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Full text of "History of twelve Caesars. Translated into English by Philemon Holland, anno 1606. With an introd. by Charles Whibley"

HANDBOUND 
AT THE 



UNIVERSITY OF 



THE TUDOR 
TRANSLATIONS 

EDITED BY 

W. E. HENLEY 

XXII 



III 



SUETONIUS 

HISTORY OF TWELVE CAESARS 

TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH BY 

PHILEMON HOLLAND 

ANNO 1606 

With an Introduction by 
CHARLES WHIBLEY 



VOLUME II 




LONDON 

Published by DAVID NUTT 

IN THE STRAND 

1899 




DG 



V. 



Edinburgh : T. and A. CONSTABLE, Printers to Her Majesty 



THE TABLE 

PAGE 

CAIUS OESAR CALIGULA . .1 

TIBERIUS CLAUDIUS DRUSUS CESAR 54 

NERO CLAUDIUS CESAR . 98 

SERVIUS SULPITIUS GALBA ... 154 

MARCUS SALVIUS OTHO . . . 174. 

AULUS VITELLIUS . .... 186 

FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS AUGUSTUS . . 203 

TITUS FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS AUGUSTUS 225 

FLAVIUS DOMITIANUS . . . 235 

ANNOTATIONS UPON CAIUS CESAR CALIGULA . 259 

ANNOTATIONS UPON TIBERIUS CLAUDIUS DRUSUS 

C^SAR 266 

ANNOTATIONS UPON NERO CLAUDIUS CESAR . 269 

ANNOTATIONS UPON SERVIUS SULPITIUS GALBA . 277 

ANNOTATIONS UPON MARCUS SALVIUS OTHO 279 



THE TABLE 

PAGE 

ANNOTATIONS UPON AULUS VITELLIUS . . 280 

ANNOTATIONS UPON FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS 

AUGUSTUS 282 

ANNOTATIONS UPON TITUS FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS 

AUGUSTUS . 285 

ANNOTATIONS UPON FLAVIUS DOMITIANUS . . 286 

AN INDEX TO THE HISTORIE AND MAR- 

GINALL GLOSSE . . . . . 290 

AN INDEX TO THE ANNOTATIONS 306 






VI 




THE HISTORIE OF 
CAIUS C^SAR CALIGULA 



ERMANICUS father of Caius Caesar, sonne A .u.c. 757, 
of Drusus and Antonia 1 , no sooner was 765. 
adopted by his Unkle Tiberius, but forth- 
with he bare the office of Questureship five 
yeeres before hee might by the Lawes 2 a , 
and after it, the Consulate 3 . And being 
sent into Germanic to the Armie, when A.U.C. 767, 
upon newes brought of Augustus death, 77 } 77 * 
the Legions all throughout stoode out most stifly and refused 
Tiberius for their Emperour, offring unto him the absolute 
government of the State (whether their constant resolution 
or kinde affection herein were greater it is hard to say) he 
stikled and repressed them, yea and soon after having sub- 
dued the enemie, triumphed. After this, being created 
Consul the second time, and driven forth perforce 4 b , (before 
he entred into that honorable place) to compose the troubles 
and to quiet the State in the East parts : when hee had 
deposed 5 the King of Armenia, and brought Cappadocia A.U.C. 772. 
into the forme of a Province, in the 34 yeere of his age, he 
died of a long disease at Antiochia, not without suspition of 
poison. For, besides the blackish and swert spots which 
were to be scene all over his body, and the frothie slime that 
ranne forth at his mouth, his heart also (after he was burnt,) 

1 Daughter of Antonius the Triumvir, by Octavia, Augustus sister. 

2 Annarice. 3 7 yeeres after. 4 From the said armie, wherewith he was 
acquainted. 5 Deiecisset. 

2: A 1 



THE HISTORIE OF 

CAIUS they found among the bones all sound and not consumed : 
d^ESAR the nature whereof is thought to be such, that if it bee in- 

fected with poyson, it checkes all fire and cannot possibly 

bee burnt. 



But, as the opinion of the world went, his death con- 
trived by the wicked plot of Tiberius, was effected by the 
ministerie and helpe of Cn. Piso : who about the same time 
being President of Syria, and not dissimuling that hee was 
to offend either father or sonne 1 (as if there were no other 
remedie but needes he must so doe) made no spare, but 
beyond all measure dealt with Germanicus (sicke as hee was) 
most rigorously, both in word and deede. For which, so 
soone as he was returned to Rome, hee had like to have 
beene pulled in peeces by the people : and by the Senate 
condemned he was to die. 



It is for certaine knowne and confessed, that there were 
in Germanicus all good parts and gifts as well of body as 
mind : and those in such measure, as never to any man befell 
the like : to wit, for shew full of passing beauty, favour and 
feature, with strength and valour answerable thereto: and for 
wit excellently well scene in eloquence and learning of both 
kinds 2 : the very attractive object, he was of singular benevo- 
lence 3 , endowed with a wonderfull grace and effectuall desire 
to win mens favour and deserve their love. The onely defect 
that he had in his making and personage, were his slender 
shankes : and yet the same also by little and little became 
replenished with continuall riding on horseback 4 after his 
meate a . Many a time wounded hee his enemie in close fight 
hand to hand. He pleaded causes of great importance, even 
as touching the Decree of Triumph 5 . And among other 

1 Tiberius himselfe, or Germanicus his adopted sonne. 2 Greeke and 
Latine. z The good wil and affection of men, counted among the gifts of 
fortune. 4 For they used then no stirrops and therefore the bloud and 
humours wold descend to the legges. 5 Triumphale ; some reade Trium- 
phalis, as if he gave not over pleading when he had triumphed, or received 
triumphall Ornaments. 



TWELVE CAESARS 

monuments of his studies he left behind him in Greeke, CAIUS 

Comaedies also. Both at home and abroad civile b he was, in 

so much as he would goe to free and confederate Cities with- 

out any Lictors l . Where ever he knew any Sepulchers of 

brave and worthy men to be, there his use was to offer unto 

their ghosts. Being purposed to enterre in one tombe the 

olde reliques and bones dispersed of those that were slaine 

in that great overthrow with Varus, he first gave the assay 

with his owne hand to gather and carie them together into 

one place. Moreover, to his slaunderers and backbiters (if 

he lighted upon them), of what quality so ever the persons 

were, or how great cause so ever they gave, so milde, so 

remisse and harmelesse hee was : that notwithstanding Piso 

reversed and canciled his Decrees, plagued and persecuted a 

long time his Dependants, yet could he not finde in his 

heart to be angry with him, before he had for certaine 

knowne, that hee attempted his person with poysons and 

sorcerous execrations : and even then verily, hee proceeded 

no farther against him, but, more maiorum to renounce all 

friendshippe with him, and to give his domesticall friendes 

in charge to bee revenged, if ought happened to himselfe 

otherwise than well. 



Of these vertues hee reaped most plentifull fruite ; so liked 
and loved of his kinsfolke and friendes, (for I let passe all 
other affinities and acquaintance of his) as that Augustus 
after hee had continued a long time in suspence, whether he 
should ordaine him for his Successor or no, recommended 
him at length unto Tiberius for to be adopted : so highly 
favoured of the Common people, as that many doe report 
and write, whensoever hee came unto a place or departed 
from thence, divers times by reason of the multitude flock- 
ing to meete him and to beare him companie, he endangered 
his owne life in the preasse. As he returned out of Germanic, 
after the suppressing of seditious tumults and mutinies there, 
all the Praetorian cohorts every one went out to encounter 
him upon the way : albeit warning was given before hand by 

1 Sergeants or officers. 



THE HISTORIE OF 

CAIUS proclamation, That no more than twayne of them should 
& oe ^ or ^' ^ u ^ as ^ or ^ e P e pl e f Rome, of all sexes, ages, 
and degrees, they ran out by heapes to meet him xx miles 
from Rome. 

5 

Howbeit, farre greater, and more assured testimonies of 
mens judgement touching him appeared at, and after his 
death. The very day wherein he left this life, the temples l 
were pelted with stones a : the altars of the Gods cast downe : 
the Domesticall Lares b , by some flung out of dores into 
the street ; yea, and new-borne babes of wedded parents 
throwne forth to be destroied c . And, that which more is, 
the report goeth, that the very Barbarians, notwithstand- 
ing they were at variance and civill warre among them- 
selves, yea and had taken armes against us, yet, as it were in 
some domesticall and common sorrow 2 , agreed all to make 
truce and a cessation of armes for a time. Some of their 
Princes also and Potentates, to declare their extraordinarie 
mourning and regret, did cut off their owne beards and 
shaved their wives heads. Yea, the very King of Kings d 
himselfe, gave over his exercise of hunting : and dissolved 
the Societie of his great Peeres and Princes at his table : 
which among the Parthians is as much as a Law-steed 3 e . 

6 

At Rome verily, when as the Citie upon the first rumour 
of his sicknesse, in amazednes and heavie chere expected the 
messengers that came after ; and all of a suddaine in the 
evening the voice went currant, (although the Authors were 
unknowne,) that now at length he was recovered : running 
there was every where from all parts with lights 4 and sacri- 
fices 5 into the* Capitoll : yea the very dores of the temple 
were like to have been burst open, that nothing might stand 
in their way and hinder them, so desirous and earnestly bent 
with joy to pay their vowes. In so much as Tiberius was 

1 Or, the images of the Gods within the temples. 2 Touching them all 
and every one privatly. 3 At Rome, i. a stay of all Courts and Pleas, in 
token of a publick sorrow. 4 Torches, Tapers, etc. 5 Which they had 
made, pro sahite Germanic^ i. for the health and welfare of Germanicus. 



TWELVE CAESARS 

awakened out of his sleepe with the shoutes and voices of 
the people rejoycing, and from every side with one accord 
resounding this Note, 

Salva Roma, salva Patria, salvus est Germanicus. 

Safe is Rome, safe is our Country, safe is Germanicus. 

Also, when now at the last it was knowne abroad that he 
was departed this life, the publick sorrow by no comfortable 
words nor edicts and proclamations could be repressed, but 
continued still even all the festivall daies of the moneth 
December a . His glory and the misse of him thus deceased, 
was much augmented also by the outrages of the times 
ensuing : whiles all men were of opinion (and not without 
good reason) that the fiercenesse of Tiberius which soone 
after brake forth, was held in and kept downe by the 
reverent respect and feare that he had of him. 



CAIUS 

C^SAR 

CALIGULA 



He wedded Agrippina, daughter to M. Agrippa and Julia : 
by whom he had nine children : of which faire issue twaine 
being yet Infants were taken away by untimely Death : one 
died when he was now waxen a jolly boy, passing full of 
lovely mirth and prety talke ; whose counterfait in the 
habite of Cupid, Livia 1 dedicated in the Chappell of Venus 
Capitolina : and the same Augustus was wont to kisse while 
it stood in his bed-chamber, so often as he entred into it. 
The rest survived their father : three of the female sex, 
Agrippina, Drusilla and Livia, borne all one after another 
in the space of three yeeres : likewise as many male children, 
Nero, Drusus and Caius Caesar. As for Nero and Drusus, the 
Senate upon imputations laid by Tiberius, judged them to 
be enemies unto the State. 

8 

Caius Caesar was borne the day next preceding the Calends A.U.C. 765. 
of September 2 , when his Father and C. Ponteius Capito were 
Consuls. The place of his Nativitie, by the disagreement of 
writers, is left uncertaine. Cn. Lentulus Gaetulicus writeth, 

1 Augusta. 2 The last of August. 

5 



THE HISTORIE OF 

CAIUS that hee was borne at Tibur : Plinius Secundus, within the 
CAUGULA ^ ountr y f tne Treviri, in a towne called Ambiatinum 1 , upon 
the very Confluents 2 . For evidence and proofe whereof hee 
farther saith, that certaine Altars are there ^to be seene 
carying this Inscription, ' For the child-birth and deliverie 
of Agrippina V But these verses following, divulged soone 
after that he came to be Emperour, do plainly shew, that 
borne he was in the very Camp, where the Legions wintered. 

In castris natus patriis nutritus in armis, 
lam designati principis, omen erat. 

Borne in the Camp, in Fathers warres with souldiours rear'd was he ; 
A signe, that then ordain'd he was an Emp'rour for to be. 

I my selfe do find among the Records, that Antium was 
the place of his birth. Plinie refelleth Getulicus, as if he 
made a lie by way of flattery, because to the praise of a 
young and glorious Prince, hee would fetch some argument 
and matter even out of a Citie consecrated to Hercules : and 
was the bolder, as he saith to abuse the said Lie, for that, 
indeede, a yeere almost before, Germanicus had a sonne 
borne at Tibur, named likewise Caius Caesar : of whose 
amiable childhood and untimely death we have spoken 
before. And as to Plinie himselfe, confuted he is by the 
Calculation of the times. For, they who have recorded the 
Acts of Augustus doe all agree, that Germanicus was sent 
into Germanie after the time of his Consulship expired, 
when as Caius was already borne. Neither can the Inscrip- 
tion of the Altar one jote make good his opinion : consider- 
ing that Agrippina was delivered of daughters twice in that 
Country. And what child-birth so ever it was, without 
respect and difference of sex, called it is Puerperium : for 
that in old time folk used to name little girles also PuercK, 
like as little boyes Puelli. There is besides, an Epistle of 
Augustus written, not many moneths before he died unto 
Agrippina his Niece as touching this Caius, (for there was 
not now living any other Infant of the like name) in these 
wordes : ' I have no longer agoe than yesterday taken order 

1 Or Ambitivum. 3 The meeting of two rivers. 3 Ob Agrippina 
puerperium. 



TWELVE CAESARS 

with Talarius and Asellius, that with the leave of God they CAIUS 

bring the boy Caius upon the 15 day before the Calends of CJESAR 

June l . I send besides with him of mine owne servants a ' 

Physician whom Germanicus (as I have written unto him) 

may if he will retaine and keepe with him still. Farewell 

my Agrippina and endeavour to come well and in health to 

thy Germanicus.'' It appeareth I suppose sufficiently that 

Caius could not in that place be borne, unto which he was 

conveied from Rome not before he was well-neere two yeares 

old. And as for those verses, these selfe same evidences 

likewise discredite them : and the rather, because they have 

no Author. We are to follow therefore the onely authority 

that remaineth, of the Records and publick Instrument : 

seeing especially that Caius evermore preferred Antium 

before all other retiring places, and loved it no otherwise 

than his native soile : yea, and by report, was fully minded 

once (upon a tedious wearinesse that he had of Rome City), 

to transferre thither even the very seat and habitation of 

the Empire. 

9 

He gat his surname Caligula by occasion of a merry word 
taken up in the Camp, because he was brought up there in 
the habit of an ordinarie and common souldiour among the 
rest a . With whom, how much besides he was able to doe in 
love and favour by meanes of his education and daily feeding 
with them, was most of all knowne ; when after the death of 
Augustus, he onely (no doubt) with his very sight and pre- 
sence quieted them 2 , what time they were in an uprore and at 
the very point of furious outrage. For they ceased not to 
mutinie, untill they perceived that he was about to be sent 
out of the way for danger of the sedition, and appointed to 
the next City adjoyning. Then and not before, turning to 
repentance, they staied and held back his coach, and so by 
prayer averted the displeasure that was toward them. 

10 

He accompanied his Father also in the Expedition into 

1 1 8 of May. 2 He was then but a child, about 3 or 4 yeeres old. 

7 



CAIUS 

(LffiSAR 

CALIGULA 



THE HISTORIE OF 

Syria : from whence being returned, first hee abode in 
house with his Mother : and after that shee was banished 
and sent away, hee remained with his great Grandmother 
Livia Augusta : whom deceased hee praised in a funerall 
Oration at the Rostra, when hee was as yet but a very youth 
in his Prcetexta : and then removed he to his Grandmother 
Antonia. From her in the twentieth yeere of his age hee 
was sent for to Capreae by Tiberius, and upon one and the 
selfe same day, he did on his virile gowne a and withall cut 
the first downe of his beard, without any honourable 
solemnitie, such as his brethren before him had at their 
Commencements. Heere, notwithstanding hee was tempted 
by all the deceitfull traines that they could devise, who 
would have drawne and forced him to quarrels, yet gave hee 
never any occasion, having rased out and quite forgotten the 
fall and calamity of his mother, brethren and neere friends, 
as if nothing had befallen to any of them : passing over all 
those abuses which himselfe had endured with incredible dis- 
simulation : so obsequious and double diligent besides, to his 
Grandfather and those about him, that of him it was said 
and not without good cause, ' A better servant and a worse 
Master there never was V 

11 

Howbeit, the cruell disposition and villainous nature of 
his owne, hee could not even then bridle and hold in : but 
both at all castigations and punishments of such as were de- 
livered over to execution, most willing he was to be present : 
and also would haunt Tavernes and Brothel-houses, mens 
wives also suspected for adulterie, going about from place to 
place disguised under a peruke of false haire a , and in a side 
(womans) garment : yea, and most studiously gave his minde 
to learne the artificial! feate of dauncing and singing upon 
the Stage. And verily Tiberius was well content to winke 
heereat and suffer all, if haply thereby his fierce and savage 
nature might have been mollified and become tractable. 
Which the old man (as he was a Prince right prudent and 
one most quick of sent) had foreseene well enough long 



8 



Passienus was the Author of this Apophthegm. 



TWELVE C^SARS 

before: in so much as divers times he gave out and said CAIUS 
openly, That Caius lived to the destruction of him and CJLSAR 
them all : likewise, That he cherished and brought up a CAL1GULA 
verie Natrix 1 5 which is a kind of Serpent, for the people of 
Rome, and another Phaethon b to the whole world. 

12 

Not long after, he took to wife Junia Claudilla 2 , the 
daughter of M. Silanus a right noble gentleman. And then, 
being nominated to succeede Augur in the roume of his 
brother Drusus, before his investure and installation therein, 
he was advanced to the sacerdotall dignitie of a Pontifie 3 ; a 
notable testimonie of his pietie, and towardnesse, when as 
the royall line and imperial Court beeing desolate and 
destitute of all other helpes 4 , Sejanus also suspected and 
soone after overthrowne, he should thus by small degrees 
arise to the hope of succession in the Empire. Which hope, 
the rather to confirme, after his wife aforesaid Junia was 
dead in childbirth, he sollicited unto filthie wantonnesse 
dame Ennia the wife of Naevius Macro 6 , then captaine of the 
guard and Pretorian cohorts : having promised her mariage 
also, in case he ever attained to the Empire : and for assur- 
ance hereof he bound it with an oath and a bill of his owne 
hand. By her meanes being insinuated once into the inward 
acquaintance of Macro 6 , hee attempted, as some thinke, 
Tiberius with poison : and whiles he was yet living, but 
labouring for life, commanded his ring 7 to be plucked from 
his finger : but perceiving, that he gave some suspicion of 
holding it fast, hee caused a pillow to be forced upon his 
mouth, and so with his owne hands stifled and strangled 
him : yea, and when his freed-man 8 made an outcrie at this 
cruell and horrible act, he gave order immediatly to crucifie 
him. And verily this soundeth to truth, considering there 
bee some Authors who write, That himselfe afterwards 



1 Commonly taken for a water snake. 



For Claudia: as Livilla for 



wrought the fall of Sejanus. 
2 : B 



Signet. 8 Tiberius freed-man. 



THE HISTORIE OF 

CAIUS professed, if not the murder done, yet at lestwise his inten- 

CZESAR tion, one day to doe it. For, hee made his boast continually, 

CALIGULA j n reporting his owne pietie, That to revenge the death of 

his Mother and brethren, hee entred with a dagger l into 

Tiberius bed-chamber whiles he lay asleepe ; and yet upon 

meere pittie and commiseration bethought himselfe, flung 

away the weapon and so went backe againe. Neither durst 

Tiberius although hee had an inkling and intelligence of his 

designment, make anie inquisition at all of the matter or 

proceede to revenge. 

13 

A.U.C. 790. Thus having obtained the Empire he procured unto the 
people of Rome, or (as I may so say) to all mankind their 
hearts desire: being a prince of all that ever were, most 
wished for of the greatest part of provinciall Nations and of 
the souldiors, because most of them had known him an 
infant : and generally of the whole comminalty of Rome, in 
remembrance of his father Germanicus, and upon compassion 
they took of that house in manner ruinate and extinct. As 
he removed therfore from Misenum, albeit he was clad in 
mourning weed and reverently did attend the corps of 
Tiberius, yet went he among the altars, sacrifices and burn- 
ing torches a in a most thick throng and joifull traine of such 
as met him on the way : who beside other luckie and for- 
tunate names called him Sidus, i. their starre, Puttum, i. 
their chick, Pupum, i. their babe, and Alumnum, i. their 
nurceling. 



No sooner was he entred into the citie of Rome, but in- 
continently with consent of the senate and the multitude 
rushing into the Curia, after they had annulled the wil of 
Tiberius, who in his testament had adjoyned coheire unto 
him another of his Nephews under age 2 , and as yet in his 
pretexta, permitted he was alone, to have the ful and 
absolute power of all, and that with such an universal joy, 
that in three moneths space next ensuing and those not fully 

1 Rapier or spud. 2 Tiberius the son of Drusus. 

10 



TWELVE C^SARS 

expired, there were by report above 160000 Beastes slaine CAIUS 
for sacrifice. After this, when as within some fewe dayes C2ESAR 
he passed over by the water but to the next Hands of ^ Aijl " 
Campania, vowes were made for his safe returne: and no 
man there was who did let slip the least occasion offred, to 
testifie what pensive care he tooke, as touching his health 
and safetie. But so soone as he was once fallen sicke, they 
all kept watch by night about the Pallace : neither wanted 
some, who vowed to fight armed to the very outrance for his 
life thus lying sicke, yea and devoted their verie lives for 
him if hee recovered 1 a , professing no lesse in written bils set 
uppe in publike places. To this surpassing love of his owne 
Citizens and Countrie men, was adjoyned the notable favour 
also of foraine states. For, Artabanus King of the Parthians, 
professing alwaies his hatred and contempt of Tiberius, 
sought of his owne accord to him for amitie : yea he came in 
person to a conference with one of his legates (or Lieu- 
tenants) that had beene Consul, and passing over Euphrates, 
adored the ^Egles 2 and other militarie ensignes of the 
Romaines, as also the Images of the Caesars. 

15 

Himselfe also enkindled and set more on fire the affections 
of men by all manner of popularitie. When he had with 
many a teare praised Tiberius in a funerall Oration before 
the bodie of the people, and performed the complement 
of his obsequies most honorably, forthwith he hastened, to 
Pandataria and Pontise, for to translate from thence the 
ashes of his mother and brother, and that in foule and tem- 
pestuous wether, to the end that his pietie and kindnes might 
the more be seene. And being come to their reliques, very 
devoutly himselfe with his owne hands bestowed them in seve- 
rall pitchers. And with no lesse shewe in pagent wise, having 
wafted them first to Ostia with a flag (or streamer) pitched 
in the poupe or sterne of a galley guided by two rankes of 
Oares and so foorth to Rome up the Tiber, by the ministerie 
of the most worshipfull gentlemen of Rome : he conveighed 

1 Offred to lay down their owne lives. 2 The maine standards. 

11 



THE HISTORIE OF 

CAIUS them within two Fercules (or frames) devised for the purpose 
* n ^ ^ ne Mausoleum, even a ^ n one day when people were 
assembled there in great frequencie. In memoriall likewise 
of them he ordained yeerely dirges and sacrifices to be per- 
formed with religious devotion to their ghosts by the whole 
Cittie. And more then that, he instituted for his mother 
solemn games within the Cirque ; and a sacred Chariot 
withal wherin her Image to the ful proportion of her bodie 
should be carried in the pompe. But in remembrance of his 
father he called the moneth September, Germanicus. These 
ceremoniall duties done, by vertue of one sole Act of the 
Senate, he heaped upon his grand-mother Antonia whatso- 
ever honours Livia Augusta had received in her whole time. 
His Unkle Claudius, a knight of Rome untill that time and 
no better, he assumed unto him for his Colleague in the 
Consulship. His brother Tiberius 1 he adopted the verie 
day that he put on his Virile gowne, and stiled him Prince 
of the youth. As touching his sisters, hee caused in all Oaths 
this clause to be annexed 2 , ' Neither shall I prise my selfe 
and children more deere, than I do Caius and his sisters.' 
Item, he ordained that in mooving and propounding of 
matters by the Consuls unto the Senatours, they should 
begin in this form, Quod bonum, etc., i. That which may be 
to the good and happie estate of Caius Caesar and his sisters, 
etc. In the semblable veine of popularitie, he restored all 
those that had beene condemned, confined and exiled, yea he 
freely dispensed with them, pardoning whatsoever crimes or 
imputations remained still behinde from before time 3 . All 
the bookes and registers pertaining to the causes of his 
mother and brethren, because no informer or witnesse should 
afterwardes neede to feare, he brought together 4 into the 
Forum : where protesting before hand, and calling the Gods 
to record with a lowd voice, that he had neither red ought 
nor medled once therewith, he burnt them. A certaine 
pamphlet presented unto him concerning his life and safety, 
he received not, but stood upon this point, That he had 

1 His cosin germaine, for such are called brethren. 2 The forme of oth, 
that any man tooke. 3 As we say, from the beginning of the world to this 
day. 4 Convectos. 



TWELVE CAESARS 

done nothing wherefore he should be odious to any person : CAIUS 
saying withall, That he had no eares open for informers and CJESAR 
Tale-bearers. CALIGULA 

16 

The Spintriae, inventers of monstrous formes in perpetrat- 
ing filthie lust, he expelled forth of Rome, being hardly and 
with much ado intreated not to drown them in the deepe 
sea. The writings of Titus Labienus, Cordus Cremutius and 
Cassius Severus, which had beene called in and abolished by 
divers Acts of the Senate, he suffered to be sought out 
againe, to be in mens hands extant, and usually to be red : 
seeing that it concerned him principally and stood him upon 
most, to have all actions and deedes delivered unto posteritie. 
The Breviarie of the Empire, that by Augustus had beene 
wont to bee proposed openly, but was by Tiberius intermitted, 
he published. Unto the Magistrates he granted free Juris- 
diction, and that there might be no appealing to himselfe. 
The Gentrie and knighthood of Rome he reviewed with 
severity and great precisenesse : yet not without some mo- 
deration of his hand. Hee openly tooke from them their 
horses 1 , in whome was found any foule reproch or igno- 
minie : as for those, who were culpable in smaller matters, 
hee onely passed over their names in reading the Roll. To 
the ende, that the Judges might bee eased of their labour, 
unto the foure former decuries hee added a fifth. Hee gave 
the attempt likewise to bring up againe the auncient manner 
of Elections, and to restore unto the people their free voices. 
The legacies due by the last will and testament of Augustus 
(although the same was abolished) : as also of Livia Augusta, 
which Tiberius had suppressed, he caused faithfully and with- 
out fraud to be tendred and fully paide. The exaction called 
Ducentesima 2 * of all bargaines and sales, he remitted through- 
out Italic. The losses that many a man had sustained by 
fire he supplied : and if to any princes he restored their 
kingdomes, hee adjoyned withall the fruicte and profits also 
of their rents, customes and imposts growing to the Crowne 
in the middle time between : as namely, unto Antiochus 
1 Publike horses of service. 2 Some read Centesimam. 

13 



THE HISTORIE OF 

CAIUS Comagenus who had been confiscate and fined in an hundred 
m ^ ans ^ Sesterces. And that he might the rather be 
reputed a favourer of all good examples, hee gave unto a 
woman, (by condition a libertine) 800000 Sesterces 1 , for that 
she being under most grievous and dolorous torments, con- 
cealed yet and would not to die for it, utter a wicked fact 
committed by her Patron. For which things, among other 
honours done unto him there was decreed for him a shield of 
golde b , which upon a certaine day everie yeare, the colledges 
of the Priestes shoulde bring into the Capitoll, with the 
Senate accompanying them, and Noble mens children as well 
boyes as girles, singing the praises of his vertues in musicall 
verse tuned sweetely in meeter. Moreover, there passed a 
decree, that the day on which hee beganne his Empire 
should be called PaUlia c , imploying thereby, as it were a 
second foundation of the Cittie. 

17 

A.U.C. 790, He bare foure Consulships : the first, from the Calends of 
79 1 } 793) 794- Julie for ii. monethes : the second from the Calends of Janu- 
arie, for 30 dayes : the third unto the Ides of Januarie : and 
the fourth unto the seventh day before the said Ides 2 . Of 
all these, the ii. last he held joyntly together. The third, 
he alone entred upon at Lions 3 : not, as some deeme, upon 
pride or negligence : but because, being absent, he could not 
have knowledge that his Colleague died just against the very 
day of the Calends. He gave a largesse 4 to the people twice, 
to wit, 300 sesterces to them a peece, and a most plenteous 
dinner he made as oft unto the Senate and degree of gentle- 
men, as also to the wives and children of them both. In the 
latter dinner of the twaine, he dealt over and above, among 
the men garments to be worne abroad : unto the women and 
children, gardes welts 5 , or laces, of purple and violet colour. 
And to the ende, he might augment the publike joy of the 
Cittie with perpetuitie also, hee annexed unto the feast 
Saturnalia one daye more, and named the same Juvenalis. 

1 Ostingtnta sestertia. Some read Ostoginta : i. 80000, and this commeth 
neerer to the truth. 2 The seventh of Januarie. 3 In France. 4 Con- 
giarium. 5 Fascias ; some expound these to be ribbands, garters and gorgets. 

14 



TWELVE C^SARS 

CAIUS 
18 CAESAR 

He set foorth games of Sword-fencers, partly in the 
Amphitheater of Taurus, and partly within the Septa in 
Mars feild, into the which he inserted and brought in, cer- 
taine troupes of African and Campane Champions to skirmish 
by companies : even the very best, selected out of both Coun- 
tries. Neither was he alwaies himselfe president at these 
solemnities and publike shewes, but otherwhiles enjoined the 
Magistrates or else his freinds to take the charge of presi- 
dencie. As for stage plaies, he exhibited them continually 
in diverse places and in sundrie sorts : once also in the night 
season, burning lights throughout the Cittie. He skattered 
likewise and flung (among the common people) missils 1 9 of 
many and sundry kinds to skamble for : and dealt man by 
man, paniers with viandes therein. At which feasting, to 
a certaine gentleman of Rome who over against him plyed 
his chawes full merily, and fedde right hartily with a greedie 
stomacke, he sent his owne part : as also to a Senatour for 
the same cause, his letters patents, wherein he declared him 
extraordinarily, Praetour. He represented besides, many 
Cirq-games, which held from morne to even : interposing 
one while, the baiting of Panthers 2 ; another while the 
Troie-justing and Turnament. But some especiall sports 
there were above the rest, and then the Cirq-place was laide 
all over with vermillion and Borax Minerall 3 : where none 
but of Senatours degree ruled and drave the Chariots. Some 
also he put foorth upon a sodaine, namely when as he beheld 
from out of the house Gelotiana, the preparation and furni- 
ture of the Cirque, some few from the next open galleries 
jettying out 4a , called unto him for the same. 

19 

Furthermore, he devised a new kind of sight, and such as 
never was hearde of before. For, over the middle Space 5 
between Baiae and the huge piles or dammes at Puteoli con- 
taining three miles and 600 paces well neere, hee made a 

1 Missilia, small gifts. 2 Or Leopards. 3 Red and greene. 4 Manianis. 
5 An arme of the sea. 

15 



THE HISTORIE OF 

CAIUS bridge : having gotten together from all parts ships of 
burden, and placed them in a duple course at Anchor, with 
a banke of earth cast thereupon, direct and straight after 
the fashion of the high way Appia. Uppon this bridge he 
passed to and fro for two dayes together : the first day 
mounted on a courser richly trapped, himselfe most, brave 
and goodly to be scene with a chaplet of Oke-brances : armed 
with a battaile axe, a light targuet and a sword, clad also in 
a cloke of gold : the morrow after he appeared in the habit 
of a Chariotier, ryding in a chariot drawne with two goodly 
steedes of an excellent race : carrying before him Darius a 
boye, one of the Parthian hostages with a traine of the 
Praetorian souldiers marching after in battaile raie : and 
accompanied with the Cohort of his minions in British 
wagons 1 . Most men I wote well, are of opinion that Caius 
invented such a kind of bridge, in emulation of Xerxes, who 
not without the wonder of the world, made a bridge of 
planks over Hellesponte an arme of the Sea, somewhat 
narrower than this : others, that by a bruite blazed abroad 
of some huge and monstrous peece of worke, hee might 
terrific Germanie and Britaine, upon which countries hee 
meant to make warre. But I remember well that beeing a 
boy, I heard my Grandfather report and tell the cause of 
this worke, as it was delivered by his owne Courteours, who 
were more inward with him than the rest : namely, that 
Thrasyllus the great Astrologer assured Tiberius when hee 
was troubled in minde about his successour, and more en- 
clined to his naturall and lawfull nephew 2 indeede by lineall 
descent, That Caius should no more become Emperour than 
able to runne a course to and fro on horse-backe, through 
the gulfe of Baiae. 

20 

He set forth shewes also even in forraine parts, to wit in 
Sicilie at Saracose, the games called Actiaci 3 : likewise at 
Lions in Fraunce, playes of a mixt nature and argument : as 
also a solemne contention for the prise in Eloquence both 

1 Esscdis, Belgick or French. 2 Tiberius, the sonne of Drusus Tiberius 
the Emperors son. 3 Some read Hasticos y as running at tilt. 

16 



TWELVE C^SARS 

Greeke and Latine. In which tryall of maisteries, the report CAIUS 
goeth, that those who were foiled and overcome, conferred C^ISAR 
rewards upon the winners, yea and were forced to make com- CALIG 
positions in their praise. But looke who did worst, they 
were commanded to wipe out their owne writings, either 
with a spunge or els with their tongues, unlesse they would 
chuse rather to be chastized with ferulars or els to be ducked 
over head and eares in the next river *. 



21 

The buildings left halfe undone by Tiberius, namely, the 
Temple of Augustus, and the Theatre of Pompeius, he 
finished. He began moreover a conduict in the Tiburtine 
territorie : and an Amphitheatre neere unto the Enclosure 
called Septa : of the two works, the one 2 was ended by his 
successor Claudius, the other was forlet and given over quite. 
The wals at Saracose by the injurie of time decaied and fallen 
downe were by him reedified : and the temples of the gods 
there, repaired. Hee had fully purposed also to build anew 
the palace of Polycrates at Samos : to finish Apolloes temple 
called Didymeum at Miletum : as also to found and build a 
Cittie upon the top of the Alpes : but before all, to dig 
through the Isthmus in Achaia : and thither had he sent 
alreadie one of purpose, who had beene a principall Captaine 
of a Cohort in the Vaward, to take measure of the worke. 



Thus farre forth as of a Prince : now forward, relate we 
must as of a Monster. Having assumed into his Stile many 
surnames, for called he was Pius, i. kind : Castrorum films, 
i. the sonne of the camp : Pater exercituum^ i. Father of 
hosts : and Optimus Maximus Ccesar, i. the most gracious 
and mightie Caesar 3 , when he hapned to heare certaine 
Kings 4 (who were come into the Cittie for to do their 
duties and to salute him) contend as they sate with him at 

1 Rhodanus Rhosne. 2 The conduict. 3 Usurping the Attributes of 
Jupiter. 4 Agrippa and Antiochus. 

2 : C 17 



THE HISTORIE OF 

CAIUS supper, about the Nobilitie of their birth and parentage, hee 
CAESAR cry ed foorth 
CALIGULA J / Y JT AJ 

ELS Koipavos euro), eis pa(n\vs. 
One Soveraigne Lord, one King let there be a : 

and there lacked not much but that presently he had taken 
the Diademe upon him and converted wholly the shew of 
Empire, into the forme of a Kingdome l b . But being told 
that he was mounted alreadie above the heigth and state 
both of Emperours and also of Kings 2 , thereupon from that 
time forward hee began to challenge unto himselfe a divine 
Majestic : and having given order and commission, that the 
images of the gods, which either for devout worship done 
unto them, or for curious workemanship scene upon them, 
excelled the rest, (among which was that of Jupiter Olimpi- 
cus) should bee brought out of Greece unto Rome, that when 
their heads were taken of, he might set his owne in the 
place 3 : he enlarged the Palatium* and set out one part therof 
as far as to the forum. Transfiguring likewise and turning 
the Temple of Castor and Pollux into a porch or entrie 5 , 
he stood manie times in the middle between the said two 
gods, brethren, and so exhibited himselfe to be adored of all 
comers. And some there were who saluted him by the name 
of Jupiter Latialis. Moreover he ordained a Temple pecu- 
liarly appropriate to his owne godhead, as also priests and 
most exquisite Osts 6 . In his saide Temple stood his owne 
image all of gold, lively portraied and expressing his full 
proportion : the which was daily clad with the like vesture 
as himselfe wore. The masterships of the priest-hood by 
him instituted, the richest men that were, every time of 
vacancie purchased : such as made greatest suite and offered 
most therefore. The Osts or sacrifices aforesaid were these 
foules, Phcenicopteri c , Peacocks, Tetraones d , Numidicae e , 
Meleagrides f and Phesants g , and those to be sorted by 
their kinds ; and so every day killed. And verily, his usuall 
manner was in the night to call unto the Moone when she 

1 Under Caesars. 2 Principum, for the Romaine Emperours were called 
Principes. 3 The portraict and proportion of his owne selfe. 4 The 
Palace in that Mount, that stood in Forum Romanum. 5 To his Pallace. 
6 Sacrifices. 
18 



TWELVE C^SARS 

was at full and shining bright out for to come and ly with CAIUS 
him in his armes : but in the day time, he talked secretly and r ?^p^ T ? A 
apart with Jupiter Capitolinus : one while by whispering and ^ ALIG 
rounding one another in the eare, otherwhiles speaking more 
lowde and not without chiding : for he was heard in threat- 
ning wise to utter these words, Et9 yaiav Aavacov Trepda) <re, I 
will remove and translate thee into the lande of the Greeks : 
untill such time as being intreated (according as he tolde the 
tale himselfe) and invited first by him for to cohabite, he 
made a bridge over the temple of Augustus of sacred memorie, 
and so joyned the Palatium and Capitol together 1 . And 
soone after, to the end that he might be nearer unto him 
hee layed the foundation of a newe house in the voide base- 
court of the Capitoll. 



Hee could in no wise abide to be either reputed or named 
the nephew of Agrippa by reason of his base and obscure 
parentage : yea and angrie hee would be, in case anie man 
either in Oration or Verse inserted him 2 among the images 
of the Caesars. But he gave it out openly, that his owne 
mother 3 was begotten by incest which Augustus committed 
with his owne daughter Julia. And not content with this 
infamous imputation of Augustus, the Actiack and Sicilian 4 
victories by him atchieved, hee streightly forbad to be cele- 
brated yeerely with solemne holidaies, as beeing unluckie and 
hurtful! to the people of Rome. As for Livia Augusta his 
great Grand-mother, he called her ever and anon Ulisses in a 
womans habite : yea and in a certaine Epistle unto the Senate 
he was so bold as to lay unto her, Ignobility 5 as descended 
from a Decurian of Fundi 6 who was her Grandsire by the 
mothers side, whereas it is evident and certaine by publick 
records that Aufidius Lingo 7 bare honourable Offices in 
Rome. When his Grandame Antonia 8 requested secret 
conference with him, he denied her, unlesse Macro Capitaine 

1 From the Palatium to the Capitoll. 2 Agrippa. 3 Agrippina, 
supposed to be the daughter of M. Agrippa and Julia. 4 Siculasque, not 
Singulasque. 5 i. Basenes of birth. 6 Aufidius Lingo, or Lurco. 7 Or 
Lurco. 8 By the father side, to wit, the mother of Germanicus. 

19 



THE HISTORIE OF 

CAIUS of the Guard might come in betweene to heare their talke. 
CJESAR And so, by such indignities and discontentments as these, 
CALIGULA nee was j- ne cause O f ner death : and yet, as some thinke, 
he gave her poison withall. Neither when shee was dead 
daigned hee her any honour, but out of his dining chamber 
beheld her funerall fire as it was burning. His brother 
Tiberius he surprised suddainly at un wares, sending a Tri- 
bune of Souldiours, who rushed in upon him and so slew 
him a . Likewise Silanus 1 his Father in law hee forced to 
death, even to cut his owne throate with a Razour, picking 
quarrels to them both and finding these causes : to wit, that 
the one 2 followed him not when hee tooke sea beeing very 
rough and much troubled, but staied behind in hope to seize 
the Citie of Rome into his owne hands, if ought hapned but 
well unto him by occasion of tempests : the other 3 smelled 
strongly of a Preservative or Antidote, as if hee had taken 
the same to prevent his poisons. Whereas, in very truth 
Silanus avoided thereby the unsufferable paine of being Sea- 
sick and the grievous trouble of sayling : and Tiberius for a 
continuall cough that grew still upon him used a medicine. 
For, his Urikle Claudius he reserved for nothing else but to 
make him his laughing-stock. 



With all his sisters, hee used ordinarily to be naught : 
and at any great feast hee placed evermore one or other of 
them by turnes beneath himselfe, while his wife sat above. 
Of these sisters (as it is verily thought) he defloured Dru- 
silla being a virgin, when himselfe also was yet under age 
and a very boy : yea, and one time above the rest hee was 
found in bed with her and taken in the manner by his 
Grandmother Antonia, in whose house they were brought 
up both together. Afterwards also when shee was bestowed 
in mariage upon Lucius Cassius Longinus, a man of Con- 
sulare degree, hee tooke her from him and kept her openly, 
as if shee had beene his owne lawfull wife. Also when he 
lay sicke, he ordained her to be both heire of all his goods 



1 Whose daughter hee had maried. 
Successour in the Empire. 



2 Silanus. 3 Tiberius. 4 His 



TWELVE CAESARS 

and Successour also in the Empire. For the same sister CAIUS 
deceased, hee proclaimed a generall cessation of Law 1 in CAESAR 
all Courts. During which time, a capitall crime it was for CALIG 
any man to have laughed, bathed, or supped together with 
parents, wife or children. And being impatient of this 
sorrow, when hee was fled suddainly and by night out of the 
Citie, and had passed all over Campania, to Saracose hee 
went; and so from thence returned speedily againe with 
his beard and haire of head overgrowne. Neither at any 
time ever after, in making a speech before the people or to 
his Souldiours concerning any matters were they never so 
weighty would hee sweare otherwise than by the name of 
Drusilla 2 . The rest of his sisters, (Livia and Agrippina) hee 
loved neither with so tender affection nor so good respect, 
as whom he oftentimes prostituted and offred to be abused 
by his own stale catamites. So much the more easily there- 
fore condemned he them in the case of JEmilius Lepidus, as 
adulteresses and privie to his treasons and waite-layings 
addressed against his person. And he not onely divulged 
the hand-writings which were sought out by guile and 
adulteries, but also consecrated unto Mars Revenger those 
three daggers prepared for his death 3 , with a title over 
them, containing the cause of his so doing. 

25 

As for his manages, a man may hardly discerne, whether 
hee contracted, dissolved, or held them still with more dis- 
honesty. Livia Orestilla, what time she was wedded unto 
C. Piso, himselfe (being one who came in person to the 
Solemnization of the mariage) commaunded to be brought 
home unto him as his owne wife : and having within few daies 
cast her off, two yeeres after he banished and sent her away ; 
because in the middle time betweene, shee was thought 
to have had the company 4 againe of her former husband. 

1 To signifie a solemne mourning. 2 Per nomen, some reade Numen, i. 
the godhead or divine power : for he equalled her with Venus, and com- 
maunded that she should be worshipped as a Goddesse ; and as Dion writeth, 
named she was Panthea, and women were compelled to sweare by her, as by 
Juno. 3 By them, to wit Lepidus and his two sisters : or by him, for their 
death. 4 Or sought againe for the company, etc. repetiisse. 

21 



THE HISTORIE OF 

CAIUS Some report, that being an invited guest at the Nuptiall 
' su PP er > h e charged Piso sitting over against him, in these 
termes, ' Sirra, see you sit not too close unto my wife ' : and 
so, presently had her away with him from the table : and 
the next day published by Proclamation, That hee had 
met with a mariage after the example of Romulus and 
Augustus a . As touching Lollia Paulina maried already to 
C. Memmius, a man of Consular degree and ruler of Armies : 
uppon mention made of her Grandmother as the most beau- 
tifull Lady in her time, he all of a suddaine sent and called 
her home out of the Province l : and taking her perforce 
from her husband, wedded her and shortly turned her away : 
forbidding her straightly for ever the use of any mans body 
whatsoever. Caesonia, for no speciall beauty and favour of 
her owne above others, nor yet because she was in the flower 
of her youth, (considering shee had beene the mother already 
of three daughters by another man) : but onely for that shee 
was a most lascivious woman and of unsatiable lust he loved 
with more ardent affection and constancie : in so much as 
many a time he would shew her to his Souldiours in her 
haire, clad in a Souldiours Cassocke 2 with a light Target 
and an helmet riding close unto him : but to his friends, 
starke naked also 3 . When she brought him a childe 4 , hee 
vouchsafed her then, the name of his wife and not before ; 
professing and making it knowne, that in one and the selfe 
same day, he was become both her husband and also father of 
the Infant of her body borne. This babe he named Junia 
Drusilla : whom hee caried about with him through the 
temples of all the Goddesses, and bestowed at length in the 
lap of Minerva 5 , recommending it to her for to be nourished, 
brought up and taught. Neither had hee any surer signe 
and evidence to believe she was his owne and of his naturall 
seede conceived, than her curstnesse and shrewdnesse : and 
that qualitie had shee even then at the first, in such measure, 
as that with her perilous fingers shee would not sticke to 

1 Where she was with her husband aforesaid. 2 Shorte cloake or horse- 
mans coats chlamyde. 3 Like as Candaules King of Lydia, did to his 
friend Gyges. 4 A daughter. 5 Goddesse of good arts and sciences. 
Virgil, operum hand ignara Minerva;. 



TWELVE CAESARS 

lay at the face and eyes of other small Children playing CAIUS 
together with her. CAUCTLA 

26 

Vanitie it were and meere folly, to adjoine hereunto, how 
he served his kinsfolke and friends, to wit Ptolemaeus K. 
Jubaes son and his owne cousin german 1 (for hee also was 
the Nephew of M. Antonius by his daughter Selena a :) but 
especially Macro himselfe, yea and Ennia likewise, who were 
his chief e helpers and advanced him to the Empire. All 
of them, in right of their neere affinity, and in consideration 
of their good deserts were highly rewarded, even with bloudy 
death. No more respective was hee one whit of the Senate, 
nor dealt in gentler wise with them : some, after they had 
borne the highest honours, hee suffred to runne by his 
Wagon 2 side in their gownes for certaine miles together: 
and as he sat at supper, to stand waiting one while at the 
head, another while at the foote of the table, girt with a 
white linnen towell about them. Others, whom hee had 
secretly murdred, he continued never the lesse calling for, 
as if they were alive : giving it out most untruly some few 
daies after, that they had wilfully made themselves away. 
The Consuls had forgot by chaunce to publish by proclama- 
tion his Birth-day ; for which, hee deprived them of their 
magistracie : and so for three daies space the Common-wealth 
was without the soveraine authoritie b . His owne Questour, 
who hapned to be nominated in a conspiracie against him, 
hee caused to be scourged : and the cloathes out of which 
hee was stripped to be put under the Souldiours feete, that 
they might stand more steedily whiles they were whipping 
him. In semblable pride and violence hee handled other 
States and degrees of Citizens. Beeing disquieted with the 
stirre and noise that they kept, who by midnight tooke up 
their standings in the Cirque 3 , which cost them nothing, 
hee drave them all away with cudgels : in which tumult and 
hurliburly, there were twenty Knights of Rome and above, 
crowded and crushed to death, as many matrones and wives 
also, besides an infinite number of the common multitude. 

1 Removed. 2 Essedum y or earroch. ' A Or shew-place. 

23 



CAIUS 

CAESAR 

CALIGULA 



THE HISTORIE OF 

At the Stage Plaies, being minded to sow discord, and 
minister occasion of quarrell betweene the Commons and 
Gentlemen of Rome : he gave his Tallies l forth sooner than 
ordinarie c : to the end that the Equestria 2 might be pos- 
sessed afore-hand even by the basest Commoners that came. 
At the sword -fight, he other whiles commaunded the Cur- 
taines to be folded up and drawne together, during the 
most parching heate of the sunne : and forbad that any 
person should be let forth 3 : and then, removing and send- 
ing quite away the ordinarie furniture of shewes provided 
to make pastime, he put forth unto the people for to behold, 
poore wild-beasts and carian-leane, to bee baited : the basest 
sword-fencers also and worne with age, to combat : yea, and 
appointed housholders 4 such as were of quality and well 
knowne, but yet noted for some speciall feeblenesse and 
imperfection of body to goe under the Pegmes 5 d and carie 
them. And divers times hee brought 6 a dearth and famine 
among the people, by shutting up the garners and Store- 
houses from them. 

27 

The crueltie of his nature he shewed by these examples 
most of all. When Cattell which were to feede wilde beasts 
prepared for baiting, grew to be sold very deere, he ap- 
pointed malefactours found guilty to be slaughtered for that 
purpose. And in taking the review of Gaoles and prisoners 
therein, as they were sorted according to their offences : he, 
without once looking upon the title and cause of their 
imprisonment, standing only within a gallerie, commaunded 
al in the mids, a calvo ad calvum 7 a , i. from one bald-pate to 
another, to be led forth to execution. He exacted of him 
the performance of a vow, who had promised to doe his 
devoir in publick sword-fight for the recoverie of his health : 
and him he beheld fighting at sharpe : neither dismissed he 

1 Or Tickets. 2 Roomes and seates in the Theater appointed for the 
Gentlemen. 3 Emitti, some read amiciri^ i. to be covered with Hat, 
veile, bonet of Bongrace against the sunne. 4 i. Citizens. 5 Pegmatis> 
in the dative case, or frames for Pageants. 6 Induxit. 7 Medios> a 
calvo ad calvum. 

24 



TWELVE C^SARS 

him before he was victour, and after many prayers. Another CAIUS 
there was, who for the same cause had vowed to die. This 
man being not very forward to pay his vow, hee caused to 
be dight with sacred hearbs, and adorned with Infules 1 , like 
a sacrifice ; and so delivered him into the hands of boyes : 
who calling hard upon him for the discharge of his vow, 
should course and drive him through the streets of the City, 
untill he were throwne headlong downe the steepe Rampier 2 . 
Many honest Citizens of good calling and estate, after he 
had first disfigured with markes of branding yrons, he con- 
demned to dig in mines, and to make high-waies, or to 
encounter with beasts : or kept them creeping with all foure 
like brute beasts within a cage for the nonce : or else slit 
them through the mids with a sawe. And those whom hee 
thus served, were not all of them guilty of any grievous 
offences : but sufficient it was, if they had a base conceite 
and spake but meanly of some shew that he exhibited: 
or because they had never sworne stoutly by his Genius 3 b . 
Parents he forced to be present at the execution of their 
owne children. And when one Father excused himselfe by 
reason of sicknesse, hee sent a Licter for him : another of 
them immediatly after the heavie spectacle of his sonne put 
to death, he invited to his own bourd c ; made him great 
cheere, and by all manner of courtesie provoked him to 
jocondnesse and mirth. The Maister of his sword-fights and 
beast baitings, he caused for certaine daies together to be 
beaten with chaines d in his owne sight : but killed him not 
quite, before himselfe could no longer abide the stench of 
his braine by this time putrified. A Poet, the Author of 
Atellane Enterluc(es, for a verse that he made implying a 
jest, which might be doubly taken, he burnt at a stake in 
the very middle shew-place of the Amphitheatre. A Gen- 
tleman of Rome, whom Ke had cast before wild beasts, 
when he cried out, that he was innocent, he commaunded 

1 Ribbands. 2 Of Tarquinius, as some thinke. 3 These Genii are 
of a middle essence, betweene men and Gods, called therefore, Medioxumi. 
It signifieth here, the Daemon, Tutelar angel or spirit of the Prince. For the 
maner of the Romaines was in flattering wise, thus to sweare, as also by the 
helth, the life, the honour of their Emperours. 



CAIUS 

CAESAR 

CALIGULA 



THE HISTORIE OF 

to be brought back : and after hee had cut out his tongue, 
sent him among them againe, (to fight for his life or to be 
devoured). 

28 

Having recalled one from exile which had been long 
banished, he demaunded of him, what he was wont to do 
there, who made answere thus by way of flatterie, ' I 
praied,' quoth he, ' to the Gods alwaies that Tiberius 1 (as 
now it is come to passe) might perish, and you become 
Emperour.' Hereupon Caligula weening that those whom 
he had banished praied likewise for his death, sent about 
into the Hands 2 , to kill them every one. Being desirous to 
have a Senatour torne and mangled peecemeale, he suborned 
certaine of purpose, who all on a suddaine as he entred 
into the Curia, should call him enemie to the State, and so 
lay violent hands upon him : and when they had with their 
writing yrons a all to pricked and stabbed him, deliver him 
over to the rest, for to be dismembred and cut in peeces 
accordingly. Neither was hee satisfied, untill he saw the 
mans limmes, joints and inwards drawne along the streetes, 
and piled all on an heape together before him. 

29 

His deeds most horrible as they were, hee augmented 
with as cruell words. His saying was, That he commended 
and approved in his owne nature nothing more, than (to use 
his own terme) adiatrepsian, i. unmoveable rigour. When 
his Grandmother Antonia seemed to give him some admoni- 
tion, he (as though it were not enough to disobey her), ' Go 
to dame,' quoth he, ' remember I may do what I wil against 
all persons whomsoever.' Being minded to kill his owne 
brother, whom for feare of poison he imagined to be fortified 
afore-hand with Preservatives 3 ; ' What,' quoth he, ' is there 
any Antidote against Caesar ? ' When he had banished his 
sisters, he threatned them in these termes, saying, That 
hee had not Hands a onely at commaund but swords also. 

1 Who had banished him. 2 Where they were wont to live banished. 
5 Or counter-poisons. 

26 



TWELVE C^SARS 

A certaine Citizen of Pretour's degree, desired oftentimes CAIUS 
from the retiring place where he was at Anticyra 1 b , (into CAESAR 
which Isle he went for his health sake) to have his licence CALIG 
continued 2 . But hee gave order he should be killed out- 
right : adding these words therewith, that Bloud-letting 
was necessary for him, who in so long time had found no 
good by Heliebor 3 . Once every ten daies, his manner was 
to subscribe and write downe a certaine number out of the 
Gaole to be executed, and said withall, That hee cast up 
his reckonings, and cleared the booke of accompts. When 
hee had at one time condemned a sort of French-men and 
Greekes together, hee made his boast that he had subdued 
Gallograecia 4 . 

30 

He would not lightly permit any to suffer death, but 
after many strokes given and those very softly, with this 
rule and precept evermore, which now became rife and well 
knowne, ' Strike so 5 , as they may feele that they are dying/ 
Hee executed on a time one whom he had not appointed to 
die, by error onely and mistaking his name : 6 But it makes 
no matter, 1 quoth he, 'for even he also hath deserved death/ 
This speech of the Tyrant 6 out of a Tragaedie, hee often 
repeated, Oderint dum metuant, i: ( Let them hate me so they 
feare me/ Many a time hee inveighed bitterly against all 
the Senatours at once, as the Dependants and adhaerents of 
Se janus, or the Informers against his mother and brethren ; 
bringing forth those evidences which hee had made semblance 
before were burnt : and therewith excused and justified the 
cruelty of Tiberius as necessary : seeing he could not other- 
wise chuse but beleeve so many that made presentments unto 
him. The degree of Gentlemen he railed at continually, as 
devoted wholly to the Stage and shew-place. Being highly 
displeased upon a time with the multitude favouring as they 
did the contrary faction 7 to his 8 , ' Would God, 1 quoth he, 
' that the people of Rome had but one neck/ And when 

1 By letters or friends that he made. 2 Renewed. 3 i. By purging. 
4 A Nation mixt of French and Greekes. 5 Ita feri, etc. 6 Atreus. 
7 Of Chariotiers. 8 For he favoured the greene Liverie. 

27 



THE HISTORIE OF 



Tetrinius Latro a was by them called for to fight at sharpe 
he said, That they also who called for him were Tetrinii l 



CAIUS 
CAESAR 

CALIGULA ever y Qne It f ori r un ed that five of these Retiarii*, fighting 
in their single coates, and together by companies 3 , had 
without any combat yeelded themselves as overcome to as 
many other Champions or Fencers called Secutores 4 . Now 
when commaundement was given (by the people) that 
they should be killed, one takes me up his Trout-speare 
againe into his hand and slew all the other five who were 
thought the Conquerours. This slaughter he both bewailed 
in an Edict as most cruell, and also cursed them that endured 
to see the sight. 

31 

Hee was wont moreover to complaine openly of the con- 
dition of his time wherein he lived, as not renowmed by any 
publick calamities: whereas the raigne of Augustus was 
memorable for the overthrow of Varus : that of Tiberius 
ennobled by the fall of scaffolds in the Theater at Fidenae. 
As for himselfe, like hee was to be forgotten, (such was the 
prosperity in his daies). And evermore he wished the 
carnage and execution of his armies: Famine, Pestilence, 
and Skarfires, or some opening chinks of the ground. 

32 

Even whiles he was at his recreations and disports, whiles 
he set his mind upon gaming and feasting, the same cruelty 
practised he both in word and deed. Oftentimes as hee sate 
at dinner or banquetted, were serious matters examined in 
his very sight by way of torture : and the Souldiour that had 
the skill and dexterity to behead folke, then and there used 

1 Worthy and meet to be put to sword-fight. 2 So named of a net 
that they used in fight to catch their adversarie with : they handled also 
a weapon with three tines or pikes like a Trout-speare. They were 
called Threcos. 3 Grogatim dimicantes : for distinction of those that 
were called Monomachi, and imploied in single fight. 4 Otherwise, Mir- 
millones. These were armed, whereas the Retiarii were lightly appointed, 
and Tunicati, traversing their ground nimbly, and seeming otherwhiles 
to flie: whereupon the others took their name, Sccufores, as following 
them. 



TWELVE C^SARS 

to cut off the heads of any prisoners indifferently without CAIUS 
respect. At Puteoli, when he dedicated the bridge, which CAESAR 
as we noted before, was his owne invention : after hee had CALIGULA 
invited many unto him from the shore and strond, suddainly 
hee turned them all headlong over the bridge into the water. 
And seeing some of them taking hold of the helmes 1 for to 
save themselves, he shooved and thrust them off, with poles 
and oares into the sea. At a public feast 2 in Rome, there 
chaunced a servant 3 to pluck-off a thin plate 4 of silver from 
the table 5 : and for this, immediatly hee delivered him to 
the hang-man for to be executed ; namely to have his hands 
cut off, and hung about his neck just before his brest with a 
written Title caried before him declaring the cause of this 
his punishment ; and so to be led round about all the com- 
panies as they sat at meate. One of these Fencers called 
Mirmillones Q , comming out of the Fence-schoole plaied at 
wooden wasters with him, and there tooke a fall for the 
nonce, and lay along at his feete : him he stabbed for his 
labour, with a short yron skeine that hee had : and withall, 
after the solemne manner of Victors, ranne up and downe 
with his garland of Date tree branches. There was a beast 
brought to the Altar ready to be killed for Sacrifice : he 
comes girt in habite of these Beast-slayers 7 , and with the 
axe head that he lifted up on high, knocked downe the 
Minister himselfe, who was addressed to cut the said beasts 
throat, and so dashed his braines out. At a plenteous feast 
where there was great cheere, he set up all at once an un- 
measurable laughter : and when the Consuls who sate j ust 
by him asked gently and with faire language, Whereat he 
laughed so? 'At what else, 1 quoth hee, 'but this, That 
with one nod of my head, I can have both your throats cut 
immediatly/ 

33 

Among divers and sundry jests and merie conceites of 
his, as he stoode once hard by the image of Jupiter, he 

1 For this bridge was made of barks. 3 A great dinner. 3 Waiting 
at the bord. 4 Or leafe. 5 For tables in those dayes were laid and 
covered over with silver plates. Plin. lib. 33. 6 Or Secutores, aforesaid. 
7 At sacrifice. 

29 



THE HISTORIE OF 

CAIUS demaunded of Apelles an actour of Tragsedies, whether of 
CAncUTA *^ e ^ wa ^ ne he thought to be the greater and more stately, 
Jupiter or himselfe. And whiles he made some stay ere he 
answered, he all to tare and mangled him with whipping 
cheere, praising ever and anone his voice crying unto him for 
mercy, as passing sweet and pleasant, even when he groned 
also under his lashes. So often as he kissed the neck of wife 
or concubine *, he would say withall, ' As faire and lovely a 
neck as this is, off it shall goe if I doe but speake the word/ 
Moreover, he gave it forth many a time, That he would him- 
selfe fetch out of his wife Caesonia, though it were with 
Lute-strings 2 , what was the reason that he loved her so 
entirely a . 

34 

Neither raged he with lesse envie and spitefull malice, 
than pride and cruelty, against persons, in manner, of all 
times and ages. The Statues of brave and worthy men 
brought by Augustus out of the Capitoll Courtyard for the 
straightnesse of the place, into Mars-field, he overthrew and 
cast here and there in such sort, as they could not be set 
up againe with the Titles and Inscriptions whole : forbidding 
that ever after there should be any where Statue or Image 
erected unto any person living, without his advice asked and 
graunt passed. He was of minde also to abolish Homers 
verses : ' For why may not I,' quoth he, ' doe that which 
Plato lawfully did, who banished him 3 out of the Cittie 
that he framed and ordeined? 1 The writings likewise 
and images of Virgil and T. Livius, he went within a little 
of remooving out of all libraries. The one 4 of these he 
carped, as a man of no witte and verie meane learning : the 
other 5 , for his verbositie and negligence in penning his 
Historie. Moreover, as touching Lawiers, (as if he meant 
to take away all use of their skill and knowledge) he cast 
out these words many times, That he would surely bring it 
to passe, they should be able to give none other answere 
nor councell than according to reason and aequitie a . 

1 Or Paramour. 2 By cramping and torturing her therewith. 8 Being 
a Poet. 4 Virgill. 5 Livie. 

30 



TWELVE C^SARS 

CAIUS 
35 CESAR 

He took from the noblest personages that were, the olde 
armes and badges 1 of their houses: from Torquatus the 
collar 2 : from Cincinnatus the curled lock of haire: and 
from Cn. Pompeius 3 , of an ancient stocke descended, the 
surname of Magnus belonging to that linage. As for King 
Ptolemeus, (of whom I made report before) when he had 
both sent for him out of his realme and also honorably 
intertained him he slewe all of a sodaine, for no other cause 
in the World but for that as he entred into the Theatre to 
see the shewes and games there exhibited, hee perceived him 
to have turned the eyes of all the people upon him, with the 
resplendent brightnesse of his purple cassocke. All such as 
were faire, and caried a thick bush of haire growne long, so 
often as they came in his way, he disfigured by shaving their 
heads all behind. There was one Esius Proculus (whose 
father had beene a principall captaine of the formost cohort) 
for his exceeding tall personage and lovely favour withall 
named Colosseros a . Him hee caused sodainly to be pulled 
downe from the scaffold where he sat, and to be brought 
into the plaine within the lists : where he matched him in 
fight with a sword-fenser of that sort which be called 
Threces^, and afterwards with another, all armed 4 . Now 
when he had given the foile twice 5 , and gotten the upper 
hand, he commanded him forthwith to be pinniond and 
bound fast, and being put into foule and overworne clothes 
to be led round about the streets to be shewed unto women, 
and so to have his throat cut in the end. To conclude there 
was none of so base and abject condition, nor of so meane 
estate, whose commodities and good parts he depraved not. 
Against the great Prelat stiled by the name K. Nemorensis c , 
because he had many yeares already enjoyed his sacerdotall 
dignitie he suborned under hand a comcurrent and adversarie 
mightier than himselfe. When as upon a certaine day of 
publike games 6 , there was greater applause and more clapping 

1 Or Ensignes. 2 Or Cheine. 3 Who afterwards married the 
daughter of Claudius the Emperour. 4 Hoplomacho, with shield and 

helmet. 5 To the Threx and Hoplomachus. 6 To wit, sword fight. 

31 



CA1US 

CAESAR 

CALIGULA 



THE HISTORIE OF 

of hands than ordinarie at Popius the fenser \ manumising 
slave for joy of the fortunate combate which hee had 
^ he flung Qut of the Theatre in such hast, that tread- 
ing upon his own gown skirt he came tumbling down the 
staires with his head forward : chafing and fuming, yea and 
crying out that the people of Rome, Lords of all nations, 
yeelded more honour, and that out of a most vaine and 
frivolous occasion unto a sword-fenser, than to consecrated 
Princes, or to himselfe there in personall presence. 

36 

No regard had he of chastitie and cleannesse, eyther in 
himselfe or in others. M. Lepidus Mnester the Pantomime 2 , 
yea and certain hostages he kept and loved as the speech 
went, by way of reciprocall commerce in mutuall impurity, 
doing and suffering against kind. Valerius Catullus, a yong 
gentleman descended from a familie of Consuls degree, com- 
plained and openly cried out, that hee was unnaturally by 
him abused, and that his verie sides were weried, and tyred 
out with his filthie companie. Over and above the incests 
commited with his owne sisters, and his love so notorious of 
Pirallis that common and prostitute strumpet, there was not 
lightly a dame or wife of anie worship and reputation that 
hee forbare. And those for the most part would he invite 
together with their husbands to supper : and as they passed 
by at his feete, peruse and consider curiously ; taking leasure 
thereto after the maner of those that cheapen and buy 
wares in ouvert market : yea and with his hand chocke 
them under the chin and make them to looke up, if happily 
any of them in modesty and for bashfulnesse held downe 
their faces. And then so often as he listed, out he goes 
from the refection roome, and when he had called her unto 
him apart that liked him best, hee would within a little after 
(even whiles the tokens were yet fresh testifying their wanton 
worke) returne : and openly before all the companie, eyther 
praise or dispraise her: reckoning up everie good or bad 

1 Essedario, or Champion that use to fight and play his prises out of a 
British or French Chariot called Essedum. 2 A player counterfeiting 
all partes, and kindes of gesture. 



TWELVE C^SARS 

part of bodie and action in that brutish businesse. To some CAIUS 
of them, himselfe sent bils of divorsement in the name of CAESAR 
their husbands absent, and commanded the same to be set CALIGULA 
upon the file and stand in publike record. 

37 

In riotous and wastfull expense % he outwent the wits 
and inventions of all the prodigal spendthrifts that ever 
were; as having devised a new found manner and use of 
baines, together with most strange and monstrous kinds of 
meats and meales: namely, to bath with hote and cold 
ointments l : to drinke off and quaffe most pretious and 
costly pearles dissolved in vinegar : to set upon the bourd 
at feastes loaves of bread and other viands to them before 
his guests, all of golde, saying commonly withall, That a 
man must either be frugall or els Caesar. Moreover for 
certaine dayes together, he flung and scattered among the 
common people from the Louver of the stately Hall Julia, 
mony in peeces of no meane valew. He built moreover tall 
galliasses of ceder timber b , with poupes and sternes beset 
with precious stones, carying sailes of sundrie colours, con- 
teining in them baines, large galleries, walking places, and 
dining chambers of great receit : with vines also and trees 
bearing apples and other fruit in as much varietie : wherein 
he would sit feasting in the very day time among quires of 
musicians and melodious singers, and so saile along the costs 
of Campania. In building of stately Pallaces and mannor 
houses in the countrey he cast aside all rules and orders as one 
desirous to do nothing so much as that which was thought un- 
possible to be done. And therfore he laid foundations of piles 
where the sea was most raging and deep withal, and hewed 
rocks of most hard flint and rag : plains also he raised even 
with mountaines and by digging down hill tops levelled 
them equall with the plaines : all with incredible celeritie : 
as punishing those who wrought but slowly even with death. 
In summ, (and not to reckon up everie thing in particular) 
that infinite wealth and masse of Treasure which Tiberius 

1 Or Giles. 



THE HISTORIE OF 

CAIUS Caesar left behind him valued at 2700 millians 1 of Sesterces, 

^Fr?rMT?A hee consumed to nothing, before one whole yeare was gone 
CALIGULA 



Being exhaust therefore and growen exceeding bare, he 
turned his mind to rapine and polling by sundrie and most 
nice points; of forged calumniation, of sales, of imposts 
and taxes. He affirmed plainely, that those held not by 
lawe and rightfully the freedome of Rome Cittie, whose 
Auncestours had obtained the grant thereof in these tearmes, 
to them and their posteritie : unlesse they were sonnes : 
for, by Posteri, i. Posterity, quoth he, ought to be under- 
stood none beyond this degree of descent. And when the 
Letters-pattents and graunts of Julius and Augustus, (late 
Emperours of sacred memorie) were brought forth as evidences, 
he bewailed 2 the same as olde, past date and of no validitie. 
Hee charged those also with false valuation and wrong 
certificate of their estates 3 , unto whom there had accrued 
afterward (upon what cause soever) any encrease of substance. 
The last willes and testamentes of such as had beene prin- 
cipall Centurions of the formost Cohorts, as many I say, as 
from the beginning of Tiberius Empire, had left neither the 
sayd Tiberius, nor himselfe Heire, he canciled for their un- 
thankfulnesse : of all the rest likewise, he held the wils as 
voide, and of none effect : in case any person would come 
forth and say, that they purposed and intended, at their 
death to make Caesar their Heire. Upon which feare that 
hee put men in, beeing now both by unknowen persons unto 
him, nominated Heire among their familiar friends, and also 
by parents among their children, he tearmed them all 
mockers and cousiners, for that after such nuncupative wils 
they continued stil alive: and to manie of them he sent 
certaine dainties 4 empoisoned. Now such causes as these 
above-saide he heard judicially debated : having before hand 
set downe a certaine rate and summe of money, for the 
raising whereof he sat judicially in Court: and when that 

1 Vide s ac septies millies. 2 Deflebat, or deftabat, i. he rejected and despised. 
3 Perperam editi Census. 4 Macteas or Mattyas^ such as Marchpanes. 



TWELVE C^SARS 

summe was fully made up, then and not before hee would CAIUS 

arise. And (as he was one who in no wise could abide any CAESAR 

little delay) he condemned upon a time by vertue of one de- 

fmitive sentence above fortie persons, liable to judgement for 

divers and sundry crimes : making his boast withall unto his 

wife Csesonia newly wakened out of her sleepe, What a deale 

he had done, while she tooke her noones repose. Having 

published an open port-sale of the residue remaining of 

furniture provided to set out all shews and games, he caused 

the said parcels to be brought forth and sold : setting the 

prices thereof himselfe and enhaunsing the same to such a 

prick, that some men enforced to buye certaine things at an 

extreame and exceeding rate (whereby they were empoverished 

and stript of all their goods) cut their owne veines and so 

bled to death. Well knowen it is that whiles Aponius 

Saturninus tooke a nap and slept among the seats and stauls 

where these sales were held, Caius put the Bedell x in mind 

not to let slip and overpasse such an honorable person of 

Pretours degree as he was: considering, quoth he, that 

with his head he had so often nodded and made signes unto 

him 2 , and thus taking that occasion, he never rested raising 

the price whiles he sat and nodded stil, untill there were 

fastened upon the man, (ignorant God wote, altogether of 

any such matter) thirteene sword-fensers, at nine millians 

of Sesterces. 

39 

In Gaule likewise, when he had sould the jewels, orna- 
ments, and houshold-stuffe of his sisters 3 by him condemned ; 
their servants also and verie children at excessive high 
prices : finding sweetnesse in the gaine growing thereupon 
and thereby drawen on to proceede in that course, looke 
what furniture belonged to the old imperiall Court, hee sent 
for it all from the Cittie of Rome : for the cariage whereof, 
hee tooke up even the passengers wagons that usually were 
hired, yea the very jades which served mils and backe- 
houses 4 : in so much, as manie times there wanted bread in 

1 Or Crier. 2 As it were, to buy this and that. 3 Livilla and 
Agrippina. 4 In grinding Corne, and carrying* bread. 

35 



CAIUS 

CAESAR 

CALIGULA 



THE HISTORIE OF 

Rome: and a number of Termers, such as had matters 
depending in lawe, for that they could not make their 
appearance in Court at their dayes appointed, by absence 
lost their suits. For the selling of which furniture, there 
was no fraude, no guile, no deceitful allurement to be devised 
that he used not : one while checking each one for their 
avarice, and rating them because they were not ashamed to 
be richer than he: otherwhiles making semblance of re- 
pentance, in that he permitted persons to have the buying 
of such things as belongd to the Empire : intelligence was 
given unto him, that a certaine wealthy and substantiall 
man in that province, had paide 200000 sesterces unto his 
officers (who had the bidding of guests unto his owne table) 
that by some suttle shift, himselfe might be foisted in among 
other guests: neither was he discontented that the honor 
of supping with him was prized so high. The morrow after 
therfore, as this provinciall man was sitting at a publike 
portsale, hee sent one of purpose to tender and deliver unto 
him some frivolous trifle (I wot not what) at the price of 
200000 sesterces : and withall to say unto him, That take 
a supper he should with Caesar, as a guest invited by his 
owne selfe. 

40 

He levied and gathered new tributes and imposts, such 
as never were heard of before : at the first by the hands 
of Publicanes; and afterward (by reason of the excessive 
gaines that came in) by the Centurions and Tribunes of the 
Pretorian cohorts. For he omitted no kind of thing, no 
manner of person, but he imposed some tribute upon them. 
For all cates that were to be solde throughout the Citie, 
there was exacted a certaine taxation and set paiment. For 
actions, for suits, for judgements whersoever commensed or 
drawn in writing, the fortieth part of the whole summe in 
suite went to his share in the name of a tribute : not with- 
out a penaltie, in case anie one were convinced, to have 
eyther growen to composition or given the thing in ques- 
tion. The eighth part of the poore porters and Cariers 
daies-wages : out of the gets also and takings of common 

36 



TWELVE CJESARS 

strumpets, as much as they earned by once lying with a CAIUS 

man, was payed nwnine tributi. Moreover to the chapter of 

the law, this branch was annexed, that there should bee 

liable to this tribute, not onely the parties themselves that 

by trade of harlotry gat their living, but even they likewise 

who kept houses of bawderie : as also that wedded persons 

should paye for their use of mariage 1 . 

41 

After these and such like taxes were denounced by pro- 
clamation, but not yet published abroad in writing, when 
as through ignorance of the written lawe many trespasses 
and transgressions were committed a : at length, upon instant 
demaund of the people, he proposed indeede the act, but 
written in very small letter and within as narrow a place, so 
that no man might exemplifie the same or copie it out. 
And to the end that there might bee no kinde of spoile 
and pillage which he attempted not, he set up a stewes and 
brothelhouse in the verie Palace, with many roomes and 
chambers therein distinguished asunder, and furnished ac- 
cording to the dignity and worth of that place. In it there 
stood to prostitute themselves, maried wives, youths and 
springals free borne. Then sent he all about to the fre- 
quented places as well markets as Halles of resort, certaine 
Nomenclatours, to invite and call thither by name, young 
men and olde, for to fulfill and satisfie their lust. All 
comers at their entrance payde money (as it were) for 
usurie and interest. Certaine persons also were appointed 
to take note in open sight, of their names, as of such as 
were good friends increasing the revenewes of Caesar. And 
not disdeining so much as the lucre and vantage arising out 
of hazard and dice-play, hee gained the more by cogging, 
lying, yea and forswearing (of gamesters). And upon a 
time, having put over to his next fellow gamester his owne 
course, to cast the dice for him in his turne : out he goes 
into the court-yeard and foregate of the house : where, 
having espied two wealthy gentlemen of Rome passing by, 

1 Nee non et matrimonia obnoxia essent. Some interpret this of wedded 
folke playing false and committing adulterie. 

37 



THE HISTORIE OF 

CAIUS he commanded them to be apprehended incontinently, and 
rAnrrri?A con ^ emne( ^ ^ n the confiscation of their goods : which done 
ULA he returnd in againe, leaping for joy and making his vaunt, 
That he never had a luckier hand at dice. 

42 

But when he had once a daughter borne, complaining then 
of his povertie and the heavie charges that lay upon him 
not onely as Emperour, but also as a father, he gently tooke 
the voluntarie contributions and benevolence of men toward 
the finding of the girle her food, as also for her Dowry 
another day. He declared also by an edict, that he would 
receive newyeares gifts : and so he stood the first day of 
Januarie 1 , in the porch or entrie of his house Palatine, 
readie to take what peeces soever of money came, which the 
multitude of all sorts and degrees, with full hands and 
bosomes 2 poured out before him. Finally, so farre was he 
incensed with the desire of handling money, that oftentimes 
he would both walke bare-footed up and down, yea and 
wallow also a good while with his whole body upon huge 
heapes of coyned gold peeces, spred here and there in a most 
large and open place. 

43 

In militarie matters and warlike affaires he never dealt 
but once : and that was not upon any intended purpose : 
but what time as he had made a progresse to Mevanta, for 
to see the sacred grove and river of Clitumnus ; being put 
in mind to supply and make up the number of the Batavians 
whom he had about him for his guard, it tooke him in the 
head to make an expedition into Germanic. Neither de- 
ferred he this disignement, but having levied from al parts a 
power consisting of legions and auxiliarie forces ; and taken 
musters most rigorously in every quarter, as also raised and 
gathered together victuals and provision of al sorts in that 
quantity, as never any other before him the like, he put 
himselfe on his journey. Wherein he marched, one while 
in such hurrie and haste, as that the Pretorian cohorts were 

1 Or a Kalendis, i. the first day, etc. 3 Or laps of their clothes. 

38 



TWELVE C^SARS 

forced (against the manner and custome) to bestowe their CAIUS 
ensignes upon the sumpter beasts backs and so to follow ^ C ^?. 
after : otherwhiles, after such a slow and delicate manner, CALIG 
as that he would be carried in a litter upon eight mens 
shoulders, and exact of the common people inhabiting the 
neighbour cities adjoyning, that the high waies might be 
swept and watered for the dust, against his comming. 

44 

After that he was arrived once at the campe, to the end 
that he might shew himselfe a sharpe and severe Captaine : 
those Lieutenants who had brought aid with the latest, 
out of divers and dissituate parts, he discharged with igno- 
minie and shame. But in the review of his armie the most 
part of the Centurions who had alreadie served out their 
complete time, yea and some whose terme within very few 
dayes would have beene fully expired, he deprived of their 
places : to wit, the leading of the formost bands, finding 
fault forsooth with the olde age and feeblenesse of every one. 
As for the rest, after hee had given them a rebuke for their 
avarice, he abridged the fees and availes due for their ser- 
vice performed ; and brought that same downe to the valew 
of 6000 sesterces. And having atchieved no greater exploit, 
than taken to his mercie, Adminius the sonne of Cinobel- 
linus King of the Britains \ who being by his father banished, 
was fled over sea with a small power and traine about him, 
he sent magnificent and glorious letters to Rome, as if the 
whole Isle had beene yeelded into his hands : warning and 
willing the carriers ever and anon, to ride forward in their 
wagon directly into the market place and the Curia, and in 
no wise to deliver the sayd messives but in the Temple of 
Mars unto the Consuls, and that in a frequent assembly of 
the Senate. 

45 

Soone after, when there failed matter of warre, he com- 
manded a few Germanes of the Corps de guard 2 , to be 

1 Batavornniy i. the Batavorians. a Dt Custodia, or that were prisoners 
and in ward. 



THE HISTORIE OF 

CAIUS transported and hidden on the other side of Rhene, and that 
CAIJCUT A neWS s k u ld ke re P rt ed unto him after dinner in most 
tumultuous manner, That the enemy was come : which 
done, he made what haste hee could, and together with 
some of his friends and part of the Pretorian horsemen he 
entred the next wood : where after he had cut off the heads 
of trees and adorned their bodies in manner of Tropcees, 
hee returned into the Campe by torch-light. As for those 
verily who followed him not in this service, he reproved 
and checked them for their timorousnesse and cowardise : 
but his companions and partners in this plouty victorie, he 
rewarded with a new kind and as strange a name of Coronets : 
which being garnished and set out with the expresse forme of 
Sunne, Moone, and Stars he called Exploratorias a . Againe, 
when as certaine hostages were had away 1 perforce out of 
the Grammer schoole, and privily sent before, he suddenly 
left his supper, and with his men of armes pursued them 
as runawaies, and beeing overtaken and caught againe he 
brought them backe as prisoners bound in chaines, shewing 
himselfe even in this enterlude also, beyond all measure in- 
solent and intemperate. Now after he was come backe to 
supper, those who brought him word that the battailes were 
rallied and come forward in safetie, hee exhorted to sit downe 
to meate armed as they were in their Corselets : yea and 
advertised them out of that most vulgar Verse of Virgil : 
Durarent, Secundisque rebus se servarent, i. 

Still to endure in all assayes 

And keepe themselves for better dayes. 

Moreover, amid these affaires, he rebuked most sharply in a 
proclamation, the Senate and people both, in their absence : 
for that whiles Caesar fought battailes and was exposed to 
so many perils, they could so unseasonably celebrate feastes, 
haunt also the Cirque, the Theatres, and their retyring 
places of solace and pleasure. 

46 

Last of all, as if he meant now to make a finall dispatch 
for ever of the warr, having embattailed his armie upon the 
1 By his means. 

40 



TWELVE CAESARS 

Ocean shore, planted his balists and other engins of Artil- CAIUS 
lerie in their severall places, (and no man wist the while or CAESAR 
could imagine what he went about) all at once he com- CALIGULA 
manded them to gather fish-shels, and therewith to fill their 
headpeeces and laps, tearming them the spoiles of the Ocean, 
due to the Capitol and the Palatium. In token also and 
memoriall of this brave victorie, he raised an exceeding high 
turret, out of which as from a watch-towre, there might 
shine all night long lights and fires for the better direction 
of ships at sea in their course. And after hee had pro- 
nounced publikely a donative to his Souldiours, even an 
hundred good Deniers a peece ; as if thereby hee had sur- 
mounted all former precedents of liberality, ' Now goe your 
waies,' quoth hee, 6 with joy. Goe your wayes I say, en- 
riched and wealthy V 

47 

Turning his minde after this to the care of his Triumph, 
hee selected and set apart for the pompe (over and above 
the Captives and runnagate Barbarians) the tallest men of 
Stature also that were to be found in Gaule : and everie one 
that (as hee saide himselfe) was axiothriambeutos, that is, 
worthy to be scene in a Triumph, yea and some of the 
Nobles and principall persons of that Nation : whom hee 
compelled not onely to colour the haire of their heads yellow 
like burnished gold, and to weare the same long : but also 
to learne the Germaines language, and to beare barbarous 
names. He gave commaundement also, that the Gallies 
with three rankes of Oares, wherein hee had embarqued and 
entred the Ocean, should bee convaied to Rome, a great part 
of the way by land. Hee wrote likewise unto his procura- 
tours and Officers, To provide the furniture of his triumph, 
with as little cost as might be : but yet the same in as ample 
manner as never before was the like, seeing they had both 
might and right to seize all mens goods into their hands. 

48 
Before his departure out of that Province, hee intended 

1 As if with 3!. 2s. 6 pence, they had beene made for ever. 
2:F 41 



THE HISTORIE OF 

CAIUS the execution of an horrible and abhominable designement ; 
C.ZESAR even to put to sword those Legions, which long a-goe upon 
CALIGULA .j. ne d ecease o f Augustus, had made a commotion : because, 
forsooth, they had beset both his father Germanicus their 
Captaine, and himselfe also, then an Infant. And being 
hardly and with much a-doe reclaimed from such a rash and 
inconsiderate project, yet could hee by no meanes be stayed : 
but stifly persisted in a full minde and will to tith them l . 
When hee had summoned them therefore to a publique 
assembly, unarmed, and without their swords which they had 
put off and bestowed heere and there, he environed them 
with his Cavallerie all armed. But seeing once, that many 
of them suspecting where-about he went, slipped away in 
sundry places for to resume their weapons if any violence 
were offred, himselfe abandoned the assembly and fled, 
taking his direct way immediatly to the Citie of Rome, 
diverting all his bitternesse and crueltie upon the Senate : 
whom, (to avert from himselfe the odious rumours of so great 
and shamef ull villanies) hee openly threatned ; complaining 
among other matters that he was by them defrauded and 
put by his just and due triumph : whereas, himselfe but a 
little before, had intimated and denounced upon paine of 
death, that they should not make nor meddle in any matter 
about his honours. 

49 

Being encountred therefore and met upon the way by 
Embassadours from that most honourable Order 2 , entreating 
him to make speed : with a most loud voice, c Come I will,' 
quoth he, ' I will come, I say and this with me heere,' beating 
oft upon the swords hilt 3 , which he ware by his side. He 
made it knowne also by an Edict, That he returned in deede, 
but it was to them alone who wished it, namely, the degree 
of Gentlemen and the common people. For himselfe would 
be no longer a Citizen or Prince to the Senate. He com- 
maunded moreover, That not one of the Senatours should 
meete him. And thus, either omitting quite or putting of 
his triumph, hee entred the Citie riding ovant, upon his 

1 i. To kill every tenth man of them. 2 Of Senators. 3 Or haft. 

42 



TWELVE C^SARS 

very birth-day : and within foure moneths after came to CAIUS 
his end, having attempted and done notable outrages and 
very great villanies, but plotting still and practising much 
greater. For hee had purposed to remove his imperiall 
Court to Antium, and afterwards to Alexandria l : but 
having massacred first the most choise and chiefe persons of 
both degrees 2 . And that no man may seeme to doubt 
heereof, there were in his secret Cabinet found two bookes 
bearing divers titles. The one had for the Inscription 
Gladius, i. the sword : the other, Pugio, that is to say, the 
dagger. They contained both of them the markes and 
names of such as were appointed to death. There was found 
besides, a bigge chest full of divers and sundry poisons, 
which soone after being by Claudius drowned in the Seas, 
infected and poisoned the same, not without the deadly 
bane of fishes killed therewith, which the tide cast up to 
the next shores. 

50 

Of Stature hee was very tall, pale and wan-coloured : of 
body grosse and without all good making: his neck and 
shanks exceeding slender : his eyes sunke in his head, and 
his temples hollow, his forehead broad, and the same 
furrowed and frowning : the haire of his head growing 
thinne, and none at all about his crowne : in all parts else 
hairie he was and shagged. It was therefore taken for an 
hainous and capitall offence, either to looke upon him as 
he passed by from an higher place, or once but to name a 
Goate upon any occasion whatsoever. His face and visage 
being naturally sterne and grim, hee made of purpose more 
crabbed and hideous : composing and dressing it at a look- 
ing-glasse, all manner of waies to seeme more terrible and to 
strike greater feare. He was neither healthfull in body nor 
stoode sound in minde ; being a child, much troubled with 
the falling sicknesse. In his youth, patient of labour and 
travaile : yet so, as that ever and anone upon a suddaine 
fainting that came uppon him, he was scarce able to goe, to 

1 Or Alexandrea is Antiochea in old Manuscripts. 2 Senatours and 
gentleman. 

43 



THE HISTORIE OF 

CAIUS stand, to arise, to recover himselfe and to beare up his head. 
CJESAR The infirmitie of his minde, both himselfe perceived, and 
CALIG ULA oftentimes also was minded to goe aside (unto Anticyra 1 ), 
there to purge his braine throughly. It is for certaine 
thought, that poysoned he was with a Potion given unto 
him by his wife Caesonia: which in deede was a love 
medicine 2 , but such an one, as crackt his wits and enraged 
him. He was troubled most of all with want of sleepe 3 ; 
for, he slept not above three houres in a night : and in 
those verily hee tooke no quiet repose, but fearefull ; and 
skared with strange illusions and fantasticall imaginations : 
as who among the rest, dreamed upon a time that hee saw 
the very forme and resemblance of the sea talking with him. 
And heereupon for a great part of the night, what with 
tedious wakefulnesse and wearinesse of lying, one while 
sitting up in his bed, another while roaming and wandering 
too and fro in his Galleries (which were of an exceeding 
length) hee was wont to call upon and looke still for the 
day-light. 

51 

I should not doe amisse, if unto this mindes sicknesse of 
his I attributed the vices which in one and the same subject 4 
were of a most different nature : to wit, excessive confidence, 
and contrariwise, overmuch fearefulnesse. For, hee that set 
so light by the Gods and despised them as hee did, yet at 
the least thunder and lightning, used to winke close with 
both eyes, to enwrap also and cover his whole head : but if 
the same were greater and somewhat extraordinarie, to start 
out of his bed, to creepe and hide himselfe under the bed- 
steede a . During his peregrination verily and travaile through 
Sicilie, after hee had made but a scorne and mockerie at the 
miracles and strange sights in manie parts there, he fled 
suddainly by night from Messana, as affrighted with the 
smoake and rumbling noise of the top of ^Etna. And hee 
that against the Barbarians was so full of threats and 
menaces, when as beyond the river Rhene he rode in a 

1 An Isle, where grew the best Ellebor, a purgative meete for lunaticke 
and distracted persons. 2 Or drinke. * Insomnia. 4 Or person. 

44 



TWELVE CAESARS 

Germaines Chariot betweene the Streights, and the Armie CAIUS 
marched in thicke squadrons together : by occasion onely that 9^p^ T ? . 
one saide, There would be no small trouble and hurliburly, ( 
in case the enemie from any place appeared in sight : forth- 
with hee mounted on horsebacke and turned hastily to the 
bridges : but finding them full of Camp-slaves and cariages 
wherewith they were choaked *, as one impatient of any delay, 
he was from hand to hand and over mens heads conveied to 
the other side of the water. Soone after likewise, hear- 
ing of the revolt and rebellion of Germanie, hee provided 
to flie ; and for the better meanes of flight, prepared and 
rigged shippes: resting and staying himselfe upon this 
onely comfort : That hee should yet have Provinces beyond 
sea remaining for him, in case the Conquerours following 
the traine of their victorie, either seized the Hill tops 
of the Alpes (as sometimes the Cimbrians), or possessed 
themselves of the very Citie of Rome, as the Senones in 
times past did. Heereupon I verily beleeve that the 
murderers of him afterwards devised this shift, namely 
to hold up his Souldiours with a loude lie when they were 
in an uprore, and to beare them in hand that hee laide 
violent hands on himselfe, affrighted at the fearefull newes 
of the field lost. 

52 

As for his apparrell, his shooes and other habite, hee wore 
them neither after his owne Country-guise, nor in a civile 
fashion, no nor so much as in manlike manner, nor yet 
alwaies, I may tell you, sorting with the state and condi- 
tion of a mortall wight. Beeing clad oftentimes in cloakes 
of needleworke and embroidred with divers colours, and the 
same set out with pretious stones: in a coate also with 
long sleeves : and wearing bracelets withall, hee would come 
abroade into the Citie. Sometime you should see him in his 
silkes, and veiled all over in a loose mantle of fine Sendall 2 
with a traine : one while going in Greekish slippers 3 , or else 
in buskins : otherwhiles in a simple paire of broges or high 
shooes, such as common Souldiours emploied in espiall used. 

1 Or guarded. 2 Lawne or Tiffanie. 3 Or Pantofles. 

45 



THE HISTORIE OF 

CAIUS Now and then also was he scene shod with womens pumps 1 . 

CJESAR But for the most part he shewed himselfe abroade with a 

CALIGULA golden beard a carying in his hand either a thunderbolt 

or a three-tined mace 4b , or else a warder or rod called 

Caduceus c (the ensignes all and ornaments of the Gods) 

yea and in the attire and array of Venus. Now, for his 

triumphall robes and ensignes hee used verily to weare and 

beare them continually, even before any warlike expedition : 

and sometime the cuirace withall of K. Alexander the great, 

fetcht out of his Sepulcher and monument. 

53 

Of all the liberall Sciences, hee gave his minde least to 
deepe literature and sound learning : but most, to eloquence : 
albeit he was (by nature) faire spoken and of a ready 
tongue 3 . Certes if it had beene to pleade and declame 
against one, were he angred once, he had both words and 
sentences at will. His action, gesture and voice also served 
him well : in so much as for very heate and earnestnesse of 
speech, uneth was he able to stand his ground and keepe 
still in one place, yet might hee bee heard nothlesse of them 
that stoode a farre off. When he was about to make an 
Oration, his manner was to threaten in these termes, namely, 
That he would draw forth and let drive at his adversarie the 
keene weapon and dart of his night-studie by candle light ; 
contemning the milder and more piked kinde of writing so 
farre forth, as that hee said of Seneca, a writer in those 
daies most accepted, That his compositions which he made 
were plaine exercises to bee shewed onely: and was no 
better himselfe, than sand without lime. His wont was 
also, to answere by writing the Orations of those Oratours 
who had pleaded well and with applause : to meditate and 
devise as well accusations and defences of great persons and 
waighty matters in the Senate; and according as his stile 
framed, either to over-charge and depresse, or to ease and 
relieve every man with his sentence : having called thither 

1 Or pinsons. 2 With three graines like an ele speare. 3 Quantumvis 
facundus : or, beeing very faire spoken, etc. 

46 



TWELVE CLESARS 

by vertue of his Edicts, the degree also of Gentlemen to 
heare him speake. 

54 

The Arts moreover and maisteries of other kinds hee 
practised right studiously, even those of most different 
nature. A professed Sword-fencer l he was and a good 
Chariotier: a singer withall and a dauncer. Fight hee 
would even in earnest with weapons at sharpe : and runne 
a race with chariots in the open Cirque, which he built in 
many places. As for chaunting and dauncing, he was so 
hotly set thereupon, that hee could not forbeare so much 
as in the publick Theaters and Shew-places, but that hee 
would both fall a singing with 2 the Tragaedian as he 
pronounced, and also counterfaite and openly imitate the 
gesture of the player 3 , as it were by way of praise or cor- 
rection. And verily, for no other cause proclaimed hee (as 
it is thought) a wake or Vigile all night long, that very day 
on which hee was murdred, but that by taking the oppor- 
tunity of the nights licentiousnesse, he might therewith 
begin to enter upon the Stage. And divers times daunced 
he by night : but once above the rest, having raised out of 
their beds three honourable persons that had beene Consuls, 
and sent for them at the reliefe of the second watch into 
the Palace ; whiles they were much afraid and doubted some 
extremity he caused them to be placed aloft upon a scaffold, 
and then suddainly with a great noise of hautbois and sound 
of shawlmes or Gimbals, out commeth he leaping forth with 
a palle and cassocke reaching downe to his ankles ; and after 
hee had daunced out the measures to a song, vanished and 
went his way againe. Now, this man so apt a schollar as 
hee was to learne all other feates, had no skill at all in 
swimming *. 

55 

Looke, whom he tooke a love and liking unto, he favoured 
them all exceedingly and beyond all reason. Mnester the 

1 Thrax. 2 Or, to. 3 Or Actour. 4 A laudable exercise in Rome, 
as may appeare before in Augustus. 

47 



CAIUS 

CAESAR 

CALIGULA 



THE HISTORIE OF 

CAIUS famous Pantomime 1 he affected so much, as that he bashed 



CAUGULA not to k* sse k* m GVen * n *k e P 6n Cheater; an an J 
whiles he 2 was dauncing or acting a part, made never so 
little noise and interrupted him, hee commaunded the party 
to be pulled out of his place, and with his owne hand 
scourged him. A Gentleman of Rome chaunced to keepe 
some sturre whiles the said Mnester was upon the Stage : 
unto him hee sent word peremptorily by a Centurion to 
depart without delay, and goe downe to Ostia (there to take 
Sea) and so to carie unto King Ptolomaeus as farre as into 
Mauritania his letters in writing tables, the tenour whereof 
was this, ' To this bearer, whom I have sent hither to you, 
see you doe neither good nor harme. 1 Certaine Fencers 
called Thraces* hee made Capitaines over those Germaines 
that were of his Guard and Squires to his body. As for 
the Mirmillones 4 , hee deprived them of their armour. One 
of them named Columbus, fortuned to foile his concurrent, 
howbeit hee had gotten before some small hurt : he made 
no more adoe but put poison into the wound, which there- 
upon he called Columbinum. So much addicted and de- 
voted was he, to the greene faction 5 of Chariotiers, that day 
by day hee would take his suppers and make his abode in 
their hostelrie 6 . Upon Eutychus a Chariot-driver 7 , he be- 
stowed in hospitall gifts at a certain e banquet, two millions of 
sesterces. To one of their Chariot-steedes named Incitatus 8 , 
for whose sake (because he should not be disquieted), he was 
wont the day before the games Circenses, by his Souldiours 
to commaund the neighbours there adjoyning to keepe 
silence, besides a Stable all built of marble stone for him, 
and a manger made of Ivorie : over and above his caparison 

1 A Gesturer or dauncer that counterfaited all parts. 2 The said Mnester. 
3 Or Retiarii, as some think. Others take it to be a generall name of all 
Sword-Fencers. 4 A faction or crew of fencers opposite to the Thraces 
or Retiarii, whom in respect of the Thraces, he favoured not. 6 Prasina 
factioni. 6 Or lodging. 7 Of that green livery. 8 Incitato, equo, cuius 
causa, some interpret it otherwise thus : To Incitatus, for whose horse sake : 
taking Incitatus to be the name of the Maister, and not of the horse, because 
in the Poet Martiall, there is mention made of Incitatus a famous Chariot 
rider and a mulitier. Yet L. Verus Antoninus erected an Image of gold for 
on horse that he had named Volucer whiles he lived : and a sepulcher when he 
was dead. And why might not this braine-sicke Prince be as absurd ? 



TWELVE C^SARS 

also and harnois of purple, together with a brooch or pen- CAIUS 
dant Jewell of pretious stones at his poictrell : he allowed CAESAR 
an house and familie of servants, yea and houshold-stuffe CALIGULA 
to furnish the same : all to this end, that guests invited in 
his name might be more finely and gaily intertained. It 
is reported moreover that he meant to preferre him unto 
a Consulship. 

56 

As he rioted thus and fared outragiously, many there 
were who wanted no hart and good will to assault his 
person. But after one or two conspiracies detected, when 
others for default of opportunitie held-of and made stay, 
two at length complotted and imparted one unto the other 
their designment, yea and performed it; not without the 
privitie of the mightiest freed-men about him, and the 
Capitaines of his Guard. The reason was, for that they 
also, beeing nominated (although untruly) as accessarie to 
a certaine conspiracie, perceived themselves suspected and 
odious unto him therefore. For, even immediatly, by 
sequestring them a part into a secret place he brought 
upon them great hatred, protesting with his sword drawne, 
That die he would upon his owne hand, if they also thought 
him worthy of death. Neither ceased hee from that time 
forward to accuse one unto the other, and to set them 
all together by the eares. Now when these Conspiratours 
were resolved and agreed to assaile him during the Palatine 
games a , as he departed thence out of the Theater at noone- 
tide, Cassius Cherea Tribune of the Pretorian Cohort tooke 
upon him to play the first part in this Action : even hee, 
whom being now farre stept in yeeres Caius 1 was wont to 
frump and flout in most opprobrious termes as a wanton and 
effeminate person : and one while, when he came unto him 
for a watch-word, to give him Priapus or Venus : another 
while, if upon any occasion he rendred thanks, to reach out 
unto him his hand, not onely fashioned but wagging also 
after an obscoene and filthy manner. 

1 Caligula. 
2:G 49 



THE HISTORIE OF 

CAIUS w 

CAESAR & * 

CALIGULA Many prodigious signes were scene, presaging his future 
death and murder. The image of Jupiter at Olympia, which 
his pleasure was to bee disjointed and translated to Rome, 
did set up all on a suddaine such a mighty laughter that 
the workmen about it, let their Engines and Vices slip and 
so ranne all away. And straight- waies came there one in 
place whose name also was Cassius, that avouched, he had 
warning and commaundement in a dreame to sacrifice a Bull 
unto Jupiter. The Capitol a in Capua upon the Ides of 
March was smitten with lightning. Likewise at Rome the 
Porters lodge belonging to the Princes Palace. And there 
wanted not some who gave their conjecture, that by the 
one Prodigie was portended danger to the Master of the 
house from his Guard and the Squires of his person: by 
the other some notable murder againe, such as in times past 
had beene committed upon the same day b . Also, Sulla the 
Astrologer, when Caius asked' his counsell and opinion, as 
touching the Horoscope of his Nativitie, told him plaine, 
That most certaine and inevitable death approached neere 
at hand. Semblably the Oracle at Antium, gave him a 
caveat, to beware of Cassius. For which very cause, hee 
had taken order and given expresse commaundement, that 
Cassius Longinus Proconsull then in Asia, should bee killed : 
not remembring that the fore-saide Chserea had to name 
Cassius. The day before he lost his life, he dreamt that 
he stoode in heaven close unto the throne of Jupiter : and 
that Jupiter spurned him with the great toe of his right 
foote, and therewith threw him downe headlong to the earth. 
There went also for currant prodigies and fore-tokens of his 
fall, even those occurrents that hapned unto him that very 
day, a little before he was murdred. As himselfe sacrificed, 
bespreinct he was with the bloud of the foule Phaenicopterus. 
And Mnester the skilfull Actour above named, represented 
that very Tragaedie 1 which whilome Neptolemus the Tra- 
gaedian acted at the solemnitie of those games, wherein 
Philip King of the Macedonians 2 was killed. And when 
1 Cinyra. 2 The sonne of Amyntas. 

50 



TWELVE C^SARS 

as in the shew or Enterlude entitled Laureolus c , wherein CAIUS 
the chiefe plaier making hast to get away out of the mine J , 
vomited bloud, many more of the Actours in a second 
degree strived a vie to give some triall and experiment 
of the like cunning ; the whole stage by that meanes flowed 
with bloud. Prepared there was likewise against night 
another shew, wherein the darke fables reported of Hell 
and the Infernall Spirits there, were to be exhibited and 
unfolded by ^Egyptians and ^Ethiopians 2 . 

58 

Upon the ninth day before the Kalends of Februarie 3 , A.U.C. 794. 
about one of the clocke after noone : doubting with him- 
selfe, whether he should rise to dinner or no (for that his 
stomacke was yet rawe and weake upon a surfait of meate 
taken the day before), at last by the perswasion of his 
friends hee went forth. Now, when as in the very cloisture 4 
through which hee was to passe certaine boyes of noble 
birth sent for out of Asia (to sing Himnes, and to skirmish 
martially upon the Stage) were preparing themselves, he 
stood still and staied there to view and encourage them. 
And but that the leader and chiefetaine of that crew, said, 
He was very cold, hee would have returned and presently 
exhibited that shew. But what befell after this, is reported 
two manner of waies. Some say, that as he spake unto the 
said boies, Chserea came behind his back, and with a draw- 
ing blow grievously wounded his neck with the edge of his 
sword, giving him these words before, Hoc age, i. Mind 
this: wherupon, Cornelius Sabinus, another of the Con- 
spiratours, encountred him a front, and ranne him through 
in the brest. Others write, that Sabinus, after the multitude 
about him was voided by the Centurions (who were privie 
to the Conspiracie) called for a watch-word, as the maner 
is of souldiers, and when Caius gave him the word, Jupiter, 
Chaerea cryed out alowde, Accipe ratum, i. Here take it sure : 
and with that, as he looked behind him, with one slash cut 
his chaw quite thorough : also as he lay on the ground and 

1 Of some house represented upon the Stage. 2 Fit Actours and exposi- 
tours of such an argument. 3 24 of Januarie. 4 Or Vault. 

51 



THE HISTORIE OF 

CAIUS drawing up his limmes together cryed still. That he was 

CAESAR yet alive, the rest of their complices with thirtie wounds 

CALIGULA dispatched and made an end of him. For, this mot, Repete, 

i. Strike againe, was the signal of them all. Some of them 

also thrust their swords through his privie members. At the 

very first noise and outcrie, his licter-bearers came running 

to helpe, with their litter-staves : soone after, the Germans 

that were the squires of his bodie came in : and as they 

slew some of the murderers, so they killed certaine Senatours 

also that were meere innocent. 

59 

He lived 29 yeares, and ruled the Empire three yeares 
10 moneths and 8 dayes. His dead corps was conveyed 
secretly into the Lamian hortyards, where being scorched 
onely, or halfe burnt in a tumultuary and hasty funerall 
fire, covered it was with a few turfs of earth lightly cast 
over it : but afterwards, by his sisters now returned out of 
exile, taken up, burnt to ashes and enterred. It is for 
certain knowen and reputed, that before this Complement 
was performed, the keepers of those hortyards were troubled 
with the walking of spirits and ghosts : and in that very 
house 1 wherin he was murdred there passed not a night 
without some terror or fearefull object, until the very house 
it selfe was consumed with fire. There dyed together with 
him, both his Wife Caesonia, stabbed with a sword by a 
Centurion, and also a daughter of his, whose braines were 
dashed out against a wall. 

60 

What the condition and state was of those dayes, any man 
may gather, even by these particulars. For neither, when 
this massacre was divulged and made knowen abroad, men 
gave credite by and by thereto ; but there went a suspicion, 
that Caius himselfe had feigned and given out a rumour 
of this murder, by that meanes to sound mens minds, and 
find, how they stood affected unto him : nor yet had those 
conspiratours destined the Empire to anie one. And the 

1 Which hee called a vaut or cloyster, before. 



TWELVE C^SARS 

Senators in recovering their antient freedome againe ac- 
corded so, as that the consuls assembled them not at the 
first into the Curia \ because it bare the name Julia 2 , but 
into the Capitol : yea and some of them, when their turnes 
came to speake, opined, That the memorie of the Caesars 
should be utterly abolished and razed out, giving advise 
to pull downe their temples. Moreover, this hath beene 
observed and noted especially, That the Caesars, who had 
to their forename Caius 3 , beginning at him first who was 
slaine in the troublesome dayes of Cinna, dyed all of them 
a violent death. 

1 A new Senate house in liew of Curia Hostilia. 2 For now the name of 
the Caesars and their race became odious, as oppressers of the common weale. 
3 And yet wee reade not so much of Caius one of Augustus sonne, brother 
of Lucius. 



CAIUS 

CAESAR 

CALIGULA 



53 



THE HISTORIE OF 



THE HISTORIE OF 

TIBERIUS CLAUDIUS DRUSUS 

CAESAR 



A.U.C. 714. ii >5s>^ /fv^^sr l|S touching Drusus father to this Claudius 

Caesar, which Drusus was in times past 
forenamed Decimus and afterwards Nero ; 
dame Livia wedded unto Augustus even 
when she was great with child, brought 
him into the world within three moneths 
after the said mariage, and folke suspected 
that begotten he was in adulterie by his 
(supposed) father in law himself 1 . Certes presently after 
his birth, this verse went rife in every mans mouth, 
/cal TplfJLrjva 




On persons great this fortune doth attend, 

That children they may have at three moneths end. 

This Drusus in the honorable place of questure and prc- 
tureship, being L. Generall of the Rhaetian, and so foorth 
of the Germane warre, was the first Romane Captaine that 
sayled in the North Ocean : and on the farther side of Rhene 
caste those trenches of a straung and infinite worke which 
yet at this day be called Drusinae 2 . Many a time he put 
the enemy to sword, and when he had driven him as farre as 
to the inmost deserts, gave not over chasing and pursuing, 



1 Augustus: and not by Tiberius Nero, his mothers husband. 
Drusianae, Tacit. 

54 



2 Or 



CAESAR 



TWELVE CAESARS 

untill there appeared unto him the likenesse of a Barbarian TIBERIUS 
woman 1 , more portly than a mortall wight, which in the CLAUDIUS 
Latine tongue forbad him to follow the traine of victorie 
anie farther. For which acts atchieved, he enjoyed the 
honour of a pety Triumph 2 , and had the Triumphall orna- 
ments graunted unto him. After his pretureship, he entred 
immediatly upon the Consulate : and having enterprised a 
second expedition thither, fell sicke and dyed in his summer 
campe, which therupon tooke the name ofCastra Scekrata^. 
His corps by the principall Citizens and Burgesses of the 
free-burrowes and colonies, by the decuries also and orders 
of the Scribes 4 (who met them in the way and received it 
at their hands) was conveied to Rome and buried in Mars- 
fielde. Howbeit the armie reared in honour of him an 
honorarie tombe 5 (or stately herse) about the which every 
yeare afterwards upon a certain set day, the souldiers should 
runne at tilt, keepe jousting and turnament : the Cities 
likewise and States of Gaule, sacrifice and make publike 
supplications to the gods. Moreover the Senate among 
many other honors, decreed for him a Triumphant arch 
of marble, with Tropees thereto in the street 6 Appia: as 
also the surname of Germanicus to him and his posterity 
for ever. Furthermore he is thought to have caried a mind 
no lesse glorious than civil and popular. For over and 
above the conquests gained of his enemies, he wan also 
from them Royall spoyles 7 : and oftentimes to the utter- 
most hazard of his life coursed and chaced the General of 
the Germans all over the field : neither dissembled he, but 
gave it out, that one day he would restore unto the Common- 
wealth their ancient state and libertie againe. Whereupon, 
I suppose, some presume to write, that Augustus had him in 
jelousie and suspicion : called him home out of his Pro- 
vince : and because he lingred and delayed his returne, made 
him away by poyson. Which verily put downe I have, be- 
cause I would not seeme to pretermit such a matter, rather, 

1 Representing Germanic. 2 Called Ovation. 3 The wicked and 
mischievous camp. 4 Or Chancelors. 5 Which the Greeks call 



Cenotaphium, i. an empty tomb, 
from their cheife generals. 



6 Or port-way. 7 Which he tooke 

55 



THE HISTORIE OF 

TIBERIUS than for that I thinke it either true or probable : consider- 
* n ^> ^ a * Augustus both loved him whiles hee was alive so 
entirely, as that he al waves ordained him fellow-heire with 

. . J 9 , 1M , J , _ , . . 

his sonnes, (like as he openly professed upon a time in the 
Senate house) and also commended him after his death so 
highly, that in a solemne oration before the bodie of the 
people he prayed unto the gods, To vouchsafe his owne 
Caesars to be like unto him : and to grant himselfe one day 
such an end as they had given him. And not contented 
with this that he had engraven upon his tombe an Epitaph 
in verse which he himselfe composed, he wrot also the his- 
toric of his life in prose. By Antonia the yonger, he 
became father verily of many children, but three onely 
hee left behind him at his death, namely, Germanicus, 
Livilla, and Claudius. 



A.U.C. 744. This Claudius was borne at Lyons, in the yeare when 
Julius Antonius and Fabius Africanus were Consuls, upon 
the Calends of August, that very day on which the altar 
was first dedicated there unto Augustus : and named he was 
Tiberius Claudius Drusus : and a while after, when his elder 
brother was adopted into the family Julia, hee assumed into 
his stile the surname of Germanicus. Being left an infant 
by his father, all the time in manner of his child-hood and 
youth 1 , piteously handled he was with sundrie diseases, and 
those tough and such as stucke long by him : in so much 
as being dulled and enfeebled thereby both in mind and 
bodie, he was not thought in the very progresse of riper 
age, sufficient and capable of any publike office or private 
charge : yea and many a day after that hee came to full 
yeares and had sued out his liverie, hee was at the dispose 
of another, even under a pedagogue and governour ; whom 
in a certaine booke himself complaineth of, terming him a 
barbarous fellow, and no better sometime than a mulitier 2 , 
set over him of purpose to chastice and punish him most 
cruelly for everie light cause and occasion whatsoever. By 

1 Or growing age. 2 Olim superiumentarium, rather a maister of 
mulitiers. 

56 



TWELVE C^SARS 

reason of this his sicknesse, both at the sword-play which TIBERIUS 
he and his brother joyntly exhibited in memoriall of their CLAUDIUS 
Father, he sat as president (not after the accustomed manner) 
lapt in a cloake ; and also upon his commensement day, 
when he was to put on his virile gowne, about midnight with- 
out anie honorable attendance and solemne traine, brought 
he was in a licter into the Capitoll a . 

3 

Howbeit, from his very child-hood, he employed no meane 
studie in the liberall sciences. And oftentimes gave good 
proofe even in publike place of his proceedings in them all : 
yet could he never for all that reach to any degree of dignity, 
or yeeld better hope of himselfe for the time to come. His 
mother Antonia, was wont to call him Portentum hominis, 
i. The Monster and fantasticall shewe of a man, as if hee 
had not beene finished but onely begunne by nature : and 
if shee reprooved anie one for his foolishnesse she would 
saie, Hee was more sottish then her Sonne Claudius. His 
Grandmother Augusta 1 thought alwaies most basely of 
him, as who used neither to speake unto him but very 
seldome, nor to admonish him, unlesse it were in some 
sharpe and short writing, or els by messengers going be- 
tween. His sister Livilla, when she heard that he should 
be one day Emperour, openly and with a lowd voice de- 
tested and wished farre from the people of Rome so hard 
and miserable a fortune. 

4 

And no mervaile : for to the end that it might be more 
certainly knowen what opinion his great Uncle Augustus 2 
had of him both wayes 3 , I have set downe certaine Articles 
and principall pointes gathered out of his owne Epistles. ' I 
have, 1 quoth he, ' my good Livia talked and conferred with 
Tiberius as you charged me, about this, namely, What is 
to be done to your Nephew Tiberius, at the solemnity of 
the Martiall Game 4 . Now, wee are both agreed that it 

1 Otherwise called Livia and Julia the mother of Drusus. 2 His Grand- 
mothers brother by the mothers side. 3 As well good as bad. 4 In 
honour of Mars Revenger. 

2:H 57 



TIBERIUS 

CLAUDIUS 

DRUSUS 

CAESAR 



THE HISTORIE OF 

must be determined and set down once for all what course 
we should take and follow with him: for, if he be aprto? 1 , 

f f Oil 

and as I may so say o\oK\r]pos 2 , what doubt need wee to 
make, but that he is to bee trained and brought by the 
same oportunities of time and degrees 3 by which his brother 
was. But if we perceive him rjKaTTwo-dat, /cal /3e/3Xa</>0at 
ical et? rrjv TOV (7c6ftaTO? /cal et? rrjv rfj? tyvxfis apriOTrjra 4 : 
we must not minister matter to men, TO, rotavra a-KcoTTTeiv 
Kol fJWfcniptfcur elcoOoo-i 5 , for to deride both him and us. 
For we shall ever find trouble and vexation inough, in case 
of every occasion of time presented unto us, we should de- 
liberate, firj TrpovTroKelfjievov r^lv 6 , whether wee thinke him 
able to menage honorable Offices in the State or no. How- 
beit for the present (concerning such things whereof youle 
aske mine advise) I mislike it not, that he have the 
charge of the Priests dyning chamber, during these Martiall 
solemnities aforesayd, so that he wil suffer himselfe to be 
admonished and schooled by Silanus sonne, a man allyed 
unto him, that he do nothing, which may be noted 7 , or 
derided. That he should behold the games Circenses from 
out of the Pulvinar 8 , in no wise can I allow. For being ex- 
posed so, to the sight of men in the very forefront of the 
Theatre, he wil be eyed and observed: neither like we in 
any hand, that he should goe up the Albane mount, or 
abide at Rome during the Latine Holy-dayes 9 . For if he be 
able to accompany and follow his brother to that mountaine, 
why is he not as wel made Provost of the Cittie the while ? 
Thus, my Li via, you have our opinions delivered, as who 
are fully resolved, that once for al somewhat must be put 
downe as touching the whole matter, least we be evermore 
wavering between hope and feare. You may also if it 
please you impart unto our (niece) Antonia thus much of 
this our letter. 1 Againe, in another Epistle : 'As for young 

1 Sufficient. 2 Sound throughout and perfect. 3 Or steps. 4 To 
be impaired or disabled and maimed, as wel for the sufficiencie of body as in- 
tegrity of mind. 5 Who are wont to make good game and scoffe at such 
things. 6 If it be not resolved upon and set downe aforehand by us. 
7 Conspici or despui, i. spit at. 8 A Bedloft at the Games Circenses^ 
whereon the images of the gods are layed. 9 In the absence of the Consuls 
attending the sacrifice upon the Albane Hill. 

58 



TWELVE C^SARS 

Tiberius 1 , I for my part whiles you are absent, wil dayly TIBERIUS 
invite him to supper, that he may not suppe alone with his 
Sulpitius and Athenoderus. And I could wish with al my 
hart that he would more soundly and lesse /jLerecbpws 2 make 
choice of some special one, whose gesture habite and gang, 
hee might, silly soule as he is, imitate. 

'Arv^et \iav eV roltri wrrovbaiois navv. 

He comes farre short (when he is matched) with men of deepe 
understanding. 

But looke, when his mind is not wandering out of the way, 
the generosity of his heart appeareth sufficiently.' Likewise 
in a third letter : ' Your nephew Tiberius my sweet Livia, 
if I doe not wonder, that when he declamed that he could 
please and content me, I pray God I be dead. For how he 
that in his dayly talke speaketh so a(7^>w9 3 should be able 
when he declameth, to deliver his mind and what he hath 
to say cra^w? 4 I cannot see.' Neither is there anie doubt 
to be made, but that after all this, Augustus ordained and 
left him indued with no honorable office, save only the 
Sacerdotall dignitie of Augurs : nay he nominated him not 
so much as his Heire, but in a third degree and descent, 
even among those that were well neere Strangers : and that 
in a sixth part onely of his substance : and by way of 
legacie bequeathed unto him not above 800000 sesterces. 

5 

Tiberius his unkle conferred upon him when he sued for 
honorable dignities the Ornaments of Consuls. But when 
he instantly demaunded still, not imaginary but true magis- 
tracies indeede, he wrote backe unto him in his writing tables 
thus much onely, That he had sent unto him fortie peeces 
of golde 6 to spend at the feast Saturnalia, and to bestow 
in puppets and trifling gaudes, at the same time. Then, 
and not before, casting aside all hope of preferment and 
reall dignities, hee betooke himselfe to rest and quietnesse of 
life, lying close, one while within hortyardes of pleasure and 

1 Claudius. 2 Superficially. 3 Darkly and confusedly. 4 Cleerely 
and plainely to bee understood. 5 Every one worth 155. 7d. o&, or one 
hundred sesterces. 

59 



THE HISTORIE OF 

TIBERIUS in a manner house without the Cittie : and lurking other 

C DRU?US S wn ^ es * n a withdrawing place out of the way in Campania. 

CJESAR And. ky kis daily acquaintance and companie keeping with 

most base and abject persons besides the olde infamous note 

of sluggardie and foolishnesse hee incurred an ill name for 

drunkennesse and dice-play : notwithstanding, that all the 

while he thus led his life, he never wanted the publike 

attendance and reverent regard of men seeking unto him. 

6 

The order of Gentlemen elected him twice for their 
patrone, in an embassage that was to be sent and delivered 
in their owne behalfe : once when the Consuls required to 
have the cariage of Augustus his corps upon their own 
shoulders to Rome : a 2 time when they were to congratu- 
late with the same Consuls for the suppressing of Sejanus. 
Moreover, they were wont in shewes, and in the Theatre, 
when he came in place, to arise up and lay off their mantels 1 
in respective honour of him. The Senate also ordained, 
that to the ordinarie number of the Priests or Guild - 
brethren called Augustales, who were by lot chosen, he 
should be admitted extraordinarily : and soone after, that 
his house, which by misfortune of a skare-fire he had lost, 
should at the Cities charges be reedified ; as also the privi- 
ledge to deliver his minde and opinion in the Senate, 
among those who had beene Consuls ; which decree of theirs 
was reversed and annulled : whiles Tiberius 2 alleadged by 
way of excuse his imbecillity, and promised to repaire the 
foresaid losse out of his owne private purse and liberality. 
Yet when hee laye upon his death-bed, he both named him 
among his heires in a third raunge, and in a third part of 
his estate, and also bequeathed him a legacie of two millions 
of Sesterces : yea recommended him besides by name unto 
the armies, to the Senate likewise and people of Rome in 
the ranke of other his especiall friends and kinsfolke. 

7 
At length under Caius 3 his brothers sonne, who at his 

1 As wee use to veile bonet or do of our hats. 2 The Emperour. 3 Caligula. 

60 



TWELVE OESARS 

first comming to the Empire sought by all manner of TIBERIUS 

enticing allurements, to gaine the good opinion of a bounti- CLAUDIUS 

full and gracious prince, he began first to beare office of 

state, and continued Consul together with him for the 

space of two moneths : and it fortuned at his first entrance 

into the Forum with his knitches of rods, that an Eagle 

soaring thereby, setled upon his right shoulder. He was 

pricked also and allotted unto a second Consulship, against 

the 4th yeare following. Divers times he sat as president 

of the solemne shewes in Caius his turne : what time the 

people cryed Feliciter 1 , partly to the Emperours 2 Uncle, 

and in part to Germanicus his brother. 

8 

Yet lived hee neverthelesse subject to the contumelious 
reproches of the World: for if at anie time, hee came 
somewhat with the latest and after the houre appointed to 
a supper, hardly and with much adoe, was there any roome 
made for to receive him, and not before hee had gone 
round about the tables where guests were set, for to 
finde a place : likewise, whensoever he tooke a nap, and fel 
a sleepe after meate (which was an ordinarie thing with 
him) the buffons 3 and jesters about him, made good sport, 
pelling him with olive and date stones: other whiles also 
they would by way of merriment awaken him with the 
clappe of a ferula or lash of some whip. They were wont 
likewise to glove his hands (as he lay snorting a sleep) with 
his shoes 4 , that as he suddenly awaked hee might rub his 
face and eyes therewith. 

9 

Neither verily could he avoide divers dangerous troubles : 
first in his very Consulship : for, beeing behind hand and 
over slacke in taking order with the workmen for the 
making and erecting of Nero and Drusus Statues, who were 

1 All haile or happinesse. 2 Caligula. 3 A Copreisi See Tiberius 
Nero Caesar, cap. 61, vel a Trop&is, such as would play Bo-peepe and hide 
themselves when they had done some unhappinesse. 4 For whiles they 
sat or leaned upon pallets at their meat they put off their shoes. 

61 



THE HISTORIE OF 

TIBERIUS Caesars l brethren, hee had like to have beene remooved and 
CLAUDIUS put out of that honorable office : afterwards, as eyther anie 
stranger, or one of his own house informed ought against 
him, he was continually and sundry manner of waies molested. 
But when as the Conspiracie of Lepidus and Getulicus came 
to light, being sent among other Embassadours to con- 
gratulate Caius in the name of the City, hee was in jeopardy 
of his very life : whiles Caius chafed and fumed with great 
indignation, that his Unkle chiefly of all others was sent 
unto him, as it were to governe a child: in so much, as 
some have not stuck to report on writing, that hee was 
turned also headlong into the river in his cloathes and all 
as he came apparailed. From which time forward, never 
spake hee to any matter proposed in the Senate, but last of 
all those, that had beene Consuls, as being in reproachfull 
wise and to his disgrace asked his opinion after them all. 
There was received likewise against him the examination of 
a forged will, wherein himselfe also had beene a witnesse 
and put- to his scale. Last of all, hee was forced to disburse 
eight millions of Sesterces for a fine or Income at his entrance 
into a new Priesthood : by occasion whereof, his estate 
being so much decaied, driven he was to those streights, 
that for his disability to keepe credit and satisfie the debt 
due unto the Chamber of the City by an Edict of the 
Citie Treasurers a according to the law Prcediatoria hee 
hung up to be sold in vacuum 2 . 

10 

Having passed the greatest part of his time in running 
thorough these and such like troubles, at length in the fiftieth 
yeere of age, hee attained to the Empire, and that by a 
strange and wonderfull hap. Being among others excluded 
by the Conspiratours that layed waite for Caius life, what 
time they voided all the Companie about his person, under 
a colour as if he desired to be a part himselfe alone in some 
by-place, this Claudius had stept aside and retired into a 
lodging or parlour called Hermeum : and not long after, 

1 Caius Caligula. 2 His lands and goods were forfeited and so were 
published in table as voide and vacant. 

62 



DRUSUS 
CAESAR 



A.U.C. 794. 



TWELVE CAESARS 

being affrighted at the rumour of that murder, slily crept TIBERIUS 

forth and conveied himselfe up into a Solar 1 next adjoyning, CLAUDIUS 

and there hid himselfe betweene the hangings that hung 

before the dore. Whiles hee lurked close there, a common 

Souldiour chauncing to runne too and fro that way, espied 

his feete, and by earnest enquirie and asking who he was, 

hapned to take knowledge of him : who having drawne him 

forth of the place (when as for feare hee fell downe humbly 

at his feete and tooke hold of his knees) saluted him by the 

name of Emperour. From thence he brought him imme- 

diatly to his other fellow Souldiours, who as yet stoode 

wavering and wist not what to doe but fare and fume. By 

them was he bestowed in a Licter : and for that his owne 

servants were fled scattering heere and there they also by 

turnes one after another supported the said Licter upon 

their shoulders : and so was he brought into the (Praetorian) 

Camp, all sad and amazed for feare: pitied also by the 

multitude that met him on the way, as if some innocent 

had been haled to execution. Being received within the 

trench and rampire, lodged he was alnight among the 

souldiours-watch with lesse hope of his a good deale than 

confidence. For the Consuls together with the Senate and 

the cohorts of the citie-souldiers, seized the Forum and the 

Capitol, with a purpose to claime and recover the common 

libertie : and when himselfe was sent for, by a tribune of 

the commons into the Curia to sit in consultation and give 

his advise about those matters that were thought good to 

be propounded, he made answere, That deteined he was 

perforce and by constraint. But the next morrow, when as 

the Senate grewe more colde and slacke in following and 

executing their foresaid projects, (by reason of their tedious 

trouble and discord who dissented in opinion) whiles the 

multitude also standing round about, demaunded by this 

time one Ruler and him 2 by name, he called the Souldiours 

in armour 3 to an assembly, and suffred them to take their 

oath of alleageance, and sweare to maintaine his imperiall 

dignity: therewith promised unto them 1500 Sesterces 4 a 

1 A garret. 2 Claudius. 3 Armatos t or armatus, i. himselfe armed. 
4 Quina dena Sestertia. See Josephus. 



THE HISTORIE OF 



TIBERIUS peece : the first of all the Caesars that obliged unto him 
LAUDIU 
RUSUS 
CAESAR 



CLAUDIUS the Souldiours fealty by a fee and reward. 
DRUSUS J J 



Having once established his Empire, hee thought nothing 
more deere and behovefull than to abolish the remembrance 
of those two daies, wherein there was some doubtfull question 
about the change and alteration of the State. Of all deedes 
and words therefore, which had passed during that time he 
made an Act there should be a generall pardon and per- 
petuall oblivion : which also hee made good and performed 
accordingly. Onely, some few Colonels and Centurions, out 
of that crew which conspired against Caius, he put to the 
sword : as well for example sake, as for that he had certaine 
intelligence, they required to have him also murdered. 
Then presently turning and bending his minde to the duties 
of pietie and kindnesse, hee tooke up no forme of oath, 
either with more devout religion or oftener, than by the 
name of Augustus. He gave order, that for his Grand- 
mother Livia, there should by Decree be graunted Divine 
honours; as also in the stately pompe of the Cirque 
Solemnities, a Chariot drawne with Elephants, like unto 
that of Augustus : semblably, for the soules of his owne 
parents departed, publick Dirges and Funerall feasts : and 
more than so, particularly in the honour of his father Cirque- 
Plaies and games every yeere upon his birth-day : and in 
memoriall of his mother, a coach to be led and drawne along 
through the Cirque : and the surname of Augusta, which 
by his Grandmother was refused. In remembrance of his 
brother 1 (to celebrate whose memoriall hee omitted no 
occasion) hee exhibited a Greeke Comaedie at the solemne 
Games held in Naples : where, by sentence of the Umpiers 
and Judges he received a coronet therefore. Hee suffered not 
so much as M. Antonius to passe unhonoured, nor without 
a thankfull mention and remembrance : protesting one time, 
and that by an Edict, That so much the more earnest he 
was, to have men celebrate the Birth day of his father 
Drusus, because upon the same day, his Grandfather An- 

1 Germanicus. 



TWELVE CAESARS 

tonius also was borne. The Marble Arch, decreed verily in TIBERIUS 

times past by the Senate to be erected for Tiberius l neere CLAUDIUS 

unto the Theater of Pompeius, but for let, hee finished. 

And albeit hee abrogated and repealed all the Acts of 

Caius, yet the day of his death, although it were the be- 

ginning of his Empire, he forbad to be registred among 

feasts in the Kalendar. 



DRUSUS 
C^SAR 



But in honouring himselfe he was sparie, and caried a 
civile modestie. The fore-name of Emperour he forbare : 
excessive honours hee refused : the Espousals 2 of his owne 
daughter, the birth-day also of his Nephew her sonne, he 
passed over in silence, onely celebrating it with some private 
ceremonie and religious complements within house. He 
restored no banished person, but by the authority and war- 
rant of the Senate. That hee might bring with him into 
the Curia, the Capitaine of the Guard and Tribunes 3 of the 
Souldiours : Item, that those Actes might bee ratified and 
stand in force, which his Procuratours had set downe in 
judging of causes, hee obtained by intreatie. He made 
suite unto the Consuls for a licence, to hold Faires and 
Markets, for his owne private Manors and Lands. In Com- 
missions and Examinations of causes held by the Magistrates, 
he would oftentimes be personally present and sit as one of 
the Commissioners. To the same Magistrates, when they 
exhibited any Plaies or Games, himselfe also with the rest 
of the multitude would arise up, and both with hand and 
voice 4 doe them honour. When the Tribunes of the Com- 
mons repaired unto him before the Front of his Tribunall, 
he excused himselfe unto them, for that by reason of straight 
roome hee could not give audience unto them otherwise than 
standing upon their feete. Therefore, within a small time 
hee purchased so much love and favour, as that when newes 
came (to Rome) that forlaied and slaine hee was in his 
journey to Ostia, the people in a great tumult and uprore, 
fell to banning and cursing both the Souldiours as Traitours, 

1 His Unkle. 2 Or solemnity of nuptiall contract. 3 Colonels. 
4 By applause and acclamation. 

2:1 65 



DRUSUS 
CAESAR 



THE HISTORIE OF 

TIBERIUS and the Senate also as Paricides : neither ceased they thus 
to force against them, untill first one messenger, and then 
another, yea and soone after many more were produced by 
the Magistrates to the publick Rostra, who assured them 
that he was alive and approached homeward. 

13 

Yet continued hee not for all this secured every way from 
the danger of secret practises and wait-laying : but assailed 
hee was as well by private persons, as whole factions and con- 
spiracies, yea and sore troubled in the end with civill warres. 
For there was a man, one of the Commons, taken about 
midnight neere unto his bed-chamber with a dagger. Found 
there were likewise twaine of the Gentlemens degree, in the 
open streete with a staffe having a blade in it 1 , and a 
Hunters wood-knife waiting for him : the one to assault his 
person when he was gone forth of the Theater : the other 
as hee sacrificed at the temple of Mars. Now there had 
conspired to make an insurrection and to alter the State, 
Gallus Asinius and Statilius Corvinus, the Nephewes of 
Pollio and Messalla the Oratours, taking unto them for 
their Complices many of his owne freed-men and servants. 
As for civile warre, kindled it was and begun by Furius 
Camillus Scribonianus, Lieutenant generall of Dalmatia : 
but within five daies quenched cleane and suppressed ; by 
reason that the Legions, which had chaunged their oath of 
alleageance, in remorce of conscience and touch of religion 
repented, after that upon signification given of a journey 
to their new Generall, neither the JEgles could bee dight 
and trimmed, nor the militarie ensignes plucked up and 
removed 2 . 

14 

A.U.C. 794, To his first Consulship he bare foure more : of which, the 

795,800, 804. two former jointlie and immediatly one after another: the 

rest ensuing, with some time betweene, to wit, each one in 

the fourth yeere : and as for the third, hee had no precedent 

for it in any other Prince, as being substituted in the voide 



1 Some cal this a Jacobs staffe. 

66 



2 Ominous and unlucky signes. 



C.ZESAR 



TWELVE C^SARS 

place of a Consull deceased. A precise Justicer he was, TIBERIUS 

ministring Justice, both when hee was Consull, and also being 

out of that Office, most painfully ; even upon the solemne 

daies instituted for him and his : yea, and otherwhiles upon 

the auncient festivall daies and such as were religious. He 

followed not alwaies the prescript rule of lawes, moderating 

either the rigour or the lenity of penalties, by equity and 

reason, according as he stood affected to a cause : for, both 

unto those he restored their actions and gave leave to com- 

mense them a new, who in the Court before private Judges l 

had once lost their suites, by claiming more than was due : 

and also, such as were convict of some greater deceite and 

cousenage, he condemned to be cast unto wilde beasts : ex- 

ceeding therein the ordinarie punishment by law appointed. 

15 

Moreover, in the examination, triall, and deciding of 
controversies, he was wonderous variable : one while circum- 
spect, wary, and of great insight : otherwhiles as rash and 
inconsiderate : now and then also foolish, vaine, and like to 
one without all reason. When hee reviewed upon a time 
the Decuries of Judges, and put whom hee thought good 
from their Jurisdiction : one of them, who had answered to 
his name, and concealed the immunity and priviledge that 
he had by the benefit of children, he discharged quite, as 
a man desirous to be a Judge 2 . Another of them being 
molested and called into question by his adversaries before 
him, as touching a matter betweene him and them, and 
pleading withall for himselfe, That it was a case to be 
tried not extraordinarily (by Caesar) but by the common 
course of Law, and in an ordinary Court of deputed Judges : 
he compelled immediatly to handle and decide his owne 
cause before him : as who in his proper businesse should 
give proofe how indifferent a Judge he would be heereafter 
in the matter of another. There was a woman that would 
not acknowledge her owne sonne. Now, when by evidences 
and arguments alleadged pro et contra on both sides, the 

2 And therfore, 



1 Of private matters, as Praetours and Centumvirs. 
ambitious. 



67 



THE HISTORIE OF 

TIBERIUS question rested in equall ballance doubtfull, he awarded, 
CLAUDIUS that she should be wedded to the young man * : and so 
CJ2SAR f rce d her to confesse the truth and to take him for her 
child. Most ready he was to give judgement on their side, 
who made appearance in Court when their adversaries were 
absent: without any respect and consideration, whether a 
man slacked and staled by his owne default, or upon some 
necessitie. One cried out upon a forger of writings, and 
required, That both his hands might be cut off. Hee made 
no more a- doe, but forthwith called instantly, to have the 
hangman sent for, with his chopping knife and butchers 
block, to do the deed. There hapned one to be called 
judicially to the barre, For that being a forainer he bare 
himselfe as a Romaine Citizen : and when the advocates of 
both sides grew to some little variance about this circum- 
stance, namely, Whether the party Defendant ought to make 
his answere and plead his owne cause in a gowne 2 or a 
cloake 3 , he then, as if hee would make exceeding shew of 
pure and uncorrupt equitie, commaunded him to shift and 
change his habite often in the place, according as he was 
either accused or defended. Moreover, sitting in judgement 
to decide a certaine controversie, when he had heard what 
could be said, hee pronounced sentence out of a written table, 
as it is verily thought, to this effect, That hee judged on 
their side, who had alleadged the truth. For which prankes 
hee became base and contemptible, in so much as every 
where, and openly he was despised. One, to excuse a 
witnesse 4 , whom Caesar 5 had called for out of a Province, 
alleadged in his behalfe, and said, Hee could not possibly 
come in time and be present, dissimuling the cause thereof 
a great while : at length, after manie long demaunds, what 
the reason might be, ' Why,' quoth hee, * the man is dead at 
Puteoli.' Another when hee gave him thankes, for suffering 
a person accused to have the benefite of a triall and to bee 
defended, added more-over these wordes, ' And yet this is an 
usuall and ordinarie thing/ Furthermore, I my selfe have 
heard olde folke say, that these Lawyers and Barristers were 

1 The plaintife himselfe. 2 As a Citizen of Rome. 3 As a forainer. 
4 Or deponent. 6 Claudius. 

68 



DRUSUS 
C^SAR 



TWELVE CAESARS 

wont to abuse his patience so much, that as hee was going TIBERIUS 
downe from the Tribunall 1 , they would not onely call upon CLAUDIUS 

1 1 llllXl* TM3TTCTTC 

him to come backe agame, but also take hold of his gowne 
lappet and skirt, yea and otherwhile catch him fast by the 
foote, and so hold him still with them. And that no man 
need to mervaile heereat, there was one of these Greeke 
Lawyers, who pleading before him hapned in earnest alter- 
cation to let fall these words, Kal <rv yepwv el KOLI /Mop6$, i. 
Thou art both old, and a foole besides. And verily it is for 
certaine knowne, that a Gentleman of Rome, accused before 
him for his obscene filthinesse and unnaturall abuse of women, 
(although untruly) as having an enditement framed against 
him by his enemies that were mighty : when he saw common 
strumpets cited and their depositions heard against him, 
flung his writing steele and the bookes which he had in his 
hand, with great ubraiding of him also for his foolishnesse 
and cruelty, even at his very face, so as he rippled and hurt 
therewith his cheeke not a little, 

16 

He bare also the Censureship : an office that a long time A.U.C. 800,801. 
had beene discontinued, after Paulus and Plancus the Cen- 
sours: but even this very place he held with an uneven 
hand and as variable a minde, as the event and successe 
ensuing. In the review taken of Romaine Gentlemen, hee 
dismissed without shame and disgrace, a young man charged 
with many infamous villanies, howbeit one whom his owne 
father testified upon his knowledge and triall to bee right 
honest : saying withall, That he had a Censor of his owne. 
To another youth, who was in a very bad name for spoiling 
of maidens, and adulteries committed with wives, he did no 
more but give warning, either more sparily to spend him 
selfe in those young and tender yeeres of his, or else more 
warily at least-wise, to goe to worke : adding thus much 
beside, 'For why know I,' quoth hee, 'what wench thou 
keepest? 1 And when upon the intreaty of his familiar 
friends he had taken of the infamous note which was set 
upon the name of one, ' Well,' quoth he, ' let the blot yet 



1 Or judgement seat. 



69 



THE HISTORIE OF 

TIBERIUS remaine still to be scene V An honourable man and a prin- 
C DRUSU^ S c *P a ^ P ersona g e f tne Province Greece, howbeit ignorant 
CAESAR * n ^ e ^ a ti ne tongue, he not onely rased out of the ranke 
and roll of Judges, but also deprived of his freedom in 
Rome, and made him a meere alien. Neither suffred he 
any man to render an account of his life, otherwise than 
with his owne mouth, as well as every one was able, and 
without a patrone to speake for him. Hee noted many 
with disgrace, and some of them without their knowledge, 
as mistrusting no such thing : yea, and for a matter that 
had no precedent, namely, because without his privity and a 
pasport obtained they went forth of Italy : one also among 
the rest, for that in the Province he accompanied a King in 
his traine : alledging for example, that in his Auncestours 
daies Rabirius Postumus for following of K. Ptolomaeus into 
Alexandria to save and recover the monie which he had lent 
him, was accused before the Judges, of Treason to the State. 
Having assaied to put many more to rebuke with great 
imputation of the Inquisitours negligence, but with greater 
shame of his owne : looke whomsoever he charged with 
single life 2 , with childlesse estate or poverty, those lightly 
he found guiltlesse, as who were able to prove themselves 
husbands, fathers, and wealthy. Certes, one there was, who 
being accused to have laied violent hands upon himselfe, 
and wounded his owne body with a sword, stript himselfe 
naked, and shewed the same whole and sound, without any 
harme in the world. Many other Acts he did of speciall 
note whiles he was Censour as namely these: He com- 
maunded a silver Chariot sumptuously wrought and set out 
to sale in the streete Sigillaria, for to be bought and broken 
all to peeces openly. Item, in one day he published 20 
Edicts or Proclamations: and ij. among the rest: in the 
one whereof hee gave the people warning, That when their 
Vineyards bare Grapes plentifully, they should pitch 3 their 
vessels very well within : in the other, he did them to 
understand, That there was nothing so good against the 
stinging of a Viper, as the juice of the Ughtree. 

1 Litura tamen extet. Some read cxtat, i. yet the blot remaineth : meaning the 
filthines of the fact. 2 For these matters would beare action. 3 Or enhuile. 

70 



TWELVE (LESARS 



17 

One expedition and no more hee undertooke, and that was 
very small. When the Senate had by Decree allowed him 
Triumphall ornaments, hee supposing that a bare title 
of honour was inferiour to the majestic of a Prince and 
Emperour, willing also to enterprise some exploit, whereby 
he might win the due glorie of a complet triumph, made 
choise before all other Provinces of Britaine ; attempted by 
none since Julius (Caesar) of famous memorie, and at that 
time in a tumultuous uprore, for that certaine revolts and 
rebels fled from thence, were not rendred. As he sailed 
from Ostia thitherward, twice had he like to have beene 
cast away and drowned, by reason of the strong blustring 
Sou theme winde Circius, neere unto Ligaria, hard by the 
Hands Stoechades a . Having therefore travailed by land, 
from Massiles as farre as to the Cape Gessoriacum 1 9 he 
crossed the seas from thence into Britaine : and in very 
few daies 2 , without battaile or bloudshed, part of the Hand 
yeelded to his devotion. So, in the sixth moneth after his 
first setting forth hee returned to Rome, and triumphed 
with most sumpteous pompe therefore prepared. To the 
sight of which Solemnitie, hee suffred not onely the Presi- 
dents and Governours of Provinces to have recourse into the 
Citie, but also certaine banished persons. And among the 
enemies Spoiles, hee set up a navall Coronet, and fastened it 
to the Finial of his house Palatine, hard by another civick 
guirland, in token and memoriall of the Ocean by him sailed 
over and subdued. After his triumphant Chariot rode 
Messallina his wife in a Coach : then followed those gallants 
also 3 , who in the same warre had attained to triumphall 
ornaments : the rest went on foote and in their rich robes 
garded with purple : onely Crassus Frugi mounted upon a 
brave Courser trimly trapped, and arraied himselfe in a 
triumphant mantle of estate, for that now twice hee had 
atchieved that honour. 



1 Where Calais standeth, or Bulloin, as som thinke. 
to Dio. 3 Mounted likewise. 



2 i 6 according 

71 



TIBERIUS 

CLAUDIUS 

DRUSUS 

C^SAR 



A.U.C. 797. 



THE HISTORIE OF 



TIBERIUS 

CLAUDIUS 

DRUSUS 

CAESAR 



19 



18 

Hee was at all times most carefull and provident for the 
Citie \ especially that the market might bee well served with 
victuals : what time, the JEmilian ^Edifices (or Tenements) 
were on fire and continued still burning, hee remained two 
nights together in the place called Diribitorium : and when 
the multitude of Souldiours and household servants failed, 
hee called together by meanes of the Magistrates, the 
Commons of the Citie out of all the streetes and Parishes to 
come in and helpe, setting before him his chests full of 
money : exhorting them to doe their best for the quenching 
of the fire : and readie for to pay presently every one a good 
reward according to the paines hee tooke. Now, when 
corne and victuals were growne very scarce, (such was the 
continuall unseasonable weather that brought barrainnesse)he 
was uppon a time in the middes of the market place 2 deteined 
by the multitude and so assay led and pelled what with 
reviling taunts and what with peeces of broken bread, that 
hardly and with much adoe he was able to escape, and no 
otherwise than by a post erne gate, unto the Pallace. Wher- 
upon he devised all the means he possibly could to bring 
into the Citie provision of corne and victuals, even in the 
winter season. For, he not onely proposed certain e set 
gaines to all cornemasters, that would venture for graine, 
undertaking himselfe to beare all the losse that should 
happen unto anie of them by tempest : but ordained also 
great fees and availes for those that would builde ships for 
such traffique and merchandise, according to the condition and 
quality of each one: Namely for everie Romane Citizen 
exemption from the lawe Papia Poppaea: for enfranchised 
Latines, the freedome of Romane Citizens : and for women, 
the priviledge and benefit of those that had 4 children, which 
constitutions stand in force and be observed at this day. 

1 When so ever you read in Suetonius (City) absolutely, understand therby 
Rome: Kaf exocheen : as one would say, The City of all Cities: an 
ordinarie phrase in other Remain writers : according as Virgil hath fitly 
expressed in this verse, Eclog. I. : Urbem quam dicunt, Romam t etc. 
2 Or Forum. 
72 



TWELVE C^SARS 

0n TIBERIUS 

CLAUDIUS 

Many works he finished, and those rather for greatnesse, DRUSUS 
huge, then for use, needfull. But the chiefe and principal! 
were these : The conduit of water begun by Gains. Item a 
scluse l to let out and draine the lake Fucinus ; and the 
haven 2 at Ostia : although he knew well enough, that the 
one 3 (of the twaine) Augustus had denied unto the Marsians 
who continually entreated him about it: and the other 4 
intended oftentimes in the designment of Julius Caesar of 
sacred memorie, was for the difficultie thereof layde aside. 
The two colde and plenteous fountaines 5 of the water 
Claudia, of which the one beareth the name of Caeruleus, 
the other of Curtius or Albudinus, as also the new river of 
Anio 6 he conveied and brought to Rome all the way, within 
stone-work: and then derived and devided the same into 
many and those right beautifull pooles 7 . He went in 
hand with the mere Ficinus in hope of gaine as well as of 
glorie : when some there were, who would have bound 
themselves in covenant and promise, to draine the sayd 
marrish at their owne private charges, in case the grounds 
being once made drie might be graunted unto them in free- 
hold. Now, for the length of three miles, partly by digging 
through the hill, and partly by hewing out the rocke before 
him, hee finished the channell at last with much adoe and 
after eleven yeares labour : albeit thirty thousand men were 
at worke continually about it and never rested between. 
The Pere at Ostia beforesayd he made, by drawing an arme 
of the sea about, on the left and right hand both : and with 
all, at the mouth and entrance thereof, where now the 
ground lay deepe, raising an huge dam or pile against it. 
For the surer foundation of which pile, he drowned before 
hand that ship, wherein the great Obelisk had beene trans- 

1 Or Gott. 2 Or Pere. 3 The drawing of the lake Ficinus. 

4 Alterum, i. the Pere at Ostia. But because there is no mention made in 
Julius Caesars life of this Pere or haven, some read for Alterum in this place 
Ctzterttnt : and then the word Alterum before, is meant of the second worke 
of these three, denied unto the Marsians, etc. Cceterum > i. but intended 
oftentimes in the designement of Julius, etc. 5 Or heads. 6 Novi 
Anionis : some read novi opere^ i. within new stonework. 7 Or Cisternes. 

2 : K 73 



TIBERIUS 

CLAUDIUS 

DRUSUS 

CAESAR 



A.U.C. 8OO. 



THE HISTORIE OF 

ported out of ^Egypt : and when hee had supported it with 
buttresses of many stones, hee planted aloft upon the same 
an exceeding high watch-towre to the patterne of that 
Pharus at Alexandria, to the end that by the fires burning 
there, in the night season, vessels at sea might direct their 
course. 

21 

Hee dealt often among the people great doles and Con- 
giaries. Many shewes and games likewise hee exhibited, and 
those magnificent: not such onely as were usuall and in 
accustomed places : but those that were both newly devised 
and also brought into use againe, whereas they had of 
auntient time beene discontinued : yea and where no man 
else before him had ever set forth anie. The games for the 
dedication of Pompeius Theatre, which being halfe burnt 
hee had reedified 1 , he gave a signall to begin from out of his 
Tribunall 2 erected in the Orchestra : seeing that before 
time, when hee had sacrificed and done his devotions in the 
houses above and came downe from thence through the mids 
of the Theatre and assembly, not one would once arise and 
give applause, but sat still and kept silence. He set out 
also the Secular games and playes 3 , as if they had beene 
exhibited by Augustus over soone, and not reserved unto 
their full and due time : and yet himselfe in his owne 
histories writeth : That whereas the sayd solemnities had 
beene intermitted, Augustus long after by a most exact 
calculation of the yeeres reduced them into order againe. 
By occasion whereof, the voice of the cryer was then ridi- 
culous and laughed at, when after the solemne manner he 
called the people, to behold those games and playes, which 
no man had once scene alreadie, or should ever see againe : 
whereas there survived yet many who had seene them 
before : yea and some of the actours, who in times past had 
beene produced, were then likewise brought forth upon the 
stage. Oftentimes also he represented the Circensian games 

1 For, the stage therof was consumed with fire. * Or seate of state. 
3 Which were solemnized once in the revolution of one hundred yeeres or one 
hundred and tenne as some write. 

74 



TWELVE C^SARS 

in the vaticane, and otherwhiles after every 5 courses l hee 
brought in the baiting of wild beastes. But in the greatest 
Cirque of all which was beautified with barr-gates of marble 
stone and goales all guilded (whereas before time they had 
beene made of soft sandstone and wood), hee appointed 
proper and peculiar places for the Senatours, who had wont 
before time to behold the same sports here and there. 
Beside the races for the prise of Chariots drawen with foure 
steeds : he represented also the warlike Troie pastime, and 
the baiting of Leopards : which the troup of the Pretorian 
horse-men slew, having for their leaders the Tribunes and 
the Captaine himselfe. Moreover, hee brought into the 
shewplace Thessalian men of armes, whose manner is to 
chase about the cirque wild buls, until they be tyred : then 
to mount them, and by the homes to force them downe to 
the ground. As for shewes of sword-fensers, hee exhibited 
them in many places, and after divers and sundrie sorts. 
One, that was kept every yeare within the Praetorian camp, 
without any baiting and sumptuous provision of furniture. 
As for that, which was ordinarily set out and formally with 
baiting and other preparations in Mars field at the Septa : 
in the same place likewise, another extraordinary one and 
of short continuance, which he began to call Sportula, 
because he proclaimed at first when he exhibited it, That he 
invited the people thereto, as it were to a sodaine supper 
and short pittance, such as men use to bid themselves unto. 
And in no kind of sport or gaming represented unto them, 
was he more civile, familiar and better disposed to passe the 
time away : in so much as putting forth his left hand, he 
togither with the common sort, would both by word of 
mouth tell, and with his fingers also number the peeces of 
gold as he tendred them unto the winners; and many a 
time by way of exhortation and entreaty provoke the people 
to mirth ; ever and anon calling them Sirs 2 : yea, and 
betweene whiles intermingling bald, and far fetcht jests. 
As for example, when the people called for one Palumbus 3 a 
to play his prises, hee promised to let them have him, if he 
2 Or, my maisters, Dominos. 3 The name 



TIBERIUS 

CLAUDIUS 

DRUSUS 

OffiSAR 



1 Of Chariot running, 
of a fenser. 



75 



TIBERIUS 

CLAUDIUS 

DRUSUS 

CAESAR 



THE HISTORIE OF 

were once caught. This also was but a simple plaine jest 
although to good purpose and in season delivered : when he 
had by a speciall indulgence, granted unto a Champion who 
fought out of a British chariot, (for whome his foure 
children made earnest suite and entreaty) that he should 
bee freed from that profession of sword-fight ; and that with 
the great favour and liking of all men, he sent presently an 
admonition in writing: wherein he advertised the people, 
how much they should endeavour to get children, seeing, as 
they did, in what good steed they served, and how they 
procured grace even unto a sword-fenser. He represented 
also in Mars field a warlike shew of the winning and sacking 
of a towne : likewise the yeelding of the Princes of Britaine; 
where he sat himselfe as president in his rich Coat-armour. 
When he was about to let out the water of the mere 1 
Ficinus, he exhibited in it a navall fight before: and as 
they who were to fight this battaile, cryed out unto him, 
'Ave Imperator, etc., i. All haile O Emperour; they salute 
thee and wish thy life who are ready to dye ' : and he againe 
made answere, 'Avete* vos." 1 After which word given, as if 
he had pardoned them this skirmish, there was not one of 
them would fight : he, sitting a good while in doubt and 
suspense with himselfe, whether he should destroy them al 
with fire and sword, at length leapt forth of his throne, 
and running to and fro about the circuit of the sayd lake 
(not without foule faltering of his legs under him) partly 
with threats, and in part by way of exhortation, constrained 
them to skirmish. At this brave shew, the Sicilian and 
Rhodian fleetes encountred: eyther of them consisting of 
twelve 3 gallies ruled with three rankes of oares a peece. 
To give the signall of battaile, there was a Triton of 
Sylver 4 arising out of the mids of the lake by a fabricke 
artificially devised, to sound the trumpet and set them 
togither. 

1 Or Lake. 2 This Verbe (Avete) signifieth here, farewell or adieu. But 
the Souldiours construed it in the better sense for theyr owne turns, (as they 
had used it before in saluting him) All haile ye also. 3 Duodenarum. Some 
read undevicenats, i. 19, and out of Dio, quinquagenarum^ i. 50. 4 Re- 
sembling Neptunes Trumpetter. 

76 



TWELVE CAESARS 

TIBERIUS 
CLAUDIUS 

Certaine pointes about religious ceremonies, touching the DRUSUS 
state likewise of civill and militarie affaires, as also concern- 
ing all degrees of persons both at home and abroad, he 
eyther reformed, or after long disuse forgotten, brought into 
practise againe, or els instituted and ordained new. In the 
election and admission of Priests throughout their severall 
Colledges, hee nominated not one but he tooke his oath 
first. He observed also precisely that so often as there was 
an Earthquake in the Citie, the Pretour for the time beeing 
should call a publike assembly of the people and proclaime 
certain holydaies : semblably, that upon the prodigious 
sight of an unlucky foule l in the Capitol, there should be 
held a solemne procession and supplication : wherein him- 
selfe personally in the right of High priest, after warning 
given unto the people from the Rostra, did read and pro- 
nounce a forme of prayers and they say after him. But 
from this congregation hee sequestred and removed the 
base multitude of mechanicall labourers and slaves. 



The handling of causes and judiciall pleading in Courts, 
devided before time into certaine moneths for winter and 
summer, he conjoyned altogether. The jurisdiction as 
touching feofments upon trust which was wont yeere by 
yeere, and onely within the Citie to bee committed unto 
the magistrates, hee ordained to hold by patent for ever : 
and betooke the charge thereof unto the rulers and gover- 
nours also of state in every province. That branch 
annexed to the lawe Papia Poppaea 2 % which emplyeth thus 
much, That men threescore yeeres of age are disabled for 
generation, he altered 3 by an edict 4 . He ordeined that 
unto Pupils 5 , the Consuls should extraordinarily appoint 

1 Whether it were an Owle, or the birde named Incendiaria, see Plin. 
lib. 10, cap. 13, and 12. 2 That a Woman under 50 yeares of age, should 
not bee wedded to a man that was threescore. 3 Edicto abrogavit. 
4 Granting that men threescore yeeres olde might mary women under fiftie. 
6 Wards under age. 

77 



THE HISTORIE OF 

TIBERIUS Tutors and Guardians. That they also who by the head- 
C DRUSUS> S Magistrates were forbidden to make abode within any 
CJESAR P rov i nces 5 should bee debarred likewise from the Citie of 
Rome and Italic. Himselfe confined some after a strange 
fashion and without any precedent, inhibiting them to 
depart above three miles from the City. When he was to 
treat of any great affaire in the Curia, his manner was to 
sit in the Tribunes pue just in the midst betweene the 
Consuls chaires. As for pasports l which the Consuls were 
wont to be sued unto for, he would have the Citizens to bee 
beholden unto himselfe onely therefore, and to crave the 
same at his hands. 



The badges and ornaments belonging unto the Consuls 
he granted unto the Ducenarie Procuratours and Seneschals 
of Provinces 2 . From as manie as refused the honorable 
dignitie of Senatours, he tooke away also the worship of 
the gentlemens degree. The right to weare the Laticlave 3 , 
(although hee promised at first not to chuse anie one 
Senatour who could not reckon 4 lineall descents from a 
citizen of Rome,) he allowed also to a libertines sonne : but 
with this condition, if he were adopted before by a Gentle- 
man of Rome. And fearing for all that, least he should be 
blamed, he proved and shewed, that even Appius Caecus the 
cheife auncitour and Auctor of his owne race, being censor 
elected and admitted into the Senate the sonnes of Liber- 
tines : ignorant as hee was, that in the dayes of the sayde 
Appius, and in the times long after ensuing, those were 
called Libertines, not onely who themselves were manumised 
and enfranchised, but such also, as were free borne of their 
progeny. The Colledge of Questours, insteede of paving the 
streets and high-wayes he enjoyned to exhibite a game or 
shew of sword-fensers : and in the lieu of the Provinces, 
Ostia and Gaule 4 which he tooke from them hee restored 

1 Licences to be absent a time from Rome. 2 Who received 200000 
sesterces for salarie or might despend so much by the place. 3 *". The 
Senatours robe studded with purple. 4 Cisalpina, which therupon was 
called Provincia Quaestoria, 

78 



TWELVE C^SARS 

the charge of the publike Treasure in the temple of Saturne ; TIBERIUS 

which office in the meane space betweene \ the Pretours for 

the time being, or those verely who had been Pretours 

before had borne. Unto Silanus espoused and betrothed 

unto his daughter, before he was undergrowen and 14 yeeres 

of age hee granted triumphall ornaments : but of elder 

persons to so many, as there is an Epistle extant written 

in the common name of the Legions wherein they make 

petition, That unto the Consuls Lieuetenants there might be 

granted together with the conduct of the armie, the sayde 

triumphall honours : to the end that they should not picke 

quarrels and seeke occasions of warre, they cared not how 

nor what way. Moreover to A. Plantius he gave by a 

decree the pety triumph Ovatio : and as he entred so into 

the Citie himselfe met him upon the waie : and both when 

he went into the Capitoll and returned also from thence 

againe, gave him the better hand 2 . Unto Gabinius Secundus, 

who had vanquished the Cauci a nation in Germanic, he 

permitted and gave leave to assume the surname Caucius in 

his style. 

25 

The horsemens service and their places he ordered so by 
degrees, as that after the charge of a cohort, he granted the 
leading of a wing : and after the commaund thereof, the 
Tribuneship or regiment of a Legion : he ordained their 
stipends also : and a kind of imaginary warrefare called 
Supra-Niimerum (which they that were absent might 
execute) and in name or title onely. By vertue of a 
decree that passed even from the Nobles them selves, 
he prohibited all souldiours professed, to enter into 
any Senatours houses for to do their dutie and salute 
them. Those Libertines who bare them selves for 
Romane gentlemen he caused to forfeit their goods and 
bodies to the state. Such of them as were unthankeful and 
of whom their patrons complained, he deprived of freedome 
and made them bound againe : yea and denied unto their 

1 From Augustus dayes. 2 Latus tcxit, i. Icevus ei incedebat, he gave 
him the right hand, and went on his left side. Vide Eutropium. 

79 



TIBERIUS 

CLAUDIUS 

DRUSUS 

OESAR 



THE HISTORIE OF 

advocates, for to heare any plea and to sit in judgment 
against their owne freed men. When some Masters there 
were, that put forth their sick and diseased slaves into the 
Isle of ^Esculapius 1 , for to avoid the tedious trouble of their 
cures at home, he made an act and ordained, That all such 
slaves should be free and not returne againe into the hands 
of their Masters, in case they ever recovered : and if anie 
Master chose to kill them outright, rather then thus to put 
them forth, they should be guilty of murder. He gave warn- 
ing by an edict, that no waifaring men should travaile 
through anie towne in Italic, but either on foot or borne 
in a chaire, or els carried in a licter a . In Puteoli and in Ostia 
he placed severall cohorts, to put by all mischances of skare- 
fires. He forbad all persons by condition aliens and forrainers, 
to take upon them Romane names ; those I meane onely that 
distinguished houses and families. As manie of them as 
usurped the freedome of Rome-Citie he beheaded in the 
Esquiline fielde 2 . The two provinces Achaia and Mace- 
donia, which Tiberius (the Emperour) had appropriated to 
him selfe 3 , hee yeelded up againe into the hands and dispose 
of the Senate. The Lycians hee deprived of their freedome, 
by occasion of the mortall discord and variance among them. 
To the Rhodians, who repented for their olde trespasses hee 
restored their libertie which they had lost. Hee forgave all 
tributes to the Ilienses for ever, as to the first founders and 
stocke-fathers of the Romane Nation : and to that purpose 
hee red an olde letter in Greeke written unto K. Seleucus by 
the Senate and people of Rome : wherein they promised to 
entertaine amitie and league with him upon this condition, 
that hee would graunt unto the Ilienses, their naturall kins- 
folke, immunitie from all taxes and tributes. The Jewes 4 b 
who by the instigation of one Chrestus were evermore 
tumultuous, he banished Rome. The Embassadours of the 
Germanes hee permitted to sit in the Orchestra c (with the 
Senatours) beeing mooved so to doe at their simplicitie and 

1 Otherwise called Tiberina. 2 Without the gate Esquilina. 3 And 
his successours. 4 This some thinke is to bee understood of Christians 
whom we find in the Ecclesiastical writers to bee misnamed by the Ethnicke 
Infidels, Chrestiani) like as Christ himselfe Chrestos, in skorne. 

80 



TWELVE CAESARS 

confident boldenesse, for that beeing brought into the Popu- 
laria A and perceiving Parthians and Armenians sitting among 
the Senatours, they of their owne accord had remooved and 
passed to that quarter : giving out these words withall, that 
their valour and condition of estate was nothing inferiour to 
the others. The religion of the Druidae among the French- 
men, practising horrible and detestable cruelty and which 
under* Augustus, Romane Citizens onely were forbidden to 
professe and use, he quite put downe and abolished. Con- 
trariwise, the sacred rites and holy Caeremonies (of Ceres) 
called Eleusinia, hee attempted to transferre out of the 
Territorie Attica to Rome. The Temple likewise of Venus 
Erycine e in Sicilie, which in continuance of time was decayed 
and fallen downe, hee caused to bee repayred and built againe 
at the common charges of the people of Rome : hee made 
Covenants and league with forraine Kings, by the comple- 
ments of killing a sowe x in the Forum, and using withall 
the sentence or preface that the Heraulds 2 in old time 
pronounced : but both these affaires and others besides, the 
whole Empire also in a manner or a great part thereof he 
managed not so much after his owne minde, as by the direc- 
tion and wil of his Wives and freed-men : beeing verely affected 
and framed for the most part so, as stood eyther with their 
profit or good pleasure. 

26 

When he was a very youth, he had espoused two maidens, 
namely ^Emilia Lepida neice to Augustus once remooved, 
likewise Li via Medullina, surnamed also Camilla, a Ladie 
descended from the auntient house of Camillus the Dictatour. 
The former of these twaine, because her parents had offended 
Augustus he cast off remaining as yet a Virgin: the latter, hee 
lost by occasion of sicknesse, upon that very day which was 
appointed for the mariage. After this, he wedded these 
wives, to wit, Plautia Herculanilla 3 , whose father had 
triumphed ; and not long after, ^Elia Paetina, whose father 
had beene Consul. Both these he divorsed : Paetina upon 
light offenses and small displeasures : mary, Herculanilla he 



TIBERIUS 

CLAUDIUS 

DRUSUS 

CJESAR 



1 Porca. 



Or Fecials. See Livie, lib. I. 3 



Or Urgulanilla. 

81 



TIBERIUS 

CLAUDIUS 

DRUSUS 

CAESAR 

A.U.C. 801. 



THE HISTORIE OF 

put away for her filthy lust and whorish life ; as also for 
suspicion of a murder. After these he tooke to wife Valeria 
Messallina, the daughter of Barbatus Messalla his cousin 
german : whom when hee found once, over and beside the rest 
of her abominable vices and dishonesties, to have been 
wedded to C. Silius x , and that with a dourie assured unto 
her and signed among the Auspices 2 , he put to death. And 
in a speech that he made openly before his Pretorian Soul- 
diours, avowed that because his manages proved so bad, he 
resolved to remaine unmarried and live a single life : and if 
he did not continue so for ever, hee would not refuse to be 
stabbed by their very hands. Neither could he endure, but 
forthwith treat upon conditions of mariage even with Paetina, 
whom long before hee had put away : yea and with Lollia 
Paulina wife some time to C. Caesar. But through the entic- 
ing allurements of Agrippina 3 , the daughter of Germanicus 
his owne brother, what by the meanes of kissing courtesies, 
what by the opportunities of other daliances, being drawen 
into love and fancie with her, at the next Session of Senate 
he subborned certaine of purpose to opine and give advice, to 
compell him for to make her his Wife, as being a matter of 
right great consequence, and which most of all concerned the 
State : that other men also might be dispensed with and 
licenced to contract the like manages 4 which until that time 
were reputed incestuous. And so, himselfe staied hardly one 
day between, before hee dispatched the wedding : but none 
were found that followed the precedent, except one libertine 
and another who had been a principal Centurion in the formost 
Cohort, at whose mariage eve himself in person together 
with Agrippina was present to do him credite and honor. 

27 

Children he begat of 3 wives. By Herculanilla he had 
Drusus and Claudia : by Paetina he was father of Antonia : 
and Messallina bare unto him Octavia and a son, whom first 
he named Germanicus and afterwards Britannicus. As for 

1 Whiles she was Empresse and wife to Claudius. 2 The handfasters or 
makers of the mariage. 3 His owne neipce. 4 With their brothers or 
sisters daughters. 

82 



DRUSUS 
CAESAR 



A.U.C. 773. 



TWELVE C^SARS 

Drusus, he lost him at Pompeii l before he was 14 yeares of TIBERIUS 
age by occasion that he was choaked with a peare which in CLAUDIUS 
play and pastime beeing tossed aloft into the aire, fell j ust 
into his mouth as he gaped wide for it : unto whom also but 
few daies before, hee had affianced in mariage the daughter of 
Sejanus : which maketh mee more to mervaile that some 
have written, hee was treacherously killed by Sejanus. His 
(supposed) daughter Claudia, who in deede was conceived by 
his freed man Boter, although shee was borne before the fifth 
moneth after the diverse, and began to be nourced and reared, 
yet hee commaunded to be laid at her mothers dore and 
starke naked to be cast forth. Antonia his daughter, he 
gave in mariage to Cn. Pompeius Magnus : afterwards to 
Faustus Sulla ij. right noble yong gentlemen : and Octavia 
he bestowed upon Nero 2 his wives sonne, notwithstanding 
she had been promised, and betrothed before unto Silanus. 
His sonne Britannicus, whom Messallina bare unto him the A.U.C. 806. 
twentieth day after he came to the Empire and in his second 
Consulship, being yet a very babe he recommended continu- 
ally both to the souldiours in open assembly, dandling him 
in his owne hands, and also to the common people at the 
solemnities of games and plaies, holding him either in his 
bosome or just before him, whiles the multitude with great 
acclamations, all good words and fortunate osses seconded 
him. Of his sonnes in Law who matched with his daughters, 
he adopted Nero: Pompeius and Silanus he not onely cast A.U.C. 803. 
off and rejected but murdred also. 

28 

Of all his freed men hee esteemed especially Posides the 
Eunuch 3 , unto whom also in his triumph over Britaine, 
among martiall men and valiant Souldiours, he gave a speare 
without an yron head 4 : and no lesse account made he of 
Faelix 5 : whom first he ordained Capitaine over the Cohorts 
and Cornets of Horsemen, yea and ruler of the Province 
Jurie ; the husband of three Queenes a . As also of Harpocras, 

1 Pompeiis impuberem amisit. 2 Emperour after him. 3 Or gelded 
man. 4 Hasta pura donavit : for his great valour forsooth. 5 Of this 
Faelix mention is made in the Acts of the Apostles. 

83 



DRUSUS 
CAESAR 



THE HISTORIE OF 

TIBERIUS unto whom hee graunted a priviledge to be caried in a Litter 
CLAUDIUS through the Citie of Rome, and to set out Games and Plaies 
in publick b : and besides these, hee affected with much respect 
Polybius, the guide and directour to him in his Studies, who 
oftentimes would walke cheeke by jole betweene the two 
Consuls. But above all these, he held in greatest esteeme 
Narcissus his Secretarie or enditer of Epistles, and Pallas 
the Keeper of his bookes of accounts : whom by vertue of a 
Decree also which went from the Senate, he suffred willingly 
to be not onely rewarded with rich Fees, but also to be 
adorned with the Honours of Questure and Pretureship : 
likewise to get, to pill and poll by hooke and crooke so 
much, as that when himselfe complained upon a time how 
little treasure hee had in his Coffers, one made answere unto 
him not absurdly, That hee might have store enough and 
plenty, in case his two freed men 1 would admit him to share 
with them. 

29 

To these (freed men) and to his wives as I said before, 
being wholly addicted and enthralled, hee bare himselfe not 
as an absolute Prince, but as their Minister and Servitour*. 
According as it was behoovefull and commodious to any of 
these, or stoode with their affection and pleasure, hee graunted 
honourable dignities, conferred the conducts of Armies, and 
awarded impunities and punishments : yea, and for the most 
part, I assure you when himselfe was altogether ignorant 
and wist not what hee did. And not to reckon up par- 
ticularly, every small thing, to wit, his liberalities and gifts 
revoked, his judgements reversed, his Patents and Writings 
concerning the graunts of Offices either foisted in or plainly 
altered or chaunged by them : hee slew his brother Appius 
Silanus 2 : the ij. Juliae, the one daughter of Drusus 3 , and 
the other of Germanicus 4 , upon bare imputation of a crime, 
without any ground : not allowing them so much as lawfull 
triall and libertie to plead in their owne defence : likewise 

1 Narcissus and Pallas. 2 Consocerum : so called for that their children 
maried together : and such with us, name one another brethren. 3 The 
sonne of Tiberius. 4 Who is called also Livilla. 

84 



TWELVE CAESARS 

Cn. Pompeius, husband to his elder daughter, and Lucius TIBERIUS 
Silanus espoused to the other (and all through their sug- CLAUDIUS 
gestions and informations). Of which, Pompeius was stabbed QZESAK 
even as he lay in bed with a beloved youth and Catamite of 
his : Silanus was forced to resigne up his Pretureship foure 
daies before the Kalends of Januarie, and to loose his life l 
in the beginning of the yeere on the very wedding day of 
Claudius and Agrippina. To the execution of 35 Senatours, 
and above an hundred Romaine Gentlemen so easily was 
hee induced, as that, when the Centurion brought word 
backe, as touching the death of one who had beene Consull, 
saying, That the deede was done which he had commaunded, 
he flatly denied that he gave any such warrant. Never- 
thelesse the thing he allowed : whiles his freed men afore- 
said standing by, avouched, That the Souldiours had done 
their devoir, in that they ran willingly of their owne heads 
to revenge their Emperour. For, it would be thought 
incredible if I should relate, how even for the very mariage 
of Messallina with the Adulterer Silius : his own self sealed 
the Writings for assurance of the Dowrie, being perswaded 
and brought thereunto, as though the said wedding was but 
colourably, of purpose pretended to avert forsooth and 
translate the danger, that by certaine prodigies were por- 
tended to hang over his owne head. 

30 

Right personable hee was, and caried a presence not 
without au thorite and majestic, whether he stood e or sate ; 
but especially when he was laid and tooke his repose. For, 
of stature hee was tall, and nathlesse his body not lanke and 
slender. His countenance lively, his gray haires beautifull, 
which became him well, with a good fat and round neck 
under them. Howbeit, both as he went his hams being 
feeble failed him : and also whiles he was doing ought, were 
it remissely or in earnest, many thinges disgraced him : to 
wit, undecent laughter and unseemely anger, by reason, that 
hee would froth and slaver at the mouth, and had ever- 
more his nose dropping : besides, his tongue stutted and 
1 Tacitus writeth, that hee killed himselfe upon that day. 

85 



TT 
CASAH 



THE HISTORIE OF 

TIBERIUS stammered : his head likewise at all times, but especially if 
he did any thing were it never so little used to shake and 
tremble very much. 

31 

Concerning his bodily health, as before time he used to be 
grievously sick, so being once Emperour exceeding healthfull 
he was and stoode cleere of all diseases save onely the paine 
of the stomack a , in a fit whereof hee saide, hee thought to 
have killed himselfe. 

32 

Hee made feasts, and those very great and ordinarily ; 
yea, and in most open and large places, such as for the most 
part would receive sixe hundred guests at one sitting. Hee 
feasted also even upon the Sluce of the Lake Fucinus : what 
time hee had like to have beene drowned, when as the water 
let out with a forcible violence reflowed backe againe. At 
everie supper his manner was to have also his owne children, 
who together with other noble mens children as well boyes 
as girles, should after the olde manner sit and feede at the 
tables feete 1 . One of his guests, who was thought to have 
closelie stollen away a cup of gold the day before, he re- 
invited against the morrow : and then he set before him a 
stone pot 2 to drinke in. It is reported moreover, that he 
meant to set forth an Edict, wherein he would give folke 
leave to breake winde downward and let it goe even with 
a crack at the very bourd a ; having certaine intelligence, 
that there was one who for manners and modestie sake, by 
holding it in, endaungered his owne life. 



For appetite to meate and drinke his stomacke served 
him passing well alwaies, and in every place. Sitting upon 
a time judicially in Augustus Hall of Justice, to heare and 
determine causes, and senting there the steime of a dinner, 
that was a dressing and serving up for the Priests Salii a 



86 



1 Or at a Settle at the tables end. 2 Or earthen pot. 



TWELVE C^SARS 

in the temple of Mars 1 next adjoyning, he forsooke the TIBERIUS 
Tribunall, went up to the said Priests, and there sate downe CLAUDIUS 

with them to meate. Lightly you should never have him >SE? R? 
f T & t . -,i i i n Li.- CASAK 

goe out of any dining roome, but with his belly strutting 

out, well whitled also and drenched with wine: so, as 
straightwaies, whiles hee layd him downe along upon his 
backe and tooke a sleepe gaping, there was a feather put 
ordinarily into his mouth wide open for to discharge his 
stomack. Hee tooke very short sleepes: for commonly 
before midnight hee awaked : yet so, as other whiles he 
would catch a nap in the day time, as he sat to minister 
j ustice : and scarcely could bee awakened by the Advocates 
at the barre, who of purpose raised their voices and pleaded 
the lowder. Hee was excessively given to the wanton love 
of women. As for the preposterous abuse of malekind, he 
was altogether unacquainted therewith. Hee plaied at dice 
most earnestly (concerning the Art and skill whereof, he 
published also a little booke) being wont to plie that game 
even whiles hee was caried up and downe, having his 
Carroch and Dice-bourd so fitted, as there might be no 
confusion nor shuffling at all in play. 

34 

That cruell he was and given to bloudshed naturally, 
appeared in great and very small matters. As for tortures 
used in examinations, and the punishments that Paricides 
suffred a , hee exhibited and exacted the same to be done 
without delay, and openly in his owne presence. Being 
desirous upon a time to behold an execution performed 
after the auncient manner at Tibur, when as (the malefac- 
tours standing bound already to a stake), there wanted 
the butcherly executioner to doe the feat, he staied there 
still in the place, and waited untill evening, for one that 
was sent for out of Rome. At all Swordfights, whether 
they were set forth by himselfe, or by others, he com- 
maunded as many of the Champions as chaunced onely but 
to stumble and fall therewith, to have their throats cut : 

1 Revenger, situate neere to the Hall : for distinction of another Temple 
bearing that name, in the Capitoll mount. 

87 



THE HISTORIE OF 

TIBERIUS especially the Fencers called Retiarii l : and why ! because 
CLAUDIUS forsooth hee would see their faces as they lay gasping and 
yeelding up their breath. It fortuned, that a couple of 
these fighting at sharpe wounded and killed one another: 
thereupon hee commaunded little knives to bee made of 
both their blades, for his owne proper use. Hee tooke such 
pleasure in those that fought with wild beasts 2 b , as also in 
the sword fights ordinarily about noone, that he would by 
breake of day go downe to the Theater for to behold the 
one : and at noone dismisse the people to their dinners, and 
sit it out himselfe to see the other : yea, and besides those 
that were appointed to such combats, upon any slight and 
suddaine occasion set some to fight for their lives, even out 
of the number of Carpentars, Servitours, and such like 
emploied about these games : if happily any of those arti- 
ficiall motions c that goe by vices, or a pageant in frame 3 , 
or some such fabrick proved not well. Hee fetcht in also 
one of his owne Nomenclatours 4 even in his gowne as he 
went to fight for his life 5 . 



But it passed, how timorous and diffident hee was. At 
his first comming to the Empire (how ever as we said 
before, he bragged and stoode upon his civill and familiar 
behaviour) he durst not for certaine daies goe to any feast, 
dinner or supper, without Pensionars standing about him 
with their speares and Javelins, and his Souldiours waiting 
at the table : neither visited hee any sicke person, unlesse 
the bed-chamber where the party lay, were first searched ; 
the beds, bolsters, pillowes, Coverlets and other cloathes 
were groped, felt, and throughly shaken before hand. All 
the time after, hee appointed evermore certaine searchers for 
them all, that came to salute him, sparing not one, and 
such searchers as were most cruell. For, long it was first, 
and that with much adoe, ere hee graunted that women, 
young boyes in their embroidred coates, and maidens, 

1 The adverse faction to the Mirmillones whom he favored. 2 Which 
combats were usually in the morning. 3 Or Pegme. 4 Prompters of 
names. 5 With wilde beasts or otherwise. 

88 



TWELVE CJESARS 

should not bee handled and felt in this manner : that any 
mans Attendants likewise or Clerks might not have their 
Pensheathes and Penknife-cases taken from them a . In a 
civile commotion, when Camillus, (making no doubt but 
that without any warre at all hee might be terrified) willed 
him in a contumelious, menacing, and malapert letter, to 
resigne up the Empire, and to leade a quiet life in private 
estate, hee called his Nobles and chiefe personages about 
him, to counsell, and put to question, whether it were best 
to hearken unto him or no. 

36 

At the headlesse report and flying newes of some treason 
that should bee practised against him, he was so affrighted, 
that hee went about to lay downe his Imperiall dignity. 
By occasion, that one (as I related before) was taken with a 
weapon upon him, about his person as hee sacrificed, in all 
hast he sent out the Bedels and called the Senate together : 
before whom, with teares and loude out-cries hee bewailed 
his owne piteous case, as who no where could make account 
of any safety : and thereupon for a long time forbare to 
come abroad. His affectionate love also to Messallina, 
most fervent though it were he renounced and cast cleane 
from her, not so much for any indignity of the dishonour- 
able wrongs she offred unto him, as upon very feare of 
daunger, as fully perswaded that shee practised to bring the 
Empire into Silius the Adulterers hands. At which time 
in a great fright he fled in shamefull manner to the camp, 
asking and enquiring all the way nothing else, but whether 
the Empire remained still safe to his behoofe. 

37 

There arose no suspition, there came forth no Author so 
light and vaine, but gave him a bone to gnaw upon, and 
put no small toyes in his head : wherby he was forced to 
beware and seeke revenge. One of those, that had a matter 
depending in Court before him, taking him a side, when 
hee came by way of salutation to doe his duty, avowed unto 

2:M 89 



TIBERIUS 

CLAUDIUS 

DRUSUS 

CAESAR 



THE HISTORIE OF 

TIBERIUS him, that he dreamed, How hee was killed by one. Then 
CLAUDIUS within a while after, the same party, (as if he had now 
ta -ken knowledge who that one was that should murder 
him) pointed unto his owne adversarie, even as hee tendered 
a supplication unto Claudius, and said, ' This is he.' Where- 
upon immediatly apprehended he was, and haled to execu- 
tion. After the semblable manner by report, came Appius 
Silanus to his death. For, when Messallina and Narcissus 
had conspired to worke his overthrow and finall destruction, 
they complotted thus, that Narcissus betimes in a morning 
before day light rushed like a man amazed and astonied 
into the bedchamber of his Patrone (Claudius) relating 
unto him his dreame, namely that Appius had laid violent 
hands upon him : and Messallina for her part, composing 
and framing her selfe as if shee wondered greatly thereat, 
reported, How shee likewise had scene already the same 
vision for certaine nights together. And not long after 
this, word came, (as it was before agreed betweene them) 
that Appius was comming to rush in among them : who 
in deed had beene bidden the day before to be present at 
the same instant. Whereupon, as if the said dreame had 
now proved true and beene plainly represented in effect, 
order was given for Appius, to be endited, arraigned, and to 
suffer death. Neither doubted Claudius the morrow after 
to report the whole storie and the order thereof unto the 
Senate: and withall to give thanks unto his freedman 1 , 
for being so vigilant and watchfull in his very sleepe for 
his sake. 

38 

Being privie to himselfe of passionate anger 2 a and bear- 
ing malice, he excused them both in an Edict, distinctly 

1 Narcissus. 2 Ira atque Iracundice. The manner is of this Author 
throughout his story to set those points downe first in a word, whereon he 
meaneth to stand, and then in order to particularize presently upon them. 
By which method of his, it appeareth in this place, that hee meaneth by Ira, 
the momentarie passion of anger, which we call heat and choler, soone up 
and as soone downe, quickly kindled and as quickly quencht : by fracundicz, 
the habite of inveterat wrath continuing still untill revenge be had : which we 
call malice and rancour. Howsoever our modern Lexicographers have in 
their Dictionaries put downe the contrary. 

90 



TWELVE C^SARS 

promising that the one of them verily should be but short TIBERIUS 
and harmlesse, the other not unjust nor causelesse. Having CLAUDIUS 
sharply rebuked the men of Ostia, because they had not sent 

iiii L i i i j.i_ 

boats and barges to meet him as he came upon the river 
Tiberis : and that in such odious termes as these, That he was 
now become base and abject in their eies : all on a suddaine, 
he pardoned them upon the submission and readinesse to make 
satisfaction. Some there were, whom in the very open street 
he thrust from him with his own hand, comming unto him 
somewhat out of season. Semblably he confined and banished 
the Court a Scribe who had been Questour : a Senatour like- 
wise that had born the Pretureship, both of them without 
their cause heard and altogether guiltlesse, for that the one l 
pleading in Court as an Advocate against him when he was 
a private person, had caried himselfe not so modestly as he 
should : and the Senatour in his JEdileship had amerced and 
fined certaine tenants of his dwelling upon his lands, for selling 
boiled meats contrary to the law expresly forbidding so to 
do : and withall whipped his Bailife comming betweene 2 (to 
intercede for them). For which cause also, he tooke from the 
JSdiles their authority to punish the disorder of those that 
kept Tavernes and victualing houses. But as touching his owne 
foolishnes, he concealed it not, but gave it out and protested 
in certaine short orations, That he counterfaited himselfe 
a foole for the nonce during Caius daies ; because otherwise 
he should not have escaped, nor attained to that (imperiall) 
place which hee aimed at and was now entred upon. How- 
beit, he could not make the world beleeve so much, untill 
there was a book put forth within a short time after, 
entituled pwpwv avdo-racris, i. The resurrection (or Exalta- 
tion) of Jooles. The argument and matter whereof was, 
That no man faigneth folly b . 



Among other thinges, men wondered at him for his 
oblivion and unadvisednesse, or (that I may expresse the 
same in Greeke) his ^erewpiav ical aftXetyiav, i. his grosse 
over-sight or forgetfulnes, and inconsiderate blindnes. When 

1 The Scribe. 2 To intercede for them. 

91 



TIBERIUS 

CLAUDIUS 

DRUSUS 

CAESAR 



THE HISTORIE OF 

Messallina was (by his owne commaundement) killed, with- 
in a while, after he was set in his dining parlour hee asked 



why his Lady 1 came not. Many of those whom he had 
condemned to death, the very morrow immediatly after, he 
commaunded to have warning both to sit in counsell with 
him, and also to beare him company at Dice-play : yea, and 
by a messenger chid and checked them as drowsie and sloth- 
full for staying so long and making no better hast. Being 
minded to take Agrippina to wife against all law of God 
and man, he ceased not in all his speech to call her, his 
daughter 2 and nourceling : to give out also, That she was 
borne and brought up in his bosome. Having a purpose to 
admit Nero into the very name of his owne house and family, 
as if he had not incurred blame enough already for adopting 
(him) his wives son, having a naturall sonne 3 of his owne who 
was now of ripe yeeres, he eft-soones divulged, That never 
any one had beene by adoption inserted or incorporate into 
the family of the Claudii. 

40 

He shewed oftentimes so great negligence and carelesnes 
what he said or did, that he was thought not to know nor 
consider, either who made any speech, or among whom, or 
at what time, and in what place ? When there was some 
question and debate about Butchers and Vintnars, he cried 
out in the Senate house, fc I beseech you 4 , my Maisters, who 
is able to live without a little piece or morsell of flesh ? ' and 
withall described the abundance 5 of the olde Tavernes a , 
from whence himselfe also in times past was wont to bee 
served with wine. As touching a certaine Questour, who was 
a Candidate of his and by him recommended : among other 
reasons why he favoured him, he alleadged this, Because 
his Father had quickly and in due time given him 
lying sick, cold water to drinke. Having in the Senate 
brought in a woman to depose, * This,' quoth he, ' was my 
mothers freed woman, and she that kept her ornaments, and 

1 Or Mistres of the house, Domina Grace, t<nroiva. 2 And in deede 
he was her Unkle. 3 Britannicus. 4 Rogo vos y or I demaund of you. 
8 Or excessive number. 

92 



TWELVE C^SARS 

used to deck and dresse her : but she alwaies tooke me for 
her Patrone. This have I,' quoth he, ' delivered of purpose 
because there be some yet in mine house, who think me not 
to be her Patron.' Moreover, sitting upon the Tribunal!, 
when he was in a great chafe, and the men of Ostia requested 
at his hands (I wot not what) in the name of their towne, he 
cried out aloud, That he knew nothing wherefore he should 
oblige them unto him : 'And if any man else, 1 quoth he, ' I 
also am free and at mine owne liberty. 1 As for these words 
of his which now I will relate, they were rife in his mouth 
daily, yea every houre and minute therof: 'What doest 
thou take me for Theogonius and \oy teardrop ?"* beside many 
such foolish termes, not beseeming private persons, much 
lesse a Prince, otherwise not uneloquent nor unlearned : nay, 
rather one eagerly given to his booke, and a great Student 
in the liberall Sciences. 



TIBERIUS 

CLAUDIUS 

DRUSUS 

CAESAR 



41 

In his youth, he attempted to write an Historic, exhorted 
thereto by Titus Livius; and having the help besides of 
Sulpitius Flavus. And when he put the same first to the 
triall and judgement of men in a frequent auditorie, hardlie 
and with much a-do he read it through, being often in the 
while coldly heard, by an occasion that himselfe gave. For, 
when, (as hee began his reading) there was set up a laughter, 
by reason that many of the seates brake with the weight of 
a certeine corpulent and fat swad, he was not able to hold, 
no not after the tumult appeased, but eftsoones ever and 
anon call to minde that accident and fall afresh to unmeasur- 
able laughing. During his Empire likewise, hee both wrote 
much and also rehearsed the same continually by his reader. 
The beginning of his foresayd historic he tooke from the 
time presently ensuing the murder of Caesar Dictator : but 
hee passed over to the latter dayes : and began againe at the 
civill pacification : perceiving that it was not left in his 
power and libertie to write of the occurrents in those former 
times, as who was often checked both by his mother l and 

1 Antonia the Triumvirs daughter. 



TIBERIUS 

CLAUDIUS 

DRUSUS 

CAESAR 



THE HISTORIE OF 

also by his grandame 1 . Of the former argument he left 
behinde him two volumes, of the later, fortie-one. Hee com- 
piled of his owne life eight bookes : a report not so wisely 
and discreetly put downe, as otherwise elegantly penned : 
Item, an Apologie or defense of Cicero against the bookes of 
Asinius Gallus : a peece of worke full enough of learning. 
He devised moreover three new characters or letters in the 
(Latine) Alphabet a , and put them to the number of the olde 
as most necessarie. And having published whiles he was 
yet a private person, concerning the reason of those letters, 
one booke : soone after beeing Emperor he easily effected 
that they should be brought into use also indifferently with 
the rest. And verely such manner of writing with those 
characters is now extant to be scene in many bookes of 
records in Journels, and titles or inscriptions of works. 



With no lesse diligence studied hee the Greeke disciplines, 
professing as any occasion was offered, his affectionate love 
to that tongue, and the excellency thereof. When a cer- 
taine Barbarian discoursed in Greeke and Latine, ' See you be 
skilfull,"* quoth he, 'in both our languages 1 ; and in recommend- 
ing Achaia unto the LL. of the Senate, he sayde it was a pro- 
vince that he affected well and delighted in, for the commerce 
and society of studies common to him and them : and many 
a time he answered their embassadors in the Senate, with 
a long and continued oration (in Greeke). But upon the 
Tribunall he used very much verses also out of Homer. 
Certes whensoever he had taken revenge of enemie or traytor, 
he lightly gave unto the Tribune over the Sentinels and 
guard of his person, calling unto him after the usual manner 
for a watchword, none other but this : 



*Ai>8p' eVa/ui/a<r0e 

Resist, revenge with maine and might, 

When one provokes thee first to fight. 

To conclude, in the end he wrote Greeke histories also, to 
wit twentie books entituled Tyrrhenicoon 2 , and 8 entituled 



1 Octavia the wife of Antonie or Livia Augusta her selfe. 
affaires. 

94 



2 Of Tuskane 



DRUSUS 
C.3ESAR 



TWELVE C^SARS 

Carchedoniacoon 1 . In regard of which histories, unto the TIBERIUS 
auntient schoole at Alexandria he adioyned another bearing CLAUDIUS 

> J .O TkDTTCTTC 

his owne name 2 : and ordained it was, that every yeare in 
the on of them his books Tyrrhenicoon ; and in the other his 
Carchedoniacoon upon certaine daies appointed therefore 
should (as it were in a frequent Auditorie) be read whole 
through by severall single readers in their turnes. 

43 

Toward the end of his life, hee shewed certaine signes 
and those evident enough, that he repented both his mariage 
with Agrippina, and the adoption also of Nero. For by 
occasion that his freed-men made mention and gave their 
commendation of a judiciall proceeding of his, wherein he 
had condemned the day before, a Woman in the case of 
adulterie, hee avouched that the destinies likewise had so or- 
dained, that all his manages 8 should bee unchaste howbeit not 
unpunished : and soone after, meeting his sonne Britannicus 
and embracing him harder and more closely than his manner 
was, 'Growe apace, 1 quoth hee, 'and take account of me for all 
that I have done/ Using withall these Greeke words, o epco? 
& eirei^era^ i. love enforced me 4 . And when he had fully 
purposed to give him being as then very young and of 
tender yeeres his Virile Robe, seeing that his stature and 
growth would beare and permit it a , he uttered these words 
moreover, ' To the end that the people of Rome may yet at 
last have a true and naturall Caesar.' 

44 

And not long after this he wrote his wil and signed it 
with the scales of al the head-magistrates : whereupon before 
that he could proceed anie further, prevented hee was and 
cut short by Agrippina. Whom they also who were privie 
to her and of her councell 5 , yet neverthelesse enformers, 

1 Of Carthaginian matters. 2 Called Claudium. 3 Matrimonia, or 
Wives like as Coniugia proconiugibus. 4 Or rather, 6 rpwo-as *ai tdo-erat, 
*". He that wounded will also heale. I that have done thee wrong wil 
make amends. 5 Conscii : some read Conscientia quoque, even his owne 
conscience. 

95 



THE HISTORIE OF 

TIBERIUS accused besides all this of many crimes. And verely it is 
CLAUDIUS agreed upon generally by all, that killed he was by poyson : 
^ZESAR kut where it should be, and who gave it, there is some 
difference a . Some write, that as he sat at a feast in the 
(Capitoll) Castle with the priests, it was presented unto him 
by Halotus the Eunuch his taster: others report that it 
was at a meale in his owne house by Agrippina herselfe, 
who had offered unto him a mushrome empoisoned ; know- 
ing that he was most greedy of such meats. Of those accidents 
also which ensued hereupon, the report is variable. Some 
say, that streight upon the receipt of the poyson he became 
speechlesse, and continuing all night in dolorous torments, 
dyed a little before day. Others affirme, that at first he fell 
a sleepe: and afterwards, as the meate flowed and floted 
aloft vomited all up, and so was followed againe with a 
ranke poyson 1 . But whether the same were put into a 
messe of thicke gruell, (considering hee was of necessitie to 
be refreshed with food beeing emptied in his stomacke) or 
conveied up by a clister, as if being overcharged with ful- 
nesse and surfeit, he might be eased also by this kind of 
egestion and purgation, it is uncertaine. 

45 

His death was kept secret until all things were set in order 
about his successour. And therefore, both vowes were made 
for him as if hee had lyen sicke stil, and also comicall Actours 
were brought in place colourably to solace and delight him, 
as having a longing desire after such sports. He deceased 
A.U.C. 807. three dayes before the Ides of October, when Asinius Mar- 
cellus and Acilius Aviola were Consuls : in the 64th yeere 
of his age, and 14th of his Empire. His funerals were 
performed with a solemne pompe and procession of the 
Magistrates : and canonized he was a Saint in heaven : 
which honor forlet and abolished by Nero hee recovered 
afterwards by the meanes of Vespasian. 

46 
Especial tokens there were presaging and prognosticating 

1 Toxico. 2 The I3th of October. 

96 



DRUSUS 
O3ESAR 



TWELVE CAESARS 

his death : to wit the rising of an hairy 1 starre which they TIBERIUS 
call a Comet : also the monument 2 of his father Drusus was CLAUJ 
blasted with lightning : and for that in the same yeere most 
of the Magistrates of all sorts were dead a . But himselfe 
seemeth not either to have beene ignorant that his end drew 
neere, or to have dissimuled so much: which may bee gathered 
by some good arguments and demonstrations. For both in 
the ordination of Consuls hee appointed none of them to 
continue longer then the moneth wherein he dyed : and also 
in the Senate, the very last time that ever he sat there, after 
a long and earnest exhortation of his children to concord, 
he humbly recommended the age of them both to the LL. 
of that honourable house : and in his last Judiciall Session 
upon the Tribunal once or twice he pronounced openly, That 
come he was now to the end of his mortalitie : notwith- 
standing they that heard him, greived to heare such an Osse, 
and praied the gods to avert the same. 



Or blazing. 



2 ,Ortombe. 



97 



THE HISTORIE OF 



THE HISTORIE OF 
NERO CLAUDIUS C^SAR 




A.U.C. 586. Ir/s^a^-^^/^i i| UT of the Domitian stocke and name, 

there sprung two famous families, to wit, 
the Calumi and the JEnobarbi. These 
^Enobarbi have for the first Author of 
their originall, and surname likewise, L. 
Domitius : whome, as he returned in 
times past homeward out of the countrey, 
two yong men twinnes 1 , carying with 
them a venerable presence and countenance more then 
ordinary, encountred, by report, and commanded to relate 
unto the Senate and People of Rome, newes, of that victorie 
whereof as yet they stood in doubt : and for the better 
assurance of their divine majestic stroke his cheekes so, as 
that therewith they made the hayre 2 of blacke, redd 3 , and 
like in colour to brasse 4 . Which marke and badges con- 
tinued also in his posterity ; and most of them have such 
A.U.C. 593, red 5 beardes. Moreover, having borne seven Consulships, 
632, 658, 660, triumphed likewise and beene Censors twice, and therwith 
700, 722, 785, t^ c h osen j n t o the ranke of the Patritii, they remained al 
3 2 > 39) 3- j n j. ne same surname. Neither were they knowen by any 
other forenames than Cneus and Lucius : and the same in 
variety worth the noting and observation : one while con- 
tinuing either of the sayd names in three persons together : 
otherwhiles changing alternatively one after another in every 
descent. For, we have heard say, that the first, second and 

1 Castor and Pollux resembling two yong men. 2 Capillum, i. Pilum. 
Gellius. 3 Or ruddy. 4 Or Copper. 5 Or ruddy. 

98 



TWELVE CAESARS 

third of these ^Enobarbi were forenamed Lucii : and againe, NERO 
the three next following them in order were Cnei. All the CLAUDIUS 
rest no otherwise then by turnes one after another had their 
forenames, first Lucii and then Cnei. That many persons 
of this house descended should be knowen, I suppose it very 
pertinent and materiall : whereby it may the better appeare, 
that Nero degenerated from the Vertues of his Auncestors 
so, as yet he caried away and resembled the vices of them 
all, as infused into him and inbred by nature. 



To fetch the beginning therefore of this our discourse 
somewhat farther of, his great Grandfathers Grandfather l 
Cn. Domitius, beeing in his Tribunate much offended at the 
Pontifies 2 , for electing any other but himselfe into his 
fathers place, transferred the right and power of subrogat- 
ing priests in the roome of those that were deceassed, from 
their Colledges to the bodie of the people. But in his 
Consulship having vanquished the Allobroges and the A.U.C. 632. 
Arverni, he rode through his province 3 mounted upon an 
Elephant, whiles the whole multitude of his souldiours 
attended upon him in a traine after the manner of a solemne 
triumph. This Domitius it was, whom Licinius Crassus the A.U.C. 696. 
oratour in a certaine declamation sayd, It was no mervaile 
he had a brasen beard whose face was made of Iron, and 
heart of lead. His sonne being Pretour was the man, who 
as Caesar 4 went out of his Consulship (which he was thought A.U.C. 700. 
to have borne against the Auspicia 5 and the lawes) con- 
vented him before the Senate to be by them examined, 
tried and censured. Afterwards when he was Consull he 
attempted to fetch him backe, Lord Generall as he was of 
an armie, from his forces in Gaule : and being by the adverse 
faction 6 nominated his successour in that province, was in 
the beginning of the civil warre taken prisoner before Cor- 
fininum : from whence being dismissed and set at libertie, 
after he had by his comming to the Massilians streightly 

1 Atavus etus, his Grandfather 4 degrees of. 2 High Priests. 3 Gallia 
Narbonensis. 4 Jul. Caesar Dictator. 5 Approbation of the gods. 
6 The Pompeians. 

99 



NERO 

CLAUDIUS 

CAESAR 



A.U.C. 72O. 



THE HISTORIE OF 

beleagured, much strengthened them, sodainely he forsooke 
them : and in the end, at the battaile of Pharsalia lost his 
life : a man not very constant and resolute, but with all of 
a fell and savage nature. Being driven to utter despaire, 
he was so much afraid of death, which for feare he had 
desired, that after a drawght of poyson hee repented the 
taking thereof and cast it up againe ; yea and enfranchised 
his Phisitian, who wittingly and of purpose had so tempered 
it that it might do him no great harme. And what time as 
Cn. Pompeius put to question what should be done to those 
Neuters that stood indifferent and stick ed to no part: he 
alone opined, That they were to be reckoned enemies and 
proceeded against accordingly. 

3 

Hee left behind him a sonne, worthy without question, 
to be preferred before all others of his name and linage. 
This man being among those that were privie to Ca3sars 
death, and of that conspiracy, standing condemned (though 
guiltlesse) by the law Paedia 1 , when he had betaken himselfe 
to Cassius and Brutus his neere kinsfolke, after the end of 
them both, held stil in his hand the fleet committed before 
time to his charge, yea and augmented the same : neither 
yeelded he it up to M. Antonius before his owne side was 
every where quite overthrowen : which he then did of his 
owne accord ; and so, as that Antonius took himselfe highly 
beholden unto him therfore. He only also of all those who 
by vertue of the like law stood condemned, being restored 
into his native countrey, went through the most honorable 
offices of state: soone after likewise, when civil dissension 
was kindled againe and renewed, being in quality of Lieu- 
tenant to the said Antonie, what time the soveraigne 
Empire was offered unto him by those who were ashamed 
of Cleopatra 2 , not daring to accept thereof nor yet to refuse 
it resolutely, by occasion of sodaine sicknesse wherewith he 
was surprised, went and sided with Augustus, and within 
few dayes after departed this life : being himselfe also noted 

1 Which Q. Paedius made against the murderers of Caesar. 2 The present 
state governed according to his wil and pleasure. 



TWELVE C^SARS 

with some infamie: for, Antonie gave it commonly forth, NERO 
That for the love of one Servilia Nais whom he kept, he fled C ^? 
to Augustus side. CAESAR 

A.U.C. 723. 

4 

From him came that Domitius, who soone after had the 
name abroade to have beene the chapman of Augustus 
goods and substance left by his wil and testament * : a man 
no lesse renowmed in his youth for good skill in ruling of 
Chariots and running with them a race, as afterwards for 
the triumphant ornaments achieved by the Germaine warre ; 
but arrogant of spirit, wastefull in expence, and therewith 
cruel. When he was ^Edile he forced L. Plancus that had 
beene Censor 2 , to give him the way. Bearing the honorable 
offices of Preture and Consulate, hee produced upon the 
stage to acte a Comicall and wanton Enterlude, the gentle- 
men and dames of Rome. He exhibited baiting of wilde 
beast es both in the cirque and also in every quarter of the 
City, yea and a shew of sword-fight : but with so great 
cruelty, that Augustus was compelled of necessitie to 
restraine him by an edict, since that no secret warning nor 
admonition at his hands would prevaile. 



Of Antonia the elder, hee begat the father of Nero : an 
impe in all the parts of his life ungracious and detestable. 
For accompanying Caius Caesar 3 in his youth into the East- 
parts, where he killed a freed-man of his owne, because he 
refused to quaflfe as much as he was commanded, being dis- 
charged therfore out of the cohort of his friends, he led his 
life never a whit more modestly : but both within a village 
standing upon the street Appia, sodainely put his horses to 
gallop, and not unwittingly rode over a little child and 
trode him to death : and also at Rome in the midst of the 
Forum plucked a Romane gentlemans eye out of his head, 
for chiding him somewhat over boldly. So false and per- 

1 Diets causa, i. by an imaginarie bargaine of sale to have bought them to 
the behoofe and use of the heyre. 2 Censorzum, not Censorem. 3 Sonne 
of M. Agrippa and Julia, adopted by Augustus. 

101 



NERO 



CAESAR 



THE HISTORIE OF 

fidious beside, that he defrauded not onely the bankers and 
money changers of the prices of such commodities as they 
had bought up, but also when he was Pretour put the 
runners with Chariots besides the prises of their victories. 
For which prankes, reproved he was merily even by his owne 
sister (Lepida) and upon complaint made by the Masters of 
the foure factions a hee enacted, That from thence-forth ever 
after, the said prises should be presently payed. Being 
accused likewise for treason to the State and many adul- 
teries, as also for incest committed with his sister Lepida a 
little before the decease of Tiberius, yet escaped he the 
danger of Law by the alteration of the times, and died at 
Pyrgae of the Dropsie 1 b , when Agrippina daughter to Ger- 
manicus had brought him a sonne named Nero. 

6 

This Nero was borne at Antium, nine moneths after that 
Tiberius departed this world, eighteene daies before the 
Kalends of Januarie, just as the Sunne was newly risen, so 
as his beames light 2 well neere upon him before they could 
touch the earth 3 . As touching his Horoscope 4 , many men 
straightwaies gave many guesses and conjectures of fearefull 
events. And even a very word that his father Domitius 
spake, was taken to be a presaging osse. For when his 
friends by way of gratulation wished him joy of his sonne 
new born, he said, That of himselfe and Agrippina there 
could nothing come into the world but accursed, detestable 
and to the hurt of the weale publick. Of the same future 
infortunity there appeared an evident signe upon his naming 
day a : for Caius Caesar (Caligula) when his sister (Agrip- 
pina) requested him to give the Infant what name 5 he would, 
looking wistly on Claudius his Unkle, (by whom afterwards 
being Emperour (the child) was adopted), said he gave him 
his name. Neither spake hee this in earnest, but merily in 
boord : and Agrippina scorned and rejected it, for that as 

1 Morbo aqua intercutis : that kind of dropsy wherein water runneth be- 
tween the fell and the flesh all the bodie over ? Leucophlegmatias in Greeke. 
2 Or shone. 3 Dio sayth, hee was compassed with the sunne beames : and 
yet no sunne appeared above the Horizon. 4 Or Nativitie. 5 Forename. 

102 



TWELVE C^SARS 

then, Claudius went for a foole, and one of the laughing NERO 
stocks of the Court. At three yeeres of age he became 
fatherlesse : and being his fathers heire but of one third 
part, yet could not he touch so much as that, full and 
whole, by reason of Caius his coheire, who had seized upon 
and caught up before-hand all the goods : and for that his 
mother also was soone after confined and packt away, he 
being in manner destitute of all helpe and very needy, was 
fostered in his Aunt Lepidaes house under two Pedagogues, 
a dauncer and a Barber. But when Claudius was come once 
to the Empire, hee not onely recovered his patrimonie 1 , but 
also was enriched by the inheritance of Crispus Passienus 
his mothers husband, that fell unto him. And verily through 
the grace and power of his mother now called home againe 
and restored to her estate, hee flourished and grew so great, 
that commonly it was bruted abroad, That Messallina the 
wife of Claudius sent some of purpose to take the oppor- 
tunity of his noones sleep, and so to smuddre and strangle 
him, as the onely Concurrent of Britannicus 2 , and one that 
eclipsed the light of his glorie. Now in the tale it went, 
besides : that the said parties tooke a fright at a Dragon 
issuing out of his pillow, whereupon they fled backe and 
forsooke the enterprise. Which fable arose upon this, that 
there was in deede found the slough 3 of a serpent in his bed 
about the bolsters. And yet, this slough he enclosed within 
a bracelet of gold (as his mother willed him) and wore it 
a good while after, upon his right arme : and at length, 
wearie of any memoriall and monument of his mothers flung 
it away : but in his extreamity and despaire of his estate 
sought for the same againe in vaine. 

7 

In his tender yeeres, and whiles hee was yet a boy of no 
full growth, hee acted at the Circeian Games the warlike 
Troy fight most resolutely, with great favour and applause 
of the people. In the eleventh 4 yeere of his age adopted 
he was by Claudius and put to schoole unto Anna?us Seneca, 

1 Fathers goods. 2 Her Sonne. 3 Or skinne. 4 Undecimo ; some 
reade rather tertio et decimo, i. the thirteenth. 

103 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO even then a Senatour, for to be trained up in good litera- 
LAUDIUS ture. The report goes, that Seneca, the next night follow- 
8 ing, dreamed as hee lay in bed, that hee was teaching C. 1 

Caesar : and shortly after Nero proved his dreame true, be- 
wraying the fell stomacke and shrewd nature of the said 
Prince, by the first experiments that he could give thereof. 
For when his brother Britannicus saluted him after he was 
once adopted, (as his wonted manner was before) by the 
name of JEnobarbus, hee went about to lay this imputation 
upon him before his Father, that he was some Changeling 
and no sonne of his as he was reputed. His Aunt Lepida like- 
wise being in trouble, hee deposed against, in the open face 
of the Court, thereby to gratifie his mother her heavie friend, 
and who followed the suite hotly against her. Being honour- 
ably brought into the Forum 2 , the day of his first plea and 
Commencement, hee promised publiquely for the people a 
Congiarie, and Donative for the Souldiours. Having pro- 
claimed also a solemne Justing 3 , himselfe rode before the 
Pretorian Souldiours bearing a shield in his owne hand. 
After this, hee solemnly gave thanks to his Father in the 
Senate. Before whom being then Consull, hee made a Latine 
Oration in the behalfe of the Bononians, and for the Rho- 
dians and Inhabitants of Ilium, another in Greeke. His 
first Jurisdiction hee began as Provost of the Citie a , 
during the celebration of the Latine holidaies : what time 
the most famous Advocates and Patrones in those daies strove 
a vie, who could bring before him most accusations 4 and 
longest 5 ; not (as the manner was) such as were ordinarie 
and briefe: the expresse commaundement of Claudius for- 
bidding the same, notwithstanding. Not long after, hee 
tooke to wife Octavia : and for the good health of Claudius, 
exhibited the Cirque Games and baiting of wild beasts. 

8 

A.U.C. 807. Being seventeene yeeres olde, so soone as it was knowne 
abroad that Claudius was dead, hee came forth to those (of 
the Pretorian Cohort) that kept watch and ward, betweene 

1 Caligula. 2 Or Hall of Justice. 3 Or running at tilt. 4 Or 
declarations. 5 Drawne in large bookes. 

104 



TWELVE CJESARS 

the sixth and the seventh houre of the day 1 : for by reason NERO 
that the whole day beside was ominous and dismall, there CLAUDIUS 

J f^ 7R^\ A T-? 

was no time thereof thought more auspicate and convenient 
than it, to enter upon the Empire : and so before the Pallace 
staires being proclaimed and saluted Emperour, he was in a 
Licter brought to the Camp 2 : and hastily from thence, 
after a short speech made unto the Souldiours, conveied 
into the Curia. From whence he departed home in the 
evening : and of those exceeding and infinite honours which 
were heaped upon him, hee refused onely the Title in his 
stile of Pater Patrice 3 , in regard of his young yeeres. 

9 

Beginning then with a glorious shew of Piety and Kindnes, 
at the Funerals of Claudius 4 , which were most sumptuously 
performed, he praised him in an Oration and consecrated 
him a God. In the memoriall of his owne Father Domitius, 
he did him right great honour. His mother he permitted 
to have the whole regiment of all matters as well publick 
as private. The very first day also of his Empire, when the 
Tribune of the Sentinels 5 , asked of him a watchword, he 
gave unto him this Mot, Optima mater (my best mother), 
and afterwards many a time she accompanied him through 
the Streetes, in his owne Licter. He planted a Colonie 
at Antium, enrolling therein the old Souldiours out of the 
Praetorian cohort, and joyning with them (by translating 
their habitations) the richest Centurions who had beene 
Leaders of the formost bands : where also hee made a Pere 6 , 
a most sumptuous peece of worke. 

10 

And to shew a surer proofe still of his towardnesse, after 
profession made to governe the Empire according to the 
prescript rule of Augustus, he omitted no occasion to shew 
either bountifulnesse or clemencie, no nor so much as to 
testifie his gentlenesse and courtesie. Those tributes and 
taxes which were any thing heavie he either abolished quite 

1 Betweene noone and one of the clock. 2 Pretorian. 3 Father of 
his Countrey. 4 The Emperour. 5 Or corps de guard. 6 Or haven 
2:0 105 ' 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO or abated. The rewards due unto Informers as touching 
^ e ^ aw P a pi a l > nee Deduced to the fourth part onely of 
the penalty. Having dealt among the people 400 Sesterces 2 
for every poll : to as many Senatours as were most nobly 
descended (howbeit decaied and weakned in their estates) 
he allowed yeerely Salaries, and to some of them 500000 
Sesterces 4 . Likewise for the Pretorian Cohorts hee ordained 
an allowance of Corne monthely gratis 5 . And whensoever 
he was put in minde to subscribe and set his hand to a 
warrant (as the maner is) for the execution of any person 
condemned to die, hee would say, ' Oh, that I knew not one 
letter of the booke. 1 Manie times he saluted all the Degrees 
of the Citie one after another, by rote and without booke. 
When the Senate upon a time gave him thanks, hee 
aunswered ' (Doe so) when I shall deserve. 1 To his exercises in 
Mars field he admitted the Commons also, yea and declaimed 
often publiquely before them. He rehearsed his owne 
verses likewise, not onely within house at home, but also in 
the Theater: and that with so general a joy of as many as 
heard him, that for the said rehearsall, there was a solemne 
procession decreed : and some of his said verses written in 
golden letters were dedicated to Jupiter Capitolinus. 

11 

Many and sundry kindes of shewes he set forth : to wit, 
the Juvenall sports a , the Circeian Games, and the Stage- 
play es : also a Sword fight. In the Juvenall pastimes, he 
admitted old men even those of Consuls degree : aged 
women also and matrones to disport themselves. At the 
CircenseS) he appointed places for the Gentlemen of Rome 
a part by themselves : where hee put also to runne a race 
for the prise chariots drawne with foure Camels. In the 
Stage plaies, (which beeing instituted for the eternizing and 
perpetuitie of his Empire hee would have to be called 
Maximi), very many of both degrees 6 and sexes plaied their 
parts upon the Stage. A Romaine Gentleman of very 

1 Poppsea. 2 3!. 2s. 6d. starling, a Romaine pound. 3 Annuities. 

4 More by a fourth part, than the State or worth of a Gentleman of Rome. 

5 Without paying mony. 6 Gentlemen and Senatours. 

106 



TWELVE CLESARS 

good note and especiall marke, mounted upon an Elephant NERO 
ranne downe a rope 1 . There was brought upon the Stage CLAUDIUS 
to be acted the Romaine 2 Comsedie of Afranius entituled 
Incendium : and graunted it was unto the Actours therein 
to rifle all the goods and implements of the house as it 
burned, and to take the same as their owne. Scattered also 
abroad there were for the people Missils 3 , during the whole 
time of those Plaies : to wit, a thousand birds every day of 
all kindes : Gates and viands manifold : Ticquets and Tallies 
for corne, apparell, gold, silver, pretious stones, pearles, 
pictures upon tables : slaves, labouring garrons and beasts 
also tamed : last of all, ships, isles, lands and possessions, 
according to their Tallies. 



These Games hee beheld from the top of the Proscenium*. A.U.C. 810. 
At the Swordfight which hee exhibited in the Amphitheatre 
built of Timber in one yeeres space within the ward of Mars 
field hee suffred not one man to be killed, no not so much 
as a guilty malefactour. Moreover, hee brought into the 
Lists for to fight at sharpe even 400 5 Senatours and 600 
Gentlemen of Rome. Some of good wealth and reputation, 
out of the same degrees, he caused to come forth into the 
Shew-place, for to kill wild beasts, and performe sundry 
services therto belonging. He represented also a Naval 
fight upon salt water from the Sea, with a devise to have sea 
beasts 7 swimming therein. Semblably, certaine Pyrrhick 8 
daunces in armour, sorted out of the number of young 
Springals : and after their devoir done, he gave freely unto 
every one of them patents and graunts to be enfranchized 
Citizens of Rome. Betweene 9 the arguments of these 
Pyrrhick daunces, devised it was, that a Bull should leape 
Pasiphae a hidden within a frame of wood resembling an 
Heiffer 10 , which was acted so lively, that many of the 

1 Per Catadromum, for there were Elephanti Funambuli, vide Galb. 
cap. 6, et Xiphilinum. 2 Or Latine. 3 Or gifts. 4 The fore-stage. 
5 Quadringenos, rather quadragenos^ i. 40. 6 Sexacentosque, rather Sexa- 
genos, i. 60, according to Justus Lipsius. 7 Or great fishes. 8 Warlike. 
9 Or, among. 10 To the likenesse of that which was devised by Daedalus. 

107 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO beholders beleeved verily it was so in deede. As for Icarus, 
CLAUDIUS a th e fi rs t attempt to flie, hee fell presently downe hard by 
his owne 1 Bed-chamber 2 b so that he bespreint him with 
bloud. For very seldome had he used to sit as President at 
these Games : but his manner was, to behold them as he 
lay upon his bed 3 . First through little loope holes : but 
afterwards setting the whole gallerie open from whence he 
looked. Hee was the first moreover that instituted at 
A.U.C. 813. Rome, according to the Greeke fashion, Quinquennal games 
of three kinds, to wit, of Musick and Poetrie, of Gymnick 
maisteries and of Horsemanship 4 : which Games he called 
Neronia. After he had dedicated the Baines, and a place 
therein for Gymnick exercises c , he allowed the oyle that 
went thereto both for the Senate and also for the Gentlemen. 
He ordained Maisters and Wardens of all this Solemnity, 
especiall persons of Consular degree, chosen by lot to sit as 
over-seers in the place of Pretours 5 , and then came downe 
himselfe into the Orchestra 6 and the Senatours quarter. 
And verily the victorious coronet for the Latine tongue, 
both in prose and verse, about which the best and most 
worshipfull persons had contended, when it was graunted 
unto him with their owne consents he received : and the 
harp presented unto him by the Judges he adored, and 
commaunded that it should bee caried to the Statue of 
Augustus. At the Gymnick Games which he exhibited 
in the Septa, during the solemne preparation of the great 
Sacrifice Buthysia, hee cut off the first beard that he had, 
which he bestowed within a golden box, adorned it with 
most pretious pearles and then consecrated it in the Capitol 7 . 
To the shew of wrestlers and other Champions he called also 
the vestall virgins, because at Olympia the priestesses like- 
wise of Ceres, are allowed to see the Games there. 

13 
A.U.C. 819. I may by good reason, among other Shewes by him ex- 

1 Of Nero. 2 Or pavilion. 3 Or a pallet. 4 Or Horse running. 

5 Where they were wont to sit as Presidents at other games and playes. 

6 In Orckestram,Senatttmquealiter,perOrchestram in scenam, by the Orchestra 
to the very stage. 7 To Jupiter Capitolinus. 

108 



TWELVE CAESARS 

hibited, reckon also the entrance into Rome City, of Tiri- NERO 
dates : whom being King of Armenia hee had sollicited by 
large promises. Now, when hee meant to shew him unto 
the people upon a set day appointed by an Edict, and was 
driven to put it off, (the weather was so cloudy) he brought 
him forth before them to be scene upon the best and most 
opportune day that hee could finde ; having bestowed about 
the temples situate in the Forum 1 , cohorts of Souldiours 
armed, and sitting himselfe upon his yvorie curule chaire of 
Estate before the Rostra in triumphall habite, among the 
militarie Ensignes, banners, guidons and streamers. And as 
the King came up towards him by the ascent of the steepe 
pulpit, he admitted him first to his knees ; and then raising 
up with his right hand kissed him : afterwards as he was 
making his praier unto him, having taken off his Tiara 2 , he 
did the diademe on 3 . Whiles one who had been Pretour, 
pronounced unto the multitude the Suppliants words, as 
they were by an Interpretour delivered unto him. Being 
brought after this into the Theater and making supplication 
againe, he placed him on his right side next to himselfe. 
For which he was with one accord saluted Emperour : and 
so bringing with him the Lawrell branch into the Capitoll, 
he shut both dores of double faced Janus temple, as if no 
reliques of warre remained behind 4 . 

14 

Foure Consulships he bare : the first for two moneths : A.U.C. 808, 
the second and last for three: the third for foure. The 810,811,813. 
middle twaine he continued without any intermission : the 
rest he varied with a yeeres space betweene. 

15 

In his ordinarie Jurisdiction, he lightly gave no answer 
to the Proctours before the day following, and that was 
by writing. In extraordinary Commissions and trials this 

1 Or Market place. 2 Resembling a cap of maintenance, or as some 
thinke, a Turkish tuffe or Turbant. 3 Which he had laid off again as it 
shold seeme, like as when he was vanquished by Corbito, he laid downe 
before the Image of Nero, 4 Tanquam mtllo residua bdlo. 

109 



NERO 

CLAUDIUS 

C^SAR 



THE HISTORIE OF 

course he held, namely to decide every cause by it selfe one 
after another upon certaine daies of the Session; and to 
surcease quite the hudling up and debatements of matters 
one in the neck of another : so often as he went aside to 
consult, he did deliberate and aske advise of nothing either 
in common or openly : but reading secretly to himselfe the 
opinions written by every counsellour, what liked his owne 
selfe, that pronounced hee, as if many more thought well of 
the same. For a long time hee admitted not the sonnes of 
Libertines into the Curia : and to those that were admitted 
by the Emperours his predecessours hee denied all honorable 
Offices. If there sued for Magistracies more then could 
speed, or were places void ; to comfort their harts againe for 
delaying and making them to stay longer, he gave unto 
them the conduct of Legions. He graunted for the most 
part all Consulships for sixe moneths terme. And if one 
of the two Consuls hapned to die about the Kalends of 
Januarie 1 , hee substituted none in his steede : as misliking 
altogether the old precedent of Cannius Rebilus, who was 
Consul but one day 2 . Triumphall ornaments he gave even 
unto those that had borne Questours dignity only : yea and 
to some of the Gentlemens degree, and verily not alwaies 
for any militarie service 3 . His Orations 4 sent into the 
Senate concerning certaine matters, hee caused for the 
most part to be read and rehearsed by the Consuls, passing 
by the Questours Office 5 . 

16 

He devised a new forme of the City buildings : and 
namely, that before the ^Edifices standing by themselves 6 , 
and other houses, likewise there should be Porches 7 . From 
the Solars whereof, all Skarefires might be put by and 
repelled 8 ; and those he built 9 at his owne charges. Hee 
had an intention once to set out and enlarge the walls of 

1 Somewhat before. 2 Or rather, one peece of a day : See Julius Caesar 
cap. 76. 3 Or upon occasion of war. 4 Which else where be called 
Epistles. 5 Unto whom properly it appertained. 6 Ante Insulas. 

7 Foregates, or Gatehouses. 8 From the front of such ./Edifices. 9 Or 
promised rather to build. 

110 



TWELVE CAESARS 

Rome, even as farre as to Ostia; and from thence by a NERO 
Fosse to let the Sea into old Rome 1 . Many matters under 
him were both severely punished and also restrained, yea 
and likewise newly ordained. Expences in his daies had a 
gage and stint set upon them 2 . The publick suppers a were 
brought downe to small Collations. Forbidden it was that 
any thing sodden 3 , but only pulse, and worts 4 should be sold 
in Taverns and Cookes houses ; where as before time, there 
was no maner of viands but it was set out to sale. The 
Christians, a kinde of men given to a new, wicked and 
mischievous Superstition, were put to death with grievous 
torments. The sports of Chariotiers, wherein by an old 
and licentious custome they had been allowed to range up 
and downe, to beguile folke, to pilfer and steale in merri- 
ment, were prohibited. The factions b of the Pantomimi 5 
together with the Actours themselves were banished and 
sent away. 

17 

Against forgers of writings, then first came up this inven- 
tion that no books or instruments should be signed unlesse 
they were boared and had a thred three times drawne 
through the holes. Provided it was, That in Wills the two 
first 6 parts 7 thereof should be shewed as blanks, unto those 
that came to scale the same : having the Testatours name 
onely written therein. Item, that no Clerk or Notarie, who 
was to draw and write another mans will, should put downe 
any Legacie for himselfe. Item, that they who had sutes 
depending in Court, should pay the certaine due fee set 
downe by Law, for pleading of their causes : but for the 
Benches 8a nothing, considering the Chamber of the Citie 
allowed the same gratis and to be free. Item, that in the 
pleading and deciding of controversies all causes debated 
afore time before the Maisters of the Exchequer or Citie 
Chamber should bee removed unto the Common Hall 9 , to 

1 To bring an arme of it thither. 2 In costly and excessive fare at the 
table. 3 Ne quid cocti. 4 As Potherbs. 5 Cunning Actours, playing 
all parts, and resembling all gestures. 6 Or uppermost. 7 Or cered 
tables. 8 Pues or seats, some expound this of the Judges Bench, as if their 
sentences should not be bought and sold. 9 Or Pleas. 

Ill 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO be tried before the Commissioners and Delegates called 
Recuperatores. Finally, that all appeales from the Judges 
should be made unto the Senate. 

18 

Having no will, no motion, nor hope at any time, to pro- 
pagate and enlarge the Empire, he thought once to have 
withdrawne the forces even out of Britaine : neither gave he 
over that intent of his, but onely for very shame; least 
he might be thought to deprave the glory of his Father 
(Claudius). Onely the realme of Pontus with the leave of 
Polemon a , as also the Kingdome of the Alpes, by the death 
of King Cottius hee reduced into the forme of a Province. 

19 

Two voyages and no more he undertooke, the one to 
Alexandria, the other into Achaia. But his journey to 
Alexandria hee gave over the very day of his setting forth : 
by occasion that he was disquieted at once, both with a 
religious scruple and also with some perill. For when hee 
had gone in procession about all the temples, and sitten 
downe within the Chappel of Vesta, as he was rising up, 
first the hem l or edge of his Gowne stucke to the seate, and 
after this, arose so darke a mist before his eyes, that uneth 
he could see and looke about him. In Achaia hee attempted 
to digge through Isthmus a , and in a frequent assembly 
made a speech unto the Pretorian Souldiours, exhorting 
them to begin the worke : and having given the signall by 
sound of trumpet, himselfe first brake up the ground with a 
little spade 2 ; and when hee had cast up the earth, caried 
it forth upon his owne shoulders in a scuttle. He prepared 
also an expedition to the Caspian gates : for which hee 
enrolled a newe Legion of Italian young Souldiours sixe 
foote high 3 : this Legion hee called the Phalanx or 
Squadron of Alexander the Great. These particulars pre- 

1 Jag, welt or fringes. 2 Rastello, i. ligone, the same that Dikella in 
Greeke : with a cloven bit. This by some Writers, was of gold. 
3 Semim pedum y some read senum milfaim peditum : i. of 6 thousand 
footmen. 



TWELVE CAESARS 

raised, partly deserving no blame, and in part worthy even NERO 

of no meane praise, have I collected together, that I might CLAUDIUS 

sever and distinguish them from his villanies and wicked CAESAR 
acts, whereof from henceforward I wil make report. 

20 

Among other arts and sciences, beeing in his childhood 
trained up in the skill also of musick : no sooner attained 
he to the Empire, but he sent for Terpnus the harper, 
renowmed in those dayes for his cunning above all other. 
Sitting by him as he played and sung, day by day after 
supper until it was far in the night, himselfe likewise by 
little and little began to practise and exercise the same : 
yea and not to let passe anie meanes that expert professours 
in that kind were wont to do, eyther for preserving or 
the bettering and fortifying of their voices : even to weare 
before him upon his brest a thin plate or sheet of lead : 
to purge by clystre or vomit : to absteine from apples and 
fruite, with all such meates as were hurtfull to the voice : 
so long, untill his proceedings stil drawing him on, (a smal 
and rusty l voice though he had) he desired to come forth 
and shew himselfe upon the open stage, having among his 
familiar companions this Greeke proverbe evermore in his 
mouth, That hidden musicke was nought worth a . The first 
time that he mounted the stage was at Naples, where he 
gave not over singing, (albeit the Theatre was shaken and 
ready to fall by a suddaine earthquake) before he had 
finished the song begun. In the same place he chaunted 
often and many dayes together. Moreover, after some 
short time betweene taken to repaire his voice (as one 
impatient of keeping within house) from the baines there he 
passed directly to the Theatre 2 : and having in the midst of 
the Orchestra before a frequent multitude of people feasted 
and banquetted, made promise in the Greeke tongue, that if 
he had sippled a little and wet his whistle, he would ring 
out some note more fully and with a stronger brest. Now, 
beeing much delighted with the Alexandrines 3 praises in 

1 Or hoarse. 2 At Naples. 3 i. Ditties. 
2 : P 113 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO prict song 1 , who newly in a second voiage had with their 
CLAUDIUS fl ee t conflowed to Naples b , he sent for more of them out of 
CAESAR Alexandria. And never the later he chose from all parts 
youths of Gentlemens degree, and not so few as 5000 of the 
lustiest and strongest young men out of the commons, who 
beeing sorted into factions 2 should learne certaine kinde of 
shouts and applauses, which they tearmed Bombos c , Im- 
brices d and Testas e : also that deft and trim boyes, such as 
had the thickest bush of haire upon their heads 3 f , and were 
set out in most excellent apparell, and not without a ring 
on their left hands 4 , should give their attendance upon him 
as he sung. The cheiftaines and leaders of these had for 
their stipend 400000 sesterces 5 . 



Esteeming so highly as he did of singing, he solemnized 
at Rome also againe the foresaid games called Neroneum 
before the day and time by order appointed 6 . And when 
all the people called upon him for his celestial voice a , he 
made answere : That he verily would do them that pleasure 
(being so willing and desirous as they were to heare him) : 
but it should be in his Hortyards. Howbeit, when the 
corps de guarde of the (Pretorian) Souldiers which at that 
time kept watch and ward seconded the praiers of the 
common people, willingly he promised to fulfill their minds 
out of hand in the very place ; and without any farther 
delay caused his owne name to be written in the roll of 
other professed minstrels and singers to the harpe. Thus 
having put his lot into the pitcher with the rest, hee entred 
the stage when his turne came : and withall the Capitaines 
of the Guard supporting his harpe : after them the tribunes 
militarie 7 , and close unto them his most inwarde friendes and 
Minions. Now when hee had taken up his standing, and 
ended his Proseme, he gave publike notice and pronounced by 

1 Tuned and composed to the rules and measures of Musick, in the praise 
of him, by the merchants of Alexandria. See cap. 98, August. 2 Or 
Crewes. 3 Pinguissima coma. 4 Nee sine anulo l<zvis, or, clean con- 
trarie, ac sine anulo leves, i. wearing no rings at all. 5 A Knights living. 
6 Every fifth yeares. 7 Or Colonels. 

114 



TWELVE C^SARS 

the voice of Cluvius Rufus, (no meaner man than of Consuls NERO 

degree) that he would sing and act the storie of Niobe 1 : CLAUDIUS 

and so continued hee well neere unto the tenth houre of the 

day 2 : which done he differred the Musicke Coronet due 

for the present victorie, together with the residue of that 

gaming unto the next yeare following ; and all because he 

might have occasion oftener to chaunt. But bethinking 

himselfe that the time was long, hee ceased not to come 

ever and anon abroade to shew his skill in open place. Hee 

stucke not also in private shewes and games 3 to doe his 

devoire, even among common Actors and Stage players: 

and namely, when one of- the Pretours 4 made offer of a 

milian of Sesterces. Hee sung moreover, disguised, Tragae- 

dies of the worthies and gods : of noble Ladies likewise in 

olde time and of goddesses, having their visards 5 framed and 

made to the likenesse of his own face and of some woman 

whom hee loved. Among the rest he chanted the tale of 

Canace travailing in child-birth b : of Orestes who killed 

his own Mother c : of CEdipus that plucked out his own 

eyes d , and of Hercules enraged e . In the acting of which 

Tragaedie, the report goes, that a novice 6 placed to keepe 

and guard the entrie of the stage, seeing him dressed and 

bound with chaines (as the argument of the sayd Tragaedie 

required) ran in a good [haste] to helpe him. 



Exceedingly given hee was of a boy to delight in horse- 
manship, and with the love of charioting mightily inflamed : 
and very much would he be talking (forbidden though he 
were) of the Circeian games. And one time as hee was 
making mone, and bewailing among his skoole-fellowes, the 
hard fortune of a chariot driver, one of the greene-coate 

1 Wife of Amphion King of Thebes, who priding herself in her faire 
issewe 6 sonnes and as manie daughters durst compare with Latona, the 
mother of Apollo and Diana, but she with her arrowes killed them al, and 
turned her into a stone. 2 Foure of the clocke after noone. 3 Of 
other magistrates, who in respect of the Prince are accounted private. 
4 Larcius, Lydus, Xiphilin. 5 Or Masques. 6 Or young untrained 
souldiers. 

115 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO faction, drawen and dragged by his steedes 1 , being chidden 
CLAUDIUS therefore by his schoole-master, he had a lye ready, and said 
t h a t he spake o f Hector 2 . But, as about his first entrance 
to the Empire, his custome was daily to play upon a chess- 
bourd with ivory horses 3 drawing in chariots, so he used to 
resort also from his retiring place of pleasure 4 , to all the 
Circeian games, even the very least and meanest of them. 
First by stealth and privily : afterwards in open sight ; so as 
no man made doubt, but at such a day he would be sure 
alwaies there to be. Neither dissimuled he that hee was 
willing to augment the number of the prises. And there- 
fore the shew of Chariot running was drawen out in length 
and helde untill late in the evening, by occasion of manie 
more courses than ordinarie : so as now the Masters of every 
faction deigned not to bring forth their crues and com- 
panies 5 unlesse they might run the whole day through 6 . 
Soone after himselfe also would needs make one and be 
scene oftentimes to play the Chariotier. And when he had 
tryed what hee could doe, and performed, as it were, his first 
Actes in (private) hortyardes among verie slaves and the 
base commons, he proceeded to shew himselfe in the greatest 
Cirque in all mens eyes, appointing one of his freedmen to 
put out a (white) towell for a signal 1, from the place where 
Magistrates are wont to doe it. But not content with this, 
that he had given good proofe of his progresse in these feats 
at Rome, hee goes, as I sayde before, into Achaia, moved 
especially upon this occasion. Those Cities and states where 
solemne gamings of musicke are usually held, had brought 
up a custome to sende all the Coronets of harpe-players 
unto him. This he accepted so kindly, that he not onely 
admitted at the very first to his presence the Embassadors 
who brought the same, but also placed them among his 
familiar guestes at the table. And being requested by some 
of them to sing at supper time, and highly praised with 

1 Or sore wounded and bruised with the wheeles running over him. See 
Plin. Nat. Hist. lib. 28 cap. 17. 2 Who was likewise, Raptatus Bigis as 
Virgil writeth. 3 Or Chariots, to expresse those games Ctrcenses. 

4 Secessu, or by way of retyring and recreation. 5 Greges, either 

agitatorum^ i. of chariot drivers : or equorum quadrigariortim, i. of steeds, 
both to one effecte. 8 Which was their greater gaine. 

116 



TWELVE C^SARS 

excessive applause, he came out with this speech, That NERO 
Graecians were the onely skilfull Hearers, and the men alone CLAUDIUS 
worthie of his studies. Neither made he anie longer stay, 
but tooke his voyage : and no sooner was hee passed over 
the sea to Cassiope 1 9 but presently he began to sing at the 
altar there of Jupiter Casius. 



After this, he went to all the games of prise, one after 
another : for even those that usually are celebrated at most 
remote and distant times he commanded to be reduced all 
into one yeare 2 , and some of them also to be iterated 3 . 
At Olympia likewise hee caused, (contrarie to the manner and 
custome of that place) a game of musick to be held. And 
least whiles he was busied about these matters, anie thing 
might either call him away or detaine him : when he was 
advertised by his freed-man Helius, that the Citie affaires 
required his presence, hee wrot backe unto him in these 
words: 'Albeit your councell to mee at this present and 
your willing desire is, that I should returne with all speede, 
yet ought you to advise me and wish rather, that I may 
returne worthy my selfe, that is to say Nero." 1 All the 
while hee was singing, lawefull it was not for anye person to 
depart out of the Theatre, were the cause never so necessarie. 
Whereupon reported it is, that some great bellied women 
falling into travaile were delivered upon the very skaffolds : 
yea and many men besides, wearie of tedious hearing and 
praysing him, when the towne gates were shut, eyther by 
stealth leapt downe from the walles, or counterfeiting them- 
selves dead were caried forth as corses to bee buried. But 
how timorously, with what thought and anguish of minde, 
with what aemulation of his concurrents and feare of the 
Umpiers, hee strove for the Mastery, it is almost incredible. 
His manner was to deale with his adversaries, as if they 
had been but his aequals and of the same condition with 
him, in this sort : namely, to observe, watch and mark their 
behaviours ; to ly in the wind for to catch advantage : to 

i A towne in Corcyra. 2 Wherein hee thither came. 3 Solemnized 
twice in the same yeare. 

117 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO defame them under hand, other whiles to raile at them and 
CLAUDIUS gi ve them hard tearms as they came in his way : yea and to 
corrupt with bribes 1 and giftes such as excelled in skill and 
cunning. As for the Judges and Umpiers aforesaid, hee 
woulde speake unto them in all reverence before he begun 
to sing, using these tearmes : That hee had done whatso- 
ever was to be done : howbeit, the issue and event was in 
the hand of Fortune: they therefore, as they were wise men 
and learned ought to except and barre all chaunces and 
mishaps. Now upon their exhortations unto him for to be 
bold and venturous, he would indeed goe awaye from them 
better appaied, but yet for all that, not without pensive 
care and trouble of minde : finding fault also with the 
silence and bashfull modestie of some, as if the same argued 
their discontented heavinesse and malitious repining, saying 
withall, That he had them in suspicion. 



During the time that hee strove for to winne any prise, 
so strictely obeyed hee the lawes of the game, that hee 
never durst once spit and reach up fleame : and the very 
swet of his forehead hee wiped away with his arme onely 2 . 
Moreover in the acting 3 of a Tragaedie, when he had quickly 
taken up his staffe againe a , which he happened to let fall, 
being much dismaied and in great feare, least for that de- 
linquencie hee should be put from the stage : by no meanes 
tooke he heart againe, until an under actor or prompter 
standing by sware an oth that it was not espied and marked 
for the shoutes and acclamations of the people beneath. 
Now, whensoever he wan the victorie, he used to pronounce 
himselfe victour. For which cause, he contended also in 
every place for the Criers coronet 4 b . And to the end, there 
should remaine extant no memoriall or token of any other 
victours c in these sacred games beside himselfe, hee com- 
manded all their statues and images to be overthrowen, 
drawen with a drag and so flung into sinkes and privies. 

1 Thereby to make them relent and not to do their best. 2 Or sleeve 
and not with anie handkercheife. 8 Chaunting. 4 Due to him that had 
the lowdest voice. 

118 



TWELVE C^SARS 

Furthermore, he ran with chariots for the best game in many NERO 
places, and at the Olympicke solemnities with one that had CLAUDIUS 
a teeme of tenne steedes, notwithstanding he reproved the 
very same in K. Mithridates as appeared by certaine verses 
of his owne making. But being once shaken and hoisted 
out of his Chariot and set therein againe, howbeit not able 
to hold out, he desisted and gave over, before he had runne 
the race through. Yet was he crowned neverthelesse. 
After this, at his departure from thence, he enfranchised the 
whole Province throughout : and withall, the judges of these 
Games he endowed with the freedome of Rome, and re- 
warded with great summes of money. Which benefits of 
his himselfe published with his owne voice from the middle 
of the race, upon a day of the Isthmian games. 

25 

Beeing returned out of Greece hee entred Naples, 
mounted upon a Chariot drawne with white horses : for 
that, in the said Citie he had made profession first of his 
skill, (in musicke) and a part of the wall was cast downe 
against his comming, (as the manner is of all victours in 
those sacred games). Semblably rode he into Antium, and 
from thence into Albanum and so forward into Rome. 
But he entred Rome in the very same Chariot, wherein 
sometime Augustus had rode in triumph, clad in a purple 
cloke l , and the same garnished with starres embrodered in 
golde : wearing upon his head the Olympicke Coronet 2 , and 
bearing in his right hand the Pythisk 3 : with a pompe and 
gallant shewe of the rest before him 4 , together with their 
titles and inscriptions testifying, where, and whom, in 
what kinde of songe or fabulous argument, hee had wonne : 
not without a traine also of Applauders a , following his 
Chariot, after the manner of those that ride ovant in petie 
Triumph setting up a note, and crying with a lowde voice, 
That they were Augustians, and the souldiers of his triumph. 
From thence he rode forward, and having thro wen downe 
the Arch of the greatest Cirque, he passed on through the 

1 Or Mantell. 2 Made of the wilde Olive branches. 3 Of Lawrell. 
4 Isthmian, of Pine, and Nemean of smallach or persley. 

119 



CAESAR 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO Velabrum and market place, up to the Palatium and so to the 
CLAUDIUS temple of Apollo. To do him honor all the way as he went, 
were beasts killed for sacrifice, and saffron eftsoones strewed 
along the streets. Birdes were let flie, ribbands also and 
labels yea and sweete banketting junkets cast among. As 
for the sacred Coronets and guirlands aforesayde, he 
bestowed them in his owne bed-chamber round about his 
beds : likewise his owne statues pourtraied in the habit of an 
harper \ and with that marke stamped he his money. And 
after all this, (so farre was he from letting slacke and remit- 
ting one jote his ardent study of his musicke profession) 
that for the preservation of his voice he would never make 
speech unto his souldiours, but absent 2 : or having another 
to pronounce his words for him 3 ; nor yet do ought in earnest 
or mirth without his Phonascus 4 by, to put him in minde 
for to spare his pipes and hold his handkerchiefe to his 
mouth : and to many a man hee eyther offered friendship, 
or denounced enmitie, according as every one praised him 
more or lesse. 

26 

His unruly wildnesse, unbridled lust, wastfull riotousnesse, 
avarice and cruelty, he practised verely at first, by leasure 
closely, as the trickes of youthfull folly : yet so, as even 
then no man might doubt, that they were the inbred vices 
of nature, and not the errors of young age. No sooner was 
it twi-light and the evening shut in but presently he would 
catch up a cap 5 a on his head, and so disguised, goe into 
tavernes and victualling houses : walke the streetes playing 
and sporting all the way, but yet not without shrewd turnes 
and dooing mischiefe. For he used to fall upon those that 
came late from supper and knocke them soundly : yea and 
(if they strugled with him and made resistance,) to wound 
and drowne them in the sinkes and towne ditches : to breake 
into petie shops also, and rifle them : for he had set up in 
his house at home a faire 6 b , there to receive the price of the 

1 Or Minstrell. 2 *'. Per Nttntios by messengers sent betweene. 

3 When himself was present. 4 A moderatour of his voice. 5 Or hood. 
6 Or market. 

120 



TWELVE C^SARS 

bootie which hee had gotten, and was to bee solde to who NERO 
would give most and bid best therefore. But many a time 
at such brawles and skufflings aforesaied, he endangered his 
eyes, yea and his life too ; being once beaten well neere to 
death by a certaine young gentleman of Senatours degree c , 
whose wife he had misused with uncleane handling. Where- 
upon, never after durst he goe abroad into the streets at 
that houre of the night, without his militarie Tribunes fol- 
lowing after him aloofe and secretly. In the day time also, 
beeing caried close in a chaire 1 into the Theatre, hee would 
be present in person, and from the upper part 2 of the Pro- 
sccenium 3 both give a signall to the seditious factions of 
players (setting them together by the eares) and also behold 
them how they bickered. Now when they were come once to 
plaine fight, skirmishing with stones and fragments of broken 
seates, skaffolds, himselfe stucke not to fling apace at 4 the 
people, in so much as once he brake the pretours head. 

27 

But as his vices grewe by little and little to get head, he 
laide aside these wilde trickes by way of sport and in secret : 
and without all care of concealing and dissimulingthe matter, 
broke out openly to greater outrages. His meales hee 
drewe out at length a : eating and drinking from noone to 
midnight, dowssed and fomented oftentimes in cesternes of 
hote waters, and in sommer season within bathes altered and 
made colde with snowe. His suppers hee tooke divers times 
abroade also in publike place, to wit, in the Naumachia 5 shut 
up and enclosed ; or in Mars fielde ; or else in the greatest 
cirque : where hee was served and attended upon by all the 
common Queanes of the Citie, and stinking strumpets b of 
the stewes. So often as hee went downe the River Tiberis 
to Ostia, or sayled along the Baian Creeke 6 , there were pro- 
vided in divers places of the strond and bankes, boothes to 
baite in, conspicuous brothell houses and taverns; where 
stood maried dames after the manner of hostesses and 

1 Or Licter. 2 Or loft. 3 The forestage. 4 Or among. 5 A 
broad place, wherein a Naval fight had sometime been exhibited but then 
filled up, yet it caried the former name still. 6 Or Bay. 
2 : Q 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO victualling wives c calling unto him ; some here, some there 
on both sides of the bankes, intreating him to land and 
turne in to them. His manner was also to give warning 
unto his familiar friends, and bid him selfe to supper : and 
one of them it cost in sweet meats 4 millians l of sesterces d : 
and another a good deale more in rose water and odoriferous 
oyles or perfumes of Roses from Syrtium e . 

28 

Over and besides the unnaturall abusing of boyes free- 
borne, and the keeping of mens wives as his concubines, he 
forced also and defloured Rubria, a vestale Virgin. Acte 
a freed woman he went very neere to have wedded as his 
lawefull wife 2 : suborning certaine men who had beene Con- 
suls, to avouch and forsweare, That she was of Roiall bloud 
descended. A boy there was named Sporus a , whose Genitories 
he cut out, and assayed therby to transforme him into the 
nature of a woman. Him he caused to be brought unto 
him as a bride, with a dowry, in a fine (yellow) veile, after 
the solemne maner of mariage : not without a frequent and 
goodly traine attending upon him : whom he maintained as 
his wife. Hereupon there goes abroad a pretie conceited 
jest of a pleasant fellow, That it might have beene wel and 
happie with the World, if his father Domitius had wedded 
such a wife. This Sporus trimly set out with the jewels, 
decked with the ornaments of the Empresses, and caried in 
a licter, hee accompanied all about the shire-townes of great 
resort and market burroughes of Greece : yea and afterwards 
at Rome, up and downe the street Sigillaria, manie a time 
sweetly kissing him by the way. For, that he had a lust to 
ly with his owne mother, and was frighted from it by some 
depraving backe-friendes of hers ; for feare, least the proude 
and insolent dame might by this kind of favour grow too 
mightie, no man ever made doubt : especially after that he 
entertained among his Concubines an harlot, most like in all 
points (by report) unto Agrippina. It is affirmed moreover, 
that in times past, so often as hee rode in a licter together 
with his mother, hee played the filthy wanton, and was 

1 Quadragies HS. 2 Which had beene a great disparagement. 

122 



TWELVE CAESARS 

bewrayed by the markes and spottes appearing upon her NERO 
vesture. CLAUDIUS 

CAESAR 
29 

As for his owne body, certes, he forfeited the honour 
thereof, prostituting it to bee abused so farreforth, as having 
defiled in manner all the parts of it, at the last, he devised 
a kind (as it were) of sport and game : that being covered 
all over in a wilde beastes skin, hee should be let loose forth 
of a cage l and then give the assault upon the privities of 
men and women both as they stood tyed fast to a stake : 
and when he had shewed his rage to the full, be killed, for- 
sooth by Doriphorus a his freed-man, unto whom him selfe 
also was wedded like as Sporus unto him : insomuch as hee 
counterfeited the noise and cries of maidens, when they bee 
forced and suffer devirgination 2 . I have heard of divers that 
he was fully pers waded, No man nor woman was honest, or 
in any part of their bodies pure and cleane, but most of 
them dissimuled their uncleannesse and craftily hid it. As 
many therefore as professed 3 unto him their obsrene filthi- 
nesse, he forgave all other faults and trespasses whatsoever. 

30 

The fruite of richesse and use of money, he tooke to be 
nothing else but lavish expense : thinking them to be very 
base niggards and mechanicall pinch-pennies, that kept any 
account or reckoning what they spent and layde out : but 
such only passing rich and right Mdgnificoes, who mispent 
and wasted all. He praised and admired his uncle Caius in 
no respect more, than for that hee had lashed out and 
consumed in a short space an huge masse of wealth, left 
unto him by Tiberius: hee kept therefore no meane, nor 
made anye end of prodigal 1 giving and making away all. 
Hee allowed unto Tiridates a (a thing almost incredible) 
800000 Sesterces, day by day, for his expenses, and at his 
departure bestowed upon him not so little as one hundred 
milians. Menecrates the harper, and Spicillus the sword- 

1 Or grate. 2 I wish that both Suetonius and Dio had in this place and such 
like been altogether silent. 3 Confessed of themselves and their owne accord. 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO fenser hee enfeoffed in the livings, patrimonies and houses 
CLAUDIUS O f right noble personages, who had triumphed. Cerco- 
C^ESAR pithecus, whom hee had enriched with the lands and houses, 
(as well within the Citie as Countrey) of Panercos the 
Usurer, he honoured like a Prince at his funerals; and 
enterred with the charges well neere of a royall sepulture. 
No garments did hee on his backe twice : at hazard when 
he played, he ventured no lesse than 400000 sesterces at a 
cast, upon every point or pricke of the chaunce l b . Hee 
fished with a golden net 2 (drawen and knit) with cords 
twisted of purple and crimsen silke in graine. He never by 
report when he made anie journey, had under a thousand 
carroches in his traine. His mules were shod with silver. His 
mulitiers arraied in fine (red) Canusme cloth : and attended 
he was with a multitude of Mazaces 3 and Curreurs gaily 
set out with their bracelets and riche Phalers c . 



In no one thing was hee more wastefull and prodigall 
then in building. Hee made an house, that reached from 
the Palatium to the Esquilice : which at first he called his 
Transitorie 4 : but when it had been consumed with fire and 
was reedefied hee named his golden aedifice. As touching the 
large compasse and receit, the rich furniture and setting out 
whereof, it may suffice to relate thus much. The porch 6 was 
of such an heigth as therein might stand upright the geant- 
like image representing his owne person, an hundred and 
twentie foote high. So large was this house, as that it con- 
teined three galleries of a mile a peece in length 6 . Item, a 
standing poole like unto a sea, and the same enclosed round 

1 Quadringenis Sestertiis. Take Sestertium here in the newter gender : 
otherwise, it were but a meane venture for such an one as Nero : as 
amounting not above 3!. 2s. 6d. Whereas now, it ariseth to 3125!. 
2 Aurato rete. Orosius saith more expresly, retibus attreis, 3 Horse men 
of Africke and Cappadocia. 4 As one would say, the passage from one 
hill to another. 5 Or fore-gate. 6 Portictis triplices milliarias. If a 

man expound it thus : Galleries with three rows of pillers, or as many yles, a 
thousand foote in length, it wold be more consonant to the trijth I suppose. 
And yet the proportion that followeth is very strange and answerable to the 
vulgar and received exposition. 

124 



TWELVE C^SARS 

about with buildings in forme of Cities. It received more- NERO 
over graunges with cornefields, vineyards, pastures and 
woodes to them stored with a multitude of divers and 
sundry beasts both tame and wilde of all sorts. In all 
other parts thereof, all was laide over with golde, garnished 
with precious stones and shels of pearle 1 . As for the par- 
lours, framed they were with enbowed roufs, seeled with 
pannils of Ivorie, devised to turne round and remove so as 
flours might be skattered from thence : with a devise also 
of pipes and spouts to cast and sprinkle sweet oyles from 
aloft. But of al these parlours and banqueting roomes, the 
principall and fairest was made rounde, to turne about con- 
tinually both day and night, in manner of the World 2 . 
The banes within this house flowed with salte water de- 
rived from the sea, and with fresh from the rivers Albulae. 
This aedifice finished after such a fashion as this, when he 
dedicated 3 , thus farre forth onely he liked, as that hee sayd, 
He now at length began to dwell like a man. Furthermore, 
hee began a poole * reaching from Misenum to the Meere 5 
Avernus, covered all above head, enclosed and environed 
with Cloistures 6 : into which all the hote waters that were 
in the Bathes of Baias might bee conveied. Likewise he 
cast a fosse 7 from the sayde Avernus, as farre as to Ostia, and 
the same navigable : that men forsooth might saile in ships, 
and yet not be upon the sea. This caried in length 160 
miles, and bare that breadth, as gallies with 5 ranks of 
oares might passe to and fro thereupon. For the perform- 
ing of these workes, he had given commandement, that all 
prisoners wheresoever should be transported into Italic : and 
that no person attaint and convict of anie wicked act, 
should be condemned otherwise, but to worke thereat. 



To these outragious expenses, beside the trust and con- 
fidence he had in the revenewes of the Empire, put forward 
hee was upon a certaine unexpected hope also that he 

1 Mother of pearle. 2 Or heaven. 3 Made his first entrie into it after 
a solemn and festivall manner. 4 Piscinam. 6 (Or lake. ) 6 Or Walk- 
ing places. 7 Or ditch. 



NERO 



A.U.C. 8 1 8. 



THE HISTORIE OF 

conceived, of finding a world of wealth : and that through 
intelligence given unto him by a gentleman of Rome, who 
assured him upon his knowledge, that the rich treasure and 
old store of silver and gold both, which Queene Dido flying 
out of Tyros caried away with her, lay buried in Affricke 
within most huge and vaste caves under the ground, and 
might be gotten forth with some small labour of those that 
would goe about it. But when this hope failed him and 
came to nothing, being now altogether destitute, and so far 
exhaust and bare of money, that of necessity even soul- 
diours pay, and the fees due unto olde servitours in the 
wars for their service must run on stil and be differred, he 
bent his mind to promoting of false imputations, to pilling 
also and polling. First and formost hee brought up this 
order, that out of the goods of freedmen deceased in steed of 
the one half, three 4th parts should be exacted and gathered 
for him, of as many, I say as without publike cause bare 
that name, which anie of those families did, whereunto 
himselfe was allied. Afterwards, that their wils should be 
forfaite and confiscate, who were unthankeful to the Prince 1 . 
Item, that Lawiers should not escape free and go cleere 
awaie, who had drawen and written such wils : as also, that 
all deeds and words should bee brought within the compasse 
of treason : if there could be found but anie promoter to 
give information. He called moreover after a long time 
passed, for the rewards and Coronets due to victours, which 
ever at any times the Cities and States had presented or 
decreed unto him at the games of prise. And whereas hee 
had prohibited the use of the Amethist 2 and purple colpurs, 
he suborned one of purpose under hand to sell upon a 
market day 3 some few ounces therof, and thereupon made 
stay of all occupiers and chapmen 4 whatsoever, and laid 
them fast. Furthermore, having espied once (as he was 
singing) a dame of Rome from the skaffolds in the Theatre, 
arraied in purple forbidden by the law 5 , himselfe pointed at 
her (as it is verily thought) and shewed her to his Procura- 

1 Remembred him not in their wils and made him not an heyre. 2 Or 
violet in graine. 3 Or faire. 4 Who had bought the saide colours. 
6 Julia : which Caesar Dictator made. See in Jul. Caes. cap. 43. 

126 



C^SAR 



TWELVE C^SARS 

tours 1 : and presently caused the woman to be haled from NERO 

thence and turned out, not only of her garments but also of CLAUDIUS 

all the goods shee had. He assigned an office to no man, 

but he used these words withall, Thou knowest what I 

have neede of. Also, Let us looke to this, that no man 

may have 2 anie thing. To conclude, he robbed the Temples 

of many giftes and oblations : the Images likewise therein 

made of golde or silver he melted into a masse : and 

among the rest, even those of the Tutelar gods (of Rome) 3 : 

which soone after Galba restored and erected againe in 

their places. 

33 

As touching his Parricides and murders hee began them 
first with Claudius: of whose death although he were not 
principall author, yet he was privie and accessarie thereto. 
Neither dissimuled he so much, as who afterwards was wont 
by a Greek by-word 4 , to praise mushromes, (in which kinde 
of meat Claudius had taken his bane), as the foode of the 
gods 5 . Certes, he abused him after hee was dead in most 
spitefull and contumelious manner, both in word and deede, 
every way : taunting and twitting him, one while with his 
folly, another while with his crueltie. For, in scoffing wise he 
would say of him that hee had left now morari* anie longer 
among mortall men, using the first sillable of the sayd 
word long. And many of his decrees and constitutions 
he annulled as the acts of a doltish and doting man. 
Finally, he neglected the place of his funerall fire 6b : suffer- 
ing it to be empaled 7 , but with sleight stufFe and low railes 
of timber. As for Britannicus, not so much for envie that 
he had a sweeter and pleasanter voice than himselfe, as for 
feare least another day he should bee more gracious then he 
among men, in remembrance of his Father, he attempted to 
make him away by poison. This poison, Nero had received 
at the hands of one Locusta, a woman who appeached and 

1 Procters or Factours. 2 Or possesse. 3 Apollo, Neptune, Jupiter, 
Juno, Minerva. 4 Or Proverbe. 5 8eu>v /9/3cD/ta, alluding to the 

deification after his death. 6 Bustum. 7 As the manner was for certaine 
daies before the ashes and reliques were gathered up. 

127 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO brought to light divers confectioners of poysons : and seeing 
CLAUDIUS it wrought later than he looked it should doe, and prooved 
CAESAR no j. j. Q j^g m ind, by re ason that it mooved Britannicus to 
the stoole onely and caused a laske, he sent for the said 
woman, and beate her with his owne hands : laying hardly 
to her charge that in steede of a poyson she had given him 
a remedie and holsome medecine. Now when shee alleaged 
for her excuse that she gave him the lesse dose *, thereby to 
colour and cloke the odious fact, which would have bred 
much anger and hatred : ' Why ! then belike,' quoth he, 'I 
am affraide of the lawe Julia' 2 . And so hee forced her 
before his face in his owne bed-chamber to compound and 
seeth a poison that should be most quicke and of present 
operation. And then having made triall thereof in a kid, 
after he saw once that the beast continued five houres 
before it dyed, he caused the same to be boyled againe 
and manie times more, and so he set it before a pig. And 
when the pig dyed presently upon the taking thereof, hee 
commanded it should be brought into his refection chamber, 
and given unto Britannicus as he sat at supper with him. 
No sooner had he tasted it but hee fell downe dead. Nero 
readily made a lye and gave it out among the rest of his 
guests, that Britannicus was surprised by a fit of the falling 
sicknesse, as his manner was to be. But the next morrow, 
in all hast hee tooke order for his corps to bee caried forth 
to buriall, with no better funerals than ordinarie ; and that, 
in an exceeding great storme of raine. Unto the saydLocusta, 
for her service done, he granted impunitie 3 : he endued her 
also with faire lands : yea and allowed her to have schollers 
for to be trained up under her in that feat. 

34 

His owne mother, for looking narrowly into him, and 
examining his words and deedes somewhat streightly ; for 
seeming also to correct and reforme the same, thus farre 
forth onely at the first he was grieved and offended with, 
as that eft-soones he made her odious to the world, pre- 

1 In quantitie. 2 De Vcncficiis. 3 For her former practise of 

poisoning, by which she stoode condemned. 

128 



TWELVE C^SARS 

tending that he was about to resigne up the Empire and NERO 
depart to Rhodes 1 . Soone after, he deprived her of all 
honour, dignity, and authority: and removing from about 
her the guard of Germaine Souldiours 2 that attended upon 
her person, hee banished her out of the same house with 
him, and so forth out of the precincts of the Palace : neither 
cared he what he did, so he might molest and trouble her : 
suborning some of purpose, both to disquiet her whiles shee 
abode in Rome with suites and actions ; and also when shee 
was desirous of repose and ease in a retiring place out of 
the way, to course her with reproachfull taunts and flout- 
ing scoffes as they passed that way either by land or sea. 
But beeing terrified with her threats and violent shrewd - 
nesse, hee determined to kill and dispatch her at once. 
Having attempted it with poison thrice, and perceiving 
that shee was defended with antidotes and preservatives, 
he provided a bed-chamber for her, with so ticklish an 
arched roufe over her head, as beeing easily unjoincted, the 
frame thereof might fall in peeces in the night, and light 
upon her as she lay a sleepe. When this dessigne could 
not be kept close, but was revealed by some of the complices 
privie thereto, hee devised a ship, so made, as that quickly 
it should cleave a sunder : that either by the wrack, or fall 
of the fore-deck aloft, she might come to a mischiefe and 
perish. And so, making a semblance of a Love-day and 
reconciliation, hee sent for her by most sweet and kinde 
Letters, training her unto Baise, there to celebrate with 
him the solemnity of the Quinquatrian 3 . And having given 
order before hand to certaine Maisters of Gallies for to split 
the Foist 4 wherein she was embarqued, as if by chaunce 
they were run full upon her, he made it late ere he went 
to the feast, and sat long at it. Now when she was to re- 
turne back againe unto Bauli, in lieu of that vessell thus 
shaken and crackt, he put unto her the other abovesaid 
made with joints and vices, easie to fall in pieces : and 
so, with a cheerefull countenance accompanied her (to the 

1 As if she were the cause therof. 2 Militum et Germanorum : Hen dia 
duo. 3 A feast in the honour of Minerva, beginning five daies before the 
Ides of March, i. the 1 1 of March. 4 Or Pinnace. 

% : R 129 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO water side 1 ) and at the parting also kissed her paps. All 
t^ time after, he lay awake in great trouble and feare, 
waiting for the issue of these enterprises. But when he 
understood that all went crosse, and that she was escaped 
to land by swimming ; being altogether to seeke what course 
to take, as L.. Agerinus, her freed-man brought word with 
great joy, How she was escaped alive and safe, he conveied 
privily a dagger close by him 2 ; and as if he had been 
suborned and hired secretly (by her) to kill him, caused the 
said Agerinus to be apprehended and bound with chaines : 
and withall, his mother aforesaid, to be murdred : pretend- 
ing, as if by voluntary death she had avoided the odious 
crime thus detected, and so made her selfe away. Worse 
matter yet than all this and more horrible, is reported 
beside, and that by Authors of good credit and who will 
stand to it: namely, That he ran in all hast to view the 
dead body of his mother when she was killed : that he 
handled every part and member of it : found fault with 
some, commended others : and being thirsty in the meane 
time 3 , tooke a draught of drink. Howbeit, notwithstand- 
ing hee was hartned by the joyous gratulation of Souldiours, 
Senate, and People, yet could he not either for the present 
or ever after, endure the worme and sting of conscience for 
this foule fact, but confesse many a time, that haunted and 
harried he was with the apparition of his mothers ghost : 
tormented also with the scourges and burning torches of 
the Furies. Moreover, with a sacrifice made by direction 
of magicians, he assaied to raise up her soule and spirite, 
and to intreate the same to forgive him. Verily as hee 
travailed through Greece, at the sacred Eleusine ceremonies 
(from the institution and professing wherein all impious, 
godlesse, and wicked persons are by the voyce of a cryer 
debarred a ) he durst not be present. To this parricidy of 
his mother, he adjoyned also the murder of his aunt 4 . For 
when upon a time he visited her lying sicke of a costive 
bellie 5 , and she a woman now well stept in yeares, in handling 

1 Or to the staires. a Betweene his feete. Tacit. 3 About midnight 
it was. 4 Domitia by his fathers side. 5 Ex dtiritia alui, alias enint 
cibum non transmittit, as Plinie writeth, 26 lib. 

130 



TWELVE CAESARS 

the tender downe of his beard new budding forth, chanced, NERO 

(as the manner is) by way of pleasing speech, to say, ' Might 

I but live to take up this soft haire when it fals 1 , I would 

be willing to dye"; he turning to those that stood next 

unto him, in derision and scoffing manner sayde, ' Mary and 

even streight wayes I will cut it of (for her sake), 1 and so 

made no more adoe but gave order 2 unto the Phisitian to- 

plye the sicke woman still with stronger purgatives 3 . For, 

even before she was through dead, he laide sure hold of 

her goods, and suppressed her last wil that nothing might 

escape his clutches. 

35 

Besides Octavia 4 , he maried afterwards two wives : to wit, 
Poppaea 5 Sabina the daughter of one 6 who had beene Questor, 
and the wedded wife before of a romane Knight 7 : then, 
Statilia Messallina, neice 8 in the third degree removed of 
Taurus 9 , twice Consul, who had once triumphed. For to 
have and enjoy her, he murdred her husband Atticus Vestinus A.U.C. 815. 
then Consul, even during the time of that honorable Magi- 
stracie. Soone wearie he was of Octaviae's companie and 
forsooke her bed. And when some friends reproved him for 
it he made answere, that the jewels and ornaments only of a 
wife ought to content her. Soon after, when he had assayed 
many times (but in vaine) to strangle her, he put her away, 
pretending she was barraine. But when the people misliked 
this divorse, and forbare not to raile upon him for it, he pro- 
ceeded, even to confine and banish her quite. In the end he 
murdred her, under a colourable imputation of divers adul- 
teries, charged upon her so impudently and falsely, that when 
al generally who were by torture examined upon the point, 
stood stoutly to the very last in deniall, he suborned and 
brought in Anicetus 10 his own Psedagogue against her, who 

1 As if she wold say, If I might see thee once a man growen, etc., for he 
came to be Emperour before he was 18 yeere olde. 2 You must suppose, 
he sent for the barber first, etc. 3 As purging was the cure, so it was the 
colourable means wherby she was killed. 4 The daughter of Claudius. 
5 Or Pompeia as some read. 6 Titus Ossius. 7 Rufius Crispus. 8 In 
the right line of descent. 9 Statilius who in Augustus time built the great 
Amphitheatre in Rome, bearing his name. 10 Who had brought him up 
in his childhood. 

131 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO should slander himselfe with her and confesse that by a wile 
CLAUDIUS he had abused her bodie. The twelfth day after the said 
divorcement of Octavia, he espoused and maried the afore- 
A.U.C. 8 1 8. ^d d ame Poppaea, whom he loved intirely ; and yet even her 
also he killed with a kicke l of his heele, for that, being big 
with child and sickly withall, she had reviled him and given 
him shrewd words, for comming home so late one night, after 
his running with chariots. By her he had a daughter named 
Claudia Augusta, whom he buried when she was a very 
infant. There was no kinde of affinitie and consanguinity 
were it never so neere, but it felt the waight of his deadly 
hand. Antonia, the daughter of Claudius, refusing after the 
death of Poppaea to bee his wife, he slew, under a pretense 
as if she went about to conspire against him and to alter the 
state. Semblably, he killed all the rest, that were either 
allied unto him or of his kinred. Among whom, A. Plautius 
a young gentleman was one. Whose bodie, after he had by 
force filthily against kind abused before his death : ' Let 
my mother go now,' quoth he, ' and kisse my successors sweet 
lips': giving it out, that he was her welbeloved dearling, and 
by her set on to hope and gape after the Empire. His sonne 
in law Rufinus Crispinus, the son of Poppaea 2 being yet of 
tender yeeres and a youth under age, because the report went 
of him, that in game he would play for Dukedomes 3 and 
Empires, he gave order unto his owne servants for to drowne 
in the sea, whiles he was there fishing. Tuscus his nources 
sonne he confined and sent away, for that being his pro- 
curatour in JEgypt, he had bathed in those baines which 
were built against his comming. His Preceptor and Schoole- 
master Seneca he compelled to dye 4 : albeit he had sworne 
unto him very devoutely, (when he made suite many times 
for a licence to depart the Court, and yeelded up therewith 
all his goods into his hands) That he 5 had no cause to suspect 
him : for he would rather lose his owne life then doe him 
anie hurt. Unto Burrhus, Captaine (of the guarde) 6 he pro- 

1 Or spume. 2 His wife, by Rufius Crispus a former husband. 

8 Ducatus or Captainships. 4 To cut the master veines of armes 

and legs and so to bleed to death. 5 Seneca. 6 Eparchos Ton 
doruphoron. 

132 



TWELVE CAESARS 

mised a medicine to heale his swollen throat *, and sent him 
the rank poison Toxicum for it. His freedmen 2 , that were 
rich and olde, whose favour, friendship and directions had 
stood him in good steede for procuring unto him in times 
past adoption, and afterwards the Imperial rule, he cut 
short every one by poyson, partly put into their meats and 
partly mingled with their drinks. 

36 

With no lesse cruelty raged hee abroad even against 
strangers and meere forainers. A blazing hairy starre, 
commonly thought to portend death and destruction to the 
highest poures, began to arise, and had appeared many 
nights together. Beeing troubled therewith, and enformed 
by Babilus the Astrologer, that Kings were wont to expiate 
such prodigious signes with some notable massacre, and so 
divert the same from themselves, and turne all upon the 
heads of their Peeres and Nobles, he thereupon projected 
the death of all the Noblest personages in the Citie. And 
verily, so much the rather, and, as it were, upon just cause, 
by reason of two conspiracies by him published and divulged 
abroad : of which, the former and the greater, bearing the 
name of Piso 3 , was plotted and detected at Rome : the latter 
going under the name of Vinicius 4 at Beneventum. The con- 
spiratours had their triall, and pleaded bound with three-fold 
chaines : and as some of them confessed the action of their 
owne accord, so others 5 said moreover, That he was beholden 
unto them for it, because they could not possibly doe a cure 
upon him by any other meanes, (disteined as he was and dis- 
honored with all kinde of wicked actes) but onely by death. 
The children of the condemned were expelled the Citie, and 
then, dispatched with poison or hunger-starved. It is for 
certaine knowen, that some of them with their paedagogues 
and booke-keepers tooke their bane all at one dinner to- 
gither, others were restrained for seeking and earning their 
daily food. 



1 A squinancie. 
friends, Pisoniana. 
Sulpitius Asper. 



2 Namely, Doriphorus and Pallas : Tacit. 3 And his 
4 And his adherents, Viniciana. 5 And by name 

133 



NERO 

CLAUDIUS 

CAESAR 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO 
CLAUDIUS 37 

After this without all choise and respect, without all 
measure in his hand, he spared none : he put to death whom- 
soever it pleased him, and for what cause it skilled not. But 
not to make long relation of many, it was laid to Salvidienus 
Orcitus charge, that he had set and let three shops out of 
his house about the forum, unto the Cities and States abroad 
for (their Embassadours) for to make their abode and con- 
verse in. To Cassius Longinus the lawier (a man bereft of 
both his eyes) objected it was, that in the antient pedigree 
of his own house and linage, he had set up againe the images 
of C. Cassius, one of them that murdred Caesar. To Psetas 
Thraseas, for having a sterne and severe countenance like a 
Paedagogue. When these with other were appointed once 
to dy, he allowed them no more then one houres respite to 
live after, and because no further delay might come between, 
he put unto them Chyrurgians (in case they lingred and made 
no hast) to cure them out of hand, (for that was the term 
he used) meaning thereby, to cut their veines and let them 
bleed to death. It is verily thought also, that to a certein 
great eater l (an ^Egyptian borne) that used to feed on raw 
flesh and whatsoever was given him, he had a great desire to 
cast men alive, for to be quartered cut in peeces and devoured 
by him a . Being lifted and puffed up, with these as it were, 
so great successes 2 , he said that no prince ever knew 3 what 
he might do : and oftentimes he cast out many words be- 
tokening very significantly, that he would not spare the 
Senators remaining behind, but one day utterly rase that 
order and degree out of the common- wealth, and permit the 
gentlemen of Rome and his freed-men only to rule provinces 
and have the conduct of armies. Certes, neither at his com- 
ming home nor going forth any whether, vouchsafed he to 
kisse any one of them, no nor so much as once to resalute 
them : and when with formall complements he entred upon 
his worke of digging through Isthmus 4 , he wished and praied 
alowd before a frequent audience, That the enterprise might 

1 Polyphago cuidam> or glutton. 2 Or prosperity. 3 Or none of the 
Emperors knew. 4 In Achaia, nere Corinth. 

134 



TWELVE C^SARS 

speed well and turne to the weale of himselfe and the NERO 
people of Rome, concealing and suppressing al mention of CLAUDIUS 
the Senate 1 . 

38 

But yet for al that, he spared not the people nor forbare 
the very wals and buildings of his country the Citie. When 
one in common talke upon a time chaunced to say, 

'E/zoO OCLVOVTOS yaia fu\0r)TO) Trvpi'% 

When vitall breath is fled from me, 
Let earth with fire imingled be : 

6 Nay rather,"* quoth he, ' 'E/^ou fw^ro?,' 

Whiles vital breath remains in me, etc. 

And even so he did indeede : for being offended, as it were 
with the ylfavoured fashion of the olde houses, as also with 
the narrow, crooked and winding streets, he set the citie of 
Rome on fire so apparantly, that many Citizens of Consuls 
degree, taking his chamber laines 2 in the maner with matches, 
touchwood and hurds in their messuages (within the Citie) 
would not once lay hand on them but let them alone : yea 
and certein garners and store houses about his golden ^Edi- 
fice (for that the plot of ground on which they were situate, 
his mind stood most unto) were by war-engins forcibly shaken, 
throwen down and fired, by reason they were built with stone 
wals. For 6 dayes and 7 nights together raged he in this 
wise making havocke of all, and driving the common-people 
to take up their Innes 3 and shrowd themselves the while 
about the toumbs and moniments of the dead. During this 
time, oeside an infinit number of houses standing apart from 
others b , the goodly aedifices and buildings of noble capitains 
in old time, adorned stil and beautified with the spoiles of 
enemies, the stately temples also of the gods, vowed and 
dedicated by the auntient kings first, and afterwards in the 
Punick and French wars 4 ; burned all, on a light fire : and 
in one word, whatsoever remained from old time worth the 

1 Comprising therein the gentlemens degree : not Senatui, populoque Rom. 
as the manner had beene. 2 Cubiculares> i. the grooms of his chamber. 
3 Or lodgings. 4 With the Carthaginians. 

135 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO seeing and memorable was consumed. This fire, beheld he 
^ a ^ Ut ^ Maecenas high toure c : and taking joye (as he 
sayd himselfe) at the beautiful flame that it made, chaunted 
the winning and destruction of Troie. in that Musitians 
habit wherein he was wont to sing upon the stage. And 
because he would not misse, but lay fast holde upon all 
the bootie and pillage which possibly hee could come by, 
even from thence also, having promised free leave to cast 
forth dead karkasses, and rid away the rammell of the ruines, 
looke what reliques remained of all their goods and substance 
unburnt, he permitted not one to goe unto it. Finally, not 
onely by receiving, but also by exacting Contributions from 
all parts, he beggered well neere the provinces and consumed 
the wealth of private persons. 

39 

To amend the matter well, unto these harmes and 
reprochefull dishonors (of the State) so great as they were 
arising from the Prince, there happened also some other 
calamities by chance and fortune : to wit, a pestilence con- 
tinuing one autumne, whereby thirtie thousand burials were 
reckoned in the record 1 of Libitina 2a ; an unfortunate losse in 
Britaine, wherein two principall townes of great importance 
were sacked 3 , with great slaughter besides of Romane Citizens 
and Allies: a shamefull disgrace received in the East by 
reason that the Romane Legions in Armenia were put under 
the yoke as Slaves, and Syria was hardly and with much adoe 
kept in tearmes of allegeance. But a wonder it was to see, 
and a thing especially to be noted, that amid all these infor- 
tunities hee tooke nothing lesse to the heart, than the shrewd 
checks and reviling taunts of Men : and was to none more 
milde, than to such as had provoked him, either with hard 
speeches, or opprobrious verses. Many infamous libels and 
defamatorie words, both in Greek and Latine, were publikely 

1 As we say in the Church booke. 2 In whose temple were to be bought 
or hired, whatsoever pertained to funerals and burials : Varro. Plutarch 
taketh her for Venus. 3 Camelodunum et Londinium colonies, etc. Tacitus. 
i. Maldon and London ij. Colonies ; and togither with them, Verulamium a 
Burrough free town, (in the ruines wherof S. Albanes now standeth) in which 
places 7000 (by report) were slain of Citizens and Alies. 

136 



TWELVE C^SARS 

written, or otherwise cast and spred abroad against him b , as NERO 
for example these : 

Ne'pcoi/, 'OpeoTTjs, 'AX 

Ne6vvp(j)ov, Ne'pa>i> ISiav 
Nero, Orestes c , Alcmseon d , did shorten mothers life : 

Nero slew his J , when newly her he wedded as his wife. 

Quis neget jfflnece magna de stirpe Neronem ? 

Sustulit hie matrem, sustulit ille patrem. 
Who can deny, of great -ZEnea our Nero sprung to be 

That rid his mother of her life, as Sire 2 from fire did hee e ? 

Dum tendit citharam noster, dum Cornua Parthus, 

Noster erit Paean, ille Hecatebeletes. 
Whiles our Nero bendeth his harpe 3 while Parthian his bow ; 

Our prince shall be Paean. Hee Hecatebeletes f . 

Roma Domusfiet: Veios migrate Quirites 

Sinon et Veios occupet ista domus. 
Rome will become a dwelling house : to Veii flit a pace. 

Quirites, least this house before ye come take up the place. 

But no search made he after the authours hereof, and some 
of them being by the Appeacher convented before the 
Senate, he would not suffer to sustaine any grievous punish- 
ment. As he passed by in the open street, Isidorus the 
Cynick 4 , had checked him alowd in these tearmes, That he 
used to chaunt the calamities 5 of Nauplius h very well, but 
disposed of his owne goods as badly. And Datus, a plaier 
of the Atellane Comaedies 6 in a certein Sonet singing these 
words ', Hugiaine pater , i. Farewel father, "Tyiaive /^rep, i. 
Farewel mother, had acted the same so significantly, as that 
he feigned the one drinking and the other swimming, to ex- 
presse thereby the end of C. Claudius 7 and Agrippina 8 : and 
in the last conclusion of all, with these wordes, 

Orcus vobis ducit pedes, 

Now Pluto leadeth forth your feet k , 

in plaine gesture noted the Senate. The Actor 9 and 

1 To wit Agrippina. 2 Anchises. 3 Hexametre and Pentametre. 
4 Philosopher. 5 Or evils. 6 Which were very lascivious and 

licentious. 7 Whose son he was by adoption, for some report, he tooke 
his poison in a cup of drinke and not in a mushrom. 8 Who was thought 
to have perished in the sea : and indeede she hardly escaped drowning by 
swimming. 9 Datus. 

2 : S 137 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO Philosopher l Nero did no more unto, but banish them Rome 
CLAUDIUS an( j Italic : either for that he set light by all shame and 
infamie ; or els least in bewraying anie griefe, he might stir 
up and provoke pregnant wits to worke upon him. 

40 

Well, the world having indured such an Emperour as 
this, little lesse than 14 yeares, at length fell away and for- 
sooke him cleane. And first the French began, following 
as the ringleader of their insurrection Julius Vindex, who 
that very time governed the Province 2 , as Propretour. Fore- 
told it had been long agoe unto Nero by the Astrologers, 
That one day he should be left forlorne. Whereupon this 
saying was most rife in his mouth, 

To Tc^y'iov 7ra.(ra yaia rpe<ei, 

An Artizane of anie kinde 
In every land will living finde, 

so that he might the better be excused and borne withall 
for studying and practising the art of minstrelsie and sing- 
ing to the harpe, as a skil delightful unto him now a Prince, 
and needfull for him another day a private person. Yet 
some there were who promised unto him so forsaken, the 
goverment of the East parts : and others by speciall name 
the kingdome of Hierusalem : but most of them warranted 
him assuredly the restitution of his former estate. And 
being inclined rather to rest upon this hope, when he had 
lost Britaine and Armenia, and recovered them both againe : 
he thought himselfe discharged then and quit from the fatall 
calamities destined unto him. But sending one time to the 
Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, and hearing this answere from 
thence, That hee must beware of the yeare 73 a , as who would 
say, He was to dye in that yeare (of his owne age) and not 
before ; and divining no whit of Galbaes yeeres, with so 
assured confidence hee conceived in his heart not onely long 
life but also a perpetuall and singular felicity, that when 
he had lost by shipwracke things of exceeding price, he 
stucke not to say among his familiars : That the fishes 
1 Isidorus. 2 OfGaule. 

138 



TWELVE CAESARS 

would bring the same againe unto him 1 . At Naples ad- NERO 
vertised he was of the rebellion in Gaule. Which fell out C 
to be the very same day of the yeare, on which he had 
killed his mother. But hee tooke this newes so patiently 
and carelesly, that hee gave suspicion even of joy and con- 
tentment: as if occasion had beene offered and presented 
thereby to make spoyle (by the lawe of armes) of those 
most rich and wealthy Provinces : and streight waies going 
forth into the Gymnase 2 , he beheld with exceeding great 
earnestnesse and delight the wrestlers and champions striving 
for the prise. At supper time also, being interrupted with 
letters importing more tumults and troubles still : thus farre 
forth onely he grew into choller and indignation, as that 
he threatned mischiefe 3 to them who had revolted 4 . To 
conclude, for eight dayes together he never went about to 
write backe unto any man nor to give any charge or direc- 
tion at all, but buried the matter quite in silence. 

41 

At the last, throughly mooved and netled with the con- 
tumelious edicts of Vindex comming so thicke one in the 
necke of another, he exhorted the Senate, in a letter 
written unto them, to revenge him and the commonwealth : 
alleadging for an excuse the Squinsie 5 whereof hee was sicke : 
and therefore could not himselfe be present in person. But 
nothing vexed him so much as this, That hee was by him 
blamed for an unskilfull musician 6 , and because in steede of 
Nero, he called him ^Enobarbus 7 . And verely as touching 
this name appropriate to his house and family, wherewith 
he was thus in contumelious manner twitted, he professed 
to resume the same, and to lay away the other that came 
by adoption 8 . All other reviling taunts and slaunders hee 

1 As they did to Polycrates that mighty Tyrant of Samos : but it was 
not long before his fall and destruction. 2 Publike place of exercise. 

3 Malum an emphaticall and significant word in this place : like as in Livie, 
lib. 4, Malum militibus meis nisi quieverint. As if he had said, A mischiefe 
take these Rebels : or, Mischiefe will come to them. 4 Descisscnt, al. dedis- 
sent, as if mischief wold fall upon the authors heads. 5 An inflammation 
or swelling in the throate. 6 Citharcsdum^ a singer to the Harp. 7 Which 
was the name of his family, and so had he been called before his adoption. 
8 Nero Claudius Drusus. 

139 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO confuted as meere false, by no other argument than this, 
^at uns kilfulnesse, forsooth, was objected unto him in that 
very art, which he had so painfully studied and brought to 
so good perfection : and therewith asked them eftsones one 
by one, whether they had ever knowen a more excellent 
Musician than himselfe. But when messengers came still 
one after another, in great feare he returned to Rome. 
And having his hart lightned but a little in the way, with 
a vaine and foolish presage by occasion that hee espied 
and observed engraven upon a monument, a certaine French 
souldiour with a Romane knight overmatched in fight and 
trailed along by the haire (of the head) : he at this sight 
leapt for joy and worshipped the heavens. Neither then 
verely, did hee so much as consult in publike with the 
Senate, or assemble the people : but onely call forth home 
to his house some of the chiefe and principall persons among 
them. And having dispatched in great haste this consulta- 
tion, the rest of that day he led them all about to his 
musicall water instruments of a strange devise and fashion, 
not before knowen : and shewing every one by it selfe unto 
them, discoursing also of the reason and difficult worke- 
manship of each one, he promised even anone to bring 
them all forth into the open Theatre, if Vindex would 
give him leave l . 

42 

After that he understood besides, how Galba likewise and 
the provinces of Spaine were revolted, he fell downe at once : 
his heart was then daunted and cleane done : and so he lay 
a good while speechlesse in a traunce, and ready, as one 
would say, to goe out of the world. And so soone as he 
came againe to himselfe, he rent his clothes, beat and knockt 
his head, saying plainely, That he was utterly undone : yea 
and when his nource came about him to comfort his poore 
heart, telling him, that the like accidents had befallen to 
other princes also before him, hee answered againe, That 
hee above all the rest suffred miseries never heard of nor 

1 Which it seems he spake ironically ; if simply, he meaneth, in case Vindex 
interrupted not his sports and the publike felicitie. 

140 



TWELVE C^SARS 

knowen before : thus in his life time to forgoe and loose NERO 

his Empire. Neither yet for all this strucke he saile one 

whit in laying away or leaving out one jot of his ordinary 

riot and supine slouthfulnesse. Nay when some little inckling 

was given of good newes out of the provinces as he sat at a 

most sumptuous and plentifull supper : hee pronounced even 

with expresse gesture like a player, certaine ridiculous rimes, 

and those set to lascivious and wanton measures, against 

the chiefetaines of rebellion : and what were those ? even 

stale stuffe and commonly knowen already. Being also 

secretly conveied into the Theatre he sent word unto a 

certaine Player acting his part with great contentment 

of them that sawe and heard him, That he did but abuse 

his occupations l . 

43 

Immediatly upon the beginning of this feareful tumult 2 , 
it is credibly thought that he intended manie designes and 
those very cruell and horrible: yet such as agreed well enough 
with his naturall humour: namely, to sende under hand 
successours and murderers of all those that were Commanders 
of armies and regents of Provinces, as if they all had con- 
spired and drawen in one and the selfe same line. Item, to 
massacre all banished persons where soever, and the French- 
men every one that were to be found in Rome : those because 
they should not band and combine with them that revolted : 
these, as complices with their owne contrie men, and their 
abbetters. Item, to permit the armies for to make spoyle 
and havocke of the Provinces in Gaule. Item to poyson all 
the Senate generally at some appointed feast. Last of all 
to fire Rome and let wild beasts loose among the people, 
that thereby there might be more adoe and greater difficulty 
to save the Citie. But being skared from these designments, 
not so much upon anie repentance, as despaire of their ac- 
complishment : and perswaded withall, that necessarie it was 
to make a voyage and warlike expedition ; the Consuls then 

1 In that hee plaied without a concurrent, whereas himself but for his 
Businesses would have put him down. 2 Occasioned by the Commotions 
and revolts abroad. 

141 



NERO 



CAESAR 



THE HISTORIE OF 

in place he deprived of their goverment before the due 
time, and himselfe alone entred upon the Consulship in 
their roomes, as if forsooth, the destinies had so ordained, 
that Gaule could not be subdued but by a (sole) Consul 1 . 
Having then taken into his hands the knitches of rods 2 , 
when after meat he withdrew himselfe aside out of his 
dining chamber, leaning upon the shoulders of his familiar 
friends, hee protested, that so soone as ever he was come 
into the Province : he would shew himselfe unarmed before 
the armies: and do nothing else but weepe: and after he 
had once by that meanes reclaimed the authors of the Revolt 
and brought them to repentance, sing merily, the day 
following, songs of triumph with them that rejoyced with 
him. ' Which songs,' quoth hee, ' ought with all speede even 
now to be composed for me.' 

44 

In the preparation of this warlike voiage, his speciall care 
was, to choose forth meete wagons for the cariage of his 
musicall instruments ; to cut and poll the concubines which 
hee caried out with him like men : and to furnish them with 
battaile axes and little bucklers after the Amazonian fashion. 
This done, he cited the Citie-tribes to take the militarie 
oth : and when no serviceable men would answere to their 
names, he enjoyned all Masters to set forth a certaine 
number of bond -servants, neither admitted he out of the 
whole family and houshold of every man, but such only as 
were most approved, excepting not so much as their stewards 
or clarkes and secretaries. He commanded likewise all 
degrees to allow and contribute towards this expedition 
part of their estate according as they were valued in the 
Censors booke: and more than so, the tenants inhabiting 
private messuages and great houses standing by them selves, 
to pay out of hand in yearely pension to his exchequer. 
Hee exacted also with great skornefulnesse 3 and extremitie, 
good money rough and new coyned, silver fine and full of 

1 As sometime Cn. Pompeius Magnus was, for the like exploit. 2 The 
Consular authoritie. 3 Surlinesse. 



1 i. Cornemungers lucrantium. 2 Or the fleete it selfe, navis pro classe 
ttckusispro nave by the figure Synechdoche. 3 Alluding to his Chariot 
running. 4 A Sachell ascopcra. 5 Ego quid potui. 6 Culeum. 

7 Fillers. 8 Gallos et eum cantando excisse. 9 Presaging foretokens. 

10 Ominum. 



TWELVE C^SARS 

risings : golde pure and red as fire. In so much, as most NERO 
men openly refused the paiment of all contributions : de- 
manding in a generall consent, that what monies soever 
promoters had received for their informations, should rather 
be required backe againe at their hands. 

45 

By the dearth likewise of corne, looke what hatred was 
conceived against the gainers 1 , the same grewe heavie upon 
him. For it fell out by chance that in this publicke famine 
word came of a Ship 2 of Alexandria a , how it was arrived 
fraight with a kinde of dust for the wrestlers of Nero his 
court. Having thus stirred up and kindled the hatred of 
all the world against him, there was no contumelious 
despite but he sustained. To one statue of his, just behind 
the crowne of the heade, was set a chariot 3 with an Imprese 
in Greeke to this effect, Now in truth, and not before is 
the combate b . And againe, Now or never hale and drawe c . 
To the necke of another, there was tyed a lether-bagge 4 , 
and therewith this title, What could I doe 5 d ? But thou 
hast deserved a verie lether budge 6 e indeed. This writing 
also was fastned upon the Columnes 7 , Now with his chaunt- 
ing hee hath awakened the French 8 f . And by this time 
manie there were who in the nigt season making semblance 
of chiding and brawling with their servants, called often for 
a Vindex s . 

46 

Beside all this, he tooke affrights at the manifest por- 
tents 9 as well newe as old, of dreams, of prodigies a and of 
Osses 10 . For where as before time, he was never wont to 
dreame, when he had murdred his mother b once there ap- 
peared visions in his sleepe, him thought hee saw the helme 
of a ship wrested out of his hand as hee steered it : and 



143 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO that by his wife Octavia hee was haled into a very narrow 
CLAUDIUS anc l blinde place : one while that he was covered all over 
(LESAR with a mu ltitude of winged ants ; another while, that the 
images of brave men descended of noble houses dedicated 
to Pompeius Theatre, went round about him, and debarred 
him from going forward. Also, that his ambling guelding, 
wherein hee tooke most delight, was in most parts trans- 
figured into the forme of an ape : but having his head only 
sound and entier, did set up a lowde and shrill voice neigh- 
ing. Out of the Mausoleum x , when all the dores thereof 
flewe of their owne accord open, a voice was heard calling 
him by name. Upon the Calends 2 of Januarie, his domes- 
ticall gods, garnished and adorned (as they weare), at the 
verie time when the sacrifice was in preparing, fell all 
downe 8 . And as he was observing the signes by bird flight, 
Sporus presented him with a ring for a newe yeares gift : in 
the pretious stones whereof, was engraven the ravishing and 
carying away of Proserpina. At the solemne nuncapation 
of his vowes, when as a great and frequent number of all 
degrees were alreadie assembled together, the keyes of the 
Capitoll could hardly be found. What time as out of his 
invective oration against Vindex these wordes were rehearsed 
in the Senate, That such wicked persons should suffer 
punishment, they all cryed out with one voice, Tu fades 
Auguste, i. Thou shalt so doe O Augustus. This also had 
beene observed, that the last Tragaedie which he acted and 
sung in publike place, was (Edipus the Banished, and just as 
he pronounced this verse, 



? avaye erttyya/zos, fjLrjrrjp, irdryp, 

How can I chuse but death desire, 

Thus bidden by wife, by mother and sire ? ' 



he fell downe 4 . 



47 



In this meane while, when newes came that all the other 
armies also rebelled, the letters delivered unto him, as hee 

1 The stately sepulchre of Augustus. 2 First day. 3 All this 

hapned upon the new-yeares day. 4 Decidis or desisse, i. stayed and 
gave over. 

144 



TWELVE C^SARS 

sate at dinner hee tare in peeces, overthrewe the table, and NERO 
two cuppes (of Chrystall) out of which he tooke the great- 
est pleasure to drinke, and which he called Homericos, for 
certaine verses of Homere la engraven and wrought upon 
them, he dashed against the paved floure. Then, after he 
had received a poison of Locusta and put it up in a golden 
boxe, he went directly into the hortyards of the Servitii : 
where, having sent before his most trusty freed-servants 
unto Ostia for to rig and prepare a fleet to sea, he sounded 
the Tribunes and Centurions of the guard, whether they 
would beare him company and flie with him, or no. But 
when some of them made it coy and kept some hafting : 
others in plaine termes refused ; and one also cried out 
aloud, 

Usque adeone mori miserum est ? b 

What ! is it such a miserie 

To leave this life and so to die ? 

he cast about, and thought of many and sundry shifts. 
Whether hee should goe as an humble suppliant unto the 
Parthians or to Galba, or whether it were best for him, 
arraied all in blacke to come abroad into the Citie, and 
there in open place before the Rostra, with all the rufull 
and piteous moane that hee could possibly make, crave 
pardon for all that was past, and unlesse hee could turne 
the peoples harts unto mercy 2 , make suite to have if it were 
but the Deputy-ship of ./Egypt graunted unto him c . Certes, 
found there was afterwards in his Cabinet a Speech of his 
owne penning, as touching this Argument. But men thinke 
hee was scared from this enterprise, as fearing least before 
he thither could come 3 , he should be pulled in peeces. Thus, 
putting off all farther cogitation of this matter unto the 
next day, and awakened about midnight 4 ; when he under- 
stood that the guard of his Souldiours was retired and gone, 
hee leapt forth of his bed, and sent all about to his friends. 
But because no word was brought back from any of them, 
himselfe accompanied with a fewe about him went to every 
one of their lodgings : where finding all dores shut, and no 

1 See the annotation upon this place. 2 And to suffer him for to injoy 
the Empire. 3 To the Rostra. 4 Or starting out of his sleepe. 

2 : T 145 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO body to make him answere, he returned to his bed chamber. 
CLAUDIUS By which time, his Keepers also and Warders were slipt from 
thence : but they had stollen away first the hangings and 
furniture of his chamber, yea and set out of the way the 
box aforesaid with the poison. Then straightwaies he 
sought for Spicillus the Sword-fencer 1 , or any other com- 
mon hackster he cared not who, by whose hand he might 
receive his deaths wound. But finding none, ' Well, 1 quoth 
he, 'and have I neither a friend nor a foe?' And so he 
runnes forth, as if he would have throwne himselfe headlong 
into Tiberis. 

48 

But having reclaimed once againe that violent moode, hee 
desired some more secret retyring place, wherein he might 
lurke a while and recall his wits together. And when 
Phaon his freed man made offer unto him of a Farme house 
of his, that he had by the Citie side, about foure miles off, 
betweene the high-waies Salaria and Numentana, bare footed 
as hee was and in his shirt 2 , hee cast over it a cloake all 
sullied and which had lost the colour. And so covering 
his head, and holding an hand kercheife before his face, to 
horseback hee went, having not above foure persons in his 
companie, of which Sporus made one 3 . And being by and 
by affrighted with an Earthquake and lightning that flashed 
against his face, he heard withall, as an out-crie and showt 
(from the Campe hard-by), of the Souldiours ossing all mis- 
chiefe at him and all good unto Galba : yea, and one of 
the passengers that he met, saying, These be they that 
pursue Nero, as also another asking, What newes in Rome 
of Nero ? v Now by occasion that his horse under him sent- 
ing a dead carkasse that was throwne out in the way, started 
and flung at on side, his face was discovered, and himselfe 
knowne of one Missicius a Pretorian Souldiour, who saluted 
him by his name. When they were come to the next Lane, 
turning out of the Rodeway, their horses they forsooke and 
turned them up : and so among thickets of shrubs, rough 

1 Mirmillonem. 2 Single wastcoate. 3 The rest were Phaon, Epaphro- 
ditus and Neophitus. 

146 



TWELVE CAESARS 

bushes and briers, with much a-doe through a narrow path NERO 

within a reed plot, and not without clothes l spread under CLAUDIUS 

foote, he gat at length as farre as to the wall of the Country 

house above said over and against him. There, when the 

said Phaon perswaded him to bestow himselfe the meane 

while, within a pit, from whence sand had beene cast forth, 

' Nay,' quoth he, ' I will never goe quick under ground 2 ': and 

so, after he had staied a little (while there was a secret way 

a making to let him into the ferme house), he laded up water 

with his owne hand out of a ditch under him, minding to 

drink: 'and this,' quoth he, ; is Neroes decocted 3 water.' After 

this, because his cloake was torne among the bushes and briers 

aforesaid, he rid it from the pricky sprigs that were runne 

through and stuck therein, and so creeping upon all foure 

through a straight and narrow hole digged in the wall for 

him, received hee was into the next backe roome : where he 

laid him downe on a pallet made of a simple scant mattrice, 

and an olde over-worne cloake cast over it for a coverlet. 

Now when hunger came upon him, and thirst with all the 

second time, the browne and course bread verily which was 

offred unto him he refused ; but of warme water he dranke 

a prety draught. 

49 

When as each one called then instantly on every side 
upon him, to deliver him selfe with all speede from the 
reproachfull contumelies and abuses, whereto hee was hourely 
subject, he commaunded a grave to be made before his face, 
and gave a measure therefore according to the just propor- 
tion of his body : and therewith, if any peeces of marble 
stone might be found about the house, to be laid in order : 
that water also and wood should bee gotten together for his 
dead body to be washed anone therewith : weeping at every 
word he spake, and inserting ever and anone this pittifull 

1 For feare either of pricking his feete, or of being heard to goe. 2 Or 
into my grave. 8 Or sodden. Plinie reporteth, lib. 31, cap. 3: That 

Nero devised to seeth water first, then within a glasse to let it stand in snow, 
wherby it became exceeding cold : partly by the snow, and in part by the 
former decoction. A delicate drinke in the heate of Sommer. 

147 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO speech, Quails artjfex Pereo! 1 What an excellent Artisane 
CLAUDIUS am 1 1 an d y e t nowe must I die 2 . Whiles some stay was 
made about these complements, Phaons Courrier 3 brought 
certaine letters which hee intercepted and snatcht out of his 
hands. And reading therein that hee had his Dome by the 
Senate, To be an Enemie to the State : That he was laid 
for all about to be punished, More maiorum. ' More maio- 
rum ! ' quoth he, ' what kinde of punishment is that ? ' and 
when he understoode, it implied thus much, That the man 
so condemned, should be stript all naked, his head locked 4 
fast in a forke, and his body scourged with rods to death, 
he was so terrified therewith, that hee caught up two 
daggers 6 which hee had brought with him : and trying the 
points of them both how sharpe they were 6 , he put them 
up againe, making this excuse, That the fatall houre of 
his death was not yet come. And one while he exhorted 
Sporus to begin for to lament, weepe and waile: another 
while he intreated hard, That some one of them would kill 
him selfe first, and by his example helpe him to take his 
death. Sometime also he checked and blamed his owne 
timorousnesse in these wordes, ' I live shamefully ' : and in 
reproach, Ov Trpeirei Nepow, ov irpeirei' vrjfyeiv Set eV rot? 
TOLOVTOW dye eyeipe areavrov, i. ' It becomes not Nero ; it 
becomes him not. In such cases as these hee had neede to 
bee wise and sober : goe to man, plucke up thy heart and 
rouse thy selfe/ Nowe by this time approached the Horse- 
men neere at hand, who had a warrant and precept to bring 
him alive. Which when hee perceived, after hee had with 
trembling and quaking uttered this verse, 



KTVTTOS ovara 
The trampling noise of horses swift resoundeth in mine eares, 

he set a dagger 8 to his throat, whiles Epaphroditus his 
Secretarie 9 lent him his hand to dispatch him. When 

1 Meaning his singular skill in Musicke, for which pittie it was he should 
ever die. 2 Or else, What manner of artisane am I now become, thus to 
prepare mine owne funerall ? 8 Or Footman. 4 Or set. 5 Or rapiers. 
6 Acie : pro acumine mucronato. 7 Homer, Iliad x. spoken by Nestor. 
8 Or rapier. 9 Or his Master of requests. 

148 



TWELVE C^SARS 

he was yet but halfe dead, a Centurion brake in upon him, NERO 

and putting his cloake upon the wound, made semblance 

as if hee came to aide and succour him : unto whom he 

answered nothing but this, 'Too late. And is this your 

loyaltie and allegeance ?' In which very word he yeelded up 

his breath, with his eyes staring out and set in his head, to 

the great feare and horrour of all that were present. He 

had requested of the companie which attended upon him, no 

one thing more earnestly than this, That no man might 

have his head severed from the body, but that in any wise 

he might be burnt whole. And Icelus, a freed man of 

Galba, who not long before was delivered out of prison 

(into which he was cast 1 at the beginning of the first 

tumult 2 ) permitted so much 3 . 

50 

His funerals were performed with the charges of 200000 
Sesterces : his corps was caried forth (to buriall) enwrapped 
within white cloathes of Tinsel, woven with gold wire 
betweene, the very same that hee had worne upon the 
Calends of Januarie. His reliques, Ecloge and Alexandra 
his two Nources, together with Acte his Concubine bestowed 
within the monument belonging to the house of the Domitii 
his Auncestours: which is to be scene out of Mars field, 
situate upon the Knap of an hill within their Hortyards. 
In which Sepulcher his chest 4 , made of Porphyrite Marble, 
with an Altar (as it were) or table of white Marble of Luna 
standing upon it, was enclosed round about with a fence of 
Thasian Marble stone. 

61 

Hee was for stature almost of complet heighth 5 . His 
body full of specks and freckles, and foule of skinne besides. 
The haire of his head somewhat yellow: his countenance 
and visage rather faire, than lovely and well favoured. His 
eyes gray and somewhat with the dimmest. His neck full 

1 By Nero. 2 Occasioned by the rebellion in Gaule and Spaine. 
3 For he might do all in al with Galba. See Galb. 14. 4 Or Cophin. 
5 Within a little of sixe foote. 

149 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO and fat. His belly and paunch bearing out : with a paire 
CLAUDIUS O f passing slender spindle shanks : but withall, he was very 
healthfull. For, being as he was so untemperate and most 
royotously given, in 14 yeeres space, he never fell sicke but 
thrice : yet so, as hee neither forbare drinking of wine, nor 
any thing else that hee used to doe. About the trimming 
of his body and wearing of his cloathes so nice, as it was 
shamefull : in so much as hee would alwaies have the bush 
of his head laide and plaited by curies in degrees 1 : but what 
time as he travailed in Achaia, hee drew it backward also 
from the crowne of his head and wore it long 2 . For the 
most part, he ware a dainty and effeminate pied garment 
called Synthesis : and with a fine Lawne neck Kercheif bound 
about his neck he went abroad in the Streetes, ungirt, un- 
trussed, and unshod. 

52 

Of all the Liberall Sciences in manner, he had a tast when 
he was but a child. But from the Studie of Philosophie 
his mother turned his minde ; telling him, It was repugnant 
to one who another day was to bee a Soveraigne : and from 
the knowledge of auncient Oratours, his Maister Seneca 
withdrew him, because hee would hold him the longer in 
admiration of himselfe. And therefore, being of his owne 
accord readily enclined to Poetry, he made verses voluntarily 
and without paine. Neither did he (as some think) set forth 
other mens Poems as his owne. There have come into mine 
hands writing tables and bookes containing verses very 
famous and well knowne abroade, written with his owne 
hand : so as a man may easily see they were not copied out 
of other bookes, nor yet taken from the mouth of any other 
that indited them, but plainely penned, as a man would say, 
by one that studied for them, and as they came in his head, 
so put them downe : so many blots and skrapings out, so 
many dashes and interlinings were in them. 

1 As you may see in the coines and pictures of Otho the Emperour ; Statius 
calleth this suggestum coma, lib. 3, Sylv. 2 Haply in imitation of Apollo 
(who was Intonsus, and is called by Homer therefore dffe/xre/c 6/^17$) because 
there especially he professed Musick, whereof Apollo is the Patrone. 

150 



TWELVE CAESARS 

NERO 
53 CLAUDIUS 

No small delight he had beside in painting; and most of 
all in forging and moolding counterfaites. But above all, 
he was ravished and lifted up with popularity and praise of 
men : desirous therfore to imitate and equal them, who by 
any meanes pleased the humours and contented the minds 
of the common people. There went an opinion and speech of 
him, that after he had gained the Coronets for his musicall 
feats performed upon the stage, hee would at the next five 
yeares revolution, go unto the Olympicke games, and contend 
for the prise among the Champions there. For, he practised 
wrestling continually. Neither beheld he the Gymnicke 
games throughout all Greece otherwise, than sitting below 
within the Stadium 1 , as the manner of the Judges and 
Umpires of such masteries : and if any paires 2 of them drew 
to farre backe out of the appointed place, to plucke them 
with his own hands into the middle againe. He had in- 
tended moreover (since he was reputed to have equalled 
Apollo in singing and matched the Sun in charioting) to 
imitate also the worthie acts of Hercules. And men say, 
there was a Lion prepared, which he, all naked, should 
either with his club braine, or els with streight clasping 
beetweene his armes throttle and crush to death within the 
Amphitheatre, in the sight of all the people. 

54 

Certainely, a little before his ende he had openly made a 
vowe, That in case he continued stil in good and happie 
estate, represent he would likewise at the games, in his owne 
person after victory obtained, an Organist and player upon 
water instruments, upon the flute also and hautbois, yea 
and a bagpiper, and on the last day (of the said games) an 
actor of Enterludes : what time he would daunce and gesture 
Turnus in Virgill. And some write, that Paris the actor 
was by him killed, as a concurrent that stood in his way 
and eclipsed his light. 

1 Or the lists. 2 Or couples matched. 

151 



THE HISTORIE OF 

NERO 

CLAUDIUS 55 

CAESAR A. desire he had, (foolish and inconsiderate though it 

were) of aeternity and perpetuall fame. And therefore, 
abolishing the old names of many things and places, hee did 
upon them new, after his owne. The moneth Aprill also 
hee called Neroneus. He ment moreover to have named 
Rome, Neropolis 1 . 

56 

All Religions whersoever he had in contempt, unlesse it 
were that onely of the Syrian goddesse 2 . And yet soone 
after he despised her so farre, that hee polluted her 3 with 
urine : by occasion that he was wonderfully addicted to an 
other superstition, wherein alone hee continued and per- 
severed most constantly. For having received in free gift 
a little puppet representing a young girle, at the hands of 
a meane commoner and obscure person 4 , as a remedy, 
forsooth, or defensative against al treacheries and secret 
practises: and thereupon straight waies chauncing to dis- 
cover a conspiracie, he held it for the soveraine deity above 
all, and persisted honoring and worshipping it every day 
with 3 sacrifices. Nay he would have men beleeve, that he 
foreknew things to come by advertisement and warning 
given from her. Some few moneth s before he lost his life, 
he tooke regard also of the Skill in prying into beasts 
entrailes. Which he observed in deede, but never sped well 
therewith, nor gained thereby the favour of the Gods. 

57 

A.U.C. 821. He died in the two and thirtieth yeere of his age; that 
very day of the yeere, on which in times past he had 
murdred his wife Octavia : and by his death brought so 
great joy unto the people generally, that the Commons 
wore Caps 5 , and ranne sporting up and downe throughout 
the Citie. Yet there wanted not some, who a long time 

1 Neroes Citty. 2 Atergate or Astarte ; the same some think that Juno. 
3 Her image. 4 Or unknowen to him. 5 Or Bonets, to testifie 
freedome recovered. 

152 



CvESAR 



TWELVE C^SARS 

after decked his Tombe with gay flowers that the Spring NERO 

and Sommer doe affourd : and who, one while brought forth CLAUDIUS 

his Images clad in robes embrodred with purple gards before 

the Rostra : otherwhile published his Edicts, as if he had 

beene yet living and would shortly returne to the great 

mischiefe of his enemies. Moreover, Vologesus King of the 

Parthians, when he sent his Embassadours unto the Senate 

for to treat about the renuing of league and Alliance with 

them, requested this also very earnestly, That the Memoriall 

of Nero might be still solemnized. To conclude, when 

twenty yeeres after his decease (whiles I my selfe was but 

a young man) one arose among them (no man knew from 

whence, nor of what condition) who gave it out, That hee 

was Nero, (so gracious was his name among the Parthians,) 

he was mightily upheld and maintained, yea and hardly 

delivered up againe 1 . 

1 Namely, to Calphurnius Asprenas, to be executed for a lying counterfeit. 



153 



THE HISTORIE OF 



THE HISTORIE OF 
SERVIUS SULPITIUS GALBA 




HE Progenie l of the Caesars ended in 
Nero. Which, that it would so come to 
passe, appeared verily by many signes, 
but by two of all other most evident. 
As Livia in times past immediatly after 
her mariage with Augustus, went to see 
a Mannour house and land of her owne 
in the Veientane Territorie, it fortuned 
that an Eagle soaring over her head let fall into her lap a 
white hen, holding in her bill a Lawrell branch even as she 
had caught it up. And thinking it good to have both the 
foule kept, and the said branch set in the ground : behold 
there came of the one such a goodly broode of chickens 2 , 
that even at this day the very house aforesaid is called 
Ad Gattinas : and sprung of the other so faire a row of Bay 
trees, that all the Caesars when they were to ride in triumph 
gathered from thence their Laurell guirlands 3 . And as the 
manner was, that when any of them tryumphed, they should 
pricke downe straight waies others in the same place : so it 
was observed likewise, that a little before the death of every 
one the tree by him planted, did mislike and die. In the 
last yeere therefore of Nero, not onely the whole grove of 
bay trees withered to the very roote, but all the hens there 
died every one. And anone after the temple of the Caesars 
being strucken with lightning, the heads withall of their 



1 Or line. 2 Which proved white, as also the whole breed of them. 
3 And branches which they held in their hands. Plin. 

154 



Dio. 



TWELVE C^SARS 

Statues fell downe all at once, and the Scepter of Augustus SERVIUS 
was shaken out of his hands \ ^ALBA^ 



After Nero succeeded Galba, in no degree allied unto the A.U.C. 821. 
house of the Caesars : but without all question a right noble 
gentleman of a great and auncient race 2 : as who in the 
titles and Inscriptions over his owne Statues wrote himselfe 
alwaies the Nephew 3 once remooved of Q. Catulus Capi- 
tolinus : and being once Emperour did set up also in his 
Haule 4 the Lineall processe and race of his house, wherein 
he deriveth his descent by the father side, from Jupiter, and 
by his mother from Pasiphae, the wife of King Minos. 

3 

To prosecute the Images and Laudatorie testimonials 
belonging to the whole stocke and linage in generall were 
a long peece of worke : those onely of his own family wil 
I briefly touch. The first of all the Sulpitii, why, and 
wherupon he bare the surname of Galba, there is some 
doubtfull question. Some thinke it came by occasion of a 
Towne in Spaine, which after it had beene a long time in 
vaine assaulted, hee at length set on fire with burning 
brands besmeered all over with Galbanum 5 : others, for that 
in a long sickenesse which hee had, hee used continually 
Galbeum, that is to say, a cure with remedies enwrapped 
within wooll 6 : some againe because hee seemed to be very 
fat, and such a one, the French doth name Galba : or con- 
trariwise, in regard that he was as slender, as are those 
creatures (or wormes) 7 which breede in the trees called 
Esculi, and be named Galbae. This familie one Servius A.U.C. 610. 
Galba who had beene Consul, and in his time most eloquent, 
ennobled first, and made renowmed, who by report, rulinge 

1 Plin. saith the very same. 2 Or petigree. 3 Pronepotem. 4 Or 
Court yard. 5 A gumme or hardened juice yssuing out of the roote (when 
it is wounded) of a plant called Ferula. 6 Like unto those round rols which 
women in stead of farthingales use under their clothes beneath the wast called 
in T.^Hn^ fz*Jh 7 Resembling magots. 



in Latine 



155 



GALBA 

A.U.C. 710. 



A.U.C. 775. 



THE HISTORIE OF 

SERVIUS the province of Spaine as Praetour, having treacherously 1 
SULPITIUS put to sworde 30000 2 Lusitanes, was the cause of the Viria- 
tine 3 warre. His Nephew being maliciously bent against 
Julius Csesar (whose Lieuetenant he had bin in Gaule) for a 
repulse that he tooke in suing to be Consul, joyned in the 
conspiracy with Cassius and Brutus : for which condemned 
he was by the law Paedia. From this man descended 
immediately the Grandsire and father of this Galba the 
Emperour. His Grandfather for his booke and learning was 
more famous, then for any dignity in common weale that 
ever he attained unto. For, he arose no higher, than to 
the degree of a Praetour : but many histories he wrote, and 
those not slightly nor negligently composed. His father 
bare the honourable office of Consul : a man very low of 
stature and withall crowchbacked : and having but a meane 
gift in Oratory yet used he 'to plead causes industriously. 
Two wives he had, Mummia Achaica the neipce of Catulus, 
and once remooved of Lucius Mummius, who rased and 
destroyed Corinth : likewise Livia Ocellina, an exceeding 
welthy Ladie and a beautiful. Of whom for his noble bloud 
sake, it is thought he was woed a : yea, and somewhat the 
more hotely, after that, (upon her importunate suite) hee 
stript himselfe once out of his clothes in a secret place before 
her, and revealed the imperfection of his bodie, because he 
would not seeme to deceive her, for want of knowledge. By 
Achaica, he had issew Caius and Servius. Of whome, Caius 
the elder, having wasted his estate and spent all, left the 
City of Rome, and was by Tiberius prohibited to put in his 
lot for to be chosen Proconsull in his yeere 4 : whereupon 
voluntarilie he killed himselfe. 



A.U.C. 751. To come now unto Servius Galba the Emperour, borne he 
was when M. Valerius Messalla, and Cn. Lentulus were 
Consuls, the ninth day before the Calends of Januarie, in a 

1 Perfidia according to M. Tullius in Bnrto. Some expound it otherwise, 
namelie for their treachery. Livius. 2 7000 as Valerius Max. saith. 
3 Of Viriatus the Captaine thereof. 4 When his time by course came. 

156 



TWELVE C^SARS 

country house situate under l a little hill neere unto Terra- SERVIUS 
cina, on the left hand as men goe to Fundie. Being 
adopted by his stepmother 2 , he assumed the name of Livius, 
and the surname Ocella 3 , changing his fore name with all. 
For, afterwards even unto the time of his Empire, he was 
forenamed Lucius in steed of Servius. It is for certain 
knowne, that Augustus (what time as little Galba among 
other boyes like himselfe saluted him,) tooke him by his 
pretie cheeke 4 and said, Kal av TeKvop. TT}? apX*]? ^f^&v 
Trapayevo-ii, i. 'And thou also my child shall have a tast one 
day of our soveraine rule.' Tiberius likewise, when hee had 
knowledge once that hee 5 should bee Emperour, but not 
before old age, ' Go to,' quoth he, ' let him live a Gods name, 
seeing it is nothing to us.' Also as his Grand-father was 
sacrificing for the expiation of an adverse flash of light- 
ning 6 , (what time an Mgle caught out of his hands the 
inwards of the beasts, caried them away, and bestowed them 
in an Oke bearing mast 7 ) answere was given unto him by 
the Soothsayers out of their learning, that thereby was 
portended and foreshewed unto his house, soveraine govern- 
ment : but it would be late first. Then he againe, by way 
of Irrision, ' Yee say very true indeed, that will be,' quoth hee, 
' when a mule shall bring foorth a fole.' Afterwards when 
this Galba began to rebell and aspire unto the Empire, 
nothing hartened him in this dessigne of his so much, as the 
foling of a mule. For when all men besides, abhorred this 
foule and monstrous prodigie, he alone tooke it to be most 
fortunate : calling to remembrance the fore said sacrifice and 
the speech of his grandfather. When hee had newly put on 
his virile gowne, he dreamt that fortune spake these words 
unto him, namely, how she stood before his doore all weary, 
and unlesse she were let in the sooner she should become a 
pray unto whom soever shee met. No sooner awakened he, 
and opened his Port hall doore 8 , but he found hard by the 
entry 9 , a brason Image of the said goddesse about a cubit 

1 Suppositct) or rather as some read, Superposita, i. upon. ~ Livia 
Ocellina. 3 Or Ocellaris. 4 As the maner was in kissing young children. 
5 Galba. 6 For some be fortunate and signifie good. 7 For some bee 
fruitlesse. 8 Or the outward Court-gate. 9 Or Doore-sill. 

157 



THE HISTORIE OF 

SERVIUS long: which hee caried away with him in his bosome to 
Tusculum where he was wont to summer, and having con- 
secrated it in one part of his house there, worshipped the same 
from that time forward with monethly supplications, and a 
Vigill l all night long once every yeere. And albeit he was 
not yet come to his middle and staied age, yet retained he 
most constantly, this old manner of the Citie (which was 
nowe worne out of use, but that it continued still in his 
house and linage) that his freed-men and bond servants 
should duelie twice a day present themselves all together 
before him : and one by one in the morning salute him with 
a good morrowe, and in the eveninge take their leave like- 
wise with a farewell and also good night. 



Among the liberall Sciences he gave himselfe to the 
studie of the (Civil) lawe. He entred also into the state of 
wedlocke, but having buried his wife Lepida, and two sonnes 
that he had by her, he led alwaies after a single life. 
Neither could he ever, by any offer or condition be perswaded 
to marriage again, no not of Dame Agrippina, who by the 
death of Domitius 2 became widdow, and had by all meanes 
solicited Galba even whiles he was the husband of a wife, 
and not yet a single man, and in so much as at a great meet- 
ing of Ladies and Matrones, the mother of his wife Lepida 
shooke her uppe roundly, yea and knockt her well for it 
with her own fists. He honoured and affected above al 
others Livia Augusta the Empresse, through whose grace 
and favoure whiles shee lived he became mightie, and by 
whose will and testament when she was dead, he had like to 
have beene enriched. For wheras among others whom shee 
remembred in her will, he had a speciall legacie to the valew 
of 50 millians of Sesterces bequeathed unto him 3 : because 
the said summe was set downe in figures and cyphres 
and not written out at large, her heire Tiberius brought 
it downe unto one halfe millian 4 : and yet even that he 
never received. 

1 Or wake. 2 The father of Nero. 3 Quingenties HS., some read 
quinquagies rather, i. 5 millians. 4 Ad quingenta^ sc. sestertia. 

158 



TWELVE C^SARS 



Having entred upon the honourable offices of state before 
due time by law set downe : when he was Praetour, during 
the playes and games called Floralia 1 , hee shewed a new 
and strange kind of sight, to wit, Elephants walking uppon 
Ropes. After that, he governed the province Aquitaine 
almost one whole yeare. Soone after he bare the ordinarie 
Consulship in his due time 2 for the space of 6 moneths. 
And it fell out so, that as himselfe therein succeeded 
Domitius the father of Nero, so Sylvius the father of Otho 
followed immediatly after him : a very presage of the event 
ensuing: whereby hee came to bee Emperour just in the 
middle betweene the sonnes of them both. Being by Caius 3 
Caesar substituted Lord generall for Getulicus, the very 
next day after he was come to the Legions, when as the 
soldiers at a solemne shew which happened then to be 
exhibited, clapped their hands, he restrained them with 
this Praecept a , That they should keepe their hands within 4 
their Clokes 5 : wherupon, this byword annon ranne rife 
through the Campe : 

Disce miles militare, 
Galba est, non Getulicus. 

Lerne, soldiers, service Valorous 6 : 
Galba is here, and not Getulicus b . 



SERVIUS 

SULPITIUS 

GALBA 

A.U.C. 786. 



With semblable severitie, he inhibited all petitions for 
placards 7 and pasports. The old beaten souldiers as well 
as the new and untrained, hee hardened still with continuall 
worke and labour : and having soone repressed the Bar- 
barians who by their rodes and incursions had now by this 
time broken in violently and set foote within Gaule, he quit 

1 Either in honour of Flora the Goddesse of Floures, or else in thankefull 
memoriall of a famous Curtesan named Flora who made the people of Rome 
her heire and gave the Citty a great summe of mony : out of the yeerely 
increase whereof were the charges defraied that went to these licentious plaies. 
2 Not substituted in the rowme of another deceased. 3 Caligula. 4 Or 
under. 5 Or Mandilions. 6 Or Laborious. 7 Licences to be absent 
from the Camp. 

159 



THE HISTORIE OF 

SERVIUS himselfe so well and shewed such good proofe of his armie 
SULPITIUS un to Caius 1 also then and there present in proper person as 
that among an infinite number of forces levied and assembled 



A.U.C. 794. ou j. O f a u provinces there were none went away with greater 
testimonies of proesse nor received larger rewards than he 
and his regiments. Himselfe above them all was most 
bravely beseene in this, that marching with his targuet 
before him he marshalled the gallants justing and running 
at tilt in the plaine field : and for that he ranne also by 
the Emperours chariot side, for the space of twentie miles. 
When tidings came that Caius 2 was murdered, and many 
pricked him forward to take the opportunitie then offered, 
hee preferred quietnesse and rest. For which cause hee 
stood in especiall favour with Claudius, and was admitted 
into the ranke of his inward friends ; a man of that worth 
and reputation as that when hee fell sodainely sicke (although 
not verie grievously), the day appointed for to set forth in 
the Brittish expedition was differred. He governed Africk 
as Proconsul two yeeres : being elected without lots drawing, 
for to settle and bring into order that Province farre out of 
frame and disquieted as wel with the civil mutinies, among 
the soldiers, as tumultuous commotions of the barbarous 
inhabitants. Which commission he discharged with great 
regard of severe discipline and execution of Justice even in 
very small matters. A soldier of his there was, who during 
the expedition above said, in a great dearth and scarcity of 
Corne, was accused to have sold a residue remaining of his 
owne allowance, to wit, a Modious 3 of wheat, for one 
hundred deniers 4 : whereuppon hee gave straight commande- 
ment, that when the said souldier began once to want food, 
no man should be so hardy as to relieve him. And so for 
hunger he pined to death. As for his civill Jurisdiction 
and ministring justice: when there grew some question and 
debate about the proprietarie and right owner of a labouring 
beast 5 , and slight evidences and presumptions on both sides 
were alledged : as simple witnesses also produced and there- 
fore hard to devine and guesse of the truth, he made this 

1 Caligula. 2 Caligula. 3 Much about our peck. 4 3!. 2s. 6d. 
sterl. 5 As some horse or mule. 

160 



TWELVE (LESARS 

decree, That the beast should be led hoodwinked 1 unto the SERVIUS 
poole where it was wont to be watered : and when it was SULPITIUS 
unhooded againe, he awarded and pronounced the said beast 
to be his, unto whom of the owne accord he returned directly 
after he had drunke. 

8 

For his brave exploits atchieved both in Africke then, 
and also in Germanic afore time, he received the honour of 
tryumphall Ornaments and a triple Sacerdotall dignitie, 
being admitted among the Quindecimvirs 2 ; into the guild 
and confraternitie of the Titii a : and the Colledge or societie 
of the Priests Augustales b . And from that time unto the 
midst well neere of Neroes Empire, he lived for the most 
part private in some retiring place out of the way : yet so 
as he never went forth any journey (were it but for exercise 
by way of Gestation 3 ) but he tooke forth with him in a 
wagon going hard by, to the valew of a millian of Sesterces 
in gold untill such time, as making his abode in a towne 
called Fundi, the Regencie of a province in Spaine named 
Tarraconensis, was offered unto him. And it fortuned that 
when he was newly arrived and entred into that province, 
as hee sacrificed within a publike temple, a boy among other 
Ministers holding the Censer 4 , sodainely had all the haire 
of his head turned gray. Now there wanted not some who 
made this interpretation, That thereby was signified a change 
in the states, and that an old man should succeede a younge, 
even himselfe in Neroes steed. And not long after, there 
fell a Thuntherbolt 5 into a lake 6 of Cantabria : and found 
there were immediatly twelve axes: a doubtlesse tooken 
presaging Soveraine Rule. 

9 

For 8 yeares space he governed that province variably 

1 Covered all over the head. 2 Sacris faciundis, or Sybillinis libris 

inspiciundis, i. to oversee sacrifices and divine service or to peruse the 
propheticall books of Sibylla. They were in number 15. 3 Carying 
in a light litter or chaire. 4 Incence panne. 5 Or dint of lightening. 
6 Lacum, al. Lttcum, i. a grove. 

2 : X 161 



THE HISTORIE OF 

SERVIUS and with an uneven hand. At the first, sharpe he was, 
SULPITIUS severe, violent, and in chasticing verily of trespasses beyond 
GALBA a n measure extreame. For he caused a Banker, for unfaith- 
full handling and exchang of mony to leese both his hands, 
and to have them nailed fast unto his owne shop bourd : 
a Guardian also he crucified, for poysoning his ward, whose 
heire he was in remainder. Now, as the partie Delinquent 
called for the benefit of law, and avouched in his plea, That 
he was a Romaine Citizen \ Galba, as if he would alay his 
punishment with some comfort and honour 2 : commanded 
the crosse already made to be changed, and another to be 
reared far higher then the ordinarie : and the same laid over 
with a white colour. By little and little he grew to be 
slouthfull, carelesse and Idle, because he would minister no 
matter unto Nero for to worke uppon : and for that (as 
himselfe was wont to say) no man was compelled to render 
an accoumpt of his owne Idlenesse 3 . As hee held the Judiciall 
Assises at new Carthage, he had intelligence that Gaule 4 
was in a tumult. And whiles the Embassadour 5 of Aquitaine 
besought him earnestly to send aide, the letters of Vindex 
came in the very nicke : exhorting him to frame and carie 
himselfe as the deliverer and protectour of Mankinde, even 
to take upon him to be their generall Captaine. He, making 
no longer stay upon the point, accepted the offer, partly for 
feare and in part upon hope. For he had both found out 
the warrants of Nero sent privily unto his Agents and pro- 
curatours there, as touching his death : and also much con- 
firmed and strengthened he was, as well by most luckie 
Auspices and Osses, as by the prophesie of an honest Virgin : 
so much the rather, because the very same verses contain- 
ing the prophesie, the priest of Jupiter at Clunia, had 
two hundred yeares past (by warning and direction given 
him in a dreame) fetched out of an inward and secret 
vault of the Temple, delivered then likewise by a maiden 
which had the spirit of prophesie. The meaning and 
effect of which verses was, That one day there should arise 

1 And therefore not to be crucified. 2 Solatia et honore, or comfortable 
honor : Hen dia duo. 3 For, they bee stirring spirits, that are looked 
into in a State. 4 France. B Or Lieutenant. 

162 



TWELVE C^SARS 

out of Spaine the soveraine Prince, and Lord of the whole SERVIUS 
world. SULPITIUS 

GALBA 
10 

Therefore, when he had mounted the Tribunall, as if hee 
intended then the manumising l of sclaves, and set before 
him in open sight very many pourtraicts and Images of such 
as had beene condemned and killed by Nero : whiles there 
stood also in his presence a boy of noble bloud 2 , whom he 
had sent for of purpose out of one of the Baleare Hands 
hard by, where he was exiled 3 : he bewailed the state of 
those times. Wherupon being with one accord saluted 
Emperour 4 , yet he professed himselfe to be the Lieutenant 
onely of the Senate and people of Rome. After this, having 
proclaimed a Cessation of Judicial pleas for the time ; out 
of the Commons verily of that Province, he enrolled both 
Legions and Auxiliaries, over and above the old armie, 
which contained on Legion, two cornets of horsemen, and 
three cohorts : but out of the better sort, to wit, the 
Nobility and Gentrie, such I meane as for wisdom and age 
went before the rest, he ordained a body of a Senat : unto 
whom men shold have recourse touching matters of greater 
importance, as need required. He chose forth also young 
gentlemen, for the knights degree, who continuing stil the 
wearing of (gold) Rings shold be called Evocati 5 , and kept 
watch and ward insteede of (sworne) Soldiers 6 about his 
lodging and bedchamber. Hee sent out his Edicts also in 
every Province, counselling and perswading all and some to 
joyne with him in these designements : and (proportionally to 
the meanes that every one had) to helpe and promote the 
common cause. Much about the same time, in the fortifica- 
tion of a towne which he had chosen to be the Capitall seate 
of the warre, a Ring was found of Antique worke, in the 
Gemm or stone whereof was engraven the expresse resem- 
blance of victorie a together with a Trophee*: and soone after, 
a ship of Alexandrea, fraight with armour, arrived before 

1 Enfraunchesing. 2 Some noble mans sonne of Rome. 3 By Nero. 
4 Or L. General. 5 As if they had served their full time, and were now 
called forth againe by way of honour. 6 Who usually wore rings of yron. 

163 



GALBA 



THE HISTORIE OF 

SERVIUS Dertosa 1 , without pilot, without mariner or passenger : that 
n0 e man might make any doubt, but that this warre was 
just, lawfull, and undertaken with the favour and approba- 
tion of the Gods. But lo, sodainely and unlocked for, all 
in manner was dasht and put out of frame. One of the two 
Cornets of horsemen above mentioned, as bethinking them- 
selves and repenting that they had changed their military 
oth was at the point to fall away and forsake him as hee 
approched the Campe, yea and hardly kept in their alleage- 
ance to him : certaine slaves also, whom (being prepared 
a forehand to doe him a mischiefe) hee had received as a 
present at the hands of a freed man of Neroes, missed but 
little of killing him, as he passed through a crosse lane to 
the Baines for to bath. And surely done the deed they 
had, but that as they exhorted and incouraged one another 
not to overslip 2 the opportunitie presented, they were over 
hearde : who beeing examined and asked, upon what occa- 
sion they spake such words, were by torture forced to con- 
fesse the truth. 

11 

Besides these daungers so great, there fel out (to helpe 
the matter well) the death of Vindex : wherewith being most 
of all amased, and like to a man utterly forlorne, he went 
within a little of renouncing this world and forgoing his 
owne life. But by occasion of messengers comming with 
newes from the Citty in the verie instant, no sooner under- 
stood he that Nero was slaine, and all men in general had 
sworne alleageance unto him, but he laide away the name 
of Lieutenant and tooke upon him the stile of Caesar. So, 
he put himselfe on his Journey clad in his Coate armour, 
with his dagger hanging downe from about his necke just 
before his breast : neither tooke he to the use of a gown 
and long robe again e, before they were surprised and sup- 
pressed, who made insurrections and rose up in armes against 
him 3 : namely, at Rome Nymphidius Sabinus Capitaine of 

1 Dertosam appulit: al. Decursa appulit^ i. hulled down the tide : or, 
as the wind did drive it. 2 Omitterent, or amitterent, i. to loose. 
3 Notwithstanding that upon the death of Nero, he was declared Emperour 
at Rome. 

164 



TWELVE C^SARS 

the Praetorian guard : in Germanie Fonteius Capito, and SERVIUS 

in Africke Clodius Macer, ij. Lieutenants. Sl^pmu 

GALBA 

12 

There had a rumour beene raised before of his crueltie 
and covetousnesse both : for punishing the Citties of Spaine 
which were somewhat slacke in comming to side with him, 
by laying very heavy tributes and taxes upon them : some 
of them also by dismanteling and rasing their wals : like- 
wise for putting to death certaine Presidents and Procura- 
tours together with there wives and children : as also for 
melting a Coronet of gold weighing 15 pound : which the 
men of Tarracon from out of the old Temple of Jupiter 
had presented unto him : and commaunding that the three 
ounces which wanted of the full weight should be exacted 
and made good 1 . This report was both confirmed and also 
increased uppon his first entrance into Rome. For when 
he would have compelled the servitours at Sea (whom Nero 
had made of mariners and oaremen, full and lawfull soul- 
diers) to returne againe to their former state and condition : 
when they made refusall, and besides called malapertly for 
their Mgle and other militarie ensignes : hee not onely 
sent in among them a troupe of horsemen, and so trode 
them under foote, but also executed with death every tenth 
man of them. Semblably, the Cohort of Germaines which 
in times past had beene by the Caesars ordained for the 

fuard of their persons, and by many good proofes were 
)und most trustie, hee dissolved : and without any availes 
and recompence for their service sent them home againe 
into their Country: pretending that they stood better 
affected unto Cn. Dolabella (neere unto whose Horthyards 
and gardens they quartered) than to him. Moreover, these 
reports also (whether truely or falsely I wote not) went 
commonly of him by way of mockerie : That when there 
was a more plentiful! supper than usual served up before 
him, he gave a great grone thereat. His Steward verily 
in ordinary 2 cast up his bookes and rendred unto him a 

1 Either^ by wast in melting or by the crafty conveiance of the gold founder. 
2 Ordinario Dispensatori, or thus, one Ordinarius his steward. 

165 



THE HISTORIE OF 

SERVIUS breviary of all reckonings, and accoumpts. For his great 
Care an( * serv i cea bl e diligence, hee reached unto him a dish 
of pulse 1 . But when Caius the minstrill played upon the 
Hautbois and pleased him wonderous well, hee bestowed 
liberally upon him for his labour five good Deniers 2 , and 
those he drew with his owne hand out of his privie purse. 

13 

At his first comming, therefore, he was not so welcome. 
And that appeared at the next solemnitie of publick Shewes. 3 
For when as in the Atellane Comaedies, some had begun a 
most vulgar Canticle with this verse, 

St : Venlt, lo Simus a villa, etc. 

St : See 4 , Our Simus that Country clowne 

Is from his Ferme now come to towne, 

the Spectatours all at once with one accord and voice, sung 
out the rest in manner of a respond : and repeating withall 
the said verse oft, as the fore-burden of the Song, acted (and 
with gesture) noted him. 

14 

Thus verily with farre greater favour and aucthoritie 
obtained hee the Empire than menaged it when he was 
therein ; notwithstanding, hee gave many proofes of an 
excellent Prince : but nothing so acceptable were his good 
Acts, as those were odious and displeasant wherein he faulted 
and did amisse. Ruled he was according to the will and 
pleasure of three persons : whom dwelling as they did 
together and that within the Palatium (readie evermore 
at his elbow and in his eare), men commonly called his 
Paedagogues. These were, Titus Junius 5 , his Lieutenant in 
Spaine; a man infinitely covetous: Cornelius Laco, who 
being of his Counsell and assistance was advanced by him to 
be Capitaine of the guard ; one for his arrogancie and lusk- 
ishnesse 6 intolerable : and a freed man of his, Icelus, who 
but a little before, being honoured with the golden ring 7 , 

1 As of peasen or beanes, etc. 2 Or pence, 35. id. ob. English. 
3 See Turneb. Advers. 5, cap. 2. 4 Husht or whist, an Interjection of 
silence. 5 Or Vinius. 6 Socordia, or sottishnes. 7 Knighthood. 

166 



TWELVE CAESARS 

and endowed with the surname Martianus, looked now for SERVIUS 
to bee the Provost and Captaine of the Pretorian Gentle- SULPITIUS 
men and Knights Degree 1 . Unto these men, I say, playing GALE A 
their parts and committing outrages correspondent to their 
vices in divers kinds, hee yeelded and wholly gave himselfe 
to be abused so much, as that scarcely he was like himselfe, 
but alwaies variable: one while precise and neere, other- 
whiles as remisse and carelesse ; more, ywis, than became a 
Prince elected, and a man of these yeeres 2 . Some honour- 
able persons of both degrees 3 he condemned upon the least 
suspition, before their cause was heard. The Freedom e of 
Rome Citie he seldome graunted to any. The priviledge 
and Immunitie due to those who had three children, hee 
gave to one or two at most with much a- doe : not to them 
verily, but for a certaine time limitted and set downe. The 
Judges making suite for to have a sixth Decurie adjoyned 
unto them, he not onely denied flatly, but also this benefite 
of vacation graunted unto them by Claudius, That they 
should not be called forth to sit in the Winter season % and 
at the beginning of the yeere, he tooke from them. 

15 

It was thought also, that hee purposed to determine and 
limit the Offices belonging to Senatours and Gentlemen, 
within the compasse of two yeeres : and not to bestow the 
same but upon such as were unwilling and refused to take 
them. The Liberalities and bountifull Donations of Nero 4 , 
hee tooke order by a Commission directed unto fiftie Gen- 
tlemen of Rome 5 , for to bee revoked : yea, and the same to 
bee exacted for his behoofe, allowing out thereof not above 
the tenth part : with this straight condition moreover, That 
if Actours upon the Stage, or Wrestlers and Champions 
otherwise, had sold any such donation given unto them 
aforetime, the same should be taken from the Buiers, since 
that the parties who had sold the same had spent the money, 

1 Summce cequestris gradus, or summi equestris ordinis. 2 73. 3 Gentle- 
men and Senatours. 4 Which amounted according to Tacitus into bis et vicies 
millieS) 2200 millians. 5 Tacitus saith 30. 

167 



SERVIUS 

SULPITIUS 

GALBA 



THE HISTORIE OF 

and were not sufficient to repay it. Contrariwise, there was 
not any thing, but by the meanes of his followers, Favorites 
and freed men, he suffred either to bee purchased for money, 
or graunted freely for favour: as for example, Customes, 
Imposts, Immunities, Punishments of the Innocent, and 
Impunitie of Malefactours. Moreover, when as the people 
of Rome called upon him for Justice, and namely to have 
Halotus and Tigellinus executed, the onely men of all the 
bloud-hounds and instruments of Nero that wrought most 
mischiefe, he saved them from daunger: and besides, ad- 
vaunced Halotus to a most honourable Procuratorship : and 
in the behalfe of Tigellinus rebuked the people by an Edict 
for their crueltie unto him. 

16 

Having heereby given offence and discontentment 1 to the 
States and Degrees in manner all, yet he incurred the 
displeasure and ill will most of the Souldiours. For, when 
his Provosts had promised and pronounced unto them, (what 
time they sware alleageance unto him), a greater Donative 
than usually had beene given, hee would not make good and 
ratifie the same ; but eft-soones gave it out, That his manner 
had ever beene to choose and not buy his Souldiours. And 
as, upon that occasion verily hee angred all his Souldiours 
wheresoever : so, the Pretorians and those of his guard he 
provoked moreover with feare, and netled with offring them 
indignities ; namely, by removing and displacing most of 
them one after another, as suspected persons, and the adhae- 
rents of Nymphidius. But the forces of higher Germanic 
grumbled and fumed most of all, for being defrauded of 
their rewards for service performed against the French and 
Vindex. They were the first therefore that durst breake out 
into open disobedience : and upon the Newyeeres day refused 
to take an oath and binde themselves in alleageance unto any 
other than the Senate of Rome. They intended also to 
dispatch forthwith an Embassie unto the Pretorian guard, 
with these advertisements and messages from them, namely, 
That they were displeased with an Emperour made in 



168 



Prop4 universis ordinibus offensis. 



TWELVE CAESARS 

Spaine : and therefore themselves should elect one, whom all SERVIUS 
the Armies in Generall might allow and approve. SULPITIUS 

GALBA 

17 

No sooner heard he this newes, but supposing that hee 
was become contemptible, not so much for his olde age, as 
his childlesse estate, hee presently out of the thick throng 
and middle multitude that came to salute him, caught hold 
of Piso Frugi Licinianus, a noble young Gentleman and of 
excellent parts, one whom in times past he had made right 
great account of, and alwaies 1 in his will remembred as 
Inheritour to succeede in his goods and name : him he now 
called Sonne, him he presented unto the Pretorian Campe, 
and there before a publick assembly, adopted. But of the 
fore-saide Donative not a word all this while, no not at that 
very time. Whereby he ministred unto M. Salvius Otho 
better occasion and readier meanes to accomplish his enter- 
prises within sixe daies after his Adoption. 

18 

Manie prodigious sights and those presented continuallie 
even from the verie first beginning, had portended unto him 
such an end as ensued. When all the way as hee journeyed, 
beasts were sacrificed to doe him honour in everie towne on 
both sides, it chaunced that a Bull astonied with the stroke 
of the Butchers axe, brake the bond wherewith hee stoode 
tied and ranne full upon his Chariot ; and rising up with his 
(fore) feete, all to bespreinct and drenched it with bloud. 
As he alight out of it, one of the guard and Pensioners about 
him, with the thrusting of the throng had like with his 
speare to have wounded him. As he entred also the Citie of 
Rome and so passed forward up to the Palatium, hee was 
welcomed with an Earthquake, and a certaine noise resem- 
bling the lowing of a beast. But there followed after these, 
greater Prodigies still and more fearefull. He had selected 
and layed by it selfe out of all his Treasure, a Jewell set thick 
with pearle and pretious stones, for to beautifie and adorne 
his Goddesse Fortune at Tusculum. This Jewell (as if it had 

1 Semper, or super , i. beside. 

2 : Y . 169 



GALBA 



THE HISTORIE OF 

SERVIUS beene worthy of a more stately and sacred place), all of a 
suddaine hee dedicated to Venus in the Capitoll, and the next 
night following he dreamt, that he saw Fortune making her 
moane and complaining, how shee was defrauded of the gift 
intended and meant unto her : threatning withall, that shee 
her selfe also would take away what shee had given him. 
Now, being affrighted with this vision, when in great hast 
hee was gone apace to Tusculum, and had by breake of day 
sent certaine before of purpose to provide an expiatorie 
sacrifice for this dreame \ he found nothing there but warme 
embers upon the altar herth, and an olde man all in blacke 2 
sitting hard by, holding in a dish of glasse, Frankincense, and 
in an earthen cup, wine 3 . Observed also it was, that upon the 
Kalends of Januarie while hee sacrificed, his coronet fell from 
his head. As he tooke his Auspices, the pullets flew away. 
And upon the Solemne day of the fore-said Adoption, when 
hee should make a Speech unto the Souldiours, the Camp- 
Throne 4 stoode not, (as the manner was) before his Tri- 
bunall ; (such was the forgetfulnesse of his Ministers) and in 
the Senate, his Curule chaire was placed wrong, with the 
back toward him. 

19 

But before he was slaine, as he sacrificed that morning, 
the Southsayer oftentimes warned him to beware of daunger: 
for murderers were not farre off. And not long after hee 
tooke knowledge that Otho was possessed of the Campe 5 . 
And when most of those about his person perswaded him 
still to make what speed hee could and goe forward thither 
(for why ? by his authority and presence hee might beare 
sway and prevaile) hee resolved to doe no more but keepe 
close within house : to stand upon his guard, and to fortifie 
himselfe with the strength of his legionarie Souldiours, in 
many and divers places quartered. Howbeit, hee put on a 
good linen Jack 6 a : although hee seemed to acknowledge, that 
in small steed it would stand him, against so many sword- 

1 To avert the harme prognosticated thereby. 2 Like a mourner. 

3 Ominous tokens presaging his brittle state. 4 Or chaire of Estate. 
5 Praetorian. 6 Cuirace. 

170 



GALBA 



TWELVE C^SARS 

points. But being borne in hand and seduced with rumours SERVIUS 
which the Conspiratours had of purpose spread abroad to 
traine him out into the open street : whiles some few rashly 
affirmed, That all was dispatched : the rebels and seditious 
persons defaited : and the rest comming in great frequencie 
with joy and gratulation, ready to do him all the obsequious 
service they could : hee to meete them went forth ; and that 
with so great confidence as that unto a Souldiour who made 
his boast, He had slaine Otho, he answered, ' And by whose 
warrant b ? ' Thus advaunced he as farre as into the Market- 
place. There, the Horsemen having commission and com- 
maundement to kill him : when they had voided the common 
people out of the way, and put their horses forward through 
the streetes, and espied him a farre off, staied a while : but 
afterwards, setting spurres to againe, fell upon him and 
slew him outright, forsaken as he was of all his traine 
and followers. 

20 

There be that report, how at the first uprore, hee cried 
aloud : ' What meane yee my fellow Souldiours ? I am yours, 
and yee are mine 1 : and withall promised (to pay) the Dona- 
tive. But, many more have left in writing, that of himselfe 
he offred them his throat, and willed them (since they thought 
so good) to mind that onely which they came for, even to 
strike and spare not. A strange and wonderfull thing it was, 
that of those who were there present not one went about to 
helpe their Emperour : and all that were sent for, rejected 
the messenger, saving onely a guidon of Germane Horsemen. 
These in regard of his fresh demerite (in that hee had ten- 
derly cherished and made much of them being sicke and 
feeble) hastned to the rescue : howbeit they came too late, 
by occasion, that beeing ignorant of the streetes and places 
they tooke a wrong way and were hindered. Killed hee was 
at the Lake Curtius 1 9 and there left lying even as hee was ; 
untill such time as a common Souldiour as he returned from 
foraging and providing of corne, threw downe his load and 
cut his head off. Now, because hee could not catch hold of 



1 The place where somtime that lake was. 



171 



THE HISTORIE OF 

SERVIUS the haire of his head (so bald hee was) hee hid it in his lap : 
SULPITIUS and anone thrust his thumbe into his mouth and so brought 
GALBA it to Qtho: who gave it to the Scullians, Lackies, and 
Varlets 1 that follow the Campe. These sticking it upon a 
speare caried it, not without reproachfull scorne all about 
the Campe setting up ever and anone this Note, ' Galba, thou 
lovely Cupid take thy time, and make use of thy fresh and 
youthfull yeeres 2 ' : provoked they were, especially to such 
malapert frumps and floutes, because some daies before there 
ranne a rife report abroad, that unto one who commended 
that visage and person of his, as continuing still fresh, faire, 
and vigorous, he made this answere, 



CTt jJLOl peVOS fJ,7Tc86v CCTTIV. 

I have yet still 

My strength at will 3 

At their hands, a freed man of Patrobius Neronianus, bought 
the same for one hundred peeces of gold a , and flung it into 
that very place b , where, before time his Patron 4 by the 
commaundement of Galba, had been executed. At length 
(late though it was) his Steward Argius buried both it and 
the trunk of his body within his owne private Hortyards in 
the way Aurelia. 

21 

Of full stature he was : his head bald : his eyes gray, and 
his nose hooked : his hands and feete by reason of the gout 
growne exceeding crooked ; in so much as uneth he was able 
either to abide shooes on the one, or to turne over, or so much 
as hold his bookes with the other. There was an excre- 
scence 5 also of flesh in the right side of his body : and the 
same hung downward so much, as hardly it could be tied up 
with a trusse 6 . 



A great feeder and meate-man by report, he was. For in 
Winter time hee used to eate before day light : and at supper 

1 Or water-bearers and wood purveiers for the Souldiours. 2 Galba y 
Cupido, etc. 3 Homer, Iliad 5, Diomedes to Sthenelus. 4 Patrobius. 
5 Or bunch. 6 Or swathing band. 

178 



TWELVE CJESARS 

to bee served so plentifully, that the reliques and reversion SERVIUS 

of the bourd being gathered together into heapes, hee com- SULPITIUS 

maunded to be caried round about and distributed among GALBA 

those that stoode waiting at his feete. Given he was over 

much to the unnaturall lust of Male-kind : but such chose 

he (and none else) for his Dearlings, as were stale-thick-skins 

and past growth. It was reported that in Spaine when Icelus 

one of his olde Catamites brought him word of Neroes end, 

he not onely received him in open sight with most kinde 

kisses, but intreated him without delay to be plucked 1 , and 

so led him at one side out of the way. 

23 

He died in the 73 yeere of his age, and seventh moneth of 
his Empire. The Senate as soone as lawfully they might, 
had decreed for him a Statue standing upon a Columne 
adorned with the Stemmes and beake-heads of ships 2 , in 
that part of the Mercate-steed of Rome where hee lost his 
life : but Vespasian repealed that Decree : as being thus 
conceited of him, That he had suborned and sent under 
hand out of Spaine into Jurie, certaine of purpose to 
murder him. 

1 Made smooth. 2 Rostrata. 



173 



THE HISTORIE OF 



THE HISTORIE OF 
MARCUS SALVIUS OTHO 




HE Auncestors of Otho had their begin- 
ning in a towne called Ferentinum ; 
extract out of an auncient and honour- 
able family, even from the Princes of 
Hetruria. His grandfather M. Salvius 
Otho having for his Father a Gentleman 
of Rome, and for his mother a woman 
of base condition (and whether shee was 
free-borne or no, it is uncertaine) through the favour of 
Li via Augusta, in whose house he had his rising and growth, 
was made a Senatour, and exceeded not the degree of a 
Pretour. His Father, L. Otho, by his mothers side of right 
noble bloud descended, and thereby allied to many great 
kinreds, was so deere and in face so like unto Tiberius the 
Emperour, that most men beleeved verily, hee was his owne 
sonne. The Honourable Offices within the Citie : the 
Proconsulship of Asia, and other extraordinarie places of 
Conduct and Commaund, hee managed most severely. Hee 
adventured also in Illyricum to proceed so far, as to put 
certaine soldiers to death, for that in the commotion of 
Camillus upon a touch of conscience they had killed their 
Captaines and provosts 1 , as authors of the revolt and 
rebellion against Claudius, and verily this execution him- 
selfe in person saw performed in the Campe even before 
the Principia a : notwithstanding that he knew they were for 
that service advanced to higher places by Claudius. By 



174 



Or his, i. Camillus. 



OTHO 



TWELVE C^SARS 

which act of his as he grew in glory so hee decreased in MARCUS 
favour. And yet the same he soone recovered againe, by SALVIl 
detecting the perfidious plot of a Romaine Knight, whom 
by the appeachment of his own servants he found to have 
attempted the death of Claudius. For, both the Senate 
endowed him with an honour most rare and seldome scene, 
to wit his owne statue erected in the Palatium ; and also 
Claudius when he ranged him among the Patritians, and in 
most honourable tearmes praised him added these words 
withall, 6 Hee is a man, than whom I would not wish I assure 
you to have better Children of mine owne.' Of Albia 
Terentia a right noble and gallant Lady he begat two 
sonnes, Lucius Titianus, and a younger forenamed Marcus, 
and carying the surname of his father 1 : a daughter also 
hee had by her, whom as yet not manageable, he affianced 
unto Drusus the sonne of Germanicus. 



This Otho the Emperour, was borne the 4 day before the A.U.C. 785. 
Kalends of May 2 , when Camillus Arruntius and Domitius 
^Enobarbus were Consuls. From the very prime of his 
youth, hee was roiotous, wild and wanton : in so much as 
his father swindged him well and soundly for it : reported 
also to use night walking ; and as he met any one either 
feeble or cupshotten or overcome with drinke, to catch hold 
of him, lay him upon a soldiers gaberdine, and so to tosse 
and hoist him up into the aire a . Afterwardes, uppon his 
fathers death, a certaine Libertine woman of the Court, a 
dame very gratious (because hee would make the more 
benefit by following and courting her as his mistrisse) he 
pretended love unto : albeit an old trot shee was in manner 
doting for age. By her meanes winding himselfe into the 
favour of Nero, he easily obtained the cheife place among 
his minions and favorites (such was the congruence of their 
humours and dispositions) and as some write by mutuall 
abusing also of one anothers bodie against kind. But so 
mightie hee waxed and bare such a side, as that in con- 



1 i. Otho. 2 28 Aprill. 



175 



THE HISTORIE OF 

MARCUS sideration of a great peece of money agreed upon, he 
presumed to bring into the Senate house for to give 
thankes 1 , a man of Consular degree, who stood condemned 
for extortion, even before hee had fully obtained his resti- 
tution 2 . 

3 

Being now, as he was, privie and partie to all the counsels 
and secret dessignes of Nero : he to avert all manner of 
suspicion, that very day which Nero had appointed for the 
murdering of his mother, entertained them both at supper 
with most exquisite, and the kindest welcome that might be. 
Semblably, Dame Poppaea Sabina, being as yet but the 
paramour of Nero, whom he had newly taken from her hus- 
band 3 , and committed in the meane while unto himselfe 
upon trust for to keepe 4 , under a colour of mariage 5 hee 
received : and not content herewith that he alienated her 
hart from Nero and used her body, hee loved her so entirely, 
that he could not endure Nero himselfe to be his Corrivall 6 . 
Certes, it is thought of a truth, that not onely the messen- 
gers who were sent to fetch her, came again e without her : 
but also that one time he kept Nero himselfe without dores 
standing there and cooling his heeles, with threates also and 
prayers intermingled, demanding his pawne 7 which hee had 
left with him but all in vaine. Whereupon after the said 
mariage broken and dissolved, sent out of the way hee was 
under a pretence of an Embassage into Portugal. Which 
course was thought sufficient for feare least his proceeding to 
any sharper punishment might have told tales 8 abroad and 
marred all the play : howbeit as secretly conveied as it was, 
out it came and was made knowne by this Distichon 9 . 

Cur Otho mentito sit quceritis exul honore ? 

Uocoris Mcechus cceperat esse suce. 

Exil'd in shew of Embassage was Otho. Aske yee, why ? 

With his owne wife begon he had to act adulterie a . 

1 For pardon. 2 Restoring to his former state. 3 Rufus Crispus. 
4 Untill he could put awaie Octavia. 5 So writeth Plutarch. But Tacitus 
differeth from this Narration. 6 Partner with him in love of that Mistris. 
7 Pledge or gage, to wit Poppsea. 8 How Nero had beene excluded and 
shut out of doores, etc. ij. Verses. 

176 



TWELVE CAESARS 

Having beene afore time in no higher place then Questour, MARCUS 
yet governed hee a province for the space of x. yeeres with SALVIUS 
singular moderation l and abstinence 2 . 



As occasion at length and opportunitie of revenge 3 was A.U.C. 821. 
offred, he was the first that combined with Galba in his 
attempts. At which very instant himself also conceived 
hope of the Empire : and great the same was, no doubt, 
considering the condition and state of those times, but 
greater somewhat by reason of Seleucus the Astrologers 
words : who having long before warranted him that he 
should survive Nero, was then of his owne accord come 
unlocked for, and promised againe that shortly also he 
should be Emperour. Omitting therfore no kind of ob- 
sequious office and ambitious popularity even to the very 
meanest: looke how often he invited the Emperour 4 to 
supper, he wold deale throughout the Cohort that then 
warded, to every man a peece of gold 5 : and no lesse carefull 
was he to oblige unto him one way or other, the rest of the 
soldiers. And when one of them went to law with his 
neighbour about a parcell of ground in the skirts and con- 
fines of both their lands, he being chosen Arbitratour, 
bought the whole land for the said souldier and enfeoffed 
him in it. So as now by this time there was scarce one, 
but both thought and said that he alone was worthy to 
succeede in the Empire. 

5 

Moreover he had fed himselfe with hopes to have been 
adopted by Galba, and that looked hee for daily : but after 
that Piso was preferred and himselfe disappointed of his 
hope, he turned to plaine violence : pricked therto, over 
and besides the discontentment of his mind, by occasion 
that he was so deepely indebted. For he stucke not to pro- 
fesse, He was not able to stand, unlesse he were Emperour : 
and it skilled not whether he were overthrowne by his 

1 Without rigour. 2 Without pillaging, polling and extortion. 3 Of 
Nero. 4 Galba. 5 155. yd. ob. English. 

2 : Z 177 



MARCUS 

SALVIUS 

OTHO 



THE HISTORIE OF 

enemie in the field, or fell under his creditours hands at the 
Barre. Some few daies before, he had fetch over one of 
Caesars servants in a millene of Sesterces for the obtaining of 
a Stewardship : and with the helpe of this sum of mony, 
enterprised he so great a project. At the first he com- 
mitted the matter to 5 souldiers emploied in Espiall 1 : then 
to x. others whom they had brought forth with them, to wit 
every man twaine. To ech one of these he payd in hand 
x. thousand sesterces 2 , and promised 50000 more. By these 
were the rest solicited, and those not very many : as making 
no doubt but presuming confidently of this that a number 
besides would be ready in the very action to second it. 



He had minded once, presently after the adoption (of 
Piso) to seize their campe into his owne hands, and so to 
set uppon Galba as hee sat at supper in the Pallace : but 
the respective regarde hee had of the Cohort, which then 
kept watch and warde, hee checked this intent of his : for 
feare least the same should incurre the intolerable hatred of 
the world : considering, by the guard of that very Cohort, 
Caius had beene slaine before, and Nero perfidiouslie be- 
trayed afterwards. Moreover, exception was taken against 
the middle time betweene, partly upon a superstition 3 that 
hee had, and in part by direction from Seleucus. Well then, 
upon a day 4 appointed, after warning given aforehand unto 
those that were privie to the conspiracie, for to attend him 
in the market place at the golden Milliarum a under the 
Temple of Saturne, hee saluted Galba in the morning, and 
(as the manner was) beeing received with a kisse, was present 
also as hee sacrificed and heard the Soothsayers predictions. 
Which done, a freed man of his brought him word that the 
Architects were come (this was the watchword agreed upon 
between them) wherupon as if forsooth he were to look 
upon an house that was to be sold, he departed, gat him 
quickly away through the backe side of the Palace, and 
hied a pace toward the place appointed. Others say, that 



1 Speculat oribus. 2 100 Aurei : every Aureus being 153. 
s Scrupulosity. 4 15 Tanuarii. 



ob. 



178 



TWELVE C^SARS 

he feigned himselfe to have an ague, and willed those that 
stood next to him to make that excuse in case he were 
asked for. Then lying hidden within a womans Licter 1 , he 
hastened to the Campe : and for that the Licter bearers 
were tired and faint, hee allighted on the ground and 
beganne to runne a foote : but by occasion that his shooes 
latchet was slacke, he stayed behinde, untill such time as 
without any further delay, he was taken up on mens 
shoulders, and by the traine and Company there present 
saluted Emperour; and so with lucky acclamations among 
drawen swords, came as farre as to the Principia 2 , whiles 
every one all the way hee went adhaered unto him, as if 
they had beene all privie and party in the conspiracy. 
There, after he had dispatched certaine away to kill both 
Galba and Piso, he to win the soldiers hearts by faire 
promises, protested before them all assembled together, 
That himselfe would have and hold no more, then just that 
which they would leave for him. 



MARCUS 

SALVIUS 

OTHO 



This done, as the day drewe toward evening, he entred 
into the Senate : and briefely laying before them a reason 
of his proceeding, as if he had been caried away perforce out 
of the market place and compelled to take the Empire upon 
him (which he would administer according to the generall 
will and pleasure of them al), to the pallace he goeth. Now 
when as beside other sweet and plausible words delivered by 
such as did congratulate and flatter him, he was by the base 
common people called Nero, he gave no token at al that he 
refused it : nay rather, as some have reported, ever in his 
patents, graunts and missives which he first wrote unto cer- 
taine presidents and governours of Provinces, he added unto 
his stile the surname of Nero. This is certen, he both 
suffered his images 3 and Statues 4 to be erected againe in 
their own places : and also restored his Procuratours and 
freed men to the same offices that they had enjoyed before. 

1 Or close chaire, wherein women use to be carried. 2 A principall 

place within the Camp. 3 Which either were of wax, or peincted. 
4 Commonly of brasse, stoone or such solid matter. 

179 



MARCUS 

SALVIUS 

OTHO 



THE HISTORIE OF 

Neither, by his imperiall prerogative and absolute power 
subscribed he any thing, before a warrant for fiftie millians 
of Sesterces 1 to the finishing of (Neroes) golden house. It is 
said that the same night being affrighted in his sleepe hee 
groned very sore, and was by his servitours that ran thick 
into the chamber found lying on the bare floore before his 
bed : also that he assaied by all kind of propitiatorie sacri- 
fices and peace offrings to appease the spirit 2 of Galba, 
whome hee had scene in his sleepe, to thrust and drive him 
foorth : semblably, the morrow after as he was taking his 
Auspices 3 , there arose a sodaine tempest, whereupon hee 
caught a grievous fall, and oftentimes hee mumbled this 
to himselfe : 

Ti yap /not Kal paKpois aiiXols. 

For, how can I (whose blast is short) 

With these long hautboies fitly sort a ? 

8 

And verily about the same time, the forces and Armies in 
Germanic a had sworne fealtie and alleageance unto Vitel- 
lius, which when he understood, hee propounded unto the 
Senate, That an Embassage might be sent thither, to adver- 
tise them that there was an Emperour chosen alreadie, and 
advise them with all to peace and concord : yet, by enter- 
course of messengers and letters between, he made offer unto 
Vitellius to pertake equally with him in the Empire, and 
accept of a marriage with his daughter: but when there 
was no way but one and that by open warre : seeing that 
now alreadie the Capitaines and forces which Vitellius had 
sent before, approched 4 , hee had good proofe what loyall and 
faithfull harts, the pretorian souldiers caried towards him, 
even to the utter ruine and destruction well neere of the 
most honourable degree of Senatours. Nowe decreed it had 
beene 5 , that by the Sea servitours the armour 6 should be 

1 Quingenties HS. or Sestertium. 8 Or Ghost. 3 By observing the 
sacred Birds. 4 For Fabius Valens and Aulus Csecina were come with a 
power out of Germanic into Italic. 5 By Otho and the Senate. 6 With 
which the i;th cohort, sent for out of the Colonie Ostia before to Rome, 
should be armed. 

180 



TWELVE C^SARS 

conveied over and sent backe (to Ostia) by shipping. And MARCUS 

as the said armour was in taking foorth out of the armorie 

in the Campe, at the shutting of the Evening, some (soul- 

diers) suspecting treacherie and treason, raised a tumult and 

gave an Alarum : wherewith sodainely all of them 1 without 

any certaine leader to conduct them, ranne to the Palace, 

calling hard to have the Senate 2 massacred : and when they 

had repelled some of the Tribunes who assaied to represse 

their violence, and killed other of them, all embreued in 

bloud as they were, and askinge still where the Emperour 

was, they rushed in as farre as into his banquetting rowme, 

and never rested untill they had scene him. Then set he 

forward his expedition lustilie : and beganne with more hast 

then good speed ; without any care at all of religion and the 

will of God : as having onely stirred and taken those sacred 

shields 3 called Ancilia b , and not bestowed them quietly 

againe in their due place (a thing in olde time held ominous 

and ever presaging ill lucke) : besides, the very same day it 

was upon which the priest and ministers 4 of (Cybele) the 

mother of the Gods, beginne to lament, weepe and waile : to 

conclude, when all signes and tokens, were as crosse as possibly 

they might be. For not onely in the beast killed for sacrifice 

unto Father Dis 5 , he found the Inwards propitious (whereas 

in such a sacrifice as that the contrarie had beene more 

acceptable) but also at his first setting out, staied he was by 

the inundation and swelling of the river Tiberis. At the 

twentie miles ende likewise, he found the highway choaked 

and stopped up against him with the ruines of certaine 

houses fallen downe. 



With like inconsiderate rashnes, albeit no man doubted 
but that in good pollicy, the warre ought to have beene pro- 
tracted, because the enimie was distressed as wel with famine, 

1 The Pretorian or gaurd Souldiers. 2 Who to the number of four 
score, with many Ladies were at supper that night with Otho, and by the 
souldiers suspected to have plotted his death. 3 Of Mars. 4 Galli. 
5 The infernall God so named quasi dives^ i. rich as Pluto, of Ploutose riches, 
because all things arise out of the earth and fall into it againe. 

181 



THE HISTORIE OF 

MARCUS as the streight wherein he was pent, yet resolved hee with all 
SALVIUS speed, to hazard the fortune of the field and to trie it out by 
fight ; as one, either impatient of longer thought and pen- 
sivenesse hoping that before the comming of Vitellius most 
part of the businesse might be dispatched, or else because 
hee could not rule his souldiers calling so hotely upon him 
to give battaile. Yet was not he present in that conflict 
but staied behind at Bryxellum. And verily in three several 
skirmishes, which were not great, to wit, upon the Alpes, 
about Placentia and at Castoris 1 , (a place so called) he wan 
the victorie : but in the last battaile of all, (which was the 
greatest) he lost the day, and was by a treacherous practise 
vanquished, namely, when upon hope of a parly pretended, 
as if the soldiers had been brought out of the Campe to treat 
of conditions of peace : sodainely and unlooked for, even as 
they saluted one another 2 , there was no remedie but fight it 
out they must. And straight wayes in a melancholy, he 
conceived a resolution to make him selfe away (as many are 
of opinion and not without cause) rather for shame, that he 
would not be thought to persevere in the maintenance of his 
soveraine dominion with so great jeopard ie of the State and 
losse of men, than upon any dispaire or distrust of his forces. 
For still there remained a puissant armie whole and entier, 
which he had detained with him for tryall of better fortune : 
and another poure was comming out of Dalmatia, Pannonia 
and Maesia. Neither verily were they discomfited, so much 
daunted and dejected, but that, for to be revenged of this 
disgrace and shamefull foile, ready they were of themselves, 
and alone without helpe of others, to undergoe any hard 
adventure whatsoever. 

10 

In this warre served mine own father Suetonius Lenis, in 
qualitie of a Tribune 3 of the thirteenth Legion, and by 
degree a Senatour of the seconde rancke 4 . He was wont 

1 Tacitus calleth it Castrorum, or rather Castorum, of Castor and Pollux. 
2 By the name of Commilitones : in ipsa consalutatione. Some read in ipsa 
consultatione, i. as they were in consultation. 3 Or Colonel. 4 Angusti- 
clavius. 

182 



TWELVE C^SARS 

afterwards very often to report that Otho, even when hee 
lived a private person, detested all civile warres so farre 
foorth, that as one related at the table the ende of Cassius 
and Brutus, he fell a quaking and trembling therat. Also, 
that he never would have beene Galbaes concurrent, but 
that he confidently thought, the quarrell might have ended 
without warre. Well then, upon a new accident incited he 
was to the contempt of this present life, even by the ex- 
ample of a common and ordinary souldier : who reporting 
this overthrowe of the armie, when he could of no man have 
credite, but was charged one while with the lie, another 
while for his feare and cowardise (as who was run away out 
of the battaile) fell upon his owne sworde at Othoes feete. 
At which sight, hee cryed out alowd and said, That he would 
no more cast so brave men and of so good desert into 
danger. Having exhorted therefore his owne brother, his 
brothers sonne and every one of his freinds severally, to 
make what shift they could for themselves, after hee had 
embraced and kissed them ech one, he sent them all away : 
and retyring himselfe into a secret rowm, two letters he 
wrot ful of consolation to his sister, as also to Messallina, 
Neroes widow, whom he had purposed to wed, recommend- 
ing the reliques of his bodie and his memoriall. And looke 
what Epistles soever hee had in his custody, he burnt 
them al, because they should breed no man any danger, 
losse, or displeasure with the conquerour. And out of 
that store of treasure which hee had about him, he dealt 
monie to his domestical servitours. 



MARCUS 

SALVIUS 

OTHO 



11 



Being now thus prepared and fully bent to die, perceiving 
by occasion of some hurliburly, which while he made delay, 
arose, that those who began to slip away and depart 1 , were 



(by his souldiers) rebuked as traytors and perforce detained : 
'Let us,' quoth he, 'prolong our life yet this one night.' Upon 
which words and no more, hee charged that no violence 
should be offred to any; but suffering his bedchamber 



*'. The Senatours. 



183 



THE HISTORIE OF 

MARCUS (doore) to stand wide open untill it was late in the evening, 
SALVIUS ne permitted al that wold to have accesse unto him. After 
this, having allayed his thirst with a draught of cold water 
he caught up two daggers x , and when he had tryed how 
sharpe the points of them both were, and layed one of them 
under his pillow 2 ; and so the dores being fast shut he tooke 
his rest and slept most soundly. Wakening then at last 
about day light and not before, with one onely thrust under 
his left pap he stabbed himselfe. And when at the first 
grone that he gave, his servants brake in, hee one while 
concealing and another while discovering the wound, yeelded 
up his vitall breath, and quicklye (as he had given charge 
before) was brought to his funerall fire 3 : in the yeere of his 
age 38, and the 95 day of his Empire. 



Unto so great a mind and generous courage of Otho, 
neither was his person nor habite answerable: for he was 
by report of a meane and low stature : feeble feet he had 
besides, and as crooked shanks. As for his manner of attire, 
as fine and nice he was well neere as any woman : his bodie 
plucked and made smooth : wearing by reason of thin haire 
a perrucke 4 , so fitted and fastened to his head, that no man 
there was, but would have taken it for his owne. Nay his 
very face he was wont every day to shave and besmeere all 
over with soked bread a . Which devise he tooke to at first, 
when the downe began to bud forth, because he would never 
have a beard. It is said moreover, that many a time hee 
openlie celebrated the divine service and sacred rights of 
Isis, in a religious vestiment of linnen. Whereby, I would 
thinke it came to passe, that his death nothing at all con- 
sonant to his life was the more wondered at. Manie of his 
souldiers who were present about him, when with plentifull 
teares they had kissed his hands and feete dead as he lay, 
and commended him with all for a most valiant man, and 
the onely Emperour that ever was, presently in the place, 

1 Or rapiers. 2 Or beds-head. 3 For feare his head should be severed 
from his bodie, etc. 4 Or counterfeit cap of false haire. 

184 



TWELVE C^SARS 

and not farre from his funcrall fire, killed themselves. Many MARCUS 

of them also, who were absent, hearing of the newes of his SALVIUS 

end, for very greife of heart ran with their weapons one at 

another to death. Finally most men who in his life time 

cursed and detested him, now when he was dead highly 

praised him : so as it came to be a common and rife speech 

abroad, That Galba was by him slaine, not so much for 

that he affected to be Soveraine Ruler as because he 

desired to restore the State of the Republike, and 

recover the freedome that was lost. 



: AA 185 



THE HISTORIE OF 




THE HISTORIE OF 
AULUS VITELLIUS 



touching the Originall and beginning of 
the Vitellii, some write this, others that ; 
and all as contrary as may be : reporting 
it partly to be auncient and noble, and 
in part new start up and obscure, and 
very base and beggerly. Which I would 
suppose to have hapned by meanes of the 
flatterers and backbiters both, of Vitel- 
lius the Emperour : but that I see there is sometime variance 
and diversity about the very condition of that family. A 
little booke there is extant of one Q. Eulogius 1 a his making, 
written unto Q. Vitellius, Questor to Augustus Caesar of 
sacred memorie : wherein is contained thus much, That the 
Vitellii descended from Faunus K. of the Aborigines, and 
Lady Vitellia (who in many places was worshipped for a 
Goddesse) raigned over all Latium : that the of-spring 
remaining of them, remooved out of the Sabines Country to 
Rome, and were taken into the ranke of the Patritii : that 
many monuments giving testimonie of this race, continued 
a long time, to wit, the high way 2 Vitellia reaching from 
Janiculum 3 to the sea : likewise a Colonie of the same name, 
the defence and keeping whereof against the ^Equiculi, they 
in times past required, with the strength onely and puissance 
of their owne family : moreover, that afterwards in the time 
of the Samnites warre, when a garrison was sent into Apulia 4 , 

1 Extat Q. Eulogii, etc. 2 Or causey. 3 An hill on the other side of 
Tiberis, adjoyning to Rome by a bridge. 4 By the Romaines. 

186 



TWELVE (LESARS 

some of the Vitellii remained behind at Nuceria : and their AULUS 
progenie many a yeere after returned to Rome and recovered VITELLIUS 
their Senatours degree. 



Contrariwise, more Authors there be, who have left upon 
record, that their Stock-father was a Libertine. Cassius 
Severus, and others as well as hee, doe write, That the same 
man was also a very Cobler 1 a ; whose sonne having gotten 
more by chaffering 2 at a price for the confiscate goods of 
men condemned 3 , and by gaines arising of undertaking mens 
suites b , of a common naughty pack, the daughter of one 
Antiochus a Baker, begat a sonne, who proved afterwards a 
Gentleman of Rome. This dissonance of opinions I leave 
indifferent for men to beleeve which they will. But, to the 
purpose; Publius Vitellius borne in Nuceria, (whether he 
were of that auncient linage, or descended from base parents 
and Grandfathers) a Romaine Gentleman doubtlesse, and 
a Procuratour under Augustus of his affaires, left behind 
him foure sonnes, men of qualitie all and right honourable 
persons; bearing also their Fathers surname 4 : and distin- 
guished onely by their forenames, Aulus, Quintus, Publius 
and Lucius. Aulus died even when he was Consull : which A.U.C. 785. 
dignity he had entred upon with Domitius the Father of 
Nero Caesar : a man very sumpteous otherwise in his house 
and much spoken of for his magnificent suppers. Quintus 
was displaced from his Senatours estate, what time as by 
the motion and perswasion of Tiberius there passed an Act : 
That such Senatours as were thought insufficient should be 
culled out and removed. Publius a Companion and De- 
pendant of Germanicus, accused and convicted Cn. Piso his 
mortall enemie 5 , and the man who murdred him : and A.U.C. 773. 
after the honourable place of Praetour, being apprehended 
among the Complices of Sejanus Conspiracie and committed 
to the keeping of his brother 6 , with a penknife cut his owne A.U.C. 788. 
veines: and after that, not so much repenting that hee 

1 Sutorem veteramentarium. 2 Sectionibus et cognituris. 3 Or pro- 
scribed and outlawed. 4 Which as Onuphrius saith, was Nepos. 5 Of 
Germanicus Csesar. 6 Aulus. 

187 



THE HISTORIE OF 

AULUS sought his owne death, as overcome with the earnest in- 
VTTELLIUS treatie of his friends about him, suffred his wounds to be 
bound up and cured: but in the same imprisonment 1 hee 
A.U.C. 788. died of sicknesse. Lucius, after his Consulship being Pro- 
vost 2 of Syria, with passing fine slights and cunning devises 
trained and entised forth Artabanus King of the Parthians, 
not onely to parly with him, but also to worship and adore 
the Standard of the Romairie Legions. Soone after, to- 
A.u.c.787,796, gether with Claudius the Emperour, he bare two ordinarie 
800, 803, 797. Consulates, one immediatly upon another, and the Cen- 
sureship also : likewise the charge of the whole Empire, 
whiles Claudius was absent in the expedition of Britaine, 
he sustained : an harmlesse person ; active and industrious : 
howbeit blemished with a very bad name, for the love he 
bare unto a Libertine woman : whose spettle mixed with 
honey he used as a remedie 3 (and that not closely and sel- 
dome but every day and openly) washing therewith his 
pipes 4 and throat. He was besides of a wonderfull glaver- 
ing nature and given to flatteries. He it was, that first by 
his example brought up the order to adore 5 Caius Caesar 6 as 
a God what time as being returned out of Syria, he durst 
not come into his presence otherwise than with his head 
covered 7 , turning himselfe about, and then falling downe 
prostrate before him at his feete. And because he would 
omit no artificiall meanes to curry favour with Claudius, 
a Prince so addicted to his wife and freed men, he made 
suit unto Messallina, as if it had beene for the greatest gift 
shee could bestow upon him, to doe him the grace that he 
might have the D'offing of her shoes : and the right foote 
pumpe c which he had drawne off, hee caried in his bosome 
continually betweene his gowne and inward clothes; yea, 
and many times would kisse the same. The golden images 
also of Narcissus and Pallas hee reverently honoured among 
his domesticall Gods. This was a word likewise of his, 
when he did congratulate Claudius at the exhibiting of the 

1 Or restraint of liberty and duresse. 2 Or President. 3 A Collution. 
4 Arterias. 5 Or salute after a devout manner. 6 Caligula. 7 Which 
be the reverent gestures used in worshipping the Gods. See Plin., lib. 28 
cap. 2. 
188 



TWELVE C^SARS 

Secular plaies \ Scepe facias, i. Many a time may you this AULUS 
doe. He died of a palsey d , the very next day after it tooke VITELLIUS 
him : leaving behind him two sonnes, whom Sextilia his 
wife a woman for her vertue highly approved, and of no 
meane parentage descended, bare unto him. Them he saw 
both, Consuls, and that in one yeere, yea and the same 
throughout ; for that the younger succeeded the elder for 
sixe moneths. When hee was departed this life, the Senate A.U.C. 768. 
graunted unto him the honour of a publick funerall : a statue 
likewise before the Rostra with this Inscription, Pietatis 
immobilis erga principem, i. 2 Of constant devotion and irre- 
moveable pietie to his Prince. 



Aulus Vitellius the sonne of Lucius, and Emperour, was 
borne the eighth day before the Calends of October 3 : or, 
as some will have it, the seventh day before the Ides of 
September 4 , whenDrusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus were 
Consuls. His Nativity 5 foretold by the Astrologers, his 
parents had in such horrour, that his father endevoured 
alwaies what he could, that no Province whiles he lived 
should be committed unto him : and his mother, what time 
he was both sent unto the Legions and saluted Lord 
Generall 6 , straight- waies lamented as if then he had beene 
undone for ever. His childhood and flower of youth hee 
spent at Capreae among the Strumpets and Catamites that 
Tiberius kept there : himselfe noted alwaies with the sur- 
name of Spintria 7 , was thought also by suffring the abuse 
of his owne body to have beene the cause of his fathers 
rising and advauncement. 

4 

All the time also of his age ensuing stained as he was 
with all manner of reproachable villanies, for hee caried 
a principall sway above others in the Court, growen into 

1 So called, because they were solemnized but once in an hundred, or an 
hundred and x. yeeres. 2 Subaudi (A man). 3 24 September. 4 7th 
of September. 5 Or fortune by the Horoscope of his Nativity. 6 Or 
Emperour. 7 A deviser of new fashions and formes of filthy uncleannes. 

189 



THE HISTORIE OF 

AULUS familiar acquaintance with Caius for his love to chariot 
VITELLIUS running, and with Claudius for his affection to dice-play : 
but in greater favour he was a good deale with Nero, both 
in the selfe same regards afore-said, as also for this especiall 
demerite, in that being president at the solemnity called 
Neroneum, when Nero was desirous to strive for the prise 
among the Harpers and Musicians, but yet durst not pro- 
mise so to do, (notwithstanding all the people called 
instantly upon him) and thereupon went out of the Theater : 
hee pretending that hee was sent Embassadour unto him 
from the people persisting still in their earnest request, 
had called him back, and so brought him in the end to 
be entreated. 

5 

Through the favourable indulgence therefore of three 
Emperours, being advaunced not onely to right honourable 
offices of State, but also to as high Sacerdotall dignities, 
he managed after all these the Proconsulate of Africk, and 
executed the charge of surveying and supravising the publick 
works: but with mind and reputation both, far unlike. 
For in his Province he demeaned himselfe for two yeeres 
together with singular innocencie and integrity ; as who 
after his brother succeeded in his stead, staied there still 
in quality of his Lieutenant. But in his office within the 
Citie, he was reported to have secretly stollen away, the 
oblations, gifts and ornaments of the Temples; to have 
embecilled and chaunged some of them ; yea, and in lieu of 
gold and silver to have foisted in Tinn and Copper. 

6 

Hee tooke to wife Petronia the daughter of one that had 
beene Consull, by whom hee had a sonne with one eye 
named Petronianus, him being by his mother a ordained her 
heire upon condition that he were freed once out of his 
fathers power, he manumised indeede : but soone after (as 
it was thought) killed : having charged him besides with 
parricidie, and pretending withall, that the poison which 

1 Deceased. 

190 



TWELVE C^SARS 

was provided to worke that mischiefe, hee upon remorse of AULUS 
conscience had drunke himselfe. After this, he wedded VITELLIUS 
Galeria Fundana, whose father had beene Pretour : and of 
her body also begat children of both sexes : but the male 
child had such an impediment of stutting and stammering, 
that little better he was than dumbe and tonguelesse. 



By Galba, sent he was contrary to all expectation into the A.U.C. 821, 
Low-Countries of Germanic : furthered as it is thought by 
the voice and favour of T. Vinius a man in those daies most 
mighty ; and unto whom long before, he had been wonne by 
favourizing the faction l a unto which they both were equally 
affected : but that Galba professed plainly, that none were 
lesse to be feared than those who thought of nothing but 
their victuals onely, and that his greedy appetite and 
hungry belly might bee satisfied and filled with the plenteous 
store that the Province did yeeld. So that evident it was to 
every man, that he chose him in contempt rather, than upon 
any speciall grace. This is for certaine knowne, that when 
he was to goe forth, he wanted provision for his journey by 
the way ; and for the maintenance of his family was driven 
to those hard "shifts and extremities, that muing up his 
wife and children (whom he left at Rome) in a little upper 
lodging 2 that he rented 3 ; and let out his owne dwelling 
house for the rest of the yeere : yea, and tooke from his 
mothers eare a pearle, which he laid to gage : and all for to 
defray the charges of that voiage. As for a number verily 
of his Creditours, who waited for him as ready to stay his 
passage : and among them, the Sinnessanes and Formians, 
whose publick imposts, tollage, and revenewes he had inter- 
cepted and converted to his owne use, he could not be 
rid of, but by terrifying them with an action of the case : 
serving one of them, and namely a Libertine (who very 
eagerly demaunded a debt) with processe upon an action 
of batterie, as if he had stricken him with his heele ; and 

1 Veneta, which Galba likewise with them favoured. 2 For in such, 
tenants dwelt, whereas the Lord himselfe kept beneath. 3 Tooke for 
rent. 

191 



THE HISTORIE OF 

AULUS would not withdraw the suit before he had extorted from 
VITELLIUS him fiftie thousand Sesterces. In his comming toward the 
Campe, the armie maliciously bent against the Emperour, 
and ready to intertaine any revolt and chaunge of State, 
willingly and with open armes received him, as a gift of the 
Gods presented unto them from heaven above ; the sonne 
of one thrice Consull ; a man in the vigour and strength of 
his yeeres ; of a gentle disposition besides, and of a frank 
and prodigall heart. Which opinion and perswasion, being 
of old conceived and settled in mens heads, Vitellius had 
augmented by some fresh proofes lately given of himselfe : 
kissing all the way as hee went along every meane common 
Souldiour that hee met : so courteous and affable above all 
measure, to the very mulitiers and wayfaring passengers, in 
every Inn and baiting place, that he would in a morning 
betimes aske them one by one, whether they had yet broken 
their fast, and shew unto them even by his belching, that 
hee had beene at his breakfast already. 

8 

Now when hee was entred once into the Camp, no suit 
denied he to any man : nay, of his owne accord hee tooke off 
their marks of ignominie who stoode in disgrace ; dispensed 
with those that were obnoxious to the Lawes for wearing poore 
and sullied garments ; and forgave condemned persons their 
A.U.C. 822. punishments. Whereupon, before one moneth was fully come 
and gone, without all respect either of day or time, when 
the very evening was now shooting in, suddainly by the 
Souldiours called forth he was out of his bed-chamber : and 
clad as he was in his domesticall and home apparrell, saluted 
by the name of Imperator, and caried round about the most 
frequented and populous townes *, holding in his hand the 
naked sword of Julius (Dictator) of famous memorie : which 
beeing taken out of the Temple of Mars, was at the first 
gratulation presented by one unto him. Neither returned 
he into the Pretorium 2 , before the dining roome was on a 
light fire, by occasion of the chimney there, where it first 



) or street : of Colonia Agrippinos where all this was done, as some 
write. 2 The L. Generals lodging. 

192 



TWELVE C^SARS 

caught. And then verily, when all besides were amazed and AULUS 
in great perplexity upon this adverse and ominous accident ; VITELLIUS 
4 Be of good cheere, 1 quoth hee, 6 it hath shined faire upon us': 
and no other speech at all made hee unto his Souldiours. 
After this, when the armie also of the higher Province, con- 
sented now by this time with the other, (that armie I meane 
which had revolted before from Galba and sided with the 
Senate) the surname of Germanicus generallie offred unto 
him hee gladly accepted ; the addition of Augustus he put 
off; and the stile of Caesar hee utterly for ever refused. 

9 

And soone after, when newes came unto him that Galba 
was slaine, having settled the State of Germanic, he divided 
his forces thus : sending one part thereof before \ against 
Otho, and minding to leade the rest himself e. Unto the 
armie which was sent before, there hapned a fortunate and 
luckie signe : for on the right hand, all on a suddaine flew an 
Eagle toward them : and when shee had fetched a compasse 
round about the Standerds and Ensignes, hovered softly 
before them as they marched on the way. Contrariwise, as 
himselfe removed and set forward, the Statues on horseback, 
erected in many places for him, all at once suddainly brake 
their legges and tumbled downe : and the guirland of Law- 
rell, which most devoutly he had done about (his head) fell 
from it into a running river. Within a while after, as he 
sate judicially upon the Tribunall to minister Justice at 
Vienna 2 , a Cock first settled upon his shoulder, and anone 
perched upon his very head. Upon which prodigious sights, 
ensued an event correspondent thereto. For the Empire 
which by his Lieutenants was confirmed and established unto 
him, he by himselfe was not able to hold. 

10 

Of the victorie before Bebriacum and the death of Otho, 
he heard whiles he was yet in Gaule : and without delay, 

1 Under the conduct of Fabius yalens by the Alpes, and of Csecina, over the 
Apennine. 2 In Fraunce within the province Narbonensis. 

2 : BB 193 



THE HISTORIE OF 

AULUS whosoever belonged to the Pretorian Cohorts, hee by vertue of 
VITELLIUS one e di c t cassed and discharged all, for the most daungerous 
precedent and example that they had given 1 , commaunding 
them to yeeld up their armour into the Marshals 2 hands. As 
for those hundred and twenty, whose Supplications exhibited 
unto Otho hee had found, such I meane as claimed rewards 
for their good service in killing Galba, hee gave commaunde- 
ment they should be sought out and executed every one. A 
worthy beginning I assure you, and a magnificent : such as 
might give good hope of an excellent Prince, had hee not 
menaged all matters else, according to his owne naturall 
disposition and the course of his former life, rather than 
respecting the majestic of an Emperour. For no sooner put 
he himselfe in his journey, but he rode through the midst 
of Cities in Triumphant wise : and passed along the great 
rivers in most delicate barges, garnished and adorned with 
Coronets of sundry sorts : faring at his table most sumptu- 
ously and served with all manner of dainty Viands : observing 
no discipline either of houshold servitour or of Souldiour : 
but turning the outrages, villanies and licentious prankes of 
them all to a jest : who, not content with their ordinary diet 
allowed and provided for them in every place where they 
came at the common charges of the State ; looke what slaves 
or Aliens it pleased them, they manumised and made free : 
but paied as many as withstoode them with whipping cheere, 
blowes, knocks, bloudie wounds oftentimes, yea and other- 
whiles with present death. When hee came into the fields 
where the battaile 3 was fought: and some of his traine 
loathed and abhorred the putrified corruption of the dead 
bodies, he stuck not to harten and encourage them with this 
cursed speech : That an Enemie slaine had a very good smell, 
but a Citizen farre better. Howbeit to qualifie and allay the 
strong savour and sent that they cast, hee poured downe his 
throat before them all, exceeding great store of strong wine, 
and dealt the same plentifully about 4 , with as much vanity 
as insolent pride. When he beheld the Stone, under which 

1 In betraying Galba their Soveraigne. 2 Or Tribunes. 3 Before 
Bebriacum, or Betriacum. 4 Some conclude the former periode heare, and 
begin a new sentence thus, Part vanitatc, etc., With like vanitie, etc. 

194 



TWELVE C^SARS 

Otho lay interred, with an Inscription l in his memoriall : AULUS 
' Worthy was he of such a monument V quoth hee. And the VITELLIUS 
very same dagger wherewith he had killed himselfe, he sent 
to Colein for to be dedicated unto Mars. Certes, upon the 
top of the Apennine Hill, hee celebrated a sacrifice, with a 
Vigil 3 all night long. 

11 

At length hee entred the Citie with warlike sound of 
trumpet, in his coate-armour, and with a sword girt unto 
him, among Ensignes, Banners and Flags 4 : his followers 
and dependants clad in militarie cassocks, and the armour of 
all his fellow Souldiours discovered in open view. Thus 
neglecting more and more from time to time, all Law of 
God and man, upon the very disasterous day Alliensis^ he 
was enstalled in the Sacerdotall dignity of High Priest. Hee 
ordained, that the solemne assembly 5 for Election of Magi- 
strates should be held every tenth yeere, and himselfe bee 
perpetuall dictatour. And to the end that no man might 
doubt what patterne hee chose to follow for government of 
Common-weale, calling a frequent number of the publick 
Priests about him in the middle of Mars field, hee sacrificed 
to the Spirit and ghost of Nero: and at a solemne feast 
openly put the Harper in minde singing as he did to his 
great contentment, for to say somewhat also of Domitius 6 b : 
and as he began to chaunt Neroes Canticles, he was the first 
that leapt for joy and clapped his hands withall. 



Having in this manner begun his Empire, a great part 
thereof he administred no otherwise, than according to the 
advise and pleasure of the basest Stage-plaiers and chariotiers 
that could be found : but especially of Asiaticus, a freed man 
of his owne. This Asiaticus when he was a very youth had in 
mutuall filthines with him abused his owne bodie : and after- 
wards lothing that abominable sinne, runne his way. Now, 

1 ' M. Othonis.' Plutarch. 2 Or Mausoleum. 3 Or wake. 4 Or 
among the Standards and other Ensignes, inter signa tt vexilla. 5 Or Folk 
mote. 6 *. Nero. 

195 



THE HISTORIE OF 

AULUS finding him once at Puteoli selling of a certaine drinke made 
VITELLIUS O f wa ter and Vineger x , first he laied him by the heeles, and 
hung a paire of fetters at his feete : but foorthwith loosened 
him 2 and intertained him as his derling againe. After which 
a second time being offended with his contumacy and mala- 
pert stubbornnesse 3 : he sold him to one of these common 
fencers that went from market to market 4 , and by occasion 
that he was upon a time put of to the last place in a sword 
fight for to play his prises : at un wares he privily stole him 
away : and no sooner was hee gone into his province but he 
manumised him. The first day of his Empire, as he sat at 
supper, hee dubbed him knight of Rome : and gave him the 
golden Ring : notwithstanding that the very morning before, 
when all the souldiers intreated in his behalfe, he detested 
so foule a blot to disteine and discredite the worshipfull 
degree of knighthood. 

13 

But being given most of all to excessive bellie cheere and 
crueltie, he devided his repast into three meales every day at 
the least, and sometime into foure, to wit, Breakefast, Dinner, 
Supper and rere-bankets 5 , able to beare them all very well, 
hee used to vomit so ordinarily a . Now his manner was to 
send word that hee would breake his fast with one (freind) 
dine with another, etc., and all in one day. And everie one 
of these refections, when it stood them in least, cost 40000 
Sesterces 6 . But the most notorious and memorable supper 
above all other was that, which his brother made for a wel- 
come at his first comming (to Rome) at which by report 
were served up to the Table before him, two thousand 
severall dishes of fish the most daintie and choisest that 
could be had, and seven thousand of foule. And yet, even 
this (as sumptuous as it was) himselfe surpassed at the dedi- 
cation of that platter 7 , which for the huge capacitie therof he 
used to call the targuet of Minerva, and al<yl8a IToXtovYOV, i. 
the sheild of the Cities protectresse 8 . In this he hudled and 

1 Poscani) oxycraton. 2 Statimque solvit. 3 Ferocitatcm or furadtatem^ 
i. theeverie. 4 In manner of mountbankes. 5 After supper. 6 3125!. 
sterling. 7 Or charger. 8 Minerva. 

196 



TWELVE C^SARS 

blended together the livers of Giltheads lb : the delicate AULUS 

braines of Phesants and Peacockes : the tongues of the Birds VITELLIUS 

Phcenicopterie : the tender small guts of Sea-lampries fet as 

farre as from the Carpathian sea and the straights of Spaine, 

by his Captaines over Gallies 2 . And, as a man that had not 

onely a wide throat of his owne to devour much, but also as 

greedie a stomach to feede both unseasonably and also grossly 

of what ever came next hand, he could not so much as at anie 

sacrifice whensoever, or in any journy wheresoever forbeare 

but amonge the altars snatch up by and by the flesh, the 

parched corne also and meale even from the very hearth, and 

eate the same : yea and at every victualling house by the 

way side, fall to viands piping hote, yet reaking and not 

cooled one jote ; and not spare so much as meats dressed the 

day before and halfe eaten alreadie. 

14 

Being forward enough to put to death and punish any 
man, what cause soever was pretended : noble men, his schoole 
fellowes, and play-feeres in time past, (whom by al faire 
meanes and flattering allurements he had enticed and drawn 
to the societie as it were of the Empire with him) by sundrie 
sorts of fraud and trechery, he killed, and one above the rest 
he made away with poyson, which he raught unto him with 
his owne hand in a draught of cold water, that he called 
for lying in a fit of an ague. Of Usurers, takers of bonds and 
obligations 3 , and publicanes, who ever at any time had de- 
manded of him either at Rome debt, or by the way as he 
travailed toll and custome, hee hardly spared one. And one 
of them, whom even as he came to salute him and doe his 
dutie, he had delivered over to the executioner for to suffer 
death, he called straightwaies backe againe : and when all 
that were by praised him for his clemencie, he commanded 
the said partie to bee killed before his face, saying with all, 
That he would feede his eyes. At the execution of another, 
he caused two of his sonnes to beare him companie, for 
nothing in the world, but because they presumed to intreat 

1 Scarorum. 2 Per nauarchos ac triremes: Hen dio duo. 3 As our 
Scrivenars and Atturneyes do, for other men. 

197 



THE HISTORIE OF 

AULUS for their fathers life. Ther was besides a gentleman of Rome 
VITELLIUS wno being haled away to take his death, cryed alowd unto 
him, ' Sir I have made you my heire. 1 Him he compelled to 
bring foorth the writing tables containing his last will : and 
so soone as he red therein that a freed man of the Testa- 
tours was nominated fellow heire with him, he commanded 
both Maister and man to be killed. Certaine Commoners 
also, for this onely that they had railed alowd uppon the 
faction of the watchet liverie \ he slew : being thus conceited, 
that in daring so to doe, they had him in contempt and 
hoped for a day. Yet was he to none more spitefully bent 
than to the wiseards and Astrologers a . Was any of them 
presented and enformed against? he made no more a do, 
but without hearing what he could say for himselfe, bereaved 
him of his life. Netled he was and exasperate against them, 
for that after an edict of his, wherein he gave commande- 
ment that all judiciall Astrologers should depart out of Rome 
and Italic before the first of October : presently, there was a 
writing or libell set up in open place to this effect, that the 
Chaldeans 2 made this Edict, as folio weth, * Bonum jactum 1 ', 
etc. We give warning by these presents, unto Vitellius 
Germanicus, that by the Calends 3 of the said October, he be 
not extant 4 in any place wheresoever 5 .' Suspected also hee 
was to be consenting unto his owne mothers death, as if hee 
had straightly forbidden that any food should be ministred 
unto her lying sicke : induced thereto by one Catta 6 , a wise 
woman, (in whom hee rested as in an Oracle) : That then and 
not before, hee should sit sure in his Emperiall Throne and 
continue very long, in case he overlived his mother. And 
others report, how his mother her selfe wery of the present 
state, and fearing what evill dayes were toward, obtained at 
her sonnes hand poison, and that without any great intreatie. 

15 

In the eight moneth of his Empire, the armies of Maesia 7 

1 Of Chariot runners : venetce factionis. 2 z. Astrologers. 3 Or first 
day. 4 Or to bee scene. 5 Not in Rome and Italy onely, as before he 
denounced unto them. 6 Or by a wise woman of that country where the 
people Catti inhabit, in Germanic. 7 Masiarum : because there was the 
high and the low. 

198 



TWELVE CAESARS 

both the one and the other, as also at Pannonia revolted AULUS 
from him : likewise, of the forces beyond sea, those of Jurie VITELLIUS 
and of Syria, and some of them sware alleageance unto 
Vespasian who was present among them. To retaine there- 
fore the love and favour of all other men, he cared not what 
largesses he made both in publike and private, beyond all 
measure. Hee mustred also and levied souldiers within the 
City, with this covenant and faire condition \ That all volun- 
taries should by vertue of his promise, have not onelie their 
discharge from service after victorie, but also the availes and 
fees due unto olde souldiers for serving out their full time. 
But afterwardes, as the enemie came hotely uppon him both 
by land and sea, on the one side he opposed his brother with 
the fleete and young untrained souldiers, together with a 
ere we of sworde fencers ; on the other, what forces hee had 
about Bebriacum and the Captaines there : and in everie 
place, being their discomfited in open feild or privily betrayed, 
he capitulated and covenanted with Flavius Sabinus brother 
of Vespasian, (to give up all) reserving his owne life, and a 
100 millians of sesterces. And foorthwith upon the verie 
staires of the Palace professing openly before a frequent 
assemblie of his souldiers, how willing he was to resigne up 
that emperiall dignity which hee had received against his will, 
when they all gaine said it, hee put of the matter for that 
instant ; and but one night beetweene, even the next morning 
by breake of day, hee came downe in poore and simple array 
to the Rostra, where, with many a teare, he recited the same 
words out of a little written skrow. Now, as the souldiers 
and people both, interrupted him a second time and exhorted 
him not to cast downe his heart, promising also with their 
utmost endeavour, and striving a vie who should do best to 
assist him, hee tooke courage againe and pluckt up his spirits: 
so that now fearing nothing 2 at all hee came with a sodaine 
power and violently chased Sabinus and the rest of the 
Flavians 3 into the Capitoll : and there having set on fire the 
Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, vanquished and slew 

1 Or offer. a Nihil iam metuens^ some read metuentes, to this sense, 
that he chased them fearing no such thing. 3 The faction of Flavius 
Vespatianus. 

199 



THE HISTORIE OF 

AULUS them : whiles himself beheld both the fight and the fire out 
VITELLIUS of Tiberius his house, sitting ther at meat and making 
good cheere 1 . Not long after repenting what he had done, 
and laying all the fault upon others, hee called a publicke 
assembly : where hee sware and compelled all the rest to take 
the same oth, That he and they would respect nothing 
in the world before the common peace. Then loosened 
he his dagger 2 from his side a , and raught it first to the 
Consul, then upon his refusal to the other Magistrates; 
and anon to the Senatours one after another. But when 
none of them all would receive it, hee departed, as if hee 
ment to bestow it in the Chappell of Concord. Now 
when some cryed out unto him : That himselfe was Con- 
cord, hee came backe againe, and protested, that hee not 
onely retained still the blade with him, but also accepted 
the surname of Concord. 

16 

Hereupon hee mooved and advised the Senate, to send 
Embassadours together with the vestall virgins to crave 
peace, or else some longer time to consult uppon the point. 
The next morrow, as he stood expecting an answere, word 
was brought unto him by his espiall, that the enemie 
approched. Immediatly therfore shutting himselfe close 
within a bearing chaire 3 , accompanied with two persons 
onely, his baker and his Cooke 4 , secretly hee tooke his way 
to the Aventine (hill) and his fathers house : minding from 
thence to make an escape into Campania. Soone after, 
uppon a flying and headlesse rumour, That peace was 
obtained, he suffred him selfe to be brought backe to the 
Palace. Where, finding all places solitary and abandoned : 
seeing those also to slinke from him and slip away who were 
with him, he did about him a girdle 5 full of golden peeces of 
coine 6 , and fled into the Porters lodge, having first tied a 

1 For yee must remember how much hee was given to gourmandise. 

2 Pugionem or rapier, a pungendo quia punctim potius quam ccesim vulnerat. 

3 Or Licter. 4 That made his deinty pastry works and sweet meates : 
meete grooms to accompanie such a glutton. 5 Or bandelier. 6 15 
Shilling peeces and better. 

200 



TWELVE CLESARS 

ban-dog a at the doore and set against it the bedsteed and AULUS 
bedding thereto. VITELLIUS 

17 

By this time had the Avantcurriers 1 of the (Flavians) 
maine armie broken into the Palace : and meeting noe 
bodie searched as the manner is, everie blind corner. By 
them was hee plucked out of his lurking hole : and when 
they asked who he was, (for they knewe him not) and where, 
upon his knowledge Vitellius was, he shifted them of with 
a lie: after this, beeing once knowen, hee intreated hard 
(as if he had somewhat to deliver concerning the life and 
safetie of Vespasian) to be kept sure in the mean season, 
though it were in some prison : and desisted not untill such 
time as having his hands pinnioned fast at his backe, an 
halter cast about his necke, and his apparell torne from his 
bodie, he was haled halfe naked into the Forum 2 . Among 
many skornefull indignities offred unto him both in deede 
and word throughout the spatious street sacra via 3 from 
one end to the other, whiles they drew his head backward 
by the bush of his haire (as condemned malefactours are 
wont to be served) and set a swordes point under his chinne 4 , 
and all to the end he might shew his face and not holde it 
down : whiles some pelted him with dung and durtie mire, 
others called him with open mouth Incendiarie 5 and Patin- 
arium 6 : and some of the common sort twitted him also 
with faults and deformities of his bodie : (for, of stature hee 
was beyond measure tall : a red face he had, occasioned for 
the most part by swilling in wine, and a grand fat paunch 
besides : hee limped somewhat also by reason that one of 
his thighes was enfeebled withe the rush of a chariot against 
it, what time he served Caius 7 as his henxman at a Chariot 
running) and at the last upon the staires Gemonise with 
many a small stroke all to mangled he was and killed in 
the end : and so from thence drawne with a drag into the 
River Tiberis. 

1 Or the vaward. 2 Or market place. 3 Sacra via reacheth from the 
palace to the Forum. 4 As a gag. 5 Or firebrand, because he burnt the 
Capitoll. 6 Or Platter Knight, for his gormandize and huge platter afore- 
said. 7 Caligula. 

2 : CC 201 



AULUS 
VITELLIUS 

A.U.C. 822. 



THE HISTORIE OF 

18 

Thus perished he with his brother and sonne togither, in 
the 57 yeere of his age. Neither falsified he their conjecture 
who had foretold him, that by the prodigious signe which 
befell unto him (as we have said) at Vienna, nothing else 
was portended, but that he should fall into the hands of 
some Frenchman a . For, dispatched he was by one Antonius 
Primus a Capitaine of the adverse part : who being borne at 
Tolosa, was in his childhood surnamed Beccus x which in the 
French tongue signifieth a Cockes-bill. 

1 Or Becco a beak in English, which may somewhat confirme the learned 
conjecture of him, who guesseth that both our auncient nation and language 
were extract from Gaule. 



202 



TWELVE C^SARS 




THE HISTORIE OF 

FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS 

AUGUSTUS 



|HE Empire standing thus a long time in 
doubtfull termes, unsetled and wandering 
(as it were) by occasion of the rebellious 
broils and bloudy slaughter of three 
princes \ the Flavii at length tooke into 
their hands and established : a house I 
must needs say, of obscure descent and 
not able to shew any pedigree and images 
of auncestours to commend their race ; howbeit, such as the 
common weale had no cause to dislike and bee ashamed of; 
although it be well knowne that Domitian abidd condigne 
punishment for his avarice and crueltie. Titus Flavius 
Petronianus, a burgesse of the free borrough Reate, and a 
Centurion, siding in time of the civill warre, with Pompeius 
(but whether he served voluntarie or was called foorth and 
prest it is uncertaine) fledde out of the battaile 2 in Phar- 
salia and went home to his house. Where afterwardes, 
having obteined his pardon and discharge from warrefare, he 
became a bailife under the Bankers and mony changers to 
gather up their monies. This mans sonne surnamed Sabinus, 
nothing martiall nor skilfull in feates of armes (although 
some write, that he had beene a principall leader of the 
formost Cohorts : and others that whilest he led certaine com- 
panies, hee was acquit from his militarie oth by occasion 
1 Galba, Otho, Vitellius. 2 Or, after the battaile, fled from him. 

203 



THE HISTORIE OF 

FLAVIUS of sicklinesse x ) came to be a Publicane 2 in A sia, and gathered 
^ ne cus t me or i m P os t Quadragesima a for the state. And 
there remained certaine Images which the Cities in that 

. , , . ,i,i ,-,1 ^ ... 

province erected for mm with this title and superscription, 
K<zX9 re\a)vrja-avT^ i. For him that was a good and faith- 
full Publicane 3 . After this he put foorth mony to usurie 
among the Helvetians, where he ended his life, leaving be- 
hinde him his wife Polla Vespasia, and two children which he 
had by her. The elder of which, named Sabinus, was ad- 
vanced to the provostship of the Cittie : the younger called 
Vespasianus, attained to the dignitie Imperiall. This dame 
Polla, borne at Nursia and descended of worshipfull parent- 
age, was the daughter of Vespasius Pollio, one that had 
beene a militarie Tribune 4 thrice, and provost Marshal 5 of 
the Campe besides : and sister to a man of Senatours degree, 
and promoted to the dignitie of Praetour. There is a place 
moreover even at this day sixe miles from Rome, (as men goe 
to Spoletum from Nursia) upon the hill top, bearing the 
name of Vespasiae : where many monuments of the Vespasii 
are to be scene : a great evidence to prove the Noblenesse 
and antiquitie of that family. I cannot deny, that some have 
given out, how the father of that Petrojanus came out of 
the Transpadane region 6 , and was an undertaker by the 
great, to hire those labourers and hines which were wont 
yeerely to repaire out of Umbria into the Sabines Count rie 
for to till their grounds : how hee planted himselfe and stayed 
in the Towne Reate aforesaid, and there maried a wife. 
But my selfe could never finde (make what search I could) 
any signe or trace to lead me thereto. 



Vespasian 7 was borne in the Sabines territorie beyond 
Reate within a smal village named Phalacrine, the fifteenth 
day before the Calends of December 8 , in the evening, when 
Q. Camerinus and Caius Poppaeus Sabinus were consuls : five 
yeeres before that Augustus departed out of this world. 

1 Such be called Causarii. 2 Publicanum, or Publcium, both to the same 
effect. 3 Or customer. 4 Or Colonel. 5 Or camp maister. 6 Beyond 
the river Po in respect of Rome. 7 The Emperour. 8 i;th of November. 

204 



TWELVE C^SARS 

His bringing up he had under Tertulla his grandmother by FLAVIUS 
the fathers side, in the land and living that she had about VESPA- 
Cosa. Whereupon, when hee was Emperour hee both fre- 
quented continually the place of his birth and breeding, the 
Capitall house and manour remaining still as it had beene 
in former times, nothing altered (because forsooth, his eyes 
should have no losse nor misse of that which they were wont 
to see there) and loved also the memoriall of his grand- 
mother so deerely, that on all solemne and festivall, and 
high daies, hee continued ever drinking out of a silver pot 
that was hers and out of none other. After he had put on 
his virile gowne 1 , he refused a long time the Senatours 
robe a , although his brother had attained therto: neither 
could he be forced to seeke for it at last but by his owne 
mother. Shee in the end wrought perforce so much from 
him, by way of reprochful taunts more than by faire in- 
treatie or reverent authoritie : whiles, ever and anone, shee 
called him in taunting wise, his brothers huisher. He served 
as Tribune military in Thracia : and in quality of Questor had 
the government of Crete and Cyrene, provinces by lot fallen 
unto him. When he sued to be ^Edile, and afterwards 
Pretour, he hardly attained to the former Offices (and not 
without some repulse) even in the sixth place : but presently 
at his first suit and with the formost being chosen Pretour, 
and upon displeasure taken, maliciously affected against the 
Senate, because he would by all maner of demerite win the 
favour of Caius the Emperor, he earnestly demanded extra- 
ordinary playes and games in honor of him for his victory 
in Germanic : and gave opinion in the Senate house, that 
to augment the punishment of certeine conspiratours (against 
him), their dead bodies should bee cast forth and left un- 
buried. Hee gave him also solemne thankes before that 
right honorable degree, for vouchsafing him the honor to be 
a guest of his at a supper. 

3 

Amid these occurrents, he espoused Flavia Domitilla, the 
freed woman of Statilius Capella, a Romane gentleman of 

1 In 1 7th yeere of his age. 

205 



AUGUSTUS 



THE HISTORIE OF 

FLAVIUS Sabraca, and an Africane borne, committed unto him some- 
u P on trust, an d enfranchised in the freedom of Latium : 
afterwards pronounced a gentlewoman born and natural- 
ized a Citizen of Rome, in the Court of Judges delegate, 
upon claime made by her father Flavius Liberalis borne 
at Ferentinum, (a man that never rose higher than to be 
a Scribe 1 to a Questour) who vouched her freedome. By 
her he had issew, Titus, Domitianus, and Domitilla. His 
wife and daughter he overlived, and buried them whiles he 
was yet in state of a private person. After his foresaid 
wives decease, he called home againe to cohabite with him 
in his house Caenis a freed-woman of Antonia, and her 
Secretarie 2 , whom he had fansied in former time: and 
her he kept when he was Emperour, insteede of his true 
and lawfull wife. 



Under the Emperour Claudius, by especiall favour of 
Narcissus, sent he was into Germanic as Lieutenant of a 
legion : from thence being removed into Britaine, he fought 
thirtie battailes with the enemie: two most mightie nations, 
and above twentie towns, togither with the Isle of Wight 
lying next to the said Britaine, he subdued, under the con- 
duct partly of A. Plautius Lieutenant to the consul, and in 
part of Claudius himselfe, for which worthy acts he received 
A.U.C. 804. triumphall ornaments, and in short space two sacerdotall 
dignities with a consulship besides which he bare the two 
last moneths of the yeere. For the middle time between, 
even until he was Proconsul, he led a private life in a re- 
tyring place out of the way, for feare of Agrippina, who as 
yet bare a great stroke with her sonne 3 , and hated to the 
heart all the friends of Narcissus, although deceased. After 
this, having the province of Africk allotted unto him, hee 
governed the same with singular integritie, and not without 
much honor and reputation : but that in a seditious com- 
motion at Adrumetum, there were Rape-rootes 4a flung at his 
head. Certaine it is, that from thence he returned nothing 



1 Or notarie. 
4 Or turneps. 

206 



2 Or Keeper of her books and accompts. 



Nero. 



TWELVE CAESARS 

richer than he was; as who not able to keepe credit, but FLAVIUS 
growen almost bankrupt, was driven to mortgage all his 
houses and lands unto his brother: and of necessitie, for 
the maintenance of his estate and dignity, went so low as 
to make gaines by hucksters trade x pampering beastes 2 for 
better sale. Whereupon he was commonly named Mulio, 
i. Mulitier. It is said also that convicted he was for ex- 
torting from a young man 200 thousand sesterces, in con- 
sideration that by his meanes hee had obteined a Senators 
dignitie even against his owne fathers will, for which hee had 
a sore rebuke. Whiles he travailed through Achaia in the 
traine and inward companie of Nero, he incurred his heavie 
displeasure in the highest degree, for that whiles he was 
chaunting, either he made many starts away out of the 
place, or else slept, if he staied there still. And being for- 
bidden not only to converse in the same lodging with him, 
but also to salute him publikely with others, he withdrew 
himselfe aside into a small cittie, and which stood out of 
the way : untill such time, as lying close there and fearing 
the worst, the goverment of a province 3 with the com- 
maund of an armie was offred unto him. There had been 
spred throughout all the East parts an opinion of olde, and 
the same setled in mens heades and constantly beleeved, 
That by the appointment of the destinies about such a 
time there should come out of Jury those, who were to be 
Lords of the whole World b : which being a prophesie (as 
afterwards the event shewed) foretelling of the Romane 
Emperour, the Jewes 4 drawing to themselves, rebelled : and 
having slaine the President 5 there, put to flight also the 
Lieutenant generall of Syria 6 (a man of consular degree) 
comming in to ayde ; and tooke from him the ^Egle 7 . To 
represse this insurrection, because there was neede of a 
greater armie and a valiant Captaine, yet such an one, as 
to whom a matter of so great consequence might safely be 
committed, himselfe was chosen above all others, as a man 
of approved valour and Industrie; howbeit no way to be 

1 Mangonicos quastus. 2 Which extendeth also to slaves and old wares or 
thripperie. 3 Jurie. 4 Who then looked for their Messias and doe so 
still. 5 Or governour, Sabinus. 6 Callus. 7 t. The maine standerd. 

207 



THE HISTORIE OF 

FLAVIUS feared for the meannesse of his birth, linage and name. 
STANns Having therefore under his hand an addition to the former 
AUGUSTUS P oure ? f two legions 1 , eight cornets of horse and tenne 
cohorts 2 (of foote): taking also unto him among other 
Lieutenants, his elder son 3 , no sooner arrived he in that 
province, but the other states 4 likewise next adjoyning, 
he brought into admiration of him, for reforming imme- 
diatly at his first comming the discipline of the campe, 
and giving the charge in one or two battailes with such 
resolution, as that in the assault of a castle, he caught 
a rap with a stone upon his knee, and received in his 
targuete some shot of arrowes. 



After Nero and Galba, whiles Otho and Vitellius strove 
for Soveraintie, hee had good hope of the Empire, conceived 
long before, by these presaging tokens (which I wil now re- 
late) : within a countrey ferme by the Citie side, belonging 
to the Flavii, there stood an olde Oke consecrated unto 
Mars, which at 3 childbirths of Vespasia sodainly did put 
forth every time a several bough from the stock : undoubted 
signes fore-shewing the destinie and fortune of each one. 
The first was small and slender, which quickly withered 
(and therefore the girle at that time borne lived not one 
yeere to an end): the second grewe very stiffe and long 
withall, which pretended great felicitie : but the third, came 
to the bignesse of a tree. Whereupon Sabinus the father 
(of Vespasian) beeing confirmed beside by the answere of 
a Southsayer 5 , brought word backe (by report) unto his 
owne Mother 6 , that she had a Nephew borne who should 
be Caesar 7 : whereat, shee did nothing else but set up a 
laughter, mervailing that her sonne should have a cracked 
braine and fall a doting now, since that his Mother had her 
wittes still whole and sound. Soone after, when Caius Caesar, 
offended and angrie with him, for that beeing ^Edile hee 

1 Romaine. 2 These cornets and cohorts seeme to bee Auxiliaries. 
3 Titus. 4 Or Provinces rather in the East part. 5 One of these that 
prie into beastes bowels. 6 Tertulla the Grandmother of Vespasian. 
* Emperour. 

208 



TWELVE C^SARS 

had not beene carefull about sweeping and clensing the FLAVIUS 
streetes, had commanded hee should bee all bedawbed with ^y}^ 
mire that the Souldiours gathered up and threw into the AUGUSTUS 
lap of his embrodred robe, some were ready to make this 
interpretation thereof, That the common weale trodden one 
day under foote and forlorne by some civill troubles, should 
fall into his protection and as it were into his bosome. As 
hee was at his dinner upon a time, a strange dog brought 
into his dining roome a mans hand and layed it under the 
boarde. Againe, as hee sate another time at supper, an 
Oxe having beene at plough and shaken of his yoke, rushed 
into the parlour where hee was at meate: and when hee 
had driven the waiters and servitours out, as if all on a 
sodaine hee had beene wearie, layed him downe along at his 
feete where hee sate, and gently put his necke under him. 
A Cypresse tree likewise in his Grand-fathers land without 
anie force of tempest plucked up by the roote and layed 
along, the very next day following rose up againe greener 
and stronger than before. But in Achaia hee dreamed, That 
hee and his, should beginne to prosper so soone as Nero 
had a tooth drawen out of his head. Now it fortuned, that 
the morrow following, a Chirurgion that came forth into 
the court-yeard shewed unto him a tooth of Neroes newly 
drawen. In Jurie, when hee consulted with the Oracle of 
the god Carmelus 8 , the answere which was given, assured 
him in these tearmes, That whatsoever he thought upon 
and cast in his minde (were it never so great) it should so 
come to passe. And one of the Noble men of that Countrey 
taken captive, named Josephus 1 , when hee was cast into 
prison, avouched and sayde unto him most constantly, that 
hee should shortly be set at liberty even by him, but hee 
should be Emperour first. There were moreover significant 
tokens presaging no lesse reported unto him out of the very 
Citie of Rome : and namely, that Nero in his latter dayes, 
a little before his death, was warned in a dreame to take 
the sacred Chariot of Jupiter Optimus Maximus forth of 
the Chappel where it stoode, into Vespasians house, and so 
from thence into the Cirque 2 . Also, not long after, as 
1 Who wrote the Jewish historic. ~ Inde in Circum. 

2 : DD 209 



FLAVIUS 
VESPA- 

SIANUS 
AUGUSTUS 



THE HISTORIE OF 

Galba held the solemne election for his l second Consulship, 
the statue of Julius, late Caesar of famous memorie, turned 
of it selfe into the East b . And at the field fought before 
Bebriacum, ere the battailes joyned, two Mgles had a con- 
flict and bickered together in all their sights: and when 
the one of them was foyled and overcome, a third came 
at the very instant from the sunne rising and chased the 
Victresse away. 

6 

Yet for all this attempted he no enterprise (notwith- 
standing his friends and souldiours were most prest and 
forward yea and urgent upon him) before that hee was 
sollicited by the unexpected favour, of some, who as it fell 
out were both unknowen to him and also absent. Two 
thousand drawen out of the three legions of the Maesian 
armie and sent to ayde Otho, when they were upon the 
way marching (albeit newes came unto them that hee was 
vanquished and had layed violent hands upon himselfe), 
held on their journey neverthelesse as farre as to Aquileia, 
as giving small credit to that rumour: where after they 
had by vantage of opportunities offred, and uncontrolled 
libertie, committed all manner of robberies and outrageous 
villanies, fearing least if they returned backe againe, they 
should answere for their misdemeanours, and abide condigne 
punishment therefore ; layed their heades togither, and con- 
sulted about the chusing and creating of an Emperour. 
For, worse they tooke not themselves nor inferiour, eyther 
to the armie in Spaine that had set up Galba : or to the 
Pretorian bands, which had made Otho: or to the Ger- 
manician forces who had elected Vitellius, Emperours. 
Having purposed therefore and nominated of the Consular 
Lieutenants as manie, as they coulde in anie place thinke 
upon : when they misliked all the rest, taking exceptions 
against one for this cause and another for that : whiles 
some againe of that third Legion, which a little before the 
death of Nero had been translated out of Syria into Mesia, 
highly praysed and extolled Vespasian, they all accorded 



210 



1 Vespasian s. 



TWELVE CAESARS 

thereto, and without delay, wrote his name upon their FLAVIUS 

flagges and banners. And verily, for that time this project 

was smuddred, the companies for a while reclaimed, and all 

brought into good order. But when the sayde fact was 

once divulged : Tiberius Alexander Provost l of ^Egypt 

was the first that forced the Legions to sweare allegeance 

unto Vespasian, upon the kalends 2 of July, which ever after 

was celebrated for the first day and beginning of his Empire. 

After them, the armie in Jurie tooke the same oath before 

Vespasian himselfe, the fifth day before the Ides of Julie 3 . 

These enterprises were very much farthered, by the copie of 

a letter that went commonly through mens hands (true or 

false I wote not) of Otho now deceased, to Vespasian, charging 

and willing him now at the last cast, of all love to revenge 

his death, and wishing him withall, to relieve the distressed 

state of the Common- wealth : by a rumour also spred 

abroad, That Vitellius upon his victorie ment fully to make 

an exchange of the legions winter harbours : namely, to 

remove those that wintered in Germanie into the East 

Provinces 4 , as to a more secure service and easier warfare. 

Moreover, among the Governours of Provinces, Lucinius 

Mucianus, and of the Kings, Vologesus of Parthia, had 

promised, the one 5 (laying downe all grudge and enmitie 

which unto that time he openly professed 6 upon a humour 

of aemulation) the Syrian armie: and the other 7 fortie 

thousand archers. 



Vespasian therefore having undertaken a civill warre, and 
sent before him his Capitaines and forces into Italie, passed 
over in the meane time to Alexandria, for to be possessed of 
the frontier streights and Avenues of ^Egypt. Heere when 
he had voided all companie from him and was entred alone 
into the Temple of Serapis, after he had, upon much pro- 
pitious favour of that god obtained, devoutly at length 
turned him selfe about, him thought hee sawe Basilides a , 

1 Or Governour. 2 The first day. 3 The 1 1 of July. 4 No 

marvaile then, if the armies there inclined to Vespasian. 5 Mucianus. 
6 Unto Vespasian. 7 K. Vologesus. 



THE HISTORIE OF 

FLA VI US one who was knowen to have had accesse unto no man, and 
VESPA- } on g s i nc e for the infirmitie of his sinewes \ scarce able to 



AUGSTUS se ^ one ft e De f re another, and withall to bee absent a 
great way of 2 , to present unto him Vervaine and sacred 
herbes, guirlands also and loaves of bread (as the manner is 
in that place). And heereupon immediately letters came 
unto him, emporting thus much, that the forces of Vitellius 
were discomfited before Cremona: reporting besides, that 
himselfe was killed at Rome. The onely thing that hee 
wanted (being as one would say, a Prince unlocked for, and 
as yet new come to the Empire) was Countenance, authoritie, 
and a kinde as it were of royall majestic. But even that 
also came on apace (by this occasion). It fortuned that a 
certaine meane commoner starke blind, another likewise 
with a feeble and lame leg, came both togither unto him as 
hee sat upon the tribunall, craving that helpe and remedie 
for their infirmities which had beene shewed unto them by 
Serapis in their dreames : That hee 3 should restore the one to 
his sight, if he did but spit into his eyes : and strengthen 
the others legge, if hee vouchsafed onely to touch it with his 
heele. Now when as hee could hardly beleeve, that the 
thing anie way would finde successe and speede accordingly, 
and therefore durst not so much as put it to the venture : 
at the last through the perswasion of friends, openly before 
the whole assembly, hee assayed both meanes, neither missed 
hee of the effect. About the same time, at Tegea in 
Arcadia, by the Instinct and motion of Prophets, there were 
digged out of the ground in a consecrated place, manufac- 
tures and vessels of antique worke : and among the same an 
Image, resembling for all the World Vespasian. 

8 

Thus qualified as hee was and graced with so great fame, 

hee returned to Rome : and after his triumph over the 

A.U.C. 823, Jewes, hee added eight Consulships more to that which of 

824, 825, 827, olde hee had borne. He tooke upon him also the Censure - 

828 ' 832' 83 ' S *"P : anc * a ^ the ti me f his Empire esteemed nothing more 

1 The Palsey. 2 So Miles; happily, the same whom Tacitus reporteth to 
have been the Priest of Carmelus. 3 Vespasian. 



TWELVE C^SARS 

deare, than first to establish and afterwards to adorne the FLAV1US 
Common weale, brought almost to utter decay, and at the J^5S^ 
point to fall downe. The souldiours, some presuming boldly AUGUSTUS 
of their victories, others in griefe for their shamefull dis- 
grace 1 were growen to all manner of licentiousnesse and 
audacitie. The Provinces likewise and free states, yea and 
some kingdomes, fell to discord and seditious tumults among 
them selves. And therefore of the Vitellians he both cassed 
and also chasticed very many. As for the partners with 
him in victorie : so farre was hee from allowing them any 
extraordinary indulgence, that their very due and lawfull 
rewardes hee payed not but slackely. And because hee 
would not let slip anie occasion of reforming militarie dis- 
cipline, when a certain gallant youth smelling hote of sweet 
balmes and perfumes came unto him, to give thanks for an 
Office 2 obtained at his hands, after a strange countenance 
shewing his dislike of him, hee gave him also in words, a 
most bitter and grievous checke, saying, ' I would rather 
thou haddest stunke of garlicke,' and so revoked his letters 
patents for the graunt. As touching the mariners and sea 
servitours, such of them as are wont to passe to and fro on 
foote, by turnes 3 from Ostia and Puteoli to Rome, who 
were petitioners unto him that some certaine allowance 
might bee set downe for to finde them shoes : hee thought 
it not sufficient to sende them awaye without answere, but 
commanded that for ever after they should runne up and 
downe betweene unshod 4 . And so, from that time they 
use to doe. Achaia, Lycia, Rhodes, Bizantium and Samos, 
first diffranchised 5 : likewise, Thracia, Cilicia and Comagene, 
subject untill that time to Kings, hee reduced all into the 
forme of a province. Into Cappadocia, for the continuall 
rodes and incursions that the Barbarians made, he brought 
a poure besides, of Legions, and in lieu of a Romane knight, 
he placed there for Ruler, a man who had beene Consul. 
The Citie of Rome by reason of olde skarefires and mines 
was much blemished and disfigured. Hee permitted there- 

1 In taking part against him. 2 Or charge. 3 Per vices, some reade 
per vicos, i. along the townes and villages. 4 Barefoote. 5 Whereas 
they had been free States. 



THE HISTORIE OF 

FLAVIUS fore any man to seize as his owne all vacant plots of ground, 
VESPA- anc [ to builde thereupon, in case the owners and Land-lords 
AUGUSTUS were s ^ ac ^ e i* 1 ^at behalfe. Him selfe tooke upon him the 
reedifying of the Capitoll, and was the first man that- did 
set his hand to the ridding of the rubbish and rammell, yea 
and upon his owne necke caried some of it awaye : three 
thousand tables of brasse also which were burnt with the 
sayd Temple, hee undertooke to make and set up againe, 
having searched and sought out from all places the pattrons 
and copies thereof 1 . A most bewtifull instrument and right 
auncient record of the whole Empire hee compiled and 
finished, wherein were contained from the first beginning 
well neere of the Citie, all actes of Senate, all deedes passed 
by the Communalty as concerning Leagues, Alliances and 
priviledges granted to any whatsoever. 



Hee built also newe workes : the temple of peace, situate 
next unto the Forum : that likewise of Claudius, late 
Emperour of sacred memorie, seated upon the mount Cselius, 
which verily had beene begun by Agrippina 2 , but almost 
from the very foundation destroyed by Nero. Item, a most 
stately Amphitheatre in the heart of the Citie, according 
as hee understood that Augustus intended such an one 3 . 
The two degrees 4 wasted by sundry massacres and disteined 
through the negligence of former times, he cleansed and 
supplyed, by a review and visitation of Senate and gentry 
both : wherein he remooved the unworthiest persons and 
tooke in the most honest that were to bee found, either of 
Italians or provinciall inhabitants. And to the ende it 
might be knowne, that both the said degrees differed one 
from another not so much in libertie as in dignitie, hee pro- 
nounced in the case of a certaine braule betweene a Senatour 
and a knight of Rome, That Senatours might not be pro- 
voked first with foule language : mary to aunswere them 

1 For in them were engraven the publike evidences and records, etc. 
2 Claudius his wife. 3 Ut destinasse eompererat Augustum, amplissimum. 
4 Of Senatours and gentlemen. 



AUGUSTUS 



TWELVE C^SARS 

with evill words againe, was but Civilitie and a matter FLAVIUS 
allowed. 

Suites in law depending one uppon another were growen 
in everie Court exceeding much : whiles the old Actions by 
the Intervall of Jurisdiction 1 9 hung still undecided, and new 
quarrels arose to encrease them, occasioned by the tumultu- 
ous troubles of those times. Hee chose therefore certaine 
commissioners by lot, some by whome the goods taken and 
caried away perforce during the warres might be restored ; 
and others, who extraordinarily should determine and judge 
betweene partie and partie in Centumvirall cases 2 a (which 
were so many, as that the parties 3 themselves, as it was 
thought, could hardly by course of nature live to see an 
end of them), and reduce them all to as small a number 
as possiblie might be. 

11 

Wanton lust and wastfull expense, without restraint of 
any man, had gotten a mightie head. Hee mooved the 
Senate therefore to make a decree : That, what woman 
soever joyned her selfe in wedlocke 4 unto another mans 
bondservant, should be reputed a bondwoman. Item, that 
it might not bee lawfull for Usurers to demaund any debt 
of young men whiles they were under their fathers tuition 
for mony credited out unto them : I mean, not so much as 
after their decease. In all other matters, from the very 
first beginning of his Empire unto the end, hee was cur- 
teous enough and full of Clemencie. 



His former meane estate and condition, hee dissimuled not 
at anie time : nay hee would often of himselfe professe the 
same and make it knowen openly : yea and when some went 

1 The vacation during the Civil troubles. 2 Which pertained to the 
Centumvirs Court : to wit, Civile causes between private persons, as probates 
of Testaments, etc. Vide Cicer. i. de Oratore. 3 Plantifes and defend- 
ants. * Si iunxissety as Sabellicus expoundeth it : or, at large, carnally. 



THE HISTORIE OF 

FLAVIUS about to fetch the originall of the Flavian Linage, from as 
VESPA- farre as the founders of Reate, and the companion of Her- 
AUGIJSTUS cu ^ es ' wnose monument is to bee scene in the way Salaria *, 
hee mocked and laughed them to skorne for their labours. 
And so farre was he from desiring anie outward ornaments 2 
in shew of the World, that upon his triumph day, being 
wearied with the slow march and tasdious traine of the 
pompe, he could not hold but say plainely, that hee was 
well enough served and justly punished, who beeing an 
aged man had so foolishly longed for a triumph : as if for- 
sooth it had of right beene due unto his forefathers 3 , or 
ever hoped for by himselfe 4 . Neither accepted he so much, 
as the tribunes authority and addition, of Pater patrice in his 
stile, but it was long first. For hee had forlet altogether 
the custome of searching those that came in duty to salute 
him even whiles yet the Civill warre continued. 

13 

The franke-speech 5 of his friendes : the figurative tearmes 
and quips of Lawyers pleading at the barre, and the un- 
mannerly rudenesse of Philosophers hee tooke most mildely. 
Licinius Mucianus 6 , a man notorious for preposterous wan- 
tonnesse but (presuming confidently of his good deserts 7 ) 
not so respective of him as reverent duty would, hee could 
never finde in his heart to gird and nip againe but secretly : 
and thus farre forth onely as in complaining of him unto some 
good friend of them both to knit up all with these words for 
a conclusion, c Yet am I a man 8 .' When Salvius Liberalis 9 , 
pleading in the defence of a rich client was so bolde as to 
say, ' What is that to Caesar 10 , if Hipparchus be worth an 
hundred millians of Sesterces ? ' him selfe also commended 
and thanked him for it. Demetrius the Cynicke n meeting 

1 By which salt was brought out of the Sabines countrey to Rome. 
2 Extrinsecus. 3 Who were but of meane calling. 4 Being three-score 
of age, and therefore past the ambitious desire of such glory. 5 Libertatem, 
which the Greekes call Parrhesian. 6 His friend. 7 For he was the chiefe 
helper of him to the Empire. 8 Whatsoever you are : noting him for that 
he was Pathicus. 9 A Lawyer. 10 Noting Vespasian, as if he had a 
longing eye after his wealth and therefore sought his condemnation. " A 
philosopher. 

216 



TWELVE C^SARS 

him in the way after hee was come to his Soveraigne dig- FLAVIUS 

nitie *, and not deigning once to rise up nor to salute him, VESPA- 

but rather barking at him I wote not what, he thought AUGUSTUS 
it enough to call Cur-dogge a . 

14 

Displeasures to him done, and enmities, he never caried 
in mind nor revenged. The daughter of Vitellius his enemie 
he maried into a most noble house : he gave unto her a rich 
dowry withall, and furniture accordingly. Whenas, by 
reason that he was forbidden the Court under Nero, hee 
stood in great feare, and was to seeke what to do or whether 
to goe : one of the gentlemen huishers, whose office it was 
to admit men into the presence, in thrusting him out, had 
bidden him abire Morboniam 2 , i. to be gone in a mischiefe. 
When this fellow afterwards came to aske forgivenesse, he 
proceeded no further in heat of anger but to wordes onely, 
and to quite him with just as many and almost the very 
same. For, so farre was hee from working the overthrowe 
and death of anye person, upon anye suspicion or feare con- 
ceived : that when his friendes admonished him to beware of 
Maetius Pomposianus, because it was generally believed that 
the Astrologers had by the horoscope of his nativitie assured 
him to bee Emperour another day, hee advanced the same 
Metius to the Consulship, presuming and promising in the 
mans behalfe, that hee would be one day mindfull of this 
benefit and good turne of his. 

15 

There is not lightly found an innocent person to have 
beene punished, but when hee was absent and not ware 
thereof: or at leastwise unwilling thereto and deceived. 
With Helvidius Priscus, who onely had saluted him after 
his returne out of Syria, by his private name, plaine Ves- 

1 Post dominationem alias damnationem, i. after he was condemned, for 
Vespasian had banished al Philosophers out of Rome and confined this 
Demetrius to an Hand. Xiphilin. 2 Or Morboviam, according to which 
phrase we say, The foule ill take thee. The Greekes Eis Choracas, i. The 
Crowes eate thee. The Latines in malam crucem, i. Go hang. 

2 : EE 



THE HISTORIE OF 

FLAVIUS pasian l : and being pretour in all his Edicts and Proclama- 
ST^NTJS ti ns P asse d hi m over without any honour at all, or once 
AUGUSTUS nam i n g him, hee was not angry and displeased, before that 
he had, with his most insolent altercations made him in 
manner contemptible and little better than an ordinarie 
person. Him also, notwithstanding he was first confined 
to a place and afterwards commanded to bee killed, hee 
would have given a great deale to have saved by all meanes 
possible : as who sent certein of purpose to call backe the 
murderers : and saved his life hee had, but that false word 
came backe that he was dispatched alreadie. Otherwise he 
never rejoyced in the death of any, but rather when male- 
factours were justly punished and executed hee would weepe 
and groane againe. 

16 

The onely thing for which hee might worthily bee blamed 
was covetousnesse. For, not content with this, to have 
revived the taxes and payments omitted by Galba : to have 
laied unto them other newe and heavie impositions : to 
have enhaunsed also the Tributes of the provinces, yea and 
of some dupled the same : he fell openly to negotiate and 
deale in certaine trades, which, even for a private person 
were a shame to use : buying up and engrossing some com- 
modities for this purpose, onely to put the same of after- 
war des at an higher price. Neither made hee it straung 
to sell either honourable places unto suiters for them : or 
absolutions and pardons, to men in trouble, whether they 
were innocent or gultie it skilled not. Furthermore, it is 
verily thought that of his Procuratours, if any were greedy 
and given to extortion more than other, his manner was to 
promote such for the nonce to higher offices : to the ende, 
that when they were more enriched, hee might soone after 
condemne them. And commonly it was sayd, that those hee 
used as spunges, for that hee did wet them well when they 
were drie, and presse them hard when they were wette. 
Some write that hee was by nature most covetous, and that 
an old Neat heard upbraided him once therwith, who being 



218 



1 Not Caesar nor Augustus nor Imperator. 



TWELVE (LESARS 

at his handes denied freedome without paying for it (which FLAVIUS 
hee humblie craved of him now invested in the Empire), S?5I 
cried out with a lowd voice and said, The Wolfe might AUGUSTUS 
change his haire, but not his qualities. Contrariwise there 
bee againe who are of opinion, that hee was driven to spoyle, 
to pill and poll of necessitie, even for extreame want both 
in the common treasurie and also in his owne exchequer : 
whereof he gave some testimonie in the beginning imme- 
diately of his Empire, professing that there was neede of 
fortie thousand Millenes to set the State upright againe. 
Which also seemeth to sounde more neere unto the truth, 
because the monie by him ill gotten, hee used and bestowed 
passing well. To all sorts of men hee was most liberall. 
The Estate and wealth of Senatours a he made up to the 
full. To decaied men that had beene Consuls, hee allowed 
for their maintenance 500 thousand Sesterces by the yeere. 
Very many Cities throughout the World by Earth quake or 
fire ruinate, hee reedified better then they were before. 

17 

Fine wits and cunning Artisanes hee set much store by, 
and cherished them above all others. Hee was the first, 
that out of his owne coffers appointed for professed Rhetori- 
cians, as well in Latine as in Greeke, an yeerely Salarie of an 
hundred thousand Sesterces a peece. Excellent Poets, as 
also Actours x he bought up 2 . Semblably, upon the worke- 
man who had repaired and set up againe, the Geantlike 
Image called Colossus a , hee bestowed a notable congiarie 3 , 
and endewed him with a great stipend beside : to an En- 
giner also, who promised to bring into the Capitoll huge 
Columnes with small charges, hee gave for his devise onely 
no meane reward, and released him his labour in perform- 
ing that worke, saying withall by way of preface, That he 
should suffer him to feed the poore commons 4 . 

1 Artificers, for so Livie termeth Ludios et histriones, i. stage players. 
2 Or hyred. 3 Or reward. 4 To allow them wages for their painefull 
labor in such works rather then to have the same done without them : and 
as we say, to keep poore people at worke. 

219 



THE HISTORIE OF 

FLAVIUS n Q 

VESPA- 

At those playes during which the stage of Marcellus 
Theatre newly reedified, was dedicated : he had brought 
into request and use againe even the olde Acroames 1 a . To 
Apollinaris the Tragcedian hee gave foure hundred thousand 
sesterces. To Terpnus and Diodorus two harpers, two 
hundred thousand a peece : to some one hundred : and to 
whom hee gave least fortie thousand, over and above a great 
number of golden Coronets. Hee feasted continually : and 
for the most part by making full suppers, and those very 
plentifull 2 : for why ? His meaning was to helpe the 
Butchers and such as solde victuals. As hee delivered foorth 
giftes unto men at the Saturnalia, so hee did to Women 
upon the Kalends of March b . Yet verely for all this, 
coulde hee not avoide the infamous name of his former 
avarice. The men of Alexandria termed him still Cybio- 
sastes after the surname of one of their Kings, given to 
most base and beggerly gayne. And even at his very 
funerals, Favor the Arch-counterfaict representing his 
person, and imitating (as the manner is) his deeds and 
wordes whiles hee lived, when hee asked the Procuratours 
openly, what the charges might bee of his funerall and the 
pompe thereto belonging, no sooner hearde that it would 
arise to tenne Millenes of Sesterces, but hee cried, ' Give 
mee one hundred thousand, and make no more adoe but 
throw mee into Tiber/ 

19 

Of a middle stature hee was : well set : his limmes compact 
and strongly made : with a countenance as if he streined 
hard for a stool e. Whereupon one of these plaisants came 
out with a pretie conceit. For when Vespasian seemed to 
request the fellow for to breake a jest upon him also, as 
well as upon others, ' That I will, 1 quoth he, ' if you had done 
your businesse once upon the seege. 1 His health hee had, 
no man better : although for the preservation thereof hee 

1 Eare delights, as Players, Musicians, etc. 2 Recta : in opposition to 
sportulee. 

220 



TWELVE C^SARS 

did no more, but rub his owne chawes and other parts of the FLAVIUS 
bodie to a certeine just number within the Sphceristerium 2 a : 
and withall, monethly interpose abstinence from all foode 
one whole day 2 . 

20 

This course and order of life for the most part he held. 
Whiles hee was Emperour he waked alwayes very early, and 
late in the night 3 . Then, having red through all missives, 
and the Breviaries of everie office, hee admitted his friends : 
and whiles hee was saluted, he both put on his own shooes, 
and also apparailled and made himselfe ready. After 
dispatch of all occurrent businesses, hee tooke himselfe to 
gestation a , and so to rest: having one of his Concubines 
lying by his side : of whom hee had appointed a great 
number in steede of Caenis deceassed. From his privie 
closet 4 , hee passed into his Baine and so to his refection 
roume. Neyther was he, by report, at any time fuller of 
humanitie, or redier to doe a pleasure. And such opor- 
tunities of time as these, his domes ticall servants waited for 
especially, to preferre their petitions in. 

21 

At his suppers, and otherwise at all times with his friends 
being most pleasant and courteous 6 % hee dispatched many 
matters by way of mirth. For given exceedingly hee was to 
skoffs, and those so skurrile and filthy, that he could not so 
much as forbeare words of ribaudrie b . And yet there bee 
many right pleasant conceited jests of his extant. Among 
which this also goes for one. Being advertised by Menstrius 
Florus, a man of Consuls degree, to pronounce Plaustra, 
rather than Plostra, hee saluted him the next morrow by 

1 A round place of exercise belonging to the baines. Some would have il 
to be a tennis court. 2 Naturall, z. 24 houres. 3 Or arose before day, 
denocte vigilabat, Sextus Aurelius writeth of him that he watched al night. 
Plinie also saith Node uti solitum : ut dierum actus noctibus^ et nocturnos 
diebus traiiceret. 4 A Secrete, or retiring place. 5 Et semper alias Cum 
atnias, etc. Others read, et super aleas Communissimus, i. and whiles he 
plaied at hazard, etc. 6 A word in Latine that signifieth Cartes or 
waines. 

221 






THE HISTORIE OF 

FLAVIUS the name of Flaurus 10 . Having yeelded at length to a 
certaine woman enamoured of him, and readie as it were to 
dye for pure love, when she was brought to his bed 2 , and 

t J * . r , . /,,! 1 & / ! ,! 1 5 

had given mm lortie thousand sesterces for lying with her 3 , 
his Steward comes to put him in minde in what manner and 
forme hee would have this summe of money to bee set downe 
in his booke of accompts 4 . 'Marie thus, 1 quoth he, ' Vespa- 
siano adamato? i. Item, given to Vespasian beloved d . 

22 

Hee used Greeke Verses also in good season and aptly 
applyed : as namely of a certaine fellow, tall and high of 
stature, but shrewde and testie withall a , in this manner, 

MaKpa jSipas KpaSdav 8o\tx6(TKiov ey^os b j 

and especially of Cerylus, his freed-man : upon whom, for 
that being exceeding rich, yet to avoyde a payment some- 
time to his Exchequer, hee began to give it out that hee 
was free borne, and so changed his name and called himselfe 
Laches, Vespasian played in these tearmes : 



O Laches, Laches,, wert thou once dead in grave : 
Thine olde name Cerylus, againe thou shalt have. 

Howbeit, most of all hee affected a kinde of dicacitie in his 
unseemely gayne and filthy lucre : to the end, that by some 
skoffing cavill, hee might put by and doe awaie the envie 
of the thing, turning all to merrie jests. A Minister and 
servitour about him, whom hee loved deerely, made suite 
in the behalfe of one as his brother, for a Stewardship. 
When hee had put him off to a farther day, hee called unto 
him the partie himselfe, that made meanes for the thing : 
and having exacted 5 so much monie at his hands, as hee 
had agreed for with the Mediatour aforesayd, without more 

1 And not Florus. 2 Cumperducta, etc., notflerductce, in a quite contrarie 
sense, as if he had given her so much. 3 Quadraginta Sestertia, alias 
quadringenta sestertia, i. 400 thousand. 4 To wit, in the page of receits. 
g Or received. 



TWELVE C^SARS 

delay, he ordained him Steward. Soone after when the FLAVIUS 

Servitour interposed him selfe, ' Goe your waves,' quoth he, VESPA- 

' seeke you another to be your brother : for, this fellow whom AUGUSTUS 

you think to be yours is become mine.' Suspecting that his 

mulitier who drave his carroch alighted one time, as it were 

to shoo his Mules, thereby to winne some advantage of time 

and delay, for one that had a matter in lawe and was 

comming unto him : hee asked the Mulitier what might 

the shooing of his mules cost 1 , and so covenanted with him 

to have part of his gaines. When his sonne Titus seemed 

to finde fault with him for devising a kinde of tribute, even 

out of urine c : the monie that came unto his hand of the 

first paiment, hee put unto his sonnes nose : asking withall, 

whether he was offended with the smell, or no, and when he 

answered No : ' And yet,' quoth he, ' it commeth of Urine.' 

Certaine Embassadours brought him word, that there was 

decreed for him at the common charges of the States a 

geantlike image, that would cost no meane summe of money. 

He commanded them to reare the same immediately, shew- 

ing therewith his hand Hallow 2 . ' Here is the base,' quoth 

he, 'and piedstall 3 for it, ready.' And not so much as in 

the feare and extreame perill of death forbare he skoffing. 

For when as among other prodigious signes the Mausoleum 4 

of the Caesars opened sodainely, and a blazing starre ap- 

peared : the one 5 of them, he sayde, did concerne Junia 

Calvina a gentlewoman of Augustus (Caesars) race 6 : the 

other 7 had reference to the King of the Parthians, who ware 

his haire long 8 . In the very first accesse also and fit of his 

disease, 6 Me thinkes,' quoth he, ' I am a deifying V 



In his ninth Consulship, after he had been assayled in 
Campania with some light motions and grudgings of his 
sicknesse, and thereupon returned forthwith to the Citie, 

1 The partie that came to sollicite his owne cause. 2 For to receive the 
money. 3 Meaning his hand. 4 Monument or Sepulchre. 6 The 
Mausoleum. 6 Wheras himself was not of that line. 7 A blazing 
starre. 8 Whereupon is called Stella Crinita and Cometes in Greeke. 
9 Am a dying, and so, grow to be a god. 



THE HISTORIE OF 

FLAVIUS hee went from thence to Catiliae and the lands he had 

VESPA- about Reate, where every yeere hee was wont to summer. 

AUGUSTUS Heere, having (besides the maladie still growing upon him) 

hurt also his guttes and bowels with the use of colde water 1 a , 

and yet neverthelesse executed the functions of an Emperour, 

after his accustomed manner, in so much as lying upon his 

bed, hee gave audience to Embassadours : when all of a 

sodaine he fell into a loosenesse of the bellie, that hee 

fainted and was ready to swound therewith. ' An Emperour,' 

A.U.C. 832. quoth he, 'ought to dye standing. 1 As he was arising therfore 
and streining still to ease his bodie 2 , he dyed in their hands 
that helped to lift him up, the 8th day before the Calends 
of July 3 : when he had lived threescore yeeres and nine, 
seven moneths and seven dayes over 4 . 



All writers agree in this, that so confident he was alwayes 
of his owne Horoscope 5 and his childrens, that after so 
many conspiracies continually plotted against him hee durst 
warrant and assure the Senate that either his owne Sonnes 
should succeede him or none. It is sayde moreover, that 
hee dreamed upon a time, how hee sawe a paire of skales 
hanging in the midst of the porch and entrie of his house 
palatine, with the beame thereof even ballanced, so as in 
the one ballance stoode Claudius and Nero: in the other, 
himselfe and his sonnes. And it fell out so indeede : for 
they ruled the Empire of both sides so many yeers, and the 
like space of time just. 

1 These waters of Catilioe as Plinie writeth were exceeding cold. 2 To 
avoid the ordure of the guttes. 3 24 June. 4 Superque mensem ac diem 
septimum. 5 Or nativitie. 



TWELVE C^SARS 



THE HISTORIE OF 

TITUS FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS 

AUGUSTUS 




[TUS, surnamed as his Father was, Vespasi- 
anus, the lovely dearling and delightfull 
joy of Mankinde (so fully was he, either 
endued with good nature and disposition, 
or enriched with skilfull cunning, or else 
graced with fortunes favour ; and that 
(which is hardest of all) in his Imperiall 
State, considering that whiles hee lived 
as a private person under the Emperour his Father, he could 
not avoid the very hatred and much lesse the reproofe of the 
world). This Titus, I say, was borne the third day before 
the Calends of Januarie 1 : in that yeere which was remarke- A.U.C. 794. 
able for the death of Caius the Emperour, neere unto the 
Septixomum*, within a poore ill-favoured house, in a very 
little Chamber and darke withall : for it remaineth yet to 
bee seene. His Education hee had in the Court together 
with Britannicus, trained up in the like Arts and Disciplines, 
under the same teachers. At which time verily, men say, 
that a Fortune-teller 2 b , whom Narcissus the freed man of 
Claudius brought to see Britannicus, after Inspection affirmed 
most constantly, that by no meanes hee 3 , but Titus who 
then stoode hard by, should surely bee Emperour. Now 
were these two so familiar, that (as it is verily thought) of 
the same cup of poison whereof Britannicus drank and died, 



1 30 of December. 



Metoposcopum. 



Britannicus. 



225 



THE HISTORIE OF 

TITUS Titus also sitting neere unto him, tasted : whereupon he fell 

FLAVIUS i n t a grievous disease, that held him long and put him to 

SIANTO great paine. In memoriall of all which premisses, he erected 

AUGUSTUS afterwards for him l one Statue of gold in the Palatium ; as 

also another of Ivorie on horsebacke (which at the Circeian 

Games is even at this day caried before in the Solemne pomp) 

he dedicated, and accompanied accordingly. 



At the very first, even in his child-hood, there shone forth 
in him, the gifts both of body and minde : and the same 
more and more still by degrees as hee grew in yeeres : a 
goodly presence and countenance, wherein was seated no 
lesse majestic 2 than favour and beauty: a speciall cleane 
strength, albeit his stature was not tall : but his belly bare 
out somewhat with the most. A singular memorie: and 
aptnesse to learne all the Arts, in manner, as well of warre 
as of peace. Most skilfull he was in handling his weapon, 
and withall a passing good horsman : for his Latine and 
Greeke tongue, whether it were in making Orations or com- 
posing Poemes, prompt and ready even to the performance 
thereof ex tempore. Neither was he unseen e in Musick as 
who could both sing and also play upon instruments sweetly 
and with knowledge. I have heard also many men say, That 
he was wont to write with Cyphers and Characters most 
swiftly, striving by way of sport and mirth with his owne 
Clerks, whether he or they could write fastest, to expresse 
likewise and imitate what hand so ever hee had scene : yea, 
and to professe many a time, that he would have made a 
notable forger and counterfaiter of writings. 



In quality of Tribune Militare, he served in the warres 
both in Germanic and also in Britaine, with exceeding com- 
mendation for his industrie and no lesse report of modestie 3 , 

1 Britannicus. 2 Aucthoritatis, which Tacitus calleth maustatem. 
3 Temperate behaviour. 



TWELVE C^SARS 

as appeareth by a number of his images and titles to them TITUS 
annexed a , throughout both Provinces. After this warfare FLAVIUS 
of his, hee pleaded causes in Court, which he did rather to ^NTO 
winne credite and reputation 1 , than to make it an ordinarie AUGUSTUS 
practise 2 . At which very time, he wedded Arricidia, the 
daughter of Tertullus a Gentleman of Rome, but Capitaine 
sometime of the Praetorian Bands : and in the roome of her 
deceased, he tooke to wife Martia Flavia : and from her 
when she had borne unto him a daughter, he divorsed him- 
selfe. After this, upon his Questureship, being Colonell and A.U.C. 820. 
Commaunder of a whole Legion, he brought under his sub- 
jection Tarichea 3 and Gamala two most puissant Cities of 
Jurie : where, in a certaine battaile having lost his horse 
under him (by a deadly wound) within his flankes, hee 
mounted another whose rider in fight against him had beene 
slaine and was fallen. 



Afterwards, when Galba was possessed of the State, being A.U.C. 821. 
sent to congratulate his advauncement : what way so ever 
he went, he turned all mens eyes upon him, as if he had 
beene singled forth to be adopted. But so soone as he per- 
ceived all to be full of troubles againe, hee returned back 
out of his very journey, and visited the Oracle of Venus 
Paphia 4 : where, whilst he asked counsell, about his pas- 
sage at sea, he was confirmed withall in his hope of the 
Empire. Having attained thereto within short time, and 
being left behind to subdue Jurie throughly in the last 
assault of Hierusalem, he slew twelve enemies that defended 
the wall 5 , with just so many arrowes shot: and wonne the 
Citie upon the very birth-day of his daughter 6 , with so great 
joy and favourable applause of all his Souldiours: that in 
their gratulation they saluted him Emperour : and soone 
after, when he was to depart out of that Province, deteined 
him : in humble manner, yea and eft-soones in threatning 

1 In undertaking causes of greatest importance. 2 In entertaining al 
matters whatsoever. 3 Neere to the Lake Genezareth. 4 In Paphos a 
citie within the Isle Cyprus. 5 12 Propugnatores. 6 8th of September, 
Joseph, lib. 7 : De Bello Judaico, 

227 



THE HISTORIE OF 



TITUS 
FS 



wise instantly calling upon him, to stay, or else to take 
^em a ^ awa y together w ith him. Whereupon arose the 
^ rs ^ sus pition, that he revolted from his father, and had 
AUGUSTUS attempted to chalenge the kingdome of the East parts for 
him selfe. Which surmise himselfe made the more, after 
that in his way to Alexandrea, as he consecrated at Memphis 
the Ox Apis, he wore a Diademe a : which he did in deed 
according to the custome and rites of the auncient religion 
there. But there wanted not some, who construed it 
otherwise. Making hast therefore into Italic ; after hee was 
arrived first at Rhegium and from thence at Puteoli, em- 
barqued in a Merchants ship of burden ; to Rome he goes 
directly with all speed and most lightly appointed : and 
unto his father looking for nothing lesse, ' I am come,' quoth 
he, ' father, I am come ' : checking thereby the rash and 
inconsiderate rumors raised of him. 

5 

From that time forward hee ceased not to carie himselfe as 

partner with his Father, yea and Protectour also of the 

A.U.C. 824, Empire: with him hee triumphed: with him hee jointly 

825, 824. administred the Censureship : his Colleague hee was in 

A.U.C. 823, j-jje Tribunes authority : his Companion likewise in seven 

829' 830' 832' Consulships. And having taken to himselfe the charge well- 

' ' ' neere of all Offices, whiles hee both endited letters and 

penned Edicts in his Fathers name : yea, and read Orations l 

in Senate, and that in the Questours turne, he assumed also 

the Captainship of the Guard, an Office never to that time 

executed but by a Gentleman of Rome. In this place hee 

demeaned himselfe nothing civilly, but proceeded with much 

violence: for ever as he had any in most jelousie and 

suspition, he, by sending secretly and under-hand certaine 

of purpose, who in the Theaters and Campe should require 

for to have them punished (as it were with his Fathers con- 

sent) made no more a-doe but brought them all to their 

end. As for example, among these, hee commaunded Aulus 

Caecina, a man of Consular Degree, and a guest by him 

invited to supper, when hee was scarce gone out of the 



228 



Missives. 



TWELVE C^SARS 

Banquetting parlor to bee stabbed. I must needes say, that TITUS 
driven he was to this violent proceeding upon an extremity FLAVIUS 
of daunger: considering that he had found out his hand- o T Avrnvi 

.. P . .1 ' . .1 , i iiii -ii O1AWUO 

writing bearing evidence of a conspiracie that he plotted with AUGUSTUS 
the Souldiours. By which courses, as he provided well and 
sufficiently for his owne security another day : so, for the 
present time he incurred very much displeasure and hatred 
of the world : in so much, as no man lightly, when so ad- 
verse a rumor was on foote, and that which more is, against 
the wills of all men, would have stepped to the Imperiall 
throne. 

6 

Beside his cruelty, suspected he was also for roiotous life : 
in that he continued banquetting untill midnight with the 
most profuse and wastfull spend-thrifts of his familiar 
minions : for wanton lust likewise, by reason of a sort of 
stale Catamites and guelded Eunuchs that he kept about 
him ; and the affectionate love that hee was noted to beare 
to Queene Berenice 1 , unto whom also, as it was said he pro- 
mised mariage. Suspition there was moreover of his pilling 
and polling. For certain it was, that in the commissions and 
hearing of causes 2 which his father held, he was wont to sel 
the decision of matters, and to make a gaine thereby. After 
this, men both reputed and also reported him to be even 
another Nero. But this name that went of him proved 
good for him and turned to his greatest commendation : 
considering that no grosse vice could bee found in him, but 
contrariwise many excellent vertues. The feasts that he 
made were pleasant meriments, rather than lavish and 
sumpteous. He chose for his friends such, as in whom the 
Emperours also his successours reposed themselves, and 
whom they used especially as necessarie members both for 
them and also for the Common-wealth. As for Queene 
Berenice, he sent her quickly away from the Citie of Rome ; 
but full loath they were both of them to part a sunder. 
Certaine of his minions and dearlings whom hee favoured 

1 The sister as some thinke of Agrippa, and wife for a while of Polemon 
King of Lycia : others say, she was the wife first of Aristobulus, afterwards of 
Antipater. 2 Agnitionibus. 

229 



THE HISTORIE OF 

TITUS and fansied most, albeit they were such artificiall Dauncers, 

F VFSPA S ^ at w * tn * n a while after they caried the greatest praise and 

SIANTO prise upon the stage, he forbare quite not onely to huggle 

AUGUSTUS an d embrace long together, but to behold so much as once 



in any publick meeting and assembly. From no Citizen 
tooke he ought : and from aliens goods he abstained, if 
ever any did. Nay, he received not the very contributions 
graunted and usually paied. And yet, being inferiour to 
none of his predecessours in munificence, as having dedicated 
an Amphitheatre \ and built the Baines hard-by, with 
great expedition 2 a , he exhibited a Spectacle of Sword-fencers, 
with all kindes of furniture thereto belonging in most plenti- 
full manner. Hee represented also a navall fight in the old 
Naumachm ; in which very place he brought forth likewise 
his sword-fencers to play their prises : and in that one day 
he put out to be baited 5000 wilde beasts of all sorts. 



Furthermore, being of his owne nature most kinde and 
gracious ; whereas by a constitution and order that Tiberius 
began, all the Caesars his Successours held not the Benefits 
graunted by former Princes good and in force, unlesse they 
also themselves made new graunts of the same againe : hee 
was the first, that by vertue of one sole edict, ratified and 
confirmed all that had passed before : neither suffred he any 
petition to be made unto him for them. In all other Suits 
and Requests, hee ever more held most constantly mens 
mindes at this passe, that hee would send none away without 
hope. And when his Domesticall Ministers about his person 
would seeme to tell him, That he promised more than he 
was able to performe : ' What ! ' quoth he, ' there ought no 
man to depart from the speech of a Prince, sad and discon- 
tented.' Calling to minde one time as he sat at supper, 
that he had done nothing for any man that day, hee uttered 
this memorable and praise-worthy Apophthegme, ' My 
friends, I have lost a day.' The people especially in generall 
he intreated in all occasions, with so great courtesie, that 

1 At which solemnity 5000 wilde beasts were killed. As Eusebius Chrono- 
graphus and Eutropius write. 2 Celeriter. 

230 



TWELVE C^SARS 

having proposed a solemne Sword-fight, he made open pro- TITUS 
fession, that he would set it forth, not to please him selfe F ypYpV S 
but to content the beholders. And verily, even so hee did : SIANU^ 
for, neither denied he ought to them that would call for it : AUGUSTUS 
and of his owne accord, willed them to aske what their 
mindes stoode to. Moreover, shewing plainly, that hee 
stoode well affected to the manner of the Thracian sword- 
fencers 1 fight and their Armature, hee would many times 
even with the rest of the people both in word and gesture 
(as a favourer of that kinde) jest and make sport : yet so, as 
hee kept still the majestic of an Emperour: and withall 
judged with equitie indifferently. And because hee would 
pretermit no point of popularity, sometime as hee bathed in 
his owne baines hee admitted the Commons thither unto 
him. There fell out in his daies certaine mischaunces and 
heavie accidents : as, the burning of the mountaine Vesaevus 
in Campania : a Skar-fire at Rome, which lasted three daies 
and three nights ; as also a pestilence 2 , the like whereof had 
not lightly beene knowne else where at any other time. In 
these calamities so many and so grievous, he shewed not 
onely a Princely care, but also a singular fatherly affection : 
sometime comforting (his people) by his Edicts, otherwhiles 
helping them so farre forth as his power would extend. 
For repairing the losses in Campania 3 , he chose by lot 
certaine Commissioners to looke thereto, even out of the 
ranke of those that had beene Consuls. The goods of such 
as perished in the said mount, whose heires could not be 
found, hee awarded to the reedification of the ruinate Cities 
adjoyning. And having made publick protestation, that 
in the said skare-fire of the Citie, there was no losse at all 
but to himselfe : looke what ornaments were in any of his 
owne Palaces and royall houses 4 , the same he appointed to 
the Citie buildings and the Temples : for which purpose 
hee made divers of Knights degree Supravisors, to the end 
that every thing might be dispatched with greater expedi- 

1 Who were opposite to the Mirmillones, that were armed after the French 
fashion. 2 Wherin there died ten thousand a day. Euseb. 3 By the 
burning of Vesevus which consumed many towns and much people. 4 In 
the Country, as Columnes, statues, painted tables, etc. 

231 



TITUS 

FLAVIUS 

VESPA- 

SIANUS 



THE HISTORIE OF 

tion. To cure the sicknesse and mitigate the furie of those 
contagious Diseases, hee used all helpe of God and man, 
having sought out what soever kindes of Sacrifices and 
AUGUSTUS remedies might bee found : among the adversities of those 
times, may bee reckoned these Promoters and Informers, 
with such as under hand set them a worke, occasioned all 
by old licentiousnesse and impunitie. And those he com- 
maunded to be whipped and beaten with cudgels ordinarily 
in the open Market place : and last of all, when they had 
beene brought in a Shew through the Amphitheatre, 
partly to be solde in port-sale for slaves : and in part to be 
caried away into the roughest and bleakest Hands that were. 
And because hee would for ever restraine such, as at any 
time should dare to doe the like : hee made an Acte among 
many others, prohibiting, one and the same matter to bee 
sued by vertue of many Statutes and Lawes enacted in that 
behalfe; or to make inquisition as touching the estate of 
any man deceased, after the terme of certaine yeeres limited. 

8 

Having professed that he tooke upon him the High- 
Priesthood in this regard, because hee would keepe his 
hands pure and innocent, hee made good his word. For, 
after that time, never was hee the principall Author of any 
mans death, nor privie and accessarie thereto (albeit hee 
wanted not sometimes just cause of revenge), but sware 
devoutly, That hee would rather die himselfe, than doe 
others to death. Two noble men of the Patritian ranke, 
convicted for affecting and aspiring to the Empire, he pro- 
ceeded against no farther than to admonish them to desist 
and give over, saying, That Soveraigne power was the gift 
of Destinie and Divine providence. If they were Petitioners 
for any thing else, he promised to give it unto them. And 
verily, out of hand, to the mother of the one, who was 
then farre of (wofull and pensive woman as shee was) he 
dispatched his owne coursitours and foote-men to carie word 
that her sonne was safe : as for themselves hee not onely 
invited them to a familiar and friendly supper that night : 
but also the next day following, at the fight of Sword- 



TWELVE C^SARS 

fencers placing them of purpose neere about his owne person, TITUS 

the Ornaments 1 of the Champions that were to fight, pre- FLAVIUS 

sented unto him, hee reached unto them for to view and si^N^ 

peruse a . It is said, moreover, that having knowledge of AUGUSTUS 

both their Horoscopes 2 , he avouched that daunger was toward 

them both and would light upon their heads one day, but 

from some other ; as it fell out in deede. His owne brother 3 

never ceasing to lay waite for his life, but professedly in 

manner soliciting the armies against him : plotting also 

and intending thereupon to flie and be gone, hee could 

never endure either to kill or to sequester and confine, no 

nor so much as to abridge of any honour : but, as hee had 

alwaies done from the first day of his imperiall dignity, 

persevered to testifie and declare, that Partner he was with 

him in the Soveraigne government, and his heire apparent 

to succeede him : otherwhiles secretly with teares and praiers 

beseeching, That he would vouchsafe him yet at length, 

mutuall love and affection. 



Amid this blessed course of life, cut short he was and 
prevented by death, to the greater losse of mankinde than 
of himselfe. After he had finished the solemne Shewes and 
Games exhibited to the people, in the end and upshot 
whereof, hee had shed teares abundantly : he went toward 
the Sabines territorie somwhat more sad than usually he 
had beene : by occasion, that as hee sacrificed, the beast brake 
loose and gat away: as also because in faire and cleare 
weather it had thundered a . Hereupon, having gotten an 
ague at his first lodging and baiting place, when he was 
removing from thence in his Licter, it is said that putting 
by the Curtaines of the windowe, hee looked up to heaven, 
and complained very piteously, that his life should be taken 
from him who had not deserved to die : for there was no 
fact of his extant, of which hee was to repent, save onely 
one. Now what that one should be, neither uttered he 
himselfe at that instant, neither is any man able readily to 

1 As their armour, weapons, etc. 2 Ascendents of their Nativity. 
3 Domitian. 

2 :GG 



THE HISTORIE OF 

TITUS guesse thereat. Some thinke, he called to minde the over- 
FLAVIUS familiar acquaintance that he had with his brothers wife l 



AUGUSTUS 



A.U.C. 834. 



Domitia devoutly sware, That he never had such deal- 
i n g w ^ n ner: wno no doubt would not have denied it, if 
there had beene any folly at all betweene them : nay, shee 
would rather have made her vaunt thereof: so ordinary 
a thing it was with her to glory in all naughtinesse and 
shamefull deedes. 

10 

He departed this world a , in the very same Country-house 
wherein his father died before him : upon the Ides of 
September 2 , two yeeres, two moneths and twenty dayes 
after that he succeeded his father, and in the two and 
fortieth yeere of his age. Which being once notified and 
knowen abroade, when all men throughout the Citie mourned 
no lesse than in some domesticall occasion of Sorow and 
Lamentation : the Senate before they were summoned and 
called together by any Edict, ranne to the Curia, finding as 
yet the dores fast locked : but when they were set open, 
they rendred unto him now dead so much thanks, and 
heaped upon him so great a measure of praises, as they 
never did before, at any time, whiles he was living and 
present among them. 



Domitia. 



1 3th of September. 



234 



TWELVE C^SARS 



THE H1STORIE OF 
FLAVIUS DOMITIANUS 




OMITIAN was borne the ninth day before A.U.C. 804. 
the Calends of November 1 what time his 
father was Consul Elect, and to enter 
upon that honorable place the moneth 
ensuing 2 , within the sixt region of Rome 
Citty, at the Pomegranate 3 : and in that 
house which afterwards he converted into 
the temple of the Flavian familie. The 
floure of his tender yeeres and the verie prime of youth, he 
passed by report, in so great povertie and infamy 4 withal, 
that he had not one peece of plate or vessel of silver to be 
served with. And ful well it is knowen, that Clodius Pollio, 
a man of Pretours degree (against whome there is a Poem of 
Neroes extant, entituled Luscio a ) kept by him a skro 5 of his 
owne hand writing, yea and other whiles brought the same 
foorth to bee scene, wherein he promised him the use 6 of his 
bodie one night. Neither wanted some who constantly 
avouched, that Domitian was in that sort abused, even by 
Nerva, who soone after succeeded him. In the Vitellian 
troubles 7 he fled into the Capitol with his Unkle Sabinus, 
and part of the forces which were then present. But when 
the adverse faction brake in, and while the Temple was on 
fire, hee lay close all night in the Sextaines lodging : and 

1 24 Octobris. 2 Januarie. 3 A place so called like as before, ad 

capita Bubula and ad Gallinas. 4 For his impure life. 5 Or Bil. 

6 Or abuse rather. 7 Betweene Vitellius and his father Vespasian : and 
their factions. 

235 



FLAVIUS 

DOMI- 

TIANUS 



THE HISTORIE OF 

early in the morning, disguised in the habit of a priest of 
Ids V and among the sacrificers belonging to that vaine 
superstition, after hee had passed over Tiberis, accompanied 
with one onely person, to the mother of a schoole fellow of 
his, hee lurked there so secretly, that albeit the serchers 
traced him by his footing, yet could hee not be found. At 
last after victory obtained hee went foorth and shewed him- 
selfe ; and being generally saluted by the name of Caesar 1 , 
the honourable dignitie of the Citi Praetour in the consular 
authoritie, hee tooke uppon him in name and title onely : 
the j urisdiction whereof hee made over to his next Colleague. 
But in all power of Lordly rule 2 , he caried himself so 
licentiously and without controlment that hee shewed even 
then betimes, what a one hee would prove hereafter. And 
not to handle every particular : having with uncleane hands 
offred dishonour to many mens wives, hee fled away and 
maried also Domitia Longina the wedded wife of ^Elius Lon- 
ginus : and in one day gave and dealt above twentie offices, 
within the Citie and abroad in foraine provinces: in so 
much as Vespasian commonly said, That hee marvailed why 
he sent not one also to succeed in his place. 



Hee enterprised moreover a voiage into Gaule and Ger- 
manie, notwithstanding the same was needlesse, and his 
fathers freinds diswaded him from it; onely, because hee 
would equallize his brother both in workes 3 and reputation. 
For these prankes of his rebuked he was : and to the end he 
might the rather be put in mind of his young yeeres and 
private condition, hee dwelt together with his father : in a 
licter hee attended the (Curule) chaire of father and brother, 
whensoever they went foorth of doores : and being mounted 
upon a white Courser accompanied them both in their 
tryumph over Jurie. Of 6 Consulships hee bare but one 
ordinary 4 ; and the same by occasion that his brother Titus 

1 The Emperours sonne and heire apparant of the Empire. 2 As being 
a young Prince and a Caesar. 3 Operibus, i. deeds and exploits. 4 Which 
began the first of January, in his owne right, and not in the vacant roome of 
others. 

236 



TWELVE O5SARS 

yeelded unto him his own place and furthered him in his FLAVIUS 

suite. Himselfe likewise made wonderfull semblance of rrPJ? MI ~ 

modestie. But above all, hee seemed outwardly to affect 

Poetrie, (a studie which he was not so much unacquainted 

with before time, but he despised and rejected it as much 

afterwards) and recited his owne verses even in publike place. 

Yet neverthelesse, when Vologesus King of the Parthians 

required aide against the Alanes, and one of Vespasians 

two sonnes to be the Generall of those forces, he laboured 

with might and maine, that himselfe before all others should 

be sent : and beecause the quarrel was dispatched alreadie 

to his hand 1 , hee assaied by gifts and large promises to 

solicite other Kings of the East, to make the same request. 

When his father was dead, standing in doubtfull tearmes 

with himselfe a longe time, whether hee should offer unto the 

souldiers a donative duple to that of his brother Titus, hee 

never stucke to give out and make his boast, That left hee 

was to bee partner with him in the Empire, but that his 

fathers will was verie much abused. Neither would hee give 

over from that time forwarde both to lay wait secretly for 

his brother, and also to practise openly against "him, untill 

such time as he gave commandement when hee was stricken 

with greivous sickenesse, that he should be left for dead 

before the breath was out of his bodie : and after he was 

departed indeed, vouchsafing him no other honour but his 

consecration 2 , he carped also at him many a time as well in 

glauncing figurative speeches as in open Edicts. 



In the beginning of his Empire his manner was, to retire 
himselfe daily into a secret place for one houre 3 , and there 
to do nothing else but to catch flies, and with the sharp 
point of a bodkin or writing steele pricke them through : 
in so much, as when one enquired, whether any bodie were 
with Csesar within, Vibius Crispus made answer not imper- 
tinently, ' No, not so much as a flie.' After this, Domitia 
his owne wife, who in his second Consulship had borne him 

1 Peace concluded between the 2 nations. 2 Canonization for a God. 
3 Horarium or for a certaine time of the day : some say three houres. 

237 



THE HISTORIE OF 

FLAVIUS a sonne, and whome two yeeres after he had saluted as 
'HANTJS Empresse, by the name of Augusta, her I say, falling in 
fansie with Paris the stage player and ready to die for his 
love, hee put away : but within a smal while after (as im- 
patient of this breach and diverse) tooke her home, and 
maried her againe, as if the people had instantly called uppon 
him so to do. In the administration of the Empire hee 
behaved him selfe for a good while variablie, as one made of 
an equall mixture and temper of vices and vertues, untill 
at length hee turned his vertues also into vices : being, (so 
far as we may conjecture) over and above his naturall in- 
clination, for want covetous and greedie ; for feare bloudy 
and cruell. 



Hee exhibited ordinarily magnificent and sumpteous 
shewes not onely in the Amphitheatre, but in the Cirque 
also. In which, beside the usuall running of Chariots, 
drawen as well with two steed es as foure, hee represented 
likewise two battailes of horsemen and foote men both : and 
in the Amphitheatre a Navall fight. For, baitings of wild 
beasts, and sword fencers, he shewed in the very night by 
cresset and torch lights ; and hee brought into the place not 
men onely to fight, but women also to encounter wild beasts. 
Furthermore, at the games of swordfight set out by the 
Questours (which having in times past been discontinued and 
forlet, hee brought into use againe) hee was alwaies present 
in person, so as he gave the people leave to choose two 
paire of swordfencers out of his owne schoole, and those 
hee brought in, royally, and courtlike appointed in the last 
place. And at all sights of sword players, there stood ever 
at his feet a little dwarfe arraied in skarlet with a small 
head that it was wonderfull : with whome hee used to talke 
and conferre otherwhiles of serious matters. Certes, over 
heard he was, when hee demanded him of what he knew, 
and what he thoght, of the last dispose of the Provinces, 
and namely of ordaining Metius Rufus Lieutenant generall 
of ^Egypt. Hee exhibited navall battailes performed in 
manner, by full fleetes and compleat navies : having digged 

238 



TWELVE CLESARS 

out a great pit for a lake, and built a stone wall round FLAVIUS 
about it x , neere unto Tiberis : and those he would behold in J?9JSe 
the greatest stormes and showers that were. Hee set forth 
also the Secular plaies and games making his computation 
from the yeere, not wherein Claudius, but Augustus longe 
before had made them. During these, uppon the daie of the 
Circentian solemnities, to the end there might be an hundred 
courses 2 the sooner runne, hee abridged the races of every 
one, to wit, from 7 to 4. He ordained moreover, in the 
honour of Jupiter Capitolinus, Quinquennall Games of three 
fold Maisteries, musicke, horse-riding, and Gymnicke exer- 
cises : and in the same, rewarding victours with Coronets, 
more by a good many then now they be. Herein the con- 
currents strove also for the prise in Prose, both Greeke and 
Latin : and besides single harpers, there were Setts of those 
also that played uppon the harpe, yea and consorts of such 
as sung therto, in a quire. In the running place, Virgins 
also ran for the best games. At all these masteries and 
solemnities, he sat as president in his Pantofles 3 , clad in a 
robe of purple after the Greekish fashion a , wearing on his 
head a golden Coronet, with the Image of Jupiter, Juno and 
Minerva : having the priest of Jupiter and the Colledge of 
the religious, called Flaviales, sitting by him in like habit ; 
saving that in their Coronets there was his Image also. 
Semblably, hee celebrated everie yeere uppon the Albane 
mount, the Quinquatria of Minerva, in whose honor he had 
instituted a Societie, out of which there should be chosen 
by lot, Maisters and Wardens of that solemnitie who were 
to exhibite peculier and especiall Beastbaitings and stage 
playes, yea and contentions for the prise, of Oratours and 
Poets besides. He gave a largesse 4 to the people thrice : to 
wit, three hundred sesterces a peece : and at the shew of 
the swordfight a most plenteous dinner 5 . At the solemne 
Septimontiall 6 sacrifice, hee made a dole of Viands, allowing 
to the Senatours and gentlemen faire large paniars : to the 
commons, smal maunds 7 with Gates in them : and was the 

1 Circumstructo. 2 Missus, every of which ordinarily consists of 7 races. 
3 Or slippers. 4 Congiarium. 5 Xiphilin. 6 So called of the seaven 
hils, whereupon the Citie stood. 7 Or Baskets. 



FLAVIUS 

DOMI- 

TIANUS 



THE HISTORIE OF 

first himselfe that fell to his meat. The next day after he 
skattered 1 among them, Missils 2 of al sorts : and because the 
greater part thereof, fell to the rankes of the common 
people, he pronounced by word of mouth for every skaffold 
of Senatours and gentlemen, 50 tickets or talies. 



Manie buildings, and those most stately, which had beene 
consumed with fire, hee reedified : and among them the 
Capitoll which had been fired again 3 : but all under the 
title of his owne name, without any memoriall of the former 
founders. Mary, he founded a new Temple in the Capitoll 
to the honour of Jupiter Gustos : also the Forum, which is 
now called Nervae Forum : likewise the Temple of the 
Flavian familie: a shew place for running and wrestling: 
another for Poets and Musicians to contend in, and a 
Naumachie for ships to encounter. Of the stone that was 
about which, the greatest Cirque of al was afterwards built, 
by occasion that both sides thereof had been burnt downe. 



Expeditions hee made, some voluntarie, some uppon 
necessitie : of his owne accord that against the Catti : 
uppon constreint one, against the Sarmatians ; by occasion 
that one whole Legion together with their Lieutenant fell 
upon the sword : two against the Daci, the former, because 
Oppius Sabinus a man of Consuls degree was defaited and 
slaine ; and the second, for that Cornelius Fuscus, Capitaine 
of the Praetorian bands (unto whom he had committed the 
whole conduct of that war) lost his life. Over the Catti and 
Daci (after sundry feilds fought with varietie of fortune) he 
triumphed twice. For his victory of the Sarmatians, hee 
presented only Jupiter Capitolinus with his Lawrel guirland. 
The civill warre stirred up by Lucius Antonius governer of 
the higher Germanic, hee dispatched and ended in his ab- 
sence 4 : and that by a wonderfull good hap : when, as at the 
very houre of conflict, the Rhene swelling and overflowing 

1 Or sent. 2 Gifts or favours. 3 In Vespasians dayes. 4 By 
Norbanus Appius who slew the said Antonius. 

240 



TWELVE CAESARS 

sodainly staled the Barbarians forces as they wold have 
passed over to Antonius. Of which victorie hee had intel- 
ligence by presages, before the newes by messengers came. 
For uppon that very day when the battaile was fought, an 
Eagle after a straung manner having overspred his statue 
at Rome and clasped it about with her wings, made a great 
flapping noise in token of much joy ; and within a little 
after, the bruit was blowen abroade so rife and common, of 
Antonies death, that many avouched confidently, they had 
scene his head also brought home (to Rome). 



FLAVIUS 

DOMI- 

TIANUS 



Many new orders besides in matters of common use, hee 
brought uppe. The dole of Viands given and distributed in 
little baskets in lieu of a publike supper, he abolished : and 
reduced the auncient custome of compleat and formall sup- 
pers l . Unto the 4 factions 2 in former time, of severall crewes 
running with Chariots at Circean games, hee added twaine ; 
to wit the golden and purple livery. Players and Actours 
of enterludes hee forbad the open stage : but within house 
verily, he granted free and lawfull exercise of their Art. 
Hee gave commandement that no males should be guelded : 
and of such Eunuchs as remained in the hands of Hucksters 3 , 
hee abated the price and brought it downe to a meaner. By 
reason one time of an exceeding plentiful vintage, and as 
much scarcity of Corne, supposing that by the immoderate 
care imployed upon Vineyards tillage was neglected, hee 
made an Edict, That no man in all Italic should plant any 
newe young Vineyardes : and that in foraine Provinces they 
should cut them all downe, reserving at the most but the 
one halfe a . Howbeit, hee continued not in the full execu- 
tion of this Act : some of the greatest offices he communi- 
cated indifferently between Libertines and souldiers. He 
prohibited, that there should be two Camps of the legions 4b . 
Item that any man should lay up more than a thousand 
Sesterces about the Camp-ensignes c . For that L. Antonius 

1 Whereas contrariwise under Nero, publicce cana ad sportulas reductcz. 
2 White, Blew, Red, Greene. 3 Who guelded, pampered and set them out 
to sale. 4 Geminari castra^ the greater and the lesse as we read in Livie, etc. 

2 : HH 



THE HISTORIE OF 

FLAVIUS intending rebellion in the wintering harbour of two Legions, 

DOMI- was thought to have taken heart and presumed more con- 

riANU! fidently, upon the great summes of monie there bestowed in 

stocke. Hee added a fourth stipend also for souldiers, to 

wit, 3 peeces of gold by the poll l . 

8 

In ministring justice precise he was and industrious. Many 
a time, even in the common place, sitting extraordinarily 
upon the Tribunal he reversed the definitive sentences of the 
Centumvirs, given for favour and obtained by flattery. He 
warned eftsoones the commissioners and Judges delegate, not 
to accommodate themselves and give eare unto perswasive 
and Rhetoricall Assertions 2 . The judges that were bribed 
and corrupted with monie hee noted and disgraced every 
one, together with their Assessours uppon the bench. Hee 
mooved also and perswaded the Tribunes of the Commons to 
accuse Judicially for extortion, and to force unto restitution, 
a base and corrupt JMile 3 : yea and to call unto the Senate, 
for to have a Jurie empannelled upon him. Moreover, so 
carefull was hee to chastise as well the magistrates within 
Rome, as the Rulers of Provinces abroad of their misdemean- 
ours, that never at any time, they were either more temperate 
or just in their places. The most part of whome after his 
dayes, we our selves have seene culpable, yea and brought 
into question for all manner of crimes. Having taken uppon 
him the censuring and reformation of manners, he inhibited 
that licentious libertie taken up in Theatres, of beholding 
the playes and games pell-mell one with another in the 
quarter and rankes appointed for gentlemen. Diffamatorie 
libels written and divulged, wherin men and women of good 
marke were touched and taxed, hee abolished not without 
shame and ignominie of the Authors. A man of Questours 
degree, because he tooke pleasure in Puppet-like gesturing 
and dauncing, hee remooved out of the Senate. From women 
of dishonest cariage, he tooke away the priviledge and use 

1 Every one about 155. yd. ob. sterling. 2 Of such bond men, as against 
their Lordes and Masters right claimed freedome, and used therein the plea 
of Oratours. 3 Who by taking money exercised his office otherwise then 
he ought. 



TWELVE CAESARS 

of their Licters : hee made them uncapable also of Legacies FLAVIUS 

and inheritances. A gentleman of Rome hee rased out of DOMI- 

the Roll and Tables of Judges, for receiving his wife againe 

into Wedlocke, whome hee had before put away and sued in 

an action of adulterie. Some of both degrees, as well Senat- 

ours as Gentlemen, hee condemned, by vertue of the law 

Scantinia l . The Incestuous whoredomes committed by vestal! 

votaries, negligently passed over, by his father and brother 

both, hee punished after sundrie sorts : the former delinquents 

in that kinde, with simple death 2 : the later sort according 

to the auncient manner a : for, having given libertie unto the 

sisters Ocellatae 3 as also to Varomilla, for to chuse their owne 

deaths, and banished those who had defloured them, hee 

afterwardes commanded, that Cornelia Maximilla 4 , who in 

times past had beene acquit, and a long time after was called 

into question againe and convicted, shold be buried quicke : 

and the parties who had committed incest with her, beaten 

with rods to death in the Comitium: except on alone a 

man of Praetours degree ; unto whome whiles the matter 

remained yet doubtful, and because he had confessed and 

bewraied himselfe (upon his examination by torture which 

was uncertaine) he granted the favour of Exile. And that 

no religious service of the Gods should bee contaminated 

and polluted without condigne punishment, the monument 

or Tombe, which his freedman had built for a sonne of 

his with the stones appointed for the Temple of Jupiter 

Capitolinus, hee caused his souldiers to demolish : and the 

bones and reliques therein hee drowned in the Sea. 

9 

At the first hee abhorred all bloudshed and slaughter, so 
farre foorth, as that (while his father was yet absent) call- 
inge to remembraunce this Verse of Virgil, 

Impia quam 5 ccesis gens est epulata iuvencis, 

Ere godlesse people made their feasts, 

With Oxen slaine (poore harmlesse beasts), 

1 Against the filthy sin of Psederastie or Sodomie. 2 As to loose their 
heads. 3 Surnamed so of a familie in Rome. 4 Or Maxima, sc. Vcstalis, 
i. the chiefe of those Nunns, as Lady Prioresse or Abbatesse. e 2 Georgicorum. 
This hath relation to the last word (Ante) in the verse precedent. 

243 



THE HISTORIE OF 

FLAVIUS hee purposed fully to publish an Edict, forbiddinge to 
DOMI- kin an d sacrifice any Oxe. Of Covetousnesse also and 
avarice \ hee gave scarcely the least suspition, either at any 
time when hee led a private life, or a good while after hee 
was Emperour : but contrariwise rather, he shewed great 
proufes oftentimes, not of abstinence onely but also of liber - 
alitie. And whensoever he had bestowed gifts most bounti- 
fully upon those that were about him, hee laied uppon them 
no charge before this nor with more earnestnesse, than to do 
nothing basely and beggerly. Moreover, one Legacie put 
downe in the last Will of Ruscius Csepio who had provided 
therin, That his heire should give yeerely unto every one of 
the Senatours, as they went into the Curia, a certaine summe 
of monie, he made voide. Al those likewise, whose suits had 
hung and depended in the Chamber of the Citie, from before 
five yeeres last past, hee discharged and delivered from 
trouble. Neither suffered hee them to be sued and molested 
againe, but within the compasse of one yeare and with this 
condition, that the accuser 2 (unlesse hee overthrew his adver- 
sarie 3 by that time) should be banished for his labour. The 
Scribes and Notaries beelonging to the Questours, who by an 
olde custome, (but yet against the Law Clodia) used to 
negotiate and trade, he pardoned onely for the time past. 
The od ends and cantels of grounds, which after the division 
of lands by the Veteran Souldiours 4 , remained heere and 
there cut out, as it were, from the rest, hee graunted unto 
the olde owners and Landlords as in the right of Prescrip- 
tion. The false information of matters, whereof the penal tie 
came to the Exchequer, he repressed : and sharplie punished 
such Informers. And this (by mens saying) was a speech of 
his, ' The Prince that chastneth not Promoters, setteth them 
on to promote.'' 

10 
But long continued he not in this traine, either of 

1 Cupiditatis quoque atque avaritia. By covetousnesse hee meaneth the 
greedy desire of other mens goods : by avarice, in this place the pinching ex- 
pense of his owne. 2 Plaintife. 3 Defendant. 4 Old souldiers who 
had served out their full time. 

244 



TWELVE C^SARS 

clemencie or of abstinence. And yet fell hee somewhat FLAVIUS 
sooner to crueltie than to covetousnesse. A Schollar of the 
cunning player and counterfeit Paris, being as yet of tender 
yeeres, and at that time very sicke, hee murdered : for that, 
both in skill and also in countenance and feature of body 
he seemed to resemble his Maister. Semblably dealt he 
with Hermogenes of Tarsus, for certaine figures of Rhetorick 1 
interlaced in his Historic : and withall, crucified the Scrive- 
nars and Writers that had copied it out. An Housholder % 
for saying these words, That the Thracian Fencer 2 was 
equall to the Mirmillon b , but inferiour to the setter forth 
of the Game 3 , he caused to bee plucked downe from the 
scaffold in the Theater, into the plaine beneath, and there 
to be cast before the greedy Mastives, with this title, Impie 
locutus Parmularms, i. The Parmularius 4 c hath blasphemed. 
Many Senate urs, and some of them which had beene Con- 
suls, hee killed. Among whom Civicus Cerealis, in the 
very time when he was Proconsull in Asia, Salvidienus 
Orfitus and Acilius Glabrio during their exile, he put to 
death, pretending that they practised Innovation in the 
State : all the rest every one for most slight causes. As for 
example, ^Elius Lamia, for certaine suspitious jests (I must 
needs say) but such as were stale and harmlesse: namely, 
because unto Domitian when (after he had taken from 
him his wife 5 ) he fell a praising of her voice 6 , he said, 'I 
hold my peace 7 , HelasV As also, for that unto Titus, 
moving him to a second manage, he made answer, Me kai 
su Gamesai Theleis ? 6 What ! (and if I should wed another) 
would not you also marie her?' Sal vius Coccej anus 8 , be- 
cause he had celebrated the Birth-dayes-minde, of Otho the 
Emperour, his Unkle 9 . Metius Pomposianus 10 , for that it 
was commonly said, He had the Horoscope in his Nativity 
of an Emperour ; and caried about him the Map or Geo- 

1 As Ironia and Antipkrasis, etc. , whereby he seemed to glaunce at him. 
2 Who was armed with a buckeler. 3 Of swordfight. 4 The favourer 
of the armed fenser Thrax, above saide. fi Domitia Longina. 6 Vocem 
suam, or Lamia his voice, as some expound it. 7 As if he had uttered 
these words : This is meere injury but I must say nothing. 8 Understand 
here, and in the other following (he slew or put to death). 9 For his father 
L. Salvius Titianus was Othoes brother. 10 See Vespasian, cap. 14. 

245 



THE HISTORIE OF 

FLAVIUS graphical description of the world l in certaine parchments, 
DOMI- an d withall, the Orations of Kings and brave Capitaines 

TIANUS wr itten out of Titus Livius, for imposing likewise the 
names of Mago and Annibal 2 upon some of his slaves. 
Sallustius Lucullus Lieutenant generall of Britaine, for 
suffring certaine speares of a new fashion to be called 
Lucullece 3 . Junius Rusticus, for publishing the praises of 
Paetus Thrasea 4 and Helvidius Priscus 5 ; and calling them 
most holy and upright persons. By occasion of which 
criminous imputation (charged upon Rusticus) hee packed 
away all Philosophers out of the Citie of Rome and Italic. 
Hee slewe also Helvidius the sonne 6 , for that in an Enter- 
lude (as it were), and by way of an Eocodium upon the 
Stage, hee had under the persons of Paris and (Enone 
acted 7 the Diverse betweene him 8 and his wife. Flavius 
Sabinus, one of his cousin germaines, because upon the 
Election day of the Consuls, the Crier chaunced to mistake 
a little, and before the people to pronounce him (being 
Consul Elect) not Consull, but Emperour. And yet, after 
his victorie in the Civill warre 9 , hee became much more 
cruell: for many of the adverse part, even such as lying 
hid a good while were found out by those that were privie 
unto them 10 , hee by devising a new kinde of torture made 
to confesse : namely by thrusting fire into the passage of 
their secret parts: some also hee dismembred by cutting 
off their hands. And this is for certaine knowne : that two 
onely and no more, of the most notorious among them, to 
wit, a Tribune of Senatours degree, and a Centurion, were 
pardoned : who the sooner to shew that they were unguiltie, 
had proved themselves to have beene effeminate Catamites, 
and therfore could not possibly be of any reckoning, either 
with Capitaine or Souldiours. 

1 Or earth. 2 Two most renowmed warriours of the Carthaginians, and 
mortall enimies of the Romaines. 3 Of his owne name. 4 Who beeing 
persecuted by Nero cut his owne maister veines. 5 The sonne in lawe of 
Thrasea, even another Cato or Brutus and a man of most free speech in the 
behalfe of the Common wealth. 6 For the father, Vespasian had slain e before. 
7 Tractasset, i. handled, al. taxasset, i. taxed or reproved. 8 Domitian. 
9 Of the Flavians and Vitellians. 10 Dudum latentes, per conscios in- 
vestigates. 

246 



TWELVE CAESARS 



11 

Now, in this Crueltie of his hee was not onely excessive, 
but also subtill and craftie ; comming upon men when they 
looked least for it. A Controller 1 of his owne, the very day 
before he crucified him, hee called into his bed-chamber, 
and made him to sit downe by him upon a pallet or beds 
side : he dismissed him light-harted and merie : he deigned 
him also a favour and remembrance from his own supper 2 . 
Unto Aretinus Clemens, a man of Consuls degree, one of 
his familiar minions and bloodhounds to fetch in Booties, 
when he purposed to condemne to death, he shewed the 
same countenance, as before time, yea and more grace than 
ordinary : untill at last, as hee went with him in the same 
Licter 3 , by occasion that hee espied the Informer against 
him, ' How sayest thou, 1 quoth hee, ' Clemens, shall wee to 
morrow heare this most errant knave and varlet, what hee 
can say ? ' And because hee would with greater contempt 
and disdaine abuse mens patience, hee never pronounced 
any heavie and bloudie sentence, without some preamble 
and preface of Clemencie : so that, there was not now, a 
surer signe of some horrible end and Conclusion, than a 
milde beginning and gentle exordium. Some that stoode 
accused of Treason he inducted into the Curia 4 ; and when 
he had premised a Speech, That hee would make triall that 
day, how deere hee was unto the Senate, hee soone effected 
thus much thereby, that the parties should have their judge- 
ment, to suffer More maiorum 5 : and then, himselfe, affrighted 
as it were with the rigorous cruelty of that punishment, 
would intercede, in these words (for it shall not bee im- 
pertinent to knowe the very same as hee delivered them) 
' Permit my good LL. this to be obtained of your gracious 
Piety (which I know I shall hardly obtaine) that yee would 
doe so much favour unto these persons condemned, as that 
they may choose what death they will die : for, by this yee 

1 Actorem summarum. 2 A dish of meate, etc. 3 Simul gestanti. 
4 Senate house. 5 To have their necks fast locked in pillory, and so to 
be beaten with rods to death. 

247 



FLAVIUS 

DOMI- 

TIANUS 



THE HISTORIE OF 

FLAVIUS shall spare your owne eyes, and all the world shall know, 
DOMI- that I was present in the Senate. 1 



Having emptied his coffers with expences of buildings 
and Games exhibited to the people, as also with that 
Stipend l paied unto the Souldiours : over and above the 
former, hee assaied verily for easement of the charges 
belonging to the Camp, for to diminish the numbers and 
companies of Souldiours. But perceiving that heereby he 
was both in daunger of the Barbarians, and also never the 
lesse to seeke which way to be relieved from burdens : hee 
made no reckoning at all, but to raise booties, to rob and 
spoile he cared not how. The goods of quick and dead 
both, were every where seized upon : who the Accusers were, 
or what the matter was, it skilled not. Sufficient it was, 
if any deede or word whatsoever, were objected against one, 
to make it high treason against the Prince. Inheritances, 
were they never so farre off and belonging to the greatest 
straungers, were held confiscate and adjudged to the Em- 
perours Coffers, in case but one would come forth and 
depose, that hee heard the party deceased say whiles hee 
lived, That Caesar a was his heire. But, above all others 
the Jewes were most grievously plagued in the Exchequer b . 
Unto which were presented as many of them as either 
professed in Rome to live as Jewes, or else dissimuling their 
Nation, had not payed the Tributes imposed upon them. 
I remember, that my selfe being a very youth was in place 
when an aged Jew, fourescore and tenne yeeres olde, was by 
the Procuratour 2 in a most frequent Assembly searched, 
whether he were circumcised or no. From his very youth 
nothing civill and sociable hee was 3 : bolde of hart, audacious 
withall, and as well in words as deede beyond all measure 
excessive. Unto Caenis his fathers Concubine newly returned 
out of Istria, and offring to kisse his lips (as her manner 
was) hee put forth his hand. Taking it hainously that his 

1 i. of 3 aurei. 2 Or Master of the Exchequer. 3 But proud and 
scornfull. 

248 



TWELVE C^SARS 

brothers sonne in Law 1 had attending about him his Ser- 
vitours also, clad in faire white, he cried out, 



There is no good Plurality 

In Lordship and in Sov'raigntie. 

13 

But when hee was mounted once to the Imperial! Seate, 
hee stucke not in the very Senate to make his boast, That 
he it was who had given unto his father and brother both, 
the Empire, and they had but delivered it up to him 
againe. Also when after Divorsement he brought home 
and remarried his wife, hee bashed not to give it out, that 
she was called to his sacred bed 3 . Moreover, upon the 
day when hee made a great Dinner unto the people 4 , hee 
was well content and pleased to heare their acclamation 
throughout the Theater in these words, 

Domino et Domince, ffsliciter. 

All happines to our Lord and Lady. 

Likewise at the Solemnity of trying Maisteries in the 
Palatium, when all the people besought him with great 
consent and one accord, to restore Palfurius Sura 5 (one in 
times past degraded and thrust out of the Senate, but at 
that time crowned among the Oratours for his Eloquence) 
hee vouchsafed them no answere, but onely by voice of the 
publike crier commaunded them Silence. With semblable 
arrogancie, when as in the name 6 of his Procuratours he 
endited any formall Letters, thus hee began, Our Lord and 
God thus commaundeth. Whereupon afterwards this order 
was taken up, that neither in the writing or speech of any 
man 7 he should be otherwise called. No Statues suffred he 
to be erected for him in the Capitoll, but of gold and silver ; 

1 Who married Titus his daughter Julia. 2 An Hemistichium out of 
Homer, Iliad 2, Ulisses words : as if he should say, I like not so many 
Csesars. 3 Pulvinar suum, as if he had beene a God : for, their Gods 
and Goddesses they bestowed in certaine bed lofts called Pulvinaria. 
4 During the solemne Games exhibited unto them. 5 To his Senatours 
place. 6 Or behalfe. 7 Common talke. 

2 : II 249 



FLAVIUS 

DOMI- 

TIANUS 



FLAVIUS 

DOMI- 
TIANUS 



THE HISTORIE OF 

and the same of a certaine weight, just *. As for two-fronted 
Jani and Arches with their foure Steedes, together with the 
Ensignes and Badges of Triumph, hee built them stately 
and so many in every quarter and Region of the Cittie, as 
that in one of the saide Arches there was this Mot in 
Greeke written, dp/cei* i. It is enough. Hee tooke upon 
him seventeene Consulships, more than ever any man before 
him. Of which, those seven in the middle, hee bare con- 
tinually one after another ; and in manner all, in name and 
title onely : but none of them beyond the Kalends of May 2 ; 
and most, to the Ides onely of Januarie 3 . Now, after his 
two triumphs 4 , having assumed into his stile the addition 
of Germanicus, hee chaunged the denomination of the 
moneths September and October, calling them after his 
owne names Germanicus and Domitianus: for that in the 
one 5 hee entred upon his Empire, and was borne in the 
other 6 . 

14 

In these courses that hee tooke, beeing both terrible and 
odious also unto all men, surprised he was in the end, and 
murdred by his friends 7 and freed men that were most 
inward with him ; who together with his wife conspired his 
death. The last yeere and day of his life, the very houre 
also and what kinde of death he should die, he had long 
time before suspected. For when he was but a youth, the 
Chaldaean Astrologers had fore-tolde him all. His Father 
also one time at supper, when hee saw him forbeare to eate 
Mushromes, laughed him to scorne as ignorant of his owne 
destinie, for that hee did not feare the sword rather. And 
therefore beeing alwaies timorous and strucken into his 
pensive dumps upon the least suspitions presented, hee was 
beyond all measure troubled and disquieted : in so much as 
it is credibly reported, that no other cause moved him more, 
to dispense with that Edict which hee had proclaimed for 
the cutting downe and destroying of Vineyards, than cer- 

1 Ponderis certi. Sabellicus readeth centeni, i. of an hundred pounds, 
according to Statius Papinius of Domitians statue, Sylv. 5, Da Capitolinis 
teternuni sedibus aurum. Quo niteant sacri centeno pondere vultus C&saris. 
2 Not above 4 moneths. 3 Not a fortnight full. 4 Over the Catti and Daci. 
6 September. fj October. 7 Minions. 

250 



TWELVE C^SARS 

taine Pamphlets and Libels scattered abroade with these FLAVIUS 
verses. DOMI- 

TIANUS 

KaV fie (pdyys eVi pi^ai/, ofjitos tri Ka/>7ro0op?;<ra>, 



Bate me to roote ; yet fruit will I beare still and never misse, 
Enough to poure on Caesars head whiles sacrific'd he is. 

In the same fearefulnesse hee refused a new honour and that 
which never was devised before, off red by the Senate unto 
him, (though otherwise most eager and greedie of all such 
things) whereby they decreed, That so often as hee was 
Consull, the Gentlemen of Rome, as it fell by lot to their 
turnes, should in their rich and gay coates and with militare 
Launces march before him among the Lictours and other 
Sergeants and Apparitours. When the time also of that 
daunger drew neere which he suspected, he became per- 
plexed every day more than other : and therefore he gar- 
nished the walls of those galleries wherein hee was wont to 
rome himselfe and walke, with the stone Phengites ; by the 
images rebounding from the brightnesse whereof he might 
see before his face whatsoever was done behind his back. 
The most part of prisoners and persons in duresse, hee 
would not heare but being alone and in a secret place, 
taking holde first of their chaines in his owne hand. And 
because he would perswade his houshold servitours, that no 
man should be so hardy as to lay violent hand upon his 
owne Patrone to kill him, no though much good might 
ensue thereof, hee condemned Epaphroditus the Secretarie 
of Nero, for that it was thought, his Lord and Maister 
(after he was forlorne and forsaken of all) had his helping 
hand to dispatch him out of the world. 

15 

To conclude, his Unkles sonne Flavius Clemens a (a man 
for his lithernesse and negligence most contemptible) whose 
sonnes being yet very little ones, hee had openly ordained 

1 Alluding to the like verses of the Poet Evenus : which Ovide seemeth to 
expresse I Fastorum in Latine thus, Rode caper vitem, tamen hie cum stabis ad 
aras, In tua quod spargi c ornua possit, erit. 

251 



THE HISTORIE OF 

FLAVIUS to bee his Successours : and abolishing their former names, 
DOMI- commanded the one to be called Vespatian and the other 
Domitian, he killed sodainely, upon a slender and small 
suspition, even when he was scarce out of his Consulship. 
By which deede of his most of all, he hastened his own end 
and destruction. For 8 moneths space together, so many 
lightnings were seene and reported unto him, that he cryed 
out, ' Now let him l strike whom he will.' The Capitol was 
smitten and blasted therewith: the Temple also of the 
Flavian Linage : likewise his owne house in the Palatium, 
and verie bedchamber. Moreover, out of the base 2 of his 
triumphall Statue, the Title 3 being driven by force of a 
storme, fel down into the Sepulcher next adjoyning. That 
tree which being laid along, had risen up againe when 
Vespasian was yet a private person, fell sodainely then a 
seconde time. The Image of fortune at Preneste 4 , which all 
the time of his Empire, when he recommended unto her the 
new yeere, was wont to give him an happy answere and 
alwaies the same, now in this last yeere, delivered one most 
wofull, and not without mention of bloud. He dreamed, 
that Minerva b , whom he worshipped superstitiously, de- 
parted out of her Chappell, and said, She could not pro- 
tect him any longer, for that shee was by Jupiter disarmed. 
But with no one thing was hee so much disquieted, as with 
the answere of Ascletario the Astrologer, and the accident 
that chanced unto him thereupon. This Ascletario beeing 
enformed against, and not denying that he had delivered 
what by his art and learning he foresaw, he questioned with 
and asked, what his owne end should be; and when he 
made answer and affirmed, That his destinie was to be torne 
in peeces with dogs, and that shortly after, he caused him 
presently to be killed : but to reprove the rashnes and 
uncertaintie of his skill and profession, he commanded with 
all, that he should be buried with as great care as possibly 
might be. In the doing whereof accordingly, it fortuned 
that by a sodaine tempest, the corps being cast downe out of 
the funerall fire, the dogs tare and rent peecemeale, when it 

1 Jupiter or God. 2 Or Pied stoole. 3 Or Inscription. 4 Where 
was an Oracle. 

252 



TWELVE C^SARS 

was but halfe burnt : and the same hapned to be reported 
unto him among other tales * and newes, of that day, as hee 
sat at supper, by Latinus the player and counterfeite jester, 
who as hee passed by, chaunced to see and marke so much. 

16 

The day before his death, when he had given commande- 
ment that certaine Mushromes set before him shold be kept 
against the morrow, he added moreover, ' If I may have use 
of them ' : and turning to those that were next him he said, 
The day following it would come to passe, that the Moone 
should embrue her selfe with bloud in the signe Aquarius, 
and some act be seene, whereof men should speak e all the 
world over. But about midnight, so skared he was 2 , that 
he started out of his bed. Hereuppon in the morning 
betimes he gave hearing unto the Soothsayer sent out of 
Germanic, who being asked his opinion about the lightning, 
had foretold a chang in the state : and him he condemned. 
And whiles he scratched verie harde at a wert in his fore- 
head which was festered and growne to be sore, seeing 
bloud run out of it, ' Would God, 1 quoth he, 'this were all/ 
Then asked he what was a clocke, and insteede of the 5th 
houre 3 which he feared, word was brought for the nonce 
that it was the 6th. Being joious hereupon that the danger 
was nowe past, and hastening to cherish his body and make 
much of himselfe, Parthenius his principall Chamberlaine 
turned him an other way, sayinge there was one come who 
brought tidinges (I wot not what) of great consequence, 
and of a matter in no wise to be deferred. Voiding ther- 
fore all persons from him, he retired to his bedchamber, and 
there was he murdered. 

17 

As touching the manner how he was forlaide and of his 
death, thus much (in manner) hath beene divulged. Whiles 

1 Fabulus narrations to make Princes merry. 2 He dreamt haply that 
Junius Rusticus whom hee had killed came upon him with a naked sword. 



FLAVIUS 

DOMI- 

TIANUS 



Xiphilin. 



Of the clock. 



253 



THE HISTORIE OF 

FLAVIUS the conspiratours were in question with themselves and 
DOMI- doubtfull, when, and how, they should set upon him, that 

riANU! - g j. Q ga ^ wne ther he bathed or sat at supper, Stephen the 
procuratour of Domitilla \ and at the same time in trouble 
for intercepting certaine monies, offered his advise and help- 
ing hand, who having for certaine dayes before bound up 
and enwrapped his left arme (as if it had beene amisse) 
with wool and swadling bandes, thereby to avert from him- 
selfe all suspition, at the very houre interposed fraud and 
made a lie. For, professing that hee would discover the 
conspiracy, and in that regarde being admitted into the 
chamber, as Domitian was reading of a bill which hee pre- 
ferred unto him, and therewith stood amazed, hee stabbed 
him beneth in the very share neere unto his privie parts. 
When hee was thus wounded and beganne to struggle 
and resist, Clodianus a Cornicularius 2 and Maximus a freed 
man of Parthenius, and Saturius the Deane or Decurion 
of the Chamberlaines with one out of his owne swordfencers 
schoole, came in uppon him, gave him seven wounds, and 
killed him outright. A youth and page of his, who stood 
by (as his wonted manner was) because he had the charge 
of his bedchamber Lares a , and was present at this murder 
committed, made this report moreover, that Domitian, 
at the very first wound given, immediatly bad him reach 
the dagger 3 that lay under his pillow, and to call in his 
ministers and servitours: but at the beds head he found 
nothing at al thereof save the haft onely : and as for the 
doores besides, they were all fast shut : also, that Domitian 
in this meane space, tooke hold of Stephen, bare him to the 
ground and wrestled with him a longe time : that he one 
while assaied to wrest his sword out of his hands, another 
while (albeit his fingers were hurt and mangled) to plucke 
out his eyes. Well, killed he was, the 14th day before 
the Kalends of October 4 , in the 45th yeere of his age, 
and the 15th of his Empire. His dead bodie was caried 
foorth upon the common bierre by the ordinary bearers: 

1 Whom Eusebius reporteth to have beene neipce by the sister of Flavius 
Clemens and a Christian, therefore confined to the Hand Pontia. 2 Certaine 
souldiers were so tearmed. 3 Or rapier. 4 1 7th of September. 

254 



TWELVE C^SARS 

and Phyllis his nource burned it in a funerall fire, within 
a country manour of his owne neere unto the Citie, situate 
upon the high way Latina. But the reliques thereof shee 
bestowed in the Temple of the Flavian family, and blended 
the same with the ashes of Julia the daughter of Titus, 
whom she had reared and brought up. 

18 

Of Stature he was tall, his countenance modest, and given 
much to rednes a : his eyes full and great, but his sight very 
dimme. Besides, faire he was and of comely presence 
especially in his youth : well shaped all his body through- 
out, excepting his feet : the toes wherof were of the shortest \ 
In processe of time, he became disfigured and blemished 
with baldnesse, with a fat grand-panch and sclender shanks : 
and yet they grew to be so leane upon occasion of a long 
sickenes. For his modesty and shame facednesse he so well 
perceived himselfe to be commended, that one time before 
the Senate he gave out these words, ' Hitherto certainly ye 
have liked wel of my minde and of my countenance. 1 With 
his bald head he was so much yrked, that hee tooke it as a 
reproach unto himself, if any man els were either in bord 
or good earnest twitted therewith : albeit in a certaine little 
booke, which he wrot unto a freind of his, concerning the 
nourishment and preservation of the haire of the head, he 
by way of consolation both to that friend and also to 
himselfe, inserted thus much. 

ov% opdqs oios Kayo* Ka\6s Tf fj.fya.o-Tf 2 . 

See'st thou not yet how big and tall, 
How faire I am and comely with all ? 

4 And yet,' quoth he, ' my destiriie 3 and fortune wil be to 
have the same defect of haire : and with a stoute heart I 
endure, that the bush of my head waxeth olde in my fresh 
youth. And this would I have you to know, that nothing 
is more lovely, nothing more fraile and transitorie than 
beautie and favour." 

1 Restrictions, drawen inward. 2 Homer Iliad 21. Lycaon the Sonne 
of Priamus unto Achilles. 3 Eadem me manent, some read (te). 



FLAVIUS 

DOMI- 

TIANUS 



THE HISTORIE OF 

FLAVIUS -.Q 

DOMI- 

TIANUS Being impatient of all labour and paines taking, he was 
not lightly scene to walke in the Citie. In any expedition 
and march of the army seldome rod he on horsebacke, but 
was caried in a lictour 1 . No affection had hee to beare 
armes or weld weapons: but delighted he was especially 
to shoot arrows. Many men have scene him oftentimes, 
during his retiring abode at Alba, to kill with shot an 
hundred wild beasts of sundrie sorts at a time : and of very 
purpose to sticke some of them in the head; so, as that 
with two shoots hee would set his shafts in their fronts like 
a paire of homes. Sometimes he would drive his arrows 
point blanke so just against the palme of a childes right 
hand, standing farre of and holding it foorth stretched 
open for a marke, as they should all directly passe through 
the voide spaces beetweene the fingers, and do him no 
harme at all. 

20 

All liberall studies in the beginning of his Empire he 
neglected : albeit hee tooke order to repaire the Libraries 
consumed with fire, to his exceeding great charges : making 
search from all parts for the copies of bookes lost, and send- 
inge as farre as to Alexandria 2 a , to write them out and 
correct them. But never gave he his minde to know his- 
tories ; or to have any skill in verse, or to write ought, 
though necessitie so required. Except it were the com- 
mentaries and acts of Tiberius Caesar hee never used to read 
any thing. For his Epistles, Orations and Edicts, hee 
employed the wits of other men to drawe and frame them. 
Howbeit, his ordinary speech was not unelegant : and other- 
whiles you should have him come foorth even with notable 
sentences and Apophthegmes. As for example: 'Would 
God,' quoth he, ' I were as faire and well favoured, as 
Metius thinkes himselfe to be ' : and seeing ones head party 
coloured 3 , with yellowish and white silver haires inter- 
mingled : hee said it was snow and mede mixed together 4 . 

1 Upon mens shoulders. 2 In ^Egypt. 8 Of two colours. 4 A 
kind of delicate drinke among the Remains. 

256 



TWELVE (LESARS 

His saying it was, That the condition of Princes was most FLAVIUS 
miserable, who could not bee credited as touching a con- DOMI- 
spiracie plainely detected unlesse they were slaine first. 

21 

Whensoever his leasure served, he solaced himselfe with 
dice play, even uppon the very worke daye, and in morning 
houres. Hee bathed by day time 1 9 and made his dinner so 
liberall to the full, that seldome for his supper he tooke any 
thing, unles it were a Matian Apple 2 , and a smal supping 
or portion out of a narrow mouthed and great bellied glasse. 
He feasted often and that very plentifully, but his feasts 
were short and after a snatching manner : certes, hee never 
sat past sunne setting, nor admitted any reare bankets after 
supper. For, towards bedtime, hee did nothing, but in a 
secret chamber walke by himselfe alone. 

22 

To fleshly lust he was over much given. The ordinary 
use of Venus, as it were a kind of exercise, hee named 
Clinopale, as one would say, bed- wrestling. The report 
went, that himselfe used, with pinsers to depilate his con- 
cubines, and to swim among the commonest naughtie packes 
that were. His brothers daughter 3 offred first unto him 
in marriage whiles she was yet a maiden, when he had most 
resolutely refused, by reason he was entangled and overcome 
with the mariage of Domitia ; not long after when she was 
bestowed upon another, of his owne accord he sollicited, and 
was naught with her, even verily whiles his brother Titus 
yet lived. Afterwards when she was bereft of father and 
husband both, hee loved her with most ardent affection, and 
that openly 4 : in so much, as that hee was the cause of her 
death, by forcing her to miscarie and cast away the untimely 
fruicte 6 wherewith she went. 

1 De die. 2 It tooke the name of one Matius who loved an hortyard 
well : like as Appiana and Scaptiana mala of Appius and Scaptius. 3 Julia. 
4 As his wedded wife. 5 Conceived, as some say, by her former husband : 
others, by Domitian in her widowhead : and hereto accordeth Juvenal : Quum 
tot abortivis, etc. lulia vulvam solueret, et patruo similes effunderet offas. 

2 : KK 257 



TWELVE C^SARS 



FLAVIUS 

DOMI- 

TJANUS 



23 

That he was killed the people tooke it indifferently : but 
the souldiers, to the very heart : and forthwith went about 
to canonize him a God, and to call him Divus * : ready 
enough also to revenge his death ; but they wanted heads 
to lead them. And yet within a whiles after they did it, 
and calling most instantly and never giving over for the 
authors of this murder 2 to be executed. Contrariwise, the 
Senate so much rejoiced, that beeing assembled in great 
frequencie within the Curia, they could not rule themselves, 
but strived a vie to rent and teare him now dead with the 
most contumelious and bitterest kinds of acclamations a that 
they could devise : commanding ladders to be brought in, his 
skutcheons 3 and Images to be taken downe in their sight, and 
even there in place to be throwen and dashed against the 
hard floore : in the end that all titles wheresoever bearing 
his name should be rased and scraped out, and his memoriall 
abolished quite for ever. Some few moneths before he was 
murdered, there was a Crowe in the Capitoll spake these 
wordes plainely, eVrat iravra # aXw?, i. All shall be well : 
and there wanted not one, who interpreted this strang 
Prodigie thus : 

Nuper Tarpeio quce sedit culmine comix, 

Est bene non potuit dicere, dixit Erit. 

The Crow which lately sat on top of Tarpeie newes to tell, 

Tis well when as she could not say, said yet, it will be well. 

And reported it is that Domitian himselfe dreamed, howe 
hee had a golden excrescence rising and bunching behind 
his necke : and knew for certaine, that therby was portended 
and foresignified unto the common wealth, an happier state 
after him. And so it fell out, I assure you shortly after : 
such was the abstinent and moderate cariage of the Em- 
perours next ensuing b . 



1 A Saint or of sacred memorie. 
3 Coates of armes. 



Petronius and Parthenius. Sext. Aurel. 



258 



ANNOTATIONS 



ANNOTATIONS UPON 
CAIUS CAESAR CALIGULA 



a CALLED by some, Annales or Annarice : of others, Comitiales. By 
which provided it was, In what yeares of a mans age, he was capable 
of Questure, Preture, Consulate, or any other like Office of State : as 
also, it was limited, within what time betweene, one might eftsoones 
beare the same Office againe. Item, what the terme of everie Magis- 
tracie should be, etc. And albeit the auncient Romanes had no such 
lawes, but (as Cornelius Scipio at his petition of ^Edileship made 
answere, when exception was taken against him for his young age) 
whomsoever the Quirites would charge to be a Magistrate, hee had 
yeares enough on his backe, yet afterwards, sundrie Statutes were 
enacted in that behalfe : although by vertue of speciall privileges, the 
same were not duly observed. By the Chronologic it appeareth, that 
he was but ninteene yeares old when he became Questor, like as 
Tiberius before him. 

b Which Tiberius envying his greatnesse, wrought, therby to ex- 
pose him unto greater dangers. 



* Well might this unseasonable exercise puff up and fill his skin 
with crudities and foggie humors, but hurtfull unto his health it was, 
and brought upon him diseases, and namely, that called Cardiacus, of 
which, some say, he died. Let them looke to it therfore, who, because 
they would be fat, not only fall to bodily exercise out of time, even 
upon ful stomacks, but also every morning eate in their beds and 
sleepe upon it, yea and ordinarily take a nap at noone, so soone as 
their meat is out of their mouthes. 

b By this Attribute, Civill, in our Author, ye must understand, 
Courtesie, Affabilitie, and a part not exceeding that of private Citi- 
zens, without taking any state. 



a As if the Gods, whose Images were shrined within, were not to be 
honoured any longer as Gods, suffering so good a man as Germanicus 
was, to die. For, as in token of honour, the people used to adorne 

259 



TWELVE C^SARS 

CAIUS the Statues and Images of famous persons with flowers and greene 
CAESAR leaves, so, whom they did vilipend and despise, they were wont to 
CALIGULA cast stones at their Images and Statues. 

b The Tutelarie Gods of the house which ordinarily stood within a 
closet, called thereupon Lararium. 

c For, to what end should they reare children any more ? since 
Germanicus, growen to so good proofe, sped no better, but was taken 
away by untimely death. 

d In this place, the circumstance sheweth, that the King of 
Parthians is meant, how ever the Persian King and such mightie 
Monarches, having under their Dominion other pettie Kings as 
Tributaries or Homagers, be so called : like as Agamemnon also in 
Homere. 

e Which at Rome betokened a generall mourning, occasioned upon 
some extraordinary calamitie, or feare of publicke daunger, even as 
with us, the shutting in of Shop-windowes, etc. 

6 

a About the mids of this moneth, began the feast Saturnalia, 
celebrated with good cheere, with revels, dances, gaming and all 
kinde of libertie. 

9 

a For, common souldiers wore a certaine studded shoe, named 
Caliga. 

10 

a Which was later than the ordinarie time, by reason of Tiberius 
his lingering. For usually these complements were performed at 47 
yeares of age. 

a In this habite and manner of attire, counterfeiting a woman, 
thereby to decline suspicion when he entered into other mens houses 
for to dishonour them and abuse their wives, whom our author termeth 
heere Adulteria, pro adulteris, as else where, conjugia, pro conjugibus. 

b The fabulous Historic of Phaethon is well known, namely, how by 
misgovernment of the steeds which drew the Chariot of the Sunne his 
Father, he set the whole world on fire. By Phaethon therfore is 
meant, a combustion (as it were) and generall confusion of the Pro- 
vinces, like as by the watersnake, the verie bane and poyson of the 
Roman State. 

13 

a To doe him the greater honour, they intertaine him upon the way 
(as the maner was) with Sacrifices, Torches, Tapers, and wax lights. 

14 

a An opinion there was deepely setled in mens heads, that the death 
of one man might be excused and redeemed, with the death of another. 
260 



a 



ANNOTATIONS 

16 CAIUS 

The two hundred penie. CAESAR 

b His halfe image downeward from the head to the wast, portrayed CALIGULA 
with a Shield or Scutchion : and the same was commonly set out with 
the largest. Hereupon, M. Tullius Cicero, when he saw such a demie 
personage representing his brother Quintus in the province that he 
governed (and a very litle man he was of stature) ' My brother,' quoth 
he, ( in his halfe part, is greater than in the whole.' 

b A festivall holiday solemnized by heardmen, in the honour of 
Pales their Goddesse and Patronesse. Upon which day, the founda- 
tion of Rome Citie was laid. This feast they kept, the 12 day before 
the Kalends of May, to wit, the 20 of Aprill. 

18 

a Maenius, a riotous unthrift, when he had wasted his Patrimonie and 
sold his Capitall house in Rome, excepted in the sale, and reserved to 
hims^elfe and his heires, one Columne or Pillar, from which he pro- 
jected and put forth into the street a jettie, and upon it built a 
gallerie : out of which he might behold the sword-fencers in the 
market place, whereunto he had a fay re prospect from the said Pillar. 
Whereupon all such galleries or buildings jetting out in the street, be 
called Mceniance. 

22 

a The end of one verse, and beginning of another, cited out of 
Homer in the second of his Ilias. The Poet ascribeth them unto sage 
Ulysses, in this sense : 

One [Soveraigne] Lord, 
One King let there be. 

b By exchaunging the ensignes and Ornaments of the Roman 
Soveraigne or Emperor, with the Regall Diadem, purple Robe and 
Scepter. 

c Phoenicopterus is a water foule haunting lakes and ferines, and 
the river Nilus, as Hesiodus writeth. The fethers be of colour read, 
or purple. Whereof it taketh the name : and the tongue is a most 
daintie and pleasant morsell. So said Apitius, nepotum omnium altissi- 
musgurges. Of this Bird Martiall made an Epigram : 

Dat mihi penna rubens nomen : sed lingua gulosis 
Nostra stepit. Quid si garrula lingua/ores. 

My name I take of wings so red, but unto gluttons tast, 

My tongue right pleasing is : oh, what, if it could prate as fast. 

d Some take them for Bistards : Birds decked, no doubt, with most 
beautifull fethers : as may appeare by Tertullian against Marcion, in 
these words : Una Tetraonis pennula, (taceo de pavo) sordidum artificem 
pronuntiabit tibi Creatorem ? 

261 



TWELVE CAESARS 



CAIUS c They are thought to be Hens of Guinny. 

OflSSAR f By the description of Clitus, they be our Turkies. 
CALIGULA s The Phesant called in old time Itis, (which was the sonne of 
Tereus and Progne, transformed,, as Poets feigne, into this Bird) and 
afterwards Phasianus or Phasiana [^wVJ, tooke his name of Phasis a 
river and Citie in Colchis, according to this Epigram of Martiak : 

Argiva primum sum transportata Carina : 
Ante mihi notum nil nisi Phasis erat. 

In Argive ship transported first, I was to forraine land : 

Fore time, nought else but Phasis towne, I knew, or Phasis strand. 



23 

u Philo reporteth this farre otherwise, and telleth a pitifull Narra- 
tion : How, by commission from Caius, certaine Colonels and Cen- 
turiaris came to young Tiberius, commaunding him to kill himselfe : 
because, forsooth, unlawfull it was for any other to murder a Prince 
of the Imperiall bloud. The youth, who had never scene any man 
killed, and by reason of his tender yeares was nothing at all experi- 
enced in the world, requested first of them, who were come thus to 
him, for to strike off his head, which he held out unto them: but 
seeing his request would not be heard, he desired them yet, to in- 
struct him, in what part of his bodie he should stab himselfe for 
the speediest death. And so by instructions from them he was his 
owne executioner. 

25 

a Romulus ravished the Sabine virgins : and Augustus by force 
tooke from Tiberius his wife Livia. 

26 

a Selena, in Greeke, signifieth the Moone. And well knowen it is, 
that as M. Antonius the Triumvir called himselfe Bacchus and Osiris, 
so Cleopatra his wife tooke pleasure to be named Luna, i. the Moone, 
and Isis. Whereupon they gave to their sonne Alexander begotten 
betweene them, the name of the sunne, and to their daughter Cleo- 
patra the name of the Moone, or Selena, which is all one. 

b The Consuls were reputed still (in outward shew) Soveraigne 
Magistrates, although indeed, the Caesars caried all before them, and 
were absolute Monarches. 

c Some read, Tesseras decima citius, i. Before the tenth houre, or 
foure of the clocke after noone, for t so long continued the Stage-plaies 
ordinarily. At which time, the Emperours were wont to bestow their 
Tickets or Talies among the people, by vertue whereof they received 
such and such gifts. 

d There be learned Criticks that expound this place farre otherwise, 
reading Pegmares, in steede of Pegmatis, and understanding thereby 



ANNOTATIONS 



such sword-fencers, whose good hap it had beene to escape with life, 
the fall from those Frames or Pageants called Pegmata or Pegmu, 
which with certaine vices or Skrewes were set up, and let downe, 
upon which as on scaffolds, malefactors were brought forth, eyther 
to exhibit a shew unto the people, fighting one with another at sharpe, 
to the outrance, or to make them sport, by falling downe into a pit 
underneath, where eyther wild beasts were readie to devoure, or fire 
to consume them. A devise wrought by dissolving the joynts of the 
said Pegmes under them. And in this sense they interprete the rest 
that folio weth, concerning patres farnilias, i. good honest Citizens 
householders. 

27 

a He had espied in the multitude of those prisoners and malefactors, 
two with bald heads, distant farre a sunder, and happily, as much as 
from the one end of the place unto the other : all those betweene, 
without respect of their cause, he commaunded to be put to death 
indifferently. 

b An ordinarie thing it was at Rome, to sweare by the Genius, as 
also by the Fortune, the health, etc., of their Emperours. And what 
a devout oth this was, per Genium, i. the Daemon, the spirit, or 
superintendent Angell of the Prince, which I take to be as much, 
as by his owne good selfe, appeareth by Tertullian, Apologet. cap. 28. 
Citius apud vos per omnes deos, quam per Genium principis peieratur. 

c Seneca, lib. 2 de Irce, cap. 33, reporteth the like example of Castor 
a right worshipful Gentleman of Rome, whose sonne, the same Cali- 
gula, upon verie en vie that the young man was a proper and beautifull 
person, put to death in his fathers sight, and then invited the old man 
to supper, provoked him to carouse and be merie, which the good 
father was faine to endure and make semblance of contentment, for 
feare, least the Tyrant would have done as much by another sonne, 
whom he had living. 

d Catenis verberatum. Among other chasticements of the bodie, 
there is reckoned Vinculorum verberatio, as Callistratus witnesseth, 
lib. 7 de Panis. The ignorance whereof, hath made some to read, 
in Catenis verberatum, i. bound in chaines and then beaten, others, 
habenis for catenis : as if he had beene well lindged with lether thongs 
or halters ends, as slaves were wont to be served by the Lorarii. 

28 

a Albeit, the proper use of these Graphia was to cut or engrave 
letters onely, in tables of barke or soft wood : yet, because it was 
unlawfull to weare weapons in the Senate house, some, of a mischievous 
minde, made those writing stiles or Steeles so, as they might kill there- 
with, enacted therefore it was, that no man should carie about him 
such writing instruments of yron or steele, but of bone onely. And 
yet even these, as others also of reeds and quils, were made so keene 
and sharpe, that they were able to give a mortall wound. 

263 



CAIUS 

CAESAR 

CALIGULA 



TWELVE C^SARS 



CAIUS 

CAESAR 

CALIGULA 



29 

a For the manner of the Roman Emperours was, upon displeasure, 
to send men and women away into some desert Isles, and there to 
confine them. 

b Ellebor, that groweth in the Isles Antycire, is of most effectuall 
operation. The roote is that, whereof is made our sneesing powder. 
It purgeth extreemely by vomit. Thereupon ariseth the Proverb, 
Naviget Anticyram, i. Let him sayle to Anticyra, applied to one that 
is melancholicke in the highest degree, and little better than mad. 
See Plinie, Natural Hist., lib. 35, cap. 5. 

30 

a Some conjecture verie well, that this Tetrinius was not surnamed 
Latro, being the addition appropriate to the noble Family of Rome, of 
the Portii, but a notorious theefe or robber, such as in Latin is called 
Latro. And of that sort commonly were they that performed before 
the people this bloudie fight with unrebated swords, without foiles. 
And no mervaile, if he termed all the Citizens there assembled 
Tetrinios, i. Theeves, considering he wished before, that he could 
cut of al their heads at one blow. 

33 
a He suspected, that she had given him some love-drinks. 

34 

a Prater aquum. How this can stand with his pride or malice, 
which our author hath propounded to exemplifie, I cannot see. In 
some copies we read, prater eum, i. beside him, that is to say, other- 
wise than he would have them, or approve. And one Critick or 
Judicious Lawier, Franc. Hottoman, as also Coracius, read, prater 
Eccum, as if hee should say, All Lawyers shall give none other answere 
but this. Behold him, meaning the Emperor Caius, therby referring 
the decision of all matters to his will and pleasure. Lastly, Torrentius 
concludeth the Period thus, Ne quid respondere possint, i. That they 
should give no answere at all. And for prater aquum, etc., he 
putteth praterea, i. Moreover, for a beginning of the next chapter. 

35 

a Colosseros seemeth to be a word compounded of Colossos and 
Eros. The one importeth his talnesse, resembling the stately and 
Giantlike personages called Colossi, and the other, his lovely visage, 
representing Eros, even Love, or Cupid it selfe. 

" These fencers, called Threces or Thraces l , thought to be the same 
that Retiarii, were lightly appointed for armour, and put to desperate 
fight, as having all parts of their bodies exposed to daunger, where- 

1 So thinks Sabellicus. 

264 



ANNOTATIONS 

upon they were called also Tunicati, and were matched in opposition 
with the Mirmillones, as this verse of Ausonius implieth : 

Quis mirmilloni componitur ? l cBquimanus Thrax. 

Whereas the other named Hoplomachi, had for their defence, head 
peeces and targuets. Senec. lib. 1, Epist. 7. 

c The priest, called Rex Nemorensis, of a place where Diana Arcina 
was worshipped, within a temple beautified with a grove about it, by a 
barbarous custome of the Scithians, so long onely held his place, 
untill after one yeares revolution, some one stronger than himselfe, 
stepped unto him and overcame him in single fight, and so deposed 
him,, like as, by the first institution, himselfe, foyling another in com- 
bat attained thereto. 

37 

a Seneca writeth, Consolat. ad Helv., That it was ordinarie with him 
to consume at one supper ten millions of sesterces, and who studied 
himselfe, and laid his head to others, how he might at one supper 
make an even hand with the revenewes and tributes of all the provinces 
belonging to the state of Rome. 

b Some read for [de Cedris] Deceres, after the forme of Moneres, 
meaning by Deceres a mightie gallie furnished with ten rankes of 
Oares, for such the Greeks call 



41 

a Dum multa commissa fierent. Which may be expounded other- 
wise thus, When as many things were forfaited and confiscate. 

45 

a Taking the name from Exploratores, a militarie terme, signifying 
the Avant-couriers and fore-riders, to discover the enemy, and to 
cleere the coasts. 

51 

a Yet Dion reporteth of him, that other whiles, when it thundred 
aloft, he would seeme to doe the like beneath with a thunder barrell, 
or such a kinde of devise : when it lightened, to make flashes with 
fireworks : and if a thunderbolt fell, to discharge likewise some stone 
out of an engine. 

52 

a Which ornaments belonged to Jupiter and ^sculapius. 
b Resembling thereby Neptune, for it symbolizeth his power over 
waters in Sea, River, Lakes. 

c The Ensigne of Mercury, betokening his Eloquence. 

56 



So called, because they were exhibited in the Palatium. 
1 Or, committitur. 



CAIUS 

CJESAR 

CALIGULA 




265 



CAIUS 

CAESAR 

CALIGULA 



TWELVE C^SARS 

57 

a Capitolium, although /car' e^o^i/, it was the stately mount or Castle 
of Rome, yet it became a generall name of all Citadels and strong 
Castles built for the defence of any Citie. 

b Meaning the murder of Caius Julius Caesar Dictator. 

c Bearing the name of a notorious theefe, or Captayne rather of 
theeves, crucified for his desertes. 



ANNOTATIONS UPON 
TIBERIUS CLAUDIUS DRUSUS CAESAR 



a LIKE as in Rome, the gate called Porta scelerata, and the Streete 
Vicus sceleratus upon some semblable infortunate accidents. 



a Wheras, by usuall custome such were brought into the Forum 
or common hall. 

9 

a By vertue of this Act, himselfe, his landes and goods were 
proscribed and exposed to open sale, in a Table hung up by an Edict 
from the masters of the Exchequer or Citie-Chamber. And if within 
the time appointed, he came not in, to satisfie the debt, nor any chap- 
man or suretie to undertake it, he and his whole state fell by escheate 
as forfait and confiscate into the Princes hands. 

17 

a These Hands are situate in the mouth of the River Rhodanus l : 
and they be so called of the order in which they lie. 

21 

a The name of this Fencer Palumbus, signifieth also in the Latin 
tongue a Stock-dove : which gave occasion unto him, to come out 
with this od jeast. 

23 

a Provided it was by the law Papiae, That no woman under fiftie 
yeares of age should be maried to a man three-scor yeares old or 
upward : Item, That no man under three score yeares might wed 
a woman, fiftie yers old or above. Where, note : That these 



266 



1 Rhosne. 



ANNOTATIONS 

words [a Tiberio] as if he added the said Branch, seeme to have TIBERIUS 

beene foysted in : considering that as it appeareth by Tacitus, the CLAUDIUS 
Emperour Tiberius went about to moderate the foresaid law, and not DRUSUS 
to make it more strict by annexing such a clause. CAESAR 

25 

a For feare of breaking up the pavements, if they rode in coach, 
wagon, chariot, or on horseback. 

b In divers Greeke and Latin writers, the names of Jewes and 
Christians were confounded: so as by Jewes they understood 
Christians. 

c Orchestra was that place in the fore-front of the Theater or 
Scaffolds, and neerest unto the Stage, wherein the Senators ordinarily 
sate, and sometime the Emperour himselfe. 

d Popularia were seats within the scaffolds and Theater, most 
remote from the Stage, wherein the common people were allowed to 
stand or sit. Betweene the said Orchestra and these Popularia were 
raunged the Knights or Gentlemen of Rome, and those rankes bare 
the name of Equestria. 

e So called, of the mountaine Eryx in Sicilie, where she was highly 
worshipped, and where she had a Temple. 

28 

a As for Drusilla his wife, a Jew borne, she had beene maried indeed 
before to king Azyzus, as Josephus writeth : but as touching the other 
two Queens, whosoever they were, he was acquainted with them 
otherwise, and not in way of mariage, so farre as I can finde. 

b For everie man might not so doe, unlesse he had a Knights estate, 
which was foure hundred thousand Sextarii, or were free borne : neyther 
Libertines nor Mechanicall persons living by base trades and occupa- 
tions were allowed. 

29 

a Other writers, as Philostratus and Julianus, say moreover, That 
without his wife and freed men, he was x<o<6i/ irpoa-atTrov and dopvcpo- 
pr)fj.a rr)s /3a<nAems, much like to a player in a dumbe shew, and the 
bare Image of a Kings Majestic, as Plutarch reporteth of Arridaus. 

31 

a This disease, some Physicians name Kap8ia\yiav } i. the heart-ach, 
or Cardiacam passionem, seated in the orifice of the stomach, which is 
called Kapdia. The paine whereof, Plinie affirm eth to be most in- 
tollerable, next unto the passion of the strangury. 

32 

a Flatum crepitumque ventris. By Flatum, understand that riddance 
of wind downeward, qui nares ferity non aures. Which in English 



commeth neere unto 



ic Latin word, Visio, for that the verbe Visire, 

267 



TWELVE C/ESARS 

TIBERIUS is the same that TO ftoio-civ. As Cicero in his Epistles hath well, but 

CLAUDIUS covertly observed, out of the word Divisio, wherein he noteth Quiddam 

DRUSUS Cacemphaton. Which place some interpreters, for ignorance of the 

CAESAR said verbe Visio, have expounded very absurdly. 

33 

a So sumptuous were these feastes, that Pontificum Ccena, and 
Saliares Epulce, grew into a proverb, to expresse exceeding great bellie 
cheere, and most delicate fare. 

34 

a Seneca, lib. 1 De dementia writeth, That Claudius caused more 
Paricides to be sowed within a leather male, etc., in five yeares space, 
than had beene ever before his daies. 

b Whether they were hired thereto, or presuming of their owne 
strength, voluntarily entered upon such a combat, or forced to undergo 
that dangerous fight, or else exposed unto their greedie jawes for to be 
worried and devoured by them. 

c This devise called heere Automatum, Horace by a Periphrasis, 
pretily expresseth thus, Nervis alienis mobile lignum. 

35 

a For with their Graphia, as hath beene noted before, they might 
do a mischiefe. 

38 

a Ir& atque Iracundice. Ira signifyeth the hote and momentarie 
passion of anger, soone enflamed and as soone quenched, and Ira- 
cundia seemeth to be taken heere, for the continuance of the said 
anger, and an inveterate setled wrath. Howsoever our Dictionaries 
would teach us the contrary. The one may be called Gall or Choler, 
the other Spleene or Melancholy. 

b Stultitiam neminem fingere, or rather, Stultitiam stultum neminem 
fingere, i. That no foole counterfaits folly. 

40 

a It was an inconsiderate speech of an Emperor, and foolishly let 
fall, in the Senate especially, tending much to his discredit and dis- 
honour : as if he sent to the Taverne for his wine, by the pot or 
bottle, and had not his own cellarage stored therewith. 

b These words without all rime or reason were rife in his mouth, 
which unadvisedly he had taken up, and by use could not leave them. 

41 

a Some thinke, that he devised not new letters in the Alphabet, 
but new formes rather of the former : as namely to write for the 
Molick digamma F the inverted character tf, and for a dipthong, at. 

268 



ANNOTATIONS 

43 

a For, by report of Dion and Xiphilinus his stature farre exceeded 
the proportion of his years. 

44 

a And yet by circumstances it may be collected,, that he caught his 
bane and died in the Palatium at Rome. 

46 

a These were, as it plainly appeareth, Questors, ^Ediles, Tribunes, 
Praetors, Censors and Consuls. Of ail these, some one or other died, 
excepting Censors, as Tacitus writeth, 12 Annal. 



TIBERIUS 

CLAUDIUS 

DRUSUS 

CAESAR 



ANNOTATIONS UPON 
NERO CLAUDIUS CAESAR 



a THESE foure factions or crewes that ran with Chariots for the 
prise, were distinguished by foure colors of cloth, or liveries, and 
therupon called by their names, Alba, i. White, Veneta, watchet or 
light blew, PrtBsina, i. greene, and Rosea, i. Rose coloured or read. 
Unto which were added by Domitian Aurata and Purpurea, i. Gold 
coloured or yellow, and purple. The former foure Sidonius Apollinaris 
hath comprised in his Hendecasyllabes, thus : 

Micant colores, 
Albus cum veneto, virens rubensque. 

Then shine these crewes and make a gallant shew 
In white, in blew, in greene and roset hew. 

Proportionate they are unto the foure seasons of the yeare : white, 
to the Autumne or end of Sommer, Watchet to the winter, Greene 
to the spring, and Red to sommer, or as some would have it to the 
foure Elements. 

b Physicians have observed three kinds of dropsie. The first is 
Ascites, wherein the belly doth swell with much water gathered 
betweene the inner skin or rine of the belly, and the cawle which 
lappeth the guts, and some wind withall, so named of do-Kos in Greeke, 
i. A bottle, because in turning of the bodie to a side, the water is per- 
ceived to snog in the womb, like as liquor in a bottle halfe full, when 
it is shaken. The second, Tympanites, wherein the belly is hoven up 
with wind especially, and some water among. Whereby it will sound 

269 



TWELVE CAESARS 

NERO like a taber or drum, if one tamper upon it, and thereof it was so 

CLAUDIUS called. The third Leucophlegmatias, anasarca, Hyposarca, in Latin 

(LESAR Intercus, or Aqua intercutem, in the proper signification 1 , when the 

bodie all over is puffed up with water and wind running betweene the 

fell and the flesh. And thereof as should seeme, died this Domitius. 



a To wit, the ninth day after he was borne, on which they used to 
name their sonnes. And as this day was called Nominalia, so there 
was a goddesse forsooth, president of this complement and ceremonies, 
whom they named Nundina. 



a The manner was, during these solemnities in the Albane mount, 
(where the chiefe magistrates were present) to leave for Provost of the 
Citie, some principall young Gentleman of the Nobilitie, before whom 
sitting judicially, causes of no great importance should be brought. 

11 

a These youthfull sports luvenalia, or luvenales ludi, were first 
instituted by this Nero, privately in houses or gardens, and orchards. 
Wherein, of all degrees, ages and sexes they daunced and revelled. 

12 

a The fabulous reports of Ladie Pasipha? wife to King Minos, how 
she was enamoured of a Bull, as also of Icarus the sonne of Daedalus, 
who would needs attempt to flie in the ayre, be well enough knowen 
to them that are but meanely scene in Poetrie. 

b luxca cubiculum eius decidit. By CuUculum, he meaneth heere, a 
royall seat raised on high within that quarter of the Theater called 
Orchestra) under a rich Tent or Canopie, where Emperors were wont 
to sit when they beheld such solemnities. These Pavillions were 
called in Greeke ovpavia-Kol Kuvairea in some sort resembling bed- 
chambers. 

c So named because they that wrestled, ran, or otherwise exercised, 
were naked, like as the place itselfe of such exercises thereupon tooke 
the name Gymnasium. 

16 

a Full and formall suppers, whereto men were invited, and at which 
the guestes sate orderly marshalled according to their worth place, 
and were called ccence recta, and after this manner in other Princes 
daies were their favorites feasted. In steed hereof came in Sportulte, 
i. allowances given unto them, eyther in money, or cates, in recom- 
pence of their ordinarie salutations and attendance. 

b As there were sundrie factions or crewes favourizing this or that 



1 For Cornelius Celsus attributeth this name to all the kindes. 



270 



ANNOTATIONS 

colour of the Chariotters, so were there likewise of Actours and 
players, whereupon many roiots, outrages, Fraies and murthers were 
committed. 

17 

a It should seeme, that for the pleading and triall of causes, such 
Tribunal seats, pues, benches and barrs, were erected at first, for the 
present occasion, and taken downe againe by certaine persons, who 
gathered therfore a rent of those that went to law. 

18 

a Divers Kings of Pontus were named Polemones as of ./Egypt 
Ptolemaei, whereupon the realme Pontus, is by Vopiscus called 
Polemonius, like as the Alpes Cottiae of Cottius. 

19 

a Many had attempted this beside him : but all their cost and 
labour came to nought : OVTVS xaAe7roi> ai/0pa>7ra> ra Beta @id(ra(r6ai. 

20 

a TTJS \av0avova-ris p.ovarLKrjs ovdels \6yos. 

b In respect of a former fleet, that was wont to come before, and 
bring newes of the second laden with marchandise and under saile. 
Therefore those ships were called naves TabellaricB. Seneca. 

c Bombos, resembling either the buzzing and humming noise of Bees, 
or the sound of trumpets. 

d Imbrices, much after the manner of that rattling, which a sodaine 
shewre makes upon the tiles of an house, or the sound that crest tiles 
or gutter tiles may make. 

e Testas, to expresse the crashing of potsheards or earthen pots, 
clattering one against another. 

f Insignes pinguissima coma. In which sense we read of pingues 
toga and Lacernce. Yet some understand thereby \urapoir\o Kapovs, 
i. whose lokes and faix were so slicke and glib with sweet oyles, that 
they shone againe. 

21 

a For, so would he have it to be called. And Thraseas Paetus was 
judicially convented, and deeply charged, because he had never offred 
sacrifice for that heavenly voice of his. Tacit. 

b Who was with child by her owne brother Macareus, whereupon 
her father JEolus caused the childe new borne to be cast before 
hungrie dogs : and sent a sword to his daughter to kill her selfe 
with. 

c In revenge of his father Agamemnons death, by her murdered, 
whereupon he fell into a furious kinde of deepe melancholic. 

d Who unwitting killed his owne father Laius, and as ignorantly 
wedded his owne mother locasta. 

271 



NERO 

CLAUDIUS 

CAESAR 



TWELVE C^SARS 



NERO e By putting on a garment next his skinne, envenomed with the 

CLAUDIUS poison of Nessus the Centaure, and so sent unto him as a token, from 
CAESAR his wife Deianira. 

24 

a It may be thought, that he then acted GEdipus or Creon or some 
other King, and therefore carried in his hand a regall staffe or Sceptre. 
Yet some interprete this of a Lawrel rod or braunch, such as Actors 
held in their hands while they sung. 

b For, at Olimpia, were Games also of Criers, striving who could 
cry lowdest, for the prize. 

c These were called Hieronica, as one would say, sacred victories, 
to witt at the solemne games in Greece, Nemea, Pythia, Istmia, and 
Olimpia. 

25 

a Five thousand were there of these Gallants, as Xiphilinus writeth, 
ready to applaud him when he chaunted. 

26 

a He meaneth eyther a peruke and cap of counterfait haire, Ko'/zas 
ircpiQerovs, Dioni thereby disguising himselfe : the same that in Cali- 
gula he termeth Capillamentum, or else some hood covering his head 
all save the eyes. Julius Capitolinus calleth it Cucullionem, where- 
with the Emperour Verus played such parts by night, in imitation of 
Caligula and Nero. 

b Quintana was a Gate or Street rather in the Roman Campe, 
wherein was usually kept, Forum rerum utensilium, in resemblance 
whereof, he termed a certaine place in his house Quintana, in which 
he made sale of such wares and commodities, as he had gotten together 
by rifling and robbing. 

c It appeareth by Tacitus, that this was Julius Montanus, who, 
albeit he had not sitten in counsell as Senator, yet was Laticlavius, 
and wore the Senators Robe. Such Gentlemen were called luvenes 
secundi ordinis, in distinction of those of the Imperiall bloud, or 
otherwise neere allied unto the Emperour. 

27 

a The manner was in old time to imploy the day in businesses, and 
therein to take no liberall meales, putting oif the full refection, and 
cherishing of the bodie untill night. Convivia de die, argued Intem- 
perance, much more then feasting from noone to midnight. 

b Ambubaiarum. These tooke their name (as most expositors have 
conjectured), Quod circa Baias versarentur. Yet some learned men of 
later time fetch the same from this Syriacke word AnbubaifB, as if such 
were Syrian women, who being otherwise naughtie packes and callots, 
gat their living also by playing upon certaine instruments of musike, 
which they brought with them out of their native countrey. 

272 



ANNOTATIONS 

c Copas imitantium. Although Copa, properly be such women as NERO 
keepe victualling houses, readie not onely to entertaine, but also to CLAUDIUS 
invite and call in guestes, yet because these commonly are verie bold CAESAR 
and unshamefaced, this terme goeth indifferently for strumpets and 
curtesans. For seldome shall a man see an impudent woman that 
is not withall incontinent, so inseparably is modestie joyned with 
Chastitie. 

d The corrupt text in this place hath given occasion of much 
obscuritie, and ministred matter enough for Criticks to worke upon, 
while some read Mellita, others Myrtitrichila. By which are ment 
certaine sweat junkets, as daintie wafers, etc. 

e This may be thought incredible, that banqueting conceits at one 
sitting should cost so much, and the aspersion of rose-water or other 
odoriferous liquors arise to more. Where is to be noted the observa- 
tion of some, who for ab Syrtio rosaria read aspersio rosaria, that is 
to say, the artificiall besprinkling and aromatizing (as I may so say) 
of banqueting rowmes, out of spouts and pipes, conveying odoriferous 
waters and oyles, going under the name of Rosaria. Which spouts, if 
they were made of silver or gold, (as we read they were at the feast 
of Otho, when he gave Nero entertainment) might soone amount to 
that somme. To say nothing of the costly compound distilled waters, 
or extracts and oyles, themselves, drawen out of most pretious simples 
and spices. 

28 

a Him he called, as other Authors write, Sabbina and Poppaea, 
after the name of his wife deceased. 

29 

a In other writers he is named Pythagoras, so that it should seeme 
he caried two names. 

30 

a A great Magician, whom he intertained thus royally, because he 
would have learned magicke of him. See Plinie. 

b Whereas Augustus when he played at this game, ventured no 
more, than for everie Talus, which were foure in all, a single denier. 
For it should seeme that the game of Tali heere mentioned, was 
Pleistobolinda, i. who could throw most with four Tali, whether the 
same were cockall bones in deed, or made of gold, silver or Ivorie, 
with foure sides, everie one representing a chaunce, an Ace or unitie 
and sise, a trey and quatre, opposite, one unto the other. For they 
wanted deux and cinque, which the Tessera Cubus, or Die carying six 
faces, hath. 

c It is evident hereby, as also out of that verse of Juvenal, 

Ut IfEti phaleris omnes et torquibus omnes, 

that these Phalcrce were not Trappings and furniture belonging 1 to 
2 : MM 273 



TWELVE C^SARS 

NERO horses, but some other ornaments, wherewith footmen and horsemen 
CLAUDIUS both were trimly decked. 

33 

a In this verbe Morari, there is couched a double sense, which gives 
the grace unto this pleasant scoffe. For, being a meere Latin word, 
and having the first sillable by nature short, it signifieth, to stay or to 
make long abode: and taking it thus, Nero might be thought to imply 
thus much, that Claudius was now departed out of the companie of 
mortall men, and raunged among the heavenly wights. But take the 
same word, as Nero spake it, derived of papas 1 in Greeke, which 
signifyeth, A foole, and hath the first syllable long, it importeth, that 
Claudius played the foole no longer here in the world among men. 
Read the little pamphlet of Seneca entituled dn-oKoXoK^rcoo-is, if ye 
would see Claudius depainted in his colours, and in a fooles coat : 
which he, as it may appeare, composed of purpose to gratifie Nero in 
that humour of his. 

b The Greekes call this Kava-rpav or rvfiov. And the Romans in 
honour of their Princes, were wont to compasse the same all about 
with a wall of flint, or other durable stone, as marble. 

84 

a It may be it was in the same forme, that Justinus Martyr citeth 
out of Orpheus : 

Qvpas S'fTrifacrdf fBeftrjXos. 
Fortes opponite profanis. 

Which Virgil in some sort hath expressed thus : 

Procul este profani. 
And Claudian after him : 

Gressus removete profani. 

37 

a The like example is reported by Vopiscus in Aurelianus, who 
tooke wonderfull delight in a mightie Eater 2 , that in one day before 
his owne table, devoured a wild bore full and whole, an hundred loaves 
of bread, a wether mutton, and a pig. 

38 

a This lambicke verse, as Dion writeth, was rife also in Tiberius 
Caesars mouth. 

b Albeit this word, Insula, beside the common signification of an 
Hand, is taken for an house standing entire by it selfe, a part from 
other, yet in this Author I observe that it is put els where for other 
1 Moros. 2 Phagone. 

274 



ANNOTATIONS 

houses also and tenements let out to tenants by the owners and NERO 

Landlords, who are called Domini Insularum. And even in this CLAUDIUS 

acception, it may well goe in this place. C.3SSAR 
c This toure Horace describeth, Carm. lib. 3, Od. 19, in these 

Molem propinquam nubibus arduis, etc. 

39 

a Which number ariseth to ten thousand a moneth. A mortalitie 
nothing comparable to that which as Eusebius reporteth, reigned at 
Rome in the daies of Vespasian, in which there died of the pestilence 
ten thousand a day, nor to that in Constantinople, when many daies, 
there were likewise ten thousand dead bodies caried forth. Procop. 
lib. 2, de bello persico. 

b Such a rumor in deed ran rife, but untruly. Tacitus. 

c Orestes to revenge his father Agamemnons death wrought by 
Clytemnestra his mother and jJEgysthus the adulterer, murdered her. 

d Alcmseon sonne of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle, killed her, bycause 
shee had contrived his fathers death. 

e JEneas caried his old father Anchises upon his shoulders out of 
the fyre of Troy when it burned. Here is to be noted the duple sense 
of the verbe [Sustulit] in one and the same Latin verse : for in the 
former place, it signifieth to Kill, or make away, as Nero did his mother, 
in the later, to take up and cary, as JEneas did his father. This yeeldeth 
an elegant grace in Latin, and cannot so well be expressed in English. 

f Apollo was surnamed Pcean of Traieiv in Greek, which signifieth 
to strike, or of Trover, to ease and allay paine, as being a God, that 
both sendeth diseases, and also cureth them. But commonly the 
Romaines terme him so, in this latter and better sense. He is styled 
likewise Hecatebeletes in Greek, which is as much, as shooting or 
wounding from afarr. In these abstruse significations and obscure 
termes therefore this Epigram implyeth thus much : That whiles Nero 
in the habit of Apollo plaieth upon the harpe. and would seeme to be 
a milde and gratious Prince : the Parthian King with bow and arrowes 
representing Apollo likewise, endaungered the Empire of Rome, and 
all, through the supine negligence of Nero geven to his Musick and 
other vanities excessively. 

s This is ment by that huge house of Neroes building, and hath a 
reference to that desolate estate of Rome, when it was sacked and 
fyred by the French, after the imfortunate battaile of Allia, what time 
the Romaines were in consultation to abandon the Cittie and departe 
to Veii, there to inhabite. 

h It seemeth that Nero in his Poeme entituled Troica, had used to 
chaunt of Nauplius the father of Palamedes, who abid many calamities 
himselfe, and in revenge of his sonnes death, wrought much mischiefe 
to others. The Cynicke therefore, noteth Nero for his singing, as 
also for abusing his owne good parts in perpetrating all wickednesse, 
or else for mispending his treasure so dissolutely. 

275 



NERO 

CLAUDIUS 

CAESAR 



TWELVE CAESARS 



i "Eppootro 8?y Kal vyiaive, ot/re \eyeiv ovre 
irpoaiovTfS aXXois, ovre /xeXXoz/res rt TrparTew/, 



rt 
aXX??Xeoi/, 



KCU 



Trpbs 



yaObv, ov yap 
Tavra \eyovcriv 
airvov Tpe7rd/xei/ot. 



av6pa>7roi, aXXa a7raXaTrop,ei/oi 
Artemidor. lib. I, cap. 

k By Orcus, or Pluto, taken for the God of Hell or the Grave, is 
understood death, in this place, readie to seize upon the Senatours, 
whose overthrow Nero had intended. Now, well knowne it is, that 
the manner was then, among the Romans, as at this day with us, to 
cary forth their dead with the feet forward. 



40 

a It should seeme, this answere was delivered in these words : 
'E^KOOTOV eras rpio-KaideKaTovre (pvXarrov. 

Of sixtieth yeare (I doe thee reed) 

And thirteenth more, see thou take heed. 

Whereby Apollo (for his oblique aunswers rightly of the Greeks 
termed Loxias) or the Divell himselfe, whether you will, playing with 
him in a two-fold and ambiguous construction, (as his manner was) 
deluded him. For whiles he rested secure, dreaming still of the 73 
yeare, which he supposed was meant of his owne age, and which he 
was farre short of, he fell into the hands of Galba, a man indeede of 
those yeares. 

45 

a Rome was wont to be served of corne from Alexandrea in .ZEgypt, 
in the time of dearth especially, when Cicilie, otherwise reckoned 
Horreum populi Romani, i. the people of Romes Garner, was not able 
to furnish them. Now, when in steede of corne long expected, there 
arrived certaine saile from thence fraught with dust and Band for the 
sports of his gallants : no mervaile if all the discontentment and heart- 
burning of the people conceived against Cornmongers and such as 
made gaine by the scarcitie of graine, redounded upon Nero and his 
Courtiers. 

b Nw yap ear* dyw. The end of some Trimetre or Senarie lambicke 
verse in a Tragedie. 

c Nw del eXavveiv rj \KCIV, i. Now 'tis high time to drive or draw. 
In both which Empreses, by a most tart and bitter Sarcasmus, is taxed 
his excessive love of Charioting. 

d The speech of the people, or of his mother, who could not 
reclayme him. 

e As a Paricide or Killer of Parents, etc., whose judgement was to 
be sowed quicke within a lether budge, etc. 

f There is not only an Homonyme in the word \Gallos] signifying the 
French Nation, and the crowing cocks, but an Amphibolic also in the 
sentence : whereby it may be understood, eyther that Nero with his 
chaunting, had awakened the French, who began now to revolt, as not 

276 



ANNOTATIONS 

able any longer to endure his songs : or that the French awakened NERO 
him, to bestirre himselfe and looke better about him : as if they were CLAUDIUS 



the Cockes indeed, to raise him out of his drowsie securitie. 

The ambiguitie of this word [Vindex], implieth both a private 
chastiser of servants for their faults, and also C. Julius Vindex, a 
revenger of publicke injuries, and a maintainer of the common libertie. 
Who now had taken Armes against Nero. 

46 

a Auspicia, albeit they properly do signifie presaging tokens de- 
livered by birds : yet the sequence and circumstance of this passage, 
lead us rather to some other uncouth prodigies and straunge sightes. 

b Nero was semblably distained, in another kinde : as having 
murdered his Father Claudius 1 , his mother Agrippina, and his two 
wives Octavia and Poppaea. 

47 

a A ccelatura carminum Homeri. Which if wee straine a little, may 
be Englished thus, for the workmanship and engraving upon them, 
out of Homers verses. Alluding to that standing massie cup of 
Nestors, described by Homer in the eleventh of his llias. 

b An halfe verse out of Virgil, 12 JEneid. The words of Turnus 
unto his sister Juturna. 

c Although there were divers Prefectures in JEgypt, called Nomi, 
as one would say, Shires or Divisions, as appeareth in Plinie, 5 lib. 
cap. 9. Yet by this place is to be understood the Presidencie over all 
jEgypt, which by the institution of Augustus, was ordinarily conferred 
upon some Gentlemen of Rome. By which, it appeareth, he would 
play at small game rather than sit out. 



C^SAR 



ANNOTATIONS UPON 
SERVIUS SULPITIUS GALBA 



a THE like narration is reported of Hipparche and Crates the 
Thebane, a Cynick Phylosopher. 

6 

a Tessera data. How ever this word [Tessera] in our Author hath 
other significations, to wit, of a watchword, a Signall, a Tally or 
Ticket, etc. Yet here verily, it seemeth to be put for a Precept or 



Who adopted him. 



277 



TWELVE C^SARS 

SERVIUS Commaundement, whether it were delivered by word of mouth unto 
SULPITIUS those that stood next, or in writing, and so passed through the campe, 
GALBA it mattereth not. 

b It may appeare, that Gaetulicus their former General!, had allowed 
his Souldiers more libertie and pastime. 

8 

a These were also called Tatii, by Tacitus, of Tatius King of the 
Sabines. 

b They tooke their name of Augustus : like as other orders after- 
wards, as Flaviana, etc., of the Emperours following. 

10 

a In habit of a woman, and with winges, holding forth a garland in 
the right hand, and bearing in her left an Olive braunch : as is to be 
scene in many Antique coynes. 

b A truncke of a tree, or post erected : upon which hung the 
Armour and apparell of enemies slaine and despoiled. 

14 

a During which time, were held the festivall daies of t;he Saturnalia, 
Newe yeares tide and others. 

19 

a They used in olde time such curaces (in steed of brest plates) 
made of linnen webbs, folded eighteene times and more. For, so 
Nicetas Acominatus, lib. 1 Rerum Isaaci Angeli writeth : rjpid^ovvro Se 
els oKTWKai'Se/ca KCU TrcoXe/eo v^al^aros (rvTrTvypara: which foulds being 
throughly steeped and soaked in viniger or Austere wine, with salt 
put thereto, and afterwardes well driven and wrought together in 
maner of Felt, became so stiffe, and an Armour of so good proofe, 
as KOI J3e\ovs eurcu travTos crreyavaTepov, i. as that it would checke the 
dint of any dart or shot whatsoever. 

b As touching the Souldier thus reprooved by Galba, it was Julius 
Atticus, as Tacitus writeth, one of those who went under the name of 
Spiculatores, L Bill-men : or Speculators rather, as some would have 
it, employed in Espiall, executions, etc. as hath before beene noted. 
Heere also in the clause, Dimota paganorum turba, is to be understood 
the multitude of the people and common sort, who were not Souldiers. 
For so Pagani are taken, as in opposition to Milites. 

20 

a These Aurei among the Romans were valued at one hundred 
Sestertii a peece, so as in round reckoning they may goe for our olde 
Edward Star-Reals, or fifteene shilling peeces. For, by exact com- 
putation, one of them ariseth to fifteene shillings, seven pence halfe 
penie, the fourth part just, of the Roman pound, (conteyniug one 

278 



ANNOTATIONS 

hundred Deniers or Atticke Drachmes) which maketh , three pound, 
two shillings sixe pence starling. 

b This place where Patrobius was executed, and into which they 
flung their heads, who by commaundement of the Caesars were put to 
death, was called Sestertius. Plutarch. 



SERVIUS 

SULPITIUS 

GALBA 



ANNOTATIONS UPON 
MARCUS SALVIUS OTHO 



a NOT without the Rampyer and precinct of the Campe, where was 
the ordinarie place of execution : nor by the ministerie of a Centurion, 
who by order was deputed, to see Justice done : but in the verie face 
and most frequented quarter of the Campe called Principia, not farre 
from the Lord Generals Pavilion, and where the Principall Captaines 
quartered and lodged : wherein also, the maine Standard named the 
^Egle and other militarie ensignes of the bandes and cohorts were 
kept : even in his owne sight being Generall, whose manner was not 
to be present. 

2 

a This rude and grosse kinde of sport was thereupon called Sagatio, 
not unlike to that pastime with us in some place called the canvasing, 
and else where, the vanning of dogs. 



a For, after that by commaundement of Nero, he and Poppaea, were 
in some sort put asunder, he sollicited her as being his owne wedded 
wife to keepe him compauie, which, in regard of her marriage with 
Nero, was held Adulterie. 

6 

a A Columne erected in the upper end or head of the Forum 
Romanum : at which, all the principall high waies in Italy began, with 
directions therein engraven, to everie gate of the Citie, leading unto 
the said highwaies. 

7 

a Some read, for ciuXots- ao-uAoIs, to no good sense at all. But the 
former, accordeth well with Juvenal, Satyr. 11. Who to the same 
eifect saith : 

Buccce 
Noscenda est mensura tuce, 

279 



MARCUS 

SALVIUS 

OTHO 



TWELVE C^SARS 

and proverbially implyeth thus much, that he was not able to manage 
the Empire. 

8 

a Germaniciani eocercitus. Which served in Campe, or as Garison 
Souldiers in Germanic, whether they were Romanes, Germanes or any 
other Auxiliaries from Associate Nations, it skilled not. 

b The manner was, that who soever enterprised a warre- voyage should 
enter into the Chappell of Mars, where hung the sacred Scutcheons 
or Shields called Ancilia, and first stirre them, after that, shake the 
speare also of Mars, and say with all Mars, Vigila, i. Awake Mars. 
This had Otho done, but according to the religious ceremonie, not 
bestowed them quietly againe in their places. 

12 

a This bread was made of Beane and Rice flower, of the finest 
wheat also, a verie Psilothrum as the Physicians terme it, or a 
Depilatorie, to keepe haire from growing, especially being wet and 
soaked in some juyce or liquor appropriate therefore, as the bloud of 
bats, frogs, or the Tunie fish, etc. To this effeminacie of Otho, 
alludeth the Satyricall Poet Juvenal * in this verse : 

Et pressum in faciem digltis extender -e panem. 



ANNOTATIONS UPON 
AULUS VITELLIUS 



a THIS Quintus Eulogius was the freed man of the said Quintus 
Vitellius. 

2 

a Some read Sectionibus et Suturis : expounding it thus, as if his 
sonne had been not a cobler, but a shoemaker indeed, occupied in 
cutting of new shoes and sowing them together. 

b These kinde people, so double diligent about the feminine sexe, be 
fitly called good womens-men : and doting overmuch upon their wives, 
Uxorii in Latin, as one would say Bridegroomes still. Such an one 
Seneca makes report he knew, who could not endure to be without 
his wives company, one minute of an houre : and if upon necessitie he 
went abroad into the towne, yet would he take with him a stomacher 
of hers, and weare it ever next his heart, etc. 



280 



Satyra. 



ANNOTATIONS 



c No doubt the same was garnished with Gold, rich stones and AULUS 
pretious pearles. See Plin. lib. 9, cap. 35. VITELLIUS 

d It may be gathered it was Hemiplegia, which we call the dead 
Palsey, taking the one side of the bodie, and most commonly ensuing 
upon an Apoplexie, if it were not the verie Apoplexie it selfe, (which 
is none other but an universall palsey) considering the quicke dispatch 
it made. 

7 

a He meaneth the crew, or faction of chariotiers holding of the 
blew or watchet colour : which Vitellius and Galba both affected. 

11 

a So called, of an infortunate battaile fought that day neere the 
river Allia : in which, the Romans were overthrowne by the French : 
who following the train of their victory, advanced their ensignes to 
Rome, forced the Citie, and put it to the sacke. 

b Some read De Dominico, i. out of Dominicus, for so it may seeme, 
was the booke of Neroes Canticles entituled, alluding to himselfe, who 
would be called Rerum Dominus, i. Lord of the world. 

13 

a Cornelius Celsus findeth no fault with Asclepiades, who con- 
demned vomiting, Offensus eorum consuetudine, qui quotidie eiiciendo 
vorandi facultatem moliuntur, i. as utterly disliking their manner, 
who by daily casting up their gorge, seeke to enable themselves 
for beastly gourdmandise. And to the same purpose he saith : 
Istud luxuria causa fieri non oportere, i. That this ought not to be 
put in use, for to maintaine riotous excesse. He admonisheth also, 
Ne quis qui valere et senescere volet, hoc quotidianum faciat, That no 
man who desireth to live long and in health would make it a daily 
practise. But Seneca reproveth such verie aptly in these words : 

Edunt ut vomant, vomunt ut edant. 

They eat, to vomit, and they vomit, to eat. 

b If Scarus were not the guilt head, a delicate fish no doubt it was 
in those daies, and better esteemed than the Acipenser, . the Sturgion. 
It cheweth cud, and hath plaine teeth to grind withall, not indented 
like a combe or saw. 

14 

a Veraculis or vericulis, or divinaculis : all to one sense, Such as will 
take upon them to tell fortunes, etc. Women of this profession 
Apuleius termeth veratrices. 

b Bonumfactum. The usuall preface or preamble premised before 
Edicts and Proclamations, Boni ominis causa. 

2 : NN 281 



TWELVE CAESARS 

AULUS 15 

VITELLIUS a By this ceremonie, he seemed to resigne up his Empyre. 

16 

a Making semblance thereby, that he was fled and gone, for, the 
manner was, at the Porters lodge doore, if no bodie were within, to 
tie up a mastive dog, for to give warning abroad if any man came. 
And not farre from the said lodge, such a dog, with a chaine, was 
usually painted upon the wall, with these words, in great letters : 

Cave, Cave Canem, i. Beware, Beware the Dog. 

18 

a He meaneth that Gallus Gallinaceus, or dunghill cocke, that before 
had perched upon his head and shoulders, alluding to the French, 
who are likewise named GallL 



ANNOTATIONS UPON 
FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS AUGUSTUS 



a THE fortieth part. Happily the fortieth penie of all bargaines of 
sales that were unlawfull. 

2 

a Which had a border or broade gard about it, embroidered with 
purple studdes like naile-heads, and therefore was called Latas clavus: 
and thereupon, Senators themselves, Laticlavii. 



a In liew of $vXAo/3oAta : for, in token of love and affection they 
should have heaped upon him gay flowers, greene leaves and pleasant 
fruits. 

b This, no doubt, had relation to the prophesie of the True Messias, 
and Saviour, Jesus Christ. The very words imply no lesse, according 
with these out of Holy Scripture : 'EK <rov eeAevo-erai 6 fjyovfjifvos, 
etc. Read Joseph. 6 book, chap. 31, of the destruction of Jerusalem. 

5 

a There is an hill of that name in Juda?a. And because answers 
had beene given from thence, and nothing there was to be scene, 
neyther Image of a God, nor Temple, but a bare Altar, and the rever- 
282 



ANNOTATIONS 



ence onely of the place, both Tacitus and Suetonius by the name of FLAVIUS 

Carmelus, call that unknowen God unto them, who reigneth for VESPA- 

ever. SIANUS 

b This sight, and the other following, betokened soveraigntie unto AUGUSTUS 
Vespasian, who warred then in the East countries, Judaea and Syria. 

7 

a This Basilides seemeth rather to have beene some Priest, or 
principall man of note, and not Libertus, i. his freed man, as some 
copies have. But who ever he was, to the setting forward of this 
dissignernent of Vespasian, Nomen et omen erat. 

10 

a Out of the 35 Tribes of Rome, were chosen certaine Judges or 
Commissioners, named Ceutumvirs, to wit, out of every Tribe three, 
and albeit their number arose to an hundred and five, yet roundly 
they went for an hundred, and so were called. These I say, being 
ordained Stelitibus judicandis, determined private and civill matters 
betweene man and man, de Testamentis, Stillicidiis, and such like of 
no great moment. They put forth or erected a speare in the place 
where they sate in Jurisdiction : whereupon their court was named 
Hasta Centumviralis. 

13 

a Alluding to the name Cynicus. For these Philosophers tooke this 
denomination Cy nicks, eyther of their dogged and currish demaund, 
or of a place where they taught and disputed, called Cynosarges. 

16 

a Which in Augustus Caesars time amounted to twelve hundred 
thousand Sestertii : triple to the worth of a Roman Knight. 

17 

a This Colossus, Zenodorus a famous workeman, made before time 
for Nero. 

18 

a As namely, Pueros Symphoniacos, etc., Choristers or quiristers 
with most sweet breaths and pleasant voyces, etc. 

b For, then had women their Saturnalia, like as the men in 
December. Those festivall holidaies were called Matronalia, in 
memoriall of Ladie Hersilia and other noble Dames, who in old 
time upon that day, interposed themselves as Mediatrices, betweeue 
the Romans and Sabines, readie to strike a most bloodie battell. 

19 

a This is reprehended by Cornelius Celsus, lib. 2, cap. 14, in these 
words, Neque audiendi sunt, qui numero finiunt, quoties aliquis perfri- 
candus est : Illud enim ex viribus hominis colligendum est. 

283 



FLAVIUS 
VESPA- 

SIANUS 
AUGUSTUS 



TWELVE (LESARS 

20 

a To be caried between men in a chayre or seat called thereupon 
Sella gestatoria, or Lectica. Celsus reckoneth sundrie sorts of this 
Gestation, to wit, Navi, Lectica, Scamno, Vehiculo. 

21 

a For, it was an ordinarie matter, in supper time, betweene the 
services and severall dishes, to cast the Dice or cockall bones, by 
fits. 

b Prcetextata verba, by the figure Antiphrasis, are put for such words 
as beseemed not either the mouth or the eares of Prcetextati, i. youths 
well borne, and of gentle bloud descended : who, in truth, should be 
modest and maidenlike : and in like manner, pratextati mores, signifie 
such behaviour. 

c Noting him for his ridiculous vanitie : which <f)\avpos in Greeke 
doth signifie. 

d Or, if ye read before, [perductte] it must so stand in the Page of 
expenses, to this sense, laid out, for, or to Vespasian beloved : as if he 
had given her a reward for loving him, whereas she should have given 
unto him. 

22 

a Some read, in steed of Improbius irato, improbius nato, that is to 
say, of no good making, but ill shaped to his height. 

A peece of a verse in Homer, Iliad *7, spoken there of Ajax, 
advancing forward to fight with Hector, unto whom, or to whose long 
pike rather, he likeneth this gangrell. 

c Eyther of Fullers, Walkers, and Diers, who gathered and occupied 
much thereof about their clothes, or else, for the tubs that commonly 
stoode in od corners and noukes of the streets, to receive every mans 
water, that he made as he went 

23 

a At the foresaid Cutilias, which was a naturall bath in the Sabines 
country, of medicinable waters, howbeit exceeding cold. Plin. lib. 31, 
cap. 31. 



284 



ANNOTATIONS 

ANNOTATIONS UPON 

TITUS FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS 

AUGUSTUS 



TITUS 
FLAVIUS 
VESPA- 
SIANUS 
AUGUSTUS 



a A PLACE in Rome so called of a building there, which stood upon 
seven courses of Columnes or Pillars, arising all round and higher 
every one than other, in manner of so many circles or girdles. 

b He meaneth not a Physiognomer, who hath taken upon him by 
inspection of eyes, forehead, face, etc., to tell ones nature and dis- 
position : such an one as Zopyrus was, who noted Socrates for to 
be by naturall inclination a wanton lover of women : but a fortune 
teller, by looking on the forehead onely. Such as in these daies, by 
the art of Palmestrie, for-sooth, can assure folke, how long they shall 
live, and what not. If they do but see lines in the palmes of their 
hands, or by feaxe in the forehead, will say, how many wives a man 
shall have, etc. As vaine as those, who by counting the letters of the 
husband and the wives name, will confidently pronounce, whether of 
them shall burie the other. 



a By titles in this place, and many others of Suetonius, are to be 
understood inscriptions, testifying for what considerations such Statues 
were erected. Such also were usually set up at publicke executions, 
to shew the offences and causes why any suffered. A thing usual! 
among the Romanes in their government, in what Province so ever, 
as may appeare by that which stood upon the Crosse of our Saviour 
Christ. 



a That is to say a white band or ribband : such as the Royall Dia- 
deme at first was. 



a Of these Baines, with what speede and celerity they were finished, 
Martialis writeth thus : 

Hie ubi miramur velocia munera, Thermas. 

8 

a Dooing them thus much credit in the eyes of the world, as to give 
the allowance and approbation, or otherwise, of the weapons wherewith 

285 



TWELVE C^SARS 

TITUS they should fight. For, in this sense may Ornaments be taken : the 
FLAVIUS ' rather, because some copies have Ferrarnenta. Or this place may be 
VESPA- understood of other furniture, as well as armes, wherwith they should 
SIANUS come appointed into the listes. 
AUGUSTUS 

9 

a This hath beene observed in all ages, to fore-runne the death 
of some Prince. Thus, before the end of Julius Caesar, as Virgil 
writeth, 

Non alias lato occiderunt plum sereno 

Fulgura, etc. 

Horace likewise, 

Per purum sonantes 

Egit equos volucremque currum. 

Our owne Chronicles 1 also exemplifie no lesse. To say nothing of 
the fresh resemblance of that, which happened with us three yeares 
since, in July. 

10 

a Some write, and Tzetzes by name, that hee was poysoned with 
eating of Sea-hares. 



ANNOTATIONS UPON 
FLAVIUS DOMITIANUS 

i 

a THIS was some Satyricall Poeme, of which Juvenalis writeth thus : 

Improbior satyram scribente Cincedo, 

i. Nerone. 

b A vestment of white linnen, after the manner of a Surplice : for 
such priests thereupon were named Linigeri. 

4 

a Toga GreBcanica. Which is spoken Karaxprjo-TLK&s, pro chlamyde, 
i. a cloake or loose cassocke. For Toga was Romanorum. 

7 

a Philostratus alledgeth another reason of this Edict, namely for 
1 A little before the death of king Henry the second. 

286 



ANNOTATIONS 






that many seditious broyles and commotions were occasioned by 
drunkennesse. 

b Or rather, as Casabonus expoundeth [geminari castra] that two 
legions should not encampe in one leaguer. For, the pollicie of warre 
found the same alwaies dangerous, in regard of mutinies, that by 
occasion thereof might arise. Souldiers, as Dion writeth, irpbs rrjv 
o-^nv TOV ir\r)dovs (r<f)>v Qpavvvovrai, i. Seeing their owne numbers great, 
grew to be stout and malapert. 

c For, before time, it was thought good Policy, that souldiers should 
lay up a portion of their donative, about the Ensignes within the 
campe, and not spend all their stocke, (which commonly they are 
given unto,) whereby they might be put in minde to fight more vali- 
antly, and not to forsake their colours, so long as they had somewhat 
to save or loose. 

8 

a Namely, to be buried quicke under the ground, that is to say, to 
be let downe into some grot or vault, and there to be sterved to 
death. 

10 

a Patrem-familias, i. A good honest Citizen of Rome, such as came 
to behold the Games. 

b Under these tyrannicall Emperours of Rome, that favorized, some 
this faction of Fencers and Chariot-riders, others that, it was high 
Treason and Impietie, for men to speake a word, not in open place 
onely and in the Theatre, but also at home in their houses, even in table 
talke, in commendation of the adverse faction, by way of comparison. 
Martial inviting a friend to his bourd, and promising that no mirth and 
free speech at meat should turne him to any daunger and displeasure, 
writeth thus unto him, 

De Prasino conviva meus vomitoque loquatur : 
Noc facient quenquam pocula nostra reum. 

Now, it is to be understood, that Domitius affected the fensers called 
Mirmillones, against the others named Thraces or Threces, whom his 
brother Titus favoured. 

c By Parmularius understand, him that speaks favourably in the 
behalfe of those fencers, named Parmularii, of the little bucklers, 
wherwith they were armed : otherwise called Threces, (as one would 
say Thracians, whose armature they had) in opposition of others 
which were the Mirmillones, who were otherwise appointed after the 
French fashion, and therefore tooke the name otherwhiles of Galli, 
and so is that verse of Horace to be expounded, Thrax an Gallina Syro 
par ? As touching blasphemie, no mervaile, if these Tyrants taking 
upon them to be Gods heere upon earth, held everie word derogatorie 
any waies unto their Majestic, high Treason and impietie. 

d Domitian and other such monsterous Tyrants, as namely Caligula, 
envied all persons and things that were excellent. It behooved there- 

287 



FLAVIUS 

DOMI- 

TIANUS 



TWELVE CESAR8 



FLAVIUS fore Lamia to be silent, and to dissimule what he thought, as well as 
DOM I- he might : although, for griefe of heart, happily, hee could not chuse 
TIANUS but fetch a secret sigh to himselfe with a Heu, i. Helas. 

12 

a I observe a double acception of this word Caesar, in this Historie 
penned by Suetonius. First, for a noble house in Rome whereof Julius 
Caesar Dictator was descended. Whose line, eyther in bloud or by 
adoption, were called Caesares. And in this sense it is truly said, that 
Progenies Casarum in Nerone defecit, i. that the race of the Caesars 
was extinct in Nero. And in this sense the heires apparent of the 
Emperours in that line were named Caesars. Secondly, for all the 
Soveraigne Emperours of Rome after Julius Cesar. So Galba and the 
rest, his successors were stiled Cesares. 

b This exaction levied of the Jewes, which he calleth ludaicum 
fiscum, was for the profession and exercise of the religion within 
Rome : who, as Xiphilinus witnesseth, were permitted before, by Ves- 
pasian his father to observe the rites and ceremonies of their owne 
religion, paying an yearely Tribute, to wit, a Didrachme. i. two Roman 
deniers, or fifteene pence with us. And so the Christians afterwardes 
for a time had the same Indulgence. 

13 

a In some copies are inserted these words, Aream et Calvitiem, to 
no sense, unlesse ye would have him thereby noted, for his baldenesse 
and fall of hayre, which some Physicians call A rea. 

15 

a This Flavius Clemens is thought to have beene a Proselite, and 
convert to the Jewish Religion 1 , by reason whereof, being somewhat 
mortified, and making conscience to do evill, he was reputed base 
minded, and as Suetonius saith, contemptissimce inertia. Imputations 
charged by Paganes upon Christians, and the true servants of God, 
for their quiet cariage and modest behaviour. 

b Whose sonne, I would not else, he would be thought, as who put 
one to death, because in his publike prayers he had not made mention 
of him, as the sonne of Minerva. Philostratus, lib. 7. 

17 

a Little Images, which Painims devoutly kept and worshipped, (as 
the Tutelare Gods of their bedchamber) within a certaine Closet called 
Lararium. 

18 

a It may be thought by the circumstance of this place, that this 
Rubor vultus in Domitian, was a tincture of vertue and modestie. But 

1 Or Christianity rather. 



TWELVE CAESARS 

there was nothing 1 lesse in him, so that it was rather an hypocriticall 
visard and maske, under which was couched a most fell and cruell 
nature, as being by the judgement of Tacitus more sanguinarie than 
Nero. For whereas Nero, subtraxit oculos, iussitgue scelera, non specta- 
vit, sub Domitiano prcecipua miseriarum pars erat videri et aspici, cum 
denotandis tot hominum palloribus, sufficeret scevus ille Domitiani vultus 
et rubor, quo se contra pudorem muniebat. A flushing red therefore is 
not alwaies a signe of grace. 

20 

a At Alexandria in JEgypt, was that famous Librarie of King Ptole- 
maeus Philadelphus and the other Ptolomaees his progenitors and 
successors, conteyning to the number well neere of 700000 bookes. 
Aul. Gel. Noct. Attic, lib. 7, cap. 17. 

23 

a Acclamations must be restrained heere to the worse sense, for all 
manner of Curses and Detestations, such as before were taken up by 
the people in this tune, Tiberium in Tiberim, and afterwards by the 
Senate, against Commodus, that wicked Emperor, in these termes, 
Hosti patrifB honores detrahantur, paricida trahatur, hostis deorum, car- 
nifex senatus unco trahatur, in spoliario ponatur, etc. 

b Nerva, Trajanus, Hadrianus, etc. Of whom Sextus Aurelius 
writeth thus : Quid Nerva prudentius aut moderatius ? Quid Traiano 
divinius ? Quid prcestantius Hadriano ? 



FLAV1US 

DOMI- 

TIANUS 



289 



THE HISTORIE OF 



AN INDEX TO THE HISTORIE 
AND MARGINALL GLOSSE 1 



A IN AGRIPPA, i. 163. 

Accensus, i. 27. 

Acilius for his valour compared with 
Cynegirus, i. 64. 

Acroames, ii. 220. 

Actiack battaile and victory, i. 93, 94. 

Actours upon the Stage, and Cham- 
pions in what manner chasticed, 
i. 122. 

Ad ant Ham, i. 21 1 n. 

Adminius, Cinobelinus sonne, ii. 39. 

Adulterie punished, i. no, 199. 

^Egysthus the adulterer, i. 52 n. 

^Elianus gently reproved by Augustus, 
i. 126. 

^Elius Lamia put to death by Domi- 
tian, ii. 245. 

^Enobarbi, ii. 98, 139; the reason of 
that name, i. 98. 

^Isar, what it signifieth, i. 163. 

^Eserninus hurt in Troy turnament, 
i. 119. 

Afranius his treacherie, i. 68. 

Agraria law, i. 27. 

Agrippa, Nephew to Augustus, in 
disfavour, i. 136 ; he is slaine, 
i. 190. 

Agrippina, wife of Germanicus, per- 
secuted by Tiberius Caesar, i. 212 ; 
pined to death, ibid. 

Agrippina, daughter of Germanicus, 
wedded to Claudius Caesar her own 
Unkle, ii. 92; enamoured upon 
Galba, ii. 158 ; mother of Nero, by 
him killed, ii. 130. 

Ajax, i. 152. 



Alauda, the Legion why so called, 

i. 31 n. 

Alexandrines salute Augustus, i. 164. 
Amethyst colour and purple in graine 

forbidden, ii. 126. 
Amnestia, i. 173 n. 
Amphitheatres three, i. 122. 
Ancilia, ii. 181. 
Anicetus slandreth himselfe with 

Octavia, ii. 131, 132. 
Anna Perenna, i. 73 n. 
Anticatones, bookes so called, i. 

57- . 

Antistius Labeo, his franke-speech to 
Augustus Caesar, i. 128. 

Antonia, daughter of Claudius, killed 
by Nero, ii. 132. 

M. Antonius vanquished by Augustus, 
i. 93 ; killeth himselfe, i. 94 ; taxed 
for obscurity of speech, i. 152. 

Antonie, sonne of M. Antonius, killed, 
i. 94. 

Antonius Musa, Physician to Augustus 
Caesar, honoured by the people, 
i. 132. 

Anticyra the Isle, ii. 44. 

Apelles an Actor, whipped by Cali- 
gula, ii. 30. 

Apollonius Molo, i. 17. 

Apollo Palatinus his temple, i. 105. 

Apollo Sandaliarius, i. 130. 

Apollo Temenites, i. 229. 

Apollo Intonsus et ciUe/j(re/c6yCi??s, ii. 
150 n. 

Apollo Tortor, i. 141. 

Apollodorus of Pergamus, i. 1 54. 



f 1 The Marginal Gloss of the original will be found in the footnotes of this'edition.] 

290 



TWELVE (LESARS 



Aponius Saturninus confined by Cali- 
gula, ii. 35. 

Apparell of Romane Citizens, i. 116. 

Appius Csecus, i. 171. 

Appius Claudius Regillanus, i. 171. 

Apragopolis an Isle, i. 164. 

Araeus the Philosopher, i. 154. 

Artocreas, i. 43 n. 

Asclepiades Mendesius, i. 158. 

Ascletario, a famous Astrologer, ii. 
252 ; killed by Domitian, ibid. 

Asellius Sabinus, his Dialogue, i. 
204. 

Asiaticus, Vitellius his minion, ii. 
J 95 j ne misleadeth Vitellius, ii. 
196. 

'A(TK07e0tfpcu, i. 58 n. 

Asinius Pollio complaineth of the 
Troie-fight, i. 119. 

Asprenas Nonius in question for 
poison, i. 129. 

Asses what peeces of money, i. 156. 

Astarte, ii. 152 n. 

Astrologers misliked by Tiberius 
Csesar, i. 200. 

Astura, i. 163. 

Atalanta and Meleager's picture, i. 
205. 

Atergate, ii. 152 n. 

Atia, the mother of Augustus, i. 83 ; 
thought to bee conceived by a Ser- 
pent, i. 158 ; her dreame, ibid. 

Atrium what it is, i. 105 n. 

Atrium Libertatis, i. 105 n. 

Augurie of Salus, i. 107. 

Augusta what they be, i. 85. 

Augustus Csesar upbraided for his 
base Parentage, i. 83 ; his birth, i. 
84 ; his pedigree, i. 82 ; surnamed 
Thurinus, i. 85 ; surnamed C. 
Csesar, etc., ibid. ; his towardly 
young yeares, i. 86 ; a student in 
Apollonia, ibid. ; his five civil 
warres, i. 87 ; hee revengeth his 
Unkle Julius Csesars death, ibid. ; 
hee sideth against M. Antonius, 
the Triumvir, ibid. ; his victory 
against Pansa and Hirtius, i. 88; 
he putteth the Nursines to a fine, 
i. 89; hee entreth societie of Trium- 
virate with Antonie and Lepidus, 
ibid. ; his bloudy cruelty, i. 89, 90, 



91 ; he hardly escaped murdering, INDEX 
i. 90 ; his dangers at sea, i. 91, 92 ; TO THE 
by land, i. 92 ; hee deposed and HISTORIE 
confined Lepidus his Colleague, 
ibid. ; he disgraced M. Antonius, 
i. 92 ; his moderate cariage toward 
M. Antonius, i. 93 ; he vanquisheth 
M. Antonius, ibid. ; he forceth 
Alexandria in yEgipt, ibid. ; hee 
caused Antonie and Cleopatra to 
be honourably buried, i. 94 ; he 
clenseth the river Nilus, i. 94, 95 ; 
in danger of many conspiracies, 
i. 95 ; his forraine warres, i. 96 ; 
not desirous of large dominion, 
ibid. ', his moderation, whereby hee 
won many nations, i. 96, 97 ; his 
triumphs, i. 97 ; his sorrow for the 
losse of Quintilius Varus, i. 98 ; his 
military Discipline, ibid. ; his 
manner of rewarding Souldiours, 
i. 99 ; his offices of Estate, i. 100, 
101 ; his cruelty in the time of 
Triumvirate, i. IO2 ; perpetuall 
Tribune, i. 103 ; perpetuall Censor, 
ibid. ; his purpose to resigne up his 
absolute government, ibid. ; his 
fatherly care for Romes prosperitie, 
i. 104; his publick works and 
buildings, ibid. ; his lenity and 
severity both in ministring justice, 
i. 109, no; he ordaineth a privie 
Counsel, i. 112; he deviseth new 
Offices, i. 113; his bounty in re- 
warding Souldiours, ibid. ; en- 
dangered at the sight of solemn 
Games, i. 120 ; his delight in be- 
holding publick Spectacles, etc., i. 
121 ; his clemencie and fatherly 
regard shewed to foraine Princes 
and Potentates, i. 124 ; how he 
ordered his militarie forces, ibid. ; 
his clemencie to his Opposites, i. 
126 ; his courtesie and civill be- 
haviour, i. 127, 128; howe much 
beloved of all sorts and degrees, i. 
130, 131 ; his wives, i. 133 ; howe 
hee brought up his Daughter and 
Nieces, i. 134; his unhappinesse in 
his progenie, i. 135 ; his demeanour 
to his friends, i. 136, 137 ; to his 
freed men and servants, i. 138 ; 

291 



THE HISTORIE OF 



INDEX 

TO THE 

HISTORIE 



noted for bodily uncleanenesse 
against kind, ibid. ; for adulteries, 
*' *39 > taxed for Corinthian vessels, 
i. 141 ; for Dice-play, ibid. ; his 
integrity of life, i. 141, 142 ; his 
apparell, i. 143, 144, 149; his 
order at the table, i. 144 ; his diet 
for himselfe, i. 145 ; his abstinence 
of wine, i. 146 ; his sleepes, i. 146, 
147 ; his presence and personage, 
i. 147, 148 ; his stature and feature, 
i. 148 ; his infirmities of body, i. 
148, 149 ; his bodily exercises, i. 
150 ; his recreations and pastimes, 
ibid. ; his eloquence and liberall 
studies, i. 150, 151 ; his voice and 
utterance, i. 151 ; what bookes and 
compositions he made, ibid. ; his 
Poetry, ibid. ; bisAjax, i. 152; he 
misliketh indifferently of affectate 
and antique phrases, i. 152, 153 ; 
his phrases in ordinary talke, i. 
153 ; what teachers he followed, 
i. 154; not ready in the Greeke 
language, ibid. ; a lover of fine 
wits, i. 155; his religious scrupu- 
losity, ibid. ; his respective observ- 
ance of foraine ceremonies, i. 157 ; 
his greatnes fore-told by pro- 
phesies, oracles, etc., i. 157-159; 
by Dreames and Prodigies, i. 160, 
161 ; his miracles that he wrought, 
i. 159, 160; his prescience of future 
things, i. 162 ; his death fore- 
signified, i. 163 ; his Deification 
prefigured, ibid; the sicknesse 
whereof he died, i. 164 ; his mirth 
and affability a little before death, 
ibid. ; his death, i. 166 ; his age, i. 
166, 167 ; his Deification, i. 168 ; 
his Monument, ibid. ; his last will, 
i. 1 68, 169, 190 ; his wealth and 
treasure, i. 169 ; his bounty to the 
Common-wealth, ibid. ; his opinion 
of Tiberius Caesar, i. 188, ii. 57-59. 

Augustians, ii. 119. 

Augustum saculum, i. 167. 

Aurelia, Julius Caesar's mother, i. 
15 n. 

Aureus, of what value it is, ii. 178 n. 

BABILUS, a great Astrologer, ii. 133. 

292 



Banishment voluntarie, i. 47. 

Basilides, ii. 211. 

Bathing seldome, i. 150. 

Bawderie maintained by Caligula, ii. 
37- 

Beccus, what it signifieth, ii. 202. 

Bellontz, i. 143 n. 

Berenice, ii. 229. 

Bibulus ^Edile with Julius Caesar, i. 
21 ; his prety speech touching his 
Colleague Caesar, ibid. ; Consul 
with him, i. 27 ; he stood for a 
Cypher in both offices, i. 21, 28. 

Blazing starre, what it portendeth, ii. 

133. 

Bona Dea, the Goddesse, i. 19 ., 
67 n. 

Bonet the badge of Freedome, i. 
174 n. 

Boter, Father of Claudia, ii. 83. 

Bracha, i. 73. 

Britaine attempted by Claudius Caesar, 
ii. 71. 

Britannicus the sonne of Claudius the 
Emperour, ii. 82 ; recommended to 
the Souldiours and Commons, ii. 
83 ; poisoned by Nero, ii. 128. 

Buildings stately and sumptuous Au- 
gustus Caesar careth not for, i. 143. 

Burrhus poisoned by Nero,ii. 132, 133. 

Buthysia, ii. 108. 

OENIS the Paramour and Concubine 
of Vespasian, ii. 206. 

C in Caesar, i. 163 n. 

A. Cacina raileth upon Julius Caesar, 
i. 69. 

C. Julius Caesar Dictator persecuted by 
Sulla, i. 15; obtaineth his pardon, 
i. 1 6 ; his warfare during his youth, 
i. 1 6, 17 ; suspected for wanton- 
nesse with K. Nicomedes, i. 16 ; 
taketh part with the Marians, i. 15 ; 
retired to Rhodes, i. 17 ; taken by 
Pirates, ibid. ; what Funerall Ora- 
tions he made, i. 18 ; weddeth 
Pompeia and putteth her away, 
ibid. ; an aemulus of K. Alexander 
the Great, i. 19 ; his dreame, ibid. ; 
his conspiracies for alteration of 
State, i. 20; his games exhibited, 
and workes during his 



TWELVE CAESARS 



i. 21 ; sueth for the Province of 
JEgipt, i. 22 ; chosen chiefe Priest, 
i. 23 ; favourable to Catiline and 
his complices, i. 23, 24 ; he con- 
vented Catulus and suffred a foile, 
i. 24 ; he gave over his Senatours 
Robe, i. 25 ; restored againe, ibid. ; 
detecteth Catilines conspiracie, 
ibid. ; appeached by Vettius and 
acquit, ibid. ; in danger of his credi- 
tours, i. 26 ; chosen Consul, ibid. ; 
sideth with Cn. Pompeius, i. 27 ; 
his Acts whiles he was Consul, i. 
27, 28 ; he ruleth Consul alone, i. 
28 ; his absolute rule in his Con- 
sulate, ibid. ; he weddeth Calpurnia, 
i. 29 ; he chooseth the government 
of Gaule, i. 30 ; his proud and arro- 
gant words, ibid. ; accused by An- 
tistius, i. 31 ; his Acts in Gaule, i. 
32 ; he warred upon the Britaines, 
ibid. ; his adverse fortune in warre, 
ibid. ; aspireth to the Empire of 
Rome, i. 33; his largesses, i. 33, 
34 ; his proceeding crossed by 
Claudius Marcellus, i. 35 ; the pre- 
tences and causes of his civill warre, 
i. 37 ; his first enterprise of civill 
warre, and his departure from 
Rome, i. 38 ; his exploits in the 
civill warre, i. 40 ; hee encountreth 
the forces of Pompeius, ibid. ; he 
vanquisheth Pompeius, i. 41 ; he 
warreth upon K. Ptolomeus, ibid. ; 
he subdueth Pharnaces, Scipio, 
Juba, and Pompeies children, ibid. ; 
his fortune in warres, i. 41, 42 ; his 
triumphs, i. 42 ; his liberality to his 
Souldiours and the people, i. 42, 43 ; 
his Plaies and Spectacles exhibited 
to the people, i. 43 ; how hee com- 
mended his Candidates for Offices, 
i. 45 ; the ordinances that hee made 
in his Dictatourship, i. 46, 47 ; what 
stately works and buildings hee in- 
tended, i. 48 ; his shape, feature, 
apparell, and behaviour, i. 48, 49 ; 
how he covered his bald head, i. 
49 ; his excesse in house-furniture, 
i. 50 ; his severitie in domesticall 
discipline, ibid. ; his passive in- 
continencie, i. 51, 54; his whore- 



dome and adulterie, i. 52 ; he kept 
Queene Cleopatra, i. 53 > abstinent 
of wine and nothing curious in his 
fare, i. 54 ; his extortion and sacri- 
ledge, i. 54, 55 ; his eloquence, i. 
55 ; his pronuntiation and gesture, 
i. 56 ; his orations and writings, i. 
56, 57 ; his Commentaries, ibid. ; 
his letters missive, i. 57 ; his manner 
of writing, i. 57, 58; his paines 
taking in warlike expeditions, i. 58 ; 
whether he were more warie or 
adventerous, doubtfull, ibid. ; irre- 
ligious, i. 59 ; his militare pollicie, 
i. 60 ; his resolution in Battailes, i. 
6 1 ; his martiall Discipline, i. 6l, 
62 ; his affability to his Souldiours, 
i. 63 ; his affectionate love unto 
them, ibid. ; beloved of his 
Souldiours, ibid. ; his Souldiours 
valour and fidelity to him, ibid. ; 
his severity unto mutinous Soul- 
diours, i. 65 ; taxed for his manner 
of beholding publick spectacles, i. 
121 ; his faithfull love to his de- 
pendants, i. 65 ; his respective 
kindnes to his friends, i. 66 ; soone 
reconciled, ibid. ; his clemencie to 
his enemies, in warre and after 
victory, i. 67 ; to Romaine Citizens, 
i. 68 ; his ambitious pride and 
arrogancie in deeds, i. 69 ; the 
same also in words, i. 70 ; how hee 
incurred the envie and hatred of 
the world, i. 71 ; he openly affecteth 
regal Empire, i. 72; conspiracie 
against him, i. 72, 73 ; his death 
fore-signified, i. 73-75 ; his last will 
and testament, i. 76 ; murdred in 
the Senate-house, i. 75, 76 ; his 
murderers died miserably, i. 80 ; his 
Funeralls and solemne obsequies, 
i. 77, 78 ; not willing to live, and 
why, i. 79 ; hee wished for a quick 
and unexpected death, i. 80 ; his 
age, ibid. ; his canonization after 
death, ibid. 

Csesario, Caesars supposed son by 
Cleopatra, i. 53 ; he is put to death, 
i. 94. 

L. Caesar commended by Augustus, 
i. 260. 

293 



INDEX 



HISTORIE 



THE HISTORIE OF 



INDEX L. Caesar his cankred malice against 
TO THE Julius Caesar Dictator, i. 68. 
HISTORIE Caesarea, the name of divers Cities, 

i. 132. 
Caesonia slaine with her husband 

Caligula, ii. 5 2 

Caius and Lucius adopted by Augus- 
tus Caesar, i. 134; they both die, 
i. 135, 184. 
Caius a fatall name to the Caesars, 

53- 

Caius, Nephew of Augustus ill affected 
to Tiberius Caesar, i. 181. 

Calends, i. 153 n. 

Ad Calendas Gracas, i. 153. 

Caius Caesar Caligula his birth, ii. 5 ; 
the place of his nativity, ii. 5, 6 ; 
why surnamed Caligula, ii. 7 > be- 
loved and respected of the Soldiers, 
ibid. ; his hypocrisie, ii. 8 ; his 
cruell nature, ibid. ; he plotteth for 
the Empire, ii. 9; he courteth 
Ennia wife to Macro, ibid. ; prac- 
tiseth the death of Tiberius Caesar, 
ibid. ; with what joy of people and 
forainers he entred upon the Em- 
pire, ii. 10, II ; his popularity, ii. 
H; his shew of Piety and kindnes, 
ii. II ; his semblance of restoring 
the common liberty, ii. 13, 14; 
what honours were decreed and 
done unto him, ii. 14 ; his largesse 
and bounty, ibid. ; his publick 
plaies and Spectacles exhibited, ii. 
15 ; his bridge betweene Baiae and 
Puteoli, ii. 15, 16 ; the motive of 
making it, ii. 16; works by him 
finished, ii. 17 ; his style, ibid. ; he 
usurpeth divine majestie and honor, 
ii. 1 8 ; his sacrifices, ibid. ; his 
unkindnesse to his owne bloud, ii. 
19; his incests, ii. 20; with Dru- 
silla his owne sister, ibid. ; his 
sorrow for her death, ii. 21 ; his 
manages, ii. 21, 22; he weddeth 
Caesonia, ii. 22, 30 ; his unnaturall 
cruelty to his best deserving friends, 
ii. 23 ; his bloudy and proud nature, 
ii. 24-28 ; his unplacable nature, ii. 
26 ; his jests and scoffes, ii. 29, 30; 
his envie and malice, ii. 30 ; to 
Homer, Virgil, and Livie, ibid. ; he 

294 



was envious of all good parts, ii. 31; 
his particular spite and envie to 
Colosseros, ibid. ; his uncleanenes 
and incontinencie, ii. 32 ; his cruell 
pillage, ii. 34 ; his roiot and wastfull 
expence, ii. 33 ; wrongfull proceed- 
ings, ii. 34-36; his Dice play, ii. 
37 ; his extraordinarie love to 
money, ii. 38 ; his martiall acts, 
ibid. ; his mock-warfare, ii. 39, 40 ; 
his bounty, ii. 41 ; his triumph, 
ibid. ; his hatred to the Senate, ii. 
42 ; his cruell projects, ii. 43 ; his 
stature, shape, etc. , ibid. ; his in- 
firmities of body and mind, ibid. ; 
his vices, ii. 44, 45 ; his habite and 
apparell, ii. 45, 46; his naturall 
eloquence, ii. 46; his profession 
of arts, ii. 47 ; what faction of 
Chariotiers and Sword -fencers he 
favoured, ii. 48 ; his death con- 
trived, ii. 49 ; his death foretold by 
strange signes, ii. 50, 51 ; he is 
murdred, ii. 51, 52; his corps en- 
terred, ii. 52. 

Callipides, i. 202. 

C. Calvus made libels of Caesar, i. 66. 

Calvini, ii. 98. 

A Camp maintained about Rome, i. 200. 

Capita Bubula, i. 84. 

Capitol at Capua, i. 202, ii. 50. 

Capricorne, the stamp of a Coine, 
i. 161. 

Capreae, the Hand exchanged by 
Augustus Caesar for ^Enaria, i. 156, 
I 57 5 a place wherein Tiberius 
Caesar delighted, i. 202. 

Capys founder of Capua, i. 74; his 
Sepulcher, ibid. 

Carmelus, ii. 209. 

Carnulius killeth himselfe, i. 219. 

Cassita, what bird, i. 31 n. 

Cassius Chaerea, a principall conspira- 
tour against Caligula, ii. 49. 

Cassius Longinus, Proconsul, killed 
by Caligula, ii. 50. 

Cassius Longinus a Lawier killed by 
Nero, ii. 134. 

Cassius or Casca, a conspiratour of 
Julius Caesars death, i. 75 n. 

Cassius Patavinus gently chasticed by 
Augustus, i. 126. 



TWELVE CAESARS 



Castra scelerata^ ii. 55. 

Catta and Catti, ii. 198. 

Valerius Catullus his Epigrams of 

Caesar, i. 66. 
Q. Catulus his dreame of Augustus 

Caesar, i. 160. 
Causarii, ii. 204 n. 
Cautelous and cunning casts punished 

by Tiberius Caesar, i. 199, 200, 
Cercopithecus, ii. 124. 
Centumviral causes, ii. 215. 
Charicles the Physician, i. 227. 
Chariotiers and their factions, ii. 102 ; 

restrained, ii. HI. 
Christians nicknamed Christians, ii. 

Son. 
Christians persecuted and put to death 

under Nero, ii. in. 
Choregus, i. 140. 
Cimber Tullius a conspiratour against 

Julius Caesar, i. 75. 
Helvius Cinna killed in steed of Corn. 

Cinna, i. 79. 
M. Cicero his dreame of young 

Octavius afterwards Augustus, i. 

160. 

City, what it signifieth, ii. 7 2 n - 
Civil, how to be understood, i. 195 n. 
Claudian family both Patritian and 

Plebeian, i. 170; the beginning of 

the Claudian family at Rome, ibid. 
Claudius Caudex, i. 171. 
Claudius Drusus, i. 171. 
Claudius Pulcher, i. 171. 
Claudiae noble women and their 

sundry examples, i. 171, 172. 
Claudii opposite to the commons, i. 

172. 
Sext. Claudius an old Fornicatour, i. 

204. 

Claudia water, ii. 73- 
Claudia espoused to Augustus Caesar, 

i- 133- 

Claudia daughter of Claudius the 
Emperour, ii. 83. 

Claudius the Emperour his birth, ii. 
56 ; his youth, ibid. ; his study in 
liberall Sciences, ii. 57 ; reputed no 
better than a foole, ibid. ; his slug- 
gardie, folly, drunkennesse, and 
gaming, ii. 60; honoured by all 
estates, ibid. ; of base reckoning, 



ii. 61 ; his troubles, ii. 61, 62 ; how 
he attained to the Empire, ii. 62, 
63 ; he executeth certaine conspira- 
tours, ii. 64 ; his piety and kindnes, 
ibid. ; his modest cariage, ii. 65; 
his popularitie, ii. 65, 66 ; in danger 
of Treasons, ii. 66 ; his Consulates, 
ibid. ; his jurisdiction, ii. 67 ; his 
variant conditions, ibid. ; his wise 
judgement, ii. 67, 68 ; his con- 
temptible demeanour, ii. 68 ; his 
censureship, ii. 69, 70 ; his warlike 
expedition, ii. 71 ; his triumph, 
ibid. ; his care over the City of 
Rome, ii. 72 ; the workes and 
buildings that hee made, ii. 73, 74 ; 
his munificence, ii. 74, 75 ; his bald 
jests, ii. 75, 76 ; his navall fight, ii. 
76 ; his religious ceremonies, ii. 77 ; 
his managing of civill affaires, ii. 77, 
78 ; his exploiting of martiall feates, 
ii. 79 ; his ordinances in sundry 
kinds, ii. 79-81 ; ruled by his wives 
and freed-men, ii. 81 ; his wives, 
ii. 81, 82 ; his divorcements, ibid. ; 
his children, ii. 82 ; his cruelty and 
injustice, ii. 84, 85 ; his person and 
feature, ii. 85 ; his health, ii. 86 ; 
his manner of feasting, ibid. ; how 
hee used a filching guest at his 
bord, ibid. ; his appetite to meate, 
ibid. ; his wantonnesse, ii. 87 ; 
his dice-play, ibid. ; his bloudy 
nature, ibid. ; his timorous diffi- 
dence, ii. 88 ; his anger and malice, 
ii. 90, 91 ; his foolishnesse, ii. 91 ; 
his oblivion and inconsiderate blind - 
nesse, ii. 91, 92 ; his unadvised 
words, ii. 92, 93 ; he compiled an 
history, ii. 93, 94 ; his other bookes, 
ii. 94; he studied Greeke, ii. 94, 
95 ; hee repenteth his mariage with 
Agrippina, ii. 95 ; he maketh much 
of Britannicus his sonne, ibid. ; his 
death, ii. 96 ; murdred with the 
privity of Nero, ii. 127 ; canonized 
a God, ii. 96. 

Clemens rebelleth against Tiberius, i. 
192. 

Cleopatra poisoneth her selfe, i. 94. 

P. Clodius suspected for incontinencie 
with Pompeia, Julius Caesars wife, 

295 



INDEX 

TO THE 

HISTORIE 



THE HISTORIE OF 



INDEX i. 18, 19, 67; adopted into the 

TO THE Rank of Commanders, i. 172. 

HISTORIE A Comet why so called, ii. 223. 

Commotions prevented by Tiberius 
Caesar, i. 200 ; commotioners pun- 
ished by him, ibid. 

Comsedie the olde allowed by Augus- 
tus, i. 154. 

Compitalitii plaies, i. 107. 

Concords temple, i. 188. 

Congiaries given by Augustus Caesar, 
i. 117. 

Consuls when they entred into their 
office, i. 15. 

Conventus, what they be, i. 19 n. 

Corne distributed by Augustus, i. 117. 

Cornelia Law, i. 45 ., 109. 

Crassus Frugi, ii. 71. 

Columbus, a Mirmillon Fencer, ii. 48. 

Covetousnes and Avarice how they 
differ, ii. 244 n. 

A Crow prophesieth, ii. 258. 

Crucifying, i. 67. 

Curia, i. 135. _ 

Curiata leges, i. 135 n. 

Curtius lake, i. 130. 

Cutiliae waters, ii. 224 . 

DATES observed by Augustus, i. 157. 

Date tree, i. 161. 

Datus a Comsedian Actor, ii. 137. 

Decemvirs, i. 112. 

Decocted water of Nero, ii. 147. 

Decurions, i. 167. 

Delicia Romanis, i. 150 . 

Demetrius a Cynick Philosopher, ii. 

216. 

Dictare, i. 70 n. 
Diogenes the Grammarian, how hee 

was requited by Tiberius Caesar, i. 

197. 

Dis, why so called, ii. 181 n. 
Divus, what it is, ii. 258 n. 
Dodccatheos a supper of Augustus 

Caesar, i. 140. 
Dominus a title and terme rejected 

by Augustus, i. 127. 
L. Domitius, the Stock-father of the 

^Enobarbi, ii. 98. 
Cn. Domitius, ii. 99. 
Domitius the Grand-father of Nero, 

ii. 101 ; his acts, ibid. 

296 



Domitius the Father of Nero, ii. 101 ; 
his pranks, ii. 101, 102. 

Domitian the Emperours birth, ii. 
235 ; his poverty in his youth, 
ibid. ; noted for unnaturall impurity, 
ibid. ; saluted Caesar, ii. 236 ; his 
wilde and unruly pranks, ibid. ; his 
ambition, ibid. ; his study in 
Poetry, ii. 237 ; most unkind to 
his brother, ibid. ; putteth away 
his wife Domitia, ii. 237, 238 ; his 
covetise and cruelty, ii. 238 ; his 
publick Shewes, ii. 238, 239; his 
Games, ii. 239 ; his buildings, ii. 
240 ; his warlike expeditions, ibid. ; 
his triumph, ibid. ; his manner of 
feasting and house-keeping, ii. 241 ; 
he added ij factions of Charioters, 
ibid. ; a precise Justicer, ii. 242 ; 
he reformeth abuses in Judicial! 
Courts, ibid. ; his severe reforma- 
tion of all Enormities, ii. 242, 243 ; 
his hypocriticall religion, ii. 243 ; 
his bountifull mind, ii. 244 ; his 
false semblance of Clemencie and 
pity, ibid. ; his barbarous cruelty, 
ii. 245, 246 ; in his cruelty, subtill 
and crafty, ii. 247 ; his rapines and 
wrongs, ii. 248 ; his insolencie and 
Arrogancy, ii. 249; his 17 Consul- 
ships, ii. 250 ; he foreknew the 
houre of his owne death, ibid. 
his death wrought by his neerest 
favorites, and wife, ibid. ; suspi- 
tious and fearefull of death, ibid. 
his destruction foretold by many 
prodigies, ii. 252 ; his Apo- 
phthegmes and notable sentences, 
ii. 256, 257 ; murdred in his bed- 
chamber, ii. 254; his recreations, 
ii. 257 ; his Stature and counten- 
ance, ii. 255 ; his effeminate wan- 
tonnesse, ii. 257 ; impatient of all 
labour, ii. 256 ; an excellent archer, 
ibid. ; murderers of him executed, 
ii. 258. 

Domitia, wife of Domitian falleth in 
fancy with Paris the player, ii. 237, 
238. 

Doves, i. 161. 

Druidae and their Religion, ii. 
81. 



TWELVE CAESARS 



Drusilla sister of Caligula, ii. 20 ; 

honored as goddesse, ii. 21 n. 
Drusus sonne of Tiberius Caesar, i. 

211 ; his vices and death, i. 211, 

220. 
Drusus a name, from whence it 

commeth, i. 173. 
Dec. Drusus Nero, father to Claudius 

Csesar, ii. 54 ; begotten in adultery, 

ibid. ; his acts, ii. 54, 55 ; his 

death and honours after death, ii. 

55 ; his yssew, ii. 56. 
Drtisina fossa, ii. 54. 
Drusus sonne of Claudius Csesar 

choaked with a peare, ii. 83. 
Ducenaries, ii. 78. 
A dwerfe, i. 119. 

Dwerfes rejected by Augustus, i. 150. 
Dyrrhachium strongly beleaguered by 

Augustus Csesar, i. 64. 

ELEPHANTS walking upon Ropes, ii. 

159; 

Eleusine Sacred Ceremonies, ii. 8l. 

Ellebor, ii. 44 n. 

Emblema, i. 226. 

Epaphroditus, Neroes secretary put 

to death by Domitian, ii. 251. 
Epicadus, his conspiracie against 

Augustus,^. 95. 
Equestria, ii. 24. 
Ergastula, i. 177 n. 
Esius Proculus called Colosseros, ii. 3 1 . 
EiHppavia and Ev0pa5?7S, i. 43 n. 
Euthanasia, i. 166. 
Excesse in house furniture restrained, 

i. 198. 
Excesse in fare of the table restrained, 

i. no, 198, ii. in. See more in 

Sumptuaria. 

Exploratoria Coronets, ii. 40. 
Extortion of the Pollentians punished 

by Tiberius Csesar, i. 200, 201. 

FALL of an Amphitheatre at Fidense, 

i. 202, 203. 

Faustushis treacherous rebellion, i. 68. 
Felix a freed man of Claudius the 

Emperour, ii. 83. 
Fercula, what they be, i. 144 n. 
Fist-fight Augustus Csesar delighted 

to see, i. 122. 

2 : PP 



Flaminship of Jupiter, i. 107. 
Flavii, ii. 203. 

T. Flavius Petronianus, ii. 203. 
Flavius Sabinus a faithfull Publicane, 

ii. 203, 204. 
Flavius Sabinus put to death by 

Domitian, ii. 246. 
Flavius Clemens killed by Domitian, 

ii. 251, 252. 
Flavian Family, noble and auncient, 

ii. 204, 205. 

Flora and Floralia, ii. 159. 
Forgery of writings provided against, 

ii. in. 
Freedome of Rome City, sparily 

granted, i. 115. 
Friendship, how Augustus Csesar 

intertained, i. 136. 
Frogs silent, i. 159. 
Fucinus the Meere drawen dry, ii. 73. 
Fustuarium, i. 217 n. 

GABINIUS surnamed Caucius, ii. 79. 
Galba the surname of the Servilii, ii. 

JSS- 

Galba with Spaine revolteth, ii. 140. 

Galba enriched by Livia Augustass 
will, ii. 158 ; his offices of State, ii. 
159; his martiall Discipline, ibid. ; 
his Proesse, ii. 160; highly 
esteemed of Claudius the Emperour, 
ibid. ; his civill Jurisdiction, ii. 
160, 161 ; his Honours, ii. 161 ; his 
Empire fore signified, ii. 157, 161, 
162, 163 ; his extreme severity, ii. 
162 ; his semblance of Surquedrie, 
ii. 162 ; saluted Emperour, ii. 163 ; 
in danger to be killed, ii. 1 64 ; taketh 
uppon him the name of Caesar, ibid. ; 
ill spoken of for covetousnesse and 
crueltie, ii. 165 ; his Niggard ise, ii. 
165, 166 ; his noble pedigree, ii. 155 ; 
his death foreshewed, ii. 169, 170 ; 
slaine, ii. 171 ; enterred, ii. 172 ; 
his stature and personage, ibid. ; 
his uncleane life, ii. 173 ; his 3 
psedagogues, ii. 166, 167 ; his 
variable cariage, ii. 167 ; his cor- 
rupt government, ii. 168 ; incurreth 
the hatred of soldiers especially, 
ibid. ; forsaken first of the Germani- 
cian forces, ibid. 

297 



INDEX 

TO THE 

HISTORIE 



THE HISTORIE OF 



INDEX Galbanum what gumme, ii. 155 n. 
TO THE Galbei what they be, ii. 155 n. 
HISTORIE Galeria, wife of A. Vitellius the Em- 
perour, ii. 191. 

Galerita, what bird, i. 31 n. 

Ad Gallinas, a place, ii. 154. 

Gallograecia, ii. 27. 

Q. Gallius the Prsetour, tyrannously 
killed by Augustus Caesar, i. 102, 103. 

Gallius Terrinius mindeth to famish 
him selfe, i. 128. 

Corn. Gallus shortneth his owne life, 
i. 137; his death lamented by 
Augustus Caesar, ibid. 

Games and Shewes exhibited by 
Augustus Csesar, i. 118. 

In (Games and Shewes what orders 
Augustus Caesar put downe, i. 120, 
121. 

Gemini fratreS) who they be, i. 21 n. 

Genii, ii. 25 n. 

Gentlemen Romane surveied by 
Augustus, i. 113, 114; their 
solemne riding, i. 114; their estate 
and worth, i. 115 n. 

Germane Ambassaders well respected, 
ii. 80, 81. 

Germanician soldiers refuse Tiberius 
Caesar for their Emperour, i. 192. 

Germanicus Caesar the adopted sonne 
of Tiberius Caesar, ii. 211; dis- 
graced by him, ibid. ; murdred by 
Piso, ibid. ; his offices and Acts, ii. 
I ; his death, ibid. ; his commend- 
able parts, ii. 2 ; how much be- 
loved, ii. 3, 4, 60 ; what ensued 
upon his death, ii. 4, 5 ; his 
mariage and yssew, ii. 5. 

Gestures in worshipping the Gods, ii. 
188. 

Guelding of males prohibited by 
Domitian, ii. 241. 

HALOTUS a bloud-hound of Nero, 

ii. 1 68 ; odious to the people, ibid. 
Harpocras, a freedman of Claudius, 

ii. 83, 84. 

Hasta pura, ii. 83 n. 
Q. Haterius, i. 194 n. 
Helvidius Priscus over malapert with 

Vespasian the Emperour, ii. 217, 

218. 

298 



Helvidius Priscus, another Cato, ii. 

246 n. 
Helvidius the sonne put to death by 

Domitian the Emperour, ii. 246. 
Hirtius Consul, with his Colleague 

Pansa slaine, i. 88. 
Historiographers countenanced by 

Caius Caligula, ii. 13. 
Honorarie Games, i. 109. 
Hoplomachus, ii. 31 n. 
Horoscope of Augustus his Nativitie, 

i. 161. 

Horse of Julius Caesar, i. 60. 
Hostages of women, i. 97. 
Hyeme^ i. 59 n. 
Hylas a Pantomime whipped, i. 122. 

JANICULUM what Hill, ii. 186 n. 
Janus Quirinus Temple shut by 

Augustus, i. 97. 
Jewish Religion censured by Tiberius 

Caesar, i. 200. 

Jewes by him banished, i. 200. 
Jewes banished out of Rome, ii. 80. 
Jewes affected Julius Caesar, i. 78 n. 
Jewes plagued by Domitian in their 

paiments, ii. 248. 

Iliensians eased of Tribute and en- 
dewed with immunities, ii. 80. 
Iliensian Embassadors skoffed at by 

Tiberius Caesar, i. 211. 
Images and Statues how they differ, 

ii. 179 n. 

Incendium a Comaedie, ii. 107. 
Incitatus, the name of an horse, ii. 

48. 

Inferum mare what sea, i. 124. 
Ira and Iracundia, how they differ, 

ii. 90 n. 
Isauricus, the surname of Servilius, 

whereupon, i. 16 n. 
Isidorus the Cynicke Philosopher, ii. 

137. 
Isthmus attempted by Caligula, ii. 1 7; 

by Nero, ii. 112. 
Italian Regions, i. 123. 
Itius a Dwerfe, i. 119. 
Italic peopled and adorned by 

Augustus Caesar, i. 123. 
Julia daughter of Caesar Dictator, 

wedded to Pompeius Magnus, i. 

29. 



TWELVE CAESARS 



Julia daughter of Augustus Qesar 
wedded to Marcellus and Agrippa, 

i- 133. 
Julia daughter of Augustus banished 

and confined, i. 135, 136. 
Julia wife of Tiberius Caesar convict 

of Adultery, i. 180. 
Julise daughter and Neice of Augustus 

dishonour him, i. 135. 
Juliae killed by Claudius, ii. 84. 
Julius the haven, i. 91. 
Junia Drusilla daughter of Caligula 

by Caesonia, ii. 22. 
Junius Rusticus put to death by 

Domitian, ii. 246. 
Jupiter the Thunderers Temple, i. 

105. 

Jupiter Tragsedus, i. 130. 
Jupiter Olympicus, i. 132, ii. 18. 
Jupiter the Thunderer, i. 156. 
Jupiter Gustos, ii. 240. 
Juvenal pastimes, ii. 106. 

KALENDAR reformed by Julius Csesar, 

i. 44. 

King of Kings, ii. 4. 
Kisses forbidden, i. 198. 

LAMBRANES, a people why so called, 

i. 21 n. 

Laurel checketh lightning, i. 225. 
Lawes precisely observed by Tiberius 

Caesar, i. 197, 198. 
Law-steed what it is, ii. 4 n. 
Cn. Lentulus forced to die by 

Tiberius Csesar, i. 208. 
Lepida, wife to Galba, ii. 158. 
Letters new in the Alphabet devised 

by Claudius, ii. 94. 
Libels and Libellers not regarded by 

Augustus, i. 128, 129. 
Libels against Nero, ii. 136, 137. 
Libertines, ii. 78 ; chasticed by 

Claudius the Emperour, ii. 79. 
Libitina the Goddesse and her 

Temple, ii. 136. 
Libraries maintained by Domitian, ii. 

256. 
Licinius Mutianus governour of Syria, 

favoureth Vespasian, ii. 211. 
Licinius Mutianus, a Catamite noted 

by Vespasian, ii. 216. 



Livia Drusilla wife of Tiberius Nero, 

wedded to Augustus Csesar, i. 133 ; 

her experiment when shee went with 

child, j. 183. 
Livia Orestil^a kept as a paramour by 

Caius Caligula, ii. 21. 
Livia Ocellina, wife to Galba the 

Emperours father, ii. 156. 
Livilla for Livia, ii. 9 n. 
Livius Salinator, i. 173. 
Livius Drusus, i. 173. 
Locusta professeth poysoning, ii. 127, 

128. 
Lollia Paulina, wedded to Caius 

Caligula, ii. 22. 
Lone-mony dealt out by Augustus 

Caesar, i. 116. 
Lord. See Dominus. 
Lucius a fore-name, rejected by the 

Claudian Family, i. 170. 
Lucus, i, 170 n. 
Lupercal instituted by Augustus, i. 

107. 

Ltistrum, i. 163. 
Lycians diffranchised, ii. 80. 

MACTE^E, ii. 34 n. 

Maecenas reproved for affectation of 
new phrases and words, i. 152 ; for 
want of Secrecie and Taciturnity, 

i. 137. 

Mago and Annibal, ii. 246. 
Male opinari, what it is, i. 126 n. 
Mallia, i. 140. 
Mallonia filthily abused by Tiberius 

Caesar, i. 206 ; her death, ibid. 
Mahim, ii. 139 n. 
Mans ordinary stature and weight, i. 

119 n. 

Mariage betweene Gentry and com- 
mons, i. no. 

Mariage urged and rewarded, i. no. 
Mariage betweene cousin Germans 

allowed by Claudius, ii. 82. 
Mars the Revenger his Temple built 

by Augustus Caesar, i. 104 ; the use 

thereof, ibid. 

Masgabas and his tombe, i. 165. 
Masintha reskued out of trouble by 

Juli. Caesar, i. 65, 66. 
Massilia standeth out against Jul. 

Csesar, i. 40. 

299 



INDEX 

TO THE 

HISTORIE 



THE HISTORIE OF 



INDEX Masters misusage of their servants, 
TO THE ii. 80. 
HISTORIE Matian appuls, ii. 257. 

Mausoleum of Augustus, i. 169. 
Maxima and Maximilla, ii. 243. 
Maximi Ludi, what Plaies, ii. 106. 
Medioxumi, ii. 25. 
C. Memmius his invectives against 

Julius Caesar, i. 66 ; freinded by 

him, ibid. 
Menecrates the harper advanced by 

Nero, ii. 123, 124. 
Messallina the Empresse wedded to 

C. Silius, ii. 82, 
Messallina the Empresse by com- 

mandement of her husband 

Claudius killed, ii. 82. 
Metius Pomposianus, ii. 217 ; put to 

death by Domitian, ii. 245. 
Minervaes Targuet, ii. 196. 
Mirmillones what Fencers, ii. 28 ., 

48 n. ; how armed, ii. 231 n. 
Mnester a Pantomime, ii. 32 ; fav- 
oured by Caligula, ii. 47, 48. 
Modius, what mesure, ii. 160 n. 
Monomachi, ii. 28 n. 
Monopolium, i. 226. 
More maiorum what it is, i. 199 n. ; 

what punishment is ment thereby, 

ii. 247 n. 

A Mule foaleth, ii. 157. 
Mummia Achaica, wife of Galba the 

Emperours Father, ii. 156. 
Musicke games of prise instituted by 

Nero at Olympia, ii. 117. 

NARCISSUS a favorite and Minion 
of Claudius the Emperour, ii. 84. 

Naumachia, what place, ii. 121 n. 

Naumachie, or Navall battailes ex- 
hibited by Augustus Caesar, i. 118 ; 
exhibited by Julius Caesar, i. 44. 

Nemorensis Rex, ii. 31. 

Nepos, surnamed of Caecilius Me- 
tellus, i. 24 n. 

Nero, what it signifieth, i. 170. 

Nero the Emperour his birth, ii. 1 02 ; 
in daunger to be murdred, ii. 103 ; 
his acts in his childhood, ibid. ; he 
entreth upon the Empire, ii. 105 ; 
his shew of Piety and kindhesse, 
ibid. ; his semblance of Bounty, 

300 



Clemencie, Courtesie and Human- 
ity, ibid. ; his showes exhibited, ii. 
106, 107 ; he shutteth the Temple 
of Janus, ii. 109 ; his manner of 
Jurisdiction, ibid. ; his order in 
conferring dignities, ii. no; his 
buildings, ibid. ; his martiall ex- 
ploits, ii. 112; his extraordinary 
love to Musicke, ii. 114, 115 ; is 
excused, ii. 138 ; given much to 
horsemanship and charioting, ii. 
115, 116, 119; strived for the 
Criers Coronet, ii. 118; he 
tryumpheth for victorie in games 
of prise, ii. 119; his unruly wild- 
nesse, ii. 120 ; his shrewd prankes, 
ii. 1 20, 121 ; his riotousnesse, ii. 
121 ; his loose life and filthinesse, 
ii. 121-123; ne wedded Sporus, ii. 
123 ; his lavish expense, ibid. ; his 
golden house, ii. 124 ; his out- 
rageous and enormious workes, ii. 
125 ; his pilling and oppression of 
the people, ii. 126, 127 ; his sacri- 
ledge, ii. 127 ; his bloudy murdres 
and paricides, ii. 127, 128; his 
unnaturall cruelty to his own 
mother, ii. 128-130; he is stung 
with the worme of conscience, ii. 
130 ; forsaken of the French, ii. 
138; deluded by the Oracle at 
Delphi, ibid. ; his carelesnesse of 
the State, ii. 140 ; his bloudy 
designments, ii. 141 ; his warlike 
voiage, ii. 141, 142; his exactions, 
ii. 142 ; forewarned of his death, ii. 
143 ; his fearefull dreames, ii. 143, 
144; his desperate case, ii. 145, 
146 ; he flyeth from Rome, ii. 146 ; 
his death, ii. 148, 152 ; his funerals, 
ii. 149; his Stature, Feature, Shape, 
etc., ii. 149, 150; his Attire, ii. 150; 
given naturally to Poetry, ibid. ; he 
delighted in painting, ii. 151 ; he 
was Popular, ibid. ; irreligious, ii. 
152 ; he murdreth his Ant 
Domitia, ii, 131 ; his wives, ii. 
131, 132 ; he slew Atticus Ves- 
tinus, ii. 131 ; he killeth Poppsea, 
ii. 132 ; his cruelty to his kinsfolke 
and Affinity, ii. 132 ; he poysoneth 
his freedmen, ii. 133 ; intendeth a 



TWELVE CAESARS 



massacre of the Nobility, ibid. ; his 

cruelty to all in general, ii. 134; 

malitiously bent to the Senate, ii. 

135 ; he setteth Rome on fire, ibid. 
Neronia, what Games, ii. 108. 
Neroneus Neropolis, ii. 152. 
New yeeres gifts restrained, i. 198. 
Nicopolis, built by Augustus Caesar, 

i. 95- 
P. Nigidius a great Astrologer, i. 

159. 

Niobe, ii. 115. 

Niobe and other parts acted by Nero 
upon the stage, ii. 115. 

Nollem factiw, i. 67 n. 

Nomenclators, i. 95. 

Nonas, i. 157. 

Nonse ominous dayes, i. 157. 

C. Nonius Asprenas honoured with a 
colar of gold, i. 119; called there- 
upon Torquatus, ibid. 

Novatus slightly chasticed by 
Augustus Caesar, i. 126. 

Numerius Atticus, i. 167 n. 

Nundinae, i. 157. 

Nundinae, ominous dayes, i. 157. 

OBNUNTIARE, what it is, i. 28 n. 
Ocellatae, vestal votaries and sisters, 

put to death for Incest, ii. 243. 
Octavia wife of Nero, ii. 131 ; put 

away, ibid. ; murdred by Nero, 

ibid. 
Octavii whence they are descended, 

i. 81. 
Octavius the father of Augustus, i. 

82 ; his acts, i. 83, 85 ; his 

dreames, i. 158, 159. 
An office, a Voluptatibus^ i. 204. 
Oppius kindly intreated by Julius 

Caesar, i. 66. 
Origines of Cato, i. 152. 
Orthographic of Augustus Caesar, i. 

153, 154- 

Otho the Emperour his progenitors, 
ii. 174. 

L. Otho father of the Emperour, ii. 
174; his praise, ii. 175. 

Otho the Emperour his birth, ii. 
175 ; the wild prankes of his 
youth, ibid. ; put in hope of the 
Empire by Seleucus, ii. 177 ; his 



popularitie, ibid. ; farre in debt, ii. INDEX 
J 77> 178 ; conspireth against Galba, TO THE 
ii. 178; saluted Emperour, ii. 179; HISTORIE 
accepteth the surname Nero, ibid. ; 
murdereth Galba and Piso, ibid. ; 
haunted with the ghost of Galba, 
ii. 1 80; faithfully beloved of his' 
Praetorian soldiers, ibid. ; his death 
foretokened, ii. 181 ; he is defaited, 
ii. 182; minded to kill himselfe, 
ibid. ; he intended to wed Messal- 
lina Neroes widdow, ii. 183 ; de- 
tested civill warre, ibid. ; killed 
himselfe, ii. 184 ; his stature, pro- 
portion and habit, ibid. ; beloved 
of his soldiers, ii. 184, 185. 

PACONIUS put to death by Tiberius 

Caesar, i. 219, 220. 
Psederastie condemned, ii. 243 n. 
Paedia Law, ii. 100. 
Psetus Thraseas, killed by Nero, ii. 

134- 

Paidica Gracis, i. 150 n. 
Palilia, ii. 14. 

Pallas, a freed man of Claudius, ii. 84. 
Pansa Consull with Hirtius his Col- 

legue slaine, i. 88. 
Pantomime, i. 122 ., ii. 32. 
Paris the actour envied by Nero, ii. 

IS 1 - 

Parricidium, what day, i. 80. 

Parthian hostages respectively honored 
by Augustus Caesar, i. 119. 

Pater patrice, a title conferred upon 
Augustus Caesar, i. 131. 

Patrcs faniilias, i. 132 n. 

Peace maintained by Tiberius Caesar, 
i. 200. 

Peculium, i. 184. 

Peere at Ostia, ii. 73. 

Peristylium, i. 105 n. 

Petoritum, i. 58 n. 

Pestilence in Rome, ii. 136, 231. 

Petreius his Treacherie, i. 68. 

Petronia wife of A. Vitellius the Em- 
perour, ii. 190. 

Phagita pardoned by Julius Caesar, 
i. 67. 

Pharnaces K. of Pontus subdued by 
Jul. Caesar Dictatour, i. 41. 

Phengites a stone, ii. 251. 

301 



THE HISTORIE OF 



INDEX Philemon a traytor to Juli. Csesar, 
TO THE i. 67. 

HISTORIE Phoebe hangeth her selfe, i. 135. 
Phonascus, i. 151. 
Cn. Piso worketh the death of Ger- 

manicus Csesar, ii. 2. 
Piso adopted by Galba, ii. 169, 
177. 

Piso slaine by the Spaniards, i. 21 n. 

Piso his conspiracie, ii. 133. 

Pitholaus his railing verses against 
Caesar, i. 69. 

Players upon the stage restrained by 
Domitian, ii. 241. 

Plaudite, i. 166. 

A. Plautius abused and killed by 
Nero, ii. 132. 

Pluto, why so called, ii. 181 n. 

Polybius a favorite of Claudius, ii. 84. 

Poligamie, i. 54 . 

Pomgranate a place, ii. 235. 

Pomp of funeralls, i. 77 n. 

Pompeius Magnus sonne in law of 
Claudius, ii. 83 ; murdred, ii. 84, 
85. 

Poppsea Sabina common to Nero and 
Otho, ii. 176. 

Posides an Eunuch and freed man of 
Claudius, ii. 83. 

Post-curriers ordained by Augustus 
Caesar, i. 125. 

Postumus who it is, i. 77 n ' 

Prodigies portending Galbses destruc- 
tion, ii. 169. 

Promoters or informers plagued by 
Titus the Emperour, ii. 232 ; 
punished by Domitian, ii. 244. 

Proscription in time of the Trium- 
virate rigorously executed by Augus- 
tus Csesar, i. 101, 102. 

Psylli, i. 94. 

Ptolomseus Auletes, i. 22 n. 

Ptierperuim what it signifieth, ii. 6. 

Pulvinar, i. 121 ; ii. 58, 249 n. 

Pylades the player banished, i. 122. 

Pyrallis a Courtesan, paramour of 
Caligula, ii. 32. 

Pyrrhich daunce, i. 43. 

QUINDECEMVIRS, ii. l6l. 
Quiritcs, i. 65. 
Quinquatria, ii. 129. 



RABIRIUS POSTUMUS, ii. 70. 

RegavioluS) i. 74 n. 

Religions foraine prohibited by 

Tiberius Csesar, i. 200. 
Retiarii, what they were, ii. 28 . 
Rhinoceros shewed in Rome, i. 119. 
Rhodians restored to their freedome, 

ii. 80. 

Roiall spoiles, ii. 55. 
Romane names not to be used by 

Aliens, ii. 80. 
Romane yeeres when they began, and 

how reckoned, i. 15 n. 
Roscia law, i. 115. 
Rufinus Crispinus murdered by Nero, 

ii. 132. 

SALARIA VIA, ii. 216. 
Salii priests of Mars, ii. 86. 
Salvidienus Orcitus put to death by 

Nero, ii. 134. 

Salvius Liberalis a Lawier, ii. 216. 
Salvius Coccejanus put to death by 

Domitian, ii. 245. 
Salustius Lucullus put to death by 

Domitian, ii. 246. 
Scseva his valour, i. 64. 
Scribonia divorced from Augustus, i. 

133- . 

Scribonius an Astrologer, i. 183. 

Scribonius Libo conspireth against 
Tiberius Caesar, i. 192. 

Scale or signet of Augustus Caesar, i. 
125. 

Secular plaies, i. 107, ii. 74, 189. 

Secutores, what fencers, ii. 28 n. 

ALL Sejanus put to death by Tiberius 
Csesar, i. 214, 218 ; his death plot- 
ted by him, i. 222. 

Seleucus the Astrologer, ii. 177. 

Seleucus the Grammarian put to death 
by Tiberius Csesar, i. 214. 

Sempronia Law, i. 31 n. 

Senatours number restrained, i. in. 

Senatours sonnes honoured by Au- 
gustus Csesar, i. 113. 

Senatours estate augmented by Au- 
gustus Csesar, i. 116. 

Seneca taxed by Caligula, ii. 46. 

Seneca schoolemaister to Nero, ii. 
132 ; done to death by him, ibid. 

Septimontiall sacrifice, ii. 239. 



TWELVE C^SARS 



A Serpent Dragon, i. 227. 

A Serpent 50 cubits long, i. I2O. 

SesUrtmm in the Neuter Gendre, ii. 

124 n. 

Sextants, i. 146. 
Sextarius, i. 146 n. 
Sextilis the moneth named Augustus, 

i. 107. 

Signes observed by Augustus, i. 156. 
Silanus put to death by Claudius, ii. 

90. 

Sociale Bellum, i. 98 n. 
Soldierie well rewarded by Augustus, 

i. 124, 125. 

Spharesterium, ii. 221. 
Spelunca what place, i. 202. 
Spicillus the Fencer, ii. 123, 124. 
Spcerus a great scholer, i. 154. 
SpintricB, i. 204, ii. 189 ; expelled by 

Caligula, ii. 13. 
Sporfula, ii. 75. 

Spurina a famous Soothsayer, ii. 74. 
Stage players and Swordfensers ex- 
penses cut short, i. 198. 
Statues of silver refused by Augustus, 

i. 127, 128. 

Stephanio an Actour banished, i. 122. 
Strange thinges exhibited by Augustus 

Caesar to be scene, i. 119, 120. 
Subdival, i. 105 n. 
Suburra, i. 49. 
Suggestum comce, ii. 150 n. 
Suing indirectly for Offices reformed, 

i. 115. 
Sulla the Dictatour his speech of 

Julius Caesar, i. 15, 16. 
Sumptuaria lex, i. 47, no. 
Supcrum mare, i. 124 n. 
Supra-numerum, ii. 79. 
Syracusae, i. 143. 

TALENT of Silver, i. 55 n. 

Tedius Afer driven by Augustus 

Caesar to kill himselfe, i. 102. 
Temples refused by Augustus Caesar, 

i. 126. 
Tenants how they dwelt in Rome, ii. 

191 n. 

Terentilla, i. 140. 
Tertulla, etc., i. 140. 
Tetrinius, ii. 28. 
Texy60voi', i. 143 n. 



Thalamegos an ^Egyptian Galley or 
Barge, i. 53. 

Theatralis law, i. 115. 

Theodorus Gadareus his saying of 
Tiberius Caesar, i. 214, 215. 

Thessalian Vawlters, ii. 75. 

Tholi) i. 140 n. 

Thraces what Fencers, ii. 28 ., 48. 

Threces. See Thraces. 

Thrasyllus the Astrologer, i. 184, ii. 16. 

Thunder and lightning, Augustus 
feared, i. 155. 

Tiberius Caesar his descent and pedi- 
gree, i. 172, 173; his Fathers 
constancie, i. 173, 174; Tiberius 
Father, yeelded his wife Livia 
Drusilla to Augustus, i. 1 74 ; 
Tiberius Caesar his birth, i. 174, 
175 J his infancie and childhood, i. 
175 ; adopted by Gallius, ibid. ; 
his youth, i. 176; he weddeth 
Agrippina, ibid. ; he divorceth her, 
ibid. ; he weddeth Julia, ibid. ; 
forsaketh her, i. 177 j his civill 
employments, ibid. ; his martiall 
exploits, i. 178; his Ovation and 
Triumph, ibid. ; his Magistracies, 
ibid. ; his purpose to forsake Rome, 
and retire himselfe, ibid. ; his de- 
parture from Rome to Rhodes, i. 
179; his behaviour at Rhodes, i. 
180; his suite to returne, i. 181 ; 
his dangers at Rhodes, ibid. ; his 
returne, i. 183 ; his hopes of the 
Empire, ibid. ; adopted by Augus- 
tus, i. 184 ; his promotions, i. 184, 
185 ; his hard warfare in Illyricum, 
i. 185 ; his prosperous successe, 
ibid. ; his Honours, ibid. ; his cir- 
cumspect providence in warre- 
affaires, i. 186, 187; his martiall 
Discipline,!. 187; his superstitious 
observations, ibid. ; like to have 
beene murdred, ibid.; his Triumph, 
ibid. ; his thankfull munificence to 
Baton, ibid. ; he feasteth the people 
of Rome, i. 188 ; he entreth upon 
the Empire, i. 191 ; his manner of 
refusing the Empire, controlled, 
ibid. ; he distrusteth Libo, i. 192, 
193; his civill cariage at his first 
entrance, i. 193 ; he hated flatterie, 

303 



INDEX 

TO THE 

HISTORIE 



THE HISTORIE OF 



INDEX i. 194; he contemneth Libels, etc., 

TO THE ibid. ; he debaseth himselfe over- 

HISTORIE much to his Senatours, i. 195 ; his 
respect of the Senate, ibid. ; his 
courteous humanity, i. 197 ; his 
moderation, ibid. ; his worthy 
Apothegme, ibid. ; he looseth both 
his sonnes, i. 202 ; retireth himselfe 
into Campania, ibid. ; escapeth a 
great danger, ibid. ; his neglect of 
the weale publick, i. 203 ; his 
drunkennesse and gluttonie, ibid. ; 
his nick-names, i. 203, 205 ; his 
Nigardise, i. 206 ; his covetous- 
nesse, i. 207, 208 ; his polling and 
pilling, i. 208, 209 ; his hard hart 
to his wife Julia, i. 209 ; his hatred 
to his kinsfolk, ibid. ; his unkind- 
nesse to Livia his owne Mother, ii. 

209, 210; his quarell unto her, i. 

210, 21 1 ; he starved to death Nero 
and Drusus his Nephewes, i. 213 ; 
his cruelty unto Noble Romane 
Citizens, i. 214; his close and 
cruell nature, i. 214-217 ; his cruelty 
to Greeke professours, i. 214; his 
open cruelty, i. 218, 219; he de- 
vised new torments, i. 220 ; hated 
of the world, i. 221 ; in continuall 
feare, ibid. ; exposed to the reviling 
taunts of men, i. 223 ; his stature, 
feature, etc. , i. 224, 225 ; irreligi- 
ous, i. 225 ; fearefull of Thunder 
and Lightning, ibid. ; his Studies 
and Writings, ii. 225, 226; he 
forbare to speake Greeke, i. 226 ; 
he was very healthfull, i. 225 ; he 
falleth sicke, i. 227 ; his death, i. 

228, 229 ; his death foreshewed, i. 
229 ; it contenteth the people, i. 

229, 230 ; his corps burnt, i. 230 ; 
his will and testament, ibid. 

Tigellinus a bloud-hound of Nero, 

odious to the people, ii. 168. 
A Tigre shewed by Augustus, i. 119, 

120. 

Tillage maintained by Augustus, i. 

117, 118; provided for by Domi- 

tian, ii. 241. 
Tiridates shewed at Rome, ii. 108, 

109. 
Titus, the Emperour, his commenda- 

304 



tion, ii. 225 ; his birth and educa- 
tion, ibid. ; poysoned with Britan- 
nicus, ii. 225, 226 ; he loved 
Britannicus entirely, ii. 226; his 
good parts, ibid. ; his war-service, 
ii. 226, 227 ; he divorseth Martia 
Flavia, ii. 227 ; hee assaulteth and 
forceth at Hierusalem, ibid. ; saluted 
Emperour, ibid. ; suspected of his 
Father, ii. 228; he cleereth him- 
selfe, ibid. ; hee ruleth the Empire 
joynetly with his Father, ibid. ; 
his violent and cruell demeanor, 
ii. 228, 229 ; suspected for riotous 
life, ii. 229 ; for wantonnesse, ibid. ; 
for extortion, ibid. ; his honest con- 
versation and princely cariage every 
way, ii. 229, 230 ; his sumpteous 
spectacles, ii. 230 ; a most gracious 
Prince, ii. 230, 231 ; what mishaps 
fell out in his dayes, ii. 231 ; his 
clemencie, ii. 231, 232; forlayde 
by his owne brother Domitian, 
ii. 233 ; his untimely death, ii. 233, 
234 ; honoured after death, ii. 234. 

A treasurie erected by Augustus Coesar 
for Souldiers, i. 125. 

Tribunes of Com. created out of 
Gentlemen, i. 114. 

Triumphirate, i. 113. 

Troie warlike game, i. 44, 119. 

Trop(zi> ii. 61 n. 

Tunicati, ii. 28 n. 

Tuscus killed by Nero, ii. 132. 

VALERIUS CATULLUS abused by 

Caligula, ii. 32. 
Varonilla a vestal votarie put to 

death for incest, ii. 243. 
Varus his overthrow, i. 97, 98, 185. 
Vatinia Law, i. 30. 
Venice Gulfe, i. 40 n. 
Venus Erycines Temple, ii. 81. 
Vestal Virgins of what respect, i. 172;*. 
Vindex rebelleth, ii. 138. 
Polla Vespasia mother of Vespasian 

the Emperour, ii. 204. N 
Vespasian the Emperours birth, ii. 

204 ; his Education, ii. 205 ; he 

espouseth Flavia Domitilla, ibid. ; 

his Martial 1 exploits, ii. 206-208; 

surnamed in mockerie, Mulio, ii. 



TWELVE (LESARS 



207 ; in disgrace with Nero, ibid. ; 
his empire foresignified by sundrie 
signes, ii. 208-210; friended by 
Vologesus, King of the Parthians, 
ii. 211 ; how he acquired princely 
majestic, ii. 212; he triumphed 
over the Jewes, ibid. ; he reformeth 
militarie discipline, ii. 213 ; his 
care to repaire buildinges in Rome, 
ii. 214 ; his workes and buildings, 
ibid. ; hee reformeth the judiciall 
Courts, etc., ii. 215 ; he represseth 
unbridled lust and lavish expence, 
ibid. ; not vaineglorious, ii. 215, 
216; his patience, ii. 216; his 
mercie and pittie, ii. 217, 218 ; 
noted for Avarice, ii. 218, 219; a 
maintainer of learning and learned 
men, ii. 219; surnamed Cybiosastes, 
ii. 220; his stature, etc., ibid. ; 
given to skurrile skoffs, ii. 221 ; 
his prety jests, ii. 221-223 > his 
death, ii. 224. 

Vibius Crispus his saying of Domi- 
tian, ii. 237. 

Vineyards goe to decay under Domi- 
tian, ii. 241. 

Vinicius his conspiracie, ii. 133. 

Visceratio, what it is, i. 43 n. 

Visitation of forraine Provinces and 
Citties by Augustus Caesar, i. 123, 
124. 

Vitellia a goddesse reputed, ii. 186. 

A. Vitellius the Emperour his rising, 
ii. 189; his descent and Pedigree, 
ii. 1 86 ; his moderate behaviour in 
the Province, ii. 190 ; his lewde 
Demeanour in Rome Cittie, ibid. ; 
his birth, ii. 189 ; he killeth his 
own sonne Petronianus, ii. 190 ; 
driven to extremities for neede, 
ii. 191 ; his unseemely affability 
and popularity, ii. 192 ; proclaimed 



Imperator, ibid. ; surnamed Ger- 
manicus, ii. 193 ; refuseth other 
titles in his style, ibid. ; his exem- 
plarie Justice done upon traytors, 
ii. 194 ; his insolencie and pride, 
ibid. ; surnamed Spintria, ii. 189 ; 
sumteous at his table, ii. 196, 197 ; 
he sacrificeth to the Ghost of Nero, 
ii. 195 ; his gluttonie, ii. 196 ; his 
Platter, ibid. ; his cruelty, ii. 197 ; 
unto Astrologers especially, ii. 198 ; 
impious to his mother, ibid. ; his 
largesses, ii. 199 ; minded to resigne 
up the Empire, ibid. ; he fireth 
Jupiters Temple upon the Capitol, 
ibid. ; surnamed Concord, ii. 200 ; 
murdred with shamefull indignities, 
ii. 20 1 ; his shape and stature, 
ibid. ; he maketh head against 
Otho, ii. 182. 

P. Vitellius, ii. 187. 

Q. Vitellius removed from the S enate 
ii. 187. 

P. Vitellius cutteth his owne veines, 
ii. 187. 

L. Vitellius doted upon a woman, 
ii. 1 88; devoted to Caius Caesar, 
ibid. ; to Messallina, ibid. ; his 
death, ii. 189. 

Ultimum supplicium what it is, i. 23. 

Vologesus affected to Nero, ii. 153. 

Volucer, the horse of Verus the 
Emperor, ii. 48 n. 

Vonones perfidiously killed by the 
means of Tiberius Caesar, i. 209. 

WAYFARING MEN how they should 

travell, ii. 80. 

Wine not allowed by Augustus, i. 117. 
Winter moneths which they be, i. 17 n. 

ZENO confined by Tiberius Caesar, 
i. 214. 



INDEX 

TO THE 

HISTORIE 



305 



THE HISTORIE OF 



AN INDEX TO THE ANNOTATIONS 



ACCENSUS, what officer, i. 236. 

Acclamations, ii. 289. 

Adoptions of ij sorts, i. 260. 

Adulteria, ii. 260. 

;Egle the Romane Mainestandard, i. 

244. 
/Eneas kind to his father Anchises, 

ii. 275- 

Agrippae who they be, i. 274. 
Ajax, i. 248. 
Alcmseon killed Eriphyle his owne 

mother, ii. 275. 
Alexandrea in /Egypt, i. 246. 
Alliensis dies, ii. 281. 
Amazones what women, i. 237. 
De Ambitu Lawes, i. 255. 
Amphora what measure, i. 280. 
AmbubaicZy ii. 272. 
Ancilia^ ii. 280. 
Annales or Annaria Lawes, i. 253 ; 

why so called, ii. 259. 
AnnotuZ) i. 256. 
Anticatones, i. 244. 
Anticyra, ii. 264. 

Antipater Sidonius his Ague, i. 265. 
Apis, what Idol, i. 269. 

'ATTOKoXo/CTfl'TWO'lS, ii. 274 

Apollo Paean, ii. 275. 

Apollo Hecatebeletes, ii. 275. 

Apoplexie, ii. 281. 

Appeale unto the people, i. 233. 

Area, ii. 288. 

Armie, Romane, i. 252. 

Artaxerxes Mnemon, i. 259. 

As, i. 272. 

Aspis the Serpent, i. 251. 

Asprenas Nonius accused for poyson- 

ing, i. 260. 

'AffrpayaXofjiavTeis, i. 276. 
Atellane Comaedies, i. 283. 

306 



Atricapilla what bird, i. 280. 
Attse, who they be, i. 274. 
Augures and Augurium, i. 254. 
Auguralis ccena, i. 256. 
Augustales, priests, ii. 278 ; Sodaks, 

i. 272. 
Augustus Caesar punisheth Adulterie, 

i. 255 ; favoureth the Jewish religion, 

i. 269. 

Aurei Romani, what peeces, ii. 278. 
Automatum, ii. 268. 

BALS to play with divers sorts, i. 266, 
267. 

Basilides, ii. 283. 

Bathing much, i. 266. 

Biberius, i. 279. 

Bissextile or Leape yeere, i. 241. 

Blackebird commended, i. 280. 

Bombi, ii. 271. 

Bonum Factum^ i. 246 ; ii. 281. 

Bovdvcrta, signifieth a great sacrifice : 
a word compounded of (3ov, which 
is <ririTa.TtKov and dvffla, or of /Sous, 
i. Bos an ox. And such were their 
Hecatombce, whereat a thousand 
oxen were killed, ii. 108. 

Bracata Gallia, i. 237. 

Bracse or Brachse, i. 247, 266. 

Bridges in Campus Martius, i. 247. 

Brutus supposed to be Julius Caesars 
sonne, i. 248. 

Busauchencs, i. 282. 



ADJICIALES, i. 272. 
Caesar in a duple signification, ii. 288. 
Caius Caesar killed, i. 260. 
C. Caesar his sodaine death, i. 231. 
C. Julius Caesar how deeply endebted, 
' 235- 



TWELVE CAESARS 



Calcei Lunati, i. 256. 

Caldus, i. 279. 

Caliga what it is, ii. 260. 

Caligati, what soldiers, i. 253. 

Caligula excessive in table expences, 

ii. 265. 
Caligula counterfaiteth thunder and 

lightning, ii. 265. 
Callipides, i. 2"jg. 

Camp duple why prohibited, ii. 287. 
Canace, ii. 271. 
Cancers, what they be, i. 261. 
Candidates, i. 237, 259, 260. 
Candida Toga differeth from Alba, i. 

237- 

Caninius Rebilus his Consulate, i. 245. 

Cants, what chaunce, i. 263. 

Capitolium, ii. 266. 

Cardiac a Cardialgia, ii. 267. 

Carmelus, ii. 282, 283. 

Casca and Cassius, i. 247. 

Castor hardly entreated by Caligula, 
ii. 263. 

Caudex, i. 274. 

Cauneas, i. 269. 

Centumviri, i. 256. 

Centumviralis hasta, ii. 283. 

Ceres priestesses named Antistita for 
their holmesse and chastitie, were 
no lesse honored at Athens, than 
the Vestal Nuns in Rome, ii. 108. 

Chariotiers factions how distinguished, 
ii. 269. 

Ckius, what chaunce, i. 263. 

Cicero what hee said as touching his 
brothers Demy-personage, ii. 261. 

Cincedus, i. 262. 

Circenses Games, i. 240 ; when ex- 
hibited, i. 277. 

Cisalpine Gaule, i. 237. 

Civick guirland, i. 232, 278. 

Civility in Emperours, i. 258. 

Civil, in Suetonius, what it signifieth, 
ii. 259. 

Claudius the Emperour, compared to 
a dumb Player in a Shew, ii. 267. 

Clients and Patrons, i. 232. 

Climacterick yeere, i. 248. 

Codeta, what place, i. 241. 

Colonies, i. 257. 

Colonies Latine, i. 233. 

Colosseros, ii. 264. 



Colossus, ii. 283. 

Comata Gallia, i. 237. 

Comitiahs Leges, what Lawes, ii. 259. 

Comitialis morbus. See Falling-Sicke- 

nesse. 

Comitium, what place, i. 233. 
Commilitones, i. 253. 
Comsedies the olde, and who wrote 

them, i. 268. 
Congiaries, i. 238. 
Consuls reckoned for Soveraine 

Magistrates after the free State, ii. 

262. 

Copts, ii. 273. ^ 
Cornelia Law, i. 255. 
Cous, what chaunce, i. 263. 
Criers for the best Game, ii. 272. 
Cubiculum, what it signifieth, ii. 270. 
Curia and Curio, i. 235. 
Cutilise what waters, ii. 284. 
Cybele, i. 262. 
Cynicks, ii. 283. 

DECERES, what Galley, ii. 265. 
Decuriones what they are, i. 257. 
Depilatory medicine, ii. 280. 
Dialects, i. 281. 
Dialis, i. 245. 
Dialis ccena, i. 256. 
Dictare and Dictator, i. 246. 
Divisores what they are, i. 235, 

249. 

Divortium what it is, i. 231. 
Dog tied at the Porters Lodge, ii. 

282. 

Domini Insularum, ii. 275. 
Dominus, i. 258. 
Domitian more Sanguinarie than 

Nero, ii. 289. 

Dragon creeping, i. 282, 283. 
Dropsies of three kindes, ii. 269, 

270. 
Drusilla, Claudius the Emperours 

wife, ii. 267. 
Dulciarius, i. 279. 

ELLEBOR, where the best, ii. 264. 
Embhmata, i. 282. 
Epulones, i. 272. 

Equestria, what place in the Theatre 
at Rome, ii. 267. 

307 



INDEX 
TO THE 
ANNOTA- 
TIONS 



THE HISTORIE OF 



INDEX "Ep^wcro, Kal vyiaive, ominous wordes, 
TO THE ". 276. 
ANNOTA- Erycina Venus, ii. 267. 
TIONS Eutychus, i. 270. 

Executions, in what place of the 

Campe they were done, ii. 279. 
Exploratores, who they are, ii. 265. 

FABIUS MAXIMUS commended, i. 276. 
Factions of Plaiers, ii. 271. 
Faminalia and Tibialia, i. 266. 
Falling sicknesse, i. 242, 243. 
Fasting from all foode, howe long 

tolerable, i. 259. 
Festina lenti, i. 253. 
Ficedula what bird, i. 280. 
Flamins, i. 231, 245. 
Flaviani, Priests, ii. 278. 
Flavius Clemens a Proselyte and 

Christian, ii. 288. 
Foole or Physician, i. 282. 
Fora, i. 254. 
Fricasies reprehended by Cornelius 

Celsus, ii. 283. 
Funales, what horses, i. 275. 

GALLI, ii. 276, 277. 

Galli Priests of Cybele, i. 262. 

Games sacred which they were, ii. 

272. 

Genius of the Emperour, ii. 263. 
Gentlemen in youth how trained up, 

i. 231, 232. 

Gentlemen of Rome, their estate, i. 239. 
Germaniciani, who they be, i. 277, 

ii. 280. 

Gestation, what exercise, ii. 284. 
Goales in the Cirque, i. 241. 
Gods and goddesses Select, i. 262. 
Gowne, the Romane habite, i. 257. 
Gracia Magnet, i. 250. 
Graphium, i. 247, ii. 263. 
Gymnick Games, and Gymnasium, i. 

271, ii. 270. 

HARE commended, i. 280. 
Halles of Justice, i. 254. 
Hecatebeletes, ii. 275. 
Height of men, i. 264, 281. 
Hemipkgia, ii. 281. 
Hercules enraged, ii. 272. 
Hersilia, ii. 283. 

308 



Hidroa, i. 282. 
Hieronica, ii. 272. 

HS, what it signifieth, and so forth, 
i. 238. 

JANUS QUIRINUS his Temple, i. 

252. 

Icarus and his fable, ii. 270. 
Ides of the moneth, i. 256. 
Jewes, put for Christians, ii. 267. 
Ilium, i. 246. 
Imbrices, ii. 271. 

Imperator how diversly taken, i. 277. 
Impudicitia, i. 244. 
Inferia, i. 248. 
Inheritances Testamentaria and Le- 

gitima, i. 231. 
Insertce, i. 282. 
Insula, ii. 274, 275. 
lovis Epulum, i. 256. 
Ira and Iracundia, how they differ, 

ii. 268. 

Isthmus, i. 242. 
Julia Law, i. 255. 
Julius the moneth, i. 245. 
Julius Montanus, ii. 272. 
Jupiter his Ensignes, ii. 265. 
/us, what it is, i. 278. 
Jtistitium at Rome what it betokeneth, 

ii. 260. 

luvenalia, ii. 270. 
luvenes secundi ordinis, ii. 272. 

KALENDS of Januarie, i. 234. 
Katfo-r/Dd, what it is, ii. 274. 
King of Kings, ii. 260. 
Knights Living what it was, ii. 267. 

LABERIUS quitteth Cicero with a 

scoffe, i. 240, 241. 
Lares, Lararium, ii. 260. 
Latro, ii. 264. 
Latus Clavus and Laticlavii, i. 256, 

ii. 282. 

Law Sempronia, i. 237. 
Cn. Lentulus of great wealth, i. 280. 
M. Lepidus his death, i. 232. 
Levana, what Goddes, i. 249. 
Libellers punished, i. 259. 
Libera Legatio, i. 278. 
Libertines, who they were, i. 232, 

253- 



TWELVE CAESARS 



Librarie at Alexandrea, ii. 289. 

Linigeri, ii. 286. 

Litare, i. 270. 

Livia the Empresse what names shee 

had, i. 273. 

Lorarii, why so called, ii. 263. 
Loxias, an Attribute of Apollo, ii. 

276. 

Luperct, i. 245. 
Lustrum, i. 270. 

MACTVE, i. 270. 

Maecenas noted to be Uxorius, i. 262 ; 
taxed for curious trimming of him- 
selfe, and for affectate speech, i. 
267, 268. 

Msenius and Mseniana, ii. 261. 

Magistrates Superiour and Inferiour, 

i- 235- 

Magistrates at Rome who were pro- 
perly called, ii. 270. 

Mancipatio t what it is, i. 260. 

Mariage enforced by Law, i. 255, 
256. 

Mars the revenger and his Temple, i. 
252. 

Mater Deum what Goddesse, i. 262. 

Matronalia, ii. 283. 

Mausoleum, i. 272. 

Maxima vestalis, i. 248, 272. 

Melanocoryphus what bird, i. 280. 

Mellita bellaria, i. 279, ii. 273. 

Mercurius his Ensigne, ii. 265. 

Mero, i. 279. 

Metellus perswadeth for Mariage, i. 
268. 

Milliarium in Rome, what it was, ii. 

279; 

Mimi what they be, i. 240. 

Mirmillones, ii. 265. 

Mirtitrichila, ii. 273. 

Moneres, a Galley, ii. 265. 

Monopolie, i. 282. 

Morari, ii. 274. 

Mortalities with pestilence, ii. 275. 

NAUPHILUS, ii. 275. 
Nemesis, i. 268, 269. 
Neptunes mace, ii. 265. 
Nero, what it signifieth, i. 274. 
Nestors cup in Homer, ii. 277. 
Nicon, i. 270. 



Nomi in ^Egipt, ii. 277. 

Nominalia, ii. 270. 

Nones of the Moneth, i. 256, 257. 

Nova Tabula, i. 241. 

Nundina what Goddesse, ii. 270. 

Nundince, i. 269. 

OCELLATVE, i. 267. 

Octophorum what Licter, i. 278. 

CEdipus, ii. 272. 

Ops, i. 249, 262. 

Optimates who they be, i. 234. 

Optimus Maximus, i. 246. 

Orbis in ij significations, i. 262. 

Orchestra, i. 240, ii. 267. 

Orcus, ii. 276. 

Orestes killed his mother, ii. 271, 

275- 
Otho his costly feasting of Nero, ii. 

273 ; his effeminacie, ii. 280. 
Ovatio, i. 252. 
Ovilia, i. 276. 

P/EAN, ii. 275. 

Pagani, ii. 278. 

Palilia, what feast, ii. 261. 

Papia Poppsea Law, i. 255, 256, ii. 
266. 

Parmularius, ii. 287. 

Parricidium a day, i. 248. 

Parricidium what crime, i. 242. 

Parricides punishment, i. 255 ; pun- 
ished by Claudius, ii. 268. 

Pasiphse, ii. 270. 

Paterfamilias, ii. 287. 

Patrones and Clients, i. 251. 

Pegmares, and Pegmatis, ii. 262, 
263. 

Pemtnata, i. 279. 

Pentathlon, i. 241. 

Perduellionis crime, i. 233. 

Periodicall diseases, i. 265. 

Phaeton and his fabulous historic, ii. 
260. 

Phalerce, ii. 273, 274. 

Phesants why called Phasiani, ii. 262. 

<&Xatfpos, ii. 284. 

3>u\\o/3oXa, ii. 282. 

De Piano, i. 278. 

Pleistobolinda, ii. 273. 

Pluto, ii. 276. 

Polemones, King of Pontus, ii. 271. 

309 



INDEX 
TO THE 
ANNOTA- 
TIONS 



THE HISTORIE OF 



INDEX Polycrates glutted with prosperity, 
TO THE i- 269- 

ANNOTA- Pol yP ha g us and Phagon, ii. 274. 
TTOM<i Pontificialis cana, i. 256. 

Pontificum cana, ii. 268. 

Populares who they are, i. 234. 

Popularia, what place in the Theatre, 
ii. 267. 

Pound Romane, ii. 278, 279. 

Pratexta what Robe, i. 234, 235. 

Pratextata verba, ii. 284. 

Praetorian soldiours, i. 277. 

Principia, what place in the Camp, 
ii. 279. 

Profani, ii. 274. 

Province what it signifieth, i. 235, 
236. 

Provincia C&sare, i. 257. 

Prasidiaria, i. 257. 

Populi, i. 257. 

Pretoria, Consulares, i. 257. 

Psylli, i. 251. 

Ptolemsees counted dead, i. 251. 

Publicanes, i. 236, 253. 

Pulvinar, i. 245. 

Pyrrhick daunces, i. 240. 

Pythagoras, ii. 273. 

QUADRAGESIMA, ii. 282. 
Quindecemmrs, i. 246, 272. 
Quinquatria, i. 263. 
Quintana, ii. 272. 
Quintilis what Moneth, i. 245. 
Quirites, i. 245. 

RECT^E C^EN^E, ii. 270. 

Regall ensignes what they be, ii. 261. 

Regaliolus, what bird, i. 247. 

Regions of Rome City, i. 239, 249. 

Repudium what it is, i. 231. 

Retiarii what fensers, ii. 264. 

Rex Nemorensis, ii. 265. 

Rhegium, why so called, i. 250. 

Riding of Romane Gentlemen, i. 256. 

Ring-finger, i. 239. 

Rings of gold and yron, i. 272. 

Rogatio, what it is, i. 233. 

Romane playes, i. 277. 

Rosaria, ii. 273. 

Roscia Law, i. 250. 

Rostra, i. 272. 

Rutuli or Rufuli, i. 232. 

310 



SABBATS, i. 264. 

Sagatio, ii. 279. 

Saliares Epulce, ii. 268. 

Salinator whereof he tooke that name, 

i. 275. 

Sardinia, a pestilent place, i. 279. 
Saturnalia, ii. 283 ; how and when 

celebrated, ii. 260. 
ScalcB Gemonitz, i. 280. 
Scarus a delicate fish, ii. 281. 
Scatinia Law, i. 255. 
Scekrata porta and Sceleratus vicus, 

ii. 266. 

Sciatica, i. 265. 

Scutarii, what Soldiers, i. 260. 
Scale of Rome, i. 269. 
Sestiones et Suturce, ii. 280. 
Secular Games, i. 255. 
Selena, ii. 262. 
Senatours badges, i. 256. 
Septemvirs, i. 272. 
Septizonium, ii. 285. 
Sestertius what place, ii. 279. 
Sordidati, i. 275. 
Speculators and Spiculatorcs, i. 263, 

ii. 278. 

Sphinx, i. 257, 258. 
Spongia, i. 267. 
Sportula, ii. 270. 
Stature of men. See Heighth. 
Staechades what Islands, ii. 266. 
Strangurie, i. 265. 
Subegit in a duple sence, i. 243. 
Sudamina, i. 282. 
Sulla proscribeth the Marian Faction, 

i.2 33 . . 

Sumptuaricz Lawes, i. 242, 255. 
Suovetaurilia, what sacrifice, i. 270. 
Supplication, what it is, i. 237, 238. 
Sustulit in a duple sense, ii. 275. 
Swimming commended, i. 260. 
Syracusse, i. 263. 

TABELLARLE NAVES, ii. 271. 
Tali, ii. 273. 
Talorum Lusus, i. 263. 
Templum, i. 270. 
Tertia deducta est, i. 243. 
Tessera, ii. 277. 
Testa, ii. 271. 

Tetraones what birds, ii. 261. 
', i. 263. 



TWELVE CvESARS 



Theatralis law, i. 250. 

Tkensce, i. 245. 

Thraces or Threces what fensers, ii. 

264. 
Thraseas Psetus, judicially convented, 

ii. 271. 

Thrasyllus a great Astrologer, i. 276. 
Thunder in faire wether, i. 286. 
Tiberius Caesar noted by Augustus, 

i. 276. 
Tiberius, the younger, his pittifull 

death, ii. 262. 

Tibur City, an healthie place, i. 279. 
Tiridates, a great magician, ii. 273. 
Tithing of men, i. 244. 
Tithes, what they be, ii. 285. 
Toga Grcecanica, ii. 286. 
Togata Gallia, i. 237. 
Tollendum, i. 250. 

Tribes Urbane and Rustique, i. 234. 
Tribunes of the commons Inviolable, 

i- 233. 

Tribunes Militarie, i. 232. 
Triumphalis cana, i. 256. 
Triumphal ornaments, i. 256. 
Triumvirate, i. 249. 
Troie Turnament, i. 241. 
Troica> ii. 275. 
Trop(ze> what it was, ii. 278. 
Tunicati^ ii. 265. 
Turdus. See Blackebird. 



VALLARE Coronets, i. 253. 

Varro, i. 242. 

Venus what chance, i. 263. 

Venus Genitrix, i. 244. 

Veraculi or vericuli^ ii. 281. 

Veratricesy i. 281. 

Vestal virgins peacemakers, i. 231. 

Vestall Nuns convicted of Inconti- 

nencie in what sort buried quicke, 

ii. 287. 

Veteres, i. 272. 
Viaticum, what it is, i. 244. 
Victorie her image, ii. 278. 
Vindex, ii. 277. 
Virile robe, i. 249. 
Visire what it is, ii. 267, 268. 
Voconia Law, i. 273. 
Vomiting much, ii. 281. 
Vowes, i. 270 ; the forme thereof, 

i. 278. 
Uxorii, ii. 280. 

WARS, wherof they take name, i. 

252. 
Water-snake, ii. 260. 

XYSTICI what spectacles, i. 257. 

ZENODORUS an Architect, ii. 283. 
Zopyrus a Physiognomer, ii. 285. 



INDEX 
TO THE 
ANNOTA- 
TIONS 



FINIS 




EDINBURGH 

T. 6- A. CONSTABLE 

Printers to Her Majesty 

1899 




:'i S 



DG Suetonius Tranquillus, C 

277 History of twelve 

S7H6 Caesars 

1899 

v.2 



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