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Full text of "History of Union County"

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Lulu Leonard 
Author of the 

HISTORY 

of 

UNION COUNTY 



Dies at 105 




Tilman Maims died at the home of his son, Andrew, in Anna 
pring and was nearly 106 years old. Tilman was 24 years old 
when Lincoln and Douglas held their famous debate in Jonesboro 
and he served in the Union Army during the Civil War. 

This picture was taken by a Gazette-Democrat photographer 
on his 105th birthday. 



CHAPTER t 
BEFORE IT WAS A COUNTY 

There is much conjecture among archeologists as to who the 
first inhabitants of Union County were. It is reasonable to believe 
that a civilization existed here long before history keeps a record of 
the first white settlers. 

The rolling country and the spur of the Ozark Mountains in 
the northern and western parts of the country were covered by a 
dense forest full of wild game which flourished because of the 
plentiful water supply from springs. The watershed along the north- 
ern boundary of the county protects it from the storms from the 
north in winter and allows a longer growing season than would be 
possible if the land were not so protected. 

It is doubtful that Joliet and Marquette set foot on the soil of 
Union County, but in the spring of 1673 they did pass down the 
Mississippi River, which bounds the county on the west. At that 
time a French mission and trading post was established at Kaskaskia 
and five years later at Cahokia but it is doubtful that any of the 
French traders, hunters or trappers ever ventured as far away from 
these settlements as Union County. The nearest settlement en the 
Ohio River was Fort Massac, established in 1711. For a number of 
years this settlement was known as Fort Massacre because the 
Indians so ruthlessly massacred the white people who settled there. 

Some of the earliest settlers fled into Union County from these 
attacks of the Indians. 

Little immigration came into Illinois before 1812 because of 
the Indians and the inability of the settlers to gain legal title to 
land upon which they located. As a result of the treaty ending the 
war between England and France, signed February 10, 1763, the 
territory had become English. After the United States wars organ- 
ized the old French settlers encountered difficulty when they tried, 
under American law, to have their titles ratified. In 1791, Congress 
enacted a law providing that Americans who had occupied their 
lands before 1783 should have their titles confirmed. Each person 
was allowed title to from four hundred to eighteen hundred acres 
of land. After that date, land was granted in tracts of not less 
than four thousand acres. 

Peace treaties with the Indians and transfer of titles of their * a? , 
land to the United States government and the end of the War of 
1812 with Great Britain opened wide the Illinois doors for settle- 
ment. In 1810, the white population of Illinois was 12,282 and in 
1820 was 55,162. Land was sold to settlers at the rate of one dollar 
and twenty-five cents per acre. The original counties existing in 
Illinois when it came under the rule of the governor of Virginia, 
who appointed a governor of Illinois territory, were 
Randolph and St. Clair counties. These counties surrounded the 



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tu^^ I? H< 



•lements of Ka-ka-kia and Cahokia. September 14th, 1812, Gov- 
BOr Edwards created by proclamation Madison, Johnson and Gal- 
latin counties. In anticipation of statehood, the legislature created 
iklin and Union counties. Between 1812 and 1817, 
Edwards, White, Monroe, Pope, Jackson, Bond and Crawford coun- 
-e created, making fifteen counties in all. There were two 
:.t to the Legislature from the northern counties and two 
m the southern. John G rammer represented the southernmost 
tour.' 

In 1803 the first white settlement was made in Union County. 
It c <»f two families, Abram Hunsaker's and George Wolf's. 

In 1805, David Green came with his little family and built his little 
cabin in the Mississippi bottom about one-half mile north of what 
known as Big Barn. He was a river navigator from Virginia and 
came upon the spot where he settled his family in some of his early 
trips. It was a long time before he knew the Hunsakers and Wolfs 
wore his nearest neighbors. Jacob Lingle settled west of Cobden in 
1 807 and George Evans and John Bradshaw on Bradshaw Creek. 
In 1808 John McGinnis settled near Mt. Pleasant. In 1809 John 
Stokes. William Gwinn and Thomas Standard came to live 
in what has long been known as the Stokes settlement. Rob- 
• Hargrave and Jessie Echols, who was later appointed to fix the 
of justice in Union County, came the same year. In 1812, 
Thomas D. Patterson, Phillip Shaver, Adam Clapp and Edward 
Vancil settled. The arrivals in 1814 were John Lawrence, John 
Harriston, John Whittaker, A. Cokenowen, Giles Parmelia, Samuel 
Butcher, Robert W. Crafton, Jacob Wolf, Michael Lindbaugh, Alex- 
ander Boren, Hosea Boren, Richard McBride, Thomas Green, Eman- 
uel Penroa, George Hunsaker, George Smiley, David Kimmel, John 
Whitaker, David Cother, David Brown, Alexander Brown, Alexander 
Boggs, David F. Coleman, Benjamin Menees and Jacob Littleton. 
These settlers came from Virginia and the Carolinas and a few 
from Pennsylvania. They came down the Ohio, some crossing the 
river at Shawneetown and some coming via Fort Massac. 

The record of "marks and brands," opened immediately after 
the county was organized, shows the following men lived in Union 
County and registered a "brand" for his domestic animals, Jacob 
Wolf, George Wolf, Edmund Vancil, William Dodd, Samuel Hun- 
saker, Michael Lindbaugh, David Brown, William Thornton, Joseph 
Hunsaker, William Pyle, William Grammer, Rice Sams, Abram 
Hunsaker, Thomas Sams, Benjamin Menees, John Mcintosh, George 
Hunsaker, James Brown, Jeremiah Brown, John Weigle, Christopher 
Sansin, Isaac Vancil, R. W. Crafton, John Cruse, James Jackson, 
George Smiley, Joseph Palmer, George James, Robert Hargrave, 
John Hargrave, John Hunsaker, John Whitaker, Johnson Somers, 
Charles Dougherty, Joel Boggess, Jones Vancil, Emanuel Penrod, 
John Stoke-, Samuel Penrod, Cliff Hazlewood and John Kimmel. 

Those who had entered land that lies within the county up to 
and including ISIS were John Yost, Wilkinson Goodwin, George 



Hunsaker, William Thornton, John Hunsaker, John Miller, George 
Lawrence, Henry Clutts, Christian Miller, James Mesa-m, John Har- 
riston, John Kimmell, John Frick, Edmond Holeman, Adam Clapp, 
George Devolt, Michael Dillon, John Grammer, Benjamin Menees, 
Michael Holhauser, John Hartline, Anthony Lingle, John Whitaker, 
Phillip Shaver, Phillip Paulus, William Worthington, John Bradshaw, 
John Saunders, John R. McFarland, John Tyler, Joseph Waller, 
Joseph Walker, A. Cokenower, Andrew Irwin, Giles Parmelia, Sam- 
uel Butcher, Samuel Penrod, Robert W. Crafton, Edward Vancil, 
John Gregory, Jaboc Lingle, Israel Thompson, Adam Cauble, Jacob 
Rendleman, Jacob Weigle, George Wolf, Michael Lindbaugh, Johna- 
than Haskey, Joseph Barber, Last Cape, John Cape, Isaac Biggs, 
Alexander Biggs, the Meisenheimers, John Eddleman, Thomas Mc- 
intosh, Cornelius Anderson, David Lence, Benedict Mull, Peter 
Casper, John Worten, Anthony Lingle, David Crise, William Mor- 
rison, Jacob Hileman, David Miller, A. Cruse, Abraham Brown, John 
Knupp, Andrew Smith, David Meisenheimer, Joseph Smith, Thomas 
H. Harris, Richard McBride, S. Lewis, Thomas Green, Benjamin J. 
Harris, Jacob Trees, Joseph Palmer, Thomas Green, David Kimmel, 
Alexander P. Field, Anthony Morgan, James Ellis, Joseph McEl- 
haney, Abner Field, Thomas Deen, Rice Sams, Daniel Spence, Wil- 
liam Craigle, George Cripe, Isaac Cornell, Nicholas Wilson, Henry 
Bechtle, Thomas Bechtle, Thomas Lanes, John Uri, Stephen Dona- 
hue, Jacob Littleton and S. W. Smith. 

From the best estimation obtainable it is believed that the 
population of Union County when Illinois became a state was 1800, 
one third of them freeholders. Most of them were from Kentucky 
and Tennessee or from Pennsylvania south along the eastern coast 
states since the Ohio and Cache Rivers were the lanes of travel at 
that time. 



—3— 






CHAPTER II 

HOW THE EARLY SETTLERS LIVED. 
ORGANIZATION OF UNION COUNTY. 

These early settlers of Union County lived a rugged, difficult 
life. Thej earned then livelihoods hunting, trapping and fishing, 
v grew what lew items of food they ate and depended on wild 
., which was plentiful, for meat. The county was a dense 
forest, so thick that the hunter carried an axe to blaze his path 
when he went away from the small clearing surrounding his log cabin, 
ground their corn by hand to make meal for corn pone and 
Johnny cake and their main diet was "hog and hominy." They gi 
and wool and spun the thread which was woven into cloth 
ling and clothing. Much of the men's clothing was made of 
.-kins from the wild animals the hunters killed. 

The men wore long hunting shirts and moccasins and leathi r 
or buckskin breeches and the women linsey dresses and petticoats 
and home-made shoes. Ordinarily the people went barefoot. 

Fort Massac was the nearest trading post where supplies could 
be obtained. These came from New Orleans or Pennsylvania, trans- 
ported on a barge tied with ropes and pulled up the river by men 
walking along the river banks. 

An account is given of the difficulty encountered in making 
suitable garments for John Grammer to wear to the legislature 
when he represented Johnson County (which then included what is 
now Union County) in 1812. The neighbors and friends gathered 
nuts which were taken to Fort Massac and exchanged for a few 
yards of "blue drilling," which with careful cutting and measuring 
was only enough to make a long hunting shirt and a pair of high 
"leggins." 

John Grammer was the first person from this county to b<- 
ted to public office. He was uneducated but was said to be very 
shrewd. He invariably voted "no" if he did not fully understand 
the question before the house. He coined words at random with 
which to express himself in his lusty speeches. He was popular 
enough to be re-elected each term of the legislature and served 
his last term as a senator in 1834. 

The only social events of the times were weddings, dances, 
quilting parties, singing schools and "meetins." Everyone took part 
in the wedding celebration. The men would meet at the home of 
the groom and the women at the home of the bride. Then the men 
would go in a group to the home of the bride where the wedding 
would take place. As soon as the guests assembled for the wedding 
a bottle race would ensue. After dinner the dancing began and 
would continue until early the next morning. At ten o'clock at 
night the bride's friends would steal her away and put her to bed 
in the "loft" of the house, then the groom's friends would do the 
same for him, while the dancing and fun making continued down- 

—4— 



stairs. The merry making would frequently continue for several 
days in both the home of the groom and the bride and often In 
the new home of the bride and groom which the friends and neigh- 
bors had usually helped to build. 

The first marriage in the county records was John Murray and 
Elizabeth Latham, by John Grammer, February 26, 1818. On April 
7th, 1818, John Weldon, Esq., certified he married James Latham 
and Margaret Edwards on March 2nd. Joseph Painter and Elizabeth 
Brown were married April 26, 1818, by George Hunsaker. Other 
early marriages were Samuel Morgan and Rebecca Casey, Francis 
Parker and Catharine Clapp, Allen Crawl and Catherine Vancil, 
John Rupe and Lydia Brown, Eli Littleton and Ede Hughes, David 
Callahan and Elizabeth Roberts, Isaac Finley and Polly Hargrave, 
William McDonald and Mary McLane, Henry Johnston and Nancy 
Atherton, John Russell and Percy Huston, Daniel Ritter and Eliza- 
beth Isenogle, Peter Sifford and Leyah Mull, Jacob Hunsaker and 
Elizabeth Brown, A. H. Brown and Sarah Mathes, William Ridge 
and Esther Penrod, Abraham Hunsaker and Polly Price, George 
Dougherty and Rachean Hunsaker, John Biggs and Sarah Cope, 
William Clapp and Phoebe Witherton, George Lemen and Sarah 
Lesley, John Price and Nancy Vancil, John Leslie and Catharine 
Nigel, Peter Wolf and Margaret James, Messiah O'Brien and Char- 
lotte Hotchkiss, Daniel T. Coleman and Lucy Craft, and Samuel 
Dillon and Margaret Lingle. 

As children grew up the boys were taught to use bows and 
arrows and shoot game and the girls were taught to cook, spin and 
sew. 

The first school was taught by an unknown Irishman at Dog- 
tooth Bend. Later Winsted Davie established a school two mile? 
south of what is now Jonesboro. The teachers were paid by sub- 
scriptions from the parents of the pupils. Reading, writing, spelling 
and numbers were the subjects taught. 

In 1 812 w hat is now Union, Pulaski, Alexander and part of 
Johnson counties, was known as Jonesborough township. A town 
hall and court house were erected at Elvira, a spot one mile east 
and seven miles north of what is now Mt. Pleasant. This served 
as the town hall for several years. After Illinois became a state in 
1818, John Grammer donated a plot of ground upon which to build 
pr-blic buildings. This ground was located in what became Jones- 
boro, the county seat of Union County. 

Jessie Echols, George Wolf and Thomas Cox were appointed 
commissioners by the legislature to fix the boundaries of Union 
County. The present boundary line was established by them Feb- 
ruary 25, 1818, but a provisioned boundary included Pulaski and 
Alexander counties in Union County until such time as they became 
counties. 

In the act of the legislature creating Union County, it was also 
provided that the home of Jacob Hunsaker, Jr., was to be used as 

—6— 



a seat of justice until such time as a permanent location was estab- 
lished and a court house erected. 

Jessie Echols, John Grammer, George Hunsaker, Abner Keith 
and Rice Sams were elected county commissioners and they met at 
the Hunsaker home in accordance with the ruling of the legislature. 
Abner Field was made clerk of the court and Joseph Palmer was 
the first sheriff. George Hunsaker, William Pyle, John C. Smith, 
Eke Sams, Abner Keith, Jessie Echols and John Bradshaw were 
pointed justices of the peace by the governor of Illinois and 
Robert Twidy was the first constable. 

The first official act of the commissioners' court was to declare 
the road from Penrod's Ferry to Elvira and from Elvira to Jackson 
county, public roads. 

The oldest public industry in the county is road building and 
Henry Laymer, Ephriam Voce, William Pyle, David Arnold and 
George Hunsaker were appointed road overseers and viewers. 

The first county order of two dollars was written to Samuel 

Penrod for bounty for a wolf scalp. Two people were licensed to 

open taverns in their homes and the price of liquor was regulated. 

Whiskey was 12 ^c per half pint, rum 50c; brandy 50c; breakfast, 

dinner, and supper 25c each; bed I2V2C, horse to stand at hay 

and corn all night, 37 %c. 

V Two ferries were licensed and taxes were levied on horses, 
— • — ■& 

negroes, ferries, cattle, hogs, sheep, wagons and wheeled carriages. 
In 1812 taxes of Y2 per cent were levied on town lots, -carriages 
for conveyance of persons, distiller's stock in trade, horses, cattle, 
grist and saw mills and in 1821 on watches and clocks. 

The first criminal case on record was that of the United States 
vs. John Thomas. Since there was no jail the prisoner was boarded 
with Robin Hargrave, who was allowed seventy dollars for keeping 
him sixty-two days. Joseph Palmer, the sheriff, was paid thii-ty 
dollars for his services in apprehending the culprit and bringing 
him to trial. The jury deliberated its verdict on a log near the 
Hunsaker home. 

It seems that the poor have been with us always because dur- 
ing the first year of the existence of Union County, the court 
bound out an indigent child. 

Thus in 1818 a county government was set up and began to 
function in Union County and the county began to grow in industry 
and population. 



—6— 



CHAPTER III. 
GROWTH OF POPULATION AND INDUSTRY 

The reason Union County and Southern Illinois enjoyed a 
greater growth in population than the central and northern parts 
of Illinois during the years 1818 to 1820 was the mildness of the 
climate. In 1816, the weather was unusually cold so tha*t crops 
failed all over Illinois and Indiana but because this part of the 
state is protected from the storm of the plains by a spur of the 
Ozark Mountains extending from the Mississippi to the Ohio Rivers 
through the noi-thern parts of Union, Johnson, Pope and Hardin 
counties, crops were abundant. The people living north of this 
range of hills came here to buy food as the ancients went into the 
valley of the Nile in Egypt on several occasions. For this reason 
the country has long been known as "Egypt" and also for this 
reason many of the people who came to buy food liked the country 
and stayed and others returned later with their families and friends. 
This not only increased the population of Union County, but stimu- 
lated the settlers to produce more than enough foodstuff to meet 
their own needs. Population was increased as much in two years 
at that time as it was during the whole decade following. The rate 
of increase was gradual after that until the building of the Illinois 
Central Railroad. The number of inhabitants increased from 1800 
in 1818 to 2,362 in 1820 and 3,239 in 1830. 

Since the only modes of travel were by water or by horse or 
ox, the industries of road building and ferry transportation grew. 
Nine ferries paid a tax to the county government for the privilege 
to operate, Harris on the Big Muddy, and Harris, Hays, Green, 
Pernod, Smiley, Ellis, Smith, and Ruppel on the Mississippi. 

When Jonesboro was established as the county seat, roads were 
built from that town to each of the above ferry landings. Bridges 
were built across creeks at public expense. The job was let to the 
contractor making the lowest bid for it. The two earliest bridges 
were the one across Bradshaw Creek which was completed for fifty 
dollars and the one across Clear Creek which cost one hundred and 
fifty dollars. No description of the type of bridge constructed was 
given in the county records. 

Roads were also built from Jonesboro to Vienna, Jonesboro to 
America, Jonesboro to Cape Girardeau, Jonesboro to Brownsville in 
Jackson County and from the mouth of the Big Muddy River to 
Golconda. As agriculture and population increased, mill seats were 
established and as these came into being, the roads were made to 
go past the mills enroute to their destinations. An "overseer" and 
"viewer" was appointed over various sections of the road and the 
people living within four or five miles on each side of the roads 
were required to work on their construction and maintainance. This 
work must have been done without pay since the county records do 
not show where any payments were made for this type of work in 

—7— 



thfl early days of the county. Then as now the "overseers" and 
"viewers" were changed with a change of county administration. 
The following names appeared in the county records as holding 
this office, David Arnold, William Pyle, Ephriam Noel, George Hun- 
saker, Henry Lamer, Benjamin Meneese, William Alexander, John 
Hunsaker, Allen McKenzie, Nathan Turpin, Will Waford, Alexandei 
boggs, Aaron Thornton, Owen Evans, Joseph Palmer, Moses David- 
son, and John Stokes. Under the new administration, the "over- 
seers" and "viewers" were changed to John Mcintosh, Jacob Snider, 
Jacob Lingle, Johnson Sumner, George Evans, Henry Lamer, John 
Elmo, Aaron Howard, Robert H. Loyd, William Barton, Harry Bar- 
ringer, James Abernathie, Christopher Houser, Edmund Vancil, John 
Lingle, Abner Keith, William Shelton, Benjamin Meneese, Benjamin 
Hall, Ephriam Noll, James Elmo, William G rammer, Rich McBride 
and Francis Murphy. 

Jacob Rantleman, William Thornton and George Hunsaker be- 
came the new commissioners in 1819 and with them appeared many 
new names in the records. Abner Field, Jr., was made clerk cf the 
court and Benjamin Meneese was made treasurer. 

It seems that then as well as now there were officials who 
could not resist the temptation of making personal use of public 
money entrusted to them. The first sheriff was found to be short 
in the amount of money he turned over to the new officials and 
afer several postponements of a hearing before the commission's 
court, he was allowed to settle the matter out of court for a part 
of the amount of money that was missing. 

Public as well as private buildings were constructed at this 
time. A court house was built by Thomas Cox for forty dollars, 
and a jail by Jacob Wolf for twenty dollars. Two years later, 
1820, Nathaniel Davis built a new court house for six hundred 
dollars and a new jail for three hundred seventy-nine dollars. The 
number of dwellings necessarily increased to house the growing 
population. 

At this time practically all manufacturing was done in the 
individual homes by the women, mainly who are seldom mentioned 
in public records. Supplies were bought at Fort Massac and paid 
for with nuts, honey, and skins of animals. At this time the nearest 
cording mill was in Jackson, Missouri, seven days journey from 
Jonesboro, and salt was obtained from the Saline salt mines in 
Saline County, a distance requiring a ten day journey. The mills 
which had been built to grind the corn and wheat were operated 
by a horse turning the wheel and by 1820 by water turning the 
wheel. Three such mills had been established in Union County but 
many hand mills were still in use in the homes. The early mill 
owners were Jacob Rantleman, John Whittaker and Henry Clutts. 

Distilling ranked as one of the leading industries of the times 
and licenses were granted to many people who lived along the 
newly constructed roads to operate taverns to accommodate trav- 

—8— 



elers. A tavern in those days was usually in a private home where 
a wayfarer might stop and procure drink, food and lodging for 
himself and hay and shelter for his horse. The price of these ser- 
vices was regulated by the county board as has been mentioned 
before. Each tavern keeper paid a two dollar license fee and filed 
a $100 bond. Later these amounts were increased to six dollars and 
three hundred dollars. William Shelton, Robert Lloyd, Isaac Wil- 
liams, Sam Putchez, Squire Bone, John Meneese, Jacob Hybarger, 
George Smiley, John Thornton, Henry Lamer, David Hunsaker and 
Frederick Barringer were all licensed to keep taverns during the 
first two years after the county was established. 

Within the next ten years industries and business expanded 
beyond the stage of the home manufacturing and bartering between 
neighbors and an occasional trip to a trading center, salt mine, etc. 

The men who served as constables, appointed by the governor 
between 1818 and 1820 were John Meneese, William Shelton, 
Samuel Betcher, Sam Hunsaker, Willie Sams, Samuel Sprouse, Isaac 
Williams, Jessie Doolen, Sam Hunsaker, Levi T. Holland, Alfred N. 
Dilliard, Squire Bone and William Thornton. 

Judges and clerks of elections appointed by the county board 
were John S. Hacker, William Echols, Levi Holland, Francis Parker, 
Alfred N. Dilliard, John Bradshaw, Hugh Craig, Thomas C. Patter- 
son, Benjamin Meneese, William Barton and Owen Evans. 

In 1820 new commissioners, Francis Parker, Daniel T. Coleman 
and Robert Hargrave were elected. 






CHAPTER IV 

INDUSTRY AND BUSINESS LEAVE THE CONFINES 
OF THE HOME 

In 1820, Mrs. Nancy Willard, a widow whose husband had died 
in Capo Girardeau, brought her four children, Elijah, Willis, Anna 
and William to Jonesboro to live. She was the mother of two of 
oar earliest business men and the mother of the woman for whom 
the city of Anna is named. 

Elijah was old enough to go to work in one of the new stores 

which had been established and within a few years was able to buy 

.re from his employer. He and Sam Reed were given a liquor 

license in 1826. Later he was associated with his brother, Willis, in 

the store. 

Nimrod Ferguson, Willard, Winsted Davie and Charles Rixleben 
were the earliest merchants establishing themselves in Jonesboro. 
They bought produce from the farmers and took it to New Orleans 
where they traded their wares for sugar, coffee and other necessities 
which were brought back to Jonesboro and sold to the people. This 
type of trading stimulated the residents to produce more salable 
materials in order to exchange them for comfox-ts of life. Dry goods 
came from Philadelphia. 

Elijah Willard seems to have been the leader in this type of 
trading because Willard's Landing, where the bulk of the local 
trading was done, was named for him. 

The Willard's erected a group of store buildings and accumu- 
lated much farming land. More will be said of them later. 

Road building still continued with names of new men appearing 
<m the court records with each change of administration. About 
1821 compensation was given to the commissioners, sometimes as 
much as ten dollars per year, so they no longer served gratis. Two 
or three more mill seats were condemned and roads built past them. 
Several churches were erected during the 1820 decade and roads 
laid out to run past them. 

People no longer lived independently of each other but de- 
pended on what they sold to pay for what necessities of life they 
bought. It is not strange that this change took place since over two 
hundred new households were set up to increase the population and 
business of the community as well as the increase made by immi- 
gration, r— -^— — — — -^ 

The following marriages were recorded between 1820 and 1830: 
Joseps Hess to Mary Hartline, James S. Smith to Harriet Weaver, 
James Sutzer to Elizabeth Hileman, Alfred N. Dilliard to Nerma 
Greer, George Davold to Rebecca Goodwin, John Thompson to Anna 
Landrith, John Landrith to Mary Thompson, Milo Farring to Martha 
Barker, Mitty Davidson to Margaret Mumy, Martin Vancfl to Cath- 
erine Lyerle, Philip Hargrave to Nancy Hacky, Benjamin Robertson 
to Elizabeth Snider, Nicholas Keith to Elizabeth Thornton, James 

—10— 



Crowe to Kiziah Cornelius, Abner Field to Mena James, Thomas 
Landrith to Elizabeth Sumner, Samuel McKey to Elizabeth Lingle, 
William Vancil to Zilphy Dodd, Lemand Lipe to Catharine Davis, 
Janothan Lyerly to Maryan Byrns, Christian Hileman to Nancy 
Davis, Frederick Barringer to Anny Dillo, John Miller to Susannah 
Davis, Jacob Yount to Talbitha McDaniel, Milliam Welch to Mar- 
garet Cochran, William Tripp to Cerithy Willis, Sampson Porth to 
Lucinda Palmerly, Nathan Walder to Nancy Collins, Daniel Barringer 
to Elizabeth Treece, Abraham Miller to Nancy Maury, Zachariaht 
Lyerle to Sally Snider, Jacob Cruse to Elizabeth Sitzer, David Hile- 
man to Sally Miller, Jacob Lipe to Rosena Davis, Charles Daugherty 
to Elizabeth Stone, Allen Boyd to Louisa Mcintosh, William Morgan 
to Charity Smith, Cornelius Smith to Fanny Beggs, Christian Craig- 
ton to Christian Miller, James N. Reynolds to Sarah Hannahs, John 
Langley to Patrina Delaney, James Martin to Rachel Grammer, 
Renson Lamer to Esther Penrod, Joseph Ferguson to Nancy Brown, 
Isaac Brown to Cynthy Davis, Solomon Dillow to Susan Barringer, 
Mecajah Littleton to Katherine Wolf, Peter Clutts to Anna Shor- 
man, Robert Duncan to Elizabeth Suttles, Elijah Shepherd to Eliza- 
beth Irwin, Winsted Davie to Anna Willard, Richard Sumner to 
Nancy McDaniel, Joel McHerring to Nancy Lycester, Aaron Henry to 
Katherine Hysenogle, John Stokes to Mary Anderson, Boston Lentz 
to Sophie Lentz, Joshia Hazelwood to Harriet Standard, John Hun- 
saker to Fanny Linbaugh, Thomas Mcintosh to Rebecca McRaye, 
Jo hnWholshouser to Sophia Ettleman, Isaac Sheppard to Mary 
Lambert, David Gore to Polly Garner, Drury Conally to Amelia 
Persons, Peter Lentz, Jr., to Mary Lingle, Jacob Dillow to Barbara 
Miller, Charles Hunsaker to Rebecca McClure, Alexander Trees to 
Catharine Hartline, David Brown to Mary McClure, Bazzel B. Craig 
to Huldah Bradshaw, Jacoz Lentz to Barbara Clutts, James Leffler 
to Elizabeth Martin, William Lamer to Mary Waller, Lewis Durham 
to Elizabeth Miller, William Cook to Lydia Busely, Peter Hysenogle 
to Catherine Cotner, Thomas Hughes to Unice Erise, Alexander 
Douglas to Mary Hinkle, William Echols to Sophia Weaver, Jacob 
Rentleman to Rachel Hartline, Peter Miller, Jr., to Katharine Whols- 
houser, James D. Anderson to Polly Miller, Ephriam Noel to Elijah 
Staten, Mark Rutherford to Risky McDaniel, Finnis McGinnis to 
Rachel Evans, Levi Townsend to Edna Bizzel, William Crise to 
Nancy Barringer, Benjamin Worthington to Nancy Lawrence, Jacob 
Meisenheimer to Mary Newman, John Anyan to Phoebe Worthington. 
John Lawrence to Sally Durham, Abraham Keller to Polly Beggs, 
John Humphreys to Mary Kelso, Jacob Verble to Katherine Brown. 
Jacob Pitcocks to Rhoda Young, Jacob Karraker to Phoebe Verble, 
Jeremiah Collins to Margaret Edwards, Samuel King to Susannah 
Montgomery, Peter Hagler to Francis Keith, Thomas Thornton to 
Sarah Carter, Robert Willis to Mary Cochran, Collens Murphy to 
Aggy Whitson. 

Young D. Dunner to Elizabeth Standard, James Willis to Mary 

—11— 



Tripp, George W. McDaniel to June McRavens, Benjamin Vancil to 

Katharine Landrith, Joseph Ettleman to Susannah Hess, Peter Port- 

s to Dorcas Keith, Hugh V. Patterson to Mary Penrod, Peter 

uel Ja-ckard to Rhody Duncan, John Cochran to Deanna Lissen- 
berry, Willibie Gales to Nancy Pittsford, George McGehee to Char- 
lotte Vancil, Jonas G. Lock to Mary Bradshaw, John Tripp to 
Susannah Peterson, Jacob Davis to Elizabeth Brown, Lenard Strin- 
ger to Polly Cole, Jackson Echols to Sally Fowler, John Cauble to 
Eliza Lyerle, John Butcher to Huldah Morgan, Christopher Lyerle 
to Barbara House, Isham Tinner to Elizabeth Riburn, Willis Stan- 
dard to Nicy Hale, Frederick Mowery to Sally Davis, Nicholas Tripp 
to Mary Delaney, John Vancil to Elizabeth G rammer, Wilson Lyerle 
to Susannah Zimmerman, William Murphy to William Loid, Joel 
Barker to Belinda Lewis, Caleb Bryant to Peggy Dillow, William 
Corgan to Mary Palmerly, Edward Vancil to Sarah Penrod, Martin 
Green to Harriet Bennett, A. R. Benson to Prissy Miles, S. Moorke- 
viol to E. Grammer, Robert Graham to Jane Hazelwood, Peter Cauble 
to Polly Link, John Dillow to Elizabeth Verble, Jacob Davis to 
Nancy Sittsmir, Hiram Hunsaker to Permelia Roberson, Benjamin 
Walker to Elizabeth Wilson, Thomas McElwyn to Leah Tomlinson, 
James Beggs to Lorsee Barber, David Night to Maryann Durall, 
Presley Taylor to Martha Durall, Adam Hileman to Leah Rhinehart, 
John Grammer to Elizabeth Barker, James King Cochran to Dorcas 
Goodman, Owen Hughes to Barbara Snider, and Jacob Clutts to 
Delila Keith. 

By 1824 a tanyard, a "hatter's shop," a "medicarl shop" and a 
jewelry shop had been established in Jonesboro. Taxes were col- 
lected on the stock in trade of the above and also on horses, cows, 
sheep, hops, grist and saw mills, watches, clocks, ferries, wagons, 
town lots, distilleries and pleasure conveyances. 

Following Francis Parker, David Coleman and Robert Har- 
e-rave in the commissioners court were Robert Hargrave and Jessie 
Echols, in 1B22, Sam Hunsaker and Jessie Echols, in 1825, Sam 
Hunsaker, Jessie Echols and George Brown, in 1824, Sam Hun- 
saker, George Brown and B. W. Brooks, in 1825, George Brown, 
Jessie Echols and John Price. 

Abner Field served as clerk of both the county and circuit 
courts at a salary of $30.00 per year for each office in 1821 and 
1822. Winsted Davie became clerk March 5, 1823 and held that 
office for several years. He had first served the county as compiler 
of the poll books. George Hunsaker served as sheriff in 1820 for 
the salary of $50.50 which also paid him for the stationery he used. 
In 1821 and 1822 he was paid seven and one-half percent of 
? 1174.57, the revenue collected by the county for both years. 
Charles Dunn, who served as probate judge at that time, was paid 
fifty dollars per year. 

The county commissioners regulated the rates a ferry could 
charge for its services as follows: a wagon and team, $3.00; a 

—12— 



r 



wheeled carriage with one or two horses, $1.50; a man and horse, 
75c; each footman, 25c; each head of live cattle, 20c; a lead horse, 
25c; a head of hogs or sheep, 10c; a pack horse, 50c. 

September 4, 1820, the commissioner's court authorized Charles 
Dunn, the probate judge, to select a seal for the county to use. He 
chose one which looks very much like our present fifty-cent piece 
with the American eagle with wings spread in flight and around 
the edge of the seal was written "County Commissioner's Court of 
Union County." This seal is found on all legal documents until the 
seal which is now used was adopted several years later. 

The town of Jonesboro was incorporated by the state legisla- 
ture along with Covington, America, Kaskaskia and Vienna in 1820. 




—13— 



CHAPTER V 
PROFESSIONAL PEOPLE APPEAR IN THE COUNTY 

As population increased in Union County a few people who 
• in professions came along with the settlers. 

If these people were measured by the standards of education 
with which professional people are today measured they could not 
I as such for in those days there was no training for the 
ministry, teaching, medicine and the law in special schools. A 
ter became a minister because he "got religion" and while he 
conducted meetings he earned his livelihood by farming or other 
work. Our first settler, George Wolf, was a Dunkard preacher, 
and later there were many other religious groups developed in the 
county. It is interesting to note all the way thru the records of 
Union County that there has always ben a well rounded group of 
people made up of all types of people of native white origin. 

Preparation for teaching consisted of a two or three term 
course in a "subscription school" where the rudiment of arithmetic, 
reading, writing and spelling were taught. This two or three term 
course did not follow eight or twelve years of previous schooling 
but was the complete extent of the teacher's training. A man 
named Griffin was the first teacher in Union County. He was fol- 
lowed by Winsted Davie who had gone to school before he came 
to Union County. Willis Willard who had had a little schooling in 
Vermont before coming here followed him. 

Doctors become doctors by reading medicine and practicing 
under an established physician and lawyers became lawyers by read- 
ing law books and "putting out their shingles." There were no 
bar examinations or state medical board examinations. 

In fact, most of the people of the times were unlearned and 
superstitious and clung to the idea that a sick child had been "witch- 
ed" and his treatment consisted of various methods used to break the 
"spell" the witch had cast over the child by refusing to lend anything 
to persons believed to be a witch or by hanging a bottle of urine in 
the chimney. The early doctors borrowed some of their medical 
practice from the practice of witchcraft, such as the brewing of 
teas from certain herbs but the doctors did not use the rituals 
practiced by the early "medicine men." 

The earliest doctor in the county was Benjamin W. Brooks 
who had been educated in the east and traveled extensively before 
settling- here. His name appears on the county records as a doctor 
being paid by the county for caring for paupers, as a surveyor, 
laying out roads, as a county commissioner and later as a member 
of the legislature. He must have been a man of rare ability for 
he was active in these many pursuits until his death in 1845. He 
is one of the few individuals who kept a record of the events of 
the period other than the records kept by the county court. 

There were more men "practicing law" in this early period 
—14— 



of Union County than those in other professions. Most of the early 
commissioners, clerks of the court, constables and justices of the 
peace practiced law in a small way. 

Among our earliest lawyers were John Reynolds, who later 
became Governor of the State, Daniel P. Cook, presiding judge of 
the first probate court and James Evans, Esq. These early lawyers 
were licensed by the Supreme Court of Illinois. Other names ap- 
pearing as lawyers during this period were Richard M. Younu r , 
David T. Maddox, Charles Dunn, Thomas Reynolds, Thomas C. 
Browne, David J. Baker and Walter B. Scott. 

At that time there were no women in professions. The women 
who married became the housekeepers and heads of their own little 
home industries which consisted of planting, growing, harvesting, 
spinning, and weaving flax and cotton and of grinding corn for 
meal. The work of the woman was endless because she was not 
able to buy many of the necessities of life, all were wrought by the 
sweat of her brow. The spinsters who did not marry and become 
heads of households became members of a brother's or sister's house- 
hold. Only a very poor person "hired out" to earn a home for 
herself and in most of these instances, she was treated as a member 
of the family by whom she was employed. The earliest business in 
which women were found were millinery and needlecraft. Several 
years later a few were educated enough to become teachers but 
in the earliest part of our history, women were not sent to the 
subscription schools because it was not necessary for them to know 
how to read and write. Still, with all this lack of opportunity and 
education for women, many of them became outstanding in the 
community for the wise way in which they conducted their house- 
holds and guided their families. 



—15— 



CHAPTER VI 
LAND ENTERED BY 1835 

Although Union County was not divided into precincts as 
they now stand, the present political divisions will be used in this 
;,ter in order to locate our early settlers more clearly in the 
nindi of the reader. 

The present Jonesboro precinct was the most populous settle- 
ment in our early history. Here land was entered by Israel Thomp- 
son, 130.68 acres; Adam Cauble, 124.52 acres; Jacob Rendleman, 
400 acres; Edward Vancil, 160 acres; John Crowell, 31.62 acres; 
John Vancil, 69.50 acres; Wm. Hughes, 80 acres; Jacob Weigh, 80 
acres; George Wolf, 720 acres; Jacob Hunsaker, 240 acres; Jacob 
Wolf,' 320 acres; Michael Linbaugh, 160 acres; Jonathan Husky, 80 
acres'; William Grammer. 160 acres; John Grammer, 240 acres; 
Henry Culph, 80 acres; Jacob Trees, 80.63 acres; Henry Cruse, 80 
acres; Joseph Palmer, 80 acres; Emmanuel Penrod, 160 acres; Geo. 
Hunsaker, 160 acres; George Smiley, 40 acres; Russell E. Heacock, 
160 acres; Thomas Green, 160 acres; David Kimmel, 480 acres; 
Alexander P. Field, 80 acres; Robert Hargrave, 160 acres; Isaac 
Tinsley, 80 acres; David Anindel, 280 acres; John Whitaker, 160 
acres; Jacob Butcher, 160 acres; John Weigle, 80 acres; Wilkerson 
Goodwin, 120.63 acres; and John Waggoner, 40 acres; Anthony Mor- 
gan, 80 acres; John Hargrave, 160 acres; William Hunsaker, 40 
acres; James Ellis, 160 acres; David Cotner, 160 acres; David 
Brown, 304.66 acres; Joseph Taylor, 80 acres; J. Taylor and the 
legal heirs of J. Hughes, 160 acres. This means that these people 
obtained this land from the government by right of settlement upon 
it and the payment of a small fee of fifty cents to less than two 
dollars per acre. By 1835 John Grammer had donated part of his 
land to the city of Jonesboro and other land had also changed 
hands by right of purchase but the above describes the original set- 
tlement of the precinct. 

The settlement of what are now Anna Precincts was next in 
size to Jonesboro. Here the following men had entered land as 
follows: Peter Casper, 344.58 acres; John Wooten, 160 acres; Con- 
rad Sitter, 160 acres; Anthony Lingle, 200 acres; Henry Barringer, 
80 acres; David Crise, 160 acres; Jacob Hunsaker, 160 acres; Wil- 
liam Morrison, 340 acres; Robert Crafton, 91.22 acres; Joseph 
Mcllhaney, 182.46 acres; John Winces, 160 acres; Winsted Davie, 
80 acres; Abner Field, Jr., 160 acres; John Thornton, 80 acres; 
Thomas Sams, 80 acres; Rice Sams, 80 acres; John Grammer, 160 
acres; Jacob Hunsaker, Jr., 184.53 acres; John Mcintosh, 80 acres; 
Daniel Spence, 80 acres; David Brown, 160 acres; John Weigle, 160 
acres; William Craigle, 320 acres; David Miller, 160 acres; Leonard 
Knupp, 80 acres; George Cripe, 80 acres; Isaac Cornell, 160 acres; 

.Miller, 100 acres; John Brown, 160 acres; Nicholas Wilson, 
—16— 



162.46 acres; Henry Bechtle, 200 acres; George Plott, 80 acres; 
JLennard Lipe, 40 acres. 

Cobden Precincts were settled by Cornelius Anderson, 180.34 
acres; C. B. R. Smith, 40 acres; Aaron Trees, 40 acres; Samuel 
Hartland, 40 acres; Johnson Summers, 93.57 acres; John Vancil, 40 
acres; Duvall Lence, 240 acres; John Lingle, 160 acres; John Lence, 
160 acres; John Lence, Jr., 160 acres; Pete Lence, 80 acres; John 
Harris, 158.55 acres; John Lingle, 184.11 acres; Benedict Mull, 
£6.01 acres; George Hartline, 93 acres; John R. McFarland, 162.88 
acres; Matthias Zimmerman, 41.84 acres; Samuel Penrod, 80 acres; 
Thomas Farrill, 80 acres; John Vancil, Sr., 80 acres; Joseph Miller, 
bU acres; Edmund Vancil, 240 acres and Isaac Vancil, 320 acres. 

Dongola Precincts which comprise a large portion of the 
southeastern corner of Union County, were settled by Thomas Sams, 
66.98 acres; John Davis, 95 acres; Daniel Hileman, 80 acres; Moses 
Shelby, 49.24 acres; Moses Meisenheimer, 80 acres; Peter Cruse, 
2>7 acres; David Penrod, 80 acres; Levi Patterson, 160 acres; Alex 
Beggs, Jr., 80 acres; John Borin, 160 acres; Daniel Carriker, 40 
acres; Philip Hinkle, 80 acres; Henry Bechtle, 80 acres; John Vine- 
yard, 160 acres; Thomas S. Hughes, 80 acres; Joseph Barber, 80 
acres; Lost Cope, 160 acres, John Cope, 80 acres; Joseph Barbee, 
1C0 acres; Isaac Beggs, 160 acres; Lewis Penrod, 160 acres; Jacob 
Peeler, 40 acres; George Hileman, 40 acres; Alex Beggs, Jr., 240 
acres; Tobias Meisenheimer, 120 acres; A. Meisenheimer, 40 acres; 
Alex Brim, 160 acres; John Edelman, 340.18 acres; Adam Edelman, 
1D0.29 acres; Hosea Borin, 320 acres; William Crise, 80 acres; 
Thomas Mcintosh, 160 acres; Henry Strickler, 40 acres; Alexander 
Beggs, 125.98 acres; Thomas Lanes, 80 acres; George W. Brown, 80 
acres; Daniel F. Coleman, 160 acres; John Hunsaker, 160 acres; 
Isaac Braggs, 364.87 acres; George Davis, 160 acres; John Uri, 160 
acres; John Yost, 206.89 acres; Wilkinson Goodwin, 160 acres; John 
Hunsaker, 160 acres; Samuel Hunsaker, 40 acres; Adam Clapp, 320 
acres; John Miller, Sr., 160 acres; Augustus Post, 40 acres; George 
Devolt, 80 acres; Andrew Shaffer, 40 acres; Michael Dillow, 80 
acres; Wiley I. Davidson, 40 acres; J. Grammer and J. Bradshaw, 
McLean, 80 acres; Joseph Crite, 40 acres; George Krite, 40 acres; 
80 acres; Benjamin Menees, 40 acres; John Dillow, 200 acres; James 
John Bradshaw, 80 acres; John Saunders, 80 acres and Michael 
Osman, 40 acres. 

Stokes Precinct north of Dongola and east of Anna was 
settled by George Evans, 160 acres; John Mowery, 80 acres; Ben- 
jamin Menees, 80 acres; William Gwinn, 40 acres; Ambrose B. 
Rains; George Hileman, 40 acres; William Smith, 80 acres; W. 
Davidson and T. Throgmorton, 160 acres; John Stokes, 80 acres; 
George Godwin, 80 acres; Jonathan Boswell, 40 acres; Abner Cox, 
160 acres; Richard McGinnis, 160 acres; Caleb Musgrave, 120 acres; 
Silas Toler, 40 acres; Isaac Bizzel, 160 acres; Isaiah Patterson, 
95.36 acres; William Cove, 94.62 acres; John Davis, 95 acres; Daniel 
Hileman, 80 acres and Moses Shelby, 49.24 acres. 

—17— 



The early settlers of Saratoga Precinct were William Owen, 
120 acres and Thomas Green, 60 acres. 

Lick Creek early settlers were John Smith, 80 acres; Thomas 
D. Patterson, 160 acres; Wyatt Anderson, 40 acres; Zebedee An- 
derson, 80 acres; Hugh Craig, 160 acres; Heirs of John Cox, 320.25 
; Nathan Musgrave, 80 acres; John Bradshaw, 160 acres; Ben- 
jamin Menees, 160 acres; George Evans, 160 acres; 1818 Owen 
Evans, 160 acres, and Nathan Musgrave, 80 acres. 

There were no settlers in Rich Precinct before 1835. 

Many people settled near the river, the only means of long 
distance transportation at that time. 

Reynolds Precinct, the southwest corner of the county, was 
settled by McDaniel Dorris, 160 acres; Joseph Smith, 724.38 acres; 
Daniel Ellis, 80 acres; Stephen Donohoe, 160 acres; David Brown, 
80 acres; Jacob Littleton, 319.91 acres; J. Mcintosh, 80 acres; 
James Brown, Sr., 160 acres; L. W. and J. Smith, 480 acres; Ben- 
jamin Harris, 308.90 acres; Caleb Casper, 160 acres; Nicholas Long- 
worth, 160 acres; Benjamin Brooks, 240 acres; Willis James, 40 
acres; David Miller, 127.94 acres; Jacob Hileman, 124 acres; Jacob 
Trees, 206.48 acres and Hithaper A. Same, 80 acres. 

Meisenheimer Precinct was settled by Quinton Ellis, 80 acres; 
Cliff Hazelwood, 160 acres; Daniel Knupp, 80 acres; David Meisen- 
heimer, 80 acres; J. J. Meisenheimer, 80 acres; Andrew Smith, 80 
acres; Samuel Hunsaker, 160 acres; John Knupp, 80 acres; Adam 
Eddleman, 160 acres; Abraham Brown, 120 acres; Legal Represen- 
tatives of A. Cruse, 160 acres and John Smith, 40 acres. 

Mill Creek Precinct was settled by George Hunsaker, 160 
acres; Peter Lence, 206.89 acres; Peter Cruse, 204.87 acres; George 
Lawrence, 160 acres; Jacob Hunsaker, 160 acres; Henry Clutts, 202 
acres; Christian Miller, 202 acres; James Weaver, 160 acres; Peter 
Albright, 80 acres; John Harriston, 80 acres; John Kimmel, 80 
acres; John Fink, 80 acres; Edmund Holleman, 80 .'acres; Joel M. 
D. Herring, 80 acres; Peter Albright, 80 acres; Christopher Barn- 
hart, 40 acres; John Miller, 160 acres; Michael Holshouser, 160 
acres; John Hartline, 80 acres; Anthony Lingle, 160 acres; Henry 
Clutts, 103.36 acres; John Whitaker, 160 acres; John Barger, 160 
acres; Philip Shaver, 160 acres; Peter Panless, 80 acres; Philip 
Panless, 80 acres; William Worthington, 160 acres; Moses Cruse, 
160 acres; John Hoffner, 240 acres; George Medlin, 40 acres and 
Adam Goodman, 80 acres. 

Union Precinct, west of Jonesboro along the Mississippi River 
was the most thickly settled district along the river but the majority 
of the entries were made between 1825 and 1835 after Willard's 
Landing had become established. Those who entered land here were 
George Smith, 166.04 acres; George James, 39.70 acres; William 
James, 40 acres; Franklin M. Bennett, 42.50 acres; John Dougherty, 
42.52 acres; Mirian E. Whitaker, 165 acres; James M. Abernathy, 
152.81 acres; Thomas H. Harris, 40 acres; Elijah Willard, 1049.90 

—18— 



acres; Lineas B. Sublett, 240 acres; S. M. and J. Smith, 160 acres; 
William Green, 40 acres; Sarah Robinson, 40 acres; Richard Mc- 
Bride, 160 acres; John Eaton, 40 acres; L. Lewis and J. Hunsaker, 
160 acres; Harrison Ellis, 40 acres; George Kimmel, 40 acres; Vin- 
cent Robertson, 80 acres; Jonathan Ellis, 80 acres; Thomas S. Cox, 
40 acres; Thomas Green, 160 acres; John McBride, 80 acres; Mat- 
son Green, 120 acres; James Smith, 80 acres; Charles Conaway, 
80 acres; William M. Mounts, 40 acres; David Green, 160 acres; 
Benjamin J. Harris, 969.21 acres; William Willard, 80 acres; Ben- 
jamin Hall, 240 acres; Mica j ah Littleton, 80 acres; William Little- 
ton, 80 acres; Joseph Joy, Sr., 120 acres; John Price, 40 acres; John 
Barker, 40 acres; Caleb and D. Trees, 80 acres; John Summers, 80 
acres; Abraham Summers, 80 acres; William Grammer, 80 acres; 
Abraham Hunsaker, 40 acres; John Grammer, Sr., 40 acres; John 
H. Grammer, 40 acres; Jacob Rentleman, 320 acres; Calvin Price, 
180 acres and Augustus Rixleben, 180 acres. 

Farther up the river Preston Precinct was settled by Thomas 
H. Harris, 1111.95 acres; Jacob Crafts, 307.90 acres; Garland 
Laughlin, 20 acres; John Rorax, 120 acres; John Baltzell, 71.71 
acres; Ninian E. Whitaker, 127.86 acres; J. Carp and T. Craft, 
88.86 acres; Joseph Smith, 143.07 acres; George W. G. Henson, 160 
acres; Benjamin Walker, 206.77 acres; Cyrus S. Freeman, 16.28 
acres; John Freeman, 80 acres; William Bittle, 40 acres; Thomas 
Wright, 40 acres; Henry Lyerle, 80 acres; Wm. Shepard, 40 acres, 
and George Smith, 40 acres. 

Alto Pass Precinct was settled by Henry Rendleman, 40 
acres; Solomon Penrod, 80 acres; Robert W. Croft, 280 acres; 
Edward Vancil, 160 acres; Caleb Hartline, 40 acres; John Gregory, 
160 acres; Charles Dougherty, 36.89 acres; John Price, 80 acres; 
Jacob Lingle, 160 acres, John Vancil, Sr., 120 acres and Peter 
Dillow, 160 acres. 

207 of these entries were made before 1820. Many of these 
settlers entered more land after 1835 and by 1835 some of the 
above mentioned farms had changed ownership. 



—19— 



CHAPTER VH 
CENSUS OF 1835 AND HAPPENINGS BETWEEN 1830 AND 1845 

The census of 1835 showed that there were 4447_ P eisons 
in Union County, 2,100 males and 2,047 females. Forty-seven «i 
these were negroes and the remainder white. There was only one 
person over eighty years old. There were five shoemakers and 
saddlers; one tailor, William Kaley; two wagon-makers, George 
Knite and David Masters; two carpenters, one named John Rinehart; 
one cabinet-maker, a Mr. Bond; two hatters, one of whom was- 
James Hodge; eleven blacksmiths; three tan yards, one south of 
Jonesboro owned by Jaccard and one north of Jonesboro owned by 
Rendlemans; twelve distilleries; two threshing machines, one cotton 
gin, one wool-carding machine owned by Jake Frick; ono horse and 
ox mill; 18 horse and ox grist mill; two water saw mills and five 
water grist mills. 

In 1836 Willis Willard built the first steam saw and grist 
mill in the county and in 1838 a steam flour mill was added. The 
Willard family also built some of the first frame houses in the 
county and a store building in Jonesboro. By 1835 several stores 
were doing a flourishing business in Jonesboro. Nimrod Ferguson, 
Elijah Willard, Winsted Davie and Charles Rixleben were the own- 
ers of stores during this period. 

It is evident from the appearance of new business that the 
community was growing and that agriculture was increasing. All 
the industries and businesses which sprang up were related to agri- 
culture and were a source of supply for a growing population. 

In the courts appear many new names during the decade 
following 1835. Alexander F. Grant and Justin Halin were presid- 
ing judges in the Circuit Court and John Dougherty was prosecut- 
ing attorney. In 1836 Jeptha Hardin presided and in 1837 Walter 
B. Scates. Wiley Davidson was sheriff and Jacob Grammer was 
coroner and W. Davies was still clerk. In 1840 Jacob Davis was 
sheriff and Judge C. Campbell was coroner. In 1841 Willis Allen 
was prosecuting attorney and another attorney was named Billings. 
At this term of court, Sidney S. Condon was appointed clerk. In 
1842, John A. McClernand appeared among the attorneys, Thomas 
Hodge was sheriff, S. S. Condon, clerk and H. F. Walker, coroner. 
W. A. Denning was prosecuting attorney in 1845. In 1844, David 
Hileman was probate judge. 

During this period Union County was represented in state 
government by John S. Hacker, Senator and Brazil B. Craig repres- 
entative, 1834-36; 1836-38 John Dougherty, representative, 1838-40 
John S. Hacker, senator and Jacob Zimmerman, representative; 
1^40-42, John Dougherty, representative; 1842-44, John Dough- 
erty, senator and John Cochran, representative. 

Between the years 1827 and 1832 the Black Hawk war was 
waged. Since it was fought in the northern part of the state, Union 
County was not affected much by it but in 1832 an independent 

—20— 



company from this county was mustered into the service of the 
state. Following is a roster of the company: Captain, B. B. Craig; 
Fust Lieutenant, William Craig; Second Lieutenant, John Newton; 
Sergeants, Samuel Morland, Solomon David, Hezekiah Hodges, John 
Rendleman; Corporals, Joel Barker, Adam Cauble, Martin Uri, 
Jeremiah Irvine; Privates, Aaron Barringer, John Barringer, John 
Corgan, Matthew Cheser, Daniel Ellis, William Farmer, Thomas 
Farmer, Moses Fisher, Abraham Goodin, William G. Gavin, Hiram 
Grammer, William Grammer, Lot W. Hancock, Daniel P. Hill, Jack- 
son Hunsaker, Peter Lense, John Langley Moses Lively, A. W. 
Lingle, John Murphy, P. W. McCall, John Morris, Nimrod Mcintosh, 
John A. Mackintosh, Washington McLean, Elijah McGraw, John 
Penrod, John Parmer, John Quilman, W. H. Rumsey, Elijah 
Shepherd, Daniel Salmons, Preston I. Staten, John Vincent and Jesse 
Wright. 

During this period the homes of the farmers in the "bottoms" 
were destroyed by one of the worst floods in the history of the 
county. Many homes had been established in Union, Preston and 
Reynolds precincts because the river afforded the only type of loir^ 
distance transportation available at that time and all produce had 
to be hauled in wagons to the river to be sold. It is evident that 
the men operating trading posts on the river such as Willard's Land- 
ing, due west of Jonesboro; and Harris' Ferries across the river 
in the northwest corner of the county probably did more business 
than the others because by 1835 Elijah Willard and Thomas Harris 
had entered more land than any other men in Union County. How- 
ever all this land, fertile when dry enough for a crop, was menaced 
by floods. The early settlers were fortunate if they were able to 
harvest a crop one out of three years. The spring floods usually 
destroyed crops planted the previous fall and prevented the planting 
of crops in the spring. In 1844 Dr. Brooks described in his diary, 
the worst flood that had been known since the settlement of this 
county by white people. Following is his account: "The Mississippi 
commenced rising on the 18th of May, 1844 and continued rising 
at the rate of two feet to thirty inches in twenty-four hours until 
the first of June, at which time it stood within eight inches of the 
flood line of 1808. By the 10th of June it fell five or six feet, and 
left the farms in the bottom all free of water. The bottom farms 
had been more or less covered with water except that of Jacob 
Trees. On the 11th of June, the waters commenced to rise again, 
the flood coming down the Missouri and Mississippi rivers, and this 
time it rose from one foot to eighteen inches in tweney-foiir hours. 
This rise steadily continued until it overflowed the bottom land in 
Union County from eighteen to thirty feet deep. This was the depth 
of the water on the road to Littleton's old ferry, and also to Wil- 
lard's landing. Stocks, crops, houses and fences were carried 
away in the raging waters. The people made efforts to save their 
stock, and called to their aid ferry and coal boats and all floating 
craft, but soon they found they could only hope to save a few of 

—21— 



their household effects, and the stock was left to its fate and the 
iple fiY<l to the hills. This rise continued steadily until June 29, 
when it came to a stand. On the first of July it commenced slowly 
to recede. This was higher water than that of 1808 by ten or 
twelve feet. It was higher than was ever known, except in 1785, 
which Beck says in his history was the highest water in 150 years. 
.Mr. Cerre, one of the oldest French settlers of St. Louis said: "The 
flood was higher by four or five feet in 1785 than in 1844. In 1844 
the steamer Indiana transported the nuns from Kaskaskia Convent 
to St. Louis. The boat received them from the door of Pierre 
Menard's residence, the water in front of the house being fifteen 
feet in depth. Two hundred people went from Kaskaskia on the 
Indiana and about 300 found shelter at Menard's, while yet others 
were sheltered in tents on the bluffs. The loss in the bottoms was 
at least $1,000,000. From Alton to Cairo there were 288,000 acres 
of land overflowed. In Randolph county is a document soliciting a 
grant of lots from the crown of France, and urging as a reason the 
great flood of 1724, which overflowed the village and destroyed it. 
Great overflows occurred in 1542, 1724, and 1785, and in 1844. The 
Mississippi bottoms are now very clean, as everything is washed off 
and many of the small trees are killed. 



—22— 



r CHAPTER VIII 

VOTING IN UNION COUNTY BEFORE 1850 

Politics has been one of the most interesting subjects for 
conversation since our country began. Political parties developed 
as controversial matters arose in the country. Our first great con- 
troversy was whether or not we should remain British subjects and 
pay the taxes imposed by that government or whether we should 
revolt and set up our own government. Those in favor of re- 
maining British subjects were called Loyalists or Patriots and those 
in favor of independence were Federalists. As long as George 
Washington lived (December, 1799) the Federalists were in power 
but before his death a controversial question had arisen. 

Thomas Jefferson, who had been a Patriot because he be- 
longed to the governing family in Virginia, but who took active 
part in the framing of the Constitution of the United States of 
America and the seeting up of the government of the U. S. 
differed with Washington on the matter of the limit of power 
of the federal officials. Washington beleived in a strong central 
government which should have the power to decide all matters 
of government. Jefferson believed that the central government, 
the president, congress and the supreme court, should act only 
on matters set forth by the Constitution of the United States. 
He believed that all matters not provided for by the Constitution 
should be settled by the states according to their own views. How- 
ever history shows that later, Jefferson went beyond his principle, 
because he negotiated the Louisiana Purchase and the Constitution 
did not provide for the purchase of new territory by the govern- 
ment. However at the death of Washington, Jefferson became the 
leader of the party in power, Republicans. This party grew so 
strong that it was practically without opposition until 1828. 

At the time of the first elections in Union County, the 
candidates were not elected because they adhered to opposing 
party principles due to the fact they were all Jeffersonians — or 
Republicans. The choice was made on the basis of personal likes 
and dislikes because population was not large and most of the 
settlers had heard of each other since nearly all of them had 
travelled over the same roads to arrive at their destination. 

Note: The writer is indebted to Mr. A. Ney. Sessions for 
the record of the 1822 poll books which will be used as typical 
of the whole period to 1850. 

The poll books of 1822 show that the names of the candi- 
dates were written across the top of the page and the names of 
the voters down the left side of the page and opposite his name 
and under the name of the candidates was written the voter's 
choice. The County Board of Commissioners appointed election 
judges and clerks for the elections of the year and it was the 
duty of the clerk to compile the poll books and the judges to see 
that he did his work properly. After the names of the candidates 
were written across the tops of the pages, the voters were heard 



as they arrived at the polls. The voter told the judge of the elec- 
tion what candidate he wished to vote for and the clerk placed 
a mark opposite the voters names under the names of the candi- 
date. Each voter's name was placed on a new line and a record 
of his vote was opposite his name. 

In 1822 the candidates and the number of votes cast for 
each Governor of Illinois were Thomas C. Brown 96, James B. 
Moore 9, Joseph Phillips 71, and Edward Coles 75; for Lieutenant 
Governor, John G. Lofton 22, A. F. Hubbard 65, James A. Pea- 
cock 26, and James Lemons 33; for Congress, John McLean 101, 
and Daniel P. Cook 157; for Senator, John Whitaker 81, John 
Grammer 162, R. E. Heacock 3, and Henry L. Wibb 0; for Repre- 
sentative, John Mcintosh 138, Alex P. Field 136, James P. 
Edwards 70, William Echols 107, and John Hunsaker 31; for 
Sherff were George Hunsaker 220, and James S. Smith 13; for 
Coroner, Charles Daugherty 60, Jonathan Lyerle 88, Wesley G. 
N'immo 63; for City Commissioner, Cliff Hazelwood 111, Samuel 
Hunsaker 135, George Brown 160, Samuel Butcher 97, Jessie 
Echols 100, and for delegate to the national convention, William 
Barton 58. 

After the votes were recorded in the poll books and counted 
the results were given to the Clerk of the Court who issued a 
certified statement giving the names of the two leading candidates 
for each office. 

All of the freeholders, that is, people owning land were 
allowed to vote at that time. There were 235 voters in the 1822 
election. In 1850 all free men were allowed to vote but colored men 
were not allowed to vote until after the Civil War. This system 
of voting was used until 1850. It was easy to see that a man 
kept his promise to vote for a certain candidate in those 
days. An amusing incident is related about a voter in 
Johnson County who wished to vote for Lincoln, which shows how 
the judges and clerks helped elect their own candidate. It is 
possible that no such corrupt pratice ever existed in Union County. 
It seems that it was generally known that a certain voter was 
a supporter of Abraham Lincoln and the judges and clerks of 
the election were opposed to Lincoln. When the voter came to 
the polls to cast his vote the judges and clerks ignored him and 
he was forced to go away without being heard. However he 
met an influential man in the neighborhood who returned to the 
polls with him and insisted that his vote must be recorded 

As the population grew and the nunvoer of offices and 
candidates increased this system of voting became too slow to be 
useful and the system was changed to a ballot system. 

In the election of 1822 all candidates were Republicans. 
Jefferson had done much in aiding with the settlement of the 
Northwest Territory and all citizens here followed his leadership. 
He had established the new method of surveying, the use of 
townships, base lines, prime meridians etc. and had been instru- 

—24— 



anental in the government provision that Section 16 of «very 
township should be given by the government to the township for 
school purposes. He had also propounded the theory that religion, 
morality and knowledge were necessary for good government and 
the happiness of mankind. 

However, shortly before 1828, Jackson began to oppose 
the Republicans with the idea that caucuses were not fair in 
their methods of selecting a president and that office seekers 
should be a direct choice of the people. Jackson, who was a 
southerner was opposed to a high tariff because the southerners 
exported their cotton to England and other countries had to buy 
.all their manufactured goods from the northern states or pay a 
high duty or tariff for importing them from other countries. 
Jackson also opposed the establishment of a national bank, so 
with these three "planks" he established the platform of the 
new "Democratic Party" which has stayed in existence to the 
present time, altho some "planks" have been changed in the 
platform from time to time, 

Jackson was opposed in 1836 by a new party which called 
itself the Whigs. The Republican party had died and Jackson's 
Democratic party had been in full power until the question of 
the National Bank arose. The Whigs favored a National Bank 
and blamed Jackson with the hard times that had followed the 
era of speculation which Jackson had put an end to by ordering 
-all land purchased from the government to be paid for in gold 
or silver, thus devaluating the currency the various banks in the 
country had put into circulation on the strength of the fact that 
they held federal money on deposit in their banks. 

In 1840 the Whigs were victorious but did not stay in power 
long because they would not express themselves in the campaign 
regarding their stand on the annexation of Texas while Polk, the 
Democrat's candidate openly favored the annexation. 

The next controversial issue to arise was slavery. Two new 
parties appeared drawing members from both the Democratic and 
the Whig parties. The "know-nothing party" was so-called because 
its members belong to secret societies which opposed allowing any 
foreign born person to hold public office, and when asked about their 
policies, always answered, "we don't know". 

The Democrats were still intact in the south and Southern 
Illinois, since this area was settled by southerners, but in the north 
two factions of Democrats had sprung up; the Anti-Nebraska and 
the Douglas Democrats. The Kansas-Nebraska bill, sponsored by 
Stephen A. Douglas, allowed Kansas and Nebraska to decide for 
themselves whether or not they should be admitted as free or 
slave states to the Union. This was contrary to a previous pro- 
vision that this territory should be considered slave territory. 

Union County followed the rest of the country in presi- 
dential campaigns so that no disrupting issues caused much con- 
troversy until the slave question arose. 

—25— 



CHAPTER IX 

CHURCHES OF UNION COUNTY BEFORE 1850 
INVENTIONS WHICH CAUSED CHANGES IN COUNTY 

The Ordinance of 1787 governing the Northwest Territory 
proclaimed that there should be freedom of religion in the area, 
for the variety of churches erected by the early set- 
<»f Union County. 

M settlers adhered to the faith they had had in 
the communities they left and since the settlers came in little groups 
as a rule, each gioup later erected its own church. Most of the 
early religious meetings took place in the homes of the members 
of the groups. The first preacher in the county was Father Wolf, 
i Dunkard, mentioned before as one of the first settlers. He held 
•igs in various homes but no Dunkard church was ever erected. 

The Baptists and Lutherans were the first to erect churches. 
The Baptists organized as the Clear Creek Baptists and built their 
first log cabin church in 1821 where the Jonesboro cemetery now 
xi amis. Leaders of the church were Reverend James P. Edwards, 
Jeremiah Brown and John Mcintosh. In 1848 this congregation 
erected a frame building for their church south of the Jonesboro 
square and placed in its belfry the first church bell to be heard in 
Illinois south of Kaskaskia or Shawneetown. This bell was donated 
deb Frick. A Baptist church erected near Willard's Landing 
was washed away by the flood of 1844 and not rebuilt. 

The Evangelical Lutherans organized in 1819 and built a log 
church in 1822 near the Jonesboro square. The Lutherans also 
built a church north of what is now Anna which was known as 
Union or < asper church. Both this church and the church in Jones- 
boro belonged to the North Carolina Synod and Reverend J. H. C. 
Shrenberg was the first missionary sent by the Synod to Illinois. 
His health failed and he was replaced by Daniel Sherer who made 
his home in Hillsboro, Illinois, and came to these churches once 
every three months. In 1847 the Casper Church group replaced 
their log building with a frame building for the joint use of the 
German Reform Church and the Lutherans. D. F. Rendleman, Peter 
Pifford, David Miller, Jr., and Samuel Dillow formed the building 
committee which let the contract to Joshua Roberts. Near this 
church is one of the oldest burial grounds of the county. About 
I860 a group of German Lutherans from Austria settled two miles 
south of Jonesboro on Dutch Creek and erected St. Paul's Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church. Leaders of this congregation were Joseph 
M<-ver, Sr., and Joseph Kollener. 

The Methodists were numerous from the beginning of the 
settlement of the county but they did not build a church until 1842. 
They gathered for worship in the homes of their members and 
once each year held a "camp ground" meeting. Their first church 

—26— 



"was erected south of the Jonesboro square under the direction of 
Reverend Charles Adkins, a circuit preacher, who was also a 
carpenter. 

In 1S50 Camp Ground Church was erected in the Stokes 
settlement ~T3y~ a group of Presbyterians, namely, George Hileman 
and wife, John Hileman and wife, William Standard and wife, Daniel 
Standard and wife, Woods Hamilton and wife, James Lingle and 
wife, James Alexander and Mr. McAllen and wife. The first graves 
in the burial ground joining this church were those of the son and 
daughter of George Hileman and wife. 

During the following half century many more churches were 
erected. These will be mentioned in later chapters. 

There were two great changes occurring between 1800 and 
L850 which had a great effect on the development of the whole 
world and Union County had its share of this development. These 
changes were the invention of machinery and the use of steam to 
run the machinery. Congress passed the first patent act in 1835 
and a patent office was established in 1836. The inventions which 
revolutionized industry were the cotton gin, the spinning jenny, 
looms for weaving, and the sewing machine which all affected the 
manufacture of cloth and clothing. In 1831 Cyrus McCormick of 
Virginia patented new plows, a horse power reaper and later an 
automatic binder which changed the method of farming. Planing 
mill machines, the manufacture of brick and the invention of the 
Bessemer process of steel manufacturing revolutionized building 
and later transportation. Other revolutionary inventions were 
"daguerreotype" photography, cookstoves, vulcanized rubber, tele- 
graphy and the rotary press. 

The change in the manufacture of steel probably effected 
Union County more than any of the other inventions because fol- 
lowing this came the manufacture of rails, the locomotive, and the 
building of railroads. The steamboat effected river transportation 
and steam was soon used in local mills. Since large amounts of 
raw materials for the manufacture of cloth and shoes were not pro- 
duced in Union County, factories manufacturing these products did 
not spring up here and since the land was rough and too hilly for 
the use of the newly invented farm machinery, Union County and 
southern Illinois fell behind northern Illinois in the production of 
large quantities of wheat, corn and other grains. However the 
manufactured products were brought to Union County and exchang- 
ed for our skins and agricultural products on "floating stores" 
which came down the Ohio from the east. All the agriculture and 
trade and system of living in Union County before 1850 was based 
on its trade on the Mississippi and Ohio. After 1830, with the 
coming of steamboats, river trade flourished and boat landings be- 
came trade centers. Roads were built from all parts of the county 
to the boat landings. The first "gravel road" in the county was 
from Jonesboro to Willard's Landing. This road was maintained 

—27— 



I at a toll gate west of Jonesboro. The merchant? 

-:,oio took articles produced by the farmers as payment for 

their merchandise and traded these products to the river traders 

their wares to stock their stores. There was not much money 

i in those days but rather a barter system was prevalent. This 

e of trading flourished until after 1850 when a railroad was 

built thru Union County which completely changed the character of 

the place. 

It is often asked why southern Illinois was settled and flour- 
ished long before northern Illinois, then why was it that northern 
Illinois became more wealthy and more thickly populated. There 
are two very good reasons for the early settlement of southern 
Illinois, first its navigable waterways and second the fact that the 
Indians were driven out at an early date. Then came three reasons 
why northern Illinois began to develop rapidly. Canals were built 
in New York and the Great Lakes which made navigable lake routes 
to the west; Cyrus McCormick decided to establish his factory for 
farm machinery in Chicago, or rather Fort Dearborn at that time, 
because the machinery was suitable for use on the level land sur- 
rounding this point for many miles; and third, a wagon road or 
National Trail was constructed from Cumberland, Maryland, thru 
Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana, to Vandalia, Illinois, which was 
then the state capital. 

An interesting story is told of citizens of Fort Dearborn 
(now Chicago) coming to Shawneetown where the oldest bank in 
the state is located to borrow money for the development of their 
community. They were refused because the bankers did not feel 
that this community would ever amount to anything since it was 
so far away from Shawneetown. 

However, during the period between 1830 and 1850, Union 
County enjoyed its share of growth in population. After the estab- 
lishment of the first steam flouring mill in Union County in 1838, 
flour soon become one of the leading exports of the county which 
necessitated wheat being one of the leading products produced by 
the farmer. The raising of livestock early became a profitable in- 
dustry in the county. The livestock market was establised at an 
early date in St. Louis. 



CHAPTER X 

UNION COUNTY'S FIRST NEWSPAPER 

The first newspaper published in Union County, September 
19, 184a,. was called the Jonesboro Gazette and Southern Illinois 
Reflector. The Southern Illinois Reflector part of the name, was 
to indicate that news in the paper would interest not only Jones- 
boro but all of Southern Illinois. The oldest available copy of the 
paper was the one issued October 10, 1849.. 

In this issue of the paper the editor, Rev. H. Edward Hemp- 
sted and the publishers and proprietors, Thomas J. Fmley and John 
Evans set up the policy of the paper. It was to have a "Literary 
Department" including "tales, selected and original to occupy the 
front page. "Interesting incidents connected with the early settle- 
ment of Illinois" were to be found in the columns of the paper. 
The "subject of Education, a hitherto much neglected subject was 
to be another department. "The latest Foreign and Domestic news" 
written was to be of interest to all readers who were "anxious for 
the overthrow of political and religious despots." The affairs of Con- 
gress and the State Legislature were to be given" yet not at any 
time was anything to be admitted to the columns which could be 
made to look favorable to any man or set of men." This indicates 
that the paper did not begin as a partisan paper. There was also to 
be included a weekly review of the New Orleans and St. Louis mar- 
kets and a Jonesboro current price list. 

The terms of the paper were $2.00 for one year, $2.50 if not 
paid within six months and $3.00 if not paid within a year. For six 
copies for one year, $10.00; for twelve copies, $18.00, and for 
eighteen copies, $25.00. No paper was to be discontinued unless 
at the option of the publisher, until all arrearages were paid. The 
advertising rates were: for one square of twelve lines or less, $1.00; 
for each additional insertion 30c; one square for three months, 
$4.00; for six months, $6.00; twelve months, $9.00; quarter column 
for one year, $15.00; half a column for one year $20.00; one column 
for one year, $35.00; business cards, one year, $6.00. 

The paper had four pages of six columns each, eight full 
columns of which were advertisements. Three columns on the front 
page and one and one-half on the second were devoted to the con- 
clusion of a continued story having a moral lesson teaching mothers 
how to train their sons to grow into reliable men. It depicted the 
every day life of the pioneer boy. Two columns of the paper, one 
on the front page, were filled with poetry. One poem showing the 
topics of the day was a parody on the song "Susanah" called "Cali- 
fornia," telling of a Kentuckian going to California for the gold rush 
and finding no gold. The foreign news of the day told of a war 
being waged between Hungary and Austria allied with Russia. The 
combat was handicapped because Austria could only manufacture 
two hundred guns per day but another item said that England had 
sent them 50,000 percussion lock muskets. There was a two column 

—29— 



article by the editor on education on the second page. He advocated 
the hiring of more qualified teachers for the local schools, arguing 
that a teacher who did not know his three "R's" could not teach 
no to the children. He said, "A man has no business attempting 
to teach youth before he understands the grammer of nis osvn lan- 
guage." Teaching at that time had not achieved a universal pro- 
:ial standard, not even a low standard. 

A news item said that "The female department of the Jones- 
boro "Academy" will open Monday next under the superintendance 
of Miss A. E. Brooks." 

In the advertising section, a "Female Seminary" at Cape Gir- 
ardeau, Mo., was advertised for students. Their were: tuition 
in the ordinary branches, according to the grade of study, per an- 
num, $6.00 to $15.00; needlework, waxwork, drawing and painting, 
each (extra) $5.00; music (on the piano) per session, $20.00; board- 
ing including washing, fuel, lights, etc, $40.00. There were two 
sessions of twenty-one weeks each in each school year. The school 
was incorporated by the Legislature of Missouri. 

Another school, "Western Military Institute" at Georgetown. 
Ky., also advertised for male students. Six military officers, two 
Colonels, one Major, two Captains, and one Lieutenant, all educated 
at West Point or the Virginia Military Institute, and five other in- 
structors, one a lawyer, three with A. M. degrees and one with an A. 
B. degree made up the faculty. The school was established in 1817 
and two hundred thirty cadets from fifteen different states had been 
enrolled there. Military training and civil engineering were taught 
there. It was advertised that the wage a graduate engineer could 
expect to make was seventy-five dollars per month and it was stated 
that one graduate was receiving $2500.00 per year as "principal 
engineer" for a railroad company building a railroad in Kentueky 
and others were receiving S2000, $1500 and $1200 in other parts 
of the United States as "assistant engineers." 

Other interesting advertisements were those of other newspapers 
and periodicals, some fashion magazines and other stories, news and 
religious magazines. A St. Louis wholesale merchant, a book and 
job printer and a doctor all advertised in this issue of the paper. 

Local ads included administrator's notices, land for sale, a 
sheriff's notice that a slave had been found and placed in jail until 
claimed by the owner, the professional cards of Dr. J. V. Brooks. 
Dr. S. S. Condon, Dr. Parks and Dr. Freeman, and attorneys, Wm. 
A. Hacker, H. Watson Webb, J. Dougherty and C. G. Simmons; 
fioshly butchered beef and mutton for sale by James Kerr at his 
home; accomodations at the Rising Sun Hotel by Wm. Kaley; tailor- 
ing by Lingle and Bratton; cabinet making by C. H. Williford and 
bootmaking by John Evans. 

Many other businesses had been established by this time but 
evidently their owners had not seen fit to advertise their wares in 
the new paper. Within the next few years local advertisers increas- 
ed in numbers: Parks' Drug Store; Elias V. Winget, blacksmithing, 
' ' —30— 



plows and wagons; Adam Cruse, blacksmithing, plows and wagons; 
Dr. David Love; D. G. Brooks, attorney; Robert Brown, butcher; 
James Hodges, dry goods and groceries; Cyrus G. Simmons, insur- 
ance; W. Willard, 100 kegs of nails and 10000 pounds of iron; many 
patent medicine ads; W. W. Yyman, furniture store; W. Davie and 
sons, dry goods and groceries; Caleb Frick, dry goods and grocer: 
A. C. Caldwell, dealer in copper, tin, sheet iron and stoves; L. Jay 
S. Turrey, attorney, and Leonard Kerr, attorney. Local markcis 
were first reported by W. Willard and in 1851 by J. E. Naill. 

In 1851 the publishers and proprietors of the "Gazette," were 
Thomas J. Finley and F. A. McKenzie, and in 1853, John Evans 
and Co. In 1851 the title of the paper "Jonesborough Gazette and 
Southern Illinois Enterprise" had been changed to "Jonesboro Ga- 
zette." The paper was described as a weekly paper devoted to poli- 
tics, literature, education, foreign and domestic news. 

Perrin, who published a history of Union County in 1883 
said that the paper was a democrat paper from its beginning altho 
the first editor stated he intended to have a non-partisan paper in his 
editorial setting forth the policy of the paper. He says that in 
1854, H. E. Hempstead bought the paper and sold it to John Grear 
in 1855 who in turn sold it to John Dougherty, then Lieutenant 
Governor of Illinois. Dougherty and his publisher-, A. H. Marschalk, 
-plit when Dougherty took an anti-Douglas stand in politics. Mar- 
schalk_then established "The Democrat" and moved its office to Anna. 
Dougherty sold the "Gazette" back to McKinney, a former editor, 
who sold it to Evans who kept it until he enlisted in the Civil War. 
He sold it to William Jones, who ow ned it w hen it was o rdered sud- 
pressed, however this order was lifted as soon as the state authori- 
ties learned of it which was six months after the order had been 
j-iven. Altho this paper has changed hands many times, it is still 
being published, as the "Jonesboro Gazette" until recently when it 
beeame the "Gazette-Democrat." 



—31— 



CHAPTER XI 

THE MARKET PRICE OF FOOD IN 1849. THE MEXICAN WAR. 
A CHANGE IN THE METHOD OF VOTING 

It is interesting to compare the prices of commodities in 
1849 with those of the present time. Following is a copy of Willis 
Willard's weekly market list published in the Jonesboro Gazette. 
It gives the price and the amount for sale of the articles used in 
those days. Flour, 4 bbl. at $4.50, 2-100 lb sacks at $2.25; wheat 
40 bu. at 62c; corn in ear, 20 bu. at 25c; salt, per bu. 50c, per 
Back $2.00; dry apples, 50 bu. at 62c; green apples, 20 bu. at 25c; 
dry peaches, 90 bu. at $1.00; green, 25 bu. at 30c; Castor beans, 
10 bu. at $1.25; white beans, 30 bu. at 35c; butter, 6 lbs. at 8c; 
coffee, sack, 8 lb. at 9c; 9 lb. at 10c; sugar (New Orleans) 7 lbs. 
at 10c, 5 bbl. at 7c per lb.; Imperial tea, 90 lb. at $1.00 per lb.; 
nails, 6 lb at 7c; lead, 6 lb. at 7Vi>c; whiskey, 35 gal. at 40c; 22* ■ 
bbl. at 25c per gal.; molasses, 35 gal. at 40c, 30 bbl. at 35c per gal.; 
candle molds, 11 at 15c each, 12 at 18c each; salaratus, 9 lb. 10c; 
cordage, manilla, 18 lb. at 25c; chickens, 100 doz. at 25c per doz; 
eggs, 5 doz. at 6c per doz.; linseed oil, 75 gal. at $1.00; turpentine, 
87 gal. at $1.00; white lead, 200 kegs, at $2.25; tallon, 6 lb. at 8c; 
dry hides, 6 at 8c; green, 3 at 4c. The market price for beef cattle 
and hogs was not given but articles the store wished to buy to sell 
to traders on the river were priced as follows: feathers, 25c per lb.; 
ginseng, 20c per lb.; beeswax, 18c per lb.; flaxseed, 80c per lb. 

In 1846, the United States declared that a state of war exist- 
ed between this country and Mexico, and Illinois was called upon 
for thirty companies of men. Union County sent its quota, most of 
whom were placed in Company F of the 2nd Regiment. The en- 
listed men were allowed to elect their own officers. This company 
took part in the Battle of Buena Vista, February 22nd, 1847, which 
brought about the close of the war and victory for the United States. 

The following men were enlisted from Union County: Cap- 
tain, John S. Hacker; First Lieutenant, Sidney S. Condon; Second 
Lieutenants, John Roberts and John Master; Third Lieutenants, 
Alphonso Grammer; Sergeants, John C. Hunsaker, Alex J. Nimmo, 
Abram Hargrave and John Grammer; Corporals, Adam Creese, 
Wright C. Pender, Henderson Brown, Abram Cover; Musicians, Jacob 
Greer and George H. Lemley; Privates, Talbot Brown, John Bevins. 
John Brown, Charles Barringer, John Z. Burgess, Peter Cripps, Peter 
H. Casper, Elijah Coffman, Scipio A. B. Davie, John Davis, Daniel 
Dougherty, Simeon Fisher, Charles A. Finley, James Fike, Jessie 
Gray, Franklin Georgus, James Grammer, Henry Flaugh, William 
X. Hamby, William Henry, Samuel Hess, Benjamin F. Hayward, 
Henry C. Hacker, Fielding A. Jones, Silas Jones, John Kerr, Fred- 
erick King, Adam Lingle, Philip Lewis, John Lingle, Daniel W. 
I.yerle, Andrew J. Lemons, Daniel Lingle, Chesterfield Langley, John 
Ifenees, Harrison McCoy, Jefferson Menees, William Miller, John H. 
Millikin, John Moland, Samuel Martin, Washington L. Mcintosh, 

—32— 



John McGinnis, James M. Phelan, Samuel Parker, Garrett Resink, 
John W. Regan, Franklin Sprey, Amalphus W. Simonds, James A. 
Springs, Azel Thornton, Reuben Vick and James Walker. Charles 
A. P'inley in the quartermaster's department, Henry C. Hacker, 
pital steward and Pitas Martin, surgeon were also in the service. 

Flex G. Anderson, Alexander Davie and Joseph Ledgerwood 
■were wounded in the battle of Buena Vista and died in hospitals 
after the war. 

February 12, 1849, the Illinois Legislature passed a law re- 
vising the method of voting in Illinois, establishing the use of ballots 
and ballot boxes. 

The law stated that a general election should be held on 
Tuesday next after the first Monday in the November preceding the 
■expiration of the term of office of each president of the United 
States. The general election for governor, lieutenant governor, 
secretary of state, auditor of public accounts, state treasurer, rep- 
resentatives to Congress, Senators and representatives to the gen- 
-eral assembly and county officers, was to be held biennially, Tues- 
day next after the first Monday in November, except for such offices 
as were directed to be chosen other than biennially, namely the- 
governor and other officers who served for terms of four years each 
instead of two years. 

There was provisions made for the election of two supreme 
judges, one from the first district to be elected the first Monday 
in June, 1852 and a successor every nine years thereafter, the 
second from the second district to be elected the first Monday in 
June, 1855, and a successor each nine years thereafter. The judges 
then in office were to hold their positions until the times set for the 
next elections. 

Circuit judges were to be elected in each circuit the first 
Monday in June 1855 and every six years thereafter. 

It was provided that if a vacancy should occur in the judge- 
ship of the supreme court, or circuit court within one year before 
a scheduled election, the governor of Hlinois should appoint a judge 
to fill the vacancy until the time of the regularly scheduled election. 
In case the office of supreme court clerk should become vacant, the 
supreme judge should appoint a clerk to fill the vacancy until the 
term of a scheduled election, and the circuit judge should do like- 
wise in case of a vacancy in the office of circuit court clerk. The 
governor of the state was to make appointments to fill vacancies in 
the office of states attorney, state auditor of public accounts, state 
treasurer or secretary of state. 

The privilege of voting was given to all white men above 
the age of 21 who had resided in the state for one year. 

The method of voting was changed to a ballot system. Blank 
ballots with no writing or identifying marks were to be used by 
voters who wrote the names of the candidates of their choice, fold- 
ed the ballots and gave it to one of the election judges who placed 
it in the ballot box without unfolding it. 

—33— 



After the voting was completed, the clerk counted the number 
of names of voters on the poll book who had voted and the judges 
counted the number of ballots in the box. If more ballots were in 
the box than there were names of voters, a public drawing was held 
where the judges drew out the number of surplus ballots and de- 
stroyed them. In counting the votes, if two ballots were found 
folded together, both were destroyed because this appeared as evi- 
dence that someone was attempting to cast more than one vote. 

The clerks and judges were allowed to adjourn until the next 
day after the votes were cast to count the votes. They were required 
to hand the results of their count to the county clerk within four 
days after the election and the county clerk was required to publish 
the returns. 

The ballots were returned to the ballot box which was then 
3ocked and one election judge kept the key and another the box 
until the next election if there was no contest. 

This law repealed all previous laws that had been passed; 
in regard to elections. 



—34— 



CHAPTER XII 

LAND ENTERED IN UNION COUNTY BETWEEN 1835 AND 

1850 

Between 1835 and 1850 many newcomers settled in Union 
County and many of the earlier settlers expanded their holdings 
In many instances the second generation of the first settlers bought 
government land near that on which their parents had already 
settled. 

Rich Precinct which had had no settlers before 1835 now 
had a few. In 1836 George Rich for whom the precinct was named 
and whose house was the voting place, entered 120 acres; later, be- 
fore 1850 the following entries were made: Wm. H. Latham, 448.88 
acres; Wm. Grammer, 121.62 acres; James K. Cochran, 343.27 acres; 
Simm P. Hiller, 80 acres; Tilford Brooks, 280 acres, and Wm. B. 
Elmore, 280 acres. 

In Lick Creek Precinct the following settlements were enter- 
ed between 1835 and 1850: John M. Cochran, 320 acres; George E. 
Stokes, 160 acres; Wm. A. Roberts, 200 acres; Larkin S. Brooks, 
40 acres; Elijah Brooks, 200 acres; Uriah Anderson, 120 acres; 
Wiggs and Ashley, 120 acres; Nancy Boswell, 40 acres; Nathan 
Boswell, 120 acres; Lazarus Wiggs, 80 acres; Jefferson Anderson, 40 
acres; Hiram Penoyer, 40 acres; John Anderson, 40 acres; George 
A.. Goddard, 200 acres; Jeremiah White, 40 acres; Stephen Howard, 
40 acres; Permele Anderson, 40 acres; Thomas Boswell, 40.78 acres; 
Martin Walts, 40 acres; Jacob Trees, 40 acres; Stephen Howard, 40 
acres; Rollins Henderson, 40 acres; Arthur Allen, 160 acres; Little- 
berry Allen, 40 acres; and Henry Hileman, 280 acres. 

The following settlements were added in Saratoga Precinct: 
Calvin A. Goodman, 4© acres; Jessie and John M. Owens, 43.72 
acres; John Bevans, 226.98 acres; J. W. Owens, 40 acres; Alexander 
M. Jenkins, 40 acres; Solomon Henry Sitter, 232.78 acres; John 
Skelton, 40 acres; Wiggs and Ashley, 40 acres; William Miller, 120 
acres; Benjamin F. Preston, 40 acres; Wm. H. Reed, 248 acres; 
Urias Martin, 46.14 acres; Conrad Sitter, 92.29 acres; Hezia Martin, 
44 acres; Preston Anderson, 44 acres; Thomas Shearer, 160 acres; 
Tobias Verble, 44.61 acres; Lewis Bryant, 40 acres; John 
Worsham, 40 acres; William Miller, 80 acres; Henry C. 
Hileman, 40 acres; John Lemley, 80 acres; Frederick John- 
son, 80 acres; Henry Kolpe, 40 acres; Samuel Clutts, 40 acres; 
Matthias Caraker, 40 acres; Jacob Caraker, 40 acres; Thomas Lingle, 
40 acres; George Lemley, 40 acres; John Jumpers, 40 acres; Thomas 
Stokes, 40 acres; Christian Lookingbee* 40 acres; Jacob Trees, 80 
acres; William Miller, 40 acres; Jacob W. Haire, 80 acres; James 
Kelley, 40 acres; Jacob Lence, 40 acres; Jonathan Rich, 40 acres; 
Michael Dillow, 40 acres; David Lence, 40 acres; Martin Mull, 40 
acres; Henry Lingle, 250.93 acres; Daniel Mull, 80 acres; George 
Hartland, 40 acres; David Lingle, 80 acres; Jacob Burlman, 40 
acres; Joseph Kestler, 40 acres; John J. Lingle, 86.78 acres; Caleb 

—35— 



Hartline, 136.29 acres; Henry Mull, 48.15 acres; Alex W. Lingle, 80 
acres; David Lentz, 80 acres; Paul Lingle, 40 acres; David Green, 40 
acres, and Thomas Rich, 40 acres. 

Stokes Precinct added George Hileman with 285.06 acres; 
John Hileman, 80 acres; Daniel Beets, 45.05 acres; John H. Wil- 
liams, 45.05 acres; John Penninger, 90.43 acres; Edna Stokes, 120 
acres; George E. Stokes, 80 acres; Thomas Stokes, 40 acres; Zilpha 
*■ a, 40 acres; Needham Wiggs, 200 acres; John Stokes, 40 acres; 
James Williams, 37 acres; Caleb Musgrave, 40 acres; Arthur Allen, 
80 acres; William Standard, 80 acres; Thomas Standard, 80 acres; 
Joel M. Huffman, 206.78 acres; James S. Miller, 80 acres; Daniel 
Gore, 80 acres; Mary Gore, 80 acres; John McLane, 40 acres; Mor- 
?an Bryant, 120 acres; Calvin Bridges, 40 acres; Abner Cox, 120 
acres; Henrietta A. Williams, 40 acres; James Bishop, 120 acres; 
Doctor H. Toler, 40 acres; Jones Stokes, Sr., 240 acres; John Mc- 
Ginnis, 240 acres; Stephen Toler, 40 acres; Thomas C. Bozier, 80 
acres; James I. Toler, 40 acres; Jessie Toler, 520 acres; Jacob Sivia, 
40 acres; John Quinn, 40 acres; John Hinkle, 40 acres; William 
Wiggs, 40 acres; William Penninger, 165.37 acres; Priscilla Frogg, 
45.37 acres; Green B. Harrison, 40 acres; Robert Throgmorton, 
75 acres; Jacob Verble, 44.55 acres; John Verble, 40 acres; 
George Davis, 80 acres; Jacob Peler, 40 acres; Clarissa Bishop, 80 
acres; Meredith Spence, 252.98 acres; Sylvester Adams, 86.78 acres; 
Barnett Weaver, 40 acres; Joshua Patterson, 40 acres; Wilson 
Arnold, 40 acres; Jessie N. Miles, 80 acres; Joshua Peterson, 40 
acres; William S. Davis, 87.68 acres; Sylvester Adams, 233.10 acres; 
Nancy A. Davis, 86.78 acres: Joseph Davis, 40 acres; Francis Brown, 
40 acres; Charles Smith, 40 acres, and James H. Rankin, 40 acres. 

The new landowners of Dongola Precinct were John Davis, 
50.13 acres; Henry Verble, 49.04 acres; James Lingal, 98.09 acres; 
Alex S. Penninger, 80 acres; Daniel Hileman, 40 acres; William 
Penninerer, 47.50 acres; John Verble, 56.82 acres; George W. Otrich, 
107.25 acres; Spence Laws, 105.25 acres; Paul Hofner. 40 acres; 
Caleb Linger, 40 acres; Henry Kellar, 40 acres; John Corzine, 80 
acres; Martin Hoffner, 48.54 acres; Thomas Allen, 49.24 acres; 
Charles Lence, 49.27 acres; Lewis Misenheimer, 80 acres; John 
Allen, 80 acres; Terna Misenheimer, 40 acres; Daniel Lingle, 120 
acres; Mose Misenheimer, 160 acres; Henry Misenheimer, 80 acres; 
Silas Jones, 160 acres; Absolom Keller, 120 acres; Francis Brown, 
120 acres; James A. Penrod, 40 acres; Daniel W. Jones, 40 acres; 
Thomas Gore, 40 acres; Morton Cai'ter, 40 acres; Daniel Penrod, 40 
acres; John Fink, 80 acres; Winstead Davie, 124.90 acres; Reuben 
H. Corzine, 80 acres; George Davalt, 120 acres; David Penrod, 40 
acres; Robert Baggs, 80 acres; Young D. Garner, 80 acres; Eli Coss, 
40 acres; Elias Misenheimer, 80 acres; Rachel Karraker, 40 acres; 
Eli Corzine, 80 acres; Daniel Karraker, 80 acres; Henry Hinkel, Jr., 
80 acres; Sarah Hinkle, 40 acres; William Hinkle, 80 acres; George 
Corzine, 50.41 acres; Charles Lentz, 100.91 acres; Henry Barringei, 
80 acres; David Ernest, 40 acres; John Trexler, 80 acres; Philip 

— 3G— 



Hinkle, 40 acres Abner Keller, 40 acres; Elkono Keller, 160 acres; 
Nancy Karraker, 80 acres; John J. Carter, 80 acres; James Cress, 
40 acres; David Beggs, 120 acres; Stephen T. Barton, 200 acres; 
John Beggs, 80 acres; David Peler, 40 acres; Jacob Peeler, 40 acres; 
Henry Sticker, 80 acres; Willoughby Gales, 80 acres; Thomas Mc- 
intosh, 80 acres; Alexander Beggs, 120 acres; Alley D. Boren, 40 
acres; A. Misenheimer, 80 acres; Tobias Misenheimer, 40 acres; 
Hosea Mcintosh, 40 acres; John Mcintosh, 80 acres; John C. Al- 
bright, 120 acres; Monroe G. W. Lingle, 80 acres; John Hoffner, 160 
acres; Bazil Boren, 160 acres; John Knup, 80 acres; Henry Sowers, 
SO acres; James Noel, 34.92 acres; Elizabeth Noel, 34.92 acres; 
Daniel Trees, 40 acres; Charles Littlejohn, 40 acres; Harmon F. 
Whitacre, 40 acres; John J. Denning, 97.03 acres; Thomas Brew- 
ster, 40 acres; Debar Deming, 40 acres; Hezekiah C. Hardin, 124.23 
acres; Napoleon B. Walker, 120 acres; Young J. Vancil, 40 acres; 
James Warren, 40 acres; William Hagler, 40 acres; John Hagler, 
40 acres; William J. Biggs, 40 acres; Timothy Anderson, 40 acres; 
Alfred Anderson, 44.90 acres; Anslem Guthrie, 340 acres; Henry 
Hope, 80 acres; Sampson Keith, 40 acres; John O. Daniel, 120 acres; 
Hezikiah C. Hodge, 80 acres; John Lockard, 120 acres; Robert C. 
Armstrong, 40 acres; Joseph Battson, 80 acres; Daniel Barringer, 40 
acres; Jacob Linsley, 40 acres; John D. Fly, 80 acres; William Oaks, 
80 acres; Anna Roberts, 40 acres; Larkin F. Brooks, 240 acres; 
Henry C. Stout, 200 acres; Evan Roberts, 40 acres; Jefferson T. 
Denning, 80 acres; James C. Swinford, 160 acres; Henry Casper, 
160 acres; James Guthrie, 80 acres; Jacob Simmerman, 
400 acres; Phtilip Clutts, 120 acres, William Brocker, 80 
acres; Evasmus Hardin, 80 acres; Charles Hagler, 80 
acres; James Ferril, 40 acres; Ignatius O'Daniel, 40 acres; Thomas 
Ferril, 84.77 acres; William Griffin, 44.77 acres; Rebecca Scott, 
44.90 acres; Daniel Ireland, 89.80 acres; Reuben A. Morris, 44.90 
acres; Jacob Chitts, 80 acres; James L. Wallace, 80 acres; John Fer« 
rill, 211.92 acres; Singleton P. Tweedy, 45.96 acres; William L. 
Lamer, 45.97 acres; Ary McGraw, 40 acres; William Neal, 40 acres; 
Alfred Vancil, 40 acres; Peter Sifford, 240 acres; M. S. Allen, 40 
acres; John Lence, Jr., 500 acres; William Rich, 80 acres; Solomon 
Lence, 120 acres; Nancy Lence, 40 acres; Joseph West, 80 acres; 
George Snyder, 40 acres; Henry Barrington, 80 acres Peter Rymer, 
160 acres; George Sevar, 40 acres; Wiley Davidson, 40 acres; Adam 
Clapp, Jr., 40 acres; John Dillow, 160 acres; Anthony George, 40 
acres; Silas Corzine, 40 acres; Frederick Barringer, 80 acres; Ed- 
ward Mowery, 40 acres; Pete Barringer, Jr., 40 acres; Alexander 
H. Corzine, 80 acres; George P. Sheffola, 40 acres; Washington Mc- 
Lane, 40 acres; Samuel Seals, 40 acres; Henry W. Otrich, 80 acres; 
Joseph Rinehart, 80 acres; John File, 40 acres; Aaron Barringer, 
40 acres; John Peeler, 120 acres; Simon Albright, 40 acres; George 
Devolt, 40 acres; Andrew Shaffer, 40 acres; George Mowery, 80 
acres and Jacob Dillow, Jr., 40 acres. 

Cobden Precinct increased its occupied area by the settle- 
—37— 



ment of Alexander Smith who occupied 40 acres; Moses Trees, 80 
acres; Aaron Trees, 120 acres; William Russell, 40 acres; Peter 
Luce,'4u acres; Mathiaa Caraker, 40 acres; Jacob Caraker, 80 acres; 
Jacob W. Haire, 40 acres; David Dillow, 40 acres; Abraham Cover, 

> res; Caleb S. Sitter, 120 acres; Boston Lentz, 75.83 acres; 
Paul Hofner, 40 acres; Andrew Lence, 40 acres; Peter Lence, 172.96 
acres; Calvin Armstrong, 40 acres, Jefferson Menard, 160 acres; 
Solomon Sitter, 34.53 acres; Conrad Sitter, 103.60 acres; John Bar- 
ringer, 80 acres; Daniel Barringer, 40 acres; John Beaseley, 40 
acres; Jacob Clem, 30.89 acres; Isaac Trees, 40 acres; Eli Beaver, 

; David Miller, 28.31 acres; Paul Lingle, 27.82 acres; Charles 
Lingle, 107.52 acres; Stephen Casper, 40 acres; John Shuesnig, 40 
s; Eli Beaver, 80 acres; Isaac Hartline, 66.01 acres; Benedict 
Mull, 46.50 acres; John Lingle, 160 acres; Henry Ferril, 40 acres; 
John D. Lamer, 200 acres; Henry Randleman, 200 acres; Samuel 
Mackey, 40 acres; Mary Renthman, 40 acres; James Holloway, 40 
acres; James B. Coulter, 40 acres; Thomas Cox, 80 acres; Frank 
W. Coulter, 40 acres; David Masters, 80 acres; Jacob Rendleman, 
160 acres; Christopher Houser, 160 acres; George Smith, 80 acres; 
Perry Hauser, 160 acres; Nicholas Hunsaker, 90 acres; Andrew 
Smith, Jr., 40 acres; Adam Smith, 80 acres; David Smith, 80 acres; 
Moses Fite, 40 acres; Edmund Vancil, 40 acres; Catherine Landrith, 
bO acres; Joseph Hickman, 40 acres; George Bean, 101.62 acres; 
George Simpson, 34 acres; and Henry Lyerle, Jr., 97.75 acres. 

The expansion of Anna Precincts was made by Henry Casper, 
45.66 acres; Charles Miller, 45.66 acres; Stephen Casper, 45.66 
acras; James Trees, 45.66 acres; Conrad Sitter, 200 acres; Charles 
Barringer, 160 acres; John Frogge, 120 acres; Henry Trees, 80 
acres; Alex J. Nijtnmo, J.20 acres; Charles M. Northern, 40 acres; 
John Barringer" 80 acres; John Williams, 120 acres; James Fike, 
200 acres; Peter Simmerman, 160 acres; Luther Armstrong, 40 
acres; Henry Barringer, 40 acres; Benjamin Evans, 40 acres; Ran- 
som Beaseley, 40 acres; David Armstrong, 80 acres; John Boss, 160 
acres; William Murphy, 40 acres; John Ballard, 40 acres; Arthur 
Frogge, 80 acres; Urias Martin, 40 acres; I. and Wm. Bizzel, 80 
acres; Wesley Nimmo, 40 acres; Mary Mills, 80 acres; Basil B. Craig, 
80 acres; William J. B. Hanners, 40 acres; Robert Hamilton, 160 
acres; Isaac Bizzel, 40 acres; William C. Millis, 160 acres; Walter 
Bearhope, 40 acres; Joseph M. Spence, 200 acres; Calvin W. Ses- 
sions, 80 acres; Peter Barringer, 80 acres; William H. Mills, 40 
acres; James A. Nash, 40 acres; Thomas Hodges, 80 acres; Samuel 
T. Hunsaker, 40 acres; William Henry, 160 acres; Aaron Barringer, 
40 acres; Richard W. Sessions, 80 acres; Herman Bailey, 40 acres; 
George Davis, 40 acres; David Spence, 40 acres; Emanuel Davis, 
40 acres; John M. McElhaney, 120 acres; Martin Brown, 40 acres; 
Joseph Martin, 160 acres; James West, 40 acres; Samuel Martin, 
160 acres; David Davis, 280 acres; Solomon Davis, 80 acres; Silas 
Hess, 40 acres; Caleb Frick, 40 acres; Luther Armstrong, 4D acres; 
John Williams, 40 acres; Cerenthy Barringer, 40 acres; Catharine 

— SS— 



Williams, 40 acres; Timothy Goddard, 80 acres; Curtis Stonecipher, 
80 acres; Henry Barringer, 40 acres; Preston Anderson, 40 acres; 
Samuel M. Goddard, 80 acres; Willis Willard, 40 acres; Benjamin 
Eaves, 160 acres; Richard Henson, 40 acres; Daniel Barringer, 120 
acres; Talbert Sainer, 40 acres; Christian Hileman, 120 acres; Win- 
stead Davie, 80 acres; Jacob Hunsaker, Jr., 160 acres; James Ellis, 
40 acres; Caleb Casper, 40 acres; Alison and Daniel Cover, 40 acres; 
Charles Trees, 165.50 acres; Peter Casper, 40 acres; Alexander 
Trees, 45.50 acres; W. Willard and J. Rinehart, 181.62 acres; James 
A. Grover, 49.59 acres; John Rinehart, 45.59 acres; Peter Cruse, 
40 acres; Levi Craven, 120 acres; Jacob Hileman, 40 acres; Mary 
Campbell, 80 acres; Abraham Miller, 120 acres; Solomon Davis, 40 
acres; Wiley Davis, 40 acres; Joseph M. Spence, 120 acres; John E. 
Ranee, 40 acres; Nathan Sames, 80 acres; Samuel T. Hunsaker, 40 
acres; John Hess, 40 acres; Jane Hess, 40 acres; Tolbert Sames, 40 
acres; Abraham F. Hunsaker, 40 acres; John Rinehart, 80 acres; 
Elias V. Winget, 200 acres; James B. Powell, 40 acres; Jonathan 
Woolsey, 40 acres; James A. Smith, 80 acres; Washington McLane, 
40 acres; Edward B. Ohusted, 40 acres; Wesley G. Nimmo, 40 acres; 
Alexander Frick, 40 acres; Michael Craver, 240 acres; Tobias Verbal, 
80 acres; David Craver, 40 acres; Joseph Hess, 80 acres; James B. 
Powell, 80 acres; Leonard Knup, 80 acres; Benjamin W. Brooks, 160 
acres; Isaac J. Lyerley, 80 acres; R. V. Marshall, 160 acres; Thomas 
James, 80 acres; Wiley J. Vinson, 80 acres; Edmund Davis, 40 acres; 
Benjamin L. Corzine, 40 acres; George Brown, 240 acres; James J. 
Hunsaker, 120 acres; James I. Alexander, 80 acres; Marion C. Port- 
haven, 40 acres; Syrian Davis, 80 acres; Martin M. Brown, 80 
acres; and Wilson Corzine, 120 acres. 

Jonesboro Precinct added Jacob Miller, 40 acres; William 
Rymer, 40 acres; Peter Albright, 80 acres; John Fink, 40 acres; 
Elizabeth Davidson, 80 acres; Morgan Davidson, 80 acres; William 
Penrod, 35 acres; Peter Caubb, 80 acres; Jacob Rhodes, 80 acres; 
John Crowell, 40 acres; John N. Rhodes, 40 acres; George Bean, 
40 acres; John Dougherty, 160 acres; William C. Whitlock, 73.74 
acres; John Hartline, 40 acres; James Ellis, 160 acres; Drake H. 
Huddman, 40 acres; John Reynolds, 40 acres; Robert W. Waggoner, 
66.94 acres; Charles Crowell, 40 acres; James Morgan, 80 acres; 
William Louis, 40 acres; George Kimmel, 80 acres; Kenneth Har- 
grave, 282.04 acres; Hiram Tripp, 40 acres; Elijah McGraw, 40 
acres; Crawford Trees, 40 acres; Christian Fromm, 40 acres; John 
Parmer, 40 acres; David Amundel, 40 acres; William Goodbody, 40 
acres; Nicholas Tripp, 80 acres; George Foggart, 80 acres; John 
Cruse, 40 acres; Andrew Deardorf, 40 acres; Caleb Frick, 40 acres; 
John J. Grammer, 40 acres; William Tripp, 40 acres; Aaron Gram- 
mer, 40 acres; Sarah A. Sugar, 40 acres; Willis Willard, 40 acres; 
Jacob Trees, 40 acres; Lafayette Damron, 40 acres; Robert Har- 
grave, 200 acres; John C. Sherro, 80 acres; Philip Cruse, 40 acres; 
Thomas Whitaker, 40 acres; James Morgan, 160 acres; Levi White, 
80 acres; John Conkey, 80 acres; Levi Lewis, 80 acres; Joel Barker, 

—39— 



40 acres; Jesse Barker, 40 acres; James H. Whitlock, 36.81 acres; 
Nancy Goodwin, 40 acres; Andrew Eaves, 40 acres; Jonathan Eaves, 
40 acres; Nicholas Hunsaker, 80 acres; George Greer, 40 acres ; 
Benjamin Vancil, 66.81 acres; Daniel Kimmel, 80 acres; Jacob Frick, 
40 acres; William Millis, 40 acres; John Wadkins, 26.81 acres; David 
Meadow, 26.81 acres; Andrew Braswell, 26.94 acres; Francis H. 
Brown, 26.94 acres; Laird H. Furguson, 40 acres; Mary Delves, 40 
acres; Richard Brotton, 40 acres; and Charles Brown, 24.56 acres. 

In Misenheimer Precinct additional settlements were made by- 
John M. Hileman, 40 acres; Henry Lence, 40 acres; John Light, 
40 acres; Alfred Misenheimer, 80 acres; Edward Dunn, 40 acres; 
Peter Dillow, 40 acres; Jacob Dillow, 80 acres; William L. Batner, 
40 acres; Willey Stripler, 40 acres; Jacob Miller, 40 acres; Jacob 
Psizer, 40 acres; Christian Rinehart, 40 acres; Joshua Allen, 80 
acres;' John Phitzer, 40 acres; Noah Mowery, 80 acres; Miles Mow- 
try, 80 acres; Lewis Vick, 40 acres; John Pool, 120 acres; John 
Mowery, Jr. 80 acres; John Blown, 40 acres; Isaac Brown, Jr., 40 
acres; George H. Brown, 80 acres; Alexander Douglas, 120 acres; 
Barbara Mitchell, 40acres; Oscar P. Montgomery, 40 acres; John 
Smith, 40 acres; John Brown, 40 acres; James M. Phelan, 40 acres; 
Christopher Keller, 40 acres; Samuel A. James, 40 acres; Jacob 
Brown, 40 acres; Christopher W. Teller, 40 acres; Peter Cruse, Sr., 
80 acres; Levi Caster, 80 acres; John Knupp, 40 acres; John Weaver, 
40 acres; George Smith, 40 acres; Jane Montgomery, 40 acres; Jacob 
J. Misenheimer, 200 acres; David Misenheimer, 80 acres; Bradford 
Brown. 40 acres; William C. Nimmo, 38.50 acres; Jonathan Woolsey, 
38.50 acres. 

Mill Creek Precinct added Peter Cruse, Jr., 80 acres; Nath- 
aniel W. Manville, 200 acres and William Huston, 40 acres. 

Alto Precinct was increased by settlements made by Philip 
Cripps, 37.40 acres; Peter Cripps, 152.04 acres; Thomas Craft, 40 
acres; Anderson Brown, 40 acres; David Smith, 40 acres; Isaac 
Miller, 160 acres; Thomas James, 80.16 acres; Wilson James, 80 
acres; John Dougherty, 236.44 acres; Simon B. Sublett, 406.34 acres; 
William James, 204.80 acres; Allen W. Kimmel, 42.40 acres; Jacob 
Rhoades, 42.40 acres; Parish G. Abernathy, 42.10 acres; William 
Shurley, 42.10 acres; Franklin M. Bennett, 80 acres; William Green, 
240 acres; Andrew Deardorff, 40 acres; Robert H. Bennett, 160 
acres; Enoch H. James, 49.61 acres on Island 26; Jeremiah Hutch- 
inson, 40 acres; Allen W. Kimmel, 42.40 acres; William C. Whit- 
lock, 120 acres; Levi Lefler, 40 acres; Martin Green, 80 acres; John 
Eaton, 120 acres; Jacob Rhodes; John Tweedy, 40 acres. 

Union Precinct added John Smith, 29,75 acres; Mary Smith. 
29.75 acres; Henry Sherald, 64.75 acres; Samuel Vancil, 324.25 
acres; Daniel Sammons, 74.25 acres; John Warralle, 40 acres; Joseph 
Kimmel, 40 acres; Jacob Bennett, 40 acres; William D. Craier, 80 
acres; Charles Conway, 80 acres; Joseph Joy, Jr., 80 acres; Elijah 
Willard, 360 acres; Willis Willard, 40 acres; George Kimmel, 80 
acres; William Lewis, 80 acres; Charles C. Gatewood, 40 acres; 

—40— 



Jessie Barker, 40 acres; Daniel Kimmel, 80 acres; Hugh Penrod, 80 
acres; David Kimmel, 80 acres; Jacob G rammer, 40 acres; John 
Grammer, 40 acres; Joel Barker, 40 acres; Andrew J. Dickinson, 80 
acres; Ransom Ledbetter, 40 acres and Winstead Davie, 80 acres. 

Reynolds Precinct grew more than any other river section 
during the period between 1835 and 1850. Entries added here were 
Jessie Barker, 80 acres; William Ballard, 40 acres; Jacob Trees, 
83.i:4 acres; Hithiper A. James, 80 acres; Josiah Goodman, 40 acres; 
David Trees, 41.02 acres; Jonathan Eaves, 41.02 acres; Young E. 
Brown, 41.08 acres; Josiah Goodman, 40 acres; Jacob Rinehart, 
acres; Young E. Brown, 41.20 acres; Isaac Frick, 82.80 acres; James 
M. Phelan, 169.62 acres; Peter Lingle, 80 acres; Robert S. Reynolds, 
119.97 acres; Christian Hileman, 80 acres; Adam Hileman, 40 acres; 
John Yost, 80.32acres; John Dougherty, 160 acres; Samuel Vancil, 
89.47 acres, on Island 21; Jacob Littleton, 197.16 acres; Jonathan 
Madden, 23.58 acres on Island 21; Francis H. Brown, 40 acres; Brad- 
ford Brown, 40 acres; Jeremiah Brown, 117 acres; Jacob Brown, 36 
acres; Lard H. Ferguson, 80 acres; Washington Brown, 40 acres; 
John G. Wilkins, 127.75 acres; James Brown, Sr., 37.34 acres; 
Jeremiah and James Brown, 35.84 acres; Daniel Kimmel, 318 acres; 
Caleb Casper, 80 acres; John C. Shore, 80 acres; Robert S. Rey- 
nolds, 160 acres; Benjamin W. Brooks, 363.19 acres; Elijah Willard, 
40acres; Adam Hileman, 40 acres; James N. Brooks, 36 acres; John 
M. Johnson, 98.84 acres; John Masel, 126.58 acres; George W. 
Green, 155.05 acres on Island 24; John M. Lacy, 160 acres on Island 
24; P. Whitney and S. Randall, 36.63 acres on Island 24; Thomas 
and William Johnson on Island 24; William Carter and S. H. Poe, 
47 acres on Island 24; Calvin J. Price, 240 acres; George Kimmel. 
68.64 acres; Thomas James, 105.30 acres; Wiley J. Sames, 40 acres; 
Adam Hileman, 160 acres; Allen W. Kimmel, 54.62 acres; Thomas 
Hamilton, 157.17 acres; Ralph Thornton, 120 acres; John W. Rorax. 
293.97 acres; Samuel Ballard, 170.48 acres; John Baltzell, 181.71 
acres; John A. Woodry, 40 acres; Jacob N. Nealey, 66.25 acres on 
Island 25 and Enoch H. James, 97.99 acres. 

Preston Township added Elijah Willard, 492.20 acres; William 
Aldridge, 188.12 acres; Lewis Dowd, 40 acres; George W. Henson, 
80 acres; Jacob Schwartz, 71.46 acres; David Lively, 40 acres; Wil- 
liam Noel, 40 acres; Adam Cauble, 186.37 acres; Henry S. Osborn, 
80 acres; James Cox, 80 acres; John Rorex, 160 acres; Hiram Free- 
man, 40 acres; Delila Cauble, 40 acres; James Y. Johnson, 120 acres; 
Benedict Johnson, 40 acres; William Harris, 40 acres; George Smith, 
40 acres; Abraham Williams, 80 acres; Elizabeth Johnson, 40 acres; 
Nicholas P. Tripp, 40 acres; John Tweedy, 40 acres; William G. 
Tweedy, 80 acres; James W. Tweedy, 40 acres; Henry Sherrell, 40 
acres; Samuel Ballance, 120 acres; Pearl P. McClintock, 240 acres; 
William C. Whitlock, 160 acres and Charles M. Willard, 40 acres; 
John Freeman, 240 acres; Esther H. Osborn, 80 acres. 

It is evident that Anna, Dongola and Reynolds precinct* en- 
joyed the largest growth during this period. This is probably due to 

—41— 



the fact that the bottom land in Union and Preston had previously 
been occupied and the rolling country away from the river was be- 
ing cleared first because these fields were more tillable after they 
were cleared than the hill lands. The bulk of the population was 
in the western part of the county because river transportation was 
the most important during that period. 

The next decade 1850 to 1860 completely changes life in 
Union county. 



CHAPTER XIII 

1850-1860 A PERIOD OF TRANSITION 
THE PLANK ROAD 

From 1850 to 1860 is a transition period in Union County 
because new methods of transportation were introduced which caus- 
ed first, another large increase in population; second, immigration 
from New England and the Northeastern states instead of entirely 
from the south (Kentucky and Tennessee and the southeastern 
states) as it had been before this period; third, the introduction of 
more scientific methods of agriculture; fourth, the growth of new 
types of crops; fifth, more sale of more products because of increas- 
ed shipping facilities, and sixsh, establishments of new towns. 

The new methods of transportation introduced were the 
Plank Road and the Illinois Central Railroad. 

Instead of the rugged pioneer we first saw in Union County 
who came with his family in a covered wagon in which he lived 
until he could cut enough trees to build a log cabin and plant the 
cleared space with seeds which would yield something for his fam- 
ily to eat, making his family practically self-sustaining, we see in 
1850 a well developed little community with homes, stores, mills, 
churches, and schools, in the center of a farming neighborhood 
located near a river where the settlers and traders exchanged their 
pro ducts for the articles necessary for the comforts of life, manu- 
factured in the east and shipped by boat to the landings here. In- 
stead of the handmill originally used for grinding grain into meal 
or flour, horse and steam roller mills had been established. Now 
the farmer took his grain to the mill to be ground and paid for the 
work either by cash or by giving the miller enough grain to pay 
for his services. Now, instead of spinning and weaving the flax, 
wool or cotton into material at home, wool, cotton and flax were 
sold to the river traders who took it back east to be made into ma- 
terial and repaid the farmer with new material. Boots and shoes 
were still made locally as a rule but by cobblers who had established 
small business of their own, buying their leather from the tanneries 
and selling their finished product to the people. Before this, the 
pioneer father had been the cobbler in the home and frequently, 
the mother had done the work. While most of the people still lived 
in log houses, saw mills had been established and many houses had 
been built of sawed lumber. The most pretentious home in Jones- 
boro at that time belonged to the Willards and is standing today, 
at present used by Mrs. Moore for a hotel. It is located in the 
northwest corner of the Jonesboro square but faces the street run- 
ning parallel to the square. 

August 9, 1850, William Tripp, St., who immigrated into 
Illinois August 1, 1811, and settled three miles northeast of old 
Elvira but who then lived two miles west of Jonesboro, came into 
court and requested that it be put in writing in the Records of 

—43— 



Union County that he was the first man who began building in 
Jonesboro after the town was laid out in March, 1818. He wished 
ed that he had lived to see the county change from a 
dense wilderness into a fine farming community. 

Business had changed from the small exchanges made by 
neighbors or from the trips to Fort Mas?ac and the Saline Salt 
ks for supplies to the purchase price from stores whose 
owners bought their wares from the farmer and from the traders 
on the rivers. Some of these storekeepers bought products from the 
farmers and took them down the river themselves to New Orleans 
.vhere they exchanged them for wares to sell in their stores. 

By 1850, Philip Kroh had made a trip east and had brought 
back the first matches ever seen in Union County. 

As has been mentioned before, a newspaper had been estab- 
lished and was available to all families who wished to buy it. 

Churches had been established and private schools had been 
taught since 1820. By 1850, one had been taught in the building on 
the square known as Lincoln Inn, which recently burned, and another 
in a building which stood across from the present court house. 

Forty-nine road districts had been established and one laid 
out in 1850 completed fifty road districts in the county. They were 
named Littleton's Ferry, Ridge Number Two, Ridge Number Two 
and One-half, Reed Ferry, Sublett, Freeman, T. C. Jones, Cauble, 
Vancil, Houser, Parmley, Ridge Number Eleven, Gregory, RendTe- 
man, Ashburn, Davie, Crise, Arundell, Misenheimer, Brown, Walcker, 
Paine, Barringer, Dillow, Ferril, Lence, Brockroad, Roberds, Wilder- 
ness, Owen, Roberts, Evans, Hileman, Pollard, Hoffner, Brady, Fer- 
guson, Eddleman, Hogan, Cowiker, Earnest, Patterson, Beggs, Abra- 
ham Miller and Jonesborough, Armstrong, Tripp, Dughill, Campbell 
and Davis. The roads were usually named for the person who cir- 
culated the petition requesting the road or for the community it 
served. Many of these roads were hardly more than trails over 
which one could ride horseback comfortably and many could be used 
for wagon travel. There was no machinery in those days to use in 
grading or leveling ground so the roads were as level or as hilly 
as the country they traversed and as muddy or dry as the weather 
permitted. 

In the Mississippi Bottoms, due to the swamps and overflow, 
the roads were frequently muddy and since it was necessary to travel 
over this part of the country in order to take products to the river 
to be sold or bring back the articles bought outside Union County 
and shipped in by boat, the mud caused great delay in transportation 
and some losses. A group of men, interested in transporting pro- 
ducts across this part of the county, decided to build a road over 
which they could lay logs split in the middle with the flat surface 
up. Such a road was built from the east bank of Clear Creek near 
Dughill to Willard's Landing on the Mississippi River with all places 
planked where mud interfered with travel. The road became known 
as the Plank Road. 

—44— 



The county donated the right-of-way and a group of men, 
Henry Dishon, Willis Willard, Caleb Frick, William Green, John E. 
Naill, Lorenzo P. Wilcox and Sidney S. Condon furnished the money 
necessary to buy materials and employ labor for the construction of 
the road and a toll gate with a house for the gatekeeper to live in. 
The gatekeeper was not paid wages but was charged no rent. He 
was required to collect a fee from every person who passed thru 
the gate. This fee was used by the above men to maintain the road 
and the part not needed was divided among them for their share of 
the proceeds of the business. The road, four miles and seventy-eight 
and one-half chains long was to belong to this group of men for 
thirty years according to their contract with the county, provided 
they should keep it at all times passable by any type of vehicle or 
coveyance. 

In April, 1851, Samuel Hunsaker, John S. Hacker and Joshua 
Roberts were appointed inspectors of the Jonesboro Plank Road 
Company by the county board to see that the company kept its con- 
tract with the county. 

This road was a great improvement at the time it was built 
but within a few years a new type of road was to be built which 
would surpass any type of transportation yet available to Union 
County, the Illinois Central Railroad. 



-45 — 



/ 






CHAPTER XIV 
LAND ENTERED IN UNION COUNTY BETWEEN 1850 AND 1855 

Rich Precinct, which had been sparsely settled enjoyed its first 
real growth after 1850.. The following land entries were made dur- 
ing the period 1850 to 1855: John P. Elmore, 80 acres; Daniel Davie, 
40.50 acres; Lewis N. Ashley, 360 acres; Simon P. Hiller, 80 acres; 
Abel Baker, 40 acres; Jonathan Clark, 40 acres; Francis Ashley, 40 
acres; Elijah L. Hopkins, 40 acres; Allen Brackenbridge, 80 acres; 
Finas F. McGinnis, 160 acres; Alanson Courtney, 320 acres; John 
D. Shoemaker, 80 acres; David Trees, 480 acres; George French, 
320 acres; John Cochran, 160 acres; Daniel Osborne, 40 acres; 
William B. Elmore, 280 acres; Levi Dillow, 144.61 acres; William P. 
Owen, 127.97 acres; Jessie Owen, 122.85 acres; Sarah Bays, 40 
acres; Felix A. Goodman, 199.34 acres; Jeremiah Hiller, 120 acres; 
Axum D. Farmer, 38.28 acres; Thomas Daniels, 321.94 acres; Alan- 
son Courtney, 80 acres; Winstead Davie, 53.75 acres; Solomon Sit- 
ter, 40 acres; Lewis P. Holland, 96.82 acres; Henry Thetford, 31.80 
acres; William Whitton, 40 acres; Green Berry West, 40 acres; 
Lemard Sides, 27.76 acres; Cornelius Anderson, 44.90 acres; Perry 
Roberts, 40 acres; Joseph Batson, 80 acres; John Roberts, 80 acres; 
John Lockard, 120 acres; John D. Fly, 40 acres; Joshua Thompson, 
40 acres; Lewis Ashley, 80 acres; A. B. Walker, and C. Hagler, 
40 acres; Lewis P. Limer, 40 acres; Townsend F. Larkin, 40 acres; 
Wm. Nesbit, 40 acres; Joshua Thompson, 40 acres; Alfred B. Peaks. 
120 acres; Henry Mull, 40 acres; Charles M. Willard, 80 acres; Joe! 
Zimmerman, 40 acres; John O. Daniel, 160 acres; Allen Bainbridge, 
40 acres; Charles Hagler, 80 acres; Isaac Hartline, 45.73 acres; 
Thomas Hartline, 45.73 acres; George W. Robertson, 40 acres; John 
Fox, 40 acres and Levi Vancil, 80 acres. 

Lick Creek Precinct was increased by Absolom W. Coleman, 
160 acres; Jones Stokes, 40 acres; John A. Roberts, 120 acres; 
Lorenzo P. Wilcox, 40 acres; Wilkinson Barringer, 40 acres; John 
M. Cochran, 40 acres; Thomas M. Hines, 40 acres; Mikola McGinnis, 
40 acres; Lewis Ashley, 40 acres; Andrew Lilley, 240 acres; Sarah 
Bays, 40 acres; William Robaids, 40 acres; Jacob Stonesipher, 320 
acres; Silas P. Cochran, 200 acres; William Anderson, 160 acres; 
John Davis, 40 acres; Andrew J. White, 40 acres; William T. Stokes, 
4D acres; Littleberry Butts, 80 acres; James Butts, 120 acres; John 
H. Grammar, 40 acres; Jessie Roberts, 40 acres; Robert Harris, 80 
acres; Bird Wall, 40 acres; Tobias Wiggs, 280 acres; Israel W. Davis, 
40 acres; George T. McGinnis, 158.23 acres; James Bruff, 40 acres; 
Alexander L. Penninger, 120 acres; Browning Wiggs, 120 acres; 
Wesley Grear, 120 acres; Jessie Miles, 40 acres; Wm. N. Corbitt, 40 
acres; Levi Lewis, 80 acres; William Murphy, 160 acres; Thomas R. 
Johnson, 40 acres; Robert Harris, 40 acres; Joseph Boswell, 40 
acres; John Allen, 120 acres; Joshua P. Jenkins, 40 acres; William 
Morrow, 40 acres; Thomas Boswell, 80 acres; Abraham Halterman, 
160 acres; Alexander Thorne, 80 acres; John Davis, 80 acres; Caleb 



Musgraves, 40 acres; Berry Green, 40 acres; and Wesley Grear, 80 
acres. 

The additions in Saratoga Precinct were Sarah Bays, 40 
acres; Elijah Brocks, 40 acres; David Miller, 160 acres; Nathaniel 
G. Miller, 40 acres; Hams M. Ridenhower, 40 acres; Win. Cole, 40 
acres; Bird Wall, 42.18 acres; Stephen Garrett, 84.38 acres; William 
Thornton, 42.19 acres; John M. Jenkins, 171.68 acres; Harvey Arm- 
strong, 43.01 acres; Abraham W. Menees, 40 acres; Thomas Ales, 40 
acres; Abraham Willenas, 40 acres; John S. Plater, 40 acres; Jacob 
M. Randell, 40 acres; John Murphy, 160 acres; John H. Beggs, 80 
acres; Wm. R. Davis, 40 acres; Thisfield Davis, 40 acres; John Bar- 
ringer, 40 acres; Abraham Hotteman, 80 acres; John Hotteman, 120 
acres; David Culp, 40 acres; William Turner, 40 acres; David 
Treese, 40 acres; Lewis W. Ashley, 80 acres; Rankin S. Butler, 40 
acres; John M. Rich, 120 acres; John Fox, 80 acres; Isaac Hartline, 
80 acres; Lard H. Ferguson, 111.20 acres; Catherine Lige, 40 acres; 
and Charles M. Willard, 160 acres. 

The additions in Stokes Precinct were George W. Simmer- 
man, 85.05 acres; John F. Sivey, 240 acres; Wm. Murphy, 80 acres; 
Berry Green, 120 acres; Alfred Stokes, 80 acres; John M. Toler, 
520 acres; Morgan Stokes, 140 acres; William Corbit, 40 acres; Cal- 
vin M. Beard, 240 acres; Wm. M. Corbitt, 40 acres; Mary Stokes, 
40 acres; Miles Pender, 80 acres; Wm. D. Toler, 40 acres; Ethelred 
Benson, 40 acres; John Pickerel, 120 acres; Piety W. Cox, 40 acres; 
Silas Toler, 40 acres; Hugh A. Gurley, 40 acres; Joseph M. Spence, 
40 acres; Josiah P. Gore, 40 acres; John Jones, 47.31 acres; Charles 
Robertson, 48.03 acres; John C. Rothbrook, 48.03 acres; William 
Ballard, 40 acres; and Daniel Lingle, Jr., 40 acres. 

Dongola added George Davis, 50.14 acres; Caleb Lingle, 40 
acres; John Allen, 40 acres; Henry Keller, 48.54 acres; Absolem 
Keller, 40 acres; Columbus Adams, 40 acres; Archibald Beggs, 120 
acres; Abraham P. Buford, 40 acres; James R. Bartin, 40 acres; 
Caleb Lentz, 40 acres; Abraham Misenheimer, 40 acres; Wilson Wil- 
kerson, 50.50 acres; John S. Corzine, 40 acres; Jacob Kestler, 40 
acres; Elkano Elkins, 80 acres; Philip Hinkle, 80 acres; Monroe G. 
W. Lingle, 40 acres; and Christopher Lyerly, 40 acres. 

Cobden added Daniel M. McConnell, 40 acres; Joshua Thomp- 
son, 40 acres; Butler Treece, 40 acres; Elizabeth Clutts, 40 acres; 
George W. Burton, 160 acres; William Ingram, 45.19 acres; William 
Lamer, 80 acres; James P. Craig, 280 acres; John O'Neill, 275.80 
acres; Henry Casey, 40 acres; David Vaught, 40 acres; James M. 
Tweedy, 80 acres; Abram F. Hunsaker, 40 acres; William D. Parker, 
40 acres; and Paul Lingle, 40 acres. 

Jonesboro was increased by Nathan Sams, 33.10 acres; John 
Walker, 40 acres; Charles Corzine, 40 acres; W. R. Corzine, 120 
acres; G. H. W. Lippard, 40 acres; William A. Lippard, 40 acres; 
Michael Brady, 120 acres; Charles Lence, 40 acres; Noah Corzine, 40 
icres; Alfred Holshouser, 40 acres; Peter Lence, 40 acres; John 
Keeley, 40 acres; Lewis N. Ashley, 80 acres; Wilson Wilkerson, 40 

—47— 



acres; Thomas Rendleman, 71.73 acres; Robert W. Waggoner, 40 
acres; Azel Thornton, 34.25 acres; Nathaniel G. Miller, 40 acres; 
Charles King, 40 acres; Sarah A. Seegar, 80 acres; Isaac N. Al- 
bright, 40 acres; John C. Shore, 40 acres; Francis H. Brown, 80 
acres; and Paul Frick, 24.50 acres. 

In Anna the newcomers were John W. Watkins, 80 acres; 
Isaac Treese, 40 acres; Jonas G. Mangold, 40 acres; John Medlin, 40 
acres; Noah H. Simmerman, 40 acres; Wm. Eaves, 80 acres; Richard 
Henson, 80 acres; Wesley Goddard, 40 acres; Christian Hileman, 80 
acres; John B. Jones, 80 acres; John M. Spence, 40 acres; James 
Hammons, 40 acres; Joseph Spence, 120 acres; Zephemia West, 40 
acres; Porter Wolcott, 40 acres; Preston Anderson, 40 acres; George 
Davis, 40 acres; Alexander Frick, 80 acres; Jacob Kanup, 40 acres; 
John B. Miller, 40 acres; Perry Roberts, 40 acres; George Corzine. 
80 acres; James R. Corzine, 40 acres; John Brown, 40 acres; Isaac 
Brown, 40 acres; Spencer Laws, 39.86 acres; John R. Corzine, 43 
acres; John Alms, 40.16 acres; Edmond Davis, 199.17; Edward Lipe, 
39.17 acres and Wm. S. Satin, 37.39 acres. 

Misenheimer Precinct added John Fluck, 320 acres; Hiram J. 
Walker, 40 acres; Alexander Misenheimer, 80 acres; Syrian and 
Edmund Davis, 470.30 acres; Jacob Casper, 40 acres; Moses A. Good- 
man, 40 acres; John Nidermeyer, 40 acres; James Lively, 348 acres ; 
John N. Misenheimer, 120 acres; Peter Hileman, 80 acres; John L. 
Hale, 40 acres; John M. Hileman, 40 acres; David Burton, 320 
acres; Noah Mowery, 80 acres; John Mowery, 80 acres; Thomas 
Durham, 80 acres; Hurd Poole, 40 acres and Moses Hutson, 80 acres. 

Alto Precinct added Robert T. Shipley, 40 acres; Michael G. 
Smith, 80 acres; Parrish G. Abernathie, 80 acres; John T. E. Gore, 
40 acres; John Hoefle, 193.36 acres; John Stone, 120 acres; Joseph- 
Lamer, 40 acres; Henry Rendleman, 40 acres; George H. Lemley. 
40 acres; Christopher Houser, 80 acres; Philip Lewis, 40 acres; 
Joseph Miller, 120 acres; William Sides, 40.86 acres; Alexander 
Miller, 40 acres; Caleb Lyerly, 120 acres; John Cauble, 40 acres; 
Nicholas Hunsaker, 40 acres; Jumatta Wright, 80 acres; William 
Gregory, 40 acres; Robert Brown, 40 acres. 

Union Precinct added John Parmley, 120 acres: Andrew J. 
Lemmons, 72.50 acres; and John Cauble, 40 acres. 

Reynolds Precinct added Augustus L. Springs, 80 acres; John 
Parmley, 40 acres; Preston Baston, 40 acres; and Willard Gain, 320 



acres. 



Preston Precinct added Farland Laughlin, 80 acres; John 
Wright, 80 acres; John Cauble, 160 acres; James M. Goodbread, 
27.04 acres; and Matthew Wright, 80 acres. 

It is noticeable that during this period there was very little 
expansion in the precincts near the river and the two precincts Rich 
and Lick Creek had the largest growth in the county. 



CHAPTER XV 
THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD 

After the building of the plank road came the building of 
the Illinois Central railroad which was to completely change the 
state of Illinois as well as Union County, 

In September, 1850, Stephen A. Douglas and Sidney A. 
Breese, Senators from Illinois, championed a bill in Congress pro- 
viding for a grant of public land to the State of Illinois to aid in 
the construction of the Central Railroad. A controversary arose in 
the Illinois state legislature as to whether the land should be granted 
by the state to a privately financed company or whether the state 
should again attempt the enterprise of building the railroad. Every- 
one remembered the failure of the plan for a state enterprise ir. 
1837 which had created a $17,000,000 debt, so after much discussion 
the decision was made to allow a private company to undertake the 
job. 

According to Carlton J. Corliss' "Story of Transportation 
Progress in Illinois," the charter and 2,595,000 acres of laud 
granted by the Illinois legislature to a group of promoters com- 
posed of outstanding business leaders of New York and New Eng- 
land. The land was to be every other section of land along the 
right-of-way which had not already been sold to the early settlers 
In case such land had been sold another section was substituted. 
The new company included David A. Neal, Boston shipowner and 
president of the Eastern Railroad of Massachusetts; Robert Schuyler, 
probably the foremost railway man in his day and president of the 
New York and New Haven Railroad; Franklin Haven, head of the 
largest banking house in New England; John F. A. Sanford, noted 
fur trader and Indian agent; Jonathan Sturges, prominent New York 
coffee importer; Morris Ketchum, pioneer locomotive manufacturer; 
Gouverneur Morris, pioneer railway promoter; George Griswold. mer- 
chantman and importer; Thomas W. Ludlow, American agent of the 
Dutch banking house of Crommelin; William H. Aspinwall, president 
of the Panama Railroad and founder of the Pacific Mail Steamship 
Company, and Robert Rantoul, Massachusetts statesman and suc- 
cessor to Daniel Webster in the United States Senate. 

The charter granted to these people gave them the authority 
to build and operate a railroad 705 miles long but made the fol- 
lowing provisions: 

1. That the railroad should be completed within a period 
of six years. 

2. That the railway lands should not be offered fGr sale 
until the Federal government had disposed of all of its lands within 
a distance of six miles of the railroad at double the former price. 

3. That the railway company would pay into the state 
treasury 7 cents out of every dollar received for the transportation 
of passengers, freight, express and mails. 

4. That the railroad would transport United States troops 

—49^ 



and property at one-half of the standard passenger and freight rates. 

5. That the railroad would transport the United States mail 
at 20 percent less than the standard rates. 

The story is told that there was much difference of opinion 
in Union County regarding the railroad. There were many who- 
thought the scheme would fail and placed their faith in future 
prosperity for the county on the plank road and water transporta- 
tion and there were those who were forward looking enough to plan 
their o\vn enterprise so that they could take advantage of the oppor- 
tunities the new mode of transportation would afford. At a meeting 
of the board of trustees of Jonesboro, it was decided that since 
Jonesboro was the only town in Union County that the railroad 
could pass thru, it would not be necessary to comply with the re- 
quest of the company to make a survey of the route thru the town 
and donate their findings to the railroad company. Such a survey- 
cost fifty dollars. Winstead Davie, a grocer and merchant seemed 
to think that the request was important so he had a survey made 
at his expense but rather than having it made thru Jonesboro, he 
had it made thru some of his farmland a mile east of Jonesboro. 
Later when the Jonesboro trustees decided that it was necessary 
to comply with the company's request in order to have the road 
laid thru their town, the Illinois Central had already accepted the 
survey presented to them by Mr. Davie. 

As a result the railroad was laid one mile east of Jones- 
boro, which at that time was one of three towns along the line to 
have a population of more than one hundred inhabitants. These 
towns were Bourbannais on the Kankakee River, with 1,710 inhabit- 
ants, Urbana in Champaign County with 210 inhabitants and Jones- 
boro with 584 inhabitants. 

The building of the Illinois Central Railroad was responsible 
for the large increase in population between 1850 and 1860 for 
two reasons. First, the railroad company advertised in newspapers, 
magazines and their own pamphlets circulated from Maine thru 
Georgia, Kentucky and Tennessee giving descriptions of the attrac- 
tive land sites available in Illinois, praising the fertility of the soil 
and the climate and second, it advertised for workers in all the 
large eastern cities and Europe to come to Illinois and help build 
the railroad. It gave preference to men with families in order to get 
them to remain after they came. The railroad sold its land at $2.50 
per acre, but asked only 50 cents down and allowed the rest to be 
paid over a period of seven years which enabled people to buy 
larger tracts of land. Union County's first settlers from other parts 
of the country than the south made their appearance during this 
period. 

The first railroad was constructed of wooden rails upon which 
were fastened thin strips of iron to provide a running surface for 
the wheels. In the 1850's steel rails were introduced and later re- 
placed the wooden rails. The first locomotive operated on the Illi- 
nois Central burned wood for fuel and its headlights burned whale 

—50— 



and coal-ofl. It was equipped with two driving 1 wheels and two small 
pilot wheels on each side, and its most conspicious feature was a 
balloon-shaped smokestack five or six feet high. When fuliy loaded 
with wood and water it would take twelve of these "Puffing Billies" 
to weigh as much as one modern locomotive. 

Passenger cars used on the Illinois roads in the 1850's would 
be curiosities today. They were built almost entirely of wood, nar- 
rower and lighter than the average street car of today. Most of 
them had four sets of wheels, two at each end. Few cars were 
equipped with springs, and every bump of the rough unballasted 
track was immediately transmitted to the passenger. Seats were 
hard, low-backed and uncomfortable. 

There were no vestibules on the early passenger cars, and 
passengers could not walk from one car to another when the train 
was in motion. The old link-and-pin coupling caused a great deal of 
slack between cars, adding to the discomfort of the passengers. 
Sometimes these couplings failed and the train broke apart with 
disastrous consequences. Cars were lighted by dim whale and coal- 
oil lamps or flickering tallow candles and were heated in winter by 
wood-burning stoves. Ventilation was poor and there were no 
screens. Sleeping cars and dining cars were then unknown. 

The road was completed from Cairo to Sandoval November 
22, 1853 and many people from all points of Southern Illinois came 
to see the first passenger train pass thru this part of the country. 

There is a story told that a drouth had occurred that fall and 
some of the farmers, believing that the newly laid rails drew the 
moisture out of the air and carried it away, formed a mob which 
tried to burn a large section of the track while it was yet under 
construction. It was with much difficulty that these people were 
persuaded that this could not be true. 

Following the building of the railroad came more settlement 
of land and the laying out of Anna, Dongola and Cob den. 



—51— ^ tf 



CHAPTER XVf 
LAND ENTRIES BETWEEN 1855 AND 1861? 

The growth of laud settlement following the building of the 
Illinois Central Railroad came to an end in I860 probably due to 
the Civil War. 

However between 1855 and 1860 Rich Precinct added Joseph 
Gaiser, 222.62 acres; Wm. Y. Cochran, 80 acres; William Word, Jr.. 
26.87 acres; James K. Cochran, 26.87 acres; James W. Morrison, 
120 acres; Jeremiah Hiller, 40 acres; Irvin C. Batson, 40 acres; Wil- 
liam L. Church, 120 acres; Robert S. Hopkins, 120 acres; Marcus L. 
Fly, 120 acres; Miles H. Mann, 40 acres; Wm. S. Clark, 40 acres; 
Joseph W. Helme, 80 acres; Peter Norrix, 42.20 acres; George W. 
and John M. evens, 42.85 acres; Martha Hedges, 40 acres; Horan 
F. Whitaker, 158.44 acres; D. S, Davie and N. G. Blaine, 238.44 
acres; H. G. Piston and Charles Eginton, 159.08 acres; Jacob Rendle- 
man, 80 acres; William Martin, 360 acres; Nathaniel S. Sunderland, 
183.36 acres; Reuben E. Morris, 80 acres; H. M. H. Taylor and 
Charles Eginton, 480 acres; John Evans, 80 acres; Joseph Batson, 
80 acres; William Deming, 80 acres; Robert C. Armstrong, 40 acres; 
Alfred B. Peak, 40 acres; William Tripp, 40 acres; Isaac B. Love- 
lace, 80 acres; John D. Lamer, 40 acres; Daniel McConnell, 40 acres; 
James R. Davis, 80 acres; Robert W. Ferril, 40 acres; Joseph F. 
Ashley, 91.47 acres; William Neal, 40 acres; Margaret Robertson, 40* 
acres; Benjamin Vancil, 80 acres and Daniel Kfmniel, 80 acres. 

Lick Creek was increased by Daniel S. Osbourne, 120 acres; 
Elijah Shepard, 40 acres; Absolom Butler, 80 acres; Wm. McGinnis, 
40 acres; Hiram N. Wood, 40 acres; John A. Roberts, 220 acres; 
William Frick, 120 acres; Henry Sands, 40 acres; Andrew Corzine, 
40 acres; Brownville Wiggs, 40 acres; Matthew Stokes, 120 acres; 
and William Woods, Jr., 40 acres. 

Saratoga added Moses Miller, 40 acres; William Martin, 160 
acres; John Murphy, 95.67 acres; John H. Williams, 40 acres; John 
W. Jolly, 88.72 acres; George H. Maifield, 89.22 acres; John O. 
Flacket, 44.61 acres; Peter H. Casper, 40 acres; James R. Beck, and 
John C. Breckenridge, 280 acres; Perry Turner, 40 acres; Aaron 
Treece, 80 acres; William Pitchie, 40 acres; Jeremiah Johnson, 40 
acres; James Tygett, 80 acres; Aztell Miller, 80 acres; Michael Dil- 
low, 80 acres; William C. Rich, 40 acres; Allen Bainbridge, 40 acres; 
Matthias Clemens, 80 acres; Abner Cover, 40 acres; Daniel Kar- 
raker, 40 acres; James H. Wallace, 80 acres; James Maskoe and 
Charles McAlister, 116.02 acres; D. D. and Samuel Cover, 40 acres; 
George W. Simmerman, 40 acres; W. C. SwafFord, 80 acres and 
George W. Wilson, 40 acres. 

Stokes Precinct added William Woods, Jr., 127.68 acres; 
Adam Apple, 40 acres; William Fuller, 80 acres; Calvin Fuller, 40 
acres; George H. Warfield, 160 acres; William L. Hammer, 80 acres; 
Ximrod C. E. Adams, 40 acres; William P. Strother, 143.34 acres 
and Syrian Davis, 80 acres. 

—52— 



Dongola added Isaiah B. Heglin, 549.46 acres; James B. Trull, 
160 acres; William P. Strother, 240 acres; Simeon P. Ives, 160 acres; 
Ninian E. Primm, 120 acres; Henry C. Poston, 40 acres; James A. 
Penrod, 120 acres; Lard H. Ferguson, 40 acres; E. Morgan and 
Lewis Fowler, 320 acres; David Tompson, 40 acres; John H. Beggs, 
SO acres; Ebenezer Morgan, 80 acres; Reuben A. Corzine, 80 acres; 
William Martin, 300.82 acres; H. M. Stratton and C. A. Tuttle, 181 
acres; J. J. Pedicord and Lorder Burrows, 80 acres; Elias Misen- 
heimer, 40 acres; Paul Karraker, 80 acres; George W. Warfield, 200 
acres; William C. E. Beggs, 40 acres; Elid Barber, 120 acres; Caleb 
Keller, 40 acres; William Gales, 40 acres; Cyrenius Wakefield, 280 
acers; Thomas Smoot, 40 acres; Andrew J. Shaffer, 40 acres; Jacob 
Albright, 80 acres; Jones McGinnis, 80 acres; Charles Knupp, 40 
acres; Syrian Davis, 160 acres; E. Morgan and Lewis Fowler, 160 
acres; George Chrisman, 160 acres. 

Anna added George Zimmerman, 40 acres; William Murphy, 
81 acres; William Weaver, 40 acres; Winstead Davie, 120 acres; 
Lewis N. Ashley, 45.50 acres; Anson Babcock, 40 acres; Selise Mack, 
40 acres; Benjamin Hammond, 40 acres; Abraham Brown, 40 acres 
and John Dougherty, 80 acres. 

Jonesboro added C. McAlister and James Mackae, 400 acre; 
Michael Holland, 40 acres; Peter Kessler, 40 acres; Adam Casper, 
40 acres; Savinian H. Vrain, 40 acres; Godfrey Stephens, 40 acres; 
John B. Cook, 40 acres; Aaron Barringer, 80 acres; Ebeni Leaven- 
worth, 200 acres; Henry Ritter, 80 acres; Edmund Davis, 40 acres; 
Richard Vannostrand, 251.52 acres; James M. Cox, 80 acres; Hugh 
Penrod, 34.25 acres; Butler Trull, 40 acres; Caleb Hartline, 40 
acres; Charles Crowell, 200 acres; William Lewis, 40 acres; Aztell 
Miller, 120 acres; Harris M. Ridenhower, 280 acres; Elijah McGrow, 
80 acres; Jonathan Grenleaf, 80 acres; Albert Clark, 160 acres; 
James Morgan, 40 acres; John Tripp, 40 acres; John Dougherty, 
80 acres; James D. B. Salter, 160 acres; George Smith, 40 acres; 
John Chester, 80 acres; John Walker, 40 acres; Reuben Weaver, 40 
acres; Susannah Frick, 59.28 acres; Archilles Cadwalader, 101.48 
acres; Nathan R. Chester, 26.18 acres and Stanford A. Lasater, 320 
acres. 

Cobden added Elizabeth Clutts, 40 acres; Joseph Miller, 48.85 
acres; William Martin, 120 acres; James T. G. Holmes, 40 acres; 
Peter Zimmerman, 44.31 acres; Charles Eginton, 880.24 acres; 
Charles Corgan, 40 acres; Augustus C. Lamer, 44.87 acres; Daniel 
Williams, 40 acres; William H. Latham, 280 acres; Jacob Rendleman, 
40 acres; Thomas H. Hall, 40 acres; John Messamore, 40 acres; 
Abner Keith, 40 acres; Elizabeth Ferrell, 80 acres; James Mackae 
and C. McAlister, 760 acres; Ewing C McKinney, 40 acres, and John 
Dougherty, 80 acres. 

Alto was increased by Thomas Fleming, 40 acres; Ephriam 
Durall, 40 acres; William Oberts, 40 acres; Alfred Gregory, 77 
acres; Ben L. Wiley and Paul Frick, 80 acres; Charles Eginton, 680 
acres; John Bittle, 80 acres; William Martin, 600 acres; Martin 

—53— 



Rendleman, 40 acres; William Penrod, 40 acres; John Smith, 64.50 
acres; Edwin Phillips, 321.96 acres; Michael Cunningham, 320 acres; 
James Abernathie, 163.52 acres; Jonas Walker, 80 acres; John 
Stearns, 80 acres; Christopher Lawrent, 120 acres; Adam Smith, 55 
acres; Michael M. Mackerley, 40 acres; Herny Lyerly, 360 acres; 
John T. Ellis, 119.42 acres; William Gregory, 40 acres; George C. 
Gibson, 40 acres; Corna Hicks, 250 acres; William Baltzell, 71 acres; 
David S. Buman, 160 acres; William Jones, 280 acres; Ellis Phillips, 
280 acres; Anton Janicke, 200 acres and Adam Hofle, 320 acres. 

Mill Creek added Cyrenius Wakefield, 362.27 acres; Alonzo B. 
Smith, 40 acres; Edward Cochran, 200 acres and Jacob Cauble, 40 
acres. 

Misenheimer added Israel F. Posey, 40 acres; Charles Brown, 
40 acres; Freak Ulin, 200 acres; Harrison O. Hassey, 240 acres; 
William A. Latham, 320 acres; John W. Grieb, 40 acres; John 
Bryson, 80 acres; Nathaniel Eudy, 120 acres; Kenneth Hargrave, 40 
acres; William Campbell, 40 acres; John Light, 40 acres and Peter 
Dillow, 40 acres. 

Reynolds added George W. Kimmel, 80 acres; Henry G. Pas- 
ton, 81.83 acres; Jacob Schrader, 33.66 acres; Joseph Baker, 14.23 
acres; Jacob Phitzer, 40 acres; Nathan Melvin, 260 acres, and David 
C. Wallace, 124.13 acres. 

Union was increased by Montgomery Hunsaker, 40 acres; 
William and David Douglas, 160 acres; John B. Simoneaux, 240 
acres; Lewis Verlin, 240 acres; Harris Phillip, 280 acres, and Wil- 
liam A. Lewis, 40 acres. 

Preston was increased by Peter Penrod, 80 acres; Christian 
Lyerly, 120 acres; George Hazelwood, 80 acres; Charles S. Gibson, 
40 acres; Samuel Clutter, 320 acres; James Douglas, 80 acres; Ben 
Wiley and Paul Frick, 640 acres; Benjamin Walker, 80 acres; James 
M. Wright, 160 acres and George W. Frogge, 80 acres. 

By 1860, 154,475.25 acres of land had been settled in Union 
County. It is interesting to note that after the railroad came 
through several large tracts of land were entered. Between 1855 
and 1860, 27 men entered tracts of land of more than 240 acres 
each and from 1850 to 1855, there were sixteen such entries. Before 
1835 only two men had entered farms of over 240 acres and be- 
tween 1835 and 1850, twenty such entries were made. The largest 
single entries were made after 1855. 



—54— 



CHAPTER XVII 
THE BEGINNING OF ANNA, ILLINOIS 

Anna, like so many other towns along the Illinois Central 
Railroad, grew to be a large and prosperous town in a few years. 
In 1853 the line of the Illinois Central roadbed was located and it 
was the same year that Winstead Davie who then owned most of 
the land which is now Anna and Colonel Lewis W. Ashley, division 
engineer, who had come into possession of a portion of this same 
tract, determined to lay out a town at this point. The proper 
surveys were made by Francis H. Brown, the county surveyor, and 
lots were laid out on both sides of Main street and the railroad. 
Mr. Davie decided to name the town in honor of his wife, Anna, 
and under this name the plat was entered upon the county records, 
March 3, 1854. The railroad company had established a station here 
for the convenience of the laborers and thus a nucleus for the pres- 
ent city was formed. However, the Illinois Central called the station 
"Jonesboro Station" until 1873. 

In the spring of 1853, there were only four buildings on the 
site of the town of Anna as first incorporated, including a mile 
square, the east half of section 19 and the west half of section 20. 
One log house, the home of Basil Craig was located on the hill near 
the end of what is now East Chestnut street, a house on Main street 
occupied by Levi Craver and a log store on the back of Lot 132, 
kept by Charles Pardee. Mr. Pardee built another building in the 
fall of 1853 so that he could keep boarders. Mr. Pardee ran the 
first hack between Anna and Jonesboro. In the fall and winter 
of 1853, Bennett and Scott started a store on Lot 81 which was 
later owned by Oliver Alden. The fourth original building in Anna 
was a log house on Lot 143. 

During 1854 W. W. Bennett built the brick and frame home 
known as the Lufkin place on Main street, S. E. Scott built a frame 
house on Lot 5, C. C. Leonard on Lot 14, Isaac Spence on Lot 72, 
Dr. McVern on Lot 56; Dr. Love on Lot 124, D. L. Phillips built 
the Europeon Hotel on Lot 105 and Winstead Davie built his 
"Column Store," a large two-story frame building on Lot 82. In 
all, about nineteen buildings were erected that year including the 
first school house in Anna on Lot 45. 

In 1855, the city progressed rapidly in population and build- 
ings, the principal structures consisting of several comfortable 
dwellings, storehouses and the Roman Catholic church. Col. Ashley, 
E. H. Finch, A. D. Finch, C. M. Wiilard, Walter Willard, D. L. 
Phillips and John Stiner were among those building homes. John 
Stiner built the first brick house in Anna on Lot 34 on South street. 

Most of the people obtained their water supply from cisterns, 
but in 1856 the town authorities authorized the digging of a public 
well on Washington street and in 1860 another well at the pottery 
of C. and W. Kirkpatrick added to the public supply of water. 

At the incorporation of the town in 1855, D. L. Phillips 
—55— 



secured the establishment of a post office in Anna and was appoint- 
ed the first postmaster. 

July 19, 1855 an election was held in which 26 votes were 
cast in unanimous favor for the incorporation of the town, and on 
July 28, trustees were elected as follows: 

"At an election held in the town of Anna, County of Union. 
State of Illinois, on Saturday, July 28, 1855, agreeably to public 
notice given, for the purpose of electing five Trustees for said town, 
the following persons having received a majority of all the votes 
cast, are declared duly elected Trustees for the one year next en- 
suing from the date of their election, or until their successors are 
elected: David L. Phillips, C. C. Leonard, W. W. Bennett, W. N. 
Hamby, and John Cochran." The document was attested by J. L. 
Spence, Clerk and C. C. Leonard, Judge. 

Ordinance number one passed by this group August 10, 1855 
prohibited the "sale, barter, exchange or giving away of any spirit- 
uous or malt liquors or wine in any quantity less than one barrel, 
unless for medicinal purposes ordered by a physician." 

The second ordinance established the limits of the town as 
extending "one-half mile from the northeast corner of Lot 14 each 
way." On September 6, 1858 these lines were extended by ordin- 
ance as "containing the east half of section 19 and the west half 
of section 20 in Township 12 of Range 1 west of the Third Principal 
Meridian. On September 8, 1869 the boundary was extended to 
include the south half of section 17 and the east half of section 20. 
and the north half of section 29 and all of the noi'thwest quarter of 
section 19, not included in the legally established boundaries of the 
city of Jonesboro, all in Township 12. 

A third ordinance called for the taking of the census and 
D. L. Phillips, B. L. Wiley and J. M. Ingraham were appointed 
census takers. The census was taken during August, 1855, the first 
official enumeration of the inhabitant of the city of Anna, showed 
the following heads of families with the number of individuals be- 
longing to each: M. C. Massey, 4; John Halpin, 4; M. Thorp, 5; W. 
W. Bennett, 10; Mrs. Bay, 4; S. E. Scott, 3; William Melton, 12; 
J. E. Ingram, 4; R. Stubblefield, 4; B. F. Mangold, 3; C. Henderson. 
2; Mrs. Blackstone, 4; J. Humpter, 4; E. C. Green, 5; Zadoc Elms, 
3; C. C. Leonard, 7; M. Freeman, 5; G. B. Harrison, 8; T. Brown, 4; 
Mrs. Davis, 4 ; J. C. Hacker, 5; W. N. Hamby, 8; D. Love, 6; James 
Musgrave, 12; A. S. Jones, 2; I. L. Spence, 5; A. S. Barnum, 4; 
Thomas Green, 7; J. Tripp, 6; James I. Toler, 7; John L. Cochran, 
9; James Faulkner, 9; J. B. Jones, 8; John Kerr, 6; D. L. Phillips, 
(hotel) 25; A. Bartlett, 7; Mrs. Henderson, 6. The total popula- 
tion of the town was 251. 

The first society to hold meetings in Anna was the Egyptian 
Chapter, No. 45, of Royal Arch Masons, October 5, 1858. The Anna 
Lodge of A. F. & A. Masons, No. 520, was instituted October 1, 
1867 and the Hiawatha Lodge, No. 291, I. O. O. F. was established 
by the Grand Lodge of Illinois, October 11, 1860. 

—56— 



The Anna Literary Society and Lyceum was established in 
1860. 

The early churches established in Anna after its incorporation 
were the Roman Catholic, 1855; the Baptist, 1859; the Reformed 
Congregational, 1859; the Methodist Episcopal, 1856; the First 
Presbyterian, 1866; the Episcopal in 1880; and the Campbellites or 
Christians in 1869. 



—57— 



CHAPTER XVIII 

THE BEGINNING OF DONGOLA, COBDEN, SARATOGA, LICK 

CREEK, MT. PLEASANT AND PRESTON 

Dongola was laid out and the plat recorded May 23, 1857. 
It occupied the north part of Section 25 and the south part of Sec- 
tion 24, Township 13, Range 1 West. It was located about nine 
miles south of the town of Anna. 

The people living near Dongola had patronized the horse mill 
built by Youst Coke and the water mill built by David Penrod on 
Cypress Creek. In 1852, Col. Bainbridge had built the first steam 
mill and this mill and a small store keeping notions, mainly whiskey 
for the Illinois Central workmen were the only two businesses in 
uongola before it was laid out as a town. 

Ebeni Leavenworth, an engineer who worked on the construc- 
tion of the Illinois Central owned most of the town and was re- 
sponsible for its origin and original development. He built the first 
residence and the first store building. The first store was kept by 
Edmund Davis who had a $3,000 stock of merchandise in 1860 and 
the second store, by Abraham Misenheimer who carried a $5,000 
Btock in 1860. 

Mr. Leavenworth also owned and operated the Novelty Works, 
which manufactured wagon hubs, spokes, furniture, feed boxes, 
wooden bowls, plows, wagons and other wooden articles. This busi- 
ness was assessed in 1860 under the name of Leavenworth and 
Reese for $1,500. 

After much effort, Mr. Leavenworth induced the Illinois Cen- 
tral to stop trains at Dongola so that it became a shipping center for 
farmers in that area. 

The village was incorporated in 1871 and the members of the 
first board of trustees were L. T. Bonacina, J. R. Peeler, Henry 
Harmes, W. R. Milans and John Holshouser. Solomon Lombard 
was appointed clerk. 

The first school in the village was a frame building near the 
Novelty Works and in 1873 a large frame building which would 
house 200 pupils was erected. 

The Evangelical Lutheran Church was organized in Dongola 
in 1865 and another church was built by the Methodists, Cumber- 
land Presbyterians, and Lutherans who took turns using it. The 
Baptists erected a frame building for their church. 

Dongola Lodge, No. 581, A. F. and A. M. was chartered 
October 6, 1868 with J. H. Dodson, Master. Dongola Lodge, No. 
343, I. O. O. F. began January 31, 1867 under the leadership of E. 
Leavenworth. 

Cobden, originally known as South Pass was laid out in 1857 
and upon the completion of the Illinois Central was made a station. 
The land was then owned by Benjamin L. Wiley, whose wife was 
Emily, the daughter of Winstead and Anna Davie. The town was 
located on Section 30 of Township 11, Range 1 West, on the west 

—58— 



side of the railroad. The original plat was recorded May 28, 1857, 
but afterward other additions were made: Buck's addition west of 
the original plat; Hartline addition, south of Buck's; Frick's addition 
east of Hartline's and on the east side of the railroad; and Clemens 
addition, east of Wiley's. 

Cobden was brought into existence by a real estate com- 
pany whose office was in Anna. Isaac N. Phillips located here Feb- 
ruary 1, 1858, as the agent of L. W. Ashley, Benjamin L. Wiley 
and J. L. Phillips. He occupied a log cabin just back of what be- 
came known later as the Phillips House. 

In the summer of 1860, Richard Cobden, one of the owners 
of the Illinois Central and an Englishman, made a tour of the rail- 
rord and stopped at South Pass and, because he liked the climate, 
stayed a few days to picnic and hunt. The town was then named 
Cobden in his honor and the railroad station was called Cobden. 

The settlers who came to this part of the county, before 
1S50, like the others in the county were originally from North 
Carolina. However among the settlers who came after the building 
of the railroad were manj New Englanders, attracted by the suit- 
ability of this part of the country for growing orchards. 

In May, 1858, Amus Bulin and Moses Land moved into Cob- 
den and later in the summer Col. Bainbridge came and bought the 
Bell farm on Bell Hill east of Cobden. Henry Ede lived in a house 
built in the Buck Addition and Jerry Ingraham, foreman of the re- 
pair shop of the railroad lived next to his shop. Thomas Baker built 
a house which was occupied by Isaac Phillips and later became 
known as the Roth Hotel. 

The first store, kept by William Henry Harrison Brown was 
opened early in 1859. He sold out to Adam Buck because he had 
been indicted by the grand jury for selling a deck of playing cards. 
The second store was opened by John Davis and the next by Frick 
and Lamer. Mathias Clemens came during the time of the con- 
struction of the railroad and ran a boarding house for the workers. 
LeBar and Davie built a mill about 1860. 

The first school built in the town was a brick building cost- 
ing $10,000. This was one of the first brick schools in the county. 

Cobden was incorporated as a village April 15, 1859. The 
first board of trustees were I. N. Phillips, John Buck, Henry Frick, 
David Green, Mathias Clemens, Dr. F. A. Ross and John Pierce. 

The Presbyterian, the Congregational, the Methodist Episcopal 
and the Catholic were the first churches established in Cobden. The 
Masons and Odd Fellows organized Cobden Lodge No. 466, A. F. 
and A. M., October 3, 1861 and Relief Lodge, No. 452, I. O. O. F. 
October 10, 1871. 

By 1860 four other villages which were never incorporated 
had been established: Saratoga, Lick Creek, Mt. Pleasant and Preston. 

Lick Creek had a postoffice and store and five or six dwell- 
ings. Mangum and Gourley were the first storekeepers and Gourley 
was the first postmaster. The first school was built near A. J. Man- 
gum's home. 

—59— 



Mt. Pleasant village was laid out in 1858 by Caleb Musgrave 
and Abner Cox. A few lots were sold but the town did not grow 
much. The plat was recorded April 9, 1858. There were a church, 
a store, a postoffice, a saw mill and a few residences there in the 
beginning. The first store was kept by Thomas Boswell on his farm 
before the town was laid out. A man named Black opened the first 
store in Mt. Pleasant and sold it to Leavenworth and Little who sold 
to John Stokes, Mr. Stokes built a two story brick building for the 
business. 

The village of Saratoga was laid out by Dr. Penryer, No- 
vember €, 1841, on the northeast quarter of Section 1, Township 
12, Range 1 West. A mineral spring was the cause of the location 
of the town here. Dr. Penryer thought the place could be made into 
a health resort. A boarding house was built near the spring which 
entertained summer guests for several years but the business grad- 
ually died. This was owned by Caleb Cooper. Elijah Beardsley 
owned a saw and grist mill and A. W. Simmons and William Reed 
opened stores. 

The old village of Preston was laid out as a town October 
27, 1842, by John Garner and for a time was a shipping point but 
the Mississippi gradually moved in on the town and finally covered 
the spot where it oace stood. 

There were many country stores scattered through the county 
and several mills, but the leading business centers by 1860 were 
Jonesboro, Anna, Cobden and Dongola. 



—60— 



CHAPTER XIX 
PERSONAL TAXES IN 1860 

By 1860 Union County was entering a new epoch in its 
history. However little development took place in this period until 
alter the Civil War was completed. 

In 1860, instead of having only one means of communicat- 
ing with distant points — the river boat, Union County had overnight 
access to Chicago and Memphis and New Orleans could be reached 
in forty-eight hours by mail. Since this widened the market for 
the farmer's products, large developments in agriculture took place. 
Since the railroads burned wood for fuel, and used wooden ties and 
rails, work in timber became a leading industry in the county. 

With the widening of opportunity, the people were able to 
achieve a higher standard of living, to have better furniture, better 
clothing and better houses. Stores carried larger stocks of mer- 
chandise and more cash savings were accumulated by the citizens. 

It is significant that while Jonesboro and Anna were the 
centers of business, many country stores carried a fairly adequate 
stock of merchandise. This was probably due to the face that 
roads were difficult to travel in bad weather so that the people in 
each locality made their purchases as near their homes as possible. 

The merchants who paid a tax on their stock of goods were 
William Kinnison, I. M. Randall, Joel Ragsdale, L. Hauser, N. C. 
Meker, Adam Buck, J. N. Albright, A. B. Agnew, Robert Biick, 
J. P. Bohanan, J. M. Brisbin, D. D. Cover, E. Cover, S. B. Carut'i, 
A. N. Dougherty, F. M. Davidson, Winstead Davie, Frick and Lamer, 
Frick and Glasscock, Moses Goodman, J. Howitz, Moses Hutson, 
R. Johnson, Charles Clutts, G. A. Kirchner, Gore & Co., McElhaney 
and Bro., E. McKeeby, G. W. Mumaugh, Marks & Dodds, John E. 
Naill, James I. Provo, B. W. Sitter, Edward Terpenitz, Silas C. 
Toler, Thomas Watkins, C. H. Williford, J. H. Williams, Willard 
& Co., John E. Winn, Williams & Co., Adam Cruse, David Green, 
John MacConnell, S. P. Whittaker, L. Misenheimer & Co., Moses 
Fisher, S. E. Davis, A. Aden, Buck Welch, G. W. Frogge, E. Mac- 
Kinder and Marschalk & Cruse. 

Of these merchants, nine carried a stock of less than one 
hundred dollars, five between two and three, five between three and 
four, one between four and five, four between five and six, two 
between six and seven, five between one and two thousand dollars, 
two between two and three thousand, one between four and five, 
one between five and six, one between six and seven, one ten thou- 
sand dollar stock and one twelve thousand. There were thirty- 
three stores with a stock of less than one thousand dollars ard 
twenty over one thousand. 

In 1860 horses, cattle, mules and asses, sheep, hogs, wagons 
and carriages, clocks and watches, pianos, merchandise, manufac- 
tured goods, moneys and credits, stocks and bonds, and unenumerat- 
ed properties were assessed. The acreage under cultivation was 

—61— 



also recorded. These assessments reveal that the county was de- 
cidedly an agricultural county with 2848 horses, valued at $134,- 
G45; 7987 cattle valued at $71,968; 334 mules and asses, $19,433 ; 
5406 sheep, $5448; 16,694 hogs, $18,773;. having a total value of 
$250,287. This stock was mortgaged for $15,047, which means that 
Bis percent of the livestock was under mortgage. 

Other assessments included 1127 carriages and wagons valued 
at $29,897; 1239 clocks and watches, $9169; ten pianos, $1635; 
merchandise, $78,802; manufactured articles, $3,390; moneys and 
credits, $140,339; stocks and bonds, $11,000; unenumerated prop- 
erty, $98,951. 

19,704 acres of land were producing wheat, 22,207 acres- 
producing corn and 39S7 acres other products, making a total of 
45,898 acres or less than one-fifth of the total area of the county 
in cultivation. 

It is interesting to notice that more cash was assessed than 
any other item, horses coming second. Apparently only $15,047 of 
this cash had been loaned with mortgages for security and only two 
persons in the county had anything invested in stocks and bonds, 
Willis Willard, $10,000 and Charles M. Willard, $1,000. The Wheat 
Growers Bank, the only bank in the county, was listed as having 
$5G02 in cash. 

Pianos were owned by E. Harwood, Willis Willard, Charles 
M. Willard, John Daugherty (then Lieutenant Governor of the State 
of Illinois), John Humphrey, E. McKinder, P. Baxter, J. L. Freeze 
?.nd Allen Bainbridge. 

J. N. Albright, M. Krentz, Adam Miller & Co., Amos W T . Bar- 
num, Paul Frick, Jacob Green, Goodall & Co., Finch and Shick, 
Ignatius Brooks and Daniel L. Nusbaum were assessed for manu- 
factured articles. Most of the manufacturers owned saw and grist 
mills. Finch and Shick owned what is now the Anna Stone Co. 

There were 2149 taxpayers. 

There were thirty-two persons in the county who had more 
than $1,000 cash in addition to their real estate and other personal 
property. 

By 1860 Union County was divided on the question of 
slavery. Jonesboro had been the site of one of the famous Lincoln 
and Douglas debates and John Daugherty who owned the Jonesboro 
Gazette and his editor Marschalk had broken their partnership and 
Marschalk had started the Democrat in Anna because of their dif- 
ference in view regarding slavery. In 1824 when the question of 
slavery had been submitted to the people of Illinois for a vote 
regarding the Illinois stand on the question, Union County was 
evenly divided. However there were few colored people in the 
county. 

The people who had come before the railroad had not been 
wealthy. Most of them had settled less than eighty acres of land 
at a cost of $1.25 per acre and few had more than the wagon in 
which they had come with a horse, cow, sheep and pig and a few 
personal belongings. 

— C2— 



The WillaTds who had become the wealthiest family in the 
■county had arrived with little more than their bare hands, a meager 
•education and much foresight. The persons running ferries were 
the first to accumulate more wealth than two or three hundred 
dollars. Then business men prospered next but no great amount 
of speculation in land, etc. took place until after the established 
fact that the railroad would be built. 

The pioneers lived a rugged life and accumulation of per- 
sonal belongings was gained only through hard work and persever- 
ance. 

The land was always poor because it was thought by the 
earliest settlers that they would be able to stay only two or three 
years and move on because the fertility of the soil would be de- 
pleted by that time but they found that by a system of crop rota- 
tion they could make the soil continue to produce. For this reason 
we see Union County develop into a predominantly agricultural 
area. However, because the soil was and is not the highest type of 
soil in the state, after the more fertile regions were accessible on 
account of railroads, the county has not grown in population as 
several other agricultural counties have, in spite of the fact that it 
hegSLa its growth early. 



—63— 



CHAPTER XX 

UNION COUNTY IN THE CIVIL WAR 

Union County from the beginning to the end of the Civil 
War gave about 3000 men to the Union Army. This county at all 
times filled their quotas by using enlisted men and not resorting 
to drafting soldiers. This county sent five hundred more men than 
the average county. 

This is a remarkable record for the county since it was 
definitely shown in the poll of 1824 that one half of the vote3 
were for slavery. There is evidence however that there were many 
southern sympathizers in the county which is not at all strange 
since the settlers in the county before 1850 were entirely of south- 
ern extraction. However it was not the wealthy cotton planter 
but the poor man who came to southern Illinois to make his home. 
In looking over the entries it is evident that the average settler 
came with seldom over $100 in his pocket and settled less than one 
hundred acres of land. A study of the population shows that there 
were comparatively few colored people ever came to the county. 

When it is considered that the population of Union County 
in 1860 was 11,181, there could not have been many more men in 
the county available for service. About three-fifths of the 3000 
soldiers or 180O of them were killed in action or died in hospitals 
or prison camps. This means that Union County lost between one- 
sixth and one-seventh of its total population during the Civil War. 
This, of course, was no greater loss than that of other counties. 
It was at this time that women appeared in business and profes- 
sions, largely teaching and millinery. 

The records show that Union County in addition to the full 
One Hundred and Ninth Regiment furnished Captain Mack's com- 
pany as well as a number of men to the Eighteenth Regiment, one 
company, Captain Reese, to the Thirty-first Regiment. A portion 
of the Sixtieth Regiment was enlisted here. This regiment rendez- 
voused in this county and filled its vacancies with Union County 
men. The county also furnished a large number of men to the 
Sixth Calvary, in addition to Captain Warren Stewart's Company. 
Many Union County men were enlisted in the Thirty-first Infantry 
which was organized at Cairo under John A. Logan. 

The battle which was nearest to Union County was the 
battle of Belmont, Mo. Many of our citizens were inspired with 
patriotism and rushed to the defense of their homes when battle 
came within hearing distance of the residents of Union County. Fol- 
lowing is an account of the part of the Thirty-first Regiment played 
in the war. 

With less than two month's drill, the Regiment took part in 
the battle of Belmont, Mo., November 7, 1861, cutting its way into 
the enemy's camp, and with equal valor, but less hazard, cutting 
its way out again. On the 7th of February, 1862, the Regiment 

—64— 



was at Fort Henry, Tenn., and after emerging from the muddy 
environments of that stronghold, it traversed the hills of Fort Donel- 
son, and there, amid whiter snows, on the 15th of the same month, 
it lost 260 men killed and wounded — the Regiment having per- 
formed, in this engagement the difficult evolution of a change of 
front to rear on tenth company in the heat of the battle, among 
tangled brush and on uneven ground. From Donelson, the Regi- 
ment was transported by steamer to Shiloh, Tenn., and thence it 
moved towards Corinth, Miss., with the main body of the army, 
and reached that place only to find it evacuated by the enemy. 
From Corinth, the 31st marched to Jackson, Tenn., and the summer 
of 1362 was spent in guarding railroads, skirmishing in the country 
of the Forked Deer River, and scouting in the direction of Memphis, 
to Brownsville and beyond. Ordered to the support of General 
Ro^ecrans, at Corinth, the Regiment reached that place in time to 
follow the retreating foe to Ripley, Miss., where the men fed on 
fresh pork, without salt, or crackers, or coffee. On this expedition 
it was engaged in the skirmishes of Chewalla and Tuscumbia, end- 
ing the 6th of October, 1862. The Regiment was with Grant in the 
first campaign against Vicksburg, sometimes called the Yokona 
expedition, and passed through Holly Springs to Coldwater, at 
which place the men, destitute of rations in consequence of the 
capture and destruction of supplies at Holly Springs by the enemy, 
showed their characteristic adaptability by carrying out at once 
the suggestion of Logan to convert the timber into ashes, and by 
means of the ashes, the corn of the surrounding country into 
hominy. 

Upon the termination of this campaign the regiment, with 
Ce army under Grant, was transferred to a new field, that of the 
operations which finally resulted in the downfall of Vicksburg. On 
the 15th of January, 1863, it set out for Lagrange, Tenn., and 
thence went to Memphis, by way of Colliersville. Leaving Memphis 
March 10, 1863, it embarked for Lake Providence, La.; and after 
assisting in the attempts to open a route by water to a point be- 
low Vicksburg, in moved, upon the abandonment of these attempts 
to Milliken's Bend, and thence to Wanesborough. Having crossed 
the Mississippi below Grand Gulf, April 30, 1863, the next day the 
Regiment, without waiting for rations, though hungry and weary 
enough, hurried forward to the support of the comrades then en- 
gaged in battle at Thompson's Hill, near Port Gibson, and quickly 
forming on McClenand's left, under the eyes of Generals Grant 
and Logan, it moved up the right wing of the enemy at the charge 
step, routing him completely, and helping to secure a speedy victory. 
Governor Yates, in civilian garb of swallow-tail coat and high shirt 
collar, and overflowing with enthusiasm and patriotism, witnessed 
this charge. After crossing the Bayou Pierre, the 31st again met 
and dispersed their foes at Ingram Heights, May 3, 1863, and push- 
ed on to Raymond where on the 12th the Regiment hunted from its 

—65— 



front the fragments of a brigade which the enemy had thrown 
against the advance of Grant. Moving onward in almost ceaseless 
march, it took part in the battle of Jackson, Miss., May 14, 1863, 
and thence at midnight, on the 15th, through drenching rain, it 
marched toward Vicksburg, to meet the enemy anew. About ten 
o'clock in the morning of the 16th the men spread their catridges 
to dry in the sun, in an old field about five miles from Champion 
Hills, from which latter point was soon heard the sound of battle. 
The men hastily gathered up their ammunition and seized their 
muskets, and the Regiment followed the head of the column at 
double-quick effecting a formation with its brigade on the right of 
our embattled line where it rested for a moment, the men lj 
on their faces while the hostile shells whistled and shrieked and 
exploded above them. At the command "Attention," the line stood 
erect, with bayonets fixed; the Brigade Commander, General John 
E. Smith, gave the word; McPherson said with a smile, "give in 
Jessie!" and Logan shouted: "remember the blood of your mammies! 
give 'em hell!" and then the brigade sprang forward, broke and 
routed the two column formation over which waved the Confederate 
flag, capturing the opposing battery, turned its guns upon the re- 
treating enemy, and took as many prisoners as there were men in 
the charging brigade. In this encounter there was crossing of 
bayonets and fighting hand to hand. Sergeant Wick of Co. B used 
his bayonet upon his foe and Sergeant Hendrickson of Company C, 
clubbed his musket in a duel with one of the men in gray. 

From this point the Regiment, with the main army, followed 
the retreating enemy to his entrenched lines at Vicksburg, where 
it took part in the bloody assaults of the 19th and 22nd of May; 
its gallant Lieut. Colonel Reece, meeting death by the explosion of 
a hand grenade while planting the Regimental Colors upon the 
rampants. Here the flag received 153 bullets and the staff was shot 
asunder in four places. 

During the siege the Regiment took a prominent part in the 
operations against Fort Hill; and when the Fort was blown up : on 
the 25th of June, by the explosion of a mine beneath it, there came 
a time that tested the stuff the men were made of. Hero is the 
night, in that crater remembered as the "slaughter pen" the soldiers 
fighting by reliefs, and within an armslength of the enemy — some 
had their muskets snatched from their hands — under a shower of 
grenades and of shells lighted by port-holes, while the voices of 
Pearson, Goddard, Morningham and others rising at times above 
the terrific din of combat, cheered on their men — were deeds of 
valor performed which would adorn the heroic page. 

On the morning of July 4, 1863, the place of honor having 
been assigned to the Brigade, the Thirty-first Regiment marched 
proudly across the rents and chasms of Fort Sill into Vicksburg. 
UNION COUNTY IN THE CIVIL WAR 

Having made the expedition to Monroe, La., under General 
Stephenson, the Regiment went into camp at Black River, Miss., 

—66— 



the scene of Lawler's splendid victory, and here, on the 5th of 
January, 1864, three-fourths of the men again enlisted in the ser- 
vice. That night the men, formed in line, with lighted candles held 
in the shanks of their bayonets, marched to the quarters of General 
Force, commanding the Brigade, who appeared before his tent and 
catching the splendor from the candles full in his face, cried out 
with enthusiasm, "Three cheers for the 31st!" But the "boys" were 
not going to cheer for themselves and there were no others present 
to do it, so they stood in their ranks silent and with military air, 
and cheered not nor stirred; whereupon the General shouted, "Cheer 
yourselves boys, hip! hip!" and then the cheers were given with a 

. followed by a "tiger" for the Union, and three groans for the 
Confederacy. 

The Regiment was with General Sherman in the campaign 
against Meridian, Miss., after which the re-enlisted men, the 
"veterans", took their furloughs, starting for home the 19th of 
March, 1864. Having returned to the front, by way of Cairo, the 
Regiment camped from the 6th to the 15th of May at Clinton, 
on the Tennessee River, and thence marching by way of Rome, 
Georgia, sometimes collecting, herding and driving beef cattle, and 
sometimes skirmishing with the enemy, it joined Sherman's army 
at Ackworth Station. It was in the skirmish at Big Shanty, and 
at Brush Mountain, the assault upon Kenesan on June 27, 1864; 
j?-eo in the battles around Atlanta on the 21st, 22nd, and 28th of 
July, of which that on the 22nd was the most terrible, the men 

tins: sometimes on one side of the earthworks, sometimes on 
the cher. The Regiment was also engaged in the battles of Love- 
joy Station and Jonesborough, and was with Sherman in the mock 
pursuit of Hood upon his invasion of Tennessee. Retracing their 
steps, the Regiment reached Atlanta on the 13th of November and 
the 15th it there began with Sherman the triumphant march to the 
sea, and on it marched with that magnificent army, cutting roads 
through tangled forests, bridging streams for the passage of troops, 
tearing up railroad tracks, twisting the rails "as crooked as ram's 
horns," discovering and devouring sweet potatoes and other pro- 
vender surging over the country from Atlanta to the sea, "shouting 
the battle-cry of freedom," and proceeding by way of Millen, it 
arrived on the 10th day of December, 1864. at Savannah. Here the 
regiment went into camp on the rice plantation of Dr. Owen, where 
the rice was consumed for food, the husks being beaten off by 
means of wooden mortars and pestles appropriated from the slave 
quarters nearby. One of the incidents of the day was the en- 
countering of a battery mounted on a flat car, pushed along the 
railroad by a locomotive. 

On the 4th of January, 1865, the 31st bade farewell to Sa- 
vannah, and shipped on the steamer Harvest Moon, and after the 
novel experience and sights of a sea voyage, disembarked at 
Beaufort, S. C, where it remained enjoying the luxury of fresh 
oysters at low prices until the 13th. To this succeeded some 



skirmishing of Fort Pocotaligo — "Poke-'em-till-they-go' 7 , as the men 
called it which was evacuated by the enemy. On the 30th of Janu- 
ary the march began thru the Carolinas, by way of Salkahatchie, 
Orangeburg — which was captured, after some fighting by the Regi- 
ment's skirmishings — Columbia — scourged by destroying flames — 
Wirsborough, Cherau, Fayetteville, captured by foragers — and 
Bentonville — scenes of the last great struggle of Johnston's army, 
and the Regiment came out of the swamps, out of the pine forests, 
"out of the wilderness," the men ragged, dirty, and many of them 
barefooted, to Goldborough, N. C, where it arrived the 24th of 
h, 1865, and when letters from home and news from the world 
were received. These and the prospects of the nearing of the end 
were cheering and refreshing to the men who for 54 days had been 
without communication with home or the world, and were weary 
with long marching and fighting. 

On the 14th of April, 1865, the Regiment was with the army 
at Raleigh, N. C. Signs of the ruin of the Confederacy and the 
dispersion of its armed forces were apparent on every hand. Soon 
came the surrender of Johnson's army, the only force which could 
oppose the onward march of the Union troops to Richmond, and 
*he Regiment formed a part of the host to which that army sur- 
rendered. 

On the 9th of May the Regiment was at Richmond, on the 
19th at Alexandria; and on the 24th of May, with faded and 
tattered uniforms, but with martial step and bearing in column of 
company, eyes front, it marched through the principal avenues of 
the capital, in that grand review of the returning armies in presence 
of the great leaders, civil and military, of the Republic, the most 
magnificent and imposing spectacle ever witnessed by the city of 
Washington. The end had been attained! 

Soon afterwards the Regiment moved to Louisville, Ky., 
arriving at that place on the 11th of June, when it was assigned 
to provost-guard duty. On the 19th of July, 1865, it was mustered 
out of the service, by Lieut. Aug. P. Noyes, A. C. M., 3rd Div. 17 
Corps. It was then moved to Springfield, 111., where it arrived on 
the 23rd of July, 1865; and there on the 31st of the same month, 
the men received their final discharge and separted for their homes 
— those who were left of them. 

At the time of the discharge there were present 25 officers, 
and 677 enlisted men. When first organized, the Regiment num- 
bered 1,100 men. It had recruited 700. The casualties, including 
men discharged before final musterout, amounted to 1,128. In the 
course of its existence the Regiment had been commanded by four 
Colonels, and had had five Lieut. Colonels and six Majors. Of the 
25 officers discharged at the final muster-out, all save the chaplain 
had risen from the ranks. 

In the campaigns of Sherman this Regiment had marched 
2,076 miles. This part of its history is included in that of the 
Brigade to which it belonged — the 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, 17th 

—68— 



Corps, Army of Tennessee. The Regiment marched 2000 miles 
under Grant and on expeditions other than those of Sherman. It 
served in the hostile states of Louisiana, Georgia, Alabama, North 
Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. Before January 1, 1863 the 
history of the Regiment is comprised in that of the 1st Brigade, 
2nd Division, Reserve Army of Tennessee. 

Always efficiently commanded, and evincing soldierly quali- 
ties in its first battle, the Regiment became in the days of its 
veteran existence one of the best drilled in the service. It was 
while encamped at Black River, Miss., after the Vicksburg cam- 
paigns, that the regiment under the skillful management of Lieut- 
Colonel Pearson, attained that high degree of discipline and pro- 
ficiency in drill for which it became known, and toward which it 
had been directed under Logan and White in the earlier days of the 
war. The latter fell at Donelson and deserved the title "the brave.-t 
of the brave." 

Col. Pearson had been in service under General Prentiss 
before the organization of this Regiment, and early showed an 
aptitude for tactics and drill which made him a favorite with the 
field and staff, while his soldierly qualities displayed at Henry and 
Donelson endeared him to the rank and file. Hen>; he rapidly rose 
from the ranks, being promoted to Commissary Sergeant March 1, 
1SG2; to Adjutant, May 16, 1862; to Major February 4, 1863, by the 
unanimous vote of the officers; to Lieut. Colonel July 1, 1863, and 
to Colonel September 26, 1864. On the 13th of March, 1865, he 
was breveted Brigadier General of Volunteers, for gallantry during 
the war. 

Many of the soldiers and officers of the Regiment deserve 
special mention and lasting remembrance, but the space alloted for- 
bids a more extended account. To some of the men were awarded 
medals for gallantry; among them Sergeant George C. White of 
Company C, who, severely wounded in the battle of Atlanta, July 
22, 1864, resolutely and persistently refused to be carried to the 
rear. 

The fighting qualities of this Regiment were displayed in 
14 battles and 25 skirmishes of various degrees of importance. It 
witnessed the surrender of Buckner and the garrison at Donelson, 
the capitulation of Pemberton and his army at Vicksburg, the 
humiliation of Johnson and his force at Bentonville, and their final 
surrender near Raleigh. And a brilliant gem in its crown of glory 
is the fact of its organization as a "veteran" Regiment, at a time 
when the Union cause stood so much in need of trained and tried 
soldiers to complete the overthrow of armed rebellion and to 
establish upon the ruins of anarchy and slavery a "government of 
the people, by the people and for the people." 



-69- 



CHAPTER XXr 

LAND ENTRIES FROM 1SS0 TO 1320 

After the Civil War was completed, the settlement of new 
.and continued in Union County until 1920 when the last tract of 
land belonging to the government was bought by Mr. Daisy. 

Rich Precinct added John Davie, 26.46 acres; John J. Dem- 
26.46 acres; Jacob Bradshaw, 26.46 acres; Wm. J. Stout, 
71 acres; Lorenzo D. Stout, 60.72 acres; Henry C. Stout, 20.72 
aeres; George W. Owen, 20,72 acres; R. E. Henderson, 40 acres; 
William J. Shepard, 40 acres; William Terry, 200 acres; Pleasant 
Henley, 40 acres; Fannie Saddler, 40 acres; James N. Sanders, 
129.36 acres; Jefferson Pvendleman, 47 acres; Wm. V. Sanders, 47.06" 
teres; Jasper W. Damrcn, 40 acres; Marcus L. Fly, 40 acres; James 
E. Hiller, 40 acres; Jasper N. Damrcm, 120 acres; James Watson, 
27. "2 acres; John D. Watson, 27.92 acres; John W. Killer, 129.68 
acres; John D. Watson, 27.92 acres; Lewis P. Holland, 30 acres; 
William Rhodes, 71.29 acres; Wm. H. Dodge, 40.40 acres; Daniel 
Matloek, 40.40 acres; Orvil W. Bargs, 40.40 acre;; Lucy L. Fuller, 
40 acres; David Bargs, 40 acres; John Watson, 49 acres; Solomon 
Sitter, SO acres; Robert Elmore, 40 acres; Frank M. Agnew, 80 
;::res; Jessie Watson, 40 acres; Enoch Hack, 40 acres; Irvin C. 
Eatson, 40 acres; Franklin Roach, 40 acres; Henry Culp, 40 acres; 
Abel Baker. 40 acres: Daniel S. Davie, 40 acre?; P.obert S. Hopkins, 
40 acres: T. J. McBride, 80 acres; Jessie G. Lindsay, 40 acres: 
Jacob G. Hunsaker, 40 acres; William Hudson, 120 acres; Jasper 
W. Damron, 40 acres; Pleasant Henley, 80 acres; David Fries. 40 
acres; Elisha and Zach Hughes, 40 acres; Charles P. Coleman, 40 
acres; W 7 illiam W. Inscore, 80 acres; Benjamin F. Green, 80 acres; 
John L. Coleman, 40 acres; Richard Gist, 40 acres; John Carter, 
40 acres; John Gist, 40 acres; Marion C. Coleman, 80 acres; Ab- 
solom W T . Coleman, 40 acres; Lawrence D. Coleman, 40 acres; 
George Johnson, 40 acres; Elizabeth Smith, 40.40 acres Susan 
Vancil, 41.20 acres; WnTam Sladden, 42.21 acres; Lavina W T . Hen- 
derson, 80 acres; James O. Hale, 40 acres; Christ Landis, 40 acres; 
John Randall, 120 acres; John Freeze, 40 acres; Wm. A. Harris, 
40 acres; E. D. Turner, 40 acres; Pleasant P. Peeler, 80 acres; 
William Rendleman, 174.39 acres; Joshua Thompson, 31.36 acres; 
Mary Robinson, 40 acres; Charles D. Bush, 40 acres; Daniel Sifford, 
40 acres; Richard W. Lisk, 40 acres; David Gow, 240 acres; Henry 
E. Clarke, 40 acres; Wlliam H. Kerr, 40 acres; Peter A. Stout, 40 
acres and Larkin F. Brooks, 40 acres. 

Additional lands entered in Lick Creek Precinct were: Gail 
Herson, 40 acres; Marion C. Coleman, 40 acres; Joseph Lingle, 40 
acres; William Hudson, 40 acres; John S. Jones, 120 acres; George 
H. Jones, 40 acres; Elizabeth Trees, 40 acres; William A. Johnson, 
40 acres; Matthew Brooks, 40 acres; Lewis Jones, 40 acres; Marshall 
Jones, 40 acres; Pleasant Henley, 40 acres; L. D. Coleman, 40 acres; 
Edwin Wiggs, 40 acres; Wm. T. Hood, 40 acres; James H. Kirby, 40 
acres; Andrew J. Gourley, 40 acres; Hiram N. Hood, 80 acres; 

—70— 



Thomas A.. Hogg, 40 acres; George T. McGinnis, 40 acres; Thoma 
Gourley, 40 acres; William Roberts, 77.38 acres; John H. Bosweli, 
77.91 acres; James H. Gallegly, 38.69 acres; Andrew L. Giu.^ 
■39.23 acres; Wra. H. Corbitt, 39.24 acres; Francis F. ! 
acres; Isaac W. Davis, 40 acres; Austin A. O'Neill, 120 a a 
Powell Toler, 40 acres; Hezekiah O'Naal, 4^ acres; James Co. 
40 acres; James A. Brown, 41.72 acres.; Solomon H. Sitter, 41.73 
acres; John S. Grugett, 83.56 acres; F. E. Scarsdale, 120 acres; 
Thomas J. Jolly, 40 acres; Henry Plater, 40 acres; Lexander W. 
Ximmo, 40 acres; W. J. Rudick, 40 acres; Eva McLane, 40 acres; 
Wdliam C. Brasel, 40 acres; Winstead Davie, 120 acres; Harrison 
Elkins, 40 acres; Sylvester Hileman, 40 acres; David W. McGinnis, 
40 acres; John H. Bosweli, 280 acres; James F. Dick, 80 acres and 
Jam os Miller, 40 acres, 

Saratoga Precinct added William B. Todd, 40 acres; John 
Hunter, 40 acres; R. M. Dawson, 40 acres; James D. Brooks, 87.49 
acres; Susan Mannenger, 43.74 acres; Marion J. Sitter, 44.96 acres; 
John Highland, 44.96 acres; Franklin W. Carothers, 40 acres; Jessie 
R. Brown, SO acres; Henry C. George, 240 acres; James B. Hall, 
40 acres; Esan Griffith, 40 acres; Wm. N. Corlis, 40 acres; Elizabeth 
M. Todd, 40 acres; John W. Williams, 40 acres; James B. Wall, 40 
acres; Ben Vancil, 40 acres; Peter Williams, 40 acres; John N. 
Penninger, 160 acres; Williams Murphy, 200 acres and Lafayette 
Murphy, 40 acres; George Clutts, 40 acres; Peter Norrix, 80 acres; 
Frederick Baker, 40 acres; D. M. Sisk, 40 acres; William J. Harkley, 
40 acres; William J. Stout, 40 acres; John Randall, 40 acres; Joseph 
Lingle, 40 acres; Elijah Beckwith and John C. Fuller, 40 acres; 
Florence K. Baker, 40 acres; Andrew Duckshied, 40 acres; John 
Stephens, 40 acres; J. W. Hambleton, 40 acres; Rhoda A. Reward, 
40 acres; J. B. Coulter, 40 acres; Garrett H. Baker and Wm. Chase, 
45.54 acres; Henry Ede, 45.54 acres; Garrett H. Baker, 45.54 acres; 
I. N. Phillips, 45.85 acres; Eliza B. Finley, 45.85 acres; Lewis N. 
Ashley, Ben L. Wiley and David L. Phillips, 40 acres; Matthias 
Clemens, 40 acres; Christian Nordling, 40 acres; Joseph Metz, 40 
acres; Alexander, Johnston, 40 acres; John M. Rich, 40 acres; 
Samuel C. Walker, 40 acres; Thomas H. Bean, 40 acres; Wm. J. 
Jones, 40 acres; Susannah Barringer, 40 acres; Daisy and Gertrude 
Buck, 40 acres; Joseph Bigler, 35.84 acres; Adam Buck, 35.84 
acres; Charles Howenstein, 35.83 acres; Ephriam M. PowelJ, 40 
acres; George W. Williams, 40 acres; Joseph Williams, 40 acres and 
Richard H. Davis, 40 acres. 

Stokes Precinct was increased by John Emerson, 40 acres; 
Iva Green, 40 acres; Henry M. Halterman, 40 acres; John Earn- 
hadrt, 40 acres; Henry G. W. S. Cline, 40 acres; J. F. Halterman, 
40 acres; James P. Wiggs, 40 acres; Richard T. Wiggs, 40 acres; 
M'les M. Arnhart, 40 acres; William D. Toler, 80 acres; John B. 
Stokes, 40 acres; George A. Stout, 40 acres; Samuel O. Stout, 40 
acres; Samuel O. Slocet, 120 acres; William Homes, 40 acres; Henry 

—71 — 



Mangold, 40 acres; John C. Mackey, 40 acres; George Penmnger, 
336 11 acres; Charles Sommers, 40 acres; David Davis, 165.37 
acres; John W. Speck, 80 acres; Edmond H. Hileman, 40 acres; 
James C. Lingle, 40 acres; William T. Boswell, 40 acres; Polly Ann 
Conder 40 acres; William Stodder, 40 acres; Henry Mangold, 49 
acres- James W. Woodward, 80 acres; John Ballard, 40 acres; 
Jonathan Boswell, 89.79 acres; James Mclntire, 80 acres; Wilhelm 
Kazemann, 80 acres; Elizabeth Newton, 80 acres; James T. Mackey, 
40 acres; Elizabeth Newton, 40 acres; Francis M. Henard, 40 acres; 
D. M. Jones, 40 acres; James W. Clifford, 93.34 acres; James T. 
Hughes, SO acres; John G. Sherwood, 80 acres; James F. Hood, 40 
acres; John H. Pool, 40 acres; James A. Penrod, 40 acres; James 
Ballard, 48.79 acres; Nathan Karraker, 88.79 acres; Adaline Pen- 
rod, 4s'.79 acres; Joseph Conder, 49.74 acres; William and Een A. 
Conder, 49.74 acres; William Hinkle, 49.74 acres; William George 
Davis, 49.74 acres; John Smoot, 40 acres; Thomas Smith, 40 acre?; 
Adam F. Hoffner, 80 acres; John Ballard, 40 acres; and George W. 
Sheffer, 40 acres. 

Dongola added Peter Veruie, 56.82 acres; Henry W. Otrich, 
G6.S6 acres! William T. Smoot, 40 acres; James H. Kelley, 40 acres; 
James A. Penrod, 40 acres; Lucinda Keller, 80 acres; Michael D. 
Clifford, 40 acres; Daniel Keller, 40 acres; Riley Daywalt, 40 acres; 
Meredith Keller 40 acres; Joseph M. Clifford, 80 acres; John P. 
Daywalt, 40 acres; Robertson C. Corzine, 40 acres; James T. 
Hughes,' 40 acres; John Clifford, 40 acres; J. K. Adams, 40 acres; 
Sylvester A iams, 160 acres; Levi Penrod, 200 acres; Josiah E. 
Brown, 40 acres; Daniel C. Boggs, 40 acres; James A. Penrod, 80 
acres; Barbara Penrod, 280 acres; David Penrod, 80 acres; G. D. 
Corzine, 40 acres; Mary Ann Lence, 49.16 acres; Peter Lence, 
49.16 acres; Mon-roe Dillow, 89.50 acres; Jacob C. Dillow, 49.50 
acres; Frederick Schluter, 129.50 acres; Simeon D. Corzine, 45.50 
acres; Samuel B. Poor, 120 acres; S. A. D. Rogers, 40 acres; John 
C. Keller, 40 acres; Jacob Douglas, 40 acres; Henry Meisenheimer, 
80 acres; Stephen T. Baston, 160 acres; Thomas E. Carlock, 40 
acres; James A. Karraker, 40 acres; Jacob Beggs, 120 acres; John 
F. Beggs, 40 acres; Jacob Peeler, 40 acres; James W. Hogan, 80 
acres; Mo^es O. Felker, 40 acres; Henry Hess, 40 acres; John R. 
Casper, 40 acres; Daniel F. Beggs, 80 acres; Thomas Misenheimer, 
40 acres; Sarah C. Wilhelm, 40 acres; Robert Harris, 80 acres; 
Thomas Smoot, 40 acres; Jacob Graham, 40 acres; William Gifford, 
and Benjamin Ladd, 131.03 acres; Joseph Minnie, 50.62 acres; Lewis 
Misenheimer 50.51 acres; Adde Aden, 130.51 acres; R. H. Kinkead, 
50.62 acres; Henry C. George, 50.62 acres; Edward Cohl, 80 acres; 
Andrew T. Mulcahy, 40 acres; Rebecca A. Patrick, 40 acres; William 
W. Sheffer, 40 acres; Rufus M. Lingle, 40 acres; W. E. Simpson, 
40 acres; John H. Taylor, 40 acres; William Hinkle, 40 acres; 
Miles E. Kestler, 40 acres; Caroline Aden, 40 acres; Rufus Monroe. 
40 acres; Elizabeth Sherfley, 40 acres; Levi Mcintosh, 80 acres; 
George Eller, 40 acres; Giles C. Casper, 40 acres; Jacob D. Benton, 

—72— 



40 acres; Peter Lence, 40 acres; Robert Dickson, Jr., 40 acres; 
Joseph Schlegel, 40 acres; Anthony Peeler, 40 acres; Maurice B. 
Lawrence, 40 acres; Samuel Lence, 40 acres; William S. Hammers, 
40 acres; Julia A. Littel, 40 acres; Jessie Peeler, 40 acres; Susan 
Davalt, 40 acres; N. G. Miller, 40 acres and John Peeler, 40 acres. 
Anna precinct added Robert Chatham, 40 acres; James M. 
Williams, 40 acres; Wm. W. Kirkpatrick, 40 acres; Jacob Hileman, 
80 acres; Edward Ryan, 40 acres; Andrew Eaves, 80 acres; Joshua 
Thompson, 40 acres; Edward Robinson, 40 acres; Tilman Manus, 
40 acres; Peter F. Williams, 80 acres; J. H. Goddard, 40 acres; 
Lucinda M. Finley, 40 acres; Sarah A. Underwood, 40 acres; Joseph 
Wood, 40 acres; David A. Parker, 80 acres; John L. Freeze, 40 
acres; John Corzine, 41.75 acres; William F. Otrich, 41.75 acres; 
Benjamin J. Keith, 83.25 acres; Martin V. Brown, 40 acres; Thomas 
Dale, 40 acres; Adam Verble, 40 acres, and James Whalen, 80 



acres. 



Cobden was increased by Joshua Thompson, 28.27 acres; 
Augusti Bailston. 28.77 acres; Thomas L. Bailey, 57.40 acres; George 
C. Hanford, 28.70 acres; Young J. Vancil, 28.70 acres; William Har- 
per and Ulrich Esyinger, 40 acres; William Trickier, 40 acres; 
Frederick Schelker, 40 acres; Rebecca O'Donnel, 40 acres; Daniel 
Sullivan, 40 acres; Francis M. Smith, 25.37 acres; V. M. Foley, 
145.01 acres; Sylvanuss J. Morris, 47.82 acres; James T. Wallace, 
28.90 acres; J. P. Hodges, 44.23 acres; Joel Nance, 44.23 acres; 
John Parmley, 40 acres; John Lamkins, 40 acres; Claude Perrie, 
Jean Boyce, Charles Banerd and Andrew Thomas, 120 acres; Albert 
J. Hanford and Joseph Carpenter, 40 acres; John P. Reese, 40 acres; 
Charles W. Pelton, 40 acres; John Lockard, 40 acres; Alonzo DuBois, 
40 acres; Matthew Stokes, 40 acres; Sanford and Mary Topping, 40 
acres; Napoleon B. Walker, 40 acres; William C. Rich, 40 acres; 
H. W. McKile and James W. Sweitzer, 40 acres; Lewis P. Holland, 
40 acres; Lazarus B. Andrey, 40 acres; R. B. Thompson, 80 acres; 
John T. Calvert, 40 acres; Samuel Kasht, 40 acres; Alfred H. 
Brooks, 40 acres; John Davie, 40 acres; Thomas L. Bailey, 40 acres; 
Ephriam Kimmel, 40 acres; Peter Clutts, 40 acres; John Ferrill, 40 
acres; John Clutts, 40 acres; Marian Murphy, 40 acres; Edward C. 
Lawrence, 40 acres; Judy Hopkins, 40 acres; David L. Davie, 40 
acres; Philander Bird, 40 acres; Persis Holcomb, 40 acres; William 
L. Wilkinson, 40 acres; George Snyder, 40 acres; Spencer Sammons 
40 acres; Silas Sifford, 40 acres; John Buck, 40 acres; Daniel 
Sifford, 40 acres; Richard W. Lisk, 40 acres; David Gore, 240 acres; 
Henry E. Clark, 40 acres; William H. Kerr, 40 acres; Peter Clutts, 
40 acres; Cynthia A. Stout, 40 acres; Larkin F. Brooks, 40 acres; 
William L. Lence, 40 acres; Josiah J. Morefield, 40 acres; John H. 
Barringer, 40 acres, John Buck, 120 acres; Anton Blessing, 30.90 
acres; Anton Smukowski, 30.89 acres; Nathaniel Green, 118.69 
acres; Sherod Wiggs and John C. Hill, 40 acres; James C. Hill, 40 
acres; Peter Bechta, 40 acres; John Kerr, 40 acres; Samuel M. 
Brown, 46.50 acres; Franz Petsch, 204.93 acres; Cornelius Anderson, 

—73— 



40 acres; Susan S. Launer, 80 acres; Elias Dilday, 40 acres; John S. 
and Susan S. Launer, 40 acres; John and Adam Buck, 40 acres; 
u.orge Walker, 100 acres; Edwin N. Blanchard, 20 acres; Benjamin 
F. Ross, 40 acres; Elize A. Brown, 40 acres; William A. Kirby, 40 
acres; Edward Daniel, 80 acres and John Limbert, 40 acres. 

Additions to Alto Precinct were Jacob F. Blessing, 42.93 
acres; Willis Lamer, 47.24 acres; Alexander Smith, 42.93 acres; 
William R. Martin, 44.31 acres; Anna Corgell, 40 acres; David 
Smith, 40 acres; Philip Zimmerman, 40 acres; Charles M. Corgell, 
40 acres; Benjamin F. Holmes, 40 acres; Elias Dilday, 40 acres; 
Simon P. Casey, 40 acres; James C, Mary W., and Nettie H. Hawk- 
ins, 40 acres;* Cyrus Herald, 135.44 acres; Alfred Klutts, 49.19 
acres; Thomas M. Sturgian, 45.06 acres; William Martin, 45.06 
acres; Moses Emery, 40 acres; Robert M. Jennings, 176.48 acres; 
Daniel Bellow, 41.50 acres; James A. Batson, 41.49 acres; John 
Buck, 41.49 acres; James M. Gulley, 34.09 acres; Zachariah Lyerle.. 
34.09 acres; Frankie Dodge, 34.09 acres; Joseph E. Frost, 40 acres ; 
James M. Partel, 40 acres; William Butcher, 40 acres; John Starnes. 
40 acres; Joseph Minton, 40 acres; Benjamin F. Scott, 40 acres; 
Mark Aldridge, 40 acres; John M. Robinson, 40 acres; Charles F. 
Walker, 40 acres; Napoleon B. Collins, 40 acres; Wm. R. Purtle, 
40 acres; Walter K. Underwood, 40 acres; Jessie Mayfield, 40 acres; 
Moses Laning, 80 acres; Wm. R. Lee, 40 acres; George H. Staton. 
40 acres; Henry C. Freeman, 40 acres; Wm. R. Abernathie, 40 
acres; Joshua Lewis, 40 acres; Michael McDamott, 40 acres; Joel 
Manning. 120 acres; Isaac S. Plott and John C. Fuller, 40 acres; 
Walter R. Underwood, 40 acres; Jacob R. Rhodes, 34.18 acres; Ann 
W. Smith, 80 acres; William Stadden, 80 acres; Harris Rendleman, 
80 acres; A. J. Miller, 80 acres; Mary Underwood, 40 acres; Henvy 
Rendleman, 40 acres; James Corbitt, 40 acres; Geo. W. James, 40 
acres; G. W. James, 40 acres; Wm. Lilley, 40 acres; James Simp- 
son, 40 acres; Mary M. Houser, 40 acres; Jessie Glasco, 40 acres; 
Rebecca C. Gregory, 40 acres; George W. Abernathie, 40 acres; 
Emma Hillyer, 40 acres; Roland W. Purdue, 40 acres; David B. F. 
Myers, 40 acres; David S. Rendleman, 40 acres; William Balch 
Todd, 440 acres; George H. Vancil and William B. Todd, 80 acres; 
William F. Bittle, 40 acres; Lewis F. Bittle, 40 acres; John J. Mc- 
Roberts, 60 acres; George F. Myers, 40 acres; Andrew Smith, 80 
acres; Herman E. Schnenyd, 80 acres; Benjamin Ogle Taylor, 
2147.95 acres; Zachariah Lyerley, 120 acres; Louisa Dobschutz, 80 
acres; Adam Smith, 40 acres; Henry A. Fite, 80 acres; James H. 
Esher, 40 acres; Wm. H. Green, 320 acres; Jackson Carter, 80 acres: 
Jacob Rendleman, 80 acres; Frank A. Grisert, 40 acres; Jessie G. 
and Isadore L. Lindsey, 43.18 acres; Thomas A. E. Holcomb, 43.18 
acres; Cornelius King, 80 acres; John Cauble, 40 acres; Charles 
Bridgeman, 40 acres; Mortimer Hunsaker, 80 acres; Perry D. Riley, 
120 acres; Janitta Green, 40 acres and William H. Finch, 40 acres. 



—74— 



LAND ENTRIES FROM 1860 TO 1920 

Jonesboro is increased by Henry A. Reixel, 31.73 acres; 
William W. Kirkpatrick, 96.37 acres; Cornwall Kirkpatrick, 32.91 
acres; Eliza Dobschets, 72.91 acres; James Y. Carenip, 32.91 acres; 
John Cassel, 40 acres; Sylvia Austin, 40 acres; Cyrus S. Freeman, 
40 acres; Adam Buck and John S. Buck, 40 acres; Edwin Saddler, 
40 acres; John W. Whitans, 62.76 acres; Mary T. Kelley, 31.37 
acres; James A. Vance, 40 acres; James Costigan, 299.03 acres; 
Jacob R. Rhodes, 75 acres; Henry Sherrill, 40 acres; John Lyerle, 
200 acres; Ephriam F. McLafferty, 40 acres; Francis Klein, 40 
acres; Andrew Lyerly, 80 acres; William S. Brown, 40 acres; Wil- 
liam Postlewait, 80 acres; James E. Brown, 40 acres; Henry 
Nicholas, 40 acres; Charles Daugherty, 40 acres; Harrison Saddler, 
40 acres; Peter Casper, 40 acres; William Winn, 40 acres; William 
Stadden, 40 acres; George W. Lyerle, 33.50 acres; Lafayette Rich, 
SO acres; Dennis Batson, 40 acres; James W. Batson, 40 acres; 
Zachariah H. Corzine, 80 acres; Ezekiel Pitts, 40 acres; Jacob Veil. . 
40 acres; Jessie Ware and Lafayette Rich, 40 acres; James Morgan, 
SO acres; Jessie Ware, 40 acres; Samuel Dodds, 40 acres; Herman 
L. Frick, 40 acres; Anson B. Codding, 40 acres; John Brown, 40 
acres; John Winchester, 80 acres; Kate Kratzinger, 150.43 acres; 
Martin V. Ussery, 80 acres; John R. Cover, 120 acres; Narcissa 
Roberts, 80 acres; James R. Reynolds, 40 acres; F. W. Pott, 160 
acvres; Sameul H. Tripp, 40 acres; Isaac L. Axley, 80 acres; Zelpha 
Alice Aikman, 40 acres; Isaac W. Albright, 40 acres; Mary E. 
Barber, 40 acres; J. B. Barber, 40 acres; Charles W. Olsen, 40 
acres; Mrs. Mary A. Walter, 80 acres; Charles W. Olson, 40 acres; 
Moses Lingle, 40 acres; Soren C. Jenson, 40 acres; Michael Corrils 
and Hay Schmits, 40 acres; David and Hiram Myers, 40 acres; 
Joseph Duschl, 36.94 acres; Paul Frick, 80 acres and Winstead 
Davie, 40 acres. 

Mill Creek added Solomon Dillow, 40 acres; Jacob Barnhart, 
80 acres; Michael Heilig, 51.68 acres; Joseph Rymer, 51.68 acres; 
Solomon Miller, 51.27 acres; John M. Miller, 51.27 acres; Amanda 
Hams, 51.27 acres; Horace F. Chrisenberry, 40 acres; Robert Mays, 
40 acres; Stephen Smitty, 40 acres; Richie J. Brown, 40 acres; John 
A. Dillow, 40 acres; Sidney Cruse, 40 acres; George H. Rimer, 40 
acres; Anthony Peeler, 80 acres; Daniel K. Holshouser, 40 acres; 
and Alfred Cauble, 40 acres. 

Misenheimer Precinct added Elijah W. Anderson, SO acres; 
Martin V. Eaves, 80 acres; Adolphus A. Fulenwider, 40 acres; 
Izetta M. Fulenwider, 80 acres; George W. Brown, 40 acres; Fred 
Seegar, 320 acres; Michael Hehenberger, 40 acres; James M. Good- 
man, 40 acres; Jacob Webber. 40 acres; John Kamm, 40 acres; 
Johan Meyer, 40 acres; Wm. H. Goodman, 40 acres; Peter Weaver, 
40 acres; John M. Grieb, 80 acres; John Becker, 40 acres; Alfred 
Misenheimer, 120 acres; The Silica Co. of Chicago, 440 acres; John 
Scott Hileman, 40 acres; William R. Hileman, 40 acres; John Light, 
40 acres; Henry Dillow, 40 acres; John N. Misenheimer, 40 acres; 

—75— 



Paul Dillow, 40 acres; Peter Dillow, 80 acres; Joseph Dillow, 40 
acres; Henry Rimer, 40 acres; Charles Dillow, 40 acres; M. W. 
Clutts, 80 acres; Elijah Miller, 40 acres; Wiley Dillow, 80 acres; 
William R. Hileman, 40 acres; George Mowery, 40 acres; Elijah 
Mowery, 40 acres; Jeff Lingle, 40 acres; Samuel Hargrave, 40 acres; 
Joseph Simpson, 40 acres; Jacob H. Poole, 160 acres; Herman 
Schmidtke. 40 acres; Eliza Bell, 80 acres; Joshua C. Vick, 40 acres; 
end Rudolph Kesserman, 603 acres. 

Reynolds Precinct added Henry Rymer heirs, 80 acres; Wil- 
liam W. Cummins, 40 acres; E. Abernathie and A. T. Sams, 200 
acres; Joseph Baker, 14.13 acres; Coswell Brimm, 40 acres; Levi 
A. Dillard, 120 acres; William Humphrey, 40 acres; Walter Jones, 
K0 acres; Alfred Misenheimer, 40 acres; J. L. Misenheimer, 80 
acres; Wm. R. Reynolds, 80 acres; William J. Harrison, 40 acres; 
John T. G. Linn, 79.70 acres; Cornelius Perry, 40 acres; Reid 
Green, 120 acres; John C. KelJey, 80 acres; Samuel H. Frost, 40 
acres; Henry A. Fite, 40 acres; Jessie E. Lentz, 40 acres; Nath- 
aniel G. Miller, 40 acres; Giles M. Misenheimer, 41.20 acres; Michael 
Canes, 41.20 acres; Jacob T. Misenheimer, 200 acres; Joseph A. 
Fulenwider, 80 acres; Jacob M. Hileman, 80 acres; Jacob E. Brady, 
40 acres; Henry Rendleman, 40 acres; Charles Dillow 120 acres; 
W instead Davie, 40 acres; Kenneth Hargrave, 162.04 acres; Jessie 
Ware, 120 acres; Lydia E. Sanders, 40 acres; Jessie Lentz, 120 
acres; and Alfred Lence, William H. Walker, George W. Day, 
Fhiletas E. Hileman, Tilman M. McNeeley, George J. Andrews, John 
D. Wilson, Charles Walker, David Kimmel and Jacob Brady, 40 
acres. 

Union Precinct was increased by A. J. Parmley, 40 acres; 
Andrew J. Lyerle, 40 acres; John L. Shirley, 120 acres; Charles 
C. Smith, 80 acres; Frank Petsch, 40 acres; Harvey A. DuBois, 80 
acres; David W. Karraker, 80 acres; Daniel W. Brown, 80 acres; 
Andrew J. Daisy, 480 acres (in 1920); Wm. H. Green, 80 acres; 
Wm. C. Rich, 80 acres; Francis Lingle, 32.50 acres; Andrew J. 
Lemmons, 32.50 acres; Adam Lyerle, 32.50 acres; and Benjamin 
Ogle Taylor, 34.75 acres. 

Preston added James McCann, 38.68 acres; George W. 
Smith, 43.95 acres; Charles E. Anderson, 120 acres and William 
Wright, 40 acres. 

George W. Fithian entered 8346.97 acres in 1904 in the 
hill-lands of the county. 

Between the row of hills running north and south in the 
western part of the county and the river was a number of small 
lakes and much swamp land. In 1857 part of this land was sold 
for from 5c to $1.00 per acre, for $278.00. In 1867 the remaining 
swampland in the county was sold for $11,770.71, making a total of 
$12,048.71 for about 30,000 acres of land. Most of this land was 
around Clear Creek and what was once known as the lake sections 
in Reynolds, Union and Preston Precincts. About 1000 acres of 
swampland was located in Stokes and Dongola Precincts. This part 

—76— 



was purchased by H. Williams of Cairo, Morgan Stokes, Isaac Davis 
and James Miles. 

The rest of the land along the river was sold to H. Williams, 
Cairo, 111.; Jacob McClure, Jonesboro; Caleb Trees, Union County; 
John Daugherty, Jonesboro; James Luse, St, Louis, Mo.; James 
Chadwick, St. Louis, Mo.; George Kimmel, Union County; G. W. 
Morgan, Union County; C. Hileman, Union County; W. C. Pender, 
Jonesboro; I. W. McClure, Alexander County; John Baltzell, Union 
County; Sarah J. Hampton, Union County; J. E. Null, Jonesboro; 
A. L. Spring and brother, Preston, 111.; John Stearns, Jonesboro; 
W. H. Norris, Union County; Robert Sublett, Union County; B. 
DeWitt, Union County; T. C. James, Union County; Davie and 
Sublett, Union County; William Green, Union County; Isaac Miller, 
Union County; P. D. Kelley, Illinois; M. Hunsaker, Jonesboro; G. 
W T . Lemly, Union County; R. B. Merriman, Jonesboro; W. C. Pen- 
der, Union County; James Evans, Union County; Sarah E. Mc- 
Kinney, Union County; Jessie Ware, Union County; and Hugh An- 
drews, Silas Hess, Charles Barringer, J. H. Samson, W. C. Rich, M. 
M. Goodman and Caleb M. Lyerly, all of Union County. 

These lakes and swamp lands were used for hunting, trapping 
and fishing grounds for many years. A later chapter will show how 
the lakes and swamps were drained to make the land available for 
agriculture. 



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CHAPTER XXIf 
THE GROWTH OF POPULATION AFTER 1860 

According to the United States Census Reports, Union Coun- 
ty had a population of 11,145 in 1860, 16,370 in 1870, 17,830 in 
1880, 21,549 in 1890, 22,610 in 1900, 21,856 in 1910, 20,249 in 
1920 and 19,883 in 1930. It will be interesting to see what the re- 
sults of the present census will be since two large new industries 
have been established here since 1930. 

These figures indicate that the population increased steadily 
until 1900 since which time it has gradually decreased. In the first 
ten years of this century it decreased as much as it had grown the 
the preceding ten years. 

Many factors caused this change in population. After the 
building of the Illinois Central railroad the government was not 
the only agency promoting land settlement because, since the rail- 
road had been granted large tracts of land by the government, 
the railroads also maintained land offices and paid horticulturists to 
study the soil and help the settlers decide what crops would be the 
most profitable and the most suitable for the soil. These horti- 
culturists were probably the forerunners of our farm bureaus of 
today that have developed. Settlers from many parts of the United 
States were attracted by the reports of their horticulturists. 

Another reason for the increase in the population was the 
availability of markets by means of more rapid transportation. 
Transportation facilities have been related to the growth in agricul- 
ture and also in the more recent developments in manufacturing. 

The St. Louis and Cairo Railroad was built through the 
county passing through Jonesboro. When the city of Jonesboro was 
asked to aid in the development, it responded by buying bonds 
amounting to $100,000 but later cancelled $57,000 worth of the 
bonds because the road was not completed at the agreed time. It 
seems that the person, or president of the company who sold the 
rails to the railroad died and because his estate was tied up by 
litigation, the rails were not delivered at the agreed time. 

The building of the two railroads, the Illinois Central and 
the St. Louis to Cairo roads furnished not only work for the per- 
sons constructing the roads but also subsidiary industries appeared. 

At first almost all the farmers sold most of their surplus 
lumber they acquired from clearing their fields to the railroads for 
making ties, rails and also for stove wood because for many years 
the trains were heated and driven by wood for fuel. 

Several years after the first line of the Illinois Central 
was built through Union County, the "Mud Line" of this company 
was built through the county passing thru Wolf Lake and Ware. 

Until the 1920's the railroads provided most of the means of 
transportation in the county. Then as hard roads began to be com- 
pleted all over the state, truck lines developed. 

Union county has not been affected much by the introduc- 
tion of air transportation. 

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It is interesting to study population figures in the census 
showing that population decreased in the rural areas and increased 
in the towns after 1900 when population began to decline. Accord- 
ing to the census report Alto Pass Precinct decreased from 1 
in 1910 to 1304 in 1920 and 1298 in 1930, Alio. Pass village de- 
creased from 551 in 1910 to 500 in 1920 and 435 in 1930. A: 
Precinct increased from 5,979 in 1910 to 5,986 in 1920 and 6,561 in 
1930. The city of Anna increased from 2,809 in 1910 to 3,019 
in 1920 and 3,436 in 1930. Balcom Precinct deceased from 523 
in 1920 to 514 in 1930. Cobden Precinct decreased from 3,200 in 
1910 to 2,560 in 1920 and increased to 2,712 in 1930. The village 
of Cobden had 9S8 population in 1910, 944 in 1920 and 1036 in 
1930. Dongola Precinct decreased from 2,545 in 1910 to 2,106 in 
1920 and 1,910 in 1930. The village of Dongola decreased from 
702 in 1910 to 600 in 1920 and 635 in 1930. Jonesboro Precinct 
decreased from 2,561 in 1910 to 2,278 in 1920 and increased to 
2,356 in 1930. The village of Jonesboro decreased from 1,169 in 
1910 to 1,090 in 1920 and increased to 1,241 in 1920. Lick Creek 
Precinct decreased from 797 in 1910 to 694 in 1920 and 514 in 
1930. Mill Creek Precinct decreased from 627 in 1910 to 583 in 
1820 and 508 in 1930. The village of Mill Creek decreased from 
221 in 1910 to 209 in 1920 and 173 in 1930. Meisenheimer de- 
creased from 403 in 1910 to 353 in 1920 and 296 in 1930. Preston 
increased from 341 in 1910 to 352 in 1920 and 375 in 1930. Rey- 
nolds Precinct increased from 601 in 1910 to 678 in 1920 and de- 
creased to 503 in 1930. Rich Precinct was decreased from 591 in 
1910 to 414 in 1920 and 292 in 1930. Saratoga Precinct de- 
creased from 902 in 1910 to 749 in 1920 and 657 in 1930. Stokes 
Precinct decreased from 896 in 1910 to 748 in 1920 and 512 in 
1930. Union Precinct increased from 911 in 1910 to 941 in 1920 
and decreased to 875 in 1930. 

The city of Anna had the largest increased in population 
and Rich Precinct had the largest decrease in population. 

As time went on the mode of living of the people became 
less and less difficult. Houses were more comfortable, furniture fur- 
nishings of the home grew from the bare necessities to the comforts 
and beauty of many of our present homes. 

One thing that made life easier for the farmer was the 
establishment of rural free delivery. 

Mr. "Dick" Grear who is still living was our first mail 
carrier. He be°:an his work in 1900 for $365 per year. He says 
that he could live comfortably on that amount of money in those 
rHvs because it cost him very little to feed his horse and maintain 
his carriage. At the time he became the carrier of route on there 
were onlv 1200 rural mail routes established in the United States. 
At that time he was allowed also to deliver groceries and other 
packages to the farmer as well as the mail. 

As time went on life became more comfortable in this county 
with the introduction of modern conveniences, electricity, water- 
works, paving, etc. 

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CHAPTER XXIII 
THE HISTORY OF AGRICULTURE 

When Union County was first settled the ground was covered 
with a heavy forest. Gradually the settlers cleared the more level 
acres and began to till the soil. Agriculture had not developed far 
until after the Illinois Central Railroad was built. 

The fact that Union County is situated just south of the 
only true mountain range in Illinois, the spur crossing the state 
from the Ozark Mountains and traceable to Kentucky, makes it 
more suitable for agriculture than counties north of here. This 
range of hills of mountains protects it from the severest part of 
the "blizzards that visit every portion of the west each winter and 
gives warmth to the soil that enables fruit, potatoes and garden 
vegetables to be grown early in the year. 

A few facts gathered from various scientific sources will 
further describe and classify the soil and agricultural resources of 
Union County. This county belongs to the southern or fruit and 
vegetable area of Illinois. In 1930, forty-eight and six-tenths of its 
population lived on farms. In 1930, seventy-seven and eight-tenths 
percent of the area of this county was farm land with farms one 
hundred fourteen and five-tenth acres per farm and one thousand 
seven hundred and fifty-two farms in county. In 1935 these figures 
had changed to eighty and seven-tenths percent of the land area 
in farms with one thousand nine hundred eighty-three farms averag- 
ing one hundred five acres per farm. 
The following table shows: 
Total acres in County 357,920. 

1934 acres 1929 acres 1924 acres 1919 acres 
Total land in farms ....208,184 200,672 206,741 21 7,765 

Crop land total 108,386 105,293 111,283 

Crop land harvested.. 82,610 68,374 84,384 

Pasture land total 52,895 44,321 43,948 

Pasture land plowable 17,141 20,826 26,320 

Pasture land, woods.. 18,165 16,390 10,171 

Pasture land, other.... 17,589 7,105 7,457 

Woodland, not past'd 28,850 28,896 28,954 

Other land on farms 10,053 22,162 22,556 

Farming is the leading industry of the county in spite of the 
poor soil. In grading the most productive soil, type No. 1 and the 
poorest type No. 10, Union County soil grades, type No. 6, 16%; 
type No. 7, 4%; type No. 8, 20.77%; type No. 10, 56.6%; and 
the type containing water and gravel pits 2.7%. A study of the 
soil showed that 308,862 tons of limestone are needed to correct 
the original acidity of this area. Limestone depletion was not cal- 
culated. Between 1923 and 1934, 58,071 tons were applied. In 
1953, 250,791 tons were still needed. 

It is estimated that there are 122,880 acres or 47.6 % of 
the soil which suffers from destructive erosion; 67,200 acres or 
26.1% from serious erosion; 10,240 acres or 4.0% from fiarm" 

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erosion; 57,600 acres or 22.2% from negligible erosion. 

The term destructive erosion means that the land is suited 
only to timber. This group includes the rough, broken hilly land 
with slopes of such a nature that the land is not well adapted for 
cultivation or pasture. These slopes would produce but little pas- 
ture and if the land were cultivated would erode badly even with 
the best of care. 

The term serious erosion means that this type of land is 
suitable for special types of agriculture. This group includes the 
rolling hilly land which is well adapted for pasture, orchard and 
some vegetable crops but which has slopes too steep to permit con- 
tinued cultivation, except in some instances where terracing might 
permit some cultivatiotn. 

The term harmful erosion includes the undulating or rolling 
crop land which under conditions of average good farming is sub- 
ject to harmful sheet washing or gulleying, destroying the natural 
fertility of the soil. Erosion in this group can be controlled well 
enough by special rotation or terraces to permi; a more or less 
permanent type of agriculture. 

The term negligible erosion includes the land which is gently 
undulating or level which does not erode under conditions of aver- 
-age good farming. Some types in this group may show some ero- 
sion or continued cultivation with poor rotation. 

The above facts show that only 26.4% of the land in Union 
County is suitable for general farming in spite of the fact that in 
1934, 80.7% of the land was used for this purpose and in 1929 
77.8 9c of the area was farmland. 

There are no statistics available to show how much the land 
has depreciated since its early settlement and cultivation buc it is 
significant that an early historian said that our earliest settlers look- 
ed over the land and decided that the soil was so thin they would 
be able to stay only one or two seasons then move on to more 
fertile soil. These settlers found, however, that by crop rotation 
the soil was restored to its original fertility. 

After the building of the Illinois Central Railroad land 
agents and horticulturists experimented to find the type of crop best 
suited to the type of soil in the county. It was soon determined 
that strawberries, blackberries, and raspberries and apples, peaches 
and pears were the best crops to raise. Vegetables such as beans, 
tomatoes, peas, cucumbers, etc., were found suitable and melons, 
especially cantaloupes were especially adapted. The horticulturists 
went further in their experiments to learn which type of apple, 
peach, etc. afforded the best crop. 

Statistics of 1870 show that there were then 75,832 acres of 
improved land; 83,606 acres of woodland and 5,300 acres of other 
land in the county. The total value of farmland was $3,333,201 
and of farm implements and machinery was 5183,457. The total 
amount of farm wages paid that year including value of board was 
$133,472. 

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There were 1,986 farms in the county, 3 under three acres; 
237 over 3 and under 10 acres; 494 over 10 and under 20 acres; 
804 over 20 and under 50 acres; 318 over 50 and under 100 acres; 
and 130 over 100 and under 500 acres. 

The 1870 census shows that in Union County there were 
7,778 acres of improved land in Anna precinct; 9,938 in Casper; 
11,731 in Dongola; 9,719 in Rich; 7,466 in Ridge; 11,995 in Stokes 
an 5,170 in Union. 

The values of farms and farm implements in 1870 was 
$407,303 in Anna Precinct; $558,200 in Casper Precinct; $723,460 
in Dongola Precinct; $457,920 in Rich Precinct; $408,928 in Ridge 
Precinct; $327,042 in Stokes Precinct, and $123,381 in Union Pre- 
cinct.. From these figures it seems that Dongola Precinct had the 
most valuable farms and Union the least. 

Live stock was valued at $68,719 in Anna Precinct; 
$80,015 in Casper Precinct; $92,004 in Dongola Precinct; $81,005 
in Rich Precinct; $56,732 in Ridge Precinct; $84,063 in Stokes Pre- 
cinct, and $80,340 in Union Precinct. 

The value on all productions in Union County in 1870 was 
$116,425 in Anna Precinct; $215,080 in Casper Precinct; $158,618 
in Dongola Precinct; $223,911 in Rich Precinct; 133,040 in Ridge 
Precinct; $168,000 in Stokes Precinct; and $100,505 in Union Pre- 
cinct. It is interesting to note that while Rich Precinct was settled 
later than any other section of the county, the value of its products 
surpassed all other parts of the county. It was during the period 
of 1875 to 1910 that the Rich family accumulated the wealth that 
made them at one time one of the wealthiest families in the county. 
Much lumber was sold from this section of the county. 

Of the 164,738 acres of farmland in Union County in 1870, 
75,832 acres was improved, 83,606 acres was woodland and 5,300 
acres was unimproved. These figures do not include the land which 
still belonged to the government. 

The farms had a total cash value of $3,383,201, with $183,- 
457 worth of farm implements and machinery. Total farm labor 
wages paid in 1870 was $133,472 including value of board. 

There were 1,986 farms, 3 under 3 acres; 237 over 3 and 
under 10; 494 over 10 and under 20; 804 over 20 and under 50; 
318 over 50 and under 100, and 130 over 100 and under 500 acres. 
The average size of farms was 100 acres. 

In 1880 the picture had changed a little. There were 1673 
farms, 19 under 10 acres of which 12 were cultivated by the owner, 
two rented for a fixed money rental and five used by share croppers. 
Of the 40 farms of over 10 acres and less than 40, 22 were culti- 
vated by the owner, two by renters and 16 by share croppers. Of 
the 528 farms of over 20 acres and less than 50, 370 were cultivat- 
ed by the owner, 23 by renters and 155 by share croppers. Of the 
487 of over 50 acres and less than 100 acres, 370 were cultivated 
by the owners, 12 by renters and 105 by share croppers. Of the 
680 farms over 100 acres and less than 500, 446 were cultivated 

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by the owners, seven by renters, and 113 by share croppers. Of 
the eight farms of over 500 acres and less than 1000 acres, six 
were cultivated by the owner and two by share croppers and of 
the five over 1000 acres, three were cultivated by owners and two 
by share croppers. 

By 1919 when all the land had been settled the picture of 
farming changed somewhat. In 1919, 217,765 acres were farmland; 
in 1924, 206,741 acres were farmland; in 1929, 200,672 acres were 
farmland, and in 1934, 208,184 acres were farmland. In 1924, 
111,283 acres of the land was cropland, of which 84,384 was har- 
vested leaving 26,899 acres idle. In 1929 of the 105,283 acres of 
cropland, 68,374 was harvested leaving 36,919 acres idle, and in 
1934, of the 108,386 acres of cropland, 82,610 acres were harvested, 
leaving 26,776 acres idle. It has always been necessary to rotate 
crops and leave part of the crop land idle each year to build up 
the fertility of the soil. 

43,948 acres of land was in pasture in 1924, 68,374 in 1929 
and 82,610 in 1934. In 1924, 26,320 acres of the 43,948 was plow- 
able, 10,171 acres was woodland and 7,457 acres was ordinary pas- 
tureland. That same year there was 28,954 acres of woodland 
and 22,556 acres of other land not suitable for pasture or cultiva- 
tion. 

In 1929, of the 68, 374 acres of pasture land, 20,826 was 
plowable, 16,390 was woodland, and 7,105 acres, ordinary pasture- 
land and 22,162 acres of other land which was neither usable for 
pasture nor cultivation. 

In 1934 of the 52,895 acres of pastureland, 17,141 acres were 
plowable, 10,141 were woodland and 17,589 acres ordinary pasture- 
land. There was also 28,850 acres of woodland and 18,053 of 
other land not suitable for pasture nor cultivation. 

Of the 208,184 acres of farms in Union County in 1930, 
58.2% were cultivated by the owner, 3.5 % by a paid manager, 
3.7% by a renter and 34.6% by a share cropper. On 22% of the 
farms the renter or share cropper was related to the owner. The 
average value of a Union County farm in 1930 was $5,063: $3,308 
land value, $1,755 value of buildings and $1,000 value of dwelling. 
These values are higher than those in the surrounding counties with 
the exception of Jackson and Alexander counties. 

In 1930, 35.1% of the farmland in Union County was mort- 
gaged. The average debt was $1,693 or about one-fourth the value 
of the farm. The mortgages averaged $15 per acre. An average 
interest rate of 6.9% was paid and an average of 75 cents per acre 
tax was paid in 1929. 

In 1930 there were 1,222 farmers owning automobiles, 286 
owning motor trucks and 337 owning tractors. 

In 1929, 14.2% of the land in Union County produced corn, 
4.8% produced winter wheat, 1.3% produced spring grains, 12.3% 
produced hay, and 13.1% produced other crops. 29.6% of the 
farmland was pastureland and 24.7% was idle, fallow or failed to 

—83— 



produce. The percentage of failure was higher than usual in 1929 1 
because of weather conditions. 

The following table shows: 
Ten-Year Average Crop Yields (1924-1933) and Crop Yield Index 

Corn, bushel, per acre 30.0 

Oats, bushel, per acre 25.6 

Winter Wheat, bushel, per acre 15.2 

Spring Wheat, bushel, per acre 15.0 

Barley, bushel, per acre 29.0 

Rye, bushel, per acre 10.9- 

Soybeans, bushel, per acre 12.4 

Tane hay, bushel, per acre 1.18 

* Crop yield index 87.0% 

The crop yield index means that Union County produced 
IS^e less than the- average crop yield for the State of Illinois. 

The following table shows: Percentage of Farms of Specified 
Types in Union County in 1929: 

General 41.4; Cash Grain 5.3; Crop Specialty 3.1; Fruit 12.3? 
Truck 11.0; Dairy 7.1; Animal Specialty 3.7; Poultry .7; Self- 
sufficing 11.5; part time 3.4; others .5. 

Between the years 1924 and 1934 there was an acreage of 
25,160 acres of corn raised in Union County; 7,678 acres of winter 
wheat; 2 acres of spring wheat; 15 acres of barley; 2400 acres of 
oats; 23,770 acres of tame hay; 454 acres of soybeans; 1,184 of 
alfalfa and 735 acres of sweet clover seeded. 

During the same period there was an average of 10,137 
cattle on the farms of Union County; 4,969 milk cows; 15,715 hogs; 
1,601 sheep and 6,173 mules. Livestock production in the County 
in 1929 were: gallons of milk, 1,903,898 with 117,838 gallons sold, 
2,258 gallons of cream sold, and 414,513 pounds of cream sold as 
butterfat. The total value of dairy products sold was $213,188. 
Poultry products were 160,113 chickens raised and 76,028 sold; 
482,399 dozens of eggs produced and 303,271 dozens of eggs sold. 
Chickens and eggs produced were valued at $266,365, and $150,300 
worth of them were sold. 32,859 baby chicks were bought from 
hatcheries in 1929. 7,274 pounds of wool and 7,860 pounds of 
honey were produced the same year. 

Commodity prices in 1934 were: apples, per bushel, $1.33; 
barley, 66^c per bushel; beef cattle, $5.10 per 100 pounds; butter- 
fat, 22 a /£c per pound; chickens, ll^c per pound; red clover seed, 
$8.57 per bushel; corn, 58c per bushel; eggs, 17.1c per dozen; hay, 
$11.58 per ton; hogs, $4.38 per 100 pounds; horses, $86.30 per head; 
lambs, $6.66 per 100 pounds; milk cows, $35,17 per head; oats, 
39c per bushel; potatoes, $1.00 per bushel; rye, 65c per bushel; 
sheep, $2.88 per 100 pounds; soybeans, $1.00 per bushel; veal calves, 
$5.46 per 100 pounds; wheat, 85c per bushel, and wool, 21c per 
pound. 

The ten year crop yield average for 1924-1933 in Union 
County was 30 bushels of corn per acre; 25.6 bushels per acre; 

—84— 



15.2 bushels of winter wheat per acre; 15 bushels of spring wheat 
per acre; 29 bushels of barley per acre; 10.9 bushels of rye per 
acre; 12.4 bushels of soybeans per acre, and 1.13 tons of hay peF 
acre. 

The following statistics compiled by the State Board of Agri- 
culture show the following facts to have been true in this county in 
1880: 19,941 acres in the county produced 698,256 bushels of corn? 
26,081 acres produced 287,999 bushels of wheat; 102 acres pro- 
duced 643 bushels of spring wheat; 4,056 acres produced 51,927 
bushels of oats; 1,825 acres produced 1,214 tons of Timothy hay;. 
4,046 acres produced 5,265 tons of clover hay; 3,800 acres produced 
149,591 bushels of apples; 543 acres produced 48,690 bushels of 
peaches; 142 acres produced 3,904 bushels of pears; 2,573 acres of 
other fruits and berries produced $56,040 worth of products. 

At that time there were 4,164 acres in the county in pasture, 
31,865 acres in woodland and 3,216 acres uncultivated. There were 
475 acres in cities and towns. 

In 1880 there were 661 fat sheep sold for $342; 182 killed 
by dogs and 9,643 pounds of wool sold. There were 1,899 cows in 
the county and 42,169 pounds of butter were sold; 1100 gallons of 
cream and 5,125 gallons of milk were sold. 951 fat "attie were 
sold and 2,721 fat hogs sold. 2,187 hogs died of the cholera that 

year. 

Fruit growing, while it comprizes only 12.3 'c of the farm- 
ing in the county is one of its leading industries. Union County 
leads the state in the production of peaches saving 312,000 peach 
trees in 1938 compared to 307,000 in Marion and Jefferson counties- 
combined. Illinois ranks as one of the leading fruit states in the 
United States. 

The first shipment of peaches from this county to the north- 
ern markets were so superior that they attracted great attention, 
both to the fruit and to the section where they were produced. As 
a natural consequence, the hill lands of Union County rapidly rose 
in public estimation and price. Men of experience and men of in- 
experience came here and engaged in the raising of fruit. Horti- 
cultural societies were formed, the mails brought newspapers and 
agricultural periodicals, and the greatest interest was manifested 
in the new enterprise. The small and poor seedling apples were 
quickly superceded by the improved kinds and every department of 
fruit culture made rapid progress. 

In 185S, the shipments of fruit to Chicago began to assume 
importance. The earliest fruit grower on the Cobden range was 
George Snyder who came there in 1857. He purchased land one 
mile north of the Cobden station and planted apple, pear and peach 
trees as soon as he had cleared away the forest. Allen Bainbridge,. 
who lived on Bell Hill was another prominent fruit grower from 
1850 to i860. E. N. Clark and G. H. Baker came in 1858 to estab- 
lish fruit farms. Benjamin Vancil started the first nursery for 
supplying trees of improved variety and later James Bell, A. M. 

—85— 



Lawner, J. A. Carpenter & Co. also had nurseries. 

In 1866 it became necessary to run special trains daily to 
carry the fruit to Chicago from this section. About that time and 
later George Snyder, J. J. Keith, Jacob Rendleman and H. C. Free- 
man were leading fruit growers. 

In 1860 the first strawberries were shipped to Chicago. By 
1867 the strawberry crop demanded a fast train each day to get the 
berries to the market early the next morning in Chicago. Leading 
strawberry growers in the early day of the strawberry in Union 
County were Parker Earle, A. D. Finch, E. Babcock, J. W. Fuller, 
S. D. Casper, Caleb Miller, D. H. Rendleman, J. G. Page, S. Martin 
and F. A. Childs. Parker Earle later moved to Crystal Springs, 
Miss., where he established a vegetable area similar to that of Union 

County. 

Parker Earle invented the first refrigeration for shipping ber- 
ries. It consisted of a large crate with a compartment for ice 
around the boxes of berries. By 1880 the refrigerator car had been 
developed. By 1883 cooling houses were built at shipping points. 
The cooling house in Anna was built by P. Earle and Sons and the 
one in Cobden by the Refrigerator and Shipping Company. 

Early in the history of fruit growing "The Cobden Fruit 
Grower's Association," also known as "The People's Line" was or- 
ganized to facilitate the cheap transportation and delivery of fruit. 
Members of this organization were given the same rate for one case 
or bushel of fruit that was charged for a carload. Parker Earle, 
Col. Peebles, James Bell and a Mr. Spaulding organized this ship- 
per's association which was one of the first organized in the United 
States. The same organization exists today (1940). It was a co- 
operative shipping association. 

Tomatoes were first raised in the county by David Gow at 
Cobden in 1858. Later Willis Lamer, E. N. Clark, J. T. Whelpley, 
J. Metz, Green and Venerable, A. R. Buckingham and A. H. Chap- 
man became large tomato growers. 

Horace Eastman began the production of watermelons and 
cantaloupes in 1870. I. C. Piersol, E. G. Robinson, J. A. Noyes, Asa 
Harmon and J. B. Miller became the leading melon farmers at Anna 
and G. H. Baker at Cobden. 

Rhubarb, asparagus, spinach and sweet potatoes soon took 
their places as important products shipped from Union County. Amos 
Poole, M. A. Benham, A. Buck and E. Leming and Co. began the 
asparagus raising and A. Poole was the first rhubarb shipper. 

Union County is also a large producer of truck farming pro- 
ducts, although only 119c of our farmers are engaged in this type 
of farming. 



—86— 



CHAPTER XXIV 
THE DRAINAGE DISTRICT. THE FARM BUREAU 

As the use of land increased in Union County and good land 
became less and less available, new methods of providing for more 
and better crops were improvised. In the "Bottoms" three drainage 
districts were organized to reclaim the land that was swampy and 
to drain the numerous small lakes which existed there. 

The first attempt which was made to organized the citizens 
of this area to carry out the above project failed and was super- 
ceded by another organization. The second time the project was 
orgnized, 1913 to 1916, the plans were carried through. 

Three drainage districts were established, Preston, Clear 
Creek and Miller Pond. Directors of each district were elected by 
the land owner. Each land owner had so many votes per forty 
acres so that a man owning 400 acres was allowed ten times as 
many votes as a man owning 40 acres. Preston district which com- 
prised 8,806.18 acres of land elected Mr. Tom Rixleben, Mr. Will 
J. Rendleman and Mr. Harry Verble, directors. Clear Creek com- 
prising 17,313 acres, elected Mr. Dan Davie, Mr. James Reynolds 
and Mr. Russell Corlis, directors, and Mill Pond which comprised 
4200 acres elected Mr. Ed Karraker, Mr. Henry Sifford and Mr. 
John Lingle directors. The citizens then petitioned the court to 
recognize these men as duly authorized commissioners to represent 
the land owners of their respective districts in all business trans- 
actions. 

Part of the minutes of the meeting petitioning the court were 
as follows: "The lands aforementioned, lying within the boundaries 
and comprising the territory hereinafter mentioned and described, 
are exceedingly fertile and productive in character and thereby are 
well adapted to all purposes of agriculture which can be employed 
and utilized in this latitude and locality, nevertheless, they are of 
the character and description known as 'bottom' lands, are of gen- 
erally low elevation and be adjacent to the Big Muddy and Missis- 
sippi Rivers, in consequence of which they, to a large extent, are 
subject to overflow and inundation from said streams in time of 
flood, by reason of which their tillage in their natural unprotected 
state is rendered precarious and cannot be undertaken and present- 
ed with safety or assurances of ability to mature and garner crops 
grown therein. Moreover, a large portion of said lands are swampy, 
covered by small lakes and ponds in which the surplus water from 
floods and surface water from rains and melting snow and ice col- 
lects and remains standing and stagnant during the greater or less 
portion of every year, whereby is produced noxious weeds and rank 
vegetation, which in decaying, causes vile and noxious vapors, mos- 
quitos and other poisonous and disease bearing insects also breed 
and thrive because of stagnant and noxious vegetation. By reason 
of all which the lands require a combined system of drainage and 
protection from overflow, which, as the petitioners believe and 

—87— 



.allege, can be accomplished within the limits of reasonabh cost 
and expenses. 

After the districts were set up, taxes of approximately 
twenty-two dollars per acre were levied to carry on the project. 
This money was to be paid in partial payments ever a period of 
several years. 

An engineer was then employed to survey the territory and 
make plans for ditches and levees. Then the work was completed. 
By this means approximately 30,000 acres of land was reclaimed 
for use in agriculture. 

The bonds have been retired and the project has been suc- 
cessful in a way but the ditches have not been maintained as was 
originally planned and in many places they have been filled by soil 
erosion and growth of brush until now there is need for another 
project in oil reclamation. 

The Federal government made an appropriation in 1934 of 
$300,000 fur the repair of the back levee along the Mississippi in 
Preston and Clear Creek Districts but so far the directors hava not 
petitioned the government for the use of the money and if this is 
not done within a definite period the money will revert to the 
treasury. 

Some of the farmers were forced to sell their land in order 
to meet the cost of the drainage project but in most instances this 
was due to the fact that the land was heavily encumbered before 
the assessment for drainage was made. 

Three destructive floods occurred, 1922, 1925, and 1927, 
which broke the levee and did much damage to the land. Much sipe 
water soaks through under the levee when the river is high which 
still prevents the use of some of the land. 

The present commissioners of the district are: Preston, Mr. 
Tom Eixleben, Mr. W. J. Rendleman and Mr. Ralph M. Springs; 
Clear Creek: Mr. Dan Davie, Mr. James Reynolds, and Mr. Russell 
Corlis. Mr. John Lingle is the secretary of these two districts. The 
commissioners of Miller Pond district are Mr. Edwin Lingle, Mr. 
Ed Karraker and Mr. A. M. Wilson and Mr. Perl Zwahlen is secre- 
tary. 

In 1917 the Farm Bureau was organized to help the farmer 
take advantage of the benefits in education and other constructive 
projects carried on by the United States Department of Agriculture 
through the University of Illinois. Part of the expenses of the 
bureau was to be paid by the Department of Agriculture and the 
remainder the fees collected for membership in the county. Exten- 
sion work was put into the county with the understanding that a 
farm adviser would be appointed. 

The first meeting of a temporary organization was held 
October 19, 1917. It was known as the Union County Improvement 
Association and the officers elected were: Charles Ware, president; 
Claude Rich, vice-president; L. G. Richardson, secretary and Rooney 
Dillow, treasurer. 

—88— 



The first meeting of the permanent and present organization 
was held March 1, 1918. This organization became known as the 
.Farm Bureau of Union County. The officers elected were: A. A. 
Fasig, president; Claude Rich, vice-president; L. G. Richardson, 
secretary; and Clyde Harris, treasurer; with C. F. Keist, E. B. 
Walton, 0. J. Penninger, L. L. Casper and W. W. Davie serving 
on the executive committee. 

The present board is made up of Ernest Vincent, president; 
Ralph Williams, vice-president; Charles Eddleman, secretary and 
treasurer, and Ray Guthrie, Ed Wiggs, N. M. Gurley, T. D. Dillow, 
Ernest Newbold, 0. H. Clutts, Mark Otrich, Elbert Miller, D. L. 
Miller and Ike Knight serving as directors. 

The first farm adviser, Mr. C. E. Durst came to Union County 
early in 1920. In June, 1920, he was succeeded by Mr. Doerschuk, 
who remained until February 15, 1923. Mr. E. A. Bierbaum, the 
present adviser worked with Mr. Doerschuk as assistant adviser in 
1921. Mr. Foote became adviser in February, 1923 and was fol- 
lowed by Mr. Fager in April, 1925. He was followed by Mr. Brock, 
June 4, 1927 and in 1929 Mr. Bierbaum returned, this time as ad- 
viser and has remained since that time. 

The Parm Bureau was primarily organized as a farm organ- 
ization to sponsor agriculture extension work in the county but since 
the time of organization it has taken under its super?' rion other 
Activities. The Farm Bureau now acts as liason betw**_i the acti- 
vities of the Illinois Agricultural Association. From year to year 
new activities have developed in this organization and have become 
available to the local unit. Under the educational activities of the 
I. A. A. comes the Information and Publicity Department, which 
keeps the membership informed by means of I. A. A. records and 
news releases. This was established in 1919. Next comes the Cor- 
porate Secretary who is responsible for the corporate records of the 
I. A. A. and affiliates. Under the Corporate Secretary comes the 
Department of Safety, established in 1935 to encourage farm, home 
and highway safety, and the Department of Soil Improvement, estab- 
lished in 1937 to encourage and develop soil building, and the De- 
partment of Office Management which supervises 300 employees. 

The third department of the I. A. A. is the Treasury which 
is responsible for the funds of the I. A. A. and nine affiliates. 
Within the department is the Assistant Treasurer whose respon- 
sibility is to supervise all investments for the I. A. A. and affiliates, 
•established in 1935. Next comes the comptroller, which supervises 
budgets and accounting for the I. A. A. and affiliates. This was 
established in 1927 when the organization had developed into a large 
corporation. 

The fifth department is that of Field Secretary Mch main- 
tains organization relations with farm bureaus and affJ. - es. Within 
this department are the department of organization, e.tcblished in 
1919 to assist with membership acquisition and maintenance; the de- 
partment of young people's activities, established in 1936 to develop 

—89— 



future leadership; the department of grain marketing, established in-. 
1920 to develop cooperative grain marketing; the department of pro- 
duce of cream marketing, established in 1921 to develop crop pro- 
duce and cream marketing; the department of livestock marketing 
established in 1920 to develop cooperative livestock marketing; the 
department of fruit and vegetable marketing, established in 1921 
to develop cooperative fruit and vegetable marketing; the depart- 
ment of milk marketing, established in 1920 to develop cooperative 
milk marketing. 

The sixth department of the I. A. A. is the Field Service 
established in 1937 to assist county Farm Bureaus with special pro- 
jects. Next comes the Department of General Counsel established 
in 1921 as legal adviser. Under the Department of General Coun- 
sel comes the Legal Department, established in 1919 to give legal" 
service to the organization and its affiliates, and the Transportation 
Department, established in 1919, which oversees transportation and 
utility matters. 

The Taxation and Statistics Department, established in 1921, 
handles tax problems and economic studies. 

Organizations which have become corporations growing out 
of I. A. A. activities are the Illinois Agricultural Service Company, 
which provides management service for affiliated companies respon- 
sible to the respective boards of directors including: (1) The Illinois 
Farm Supply Company, established in 1927, which serves 138 farnt 
cooperatives and paid dividends of $1,418,800 in 1938; (2) the Illi- 
nois Farm Bureau Service Association, established in 1924, which 
serves 87 county Farm Bureaus and paid dividends of §62,000 in 
1938; (3) the Illinois Agricultural Auditing Association, established' 
in 1924 which provided 470 audits at cost for 353 cooperatives in 
1938; (4) the Illinois Grain Corporation, established in 1930, a 
statewide marketing cooperative for local elevators; (5) the Illinois 
Producer's Creameries established in 1930, having nine member 
creameries which produced 7,000,000 pounds of butter in 1938; (6) 
the Illinois Livestock Marketing Association, a statewide agency for 
cooperative livestock marketing, established in 1931; (7) the Coun- 
try Life Insurance Company established in 1928 which is a company 
having 83,000 policies with a value of $133,000,000 in force; (8) 
the Illinois Agricultural Holding Company which holds all capital 1 
stock of the Country Life Insurance Company; (9) the Illinois 
Agricultural Mutual Insurance Company which has 80,000 policies 
of auto employer's liability, accident and 4-H Calf Club; (10) the 
Farmer's Mutual Reinsurance Company which has in force $231,- 
000,000 worth of fire, wind and hail insurance policies. 

A second affiliated organization is the Illinois Fruit Growers 
Exchange established in 1921. Through this fruits and vegetables 
were marketed in 18 states and Canada during 1938. Another 
agency is the Illinois Milk Producer's Association with 23 members 
doing cooperative marketing of $3,700,600 worth of milk annually. 

Through the Farm Bureau all the above services are avail- 
—90— 



able to its members. 

The Farm Bureau also works with the Farm Security Ad- 
ministration, the Soil Conservation Administration and the Farm 
Credit Association, three departments of the Federal government 
i which loans or grants money to the farmer. The farm security 
administration will be discussed in a later chapter on Relief in 
Union County. 

Soil Conservation is a large program in this county. It is 
organized under the Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act 
passed by the Federal government in 1936 and revised in 1938. Its 
purpose is (1) to conserve the natural resources of the soil, (2) 
control production, and (3) help the farmer obtain his fair share of 
the national income. 

The first program of this type was established in 1933 and 
was known as the corn-hog-wheat program and its purpose was to 
pay the farmer's benefits for reducing hog and corn production to 
get rid of surpluses, to stabilize the market and to increase the 
price. This program was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme 
Court of the United States. The committee which supervised the 
corn-hog-wheat program were Charles Eddleman, Odie Bridgeman, 
John Orr, J. R. Montgomery, Guy Johnson and Fred Dillow. 

The first committee administering the soil conservation pro- 
gram was J. R. Montgomery, chairman, Dan Davie, vice-chairman 
. and secretary, and L. L. Flamm. The present committee is Dan 
Davie, chairman, L. L. Flamm, vice-chairman, P. D. Dillow and 
Elaine Rushing, secretary, treasurer and office manager. This com- 
mittee distributes the allotments paid by the Federal government 
' to the farmers for conforming to the program of soil conservation. 



—91— 



CHAPTER XXV 

THE CITY MARKETS OF COBDEN AND ANNA 
THE HORSE AND MULE MARKET 

As agriculture developed and as new modes of transportation, 
became available, the shipper's association and various civic and. 
farmer groups became interested in developing new modes of mar- 
keting produce. 

As long as only rail and water transportation was available 
for shipping, produce was sent to distributing centers such as Chi- 
cago, Memphis, New Orleans, etc. Brokers had headquarters in 
these centers and bought most of the produce which came in to 
sell to th<™ retailers in various parts of the country. The farmer 
paid for the packing and shipping of the produce to these centers 
and frequently when there was a market break the additional loss 
of these handling charges served a hardship on the farmer. 

With the advent of hard roads and trucks the picture of 
marketing changed. 

In Anna, in 1934, a Municipal Market was constructed where- 
the farmers could bring their produce to be sold directly to brokers 
or other buyers. This project was the result of efforts of the Union 
County Farm Bureau to provide a place for cooperative marketing. 
The Anna Chamber of Commerce became interested and donated 
$2,000 toward the construction of the market. The City of Anna 
donated $500, and $17,500 was obtained from the Civil Works Ad- 
ministration, making a total of $19,800. The $2500 provided most 
of the material used and the C. W. A. allowance provided for the 
labor and part of the material. 

The following is a report of the committee in charge of the 
building of the market: 

"At a cost of approximately $20,000, Anna constructed for 
the farmers of Southern Illinois, a market place that is second to 
none. The facilities offer to the producer an excellent and orderly 
method of disposing of his fruits or vegetables in season. 

"The market fills a long needed facility," says Mr. J. L. 
Fuller, one of the older and more experienced fruit growers of the' 
community, "a facility that offers direct selling with car loading 
and truck loading platforms and a fruit and vegetable shipping: 
association which makes the way of disposing of products varied 
and many enough to suit the most particular seller or buyer." 

With $3,500 for materials and a substantially larger amount 
for labor in construction the community offers ideal surroundings 
for fair dealings between buyer and seller. 

Early in the development of the project a small committee 
of Farm Brr au members met with their Farm Adviser and worked 
out skeletc* :ed plans for the project but due to lack of ready 
capital, w*^ lot able to have the project put under way with farm- 
er owned c„ A -tal. When the C. W. A. developed, the project merit- 

—92— 



ed consideration by that administration and with funds from that 
source, later funds furnished by the Anna Chamber of Commerce, 
the project was completed and made ready for operation May 15, 
1934. 

Under the able management of Mr. Woodward, who had 
twelve years of experience in similar market facilities at Benton 
Harbor, Michigan, the project has proceeded with surprising success. 

The actual operation of the market is under the direction of 
a market commission consisting of Mr. J. L. Fuller, Mr. P. M. West 
and Mr. R. L. Shannon. 

The Illinois Central Railroad, seeing the advantage of such 
facilities to the growers of the territory spent some $8,000 in im- 
proving their car loading facilities adjacent to the market. 

In short, the market offers ideal opportunity to all fruit and 
vegetable growers of Southern Illinois to dispose of produce on an 
F. 0. B. basis. 

The market employs a market master and checker. The local 
farmer is charged 10c per load for what he sells in the market. 
If a man comes from another state to sell his produce he is charged 
one dollar per load. 

Several brokers and buyers pay $50.00 per year for stalls 
where they operate their business and day buyers pay $1.00 per day 
for the use of the market facilities. 

In cooperation with the market, the City of Anna passed an 
ordinance prohibiting house to house peddling so that all produce 
can be sold thru the regular market channels. 

The project has been self-supporting and a small surplus has 
been accumulated. 

The Cobden market, called the People's Fruit and Vegetable 
Shipper's Association was built by the shippers of Cobden and 
donations solicited from other residents. 

This market was built at a cost of $10,000 in 1935. It is 
maintained for approximately $150 per year. It serves the same 
purpose that the Anna market serves. 

Mr. Melvin Caraker is manager of the People's Fruit and 
Vegetable Shipper's Association and Mr. Frank A. Rendleman is 
manager of the market. They work together at the market Fees 
are charged if the market sells produce for the farmer but any farm- 
er is allowed to sell his own produce there free of charge. 

These markets in strawberry and peach marketing seasons 
are interesting spectacles. Almost any market day through the sum- 
mer finds them busy but these two seasons find them especially so. 
Both towns are over-run with trucks at these times which bear 
license plates from practically every state in the United States. 

Another interesting market in Union County is the W. H. 
Bishop Horse and Mule Auction. This market is not the result of 
the expansion of horse and mule raising in the county but it could 
well be the cause of the development of the industry especially 

—93— 



since so much of the Union County land is more adapted to pasture 
than to crop raising. 

The Bishop Auction is rather, the result of the long exper- 
_snce Mr. W. H. Bishop has had in the marketing of horses and 
mules. He felt that such an enterprise would be a paying business 
so he invested his own capital of several thousand dollars in the 
equipment to run this market. He began in 1933 with one barn 
where he carried on a retail business in horses and mules. By 1939 
he had added two retail barns and the large building housing the 
horse and mule auction, the office and lunch room. This building 
is air conditioned, modern and convenient in every respect. 

This is the largest industry in Union County owned and 
operated by one individual. 

Every Tuesday buyers from all parts of the country assemble 
to bid on the horses and mules led into the auction ring. Animals 
are brought from all parts of the country to be sold here. There 
is established fees for the selling of each animal and regular fees 
are charged for keeping animals to be sold. 

Assisting Mr. Bishop in his business are his brothers, John 
and Noble Bishop, his sister, Mrs. Mamie Biggs and his nephew, 
Luther Davis, Jr. Mr. Harry C. Kearney is the auctioneer. 



—94— 



f CHAPTER XXVI 

THE FORESTS OF UNION COUNTY 
THE REFORESTATION PROGRAM 

Like all other parts of the United States when dense forests 
prevailed when the white man settled, our trees were cut and 
Stumps pulled out so that we are no longer a heavily wooded area. 

In the beginning the trees were cut and small spaces clear- 
ed to build homes and make available enough land to grow the crops 
necessary for family life. As population increased more land was 
cleared. Rail fences were built and later plank roads. ' 

With the coming of the railroad the timber industry grew 
for two reasons, first the railroad provided a means of shipping 
the logs away and second the trains burned wood for fuel and used 
wooden ties and rails, that is a wooden rail with a piece of steel 
nailed to it, for a number of years. Large tracts of forest land 
were bought for the purpose of supplying this demand. 

For many years the packages in which our produce -wafB 
shipped away were made of native wood but now we have onjy twe 
package manufacturers operating. 

During the 1920's timber sold at a high market price so that 
during that time much timber was cut. At one time as many as 
as thirty- two saw mills operated in the county. 

In 1929 the price of lumber was reduced to such an extent 
that the timber industry has been greatly reduced. 

It is the one large industry in the country which employed 
nearly 500 people in the 1920's which now employs less than 100 
people. 

Aside from the people regularly employed in the various oc- 
cupations connected with timber, most farmers spent their winters 
cleaning woodlands and selling logs and cord wood. As soon as 
crops were gathered the hired men were put to work cutting wood 
and the farmer had an income from his wood of from fifty to five 
hundred or more dollars. Since this form of occupation has prac- 
tically disappeared in the county, many farmers do not employ labor 
during the winter months. 

While our early homes were built of native wood and saw 
mills sold their products straight to the consumer in early days, 
that type of industry has disappeared. We now have our lumber 
companies which are jobbers. They buy the finished product from 
the manufacturer and sell to the builder. The same change has 
taken place in the fruit package industry. All but two of our 
fruit package dealers are now jobbers, buying their packages from 
manufacturers and selling to the farmer. More paper packages 
than were formerly used are now in use. 

In order to prevent the promiscuous misuse of the forests and 
to conserve the young trees and to preserve forests in general the 
federal government purchased land and established forest preserves. 

The United States Department of Agriculture gives the fol- 
—95— 



lowing information regarding the work of the United States Forest 

Service : 

"Forest depletion, which went on in the United States prac- 
tically unchecked for more than one hundred years received its first 
real curb at the turn of the twentieth century. 

"The need for a conservation policy had been felt for a long 
time, but it was not until increasing demands of a rapidly expanding 
civilization sharply accelerated the rate of forest use — and misuse — 
and emphasized this need tremendously that public opinion called 
for Federal action to halt the destruction of the forest resources. 

"It was apparent that things were happening to the forests. 
They were being logged without thought of future timber require- 
ments; uncontrolled fires and excessive cutting were destroying the 
remaining timber, preventing natural reproduction of trees, and 
stripping important watersheds of their protective covering. In short, 
it was clear that the public itself, through its Federal Government 
should take steps toward the proper management of areas of great- 
est influence upon public welfare and exert every effort toward ex- 
tension of sound principles to forest management and use. 

"At this time also, it was evident that a great advance had 
been made in the development of scientific forestry. Public spirited 
citizens wished to apply this new knowledge in order to restore and 
maintain the usefulness of the country's forest lands. 

"During the 15 years, beginning with 1890, the trend toward 
public forestry moved swiftly, culminating in 1905 with the creation 
sf the United States Forest Service in the Department of Agri- 
zulture. The forest reserves, as national forests were then called — . 
areas withdrawn from the remaining timbered regions of the west- 
ern public domain — were placed under the management of the 
Forest Service. 

"The Secretary of Agriculture at that time commissioned the 
Forest Service so to manage these Federal properties that they would 
provide the greatest good to the greatest number of people 'in the 
long run.' This cardinal principle has been steadily adhered to in 
the ; r administration through the years. 

"Forestry, as applied by the Forest Service, is concerned 
with the perpetuation and development of forests that they may 
continue their many benefits to mankind — furnishing wood and other 
products for man's use; preventing erosion of soil and regulating 
stream flow and water supply for irrigation; for power, for domestic 
use, and for control of floods; harboring wildlife; providing abund- 
ant opportunity for outdoor recreation. All these contribute to 
to what is perhaps most important of all — steady, gainful employ- 
ment for a sizeable portion of the country's population, resulting 
in stabalized communities. 

"Instead of being handled under scientific methods as a crop, 
timber is often 'mined.' When forestry is practiced in timberland 
management, the mature trees are used as 'earned interest,' while 

—96— 



younger growing trees are left intact as the 'capital stock.' The 
economic and soil-protective values represented by a forest in a 
healthy growing condition are thus permanently maintained. 

Since 1905 the area of the national forest system has more 
than doubled and has been exfended to the Lake States, and the 
East and South. Equally important to placing this increased area 
under intensive protection and administration, is the work of the 
Forest Service in cooperation with States and private timberland 
owners in the operations of forestry, range management, and wood 
utilization; and the provision of employment on a large scale in 
times of economic depression. 

"There still remains a vast amount of forestry work to be 
done in addition to managing the National forests already establish- 
ed. Recent studies indicate that more than 200,000,000 acres of 
timberland are so depleted, or so located, or of such value for 
public service that private management reasonably cannot be ex- 
pected to meet tha requirement of public interest therein, at least 
not without undue subsidy. Public acquisition and management of 
these lands, therefore, appears to be the most feasable course. A 
fair share of this job for the Federal Government, considering the 
financial ability of the states, appears to be a little more than half 
of the entire job. 

"Moreover, it becomes increasingly clear that Federal aid 
to State and private forest owners, and perhaps some degree of 
regulation, are needed to meet adequately, the interest of the na- 
tion as a whole in the management of other forest lands as well. 

"Throughout the forest areas there is a large task of making 
the forests contribute more fully to the solution of the problem of 
rural poverty and to the development and maintainance of a satisfy- 
ing rural culture. Integration of forest work with part-time farming 
to provide an adequate livelihood for people living on the small 
farms of the forest regions is an example of this type of adjust- 
ment. 

"In summary, the work of the Forest Service is directed 
toward determining and apply measures for making our woodlands 
and related wild lands contribute in fullest degree to the lives of 
our people and to the solution of various national problems." 



—97— 



CHAPTER XXVII 
THE SHAWNEE PURCHASE— THE C. C. C. CAMP 

The Shawnee Purchase which now includes what was former- 
ly known as the Illini and Shawnee Purchases was forest land dut- 
chased under the Clark McNary Act which provides for the purchaser 
of lands for watershed protection primarily and for the preservation 
of natural and timber resources. The land was also purchased in 
1933 for the purpose of making use of the recreational possibilities, 
wild life and timber possibilities. It includes most of the hill land 
in Jackson, Union, Alexander, Massac, Hardin, Pope, Johnson and 
Saline counties. It comprises a total of about 794,900 acres. 

In Union County the Shawnee Purchase includes the high 
hills in the north and west parts of the county. 

In acquisition of large blocks of timberland small acreage 
which is suitable for cultivation or timberland is often acquired. 
This causes the government to accumulate a problem of providing 
for the former tenants of such land. In most instances the tenant 
is glad to sell to the government so he may move nearer to a hard 
road or a town. However, about twenty tenants have remained on 
the land in Union county. 

These people come under the rehabilitation program of the 
Department of Agriculture. They are given tenure permits and 
where the land is good enough pay an annual rental of one to three 
dollars and fifty cents. Rent of the buildings amounts to about ten 
dollars per year and all buildings remaining on the land are repaired 
and put into a usable condition. If persons are attempting to re- 
main on land which is too poor for cultivation, they are encouraged 
to move to a better location. If the land is too poor to yield 
a livelihood the tenants are assisted by the government until they 
have moved to better ground. The tenants are required to work 
under a crop rotation plan. 

As soon as the land became the property of the government, 
foresters examined the timber marking trees suitable for timber 
now, and planting new trees of short leaf pine, tulip poplar and 
black walnut. 

The shortest rotation timber crop production is black locust 
fence posts which requires a growing period of seven or eight years. 
Next comes pulpwood and next soft timber which requires thirty 
or thirty-five years to mature. 

As soon as the trees are inspected and the amount of salable 
timber ascertained, a sale is advertised and individuals make pur- 
chases of this timber. The one who purchases it is required to use 
a method of selective logging, that is, he is allowed only to cut 
trees that are marked and they must be felled in such a way that 
younger trees around them are protected. 

Since government land is not taxable, it has been agreed 
that the county shall receive 25 percent of all revenues derived 
from the sale of materials produced on forest preserves which are 

—98— 



.given to the state to be distributed to the county. 

The Forest Service also maintains a fire protection program. 
Approximately thirty or forty guards are employed part time espec- 
ially during the fire season of September to November and Febru- 
ary to April fifteenth. Towermen are employed during all seasons 
to man the towers which overlook the forest area. A central dis- 
patcher is kept on duty to relay messages from the tower men to 
.fire fighters. 

The reforestation program is supposed to eventually restore 
the land to a point where the timber industry can be revived and 
continued. 

Natural resources in this area are also protected and leases 
are made to prospectors for oil, silica, fluorspur and other minerals, 
also for gravel deposits. 

The land was purchased under the emergency relief pro- 
gram and for this reason, fourteen Civilian Conservation Corps 
Camps were established in the area in order to give employment 
to a large number of young men and also to utilize the available 
labor in carying on the reforestation program. 

There were three types of camps in the area, soil conserva- 
tion, forest service and state forest preserve. The state and federal 
government cooperated in their program. 

Each camp had a quota of 200 men with a supervisory force 
of eight men. The supervisory force was composed of a camp 
superintendent, a forester, three foremen, a chief mechanic, an en- 
gineer and a truck trail locater. 

Five rangers, members of the permanent forest service set- 
up were asigned to each camp. There was also a military force in 
each camp for the purpose of maintaining order. This consisted of 
two officers from the regular army or the reserves. 

These C. C. C. Camps provided labor for soil erosion projects, 
for fire fighting and for road and other construction projects in the 
forest preserve. 

Three large recreation facilities were developed, Giant City, 
Camp Dixon Springs and a picnic ground near Robbs, Illinois. 

After the C. C. C. Camps were diminished, the W. P. A. 
completed the work that had been started. There are now only 
five camps in the whole Shawnee Purchase area and only one of 
these is in Union County. 

One development carried on by the C. C. C. Camp in co- 
operation with the state forest preserve was the building of a 
nursery where young trees are grown. These trees have been used 
by various programs in the state, such as highway landscaping, re- 
forestation of forest areas, and sale to private concerns. 

One of the largest projects attempted by this program is the 
Crab Orchard Lake Project in Williamson County, Union County's 
neighbor. This project is planned as a flood control measure and 
-will affect Union County inasmuch as the northern part of the 

—99— 



county is a watershed and some of our creeks which overflow each 
spring causing much damage to our crops will be protected by the 
large reservoir. 

The permanent improvements made by the C. C. C. labor in 
Union County are landscaped areas in the Stale Forest Preserve, 
the building of the forest service headquarters in what was former- 
ly the Jonesboro fairground and the Lodge and picnic grounds at 
Giant City which is partly in Union County. The roads of these 
spots were also built by C. C C. labor. 



- 100— 



CHAPTER XXVIII 
MANUFACTURING AFTER THE CIVIL WAR 

Manufacturing in Union County had been moved from the 
homes to small individually owned concerns by the time the Civil 
War was over. During the following forty years an even greater 
change took place. Building was one of the leading industries so 
that saw mills, brick kilns, etc., came into being. 

By this time flour was manufactured by steam and roller 
mills and lime was manufactured from our large limestone deposits. 
To take care of the barrelling of lime and flour, a cooperage plant 
was in operation. 

In 1856 David Davie and Daniel Goodman were operating the 
largest and most extensive mills in this part of the state, The Flora 
Temple mills. This mill changed hands several times during the 
ensuing years. Other mills were in operation during this period 
which manufactured less than 100 barrels of flour per day. 

In 1856, Jessie Lentz and James DeWitt built an extensive 
wagon, plow and repair shop in Anna where they manufactured and 
repaired wagons, plows and farm implements. Later on the Wil- 
loughby-Seger wagon and repair shop was in business, also the 
Stokes Company. Since horses were used for farm work these 
were among the leading businesses of the county . In 1879, J. W. 
Dandridge started a saddle and harness factory here. These busi- 
nesses were of great importance in the community until the decade 
following 1910 when motor driven vehicles replaced the older types 
of conveyances, etc. 

R. B. Stinson carried on an extensive barrel factory near 
the railroad into Anna where he employed 30 men and manufactured 
50,000 barrels per year and other packages for shipping fruit and 
vegetables. Later names connected with box factories were F. P. 
Anderson and James Wood. At present three such factories are 
operating in the county, the Randall L. Lawrence Box Factory in 
Cobden; the H. A. DuBois Box Mill in Cobden, and the Fruit Grow- 
ers Package Company in Jonesboro. 

The firm of Finch and Shick manufactured lime for com- 
mercial purposes manufacturing as much as 300 barrels per day. 
In 1879 Hunsaker and Richardson, Edwards and Carmack and J. E. 
Lufkin all had lime kilns. 

*^n In 1859, the Kirkpatrick Brothers had a pottery where they 
manufactured all kinds of stoneware, tiles, vases, pottery and fire 
brick. There has never been a pottery in Union County since the 
death of W. Kirkpatrick who was an artist in this line of work. No 
person sufficiently skilled in this art to carry on the work has come 
to the locality since that pottery has gone out of existence. 

M. M. Henderson and Son began a cotton gin in 1866 but 
there was not sufficient need for this plant to enable it to stay in 
business so it was later changed to a planing mill. 

—101— 



From 1S65 to 1875, F. A. Childs and Bro. had a drain tile 
factory in operation. 

Unlike today with our large packing house centers, the local 
supply of meat was killed and cured within the community. Since 
the Anna State Hospital was located in Union County, the demand 
for meat was large and the largest dealer in this industry was M. V. 
Ussery. During the year July 1881 to July 1882, he slaughtered 
642 beeves, 156 sheep and 56 hogs and purchased 150 dressed hogs 
which he resold. He sold 32,000 pounds of hides from these animals. 
While the same general industries, namely agriculture and its 
subsidiary enterprises still exist since 1900, many changes in manu- 
facturing have come into being. 

With the use of more machinery and less hand work in 
manufacturing, most of these industries have become concentrated 
into industrial centers and finished products shipped into Union 
County to be sold. 

The Green Brick Yard was probably the last industry of its 
kind in the community and it was discontinued because they could 
not manufacture their products cheaply enough to compete with 
larger manufacturers. 

As mentioned before, manufacturers of fruit packages have 
become jobbers or retailers buying their stock from manufacturers 
in other centers. 

Packing companies have moved to larger places and meat is 
distributed to local dealers by these large companies. 

Clothing is bought in industrial centers by our retail mer- 
chants and the same is true of manufactured foods. 

The 1900 tax lists show that 139 persons were taxed as manu- 
facturers of various products. Of these only five, the Defiance Box 
Co., W. P. Messier & Co., Bruchhauser Bros., T. A. Carlile, and the 
St. Louis Stone and Lime Co., valued their machinery at over $1,000. 
Modern manufacturing has shown another change also, that 
of individual ownership to ownership by corporations or companies. 
The 1939 tax list shows that the small manufacturer has 
completely disappeared in the county and only six manufactures 
whose personal property is assessed at from $2,000 to $35,500. These 
are the Anna Quarries, the Fruit Growers Package Company of 
Jonesboro, The Fruit Growers Package Co. of Anna, the Interna- 
tional Shoe Company, the Phoenix Flour Mills and the Atlas Powder 
Company. 

The Anna Quarries has grown to large proportions since the 
beginning of the better road program in Illinois. It manufactures 
crushed rock, lime and building stone made from a very high grade 
of limestone of which there is a large deposit where the plant is 
located. 

While there were several mills in the county in the past, 
the only one remaining is the Phoenix Flour Mills. It is interesting 
to consider that much flour and feed is shipped into Union County 

—102— 



for consumption from mills as far away as Minneapolis and Kansas 
City. 

The Atlas Powder Company is located in the northwest part 
of the county near Wolf Lake. It is located in this spot because 
of its isolation rather than any other reason. It manufactures ex- 
plosives used mainly in mining and all materials used in its products 
are shipped into the plant to be mixed. None are produced locally. 
Most of the people of the village of Wolf Lake earn a livelihood at 
this plant and its employees are probably the highest paid people 
in the county due to the hazards of the work and the skill neces- 
sary to produce the powder, etc. 

The International Shoe Company is located in Anna, Illinois. 
It was placed here when the community raised funds to provide a 
building for the company. Five hundred people are employed here 
and few of them work less than eleven months each year. The 
salaries are in keeping with those of other such industries but it can 
be generally stated that each of the five hundred empolyees earns a 
living wage which is in keeping with the general standard of living 
of the county. During 1940 an addition to the factory is to be com- 
pleted which will employ an additional 150 persons. 

During the World War period kaolin was taken from tho Mt. 
Glen area in large quantities and shipped to users in other parts cf 
the country. Since that time a small amount of clay has been ship- 
ped away but now plans are complete for a kaolin mill which will 
refine the clay which will in turn be sold to manufacturers of rubber 
tires, pottery, stoneware, whitewash, high grade tile, paper filling 
and coating, linoleum, oil cloth, paint of all kinds, cement, fire 
bricks, foundries, steel manufacturing, asbestos, enameling, and other 
clay products. Large deposits of the highest grade of kaolin clay 
are available in this area and the company expects to install a 
$75,000 plant which will employ about fifty people. 

In 1939 the Vulcan Heel Co. put a factory in Anna which 
employs an average of seventy-five persons annually in much the 
same manner the International Shoe Company employs its help. 

There are still natural resources in the county which are not 
in use such as silica, fluorspar, possibly oil and many building 
materials. 



— 1 (!.'{ — 



CHAPTER XXIX 
THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UNION COUNTY 

The early development of schools has been discussed in a 
previous chapter. 

There is no record available in Union County showing just 
when public schools became prevalent in the County. The "Jones- 
boro Gazette" published an article advocating improving public 
schools in 1850 but it is definitely known that private schools and 
subscription schools were in existence even after 1900. 

In 1866, 53 teacher's certificates were recorded in the County 
records. They were for Sarilda Houser, D. E. Gallegly, Mary A. 
Anderson, William G. Riser, Elizabeth F. Sams, John A. Treese, 
Solomon R. Turney, John Mowery, Amanda McElfresh, William C. 
Lence, Samantha Rich, Francis Marion Reed, James P. Baggott, 
W. C. Moreland, Thomas W. Ferril, Thomas J. Plater, Luella Barlow, 
Olive Love, L. T. Linnell, E. Caveness, John W. Tracy, Hezekiah A. 
Jones, W. S. Day, P. S. Vancil, Albert C. Rossiter, Thomas L. 
Bailey, Wilson Brown, Kate King, Lafayette Corgan, Edward Lipe, 
Benjamin Babcock, O. P. Hill, Came Mitchell, Maggie E. Doyle, 
W. P. Jones, John H. Horine, Augusta E. Swain, Eva Kratzinger, 
C. W. Collins, Ellen E. Dodson, John S. Millikin, Maggie Clark, 
Laura Walker, John F. Little, P. M. Hagler, George B. Boomer, 
James B. Roberts, Lecher Lott, George Barringer, Elijah Miller, R. 
T. Rines, E. P. Harris and Joseph A. Coker. 

These people were listed as being natives of almost all parts 
of the United States so that the school children of Union County 
were getting a varied type of culture. 

The earliest annual school report available, that of the school 
year 1886 and 1887 showed that 6645 children in the county be- 
tween the ages of six and twenty-one, 5492 were enrolled in public 
schools. There were 70 ungraded schools and 8 graded schools at 
that time and 131 teachers. There were two brick school building, 
65 frame buildings and 10 log buildings in use that year for school 
houses. Twelve were built during the year. The average wage of 
the male teachers was $48 per month and that of female teachers 
was $31 per month. 

Taxes amounting to $22,896.39 were levied for school pur- 
poses and school property was valued at $61,780.00 with $365 in- 
vested in libraries and $15.99 in school apparatus. 

The school district treasurers that year were W. S. Gallegly, 
Lick Creek; J. H. Boswell, Mt. Pleasant; W. W. Karraker, Dongola; 
A. J. Miller, Cobden; M. V. Eaves, Anna; Jasper A. Dillow, Don- 
gola; Napoleon B. Collins, Alto Pass; Fred W. Metzger. Jonesboro; 
Levi A. Dillow, Springville; Calvin A. Smith, Cobden; Arthur A. 
Brown, Jonesboro; O. P. Baggott, Jonesboro; and John Wilkins, 
Grand Tower. 

In 1900, of 7801 people between the ages of six and twenty- 
one, 5512 were enrolled in the public schools. At that time the 
length of he school year had been extended to six months or more 
and there was only one school in the County which was in session 

—104— 



for a shorter period of time. There were 67 ungraded schools and 
10 graded schools in the county. There were three high schools 
established by that time. Four of the school buildings were brick, 
seventy-three were frame and one was log. Only one new building 
was erected during that year. 

There were two private schools, Union Academy and the 
parochial school in Cobden having 92 pupils and five teachers in 
the county in 1900. 

In the public schools there were 112 teachers, the highest 
salaried man being paid $100 per month. The lowest salaried man 
was paid $25, the highest salaried woman, $40 per month and the 
lowest salaried woman $20 per month. 

Teachers who had graduated from the Southern Illinois 
Normal University were Daniel B. Fager, Joseph Gray, Mattie O. 
Alexander, Henry W. Karraker and Maggie Bryden. Teachers who 
were teaching but still attending the Normal were W. A. Wall, 
Taylor Dodd and Thomas J. Anderson. The other teachers had 
not attended college but had obtained their certificate by examina- 
tion. 

The tax levy for school purposes in 1900 was $35,277.25 as 
compared with $22,896.39 in 1866. The value of school property 
had increased to $80,080 with $931.80 invested in libraries and 
$"4374 in apparatus. The fonded indebtedness was $11,790. 

There were three four year high schools in the county, one 
supervised by Anson L. Bliss, an eight month school, where the 
teachers were paid an average wage of $40.83 per month and the 
cost of maintaining the school was $19.62 per pupil; one by John 
W. Jenkins, a seven month school where the teachers were paid an 
average of $62.50 per month and the cost for maintaining the 
'school was $19.89 per pupil! and a third taught by William L. Toler, 
a seven month school where the per capita cost per pupil was $34.91 
per year. 

In 1937 the total number of pupils enrolled in public schools 
-was 4,349, a decrease since 1900 which is in the same proportion as 
the decrease in population. 915 of these pupils were enrolled in 
Tiigh schools. There were about 131 teachers in the county as com- 
pared with 112 in 1900 and all but seven had training above a four 
year high school. Thirty-one had bachelor degrees and two had 
•masters degrees. The salaries ranged between $400 and $1400 per 
year with one exception which was a salary between $2200 to $2400 
per year in elementary schools and in high schools only one teacher 
•was paid less than $1000 and the others all received between $1000 
^ind $1600 per year except one who received between $2700 and 
$3000 per year. This made an average annual salary in the county 
•of $997.42 or more than $100 per month. 

$195,499 in taxes were levied for school purposes in 1936. 
The districts owned school property valued at $593,800 with $104,- 
245 worth of library equipment and school apparatus. The bonded 
indebtedness of all the districts was $152,000. 

In 1937 there was only one private school in the county, 
the parochial school in Gobden which had 38 pupils and three 

—105 — 



teachers. 

There were 78 schools in Union County in 1937 and no new 
ones were erected. 

The enrollment of pupils- in high schools has increased over 

40 per cent during the last ten years and the number of tuition 
pupils in high school during that period has increased over 80 
per cent. 

Over the rural schools is a county superintendent of schools 
who is elected by a vote of te people. At present Russell D. Rendle- 
man holds the position. He coordinates the work of the schools in 
the county and is quite active in state organizations. 

During the past year the health program which he sponsors 
had made rapid strides in progress. Medical and dental examinations 
have been provided for all pupils and if defects are found, the pupil 
is advised to go to his personal physician or dentist. The work 
was accomplished through the cooperation of the County Medical 
Society, all dentists in the county, approximately twenty-five volun- 
teer workers, the National Youth Administration, the Anna City 
School Nurse, nurses from near-by counties, the County Superin- 
tendent of Schools and the County School Nurse. 

3765 children were examined and 2021 were found to have 
defects. Of these defects 1505 were throat defects, 302 gland de- 
fects, 2S0 trachoma suspects, 131 nose defects, 80 nutrition defects, 
79 nose defects, 71 athlete foot, 65 skin defects, 57 posture defects, 

41 thyroid defects, 38 lung defects, 29 orthopedic defects, 22 ner- 
vous defects and mental defects and 18 scalp defects. 

A comprehensive health program is planned for 1940 and 
1941. 



— 10ft— 



CHAPTER XXX 

HISTORY OF PUBLIC ASSITANCE IN UNION COUNTY 

BEFORE 1830 

Since the earliest organization of the state in 1818, provision 
•was made for the care of the poor. There were only nine instances 
■of public relief recorded in Jonesborough Township during the first 
ten years after 1818. Public assistance in Union County up to 1870 
fell into two types: outdoor relief, relief given to the family or per- 
son in his own home; or boarding home care, relief given in the 
form of cash payment to some other person for caring for the needy 
person. The latter type of care was known as "bidding off" 
paupers. It was advertised throughout the county that a pauper 
would be "bid off" at the court house door and the person making 
the lowest bid was allowed to keep the needy person in his home 
for periods of from three months to a year. At the end of the 
agreed period the pauper was again "bid off." The amount paid 
to the person for keeping such poor persons ranged from seventy- 
five to one hundred fifty dollars per year. Outdoor relief included 
medical care, nursing care, burial expenses, food and clothing for 
the person or family in need in his own home. The amounts allowed 
for this type of care varied from small amounts given at irregular 
intervals to amounts given quarterly or even annually for care. 

Children were usually "bound out" rather than "bid off." 
These procedures differed in that the person to whom the chiid was 
bound was expected to provide for the child until it reached ma- 
turity and he was not paid by the county for the care of the child. 
In some cases, relatives were ordered to support the needy person by 
the court. In case of the death of a needy person his personal 
property was sold to meet his burial and other expenses. 

Each year, overseers of the poor were appointed. It was not 
until 1876 after the old poor law was revised that definite rules 
regulating procedures to be followed by the overseers were set up 
by the County Board of Commissioners. After 1870 and until 1913 
outdoor relief including medical care, clothing, food, nursing and 
burial expenses, indoor relief or county farm care, and institution 
care provided by the state were the methods used to provide for the 
poor in the county. 

One overseer's annual report, typical of other such reports 
■during the one hundred years preceding 1930, records 24 cases re- 
ceiving assistance. One to seven orders were given in each case, 
the orders averaging three dollars each, varying in amount from 
one to nine dollars. No record was kept as to how many members 
there were in each family receiving help. 

THE COUNTY FARM 

In 1869, three men were appointed to select a suitable site 
for a "county poor house." A two hundred acre tract of land about 
the central part of the county was selected 80 acres of which was 

—107— 



sold before 1900 and 80 acres remained in use as the "county 
farm" until 1939 when the farm was discontinued by the county 

and the land sold. 

Before this "county poor farm" was established, poor per- 
sons had been "bid off" as mentioned before and later, groups of 
them had been "bid off" to one person for care. The county farm 
cared for the group of needy persons who had heretofore been 
"bid off" to one person and individual cases were still cared for in 
their homes or on their farms with special permission of the super- 
intendent of the poor farm. 

At first the agent in charge of the county farm paid rent of 
three hundred dollars per year for the use of the farm and was given 
a per capita payment for each, person sent to him for care and 
later the agent, or superintendent, was paid a salary and the pro- 
ceeds derived from the farm products were used by the county for 
maintenance of the farm and care of the inmates. Additional grants 
were made by the County Board when necessary. 

A system of record keeping for the farm was established and 
the book originally used for this purpose is still available. Parts 
of it have been destroyed and the accuracy of what remains depend- 
ed upon the ability of the superintendent to make accurate entries. 
A few of the superintendents could not write welT enough to keep 
a record. After the name of each person in the record, space was 
provided for the age, sex, color, occupation, civil condition, birth- 
place, parentage, residence, health habits, date of admission, prop- 
erty, authority for admission, supposed cause of pauperism and date 
of discharge. 

It was interesting to note that between 1875 and 1900 sev- 
eral names of county officials appeared on the record as having 
entered for short periods of time and under the heading "health 
habits" were written such notations as "chills and fever," "sore 
throat," epilepsy," etc. This indicates that the county farm was 
used as an infirmary or hospital as well as a place for paupers to 
live. 

From 1875 to 1930 there was an average of approximately 
twenty inmates on the county farm. Usually about one hundred" 
people were admitted annually. Each quarterly report showed from 
one to five deaths as the reasons for dicharge of the case. A few 
illegitimate child births were cared for during this period. One 
quarterly report showed that eleven inmates under ten years of 
age, three between ten and twenty, eighteen between twenty and 
thirty and fifteen over thirty were admitted. 

The annual expense for maintenance of the "county farm"" 
and care of the poor persons there was $2,000 in 1900, $1,400 in 
1910, $3,700 in 1920, $1,250 in 1925, and $1,100 in 1930. 

The County Farm was disbanded and sold in 1939 because 
the per capita cost of caring for the few inmates there was so much 
higher than the average cost of relief cases in the county. 

—108— 



MEDICAL CARE FOR POOR 

Before 1874 many items recorded in the County Record 
showed that medical care was given to the poor by many doctors 
who were paid for the individual cases they attended. In 1874 this 
procedure was changed by order of the County Board. Bids were 
taken for the care of the poor and the lowest bidder became the 
"county doctor." Some years the physician was paid on a per call 
basis and some years the agreement for payment was made on an 
annual wage basis. Many items recorded since 1874 showed that 
physicians other than the "county doctor" were paid for their ser- 
vices in caring for the poor persons. In addition to the care of the 
sick the "county doctor" was directed by the County Board to 
recommend to the agent in charge of the county farm, the discharge 
of all persons sheltered there whom he deemed physically able to 
support themselves. "* 

It is difficult to make any estimate of the amount of per 
capita relief which was given in individual cases because grocery 
orders were recorded according to the total amount owed to a par- 
ticular grocer for "furnishing paupers" and clothing orders were 
recorded in the same manner. Itemized statements of doctors were 
paid.. It would also be difficult to estimate how many cases were 
given assistance, however, using the overseer's report quoted above 
as typical of the amount per order given and using the figure 
$3000 as the amount of outdoor relief given in 1930, a fair estimate 
may be that there were between six hundred fifty and seven 
hundred people receiving aid during the year 1930. Again as- 
suming that the number of case may be computed on this basis, 
the number of cases cared for in 1920 was double the number cared 
for in 1930. 

All relief with the exception of aid to mothers and relief 
for the blind was administered by the County Board or their ap- 
pointed agents or overseers in accordance with the law passed in 
1874 known as "An Act to revise the law in relation to paupers, 
approved March 23, 1874." 
AID TO THE BLIND 

In 1903 the state of Illinois passed a law providing relief 
or pensions to all blind persons in the state. These pensions were 
to be paid by the counties. The law provided that all persons over 
18 years of age declared to be blind should receive a benefit of 
$250 per year payable quarterly upon warrants properly drawn upon 
the treasurer of the county where such blind person resides. Those 
eligible for the benefits of this law are blind persons who are not 
charges of institutions, or who do not have an income of more than 
$250 per year, who have resided in the state for ten consecutive- 
years and in the county for three years immediately preceeding the 
date of applying for the benefit. 

The blind person may make application in the office of the 
county clerk who will send him to the medical examiner appointed 
by the County Board. The medical officer will send his report to* 

—109— 



the County Board who then allow the benefit or reject the applica- 
tion as the case may be. 

This act was amended in 1935 to allow a pension of $365 
per year and to allow the blind person and spouse to have an income 
of $1000 per year or less. If the applicant has more than a $1000 
income he is not eligible for the benefit. 

In spite of the fact that relief to the blind was allowed in 
Illinois as early as 1903, there was none allowed in Union County 
until after July 1, 1915. 

In 1915, six persons applied for pensions and six were allow- 
ed pensions. In 1916, 30 applied and 25 were pensioned; in 1917, 
six applied and four were pensioned; in 1918, eight applied and 
seven were pensioned; in 1919, four applied and one was pensioned; 
in 1920, four applied and three were pensioned; in 1921, three ap- 
plied and three were pensioned, in 1922 three applied and three 
were pensioned; in 1923, six applied and five were pensioned; in 
1924, six applied and three were pensioned; in 1925, three applied 
and two were pensioned; in 1926, eight applied and five were pen- 
sioned; in 1927, nine applied and five were pensioned; in 1928, 
12 applied and eight were pensioned; in 1929, 11 applied and three 
were pensioned; in 1930, 14 applied and seven were pensioned; in 
1931, 25 applied and 14 were pensioned; in 1932, no applications 
were taken; 15 applied between the years 1933 and 1937, and of 
these, four were allowed in 1936, 10 in 1937 and one in 1938; 
in 1939, 21 applications were made and 21 pensions allowed. 

From the year 1933 to 1937 the medical examiner interpreted 
She law to mean only totally blind people were eligible for a pen- 
sion and since then the law has been interpreted that those indus- 
trially blind, that are not able to work on account of sight defects 
were eligible for a pension. 

Of these applicants 8 men were between the ages of 21 and 
30; 22 were between 30 and 40; 15 between 40 and 50; 35 between 
50 and 60; 39 between 60 and 70; 39 between 70 and 80; 22 be- 
tween 80 and 90 and seven of unkown ages. 82 of these applicants 
were over 65 years of age. 
AID TO MOTHERS AND CHILDREN 

An act to provide for the partial support of mothers and 
for the probationary visitation, care and supervision of the family 
for whose benefit support was provided was passed by the state 
legislature June 30, 1930 and in force July 1, 1913. In September, 
1913 the first "mother's pension" was allowed in Union County. 

The law provides that "a woman whose husband is dead and 
who was a resident of the state at the time of his death, or whose 
husband has become permanently incapacitated for work by reason 
of physical or mental infirmity and became so incapacitated while a 
resident of the state, or whose husband being the father of her 
child or children under sixteen years of age has abandoned her and 
said child or children and neglects or refuses to maintain or provide 
for them, and who has fled from this state or secrets himself so that 
he cannot be apprehended and prosecuted for wife and child aban- 

—110— 



donment, may file application for relief under this act. The mother 
must have resided in the county for three years before the applica- 
tion is made. 

The probation officer is then to make an investigation into 
the needs of the mother and recommend to the County Judge that 
the pension be granted or refused. Then the Judge in a court hear- 
ing renders his decision concerning the granting of the pension. 

This county have given amounts ranging from two to three 
dollars per child and at the present time gives three dollars per 
child. In many instances the mother is permitted to work away 
from her home in order to help provide for her family. Orders 
are called for monthly by the mothers. In 1938, sixty-six mothers 
were receiving aid under this act including one hundred twenty 
children. 

In larger counties this act is administered in a much different 
manner. Larger amounts are allowed to the mother according to her 
need and few mothers with children under 14 are permitted to work 
away from home. In most cases in those counties the allowance is 
adequate for the needs of the family. In Union County, several 
cases have been given relief by the County Relief Agency because 
the aid to mothers was inadequate to meet their needs. 

The history of public assistance in Union County up to 1939 
may best be summarized by the following figures: 

1868 For Care of paupers $ 934.14 

1869 Care of paupers 1,654.96 

1871 Care of paupers 1,414.67 

1881 For care of paupers 1,346.61 

For paupers in state institutions 138.25 $ 1,484.86 

1882 For care of paupers 1,604.92 

For paupers in state institutions 219.71 1,824.63 

1883 For care of paupers 1,525.22 

For paupers in institutions 149.16 1,674.38 

1884 For care of paupers 2,968.73 

For paupers in institutions 330.42 3,299.15 

1886 For care of paupers 1,500.00 

For paupers in institutions 600.00 2,100.00 

1890 For care of paupers 1,500.00 

For paupers in institutions 600.00 2,100.08 

1900 For paupers outside county farm 300.00 

For poor farm and expenses 2,000.00 

For paupers in institutions 300.00 2,000.00 

1910 For paupers in institutions 1,650.00 

For paupers at county farm 550.00 

For paupers outside county farm 1,375.00 

For expense of county farm 400.00 

Salary of Supt. of county farm 450.00 4,425.0$ 

1920 For paupers in institutions 500.00 

For paupers at county farm 1,800.00 

For maintaining county farm 700.00 

For paupers outside county farm 6,000.00 9,050.00 

— Ill — 



1922 For paupers at institutions 500.00 

For paupers at county farm 500.00 

For maintaining- county farm 1,000.00 

For paupers outside county farm 5,000.00 

M. D.'s fees for insane inquisitions _ 100.00 

For relief of blind 4,950.00 13,050.00 

1924 For paupers in institutions 500.00 

For paupers at county farm 500.00 

For maintaining county farm 750.00 

For paupers outside county farm 5,000.00 

M. D. fees for insane inquisitions 150.00 

For relief of blind 8,000.00 

For physicians examining- blind 25.00 

For mother's pension fund 1,500.00 16,425.00 

1926 For paupers in institutions 500.00 

For paupers at county farm 500.00 

For paupers outside county farm 5,000.00 

For maintaining county farm 750.00 

M. D. fees for insane inquisitions 150.00 

For relief of blind 8,000.00 

M. D. fees for examining blind 25.00 14,925.00 

1528 For county farm salaries 600.00 

For paupers in institutions 700.00 

For paupers at county farm 500.00 

For maintaining county farm 3,000.00 

M. D. fees for insane inquisitions 150.00 

For relief of blind _ 9,000.00 

For mother's pension fund 3,500.00 17,950.00 

1930 For paupers in institutions 600.00 

For paupers at county farm 500.00 

For maintaining county farm 600.00 

For paupers outside county farm 3,000.00 

M. D. fees £or insane inquisitions 200.00 

For relief of blind _ 7,500.00 

M. D. fees for examining blind 50.00 

For mother's pension fund 2,000.00 14,450.00 

1932 For paupers in institutions 600.00 

For paupers at county farm 500.00 

For maintaining county farm 1,000.00 

For paupers outside county farm 3,000.00 

For relief of blind 18,000.00 

M. D. fees for examining blind 50.00 23,150.00 

1984 For paupers in institutions 200.00 

For paupers at county farm _ 500.00 

For paupers outside county farm 4,500.00 

For relief of blind 18,200.00 

M. D. fees for examining blind 50.00 

For mother's pension fund 5,000.00 27,050.00 

1936 For salary of supt. of county farm _ 600.00 

For care of paupers outside co. farm 6,500.00 
—112— 



For maintenance of county farm 1,200.00 

M. D. fees for insane inquisitions 200.00 

For relief of blind 13,500.00 

For expense of old age security board 200.00 

For mother's pension 4,000.00 

State and Federal funds for relief ...151,794.52 

Work projects 31,626.96 209,621.38 

1938 For care of poor and indigent persons 30,000.00 

For maintenance of county farm 1,000.00 

For relief of blind 15,000.00 

State and Federal relief funds 70,386.37 

Old age assistance 118,084.60 

W. P. A. labor (adm. excluded) 420,000.00 *629,470.37 

* This total does not include farm relief given by the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture. 



►113- 



CHAPTER XXXir 
PUBLIC ASSISTANCE AFTER 1930 

In 1930 only $14,450 was spent in Union County for public- 
assistance and of this amount $7500 was for blind pensions and 
$2000 for mother's pensions. There were five methods then used 
for caring for the poor: care at the county farm, outdoor relief 
administered by the county commissioners through overseers of the 
poor in each precinct, relief for the blind, aid to mothers and care 
in a state institution. 

The population of Union County had increased from 18,100 
persons in 1880 to 20,?.49 in 1920 and decreased to 19*883 in 1930. 
The total cost of relief had increased from $1484.16 in 1880 to 
<;<>,000 in 1920 and to $14,450 in 1930. The increase which took 
place between 1920 and 1930 was due to the increase in the num- 
ber of blind pensions allowed. The increase from 1880 to 1920 was 
either because there was more assistance needed or more needs were 

cared for. 

A County Commissioner who- was in office in 1930 gave the 
following informatiotn. "We always helped our paupers who came to 
us for help. Most of the able bodied people could support themselves. 
A few had to have an order or two during the winter. We always 
helped the old, the sick, the children and widows-. The average 
order was two dollars per week for a family because most of them 
were able to get what they needed from friends or the farmers they 
worked for. These grocery orders were issued for staple foods only. 
The poor did not fool us any because we knew all of them. 
Clothing and books were provided for poor children in school and 
medical care for the sick. Very little assistance was given through 
the summer months because it was not needed. We thought we met 
the needs adequately and there did not seem to be any complaint 
about the assistance given. '* 

The school teachers played an important role in the care of 
the poor at that time. They reported children who needed clothing 
and books and often food. 

Aside from the above types of assistance given by public 
agencies in 1930, there was a private agency known as the Associat- 
ed Charities which gave a small amount of assistance. The secBetary 
of this organization, Mr. Thomas Rixleben of Jonesboro, gives the 
following account of it. "The Associated Charities was organized 
in 1910 by three churches in Jonesboro, Illinois, the Baptist, Meth- 
odist and Lutheran churches. A Thanksgiving service was held in 
each church in rotation. A voluntary offering was taken amounting 
to about twenty dollars per year which was given to the Associated 
Charities. The merchants of the town added about thirty dollars to 
the collection and all the citizens who wished donated used clothing 
and shoes which were given to the poor. The needs of the poor 
were few because neigbors and relatives contributed to those in 
need without being asked to do so." 

At this time it was customary for farmers and landlords who 
—114— 



!had tenants on their farms to supply this tenant with a house, a pig 
-or two, the use of a cow and all -'the fresh vegetables and fruit ha 
wished to can. If sickness or any circumstance occurred which 
■caused the tenants to need more money than their usual thirty dol- 
3ars a month salary, the landlord either provi Seal care or 

''stood behind" the credit of the person in need. In the summer, 
".lie poor who did not live on farms were usually told through their 
grocers or friends that certain farmers would allow them to pick 
the fruit and vegetables too ripe to be shipped to market yet in ex- 
cellent condition for canning or eating. It was only unusually lazy 
people who did not avail themselves of these opportunities, and thes? 
people were so criticized by their neighbors that many people ac- 
cepted the gifts to avoid having a reputation of being lazy. Thrifty 
housewives usually saw that their poor neighbors, relatives and 
friends had enough cans for their fruit and vegetables and enough 
second hand clothes to be presentable. 

These opinions of the people in charge of giving aid to the 
poor in 1930 have been quoted in full in order to show that drastic 
-contrast that has taken place during the last ten years when our 
public assitance has increased from $14,450 in 1930 to $629,470.37 
in 1938 in spite of the fact that a large factory employing 500 
people was opened up during that period. This $629,470.37 does not 
include large amounts of money that have been loaned to the farm- 
ers and home-builders, it represents only the amount of money that 
was give outright to the people of the county who said they were 
unable to earn a livelihood for themselves and would have to be 
supported by the government. 

One drastic change that has taken place since 1930 is the 
fact that the citizens who do not need help have taken the attitude 
that the government should help the poor and the individual citizen 
need no longer give the attention he formerly gave to his tenant, 
his neighbor or his poor relative. A second drastic change that has 
take place is that the poor person no longer feels that he is being 
helped but demands support as a civil right. Most recipients of 
W. P. A. jobs do not consider this a form of relief and demand 
that their political friends use their influence to obtain this type of 
job for them. 

There is not room here to enumerate instances where citizens 
who consider themselves honorable have abused the privilege of be- 
ing aided by the government by demanding help when they might 
be able to devise ways to help themselves. This is not true alone 
of Union Coupnty but of most of the counties in the whole United 
States. Since the appropriation for this assistance comes from the 
federal and state governments mainly, all needs are estimated at a 
maximum rather than minimum extent so that by the time all esti- 
mates are totalled it makes a tremendous amount of money neces- 
sary to meet the estimated needs and after the money is appro- 
priated it seems that few places make an effort to use as small an 
amount of money as possible and let the surplus revert to the 
treasury of the county, state or federal government. When one 

—115— 



stops to consider that Union County has only 4500 taxpayers and 
over $600,000 was given away in the county and also considers that 
this is happening all over the country, then one realizes that better 
programs for administering public assistance must be used in the 
future. 

THE ILLINOIS EMERGENCY RELIEF COMMISSIONS 
ADMINISTRATION IN UNION COUNTY 

By the end of 1933, representatives of the Illinois Emergency 
Relief Commission, which had been appointed by the governor to 
help with the growing relief problem in the state, had made con- 
tacts with the chairman of the county board of commissioners, Mr. 
Clem C. Baggott, and appointments were made of an Emergency Re- 
lief Committee for Union County. Mr. R. Wilkins, Alto Pass; Mr. 
Ed Karraker, Jonesboro; Mr. Claude Rich, Cobden; Dr. C. R. Walser, 
Anna; Harvey Hinkle, Dongola, and Ed Hargrave, Anna, were ap- 
pointed to serve with Mr. Clem Baggott as chairman. Later Mr. 
Baggott and Dr. Walser resigned and the final committee which 
nerved was made up of Ed. L. Karraker, Jonesboro; T. P. Sifford, 
Anna; R. S. Diilow, Dongola; Claude W. Rich, Cobden; Dan R. 
Davie, Ware; Ed S. Hargrave, Anna, and Roy Wilkins, Alto Pass. 

Since there had been no unusual requests for aid in the 
county at the time, the chairman of the committee and the county 
clerk sent letters to the principals of city schools and to teachers of 
country schools asking for a list of names of needy persons in the 
school districts. From these lists the first allocations of money was 
computed. Later as the availability of money became publicized 
requests became numerous. 

In February, 1934 the representatives of the I. E. R. C. told 
the local members that in order to continue to receive money in 
Union County an administrator of certain qualifications should be 
appointed. Since the board knew of no one in the county who could 
meet the requirements set up by the I. E. R. C. they accepted the 
suggestion of the commission and appointed Mrs. Bertha Mont- 
gomery who describes herself as the "bitter pill the committee had 
to swallow in order to obtain funds from the commission." 

Under Mrs. Montgomery's supervision the office was organized 
which at one time employed 32 workers to investigate cases and 
otherwise administer relief in Union County. Requests for relief 
increased and eventually this office was taking care of most of the 
mother's aid cases and blind pension cases. Work relief in the 
county was first organized in this office which was later to be taken 
over by the Civil Works Administration of the federal government 
and later by the Works Program Administration. 

In 1936 the legislature took the power of administration of 
relief away from the I. E. R. C. because there had been too much 
friction between the administrators and many of the county boards. 
This was due mainly to the scarcity of available administrators who 
had the requisite training and background and those who had to 
be used were learning their jobs themselves instead of being able 

—116— 



to teach the boards and their employees what needed to be done. 

As a result of this act the relief was turned back to the 
county board and the I. E. R. C. acted only as a certification agefit 
to approve of the applicants for the Works Progress Administra- 
tion, the Public Works Administration, the Rural Resettlement Ad- 
ministration, the Civilian Conservation Corps, the National Youth 
Administration and other related services. The I. E. R. C. also 
provides the funds for the counties to distribute and since 1938 has 
had the power to supervise the administration of these funds. A 
third duty the I. E. R. C. retains is the distribution of surplus foods 
in the counties. Surplus foods are supposed to be foods and pro- 
ducts bought in areas where there is a surplus supply and distributed 
by the government, thus keeping the surplus off the market. 

All but one of the members of the local I. E. R. C. committee 
expressed themselves as believing they should have used their own 
ideas of limiting the amount of money spent in Union County rather 
than listening to the representatives of the commission who con- 
tinually pointed out that this county might as well get all the money 
they could since the other counties were doing the same thing 

In contrast to their opinion in the opinion of economists who 
study the problem at large and in measuring the standard of living 
Union County find that it is lower than most counties in Illinois. 
Therefore it was their constant advice to give more assistance 
to make the standard of living comparable to other counties. 

THE COUNTY RELIEF ADMINISTRATION 

In 1936, in accordance with the amendement passed by the 
legislature, the administration of relief passed from the hands of 
the I. E. R. C. to the County Board of Commissioners. Mrs. Clyde 
Treece was appointed administrator and she was given four assist- 
ants. 

Under this administration only direct relief was cared for 
in this office. All able bodied men or heads of families were referred 
to the I. E. R. C. for certification for one of the federal programs, 
W. P. A., N. Y. A. or C. C C. In spite of the fact that these 
programs and the new Old Age Assistance Administration took care 
of approximtely 70 per cent of the cases given assistance in the 
county, this office spent $4,028.80 in June, 1938 in comparison to 
$6,612.75 which included all relief work and old age assistance and 
other cases in June, 1936. 

Due to the fact that the cost of relief was increasing all over 
the state at a tremendous rate of speed, the legislature again 
amended the law providing aid to the needy in 1937, giving the 
I. E. R. C. the right to supervise the county offices beginning July, 
1938 to the extent that the county officers provide the state office 
with complete records of each case and offices not complying with 
the standards set by the I. E. R. C. were to have funds withdrawn 
from the county until such time as the rules were carried out. 

In 1939, Miss Edith Hess was made the administrator and 
has carried on the work of the office since that time. 

—117— 



THE OLD AGE ASSISTANCE ADMINISTRATION 

According to a law passed in 1935 providing for old age 
assistance to be given to all needy persons 65 years of age or over, 
County Judge E. S. Alden appointed a board to supervise the 
administration of pensions in Union County. This board made up of 
Mr. J. D. R. Brown, Mrs. Kate Coffman and Mr. Nathan T. Lawr- 
ence appointed Mrs. Nettie Glasscock administrator. 

By April of 1939, 1217 applications had been made for assist- 
ance. 743 of these had been accepted and 67 were pending investi- 
gation. The others had been rejected, withdrawn or died. 

The office had two employees and a stenographer loaned by 
the National Youth Administration until the State Administration 
began a review of cases. In July, 1938, the employees became 
civil service employees and the Old Age Assistance Administration 
was changed for the supervision of the board to that of the State 
Department of Public Welfare. When the review of cases was begun 
additional helpers were employed in the office. 

All persons who are over 65 years of age not having an 
income of $40 per months (this was increased from $30 during the 
extra session of the legislature in 1940) or not having children able 
to support them are eligible for assistance. This assistance is given 
on the basis of need, that is if the aged person has a place to live, 
rent is excluded from his grant, etc. In April, 1940, there were 
758 persons receiving old age assistance in Union County. 
THE NATIONAL YOUTH ADMINISTRATION 

The National Youth Administration has two separate pro- 
grams in Union County, the student aid program and the projects 
under the supervision of the County N. Y. A. Superintendent Cleatus 
Smith. 

The former program is supervised by the principals of the 
high schools in the county and provides aid to needy students. In 
this county the need for aid is determined by an investigation 
made by the local relief office at the request of the principal who 
has received the application. One high school superintendent stated 
that more children from the poorer areas of the county have been 
able to obtain a high school education since this program has been 
in effect. The pupils receiving this aid do not have to belong to 
relief families. 

The latter program includes three projects, a book-binding 
project sponsored by the County Superintendent, a picnic ground 
project sponsored by the Home and Garden Club of Alto Pass; and 
a desk reconditioning project sponsored by the public schools of 
Cobden, Illinois. In earn project the sponsor furnishes the material 
for the work and provides the space where the work is to be done 
and labor is furnished by the National Youth Administration. 

The N. Y. A. program probably has a larger turnover of 
workers than any other in the county because the workex'S are un- 
married persons between 16 and 24 years of age. Many of these 
people are able to obtain private employment because they have 
pained a little experience and because the N. Y. A. is constantly 

—118— 



ftii the outlook for jobs for its clients who come from relief fa. : 

THE CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS 

The work of the C. C. C. Camps has been di: 
under the National Forest Service Program. 

The C. C. C. Camps employ youths between th< of 16 

and 24 who are not in school nor gainfully employed. 1 
do not have to come from relief families. 

THE ANNA STATE HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE 

The mentally ill patients of Union County and tw 
other southern Illinois counties are eared for in the Aj 

Hospital for the Insane. 

This institution was established by a vote of the I 
in 1869, the board of commissions appointed consisting ol 
ant Governor John Dougherty of Jonesboro; Benjamin L. 
Jackson County; Dr. G. L. Owens, of Marion; II. W. Hall i 
Leansboro, and D. R. Kingsbury of Centralis. These commissioners 
selected the present site of the institution and a large buildi:. 
erected. Since that time the number of building iicaUy 

increased until the hospital has grown from a capacity of 150 to one 
of nearly 300 patients with all necessary hospital facilities and farm 
equipment for the almost 500 acres of land. Originally water was 
obtained from cisterns and a spring, but now a large dam has been 
constructed below Jonesboro making a lake from which v. : 
pumped to a large reservoir north of Anna for the use of the 
hospital. 

The institution gives employment to over 300 people. 

One of the recent additions to the institution is a diagnostic 
center where patients are received for observation and diagnosis 
which facilitates the patient's stay in the hospital. Many are re- 
turned to their homes from this part of the institution shortly alter 
their admission. The custom is rapidly growing among county 
judges to send patients is as guests for observation and commit 
them after it has been recommended by the diagnostician. This cuts 
down the expense of inquisitions of persons who would be discharged 
without psychosis. 

The first managing officer was Dr. Dewey of the Elgin State 
Hospital who stayed about two months and was succeeded by Dr. 
Barnes who remained five years. Most superintendents since have 
remained from 4 to 8 years. 

The County sends its feeble-minded to Lincoln State School 
and Colony and some few may get as far away as the Dixon State 
Hospital; its blind, its deaf and dumb to the Jacksonville Sc 
for those purposes and its tubercular patients to Springfield. There 
are inadequate facilties in Illinois for the care of the tubercular 
patient. 

THE TRACHOMA CLINIC 

One of the five trachoma clinics belonging to tLe Bouthcm 
district of Illinois is located in Jonesboro. This is a cooperative 
agency supervised by the Society for the Prevention of Blindness, 

—119— 



staffed by the Department of Public Welfare of the State of Illi- 
nois and all olher help furnished by the W. P. A. 

The Society for the Prevention of Blindness made a survey 
of the needs of the trachoma areas in the state in 1934. They were 
aided by the Department of Public Health which gave the services 
of one nurse and funds for the expense of the survey. 

All eye cases needing treatment in this area had been sent 
to the Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary in Chicago before this time. 
Railroad and bus fares were expensive so as a result of the survey 
made in 1934, area clinics were established. The first year the 
clinics were paid for by the Society for the Prevention of Blindness 
and the Illinois State Department of Public Health. In 1935 the 
legislature made an appropriation to the Department of Public Wel- 
fare to carry on the work for one year then the present set-up was 
arranged. 

At present, the Society for the Prevention of Blindness fur- 
nishes a nurse who supervises the work of the clinic and the area it 
serves. The Department of Public Welfare furnishes one nurse and 
a doctor for each clinic. The W. P. A. furnishes all other help: 
nurses aids who assist the nurse in the clinic and make home calls to 
follow up the cases treated in the clinic or to urge new cases which 
have been reported to come to the clinic for treatment; field work- 
ers, men who are trained to do the same as the nurses aids in the 
homes; a clerk to arrange schedules and appointments and give in- 
formation on days when the regular clinic staff is not present; 
and janitors and laundress. 

The clinic cares for eye cases only and gives treatment only 
to trachoma cases but in case an examination discloses another type 
of eye defect, the case is referred to a local physician for care. 
If the persons examined is dependent, the case is sent to the Eye 
and Ear Infirmary in Chicago. 

The clinic is open three times a week for examinations and 
treatment. The doctor is present every Thursday and every other 
Saturday he cares for surgical cases. Anesthetics for operations are 
paid for by the relief agency for the individual patient. 

From June, 1934 to April, 1939, 533 positive trachoma cases 
and 380 suspected cases had been treated in the clinic. Many others 
have been examined. The average monthly case load is 200 cases. 
The load is heavier in summer, sometimes reaching 300 cases be- 
cause dust causes flare ups in old cases. 



—120— 



CHAPTER XXXHi 
ROAD BUILDING IN UNION COUNTY 

Road building- is the oldest type of public work ia Union 
County. In the beginning trails were blazed by hunters axes and 
later came wagon trails. All the men in a vicinity worked together 
gratis on a road leading to trading posts and other sources of supply. 
Later as more roads were needed a small wage was paid the 
men who worked on the road and later men worked out their poll 
taxes on the roads. 

Plank roads came into use about 1850. This road is discussed 
in a previous chapter. Following this dirt roads were used. These 
roads were graded and made wide enough for conveyances to pass 
each other. Later came gravel roads and finally paved roads. 

The first gravel roads were made and maintained by a toll 
collected from each conveyance which traveled over them. Toll 
gates were located between Jonesboro and Ware on that gravel road 
and one south of Anna on another road. 

The County Highway Department began the building and 
maintenance of roads about 1915. State Aid roads began in 1915. 
These were established through a resolution by the County Board 
of Commissioners designating certain roads to be added to the State 
Aid system because there was more traffic on these roads than 
others. When the location of a road was designated by the County 
Board, the plan of the road was sent to the State Department of 
Public Works and Buildings thru its district office at Carbondale 
for approval. When the state accepted responsibility for granting 
state aid to these roads, the county was required to pay one-half the 
cost of maintaining the road. Two roads, one two miles east from 
Dongola and one one mile east from Cobden were laid out under 
this plan and the rest of the roads were maintained by county funds. 
In 1927 the motor fuel tax law was enacted which allowed 
the county one cent of each three collected. Since then the county 
has had approximately $18,000 per year from this fund to construct 
and maintain roads which are designed to meet the state highway 
qualifications. Money can be spent by counties either for contracts 
or for day labor work disbursed through the road commissioners. 

Up until 1936 much work was done through contracts. Since 
1936 the county has done its own construction work. The county 
has spent much of its money for equipment which it rents to the 
state highway department at a rate which practically pays for the 
original purchase price and upkeep of the machinery. The mach- 
inery is then available after being used by the state for use on the 
county roads. 

The road districts have their own machinery for work within 
the district. 

Union County now has eighteen miles of road Built with 
motor fuel tax funds. 

A year ago it was decided by the government that federal 
aid road constructed by the government and turned back to the 
county for maintenance could be maintained by motor fuel tax 

—121— 



fttnds. Within the last year eight miles of road have been com- 
pleted and peven more miles are planned and right-of-way condem- 
nations are being held in court to carry out this plan. 

There are six hundred miles of ordinary public roads in Union 
County, one hundred twenty-seven miles of state aid road and fifty- 
six miles of concrete roads. Four miles of black-top road is being 
built out of state reforestation funds connecting Cobden with the 
Black Diamond Trail. This is a scenic view road. 

The concrete roads were built and are maintained by the 

state. 

In 1940 the county road commissioners were Mr. Landis, Mr. 
Mcintosh, Mr. Thornton, Mr. Casper, Mr. Stegle, Mr. Barringer, 
Mr. Norton, Mr. Lingle, Mr. Bauer, Mr. Orr and Mr. Rendleman. 
There are eleven districts in the county. Mr. Loren Hinkle is county 
Superintendent of Highways. Each commissioner hires a clerk and 
a laborer. The rest of the work is done by W. P. A. and relief 
labor. 

The county owns $20,000 worth of machiney and if this 
machinery were not used as it is by the state, the county income 
from motor fuel tax would not be sufficient to maintain the county 
roads. This income would not much more than keep up the bridges. 

Two W. P. A. gravel pits are in operation in the county. One 
novamlite pit is in operation near Alto Pass, but this gravel is used 
in Jackson county. The gravel from the W. P A. pits is loaded into 
county owned equipment and hauled to all the road districts. Each 
district pays fifty-four cents per yard loading cost. 

Few counties keep a Highway Commissioners reports but Mr. 
Hinkle has compiled a very complete reports which shows just how 
much money has been spent and how much work has been completed 
in each road district each month and how much money is available 
to complete the work of the districts during the year. 

A tax levy is made the first of each September to obtain 
money to be expended for construction of roads and bridges, the 
maintainance of roads and bridges, road drag funds, purchase of 
machinery, repairs for machinery, oiling of roads, prevention and 
extripation of weeds, buildings, administration and contingencies. 

All tax warrants are listed in the report so that each district 
knows just where it is with reference to the budget all during the 
year. A record of all bank receipts and balances is kept, tax money 
and private work pay, etc., is listed. Also anticipation warrants are 
listed to be counted against future income so that the county knows 
just how much is available at all times for road work. 

During the last twenty-five years the towns of Union County 
have improved their streets. Few streets in any of the towns are 
without gravel and many are paved. 

Most of the towns have also put in water systems. 



—122- 



CHAPTER XXXIV 
PERSONAL TAXES IN UNION COUNTY AND CONCLUSION 

The study of personal taxes reveals a number of things, the 
prosperity of the county, the standard of living, the percent of 
people well-to-do or poor, the types and number of businesses, etc- 

Since 1860 personal taxes have increased. In 1860 when the 
population was 11,145 there were 2149 persons paid personal taxes 
which indicates that all these people had furniture, livestock, stock 
in trade, etc., amounting to more than fifty dollars. In 1900, when 
Union County reached it peak, 22,610 in population, 3,296 people 
paid personal taxes. In 1939 when population was 19,883, there 
were 4,539 people paid personal taxes. This indicates that there 
has been a raising of the standard of living for almost one-fourth of 
the taxpayers. 

Significant also is the change in the amount of personal prop- 
erty the well-to-do class pays. In 1900, eleven individuals paid 
taxes on between $10,000 and $20,000 worth of personal property 
and three paid on $20,000 or more. In 1939 only one individual 
listed personal property exceeding $10,000. Corporations such as 
the Central Illinois Public Service Corporation, the Bell Telephone 
Company, the Western Union Telegraph Company and several chain 
grocery stores and oil companies and other companies paid taxes 
on over $10,000 worth of personal property. 

Since it is a well known fact that more than one individual 
has more than $10,000 worth of personal property which may or 
may not be taxable, it would be inaccurate to leave the impression 
that individual wealth has decreased as much as the comparison in 
taxes between 1900 and 1939 indicates. Since the assessor is only 
able to list what he sees if the taxpayer does not choose to tell him 
what he owns, many things may be missed in compiling tax lists, and 
since taxes have increased, people are more inclined to conceal 
their wealth than they were in the past. The county assessor made 
the statement that if an accurate assessment could be made, the rate 
of taxation would be about one-fourth the amount that is now 
levied. 

In listing personal taxes for businesses, in 1900 seventy-six 
business houses listed personal property of over $1,000 and six 
manufacturers had over $1,000 worth of personal property. The 
largest manufacturer listed property worth $5,459. 

This practice does not exist in Union County alone. 

In 1939 four manufacturers listed personal property of over 
$8,000 and one company paid taxes on $35,505. Fifty-six places of 
business listed over $1,000 worth of personal property and there 
were almost three times as many businesses listed in 1939 as in 
1900. It is possible for many businesses to operate now on a small 
amount of stock because of the availability of new stock to replenish 
what is sold almost over night. 

A discussion of farm taxes was given in the chapter on the 
history of agriculture. 

—123— 



Types of businesses have changed to meet the times. Instead 
of the- old general merchandise stores there are specialized stores, 
ready-to-wear, groceries, notions, etc. The harness and wagon manu- 
facturers have been replaced by garages, automobile and farm im- 
plement sales companies. The sale of gasoline is one of the most 
numerous of businesses in the county. 

In conclusion, let it be said that Union county, altho handi- 
capped by rather poor soil, has arisen above its handicaps and has 
hare of business and comforts. While there are no extremely 
wealthy people in the county there are many people who live well. 
Our poor people are fewer than in our neighboring counties, Alex- 
ander, Pulaski, Jackson, Williamson and Johnson. The county has 
produced its share of brilliant people who have made names for 
themselves in the fields of business, politics and education. 

Union County is above all, a consistent county. When a 
leader is chosen he is backed for long periods of time. This is 
indicated by the long tenure of office enjoyed by Monroe C. Craw- 
ford, who was county judge for thirty-two years. Judge Crawford 
was a very fine type of man which indicates that Union County 
stands behind officials of high calibre. In going over the county 
records, it is found that most of our officials served for long period* 
Of time. 

Most of the pastors in the county serve their churches for a 
number of years and there is not a radical amount of change among 
teachers. Many of our business houses belong to people whose fath- 
ers and' grandfathers were in the same business before them. 

On the whole our citizens are law abiding. We do not have 
any more arrests in proportion to our population than other counties 
have. 

On the whole we are an average county considering the fact 
that we excel in some things and do not do so well in others. Most 
salesmen visiting the county express themselves as finding Union 
County the best business county in this end of the state. Our 
county was born of courage and hardship. It grew on the fearless 
spirit of the pioneer and has become what it is today. 



^124— 



I LEE IMPLEMENT CO. 

ALLIS CHALMERS 

I SALES AND SERVICE FARM EQUIPMENT 

State Truck Testing Machine 

Operating Since 1911 in Union County 

Phone 260 128-129 W. Davie St. 

ANNA, ILLINOIS 



y 




WILLY'S Eccr Store 

I SCHOOL SUPPLIES 

New and Used School Books 

Operating Since 1890 in Union County 

Telephone 145 317 S. Main St. 



i THE RITZ THEATRE 

I COBDEN, ILLINOIS 

1 The Best In Moving Picture Entertainment. 

Your patronage will be appreciated. 
"In the Heart of Union County" 




I ! 



BLUE WILLOW CAFE 

"Located in the Heart of Dongola" 
Always Ready to Serve both Young and Old 
THE BEST IN FOODS— FOUNTAIN SERVICE 
* KENNETH CORZINE, Manager 



TUTHILL OIL CO. 

IN THE HEART OF ANNA 

BARNSDALL PRODUCTS 

Quaker Stale and Pennzoil 



' 



Telephone 350 



Norris & Son 



- 



FURNITURE & FUNERAL SERVICE 

Linoleum — Rugs — Radios 
Hotpoint Refrigerators — Wall Paper 

Established 1898 Jonesboro, Illinois 

•^» -^^ •^^fe^— ^9^.^ .-^^fe, ♦ -..^^fe>c^fts..<j!fcj^. r ♦ 



I 



For the Best and Latest in Movie Entertainment 
We Invite You To Attend the 

RODGERS THEATRE 



• • • 

WE APPRECIATE YOUR PATRONAGE 

• • • 

Serving the Public Since 1923 

• • • 

H. L. HENDERSON, Resident Manager 



* 

• 

t. 



J 



COLLEEN BEAUTY SERVICE 

Cobden, 111. — Across from the Hardware Store 
EXPERTLY EXPERIENCED IN HAIR DRESSING 
Permanents a Specialty — At lowest popular price 
When you need a facial, permanent, manicure or 

or wave set think of us. 
Colleen Stewart Phone 23 



CARTER MOTOR SALES 

CHRYSLER & PLYMOUTH SALES & SERVICE 

• • • 

DAY AND NIGHT WRECKER SERVICE 

• • • 

Phone 298 and 162 Anna, 111. 



KAUFMAN 

NEWSTAND and CONFECTIONERY 

Cobden, 111. Operating Since 1916 A 

Subscriptions taken for newpapers and magazines. 



CINDERELLA 
NITE CLUB 

Wolf Lake, Illinois 

• • • 

For your best enjoy- 
ment. 

• • • 

Square Dancing Every 
Friday Night 

Wolf Lake, Illinois 
On Route 3 



WILSON'S 
CASH STORE 

A. M. Wilson and 
A. T. Wilson 

Groceries and Meats 

Men's & Boy's Shoes 

"Quality Merchandise'' 

is our motto. 

Wolf Lake, Illinois 



fe-^3^^4^ -^A 



PIONEERS . . . 

made lasting progress by choosing the course that 
would stand the test of time. 

We are satisfying our customers by choosing for 
them only quality goods, at prices in keeping with 
quality we sell. 

DAVIS CLOTHING CC. 

EMERY DAVIS 
114 East Davie St. Anna, 111. 



iTs. spires I 



GROCERIES DRY GOODS 
MEATS SHOES 

• • • 

We Feed and Clothe the Entire 
Family. 

• • • 

114 W.Davie Anna 



■j 



* 




Made Right Priced Right 

UNION FEEDS 





ANNA FLOUR & FEED CO. 

MANUFACTURERS 



JOHN D. STROEHLEIN 

HARDWARE 
Hardware and Implements 

Operating Since 1928 Cobden, III. 



te^:J2!SSgS 




Union County Oil Co. 

Your Friendly Distributor 

Products 

WHOLESALE and RETAIL 

Phone 142 Cobden, 111. 

Everett Randall, Mgr. 




n 



Demand | 

| BIG BOY AND BUTTERNUT BREAD | 

NONE BETTER 

LEWIS BROS. BAKERIES 

I 

1 Invites you to attend. We have the best in modern M 

A theatre equipment and the latest in motion pictures i 

I at all times. For your best enjoyment visit our 

O theatre. 

| Dongola, III. 




RIXLEBEN'S PHARMACY j 

DRUGS — SCHOOL BOOKS — SUPPLIES 



Jonesboro, 111. 




The Producers Dairy 



"Health With Perfect Safety" 

• • • 

FINE DAIRY FOODS 
Pasteurized 

• • • 

Phone 77 Anna, 111. 



E. P. OWEN 



DRUGGIST 



• • o 



101 N. Main St. Telephone 119 




^&-&SJ?* ♦ 



• • • 

Capital $50,000.00 

• • • 
$ I. O. Karraker President 

Thos. Rixleben Vice-President ■ 

I Ed L. Karraker Cashier 1 

Ida Sensmeier Asst. Cashier ; 



a: 






Flag Pole In Anna 




Last year the Anna Chamber of Commerce and the Amer- 
ican Legion put up a flag pole on the Illinois Central park. 



This picture shows the initial flag raising ceremonies. 



LINCOLN 

^ ^Ul^ fy Ben H- Smith 

^0 ut °f^ eWest he came 
| Awkward in phrase, 

# Bringing a speech To flame 

fC Worlds in those days. 




Lived 

patient and u/iSe 



eknew. 
th tough 



k 



wvjo4.of a ye! low earth ^ 
^ gCv \J#?ame endurgp n_ 
^^f^>J\[P^a^ty<>u knowC%is Worth 

_. a western sc 
Nations may fall 
He, since he i s with Gogs^/lT' ] i J§( 

isofusdii. M-^4 



We bring you U % 

Verse that is wet upith tears /9 
Where all r^pjesVeep. 



Ben H. Smith of Jonesboro, has been recognized nationally 
for his fine poetry. Above is his poem on Abraham Lincoln that 
has been published throughout the United States. 



He contributes a regular weekly column to The Gazette- 
Democrat. 



International Shoe Factory 





Leading industry in Union County is the International Shoe 
Factory in Anna. It has been in operation here for the past 10 
years. 



Hale-Willard Hospital 




Formerly a private institution when this picture v. 
The Hale-Willard hospital is now operated by the City of 



Z % Hi— TIBIIII WBE.Jit ) ,. J .AIWL...nSMK^SME^SWI 



Dr. H. B. Shafer 4 4 Dr. Jas. F. Wahl A 

—DENTIST— Optometrist 



Anna 




4 Dr. H. Phillips $ ♦ Dr. Roy Keith {j 

Physician & Surgeon | 4 — DOCTOR — 

Anna Anna 



. 



-dB*. -- «*- "gMSi IHTSBMIBl '-*«►- 1 



Dr. Don Stewart g 1 Dr. Berry Rife L 
—DOCTOR— a —DOCTOR— 

4 Anna 1 J Anna 

| Dr. E. V. Hale | f Dr. C. R. Walser " 

—DOCTOR— | I —DENTIST— 

1 - t 1 



Anna Y Anna 

^ ^^ b _ |M ^J I __ ;; ^ j| 

Dr. O. E. Johnson 11 J. C. Kincaid 

1 i 



DENTIST— I The Chiropractor 



Anna f{ j| Anna 

Dr. H. O. Taylor 

Medical Doctor 
Anna 



THE JOINER FURNITURE STORE 

Established For Over 20 Years 



Invite3 you to come into our large shew room, and 
y see our wonderful display of furniture. 

a 

y. We have furniture to fit every need at prices to y 
make it more appealing. 



A "For the Best In Furniture See Us" j, 



North Main St. Anna, Illinois 



* 



WILKINS' GARAGE 

Your CHEVROLET Dealer 

Telephone 5S-R2 Cobden, Illinois 

I ■ 

ft Would you like to trade your old car for a later A 

model? If so see us and save money. We have 



J . cars to please any buyer. 



Phoettis: Fleur Mills, Iziq. 

A Manufacturer* of 

FLOUR, MEAL AND FEEDS 

Distributors of the celebrated Purina Feeds 
Dealers in 
HAY, OATS AND STRAW 
y A Full Line of Field Seed 

We have installed a Clipper Seed Cleaner. Bring us your 
Seeds for cleaning. 




W. H. BISHOP HORSE & MULE 
AUCTION 



SAVE 

with SAFETY at 



GEO E PARKS HoUJl DRUGGIST 

206-8 S.MAIN ST. ANNA, ILL. PHONE 122 



93BSS9SSBG30!S?V95» 




1 



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