depreciate 
in value. In Massachusetts, where their value was kept 
up better than in the other provinces, the depreciation was 
at the rate of seven and a half for one in specie. This 
currency acquired the name of Old Tenor — seven shillings 
and six pence being equal to only one shilling in silver, 
which was called ' Lawful money,' orninepence sterling of 
Great Britain. 

In the year 1750, the government of Great Britain made 
a grant of a sum of money to Massachusetts to remuner- 
ate the province for its exertions in the late war with 
France. Governor Hutchinson proposed that this sum, 
which was sent over in dollars and parts of dollars, should 
be appropriated to redeem the whole of the bills of credit 
of the province. This proposition, after much opposition, 
was carried into effect ; and eventually it was productive 



86 HISTORY OF WINCHEiNDON. 

of much good. Accordingly the circulation of Old Ten- 
or bills was finally stopped on the 31st of March, 1750. 
The last emission of the Old Tenor bills was made by 
Gov. Shirley in order to defray the expenses of the expe- 
dition against Cape Breton in 1745. This he did contra- 
ry to the express orders of the king to put a stop to them ; 
but as the plan was successful, no notice was taken of this 
breach of orders." 

N. B. — 5 shillings Old Tenor=:8 pence Lawful Money 
of Massachusetts=:about 11 cents Federal Money. — £5 
O. T.=13s 4d L. M.-=8:>,22 F. M.— cilOOO. T.=£V3- 
6-8 L. M.=:e44,45 F. M. 

K 

* Old Style' and ' New Style' Explained. 

The young reader may naturally inquire the reason of 
this month February being in the same year with the pre- 
vious October. For information this note is inserted. The 
Old Style was in use and the year began on the 25th of 
March, until 1752; after which the year began on the 1st 
of January. 

Extract from the Act of Parliament regulating the 
commencement of the year, and for correcting the calen- 
dar now in use. 

Whereas the legal supputation of the year of our Lord 
in England according to which the year beginneth on 
the 25th day of March, hath been found by experience to 
be attended with divers inconveniences — therefore — Be it 
enacted. That the said sapputation, according to which 
the year of our Lord beginneth on the 25th day of March, 
shall not be made use of from and after the last day of 



NOTES. 87 

December, 1751 ; and that the first day of January next 
following the said last day of December, shall be reck- 
oned, taken, deemed and accounted to be the first day of 
the year of our Lord 1752. And that from and after the 
first day of January 1752, the several days of each month 
shall go on and be reckoned and numbered in the same 
order as they now are until the second day of September 
in the said year 1752 inclusive; and that the natural day 
next immediately following the said second day of Sep- 
tember shall be called, reckoned and accounted to be the 
fourteenth day of September, omitting for that time only 
the eleven intermediate days of the common calendar. 
— Vide Acts arid Laws of Massachusetts Baij , fol. Boston 
Ed. 1759, j;^. 351, 352. 



Extracts from the records of the meeting of Feb. 13, 
1737. 

Voted, That there be a cartway cut from Dorchester 
Canada meeting house lot, on the nearest and most con- 
venient way that can be found from Dorchester Canada 
road, to the center of the lots as laid out in the Township 
of the said Ipswich Canada, and make such bridges and 
causeys as are absolutely necessary for making the way 
passable. 

Voted, That 4 acres be cleared in the meeting house 
lot, in the most convenient place for erecting the meeting 
house, and be sowed with herds grass ; and that Col. Ber- 
ry, Capt. Eveleth, Mr. Davis, Lieut. Giddinge, Mr. Mar- 
tin, Mr. Lord, Thos. Brown, or any three of them, be 
desired to view the meeting house lot, and agree where to 



88 HISTORY or WINCHENDON. 

clear in order to set the meeting house on, taking the 
advice of such Proprietors as shall be there. — Projprietors' 
Book. 

M 

Extracts from the records of the meeting of Feb. 8, 1738. 

Voted, That 20 shillings be raised and assessed on each 
original Right, to be paid into the treasury by the first day 
of May next, to lie there for the encouragement of such 
persons as shall build a Sawmill, to be paid out by the 
Proprietors' order to the persons with whom they shall 
hereafter agree. 

Voted, That Col. Berry be empowered and directed to 
agree with some proper persons to clear a road that shall 
be marked out by the Proprietors of Payqueage, from the 
line of the township to the town road. — Proprietors^ Book. 

N 

Extracts from the records of the meeting of March 14, 
1742. 

Voted, That Col. Tho. Berry, Messrs. William Brown 
and Samuel Dodge be a Committee to lay out a second 
division of lots. 

Voted, That Col. Tho. Berry, Messrs. Wm. Brown and 
Samuel Dodge be Committee to build a cornmill in the 
most convenient place, and for the best advantage of tho 
Proprietors, taking the best advice therefor. 

Voted, That Col. Tho. Berry, Messrs. Wm. Brown and 
Samuel Dodge be directed and empowered to treat and 
agree with Joseph Priest, or his son, or some other black- 



NOTES. 89 

smith, to do the Proprietors' blacksmiths' work in the 

Township in the best way and manner they can for the 
advantage of the Proprietors. 



O 

Extracts from the records of the meeting of April 11, 
1751. 

Voted, That Messrs. Wm. Brown, Francis Goodhue 
and Moses Wells, or either two of them, be a Committee 
to run the line and renew the bounds between the Town- 
ships of Ipswich Canada and Dorchester Canada and any 
of the Townships that join on Ipswich Canada. 



Extracts from the records of the meeting. 

At a legal meeting of the Proprietors of Ipswich Cai>- 
ada at the dwelling house of Mr. Joseph Newhall, inn- 
holder in Ipswich, June 20, 1751. 

Voted, That the return of the Committee be accepted 
and recorded, viz. 

Ipswich May 25th 1751. 
We the subscribers being a Committee appointed by 
the Proprietors of Ipswich Canada Township to run the 
line and renew the bounds between the Township of Ips- 
wich Canada and Dorchester Canada, and any of the 
Townships that join on Ipswich Canada. We have accor- 
dingly proceeded on said business, and have run the lines 
and marked the trees between Ipswich Canada and Dor- 
chester Canada: and Ipswich Canada and Narraganset 
7 



90 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

No. 2 : * and Ipswich Canada and Narraganset No. 6 : t 
and have renewed the corner bounds, by adding stones 
and marking trees. 

William Brown \ 
Francis Goodhue > Committee. 
Moses Wells j 

Voted, That Mr. Francis Goodhue be Treasurer and 
empowered to demand the book and acct. of the former 
Treasurer's administrator. 

Voted, That Col. Thomas Berry, Col. Daniel Apple- 
ton, and William Brown, be a Committee to assist the 
Clerk in making a report to the General Court. — Propri- 
etors^ Book. 



Extracts from the Proprietors' Book of Records. 
At a legal meeting of the Proprietors of Ipswich Cana- 
da January 29th 1752. Voted, That the sum of one 
hundred pounds, old tenor, be paid out of the treasury to 
each of the first families that shall build a dwelling house 
and settle a family in the aforesaid Township : provided, 
they shall build and settle by the first of November next : 
provided also, that they enter their names with the Clerk, 
at, or before the first of April next; and give to the 
Treasurer a good and sufficient bond, with surety, to per- 
form the above conditions ; and keep a family there for 
the space of three years from the said first of November : 
The number of said families entitled to said hundred 
pounds, not to exceed ten. 

* Now Westminster. t Now Templeton. 



NOTES. 91 

March 10, 1752. Thomas Brown sent his claim to 

be received for one of the first settlers - 1 

Edward Eveleth entered his claim for two of the first 

settling families " 2 

16. Ezekiel Jewett enters his claim for one of the 

first settlers - 1 

March 31, 1752. The Hon. Thomas Berry put in 

his claim for two settling families - - 2 

April 4. Thomas Brown desires the privilege of 

being admitted for two more settling Rights - 2 
18. Col. Tho. Berry claims a privilege for one more 

of the first settling families - - - - 1 
23. Edward Eveleth desires the privilege for one 

more settling family 1 

10 

Proprietors' Book. See also Whitney's History of the 
County of Worcester, p. 255. 

R 

It appears from tradition as well as from the Proprie- 
tors' Book of Records, that there were several block 
houses or buildings made of hewn logs, erected and occu- 
pied for garrisons ; viz. one on the plain near Bullard's 
mill ; one,* near the south end of the meeting house com- 
mon, which Dea. Moses Hale occupied as a dwelling for 
some time before removing into his own dwelling house ; 



* Mary Holt, the first child born within the #mits of what is now 
Winchendon, was born in this house, Nov. 15, 1753. It is said that then 
there were but six women in the Township. She was married to Mr.. 
Jonathan Bos worth of Royalston. She was left a widow. She died Jan. 
2.5, 1847, aged 93 yrs. 1 mo. 10 d. 



92 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

one, near the east line of the farm of Mr. Jacob Hale, 
senior, which he occupied as a dwelling house within the 
memory of the writer ; one near where Dea. Desire Tol- 
man afterward lived, and one where Mr. Benjamin Kid- 
der afterwards lived. 



Extracts from the records. 

At a meeting in Ipswich July 3, 1753. 

Voted, That Col. Thomas Berry and Mr. Thomas Wil- 
der, or either of them, be a Committee fully authorized 
and empowered to petition the next Sessions of the Peace 
in the County of Worcester, in order to establish a way 
from Lunenburg meeting house through Dorchester Can- 
ada, Narragansett No. 2, to Ipswich Canada, and so far 
as Ipswich Canada extends : and if they cannot be ac- 
commodated there, to apply to the General Court for the 
ends aforesaid. 

Voted, That the Proprietors will be at the charge of 
four days preaching in Ipswich Canada ; one day in Au- 
gust next, and the other three days in October or Novem- 
ber : and that Mr. Abijah Smith be desired to take care 
and procure a suitable person to preach. 

Voted, That Messrs. Thomas Wilder and Abijah Smith 
be a committee to prepare stuff in order to build n. meet- 
ing house the next spring. — Proprietors' Book. 



This house, buiH about 1752 by Mr. Richard Day, is 
the one which stands on high ground west of the meeting 
house common, and which afterwards was owned by Rev. 



NOTES. 93 

Mr. Brown, now owned by Rev. Mr. Bullard. There was 
a house built, probably about the same time, where Mr. 
Wm. B. Whitney's house is, which was occupied as a Tav- 
ern for many years, successively by Matthew Knight, Sam- 
uel Griggs, Francis Bridge, Bemsly Lord, Joshua Gale, 
Luther Stimson, James McElwain and Phinehas Whitney. 
And a house was built near the burying ground and occu- 
pied by James Mansfield. Also a house was built near 
the common, south west, and was occupied by Gabriel 
Pouchey.* And a house was built by Col. Thomas Berry 
where Deacon Desire Tolman afterward lived. 

U 

Extracts from the records. 

Voted, That the mill road where it is dangerous, and 
impossible to pass without, be mended and repaired, and 
Col. Thomas Berry have the oversight thereof 

Voted, That two shillings and eight pence a day be al- 
lowed for a yoke of good stout oxen or two horses. 

Voted, That the meeting house frame be granted to Col. 
Thomas Berry, to enable him to build a suitable and con- 
venient room, to be allowed as a house for the Proprietors 
to meet in, on the sabbath days, for public worship. — Pro- 
prietors^ Book. 

V 

Extracts from the records. 
At a legal meeting of the Proprietors at the house of 
Richard Day, 31st Oct. 1754. 

* Nathan Pouchey was the iirst male child born in the Township. He 
was therefore entitled to a lot of land in the Township ; which he receiv- 
ed when he arrived at the age of 21 years. He died in the revolutionary 
army. 



94 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

Voted, That something further shall be done in fortify- 
ing the Township. 

Voted, That the sum of three hundred pounds, old ten- 
or, be raised in order to fortify the Township : fifty pounds 
of which is to fortify Mr. Darling's house, and fifty pounds 
to fortify Mr. Boynton's house, and one hundred pounds 
toward defraying the acct. of fortifying I'homas Jewett's 
house. 

Voted, That Col. Thomas Berry's house shall be forti- 
fied, and that one hundred pounds, old tenor, be allowed 
therefor, the said Berry to pay what farther sum shall be 
needed to complete the garrison, which he agreed to. 

Voted, That Col. Berry, Capt. Goodridge and Mr. Smith 
be a Committee to see that the Garrisons are completed. 

Voted, That Abijah Smith be Clerk. And he was 
sworn to his office before Edward Hartwell. 

Voted, That one dollar be assessed on each and every 
original Right, to pay for preaching the winter coming. 

Voted, That Mr. John Brown and Mr. Thomas Jewett 
be desired to provide a suitable person to preach for them. 
— Proprietors^ Book. 



W 

From the records of the numerous votes of the Proprie- 
tors, respecting the support of preaching in the Township 
antecedently to the settlement of a minister, one more ex- 
tract will be here inserted. 

At a meeting at Lunenburg, Sept. 22, 1761. 

Voted, and chose Samuel Hunt, David Goodridge and 
Richard Day, a Committee to provide preaching in the 
Township of Ipswich Canada. 



NOTES. 95 

Voted, and raised two dollars on each original Right to 
pay for preaching in said Township. Also, that the Com- 
mittee be ordered to provide a preacher half the sabbaths. 
— Proprietors^ Book. 

X 

Extracts from the records. 

Nov. 30, 1758. The Proprietors 

Voted, That the Proprietors will act on the affair to 
build a gristmill in said Township of Ipswich Canada. 

Voted, That for encouragement, two dollars be granted 
on each original Right, to any person or persons, that shall 
undertake and build a gristmill in said Township, and 
keep said mill in repair, and grind for the inhabitants for 
lawful toll, for the term of ten years : and that the money 
shall be paid as soon as the mill is fit to grind. Also 100 
acres of land, with the stream, be given by said Proprie- 
tors for further encouragement to the person or persons, 
that shall undertake and build said mill. — Proprietors' 
Booh. 



Extracts from the records. 

Nov. 1, 1759. The Propiietors 

Voted, That the Surveyors already chosen [namely, 
John Moffat, Jacob Gould and Richard Day,] are hereby 
ordered to build a bridge in said Township over Miller's 
river on the county road to Royalshire,* out of the money 

* Now Royalston. 



96 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

already granted by the Propriety, according to their best 
skill and judgment. — Proprietors' Book. 



Extracts from the records. 

The Proprietors, June 30, 1762, 

Voted, That sixty days highways' woi'k shall be done in 
building a bridge over the River, by Mr. Parson's mill 
place. — Proprietors' Book. 

AA 

Extracts from the records. 

Sept. 22, 1761. Voted, That the Proprietors will build 
a meeting house in the Township of Ipswich Canada. 

Voted, That the said meeting house shall be 35 feet 
wide, and 45 feet long, and the length of the posts to be 
22 or 23 feet. 

Voted and chose Benjamin Goodridge, Abijah Smith, 
and Philip Goodridge, a Committee to let out the meeting 
house. 

Voted, That the Committee be empowered to see that 
the said meeting house be hewed, framed and raised, the 
outside boarded, shingled, and clapboarded, window sashes, 
and glass put up, door heads and doors be made, the low- 
er floor be laid, and the frame be underpinned with con- 
venient stones. 

Voted, That the said meeting house shall be completed 
as aforesaid by the last day of September, 1762. 

Voted, That the meetings be held in Ipswich Canada 
for the future. 



NOTES. 97 

At a legal meeting of the Proprietors of Ipswich Can- 
ada at the house of Mr. Richard Day, innholder at Ip- 
swich Canada, June 30, 1762. 

Voted, and chose Messrs. Benjamin Goodridge, Rich- 
ard Day and Bartholomew Parsons, to be a Committee to 
view and stake out a meeting house plat. 

The following is the report of the Committee chosen by 
the last vote. 

Laid out five acres of land for a meeting house, training 
field and burying yard, on the Northwest corner of the lot 
No. 1 in the South division, beginning at the Northwest 
corner bound, running south 48 rods, on line of said lot, 
then easterly 16 1-2 rods, then running northerly a paral- 
lel line with the west line 48 rods, and then to the place 
where we began. Benjamin Goodridge, 

Bartholomew Parsons, 
Richard Day. 

Voted, That the Proprietors will accept the land laid 
out by the Committee, on lot No. 1 South Division for the 
use of the meeting house, training field and burying yard* 
— there being reference made on said lot for that purpose 
by the Propriety at their meeting on the 27th of Oct. A. 
D. 1737 — nothwithstanding a former vote passed by the 
Proprietors at their meeting held Nov. 1, 1759, to accept 
of the report of the Committee to set the meeting house 
on lot No. 30, finding that place not accommodable : And 
the Committee chosen to build said meeting house, to raise 
the house on the plat where they judge most convenient. 
- — Proprietors^ Book. 



* Besides the cemetery near the middle of the town, there is another 
grave yard or burying place in the south westerly part of the town. 



98 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

BB 

Extracts from the records. 

At a legal meeting at the house of Gabriel Pouchey in 
the Township, June 22, 1763. 

Voted, That the Proprietors will join with the inhabit- 
ants in a petition to the General Court, that Ipswich Can- 
ada may be incorporated into a Town. 

June 23, Voted, That a tax of one penny per acre be 
laid on all the lands that are already laid out in Ipswich 
Canada, for the term of three years. 

Voted, That Benjamin Goodridge, esq. and Daniel Bix- 
by be a Committee to draft a petition in order to send to 
the Great and General Court, that Ipswich Canada may be 
incorporated into a Town, and the lands taxed according 
to the above vote. — Proprietors^ Booh 

CC 

An Act for erecting the Plantation called Ipswich Can- 
ada into a Town by the name of Winchendon. 

Whereas the inhabitants of the Plantation called Ipswich 
Canada in the County of Worcester, labor under many 
difficulties and inconveniences by means of their not being 
a Town : Therefore, 

Be it enacted by the Governor, Council and House of 
Representatives, That the Plantation commonly called and 
known by the name of Ipswich Canada, in the County of 
Worcester, bounded as follows, viz : South twelve degrees 
west, seven miles and two hundred rods on Dorchester 
Canada ; west eighteen degrees south, two hundred and 
seventy rods on Westminster ; north thirty-six degrees 



NOTES. 99 

west, four miles and two hundred and twenty rods on 1 ^ "i- 
pleton line ; north seventy-eight degrees west, six hundred 
rods on Templeton line ; north twelve degrees east, four 
miles and two hundred and sixty rods on Royalshire ; 
south seventy-eight degrees west,* six miles on Royalshire 
line ; be and hereby is erected into a Town, by the name 
of Winchendon : and that the inhabitants thereof be, and 
hereby are invested with all the powers, privileges and 
immunities, which the inhabitants of the towns within the 
province do or may enjoy. 

And be it further enacted, That there be laid on the 
lands already laid out in the said Town of Winchendon, 
a tax of one penny per acre for the term of three years. 

And be it further enacted, That Edward Hartwell, esq. 
be and hereby is empowered to issue his warrant, directed 
to some principal inhabitant in said Town, requiring him 
to warn the inhabitants of the said Town, qualified to vote 
in Town affairs, to meet at such time and place as shall be 
therein set forth, to choose all such officers as are or shall 
be required by law to manage the affairs of the said 
Town. — Acts and Laws of Massachusetts Bay, fol. Bos- 
ton Ed. 1759, p. 458. 

Origin of the Name. 

It seems that Winchendon was so called after the name 
either of a manor or of a small town in England. 

An English historian states that ** In the month of De- 
cember," 1706, *' Her Majesty," Queen Anne, " confer- 
red the following honors, viz: Thomas Lord Wharton" 



* There is, evidently, a mistake in the statement of the course of this 
line ; it should be east twelve defrrees south. 



100 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

was created " Viscount Wincliendon and Earl of Whar- 
ton." — Etchard's History of England, vol. 4:, p. 457. 

DD 



It has been handed down by tradition that sometime be 
fore the township was settled, a hunter by the name of 
Denison got lost in the woods, which was tall and thick in 
that region. He climbed a tree with a view to look out, 
and descried the pond, which from this circumstance, was 
named Denison's pond. 

EE 

Proceedings of the First Town Meeting. 

At a meeting legally warned, Nov. 5, 1764, of the free 
holders and other inhabitants of Winchendon to assemble 
and meet at the house of Richard Day : then and there 
being assembled proceeded in manner as follows, viz : 

1st. Chose Richard Day, Moderator to govern said 
meeting. 

2d. Proceeded to the choice of town officers. 

Abel Wilder, Town Clerk. 

Theophilus Mansfield, ^ 

Benoni Boynton, > Selectmen. 

Ephraim Boynton, j 

Richard Day, Constable. 

Nathaniel Bixby, Town Treasurer. 

Daniel Goodridge, Collector of the land tax. 

Silas Whitney, \ Church Wardens. 
Reuben Wyman, ) 

William Oak, "] 

Timothy Darling, ! c^ c tt- \ 

A J ■ y Surveyors of Highways. 

Amos Sprmg, i b j 

Abel Wilder, J 



I 



NOTES. 101 

Daniel Bixby, Deer-reeve. 

Aaron Hodskins, Fence-viewer. 

Jonathan Foster, Sealer of weights and measures. 

Silas Whitney, Surveyor of boards and shingles. 

Reuben Wyman, Field driver. 

Nathaniel Bixby, Sealer of leather. 

Stephen Choate, Stave-culler. 

Nathaniel Burnam, Fire-ward. 
These officers were chosen and sworn as the law directs. 

A true record, per Abel Wilder, Town Clerk. 
See the Records of the Town of Winchendon, Book 1, 
P2^. 2, 3. 



FF 



Extracts from the records. 
At a meeting legally warned of the free holders and other 
inhabitants of Winchendon to assemble at the public 
meeting house in said town on Monday the 11th day of 
March, 1765. Then and there, being assembled, pro- 
ceeded in the following manner, viz. 

1. Chose Theo's Mansfield Moderator for the govern- 
ment of said meeting. 

2. Voted, That all freeholders shall be allowed to vote 
in said meeting. 

3. Proceeded to the choice of town officers and chose 

Abel Wilder, Town Clerk. 
Theo's Mansfield, \ 
Nathaniel Bixby, > Selectmen. 
Benoni Boynton, ) 
Ephraim Boynton, Constable. 
Richard Day, Town Treasurer. 



102 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

Jonathan Foster, ) -rir j 
Theo's Mansfield, ] ^^''^^ns- 

Daniel Bixby, ) m*u- 

o \ r^ } Tithmcrmen. 

Samuel Crage, ) ^ 

Reuben Wynian, ) ^^ 

riy- iu T^ r } Ueer-reeves . 

Timothy Darhng, ) 

John Darling, "j 

Samuel Titus, ! Surveyors of Highways and Col- 

Jonathan Stimson, f lectors of highway rates. 

William Oaks, J 

Abner Hale, ) t? • 

Jonathan Foster, Fence-viewers. 



Silas Whitney, ) Ho0--rePvPs 
Samuel Titus, ] Hog-reeves. 



Daniel Bixby, Sealer of leather. 
Richard day. Sealer of weights and measures. 
Joseph Stimson, Field driver. 

Bartholomew Pearson, Surveyor of boards and shingles. 
Daniel Goodridge, Collector of the land tax. 
The officers for the present year were chosen and 
sworn as the law directs. 

Attest Abel Wilder, Town Clerk. 

Town Records, Book l,pj). 5, 6. 

GG 

Record of a town meeting Feb. 15, 1773. 

At a legal meeting of the freeholders and other inhabi- 
tants of Winchendon qualified by law to vote in town af- 
fairs, on the fifteenth day of February, A. D. 1773. 

Chose Moses Hale, Moderator for the government of 
said meeting. 

Voted, and adjourned until one o'clock, P. M. And 
then met. 



NOTES. 103 

Voted, and adjourned further until three o'clock. And 
then met. 

Voted to take into consideration the distressing and 
dangerous circumstances of our public affairs. 

Voted to chose a Committee consisting of five persons 
to prepare a draft to lay before the town, of such measures 
as may be thought proper for the town to come into, in 
order to defend their rights and liberties. 
Chose Messrs. Moses Hale ^ 

Levi Nichols Committee for 

John Boynton ^ the purposes 

John Homer aforementioned. 

Dudley Perley j 

Voted, and consented to the proceedings of the town of 
Boston in their stating the rights of the Colonists, as they 
are set forth in a pamphlet sent by a Committee of Cor- 
respondence in Boston to the Selectmen of Winchendon. 

Voted, and adjourned this meeting to Monday the first 
day of March next, two of the clock in the afternoon, at the 
meeting house in Winchendon. 

At a legal meeting of the freeholders and other [inhab- 
itants] of Winchendon, upon adjournment from the fif- 
teenth day of February last, the Committee appointed the 
fifteenth day of February last, by the town of Winchendon 
legally assembled to consider the letter from the town of 
Boston, with their statement of rights of the Colonies, and 
the infringements made upon them, which was publicly 
read at the said meeting, beg leave to report, That from a 
full conviction of the propriety and expediency of the 
measure, they do recommend to the inhabitants of this 
town to pass the following Resolves, namely : 

1. Resolved, that having taken into serious consider- 
ation the state of the rights of the Colonies, and of the 



104 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

Province in particular, as men, as christians, and as sub- 
jects, and a list of infringements and violation of rights, 
as specified and set forth by the Committee of the town 
of Boston. We are of opinion that the rights of this Prov- 
ince are well and truly stated in said list, as they are well 
supported and warranted by the laws of God, of nature, of 
the realm of Great Britain and the charter of this Prov- 
ince; that a list of infringements and violations of those 
rights and privileges inherent to the inhabitants of this 
Province are well stated, vindicated and supported by a 
great variety of uncontestable facts, whereby it appears to 
us, by a list of the violations and infractions of our liber- 
ties and privileges as British subjects, transmitted to us as 
aforesaid, that the time is speedily hastening when we 
shall be reduced to the most abject slavery. 

2. Resolved, that having consulted our charter, we find 
that, by the aforesaid infringements and violations, our 
rights and liberties, thereby derived, are sapped to the 
very foundation. 

3. Resolved, that it is of the utmost importance [that] 
the Colonies in general, and the inhabitants of this Prov- 
ince in particular, stand firm as one man to support and 
maintain all their just rights and privileges. 

4. Resolved, that this town will, at all times, heartily 
join with our brethren of this Province, and with every 
true friend to liberty in all lawful measures which may be 
proper, salutary and effectual for the redress of our griev- 
ances and the establishment of our charter rights, privi- 
leges and liberties. 

5. Resolved, that this town choose a Committee to cor- 
respond with the Boston Committee and the Committees of 
other towns, to receive and communicate to the town all 



NOTES. 105 

salutary measures that shall be proposed or offered by any 
other towns for removing the common grievances of this 
Province, and to communicate the sentiments of this 
town to the correspondent Committee of the other towns 
of this Province. 

6. Resolved, that the united thanks of this town and of 
every true son of liberty and friend to the constitution of 
the Province is due to the town of Boston for their early 
and indefatigable zeal in endeavoring to preserve the con- 
stitutional rights and liberties of this Province. 

7. Resolved, that the town of Boston be served with 
an attested copy of our proceedings. 

Moses Hale, "j 
Levi Nichols, Committee to 

John Boynton, J> consider of 
John Homer, I Grievances. 
Dudley Perley. J 
Winchendon, February 22, 1773. 
The above Resolves being publicly read, it was put 
to vote. 

Accepted by unanimous vote. 

Voted, and chose Messrs. Moses Hale, Levi Nichols, 
John Boynton, John Homer, and Dudley Perley, a Com- 
mittee of Correspondence. 

Voted, That the Town Clerk be directed to record the 
foregoing Resolves in the town book of records, and to 
return an attested copy of the same to the Committee of 
Correspondence above chosen. 

Moses Hale, Moderator. 
A true copy, Attest, 

Abel Wilder, Town Clerk. 
Town Records, B. l,pp. 138—142. 
8 



106 HISTORY OF ^VINCHENDON. 



HH 



At a meeting of the town of Winchendon, August 4, 
1774, Chose Mr. EH Smith, Moderator for the govern- 
ment of said meeting. Chose Mr. Amos Merriam to join 
the Committee of Correspondence in the town in the room 
of John Homer, deceased. 

Chose Mr. Moses Hale to meet the Committees that 
may be appointed by the several towns in this county at 
the widow Mary Steams', at Worcester on the 9th day of 
August instant at 10 of the clock in the morning. Ad- 
journed. 

August 25, 1774. Then met according to adjourn- 
ment. 

Voted, That Dea. Moses Hale go to Worcester upon 
the adjourment of the County Convention. 

Voted, and accepted of the following Resolves, namely : 

1. Resolved that we acknowledge ourselves true and 
liege subjects to His Majesty, King George 3d, and that 
we will, to the utmost of our power, defend his crown and 
dignity. 

2. Resolved, that the charter of this Province is the 
basis of allegiance to His Majesty, the sacred obligation he 
is under to protect us his American subjects, and that all 
Acts of the British Parliament which tend to vacate our 
charter w'ithout our consent, have a tendency to destroy 
our allegiance to the king, and also the obligation he is 
under to protect us, his most loyal subjects, which, conse- 
quently reduce us to a state of nature. 

3. Resolved, that those unconstitutional Acts lately 
passed in the British Parliament, wherein they claim a 
right to tax the Americans without their consent, and to 



NOTES. 107 

alter our free Constitutions at their pleasure, has a direct 
tendency to break off the affections of His Majesty's true 
and loyal subjects in America, from the king, and there- 
fore most certainly weaken the British nation, and will, 
if persisted in, unavoidably endanger, if not actually be 
a means of the destruction of the king, at the whole Brit- 
ish realm. 

4. Resolved, that we will, to the utmost of our power, 
oppose all such unconstitutional acts, which in our opinion 
are directly against the dignity of the king and the con- 
stitution of this Province, and are ready to risk our lives 
and fortunes in defence of our rightful sovereign, and to 
maintain our free constitution, in order to save ourselves 
and posterity from ruin and slavery, which seem, like a 
torrent, rushing in upon us. 

5. Resolved, that we will do all that lies in our power 
to maintain peace and good order amongst us accor- 
ding to the laws of this Province; and that we will 
break off all dealings, as far as possible, with all officers 
who hold their commissions under unconstitutional laws. 

6. Resolved, that those men who are appointed Coun- 
sellors by a mandamus from England, directly contrary to 
the charter of this Province, and have taken the oaths 
required to serve in that office, are destitute of any regard 
for the good of their country, and ought to be treated as 
open enemies to the once free constitution of this Prov- 
ince. 

Voted and adjourned this present meeting to the third 
Thursday of September next at two of the o'clock, P. M. 
— Town Records, B. \,pp, 184—187. 



108 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 



II 



Sept. 15, 1774, Then met according to adjournment. 

Voted to send a person to the Provincial Congress to 
meet at Concord the second Tuesday of October next. 

Chose Mr. Moses Hale to go to Concord. 

Voted, That every person from the age of 16 to 60 
years old appear at the meeting house in Winchendon on 
Tuesday the 20th day of this instant September, at one of 
the clock in the afternoon. 

Voted, That the town will indemnify Mr, Jer. Stuart, 
Constable, in his not returning a list of the persons quali- 
fied to serve as Jurors agreeable to a late Act of Parlia- 
ment ; and he is hereby directed never to make such re- 
turns. 

A true record, per Abel Wilder, Town Clerk. 

Town Records, B. l,p. 187. 



JJ 



Extracts from the records of a town-meeting held Jan. 
10, 1775, 

Voted, That the province taxes granted and levied upon 
the town of Winchendon, for the years 1772, 1773, and 
1774, committed and soon to be committed to Thom- 
as Sawyer, and Jeremiah Stuart, Constables of Winchen- 
don, be paid to Henry Gardner, Esq, of Stow, as soon as 
conveniently may be : and the Constables are hereby or- 
dered to pay the above said money as above voted ; and 
the town will hereby indemnify the above said Thomas 
Sawyer and Jeremiah Stuart in so doing, upon their pro^ 



NOTES. 109 

ducing receipts from the above mentioned Henry Gard- 
ner, Esq. 



A Committee 

to see that the 

Association 

} of the 

Continental 

Congress be put 



Voted, and chose Levi Nichols 

Thomas Sawyer 
Moses Hale 
Abel Wilder 
John Boynton 
Eli Smith and 

David Poor. j ^^ execution. 

Voted, That the town will assist the above Committee 
in carrying the above mentioned Association into execu- 
tion, provided they proceed agreeably to the directions of 
the Provincial Congress. 

Levi Nichols, Moderator. 
A true Copy, per Abel Wilder, Town Clerk. 

Town Records, B. I, pp. 193, 194. 



KK 

At a legal meeting of the freeholders and other inhabi- 
tants of Winchendon, qualified by law to vote in the 
choice of a Representative, on the 4th day of July, 1776. 

Chose Thos. Sawyer Moderator, for the government of 
said meeting. 

Vv^hereas this town has been called upon by the Hon- 
orable House of Representatives of this Colony to signify 
their minds in regard of American independency ; being 
duly sensible of the cruel and oppressive measures which 
are pursued by the King and Parliament of Great Britain 
in order to enslave the Colonies, and consequently the 
difficulty that will attend our being ever again united with 
Great Britian, therefore. 

Unanimously Resolved, That if the Honorable Conti- 



110 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

nental Congress should think best for the safety of these 
Colonies to declare them independent of the King-dom of 
Great Britain, that we will with our lives and fortunes 
support them in the measure. — Town Records, B.\,p 206. 

LL 

It was common, in those days, for towns to instruct 
their representatives at the General Court, upon the sub- 
ject of grievances under which they were suffering, and 
which they wished to have redressed. This direct inter- 
ference of the people with the State legislation, by means 
of instructions to their representatives, having been long 
discontinued, a recital of it now is rather a subject of cu- 
riosity. 

At a meeting for choosing a Representative, May 27, 
1777, the town chose a Committee of seven persons to 
draft instructions for the representative. The Committee 
were Ebenezer Sherwin, Thornton Barrett, Moses Hale, 
Daniel Goodridge, Richard Pearson, Abel Wilder, and 
Benjamin Brown. 

The Report of the above Committee being read, voted 
and accepted of the said report, which is as follows, name- 

To Mr. Robert Bradish, 

Sir, You being legally appointed to 
represent the town of Winchendon in the Great and Gen- 
eral Court the ensuing year, the town think proper to give 
you the following instructions, viz. That you use your 
influence to the utmost, to obtain a repeal of an A ct^ pass- 
ed by the General Court in the close of their, session in 
the year 1776, entitled an Act for a more equal represen- 



, NOTES. .111 

tation. And upon the repeal of said Act, to issue writs 
for the choice of a new House and then dissolve. And in 
case the said Act should not be repealed, not to proceed 
to any business, but return home. Town Records, B. 1, 
page 249. 



MM 



Continental Money. 

It may be interesting at this time, to give a slight sketch 
of the rate of the depreciation of the paper Continental 
currency. The bills began to depreciate in 1777. On 
the first of January 1777, it was at par. First of Jan. 
1778, $1.00 specie was worth $4.50 Continental; first of 
Jan. 1779, $1.00 specie was worth $8.38 Continental; 
first of Jan. 1780, $1.00 specie was worth $32..50 Conti- 
nental. In March, 1780, the town "voted and granted 
^'5200, for repairing roads," and ''voted that a man have 
c£9. per day for labor on the roads." In July "^'5000 was 
granted for the purpose of hiring men for the war, and to 
defray other town charges ;" also granted $85 per day for 
34 days service of the Delegates at the Convention for 
forming the State Constitution, making .£867." In Nov. 
following "c£13,598" more was "granted to defray town 
charges." Jan. 1, 1781, the town "voted and granted 
c£10,000 to procure hcef that is now called for, and to help 
procure continental soldiers." March, "voted and gran- 
ted £8000 for making and mending roads," and voted 
that a man be allowed £15 per day for work on the roads." 
April 23, "voted that what money is due" to a certain in- 
dividual "be paid ninety for 07ie." March 14, 1782, the 
town voted, "That the Constable and Collectors be direc- 



112 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

ted to receive no more paper money for town rates." 
Town Records B. 2. 

NN 

The building Committee chosen by the town were Abel 
Wilder, Esq. Capt. Thomas Graton, and Mr. Benjamin 
Hall. 

OO 

As the locating of this meeting house was, at the time, 
attended with much uneasiness, altercation and trouble, 
a more extended view of the transactions of the town may 
appear desirable, therefore such will be here transcribed 
from the records. 

At a meeting of the freeholders and other inhabitants 
of the town of Winchendon, Sept. 10, 1790, 

Voted, and chose Dea. Moses Hale Moderator. 

Voted, to build a new Meeting House in this town. 

Voted, to set the new meeting house on the meeting 
house common. 

Voted, That said house be 60 feet in length, 50 feet in 
width, 27 feet posts, and a porch at each end of the house 
10 feet on the house, 14 feet deep. 

Voted, 54 pews on the lower floor, and 24 in the gal- 
leries, and 3 seats on each side below, and 3 in the gal- 
leries. 

Voted, That there be 20 windows, 40 squares in each 
window, below, and 21, 35 squares in each, in the galle- 
ries ; the pulpit and gable end windows excepted. 

Voted, That the pews be sold at public vendue to the 
inhabitants, to procure materials and workmen for build- 



NOTES. 113 

ing the house : That the purchasers of pews give security 
for the same to the acceptance of the Committee. 

Voted, That the materials be divided into small lots,and let 
out to those persons who will procure the same the cheapest. 

Voted, That the frame be raised in the forepart of the 
season in the year 1792. 

Voted, That the materials for building be delivered at 
such time and place, as the Committee for building the 
meeting house shall direct. 

Voted, To choose a Committee to see to the building 
of said house. 

Voted, The Committee to consist of three persons. 

Voted, and chose Abel Wilder esq. Mr. Thomas Gra- 
ton and Benjamin Hall esq. for the above Committee. 

Nov. 1, Voted to reserve one pew in said house for a 
ministerial pew. 

Voted, Pew west of the pulpit, next to it, for the minis- 
terial pew. 

Voted, to choose a Committee of three persons to pitch 
upon a spot to set the new meeting house upon. 

Voted and chose Mr. James Steel, Dea. Moses Hale, 
and Doct. Ziba Hall for the above Committee. 

Voted, to set the south sill of the new meeting house 30 
feet north of the north sill of the old meeting house. 

Voted, to accept of the plan of said house that the Com- 
mittee has drafted and laid before the town. 

Voted and accepted of the conditions of the sale of the 
pews the Committee has proposed. 

Nov. 29, Voted and accepted the conditions of sale the 
Committee has draughted for the materials. 

Voted, to appoint a person as Vendue-master to vendue 
the materials. 



114 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

Voted and appointed Dea. Moses Hale for the above 
Vendue-master. 

Voted, That the posts of said meeting house be 28 feet 
in length ; and that there be 40 squares of glass in each 
gallery window. 

Dec. 20, Voted to have banisters in the pews. 

Voted, That the Committee shall procure the glass. 

Winchendon Nov. 1, 1790. At a public vendue held 
for the sale of the pews in the meeting house voted to be 
built at a meeting held on the 10th day of Sept. 1790, at 
the meeting house in Winchendon aforesaid, the pews 
were sold as follows, viz. No. 1 struck off to Capt. Dan- 
iel Hubbard for $40. No. 2 to Abner Curtice for $71. 
No. 3 to xMoses Hale for $40. No. 31 to William Whit- 
ney for $62. No. 32 to Joseph Sweetser for $51. No. 
33 to Dea. Moses Hale for $47. No. 44 to Doct. Israel 
Whiton for $49. No. 45 to Lieut. Joseph Boynton for 
$50. No. 50 to Abel Wilder for $50. No. 47 to Desire 
Tolman for $40, &c. Gallery pews. No. 1 struck off to 
Dea. Moses Hale for $24. No. 2 to Abel Wilder jun. for 

$17, (S^c. «S^c. 

Abel Wilder, \ 
Thomas Graton, > Committee. 
Benjamin Hall, ) 
Voted to establish and confirm the pews, mentioned in 
the foregoing report, to the purchasers whose names are 
thereunto annexed and to their heirs and assigns forever. 
Nov. 7, 1791, Voted to agree with some person or per- 
sons to make provision for the raisers to raise the meeting 
house. 

Voted, and granted £20 to make provision for the rais- 
ing of the new meeting house. Toion Records, B. 3 pp. 
75—80. 



NOTES. 115 

Nov. 21, Voted to reconsider a vote passerd in a former 
meeting in Nov. 1, 1790, which was to set the south sill of 
the new meeting house 30 feet north of the north sill of 
the old meeting house. Yeas 47, Nays 25. 

Voted, to choose a Committee of seven persons to pitch 
upon a spot to set the meeting house on, and report at the 
adjournment of this meeting. 

Voted, and chose Abel Wilder Esq. Dea. Samuel Pren- 
tice, Doct. Ziba Hall, Lieut. John Burr, Mr. Thomas 
Graton, Mr. James Steel and Samuel Crosby Esq. for the 
above Committee. 

Dea. Hale resigned being Moderator, and Dea. Samuel 
Prentice was chosen Moderator in his room. 

Nov. 24, Voted, and accepted of the Report of the Com- 
mittee, which is as follows, viz. 

Winchendon Nov. 24, 1791. 

The Committee appointed on the 21 of this instant to 
view and report the most convenient spot to build a meet- 
ing house upon, have attended that service, and a majori- 
ty of that Committee agree that the meeting house be set 
120 feet south of Luther Stimson's house, and C9 feet 
east of the stone wall by Mr. Brown's garden. 

By order of the Committee, Abel Wilder, Chairman. 

Dec. 26, voted to chose a Committee of six persons to 
review and pitch upon a spot to set the new meeting house 
and report at the adjournment of this meeting. 

Voted, and chose Abel Wilder Esq. Dea. Moses Hale, 
Samuel Crosby Esq., Mr. William Whitney, Benjamin Hall 
Esq., and Dea. Samuel Prentice, for the above Committee. 
Town Records, B. 3, pp. 81, 82. 

May 3, 1792. The town met according to adjourn- 
ment, and voted to adjourn the meeting for half a hour^ 



116 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

for the, purpose of viewing the northerly part of the com- 
mon, in order to see if the town can agree, unanimously, 
upon a spot of ground to set the new meeting house upon. 
After taking a view, the town met again : and after some 
debate, it was tried by a vote to see if the town will re- 
consider the vote passed at a late meeting respecting plac- 
ing the meeting house in the northerly part of the common. 
Passed in the negative. 

Then voted, that the Selectmen purchase a barrel of 
West India rum and a quantity of sugar sufficient to make 
it into toddy, and that it be expended partly upon the men 
that assist the day preceding the day set for raising the 
meeting house, in laying the timber in order for raising. 
And that the Selectmen see that it is properly dealt out ! ! 

Then voted to allow Ensign David Rice a sum of money 
over and above what he was heretofore agreed with to pro- 
vide for those persons who raise the meeting house ; the 
sum to be determined by the rise of West India articles, 
since said Rice agreed to make provision for the raising. 

May 7. Met according to adjournment, and, after some 
debate it was put to vote, to see if the town will agree to 
set the meeting house three rods southerly from the place 
lately agreed upon to build said house; and the town vo- 
ted to reconsider their vote for placing said house 120 feet 
from the north side of the common ; and to set the north 
said house 170 feet from the north line of the common; 
and that the east end of said house should stand nearly on 
a ridge that was made by the east side of the field. 

May 31. The town met and voted to choose a Commit- 
tee of three persons to use their endeavors to settle matters 
of difficulty respecting the meeting house. Messrs. Thom- 
as Graton, Amos Hey wood and James Steel were chosen 



NOTES. 117 

for said purpose. The Committee reported, verbally, that 
proposals were made for accommodation. 

June 15. Met, and after some debate, voted, that the 
Committee for building the meeting house, purchase such 
articles as are necessary to finish said house in the best 
way and manner they can, and go on with the work as 
soon as may be with convenience. 

Voted, that Ensign David Rice be allowed for enter- 
taining 11 more on the day the meeting house was raised 
over and above the 100 men he agreed to provide for, and 
that he be allowed in the same proportion for the 11 men 
as for the 100 : and also that he be allowed 16 s. 8 d. for 
what he found for those persons who belonged out of town, 
and assisted the second day in raising the roof of the 
meeting house. 

Sept. 5. The meeting house meeting, (so called) was 
opened according to adjournment. The town granted the 
sum of c£150, in addition to the money raised by the sale 
of pew ground, to defray the charge of building the meet- 
ing house in said town. 

Dec. 3. The town met, and made choice of Lieut. 
John Burr a Committee man in the room of the Hon. Abel 
Wilder, deceased. 

Dec. 17. Voted, that the first day of Jan. 1793, be the 
day to dedicate the new meeting house. 

Then voted, that the three Deacons, Hale, Prentice, and 
Moor, be a Committee to inform the Rev. Joseph Brown 
of the [vote of the] town respecting dismissing the old 
meeting house and dedicating the new one. 

Dec. 31. The town met, according to adjournment, 
on the spot of ground where the old meeting house stood, 
and adjourned the meeting into Mr. McElwain's east room, 



118 HISTORY OF AVINCHENDON. 

and then met there and adjourned for half an hour, for the 
purpose of viewing the new meeting house ; then met 
again, and voted to accept of the new meeting house. 

A true Record, Attest, Samuel Crosby, Town Clerk. 

Then votes were passed transferring divers pews to dif- 
ferent persons, the transfers made at the request of the 
parties. 

Then voted, that two pews in the gallery that were 
struck ofTtoDea. Moses Hale, viz. No. 16 and No. 8, be 
transferred to Lieut. John Burr, and that thereupon all 
matters of difficulty heretofore subsisting between the 
town and said Hale and any individuals in the town con- 
cerning the new meeting house, shall subside, upon 
condition that the persons, who have purchased pews in 
said house, pay for the same in a reasonable time. 

Samuel Prentice, Moderator. 

A true Record Samuel Crosby, Town Clerk. 

Town Records, B. 3, ^jp. 83—85. 

The town at a special meetmg held, Sept. 5, 1792, vo- 
ted to build a wall and wharf round the new meeting house 
by a tax. Then the town granted the sum of .£100 to de- 
fray the charge thereof [The wall and wharf were com- 
pleted in October 179*2.] 

At a special meeting Oct. 29, 1792, the town voted to 
sell the old meeting house in lots, at public vendue. 

Dec. 17, the old meeting house was sold. Town Rec- 
ords,B. 3,^9^.104, 105. 

Nov. 21, 1794. The town met, then voted and dis- 
solved the meeting house meeting. 

Samuel Prentice, Moderator. 

A true Record, Attest, Moses Hale, Town Clerk. 

Town Records, B. 3,^. 120. 



NOTES. 119 

At another meeting of the town, Nov. 21, 1T94, Voted, 
and accepted of the meeting house Committee account, 
\vhich is as follows. 
Cost of the meeting house £^S9 10s. 9d. 

Committee service ==£'57 14s. 6d. £94c7 5s. 3d. 

Reed, of pew money, £7G6 4s. Od. Old 

meeting house, o£'28 '2s. Id. Refuse stuff, 

£4 10s. 7d. Tax, c^loO Os. Od. .£948 16s. 8d. 

The above account is the Report of the Committee ap- 
pointed to build the meeting house. 

Samuel Prentice, Moderator. 
Thos. Graton, ) Committee for 
Benj, Hall, ) building said house. 

A true record, Moses Hale, Town Clerk. 

Town Records, B. 3, p. 133. 

PP 

In the warrant for town meeting of 11th Sept. 1815, 
was an article, To see if the town will make the ground 
where the body seats are in the meeting house, on any 
other ground into pews for the purpose of building a tower 
and cupola, or act on the matter as they think proper. 

Accordingly the town assembled and under this article 

Voted, That the ground in the meeting house mention- 
ed [in the article] be cut for the purpose mentioned under 
the same article. 

Meeting adjourned to 23d. Then voted. That the tow- 
er and cupola or steeple be built on condition it can be 
done free from any expense to the toAvn, other than the 
ground for 6 pews on the lower floor and 10 pews in the 
gallery and the old porch and seats. Town Records, B. 3, 
pp. 388, 389, 392. 



120 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

In the mean time there was a subscription by sundry 
individuals, inhabitants of the town, for a Bell. 

The belfry or steeple was completed, and, at a meeting 
of the inhabitants of the town, Nov. 4, 1816, was ac- 
cepted. 

At the same meeting a Presentment of the Church Bell 
to the town of Winchendon, (in behalf of the Proprietors,) 
by a Committee chosen by the subscribers, was made on 
the following conditions — That the town shall keep it in 
good and sufficient repair, cause it to be rung and tolled at 
the customary times, and a suitable and decent manner — 
and cause, by their vote, this representation of the said 
subscribers by their Committee, together with the names 
of the subscribers who have purchased by their liberality 
the said Church Bell, with the sum that each individual 
has given therefor, to be entered and enrolled on the rec- 
ords of the town. 

Then the town voted, and accepted of the Bell as of- 
fered by the Proprietors" Committee. 

Then voted, and tendered their thanks to the Proprie- 
tors of the Bell for their great generosity and benevo- 
lence. Town Records, B. 3, pp. 413 — 415. 

aa 

Extracts from the Records. 

At a legal meeting of the Proprietors of Ipswich Cana- 
da assembled and met at the house of Mr. Richard Day, 
innholder at Ipswich Canada June 30, 1762. 

Voted, That the Proprietors will settle a minister pro- 
vided the inhabitants can find a man that will settle with 
them. 



NOTES, J0I 

Voted, That the Proprietors will give to Mr. Daniel 
Stimpson the minister's Right [of Land] granted by the 
Court and .£60 of money as a settlement, provided he will 
settle and perform the office of a gospel minister in the 
township : and also to give him =£60 salary, so long as he 
shall carry on the work of the ministry, in said township. 
At a meeting Nov. 17, 1762, It was pat to vote to see if 
the Proprietors would make any alteration in their former 
[vote] respecting Mr. Daniel Stimpson's salary. 

Voted, That instead of giving the said Daniel Stimpson 
sixty pounds salary so long as he shall carry on the minis-. 
try— to give him sixty pounds yearly so long as he shalj 
continue our minister in said township. Proprietors' Book, 
At a legal meeting of the Proprietors of Ipswich Cana- 
da, so called, that assembled and met at the house of Mr. 
Richard Day, innholder in said township, on Nov. 17, 1762, 
Voted, That Mr. Daniel Stimpson be ordained the loth 
day of December next : and that the church in Weston, 
the church in Harvard, the church in Lunenburg, and the 
church in Dorchester Canada, be sent to, to assist in his 
ordination. 

Voted, That Bartholeraew Parsons, Richard and Sam- 
uel Titus, be a Committee to send letters missive to the 
above named churches to assist in the ordination of Mr. 
Daniel Stimpson, in the name of the Proprietors. 

Voted, to allow Richard Day £4: in order to enable him 
to entertain the Council, and Mr. Stimpson's relations, at 
his ordination. Proprietors' Book. 

RR 

There were marjy during Mr. Stimpson's and Mr. 

Brown's ministry, ^ho joined the church in this wav 

9 ^* 



122 HISTORY Ot WINCHENDON. 

which was sometimes called the Half way covenant* 
The origin of the practice is found at large in Mather's 
Magnalia, and in Hubbard's General History of New 
England. 

Mr. Hubbard says, The affairs of the church in New 
England were hitherto ordered according to the platform 
of discipline set forth in 1648, but in the beginning of this 
lustre [i. e. the 5 years from 1656 to 1661] some difficul- 
ties began to arise about enlarging the subject of baptism, 
which unto this time had been administered unto those chil- 
dren only, whose immediate parents were admitted into full 
communion in the churches where they lived. But now 
the country came to be increased, and sundry families 
were found that had many children born in them, whose 
immediate parents had never attempted to join to any of 
the churches, to which they belonged, and yet were very 
much dissatisfied that they could not obtain baptism for 
their children, although themselves made no way to be 
admitted to the Lord's supper. The case was generally 
apprehended to be difficultly circumstanced, as things had 
hitherto been carried on amongst those churches, and did 
occasion many debates between the ministers of the coun- 
try, many of which were willing to have baptism enlarged 
to those in that capacity, but knew not well how to bring 
the matter about, with the peace of their churches, where 
many of their people were very scrupulous about any 
innovation. 

duestions of this nature were first started in the colony 
of Connecticut ; the magistrates of which did, about 1656, 



* This way or practice was discontinued and done away in this church 
in l&Oi — about the time Mr. Pilsbury was settled. 



NOTES. 123 

send down several of them about this subject to the magis- 
trates of the Massachusetts,and they mutually called toaeth- 
er sundry of the ablest ministers of each colony— and "they 
met and held their disputation at Boston in New England, 
June 4, 1757. One question debated was this, Whether 
the child, admitted by his father's covenant, be also a 
deputy for his seed, without or before personal covenant- 
ing; or without or before like personal qualifications in 
kind, as his father was to enjoy when he became a dep- 
uty? Reply. It is the- duty of infants who confederate 
m their parents, when grown up to years of discretion 
though not yet fit for the Lord's supper, to own the cov- 
enant they made with their parents, by entering thereinto 
in their own persons : and it is the duty of the church to 
call upon them for the performance thereof; and if beinor 
called upon they shall refuse the performance of this ^reu 
duty, or otherwise continue scandalous, they are liable to 
be censured for the same by the church. And in case 
they understand the grounds of religion, are not scanda- 
lous, and solemnly own the covenant in their own persons 
wherein they give up themselves and their children unto 
the Lord, and desire baptism for them, we (with due rev- 
erence to any godly, learned, that may dissent,) see not 
sufficient cause to deny baptism unto their children 
This proposition was consented unto by a synod, called to 
meet at Boston, not long after, viz. 1662.—.^,, Hubbard's 
General Hist, of N. E. Chap. 64. See also Mather's 
Magnalia. 

Mr. Hubbard further says, In the beginning of this 
lustre [i. e. from 1661 to 1666] some questions were 
raised amongst the churches and people of the Massachu- 
setts; one was about the extent of baptism, viz. Whether 



1'24 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

the children of some parents might not be admitted to 
baptism, though they themselves were never admitted to 
full communion with the church, at the Lord's table ; 
about which case, the country was strangely divided. 

An answer of the ministers and other messengers of the 
churches assembled in Synod at Boston in the year 1GG3. 

From their answer to the 1st question propounded to 
them by order o{ the general court, which question is. 
Who are the subjects of baptism ? several propositions are 
here quoted, viz. Answer. The answer may be given 
in the following propositions. I. They that, according 
to scripture, are members of the visible church, are the 
subjects of baptism. "2. The members of the visible 
church, according to scripture, are confederate visible 
believers in particular churches, and their infant seed, i. 
c. children in minority, whose next parents are one or 
both in covenant. 3. The infant seed of confederate vis- 
ible believers are members of the same church with their 
parents ; and, when grown up, are personally undoir the 
watch, discipline and government of the church. 4. 
Those adult persons are not therefore to be admitted to 
full communion, merely because they are and continue 
members, without such further qualifications as the word 
of God requireth thereunto. 5. Such church members, 
who are admitted in minority, understanding the doctrine 
of faith, and publicly professing their assent thereunto, 
not scandalous iiT life, and solemnly owning the covenant 
before the church, wherein they give up themselves and 
their children to the Lord, and subject themselves to the 
government of Christ in the church, their children are to 
be baptized. — Hubbard's General Hist, of N. E. Ch, 67. , 
Mather's Maornalia. 1 



NOTES. 125 



ss 



Mr. Brown afterward supplied the pulpit at Springfield, 
Vermont. 



TT 

Mr. Brown never delivered up the church records to 
his successor, nor to the church, owing to which cir- 
cumstance, there is a great chasm in the ecclesiastical 
history of this town. 

UU 

Mr. Elam Clark preached here as a candidate under 
peculiar circumstances. 

In the latter part of the year 1819, the church and 
town being completely united in him, unanimously gave 
him a call, with an offer of -$650 annual salary, and $200 
settlement. Jan. 20, 1820, he gave an answer in the 
negative. Mar. G, 1820, the church and town renewed 
their call with the same offer in all respects as before. 
March 13, 1820, Mr. Clark gave his answer to the second 
call in the negative. 

After Mr. Elam Clark left Winchenden, it was said he 
preached in several places. In Tiverton, R. I. he preached 
as a candidate, with nearly the same remarkable circum- 
stances, of two calls and refusals, as at Winchendon. 
lie was afterwards settled as pastor of a congregational 
church in Providence, R. I. — continued there about one 
year, and was dismissed at his own request. He previ- 
ously married the daughter of a wealthy farmer from Suf- 
field, Ct. and retired to that place for a time after leaving 



126 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

Providence. He afterward kept school, and finally died 
of a cancer about the year 1834. 

VV 

Mr. E. L. Clark was afterwards settled at Berlin, and 
again, more recently, at Richnnond, Mass. 

WW 

Mr. Morton was afterward settled in Bristol, N. H. 

XX 

The following notice was published in the Boston Re- 
corder of Dec. 10, 1846. 

Ordination. Ordained — on Thursday, Nov. 19, Mr. 
Malachi Bullard, Jr. Pastor of the First Congregational 
Church in Winchendon. Invocation and reading of the 
Scriptures by Rev. A. P. Marvin of Winchendon North ; 
sermon by Rev. L Sabin of Templeton ; ordaining prayer 
by Rev. J. M. Whiton of Antrim, N. H. ; charge to the 
pastor by Rev. S. S. Smith of Westminster ; right hand of 
fellowship by A. C. Perkins of Phillipston ; address to the 
people by W. R. Stone of Gardner ; concluding prayer 
by Rev. Mr. Burnham of Rindge, N. H. 

YY 

The churches sent to, and that were represented in this 
Council, were the First Congregational church in Royal- 
ston, the Congregational church in Rindge, N. H. the 
Congregational church in Templeton, and the First Cou- 



NOTES. 127 

gregational church in Winchendon : Rev. Mr. Rice of 
Winchendon was also invited. At the time of the organ- 
ization of the church, the public services and exercises 
were held and transacted in the Methodist Chapel, and 
were as follows. Prayer by Rev. Mr. Rice ; the confes- 
sion of Faith and the Covenant were read by Rev. Mr. 
Sabin, the Scribe, and was assented to by the church ; 
recognition and consecrating prayer by Rev. Mr. Perkins ; 
fellowship of the churches by Rev. Mr. Burnham; con- 
cluding prayer by Rev. Mr. Sabin. 

ZZ 

The following notice was published in the Boston Re- 
corder of Jan. 25, 1844. 

Dedication. The new meeting house recently erected 
by the North Winchendon Congregational Society, was 
solemnly dedicated to the worship of God, the Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost, on Wednesday, Jan. 10. Intro- 
ductory prayer and reading of the scriptures by Rev. Mr. 
Chipman of Athol ; sermon by Rev. Mr. Marvin of North 
Winchendon ; dedicatory prayer by Rev. Mr. Peckham of 
South Royalston. 

Ordination. On the same day, Mr. Abijah P. Marvin 
was ordained Pastor of the North Winchendon Congrega- 
tional Church and Society. The services were as fol- 
lows : — introductory prayer and reading of the Scriptures 
by Rev. Mr. Rice of Winchendon ; sermon by Rev. E. 
R. Tyler, of New Haven, Conn. ; ordaining prayer by 
Rev. Mr. Jennison of Ashburnham ; charge to the pastor 
by Rev. Mr. Burnham of Rindge, N. H. ; right hand of 
fellowship by Rev. Mr. Sabin of Templeton ; address to 
the church and people by Rev. Mr. Chipman of Athol ; 



l28 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

feonclading prayer by Rev. Mr. Stone of Gardner ; bene- 
diction by the Pastor. 

The day was beautitul for a wintry day — the house 
crowded to overflowing, the services solemn and appro- 
priate, the music excellent, and the appearance of the 
audience furnished ample evidence that a good impression 
was produced. This new church, having but just been 
organized, with their new meeting house located in a 
flourishing village, and their young pastor in the fresh- 
ness of ministerial life, commences its career by the 
brightest prospects of usefulness and success. 

AAA 

Some account of casualties and sudden deaths which 
have occurred in Winchendon. 

About A. D. 1752, as appears from tradition, a man by 
the name of Priest, was found frozen to death on or near 
the Prentiss Hill, in a snow storm. It was supposed that 
returning to his home, which was on land now known by 
the name of the Thomas Place, with a hand-sled laden 
with hay, he fell into the water and wet his clothes. He 
was buried south of the present burying ground. 

1771, April. William Oaks, aged 17 years, and Rob- 
ert Moff'att, aged 16 years, were drowned in Miller's riv- 
er, near where Mr. Phinehas Ball now lives. They went 
in a boat — the boat was upset. They managed to get to 
a large low stub. Mrs. Oaks, Robert's mother, saw them, 
but was unable to render them any assistance. No neigh- 
bors were near. Nothing could be done to rescue them 
from their perilous situation. They clung to the stub for 
a while ; but chilled and exhausted, they were obliged to 
relinquish their hold, and they sunk. 



NOTES. 129 

1774, May 3. Deacon Richard Day was instantly kill- 
ed by the falling of a tree. 

1778. A stranger, traveller, was choked to death by 
eating a piece of meat at Nichols' tavern, which stood 
where Capt. Oliver Adams now lives. 

1781, July. A child of Samuel Stimson, was drowned 
in a well nearly opposite the house where Capt. Oliver 
Adams now lives. 

1784, May 19. John Chamberlin was killed by the fall 
of a tree, which he and his son had been cutting. 

1786, May 10. Uriah Crooks was mortally wounded 
by the falling of a stub, at a chopping hee, on the east side 
of Dennison's pond. He survived but a few hours. 

Mrs. Jonathan Smith had a child die in her arms, while 
riding out in a sleigh ; it was supposed to be smothered. 

William Brown was found dead in a well, on the place 
now owned by William Brown, Esq. 

1791, May. Jonathan Stimson was killed when plow- 
ing, by the fall of a tree, blown down by the wind. 

1797, March 12. A boy by the name of Jonathan 
Moor hung himself on a sleigh tongue, in a barn of Lieut. 
B. Hubbard. 

1800, Sept. 8. Stephen Bixby was killed with an axe, 
by Daniel Robbins, who was insane, in or near a log house 
on land lately owned by Capt. Joseph Robbins. 

1804, Nov. Israel Whitcomb, of this town, was killed 
in Fitzwilliam by the kick of a horse. 

1809. Bartholomew Stearns jun. was found dead in 
the road, above and near the house of Capt. John Ray- 
mond. He had been reaping on the hill upon the farm, 
went to the well, drank water, and died on his return. 

1811. Joseph Story of Fitchburg, was killed near Mr. 



130 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

Bartholomew Stearns senior's, by pitching out of a chaise, 
and the chaise running over him. 

1814, March 26. Aaron Winch died suddenly in his 
bed. 

Nov. Luke Knight was killed in a wagon by the kick 
of a horse, on the road near where Mr. H. Hastings now 
lives. 

1816, Oct. 14. Thomas Wyman jun. was killed by 
being thrown from his horse, as was supposed, in the road 
south of where Mr. Daniel Day now lives. Some suppos- 
ed that his foot for a while hung in the stirrup, and that he 
was dragged by the horse. 

Dec. 16. Thomas Wyman sen. was killed in Worcester 
by a stage running over him in the dark. He was a deaf 
man. 

1818, June 6. Silas Brown, a boy aged 11 years, was 
run over by a cart of gravel, which was the cause of his 
death. 

July. Cyrus Partridge was drowned in Ashuelov, river 
at Hinsdale, N. H. was brought, the same day, to his fath- 
er's house in this town. 

Nov. Enoch Stuart went to bed well, but died the 
same night. 

1819, July 1. David Goodridge 2d. died suddenly in bed. 

1823. Peter Parmenter was found dead in his bed. 

1824, Sept. 17. Abzina Cummings died suddenly. 
Dec. 30. A boy by the name of Elisha Fry, was killed 

by a cart body falling on him at Mr. Elias Whitney's. 

The widow Elizabeth Baldwin, was found burnt to 
death on a sabbath day. The rest of the family were 
gone to meeting. Nearly all her flesh was consumed when 
they returned. 



NOTES. 131 

1825. Hervey Holden was drowned in New Boston 
pond. He was returning from meeting on a sabbath upon 
the ice, which broke. He fell in, and sunk. 

1828, A child of Mr. Lathrop came to its death by 
falling into a pot of hot fat. 

1829, Jan. 27. Paul Stuart fell down dead in or near 
his barn yard. 

1830, Maria, daughter of Mr. Lewis Robbins, fell on 
to a waterwheel of a mill while it was going, and was in- 
stantly killed. 

1831, Dec. 16. Capt. Samuel Baldwin was found dead 
in his bed in the morning. 

1832, June 15. Andrew Benjamin was, by his daugh- 
ter, found dead in the road near -where Capt. O. Adams, 
now lives. 

John R. Golding, fell down dead in his house. 
An infant child of Lydia Golding died suddenly. 
Nov. 22. Isaac Grout jun. was found dead in Mr. Luke 
Rice's mowing land, the morning after he was missing, 

1833, Jan. 14. Samuel Brown jun. was killed by the 
fall of a tree. 

Oct. 17. Samuel Hartwell was found dead near a 
bridge in the southwest part of the town. He went out 
the evening before, which was very dark, and in returning 
home, as was supposed, he fell from the bridge. 

1834, Feb. 25. A young man by the name of Adams, 
while working at the factory in the Spring Village, had 
his hand caught in a belt as it wasrunninor, which wound- 
ed him so as to cause his death. 

July 13, Elizabeth Goodspeed was killed. As she, with 
others, was returning from meeting, they overtook a large 
loaded wagon, and in attempting to pass by, the wagon. 



132 HISTORY OF WINCHENDON. 

in which they were, turned over toward the large wagon ; 
one hind wheel of which, came partly on her head and 
neck, and thus deprived her of life. 

Aug. 7. A child of Mr. Capron was drowned at the 
Spring Village. 

Simon Wilder was found dead in his bed at the poor- 
house. 

Susan Day, daughter of Mr. Daniel Day sen. was killed 
by the fall of a tree. 

Mary Goddard died in a fit while on a visit. 

1835, Sept. 18. Joel Robbins of Rindge N. H. was 
killed by a wagon, he was driving, near Mr. John Wood- 
bury's saw mill. 

1836, Sept. 2. Joseph Adams was killed by a log, 
which he was drawing to a heap of wood, striking against 
a stump and flying round and hitting him on the head. 
He expired a few hours after receiving the blow. 

1837, A boy 11 years old was drowned at the Spring 
Village. 

Mrs. Tisdale Howard died very suddenly. 

Oct. 22. Mrs. John Arba Brooks died in a fit. 

A child of Mr. Joel Hunt was scalded, so that it died. 

1840. A girl died on the road near the Spring Village. 

1840, Oct. 15. William, son of Mr. Edward Loud, was 
killed by being caught in a belt and thrown round a shaft. 

1841, July 26. Mrs. Phinehas Parks was found dead on 
or near the stone. She had stepped out to get some fuel, 
was first discovered by a young man in the neighborhood. 

1842, Jan. 7. A child of Mr Peter Thomas, in the 
North Village, was found dead in bed, when its mother 
awoke in the night. 

March 21. Deacon Luther Richardson died very sud- 



NOTES. 133 

denly in Mr. John Poor's mill yard, as he was looking 
over a stock of boards. 

Mrs. Samuel Brown, wife of the eldest Mr. Samuel 
Brown, was found dead in her bed. 

Widow Carter, mother of Mrs. David Beaman, found 
dead in bed. 

Jewett B. Darling found dead in his bed in the day-time. 

1843, May 14. Phinehas Elwin Parks died suddenly 
in bed. 

1843, May 14. Col. Benjamin Adams died suddenly. 

June 19. Capt. Joshua Stoddard died very suddenly. 

July 1. A son of Mr. Harry Pitkins was drowned in 
Miller's river when bathing. 

1846, Mar^.h 25. A young man by the name of Weeks, 
from New Salem, was killed by falling on to a water wheel. 

April 2. A girl by the name of Taggart, aged 16 yrs. 
from Sharon N. 11. had been working at the cotton fac- 
tory in Spring Village, was missing and lost in Novem- 
ber previous, and was found dead, having been frozen, at a 
little distance from the road which leads from the Village 
to N. H. 

Aug. 11. Mr. Enoch Wyman's wdfe died suddenly 
while about her work. 

17. Mr. Moses Foskett's child, aged 2 years, was 
drowned, 

1847, Jan. 13. Mr. Humphrey Harris, was killed by 
the fallino: of a tree. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



As the table of contents indicates the principal subjects, the index re- 
lates to the names of persons, and to the pages where they are first men- 
tioned in this work. 





Page. 


William Brown, 2d, 


129 


Benjamin Adams, 


133 William Brown, 3d, 


129 


Oliver Adams, 


12U Silas Brown, 


130 


Joseph Adams, 


132 Bullard, 


91 


Adams, 


131 Malachi Bullard, 


6 


Joseph Annable, 


12 Nathaniel Burnam, 


101 


Daniel Appleton, 


90 Rev. Burnham, 


126 


Daniel Balcom, 


C)Q ,)ihn Burr, 


115 


Lincoln Balcom, 


5^) Joel Butler, 


60 


Elizabeth Baldwin, 


IS) Ebenezer Butler, 


46 


Samuel Baldwin, 


131 Dillingham Caldwell, 


71 


Phinehas Ball, 


15 ' Capron, 


132 


Thornton Barret, 


r)3 Mrs. Carter, 


133 


Gamaliel C. Beaman, 


o'J Nathaniel Caldwell, 


71 


Bellows, 


83 Benjamin Chadwell, 


71 


A>drew Benjamin, 


131 John Chamberlin, 


129 


Thomas Berry, 


9 Edward Chapman, 


72 


Levi Bixby, 


52 


Rev. Mr. Chipman, 


127 


Nathaniel Bixby, 


101 


John Clioate, 


^ S3 


Stephen Bixby^ 


129 


Mary Chubb, 


60 


Thomas Boardnian, 


72 


Nathaniel Clark, 


79 


Jonathan Bosworth, 


91 


Eber L. Clark, 


41 


Thaddeus Bowman, 


t)2 


Klam Clark, 


125 


John Boynton, 


17 


George Coffin, 


44 


Joseph Boynton, 


17 


George S. Coffin, 


54 


Benoni Boynton, 


100 


William Cogswell, 


41 


Ephraim Boynton, 
Charles L. Brace, 


100 


Adam Cogswell, 


71 


59 


Rev. Cooper, 


45 


Robert Bradish, 


54 


Samuel Crage, 


102 


Samuel Bradish, 


28 


Samuel Crosby, 


115 


Jonas Bradish, 


54 


Otis Crosby, 


59 


Jonas Bradish, jun.. 


60 


John Crosby, 


55 


Francis Bridge, 


54 


Uriah Crooks, 


129 


Mrs. J. A. Brooks, 


132 


Robert Cross, 


71 


Joseph Brown, 


6 


Abzina Cummings, 


130 


David Brown, 


55 


Abner Curtice, 


114 


Samuel Brown, 2d, 


53 


John Cutter, 


44 


Samuel Brown, 3d, 


131 


John Darling, 


50 


Thomas Brown, 


S4 


Jewett B. Darling, 


333 


Rev. Brown, 


45 


Moses Davis, 


72 


Mrs. Samuel Brown, 


133 


Richard Day, 


14 


William Brown, 


SS 


John Day, 


54 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



135 



Daniel Day, 60 

Susan Day, 2d, 132 

D Denison, 71 

John Denison, 71 

Bev. Dnnn, 45 

Amos Edmands, .')5 

Artemas Edmands, 55 

Abigail Edmands, 60 
Stephen Emory, jnn.,59 

Simonds Epes, 71 

John Estey, 60 

Jonathan Evans, 55 

Edward Eveleth, 72 

Ephraim Fitts, 72 

Closes Foskett, 133 

Jonathan Foster, 52 
Abraham Foster, jr., 72 

Simon Frost, 70 

Klisha Fry, 130 

Joshua Gale, 03 

Henry Gardner, 27 

Solomon Giddinge, 75 

Isaac Giddinge, 75 

J. G. Giles, 5S 

Mary Goddard, 132 

Alvah Godding, (iO 

John R. Golding, 131 

Lydia Golding, 131 

Francis Goodhue, 12 

Joseph Goodhue, 71 

John Goodiiue, 72 

Benj. Goodridge, 15 

Philip Goodridge, 15 

David Goodridge, 17 

Daniel Goodridge, 51 

Sewal (loodridge, 59 
DavidGoodridge,2d,130 

Eliza'th Goodspeed, 131 

William Gordon, 45 

Daniel Gonld, 5-1 

Thomas Graton, 112 

Rebekah Graton, 60 

Samuel Griggs, 93 

Isaac Grout, 54 

Isaac Grout, jun. 131 

Moses Hale, 17 

Abner Hale, 52 

Jacob Hale, 53 

Amos Hale, 53 

Nathaniel Kale, 53 

Asa Hale, 60 

Benjamin Hall, 112 

ZibaHall, 113 

John Harris, 70 j 

Humphrey Harris, 133 



George Hart, 71 

Samuel Hartwell, 131 

Edward Hartwell, 94 

William Haskell, 71 

Amos Heywood, 4-4 

John Hobson, 83 

! Aaron Hodskins, 101 

; Hervev Holden, 131 

• Mary Holt, 91 

John Homer, 103 

Math. Hooker, 72 

Mary Hooker, 72 

i Thomas Hovey, 74 

I MrpTisdaleHoward,132 

, William Hubbard, 122 

i Daniel Hubbard, 114 

i Samuel Hunt, 94 

; Joel Hunt, 132 

-jEzra Hyde, sen. 17 

Reuben Hyde, 44 

Klislia Hyde, 55 

Samuel Ingalls, 72 

: Rev. .Mr. Jennison, 127 

! Kzekiel Jewett, 91 

i Thomas Jewett, 9J^ 

Jona. Jewett, jun. 71 

Peter Joslin, 17 

j Benjamin Kidder, 92 

[ Moses Kimball, 75 

Matthew Knight, 54 

, Luke Knight, 130 

I Isaac Knuwlton, 71 

; Lathi op, 131 

John Leighton, 72 

John Lord, 72 

Nathaniel Lord, 72 

Thomas Lord, jun. 72 

Jeremiah Lord, 62 

Bemsly Lord, 93 

Wdliam Loud, 132 

Edward Loud, 132 

Oliver Lovejoy, 17 

David Low, 71 

Thomas Lufkin, 70 

Mary Lufkin, 70 
TheophilusMansfield,52 

James Mansfield, 52 

John Martin, 75 

Isaac Martin, 84 

Barzillai Martin, 62 

A. P. Marvin, 6 

Thaddeus Mason, 69 

Cotton Mather, 122 

Daniel May, 60 

Seth Maynard, 53 



James McEIwaIn, 
Amos Merriam, 
A. H. Merriam, 
Thomas Metcalf, 
Joseph Metcalf, 

Miller, 

Robert Moffat, 
Levi Moor, 
Jonathan Moor, 
M. S. Morse, 
Daniel 0. Morton, 
James Murdock, 
Mrs. Jas. Murdock, 
Ephraim Murdock, 
Elisha Murdock, 
Edward Nealand, 
Robert Nelson, 
Edward ^ewton, 
Levi Nichols, 



5.1 
53 
59 
72 
72 
18 

128 
44 

125 
6 
43 
52 
60 
57 
6 
71 
72 
61 
17 



Thomas Norton, jun. 10 
Nicholas Noyes, 72 
Samuel Noyes, 54 

James Noves, 54 

Seth Oaks, 52 

VVm. Oaks, 52 

William Oaks, jun. 128 
James Otis, 22 

Parker, 83 

Jacob Parks, 60 

Mrs PhineliasParks,132 
Phinehas E. Parks, 133 
Peter Parmenter, 130 
Barthol'w Pearsons, 14 
Cyrus Partridge, 130 
Edward Payson, 54 

Rev Peckhara, 127 

Moses Peirce, 71 

Ebenezer Perkins, 127 
A. C. Perkins, 126 

Abraham Perkins, 70 
Dudley Perley, 17 

Thomas Perrin, 71 

Levi Pilsbury, 42 

Sarah Pilsbury, 52 

John Pindar, 72 

Harry Pitkins, 133 

William Poland, 17 
Samuel Poland, 70 
Mrs.William Poland, 60 
David Poor, 51 

.John Poor, 12 

Kzra Porter, 6 

Gabriel Pouchey, 50 
Nathan Pouchey, 93 
Samuel Prentice, 44 



136 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



Levi Prentiss, 44' 

Joseph Priest, 20 

Kben'r Pulcipher, 70 
Miles Putnam, oi 

J. Quincy, 69 

Paul Raymond, 1 ' 

Paul Raymond, 3d. 44 
James Raymond, 17 
Lyman Raymond, 50 
David Rice, J 16 

Benjamin Rice, V2S 

Richardson, NJ 

Luther Richardson, 133 
John Ring, }} 

Joseph Robbins, 129 
Lewis Robbins, 131 
Llaria Robbins, J 31 
Daniel Robbins, 129 
Joel Robbins, 132 

John Ross, 72 

Thomas Rugg, ^2 

Rachel Rust, 70 

Lewis Sabin, 126 

Jacob Scott, , 60 
Ebenezer Sherwm, o-i 
Mrs. Lucy Sherwin, 5o 
S. S. Smith, 12b 

Mrs. Jona. Smith, 129 
Barthol'w Stearns, 130 
Bart'w Stearns, jun. 129 



James Steel, 113 

Daniel Stimpson, 40 
Luther Stimson, 93 
Jona. Stimson, 51 

Joseph Stimson, 102 
Samuel Stimson, 129 
Joshua Stoddard, 133 
W. R. Stone, 126 

Joseph Storv, 130 

Enoch Stuart, 130 

Paul Stuart, 131 

Jabez Sweet, 70 

Joseph Sweetser, 114 
Miss Taggart, 133 

Isaac Taylor, 60 

Peter Thomas, 133 

John Thompson, 71 
Abraham Tilton, 9 

Samuel Tilus, 102 

Samuel H. Tolman, 59 
Desire Tolman, 92 

Rufus C. Torrey, &5 
Thomas Tredwell, 71 
Nathaniel Tredwell, 82 
Seth Tucker, sen. 60 
Charles Tuttle, 50 

Simon Tuttle, 50 

E. R. Tyler, 127 

Jonathan Wade, 6 

Barret Washburn, 59 



Weeks, 



133 



Moses Wells, S9 

Wetherbee, 83 

Tho's Lord Wharton,99 
Wheeler, 63 



Israel Whitcomb, 129 
Windsor White, 6 

Benjamin White, 70 
William Whitney, 55 
Phinehas Whitney, 93 
William B. Whitney, 6 
Webster Whitney, 6 
Silas Whitney, 101 

Jacob Whitney, 62 

Elias Whitney, 130 
Joseph Whitney, 53 
Israel Whiton, 6 

J . M. Whiton, 6 

Abel Wilder, 25 

Thomas Wilder, 92 
Joseph Wilder, 55 

Simon Wilder, 132 

Henry Wise, 74. 

Aaron Winch, 13'J 

Visc't Wincheudon, 100 
John Wood, 71 

Reuben Wyman, 100 
Thos. Wyman, sen. 130 
Thos. Wyman, jun. 130 
Mrs.Enoch Wyman, 133 



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