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Pioneers and Prominent Men. 





188 2. 



^m U3RARY 



The History of Union and Middlesex Counties, although chiefly a compilation, contains 
much original matter. It has been the aim of the editor and of his assistants to investigate all 
original sources of information relating both to the general and local histories of the Counties, 
and to give due credit for all that has been borrowed, from whatever source. The authorities 
which have been consulted are numerous, embracing many volumes of history and historical 
collections, and an almost endless variety of lesser papers and documents, public and private, 
descending to the minutest details of social, ecclesiastical, and family records, and covering a 
period of two hundred and fifty years. That all this matter could he handled and wrought 
into a volume so comprehensive and exhaustive as the one now before the reader, without any 
errors or mistakes, would be too much to expect of human vigilance and skill, especially when 
exercised within the limits prescribed to the compilers. We have done the best we could 
under the circumstances. The volume doubtless contains some errors, but we trust that none 
of them are of so grave a character as to impair the general accuracy and value of the history. 

Materials have been found for a somewhat larger volume than was originally contemplated 
in the prospectus. Indeed, such might naturally have been expected from counties so ancient 
and important as Union and Middlesex, — counties containing the first English settlements in 
East Jersey, the seats of the Proprietary and Colonial Governments, and the scenes of some of 
the most stirring and important events of the Revolutionary period. But the work might have 
been swollen to much larger dimensions, and yet been of less value. For, while it has been the 
endeavor of the editor to so condense the material introduced as to eliminate all trashy or 
worthless matter, he has been no less solicitous to conserve all important and valuable infor- 
matiou relating to the counties. 

The authorities consulted in the volume are chiefly referred to in foot-notes. Due credit has 
been given in most instances for the borrowed matter. The only exception to this rule is in some 
cases where assistant writers in furnishing matter to the editor were not sufficiently careful to 
indicate the sources whence they derived this data. It was afterwards found impossible to 
accurately insert the proper quotation marks. This explanation will show that, whatever may 
be the seeming, there has been no intentional plagiarism. 

Dr. Hatfield's " History of Elizabeth, New Jersey," has been, with his permission, freely 
used, and has furnished much valuable material relating to Union County and to the Borough 
and City of Elizabeth. 

In Middlesex County there is no better historical authority than the gentleman whose 
accurate and graceful pen has furnished matter for some of the most important chapters in that 



department of the work,— Mr. Charles D. Deshler, of New Brunswick. Mr. Deshler's name is 
a sufficient guarantee that his part of the work at least has beeu well done. We acknowledge 
our indebtedness to him for valuable information and assistance in many ways, also to Dr. Cook, 
State Geologist, to Professor Smock, and to the members of the press and the county and local 
officials generally. The couutenance and assistance of these gentlemen, and others, have greatly 
lio-htened our task in compiling the volume which is herewith submitted to the intelligent 
judgment of our readers. 


Philadelphia, July 26, 1882. 





I. — Discovery and Occupation of Ni 

land ........ 

II. — Attem]it to Colonize Achter Kull under the 

Dutch Rule 

III. — First English Settlement at Elizabethtown 
IV. — Original Patentees and Associates of Eliza- 
bethtown ...... 

v. — Indian Occupation .... 

VI. — Indian Hostilities .... 

VII. — Physical and Descriptive Features 
VIII. — Government of Philip Carteret . 

IX. — Government of Philip Carteret (Continued) 

X.— Title to Lands 

XI. — Beginning of the Revolutionary Struggle 
XII.— War of the Revolution 
XIII.— War of the Revolution (Continued) . 
XIV. — War of the Revolution (Continued) . 
XV.— War of the Revolution (Continued) . 
XVI. — Early Lawyers, Courts, and Judges 
XVII. — Bench and Bar of Union Couuty 
XVIII.— Civil Organization .... 
XIX. — The Medical Professsion 
XX.— Press of Union County 
XXI.— Union County in the War of the Rebellion 
XXII. — Union County in the War of the Rebellion 

(Continued) ..... 
XXIII.— Union County in the War of the Rebell: 

XXIV. — Record of Union County Soldie 


XXV. — Township of Elizabethtown 
XXVI. — Borough of Elizabethtown . 
XXVII.— The City of Elizabeth . 
XXVIII.— City of Elizabeth (Continued) 
XXIX.— City of Elizabeth (Continued) 
XXX.— City of Elizabeth (Continued) 
XXXI.— City of Elizabeth (Continued) 
XXXII.— City of Elizabeth (Continued) 
XXXIII.— City of Rahway . 
XXXIV.— City of Rahway (Continued) 
XXXV.— City of Rahway (Continued) 
XXXVI.— City of Rahway (Continued) 
XXXVII.— City of Rahway (Continued) 
XXXVIII.— City of Rahway (Continued) 
XXXIX.— City of Rahway (Continued) 
XL.— City of Rahway (Continued) 
XLI.— City of Rahway (Continued) 
XLII.— City of Rahway (Continued) 
XLIII.— City of Rahway (Continued) 
XLIV.— Township of Plainfield 

1861 to 


XLV.— Township and City of "Plainfield . . 297 

XLVI.— Township and City of Plainfield (Continued) 302 

XLVII.— Township and City of Plainfield (Continued) 312 

XLVIII.— Township and City of Plainfield (Continued) 316 

XLIX.— Township of Westfield . . . .326 

L. — New Providence 344 

LI.— Springfield 562 

LII.— Union Township 37 " 

LIII.— Summit Township 3.' 

LIV.— Linden Township 3fl6 

LV.— Township of Cranford 40; 

LVI.— Clark Township 40' 

LVII.— Fanwood Township 41 



























































-Organization of Middlesex County . 

-A Brief Account of East Jersey 

-Clay District of Middlesex County . 

-Early Roads 

-The Partition Line between East and West 
Jersey . 

-Courts of Middlesex County 

-Middlesex County in the Revolution 

-Middlesex County in the Revolution (Con- 

-Middlesex County in the Revolution (Con- 

-Middlesex Men in the Revolutionary War. 

-Bench and Bar of Middlesex . 

—The Medical Profession in Middlesex 

—Medical Profession (Continued) 

-The Press of Middlesex County 

-Middlesex County Civil List 

—Middlesex County in the War of the Revo- 
lution ....... 

-Record of Middlesex County Men in the 
Civil War 

— Woodbridge 

-Woodbridge (Continued) 

—Woodbridge (Continued) 

—Woodbridge (Continued) 

—Woodbridge (Continued) 

—Woodbridge (Continued) 

—Woodbridge (Continued) 

— Piscataway 

— Piscataway (Continued) 

-Piscataway (Continued) 

-City of Perth Amboy 









^ ^"CXXVIL- 

our 'XXVIII.- 











-City of Perth Amboy (Continued) . . 608 

-City of Perth Amboy (Continued) . . 614 

-City of Perth Amboy (Continued) . . 61S 

-City of Perth Amboy (Continued) . . 621 

-City of Perth Amboy (Continued) . . 628 

-City of Perth Amboy (Continued) . . 631 

-City of Perth Amboy (Continued) . . 633 

-City of New Brunswick . . . .640 

-City of New Brunswick (Continued) . 650 

-City of New Brunswick (Continued) . 656 

■City of New Brunswick (Continued) . 675 


XCVir.— City of New Brunswick (Continued) . 711 

XCVIII.— North Brunswick 739 

XCIX.— East Brunswick . . . . .757 

C. — South Brunswick ..... 784 

CI.— Monroe 797 

CII.— Madison ...'.... 814 

cm.— South Amboy 822 

CIV.— Raritan Township 839 

CV.— Earitan Township (Continued) . . 842 

CVI.— Sayreville 852 

CVII.— Cranbury 862 



Adrain, G. B facing 507 

Allen, George W., Property of . . . between 394, 395 
Appleby, Leonard ...... facing 782 

Appleby, Leonard L. F between 782, 783 

Ayres, John R. 285 

Babcock, John F facing 530 

Baker, Aaron M " 3S7 

Baker, Henry "342 

Baker, James C. ..... . ** 384 

Barron, John C "584 

Bayles, William G "793 

Berry, W. H " 582 

Bigelow, A. B., Residence of ... . " 402 

Boice, Cornelius . . . . . . . .116 

Boiee, D. J facing 319 

Booream, Henry H. ..... . " 755 

Boynton's Drain-Pipe and Tile Works . . " 570 

Braut, William "376 

Brown, H. H " 821 

Brown, Jiimes M " 578 

Buckelew, James ...... '* 808 

Burnet, Aaron W between 378, 379 

Burnet, Daniel " 378, 379 

Chapman, James M. ..... facing 51(1 

Clark, A. H " S.ll 

Clark, Staats "736 

Clark, William, Sr " 328 

Clark, William, Jr " 330 

Conover, Garret ...... " 738 

Coriell, R. R " 321 

Coriell, William McD "326 

Coriell, William McD., Residence of . . " 309 

Cortelyou, Peter " 784 

Cory, Joseph "340 

Cory, L "334 

Crane, John "383 

Crane, M. B " 385 

Cruser, John S "796 

Cutter, Hampton " 580 

Cutter, J. C between 580, 581 

Cutter, W. H . " 580, 581 

Dally, Samuel 583 

Daly, John J facing 133 

Darby, Levi ....... " 414 

Dayton, Gen. Elias " 96 

De Forest, W. H., Residence of . . . " 388 

Denman, John 408 

Denman, John C 290 

De Voe, Isaac facing 781 

Disbrow, Andrew J. .... between 782, 783 
Disbrow, S. M. facing 526 

Doying. I. E., Residence of ... . facing 392 

Drake, Lewis " 129 

Dunham, D. B " 253 

Dunham, D. B., Works of ... . " 256 

Dunham, H. V 602 

Earl, William facing 382 

Elmer, John C. . ' " 128 

Essex Felting Mills "410 

j Excelsior Fire-Brick and Clay Works . between 584, 585 

Flatt, William H 286 

Freeman, John L facing 255 

Freeman, John L., Factory of 255 

French, Robert facing 341 

Hait, Seymour, Residence of ... . " 304 

i Hall, Alfred "638 

Headley, John S " 380 

Higgins, D. S. 3S6 

Hill, John B facing 672 

; Hough, D. C " 132 

' How, Henry K 756 

1 Howell, Martin A facing 655 

I Hutchinson, John T 387 

j Hyer, Lewis S. 141 

Jardine, Andrew facing 254 

Jardine & Co., Andrew, Factory of . . . . . 254 

Jobs, Eugene facing 125 

" 322 

" 126 


" 300 

" 757 

" 294 

" 256 

" 294 

" 416 

between 322, 323 

facing 415 

" 660 

Ijeveridge, (J. A 407 

Long, Dennis between 386, 3S7 

Lowry, Robert facing 307 

Lufbery, John H " 293 

Lufbery, Joseph " 293 

Magee, Joseph C " 812 

Magie, Edwin 385 

Male, Job facing 325 

Male, Job, Residence of .... . " 298 
Map, Outline, of Middlesex County . . . between 12, 13 
Map, Outline, of Union County . . . " 12, 13 

Marsh, S. C facing 401 

Maurer, Henry ..,.,, " 585 


Jones, Evan 
Kinch, Frederick A. 
Kirkner, J. . , , 
Kirkner, J., Residence of 
Kuhlthau, Philip . 
Laforge, Ira ' . 
Laforge, I. &. J., Works of 
Laforge, Joel . 
Lambert, John 
Latimer, Henry G. . 
Lee, Thomas 
Letson, Johnson 



Mersbon, William • facing 288 

Meyer, Christopher ..,,.. " 664 

Meyer Rubber Company . . . , . ** 662 

Miller, John "333 

Morrogh, Clifford T "522 

Munn, George B "737 

National Bank of New Jersey 672 

Neilson, John facing 468 

New Jersey Rubber Shoe Company ... " 657 

Norfolk and New Brunswick Hosiery Company " 658 

OgJen, John " 195 

Osborn, Corra " 124 

Osborn, Isaac "292 

Parkhurst, A. M " 343 

Paxton, John " 811 

Pierson, Oliver M " 338 

Pierson, Scjuier "336 

Pillory and Stocks 450 

Plainfield Academy 300 

Pope, E. R facing 323 

Porter, Lucius P "661 

Potter, C, Jr " 320 

Potter, Jotham 361 

Potter Printing-Press Works .... facing 318 

Randolph, Asa F "602 

Richards, John "374 

Rogers, E. Y 117 

Rowland, Andrew ...... facing 791 

Rowland, Stryker " 790 

Runyon, Mahlon " 674 

Ryno, D. K 295 

Salamander Works facing 562 

Savage, J. W " 2S7 

Scudder, I. F 

Seeley, E. A., Residence and Works of 
Smith, Samuel C. . . . . 
Snedeker, Thomas S. . . . 

Spader, Peter ..... 

Squier, William C 

St. John's Church, Elizabeth, 1850 . 


between 340, 341 

facing 413 

" 375 



" 289 

. 224- 

St. John's Church, Elizabeth, 1882 226 

St. John's Church, Elizabeth, Parsonage of, 1817 . . 225 

.St. John's Church, Elizabeth, Parsonage of . . . 222 

Stites, William facing 373 

Street, Robert 383 

Sutphen, John C facing 130 

Taylor & Bloodgood, Works of . . . . " 410 

Teller, Henry W. . ' "371 

Thompson, John " 524 

Thornal, Israel 851 

Titsworth, I. D 601 

Titsworth, R 134 

Townley, J 149 

Townley, Robert W. 

Tucker, M 

Tucker, William B. . 
Urmston, John .... 
Vanderventer, J. R. 
Voorhees, Abraham . 

Winans, E. P 

Winans, Job .... 
Winans, Jonathan, Jr. 
Withington, I. C. . 
Withington, I. C, Residence of 
Woodruff, Jonathan . 
Woodruff, Noah 





^Tiffraved e^ressly ioriJiislVofli 










Union County, although not organized under this 
name until the year 1857, embraces territory very 
anciently known and occupied by Europeans. That 
portion of it lying along the western shores of Achter 
Kull, or Newark Bay, was discovered, together with 
the North Riverandthe Bay of New York, by Henry 
Hudson and his companions in 1609. Hudson was 
an Englishman by birth, and previously to sailing 
upon this voyage had made two trips to America 
under the auspices of English merchants, with a de- 
sign of discovering a northwest passage to China and 
the Indies. Failing in these adventures, but not dis- 
couraged, although his former patrons refused tosupply 
him with a vessel for another voyage, he applied to 
the rivals of the T-glish, the Dutch East India Com- 
pany of the United Netherlands, by whcmi he was 
fitted out with a two-masted " Vlie-boat" of eighty 
tons burden, called the " Half-Moon." This adven- 
turous cralt, manned by twenty men, part of whom 
were Dutch and part English, anchored in Sandy 
Hook Bay on the 3d of September, l(i09. 

Three days later, on Sunday, September 6th, the 
eye of the adventurous stranger from the Old World 
first rested on the goodly spot afterwards chosen by 
the Elizabeth Town Associates as the site of the first 
colony planted in Union County. The discoverers 
were John Coleman and four others, whom Hudson 
had sent in a boat through the Narrows to explore 
the harbor, and who, alter finding "very good riding 
for ships, and a narrow river to the westward between 
two islands," which they entered and followed a dis- 
tance of " two leagues to an open sea," must have seen 
directly before them across that sea, which was New- 
ark Bay, the shores of that beautiful location chosen 
at a later time for the first English settlement in East 
Jersey. The journal of the voyage, kept by Juet, 
says, " The Lands were as pleasant with Grasse and 

Flowers and goodly Trees as any they had scene, and 
very sweet smells came from them." 

Coleman was slain the same day, on his return, by 
the treacherous arrow of a native,' and his body was 
buried on Sandy Hook, at a place which still bears 
the name of Coleman's Point. Probably these hos- 
tile savages were of a different tribe from those who 
met Hudson in so pleasant a manner at his first land- 
ing, whom the journalist describes as " Very glad of 
our comming, and brought greene Tabacco, and gaue 
vs of it for Kniues and Beads. They go in Deere 
skins loose, well dressed. They haue yellow C()p|)er. 
They desire Cloathes, and are very ciuill. They haue 
great store of Maiz or Indian Wheate, whereof they 
make good bread. The Countery is full of great and 
tall Oakes." 

The day following some of the crew landed, who 
"saw great store of Men, Women, and Children, who 
gaue them Tabacco at their comming on Land. So 
they went vp into the Woods, and saw great store of 
very goodly Oakes, and some Currants. One of them 
came aboord, and brought some dryed. Many others 
also came aboord, some in Mantles of Feathers, and 
some in Skinnes of divers sorts of good Furres. Some 
women also came with Henipe. They had red Cop- 
per Tabacco pipes, and other things of Copper they 
did weare about their neckes." ' 

Returning again through the Narrows, Hudson 
cast anchor on the 11th of September in the harbor 
of New York, " and saw it was a very good harbor lor 
all winds." His first landing appears to have been 
at a point about six miles up on the New York side. 

Having thus familiarized himself with the bays and 
inlets about Manhattan, he prepared next to explore 
the noble river which bears his name, and which he 
still hoped might be the long-sought passage to the 
Indies. With what feelings of joy this thought must 
have inspired him for a time, and how great must 
have been the disappointment when he found the 

L N. Y. Hist. toe. tol.,i. n5. 



river gradually growing less and less navigable, and 
saw before him the lofty mountain ranges among 
which it had its source! The precise point at which 
he terminated his voyage northward is not material, 
though it is believed that he stopped at a point in 
what is now the town of Half-Moon, in Saratoga 
County, some eight or ten miles above Albany.' He 
returned on the 2d of October, and in consequence of 
an attack from the Indiana at the head of Manhattan 
Island, " he bore gradually across the river, and an- 
chored in Weeliawken Cove, just above Castle Point.^ 
On the 4th, with fair weather and a northwest wind, 
be weighed anchor, passed through the Kills to Am- 
boy, and then stood out to sea." 

Occupation of New Netherland.— The report of 
Hudson's discovery on bis return to Holland created 
a great stir among the merchants. It had opened a 
new field for trade which they were eager not only 
to occupy, but to monopolize. In 1610, it appears 
that at least one ship was sent hither by the East 
India Company for the purpose of trading in furs, 
which it is well Ihiown continued for a number of 
years to be the principal object of commercial at- 
traction to this part of the New World. Five years 
after Hudson's voyage, a company of merchants, who 
had procured from the States-General of Holland a 
patent for an exclusive trade on Hudson River, had 
built forts and established trading-posts at New Am- 
sterdam (New York), Albany, and the mouth of the 
Rondout Kill. The latter was a small redoubt on the 
site of what is now a part of the city of Kingston, 
N. Y. It was known as the " Ronduit," from whence 
comes the name of Rondout.^ The fort near Albany 
was upon Castle Island, immediately below the present 
city, and the one at New York was erected on what 
is now the Battery. It was finished and occupied 
later than the others, on account of the hostility of 
the " fierce Manhattans," who were not disposed to 
allow the Dutch to gain possession of the island. On 
the expiration of the grant of the United Company 
of New Netherland, the States-General refused to 
renew it, but they continued to trade thither until 
1623 or 1624, when the Dutch West India Company, 
a powerful mercantile association chartered in 1621, 
took possession of the lands temporarily granted to 
their predecessors. In 1624, Peter Minuit was ap- 
pointed Director of New Netherlands, built Fort 
Amsterdam, and brought over colonists who settled on 
Long Island. Staten Island and Manhattan were 
purchased of the Indians, and up to 1629 the settle- 
ments were merely trading-posts. In that year the 
West India Company's Council granted to certain 
individuals extensive seigniories or tracts of land 
with feudal rights over the lives and persons of their 
subjects. Under this grant Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, 

1 He explored the river, according to his own account, a distance of 
fifty-three leagues from its month. 

2 Juefs Jouriml, N. Y. Hist. Coll., N. S., i. ;«1, quoted by Winfield. 

3 Biodhead's Hist. N. Y., vol. i. p. 7. 

a pearl-merchant of Amsterdam, secured in 1630 and 
subsequently a tract of land twenty-four by forty- 
eight miles in extent, composing the present counties 
of Albany, Rensselaer, and part of Columbia, and 
other wealthy patroons obtained large grants for sim- 
ilar seigniories in other portions of New Netherland. 

The Dutch at the same time were engaged in col- 
onization on the Delaware, which they called the 
South River, and regarded as a part of New Nether- 
land. This river had also been discovered by Henry 
Hudson, who sailed into it a short distance prior to 
entering New York Bay. The West India Company 
attempted to settle this portion of their colony as 
early as the portion on the North River, and to put it 
all under the governaient at New Amsterdam. In 
1623 the company dispatched a ship under the com- 
mand of Cornelius Jacobse Mey, with settlers fully 
provided with means of subsistence and with articles 
of trade. Mey entered the Delaware Bay, and gave 
his name to the northern cape, — Cape May. After 
exploring the river he landed, and effected a settle- 
ment below Camden, erecting For/ Nassau on a small 
stream called by the natives Sassackon. 

On the 12th of December, 1630, David Pieterson de 
Vries left the Texel in command of another vessel, 
and arrived on the Delaware in the course of the 
winter. He found none of the Europeans who had 
preceded him, and Fort Nassau had fallen into the 
hands of the Indians. Misfortune also awaited the 
new settlers. Having erected a fort, the commander 
returned to Holland ; and during his absence a feud 
arose with one of the native tribes which at length 
terminated in the massacre of every one of the col- 
onists. De Vries returned shortly afterwards with a 
new company, and was only saved from a similar fate 
by the kindness of an Indian woman. Disheartened 
by repeated disasters, the colony soon after abandoned 
the country, and for some years not a single European 
was left upon the shores of the Delaware. The Swedes 
next visited it, but into their history it is not our 
purpose here to enter. 

De Vries, having been driven from the Delaware, 
next turned his attention to the Hudson, where in 
a few years he became an influential patroon of New 

About 1640 he purchased of the Indians a tract 
of about five hundred acres at Tappan, to which he 
gave the name of " Vriesendael." " It was beautifully 
situated along the river-side, sheltered by high hills; 
and the fertile valley through which wound a stream, 
affording hand.some mill-seats, yielded hay enough 
spontaneously for two hundred head of cattle. Build- 
ings were soon erected, and Vriesendael became for 
several years the home of its energetic owner." 

The first attempt was made to plant a colony at 
Achter KuU, at the close of the year 1651. The policy 
of the Dutch government had been to encourage the 
settlement of colonies or manors similar to the lord- 
ships and seigniories of the Old World by men of 


large fortunes, known as patroons, to whom peculiar 
privileges both of trade and government were ac- 
corded. These manors were of great extent, and 
their proprietors were looked upon as an order of 
nobility, much like the old barons of the feudal 
period. The most desirable tracts, both on the North 
and South Rivers, had thus been colonized princi- 
pally by several shrewd and enterprising directors of 
the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Com- 
pany. The whole of the neck opposite New Amster- 
dam, as far as the Kills and Newark Bay, together 
with Staten Island, had been appropriated for years. 

Directly west of these colonies stretched for miles 
along the waters of Achter Kull, and the estuary to 
the west of Staten Island, one of the most inviting 
regions in all New Netherland. To this land was now 
directed the eager attention of the Hon. Cornells 
Van Werckhoven, one of the schepens of Utrecht, in 
Holland. He duly notified the Amsterdam Chamber 
of his intention to plant two colonies or manors in 
New Netherland. A commission was thereupon 
given to Augustine Heermans, of Bohemia, who had 
made New Amsterdam his home since the year 1633, 
and had become an influential and wealthy citizen, 
to purchase these lands from the natives. Accord- 
ingly Heermans negotiated with the resident pro- 
prietors, and purchased for Van Werckhoven the 
whole of the tract, extending from " the mouth of the 
Raritan Creek westerly up unto a creek, Mankack- 
kewachky, which runs northwest up into the country, 
and then from the Raritan Creek aforesaid northerly 
up along the river behind States Isle unto the creek, 
namely, from the Raritan Point, called Ouipoge,' unto 
Pechciesse, the aforesaid creek, and .so the said creek 
Pechciesse up to the very head of it, and from thence 
direct westerly thorowe the Land until it meets with 
the aforesaid Creek and Meadow Ground called Man- 
kackkewachky aforesaid." '' 

Possession was given, and the trees in each hook of 
thetract were marked with the initials of Werckhoven. 
The land thus described included the region west of 
Staten Island, irom the Raritan to the Pa-sair Rivers, 
and extended back into the country indefinitely.' 

Three other tracts, one to the south of the Raritan, 
and two on Long Island, were purchased lor the same 
good old Dutchman, with the hojje of large gains 
from each. But objection having been made on the 
part of other as greedy speculators against the ac- 
cumulation of so much territory in the hands of 
one owner, the case was referred to the Amsterdam 
Chamber, who decided that Van Werckhoven could 
retain but one of the tracts in question. He chose 
to locale himself on Long Island, and so commenced 
there the colony of New Utrecht, so named from his 
native city in Holland. The title to the land above 
described reverted, therefore, to the original owners.* 

..f I'Bith Alul.c.y. 

niallield's Eliziil.eth. 



The lands about Achter Kull and on the Raritan 
attracted the attention of people in New England 
j and on Long Island, and desiring to found an Eng- 
lish colony there, they applied to Governor Stuyve- 
j sant for a grant of land. The circumstances which 
j led to the application were these: Certain New Eiig- 
landers from the colony of New Haven, living on the 
poor and barren soil of Long Island, where they could 
scarcely gain a subsistence, were desirous of ex- 
changing their situation for the more promising lands 
of this section of New Jersey. They may also have 
been actuated by political reasons. Charles II. had 
been restored to the throne of England, May 29, 1660, 
and it was but natural that the people of New 
England, who under the Protectorate had enjoyed 
the utmost freedom in the administration of their 
civil affairs, should feel some misgiving as to the se- 
curity of their rights and liberties. They had, indeed, 
good reason to apprehend a serious conflict with the 
new government, and it was with extreme reluctance, 
especially on the part of the colonists of New Haven, 
among whom republican sentiments had been most 
fully developed, that they consented to proclaim the 
new monarch and to congratulate him on his acces- 
sion to the throne. It was at this time that the 
thoughts of the people of Connecticut began to turn 
to the more liberal Dutch government of New Neth- 
erland, and some of them, together with their friends 
who had crossed the Sound and settled on Long 
Island, began to negotiate with Governor Stuyvesant 
for lands at Achter Kull, on Newark Bay. The first 
of these was John Stricklan (Strickland), a resident 
of Huntingdon, on Long Island, who, in behalf of 
himself and a number of other New England people, 
addressed the following letters to Capt. Bryan New- 
ton, one of Governor Stuyvesant's Council, by whom 
they were duly presented to the director-general : 

"WoHTUT Sin: after my dm; respects presented vnto you these few 
lines ur to request a keiudness of you. taking you to be my fpetiaU 
frend, and know no other like yi.ur selff to intrtist in such a Ciise as 
tliis : the thing I dezier and som others with nie is tliis : tliat you woulde 
be pleai^ed to take the first and mostesutablenppertunity to speake with 
tlie lionered goueruor, diziring him to resolue you in these particulars 
fiist. wliitlier or no. tllat place vpon the mayne land which is called 
Arther Cull be Iree from any iugMgernents: secondly if free: then 
whither or no he will be plesed to grant it to a Company of honest men 
that may dezier to sit doune tlier to make a plautasion Ynder his gouer- 
nient and that you would be pleased hauing so done to return an answi r 
by the first, which we shall waight for, and hauing incorngement «.■ 
shall forthwith adres our selues to treat further with him ahoute the 
matter thus not doubting of your faithfullness herin I take leaue and 
rest yours to Commande 

"from Huntington february lo'h 1660. 

" lelt me iulreale you to send the answer to Samuwell Mathies at Kus- 
dorpe, that it maye be conveied to me in safety: and that you wonld(. 
be pleased that it may be kept secret houeuer it goe. 

"S' if you can n't convenience I would intreate you to^end me an 
answer by y« bearer of this, all convenient speeds being reijuisite." 



The second letter follows : 

"Worthy Sir: afler uiy due rpsppcts p'eented vnto you, these few 
lines ar t«i intieatea Courtesi of yon, tliat yon wouldelie pleeed toHpeake 
with ttie hollered gouerner, and lolde Ptenenson. to know of Iiim if that 
place which i» called Arther Coll he Iree to he disposed of. and whither 
or no he will j;ine iiicorngenieiit to a Company of the inglish nasion 
there to settle themselues, if vpun a vew made they shall lake satisfac- 
tion, and when yon know his n.inde lierin. that yon woulde he pleased 
to return me a few wonles in answer hy this hearer saniwell mathews, 
and accordingly "<y se'ff »'iih sum other frt-nds, whoe have an J that 
wajewill address our seines: I shall tniMde jou no fnrder at ]i'«aiit, 
bnt to intreate you to pardon my bowlduess and so rest yonr lotting 
fiend to coniand 

" JoUN Stikland from huntington Aprill 29: 1661." 

These letters were received by the director-general 
and Council of New Netherland at a very opportune 
time, for their High Mightinesses, the Dutch rulers, 
had decided upon the policy of inviting Republicans 
disaffected on account of the restoration of the Eng- 
lish monarchy, both in Old and New England, to 
come and settle in their dominions, where they could 
enjoy the utmost civil and religious freedom. In the 
spring of 1661 a proclamation was issued to "all 
Christian people of tender conscience, in England or 
elsewhere oppressed, to erect colonies anywhere 
within the jurisdiction of Petrus Stuyvesant, in the 
West Indies, between New England and Virginia, in 
America." A charter of " Conditions and Privileges'' 
of a very liberal character had been drawn up by the 
West India Company, and approved Feb. 14, 1661. 

On the 2d of June following Mr. Strickland received 
a favorable answer to his application, of which the 
following is a translation : 

"The preceding requests being delivered to Capt". Lieutenant Brian 
Niiton, and h.-ing by him coniniunicat'd to the Hoii"" Director Gen- 
eral and by liia Bxc"? delivereil to the Council, it is afler qnestii.n 
put resolved to give said Cap«. Lieutenant fnr Answei, that he nniy let 
the Petitioners know that they may freely c.nne to look at the indicated 
parcel of land, and if they like it, that fnrllier dispo-ilion wnuld then 
be hail on their application and proposal. This 2 June, 1661. "i 

In this same month of June the General Court of 
Connecticut instructed their Governor, John Win- 
throp, to proceed to England and procure from the 
king a charter for the colony, to include the whole 
territory " eastward to Plymouth line, northward to 
the limits of Massachusetts Colony, westward to the 
Bay of Delaware, and also the islands contiguous." 
The object of this was to include the whole of Con- 
necticut in one strong colony, under as liberal a 
charter as could be procured from the king; but the 
proposition excited in the colony of New Haven no 
little opposition and indignation, several of the magis- 
trates chosen under the charter declining to take the 
jjrescribed oath. It is not strange, therefore, that the 
liberal proposals of the Dutch government, just then 
made public, should have met with a warm reception 
in New Haven and the adjacent towns. A deputa- 
tion was sent to New Amsterdam to make further in- j 
quiry, and to ascertain the character of the lands to 1 
be settled. The situation proved more desirable than 

had been anticipated. The deputation was so " cour- 
teously entertained" and made so favorable a report 
of the country as to induce Benjamin Fennand Robert 
Treat, magistrates of Milford, Dr. Jasper Gunn, one 
of the deacons of the church of Milford, and Mr. 
Richard Law, one of the magistrates of Stamford, all 
of them of the New Haven jurisdiction, and originally 
from Weathersfield, on the Connecticut, to come 
down in November, 1661, with full powers to nego- 
tiate with Governor Stuyvesant for the settlement of 
a plantation in these parts, " within the limits of the 
company's jurisdiction behind Staten Island, about 
the Raritan River." 

This attempt to effect a settlement failed on account 
of one condition which the director-general and 
Council at New Amsterdam were unwilling to con- 
cede. The New Haven people wanted an absolutely 
independent community, with all the rights and 
privileges of self-government. Among the conditions 
insisted upon by them were liberty to gather a church 
in the Congregational way, such as they had enjoyed 
in New England about twenty years past ; the right of 
calling a Synod by the English Churches that might 
be gathered in New Netherland for the regulation of 
their ecclesiastical affairs; the right to admini.ster 
justice in civil matters within themselves by magis- 
trates of their own selection, without appeal to other 
authorities ; the purchase of the lands by the Dutch 
government from the natives, and a full conveyance 
thereof to the associates forever, none to be allowed 
to settle among them except by their own consent; 
the right to collect debts, and a written charter stip- 
ulating these rights in full.' 

All these conditions were freely granted by the 
director-general and Council, except the concession 
of self-government without appeal. This the Gov- 
ernor was unwilling to grant, as it would confer upon 
the proposed colony greater liberty than was enjoyed 
by the other towns and settlements of New Nether- 
land. The delegation insisting upon the fullest con- 
cession of popular rights, and the Governor firmly 
resisting the demand, the conference was broken off, 
but was renewed in March, 1662, with the same re- 
sult. The matter was then referred to the directors 
at Amsterdam, who reported March 26, 1663, saying 
they would have been pleased could the settlement 
have been made, inasmuch as it would "serve as a 
bulwark to our nation against the savages on the 
Raritan and Minisink." The chamber directed Stuy- 
vesant to insist on retaining appellate jurisdictiim in 
certain criminal cases, but to treat with the Eilglish 
on such terms as in his opinion were best adapted to 
promote the welfare of the State and its subjects. 
Although negotiations were resumed in June, 16(>3, 
it does not appear that any satisfactory result was ar- 
rived at so long as the country was under the jurls- 

1 Albany Records, ix. 639, 641-43. O'Oallagha 
ii. 446. 

■Netherland, ! 2 O'Callaglian, N. Noth., ii. 4478. Albany Records, ix 897. S99, 9117; : 
73, 77. Hatfield's Hist. Elizabeth, 24, 25. 



diction of the Dutch. Later in 1663 occurred the 
revolt against the Dutch government by the English 
people of Long Ishmd, who placed themselves under 
the jurisdiction of Connecticut. "Earlyin December 
a party of twenty Englishmen from Jamaica, Flush- 
ing, and Gravesend proceeded in Stofl'el Elsworth's 
sloop to tlie Raritan River, with the intention of pur- 
chasing a plantation from the Indians. But the de- 
sign wa.s frustrated by an armed party under com- 
mand of Capt. Kregier, sent out for the purpose by 
Governor Stuyvesant in the company's yacht."' 

No further attempts appear to have been made to 
settle this part of the country till after the English 
conquest of 1664. 

Events, however, had been shaping for several 
years which changed very materially the aspects of 
colonial aft'airs. Charles II. had for some time after 
his accession to the throne meditated the reduction 
of the American colonies to a state of immediate de- 
pendence on the crown and the extension of his 
power along the whole coast of North America. He 
was ready to embrace the opportunity, therefore, 
that might ofler for extending his jurisdiction over 
the coveted territory. "The Company of Royal Ad- 
venturers of England trading with Africa," more 
commonly known as " The Royal African Company," 
had just been chartered (Jan. 10, 1663), with the 
Duke of York as their president. They were nothing 
more nor less than slave-traders. In the prosecution 
of their nefarious traffic they had been greatly an- 
noyed and very seriously damaged by the powerful 
and monopolizing West India Company of the United 
Provinces. Early in the following year, therefore, 
an expedition was secretly sent out by the Royal Af- 
rican Company against the African possessions of the 
Dutch Company, the two countries being at peace.' 
In order the more successfully to compete with the 
Dutch and to cripple them in their rivalry, the duke 
sought and obtained from his royal brother, Charles 
II., March 22, 1664, a grant of Long Island, and of 
all the land from the west side of Connecticut River 
to the east side of Delaware Bay, the province of 
Sagadahock, in what is now the State of Maine, and 
the islands along the coast of New England, together 
with the right of government or sovereignty, thus 
including not only the Dutch province of New Neth- 
erland, but a large part of the territory given by 
royal patent less than two years previously to the 
colony of Connecticut. The duke, as lord high ad- 
miral, had control of the royal navy. An expedition 
was immediately fitted out, consisting of four ships 
of war, under command of Col. Richard Nicolls, a 
faithful adherent of the royal family, to whom the 
duke gave a commission to serve as his deputy gov- 
ernor within the whole grant. With him were asso- 
ciated also Sir Robert Carr, Knight, George Cart- 
wright, Esq., and Samuel Maverick, Esq., as royal 

1 IlatfieW's Hist. ElizabeUi, p. 26. Wliitelieacrs E. Jersey, p. 177. 
a Brodhead's New York, i. 735. 

commissioners to visit the colonies, with plenary 
powers to adjust disputes, appeals, and complaints of 
every description and provide for the public welfare, 
looking well, of course, to the rights of the crown. 

On Friday, 29th, the fleet cast anchor in 
the outer bay of New Amsterdam. The next day 
orders were sent for the surrender of Manhattan. 
After various negotiations, protracted through the 
following week, the terms of capitulation were agreed 
upon on Saturday, August 27th, and on the following 
Monday the Dutch authorities surrendered the town 
and fort to the English, who immediately took pos- 
session. New Amsterdam became New York, in 
honor of the duke, and Fort Amsterdam, Fort James. 
Nicolls was proclaimed deputy governor, and the 
people quietly submitted to the sway of the conquer- 
ors. A few weeks sufficed to bring the whole province 
of New Netherland into subjection, and to give the 
control of the whole coast, from Maine to the Caro 
linas, to the crown of Great Britain. 



The Patent Granted. — Immediately upon the as- 
sumption of the government by Col. Nicolls, the 
attention of those settlers who had several years be- 
fore sought a removal to Achter Kull, west of Staten 
Island, was directed again to this inviting region. An 
association was at once formed, and several of their 
number departed to go down to New York and se- 
cure of the Governor liberty to purchase and settle a 
plantation. Four weeks had scarcely elapsed since 
the surrender when we find them presenting the fol- 
lowing petition : 

"To the Right honour'^" Col. Kichnrd Nicliolls Esq' Governour of 
New-York, &c. The Hnriil.le peticon of us subscribed slieweth : 

"That severttl of us Yor Peticoners being Intended formerly to have- 
purcliased and setled a plantation upon y River called after-cull River 
before Yo' arival into these jiarts: our Intrntiuns, notwithstanding our 
making some way with tlie Indians Si Charges & Expences about th& 
premisses, was oliatrucled by the then Ruling Dutch. And some of ua 
by Reason of not having any Accommadali.ins here were |>ut upon 
thoughts of Removing into some other of his Majesti"^" Dominions: but 
now upon this Yo' happy arival and the Decease of the Duch Interest, 
we would Gladly proceed in the Design affores"*. In order whereunto, 
we make bold w"> all humility to petition to Yo' Hono' that you would 
Grant ns libei-ty to purchas and setle a parcel of land to Improve our 
labour ulwn on the River before mentioned, and some of us being Desti- 
tute of habitations where we are, we crave Your Answer with as much 
Expedition as may be. we humbly Take our leaves at Present and sub- 
scribe Yo' Hono" to command. 

'' John Bailies 
" Daniel Denton 
" from Jemaico commonly " Thomas Benydiek 

so called Sepl' 26, 1664. " Natlnin"' Denton 

"John Foster 
" Luke Watson." 

The application received the prompt attention of 
the new Governor, and the paper was presently re- 
turned with the following indorsement: 



"Upon Perusal of this PeticOn, I Do Consent unto the proposals and 
Shall Give the undertakers all Due Encouragement in so Good a work. 
Given under my hand in fort James, this 3()t'' of Septem' 1664. 


Having thus secured the Governor's warrant for 
their enterprise, " the undertakers" made speedy ar- 
rangements for a conference with the native owners 
of the soil. Capt. John Baker, of the city of New 
York, it is said, was employed as the English and 
Dutch interpreter, and one of the natives as the In- 
dian and Dutch interpreter. The conference was 
held at Staten Island, where the chief sagamores of 
the Indians then lived, and resulted satisfactorily to 
all the parties. A tract of land was purchased, for 
which the following deed was given: 

" This Indenture made The 28^^ Day of October In the Sixteenth Year 
of the Rt^iirn of our Soveraign Lord Charles By The Grace of God of 
England, Scotland, France, and Irefand, King Defender of the faith, &c. 
Between Mattano Manamowaouc and Cowesconien of Staten Island Of 
the one part and John Bayly, Daniel Denton, and Luke Watson of 
Jamaica In Long Island Husband Men on the other part Witnesseth Th&i 
the said MattHno Mauaniowaouc and Coescomen hath clearly Bargained 
and Sold to the said John Bayly, Daniel Denton, and Luke Watson, 
Their Associates their heirs and Execu" One parcel of Land bounded 
on the South By a River commonly called The Raritana River And on 
the East by the River vt"^ Parts Staten Island and The Main, and Tu 
Run Northward up after cull Bay. Till we come att the first River w^^ 
setts westward out of the said Bay aforesaid And To Run west Into the 
Countery Twice the Length as it Is Broad from the North to The South 
of the atoremenlioued Bounds, Together' with the Lands, Meadows, 
woods, waters, feilds, fenus, fishings, fowHngs, wt»» all and Singular the 
Appurtenances, w^t" All Gaines, Prufitts, and advantages arising upju 
the saiil Lands and all other the premisses and appurtenancfs To the 
Said John Bayly, Daniel Denton, and Luke Watson wtb Their Associ 
ates, w**! their and Every of their Heirs Kxecutors Admin" or Assignee 
for Ever To have and To /loM The said Lands with the Appurtenances To 
the said John Bayly, Daniel Denton, and Lnke Watson with their Asso- 
ciates their Execu" Assignes, Ami The said Mattauno Manomowaouc 
covenant proniise Grant and Agree To and w^^ the said John Bayly, 
Daniel Denton, and Luke Watson and their Associates their heira and 
Execu" To Keep them Safe in the Enjoyment of the Said Lands from 
all Expulsion and lucumbi-ances whatsoever may arise of the Said Land. 
By Any ptrson or persona By Reason of Any Title had or Growing be- 
fore the Date of these presents, for which Bargain, Sale, Covenants, 
Grants & Agreements on the behalf of the ad Matteno manamowouc 
and Conesconien to be performed, Observed and Done the fores'^ parties 
Are at tlieir Enttery upon the Said Laud To pay To the s'^ Matteno Man- 
amowouc and Conescoman, Twenty fathom of Trading Cloath, Two made 
Coats, Two Guns Two Kettles Ten Bars of Lead Twenty Handfuls of 
powder, And further the a^ John Baily Daniel Denton and Lnke watson 
Do Covenant Promise Grant and Agree to and with the s^ Mattano Man- 
amowoauc and Couescoman the fores'^ Indians four hundred fathom of 
white wampom after a Years Expiration from the Day of the said Juhn 
Bayly Daniel Denton and Lnke watson Entery upon y said Lands. In 
witness whereof we have hereunto put our hands and seals, the Day and 
Year afureaaid. 

"The Mark of Mattano 

" The Mark of Sewak herones N 

"The Mark of Warinanco -,....„^^,....,..,^,..,.^...^^ 

"Signed Sealed and Delivered iu the p'aenpe of us witnesses 

"Charles Horsley 
" Tlie Mark of 

"Randal R Hewett."2 

Having thus made, in good faith, of the native pro- 
prietors a fair and equitable purchase of the desired 

1 E. Town Book, B, oth. end, 14. E. Town Bill iu Chancery, 25. 

a E. Town Book, B., oth. end, 10-11. E. Town Bill in Chancery, pp. 
25-6. Ans. to do., p. 7. Grants, Concessions, Ac, pp. 669-671. The 
whole cost and charges were estimated by Secretary Bollen at more 
than £154. 

territory, and procured a carefully-worded deed of the 
said purchase, the Associates proceeded to submit the 
transaction to Governor Nicolls, from whom presently 
afterwards they obtained an official confirmation of 
their title by grant in due form, as follows : 

" To all To whom These p'sesents shall come, I Richard Nicolls Esq' 
Governour under his Royal Highness ye Duke of York of all bis Terri- 
tories In anieiica send Greeting Wheretis there is a parcel of Laud w^Mn 
my Government which hath Been purchased of Mattano Manamowaouc 
and Couesccomau of Staten Isbind By John Bayly Daniel Denton & Lnke 
watBon of Jemaico In Long Island for a Consideration Expreas'd In a 
Certain Deed of Indenture Bearing date the2Sth day of October Last, 
wherein the said paixel of Land was made over unto the said John Bayly 
Daniel Denton and Lnke watson and their Associates, their and Every of 
their heirs Execu" admin" or Assigns for Kver as In the said Deed, Re- 
liicOn being thereunto bad more fully and at Large Doth and may appear, 
Now To the End the said Lands may the sooner be planted Inhabited and 
manured I have thought fit to Give Confirme and Grant and by these 
p'sent Do Give Confiyne and Grant unto Cap* John Biiker of new Yorke. 
John Ogden of Norlh-hampton, John Baily and Luke watson of Jemaico 
on Long Island and their Associates thair heirs Execu" admin" and as- 
signs the said parcell of Land Bounded on the South By a River com- 
monly called the Raritans River — On the E-ist by y sea whcii jiartea 
Staten Island and the main, to Run northwards up after cull Bay Till 
you come to the first River weh sets westwards out of the S** Bay And 
To Run west Into the Countery Twice the Length of the Breadth thereof 
from the North to the South of the aforementioned Bounds. Together 
with all Lands, Meadows Pastures woods waters, feilds fenna fishings 
fowling with all and singular the appurtenances, with all Gaines Profits 
atid advantages arising or that shall arise upon thes^ Lands and premises 
To have and to hold the s<i Lands and appurtenances To the s^ Cap* John 
Baker, John Ogden John Bayly and Luke watson and their Associates 
their heirs Exec" admin" and assigns forever, Rendering and paying 
Yearly unto his R..yal Highness The Duke of Yorke or biaiissigns a cer- 
tain Rent according To the customary Rate of yo Countery for New Planta- 
tions and Doing and p'furming such Acts & Things us shall be appointed 
by his said Ro>'aI highness or his Deputy, and The sd Capt John Baker 
John Ogden John Bayly & Luke watson and Their Associates tlieii- heirs 
Execu" admin" and assigns are To Take Care and Charge of ye s** Lands 
and pfniisses That People he carrie<I thither with all convenient speed for 
the setting of plantacons thereon and that none have Liberiie so To Do 
without the Consent and Approbation of ye s* Cap* John Baker John 
Ogden John Bayly and Luke watson and Their Associates Except they 
shall neglect their Planting thereof according To The true Intent and 
meaning of These p^sents, and I Do Likewise promise and Grant that the 
persons so Inhabiting and planting the Lands and premises afors*! shall 
have Equal freedom Iniui unities ami privileges with any of hia Ma^i" sub- 
jeers In any of hiaCob.nys of America. And the sJ CapUohn Baker John 
Ogdeii John Baily and Luke watson and their Associates liaveLibertie to 
purchase of the Natives (or Olbere who have the proprietie thereof) aa 
farre us Snake lidl to the End and purposes afores^ — In wUnem wliereof I 
have hereunto set my hand and seal this first Day of Decenii«er in the 
sixteenth Year of the Reign of our Sovoraign Lord Charles The Second 
By the Grace of God King of England Scotland Fnince and Irreland 
Defender of the faith i&c. at fort James In New York on the Island of 

"Richard Nicolls."* 

At or about the same time Governor Nicolls drew 
up and published certain proposals by which property 
in lands might be acquired in any of the unoccupied 
territories of the Duke of York in America, as 
follows : 

"The Conditions for New Planters, in the Territories uf his Royal 
Highness tlie Duke of York. 

"The Purchases are to be made from the Indian Sachenia, and to be 
Recorded bt-fore the Governour. 

" The Purchasers are not to pay for their Liberty of Purchasing to the 

"The Purchasers are to Set out a Town and Inhabit together. 

"No Purchaser shall at any Time Contract for himself with any Sa- 

3 B. Town Book B., oth. end, pp. 11, 12. E. Town Bill in Chancery, p. 
6. Grants, Concessions, Ac, pp. U71-^ 



ctiem, without Consent of his Associates : or Special warrant from the 

"The Purchasers are free from all manner of Assessments or Rates 
five Yeiirs after their Town Piatt is Set ont, and when the five years are 
Expired, they shall only be LiaWe to tlie PuWick Rates anil payments, 
according to the Custonie of other InhaMtants both Eniilisii and Dutch. 

" .\11 Lands thus Purchased and Posses'd, shall Remain to the Pur- 
chasers and tlieir Heirs as free-lands to Dispose of as they Please. 

"In all Territories of his R.iyal Highness, lilieity of conscience is 
allowed; Provided such liberty is not Converted to licejitionsness or the 
Disturbance of Others in the exercise of the Protestant Relitnon. 

" The several Town-ships have liberty to make their I'articular Laws, 
and deciding all Small Causes within themselves. 

"The Lands which I intend shall he fir.t Planted, are those upon the 
west sitle of Hudsons River, at or adjoining to the Sopes. but if any 
Number of men sufficient for Two or Three or more Towns, shall desire 
to Plant upon any other Lands, they shall have all Due Encouragement 
Proportionable to tlieir Quality and undertakings, 

" Every Town-ship is Obliged to pay their Minister, according to such 
Agreement as they shall make with them, and No mati to refuse his 
Proportion, the minister being Elected by the Major Pait of the house- 
hold'". Inhabitants of the Town. 

" Every Town-ship hath the free Choice of all their Officers both 
Civill and military, and all men who shall take the oath of allegiance 
to his Majestie and are not Seivants or Day-laboui-ers, but are admitted 
to Enjoy a Town lott, are Esteemed free-men of the Jurisdiction, and 
cannot forfeit the same without Due Process in law." i 

These proposals were all that could be expected, 
emanating as they did from a court that was bitterly 
opposed to everything like democracy, exceedingly 
jealous of the power and privileges of the people, and 
so hostile to the Puritan party in the Church of Eng- 
land as to have driven more than two thousand non- 
conforming ministers into private life. They were 
regarded with peculiar favor by the new settlers in 
the duke's territories, and accepted as a liberal con- 
stitution for the planting of new towns and the 
organizing of new municipalities. 

Encouraged by the Governor's concessions, and 
furnished with every requisite document to establish 
their right and title beyond all doubt and contro- 
versy to the absolute proprietorship of their lands, 
the four purchasers from Long Island, with their as- 
sociates, took measures for a speedy and effective 
occupation of the fair domain thus lawfully and 
honorabl}' acquired. 

Settlement of the Patent. — The precise date of 
the occupation of the Elizabethtown purchase by the 
original proprietors is not on record. Mr. Hatfield is 
of the opinion, for various excellent reasons which he 
gives, that the settlement was actually commenced, 
ground broken, and something of a habitation at- 
tempted as early as Nov. 24, 166-1. 

The tradition that but four families were found in 
occupancy of the town so late as August, 166.5, grew 
out of the fact, most probably, that but four names 
are recorded as purchasers in Governor NicoUs' grant. 
It seems to have been erroneously supposed that these 
four were the sole proprietors of the purchase, whereas 
the Indian deed expressly conveys the land, as also 
does Nicolls' grant, to the associates of these grantees 

' E. Town Book, 1. ; 
p. 6C7. Smith's Histor; 
p. l:iO. 

. to E. T. Bill, p. 6. Grants and Concessions, 
r New Tork, i. 35-G. Mulford's New Jersey, 

as well.^ The whole transaction was a concerted en- 
terprise, thought of and talked over, and agreed upon 
by a considerable number of persons like-minded and 
of like origin, residents of the same neighborhood on 
Long Island. Denton, one of the projectors of the 
undertaking, writes, four or five years afterward, — 

" That the usual way is for a Company of a people to joyn together, 
either enough to nuike a Town or a lesser number; these go with the 
consent of the Governor, and view a Tract of Land, there being choice 
enough, and finding a place convenient for a Town, they return to the 
Governor, who upon theirdesire admits them into the Colony, and gives 
1 them a Grant or Patent for the said Land, for themselvesand Associates. 
These persons being thus qualified, settle the place, and take in what 
inhiihitants to themselves they shall see cause to admit of, till their Town 
be full." 

The settlement at first was a compact one, in ac- 
cordance with the plan which had been adopted in 
New England for mutual defense against the Indians, 
and which had been first applied in New Jersey in 
the establishment of the old town of Bergen in 1658. 
The object as set forth in the " Answer to the Eliza- 
beth Town Bill in Chancery," page 22, was as follows: 

" As the country at their first coming was inhabited by no other than 
the native Indians, who were then in great number's, the said purchasers 
and associates agreed at first to make small divisions of their lands, ac- 
cording to the usage and custom then in New England, to the end that 
they might settle and plant near together, so that in case any attempt 
was made by the Indians they might mutually aid and assist each 
other, the circumstances of the inhabitants at that day being so dan- 
gerous and troublesome that we, at this time, can have no adequate 
ideas of the hardships ot."^ 

The settlers of the first two or tliree years were 
mainly of one class, and of the same general origin, 
almost wholly New Englanders from Long Island 
and Connecticut. Very few of the planters for the 
first five years came over directly from the mother- 
country. This will appear from an examination of 
the names of these pioneers, recorded as early as 
February, 1666, and to be found on subsequent pages. 

Very soon after the commencement of their under- 
taking various meetings for consuliation and agree- 
ment in relation to the division or allotment of the 
lands, and other regulations for the orderly trans- 
action of the business of the town, were held, a 

2 Appended to the Indian Deed is the following recei|it: 
" Received of John Ogden in part of the above specified foure hundred 
feet of wampum I say Received one huudred fathom of wampum by 
mee the 18 of August lUBo. The mark of Mattano 

"Witnesses, Samuel Edsall, James Bollen." 
Indorsed on the deed is the following : 

"The 24 November, 16C5, paid to the Indians in full payment of this 

"In Wampum one hundred and ninety fathom 190 

lu a fowling piece and Lead 40 

for ISuGllders that was behind fur the payment of Luke^ 
Watson's oxen that were killed by the Indians V70 
seaventy fathom of Wampum f 

the sum of three hundred fathom 3(10 J^^Jj 

(Witnesses) The mark of Mattano 

Henry Creyk Warehiim 

John Dickeson Sewnh Herones 

Jereniiith Osbone Manamawaouc 

James Bollen Kawameeh 

— E. J. Rrcords, B. 181, 2, and i. 1, 2 ; ii. 12. Lutonewach." 

»Ans. to E.T.Bill, p. 22. 



record of which was made in a book provided for the 
purpose by one of their number, appointed to this 
service, and known as the town clerk. The char- 
acter of this Town Book and the nature of the 
record may be seen by reference to the Town Book of 
Newark, published in 1864 by the New Jersey His- 
torical Society. This book, so necessary for a proper 
understanding of the early history of the town, was 
safely kept, and records continued to be made in it 
until the year 1718, when, during the troubles of that 
period, the book disappeared, having been purloined 
or destroyed, or both, and has not since been forth- 
coming. The loss is irreparable. Extracts from 
this book have been preserved, the particularity of 
which deepens the regret felt at the loss of so much 
invaluable material. The earliest record of which 
we have now any knowledge is the following : 

"At a Meeting Court held »t Elizalieth Town in tlie Province of 
New Jersey, the I'Jtli of Fel>niarj' 1666, liy tlie B'reehuiaers and Inhab- 
itants thereof, James Bollen, Fsq.. President, by tlie approbation of the 
Governor Pliilip Carteret, E-q. ; it was conclnded and agreed that the 
aforesaid town shall consist of fourscore finiilies for the present, and 
that if hereafter more shall present, they may make an addrtion of 
twenty more, according; to their discretion for the good and benefit of 
the town [as to them] shall seeui fit. 

"A true copy from Klisabeth Town Book of Records, No. A,fo! 14, per 
"Samuel Whitehead, Town CferX:."t 

Another record of the same date has, in like man- 
ner, been rescued from oblivion : 

" It is further ordered and agreed, by the consent as aforesaid, that all 
persons that have taken, or shall take lots, shall come and settle and in- 
habit the same by Ihe tifteenlh day of April next, otherwise that the 
said lots shall be disposed of to any other person-* that will cnme and 
settle thereon, and that every person that shall take up a home-l(»t shall 
be obliged to continue nptui the same, or in the town, for the space of 
three years, either by himself in person or by his servants, or some other 
person that he shall bring into the town, that shall be approved of; and 
not to employ any for that purpose that are already belonp:ing to the 
town; and that lie shall not make any sale of the said lot for any time 
during the space of three years to come, but first shill make proffer to 
the inhabitants thereof October 28th, 1667, and it's fiirther ordered Tliat 
whosoever sliall break this order shall pay four pounds a month, and pro- 
portionately during the time of their so Entertainment." ^ 

A similar regulation was adopted by the Newark 
people in the following year.' Some division of the 
town plot into lots convenient for the settlers must 
have been made on their first coming. At this same 
meeting, or possibly at an earlier date, 

*' It was agreed. That small parcels of land should be laid out to every 
inhabitant wlio came, in part of what he was intitted to. To wit. To 
every iuliabitant in the Town Plat of Klizabetli TowTi a home lot con- 
taining about four acres, and a pittle or addition to it containing about 

Every settler, whatever proportion he may have 
contributed to the general expense, was put upon the 
same footing as regarded his homestead, the only dif- 
ference being in the choice of a location, and this, 
probably, was determined, as at Newark, by lot. 

1 E. Town Bill, p. 32. Ans. to do., p. 23. 

2 E. Town Bill, p. 32. Ans. to E. T. B., p. 24. 

3 Newark Town Records, p. 6. 
< K. Town Bill, p. :«. 

"They agreed amongst themselves to go over and fix the Lotts, which 
was before by the whole Committee agreed ujnin to be Six acre-, and 
after the Lotts prepared, and how tlo-y should begin and Succeed, the 
matter was solemnly submitted to the L«ird fur iiis Guidance."^ 

The lots were laid out on both sides of the creek, 
beginning with the first upland above the salt mead- 
ows, and extending up the creek some two miles. 
The ordinary dimensions of these lots were four 
chains in breadth and ten chains in length, making a 
front on the street of two hundred and sixty-four 
feet, and extending back six hundred and sixty feet. 
In some cases, owing to the irregular course of the 
river and highways, the shape of the lots, which was 
ordinarily a parallelogram, varied from the regular 
form and size, but, as well as might be, equal priv- 
ileges were secured. Owing to the indefiniteness of 
the surveys as recorded, and for want of everything 
like a map or diagram of the town plat, it is quite 
impossible to determine the locality of each settler. 

At the town-meeting just mentioned the male in- 
habitants of the town were required to take the oath 
of allegiance, of which and the names subscribed a 
record has been preserved, as follows: 

"The Oath of A Leagance and Fidelity taken by the Inhabitants of 

Elizabeth Town and the Jurisdiction thereof beginning the 19th Feb- 
ruary 1665. 

" You doe sware upon the Holy Evangelist contained in this book to 
bare true faith and Alegiance to our Soveraing Lord King Charles the 

Second and his Successors and to be true and faitlifiill to the Lords 

propryetors their Successors and the Government of tiiis Province of 
New Jersey as long as you sllall Continue a[i I>ihabitaut under tlie same 

without any Equivocation or Mental! Resei'vatiou whatsoever and so 
help you God. 

"Mr. J.din Ogden sen' William OHner 

Capt Tlicmas Young Humphry Spinage 

Michaell Simpkins Josepli phrasie 

Abraham Shotwell Zackery Graues 

Thomas Skillmau Peter Woolnerson 

John Woodrofo Charles Tucker 

Thomas Leonards Benjamin Honian 

Jonas Wood Jefiry Joaiies 

Jacob Clais Christopher Yonng 

Riidi'ick Powell Jerreniy 03b<mrue 

Luke Watson John Dickenson 

Stephen Crane Dennis denis White 

Joakini Audris Jolin Ogdeu Jun' 

Jolin Waynes Waynes Dauid Ogdden 

Jacob Moullains Robert Vauqiiellin 

William Johnson Benjamin Price 

John Gray Ben. Concklin 

Nic<da8 Carter Robert Bond 

Tliomas Pope Joseph Bond 

William Cramer Moses Tonison 

Bariiaitaa Wines Ji>sepli Osburne 

Thomas TomsuQ John Bracketl sen' 

Nathaniel Tuttle William Meacker 

Robert Mosse Isaack Whiteliead 

Peter Mosse Nathaniel Bunnell 

William Trotter Matbias Heatlifield 

Euan Salsbury Jonathan Ogden 

George Packe Leonard Headley 

Thr.mas More John Parker 

Samuel Marsh Daniel Harris 

Moses Peterson Richard Paynter 

Ji>Iin Hay nee Francis Barber"* 
Caleb Carwithy 

> Newark Towd Records 

^ E. J. Rpcurds, iii. other end, 7. 



The whole number is sixty-five. Oapt. John 
Baker's name is wanting, on account of his absence 
in the service of Governor Nicolls, at Albany. Some 
names are found in this list not included in the list 
of Associates. They were the names, probably, of 
temporary residents employed as laborers or helpers. 
Baily and Denton had sold out; the former to Car- 
teret, and the hitter to Ogdeu. 

The most reliable statement of the names of the 
original Associates is found in Elizabeth Town Book 
B, some fifty years after the settlement of the towu, 
and is thus expressed : 

" Ru'tiard Nicolls, I>y virtue of the Power and Authority vested in him 
by . . . James (llieii) Dulie of York &c Did thereby Grant Bargain Sell 
and Conlirin unto Cap' John Balier (then) of New York, John Ogden 
(thenjof Nortli-Hnnipton.and . . . Jolin Baily and Luke Watson, and 
their Associates the Premises afores"* — In ffee-simple, which same Asso- 
ciates (together with them the s't Baker, Ogden, Baily, and Watson 
equally seised each to a Third Lot Right in pmi^ses) were, the said John 
Baker, John Ogden, Ju« Ba ly, and Lnke Watson, and with them Thomas 
Young, Benjamin Price, John W.iodruff. Pliilip i arteret, Two Third 
lotts, Robert Boiid, Sealy Champain l TransferM to Benjamin Parkhuist) 
William Meeker, Thomas Tliompsiin, Samuel Marsh, Town Lott for the 
Minister Will" Piles, Peter Couenhoven, John Brock, t (Trausfer'd to 
Sitm^ Hopkins). James Btdlen, Jacob M'-lyen, Nicholas Carter, and Jere- 
miah Peck. And, To each a Second Lot-liighl in the same Premisses, 
Isiiac Whitehead, Joseph Meeker, Humphry Spinning, Jeoffry Jones. 
George Boss, .loeeph Bond, Matthias H.tfield, Barnabas Winds, Robert 
White, Peter Morss, John Winans, Joseph Sayre, Ricliard Beach, Mosee 
Thompson, John Gray, William Jolmson, John Brocket Ju', Simon 
Rouse, William Trotter, Jolin Ogden Jun', Jonas Wood, R..bert Mores. 

M' Leprary, Caleb Cam ithe, William Pardon, and Stephen flsborne. 

A7id to each a flrst lot Right in the same Premises, Jonathan Ogden, 
Abraham Shotwell, David Ogden, Nathaniel Tuttle, Benjamin Piice Ju', 
Roger Lambert, Aliraham Lawrence, John Hindes, Thomas Moor, Joseph 
ffraley, Yokam Andro»s. Denis While, Nathanavl Norton (since Trans- 
fer'd to Henry Norris), Great John Willsoii, Hur Thompson, Benjamin 
Oman, Evan Salsbuny, Little John Willson, Stephen Crane, Henry Lyon, 
John Parker, John Ogden for John Dickinson, Leonard Headley, Na- 
thanael Bonnel, Gecnge Morris, Joseph Osborn, I'ardey (Transfer'd to 
Henry Sorris), George Pack, John Pope, ffrancis Barber, William Oliver, 
Richard Painter, and Charles Tooker." ' 

The number is eighty, of whom twenty-one had 
third lot-rights, twenty-six had second lot-rights, and 
thirty-three had lot-rights. Carteret had, in 
addition ttj his own third lot-right, the third lot-right 
of Baily, of whom he had purchased it. Twenty-six 
had been admitted subsequently to the taking of the 
oath of allegiance in February, 1666, of whom some 
were sons of the first settlers. 

Carteret brought over with him in the ship " Philip" 
eighteen male servants, belonging to Sir George and 
himself, a portion of whom were Frenchmen, proba- 
bly from the Island of .Jersey : 

"John Dejardiii 

John Tavler. 

Doct' Rowland. 

Jolin t'larck. 

Claude Vallot. 

Wm. . 

Bichi Pewtinger. 

Claude Barbour. 

Richard Michell. 

Chas. Seggin. 

Richard Skinner. 

Dan Perrin. 

Wm Hill. 

John Mitlins. 

Henry Hill. 

Robert Wallis. 

Erasmus House. 

John alias Peti-r. 

besides severall others 


same tin, 

s imported, and many othei-B since. 

I E. Town Book 


pp. 2, 3. 

2 K.J. Keronla, Hi. 0. e. 30. 

In the first importation must have been included 
some female servants, — Mariah Thorell, Susannah 
Poulain, and Ellen Prou (all French) being of the 
number. Of the male servants, two were subsequently 
admitted as Associates, Claude Vallot and William 
Hill. Richard Michell had land given him by the 
Governor, but was not admitted as an Associate.' 



The following sketches of the original petitioners, 
of the other patentees, and of the eighty Associates of 
Elizabeth Town have been condensed from Mr. Hat- 
field's notices of them in his " History of Elizabeth" : 

The Original Petitioners. — John Strickland's 
name occupies the first place among those who 
sought here a home. He was, as already seen, a 
resident of Huntington, L. I. His application was 
in behalf of " a Company of the inglish na.sion." He 
was simply their agent. The names of the "Com- 
pany" have not been preserved. Strickland was an 
Englishman. He came over in 1630 with Win- 
throp's company, and was admitted a freeman in the 
Bay Colony May, 1631. He was a member of the 
church of Watertown, Mass., from which he, Jonas 
Wood, and others were dismissed May 29, 1635, to 
form a new church on the borders of the Connecti- 
cut River. Soon after he removed to Wethersfield, 
Conn. His son Thwait settled there, but the father, 
after a short sojourn, removed to Uncowah (Fairfield), 
Conn. Subsequently he took part in a bloody fight at 
Greenwich between the Dutch and Indians, at a spot, 
since known as " Strickland's Plain." In 1644 he 
sold his estate at Uncowah to William Frost, and 
united with the Rev. Robert Fordham, John Ogden, 
John Karman, John Lawrence, and Jonas Wood in 
settling on " the Great Plains on Long Island," to 
which they gave the name of Heemstede. In the 
patent obtained Nov. 16, 1644, he is called "Stick- 
Ian." In 1661 it appears that he resided at Hunting- 
ton, whence he sought to remove to this place. He 
was induced, however, to settle at Jamaica, L. I., and 
in 1663 was one of the freeholders of that town. Yet 
he was a patentee of Huntington in 1666, and still 
later a resident of Hempstead. The names of at 
least four of his associates at Fairfield and Hempstead 
are found among the Elizabeth Town Associates. It 
is quite likely that they were interested in the peti- 
tion of 1661. The petitioners of 1664 were all of them 
his neighbors at Jamaica, as some of them had been 
at Watertown, Wethersfield, Fairfield, and Hemp- 

» HatHeld's Elizabeth. 

* Trumbull's Connecticut, i. 163-64. Brodhead's N. York, I. 391, note. 
Ct. Col. Records, i. 2, 465-66. Thompson's L. Isld., ii. 4-5. Macdonald's 
Jamaica, p. 38 



John Bailies (Baylie, Baily), the first signer of the 
petition of 1664, was probably the same who resided 
at Guilford, Conn., in 1642. A John Baily was ad- 
mitted a freeman of Connecticut May 21, 1657, and 
was chosen constable at Hartford March 16, 1657. 
This may have been his son. Previous to 1562 he 
had removed to Jamaica, L. I., where he was famil- 
iarly called "Goodman Baylie," and was licensed to 
keep an ordinary for the town. He was one of the 
four patentees of this town, but probably did not be- 
come a resident, as he disposed of his interest here 
Sept. 8, 1665, to Gov. Carteret for "a valuable sum." 
He was still living at Jamaica in 1683.' 

Daniel Denton, the next in order of the petitioners 
of 1664, and his brother Nathaniel, the fourth in order, 
were sons of the Rev. Richard Denton, " a Yorkshire 
man," first setlled at Halifax, in England, who came to 
Watertown, Mass., in 1634, then to Wethersfield,Conn., 
in 1635, whence he removed to Stamford in 1641, and 
thence to Hempstead, L. I., in 1644, having been the 
first minister of each of the last three towns. He re- 
turned to England in 1658, and died in 1662 at Essex. 
His two sons, Daniel and Nathaniel, were among the 
first patentees of Jamaica, L. I., in 1656. Daniel was 
the first clerk of the town, taught school, practiced 
medicine, and served as justice of tlie peace. He 
wrote "A Brief Description of New York," which 
was published in London in 1670, and was the first 
printed work on the subject in the English language. 
In 1673 he was a resident of Piscataway and a magis- 
trate. Nathaniel continued at Jamaica, and was liv- 
ing in 1683. The two brothers sold their rights in the 
Elizabeth Town purchase in 1665 to Capt. John Baker 
and John Ogden. Another brother, Samuel, was also 
interested in the purchase.^ 

Thomas Benedict (Benydick), the third of the pe- 
titioners of 1664, was a native of Nottingham, Eng., 
where he was born in the year 1617. He was bred a 
weaver, and migrated to New England in 1638, with 
his step-sister, Mary Bridgum, whom, shortly after, 
he married. She was the mother of the numerous 
American family of Benedicts. Not long afterwards 
they removed to Southold, L. I., where their five sons 
and four daughters were born. In June, 1656, they 
were residents of Huntington, L. I., and were neigh- 
bors of the Stricklands. In 1662, "Goodman Bene- 
dick" was one of the leading men of Jamaica. With 
Daniel Denton, his townsman, he represented Jamaica 
in the Hempstead Convention, March 1, 1665. Tlie 
same year, instead of carrying out his original design 
of removing with his neighbors to Achter Kull, he 
became a resident of Norwalk, Conn., which hence- 
forth became the home of the family.' 

1 III., 11. X3. Coiiii. Cell. Eecords, i. 297, 326. Tliomiison's L. I., i. 408. 
N. V. I)oc. History, ii. 621. 

2 MiicdoriaM'e JaniHicii. p. 46. N. Y. Col. Docmts., ii. 687. Cliapin's 
Glimlenliuiy, |i. m. MaUler's Magnalia, B. III. c. 9. vol. i. 360. N. Y. 

John Foster, the fifth of the petitioners of 1664, 
was a resident of Jamaica. His father, Thomas, was 
of the Hempstead company, whither he came from 
Fairfield, Conn., as early as 1644. The family were 
dwelling at Jamaica in 1663. Foster was still a citi- 
zen of Jamaica in 1688. His interest in the new 
purchase was disposed of to another, but to whom 
and for what cause does not appear.' 

Luke Watson, the last named of the petitioners of 
1664, was the only one of them all that retained an 
interest in the Jersey enterprise, and became one of 
the founders of this town. His father married Eliza- 
beth, the daughter of William Frost, of Fairfield, 
Conn., and had died before 1645. His widow was 
then married to John Gray, and with her husband 
and son, Luke Watson, removed first to Newtown, 
and then to Jamaica, L. I., whence they came hither. 
Watson was a man of some consideration at Jamaica, 
being one of the " four men" chosen, Aug. 6, 1659, 
" to be presented for magistrates to y' governor." 
He was among the first emigrants to this place. He 
was located next north of Capt. Baker. He had an 
allotment of 170 acres of upland on the W. side of 
Railway River, and N. of its W. Branch; also 130 
acres of upland on the E. N. E. of Rahway River, 
and W. of William Johnson and Jefl'ry Jones; also 
100 acres on the S. side of the creek ; also 24 acres 
of meadow on Rahway River, and 6 acres elsewhere. 
His wife's name was Sarah. He sold, July 22, 1673, 
to " William Case of Road Island," for " 2000 Pounds 
of good and Merchantable Sheep Wool," all his " Neck 
of Upland and Meadow laying and being on the East 
End of Elizabeth Towne River and known by the 
Name of Luke Watson's point within the bounds 
of Elizabeth Towne," computed to be 100 acres. He 
obtained, Jan. 21, 1675, a warrant for the survey of 
400 acres. The next year he removed to the Hoar- 
kill settlement (Lewes), in Delaware, renting his 
house and lot to Benjamin Wade, to whom he sold 
them, March 16, 1677, for £24. The remainder of 
his interest here he sold, in 1678, to William Broad- 
well and Joseph Frazey. He was an active and use- 
ful citizen, and in 1683, 1687, 1689, and 1690 he was 
a member of the General Assembly of Pennsylvania, 
of which his son, Luke, Jr., was a member in 1697.^ 

Such were the original petitioners, all of them 
originally from New England, and in full sympathy 
with the prevailing sentiments of that region. Two 
of them only, Bailey and Watson, became patentees, 
and of these only one a settler, and he but for ten 
or eleven years. 

Other Patentees. — The other patentees were Capt. 
John Baker and John Ogden. 

Capt. John Baker heads the list. He had been for 
some time a resident of New Amsterdam, though an 

Doc. Hii 

> HaU's .V.inviilk, pp. 309-11. 

* Macdonalil's Jamaica, pp. 33, 38, 41, 42, 242. Conn. Col. Bocords, i. 
466. E. J. Records, ii. 17, 95, and 10 o. e. 

6 Conn. Col. Kecurds, i. 46.1. Macdonnld's Jamaica, pp. 32, 37, 46. 
Proud's Pa., i. 236, :«6, 340, 362, 417. 



Englishman l)y birth, and had acquired a familiarity 
with the Dutch language that made him on several 
occasions useful as an interpreter in dealing with the 
Indians. It is probable, as previously intimated, that 
he was thus employed by Denton and his associates 
in the Staten Island negotiations for this town, and 
so became interested in the enterprise. The earliest 
definite information of him is found in the records 
(Dutch) of a court held at the city hall, New Orange 
(New York), Nov. 14, 1673, in an action against Capt. 
John Baker: 

"Jan Sraedes and Jan Mynderat-n, Carters declare that about nine 
years ag<» shnrtly after the surrender of this place [1664], they rode 3U0 
p's of firewood out of the bush for Clae'* Dietlofson, and afterwards 
brouglit the same firewood to Capt Baclter's house witliiu this oily, and 
tlie liill for carting has not yet been paid them by said Baclier as they 
are prepared to declare oi oath. Capt. Baclter resided in Broadway in 
the house now occupied by Willem Van der Scheure [Schuyren]." 

As Capt. Baker belonged, in 1673, to another juris- 
diction, Ciaes probably gained nothing by the suit. 
The house that he occupied in Broadway was on the 
east side, a short distance below Wall Street. After 
the conquest of the city Governor Nicolls appointed 
him, Sept. 25, 1665, chief military officer at Albany- 
On this account his name is not included among those 
who took the oath of allegiance here in February 
following. In August, 1669, he was subjected to a 
court-martial at Fort James, New York, for an assault 
on William Paterson, a merchant of Albany, and 
judgment was rendered against him Oct. 6, 1669. 
He continued in command at Albany until May 14, 
1670, from which time he became permanently a 
resident of this town. His house-lot was of the 
ordinary size, bounded S., E., and W. by the high- 
ways, and N. by Luke Watson. Afterwards it came 
into the jjossession of Matthias Hatfield, Esq., the 
grandson of the planter of that name. He obtained, 
March 14, 1675, a warrant for the survey of 1200 
acres for " himself and his Wife and eight other 
Persons" of his family. He was appointed coroner 
March 28, 1683, and judge of small causes. He 
was a leading man in the community, and ever 
among the foremost in resisting the proprietary as- 
sumptions. He died in 1702.' 

John Ogden, the other patentee, who became a per- 
manent resident, was one of the most influential 
founders of the town. He was at Stamford, Conn., 
in 1641, within a year after its settlement. He had 
previously married Jane, who, as tradition reports, 
was a sister of Robert Bond. In May, 1642, he and his 
brother Richard, both of them, at the time, of Stam- 
ford, entered into a contract with Governor William 
Kieft, Gisbert op Dyck, and Thoma.s Willett, of New 
Amsterdam, church-wardens, to build a stone church 
in the fort, 72 by 50 feet, for the sum of 2500 guilders 
($1000), to be paid in beaver, cash, or merchandise, 

1 Munsell's Albany, vii. 98, 101, 257, 259, 263. Alb. Records, xxii. 78- 
94. N. Y. Col. DocnilB., iii. 117, 119, 14:i, 148. E. J. Records, i. 76; ii. 
18 ; B. 239 ; 0. 13, 19 ; L. 3 ; 0. 88. E. T. Book, B. 163. E. T. Bill, p. 

one hundred guilders to be added if the work proved 
satisfactory, and the use of the company's boat to be 
given the builders for carrying stone a month or six 
weeks if necessary. The work was duly and satisfac- 
torily completed.'^ 

It was probably in this way that the two brothers 
became acquainted with the west end of Long Island. 
Early in 1644, in company with the Rev. Robert Ford- 
ham, Rev. Richard Denton, and a few others, they re- 
moved from Stamford and settled at Hempstead, L. I., 
of which John Ogden was one of the patentees. At 
the expiration of five or six years, not liking the con- 
trol of the Dutch, with whom he had considerable 
dealings at New Amsterdam, and disgusted with the 
cruelties practiced upon the natives, of whom scores, 
soon after his settlement at Hempstead, had there, by 
order of the government, been put to death, he re- 
moved to the east end of the island to dwell among 
his own countrymen. In 1647 he had obtained per- 
mission of the town of Southampton to plant a col- 
ony of six families at " North Sea," a tract of land 
bordering on the Great Peconic Bay, opposite Rob- 
bin Island, about three miles north of the village of 
Southampton. Some two or three years elapsed be- 
fore his removal and the planting of the settlement 
at the North Sea, called, in the colonial records of 
Connecticut and New Haven, as well as in Nicolls' 
grant, " Northampton." 

He was made a freeman of Southampton March 
31, 1650, and was chosen by the General Court at 
Hartford, Conn., May 16, 1656, and again in 1657 
and 1658, one of the magistrates for the colony. He 
sat in the General Court as a representative from 
Southampton in May, 1659, and in the Upper House 
May, 1661, and afterwards. His name appears re- 
peatedly in the new charter of Connecticut (obtained 
April 23, 1662, by Governor Winthrop from Charles 
II.) as one of the magistrates and patentees of the 
colony, also quite frequently in the records both of 
Connecticut and New Haven. He was held in high 
honor at home, being one of their first men. 

During his residence at Northampton, Ogden, by 
frequent visits as a trader to New Amsterdam, had 
kept up his acquaintance with his old friends and 
neighbors on the west end of the island. When, 
therefore, after the conquest, it was proposed to him 
to commence a fourth settlement in the new and in- 
viting region of Achter Kull under English rule, he 
readily entered into the measure, and, in company 
with his old friend, Capt. Baker, purchased the inter- 
ests of the Dentons and Goodman Benedict, and thus 
became, being a man of substance and distinction, 
the leading man of the new colony. He was among 
the very first, with his five full-grown boj's, John, 
Jonathan, David, Joseph, and Benjamin, to remove 
to the new purchase and erect a dwelling on the 

2 Hinman's First Puritan Settlers of Conn., i. 232. All>. Col. Records, 
ii.l8, 169; iv. 2411. O'Callaghau's New Netherland, i. 162. Thompson's 
L. Isld., ii. 4, 5. Tlie name appears at times as " Odgden," " Ochden." 



town-plot. He located his house, it is thought, on 
the Point road, now Elizabeth Avenue, near where 
Robert Ogden, his great-grandson, and Col. Barber 
afterwards lived. The bounds of his home-lot are 
not recorded. 

He was appointed, Oct. 26, 1665, a justice of the 
peace, and, Nov. 1st, one of the Governor's Council. 
In the Legislature of 1668 he was one of the bur- 
gesses from this town. To carry forward his im- 
provements, or to meet previous obligations, he bor- 
rowed, Oct. 9, 1668, of Cornelius Steenwick (the 
mayor of the City of New York, a wealthy mer- 
chant) £191 5s. Orf., "one fourth part thereof to be 
paid in good Wheat at 4/6 p' Bushell one fourth part 
in good drie Ox hides at 6 stivers p' pound dutch 
weight One fourth part in good merchantable To- 
bacco at 4 stivers p' pound like weight and one fourth 
part in Good Corn fed fat Pork well packt in casks 
and delivered at New Yorke at Three Pounds ten 
Shillings p' Barrell." As security he mortgaged, 
April 29, 1669, " a Certain Water Mill now in my 
Tenure or Occupation," as the mortgage expresses it, 
" near unto the Mansion or Dwelling House of Gov. 
Carterett in Elizabeth Towne." 

This mill was located immediately west of the 
Broad Street stone bridge, and, with the dam across 
the creek just above, was, doubtless, constructed by 
Mr. Ogden, whence the creek was frequently called 
" Mill Creek," or " Mill River." The Governor's 
house was located east of the bridge and north of 
the creek, on the ground latterly occupied by the 
Thomas house. 

Three of his sons, John, Jonathan, and David, 
took the oath of allegiance February, 1666, and were 
numbered among the original Associates. The house- 
lot of John, Jr., contained four acres, and was twelve 
by four chains in length and breadth, bounded S. 
E. by John Woodruff and Leonard Headley, N. E. 
by a highway, N. W. by Mrs. Hopkins, Sr., and S. 
W. by the creek, a highway between him and Mrs. 
Hopkins. He had also twelve acres of " upland 
Lying upon the way that goes to the Governor's 
point," also sixty acres of " upland Lying in the 
plaines" between Henry Norris and Leonard Head- 
ley, also nine acres of " meadow Lying at the east 
end of y' great Island." Jonathan had a house-lot 
of six acres fifteen by four chains, bounded S. E. 
by his younger brother Joseph, and on the other 
sides by highways. He had twenty-two acres of 
upland in a triangle, bounded by the Governor and 
Benjamin Parkis; also eighty-four acres of upland 
" Lying in a plaine," bounded by Benjamin Parkis, 
Leonard Headley, Isaac Whitehead, Jr., and the Mill 
Brook, also fourteen acres of meadow in two plots 
on the creek and on the great island. David's house- 
lot contained five acres, and was bounded east by the 
Mill Creek, north by Jeffry Jones, and west and 
south by highways. He had, in addition, sixty acres 
of upland, bounded by Joseph Frazee, William Letts, 

Samuel Marsh, Jr., and Capt. Baker, also eight acres 
of meadow on Thompson's Creek.' 

The Eighty Associates.— Such, as just narrated, 
were the original petitioners and patentees. Who 
were the other founders of the town ? What was their 
origin, what were their principles, and where did they 
locate ? In answering these inquiries, those who took 
the oath of allegiance, including all who were on the 
ground during the first year of the settlement, will be 
considered in alphabetical order. 

Joakim Andris (Yokam Andross, Andrews) was 
probably from New Haven, Conn., and a son of Wil- 
liam Andrews, who came to New Haven previous to 
1643 with a family of eight persons. His house-lot 
contained 4 acres, and was bounded N. and E. by a 
highway, S. by Matthias Hatfield, and W. by Dennis 
White. He had died in 1675, and his widow, Amy, 
.sold, June 22, 1675, to Thomas Moore " the house 
Orchard Garden Home Lott Pasture for Calves," and 
all that might be claimed by the concessions, a first 
lot-right, except 20 acres sold by her husband to 
Peter Moss, " and one peare tree and some Gousberry 
bushes," reserved for her use.^ 

Francis Barber has left no memorial of his origin. 
He sold, March 10, 1672, to Vincent Ronyon, carpen- 
ter, a house-lot (bought of William Pyles, who had 
bought it of Thomas Moore), 40 rods by 16, bounded 
N. by George Pack, and fronting on the highway. 
He was still here in the following year, but must have 
removed soon after to Staten Island, where, on the 
W. side of the island, on Smoking Point, Dec. 21, 
1680, 88 acres of woodland and meadow were sur- 
veyed for him, and where, in 1686, he served as com- 
missioner of excise. The Barber family of a later 
date had another origin and a more illustrious 

Robert Blackwell was one of the early settlers of 
this town, though his name is not found in any town 
document now extant. In a deed, on record in New 
York, Robert Blackwell is spoken of as " late of Eliz- 
abeth-town in New Jersey, merchant." He married, 
April 26, 1676, Mary Manningham, step-daughter of 
Capt. John Manning (by whom the city was surren- 
dered, in 1673, to the Dutch), and so became the 
owner of Manning's Island, since known by his own 

Robert Bond was the father of Joseph, and a resi- 
dent of Southampton, L. I., as early as 1643. He was 
appointed, October, 1644, by the General Court of 

1 Alh. Records, ii. 169; iv. 240. Hoadly's New Hiivon Records, i. 
178; ii. 89, 191, 193, 29:), 393. Tnimbulfs Conn. Records, i. 280, 281, 
282, 295, 297, 314, 316 ; ii. 3-11. Doc. Hist, of N. Y., i. 684. E. T. Bill, 
pp. 30, 106, 108, 110. E. J. Records, i. 8, 0. e., 2 ; ii. 19, 22, o. e., 21, 24, 
26,36,42,91,92,97; iii.3,4; L. 18,21. Hinman, i. 289, 7 29. Howell's 
Soutliampton, pp. 26, 90. 

3 Barler's Hist. Coll. of Conn., p. lliO. E. J. Records, i. 46, 47. E. T. 
Bill, p. 108. 

3 E. J. Records, i. 24. N. Y. Col. Docmts., iii. 409, 494. Albany Land 
Papers, i. 190. 

< N. York Deeds, i. 130. Alb. Records, xxxiii. 309. N. York Mar- 
riages. p. 31. 



Connecticut, in company with Mr. More, " to demand 
of each family of Southampton the amount they 
would give for the maintenance of scholars at Cam- 
bridge College." He was one of the company that 
settled Hampton in 1648. He came originally 
from Lynn, Mass., and was doubtless of the same 
stock with the Watertown family. He had a princi- 
pal part in securing the land of East Hampton from 
the natives, and in transacting the business of the 
town. He was one of the first magistrates of the 
place, and repeatedly represented the town in the 
General Court of the colony. John Ogden and 
Capt. John Scott having had some differences with 
the town about Meantaquit (Montauk) in 1662, Rob- 
ert Bond was chosen one of the commissioners to 
settle it. His intimacy with Ogden (tradition says 
that each married the other's sister) and others of his 
neighbors, who were about to remove to these parts, 
led him to cast in his lot with them, and lend his val- 
uable counsels to the settlement of this town, where 
his influence was second only to John Ogden's. Car- 
teret, at his coming, was glad to avail himself of his 
mature experience, and appointed him, Jan. 2, 1668, 
one of his Council, and an assistant to the justices. 
Governor Winthrop, of Connecticut, highly com- 
mended him. He was appointed, March 13, 1676, 
justice of the peace. His first wife was Hannah, a 
sister of John Ogden. After her death he married at 
Newark, in 1672, Mary, the widow of Hugh Roberts. 
She was the daughter of Hugh Calkins, an emigrant 
from Wales in 1640, and a resident, first of Glouces- 
ter, Mass., and then of New London, Conn. He thus 
became interested in the Newark colony, and was 
elected the same year their representative. He con- 
tinued still to reside in this town, where he died 
April, 1677. His wife survived him twenty-four 
years. Stephen Bond, of Newark, was one of his 
sons. The father received a warrant for 360 acres of 
land at E. Town, June 30, 1675, but a caveat was en- 
tered against it, Jan. 16, 1677, by Benjamin Price, 
Sr. Joseph, at the same date, received a warrant 
for 160 acres.' 

John Brackett, Sr., was from New Haven, Conn., of 
which he was one of the first settlers. He assented 
to the covenant there June 4, 1639, and as late as 
1643 was unmarried. At the seating of the congrega- 
tion in 1646 places were provided for him and "Sister 
Brackett," showing that previous to this time he had 
taken to himself a wife. He was frequently employed 
in laying out lands about the town, and his name is 

1 Conn Col. Kec.rds, i. 398, 400, 428. HoweU's Snntliampfon. pp. 28, 
ISl). N. Y. Duct Ili«., i. (>77, B80, fi«4. HinniauV P. S. of loiin., i. 289, 
211(1,7-9. N.'wark Bicenteniirv. p|i. Ill, l:il. Newiiik Town E.-ccpril8. 
pp. 10, 2^, 49, S3 Mis.s Calknis' Norwich, p. 171. Stearns' Newurk, p. 
7». 3 Mass. His. Soc. Coll, X. 84. E. T. Bill, p. IU4. E. .1. Reoonls, il. 
3; ill 2.n, 124,133. 

In the inventory of bis estate, April 18, 1C77, liis honse anil all his land 
were valued at f 70; two oxen. £12 Ins.; two cows and calves, f '.I; one 
"farrow cow," £:< Lis.; two tw...jear old lieifei-s, £0 ; a cannon, £1 5». 
The whole anionnled to £151 lis. 5.(. 

of frequent occurrence in the colonial records until 
1660. When troops were rai.sed to resist the en- 
croaching Dutch, he was appointed, June 23, 1654, 
one of the " surgions." He was probably induced to 
accompany his neighbors to this colony in order to 
aid them in laying out their lands. Near the close of 
1677, several of the planters having urged the Gov- 
ernor to define the exact bounds of their several pos- 
sessions, he deputed Brackett, Dec. 19, 1667, in the 
absence of Vauquellin, the surveyor-general, " to lay 
out, survey, and bound the said bounds of Elizabeth 
Towne the planting feilds towiie lotts and to lay out 
every particulars man's proportion according to his 
allotments and the directions" of the Governor, "for 
the avoiding of all controversies and disputes hereafter 
concerning the same, having had certain notice of the 
good experience, knowledge, skill, and faithfulness of 
John Brackett in the surveying and laying out of 
land." In the controversies of a later day it was 
affirmed by the town's party that they had " not 
seen, known, or heard of any one Survey made in pur- 
suance of that commission." The surveys were prob- 
ably made, but were superseded by later and more 
accurate surveys, and hence were not pre.served. 
Brackett sold out his rights as early as 1670 to 
Samuel Hopkins, and returned to New Haven, both 
he and his son, who also liad been admitted as an As- 
sociate. John, Jr., died at New Haven, Nov. 29, 
1676. " Brackett's Brook," a branch of the E. Town 
Creek, in the north part of tlie town, indicates proba- 
bly the locality of their allotment.^ 

Nathaniel Bunnell (Bonnel) was undoubtedly also 
from New Haven, Conn., and of the same family with 
William and Benjamin, of that town. William was 
there previous to 1650. Nathaniel had a house-lot 
of six acres, 15 by 4 chains, bounded E. by Thomas 
Price, W. and N. by Isaac Whitehead, Sr., and 
S. by a highway. He had also an allotment of 120 
acres, " Lying upon the South Branch of Eliz"" Town 
Creek, and y' plaiiie which said above mentioned 
Creek passeth through ;" also " 12 acres of meadow 
Lying in the great meadows ujiou John Woodruffe's 
Creek." =■ 

Nicolas Carter came from Newtown, L. I. His 
name appears, April 12, 1656, among the purchasers 
of that place from the n;itives. His allotment there 
was 20 acres. He came there in 1652, from Stamford, 
Conn. He is repeatedly spoken of in the Newtown 
records, among the leading men of the town, until 
1665, the date of his removal to this place. His son, 
Nicholas, born 1658, was apprenticed, March 25, 1669, 
to "Richard Painter, Taylor," of Elizabeth Town. 
The indenture says: " Unlawfull Sports and Games 
he shall not use. Taverns or Tipling houses hee shall 
not haunt or frequent, his Masters Goods he shall not 

2 New Haven Ci.l. Records, Index of v..l. 
E. T. Do.,k, B., 2M, 27. Ans. to E. T. Bill, p. 2i 

3. Savage's Gelieal. Die, i. 3lM. E. J. Itec 
p. 1U3. 

130. E. T. Bill, 



Imbezle purloin or by any unlavvfull means diminish 
or Impair, his Masters Secrets he shall not disclose." 
His house-lot contained five acres, 10 by 5 chains, 
bounded E. and S. by highways, N. by the creek, 
and S. by William Hill. He had also twenty acres 
of upland on Luke Watson's Point, adjacent to Ed- 
ward Case and Jacob Melyen ; also forty acres of up- 
land "in a swamp lying at the E. side of the blind 
Ridge," bounded partly by Aaron Thompson and 
Jacob Melyen. This tract and his house-lot he sold, 
March 1(5, 1677, to Benjamin Wade, for £30, payable 
in pipe-staves. He had also seventy acres of upland, 
bounded by Roger Lambert, George Pack, and the 
swamp; also 193 acres of upland on the Mill Creek, 
bounded by Barnabas Wincs, the plain, a small brook, 
and the creek ; also 22 acres of meadow in the Great 
Meadow, and 18 acres on Thompson's Creek. His 
allotments contained 368 acres. He bought also, 
March 9, 1677, of Jacob Melyen, then of the city of 
New York, 101 acres of land on the South Neck. The of his lauds he sold. May 18, 1681, to Samuel 
Wilson, and shortly after died.' 

Caleb Carwithy (Carwithe, Corwith) was the son 
of David, a resident of Southold, L. I., where he 
died, November, 1665. Caleb was a mariner, and 
quite a rover. At Hartford, Conn., he was arraigned, 
October, 1646, for pursuing an absconding debtor on 
the Sabbath-day. Previous to 1654 he made trading 
voyages between New Haven and Boston. In 1661 
he resided at Southampton, L. I. He was admitted 
in 1664 a freeman at Huntington, L. I. The follow- 
ing year he came to this place. In the winter of 
1669 he entered into an association with John Og- 
den, Sr., Jacob Melyen, William Johnson, Jeffry 
Jones, and others of this town for whaling purposes. 
His house-lot adjoined Charles Tucker on the west, 
and George Ross on the N. west. He sold thirty 
acres of land, Feb. 8, 1671, for £11, to William Piles. 
A year or two after he removed to Southampton, L. I., 
where he was living in 1683, and where his descend- 
ants have been quite numerous and respectable.'^ 

William Cramer was a carpenter from Southold, 
L. I., where he married Elizabeth, the sister of Caleb 
Carwithy. He attached himself to the Governor's 
party, and seems not to have been numbered with the 
Town Associates. He was appointed, April 27, 1670, 
c(mstable of the town, in place of William Pilles. 
His lumse-lot contained 6 acres, of irregular form, 
bounded on the N. W. by Evan Salisbury, and on 
every other side by highways. He had also 5 acres 
of upland adjoining John Little; also 10 acres of 
upland lying in the swamp, bounded by Barnabas 
Wines, Richard Beach, and John Little; also 20 
acres of upland, bounded by Stephen Crane, Roger 

1 E. J. Rocurds, i. 7, 73, 101; ii. 92, 93; iii 23: iv. 34. E. T. BiU, 
p. 1U4. R.kei's KewtuWli, pp. 43, 46, 50, 02, 418. 

2 Ct. Cul. lti-coril«, i. 143, 428; ii. 120. E. J. Records, i. 66; ii. 22, 
34; iii. 22. lluwell, pp. 48, 217. Bacon's N. Uaven, p. 366. N. Y. Uoc. 
lliBtorj-, ii. 538. 

Lambert, and the great swamp ; also 60 acres adjoin- 
ing the last plot and Crane's Brook, bounded also, as 
before, by Crane and Lambert ; also 80 acres " at the 
two mile brook," bound by unsurveyed land and the 
brook ; also 8 acres of upland " in the neck," bounded 
by Caleb Carwithy, Luke Watson, and the creek 
meadow ; also 6 acres of meadow on the creek, and 
14 acres of meadow "at Rahawack," — in all 209 
acres. He sold out, Sept. 1, 1677, to John Toe, 
weaver, and soon after removed with Luke Watson 
to the Hoar-Kill (Lewes), Del. He died in 1695.' 

Stephen Crane was from Connecticut, and was, 
probably, nearly related to Jasper Crane, of Newark, 
who was one of the first settlers of New Haven, 
Conn., in 1639, was at Branford in 1652, and at New- 
ark in 1667. The family is quite ancient and honor- 
able. Ralph Crane accompanied Sir Francis Drake to 
America in 1577, and Robert Crane was of the first 
company that came to Massachusetts Bay in 1630. Sir 
Robert Crane was of Essex County, England, in 1630; 
and Sir Richard, in 1643, of Wood Rising, Norfolk, 
England. Henry and Benjamin Crane were of Weth- 
ersfield, Conn., at an early day, and the former re- 
moved thence to Guilford. Stephen was born not later 
than 1640, and was married as early as 1663. His 
house-lot contained 6 acres, and was bounded S. E. by 
Samuel Trotter, N. W. by Crane's Brook, E. by the 
Mill Creek, and W. by the highway. He had also 
60 acres between two swamps, and adjoining William 
Cramer ; also 72 acres on Crane's Brook, bounded by 
the brook, William Cramer, Richard Beach, Nathaniel 
Tuttle, and William Pardon; also 18 acres of meadow 
" towards Rawack Point," — in all 156 acres. He died 
about 1700.* 

John Dickinson was from Southold, L. I., and a 
son or brother of Philemon, who came over in the 
"Mary Ann," 1637, to Salem, Mass., was admitted to 
the church in 1641, married Mary, daughter of Thomas 
Payne, of Salem, removed to Southold about 1649, 
was captain of a sloop in those parts, and resided at 
Oyster Bay in 1653. John was one of the witnesses, 
Aug. 18, 1665, to the payment to the Indians of a 
part of the purchase money for the town lands, and 
took the oath of allegiance in February following. 
He died soon after, and his rights were transferred to 
John Ogden.' 

Joseph Ffrazey ( Frazee) came with the first settlers, 
but whence does not appear. His house-lot contained 
6 acres, of the usual form, 15 by 4 chains, and was 
bounded S. W. by David Ogden, N. E. by William 
Letts, S. E. by a highway, and N. W. by a swamp. 
He received. May 9, 1676, a warrant for 120 acres. 
Feb. 1, 1685, he received a warrant for 50 acres ad- 
joining his own land, " betwixt Raway River and the 

SE. J. Records, i. 109, 160; ii. 19,33; iii. 35. 
E. T. Bill, p. 106. 
' E. J. Records, ii. 20, 35. E. T. Bill, p. 104. Uiiiii 
' Savage, ii. 49. Thompson's L. I., i. 486. 4 Mii 

T. liook, B. 56. 



branch, in Compensation for two highways made 
through his Land, one leading to Vincent's and the 
other to Woodbridge." His son Joseph had also 135 
acres on " Kaway" River, adjoining Dr. Robinson's 
land, and 15 acres of meadow between Railway River 
and " Emet's Creek." The house-lot he sold to Wil- 
liam Looker, then of Woodbridge. Frazee bought, 
Sept. 21, 1G78, of Luke Watson, 182 acres; and July 
4, 1682, William Broadwell's town lands. His pos- 
sessions were mostly along the Rahway River, and 
the family settled eventually in Westfield and New 
Providence. A tract of land on the Passaic River 
has, in consequence of their locating upon it, been 
called " Frazey's Meadows." Mr. Frazey sold, Sept. 
7, 1698, 39 acres E. of the Rahway to Samuel Pack. 
He died in January, 1714.' 

John Gray was, as elsewhere said, the step-father 
of Luke Watson, having married, as early as 1644, 
Elizabeth, Watson's mother, and daughter of William 
Frost, of Uncowah (Fairfield), Conn. He was one of 
the patentees of Newtown, L. I., being, with three 
exceptions, the largest contributor among many to 
the expense of the purchase. He incurred, in 1653, 
the wrath of the Dutch government (for what does 
not appear), and sentence of banishment was pro- 
nounced against him March 24th. Again, Aug. 10, 
1654, he was on trial, "accused of divers crimes," of 
which " abusing the magistrates" of the town alone 
is specified. He confessed, was indicted, and sen- 
tenced. Jan. 26, 1656, he is spoken of as " a fugitive 
from justice." Yet in 1658 he was still residing at 
Newtown. His oftense was probably political. He 
must have been well advanced in life when he accom- 
panied Watson to this town, and having lost his first 

wife had married Hannah , to whom by deed, 

Sept. 10, 1675, he gave his estate. In April, 1673, 
when he sold his meadow land to William Pilles, he 
had removed to New Piscataway. He probably died 
soon after the gift to his wife. No record is found of 
his allotments.- 

Daniel Harris was from Northampton, L. I., and a 
.«ion of George, who was one of the neighbors of John 
Ogden. He came on with the first emigration (prob- 
ably unmarried), induced, it may be, by his early 
companions, Ogden's boys. He has left no memorial. 
Henry Harris, who was one of Mr. Harriman's parish- 
ioners in 1696, may have been his son, and George 
Harris, in 1725, a grandson.^ 

Leonard Headley has left no memorial of his 
origin. He had surveyed, Oct. 14, 1678, " in right of 
himself and his wife," 150 acres. His house-lot con- 
tained 4 acres, 10 by 4 chains, bounded northwest by 
John Ogden, Jr., and on the other sides by highways. 
He had 8 acres of upland " at Brackett's Spring," and 

, i:i" ; 

.19; r,. 137. E. T. Bill. p. 

I E. J. Kecorda, i. 87, 115 

7. Wills, No. 1. 

! E. J. Reuorda, i. 61. Riker, p. 43. New Haven Cul. Records, i. 

leiidav of Dutch MSS., pp. 46, 131, 139, 1.59, 166, I9S. 

' Howell's Soutliamptoii, pp. 234-35. Hiiniman's Ledger, p. HH. 

along the brook, adjoining Hur Thompson and a 
swamp; also 6 acres of upland, "lying in the way 
going to the point," bounded in part by John Ogden, 
Jr., and John Woodruff'; also 20 acres on the Creek, 
bounded by Daniel Dehart and Robert Vauquellin ; 
also 33 acres, " in the plaine," bounded by George 
Morris and John Ogden, Jr. ; also 65 acres of upland 
"at the North end of the plaine," "by the Mill 
brooke," and bounded by Margaret Baker, Jonathan 
Ogden, and Benjamin Parkis; also 14 acres in the 
Great Meadow. He died February, 1683, and Sarah 
Smith administered on his estate, which was valued 
at £99 3s. tid.* 

Matthias Heathfield (Hetfield, Hatfield) was a 
weaver, and came hither from New Haven, Conn., 
where he took the oath of fidelity May 1, 1660. In 
the Record of Surveys, Aug. 29, 1676, he is called 
" Hatfeild," and in his will, " Hattfield." He is sup- 
posed to have been a son of Thomas Hatfield, of 
Leyden, a member of John Robinson's church, and 
a native of Yorkshire, England. Mr. Thomas Hat- 
field, who settled about the same time at Mamaroneck, 
N. Y., was probably his brother. His house-lot con- 
tained 5 acres, 10 by 5 chains, bounded east by the 
highway and Thomas Moore, north and south by 
unsurveyed land, and west by Dennis White. He 
had also 22 acres of upland " in a triangle" bounded 
by William Letts, John Winans, Samuel Marsh, and 
a swamp; also 12 acres of upland, bounded by Na- 
thaniel Bonnel, Robert Vauquellin, and a way that 
parted him from Governor Carteret; also 112 acres 
of upland on " the two mile brook ;" also 40 acres of 
upland " towards the west branch of Elizabeth Town 
River," bounded by John Winans and an Indian path ; 
also 14 acres of meadow "atRawack," and 3 acres of 
meadow on the north side of East Town Creek, — in all 
208 acres. He was a boatman, as well as a Weaver, 
and seems to have been a man of considerable means. 
"For twelve hundred gilders secured to him by bill" 
(a large sum in those days) he purchased, Dec. 5, 
1673, of "Abraham Lubberson, of New Orania, in 
the New Netherlands, his dwelling-house and home- 
lott, with all other accommodations belonging to s'' 
first Lott, within the bounds of Elizabeth, both upland 
and meadow." 

It thus appears that Mr. Lubberson was among the 
early settlers of the town. He had been a citizen of 
New Amsterdam before the conquest, and resided in 
1665 in De Hoogh Straat (High Street), now Pearl, 
east of Broad Street, having previously lived for 
several years on the west side of the Prince Graft 
(Broad Street). This latter residence he sold Sept. 
5, 1671, and is spoken of in the deed as " Abram 
Lubberse of Elizabeth towne in New Jearsie." He 
was one of the skippers of the port, having command 
of a Hudson River sloop. He came here in 1666 or 
1667, and built the stone house on the lower part of 

•• E. J. Records, ii. 3, 98 j A. 181. 



Pearl Street, at its junction with Hatfield Street, now 
in tlie possession of Abel S. Hatfield. It is, un- 
doubtedly, the oldest house in town, is in good repair, 
and has never been alienated from the family since 
its purchase in 1(>73. Mr. Lubberson had three 
children born here, — Abraham, Josias, and Andries. 
On the reconquest of New York by the Dutch, in 
1673, he returned to his old home in New Orange, as 
the city was then called. 

Mr. Hatfield was the original owner of the land on 
which the First Presbyterian Church stands, and is 
entitled to the credit of having given it to the town 
for a church and burial-place. When the church 
property was surveyed in 1766, the trustees affirmed 
" that the first Purchasers and Associates did give the 
af Tract of land for the use of the Presbyterian 
Church, the Record of wliich on or about the year 
1719 was either lost or destroyed." This statement 
was admitted by the Town Committee, and they al- 
lowed, Aug. 27, 1766, the above " Lot of Land to the 
s'' Trustees their Heirs and Successors on the right 
of Matthias Hatfield, one of the s'' Associates." A 
grandson of Mr. Hatfield had then been a trustee of 
the church for twelve years, and was the first president 
of the board. He must have known the exact state 
of the case. Mr. Hatfield died in December, 1687, 
his wife, Maria (of Dutch nativity), and three sons, 
Isaac, Abraham, and Cornelius, surviving him. It is 
not known, though it is quite probable, that he left 
daughters also.' 

Jolui Hinds (Heynes, Haynes, Haines) and his 
brother James were " East Enders" from Long 
Island. Tliey were sons of James Hinds, wlio came 
over from England to Salem, Mass., as early as 1637, 
when he was admitted a freeman. He married in 
1638, and at an early day removed to Southold, 
L. I., where he died March, 1653, his estate being 
valued at £123 5s. 4f/. He had eight children,— John, 
James, Benjamin, Mary, James (2d), Jonathan, Sarah, 
and Thomas. His widow was married in June, 
1656, to Ralph Dayton, of Southold. John was the 
oldest son, and was baptized Aug. 28, 1639. James 
was baptized Feb. 27, 1648. Benjamin Haines, who 
was at Southampton in 1639, and a resident of North 
Sea (Northampton) in 1657, was probably a brother 
of James, Sr. He was the grandfather of Stephen, 
who removed to this town as early as 1725, and was 
the ancestor of Governor Daniel Haines. 

John Hinds, the son of James, Sr., of Southold, 
was bred a c<ioper. No record remains of his allot- 
ments of land. He married Mary, a daughter of 
G(.odman Thompson, and their daughter had been 
married as early as 1700 to Isaac Whitehead, Jr. 
He was a constable of the town in 1710 and 1711. A 
curious record of him occurs in the ledger of Rev. 

1 New Hkv™ CoI. Itecorcis,!. 141. E.J. Recuiilb, ii. 2(,loe-7; 20. o.e.; 
B. »]li. Vuk-uline's N. Y. MauUiil for 1S5U, (.. J6i; IVil, |i 44(1; ls.j;, 
pp. 4".'i. 47S, 4!!U; IStia, p. TJ2; 18U6, pp. (jlil, tJ7:i, 7Uli, 71U. E. T., 
B. 47, 170. 

John Harriman : " 1695, ffeb. 28, pr acco' of teaching 
my son Samuel the mistery of a cooper, tho"" not 
pformed according to bargain — £4. 00. 00." 

James was also a cooper, and came here about ten 
years later than his brother John. He received, 
July 11, 1677, a warrant, "in Right of himself & his 
wile," for 120 acres of land, on account of which he 
had a survey of 108 acres of upland, bounded by 
Richard Clark, James Emot, and the Westbrook ; 
also 12 acres of " meadow in the great Meadows." 
He purchased Sept. 4, 1676, of William Looker, then 
of Jamaica, L. I., his house, garden, orchard, and 
house-lot, probably in the way of trade, as he con- 
tinued still to reside in this town, and was living in 

Benjamin Homan (Oman) was from the east end 
of Long Island. John Homan was at Setauket 
(Brookhaven) a few years later, and was, it may be, 
either his father or his son. He was one of the As- 
sociates of the town, and had the usual allotments 
of laud, but no mention is made of them in the 
records. He lived a bachelor until his death, April 
1, 1684. He gave, by will, six acres to Benjamin 
Meeker, and the remainder of his estate, valued at 
£63 5s. 6t/., to Martha I'arkis (Parkhurst), of E. Town, 
widow. She may have been his sister.^ 

William Johnson was at New Haven, Conn., as early 
as the year 1648. Thomas and John, who came to 
Newark in 16^6-67, the one from Milford, and the 
other from Branford, the .sons of Robert, an emigrant 
to New Haven from Hull, England, were probably 
his cousins. They had a brother Willi. mi, but he 
continued at Guilford, Conn., was a deacon of the 
church, and grandfather of Rev. Dr. Samuel John- 
son, of New York. William Johnson, of this town, 
had a house-lot of four acres, 10 by 4 chains, bounded 
west by Humphry Spinage, south by Jacob Melyen, 
and north and east by highways; also 12 acres of 
upland on "the little Neck," bounded by George 
Ross, Humphry Spinage, and his own meadow; also 
60 acres of upland on " Rawack" River, bounded by 
Symon Rous, the .>>wamp, the river, and his meadosv, 
— " a highway to pass through the said Land;" also 
60 acres of upland on " Rawack plaine," bounded by 
Luke Watson, Symon Rous, a swamp, and uusur- 
veyed land ; also 100 acres of upland on " the W. 
branch of Rawack River;" also 6 acres of meadow 
on Rawack River; also 6 acres of meadow on E. T. 
Creek, joining his 12 acre lot; also 13 acres of meadow 
on the Rawack River, — in all 262 acres. He mort- 
gaged, Nov. 11, 1678, his whole estate in the town to 
Roger Lambert to secure the payment of £100, and 
subsequently Lambert became the owner.* 

2 New Haven C.l. Reuonls, ii ISf-SO. Siiviige's Geii. Die, ii. 3*8-Sa. 
Huufll, pp :ll, -.iilli. E. J. Ui'ortls, ii. lia; 0. H'J. Miicduiialil 8 jHuiaiut, 
p. 61. E. T. Bill. p. lli.i. 

» Thonip»irii's 1,. I , ii. :!!)9. E. J. Rcconls, B. E. T. Bill, p llM. 

< E. J. liecuiiU, i. 1U«, la7 ; ii. 20, 130. Ct. Col. KecoidB, i. 94. E. T. 
Bill, p. 1115. 


JeflVy Jones was from Southold, L. [., wliere he 
was made a freeman May, 1664. He and Edward 
Jones, who was at Sonthampton as early as 1644, it 
is thought, were sons of the Rev. John Jones, wlio 
came with tlie Rev. Mr. Shepard, of Camhridge, and 
tlie Rev. John Wil.son, of Boston, Mass., from Eng- 
land, arriving Ot-t. 2, 1635; was a colleague of'Rev. 
Peter Bulkley, of Concord, Mass., from 1636 to 1644, 
when he came to Fairfield, Conn., and resided there 
until his death, 1664, being over seventy years of age. 
One of the sons. Rev. Eliphalet (born Jan. 9, 1640), 
was the first minister of Huntington, L. I. Jefl'ry 
J(mes had a house-lot on the west side of Mill Creek, 
between David Ogden on the south, and William 
Cramer on the north. He had a warrant for 180 
acres, but no return of the survey is on record. His 
liouse-lot he sold, Aug. 24, 1686, to Jonas Wood. He 
was associateil. May 20, 1668, with Ogden, Bonil, and 
Watson in running the boundary line between this 
town and Newark. He was also one of the Whaling 
Company, incorporated Feb. 15, 1669. An action of 
trespass and ejectment was brought against him by 
"the Proprietors," in the name of James Fullerton, 
in 1693, because of his refusal to take out a |)atent 
Irom them for his lands, and to pay them "Quit 
Rents." Judgment having been rendered 
him, he appealed to the King in Council, by wlioni, 
Feb. 25, 1696, it was set aside. He outlived the most 
of the founders of the town, his death occurring 
in December, 1717.' 

Thomas Leonards was doubtless of the South- 
ampton stock. He was admitted a freeman of Con- 
necticut in 1658. He probably died soon after his 
coming, as no subsequent trace of him has been 

Samuel Marsh was from New Haven, Conn., wliere 
he took the oath of fidelity, May 2, 1647. He came 
liere, among the first settlers Ironi Connecticut, with 
his wife and seven children. His house-lot contained 
seven acres, of irregular form, 6 chains broad, and in 
length 15 chains on the west side and 10 chains on 
the cast side, bounded on the west by Jonas Wood, 
and on the other sides by highways. He had also 18 
acres of upland " in the Neck," bounded by John 
Winans, Matthias Hatfield, and William Letts, also 
100 acres of upland " at R«wack," called by the name 
of Ragged Neck, bounded by JeHrv Jones, Simon 
Rouse, and bis own meadow ; also 60 acres of ujdand 
adj(»ining the 100 acre lot, bounded by Jettry Jones, a 
great swamp, and his own land; also 14 acres of 
meadow on the north .side of his upland, and 6 acres 
of meadow, at Luke Watson's neck, on the north side 
of Thompson's Creek, — in all 205 acres. His eldest 
son, Samuel, Jr., was admitted among the iSO Associ- 
ates, and had an allotment of 80 acres of upland at 

1 III., pp. 44, Km, ViO. ]i2. E .1 Ri'corda, i 89; ii. 21 ; iii. XS, ll». 
\VilU.A.rt). SiivHgo, ii.Sm. N.^«iiik Ricuiils.p. 10. (Joiiu. Col. Keairilu, 
i. 4-.i7. SliiilliK-k'a Concord, pp. 14S-1U4. 

2 Savnitf, ill. 80. 


" Rahawack," bounded by Robert Vauquellin, Simon, Thomas Moore, Benjamin Wade, and a great 
swamp; also ten acres of upland on the two-mile brook, 
adjoining Matthias Hatfield and David Oliver; also 
10 acres of meadow "lying at Rahawack in the 
Meadow of Samuel, Sen''," — in all 100 acres. 
" Old Marsh," as the lather was familiarly called, 
died in September, 1683.' 

William Meeker was also from New Haven, Conn., 
where he took the oath of fidelity, July 1, 1644. He 
was propounded, Oct. 7, 1646, to " be loader to mill" 
" for a 12 month," " to goe in all seasons e.xcept vn- 
reasonable weather." Frequently he appears in the 
records as "Meaker" and " Mecar." His house-lot 
contained six acres, bounded north by Henry Norris, 
west by the highway, south by his son Jo.sepb, and 
east by the swamp. He had also thirleen acres of 
upland, bounded by his son Benjamin, Robert Bond, 
and Joseph Osborne ; also 45 acres of upland " by 
Henry Lyon," bounded by his son Benjamin and 
Robert Bond; also 75 acres of upland, bounded by 
Hur Thompson, a small brook, and a swamp; also 12 
acres of meadow on the south side of Bcmnd Creek, 
and 2.J acres on E. Town Creek, — in all 152 ai res. He 
was appointed, Oct. 13, 1671, constable ol the town, 
and in performance of the duties of his office became 
obnoxious to the Governor and his party, and the 
property just de.-cribed was forfeited in lavor of Wil- 
liam Pardon, as related on a subsequent i^age. His 
sons, Joseph and Benjamin, were aiso numbered 
among the eighty A.ssociates. Joseph had a house-lot 
containing six acres, bounded norlh by his lather, 
south by his brother Benjamin, east by Robert Vau- 
quellin, and west by a highway. He had also 35 
acres, bounded by Joseph ISayre, a small brook, a 
fresh meadow, and a highway that goes into the 
meadows ; 45 acres, " adjoining to Master Bond," 
bounded by Henry Lyon, Robert Bond, Henry Norris, 
and John Woodruff; also 12 acres "on the West 
Side of the plaine," bounded by Moses Thompson, 
Isaac Whitehead, Sr., Moses Hopkins, and the Mill 
Creek, — in all 98 acres. Benjamin had a hou.->e-lot, 
containing five acres, 9 by 5-i chains, bounded west 
by a highway, east by George Morris and Henry Lyon, 
north by his brother Joseph, and .south by niisurveyed 
land. He had also 24 acres of upland, bnunded by 
Joseph Osborne, Robert Bond, and " a run ; ' also 60 
acres of upland, bounded by Robert Bond, Henry 
Lyon, and Isaac Whitehead, Sr. ; also tiii acres of 
upland, bounded by Hur Thompson, two small brooks, 
and a swamp,— in all 155 acres. He was one of the 
town constables in 1711. Joseph kept a country 
store, and Benjamin was a carpenter, while both were 
planters. The father died in December, 1690.* 

3 New Haven C..I. Bei-oril», i. 140, 2i<), 2:«, 27U.-71, :i7\ 474. K. J. 
Reioiils, i. li'J; ii. 2n, ;ll, 3.i ; A. l'J2. E. T. Bill, p. Hi.-,, s. S..VHgo, 
iii. I. no. 

4 New Hnveu Col. U.-uoids, i. 122, 139, 273. E. J. U,.iord.s. ii. 1, 18, 24, 
6a, 146 ; Iii. 47, 82 ; U. 70, 71. E. T. Bill, p. 103. 



Jacob Melyen (Moullains, Murline, Melleyns, 
Melyn, Meleins) came here from New Haven, Conn., 
but was previously of New Amsterdam. He was the 
son of the patroon, Cornelius Melyn, whose name is 
familiar to every student of Dutch American history. 
The father was born, 1602, at Antwerp, Holland, and 
emigrated in 1639 to New Netherland. He returned 
in 1640 for his wife (Janneken) and children, and ob- 
tained a grant of Staten Island. There he planted a 
colony in 1641, which was broken up by the Indian 
war of 1643. Removing to New Amsterdam, he took 
up his residence in Broad, between Stone and Pearl 
Streets, on the east side. He espoused the popular 
side in ])olitics, for which he was heavily fined by 
Governor Stuyvesant, and banished for seven years. 
He returned to Holland for redress, was wrecked 
Sept. 27, 1647, and lost one of his sons, barely escap- 
ing with his own life. The home government sus- 
tained his appeal, but Stuyvesant still persisted in his 
opposition. After another voyage to Holland, he 
re-established himself in 1650 on Staten Island, con- 
tinuing thereuntil the colony was again dispersed by 
the Indians, in the massacre of 1655. He removed to 
New Haven, Conn., where he and iiis son Jacob took 
the oath of fidelity, April 7, 1657. In 1659 he re- 
paired again to Holland, eftected a settlement of his 
difficulties, relinquished Staten Island to the West 
India Company, and soon after returned to New 
Netherland. He had died in 1674, leaving his wife, 
three sons, — Jacob, Cornelis, and Isaac, — and tliree 
daughters,— Marian (married, and residing at New 
Haven), Susanna, and Magdaleen, wiio were married 
subsequently to Jacob Schellinger and Jacob Soper, 
merchants of New York. 

Jacob, the eldest son, was born at Antwerp, Hol- 
land, about 1640, and came an infant to America. 
His boyhood was passed in the midst of the exciting 
scenes just referred to, by which he was educated in 
the love of liberty and hatred of oppression. He 
accompanied his father to Holland and back in 1659, 
returning to New Haven. He was reprimanded. May 
1, 1660, by Governor Newman, as related in the " Blue 
Laws" of Connecticut, lor kissing and taking other im- 
proper liberties with Miss Sarah Tuttle. He married, 
in 1662, Hannah, the daughter of George Hubbard, 
of Guilford, Conn. Her sister Abigail, in 1657, had 
become the wife of Humphrey Spinning. He and 
Spinning attached themselves to the band of pil- 
grims who, in 1665, emigrated from New Haven to 
this town. He had been familiar, doubtless, with 
this particular locality from his childhood, by reason 
of his residence on Staten Island. His knowledge 
of the Dutch language, and possibly of the Indian 
tongue also, made him a valuable acquisition to the 
new colony of Achter Kull. 

His house-lot contained four acres, 10 by 4 chains, 
and was bounded west by his brother-in-law, Hum- 
phrey Spinning south by Joiin Winans, north by 
William Johnston, and east by a highway. This lot, 

with his house, barn, orchard, etc., he sold, Feb. 8, 
1678, to John Winans. He had 100 acres on the 
South Neck of Elizabeth township, which he sold, 
March 9, 1677, to Nicholas Carter. For himself, wife, 
and two servants he was allowed 360 acres. His 
patent gave him 450 acres. He was a partner in the 
Whaling Company of 1669. During the Dutch rule, 
1673-74, he was in high favor, being appointed one 
of the schepens of the town, and captain of the 
militia company. He removed to New Y'ork in 1674, 
and resided in the Mill Street Lane (South William 
Street). Two of his children, Susanna and Jacob, 
were baptized in the Dutch Church, New York, Oct. 
3, 1674, and three others, Daniel, Samuel, and Abi- 
gail, Aug. 7, 1677. Subsequently to 1683 he removed 
to Boston, probably for the convenience of educating 
his son Samuel (afterwards a minister of this town), 
who graduated in 1696 at Harvard College. At Bos- 
ton he traded in leather, and served several years as 
constable. His decease occurred in December, 1706, 
his wife surviving until 1717. His daughter Abigail 
married (1) William Tilley and (2) Chief Justice 
Samuel Sewall. His daughter Joanna, born in 1683, 
about the time that he removed to Boston became 
the wife of the Rev. Jonathan Dickinson, of this 
town. In his will he affirms that he had spent £300 on 
Samuel's education. In the Boston News Letter, Oct. 
1, 1705, is an advertisement in these words: "A 
House and Land in the High- Fore-Street at the Sign 
of the Buck, in the South End of Boston, now in the 
Occupancy of Mr. Jacob Melyen, to be Sold.'" 

Thomas More (Moor, Moore) was from Southold, 
L. I. He was the son of Thomas, who came over 
in 1630, in the "Mary and John," to Dorchester, 
Mass. ; joined the church at Salem, was admitted a 
freeman. May 18, 1631, and removed with his brother. 
Deacon John Moore, first to Windsor, Conn., then to 
Southampton, and then to Southold, L. I. The father 
was a man of influence, and represented Southold in 
the General Court at New Haven in 1658, and at 
Hartford in 1664. Thomas, Jr., was at Newton in 
1664, whence the following year he came to this 
town. His house-lot, " formerly belonging to Joachin 
Andrissen," he sold to William Pyles previous to 
1672, and purchased, June 22, 1675, the house-lot, 
containing four acres, bounded north and east by a 
highway, .south by Matthias Hatfield, and west by 
Denis White. He had also 60 acres of upland, " to- 
warde Rahawack," adjoining Benjamin Wade; also 
42 acres "on the South side of Elizabeth River," 
bounded by Benjamin Wade, Humphrey Spinage, 
the river, and the plain ; also 60 acres of upland, 
'■ on the North side of the said River," bounded by 
Humphrey Spinage, Stephen Osborne, and "the 
branch of the said Elizabeth River;" also 20 acres 

• E.T.Bill, p. UI8. E. J. Kecords, i. 101, 8,163; ii. 46; iii. 25. N. 
Y. DounitB, ii. ."iVI, 5H2, 608, 706. Calendar of N. Y. His. Mis., 28, 
4U, 46, l:d4, 181. Savage, iii. 195. Valentine's N. T., 186:i, p. 795. Bos- 
ton News Letter, Nu. 76. 



of meadow, adjoining William Pilles' upland, — in all 
187 acres. Thomas Moore in 1676 had 80 acres sur- 
veyed for him on the south side of Staten Island. 
He survived until June, 1708.' 

Robert Mosse (Moras, Morse) and his son Peter 
were from MassachusetU. They were at Boston in 
1644, at Newbury in 16'i4, and still later at Rowley, 
whence, in 166.5, they came hither. The father was a 
tailor, and had a large family. His house-lot con- 
tained six acres, bounded north by his son Peter, 
south by William Pardon, west by the highway, and 
east by Elizabeth River and a highway. He had 
also 12 acres of upland, bounded by William Trotter, 
his son Peter, and Crane's Brook ; also 44 acres of 
upland, bounded by the river, William Pardon, Wil- 
liam Trotter, Daniel Tuttle, his son Peter, and the 
Common ; also " a Neck of Land Lying between two 
brooks," 66 acres, bounded by West Brook, Peach Gar- 
den Brook, and Thompson's Creek ; also another plot of 
66 acres, adjoining on the west, lying on Peach Gar- 
den Brook ; also 6 acres of meadow on Thompson's 
Creek, 9 acres on the Sound, and 7 acres on Peach 
Garden and West Brooks, — in all 202 acres. The 
tract on the E. T. Creek he disposed of, Sept. 26, 1681, 
to his son-in-law, William Broadwell, and several 
other tracts, June 24, 1686, to Jonas Wood. The next 
day he obtained a warrant for 150 acres more. 

Peter's house-lot contained six acres, bounded west 
by a highway, north by William Trotter, south by his 
father, and east by E. T. Creek. He had also 12 
acres of upland, adjoining his father; also 40 acres 
of upland " near the Ash Swamp upon a hill," 
bounded by William Pardon, Stephen Crane, John 
Little, and the Common ; also " a Neck of Land at 
Rawack," 140 acres along West Brook, Rawack 
Swamp, and the Common ; also 18 acres of meadow 
on Thompson's Creek, and 6 acres on Luke Watson's 
Point, — -in all 224 acres, of which 20 acres were " in 
Right of Joachim Andrissen." The homestead was on 
"Thompson's Creek," hence more generally known of 
late as " Morse's Creek," long the boundary between 
Rahway and Elizabeth. Peter died in May, 1702.- 

Nathaniel Norton was from the east end of Long 
Island, but, though admitted one of the eighty Associ- 
ates, was induced after a short sojourn to return to the j 
island. He took up his abode at Brookhaven, where i 
he was living in 1675, and in 1683 his East Town 
rights were transferred to Henry Norris.'' 

William Oliver cannot now be traced with any cer- | 
tainty. He was probably the son of John, who died ! 
in 1746, or of Thomas, who died in 1652, at Boston or I 
its vicinity, each of them leaving a large family, i 
Thomas was of Bristol, and came over in 1632 from 

1 N. H. Col. Records, ii. 52, 66, 159, 2:!U, [as, 358, 392, 406. Oulin. Ck>l. 
Rpords, i. 2S, 11-', :iS6, 3s8. Alb. Records, iii. 116. Savage, iii. 227, 
211. E. J. Uecurds, i 24, 46, 157; ii. 'Jl, 31. E. T. Bill, p. 108. 

2SHVage, iii. 241. E. J. Records, i. US, 149,160; ii.r.1,23; iii. 163, 159; 
B. 121, 132 ; L. 90. E. T. Bill, p. 104. 

3 New York Doc. His., ii. 468, 633. 

London. William had a house-lot containing eight 
acres, 20 by 4 chains, bounded west by Charles 
Tucker, south by Jonas Wood, and north and east by 
highways. He had also 12 acres of upland " at 
Luke Watson's Point," bounded by Jeffry Jones, 
Caleb Carwithy, the meadows, and a highway ; also 
84 acres of upland " at Rawack," bounded by Peter 
Morse, Samuel Marsh, Sr., David Oliver, and William 
Pilles. He died about 1694.* 

Joseph Osborn (Osbourne, Osburne) and Jeremy 
Osborn were from East Hampton, L. I. They were 
the sons of Goodman Thomas Osborne, one of the 
founders of that town in 1649 or 16.50. He had 
been also one of the founders of New Haven, Conn., 
in 1639, where, in 1643, he wa.s rated at £300, 
and had a family of six. Richard, then of New 
Haven, and afterwards of Fairfield, was his brother. 
Thomas was at Hingham, Mass., in 1635, and le- 
moved to Connecticut before the Pequot war of 1637, 
in which heserved. Thomas, John, Jeremiah, Joseph, 
and Stephen were his sons. The first two settled in 
East Hampton, the others joined the company of 
emigrants to Achter KuU, and were founders of this 
town. Jeremiah was a witness, Aug. 18, 1665, to the 
payment of the money to the Indians for the pur- 
chase of the town. ' He probably died soon alter, as 
his name does not appear among the original Associ- 
ates. His brother Stephen had taken his place be- 
fore 1673. Jeremiah Osborn, who was one of Mr. 
Harriman's parishioners from 1687 to 1705, and after- 
wards became a Quaker, was a son of Stephen, was 
born in 1661, removed to Morris County, and lived to 
an extreme old age. He made a long deposition, 
March 23, 1741, in the celebrated case of Daniel 
Cooper vs. John Crain and others, printed at length 
in the E. T. Bill in Chancery, Schedule X. 

Joseph Osborn received a warrant for 150 acres of 
land, but the returns of the survey are not on record, 
consequently his several parcels of land cannot now 
be located. Stephen had two house-lots, " Lying and 
being in Elizabeth Towne Upon the Mill Creek," 
containing 12 acres, 12 by 10 chains, bounded \V. 
by the creek, S. and E. by highways, and N. by 
an unsurveyed house-lot. One of these two lots 
probably was Jeremiah's. He sold them both, Oct. 
13, 1689, to Joseph Wilson. He had also 12 acres of 
upland on " the little Neck," bounded by Jeremiah 
Peck, Joseph Sayre, John Woodruff, Moses Thomp- 
son, and a swamp ; also 121 acres of upland on " the 
South branch of Elizabeth Towne Creek," bounded 
by Nathaniel Bonnel, Thomas Moore, George Ross, 
and the branch ; also three acres of meadow on the 
E. T. Creek, and 12 acres " in the great Meadows at 
the upper end of Forkey Creek," — in all 160 acres. 
He died July, 1698. Joseph was living in 1707.° 

<N. E. His. and Gen. Register, xii. 53. E. J. Records, ii. 19, 103; 25 
0. e. ; iii. 159. E. T. Bill, p. IDS. Savage, iv. 101 . 

' Savage, iii. 319. Barber's Conn., p. loo. Thompson's L. I., i. 295. 
E. J. Records, ii. 21, 24, 129. E. T. Bill, pp. 106, 108, 113-15. 



George Pack came with the first colonists, but 
whence cannot now be learned. He liad a house-lot 
containing six acres, bounded N. W. by John Little, 
and on the other sides by higlnvays. He had also 30 
acres of upland, bounded by Barnabas Wines, John 
Little, Nicholas Carter, and unsurveyed land; also 
40 acres of upland, bounded by Joseph Sayre, Nich- 
olas Carter, two small brooks, and unsurveyed land ; 
also 4 acres of swamp and 12 acres of meadow on 
" the great River" (the Sound), — in all 118 acres. 
He died February, 1705.' 

Richard Paynter (Painter) was a tailor, who came 
hither from New York, but originally from South- 
ampton. Carter's son was apprenticed to him March 
25, 1 669. His house-lot contained three acres, 10 by 
3 chains, bounded S. by Capt. Philip Carteret, for- 
merly Abraham Sliotwell, and N. E. and W. by high- 
ways. He had also 20 acres of upland, hounded by 
a round hill, the Mill Creek, and Mrs. Baker; also 
96 acres of upland, bounded by Isaac Whitehead, 
Jr., Leonard Headley, Joseph Sayre, and the Mill 
Brook ; also 15| acres of meadow, — in all 134i acres. 
His residence here was of short duration. In the 
winter of 1670-71 he removed to New York, and 
sold, April 3, 1671, his " Plantation with the Dwel- 
ling-House, etc.," to Balthazar De Hart, of New York, 
merchant. De Hart died in January, 1672, and his 
executors sold, July 4, 1672, to Richard Skinner, of 
E. T., " Joyner," the house and i)roperty bought of 
Richard Painter (" wherein the above named Richard 
Skinner now Liveth and was servant unto the said 
Richard Painter and also to the said Balthazer De 
Hart") for £48 ; " £16 in Porke at Three Pounds the 
Barrell, Wheat at lour Shillings the Bushell, Pease 
at three shillings the Bushell Beef in Life at three 
Pence the Pound." Skinner must have forfeited the 
property for want of fulfillment of the conditions of 
jiayment, and it was again sold, March 21, 1681, by 
Daniel De Hart, to George Jewell, then a recent 
comer from Piscataway. Painter was living in 1679 
at Southampton, " on the west street running by the 
swamp. "^ 

John Parker, it is thought, was from the east end of 
Long Island, probably of the Bridgehampton family. 
His house-lot contained six acres, bounded east and 
north by Governor , Carteret, south by the highway, 
and west by Jose|)h Ogden. He had also six acres of 
upland on " the North Neck," bounded by Leonard 
Headley, John Ogden, Jr., and "the Common pas- 
ture;" also 60 acres of upland, bounded by John 
Woodruff, the meadow and the "Common Land;" 
also 12 acres of upland on the west side of Mr. 
Woodruff, and between two swamps; also 12J acres 
of meadow in the same vicinity, — in all 96 acres. His 
house-lot he sold to Carteret, Aug. 15, 1675, for £8, 
probably without improvements. He died in Decem- 

ber, 1702, leaving his property to Robert Smith, of 
Egg Harbor, Widow Sarah Browne, Thomas Headley, 
and "the Church of Christ in Elizabeth Town;" to 
the latter £3.' 

Thomas Pope was an associate in 1644 of Strick- 
land, Ogden, the Dentons, and Jonas Wood in settling 
Hempstead, L. I. He seems to have either accom- 
panied or Ibllowed John Ogden to the east end of the 
island, as in 1652 he had a house-lot of 3 acres " next 
to Mr. Stanbrough," granted him at Southampton. 
His son John also is named among the early settlers 
of that town. His house-lot here was on the south 
side of the creek, adjoining the Governor. He sold it 
February, 1669, to William Pilles. He died previous 
to 1677. Mary, his widow, and her son, John, sold, 
Feb. 25, 1677, their dwelling-house and lot with 60 
acres of upland, for £39, to Benjamin Wade. John 
was one of the eighty Associates. He received March 
28, 1676, a warrant for 100 acres, and July 9, 1686, 
another for 150 acres. Of this last 120 acres were 
located "on Raway River," bounded by the river, 
" Pope's brook" (iu the township of Springfield, near 
Milltown), and unoccupied land. The other 30 acres 
were bounded by Jeffry Jones, William Johnstone, 
and " Common Land." Of the first grant, a plot of 
80 acres was bounded by John Miles, Joseph Frazee, 
and unsurveyed land. He had died in 1713. He 
gave the name to " Pope's Corners.'" 

Benjamin Price was from East Hampton. He came 
to the island, it is thought, with Lion Gardiner, in 
1639. He -subscribed as a witness the deed given 
March 10, 1640, by James Farret, Lord Stirling's 
agent, to Gardiner for the island that has ever since 
borne his name. He settled first at Southampton, 
but in 1649 united with several of his neighbors in 
settling East Hampton. He resided on the east side 
of the main street, not far from Gardiner and the 
Rev. Mr. James, and next to " the Parsonage lot, in 
the hart of the Towne." He took a leading part in 
town affairs, was appointed Oct. 7, 1651, recorder or 
town clerk, and Aug. 1, 1660, was one of the paten- 
tees of Montauk Point. He took an active part in 
furthering the emigration of so many East Enders to 
this locality, and was held in honor by his townsmen 
here. In 1676 he represented the town in the House 
of Burgesses, and was appointed Dec. 13, 1682, one 
of Governor Rudyard's Council; Feb. 4, 1683, jus- 
tice of the peace ; March 28, 1683, one of Governor 
Lawrie's Council ; and Jan. 29, 1693, one of the 
judges of small causes. He outlived the most of 
the founders, his death occurring after Aug. 30, 1705, 
when his will was made, and not later than Oct. 7, 
1712, when it was admitted to probate. 

The locality of his house-lot is not on record. He 
had 24 acres of upland " along the Road Leading to 
the Point," adjoining his son Daniel ; also 50 acres 

1 E. T. Bni.v. i"». E.J. Ho 

2 K .1. lli-u.inln, i. 7, 25, :ili; i 
Hum ell, p. 168. 

• >ril», li. I'.l, 21,00. 
U', 7.i; A. 111. K. T. Bill, pp. 102, 107. 

8 Howell, p. 

* E. .1. Rec.r 

lonV L. I., ii. C 

E. T, Bill, p. lo.i. E. J. i. 14!) ; ii. .-), •-•0, 
. 20: B. ;!7(l; L. 00, 107. E. T. Bill, p. loO. Tliullip- 
..well, pp. aOB, 7. 



of upland adjoining "' Henry Lyon's House," the 
Town Creek, " a Little Creeke on wliich Henry 
Bakers Tannfatt stands," Margaret Baker, Jolin 
Woodruff, Leonard Headley, Epliraim Price, and 
Peter Woolverton ; also 20 acres of upland on the 
Point road, adjoining Margaret Baker; also 120 acres 
of upland near the Great Meadow ; also 9 acres of 
upland in the Great Meadow, north of Capt. Young; 
also 8 acres of upland " on the Long Meadow Island," 
on this side Rahway River; also 25 acres of upland 
on the Point road adjoining Margaret Baker ; also 14 
acres of meadow, — in all 270 acres. 

Benjamin, Jr., his son, was also one of the eighty 
Associates. He was appointed, Ang. 22, 1695, one of 
the justices of the peace. His house lot contained 
six acres, bounded south and east by the highway, 
west by his brother Thomas, and north by Isaac 
Whitehead, Sr. He had also 41 acres of upland, 
bounded by Robert Bond, Joseph Bond, and unsur- 
veyed land ; also 19 acres of upland adjoining his 
father, and unsurveyed land ; also 14 acres of upland 
adjoining his father and Joseph Ogden ; also 88 acres 
of upland " near the Governor's point," bounded by 
his father and Daniel DeHart ; also lOacresof upland, 
bounded by his father and Col. Richard Townley; 
also two acres on " y° way to y' meadows," adjoining 
his father; also ten acres "of Salt Marsh in the 
great Meadow;" also 8 acres of meadow "by the 
Long pond & forked Creek ;" also six acres of meadow 
" on a creek called Long Creek or fforked creek," — in 
all 200 acres.' 

Evan Salsbury, of whose origin nothing certain 
can now be a-scertained, was probably Carwithy's 
friend and associate, coming with him from the east 
end of Long Island. His house-lot adjoined Wil- 
liam Cramer on the southeast. He bought Cramer's 
house-lot and his second lot-right, but sold the two, 
Dec. 26, 1670, to John Little for .£65. He is called 
a " brickmaker," but was bred a carpenter, and had 
previously, it is thought, followed the seas. Capt. 
John Young, of Southold, L. I., sold him, Oct. 4, 1671, 
his shallop of eight tons burden, " or thereabout," 
with all its appurtenances, the mast, sails, rigging, 
cable, anchor, etc., for " 18,000 good Merchantable 
White-Oak pipe Staves," a bond being given for the 
payment, signed by Salsbury, Carwithy, and Cramer. 
The witnesses were Benjamin Price and Joseph Sayre. 
It is quite likely that he and Carwithy, who disap- 
pears from the records about this time, became 
" coasters," and of uncertain residence. Salsbury 
was here when the Dutch enrollment was made in 
1673, but no further mention of him is made.' 

Abraham Shotwell, whose original is nut known, 
was certainly in sympathy with the popular party of 
the town. In the contentions between the people and 

' E.J Records, ii, 21; A. 169; C. 5, 75, 171, 2.3.1; E. 119; I/. 1,19; 0. 
4(1, 105. lUf), UI7. E. T. Dill, pp. 102, IU9. D.ic. His. of N. Y., i. 680, 686. 
Thompson's L I., 29.>, 299. Hedges' E. Hiimplon, pp. 6. 82-84. 

- E. J. Ri-cnrds, i. 2.5-26, 59. E. T. Bill. p. I(l7. 

Carteret, described in succeeding pages, Shotwell was 
bold and outspoken against the Governor's usurpa- 
tions. He became the victim of Carteret's wrath, 
his house and grounds were confiscated, and he him- 
self driven into exile. His house-lot was " next east 
of the mill." In July, 1683, it was thus described: 
"Bounded on the North by Land now in possession 
of George Jewell and runs along by his Fence three 
Chains and one-third of a Chaine from thence run- 
ning upon a South and by a West Line twelve Chains 
to the highway which Leads towards the mill or 
meeting house from thence it runs by the said high- 
way westward three chains and one third part of a 
chain and from thence it runs along by the highway 
that leads from the Mill towards Newark upon a 
North and by East Line Twelve chains Containing in 
all four acres. Also, a small peece more Containing 
One Acre English measure running by the highway 
which Leads from the Mill or meeting house East- 
ward three Chains and one third part of a chain from 
thence it runs downward to tne Creek upon a South 
and by a West Line Three Chains & from thence it 
runs away Westward as the Creek or highway runs, 
three Chains and one third part of a Chaine and 
from thence it runs by the highway which Leads from 
the Mill towards Newark upon a North and by 
Line three Chains." It is easy to identify this prop- 
erty as including the whole east side of Broad 
Street from the stone bridge to a point 792 feet north 
of Elizabeth Avenue, — a most valuable piece of prop- 
erty. Shotwell retired to New York, and appealed to 
the Lords Proprietors. In the mean time he returned 
to his home sustained by his townsmen. His appeal 
was not sustained, and he was informed, by orders 
from the proprietary government, that he must de- 
part the town, and should he return that he would be 
subjected to severe indignities. His property was 
sold at public auction, Aug. 25, 1675, for £12, to 
Thomas Blumfield, carpenter, of Woodbridge, who 
resold it a fortnight later for £14 to Governor Car- 
teret. It was on Shotwell's one-acre lot that the Gov- 
ernor is thought to have built his new house, where 
he resided at the time of his decease. Shotwell ob- 
tained a grant of land from the New York govern- 
ment, and died in exile. Daniel, who settled on 
Staten Island, was probably his son. John, another 
son, married, at New York, October, 1679, Elizabeth 
Burton. After Carteret's removal and death, John 
appealed to Governor Rudyard, who restored him by 
order. May 29, 168.S, the property that had been ar- 
bitrarily wrested from his father. The Shotwell fam- 
ily settled mostly in the south and southwest parts of 
the town.^ 

Michael Simpkin was from Stamford, Conn. Nicho- 
las Simkins in 1634 was captain of the Castle at 
Boston. VincentSimkins (Smiking), a son or brother, 

I »E. J. Records, ii. 19: iii. 64; A. 61; L. 1,4. B. T. Bill, p. 110. N. 
Y. Land Calendar, p. 309. N. Y. Marriages, p. 349. 



probably, of the captain, accompanied the early 
colonists to Wethersfield, and was one of the com- 
pany that bought, Oct. 30, 1640, Rippowams (Stam- 
ford) from the New Haven people, where he married, 
1641, Mary, a daughter of Henry Ackerly. He had 
at least two sons, Daniel and John, most likely 
Michael also. He had died in 1656. Daniel settled 
in Bedford, N. Y., and John, with his widowed 
mother, removed to this town, where the mother 
soon after became the wife of William Oliver. He 
had an allotment of 80 acres of upland on the West 
Brook, bounded by William Cramer and William 
Oliver, a swamp and the "two-mile brook; also 4 
acres of meadow adjoining Aaron Thompson ; also 3 
acres of meadow on " Rawack River;" also 2 acres of 
meadow adjoining Jacob Melyen and George Pack, — 
in all 89 acres. .John died unmarried before Septem- 
ber, 1679, and his mother administered on his estate. 
Michael must have died soon after his coming, as no 
further mention of him is found.' 

Humphry Spinage (Spinning) was from New 
Haven, Conn. He was a nephew of Goodman Hum- 
phrey Spinage, one of the original settlers of New 
Haven, and one of the party that attempted to plant 
a colony on the Delaware in 1651. The nephew took 
the oath of fidelity at New Haven, April 7, 1657; 
and Oct. 14, 1657, married Abigail, the third daughter 
of George and Mary Hubbard, of Guilford, and sister 
of Hannah, the wife of Jacob Melyen. George Hub- 
bard came from England about 1635, and was one of 
the early settlers of Wether.sfield, Conn. He re- 
moved in 1644 to Milford, and in 1648 to Guilford. 
The house-lot of Humphrey Spinning contained four 
acres, 12 by 4 chains, and was bounded northeast 
and east by the rear of the house-lots of his brother- 
in-law, Jacob Melyen, William Johnson, and John 
Winans, and on every other side by a highway. 
He had also twelve acres of upland ''on the Neck," 
bounded by Jeffry Jones, William Johnson, the 
meadows, and a highway ; also 80 acres of upland 
" by Peach Garden Hill," bounded by Jacob Melyen, 
diaries Tucker, Peach Garden Brook, and his own 
meadow; also 40 acres of upland on the south side 
of the branch of Elizabeth River, bounded by Thomas 
Moore, John Winans, the plain, and Elizabeth Creek; 
also 60 acres on the north side of the branch, bounded 
by Benjamin Wade, Thomas Moore, the plain, and 
"the said River into Cranberry meadow;" also 7 
acres of meadow on Peach Garden Brook ; also 6 
acres of meadow on Elizabeth Creek ; also 9 acres on 
" the Point of Rawack Neck," — in all 218 acres. He 
died September, 1689, leaving an estate valued at 
£223 8s. Orf.- 

Thomas Tomson (Thompson) was one of the found- 
ers of East Hampton, L. I., in 1649, having come from 

' Hiuniaii's P. S. Conn., i. 2:i>. Savage, iv. 101. B. J. Kecords, ii. 41, 
102; ■.!4, o. e.; iii. 169. E. T. Bill, p. 109. 

2 N. H. Cul. Keiorde, i. :«i, 140, 202,411. SnYHne, iv. ISO. Chapici's 
Glaatenbuiy, p. 172. E. J. Becoid», il. 19, :)G. E. T. Bill, pp. 106, 118. 

1 Lynn, Mass., by way of New London, Conn. At 
East Hampton he resided on the west side of the 
street, near Robert Bond and the two Mulfords. 
Goodman Thompson was one of the deputies of Eliz- 
abeth Town in the Legislature of 1672. He was active 
in opposing the arbitrary measures of Gov. Carteret, 
and was mulcted for his patriotism. His house-lot 

j contained six acres, bounded north and south by 
Barnabas Wines, west by a highway, and east by 
the Mill Creek. He had also 18 acres of upland 
"on Luke Watson's Neck," bounded by Jacob Mel- 
yen, David Ogden, and a highway; also 52 acres of 
upland, bounded by Stephen Crane. Dennis White, 
George Pack, and his own land ; also 20 acres of up- 
land adjoining the last, bounded by his son Hur, Jo- 
seph Sayre, George Pack, and unsurveyed land; also 
4 acres "in Rawack Meadow ;" also 18 acres of meadow 
on a creek, which was named for him "Thompson's 
Creek," and since "Moris Creek," — in all 118 acres. 
His three sons also were among the original Associ- 
ates. Moses, who took the oath in February, 1666, 
had a wai-rant for 180 acres, but the survey is not on 
record. Aaron came into possession of the homestead 
at his father's death, September, 1676. and had a war- 
rant for 60 acres in his own right, of which no return 
was made. Hur had a house-lot containing four 
acres, bounded south and east by a highway, north 
by Thomas Osborn, and east by unsurveyed land. 
He had also 12 acres of upland, bounded by 
I>eonard Headley, Joseph Osborn, John Wilson, 
and a highway ; also 45 acres of upland, bounded by 
Joseph Sayre, 2 small brooks, and unsurveyed land; 
also 40 acres of upland, bounded by Benjamin Meeker, 
a small brook, and the common ; also 45 acres of up- 
land, bounded by William Pardon, a small brook, the 
West Brook, and unsurveyed land ; also 6 acres of 
meadow on the bay, 4 acres on Woodrufl''s Creek, 
and 10 acres more, — in all 161 acres. The father's 
estate at his death was valued at £152 los. Gd.^ 

William Trotter came from Newbury, Mass. It 
may have been at his suggestion that so many of his 
former townsmen came on in the course of 1666-67 
and settled the town of Woodbridge. His house-lot 
contained four acres, bounded east and west by a 
highway, south by Peter Morse, and north by Ste- 
phen Crane ; also an addition of two acres, bounded 
east by the river, and on the other sides as the house- 
lot; also 13 acres of upland, bounded north and west 
by Robert Morse, south and east by "Elizabeth Town 
brook ;" also 138 acres of upland, bounded by William 
Broadwell, a swamp, and unsurveyed land ; also 23 
acres of meadow in "the Common Meadow," — in all 
180 acres. In 1676 he had died. His name was given 
to a bridge in the northern part of the town plot.' 
Charles Tucker (Tooker) was also a New Eng- 

s Hedge's E. Haniptun, pp. 4, 44. E. J. Records, ii. 21, 24, 29, 104; 26 
o. e. E. T. Bill, pp. 104, 10.5. 

< Savage, iv. :132. Coffin's Newlmry, pp. 62, 116. E. J. Kecords, ii. 
60; L. 85. 



lander, coming liither with tlie East Enders of Long 
Island. His parentage has not been determined. 
He was probably the son (or may have been the 
brother) of John Tooker,ofSouthold, residing as early 
as 1655 in that part of the town that was called River- 
head, originally from the vicinity of Boston, Mass., 
and made a freeman at Southold Oct. 9, 16G2. Charles 
had a house-lot containing eight acres, bounded north 
by the highway, east by William Oliver, west by Caleb 
Carwithy, and south by " the Swamp in Common ;" 
also 21 acres of meadow on Thompson's Creek, and 
adjoining "the great island." He had at first a plot 
of upland containing 86 acres; but as this was found 
by survey to be included in Jacob Melyen's allot- 
ment, he obtained in lieu 69 acres of upland on the 
two-mile brook. He had also a parcel of land called 
" Peach Garden Hill," containing 86 acres, bounded 
by Capt. John Baker, Humphrey Spinage, Peach 
Garden Brook, and the Common, — in all 184 acres.' 

Nathaniel Tuttle (Tuthill) was from Southold, L. I. 
His father, John Tuthill, and uncle, William, were 
from Norfolkshire, England. The latter came over 
in 1635 in the " Planter," landing at Boston. The 
two brothers settled at New Haven in 1639-40. John 
came to Southold in 1641 with the Rev. John Youngs. 
In 1647 he was one of the four patentees of Oyster 
Ponds, L. I. Nathaniel came here with the first 
emigration, probably a young and unmarried man. 
His house-lot contained six acres, bounded north by 
William Pardon, east by the Mill Creek, southeast by 
Aaron Thompson and Barnabas Wines (a small hol- 
low and a highway lying between), west and south 
another highway. He had also 12 acres of upland 
on the south side of Crane's Brook, adjoining Rich- 
ard Beach ; also 34 acres of upland adjoining George 
Pack and William Pardon ; also 75 acres, bounded 
by Richard Beach, William Pardon, Stephen Crane, 
Robert Morse, and the Mill Creek; also 6 acres on 
"the great river" (the Sound), near "the Points of 
Rawack ;" also 20 acres of meadow on the west of 
Thompson's Creek, — in all 153 acres. At his death, 
February, 1696, his estate was valued at £107 3.«. Orf.^ 

Robert Vauquellin and his wife came over with 
Governor Carteret in the ship " Philip," landing 
July 29, 1665, at New York. He was a native of the 
city of Caen, Lower Normandy, France, and a grand- 
son, doubtless, of Jean Vauquellin de la Fresuaye, 
lieutenant-general of the bailiwick of Caen, and 
chief justice of that country, whose decease occurred 
1606, in his seventy-first year. Robert is styled in 
the East Jersey Records " Sieur des Prairies [des la 
Prairie], of the city of Caen, France," whence he is 
commonly called in the records and other documents 
of the day " Laprairie."' In modern histories he is 

> E. J. Records, 
L. I,i. 4()9. 
= E. J. Records, 

177: ii. 3, 

E. T. 

Bill, p. 1U5. Thompson's 
Savage, iv. 350. 

more frequently but erroneously called Van Quellin, 
as if he had been a Dutchman and not a Frenchman. 
Jersey, the home of the Carteret family, was inhab- 
ited principally by Frenchmen, and there, most prob- 
ably, Vauquellin resided before his emigration. He 
accompanied Capt. Philip Carteret, January, 1665, 
to England, and Feb. 10, 1665, was appointed by 
Berkeley and Carteret surveyor-general of their new 
domain in America. The surveys recorded in the Jersey Records from 1675 to 1681 all bear his 
signature, generally " Ro Vauquellin," and sometimes 
" La Prairie." He was appointed, Feb. 2, 1666, one 
of Carteret's Council, and adhered faithfully to the 
Governor's party and interests. Though admitted 
by the town as one of the eighty Associates, he had 
scarcely any interest in common with these sturdy 

He had a warrant for 300 acres of land " in Right 
of him and his wife that came with the Governor." 
He had a house-lot containing 12 acres, 30 by 4 
chains, bounded east by Philip Carteret, Esq., and 
Richard Pewtinger, west by William Pardon, Joseph 
Meeker, Benjamin Meeker, and George Morris, south 
by a highway, and north by his own land; also 8 
acres of upland or swamp, bounded by George Mor- 
ris, Richard Pewtinger, Henry Norris, and a high- 
way ; also 4 acres of upland "near the Gov'' point, 
on the S. Side of Math. Hatfeilds Line ;" also 40 
acres of upland, bounded by John Woodruff, Benja- 
min Parkhurst, Samuel Moore, George Morris, and a 
highway ; also 40 acres of upland " at Rawack," 
bounded by Simon Rouse, Samuel Marsh, Jr., un- 
surveyed land, a small brook, and "Rawack River;' 
also 40 acres of upland "at the two mile brook;" 
also 27 acres of upland, bounded by Leonard Head- 
ley, Joseph Sayre, Isaac Whitehead, Joseph Meeker, 
unsurveyed land, and the Mill Creek ; also 4 acres of 
meadow on Elizabeth Town Creek, 4 acres on "Rawack 
River," and 12 acres "on a small branch in Rawack 
River," — in all 191 acres. A caveat or protest was 
entered by Benjamin Price against the four acres 
adjoining Matthias Hatfield. He was naturalized 
March 8, 1669-70. Finding at length that the Puri- 
tanic townsmen with whom he was compelled to a.sso- 
ciate were anything but congenial company, he 
concluded to change his residence. In 1678 he had 
removed to Woodbridge. He obtained, Feb. 4, 1681, 
a warrant for 200 acres of land and meadow on the 
Rarjtan for himself, " in Right of two men Servants 
and one Woman, viz. : Elizabeth Hallard, Edward 
fox & Francis the Spaniard ;" also, shortly after, 
another warrant for 500 acres on the Raritan. He 
had obtained a patent for 175 acres in Woodbridge 
as early as Dec. 20, 1669. He received a warrant 
March 10, 1687, for 200 more acres adjoining his own 

, i. ICO; ii. 19, 24. E. T. Bill, p. lO.-!. 

., i. 374, 3SC. 

of orlliojcniphy at this period are sliown by the fact that 

riUeii in itt IhtisI twenty-two dififereiil ways: Vanquelio, 

Vatiqnfllin. Vaiiffnellin, Van Qnellin. Vanquillin, Voclin (as pro- 
nounced). Vnclan, Vorklaiti, La Prairie, La prairy, La prarij Laparary, 
La prerie. La Pi-ie, La priere, Leprary, Liprary, Delaprary, Delepray, 
Deleprierre, Detapairs, and Delapierre. 



land in Woodbridge. After this no furtiier mention 
is made of liim in the records. 

Dennis White was from Soutliampton, L. I. John 
White, the first settler of this name there, was at 
Lynn, Mass., in 1630, and at Southampton in 1647. 
Dennis was either his son or his brother. He had a 
house-lot containing nine acres, bounded east by 
Thomas Moore, Matthias Hatfield, and unsurveyed 
land, south-southeast by Jonas Wood, west and 
northwest by highways. He had also 90 acres of up- 
land adjoining Aaron Thompson, also 12 acres of 
meadow, — in all 101 acres. In 1675 this property had 
come into the possession of Governor Carteret. It is 
likely, therefore, that Dennis White had removed 
from the town previous to thatdate, as nothing more is 
heard of him. Robert White (his brother it is thought) 
wa.s also numbered among the eighty Associates, and 
had come in at an early date. His house-lot con- 
tained 8 acres, bounded southwest by Roger Lambert, 
northeast by John Little, southeast by William 
Letts, and northwest by a highway. He had also 
50 acres of upland, bounded " by a little brook & a 
highway that goes to Woodbridge," John Winans, his 
own land, unsurveyed land, and the mile brook; also 
34 acres of upland adjoining Jonas Wood ; also 4 
acres of swamp, and 12 acres of meadow, — in all 108 
acres, granted him " in Right of himself, his wife, & 
Daughter." The latter, whose name was Ann, was 
old enough in March, 1676, to be married. His wife, 
Agatha, had become a widow in 1688.' 

Isaac Whitehead was of the New Haven company 
of immigrants. He was the son of John, one of the 
founders of New Haven. Isaac was a planter there 
as early as 1643, and took the oath of fidelity March 
7, 1648. He resided on the east side, next the sea, be- 
yond the Cove River. He came hither with a wife and 
seven children. He was chosen the first town clerk, 
and served as such until his death. He was appointed, 
March 22, 1680, captain of the military company ; 
also, March 28, 1683, one of the judges of small 
causes, also in 1686 ; also, Dec. 3, 1683, coroner of 
the county. He had a house-lot containing six acres, 
bounded southeast by Nathaniel Bonnell, northwest 
by his son Isaac, northeast by his own land, and 
southwest by a highway. He had also 18 acres of 
upland, bounded by his son Isaac, Benjamin Price, 
Jr., Nathaniel Bonnell, and his own house-lot; also 
12 acres of upland "at the W. side of the plain," 
bounded by Robert Vauquellin, Samuel Hopkins^and 
Joseph Meeker; also 20 acres of upland (m "the 
Long Neck," bounded by Robert Bond, Benjamin 
Price, Jr., Nicholas Carter, and Henry Lyon ; also 
45 acres of upland adjoining Benjamin Meeker and 
Henry Lyon ; also 55 acres of upland "at the great 
pond," bounded by Rev. Jeremiah Peck, Henry Lyon, 
and "the Sinking Marsh;" also 8 acres of meadow 

, 310. Thompson's 
286, ^87. B. .1. RpcordB, i 1 60 , o. e 
C. C. 64. E. T. Bill.pp 100, 110. 

L. I., i. »>.1. Hnwfll, pp. 15, 89, 96, 
1; ii :l,19,51,73; o.e.4; B.38S,384; 

on Woodruff's Creek ; also 10 acres of meadow on 
"Arthur Cull's bay;" also 3i acres of meailow on 
East Town Creek, — in all 177} acres. His decease 
occurred in February, 1691. 

His eldest son, Isaac, born at New Haven, Nov. 20, 
1652, was bred a cordwainer, and early became one of 
the As.sociates. He, too, was held in much consider- 
ation ; he became, Nov.4, 1693, captain of the militia ; 
was appointed, Sept. 16, 1692, sheriff of the town; 
also, .Ian. 29, 1693, one of the judges of small causes; 
also, April 1, 1693, coroner for the county ; and Aug. 
22, 1695, a justice of the peace for Essex. He had 
a house-lot containing four acres, bounded east by 
his father, and on the other sides by highways; also 
another house-lot of six acres, bounded north and 
west by his father, east by Thomas Price, and south 
by a highway ; also 64 acres of upland "on the East 
Side of the Mill Creek of Elizabeth Town," bounded 
by Jonathan Ogden, John Ogden, Jr., and Baltus De 
Hart; also 65 acres of upland "to the Northward of 
the Spring hill," bounded by Henry Lyon and Mar- 
garet Baker; also 35 acres of upland "on the North 
sideof the Country road to Woodbridge," bounded by 
John Toe, James Hinds, Robert White, and Roger 
Lambert; also 6 acres of fresh meadow, adjoining 
John Woodruff; also 20 acres of meadow, a part " on 
Sloping Creek," and another part on "Oyster Creek," 
—in all 200 acres. He died July 1, 1724.' 

John Winans (Wynes, Waynes, Winons, Winnons, 
Wynons, Wynens, Wynans, Wynnings) was doubt- 
less of the company that came from the east end of 
Long Island. It is quite likely that he was of the 
same family with Barnabas Wines, their names being 
frequently spelt alike. He was bred a weaver, a 
handicraft in great request at that early day. He 
had a house-lot containing 5 acres, 10 by 5 chains, 
bounded N. by Jacob Melyen, W. by Humphrey 
Spinage, and S. and E. by highways. He had also 
16 acres of upland "on the Neck," between Matthias 
Hatfield and Samuel Marsh, Sr. ; also 120 acres of 
upland "on Peach Garden Brook," bounded by 
Robert Morse, Matthias Hatfield, Robert White, and 
unsurveyed land ; also 40 acres of land on " the S. 
branch of Elizabeth Creek or River," bounded by 
Humphrey Spinage, Matthias Hatfield, and the plain ; 
also 4 acres of meadow " at Ravvack," and 6 acres 
on Elizabeth Creek, — in all 200 acres. When his next 
neighbor, Jacob Melyen, had removed to New York, 
Winans bought, Feb. 8, 1678, his house-lot, house, 
barn, orchard, etc. He died at the close of 1694. 
His estate was valued at £271 15s. f>d? 

Barnabas Wines (Wynes, Winds) was from South- 
old, L. I. He was the son of Goodman Barnabas, 
who was made, May 6, 1635, a freeman of Water- 
town, Mass., sold out in 1642, and removed to South- 

8 N. H. Col. Records, i. 94, 122. 12S, 1.19, 434, 446, 4,')9. Savage, iv. 
IB. E . I. Records, li. 18,94; o. e. L'4 ; C. 13. 106, 1.50, 171,233: K. 46, 
17; L. 70; 0. 104, 108, 117. E. T. Bill, pp. :i3, 34, lO). 

3 E. J. Records, i. 108, 101 ; ii. 22, 37 ; D. 197. E. T. Bill, p. 105. 



old, where Barnabas, Jr., was made a freeman in 
1664. His brother Samuel remained with his father, 
but he himself joined the Achter Kuil band of emi- 
grants and came here in 1665. His house-lnt con- 
tained six acres, bounded N. by Aaron Thompson, 
S. by William Cramer, E. by the Mill River, and 
W. by a hifrhway ; also two acres of upland adjoin- 
ing Aaron Thompson; also four acres of upland "at 
Luke Watson's point;" also 30 acres of upland "in 
a Swamp between Richard Beach and William-Cra- 
mer;" also 86 acres of upland, bounded by Nicholas 
Carter, George Pack, Francis Barber, and unsurveyed 
land ; also 12 acres of upland " Joyning to the Calf 
pasture" and George Ross ; also six acres of meadow 
at Thompson's Creek ; also six acres of meadow at the 
S. side of E. T. Creek, and 12 acres by "the hoggish 
meadow," — in all 164 acres.' 

Peter Wolverson (Wolferzen, Wolphertsen) Van 
Couwenhoven was a genuine Hollander from New 
Amsterdam. He was born at Amersfoort, in Utrecht, 
Holland, and was a step-son of Wolfert Gerritsen, 
who emigrated to New Netherland in 1680 as over- 
seer of Kilian Van Rensselaer's colony at Rensse- 
laerwyck, near Fort Orange. Gerritsen in 1633 
entered the company's service, and removed to New 
Amsterdam. Three years Jifterwards he took up his 
abode at New Amersfoort, or Flathinds, L. I., of 
which he was one of the founders. Young Wolfer- 
zen, in 1639, or earlier, came to New Amsterdam, 
where at that time he contracted to build a house 
for Thomas Hall. The next year, Dec. 2, 1640, he 
married Hester Symons, a native of Amsterdam, but 
then of New York. His brother Jacob, also a resi- 
dent of New Amsterdam, erected in 1645 a brewery 
in Stone Street. Peter, too, became a brewer and a t 
general trader, first in company with his brother, and ! 
then by himself, at the N. W. corner of Whitehall ! 
and Pearl Streets. He served one term of two years i 
and four terms of a year each as one of the '" Wor- | 
shipful Schepens" of the city. In March, 1655, he j 
was appointed city surveyor ; also, June 30, 1663, a ' 
lieutenant of the military company of which Martin 
Kregier was captain. As such he did good service in 
the Esopus war, in the latter part of 1663, of which 
Kregier published a detailed narrative. 

After the English conquest, Wolferzen had some 
difficulty with the Court of Assizes, and concluded to 
unite with his friends, John Ogden and Capt. Baker, 
in founding their new colony. In November, 1665, 
his wife having died, he married Alice Sybrants, of 
French extraction, with whom he removed at once to 
his new home. She died the following year, in giv- 
ing birth to her son Peter, and was buried at New 
York. Her child was baptized in the Dutch Church, 
Feb. 27. 1669. In the list of Associates he is called 
" Peter Couenhoven." Having built a brewery, he 

1 N. H Col. Rwords, i. 97, 2»2 4(iO. 
Conn., i, 198. K. .1. Ricnl:-. ii. 2J, 9n; 

. 59:i. Hinman's P. S. 

obtained from Governor Carteret a license " for the 
keeping of an Ordinary in Elizabeth Towne, and for 
the selling and retailing of all sorts of drink and 
strong Liquors," for one year from Sept. 29, 1666. 
To meet his expenditures he borrowed, July 12, 1667, 
of the G'lvernor, "2727 gilders 17 stivers," mort- 
gaging, as he says, " all my Land dwelling hows and 
out houses, Brewhows, Copper and all other appur- 
tenances thereunto belonging, together With all my 
goods and cattle moveable and unmoveable that I now 
have or may hereafter have in Elizabeth Towne." 
When the Dutch reconquered New York, Wolferzen 
returned to the city, and Carteret came, by fore- 
closure, into possession of the property. He is said 
to have been " well versed in the Indian language." 

He was entitled to 480 acres, for which the Gov- 
ernor issued a warrant March 14, 1675, to himself. 
Of this amount 200 acres were surveyed April 14, 
1677, as follows : The house-lot, " formerly belonging 
to Peter Woolverson," contained eight acres, "being 
a triangle piece" near John Woodruff's landing by a 
small creek; also 40 acres of upland on the neck, 
bounded S. W. " by the highway that goes to the 
point, and all round by Governor Philip Carteret's 
land ;" also 152 acres of upland " towards the 
plaine," bounded by Daniel De Hart, Elizabeth Creek, 
Leonard Headley, and unsurveyed land ; also 3 acres 
of meadow, adjoining the house-lot on Elizabeth 
Creek ; also 6 acres of meadow on " the bay of Kill 
von Kull," and 15 acres of meadow on Oyster Creek 
and the great pond, — in all 224 acres.^ 

Jonas Wood and his wife Elizabeth were neigh- 
bors of John Ogden in 1652, at North Sea, or North- 
ampton, in the town of Southampton, L. I. Jonas 
and Edward Wood were members of the church at 
Watertown, Mass., in 1635, and with John Strickland 
and others, were dismissed May 29, 1635, to plant a 
colony on the Connecticut River, to which they gave 
the name of " Wethersfield." In 1640, Jonas, Ed- 
ward, Jeremiah, and Jonas, Jr., removed from Weth- 
ersfield, and with others settled Rippowams (Stam- 
ford), Conn. Jonas and Edward are thought to have 
been brothers, and the other two their sons. In the 
spring of 1644 they joined the colony that crossed 
over to Long Island and settled Hempstead, Jonas 
being one of the patentees. Jonas and Jonas, Jr., 
subsequently settled at Huntington, L. I., and were 
both living there in 1675. The Jonas, therefore, who 
accompanied John Ogden to Northampton, and in 
1665 to this town, must have been a son of Edward 
and a cousin of Jonas, Jr., supposing the latter, as is 
most natural, to have been the son of Jonas, Sr., 
there being three persons contemporaneous bearing 
the same name, and thus occasioning confusion in 

2 Valenlinp's N. T , pp 89. 90. O'aulaghan'a N. Neth., ii. 476, 479, 500. 
Br.iiihPiid'8 N. T., i. :i53. .^)8, 571, 712-14. Doc. Hi«. of N. Y., iv. 47-89. 
Valentine's Man. for I8.)2, pp. 3'.l3-9i. Alb. Records,!. 156, 22:i; ii. 4; 
iv.l93: X. 170. 39:!; xxiii. 227. E. J, Records, i 167; ii. 19, 50, 55; iii. 
10,11. E.T.Bill, p. 109. Riker's Newtown, pp. .55. 360, .361. 



tracing their genealogy. He appears to have been | 
much respected by his townsmen here. He received ! 
license July 10, 1(579, to keep an ordinary, and was 
chosen Nov. 3, 1693, and again in lt)94, a deputy to 
represent the town in the Legislature. 

He had a house-lot containing six acres, bounded 
northwest by Richard Mitchell, southvyest by William 
Letts, southeast by the highway, and northeast by 
Samuel Marsh, Sr. He had also nine acres of upland, 
bounded by William Oliver, Charles Tucker, Richard 
Clarke, and CJeorge Ross ; also 3 acres of upland ad- 
joining Dennis White and the Common ; also 150 
acres of upland at " Rahawack," adjoining Jeffry 
Jones and Capt. John Baker; also 50 acres of up- 
land, " a Ridge of Land between two Swamps," ad- 
joining Robert White and tlie Common ; also six 
acres of meadow on Elizabeth Creek, bounded by 
William Johnson, William Cramer, and Richard 
Clark ; also 14 acres of meadow adjoining his ujiland 
at " Rahawack." and 10 acres of meadow on " Raha- 
wack River," — in all 228 acres. Several of these 
parcels he exchanged May 29, 1678, with Simon 
Rouse. In company with his son Samuel he pur- 
chased, June 24, 1686, several parcels of Robert 
Morse, and sold Aug. 25, 1686, a part of his patent; 
also June 29, 1687, 100 acres to " Andrise Prise Gaer, 
of E. T. ;" and Oct. 17, 1688, the half of his house-lot 
to James Emott, Esq., a new-comer in 1683.' 

John Woodruff (Woodrofe) wasof the Southampton 
colony. He was the son of John Woodruff, who was 
living, 1667, on the E. side of the street, between 
Thomas Burnett and John Foster. The father died 
at Southampton in May, 1670. In his will, May 
4, 1670, is this bequest : " I give unto my Eldest son 
John Woodruff of Elizabeth Town one halfe Crowne 
piece of Money in full of all portions & Patrimony 
whatsoever, to be expected from mee, or out of any 
part of my Estate." At the close of will he says, 
"I by this make my Wife Anne Woodruff and my 
youngest son John Woodruff' joynt Executors of this 
my Last Will and Testament." Here are two sons 
of the same father named "John." Were they chil- 
dren of the same mother also? Or was one of them 
an adopted son?' His daughter Elizabeth was mar- 
ried to a son of Ralph Dayton (probably Robert), of 
East Hampton. His daughter Anne was married to 
a son of Robert Wooley. Tlie emigrant son brought 
with him to this town his wife Mary, with " two men 
and a maid servant." His children were born after 
his arrival. He was appointed constable of the town 
Dec. 11, 1674, ensign July 15, 1675, and sheriff of the 
county Nov. 28, 1684. 

His house-lot contained but \\ acres, bounded W. 

1 Conn. Col. Records, i. 2, 172, 174, 190, 192, 27fi, 281. 28:1, :)79, 3»(l, 401. 
Chapin's Glasteiibury, pp, 27, 47. Hinnian's P. S. of Conn., i. 18, 2:)2, 4b5. 
Thonipsc.n's L. I., i. iM, 467: ii. 5, 6, 105. HoWfll, p. :i05. E.J. Rec 
10: iii. 158 : B. 46, 121, 1:)2 : D. 48. E. T. 

ord», i. 76. 109, 154; 
B.ll, p. 1U5. 

1 reliited in tbe Shattuck family of Saybruok, Codu., 

Sliatluck Memorial, p. 72. 

by John Ogden, and on the other sides by highways, 
lie had also "a Farme cont« Two Hundred Ninety 
two Acres," since known as " Woodruff's Farms," 
bounded N. and W. by a great swamp, E. by the 
common meadow, and S. by a small brook and John 
Parker ; also 14 acres on the North Neck ; also 5 
acres bounded by the common pasture, his own land, 
a small bnjok, and Leonard Headiey ; also 8 acres of 
upland, bounded by the Governor and Jonathan and 
Joseph Ogden's house-lots ; also 6 acres of upland 
joining John Parker's house-lot "at the Farmes," 
bounded by John Parker, the common swamp, John 
Wilson, and his own land, "through which a way 
must be Left for John Parker to through to his 
Plantation;" also 30 acres of meadow, joining the 
great island and his own land ; also 4 acres of meadow 
adjoining the above ; and oh acres of meadow on Eliza- 
beth Town Creek, — in all 320 acres. Still later he ob- 
tained 120 acres more, — an island or hammock in the 
greatmeadow, containing36 acres ; also 22 acres by the 
brook in the swamp ; also 30 acres of hassocks adjoin- 
ing George Morris ; also 14 acres of hassocks adjoin- 
ing John Parker ; also 9 acres of meadow on Oyster 
Creek ; also five acres of meadow on the bay, and 
four acres on Forked Creek.' 

Capt. Thomas Young and Christopher Young were 
from Southold, L. I. They were sons of tlie Rev. 
John Youngs, the first pastor of the Southold Church. 
The father was born in 1602, and Joan, his wife, in 
1603. They married early, and had six children in 
1637, — John, Thomas, Anne, Rachel, Mary, and Jo- 
seph. Christopher was born at a later date. John 
Young, in 1637, was the minister of "St. Margretts, 
Suff." in England. They sought. May 11th, " to passe 
fo Salam in New England to inhabitt ;" but leave was 
refused. Three years later they succeeded, and with 
some of their church came to New Haven, whence 
they crossed to Long Island and founded Southold. 
John and Thomas were both mariners in command 
of coasters. Thomas was born, 1627, in England, and 
married, at Southold, Rebecca, a daughter of Thomas 
Mapes. In 1654 he removed to Oyster Bay. His 
wife died, and he married, 1658, Sarah, a daughter of 
John Frost. 

It is quite probable that it was in Capt. Thomas 
Young's vessel that the first colonists from the towns 
on tbe east end of Long Island removed to this place, 
and in the same way others afterwards came, encour- 
aged by the good reports brought them by Capt. 
Young of the new home so happily found by their 
old neighbors. 

His name heads the list of those who took the oath 
of allegiance, February, 1666. On the 12th of the 
same month he was appointed one of the Governor's 
Council. Two days afterwards, John Day, cooper, of 
Elizabeth Town, binds himself as a servant to Capt. 

3 N. y. Book of WilU, i. 131. Howell, p. 306. E. J. Records, i. 150 ; 
i. 14, 25 ; iii. 20, 23, 105 ; h. 406 ; U. 87 ; L. 1U3, 104. E. T. Bill, p. 102. 



Philip Carteret and Capt. Thomas Young, of Eliza- 
beth Town, for two years in the craft or trade of a 
cooper, to receive " competent meat Drink and house- 
room," and " the halfe p" of What Coopers Work he 
shall doe and earne." By indenture, March 25, 1672, 
Scwanam, a Long Island Indian, binds himself to 
" Thomas Young of Elizabeth Town, mariner," as his 
servant for four years, "about the House or Family 
or abroad whether by Land or Water," on condition 
of being supplied " with sufficient Meat Drink and 
Clothes Washing and Lodging according to his Rank 
and Qualitj'," to receive for his services a mare, and 
" after the first voyage to Europe or Barbados one 
suit of apparel." It thus appears that Capt. Young 
wiis in the European and West India trade, and quite 
a venturesome navigator for the times. 

He had a warrant for 240 acres of land, of which 
only 112 acres are described; 100 acres at Young's 
Point, bounded on three sides by Sir George and 
Philip Carteret, a great pond, and unsurveyed land, 
and on the other side by meadow, one line running 
" along the meadow till it comes to a point of laud 
near the Indian wigwam ;" also 12 acres of meadow 
contiguous to the above, the great pond, and the 
swampy meadows. The locality was chosen, doubt- 
less, because of his seafaring pursuits. It was at the 
junction of Achter Kull Sound and Newark Bay, a 
point of land then called "Thomas Young's Point," 
but in later years " De Hart's Point," about a mile 
north from the Governor's or "Old Point," where 
the Carterets had most of the land. A lot of land 
was laid out for him, in 1676, on the south side of 
Staten Island, northeast of " Seedar Poynte." His 
brother Christopher sold, Nov. 20, 1667, all his ac- 
commodations at Elizabeth Town, being a first lot- 
right and a house-lot of four acres, bounded south 
by George Pack, north by the Common, west " by 
the highway that goeth to Woodbridge," and east 
by another highway, to Dennis White for £10. 
On the 8th of June following White assigned it to 
Young again, by whom, not long afterwards, it was 
sold to John Little. Neither of the brothers became 
permanent residents here. Capt. Thomas returned 
to Oyster Bay, where he rested from his earthly pil- 
grimage in 1689. Christopher returned to the island, 
and settled at Southold, his former home, where he 
was living in 1675 and 1683.' 

Benjamin Concklin came with his East Hampton 
neighbors, but for some unexplained cause soon after 
returned to his former home. .Joseph and Joshua 
Concklin, of the same lineage, came here some forty 
years later, and founded the Concklin family of this 
town. They were probably children or grandchildren 
of the Benjamin here noticed." '' 

1 4 Mass. His. Soc. Coll., i. 101 : ii. .'iSS. Thompson's L. I., i. 395; ii. 
381-.i8.3. E. J. Recoriis, i. 1, 2.1, :!fi; ii. 18, 105; (i.e.2fi; iii.7, 8. E. T.Bill, 
pp. 61, 109, no. New York Doc. Histoiy, ii. 451, 455, 5.16. 

■ Hedgps' E. Haniptiiii, pp. 4, 03. Tbumpsuu's L. I., i. 295, 310. Littell's 
Passaic Valley, pp. 8.)-!>0, 500-501. 

Roderick Powell was a servant, and in the May 
following, having run away from his master, is de- 
scribed as "a pitiful fellow." A Richard Powell, of 
another lineage doubtless, was here only a few years 
later, to whom the Governor sold, January, 1678, his 
Woodbridge lands, taking Powell's Elizabeth Town 
house and lands in exchange, and selling the latter 
soon after to Henry Lyon.' 

■Jacob Clais, Zachary Graves, Moses Peterson, and 
Thomas Skilhnan, svho all took the oath, were either 
transient persons, or were mere laborers, and not 

Three other names at least are to be added to the 
list of those who were settlers during the first year, — 
James Bollen, Robert Sealey, and Philip Carteret. 

James Bollen came, over, it is thought, with the 
English fleet in 1664. As he was styled "captain," 
he may have been in command of one of the vessels. 
Col. Nicolls appointed him " Commissary of the 
Ammunition" at New York. He was one of those who 
were deputed by Nicolls to receive the surrender of 
the fort at New Amsterdam, Sept. 8, 1664. He re- 
mained at New York until August, 1665. In the 
court records for that year it appears that he fre- 
quently served as foreman of the jury, his name 
being written "Bullaine" and "Balline." When 
Capt. Carteret, on his first voyage to America, arrived 
at " Newjjortes newes, Virginia," he sent his dis- 
patches, June 13, 1665, "to Capt. James Bullaigne in 
New York," indicating previous acquaintanceship, 
probably in the island of Jersey, and quite likely a 
French extraction for Bollen. He attached himself 
to Governor Carteret on his arrival at New York, and 
as secretary of the new province accompanied him in 
August to Elizabeth town. He adhered most rigidly 
to the Governor through his troublesome administra- 
tion, and was rewarded with the entire confidence of 
his superior. He was appointed justice of the peace, 
Jan. 20, 1666, and as such ofiiciated in almost every 
instance in the marriage services of the period. He 
presided at the town-meeting when the oath of alle- 
giance was administered in February. He kept the 
records of the proprietary government, and several 
of the early volumes are the work of his fingers. 
Becoming exceedingly obnoxious to the town by his 
readiness to do all the Governor's bidding in opposi- 
tion to the people, he exchanged properties, Sept. 30, 
1673, with John Martin, of Woodbridge, and thence- 
forward ceased to reside here. His house-lot adjoined 
Abraham Shotwell's on the east. Martin .sold the 
property, Nov. 6, 1674, to Henry Lyon, who resold it 
May 1, 1675, " together with the Cow Yard Orchard 
or Garden," to Carteret for £30. He died intestate in 
March, 1683, having survived his friend Carteret but 
a few weeks.* 

3 E J. Eecords, i. 98, 131 ; iii. 8. 

<N. Y. Col. Dociuts, ii. 470; iii. 29:i-300, 752. Valentine's Manual 
for 18.52, pp. 483, 492, 496. 3 Mass. His. Soc. Coll., x. 82. E. J. Records, 
i. 89; iii. 6; A. 1. 



Robert Sealey (Seeley) came over probably with 
Winthrop. He was at Watertown, Mass., in 1630; 
was employed as surveyor in 1634 ; came to Wetliers- 
field, Conn., in 1636; was a lieutenant in the Pequot 
war of 1637 ; was one of the first settlers of New 
Haven in 1639; returned to England about 1646; 
came back and joined the Delaware Colony that was 
driven off by the Dutch in 1651 ; had command of the 
troops raised by New Haven to resist the Dutch in 
1654; was at Saybrook in 1662; was at Huntington, 
L. I., and in charge of the militia in 1663; and was 
at New York iu 1664. The next year he united with 
Ogden and others in settling Elizabethtovvn. His 
house-lot contained six acres, bounded north by Rev. 
Jeremiah Peck, west by the Mill Creek, east by the 
highway, and south by "the Parson's house Lott." 
John and Nathaniel Seeley, of Fairfield (1657), and 
Obadiah, of Stamford, Conn., it is thought, were his 
sons by his first wife. In December, 1666, he married 
Nancy Walker, at New York. He died intestate in 
October, 1668, and his widow sold, Nov. 2, 1668, his 
lands and rights here for £45 to Governor Carteret 
The latter resold it Feb. 22, 1669-70, to one of his old 
Jersey friends, Claude Vallot, "of Champagne, in the 
kingdom of France," who had come over with the 
Governor, and having lived here five years as one of 
Carteret's " menial servants," had 12 days before been 
naturalized. In the list of Associates "Sealy Cham- 
pain" is mentioned; it should be "Robert Sealy, 
transferred to Claude Vallot, of Champagne." Vallot 
exchanged the property Aug. 8, 1672, with Benjamin 
Parkhurst, of Woodbridge, and thenceforward made 
the latter place his home.' 

Capt. Philip Carteret, the Governor, is usually 
styled "the brother" of Sir George Carteret. Philip, 
the brotherof Sir George, died in 1665. Consequently 
the Elizabeth Town Philipcould not be the proprietor's 
brother. Nor could he be a brother-in-law. Lady 
Elizabeth Carteret, the wife of Sir George, had also 
a brother Philip, but he died in 1662. The mother 
of Sir George was Elizabeth Dumaresque, and the 
mother of the Lady Elizabeth was Ann Dowse, but 
Capt. Philip, the Governor, in his will speaks of his 
mother as " Rachel." Samuel Maverick, one of the 
royal commissioners, who knew Governor Carteret 
intimately, says, June 29, 1669, " As Sir George Car- 
terett writes to his cosen, the present Gouernor." The 
confusion may have been owing in part to the fact 
that each of them was the son of a Helier Carteret. 
But the father of Sir George was the great-grandson 
of Edward, and the father of Philip was the great- 
grandson of Edward's brother Richard, so that Sir 
George was but the fourth cousin of the Governor. 

Philip Carteret was the son of Helier De Carteret, 
attorney-general of Jersey, and of Rachel . He 

> Muse His. Soc. CoH., iii. 143, 1B3. Bacon's New Havrn, p. 315. Cha- 
pin's Glaateiibiiry, p. 46. N. T. MnrriugeK, p. 345. Savage, iv. 49. E. 
T. Bill, p. 108. E. J. Records, i. 6, 7 ; ii. 9(i. N. Y. Wills, i. 64 

was the first born of his mother, his birth having oc- 
curred in 1639, the year after her marriage. As such 
he became seigneur of the manor of La Houque, 
parish of St. Peter, Jersey. He was the grandson of 
Peter De Carteret, jurat of the Royal Court of Jer- 
sey, whose father, Francis, was the second son of 
Richard, seigneur of the manor of Vincheles, and 
brother of Edward, the ancestor of Sir George. Philip 
was forty years the junior of Sir George, being only 
in his twenty-sixth year, lull of the vigor and ela.stic- 
ity of early manhood, when he embarked to seek his 
fortune in the New World. His subsequent history 
is elsewhere in this narrative related at length. 

The family and their friends in Jersey were origi- 
nally French, and the language, manners, and customs 
of France prevailed on the island. Most of those who 
came with Carteret iu the ship " Philip" were prob- 
ably from the Carteret estates in Jersey, and of French 
origin. The family, as has been seen, had been ar- 
dently devoted throughout the civil war to the for- 
tunes of the house of Stuart, and were high in the 
favor of the king and the Duke of York.^ 

It appears from this review, therefore, that the num- 
ber of planters found here in February, 1666, or, if 
not on the ground, yet identified with the settlement, 
was about seventy. A large proportion, nearly all, 
had brought their wives with them. Some of them 
had several children also. A small number were 
considerably in years. The most of them, however, 
were young, vigorous, robust men, between the ages 
of twenty-five and forty, — just the men to lay the 
foundations of many generations. 



It would seem from Hudson's journal that the In- 
dians on the east side of the Hudson River held no 
intercourse with those on the west side, and that the 
former were a much more fierce and implacable people 
than the latter. This probably arose from the fact 
that those east of the Hudson and along its upper 
banks were allies of the Iroquois, which were then 
the dominating confederacy of the red republicans of 
the forest. They had not only carried their conquests 
along the Hudson to the ocean, but along East River 
and Long Island Sound to the Connecticut, exacting 
submission and tribute from all the tribes of this 
region of country. They had also carried their con- 
quering arms southward along the Susquehanna and 
the Delaware, reducing to submission the Andastes 
and the Leniii Lenape ; and even the Anticokes, or 
tide-water people, along the Delaware and Chesa- 
peake Bays, trembled at their vindictive prowess. 

2 Collins' Peerage (eil. of 17:)5), iv. 321-326. 



Rev. Mr. Abeel, quoted l)y Moulton, says that on 
the point where New York is now built Hudson found 
a very hostile people. But tliose living on the western 
side, from the Kills upward, " came daily on board of 
the vessel while she lay at anchor in the river, bring- 
ing with them to barter furs', the largest and finest 
oysters, Indian corn, beans, pumpkins, squashes, 
grapes, and some apples, all of which they exchanged 
for trifles." 

That Hudson and the traders who followed him had 
gained some knowledge of the strength and resources 
of the Iroquois country is eviilent from the fact that 
they established their first trading-post at Albany 
instead of Manhattan. They must have also learned 
that the Iroquois, especially the Mohawks, the eastern 
branch of the confederacy, held an ascendency over 
the lower tribes, and on this account sought first to 
gain the friendship and trade of the former. No 
doubt such an alliance with the masters enabled them 
the better to control the subjects, and prepared the 
WMy for their successful erection of a trading-post at 
Manhattan after they had carried on a succe.ssfiil and 
uninterrupted commerce at Fort Orange for at least 
ten years. During this time they had cemented such 
a triendship with the Mohawks as availed them for 
assistance in their subsequent struggle with the sev- 
eral tribes inhabiting this region. 

The Delawares, or Lenni Lenape — Most writers 
on Indian antiquities have considered the tribes 
of the lower Hudson and of East New Jersey as 
branches of the general Delaware nation or Lenni 
Lenape, which means oriiiinal penp/e. Those most 
intimately connected with this region'were the Min- 
6ies and Mohicans — the former being the inhabit- 
ants of the range of country from the Slinisink to 
ytaten Island and from the Hudson to the Raritan 
Valley. The latter inhabited the east side of the 
lower Hudson to its mouth. The Dutch called them 
respectively the Sanhikans and the Manhikans. Ac- 
cording to Brodhead,' the former were also called 
Wabingi, or Wappinges, the latter, as Heckewelder 
claims, being derived from the Delaware word uyiping, 
signifying opossum. The-^e were divided into numer- 
ous tribes, and these again into clans. In this section 
of New Jersey they were called Raritans, Hacken- 
sacks, Pomptons, and Tappeans. On the island of 
New York dwelt the fierce Manhattans, whom De 
Laet calls " a wicked nation," and " enemies of the 
Dutch." On Long Island, called by the natives Se- 
wan-hacky, the land of shells, were the savage Meton- 
wacks, divided into several tribes. The names of 
thirteen of these tribes have been preserved, viz., the 
Canarse and Nyack Indians, settled at the Narrows 
in Kings County ; the Rockaway, Merrikoke, M.irsa- 
peagne, and Matinecoe tribes in Queens County; 
and the Nissaquage, Setauket, Corchaug, Secalaug, 
Patchogue, Shinnecoe, and Montauk, in Sufiblk 

> Brodheiid. i. 73. 

County. These Indians sold their lands to the whites 
in 1702-3, except about five hundred acres, on which 
lived a remnant of the Montauks as late as 1829. 
Great efforts were made to civilize them by means of 
missions and schools, Rev. Azariah Horton being 
missionary among them in 1741; but all these efforts 
proved unavailing; they gradually became extinct.' 

The Delawares — the Indian people with which this 
history has principally to deal — occu|)ie(l a domain 
extending along the sea-shore from the Ciiesapeake to 
the country bordering Long Island Sound. Back from 
the coast it reached beyond the Susquehanna Valley 
to the foot of the Alleghany Mountains, and on the 
north joined the southern frontier of their domineer- 
ing neighbors, the hated and dreaded Iroqois. This 
domain, of course, included not only the counties of 
Bergen and Passaic, but all of the State of New Jer- 

The principal tribes composing the Lenni Lenape or 
Delaware nation were those of the Unamis or Turtle, 
the Unalachtgo or Turkey, and the Minsi or Wolf. 
The latter, which was by far the most powerl'ul and 
warlike of all these tribes, occupied the most northerly 
portion of the country of the Lenape and kept guard 
along the Iroquois border, from whence their domain 
extended southward totiie Musconetcong" Mountains, 
about the northern boundary of the present county of 
Hunterdon. The Unamis and Unalachtgo branches 
of the Lenape or Delaware nation (comprising the 
tribes of Assanpinks, Matas, Shackamaxons, Chiche- 
quaas, Raritans, Nanticokes, Tutelos, and many 
others) inhabited the country between that of the 
Minsi and the sea-coast, embracing the present coun- 
ties of Hunterdon and Somerset, and all that part of 
the Stale of New Jersey south of their northern 
boundaries. The tribes who occupied and roamed 
over the counties of Bergen and Passaic were those 
of the Turkey and Wolf branches of the Lenni 
Lenape nation, but the possessions and boundaries of 
each cannot be clearly defined. 

The Indian name of the Delaware nation, Lenni 
Lenape, signifies, in their tongue, "the original peo- 

2 Fiirnmn's NotHs to Deiilnn's " Brief Description of Nuw York, ' pp. 
37 -4i. 

a"Tlie Wolf, (•oninionly rallml tlip Minsi, wliicli we have corniptccl 
into Mi>n.i-.vii, liwl tii.'sen lo live buck of r lie "llier two ti iliew, hiiiI formed * 
H kind i>f I'lilwark tor their pr-'tewtion. watcliing the nioiioi b of the 
Ment:u'eal>d heing><t hand lo atfiird aid in raxe ofa iiiptnrp w lli tlii'ln. 
The Minsi were considered tlie most warlike and active l.ran.h of the 
Lenai.e They extended their sellhnients from the Minisink. a ida.o 
uarne.l after ihe]n. wlieTe the)' hail their conniilseat iinil lire, quite np 
to the Hudson on the east, and to the west and sinith far lieynnn the Sns- 
(luehanna. Their northern Isnindariea were snp|>oseil orijiinall.v to he 
the heads of the great rivers Susquehanna and Delaware, and iheir 

6..ntliern lliat ri.lge ,,| hills known in New Jersey li.v the le of 51m- 

kanicnni, and in Pennsylvania by those of Leliigh, O.nwtg,,, etc. 
Within Ihis boundary were tlieii principal settlements: and even as late 
as the year 1742 they had a town with a peaeh-oicliard on llie trail of 
land where Nazareth, in I'ennsylvania, has since been l.nilt. another ..u 
the Lehigh, and others beyond the Blue Kidge. besides n y tani ly set- 
tlements here and there scattered."'— /;i»ft.r/;. Manner', and (>.("■■<» iif 
Ihr Inilian Natimis w/io once inhubiled Peiimi/lvania, hij Bev. Join Hecke- 



pie,"— a title which they had adopted under the 
claim that they were descended from the most ancient 
of all Indian ancestry. This claim was admitted by 
the Wyandots, Miamis, and more than twenty other 
aboriginal nations, who accorded to the Lenape the 
title of grandfathers, or a people whose ancestry ante- 
dated their own. The Rev. John Heckewelder, in his 
" History of the Manners and Customs of the Indian 
Nations," says of the Delaware nation, — 

"They will not Kdmit that the whites are superior lieiiigs. They say 
that the hair of tlieir heads, their features, and tlie various colors of 
their eyes evince that they are not, like themselves, Letini Letinpi, — an 
orujimil p'ople,—n race of men that has existed unchanged from the be- 
ginning of time ; but that they are a mixed race, and therefore a trouble- 
some one. Wherever they may be, the Great Spirit, knowing the wick- 
edness of their disposition, found it necessary to give them a Great 
Book, and taught them how to read it that they might know and ob- 
serve what He wished them to do and what to al>8tain from. But they 
—the Indians— have no need of auy such book to let them know the 
will of their Maker: tliey And it engraved on their own hearts; they 
have had sufflcient discernment given to them to distinguish good from 
evil, and by following that guide they are sure not to err." 

Traditions among the Delaware Tribes.— Con- 
cerning the origin of the Lenapfi, numerous and 
essentially difl'ering traditions were current among 
the various tribes. One of these traditions is men- 
tioned by Loskiel in his "History of the Mission of 
the United Brethren among the North American In- 
dians," as follows : 

"Among the Delawares, those of the Minsi or Wolf tribe say that in 
the beginning they dwelt in the earth under a hike, and were lortu- 
nately extricated from this unjileasant abode by the discovery which one 
of their men made of a hole, through which he ascended to tlie surface; 
on which, as he was walking, he found a deer, which he carried back 
with him into his subterraneous habitation ; that the deer was eaten, 
and he and his companions found the meat so good that they unani- 
mously determined to leave their dark abode and remove to a place 
where they could enjoy the light of heaven and have such excellent 
game in abundance. 

"The two other tribes, the Unamis or Tortoise, and the Unalachtgos 
or Turkey, have much similar notions, but reject the story of the lake, 
which seems peculiar to the Minsi tribe." 

There was another leading tradition current among 
the nations of the Lenape, which was to the effect 
that, ages before, their ancestors had lived in a far-off 
country to the west, beyond great rivers and moun- 
tains, and that, in the belief that there existed, away 
towards the rising sun, a red man's paradise,— a land 
of deer and beaver and salmon,— they had left their 
■ western home and traveled eastward for many moons, 
until they stood on the western shore of the Namisi 
Sipu (Mississippi), and there they met a numerous 
nation, migrating like themselves. They were a stran- 
ger tribe, of whose very existence the Lenape had 
been ignorant. They were none other than the Meng- 
we ; and this was the first meeting of those two peo- 
ples, who afterwards became rivals and enemies, and 
continued such for centuries. Both were now trav- 
elers and bound on the same errand. But they found 
a lion in their path, for beyond the great river lay the 
domain of a nation called AUegewi, who were not 
only strong in numbers and brave, but more skilled 
than themselves in the art of war, who had reared 

great defenses of earth inclosing their villages and 
strongholds. In the true spirit of military strategy, 
they permitted a part of the emigrants to cross the 
river, and then, having divided their antagonists, fell 
upon them with great fury to annihilate them. But 
when the Lenape saw this they at once formed an al- 
liance, offensive and defensive, with the Mengwe. 
The main body crossed the river and attacked the Al- 
legewi with such desperate energy that they defeated 
and afterwards drove them into the interior, where 
they fought from stronghold to stronghold, till finally, 
after a long and bloody war, the AUegewi were not 
only humiliated, but exterminated, and their country 
was occupied by the victors. After this both nations 
ranged eastward, the Mengwe taking the northern 
and the Lenape still keeping the more southern route, 
until, after long journeyings, the former reached the 
Mohicanittuck (Hudson River) and the latter rested 
upon the banks of the Lenape Wihittuck, — the beau- 
tiful river now known as the Delaware, — and here 
they found that Indian elysium of which they had 
dreamed before they left their old homes in the land 
of the setting sun. 

These and other similar Indian traditions may or 
may not have some degree of foundation in fact. 
There are to-day many enthusiastic searchers through 
the realms of aboriginal lore who accept them as au- 
thentic, and who believe that the combined Lenape 
and Mengwe did destroy a great and comparatively 
civilized people, and that the unfortunate AUegewi 
who were thus extinguished were none others tlian 
the mysterious Mound-Builders of the Mississippi 
Valley. This, however, is but one of ihe many profit- 
less conjectures which have been indulged in with 
reference to that unknown peo|)le, an<l is in no way 
pertinent to this history. All Indian tribes were fond 
of narrating the long journeys and great deeds of 
their forefathers, and of tracing their ancestry back 
for centuries, some of them claiming descent from the 
great Manitou himself. Missionaries and travelers 
among them who were, or professed to be, familiar 
with their language and customs have spoken with 
apparent sincerity of Indian chronology running back 
to a period before the Christian era, and some of tiie 
old enthusiasts claimed that these aborigines were de- 
scendants of the lost tribes of Israel.' But all the 

^ In asmiill, quaint, and now very rare volume entitled "An Uist rl- 
cal Description of the Province and Country of Wi-st New .Jersey in 
America, Never made Piiblick till now, by Gabriel Thomas, Lon.lon, 
11.98," an<l dedicated "To the Riaht Houonrable Sir John Moor, Sir 
Thomas Lane, Knights and Aldermen of the City of Lonilon, and to the 
rest of the Worthy members of the West Jersey Proprietors," is found 
the following in reference to the aborigines of this regi.>n: " The first 
Inhabitants of this Coniitrey were the Itiditinn, being supposed to be part 
of the Ten dispersed Tribes of iKruet, for indeed they are very like Ihe 
Jews in their Persons, andsometliing in their Practices and Wor-hi|i; for 
they (as the P,.nailvania Indians; olwerve the New Moons with great de- 
votion and Reverence : And their first Fruits they offer, with their Oorn 
and Hunting-Game they get in the whole a l-alse lieily or Sham 
God whom they must please, else (as they fancy) many mi-Hft,rtune8 will 
befall them, and great injuries will be done them. When tliey bury their 



traditions of the Indians were so clouded and involved 
in improbability and so interwoven with superstition, 
and the speculations of antiquarian writers have 
almost uniformly been so baseless and cliiinerical, that 
the whole subject of Indian origin may be dismissed 
as profitless. 

Totems, or Tribal Badges of the Indians.— The 
Indians, from the earliest times, considereil tliemselves 
in a manner connected with certain animals, as is 
evident from various customs preserved among them, 
and from the fact that, both collectively and indi- 
vidually, they assumed the names of such animals. 
Loskiel says, — 

"It might indeed be (iiipposed tbat those animals* names which they 
have given to their several tribes were mere batlges of dicstinrtiun, or 
' coats-of-anns,' as Pyrlaeus calls them ; but if we pay attention to the 
reasons which they give fur ttio^e denomir)ations, the idea of a supposed 
family connection is easily discernible. The Tor/oyte— or, as tliey are 
commonly called, the Turtle — tribe, annmg the Lenape. claim a supe- 
riority and ascendency over the others, becau.-<e theii- relation, the gi-eat 
ToWoise, a fabled monster.tbe Atlasof their mythology, bears, according 
to their traditions, this great ixltnd on his back,^ and also because he is 
amphibious and can bve both on land and in tlie water, which ueilher 
of the heads of the other tribes can do. The merits of the TurA-i^j, which 
gives its name to the second tribe, are that he i--^ stationary anil always 
remains with or about thi-ra. As to IhelTo//, after which the third tribe 
is named, he isa raml'ler by nature, running from one place to another 
in quest of his prey; yet they consider him as Iheir lienefactor, as it whs 
by his means that the Indians got out of the interior of the eai th. It 
was he, they believe, who by the a)ipolntment of the Great Spirit Itilled 
the deer which the Mousey found who tirsl discovered the way to the 
surface of the earth, and which allured them to come out of their damp 
and dark residence. For that reason the wolf is to be honored and his 
name to be preserved forever among them. 

'- These animals' names, it is true, they all use as national badges, in 
order to distinguish their tribes from each other at home and abroad. In 
thi-i point ot view Mr. Pyrlaeus was right in considering Ibem as *coats- 
of-arms.' The Turtle warrior draws, either with a coal or with paint, 
here and there on the trees along the war-path, the whole animal, car- 
rying a gun with the muzzle projecting forward; and IT he leaves a mark 
at the place where he has made a stroke on his enemy, it will be the 
picture of a TurloUe. Those of the Turkey tribe paint only one foot of a 
turkey, and the Wolf tribe sometimes a wolf at large with one foot and 
leg raised up to serve as a hand, in which the animal also carries a gun 
with the muzzle forward. They, however, do not generally use the word 
'wolf when speakingof their tribe, butcall themselves P'duk-sit, which 
means round foot, tbat animal having a round fixit, like a dog." 

Indian Population in New Jersey.— It does not 
appear that the Indians inhabiting New Jersey were 
very numerous. In an old publication entitled "A 
Description of New Albion," and dated a.d. 1648, it 
is found stated that the native people in this section 
were governed by about twenty kings ; but the in- 
significance of the power of those " kings" may be 
inferred from the accompanying statement that there 
were "twelve hundred [Indians] under the two Rari- 
tan kings on the north side, next to Hudson's River, 
and those came down to the ocean about Little Egg- 
bay and Sandy Barnegatte ; and about the South 
Cape two small kings of forty men apiece, and a third 

Dead, they put into the Ground with them some House Utensils and 
some Money (as tokens of their Love and Affection), with other Things, 
expecting they shall have Occasion for them in tlie other World." 

t And they believed that sometimes the grandfather tartuine became 
weary and shook himself or changed his position, and that this was the 
cause of earthquakes. 

reduced to fourteen men, at Roymont." From which 
it appears evident that the so-called " kings" were no 
more than ordinary chiefs, and that some of these 
scarcely liad a following. Whitehead, in his " East 
Jersey under the Proprietary Governments," con- 
cludes, from the above-quoted statement, "that there 
were probably not more than two thousand [Indians] 
within the province while it was under the domina- 
tion of the Dutch." And in a publication^ bearing 
date fifty years later (1698) the statement is made 
that "the Dutch and Swedes inform us that they [the 
Indians] are greatly decrea-ed in number to what 
they were when they came first into this country. 
And the Indians themselves say that two of them die 
to every one Christian that comes in here." 

Conquest of the Lenni Lenape by the Iroquois. 
— Beliire the European explorers had penetrated to 
the territories of the Lenape the power and prowess 
of the Iroquois had reduced the former nation to the 
condition of vassals. The attitude of the Iroquois, 
however, was not wholly that of conquerors over the 
Delawares, for they mingled, to some extent, the 
character of protectors with that of masters. It has 
been said of them that "the humiliation of tributary 
nations was to them [the Iroquois] tempered with a 
paternal regard for their interests in all negotiations 
with the whites, and care was taken that no tres- 
passes should be committed on their rights, and that 
they should be justly dealt with." This means, 
simply, that the Mengwe would, so far as lay in their 
power, see that none others than themselves should 
be permitted to despoil the Lenape They exacted 
from them an annual tribute, an acknowledgment of 
their state of vassalage, and on this condition they 
were permitted to occupy their former hunting- 
grounds. Bands of the Five Nations, however, were 
interspersed among the Delawares,'' probably more 
as a sort of police, and for the purpose of keeping a 
watchful eye upon them, than for any other purpose. 

The Delawares regarded their conquerors with feel- 
ings of inextinguishable hatred (though these were 
held in abeyance by fear), and they also pretended to 
a feeling of superiority on account of their more an- 
cient lineage and their further removal from original 
barbarism, which latter claim was perhaps well 
grounded. On the part of the Iroquois, they main- 
tained a feeling of haughty superiority towards their 
vassals, whom they spoke of as no longer men and 
warriors, but as women. There is no recorded instance 
in which unmeasur.d in.sult and stinging contempt 
were more wantonly and publicly heaped on a cowed 
and humiliated people than on the occasion of a 

2 Gabriel Thomas' *• Historical Description of the Province and Coun- 
try of West .I.-rsey in \m-rica" 

3 The same policy was pursued by the Five Nations towards the Sha- 
wanese, who htd been expelled from the far Southwest by stronger 
tribes, and a pot tion of whom, treveling eastward as far as tlie country 
adjoining the D. lawares. bail been permitted to erect their loilges there, 
but were, like the Lenape, held iu a state of subjection by the Iroquois. 



treaty lield in Philadel|)hia in 1742, wiien Connossa- 
tego, an old Iroquois cliiel, having been requested by 
the Governor to attend (really for the purpose of 
forcing the Deiawiires to yield up the rich lands of 
the Minisink), arose in the council, where whites and 
Delawares and Iroquois were convened, and in the 
name of all the deputies of his confederacy said to 
the Governor that the Delawares had been an unruly 
people and were altogether in the wrong, and that 
they should be removed from their lands; and then, 
turning superciliously t(jwards the abashed Delawares, 
said to them, " You deserve to be taken by the hair 
of your heads and shaken until you recover your 
senses and become sober. We have setn a deed, 
signed by nine of your chiefs over filty years ago, for 
this very land. But liow came you to take it upon 
yourselves to sell lands at all ? We conquered you ; 
we made women of you ! You know you are women 
and can no more sell lands than women. Nor is it fit 
that you should have power to sell lauds, since you 
would abuse it. You have had clothes, meat, and 
drink, by the goods paid you for it, and now you 
want it again, like childien, as you are. What makes 
you sell lands in the dark? Did you ever tell us 
you had sold this land? Did we ever receive any 
part, even to the value of a pipe-shank, from you for 
it ? This is acting in the dark, — very diftereiitly Irom 
the conduct which our Six Nations observe in the 
sales of land. But we find you are none of our 
blood ; you act a dishonest part in this as in other 
matters. Y'our ears are ever open to slanderous reports 
about your brethren. For all these reasons we charge 
you to remove instantly ! We do not give you liberty to 
think about it. You are women .' Take the advice of 
a wise man, and remove instantly! You may return 
to the other side of the river, where you came from, 
but we do not know whether, considering how you 
have demeaned yourselves, you will be permitted to 
live there, or whether you have not already swallosved 
that land down your throats, as well as the land on 
this side. You may go either to Wyoming or Shamo- 
kin, and then we shall have you under our eye and 
can see how ytm behave. Don't deliberate, but go, 
and take this belt of wampum." lie then forbade 
them ever again to interlere in any matters between 
white man and Indian, or ever, under any pretext, to 
pretend to sell lands; and as they (the Iroquois), he 
said, had some business of importance to transact with 
the Englishmen, he commanded them to injmediately 
leave the council, like children and women, as they 

Heckewelder, however, attempts to rescue the good 
name of the humbled Delawares by giving some of 
their explanations, intended to show that the epithet 
"women," as applied to them by the Iroquis, was 
originally a term of distinction rather than reproach, 
and " that the making women of the Delawares was 
not an act of compulsi(ni, but the result of their own 
free will and consent." He gives the story, as it was 

narrated by the Delawares, substantially in this way : 
The Delawares were always too powerful for the 
Iroquois, so that the latter were at length convinced 
that if wars between them should continue, their own 
extirpation would become inevitable. They accord- 
ingly sent a message to the Delawares, representing 
that if continual wars were to be carried on between 
the nations, this would eventually work the ruin of 
the whole Indian race : that in order to prevent this 
it was necessary that one nation should lay down 
their arms and be called the woman, or mediator, with 
power to command the peace between the other 
nations who might be disposed to persist in hostilities 
against each other, and finally recommending that 
the part of the women should be assumed by the 
Delawares, as the most powerful of all the nations. 

The Delawares, upon receiving this message, and 
not perceiving the treacherous intentions of the Iro- 
quois, consented to the proposition. The Iroquois 
then appointed a council and feast, and invited the 
Delawares to it, when, in pursuance of the authority 
given, they made a solemn speech, containing three 
capital points. The first was that the Delawares be 
(and they were) declared women, in the following 

" We dress you in a woman's long habit, reaching 
down to your feet, and adorn you with ear-rings," 
meaning that they should no more take up arms. 
The second point was thus expressed : " We hang a 
calabash filled with oil and medicine upim your arm. 
With the oil you shall cleanse the ears of other na- 
tions, that they nmy attend to good and not to bad 
words; and with the medicine you shall heal those 
who are walking in foolish ways, that they may re- 
turn to their senses and incline their hearts to peace." 
The third point l)y which the Delawares were ex- 
horted to make agriculture their future employment 
and means of subsistence, was thus worded: "We 
deliver into your hands a plant of Indian corn and a 
hoe." Each of these points was confirmed by de- 
livering a belt of wampum, and these belts were 
carefully laid away, and their meaning frequently 

"The Iroquois, on the contrary, assert that they 
conquered the Delawares, and that the latter were 
forced to adopt the defenseless state and appellation 
of a woman to avoid total ruin. Whether these dif- 
ferent accounts be true or false, certain it is that the 
Delaware nation ha:-, ever since been looked to for the 
preservation ol peace and intrusted with the charge 
of the great belt of peace and chain of Iriendship, 
which they niu-t take care to preserve inviolate. Ac- 
cording to the figurative explanation of the Indians, 
the middle ol the chain of friendship is placed upon 
the shoulder of the Delawares, the rest of the Indian 
nations holding one end and the Europeans the 
other." ' 

1 Niili-s iiri tlip Itidiuiis, l)y David Zcisbfigcr. . 




It was not a lack of bravery or military enterprise 
on the part of the Delaware^ which caused their over- 
throw ; it was a mightier apjent than courage or en- 
ergy : it was the gunpowder and lead of the Iroquois, 
which they had procured from the trading Dutch on 
the Hudson almost immediately after the discovery 
of that river, which had wrought the downfall of the 
Lenape. For them the conflict was a hopeless one, 
waged against immeasurable odds, — resistance to the 
irresistible. Under a reversal of conditions the Del- 
awares must have been the victors and the Iroquois 
the vanquished, and no loss of honor could attach to 
a defeat under sucli circumstances. It is a pity that 
the tribes of the Lenape should vainly have expended 
so much labor and ingenuity upon a tale which, for 
their own sake, had better never have been told, and 
in which even the sincere indorsement of Heckewelder 
and other missionaries has wholly failed to produce a 
general belief 

When the old Iroquois chief Connossatego, at the 
treaty council in Philadelphia, before referred to, 
commanded the Delawares instantly to leave the 
council-house, where their presence would no longer 
be tolerated, and to prepare to vacate their hunting- 
grounds on the Delaware and its tributaries, the out- 
raged and insulted red men were completely crest- 
fallen and crushed, but they had no alternative and 
must obey. They at once left the presence of the 
Iroquois, returned to the homes which were now to 
be their homes no longer, and soon afterwards mi- 
grated to the country bordering the Susquehanna, 
and beyond that river. 

The Indians were great sticklers for the common 
right which they held in the soil. They did not 
recognize even in their chiefs any right to convey it 
away without the general consent of the tribes, and 
often they refused to submit to treaties so made. 
Usually, treaties were made by their representatives 
chosen by the popular voice, who met the whites in 
council and for their respective tribes ratified the 
deed disposing of lands. In the first conveyances 
made to the Dutch in East Jersey, conveying the 
lands where Hoboken and Jersey City are situated, 
Aromeauw, Tekwappo, Sackwomeek, Hikitoauw, and 
Aiarouw represented themselves in the deeds as 
" inhabitants and joint-owners of the lands" named 



The first hostility of the Indians towards the Dutch 
wasdirected against their plantations on the Delaware, 
which they wholly destroyed. De Vries tells us that 
in the year 10.30 thirty-two men were killed. In the 
year 1640, an expedition was fitted out against the 
Indians on the Raritan, who had been accused, though 

wrongfully, of committing theft and other trespasses. 
Some of the chiefs were so maltreated and abused 
that retaliatory measures were resorted to against the 
settlers on Staten Island, who were killed and their 
plantations broken up.' 

The outbreak of 1643 was induced by various causes. 
One cause was the e-xacting of a tribute from the In- 
dians by Kieft, the Director-General, in 1639 ; another 
was the killing of a white man by an Indian in 1641, 
in retaliation for the robbery and murder of one of 
his tribe many years before. While the fort at New 
Amsterdam was being built in 1626, a Weckquaesgeck 
Indian, from the east of the Hudson River, with his 
nephew, then a young boy, and another Indian rela- 
tive, came to sell his beaver-skins to the Dutch traders. 
Before he reached the fort he was met by some of the 
servants of Minuit, who robbed him of his peltries 
and murdered him. According to Indian custom, 
life must be taken for life, and the next of kin must be 
the avenger. He is the young boy who thus witnessed 
the wanton murder of his uncle. But he is a boy, 
and the execution of vengeance must be delayed till 
he should reach manhood. Years passed, but the 
outrage done his relative was not forgotten. In 1641 
he appeared, now grown to manhood, to execute the 
behest of the unwritten law of his people, unheeding 
as to which of the pale-faces should be the victim of 
the deadly stroke of his tomahawk. It happened to 
be an inoffensive old man, Claes Cornells Smits, a 
" raad maker," living near Canal Street. Pretending 
to desire to barter some beavers for duffels,^ he watched 
his opportunity, killed Smits, robbed the house, and 
escaped with his booty.' Satisfaction and the sur- 
render of the savage were promptly demanded. But, 
as he had only acted in accordance with the custom 
of his race, the sachem refused to surrender him. 
Kieft wished to seize upon this occasion to punish 
the natives, but he did not dare to act independently 
of the people, who desired peace. He therefore 
called them together for consultation. They chose 
twelve select men* to determine everything in connection 
with the Director and Council. This popular branch 
of the government stayed for a time the impetuosity of 
the executive and those immediately under his con- 
trol, and for a brief period secured peace. But the 
air was full of rumors of Indian troubles. In 1642, 
De Vries, who had established a colony at Tajjpean, 
in passing through the woods towards Ackensack,' 
met an Indian who said the whites had "sold to him 
brandy mixed with water" and had stolen his beaver- 
skin coat. He said he was going home fi)r his bows 
and arrows, and would shoot one of the " roguish 
Swanskins," as the Indians called the Dutch. He 

1 New York Historical Cunections. 
a A ciaree kind of clutli. 
3Bn)dliBail, i. 316. 

*Wiufield: "This was the first repregentative body in New Nether- 
^ Hackeusack, in Indian Low-land. 


was as good as his word, and shot Garret Jansen Van 
Vorst, who was roofing a house at Achter Kull. The 
chiefs being alarmed at what was done, offered to pay 
two hundred fathoms of wampum to Van Vorst's 
widow, in order to purchase their peace. But Kieft 
would accept of nothing but the surrender of the 
murderer. The chiefs would not agree to this; they 
said that he had gone two days' journey among the 
Tankitekes/ and that he was the son of a chief. 

In 1643, Kieft espoused the cause of the Mohawks, 
who were at war with the Weckquaesgecks, Tankite- 
kes, and Tappeans. In the depth of winter these fierce 
warriors swept down upon their enemies, killing sev- 
enteen and making prisoners of many women and 
children. "The remainder fled through a deep snow 
to the Christian houses on and around the Island of 
Manhattan. They were humanely received, being 
half dead of cold and hunger, and supported for four- 
teen days; even some of the Director's corn was sent 
to them." They did not suspect that the Director 
was secretly in league with their most dreaded and 
deadly foes, and that, although the people were friendly 
and hospitable and treated them with great kindness, 
the commander of the army of New Netherland was 
about to let loose upon them his ruthless soldiery to 
.murder and slaughter them indiscriminately. But 
such was the fact. Being alarmed lest the Mohawks 
should fall upon them at Manhattan, they fled, most of 
them, to Pavonia, where the Hackensacks were bi- 
vouacked one thousand strong.^ Says Mr. Winfield, — 

"They came over to this side of the river on the 23d of February, 
164:'., and encamped on the westerly edge of Jan de Laclier's Hopck, 
behind the settlement of Egbert Wuuterssen and .>djuiuiiig the hoiiwerie 

of Jan Ewersten Bout The light of tlie 2.ith of Febnmry, 1643, 

was failing, and the shadows of the black winter night were drawing 
over the beautiful bay. Huddled and sbiveiiug on ihe western elope (if 
Jan de Lacber'a Hoeck, under the protection of the Dutch, the unsus- 
pecting Iridians thought themselves safe fi'om the fierce Mohawks But 
while thoy drew around the camp-fires, or dreamed t»f their forsaken 
wigwams, Manhattan was all a^tir with (he movement of troops and 
citizens. The noble-hearted De Vries stood beside the Director as the 
soldiers under Sergeant Rudolf paesed by the f'-rr on theii- way t<i Pavo- 
nia. ' Let thirt work alone,' said he ; ' you will go to break the Indians' 
heads, but it is our nation you aro going to murder.' 'The order has 
gone forth ; it shall not he recalled,' was Kieft's dogged reply. The ser- 
geant, witb his eighty st>ldiers armed for slaughter, manh'-d down to 
the river, and, emiiarking in boats prepared for the purpose, silently 
rowed towards the shores of Pavonia. Rounding the southerly point of 
Paulus Hoeck. under the guidwnce of Hans Stein, they pulled for the 
high point at the mouth of Mill Creek. Here they landed. Climbing 
the bank, they passed close to the hi'U<e of Egbert Wouterssen, and cau- 
tiously approached their sleeping vicliois. Suddenly the sound of tnus- 
ketry and the wibi shrieks of the Indians rang out in the midnight. 
Even at this distance of time, * the horrors <>f that night cause the flesh 
to creep as we ponder over them.' Captain De Viie-;, who, in contem- 
pliititig the consequences ot the expedition, could not sleep, says, 'I 
remained that night at the Governor's, and took a seat in the kitchen 
near the fire, and at midnight I heard loud shrieks. I went out to the 
parapets of the fort and looked towards Pavonia. I saw nothing but Ihe 
flash of the guns, and heard nothing more of the yells and clamor of the 
Indians who were butchered during their sleep ' Neither age nor sex 
could stay the hands of the unrelenting soldiers. Sucklings were torn 
from their mothers' breasts, butchered in the presence of their parents, 
and their mangled limbs thrown into the fire or water. Others, 'while 

fastened to little hoards,' — the rude cradle of the pappooRe, — were cut 
through, stabbed, and nii-'erably massacred. Some were thrown alive 

into the river, and when their fathers, ubeying the pnimptingd of nature, 
rushed in to save them, the soldiers prevented their coming to shore, 
auil thus parents and children perished. . . . De Vrii-e says, 'Some came 
running U> ua fmm the country having their hands cut off Some, who 
had their legs cut off, were supporting their entrails with their arms, 
while others were mangled in other horrid ways, in part too shocking 
to be conceived; and these miserable wretches did not know, as well as 
some of our people did not know, but they had been attacked by the 
Mohawks.' "^ 

Such a warfare could not fail to exasperate the 
natives; and as soon as they became aware that these 
ma,ssaeres were by the whites, they resolved upon a 
relentless war. To render their retaliation more effec- 
tive, seven tribes entered into an alliance. They killed 
all the men they could find, dragged the women and 
children into captivity, burnt houses, barns, grain, 
hay-stacks, and laid waste the farms and plantations 
on every hand. From the Raritan to the Connecticut 
not a white person was safe from the murderous toma- 
hawk and scalping-knife except those who clustered 
about Fort Amsterdam. The war continued in all its 
fury for several months. In March a peace was con- 
cluded, which, however, lasted only until October, 
when, three or four soldiers stationed at Pavonia for 
the protection of a family having been attacked, war 
was renewed ; and so serious was its character that 
in March, 1644, the authorities of New Amsterdam 
proclaimed a solemn fast to placate the anger of 
Jehovah. Peace was permanently secured the fol- 
lowing year, 

"This liay, being the 30th day of August, 1645. appeared in the Fort 
Amsterdam, before the Director and Cuuni-il, in the preseiu-e of the 
whole commonality, Ihe sachems or chief-" of the savages, as well in their 
own behalf as being authoi-ized by the neighboring savages, namely : 
Oratanby, chief of ^(.■A-iHAe*-/mcA:y(MackenBark), Sksskkknii'K and Wil- 
liam, chiefs of Tiippean and Hvek'nomrauk ; 1'accham and Prnnrwink 
(who were here yesterday and gave tln-ir power of attorney to the 
forme)-, and also took upon themselves to answer for tin we of Oitaiicy 
and the viciriTiy of Majanwetinneitiin, of Marechowick^ of Nyack, anil its 
neighborhood), aii<t Aepjtni^ who personally appeared, speaking iu behalf 
of Wiippitve, Wiiptnexkecks, SinHtr"ck% and Kicfitumojix. 

" First. Tney agreed to conclude with us a solid and durable pence, 
which they promise to keep faithfully, as we also obligate ourselves to 
do on our part. 

"Second. If it happpen (which God in his mercy avert) that there 
arise some difficulty between us and them, no warfare shall enrinu in con- 
sequence, but Ihey shall complaiu to our Governor, and we shall com- 
plain to their sachems. 

"If any person shall be killed or murdered, justice shall be directly 
administered upon the murderer, that we may henceforth live In peace 


' Haverstraw Indians, of whom Pacham was chief. 

^O'Callaghan, N. Y., i. 265. 

"Third. They are not to cnme on Manhattan I-*Iand, nor in the 
neighborhood of Christian dwellings, with their arms; neither will we 
approach their villages with our gnus, except we are conducted thither 
by a savage to give them warning. 

"Fourth. And whereas there is yet among them an English girl, 
whom they promised to conduct to the English at Stamford, they gtill 
engage, if she is not already conducted tliere. to bring her there io 
safety, and we pmni se in return to pay them the nmsoni which has 
been promised by the English. 

" All which is promised to be religiously performed throughout the 
wLuIe of New Netherland. 

"Done in Fort Amsterdam, in the open air, by the Director and Council 
in New Netherland, and tlie whole commonality, called together for this 
purpose, in the presence of the Uaqvab^ anihaSBadors, who are solicited 

3 Winfield's History of Hudson County, .19, 40 



to assist in tliis negotiation as arbitrators, and Cornelius Aotbonissen, 
ttieir interpreter, and an arbitrator with them in this solemn affair. 
Done as ahoTe." 

No further troubles appear to have occurred with 
the Indians under the Dutch rule until 1655. The 
nearest approach to it was in March, 1649, when Si- 
mon Walinges was found dead at Paulus Hoeck, hav- 
ing been, as was supposed from the arrows and wounds 
in his head, killed by the Indians. It was ascertained 
to have beon done either by the Raritans or by some 
stranger from the south, and the local Indians hast- 
ened to renew their covenant of friendship. Governor 
Stuyvesant presented them with about twenty florins 
and some tobacco, and a gun to Oratamus. The 
Indians were delighted, reaffirmed the treaty, and 
returned to their homes.' 

In 1655, during the absence of Governor Stuyve- 
sant to expel the Swedes from the Delaware, troubles 
again arose with the Indians which bore disastrously 
upon the settlements on the west side of the Hudson. 
Hendrick Van Dyck, having his orchard robbed of 
some of its tempting fruit by Indians who lauded at 
night in their canoes on Manhattan, attempting to 
drive off the intruders, accidentally in the darkness 
shot an Indian girl. News of the outrage spread, and 
the Indians determined on signal vengeance. With- 
out giving warning of their purpose, on the night of 
tlie 15th of September, sixty-four canoes, carrying 
five hundred armed warriors, landed at New Amster- 
dam. They searched through the town until they 
found Van Dyck at the house of a neighbor named 
Van Diegrist, whom they cut down with a tomahawk, 
and in the affray wounded Van Dyck in the breast 
with an arrow. The town and garrison being aroused, 
the Indians were driven to their canoes, and sought 
safety by flight to the west side of the river. In re- 
taliation they set the houses on fire, and soon all Pa- 
vonia was in ashes. From thence they passed down 
to Staten Island and laid that waste. In this assault 
one hundred persons were killed, one hundred and 
fifty carried into captivity, and over three hundred 
deprived of their homes. Thesavages of Hackensack, 
Tappaen, Ahasimus, and others were present in this 
fearful devastation, and perpetrated inhuman barbar- 
ities, notwithstanding their solemn pledge to adiiere 
to the terms of their treaty. When Governor Stuy- 
vesant sought to bring them to terms, they hesitated 
anddelayed, promised and failed to fulfill theirpledges, 
in hopes to extort from the government a ransom for 
the prisoners. Finally, the Director wished to know 
how much they would take for " the prisoners en masse, 
or for each." "They replied, seventy-eight pounds of 
powder and forty staves of lead for twenty-eight per- 
sons." The ransom was paid, and an additional pres- 
ent made by the Governor. This proved the final 
settlement with the Indians, so far as the Dutch were 
concerned. During all these troubles most of the 

< Talentine's Manual (1863), 548. 

mischief was done in that part of New Netherland 
included in the ancient territory of Bergen County. 

The Pomptons and Minsies, having sold their lands, 
removed from New Jersey about 1737. 

The Pompton Indians were engaged with the Del- 
aware Minsies in the war of 1755, under Teedyes- 
cung. This war was waged on account of the decep- 
tion practiced upon the Indians in procuring the lands 
in Northampton and Pike Counties, Pa., and was 
carried across the Delaware into New Jersey. During 
the year 1757 and the first part of 1758 the western 
borders of the province were in much alarm on ac- 
count of the Indians raiding upon the settlers across 
the Delaware. From May, 1757, to June, 1758, 
twenty -seven murders were committed by the Indians 
in Sussex County .- 

Final Disposal of the Delawares.— In June, 1758, 
Governor Bernard, of New Jersey, consulted with Gen. 
Forbes and Governor Denny, of Pennsylvania, as to 
the measures best calculated to put a stop to this un- 
pleasant warfare; and, through Teedyescung, king of 
the Delawares, he obtained a conference with the 
Minisink and Pompton Indians, protection being as- 
sured them. . . . The conference took place at Bur- 
lington, Aug. 7, 1758. . . . The result was that the 
time was fixed for holding another conference at 
Easton, at the request of the Indians, that being, as 
they termed it, the place of the " old council-fire." 

At the treaty of 1758 the entire remaining claim of 
the Delawares to lands in New Jersey was extin- 
guished, except that there was reserved to them the 
right to fish in all the rivers and bays south of the Rar- 
itan, and to hunt on all uninclosed lands. A tract of 
three thousand acres of land was also purchased at 
Edge Pillock, in Burlington County, and on this the 
few remaining Delawares of New Jersey (about sixty 
in number) were collected and settled. They remained 
there until the year 1802, when they removed to New 
Stockbridge, near Oneida Lake, in the State of New 
York, where they joined their "grandsons," the 
Stockbridge tribe. Several years afterwards they 
again removed, and settled on a large tract of land 
on Fox River, Wis., which tract had Ijeen purchiised 
for their use from the Menominee Indians. There, 
in conjunction w'ith the Stockbridges, they engaged 
in agricultural pursuits, and formed a settlement 
which was named Statesburg. There, in the year 
1832, there remained about forty of the Delawares, 
among whom was still kept alive the tradition that 
they were the owners of fishing and hunting privi- 
leges in New Jersey. They resolved to lay their 
claims before the Legislature of this State and request 
that a moderate sum (two thousand dollars) might be 
paid them for its relinquishment. The person selected 
to act for them in presenting the matter before the 
Legislature was one of their own nation, whom they 
called Shawuskukhkung (meaning "wilted grass"), 

3 See History of Sussex and Warren Countie 



but who was known among the white people as Bar- ' 
tholomew S. Calvin. He was born in 1756, and was 
educated at Princeton College, at the expense of the 
Scotch missionary society. At the breaking out of 
the Revolution he left his studies to join the patriot 
army under Washington, and he served with credit 
during the Revolulionary struggle. At the time when 
his red countrymen placed this business in his hands 
he was seventy-six years of age, yet he proceeded in 
the matter with all the energy of youth, and laid 
before the Legislature a petition in his favor signed 
by a large number of respectable citizens of New 
Jersey, togetlier with a memorial, written by his own 
hand, as follows : 

"My Brethrfn: I am old and weak and poor, and therefore a fit 
repreBenlalive of nij' people. You are young and slrong and rich, and 
therefore fit reiiresentatives of your people. But let me beg yon for a 
moment to lay aside the recollections of your strength atid of our weak- 
ness, that your minds may be prepared to examine with candor the sub- 
ject of our claims. 

"Our tradition informs ns — and I believe it corresponds with your 
records— that the right of fishing in all the rivei^ anil Lays south of the 
Raritan, and of hunting in all uninclosed lands, was never relinquished, 
but. on the contrary, was expres-sly reserved in our last treaty, lield at 
Crosswicks in 175». Having myself been one of the parties to the sale, 
—I believe, in 1801,-1 know that these rights were not sold or parted 

"We now offer to sell these privileges to the State of New .Jersey. 
They were once of great value to us, and we apprehend that neither time 
nor distance nor the non-use of our rights at all aflecled them, but 
that tlie courts here would consider our claims valid wei'e we to exercise 
them ourselves or delegate them to others. It is not, however, our w ish 
thus to excite litigatiou. We consider the State Legislature the proper 
purchaaei-, and throw onrpelves upon its benevolence and magnanimity, 
truBtiug that feelings of justice and liberality will induce you to give us 
what you deem a compensation. And. as we have ever hioked up to the 
leading cliaracters of the United States (and to the leading characters of 
thi> State in partieular) as our fathers, protectors, aud friends, we now 
look up to you as such, and humbly beg that you will look u|ion us with 
that eye of pity, as we have reason to think our poor untutored fore- 
fiithers looked upon yours when they first arrived ui>on our then exten- 
sive but uncultivated dominions, and sold them their lands, in many 
iustaui^es for trifles, in comparison, as Might as air.' 

"From your humble petitioner, 

" B.\RTHoi.oMEW S. Calvin, 
" lit behalf of Itimnelf and his red brethren.^' 

In the Legislature the subject was referred to a 
committee, which, after patient hearing, reported 
favorably ; whereupon the Legislature granted to the 
Delawares the sum of two thousand dollars — the full 
amount asked for — in consideration of this relinquish- 
ment of their last rights and claims in the State of 
New Jersey. Upon this result Mr. Calvin addressed 
to the Legislature a letter of thanks, which was read 
before the two houses in joint session and was received 
with repeated rounds of most enthusiastic applause. 

"It is under the best clymate in the whole world; seed may bee 
thrown into the ground, except six weeks, all the yere long ; there are 
five sorts 01 grapes which are very good and grow heere natuially, with 
divers other ex'-ellent fruits extraordiujtry good, and the fruits trans- 
planted from Europe far surpas-eth any there, as apples, peara, peaches, 
melons, etc. The land very fertile, produt-eth a great increase of wheat 
and all other gralie whatsoever; heere groweth tobacco very good, it 
naturally abounds, with several sorts of dyes, furrs of all sorta may bee 
had of the natives very reasonable; store of saltpeter; marvelous 
plenty of all kinds of food, excellent veuesoii, elkes very great and 
large; all kind of hind- and sea-fonle that are naturally in Europe are 
heere in great plenty; the mountenouse part of the country stored with 
deveiall sorts of iniiieralls; great profit to be derived from tralfique with 
the natives (who are naturally a mild people, and very capable, and by 
the Grace of God) to be drawne out of their blind ignorance to the 
saving light of Jesus Christ. Heere may likewise be great profitt made 
by fishing, whereby abundance of people may be employed with great 
and notable advantages.^ 

This description, though designed to cover the 
whole territory between the Hudson and Delaware 
Rivers, was peculiarly applicable to the region bor- 
dering on Achter Kull, or Newark Bay, and its 
southern estuary. Daniel Denton, one of the original 
Elizaltethtovvn Associates, writing in 1670, thus en- 
thusiastically describes the country: 

" I may say, and s.ay truly, that if there be any terrestrial happiness 
to be had by people of all ranks, especially of an inferior rank, it must 
certainly be here. Here any one may turnish himself with Laud and 
live rent free, yea, with such a quantity of Land that he may weary 
himself with walking over his fields of corn and all sorts of grain, and 
let his stock of Cattle amount to some hundreds he need not f<-ar their 
want of I'astnre in tlie Summer or Fodder in the Winter, the Woods af- 
fording a sutficient supply. For the Summer season, wheu you have 
gi-ass as high as a man's knees, nay, as high as his waist, interlaced with 
Pea-vines and other weeils that cattle much delight in, as much as a 
man can jiass through, and these woods also, every mile or half mile, are 
furnished with frehh ptuids, brooks, or rivers, where all sorts of Cattle, 
during the beat of the day, do quench their thirst and cool themselves. 
These bn.i.ks and rivere being environed on each side with several sorts 
of trees and Grapevines, the vines, Arbor-like, interchanging places and 
cros-iiig these rivers, does shade and shelter them from the scorching 
And how pioibgal, if I may so say, hath 
intry with all sort.s of wilde Beasts and 
I interest in, and may hunt at his pleas- 
'e in hunting he may furnish his house 
Heath Hens, Cranes, Swans, 
ith that he may go a fishing. 


if Sol's fiery influence. 

been to furnish the (\ 
Fowie, wtiicb every one hath i 
ure; wheu besides the pleasi: 
with ixcellent fat Venison, Tnikeys, Ge( 
Bucks, Pidgeons, and the like, and wearii 

j theAi 

■ the rivers aie so furnished that he may supply himself with Fish 
I lie can leave otf the Recreation; where besides the sweetness of 
ii the Country itself sends forth such a fnigrant smell that it may 
ed at sea before they can make the land ; where no evil fog or 
vapour doth no sooner appear but a Northwest or Westerly winde doth 
iininediiitely dissolve it aud drive it away. I must needs say that if 
there be any terrestrial Canaan 'tis surely here, where the Land floweth 
with milk and honey." 

Van Tienhoven, secretary of New Netherland, 
writing in 1650, says, — 

'Th- distiicl i 


ihabiled by a 
that fiows till 

uation called Raritaugs i 
uugh tlie centre ol the li> 
vacant territoiy lies betw 



Some of the early descriptions of this county, in- 
cluding adjacent territory, are exceedingly quaint 
and graphic. The following is from a document put 
forth by the Dutch government in 1661 • 

} situate on a 
V land which 
een two high 

mountains, far distant the one from the other. This is the handsomest 
and pleasantest country that man can bell. Id. It lurnished the Indians 
with abiiudiince of maize, beans, pumpkins, and other fiuits."^ 

The land covered by this county, with a consider- 
able extent beyond it, was granted by Governor 
Nicolls, in 1664, to the Elizabethtown Associates. 
The territory included in the patent extended from 

1 New York Col. Documents, iii :!S-:t!l. 
= Ibid., i. 3G6-67. N. Y. Doc. Hist., iv. 29. 



the mouth of the Raritan on the south to the mouth 
of the Passaic on the north, a distance in a straight 
line of not less than seventeen miles, and running 
back into the country twice this distance, or thirty- 
four miles. It embraced the towns of Woodbridge 
and Piscataway, the whole of the present Union 
County, part of the towns of Newark and Clinton, 
a small part of Morris County, aud a considerable 
portion of Somerset, comprising about five hundred 
thousand acres, upland and meadow, in fair pro- 
portions, well watered by the Raritan, the Pa.ssaic, 
the Rahway, and Elizabeth Rivers, Thompson's, or 
Morse's Creek, and Bound Brook, diversified with 
level plains and ranges of hills of considerable eleva- i 
tion, ordinarily classified as mountains ; the soil of 
the upland mostly red shale and clay loam, and a } 
large part of it susceptible of a high state of cultiva- i 

The Elizabethtown purchase, at the time of its 
early settlement, was proverbial for the fine and 
stately oak-trees which covered much of its upland, i 
The following, which may be regarded as a sort of 
local ordinance for the protection of this timber, 
'passed by several of the proprietors, among wliom j 
was Governor Philip Carteret, in June, 1666, is among 
the rare documents which have been preserved. It 
reads as follows : | 

" Whereas I am informed by way uf complaint from divrs of the in- 
habitants of tins TuWD tliat tliere are several persons tliat do presume 
to fell and cut down the best of timber-trees in and about this Town, 
without any license or leave from those that are or mny come to I e the 
owners thereof, converting them to their own private advantage and 
profit, to the great destruction of timber for building, and tlie Lords 
Proprietors Woods, and to the great di-*couragement of that are 
already and that are to come to inhabit this Town : For the preventing 
tlieieof. and to avoid so great an inconveiiiency and destruction of this 
plantation as may ensue from permitting such disorderly proceeifinga, I 
have thought fit, and do hy these presents, together with tlie advice of 
my Council, will and command that no person or persons whats<»ever 
shall presume to cut down or fell any timber-trees that are useful either 
for building, fencing, or making of pipe-staves in any house-lots not 
properly belonging to themselves, nor within the comp 'Ss of three miles 
of any home-lot belonging to this T-iwri, witliout license first obtained 
from the Governor, or leave from the owners of the land, upon t!ie pen- 
alty of forfeiting the sum of Five Pounds sterling for every such tree so 
fallen or cut down ; Provided, that it may and shall be 1-iwtuI tor any 
of the inhabitants of this town to clear their own lot.* and other lands 
to plant upon, according to the act made the :JOth day of April last past, 
and in so doing it shall aud may be lawful for any of them to convert 
the wood and timber growing upon the same to their best use and ad- 
vantage, and not otherwise. 

■' Given under my hand at Elizabeth Town the 13th of June, lfi66. 
"Ph. C\rterrtt. 
"James Boll n, 
"John OgdiiN." 

Daniel Denton, of whom a brief account has al- 
ready been given among the original purchasers of 
the Elizabethtown grant, wrote a book, which was 
published in London, England, in 1670. It is en- 
titled " A Brief Description of New York, formerly 
called New Netherlands, with the Places thereunto 
Adjoining: Likewise a Brief Relation of the Cus- 
toms of the Indians there, by Daniel Denton." This 
work has been called by the late Gabriel Furman, 

Esq., one of the members of the New York Histor- 
ical Society, and himself an accomplished historian, 
one of the gems of American history. It is the first 
printed description in the English language of the 
country now forming the States of New York and 
New Jersey. A new edition of it was published in 
London in 1701, and in 1845 a reprint was issued in 
New York by William Gowans, as the first of a series 
of American historical, biographical, and literary 
works, entitled, " Gowan's Bibliotheca Americana," 
with " An Introduction and Copious Historical Notes, 
by Gabriel Furman, member of the New York His- 
torical Society." 

Denton, soon after the purchase of the Elizabeth- 
town grant, sold his share in the patent to Capt. John 
Baker, of New York, and John Ogden, of North- 
ampton, and, it is believed, went to England some 
three or four years after. In March, 1665, he, to- 
gether with Thomas Benedict, represented Jamaica 
in the General Assembly of deputies held at Hemp- 
stead, in pursuance of the requisition of Governor 
Nicolls, and by which Assembly was formed the first 
code of laws for the English colony of New York, 
known as the " Duke's Laws." At the same Assem- 
bly the deputies adopted an address to His Royal 
Highness James, Duke of York, in which, among 
other things, it is stated, " We do publicly and unan- 
imously declare our cheerful submission to all such 
laws, statutes, and ordinances which are or shall be 
made by virtue of authority from your royal high- 
ness, your heirs and successors forever." The people 
of Long Island were displeased with this address, 
regarding it as too servile for freemen, and were 
exasperated to such a degree against the authors of 
it that the Court of Assizes, in order to save the dep- 
uties from abuse, if not from personal violence, 
thought it expedient, at their session in October, 
1666, to declare that " whosoever shall hereafter any- 
ways detract or speak against any of the deputies 
signing the Address to his Royal Highness at the 
general meeting at Hempstead, they shall bee pre- 
sented to the next Court of Sessions, and if the jus- 
tices shall see cause, they shall from thence be bound 
over to the A.ssizes, there to answer for the slander 
upon plaint or information." 

Denton's preface to his book is as follows, and 
shows a quaint and subtile humor in his style, of 
which we get frequent glimpses also in the body of 
the work : 

" Reader, — I Have here through the Instigation of divers Persona in 
England, and elsewhere, presented you with a Brief but true Relation 
of a known and unknown part of America. The known part which is 
either inhabited or lieth near the sea I have descrilied to you, and I have 
writ nothing Itut what 1 have been an eye witness to all or the greater 
part of it. Neither can I safely say was I willing to exceed, Imt waa 
rather willing the place itself should exceed my which I 
questiim not will be owned by those that shall travel thither. For the 
unknown part, which is either some places lying to the Northward yet 
undiscovered by any English, or the Bowels of the earth not yet opened, 
though the natives lell us of Glittering Stones, Diamonds, or Pearl in the 
one, and the Dutch hath boasted of Gold and Silver in the other; jet I 



shall not feed yowr expectation with any thing of that nature; bnt leave 
It till a better di-cuvery shall make way for such a Relation. In the 
mean time accept of this from him wlio desireth to deal impartially with 
every one." 

The following are some of the descriptions given 
in his book :' 

"That Ti-act of Land, formerly called The Sew Setherlands, doth Con- 
tain all Ihe Land which lieth iji the North parts of America, betwi.\t 
New England and Maryhind in Virgin a, the length of which Northward 
into the country, as it hath not been fully discovered, so it is not cer- 
tainlyknowu. The breadth of it is alnjut twohundred miles. Theprin- 
cipal Rivers within this Tract are Hudson's River, Raiitan River, and 
Delewerbay Kiver. The chief Islands are the Manahatans Islaud, Long 
Island, and Staten Island." 

*■ Within two leagues of New York lieth Staten Island, it bears from 
New York west something 6<mtherly. It is about twenty miles long, 
and four or five broad. It is, most of it, good land, full of timber, and 
produceth all such commodities as Long Island doth, besides tin and 
store of iron-ore, and the (Jalamine slone i* said lUewise to be found 
there. There is but "Ue town upon it consisting of English and French, 
but is capable of entertaining more iidiabitants; betwixt this and Long 
Island is a large bay, and is the coming in for all ships and vessels out 
of ihe-ea. On the north side of this i-land After-skull River puts into 
the main land on the west side, whereof is two or three fowus, but on 
the east side but one.2 There is very great niar-dies or meadows on both 
sides of it, excellent good laud, and gooil convenience for the settling of 
several towns; there grow blaok walnut and locust, as there doth in Vir- 
ginia, with mighty tall, straight limber, as good as any in the north of 
America. It pioduceth any cominoditie Long Island doth 

"Westward of After-Kull River before mentioned, about eighteen or 
twenty unles, runs in Raiitau Rivei- northward into the country some 
sct)re of miles, both sides of which river is adorned with spacious mea- 
dows, enough to uiaiiitHio tliou-aiids of cattle, the woodland is likewise 
very good for corn, stored with wild b- asts, as deer, and elks, and an in- 
nunieralde multitude of fowl, as in other parts of the country. This 
river is thought very capable for the erecting of several towns and vil- 
lager on each side of it, no place in the ninth of Ameiica having better 
conveineuce for the maintaining of all sorts of cattle for winter and 
sninuier food. Upon this river is no town settled, bnt one at the mouth 
of it.3 Next this river westward is a place called Newasons, where is 
two or three towns and villages settled upon the seaside,^ but none be- 
twixt that and the Delaware Bay, which is about sixty miles, all of 
which is rich clmmpain country, free from sbnies atid iiulitferent level; 
store of e.\celleut good timber and vety well watered, having brooks or 

Denton's instructions to immigrants are well worth 
copying for the light they throw on theearliesiiiiethod 
of obtaining lands and eft'ecting settlements. He 

'* To give some satisfaction to people that shall be desirous to transport 
themselves thither (the country b. ing capable of enteitaining many 
thonsaiids), how and iifter what inantier people live, and how land may 
be procured, etc., 1 shall answer that the usual way is for a company of 
people to jtiiu together, either enough to m^ike a town, or a lesser num- 
ber ; these go with the consent of the Governor and view a tract of land, 
there being ctujice enough, and finditig a place convenient lor a town, 
they return to the Governor, wlio U|ion their desire admits them into a 
cobiny. anil gives them a grant or patent for the said land, for themselves 
and associates, The.™ persons being thus qualified, settle the place, and 
take in what inhabitants to themselves they shall see cause to ailmit of, 
till their town be full; these a-sociates thus taken iu have eqm.l privi- 
leges with themselves, and they make a divisi n of the hind suitable to 
every man's occa-ions, no man heitig debarred of such quantities iis he 
bath occasion for, Ihe rest they let lie in common to the whole town." 

• Denton's work was originally published in 1670; a new edition was 
issued in London in 17UI. 

s The last mentioned was Bergen, on the Neck.and the others Newark, 
Elizabethtowii, and Woodbridge, these towns having all been founded 
previous to ItiVO. 

" What town was it? 

* What towns and villages? 
■■i Denton, pp. 14, 16. 

All the earliest towns in Essex, Union, and Mid- 
dlesex Counties— Newark, Elizabethtown, Wood- 
bridge, and Piscataway — were patented and settled 
in the manner described, the Associates having two 
principal objects in view, — first neighborhood, and 
second protection from hostile Indians. By inducing 
their neighbors and acquaintances to join them in 
settling the new colony they could have congenial 
associates, and by their numbers and combined 
strength could better protect themselves against at- 
tacks from the savages, and overcome many of the 
obstacles of wilderness life which could hardly be 
successfully encountered by single individuals. Dur- 
ing the earliest period most of the towns and settle- 
ments were built compactly together and fortified as 
a defense against the Indians, and it was made a con- 
dition that the settlers should provide themselves 
with arms and ammunition. This was properly the 
New England method of settlement, adopted first by 
the prudent and sagacious people of those colonies, 
and carried with them wherever they planted new 
settlements further westward. Wherever this mode 
was adopted in New Jersey, it was either wholly 
among New England people or by those who bor-' 
rowed the idea from them. It will give some con- 
ception of the penetrating power of the now all but 
universal Yankee idea to say that this method of 
building towns in a solid, compact form to defend 
themselves against the Indians preceded their advent 
into New Jersey, and that the astute Dutch Governor 
Stuyvesant, in issuing proclamation for the erection 
of the compact and fortified town of Bergen in 1658, 
enforces his recommendation by quoting the example 
of the people of New England. Bergen was the first 
town of this sort erected in East Jersey, but the idea 
was a " Yankee notion" which had found its way 
among the Dutch. 

The settlements we are to treat of in Union and 
Middlesex Counties were originally, to a very large 
extent, made by New England people. Such were 
the earliest settlers throughout all of Union County, 
who first planting themselves where the city of Eliza- 
beth now stands, spread northward and westward to 
and beyond the present county limits, and such were 
the earliest settlers of Woodbridge and Piscataway, 
which formed originally most of the county of Middle- 
sex. The early settlers of Amboy were mostly Scotch 
and English, and the other towns were settled by a 
more composite class of inhabitants. Among the New 
England and English emigrants were many Friends 
or Quakers, who came at an early time, and whose 
excellent qualities of character and contributions to 
the general weal will not be overlooked in making 
up the award of history. 





Elizabeth Town was the seat of the first English 
government in New Jersey. It must be borne in 
mind that the Duke of York in 1664 sold that por- 
tion of his possessions in America lying west of the 
Hudson River, to which tlie name of Nova Cwsarea, 
or New Jersey, was given, to John Lord Berkeley and 
Sir George Carteret, two of the lords of the Privy 
Council of King Charles, and that upon the char- 
ter or constitution known as the "Concessions and 
Agreement" the Lords Proprietors established a gov- 
ernment for the province, appointing Philip Carteret 
Governor, and sending him over with plenary author- 
ity to administer the civil affairs of the colony. It so 
happened that at the time of Carteret's arrival the 
enterprising Elizabethtown Associates had unwit- 
tingly prepared a capital for him in the wilderness 
by locating their town and making a promising be- 
ginning in the way of improvements. We quote the 
following from Mr. Hatfield's History : 

"Scarcely has the new settlement got fairly under way, the gronnd 
ahout the creek heen cleared, und the soil made ready fur the sowing of 
the winter grain, when tidings reach them from New York of a serious 
change in their [iro8|iects. Word is brought that the Duke of York has 
sold the west of Huilson's River to two of the Lords of the 
Council, who have sent over a deputy to arrange the matter with Gov- 
ernor Nicolls, and take possession, in their name, of the newly-created 
province. As a matter of course the coming of the new Governor is 
awaited with no little anxiety. 

" Early in the mouth of August, 1665, the town is stirred by the first 
exciting event in its history. The ship 'Philip,' having arrived at 
New York July '^Olh, now makes her appearance at the Point, or en- 
trance of the creek on which the town is laid out. She brings Capt. 
Philip Carteret, a sprightly youth of six and twenty, with a company of 
emigrants fr..m the Old World. Among tliem is u French gentleman, 
Robert Vauquelliti, a surveyor by profession, with his wite. Capt. 
James Bollen, of New York, also is of the number. With these come 
also eighteen men of menial character, of the laboring class, possibly 
a few others, females probably, of whom no special mention is made, 
some thirty in all.i 

" The settlers gather about the landing to receive the new-comers, to 
learn who they at e, and why their steps are directed hither. Capt Car- 
teret presetitly submits his credentials to Ogden and his townsmen. He 
comes accredited with papers from Governor Nicolls, and a Gitvernor's 
coinuiission from Lord John Berkeley, Baron of Stratton, Someiset 
County, England, and Sir George Carteret, Knight and Baronet, of Sal- 
trum, in Devon (both of the Privy Council), to whom the Duke of York 
bad granted the territory lying to the west of Hudson's River and east 
of the Delaware, to be known henceforward as Nova Cajsjirea, or New 
Jei-sey. Mutual explanations follow. The Indian deed is produced 
and well considered. Governor NicoU's grant is brought forward and 

**The settlers appear to have had a fair understanding with Carteret 
and his company, and to have procured a conces-ion of their rights and 
titles as proprietors of the tenitory described in their deed. Tradition 
tails U!* — not a very reliable authority when not suppoited by collateral 
evidence, as it is iu the present caae — that Carteret, being informed of 
their right to the lands, 'approved of the same, and readily and will- 
ingly consented to becouie an a.'tsoriate with them, and went up fi-om 
the place of his lamling with them, carrying a hoe on his shoulder, 
thereby intimating his intention of becoming a planter with them,' glad, 
no doubt, to find so promising a beginning iu the settlement of the un- 
occupied and unexplored territory over which be was to exercise 

K. T. Bill, p 2S. 
' Leatning and Spic 

-U, 26-27. Ans. to E. T. Bill, p. 2(1. 

" Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret were of the court of Charles 

j II., a monarch of whom Batirroft truly says that his reign 'was not 

! less remarkable for the rapacity of the courtiers than for the debauchery 

i of the monarch's In the cunfiict with the Parliamentarians they had 

: both, being then in the full vigor of their faculties, adhered to the for- 

I tunes of thf-ir king, Charles I., and laid their royal master and his 

I profligate smis, Charles and James, under no small obligations to them. 

"Berkeley was the youngest son of Sir Maur.ce Berkeley. He was 

l)oru in 1607, joined the army in the operations a^ainstthe Scots in 16:18, 

and was knighted (.lune 27th) the same year. In the Palliaiuentary war 

j he serveii as eominis.saiy-general for the king, as Governor of Exeter, 

I and general of the royal fences in Devon. After the king's death he 

went abroad with the r..yal family, and in 1S52 was made Governor of 

I the Duke of York's househohl. May 19, 1658, he was created by royal 

' favor Baron Berkeley, of Stratbm, and at the Eestoiation in 1660 he 

I was sworn of the Privy Council.-l 

" Carteiet was the eldest son of Helier Carteret, Deputy Governor of 
the Isle ot Jersey, a descendant of the Lords <ir Carteret in the Dnchy 
of Normandy, a fanuly of great respectability, dating bai-k to the lime 
of William tlie Conqueror Philip, eldest son of Helier Carteret, mar- 
ried Rachel Paub-t ami had s'X children,— Philip, Helier, Ani.ce. Gideon, 
Rachel, and Judith He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth, ami lived to 
I a great age. Sir Philip, the eldest son of Sir Philip, married Anne 

Dowse and had eleven children,— Philip, Peyton, Zoncli, Gide Erau- 

cis, Thomas, Edward, Margaret, Anne, Elizabeth, Dowse. Philip, the 
first born, died in lli62. Elizabeth (for whom this town was named) 
married her cousin, Ge..rge Cal teiet. Her father, Philip, hail (as above) 
three brothers. Helier, the second son of the first Sr Philip, married 
Elizabeth Dnmaresipie, and had two children, George and rhilip. The 
latter was born in IblU, and died in 1665. 

"George Carteret was born in 1599, married (as above) his cousin 
Elizabeth, and had three sons and five daughters. His sous were Philip. 
Jamvs. and George. The latter ilied unmarried in 1656. Philip, his el- 
dest son, was knighted June 4, 1670, and killed iu a naval battle May 28, 
1672. George, the lather, entered the navy at an early age. In 16:i6 he 
was appninteil joint Governor of Jersey, and in 1640 comptroller of the 
royal navy. In 11)42 the post of vice-admiral was offered him by Parlia- 
ment, but declined iu ob"d.enee to bis royal master. He was knighted 
May 9, 1646, bavbig rendered the king great service iu the supply of 
ammunition. Withdrawing to his home in Jersey, his house, which he 
bravely defended as stronglndd (d the monarchy, became an 
asylum to the Pi ince of \Va|. s and others ol the parry. He followed 
his sovereign to France in 16.V2, was imprisoned iu the Bastile at the 
instance of Cromwell in 1657, and subsequently banished the kingdom. 
He repaired to Ch tries at Brussels in 16.=>9, and was one of his e8cort_ 
wlien received by the city of London in 1660. He was appointed vice- 
chamlierlain and tieasurerof the navy, wa,s sworn of the Privy Coun- 
cil, and in 1661 electetl to Parliament for Pttrtsmonth. As early as 
1650. wlien the royal cause ajipeared quite hopi.less, he is said to have 
obtained the grant of an island in Virginia, and to have fitted out a ship 
with all sorts of gtiods anil tools, with many passengers, fur the settle- 
ment of a plantation in the New World. It is thought that the project 
was abandoned on account of the vigilance of the Croniwellian party .» 
"The trials through wbicli the two birds liiiil passed during the civil 
wars, in which circiiuistances had brouglit them into great familiarity 
wilh the royal brothers, Charles and James, gave them great influence 
at court after tlie Restoration. Lucrative nflices were awaiiled them in 
and about the r..yal household, and tiequent opportunities given of pro- 
moting their purposes of wealth and aggrandizement. Tlie New World 
beyond the flood was attruiting nunierous adveitlnrers, and offering 
large inducements to colonists. The gifted Wintlirop, on the occasion 
of his visit to England in 1661-62, to procure a new charter for ('on- 
necticut, had been received with great consideration at court, and by 
his representations of what had already been accomplished in New 
England had unwittingly excited the greed of many of the cornipt and 
wily par-asitesof Ihecrown. Clarendon, A Ibeinarle, Ashley. Colleton, Car- 
teret, Craven, and the two B..rkeley8, Lord John and Sir Williani. banded 
together and readily obtained in 166:1 from the pleasure-loving monarch 
a grant of tlievasi territory in America, extending from the thirty-sixth 
degree of north latitude to the river Saint Matheo, and from the At- 

» Bancroft's United States, ii. 129. 

* N. T. Colonial Doc, Ii. 599. Collins' Peerage (ed. of 1785). iii. '270- 
6 New York Colonial Doc, ii. 410. Collins' Peerage (ed. of 1785), iv. 




lantic to the Pacific, as proprietors and lords, with alDiost absolute 
authority and the right of assignment or sale,^— a most extraoidinary 
grant of power; and all this un the plea of ' being excited witli a land- 
able and pious zeal for the propagation of the gospel' among a 'bar- 
barous people, who have no knowledge of God,' h,vpocrit>B that they 
were! ' Avavit-e,' says Bancroft, * is the vice of declining years; most 
of the proprietaries were pa-t middle life. They beyged the country 
under pretence of a " pious zeal for the propagation of the gospel,'' and 
their object was the increase of their own wealth and dignity.' i 

" Not satisfied with their share in the lordship of such a vast domain, 
Berkeley and Carteiet were eeger to secure for themKelves an invest- 
ment in western lands still more promising if possible. The notorious 
Capt. Scott, who had created so much disturbance on Long Island and 
the Main, and of whom Governor Nicolis wiote that he ' was borue to 
work mischeife as farre as bee is credited or his parts serve biui,' had 
sought of the crown a patent for Long Island; but not sncieeding in 
his design, and conceiving Ibat he had been wronged by the Duke of 
York, is reported to have iudu- ed Berkeley and Carteret to secure New 
Jersey for themselves, knowing, as Nicolis alxo declared, that it was the 
most valuable portion of the Duke's territory.^ 

"The two lords readily caught the hail, and the duke, ' for a compe- 
tent sum of money,' having by his patent from the king the right of 
sale as po>-session and rule, conveyed, June 24, 1664, the territoi-y uow 
known a-* New Jersey to Berkeley and Cart'-ret 'in as full and ample 
manner' as it had been conveyed to himself, transferring to these 
court favorites all iiis rights, titles, and authority to and over the laud 
in question. 

" In the course of the summer, as lias been seen, the Dutch were dis- 
possessed, and the country brought under the sway of the Englisli crown. 
As soon as tidings came, in the latter part of October, that the conquest 
was complete, the two lords began their preparations for colonizing their 
new acquisitions. Guided, probably, by tlie terms of Winthrop's char- 
ter, and the concessions silbst-quently drawn up for the Caroiinas, they 
prepared a plan for the governuient of the territory (that Carteret 
had honored with the name of bis island home), which was completed 
and signed Keb. lU, 16G5, and which they denominated, ' The Concessions 
and Agreement of the Lords Proprietors of New-C^sarea, or New-Jer- 
sey, to and with all and every of the adventurers, and all such as shall 
settle or plant there ;' a document of which it must be admitted that 
wbiie much nuty be said against it and properly, it neverthless contained 
principles and conveyed privileges far in advance of the age, and much 
more .'>ccordaut with democracy than with the imperialism of the 

" Capt. Philip Carteret, a distant relative of Sir George, was more than 
content to emigrate to the New World and become the Governor of the 
new territory for the proprietors. His commission and letters of instruc- 
tion bear the same date as the concessions. Mr. Robert Vanquellin 
(Sieur des Prairie), of tlie city of Caen, in France, receives the same day 
au appointment as surveyor-general of tlie province," 

On the 8th of September, 1665, Governor Carteret 
became a landed proprietor, in common with the As- 
sociates, by the purchase of the third-lot right of John 
Baily, the deed being as follows : 

" Indenture between John Bayles of Jamaica in Yorkshire upon Long 
Islaud of the one part and PfiiUp Cttrteret, Esqr, Goveruorof the Province 
of New Jersey upon tlie main land of America of tlie other part. For 
and in considemtiou of a valuable sum to liini in hand paid by the said 
Philip Carteret, the said Bayles hath sold to Philip Carteiet all and 
every my Lott or Letts part or parts of a certaine peii^e of land scituate 
lying and being on the Maine Continent of America commonly called 
or known by the Name of Arthur Cull or Euihoyle, or what other Name 
or Names soever it liath been or now is Called by which said Parcell of 
Land he the said John Bayles with severall othersdid Lawfully purchase 
from the Natives or Indians as by his said Bill of Sayle from the Indians 
bearing date the 28tli day of October 1664 will more at large appear 
which was coflrmed by The Right Hon. Col. Richard Nicholl Governor 
of his Royal Highness Territoryes in America his Grant bearing date 
the first day of December, 1664. To have and to hold, &c"* 

1 Bancroft's United States, ii. 130. 

2 N. Y. Colonial Doc, iii. 1(16. Thompson's Long Island, ii. 32(1-23. 

3 See Smith's New Jersey, pp. 512-521. Grants, Concessions, etc., pp. 

* E. J. Book of Surveys. A. I, 2 ; ii. J, 1»2. 

This interest of Carteret in the plantation was sold 
by him Feb. 10, 1668, to a new-comer by the name of 
I William Pyles, from Piscataway, N. H. The lots lay 
! on the south side of the creek. Again, in November, 
i 1668, Carteret purchased the third-lot right of Capt. 
' Robert Sealey, deceased, for £45. 

The "Concessions and Agreement" proved, upon 
I examination, very acceptable to the people. It was 
an instrument guaranteeing the utmost liberty of 
conscience consistent with the preservation of public 
peace and order in all things pertaining to civil and 
religious matters, and offering liberal terms to immi- 
grants who would come and settle in the country. 
As to government, it committed the work of legisla- 
tion and taxation to a Legislature, of which the pop- 
ular branch should be chosen directly by the people. 
Thus it early established in this favored colony the 
doctrine for which, a century later, the colonies so 
strenuously and successfully contended, that repre- 
sentation should always accompany all demands of 
taxation on the part of a government, or the govern- 
ment should be thrown off as a tyranny and a usur- 
pation to which no free people are bound to sub- 

No general government or Legislature for the prov- 
ince of New Jersey was established under this instru- 
ment until nearly three years after the arrival of the 
Governor. His Excellency busied himself chiefly 
in setting in order the local affairs of the town which 
he had chosen as the seat of his government, and in 
attending to such minor executive duties as seemed 
to be most urgently demanded. John Ogden was 
commissioned Oct. 26, 1665, as justice of the peace, 
and on the 1st of November was appointed one of the 
Governor's Council. Capt. Thomas Young was also 
appointed a member of the Council Feb. 12, 1666. A 
military company was organized somewhat later for 
the defense of the town against the Indians. Of this 
company Luke Watson was made lieutenant and John 
Woodruff ensign. Watson was also appointed consta- 
ble of the town.^ 

Among the many marriage licenses issued by the 
first Governor of New Jersey the following has been 
preserved among the East Jersey records. The par- 
ties were servants who had come over with the Gov- 
ernor, and afterwards settled on Staten Island. This 
marriage is thought to have been the first that ever 
occurred in the Elizabeth Town plantation : 

" Licettse of Marriage. 

" Whereas I haverec* Infomiation of a mutual Interest and agreement 
betwene Daniel Perrin^ of Elizabeth Towne, in the province of New Jar- 
sey, and Maria TAorei, of the same Towne, Spinster, to solemnize Mariage 
together, for which tlioy have Requestetl my Lycense, and there ap ear- 
ing no Lawfull Impediment for y Obstruction tliereof, These are to Re- 
quire You, or Eytherof You, tojoyne the said Daniel Perrin and Marie 
Thorel in Matrimony and them to pronounce man and Wife, and to make 
record thereof according to tlie Lawes in that behalfe provided, tor the 
doing Whereof this shall he to you, or Eytlier of yon, a sufiicibut War- 

' Eaat Jersey Becurda, iii. 3, 4, 7, z(l, 21. 



milt. Given under my Imnd and s»elo the Twelft day of fohruary, Ani 
1065, ami iu the IKlh Yi-are uf his Ma"" Baigii King Charles the Second. 
"To any of tlie Justices of the Peace 
or Ministers wMilu the Govi-rument " Ph. Carterett. 

of the province of New Jarsey. 

"These Couple Where Joyned together in 
Matrimony the IS feb., 1066, by me, J. Bollen."' 

An indenture is on record of the 7tli of April, 1666, 
wherein Robert Gray binds himself as a servant for 
three years to Luke Watson, the latter to give him, 
at the end of the term, "a good cowe." This is fol- 
lowed, on the 7th of the next month (May), with "a 
Hue and Cry" for a servant belonging to Mr. Luke 
Watson, who has " lately absented himselfe and runn 
away from his Master's service." A description of 
the fugitive is given in these words : 

" His name, Robert Eiiglishmati bornd, about 2U yearesof age, 
a lustij bodied, portely fellow, light brownish haire, very little liaire on 
his face, a little demij Castor, a gray broad cloth sute the breeches tyed 
att the knees, atid a led coate, besides a light gray graij coulored Serge 
breeches, and a Snap hansDiiuskell that he hath stollen awaije w"* many 
other things. It is Supposed that hoe is in Company vi^^ one Ruderic 
Powell, a pitiiful fellow, who hath also absented himselfe and mnn 

First Legislature of New Jersey.— In accord- 
ance with the of the "Concessions and 
Agreement," Governor Carteret, premising that " by 
the infinite goodness, providence, and blessing of 
Almighty God the province of New Jersey is in a 
probable way of being populated," issued a procla- 
mation April 7, 1668, requiring the freeholders in 
each of the several towns of the province to make 
choice of two of their number to meet in a General 
Assembly at Elizabeth Town, May 25, 1668,— 

"For the making atid constituting such wholesome laws as shall be 
most neeitful and necessary for the good government of the said prov- 
ince, and the maintaining of a religious communion and civil society, 
one with the other, as becometh Christians, without which it is impos- 
sible lor any Body Polrtic to prosper or subsist."- 

It is almost certain that up to this time the people 
of New Jersey, with the exception, perhaps, of the 
Dutch at Bergen, who had a court and a regular ad- 
ministration of justice, according to the laws of Hol- 
land, established among them as early as 1661, had 
lived under " the Duke's Laws," so called, which His 
Royal Highness had caused to be enacted by an As- 
sembly convened at Hempstead, Long Island, under 
a warrant from Governor Nicolls, on the 28th of Feb- 
ruary, 1665. This code, according to instructions, 
was " collected out of the several laws then in force in 
his Majesties American Colonyesand Plantations," but 
were chiefly such as were in authority in Connecticut, 
and some of them in the very words of the Connecti- 
cut code of 1650.'' 

The first General Assembly of New Jersey convened 
in accordance with the Governor's warrant at Eliza- 
beth Town, and was constituted May 26, 1668. Three 
of the six members of the Council were residents of 

> E. J. Records, iii. p. 

2 Leainingand S[iicei 

3 New Yoik Hist. S..( 
Hildreth's Uliitcd Stnti 

Hatfield's Elizabeth, p. 124. 
Tlnnnp«on's L. I., i. 131-35. 

the town, — Robert Bond, Robert Vauquellin, and 
William Pardon ; Bond and Pardon having been ap- 
pointed, Jan. 2, 1668, and James Bollen, also of the 
town, being the secretary. The town had chosen John 
Ogden, St., and John Brackett to represent them in 
the House of Burgesses. The Legislature remained 
in session five days, and pa.ssed several acts or laws, 
by some denominated " the Elizabeth Town Code of 
Laws," of which it has been said that " Puritan 
austerity was so tempered by Dutch indifference 
that mercy itself could not have dictated a milder 
system." The laws were few and simple, scarcely 
worthy the name of a " Code," and were taken in 
almost every instance and nearly verbatim from the 
Hempstead Code, or the Connecticut Code of 1650. 
The Puritan laws, as well as the Puritan manners and 
customs, prevailed in the new settlement. Every 
possible precaution was taken to preserve the rights 
of property, to secure the orderly administration of 
justice, to regulate the intercourse of the sexes, to 
restrain the vicious within proper bounds, to make 
human life as sacred as possible, to prevent disre- 
spect to parents, drunkenness, and profanity, and to 
enforce obedience to the constituted authorities.* 

As an illustration of the strictness with which, at 
that early day, they watched over the morals of the 
rising generation, the following enactment is cited at 
length ; 

" For the better preventing disorders and misdemeanors iu ytiung 
persons and others. Be it also enacted by this present General Assembly, 
that if any person or persons shall be abroad from the usual place of 
their abode, and found in night-walking. Drinking in any tapp-house, 
or any other house or place at unreasonable times, after nine of the clock 
at night, and not about their lawful occasions, or cannot give a good ac- 
count of their being absent from their own place of abode at that time 
of the night, if required of tiiem, shall be secured by the Constable or 
some other officer till the morning, to be brought before a Justice of the 
Peace or Magistrate, to be examined, and if they cannot give them a 
satisfactory account of their being out at such unreasonable times, he or 
they shall be bound over to the next Court, and receive such punishment 
as the Justice upon the Bench shall see cause to inflict upon them." '•' 

Provision was made for an annual meeting of the 
General Assembly on the first Tuesday in November, 
and for the election of deputies on the 1st of Jan- 
uary. The rates for the support of government were 
to be five pounds for each of the towns, to be paid into 
the hands of Jacob Mollins (Melyen), of Elizabeth 
Town, in country produce at the following prices : 

" Winter wheat at five shillings a bushel I ; summer wheat at four shil- 
lings and sixpence ; pease at three i-hillings and sixpence; Indian corn 
at three shillings; rye at four shillings; barley at four shillings; beef 
at two pence half-penny ; pork at three pence half-penny a pound." 

Capt. Bollen was to receive twenty pounds for his 
services as secretary. Little time, however, could be 
given, Especially in the planting season, to matters of 
legislation. The full consideration of these enact- 
ments was referred by the Governor to the November 
session, " by reason of the week so near spent, and the 

* Learning and Spicer's Grants, etc., pp. 77-84. Bancroft's U. States, 
ii. 319. 
& Leaming and Spicer's Grants, etc., p. 80. 



resolution of some of the company to depart." The 
Assembly met here again by adjournment on Tues- 
day, Nov. .3, 1668. Jacob MoUins (Melyen) appeared 
among the burgesses in place of John Brackett, who 
had probably returned to New Haven. Mr. Ogden 
was appointed "to take cognizance of the country's 
charge and rates ;" and Mr. Watson, of the town, was 
appointed, with Mr. Samuel Moore, of Woodbridge, 
to go to Middletown and Shrewsbury to collect their 
proportion of the rates levied on the towns. Mr. 
Melyen was to be one of the committee to treat with 
the Indians " for the preventing of future damages 
and wrongs that otherwise may accrue to the towns 
or inhabitants in reference to horses or cattle that may 
range up into the country, to the indangering the 
peace in respect to the Indians." Two men also were 
appointed "and sent to tiie Sachem of the Indians 
that killed the Indian boy at Elizabeth Town to de- 
mand the murtherer to be surrendered to the Gov- 
ernor." A few other acts of not much importance 
were passed, and the Assembly was brought abruptly 
to an end.' 

A radical difference of opinion, which must have 
been foreseen, between the Governor and the people 
in respect to the rights of the people and the power of 
the Legislature was very soon in the course of the 
session developed. The deputies were disposed to 
exercise the right of originating measures for the 
good of the people without previous consultation 
with the Governor. The latter was jealous of his 
own prerogative, and sought to prescribe the course 
to be pursued by the deputies, as he was accustomed 
to do with the Council, who were creatures of his own 
will. On the fourth day of the session the deputies 
therefore sent a message to the Governor and his 
Council to this effect, — 

*' Honored Geiitlenieii, — We finding so many and great in 
by our not setting together, and your Apprehensions so diffeieiit to oure, 
and your expectalioiis tiiat tilings must go according to yonr opinions, 

wlierefore we tliinli it vain to spend nmcii time ipf returning answers by 
writings tliat are so exceedingly dilatory, if not Irnitle-s and endless, 
and thererore we think our way raiher to break up our meeting, seeing 
the order of the concessions cannot be attended unto." = 

Carteret received the message on Friday evening, 
and on the plea that it was "too late to-night to 
entertain so long a debate,'" asked them to send two 
of their number to discuss their difl'erences on Satur- 
day morning. " If not," he added, " you may do 
what you please, only we advise you to consider well 
of your resolutions before you break up." They did 
"consider well, and so broke up on Saturday, the fifth 
day of the session.' Carteret disregarded the ex- 
press provision of the concessions, and refused to call 
an Assembly for the next two years, preferring to 
rule the province at his own pleasure by means of 
his complaisant Council. 

1 Learning and Spi( 

2 Ibid., p. 90. 

I Grants, etc., pp. 81, 85-89. 
' Ibid., pp. 90, 91. 



Affairs in 1669. — In 1669 the affairs of the prov- 
ince were involved in much uncertainty on account 
of the trouble which had overtaken the Lords Pro- 
prietors at home. Berkeley had " been detected in the 
basest corruption" and deprived of his office. Car- 
teret had long been under the accusation of Parlia- 
ment of being a defaulter to a large amount as treas- 
urer of the navy, and after a rigid investigation of 
his accounts by a Parliamentary committee he was 
expelled from the House of Commons in the autumn 
of 1669. These circumstances led to a renewal of the 
scheme of annexing New Jersey to the province of 
New York, in which Col. Nicoll had always been 
interested. He at the first had remonstrated with 
the duke against the grant of New Jersey to Berkeley 
and Carteret, and being now in England he renewed 
his remonstrance with still greater earnestness. Meas- 
ures were accordingly taken by the duke for the re- 
covery of his lost territory. Samuel Maverick, writ- 
ing to Governor Winthrop, under date of Feb. 24, 
1669, says, — 

"Tile Lord Berkeley is uniler a Cloud and out of all his ofiices, and 
oflfers to surrender up the Patent of N. Jersey. Sir G. Carteret, his part- 
ner, U in Ir>-land, but it is thought he will likew ise surrender, and then 
N. Yorko will bo inlarged." 

Later he writes, — 

"New Jersey is returned to his Royal Highness by excliange for Dela- 
ware, as Sir George Carteret wiites to liis <'ousin, the present Governor : 
some tract of bind on this side of the river .tnd on tlie other side to 
reach to Maryland bounds."' * 

At this time the Newark people were in evident 
perplexity : 

" At a Town Meeting 28th July. 1G69, the Town made choice of Mr. 
Crane and Mr. Treat to take the first opportunity to goe over to York to 
advise with Colonel Lovelace Concerning ourStanding, Whether we are 
designed to be part of the Duk.-'s Colony or Not."^ 

Such were the negotiations for the transfer of New 
Jersey to the Duke of York's possession. Though so 
nearly consummated, they failed in the end. Berkeley 
was made lord lieutenant of Ireland, of which Car- 
teret was already deputy treasurer. By some new 
turn of the political wheel the lords retained poises- 
sion of their charter, and Elizabeth Town remained 
the seat of government of the province and the resi- 
dence of the Governor and his officials. 

Between Carteret, however, and the popular branch 
of the government there had grown up an irrecon- 
cilable diU'erence. The Governor for more than two 
years refused to convene the Assembly or to recognize 
the legality of its proceedings. The Assembly met 
in 1670, and again on March 26, 1671, and held an 
adjourned meeting on the 14th of May following. 

* Pepys' Diary, H. 97, 114, 115. N. Y'. Col. Doc, ii. 410; iii. 1(15, 113, 
114. Whitehead's East Jersey, pp. 30, 31. 4 Mass. Hist. Col., viii. 315, 

6 Newark Town Records, p. 21. 



Deputies for Elizabeth Town, Newark, Bergen, 
Woodbridge, and Piscataway were in the Assembly 
or House of Burgesses, as it was then called. As 
the Governor refused to preside over the Assembly, 
either in person or by deputy, the members, as au- 
thorized by the Concessions, appointed Capt. James 
Carteret, the son of Sir George, who was then re- 
siding in Elizabeth Town, to preside over thera. 
William Pardon, the secretary of the House, taking 
sides with the Governor, refused to deliver up the 
acts and proceedings of the Assembly, and these 
records were, by tVie authority of the Governor, de- 
stroyed. By virtue of his appointment as president 
of the Assembly, Capt. James Carteret issued the 
following warrant for the arrest of Pardon, addressed 
to the constable of Elizabeth Town or his deputy, 
May 25, 1672 : 

"These are in his Ma^i" Name to Will and require Ynu to apprehend 
the body of William Pardon and him to keepe ill Safe Ousted)' until fur- 
ther order, or until lie deliver up the Acts of Lnues made hy the Gen- 
eral A^semldy at llieir Selt ng the 26th of March Lust the Which Laues 
the said Wni Pardou now relusetli to deliver." > 

Constable Meeker immediately made the arrest. 
Governor Carteret fled to Bergen. Pardon escaped 
Meeker's custody, and was with his associate mem- 
bers of the Council — Vauquellin, Edsall, Berry, 
Bishop, Andrus, and Pyke — convened by the Gov- 
ernor at Bergen on May 28th, when the following 
proclamation was issued : 

" Whereas we are certainly inforDied of several Eregular and Illegal 

ral Pp 

ns styling themselves the Dep- 
in Attpiii))ting the making au 
nildiiig together at Elizabeth 
indertlle Denomination afore- 
ir witlniut the knowledge, up- 
id Council aliovesaid, and hy 
id uiakiiig Pi'ocliiniation pub- 
1 which tends only to Mutiny 

proceedings and Aclion 
uties or Kepre-eiitalives f..r the Coiiiitiy, 
Alteration in this Government by Ass< 
Towne, the fourteenth day of Ma,\ Last 
said, without writts from the Governor, 
probation or consent of the Governor a 
Electing a Presiilent for the t'onntry a 
lickly of the^e their Illegal Actions, Al 
and Rebellion, Ac." 

The document is too lengthy to be quoted in full. 
In it the Governor declared his purpose that unless 
the people should declare their submission within 
ten days, he should " proceed against them as Muti- 
neers and Enemies to the Government." Pardon 
returned to read the proclamation before a town- 
meeting; an order was issued for his arrest; the 
constable, with a posse, broke into his house and 
carried away "all his moveables to Goodman Tom- 
son's house, except his writing-desk and papers, which 
were carried to Capt. Carteret." 

The Governor had already been advised by his 
Council to repair to England and lay the grievances 
of the province before the Lords Proprietors. He 
concluded to act upon this advice, and accordingly, 
in July, 1672, with his officials, — Bollen, Vauquellen, 
Samuel, Moore, the marshal, and Pardon, — he left 
the country and returned to England, leaving Capt. 
John Berry, Deputy Governor, in his place. Capt. 
James Carteret, however, occupied the government 
house at Elizabeth Town. On the 9th of July he 

1 E. .1. Records, iii. 64. Learning and Spicer, p. 15. 

issued a writ of attachment against the house and 
lands and all the estate of William Pardon, " escaping 
away for England."^ 

It appears that Capt. James Carteret arrived in 
Elizabeth Town in the summer of 1671, on his way to 
North Carolina to take possession of his newly ac- 
quired domain as landgrave. He was the son of Sir 
George Carteret, the lord proprietor of East Jersey, 
and probably had been instructed to call upon Gov- 
ernor Philip Carteret and confer with him in respect 
to the affairs of the province, then getting to be quite 
complicated. The fact that he was instructed by a 
council convened in New York in September, 1671, 
in connection with Governor Carteret, to "order a 
General Assembly to be called" in East Jersey for 
the purpose of prosecuting a war against the Indians 
on the Delaware shows that he must have had .some 
kind of co-ordinate or supervisory authority with the 
Governor, either by commission or as the representa- 
tive of his father.^ It is probable that his father, 
knowing the unfortunate state of affairs in the prov- 
ince, had intrusted him with all the authority which 
he exercised, and that at his suggestion, in order to 
conciliate the aggrieved planters, he had taken the 
popular side in the controversy with the Governor. 
At the time of his occupancy of the government 
house at Elizabeth Town he made frequent visits to 
New York, the result of which was his marriage, on 
the 15th of April, 1673, to Frances, daughter of Capt. 
Thomas Delavall, merchant and mayor of that city. 

"Capt. James Carteret had scarcely completed his 
honeymoon before he received by Capt. Bollen dis- 
patches and instructions from his aged father, requir- 
ing him to retire from the scene of conflict in New 
Jersey and look after his patrimony in Carolina. He 
was now the only surviving son of his father, his elder 
brother. Sir Philip, having been slain in battle almost 
a year before, May 28, 1672. Bidding farewell, there- 
fore, to the kind people of the town, he took^ passage 
with his wife early in July, 1673 (after nearly two 
years' sojourn in the town), on board of a sloop, Sam- 
uel Davis captain, bound for a Southern port. Sam- 
uel Hopkins, one of the planters of the town, accom- 
panied them. 

2 Hatfl. Id's Elizabeth, p. 148. 

3 HatfieM's Klizabeth, note to p. 141 . — *' Great injustice has been done 
to the memory of Capt. James Carteret. The Bill in CViawcer?/ (p. 35) 
callshim 'aweakanddissoluteyouth.' He could scarcely have been less 
than 4U years old. Governor Pliili|i was but:!3. Tr//mie chHs him 'a dis- 
solute son of Sir G.-orge' (i. ill5). Chalmers speaks of him as ' a natural 
son of the Proprietor' (p. 616). GrtihameKfee the same language (i. 466). , 
Gfirdtm describes him as 'a weak and dissolute natural son of Sir 
George' (p. 2!)). Wliileliead makes him ' au illegitimate son of Sir 
George,' * a weak aud dissiliated young man' (p. 55). iVf«I/orrf uses the 
same epitliels (p. 152). That he was the lawfid son of Sir George and 
his wife Elizabeth cannot be questioned. Dankers, the Labadrst jour- 
nalist, who knew and uiet witli him at New York in 1679, calls him 'a 
person of quality,' aud gives uot the least intimation of his being other 
than the lawful son of Sir George, but much to the contrary- Dankers' 
Journal, p. l:)9. Collins' Peerage (, iii. 329; iv. :i27-8. His morals 
at the time could not have beeu lunch worse than those which generally 
prevailed at court ; they may have beeu better." 



Capt. Berry signalized his brief authority by two 
or three bellicose proclamations. In one he forbade 
the people to purchase any of the estates to be .sold 
by Constable Meeker; in another he called upon the 
" malcontents" to make their submission at the town 
of Bergen on the 10th day of June next, or after that 
to "expect no favors but what the law affords." In the 
third he declared that, in accordance with the declara- 
tion of the Lords Proprietors, no person or persons 
whatever shall be accounted a freeholder of the pro- 
vince, nor have any vote in electing, nor be capable 
of being elected for any office of trust, either civil or 
military, until he doth actually hold his or their lands 
by patent from them. 

Governor Carteret returned from England in No- 
vember, 1674. Meantime the Dutch had retaken the 
country, and had again surrendered it to the English. 
Berkeley had sold his half of the province to John 
Fenwick, and yir George Carteret had become the 
sole proprietor of Eiist Jersey by a new patent from 
the Duke of York. The same ship which brought 
over Carteret brought also Col. Edmund Andros, the 
newly-appointed Governor of New York. The latter 
became Governor of all the colonies, and in his at- 
tempt to extend his jurisdiction over New Jersey 
came into conflict with the government of Carteret, 
no less than with the desire and interest of the people, 
who now made common cause with their Governor 
against a formidable enemy, in which former animosi- 
ties seemed for the time forgotten. Andros sent his 
writs to all the towns demanding the subjection of 
the people to his authority. In March, 1680, he noti- 
fied Carteret that he intended to take military posses- 
sion of the province and to erect a fort at Sandy 
Point. On the 20th Carteret replied as follows : 

" If you intend to set a fort at Sandy Honk, I shiill be constrained to 
•udeavor to prevent the tame, and shall be necessitated, if any force be 
used, to defend ourselves and families the best we can. which if any 
blood be shed it will be contrary to our desires, and the just and right- 
eous God requii-e it al your haude who are the causes thereof. And 
therefore we intjeatyou to forbear your threats or any other acts of 
hostility towards ns until his Majesty decides this controversy, wiiich we 
shall endeavor to have efiectedassoon as possible may be. The occasion 
that hinders this flora being sent you sooner is the foulness of the 
weather hindering the councils meeting, iis also au alarm we had yes- 
terday of your being come with your sloops and a considerable number 
of soldiers, which constrained us to put ourselves in a posture of de- 

The next scene in the drama is well described by 
Governor Carteret himself in a letter to Sir George, 
of whose decease Jan. 14, 1679-80, he had not yet 
heard : 

"Sir Edmund Audioss came hither on Wednesday the 7lh instant, ac- 
companied with seveial of his officers, councellors and merchants, to 
demand the government r.f this your honour's province, supposing to 
have gained il either by threats or flattery,— and having notice of it be- 
forehand I had gotten together a matter ol 15U men in arms to receive 
him, doubting he wouhl have brought some offensive forces along with 
him hut did not, and having leave with his train to come a shore, he 
came up to my house where after the civilities past, he began to show 
by what authority he had to lay claim to the government." 

Both parties presented their documents and pleas, 
ending of course as they began : 

" His last answer was that he had showed what authority lie had, and 
according to his duty did require it in behalf of his master, and if we 
would not obey him, let it rest at our perils; for that we answered him 
we had sent nway our appeal to his majesty.and should be ready to sub- 
mit to what his Majesty should determine, and then we went to dinner, 
that done we accompanied hira to his sloop, and so parted." 

The conduct of Andros at this time was most dis- 
graceful. Dankers, who was in the country at the 
time, and cognizant of the whole affair, says, — 

" He sent boats several limes to AchterKuU to demand the submission 
of the place to his anthol-ity, which the people of Achter Kull jeered at 
and disregarded, being ready to uphold the king and their own gover- 
nor, whom they bound thi-mselves to maintain. At night, and unseason- 
able hours, and by surprise, he took from New Jersey all the staves of 
the constables out of their houses, which was as much as to deprive 
them of the power to act. Seeing he could accomplish nothing by force, 
he declared the inhabitants released from their oaths to the Heer Car- 
teret; they answered they could not acknowledge any release from 
their oaths," etc. 

The capture of Carteret soon followed, in the same 
cowardly manner. The story is told by Dankers, as 
follows : 

"At length he captured one of Carteret's domestics, for Carteret had 
no soldiers or fortiflcations, but resided in a country house only. He 
then equipped some yachts, and a ketch with soldiers, arms, and ammu- 
nition, and dispatched then» to Achter Kol, in order to abduct Cnrteret 
in any manner it conld be done. They entered his house, I know not 
how, at miduight, seized him, naked, dragged him through tlie window, 
struck and kicked him terribly, and even injured him iuternally. They 
threw him, all naked as he was, into a canoe, without any cap or hat on 
his head, and carried him in that condition to New York, where they 
furnished him clothes and shoes aud stockings, and then conducted him 
to the fort and put him immediately in prison. When they seized him 
at Achter kol, the armed boats had gone home, and the seizure was ac- 
complished through treachery. Two of the head men of Carteret (Bol- 
len aud Vauqiiellin) immediately took possession of his papers, such as 
were of importance to him, aud travelled, one to Maryland, and the 
other, crossing the ujiper part of the North River, to Boston over land, 
and both to England, in order to remonstrate. The Governor (.\ndro8) 
sent immediately to Achter kol, took possession of the place, posted up 
orders, and caused inquiries to be made for the man who had set Car- 
teret's man (Bolh-n) over the river, but without success. While Carteret 
was in prison he was sick, very sick, they said, in regard to which there 

On the 27th of May he was brought to trial before 
a special assize for presuming to exercise jurisdiction 
and government within the bounds of His Majesty's 
letters patent granted to his Royal Highness the 
Duke of York. The jury declared him " not guilty," 
and he was acquitted. But an order was appended to 
the judgment of the court requiring him to give se- 
curity that he would not exercise jurisdiction, either 
civil or military, in the province of New Jersey. 
Carteret, thus released, as it were, upon parole, imme- 
diately returned to his home, drew up the necessary 
papers for an appeal to the home government, which 
he sent to England on the 9th of July, 1680. 

On the 2d of June, only five days after the conclu- 
sion of Carteret's trial, Andros called a General As- 
sembly to meet at Elizabeth Town. He presented 
himself personally before the deputies, unfolded the 
king's letters patent, bearing the great seal of Eng- 
land, and claimed to be the rightful and lawful Gov- 
ernor. He gained nothing, however, " but a tacit ac- 

1 Leaming and Spicer. y. 1178. llHiikein' J..nniMl, pp. :147-:!.")2. 



quiescence on the part of the people in the existing 
state of things until the authorities in England could 
be heard from." ' 

The deputies returned to him the following answer: 

" As we are the RepresenlMives of the Fn-eholdere of this Province, 
we dare not grant hi^ Majesty's Letters Patents, though under the Great 
Seal of Enghind, to be onr rule or safety for the Gieat Charter of 
England, alius Magna Charta. as [is! the only rule, privilege, and joint 
safety of evi-ry freeborn Englishman." 

Carteret occupied the interval in the improvement 
of his estate, and in the erection of a new house, for 
which he had been making preparation. Says Dr. 

" He improved his leisure, also, in making some 
friendly visits, either to the city or to Long Island, re- 
sulting in his marriage, April, 1681, to Elizabeth, the 
widow of Capt. William Lawrence, of Tew's Neck, 
L. I., who had died in 1680, in the fifty-eighth year of 
his age. Mrs. Carteret was the daughter of Richard 
Smith^patenteeof Smithtown, L. L,and brought with 
her to this town seven children, — Mary, Thomas, Jo- 
seph, Richard, Samuel, Sarah, and James. Samuel 
died Aug. 16, 1687, aged fifteen years, and Thomas, 
Oct. 26, 1687, aged nineteen years, and both were 
buried in the rear of the meeting-house. Their graves 
are now covered by the First Presbyterian Church, 
and their monuments adorn the rear wall of the 
building, being the most ancient stones in the ceme- 
tery. This was, in all probability, the Governor's first 
miirriage, no allusion to any other having been dis- 
covered. He resumed office by proclamation March 
2, 1681. 

"The remainder of his administration was of short 
duration and uneventful. With the decease of Sir 
George Carteret, and the transfer of East Jersey to 
new proprietors, the necessity arose for a new admin- 
istration. This was inaugurated under Thomas Rud- 
yard, as the deputy of Governor Barclay, in 1682. 
Carteret continued to occupy the government house, 
which he claimed as his own property.^ He survived 
his retirement from office only some four weeks, his 
will, made just before his death, bearing date Dec. 10, 
1682. Of the cause, occasion, and circumstances of his 

, built 

1 Hatfield's Elizabeth, p. 194. Learning and Spicer, pp. 680-83. 

2 Scot's Model of E. N. J., pp. 149, I5U. The government huusi 
by Carteret just belore his death, was suhsequeiitly known as the 
"White House," sometimes as "Schuyler's lloute," it having passed 
into the hands of Col. Peter Schuyler. It was converted into a public- 
house, and wa-s kept by Mrs. Margaret Johnston, foinierly the widow of 
William Williamson, and tlieu of Mr. Hietwood, a daughter of Capt. 
Matthias Dellart. and sister of Mrs. Samuel Mann. It was then called 
" the Nag's Hearl Tavern." In 176li it iva.s offeretl for sale by Jonathan 
Hampton. In 1T84 it was again adverliseil (l.y 0.d. Edward Thomas) for 
sale as "that large, commodious, and famous Brick House, known by 
the name of the White House, built in the strongest ami Ix-st manner, 
by a former Governor of New .(ersey, the seat of government, beau- 
tifnlly situate.l ou the river running tlircnigh the town, on which is a 
verv good ,>liarf" It u thus fully identifted us Carteret's house. In 
n.-.9. St. .lohn's parsonage is ilescribed in the deed of sale as "on the 
South side of ihe said BI■^.d^eIll Town Creek, ..ppo-ite to a large white 
house, now or late behmging to Mr. Peter Schuyler." This ■leterniineB 
the locality. Weynian'^ N. Y. Gazette, N... IV.I. Holt's X. Y. Journal, 
N.i. ItiM. I lark's St. John's Church, il 180. 

death no record remains. It may have resulted from 
the injuries received at the time of his capture by An- 
dros. However well qualified by gifts and attain- 
ments he may have been for the administration of the 
government of a newly-founded colony, he failed to 
secure the confidence and respect of the town and 
province. Living among, and associating daily with, 
a community in full sympathy with the men and man- 
ners and principles of the Commonwealth, he was ever 
exemplifying, asserting, and upholding the social and 
political (if not the ecclesiastical) principles of the 
Stuarts, and exacting a deference, as the repre-senta- 
tive of that aristocratic and vicious court, which the 
Puritan colonists of the town and province were 
among the very last to concede. Instead of identify- 
ing himself as much as possible with his townsmen, 
and seeking to conciliate them, he seems to have pur- 
sued a course, almost from the first, that he must have 
known would excite their prejuilices and thwart their 
plans and purposes in founding a settlement in the 
wilderness. From the time of the first collision with 
the people in 1668 he persisted in excluding from 
his Council and confidence the very best men in the 
community, men of sterling integrity and of great 
moral worth, putting in office, and persistently retain- 
ing when notoriously rejected and despised for their 
sycophancy, such parasites as Bollen, Vauquellin, 
and Pardon. His administration must be regarded 
as a complete failure, opposed as it was almost from 
the beginning by the worthiest men of the colony. 
He seems to have had no party in the town outside of 
the clique that came with him and lived on his favor 
and patronage." ' 


The original Associates purchased their lands of 
the Indians, and obtained a patent therefor from Col. 
Richard Nicolls, Governor under the Duke of York. 
This was before the province had been sold to the 
Lords Proprietors, Berkeley and Carteret. These pro- 
prietors and their successors undertook to invali- 
date the title of the Associates granted by Governor 
Nicolls, and to compel the owners to take out new 
patents under the proprietors, and pay them the 
usual quit-rents. This controversy began in Philip 
Carteret's time, who, although he himself had become 
a purchaser under the Associates, and had repeatedly 
acknowledged the validity of their title, eventually 
took sides with the proprietors, causing the Asso- 
ciates great trouble and annoyance towards the close 
of his administration. 

After thfi sale of West Jersey to John Fenwick, in 
trust for Edward Byllinge, of the Society of Friends, 
in March, 1674, Sir George Carteret, by a new patent 

3 Hatfield's Elizabeth, p. 212-13. 



from the Duke of York, became the sole proprietor of 
East Jersey, the duke granting him the whole prov- 
ince in " as full and ample a manner as the same had 
been granted to himself." This latter clause was 
evidently designed to secure to Carteret the right to 
all the lands in the territory, not excepting the large 
tract which had been acknowledged to belong to the 
Elizabeth Town Associates. That such was the con- 
struction of the new patent very soon appeared. 
Philip Carteret, who had been absent in England 
more than two years, returned to his government in 
November, 1674. Conscious that he was about to take 
a decided stand against the Elizabeth Town people, 
and therefore ashamed to resume his old seat in that 
town, he proceeded to Bergen, where he called to- 
gether his Council. With his new commission as 
Governor, dated July 31, 1674, the Concessions had 
been so modified as to give him entire control of the 
Legislature. Moreover, he had come with express 
instructions from Sir George Carteret to enforce his 
claim against the lands of the Associates, who had 
now been in possession of them about ten years. 
The instructions were to this eftect: 

" For such as prctenil to a right of propriety to land and goTernment 
within our Province, by virtue of any patents from Governor Col. Rich- 
ard Nicolls, as they ipnorantly assert, we utterly disown any sncb thing. 
But if such persons as have not already received patents of their land 
from us shall not within onf year afti-r noli<'e to them given of this our 
pleasure therein desire and accept patents of the said land, we do hereby 
order ourGovern'ir and Council tt> dispose of such lands and tenements 
in whole or in pait, foi- our best advantage to any other persons." 

Thus if the Associates did not take out patents for 
their lands from Carteret within one year their estates 
were to be confiscated and sold, with the tenements 
thereon, to purchasers from the Governor and Coun- 
cil. The town held a meeting on March 11, 1675, 
and voted the following : 

" We, the inhabitants of Elizabeth Town, a 
Proprietor the sum of Twenty Pounds per a 
country, in considerat ion of a Township eight 
according to our Agreement of first, second, 
firmed by Charter to ns and i 

liis Co 

' Isaac Wh 

, Clerk: 

The Governor and Council, determined not to abate 
a jot of their exactions, returned the following answer, 
indorsed upon the back of the petition March 15th: 

" There cannot be granted any variation or alteration from the Proc- 
lamation dated 11th December, 1674; but, accordingly, the Surveyor is 
required to attend at the time appointed, and it's expected that suitable 
persons be provided for bis assistance, according to the said Proclama- 

r of the Gove 
" Jame£ 

■nor and Council, 
BoLLEN, Secretary:^^ 

" Finding no prospect of securing their rights, with 
no means of redress at hand, and threatened by their 
imperious rulers with a confiscation of their lands and 

> Elizabeth Town Bill, pp. 42, 43. 

improvements," one after another of the embarrassed 
planters applied for surveys, and warrants w'ere given 
them by the Governor. We give below a list of those 
who had surveys made to them, with the dates and 
number of acres surveyed to each, as found upon the 
records : 


April 8, 1676, Synmn Rows 180 

May 3, " Robert Vauquelliu and wile 300 

June 30, •' Charles Tucker '. 140 

" " " Robert Bond 3(10 

" *' " Joseph Bond IliO 

" " " Jacol. Mellins 3(10 

Sept. 12, " Robert While, wife, and daughter 180 

Oct. 6, " Leonard HeaUley and wife 120 

' John Parker 90 

22, "« ( alter 360 

" 23, " William Panlon and wife 200 

Not. 5, " John \V,.odriifl, wile, and three servants 4.i0 

Jan. 21,1676, Luke Watsi.i, 4110 

March 8, " Henry Lvon, rights and purchase 3G0 

" 14, " VMIIiam Letls 180 

" " " Charles Tinker (a 2d warrant) 180 

" " " Benjamin Parkis 180 

" " " Heiirv Norris, self, and Juhn Wilson, Cal-p.'li' 210 

" " " Dnniel Uh llaeit, right "f Rh:lmrd I'aliiter 120 

" " " Wm. Pard.ui, right ..f Wni. Meaker 120 

" " " Isaac Whitehead, sen' 180 

" " " Somiiel Moore, right of J.din Wilson, the Less 90 

" " " Capt. Thomas Young 240 

" " •' Capt. John Baker, wife, and 8 others 1200 

" " •' Sir Ge.nge and Philip Carteret, and 18 servants 27li0 

" " " Philip Carteret, right of Alo-aliani Sholwell 

" " " " " " '• Peter Widverson 480 

" " " " " " " Dennis White 120 

" 1, " Benjamin Wade 120 

" 20, " E chard Beach 90 

" " " Robert Moss and wife 180 

" 22, " William Cramer 180 

" " " Nathani. 1 Tnilh II 90 

willing to pay the Lord 
uni, current pay of this 
iles square, to be divided 
,d third lots, to be con- 
I forever, wiih all such privileges 
have or shall have ; which we do 
apprehend may be sufficient, in regard of the badness of the soil, which 
has deceived us all, and tlie half or more being but waste land. This 
was voted by all present on the 11th of March, 1675. V. ted, Isaac 
Wliitehead and George Ross to [ireseiit this writing to the Governor and 



Roger LamI.ert 120 

Stephen Cuiue 120 

William Hill HO 





John Lillle, right of self and Stephen Salsbnry . 

" " " George Pack 120 

*' " *• William olliver 180 

" " " Samuel Marsh. Sen' ISO 

" " " Samuel Malsh.Jun' IIIO 

" " " John Pope 100 

" " " John Carter 60 

" " " David Olliver 60 

April 8, " William I'ilh 320 

" " '* Benjamin Price, S'-ii' 

■ 90 

10, " Stephen Usboine 1x0 

" '■ Nathaniel Bonnel ISO 

11, " Joseph Sears ISO 

14, " Jonas Wood 


i Mo 


J. ffery Jo 

27," Davnl Ogd..n 120 

May 2," Hnr Tompson 120 

" 9, " Jeremiah Peck i>0 

" " Joseph Kraize 120 

" " JohnWinons PiO 

" " " Barnaby Wines 240 

" " Richard Mlchell p-o 

30," Math. Hettield UO 

31," Joseph Osborne If.Q 

" " " Mo.ies Tompson 1X0 

" " " Joseph Meaker 120 

June 12, " Benjamin Meaker 120 

" 14, " Benjamin Waide 144 

" " John Ogden, Jr 1.10 

" " " Isaac Whitehead, Jr 120 

" " " Jonathan Ogdon UO 

Sept. 12, " Aaron TiiOisiHi, right or his father, Thomas.. 120 

Sept. 12, 1676, Aaron Tonisoii, right of self m 

" " " John Lanibird 1(k) 

Oct 27, " Joseph Ogdon 90 

Nov. 23, " John Sinikins so 

Dec. 27, " Samuel Trotter, right of his father. Win 90 

Feb. 1, 1877, Margaret Baker, riglit of Peter Wolvel-son 200 

July II, " James Havnes and wife 120 

Oct. 26,1678, Mrs Hanna Hopkins, wife of Samuel Hopkins l-.'O 

29, " John Ogden, Sr 3110 

Th&se surveys were made under the Governor's 
warrant, without any intention on the part of the 
Associates of abandoning the rightfulness of their title 
under the Nicolls patent. This act, however, as well 



as the petition for the purchase of a township, was so 
construed by the opposition. We find it asserted that 
" the Associates, in the year 1675, or soon after, laid 
aside a pretension by Indian purchase and Nicolls' 
grant, and continued peaceable and quiet inhabitants 
until the death of Carteret and until the year 1699, 
except that in the year 1684 John Baker and some 
others of the Associates endeavored to impose upon 
Governor Laurie at his first arrival in the country." 
This, so far from being true, as Dr. Hatfield has 
shown, was a matter of as strenuous controversy 
under the Quaker rule as it had been previously. 
Barclay said, in 1684, "And we do hereby declare 
that we will not enter into any treaty on this side 
with those people who 'claim by Colonel Nicolls 
Patent,' nor with any others that challenge land by 
patents from the late Governor Carteret." ... At 
this date the same claims were put forth by the town 
as had been in former days. "The old planters," 
saj-s Dr. Hatfield, " never wavered in their conviction 
of the lawfulness and equity of their title, and never 
shrank from avowing and maintaining it. A second 
generation were now coming forward, in whom the 
conviction had ' grown with theirgrowth and strength- 
ened with their strength.' If po.ssible, they were even 
more resolute than their fathers." 

It is said that Governor Laurie, so far from 
troubling the settlers about their Indian title on his 
coming into the country, " he asked old I.saac White- 
head and Capt. John Baker (divers others of the 
principal men of Elizabeth Town being present) how 
they held their lands, who answered him by Nicholl's 
grant and an Indian Purchase ;" and that then he 
asked them to show him the bounds of their lands so 
purchased and granted, " saying he had a Mind to 
make a Purchase of some Lands Lying Westward of 
their Purchase." It is further said that Stephen Os- 
born was sent by the town to call the Indian saga- 
mores together to mark out the bounds, with whom 
Laurie and others had a conference at the house of 
Capt. John Baker ; also that a few days afterwards 
Kichard Clarke, Jr., Capt. John Baker, Jonas Wood, 
Stephen Osborn, Joseph Meeker, and Joseph Wilson, 
with two lads, Richard Baker and John Cromwell 
(who went to see the woods), .set out with the Indian 
Wewanapo (cousin of one of the sagamores that sold 
the land originally) to mark the western bounds of 
the town. 

Instructed by the old Indian chief, they went, "on 
or about the 16th day of July, 1684, to a plain back 
of Piscataway, to a marked tree with some stones 
about it, and a stake by the tree," and thence "for- 
ward towards the Green River, near where it comes 
out of the mountain, and lodged by the river-side that 
night ; and the next day they made a circle or com- 
pass along the foot of the mountain, by the directions 
of the Indian, till they came to the Minisink path, 
and then came down to Elizabeth Town." It was 
affirmed, however, that it was confessed by the Indian 

( chief that this compass included only a part of the 
: town lands. 

In this conference it is said that " Capt. Baker was 
the Dutch Interpreter, and an Indian interpreted the 
Indian language into Dutch to said Capt. Baker, who 
again interpreted into English." It is also said that 
an Indian who had been at sea and knew the use of 
the compass was of the exploring party. 

This transaction, however, became the source of a 
I serious litigation. Baker was charged with having 
I prevailed on the Indians to include a much larger 
I tract within the bounds than the town had originally 
purchased, and so with having contravened the act 
of February, 1683, forbidding private purchases from 
I the Indians; on which charge he was indicted, Aug. 
I 12, 1684, and on the 28th was tried, found guilty, 
I fined ten pounds, and bound to good behavior for a 


! Laurie is also said to have bought, Oct. .30, 1684, 

. of the Indians Seweckroneck, Mindowaskein, Canun- 

i dus, and Wewonapee, a large tract about Green Brook 

and the Blue Hills, supposed to be to the west of the 

Elizabeth Town purchase, on which several of the 

most considerable Scotch immigrants presently were 

'■ located with their imported Presbyterian servants of 

humbler condition. This purchase served greatly to 

complicate in after-days the question of land titles, 

a portion of the territory thus acquired, if not the 

whole of it, lying within what were subsequently 

claimed as the bounds of the original purchase of 

1664, and therefore distributed by allotment to the 

Associates, their heirs or assigns.' 

First Litigation ef the Land Controversy.— 
During the long controversy respecting the land 
titles of the town no regular judicial investigation 
of the points at issue had been undertaken until 
1695. Hamilton having been reinstated in the pro- 
prietary government had returned 'from England, 
and the affairs of the province having been settled 
in favor of the proprietors, they determined to bring 
the matter in dispute between them and the A.ssoci- 
ates into the courts, confident that, as the courts were 
chiefly under their control and the judges and juries 
mainly their partisans, the case would be decided in 
their favor, and the planters be compelled to pay the 
arrearages of quit-rents from 1670 or be dispo.ssessed 
of their plantations with all the improvements made 
upon them. 

The Fullerton brothers— Thomas, Robert, and 
James — came to the province in 1684, and settled on 
Cedar Brook on the plot bought by Governor Laurie of 
the Indians, but previously claimed by the Elizabeth 
Town people under the Nicolls grant. Jeflry Jones, 
one of the Associates, had by conveyance from Lau- 
rie come into possessionof land there on which James 
Fullerton had settled, "upon which the said Jeff'ry 
Jones did enter and oust him." This was in 1693. 

I E. T. Bill, pp. 54-57, 113-16. 



FuUerton, in September of that year, brought an 
action of trespass and ejectment against Jones, and 
issue was joined. The case came to trial in the 
Court of Common Pleas at Perth Amboy in May, 
1695. The whole merits of the case were brought 
out before the judges and jury on both sides. The 
events were then recent, the documentary evidence 
was ample and well preserved, the first Elizabeth 
Town Book was in the hands of Samuel Whitehead, 
the town clerk, and was perfectly accessible, so that 
the facts were fully before the court or within their 

A special verdict was agreed upon, but the jury 
gave a general verdict for Jones. The court, how- 
ever, pronounced judgment. May 14th, on the special 
verdict against Jones, who thereupon appealed the 
case to the King in Council. In the court at Ken- 
sington both parties again were fully heard, William 
Nicoll, Esq., being attorney for Jones. The Commit 
tee of the Privy Council — Lord Chief Justice Holt, Sir 
Philip Williamson, and Sir Henry Goodrich — offered 
their opinion to his Majesty in Council that the judg- 
ment be reversed ; and his Majesty in Council, Feb. 
25, 1697, reversed and repealed the said judgment, 
and also declared all issues thereupon null and 
void. Nicoll afterwards declared on oath that in 
the Council 

"The 8ule dispute was. Whether Col. Richard NichoIlB, e 
uiidiT Die King uf England in those pai'ts, might nut grant License to 
any (pf tlie Subjects of England to purchase Lands from the native Pa- 
gans? and if, upon such License and Purchase, the English Subjects 
shnuld gain a Property in the Lands so botight? all whicl) was resolved 
In the Affirmative, and the Judgment given to the Contrary accordingly 

William Nicoll was an eminent lawyer of New 
York. Shortly after this trial he obtained a'third- 
lot right in Elizabeth Town, but never resided there. 
As the Associates made common cause with Jones in 
defense of his title, it is thought that this right was 
given to Nicoll for his services in defending the suit. 

The period immediately subsequent to the decision 
of the Jones case in 1695 was one of much contusion 
and excitement. Great indignation of course was 
manifested by the town party against the proprietors 
and their anomalous government. Restive as they 
had been under it from the first, they could no longer 
restrain the expression of their dissatisfaction. The 
reversal by the king and his Council in 1697 of the 
adverse judgment of 1695, confirming as it did un- 
questionably the validity of their titles, emboldened 
them still more in their opposition to proprietary rule 
and in the determination to be rid of it and come 
under the immediate government of the king, whom 
they had learned to trust. 

The surrender of the right of jurisdiction to the 
crown on the part of the proprietors in 1702 made 
no change in respect to the contest growing out of 
the conflicting titles to lands in the Elizabeth Town 
grant. No suit at law involving the issue between 
the proprietors and the Associates occurred for at 

least twelve years. In the first year of George I. a 
series of prosecutions was commenced by the propri- 
etary interest to test once more the validity of the 
Nicolls grant, subjecting for a long term of years the 
Associate settlers to vexatious annoyances, great dis- 
quietude, and no small expense. We will mention 
one of these cases, as it has a special bearing on the 
interests of the whole town and the settlements now 
composing Union County. 

James Emott had obtained in 1686 of the pro- 
prietors a patent for three hundred acres of land 
on the west side of Rahway River, and claimed by 
the Associates as part of their lands in common. In 
the division of 1699-1700 lot No. 148, containing one 
hundred acres, surveyed to John Harriman, Jr., and 
the town committee, was assigned to Joseph Wood- 
ruff". In 1714 it came into the hands of Rev. Edward 
Vaughan, rector of St. John's Church, by his mar- 
riage with Mary Lawrence, the step-daughter first of 
Governor Carteret, and then of Col. Townley. At 
the November term of the Supreme Court of New 
Jersey, Mr. Vaughan brought an action of ejectment 
against Joseph Woodruffs The cause came to trial 
in May, 1716, the judges being, as was alleged, in the 
proprietary interest. A special verdict was found, 
and for several terms the case was argued at length 
on both sides, resulting in May, 1718, in a judgment 
by the court in favor of Vaughan. Thereupon, by 
writ of error. Woodruff carried the case before the 
Governor and Council. But the Governor and 
Council would never be prevailed upon to render a 
judgment, and after ten or twelve years of great 
expense the case was dropped without being decided.' 

About the time of this judgment and appeal, the 
old town books, in which the proceedings of the 
various town-meetings from the beginning of the set- 
tlement for more than fifty years, and the various 
surveys ordered by vote of the town, had been regu- 
larly recorded, to the irreparable loss of the town • 
history, disappeared, and have never since been re- 
covered. The earliest statement of the loss is found 
in the initial entry of Town Book B. (which happily 
has been preserved), under date of Aug. 2, 1720, and 
which is as follows : 

" WhrreM, The Books of Record, Belonging To The said Elizaheth 
Town, wherein The Important aHairs of The same Towne were Re- 
corded from the beginning Thereof; have Been [irivately Tnken Away 
from him unto whose Care and Custody They were Committed; And 
Are not Likely To be Again Obtained; It is now Therefore, By A free 
And unanimous Agreement of the freehold's afores*" Concluded anil Re- 
solved ; That This preseut Book Now Is And Shall Be Improved To be, 
A book of Records, for the use and behoof of the freeholders of Elizabelh 
Tuwn Aloresi^, And for no Other use what'ioever." 

In a document prepared with much care, and 
signed Nov. 18, 1729, by one hundred and eleven 
Associates, with their seals affixed, the story of the 
lost books is thus recited : 

" [lut it so happened that the s** Books wherein the 8<* Surveys or the 
greater Number of them were Entered by Some One or more Designing 

liZiibeth Town'Bill. pp. 46, 122. Also answer to do., p. 32. 



Person or pprsoiiB wert* f'niftil.v and Maliciniisly Stiile and C»a tlicre is 
noSniiill rpamiii to believe) were Imnit ur otlierniue ileslri>.v'<l. So llmt 
tlie Ipenefit llierel.j- intenil.'d lu lli« parlies affnres'' ami llieir As-igns 
became Wholly ffni»tr«te ami Vi.i.l ; Yet nut s.. l.ut ll.p like Gnmt Kff.Tt 
nia.v be hoped for. from Koiiietliiiig of a Like Nature siiiee the oriifiiial 
Surveys attorei.'i are as Yet Kxi»tiri);as appears N..t Only I'y the Oath 
of tlie Officer who was Surveyor, but by divers Other coucuiring Cir- 
cuoiwlJiMces to the Satisfaction of the Parties afforew*." 

The town made common cause with the defendants 
in these litigations, and appointed annually their 
committee of seven select men to act and do tor 
tliem and in their name and behalf, by themselves or 
their learned counsel, whatever seemed meet and 
proper in all thinj;s touching the settlement of their 
rights and properties, as they claimed by force of 
grant and purchase under Governor Richard NicoUs.' 
At the May term of the Supreme Court, 1731, actions 
of ejectment were brought against John Robinson, 
Henry Clarke, Andrew Craig, Joshua Marsh, and 
others, occupants of a tract of land held under the 
Nicolls grant west of the Rahway River. The cases 
came to trial at the May term, 1734, when a general 
verdict was found by a Middlesex jury for the de- 
fendants. This gave encouragement to the Associates, 
and many of them ])ut theitiselves under bonds to the 
town committee or trustees to pay (not exceeding ten 
pounds proclamation money) such sums as should be 
duly assessed upon them by the said trustees towards 
defraying the charges and expenses of maintaining 
the title to their common lands. Not only this, but 
a large majority at a town-meeting convened on 
July 1, 1734, voted to empower the committee of 
seven to dispose of 

"All that Tract of Land or any part or parcel Tliereof Begining iit 
Cellar Brook where Kasex Line Oroses the said Brook and IVojii Thence 
Runing went six miles ami Ironi Thence the Nearest l'ori<e to the nionn- 

tuin from Thouce as lliu s;ii I ui tain Runs to tlie linndreil acres Lots 

foi-merly sin veaa according to the Town order and agreement and Ironi 
Thence to the first mentioned place to the said Ued ir Bruuk. (Also) 
To Dispose of wlial money, shall arise from the Sale of The said Lands, 
oraliy part Thereof for llieOenoral Intrust of the said Associates and free- 
lioldeis. In UefendingThenioranyofTlieiii In The possession ol Their 
property or In di'-possessitig any That shall unjustly lulrnde upon any 
pal t of the aforesaid piirchaae and (Jlalil."2 

In 1741 a tract of three hundred acres of upland 
lying near Ash Swamp was voted to defray the ex- 
penses of a suit between William Penn, Thomas Penn, 
and others vs. Chambers and Alcorn, tried at Amboy, 
Aug. 14-16, 1741, wherein a verdict was rendered for 
the plaintiffs, on the ground that the lands in question 
were not included in the Elizabeth Town purchase. 
The case of Cooper vs. Moss came to trial in August, 
1742, resulting also in a verdict for the plaintiff, 
brought in by a Morris County jury. Other actions 
were brought of a similar character, some of which 
were compromised and withdrawn, others went to trial 
with like results. To enumerate them all would re- 
quire more space than we have at command. 

A petition signed by three hundred and four pro- 
prietors, freeholders, and inhabitants of a tract of 
land called Elizabeth Town, setting forth their rights 

1 Town Book, B, o. and i. 

, ' Ibid., B. 3. 

under the Nicolls grant, and the difficulties of ob- 
taining impartial justice in the local and provincial 
courts, was prepared and forwarded to his Most Ex- 
cellent Majesty George IF. in 1744, jirobably by 
Messrs. Stephen Crane and Matthias Halfield, the 
committee chosen, which petition was read in coun- 
cil July 19, 1744, referred to the Lords of the Com- 
mittee of Council for Plantation Affairs, and by them, 
August 21st, to the Lords Commissioners for Trade and 
Plantations. It is not known what final disi)Osition 
was made of il. 

Meantime excitement ran to a high pitch. Parties 
began to eject proprietary tenants by force. In an 
affidavit made by Solotnon Hoyle, May 13, 1747, an 
account is given of the breaking into the house of 
Mr. Dalrymple and the expulsion of his wife and 
children, on the 8th of April, by persons armed with 
clubs. The affidavit is drawn tmt at great length, 
showing that the people of Turkey (New Providence), 
claiming by the Elizabeth Town right, had taken the 
law into their own hands, and were determined to 
drive off all other claimants. This is not so much 
to be wondered at when their enemies were .so fre- 
quently gaining verdicts against them in the courts, 
and that in a manner which seemed to them wholly 

The Bill in Chancery.— For several years prior 
to the events mentioned above the projirietary party 
had been busily engaged in preparing, at great pains 
and expense, a complete and labored argument in 
defense of their long-litigated pretensions to the soil 
of the Elizabeth Town patent, based on the grant of 
the Duke of York to Sir George Carteret. Like most 
lawyers' documents, the bill had a special purpose 
to answer, and must, therefore, be taken with some 
allowance as to the accuracy of its history. It bears 
the following imposing title: 

" A Bill in the L'haucory of New Jersey, at the Suit of John Earl of 
Stair, and olheis, Piopiieloiu of the Eastern-Division of New-Jersey; 
Against Benjamin Bond, and Some other Peioous of Elizabeth- Town, 
dislingni-heil by tlie name of the (linker Lot Uiglit Men. WiilnThree 
large Maps, done irom Uopper-l'lates. To which is added ; The Publica- 
tions of the (Jonncil of I'roprietoi-s of Ba»l New-Jeisey, and Mr. Nevill's 
Speeches to the G .neral Assembly, concerning Tlie K.ots committed io 
New-Jersey, and The Pretences of the R oters and their Sedncei-s. 
These Papers will g ve a better Light into tliellisloiy and Conslilulion 

of New-Jei-sey, II anytliing liilborto pub ished, the Blatters whereof 

have been chielly collected Irom Records. Published by Subscription. 
Printed by James I'arker, in .New-Volk, lli-17 ; and a lew copies are to be 
sold by him ami Ueojainiu Kianklin, in Pbiladelpli.a : Puce bound, and 
Jlaps coloured, Tnree Pounds; plain and slitclit only. Kilty shillings, 
Proclamatiou Money." 

This famous bill purports to have been tiled April 
13, 1745. The proprietors employed the best lawyers 
the country could furnish, viz. : James Alexander, 
[jreviously surveyor-general of NeW Jersey, then at 
the head of the New York bar, and Joseph Murray, 
one of the first lawyers of the land." The bill was 
undoubtedly prepared by the former. His lainiliarity 
with New .ler.sey records and with the transactions 
ol the land-offices both of East and West Jersey 


gave him great facilities for the work. It was written 
on about fifteen hundred folios. The printing was 
finished July 21, 1747, the form of the book being a 
folio, in double columns, with one hundred and 
twenty-four pages, besides the maps and an appendix 
of forty pages. So plausible is the plea that nearly 
all the historians of the State have relied almost im- 
plicitly on its statements, and in many cases have 
thus been led into error. It is a special and one-sided 
plea, and, as in all such cases, is to be received with 
caution, and its statements of facts are to be subjected 
to a rigid scrutiny.' 

Answer to the Bill. — The preparation of an an- 
swer to this formidable bill was intrusted by the towu 
committee to William Livingston and William Smith, 
Jr., as their counsel. Livingston was the pupil of 
Alexander, and if employed, as is likely, in 1750, was 
only in the twenty-seventh year of his age, but he 
had already acquired a high reputation at the bar in 
New York. The interest that he took in this case 
was probably one of the reasons that induced him a 
few years later to become a resident of Elizabeth 
Town. Smith was still younger, in his twenty-third 
year. Yet he was associated that same year, Novem- 
ber, 1750, with others in preparing the first digest of 
the colonial laws of New York. He wrote the his- 
tory of the province, and after the Revolution was 
made chief justice of Canada. 

The answer was read in town-meeting, Aug. 27, 
1751, and filed a few days afterwards. It was put in 
print the following year, 1752, in similar form with 
the bill itself (but contains only forty-eight pages), 
with the following title: 

" An Answer to h Bill in tlie Chancery of New Jersey. At tlie Suit of 
John Eurl of Stair, anti others, commonly called Propiietors of the East- 
ern Division of New Jersey, Against Benjamin Boinl, and others claini- 
ingunder the oripriual Prolirietorsand Ass'pciatesof Elizahelh-Town. To 
winch is added; Nothing eitlier of The Huhlicati.Mis of the Council of 
Proprietors of Ea-xt New-Jersey, or of The Pretences of the Rioters, and 
tlieir Seducers; Except so far As the Persons meant hy Riolere, pretend 
Title Agiiin-t The Parlies to the above Answer; Bui a great Ileal of tlie 
Controveisy, Though much less of the History and Constitution of New- 
Jersey, than the said B 11. Audi alteram partem. Published by Sub- 
scription. New York: Printed and Sold by James Parker, at the New 
P.inlingOffice, in Beaver-Street. nb'V 

It professes to be " The joint and several Answer" 
of four hundred and forty-nine freeholders and in- 
habitants of Elizabeth Town, recorded in alphabeti- 
cal order. 

The town committee, on whom was devolved the 
responsibility of conducting the defense, were, for 
1750, Messrs. John Crane, Andrew Craige, William 
Miller, John Halsted, Stephen Crane, Thomas Clarke, 
and John Chandler. 

At the time of the preparation and the filing of the 
bill in chancery Lewis Morris was Governor of the 
province. He had long been conversant with the 
matters in litigation, and was deeply interested in the 

^ Anal. Index, p. 205. "1500 acre?) of rights had been sold to bear the 
expense of Elizabethtown suit."— i!>., p. 289. 

issue of this most important case, holding, as he did, 
a large part of his property in New Jersey by pro- 
prietary rights. Governor Morris had presumed, 
without, as was alleged, due authority, to erect a 
Court of Chancery, and to exercise the prerogatives 
of chancellor. It was feared from the well-known 
proclivities of Governor Morris that as chancellor he 
would be likely to give judgment upon the bill in 
favor of the plaintiffs. But that apprehension was 
removed by the death of Governor Morris in May, 
1746, and matters took a favorable turn for the de- 
fendants by the accession of Jonathan Belcher, who 
was a New Englander, and in hearty sympathy, both 
in his civil and religions principles, with the people 
of the town. He entered upon his office as Governor 
of New Jersey in August, 1747. Before the answer 
to the bill was printed Governor Belcher became a 
resident of Elizabeth Town, and immediately identi- 
fied himself with the religious and social interests of 
the place, joining the church of which most of the 
defendants scattered over the township were members, 
— the Presbyterian Church, — and thus bringing him- 
self into a closer bond ofsympathy with them. For this 
reason, probably, among others. Governor Belcher 
did not adjudicate the case. Alexander, who had the 
principal management of the bill, died April 2, 1756; 
Murray died April 2, 1757, before the death of Gov- 
ernor Belcher ; the French war succeeded ; then came 
the Stamp Act excitement, followed by the Revolu- 
tion. No place was found for the Elizabeth Town 
bill. It died from neglect, until it was too late for a 
resuscitation. Such was the end of this famous strug- 
gle, continued for a whole century, and resulting in 
the vindication, together with the triumph, of popu- 
lar rights throughout the colonies, of the original 
purchasers of the soil and the defeat of their oppo- 



The territory embraced in the present county of 
Union was the theatre of stirring events both pre- 
ceding and during the war of the Revolution. 
These events began to develop themselves at Eliza- 
beth Town immediately upon the passage of the Stamp 
Act in 1765, or as soon as intelligence of that oppres- 
sive measure of Parliament had reached the province. 

The General Assembly, being in session at Burling- 
ton, received on the 20th of June a communication 
from the General Court of Massachusetts, recommend- 
ing them, together with the representative bodies of 
the other colonies, to send delegates to a General 
Congress to convene in New York on the first Tues- 
day in October following. Robert Ogden, of Eliza- 
beth Town, was Speaker of the House. It was the 
last day of the session, some members having left, 



and others being anxious to return to their homes. 
It was, therefore, upon a hurried conference, deemed 
advisable to take no immediate action upon the com- 
munication, and the Assembly adjourned. Mr. 
Ogden, who had been a member of the House by 
consecutive elections since 1751, and Speaker since 
1763, was made to bear the chief responsibility for 
this action. He shortly after called a meeting of the 
representatives at Amboy, who proceeded to elect the 
delegates to the Congress at New York. Hendrick 
Fisher, of Somerset, .Joseph Borden, of Burlington, 
and himself were chosen. It was in this body that 
Mr. Ogden gave offense to his countrymen, not by 
any act that in the least impaired the sterling integ- 
rity and patriotism of which he had always been a 
conspicuous example, but by a mere difterence of 
opinion as to methods, which it seemed difficult for 
the people in that moment of excitement to tolerate, 
or ever after wholly to overlook. "A Declaration of 
Rights and Grievances" had been drawn up, with an 
address to the king and a petition to each of the 
Houses of Parliament, all admirably and skillfully 
prepared, and well calculated, it was thought, to pro- 
cure the repeal of the obnoxious law. All the 
members voted for sending the documents immedi- 
ately to the Court of England, with the sanction only 
of the body whence it emanated, except Timothy 
Ruggles, of Massachusetts, the presiding officer of 
Congress, and Mr. Ogden. " These gentlemen main- 
tained that the proceedings should be submitted to 
the Assemblies of the respective colonies, and, if 
sanctioned by them, forwarded as their own acts," a 
position very reasonable certainly, since emanating 
from the regularly-constituted Legislature rather 
than from a body unknown to the English govern- 
ment, the petitions would have been much more likely 
to be favorably received and to accomplish their 
object. This was probably the view taken by Mr. 
Ogden and his a.ssociate, the president of Congress, 
who were both undoubtedly conscientious in main- 
taining their position, but popular feeling was too 
much excited to do them even this justice. So high 
did it run in New Jersey that Mr. Ogden was burnt 
in effigy. Feeling the indignity and injury very 
sensibly, he resigned his position and membership in 
the Legislature, Nov. 27, 1765. The people of his 
town, however, still honored him with their confi- 
dence, and when the time came for action in 
1776 he was made chairman of the Elizabeth Town 
Committee of Safety. 

In the election to fill the vacancy in the Assembly 
Stephen Crane was chosen, and became Speaker of 
the House in 1771. 

The manner in which the Stamp Act was treated 
in this locality may be inferred from the following 
notice, which appeared in a New York newspaper 
Feb. 27, 1766: 

"A large pilluwi^ whs trected in Elizabeth Town, last Wi^ek, with a 
Hope really fixvd thert* to, and the Inhabitants there vow and declare that 

the first person that eitlierilistriliuteH <ir takes out a Stamped Paper shall 
be hung thereon wilhuut Judge or .Jury." 

A very summary process, but probably never called 
into requisition. At the same date the editor says, — 

" We have certain Intelligence fiuni Elizabeth Town, in New .lei-sey, 
that the Magistrates and Lawyers carry ou their Business in the Law as 
usual withoul Stamps.''! 

With the repeal of the Stamp Act, March 18, 1766, 
much of the excitement and alarm of the people came 
to an end. A series of measures was subsequently 
adopted, however, well fitted to excite the fears and 
provoke the resentment of the colonists. 

The non-importation agreements were renewed, and 
all trade with the mother-country was brought to a 
stand. The people of this town and vicinity entered 
with all their heart into the measures of the day. 

The coliiny of New Jei-sey broke out in a sininltaneous lilaze of in- 
dignation from Sussex to Cape May, and tnintedi «Ie measures were taken 
to organ ze the varion.i c.ninlies into a combination of the fri iids of 
liberty wbicli should secure promptitude and unity of action throughout 
the province. 

As early as June 1, 1774, a "General Committee of Oirrespondence" 
had been f<n med. which was selt'C'umtitnting indeed, inasmuch as it ilid 
not derive its existeme or its powers directly from the people; hut, 
nevertln-lesK, it was actively engaged inconsnltatiMU and correspondence 
with inllnenlial men in a;l the c.innties, with a view to a concerted plan 
of ^icliun. This coinmitto-. which consis'ed of nine members, met at 
New liriinswbk June I, 1774, and the m-eti ig is thus described in a 
l.-lt.r dated June ■>, 1774, which has bei'U preserveil, and wlilcb was 
written by on-ol the nn-ml.ersor the H.. use of A>eetnbly, who was also 
one of the c.nimitt-e: " [ returned yeslerilay Ir.mi New- Brunswick, 
where six .if our committee met. Weiin-wered the B.iston lellers, in- 
f.irin ng thc-m that we look on Ne»-J-r»ey as eveiitnally in the same 
predicament with liosbin. an. I that we will ilo everything which tnay be 
geneially aareeil "li. We have signed a rennest to the Governor to call 
theUeiielal A», to meet at such time as hi- Excellency may think 

proper lielore tlie tiist of Aiignst.2 Our a itiee is well ilispo-ed in 

the cause of American fieedotii."— ytra. .4rc;iiow, vol. i., 3S0. 

Immediately after the meeting of this committee at 
New Brunswick, and undoubtedly inspired by it, a 
series of meetings of the people of the several coun- 
ties was called by prominent men therein, to take 
steps for the more perfect organization of the friends 
of freedom in the colony, and more particularly to 
l)rovide for the selection of deputies to represent the 
pi-ovince in the Continental Congress in September 

On the 7th of June the following call was posted in 
various pul)lic places in the county of Es-ex, and was 
also published in one of the New York papers: 

" Essex C'ouxTV. N. J., 7th June, 1774. 
" All the inhabiMiit- of the County of Essex, in New Jcreey, friends 
to the Cnstltnliin, the liberties anil properties of America, are hereby 
uiililied and dnsired to tneet at the court-house, in Newark, on Saturday, 
the lllb III June, instant, at two of the clock in the afternoon, to cu- 
snlt anil d-liberal., and Hi inly resnlvenpii the ino-t prudent and salu- 
tary measines to secure and maiiitaiii the constitutional rights of his 
Majesty's subjects in America. It is, therefore, hoped that from the im- 
portaticeof the subject the meeting will be general. 

" Sianeil by order, at a meeting of a nntnber of the freeholders of the 
Cotitity of Essex, the 7th day of Jutie, 1774. 

'■JoH.\ DeHart, 
'■ Isaac Ogden." 

1 Holt's N. Y. Journal, No. la)8. 

^This reiiuest Givertior Franklin refused to comply with, for the 
reason, as assigned in a letter to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated Jnne 18, 
1774, " tliat there is no jmhl c business of the province which can make 
such a meeting uecessary." — Forwi's Am. Archives, vol. i., 428, 429. 



At the time and place designated in this call a 
meeting was held, of which tlie following is Uie 
record : 

" At a Meeting of the Fieeliolilera and InlmMtnuts of the County of 
E»Bex, ill tlie Priivjuce of Nhw Jersey, iit Newark, iu the said conuty, 
on SKturday, the 1 llh day of June, 1774. 

'• Tills meeting taking into Kerions consideration some late alftrniinp: 
moasiireH adojited hy Hie British I'a< lianieiit for depriving liis Mii,i«<ty'8 
American snljects of their nndonlit'il ami constitutional lights and prin- 
ciph-s; and piiiticnlarly the Act for l.lockading the port of Boston, which 
appeal's to tliera pregnant with the mo^t dangerons conseqiienees toall hii 
M:ije.*ty's D^aniiiiuiis in America, do unanimously resolve and agree: 

" 1. That under the enjoyni-nt of imr con-titiitional privileges and 
inimnnilies we will ever cheerfully render all due ohedience to the 
Drown or Great Britain, as well as lull failh and allegiance to his 
gracious Majesty, King Geinge the Tliinl, and do esteem a flrni depend- 
ence on the mother country essentia! to our political security and 

'••2. That the late Act of Parliament relative to Bo>tQn, which so ab- 
solutely destroys every idea of salely and ctnifidHtice, appears to us big 
Vfilh til" ni -St dangerous and alarming eoniennences; especially as sub- 
versive of that very dependence which we should earne-lly wish to con- 
tinue as our best sa egiiard and protection : And that we conceive every 
well-wisher to Great Britain and her Cdoiiies is now loudly called upon 
to exert his utmost abilities in piomoliiig every legal and prudential 
measure towards obtaining a repeal of the said Act of Parliament; and 
allotlierssilbversireof the undoubted riglits and liberties of hid Majesty's 
Aniericati subjects. 

"3. That it is our unanimous opinion that it would conduce to the 
re-toration of the liberties of America should the Cidoiiies enter into a 
j.tint agreement not to purchase or use any articles of British manufac- 
ture, antl especially any coniinodit es inipio-tetl from the East Indies, 
under such restrict ions as may be agreed npou by a general Congress of 
the said (Colonies hereafter to be appointed. 

-■4. That this county willniostrealilyand cheerfully Join their breth- 
ren of the other counties in this Province in pronioling such Congress 
of Deputies to he sent from each of the t^olonies, in order to form a gen- 
eral plan of union, so that the measures to be pursued for the important 
ends in view may be uiiilbrm and firm ; to which plan, when concluded 
upon, we do agree faithfiilly to adhere. And do now declare ouiselves 
ready to send a conitliittee to meet with tle-se from the other counties, 
at such lime and place as by them in.iy be agped upon, iu order to elect 
liroper persons to represent this Province in the said gem-ral (Congress. 

"6. That the freeholders and inhabitants of the other counties in this 
Proviie e be rei|ne-ted spaedily to convene themselves together to con- 
sider the present diotres-ing slaleof onr public affairs, and to correspond 
and consult with such other committees as may be appointed, as well as 
. with our coiiiinittee, who are hereby directed to corre-pond anil consult 
with such other committees, as also with those of any other province, 
imrlicnlarly t.. meet w th the said Comity (•onimiltees, in order to nomi- 
nate and appoint Deputies to represent this Provin<-eiu general Congress. 

"G. We do hereby unanimously re'iuest the following gentlemen to 
accept of thai trust, and accurdtniily do appoint them onr committee for 
the purp'ises aforesaid, viz.: Stephen Crine, Henry Garrit-e, Joseph 
Riggs, Will am Livingston, William P. Smith, Jolin Dcllart. John Cliet- 
wood, Isaac Ogden,and Elias Boiidiuot, Esquires." — Am. Arch., vol. i., 
mi, 4U4. 

Of this committee, Mr. Garritse was of Acquacka- 
nonck, Messrs. Riggs and Ogden were of Newark, and 
the remainder, two thirds, of Elizabeth Town. 

Theseveral county committees elected in accordance 
with these suggestions, and witli a circular letter issued 
by the Essex committee, met at New Brunswick July 
21, 1774, and appointed Stephen Crane to preside over 
their deliberations. They made choice of James Kin- 
sey, William Livingston, John DeHart, Stephen Crane, 
and Richard Smith delegates to a General Congress. 
A standing Committee ol' Correspondence, ten in num- 
ber (of whom two, William Peartree Smith, chairman, 
and John Chetwood were of Elizabeth Town), was 
appointed to look after the interests of the country. 

The several county committees also " agreed to pro- 
mote collections in their respective counties for the 
relief of such of the unhappy inhabitants of the town 
of Boston as may be now reduced to extreinity and 
want." On the 28th of July, William Peartree Smith, 
as chairman of the Committee of Correspondence, ad- 
dressed a letter of sympathy to the Boston Committee 
of Correspondence, asking them also to advise in what 
way their necessities could best be answered.' 

The results of the deliberations of the General Con- 
gress that met at Philadelphia in September and Oc- 
tober being published, new energy was imparted to 
the people in their determination to resist the oppres- 
sive measures of the British ministry. The Essex 
County Committee of Correspondence issued a call 
for town-meetings to organize the respective towns 
for the more vigorous prosecution of the measures 
recommended by Congress. In compliance with this 
call, the freeholders of Elizabeth Town met at the 
court-house on Tuesday, Dec. 6, 1774, Stephen Crane, 
Esq., in the chair, when a large committee was chosen 
for the above-mentioned purpose, viz. : Jonathan 
Hampton, Matthias Williamson, Elias Dayton, Isaac 
Woodruff", William Barnett, William Herrinian, 
Oliver Spencer, George Ross, Edward Thomas, Cor- 
nelius Hetfield, John Blanchard, Ephraim Tyrrel, 
Abraham Clarke, Robert Ogden, Jr., Jeremiah Smith, 
Richard Townley, Jr., Samuel Shotwell, David Miller, 
Thomas Woodruff', John Clawson, Jonathan Dayton, 
Ephraim Marsh, Recompense Stanbury, Jedediah 
Swan, William Parsons, Samuel Poller, William 
Bott, Jonathan Williams, Christopher Marsh, Isaac 
Wynants, Daniel Halsey. 

Stephen Crane, John De Hart, William Livingston, 
William P. Smith, Elias Boudinot, and John Chet- 
wood, Esqs., were unanimously re-elected for the 
borough of Elizabeth on the Esse.x County Com- 
mittee of Correspondence. It was then 

" Voted, That two t 
■A Friendly Ad Iresi 


rtaiii Pamphlets lately published, the c 
etc., and the oilier under the signature of * A 
Fanner,' as containing many notorious falsehoods, evidently calculated 
to sow the seeds of disunion among the good people of Anier ca, grossly 
misrepresent' ng thep' imiplesof the present opposition to Parliamentary 
taxations, v. II lying the late Ooiigr .ss, and intended to faiilitate the 
scheme ot the Biitish Ministry for enslaving the Colonies, be pnblickly 
burnt, in deteslntiou and abhorrence of such infamous pnlilications. 

'' And the same were accordingly committed to the flames before the 
Court-Ilouse, with the universal approbation of a numerous concoui'se 
of people." 2 

1 Am. Archives. 4th S., i. (a4. Gordon's N. J.,p 156. Mulford's N. J., 
pp. :iS8, :iS9. Serlgwick's Livingston, iip. 168-7-2. 

2 Am. Archives, 4lh S., i lOOa-llllU, 10I2-IU13. The former of theaa 
paniph lets was entitled "A Friflnlly Address to all Reasonable Amer- 
icans, on the subject of our political'usions. In which the neces- 
sary consequences of violently op|iosing the King's tnaqis and of a gen- 
eral non-importation, are fairly stated." Dr. Hawkins attributes it to 
the Rev. Dr. T. B Chandhr, of Elizabeth Town, N J., but erroneously. 
It was the pmduction of the Kev. Mylea Cooper, D.D., President of King's 
College, N. Y. Such was the popular indignation against him that his 
house was sacked. May In, I7TS, and be, barely escaping tb<- hands of 
the mob, took refuge on board a ship of war, and fled to Eniiland. His 
Majesty gave him a pension of £2o0 per year. The latter pamphlet was 
entitled " Free thoughts on the proceedings of the Continental Congress 



The Committee of Observation tlius appointed were i 
not idle. As the town had denounced the two pam- 
phlets just mentioned, they called the attention of the 
people, Dec. 19, 1774, to the dangerous character of 
Rivinqton's Royal Gazetteer, published at New York, 
declared their determination individually to patronize 
it no longer, and called upon all the iieople to follow 
their example and banish it from their habitations. 
The article was signed by "Jonathan Hampton, I 

This was followed, Feb. 13, 1775, by the following 

" Wlifreni tlie inlialiitnnts of St«ten iRland have manifeoted an un- 
friendly disposition lowanis tlie lilxTties of America, and Hniong other 
tliiiigshiTe rii-glvrted to juinin tlie G-neral .*8soiiati.iii pr..po»e.l liy tlie 
Coiitiiieiiial Congress, and entered into l>y must of the Townsliips in 
Anieiiia. and in no instance liuve acceiled thereto. Tlie C<iniiiiiltee uf 
Oliservation for this T..wn, taking the same into considenit on, are of 
opinion that the inha'dtants.if their District onglit, and h.v the 
saicl AsaMC'iation are bound, to lireiik off all trade, coninieree, dealing», 
anil intercourse whal soever with the inhaliitants of eiiirt Island, until 
they shall join in the General Associati'>n albresiiid; and do Resolre 
that all traile, commerce, dealings, and intercourse whatsoever he sus- 
pended accordingly, which suspension is herel'y notified and recom- 
mended to the inhai-itants of this District to be by them universally 
obsei^ed and adopted. 

" George Ross, Clerk.'* 2 

A day or two afterwards an oyster-boat belonging 
to James Johnson, of Staten Island, came up the 
creek to the stone bridge, and the owner endeavored 
to make sale of his freight. But a pair of horses were 
speedily attached to the boat by the indignant people, 
and the poor crafl was hauled up the street to the 
court-house. Johnson was advised by James Arnet 
to seek redress from Jonathan Hampton, chairman 
of the Committee of Observation, who was also a 
magistrate. Hampton was found in conference with 
Joseph Tooker at Samuel Smith's tavern, next to the 
court-house. Hampton gave him a protection, al- 
lowed him to sell his oysters, and in the evening, with 
his skiff, to return to the island. 

Effect of the Battle of Lexington.— The first 
blood of the war was shed at Lexington, Mass., on 
Wednesday, April 19, 1775. News of the event 
reached New York on Sunday, the 23d, and the city 
rose in its strength to_ sustain the common cause. 
Indeed, the whole country was aroused within a very 
few days, as the tidings spread from East to West, 
and soon became known in every habitation through- 
out the colonies. This act put an end to all hope of fur- 
ther pacification. " It roused the sleepers ; it fired the 
populace; it united the people as one man to resist 
unto blood the tyranny of the Lords and Commons of 
Britain. Loyalty was at a discount. The Tory fac- 

held at Phila., 5 Sept. 1774, by A Farmer." It was written by Isaac Wil- 
kin.', subsequently the Kev. Dr. Wilkins, of Westchester County, N. Y. 
He wrote also "The Congress Canvassed; or an Examination into the 
Conduct i'f tlie Delegates." It may have been this last to which the vote 
of censure refer*. He loo fled to Englanil, in May, 1775, hut returned 
the next year. N. Y. ca. Docnits., viii. 297,569, 581. Sabine's Loyal- 
ists. Ut Ed., pp. (i9i-7IW. 

1 Am. Archives, 4th Ser., i. 1051, 1052. 

« Ibid., 1234, 12:i5. 

tion, till then exultant and defiant, were palsied with 
dismay. The die was cast. Nothing remained now 
but the sword, and he who would not gird it on in his 
country's need was a traitor worse than Judas." 

The excitement of the time, of course, took a deep 
hold in this locality, where there were many veteran 
patriots nurtured in conflict with oppression, and ■ 
many a young man who saw that his hour had come 
for action. 

Aaron Burr in his childhood was an Elizabeth Town 
boy. His mother's brother, Timothy, the eldest son of 
the Rev. Jonathan Edwards, had married, Sept. 2.5, 
1760, Rhoda, daughter of Robert Ogden, Esq., and 
granddaughter of Matthias Hatfield, Esq., of this town, 
" and made a home in Elizabeth Town for the family." 
Mr. Edwards resided here, highly respected and in- 
fluential, from 1760 to 1771. Burr and his sister, left 
orphans in 1758, were received into their uncle Ed- 
wards' family, the former in his fifth year. Here the 
lad grew up, and was fitted for Princeton College 
under the instruction of Tapping Reeve, teacher of 
the grammar school, who soon after married Burr's 
sister. Mrs. Edwards was the sister of Matthias and 
Aaron Ogden, the latter being of Burr's age, and the 
former nearly two years older. They grew up together 
as children of the same family, and Matthias became 
Burr's bosom companion. In 1772 young Burr grad- 
uated, and in 1774 began to study law with his 
brother-in-law at Litchfield, Conn.' 

In his retirement among the hills of Connecticut 
he heard the cry of Lexington, and immediately 
wrote to Ogden to come on and accompany him to 
the tented field. Ogden caught the infection, and 
rested not until he obtained his father's leave to go. 
He was then in his twenty-first year, and Burr a little 
more than nineteen. They were boys in years, but 
men in spirit, types of numerous others, their towns- 
men and associates, who panted to join the patriot, 
army and fight their country's battles. Nothing 
could exceed the martial ardor that pervaded all 
classes of the community. It was not safe to breathe 
a word against the patriot cause.' 

The Continental Congress were to meet at Phila- 
delphia, May 10, 1775. As the delegates from Massa- 
chusetts, joined on their way by their brethren from 
Connecticut, drew near to New York, on Saturday, 
May 6th, they were met three miles from the city by 
a vast concourse of military and citizens, and escorted 
to their lodgings with ringing of bells and loud 
huzzas. On Monday, with a part of the delegation 
from New York, they were escorted to Newark, where 

s Davis' Life of Burr, i. 2.5. 26, 46, 47. Parton's Life of Burr, pp. 60, 
53. MiBS .tones' Stoukhlirlge. pp. 160, 26:i. 

Three of President Edwards' children were married here: Timothy, 
his eldest son, »s noticed above; Ktinice was mariieil here, .laniiary, 1764, 
to Thomas Pollock, and after bis death, about 17W), to R.pbert Hunt, of 
this place; Pierpont manied, May, 1760, Frances, the eldest daughterof 
Moses and Blary (Cozzens) Ogdeii, and sister of Naucy, the second au(I 
aurviviiig wife of Od. Francis Barber, all of this town. 

* Davis' Life of Burr, i. 58. 



they dined ; thence they " were escorted to Elizabeth 
Town, and on their way they were met by the gentle- 
men and militia of that place.'' Such was the en- 
thusiasm of the people.' 

The Provincial Congress of New Jersey met at 
Trenton, May 23d. This town was represented by 
■ William Peartree Smith, John Stites, John Chet- 
wood, Abraham Clark, and Ellas Boudinot. Smith 
and Boudinot were sent to Philadelphia on the 25th 
to confer with Congress on some joint plan of action, 
and returned on the 30th. 

The combat thickened. British reinforcements 
arrived at Boston. The cry " To Arms!" had brought 
together considerable numbers of patriot soldiers. 
Congress was loudly summoned to create an army. 
They assumed the charge of the New England recruits, 
and chose George Washington, June 15th, as general- 
in-chief of the Continental army. The effect of these 
measures was electric. Hope was invigorated, confi- 
dence inspired. The battle of Bunker Hill followed 
two days after, June 17th. That Americans would 
fight was no longer doubtful. That British regulars 
were not invincible was certain. The yeomanry took 
heart at once. The people everywhere flew to arms. 
Even cowards were brave. 

Ammunition was greatly needed. But for this 
Bunker Hill would have been a greater triumph. 
Powder was in demand, in the army and everywhere. 
The committee of this town deeply interested them- 
selves in procuring and furnishing the needed supply. 
On the 17th of July they forwarded, by way of 
Dohbs' Ferry, fifty-two quarter casks just received 
from Philadelphia. On the same day they 

" Resnlued, TliHt this dimnnltee, for every hundred weiclit uf Saltpetre 
made witliin this Town for the first tliree months after this day, will 
pay the snni of twenty pounds, proclaniatioti money of New Jersey, on 
the delivery thereof to tliis Coniuiittee, and fifteen ponnils of game cur- 
rency for the like qnanliry of Saltpetre made and delivered as afore- 
said, within the next three mouths tliereafter."2 

The whole stock of powder at Washington's com- 
mand August 13th for the use of the army around 
Boston was about ninety barrels only, " not more 
than nine rounds a man ;" they had " but thirty-two 
barrels in store." The destitution continued " a fort- 
night or more, till the Jersey Committee of Eliza- 
beth Town, upon receiving the alarming news, sent on 
a few tons, which they were obliged to do with the 
greatest privacy, lest the fears of their own people, 
had it been known, should have stopt it for their own 
use in case of an emergency." On the 20th of Au- 
gust, Washington acknowledges the receipt of "six 
tons and a half of powder from the southward."^ 

At the same meeting of the committee, July 17th, 
the following action was taken : 

1 N. Y. Mercury, No. IBU. 
Diary, i. 70. 

2 N. y. Mercury. No. 1241. 
1 Gordon's Am. Revolution 

ving*s Waahington, ii. '.i6. 

Holt's N. T. Journal, May 11. Moore's 

*' The chairman of thi.* Committee having received a Iett«r from Mr. 
Richard Lawrence, a Delegate of Ricliinond C.unty for the Provincial 
Congress of the Cohmy of New York, inforinini: that the iiihaliitauts of 
said County liad, in general, signed the Associati^in recommended by 
the Committee of New Yoik, this Committee are of opinion 
that the iuhahitants i>f said County be re-^tored to their commercial 
privileges with the inhabitants of this town."^ 

The martial spirit that prevailed in the town may 
be seen from the following item : 

"Elizabeth Town. October 4, 1775. Yesterday sixteen Companies of 
Foot, and one of Horse, belonging to this Borough, were reviewed on the 
Parade, went thr.,ugh their Military Exercises with Alorlness and 
Regnlaiity, and made a very handsome Appearance.'" & 

The following pleasant incident occurred nearly 
two months later : 

" Dec. 4, Vm. Wednesday evening last [Nov. 29], arrived at Newark, 
in their way to the Provincial Carup iit Cainbrrdge, the Lady of his 
Excellency General Wiisliington, the Lady of Ailjniant General Gatei, 
John Cnstis, Esq., and his Laily and Warren Lewi<, Esq.; They were 
escorted from E.i»ila-Ih Town by the Company of Light HoiBe, and 
most of the principal Gentleiiieu of that Korongh. On Thursday morn- 
ing thny ileparted for Kerry, escorted by a i atty of the Klizabeth 
Town Light Uuise, and a great Number of Gentlemen and Ladies from 

Mrs. Washington accomplished the whole distance 
from Virginia to Cambridge, Mass., in her own con- 
veyance, " a chariot and four, with black postillions 
in scarlet and white liveries," traveling by easy 

At the close of November, by order of Congress, a 
recruiting agency was establi.>hed here, and the town 
was made the headquarters of the First New Jersey 
Regiment of regulars, under the command of William 
Alexander, (titular) Earl of Stirling. He had been 
for several years a resident of Basking Ridge, had re- 
cently been chosen colonel of a Somerset County 
militia regiment, and had carried many of them with 
him into the Continental service. He took care that 
all vessels coining from foreign countries to New 
York should (on account of restrictions laid on the 
commerce of that port by Capt. Hyde Parker, of the 
'' Phoenix" man-of-war in the harbor) enteral Amboy 
or Elizabeth Town, and at the latter place if possible. 
Apprehensive, therefore, of a visit from some of the 
armed boats of the " Phcenix," he urged Congress, 
Dec. I'.l, 1775, to furnish thp town with "an imme- 
diate supply of ammunition, and, if possible, half a 
dozen field-pieces, with some round, grape, and can- 
nister shot ;" and soon after, Jan. 6, 1776, he wrote to 
the President of Congress, — 

" I have the pleasure to inform yon that several vessels with valuable 
cargoes frtmi foreign p^o'ts have arrived in this Province, ami, utider 
the proteirtioii 1 havi- afl'orded them, have landed their caigoes. Among 
the rest are some hundred barrels of gunpowder."^ 

On the recommendation of Lord Stirling, Wil- 
liam Barnet, Jr., was appointed by Congress surgeon 
of the First Jersey Battalion, and Matthias Halslead 
quartermaster. Four companies of the battalion were 

■> N. Y. Mercury, No. 1J41. 

5 Ibid., No. 1262. 

«, No. 1 -'60. Trving's Wiish., ii. 120, 121. 

' Life of Stirling, pp. llli, 11«. 



stationed here, such of them as could not be accom- 
modated in the barracks finding quarters among the 
people. Some weeks elapsed before they were fully 

An opportunity soon occurred for calling into re- 
quisition the martial ardor and energy of the town. 
The occurrence i.s related at length by Robert Ogden, 
Esq. (who had now succeeded Jonathan Hani|>ton as 
chairman of the town committee), in a letter to John 
Hancock, President of, dated E. Town, Feb. 
10, 1776: 

"Sia,— I am ordered hj- tlie Committee of Eliziibelh Town to acquaint 
tlie O.iigiess of the Captnre and state of the ship ' Blue-Mountain-Val- 
|t-y,' now lying at Elizabetli-Towu Point, and to desire particular direc- 
tions from the Ciingresa wliat is to be done with the said ship, cargo, 
officers, and seamen. 

"On Monday, the -^'Id of Janmiry, lietween eleven and twelve o'clock. 
Lord Stii ling, with about thirty men of his regiment, being near all that 
were then armed at this place, the rest being at Long Island.^ set out 
for AmiHiy oti a serious enterprise. In the evening uf the same day an 
express arriveil in this town with a letter directed to Lord Stirling,Hnd. 
In his al«ence, to the Chairman of the dmniittee of this place, inform- 
ing th:<t an armed vessel, with a detaclinieut of marines and seamen, 
was sent off from New York that day from the ships of war in New 
York, atid to the tninspiirt ship. 

"On the Chairman's receipt of this letter, he immediately called the 
Committee, which un't aliout six o'cliH^k in the evening, and from the 
lettr-rand express c.dlected and concluded that Lord Stirling left this 
place with an inli-ntion to procure a vessel at Aniboy and go in quest of 
the tmnspirt-ship, which he then thought was in a defenseless condi- 
tion t knowing of the reiid'orcement sent from New York, and that 

if intelligence should reach him that night, be would not be able to 
procure veasela anil assistance in season at Amboy to secure success, and 
might be repulsed with loss. On wh ch the Committee re^iolved to send 
a detafhnient of one hundred volunteers in three or four boats, by the 
way of the Narrows, to take or a..siBt Lord Stirling to take the armed 
vessel or transport of which they immediately notitied Lord Stirling by 
an express, and to encourage volunteers to enter assured them they 
should share of the prize or prizes, acconliug to the regulations that 
were or should be made by the Continental Congress Volunteers were 
soon procured, and furnished by the Oimuiittee with aniniuiiition, pro- 
vi-ioii,aiid what anus were wantintr, of the townsmen about eighty, 
and of the CXinlineutal troops about thirty. The Committee also pro- 
cnied three boats, and fitted them in the best manner the niglit and 
hurry would admit of Between twelve and one o'clock at night tlie 
armament was ready to sail, but on account of the tide and ice ^ they 
could not proceed by the waj of the Narrows ; they therefore set out 
with a fair wind by the way of Ainboy, wliere they stopped, ami called 
npon Lord Stirling, w ho, with a boat procured by him for the purpose, 
and about forty of his regiment, set out with them in quest of the ship 
and armed vessel. At sunrise from the mast-head Ihey descried the 
ship at sea, stood for, met, and boarded her without opposition at ten 
o'clock 111 the morning; they found her to be a transport from Loudon, 
wilh coiils. porter, potatoes, hogs, and horse-beans, designed for the Min- 
isterial troo{i8at Hostoii, coniniHUded by John H. Dempster, brother to 
Geo'ge L).-nipster, member of Parliament for Dundee, elc, in Scotland. 
But the aimed vessel, by great good fortune, saved herself by returning 
to New Yolk, not having discovered the ship, to the great disappoint- 
ment ol our people. Lord Stiilim: gave the command of the ship to Mr. 
Rogers, a sea-captain, i\ilh orders to proceed for this place, but being 
di-Iaiiied by tide and contrary winds on Wednesday nt-ar Amboy, the 
Coniiniltee being upprehensive of an attempt by the man.of-war to re- 
take her, on Wednesday evening sent a reinforcement of about eighty 
men to secure her against any such attempt, and on Friday she arrived 
in safety ai Elizabeth-Town Point, where she remained under the coni- 

1 Am. Archives, 4tli Ser., iv. 165, 247, iM. 

- S'-ouring the country to disarm the Tories, and arrest the most dan- 
gerous of the Loyalists. N. Y. Col. Doclnls., Tiii. 663,607. Hildreth, 

mand of Lord Stirling, guarded by some of the troops under his com- 
mand, until Tuesday last, when he and his troops were ordered to New 
York, since which time she hath been, and now is, under the are of the 
Committee. By order of Lord Stirling and the Committee, the porter 
and beans are stored, the sails and rigging are taken on shore. The po- 
tatoes, which are chiefly rotten, and coal remain on lioard the ship. The 
Captain and seamen remain prisoners at large in this town. The Com- 
mittee expected Lord Stirling would have, before this lime, procured the 
particular directions of the Congress for the disposition of the ship and 
cargo, but in this thi-y are disappointed, and everything respecting the 
ship is in suspense. The hogs remaining being only S"ven (out of 
eighty) and the remaining potatoes they have concluded to sell. The 
coal is in great demand for making of arms, and is liable to lie destroyed 
with the sliip by an armed force which may be dispatched privately in 
the night from New York, which is but about fourteen miles' distance. 
The seamen, who are boarded out by the Committee, are uneasy and so- 
liciting the Committee for their wages, which, they say, were promised 
by Lord Stirling. The Captain is anxious to know now long he is to be 
detaiued,aud the Committee are desirous that he may be soon dismi-sed, 
and beat liberty to return home and inform his friends and country- 
men of the usage he has received from the .Americans. This, sir, is the 
state of affairs relating to the storeship called the ' Blue-Mountaiii-Val- 
ley,' and brought to this place." 

Appended to this statement is a list of the ofBcers 
and crew, — a captain, three mates, a carpenter, a boat- 
swain, a steward, seven seamen, and two apprentices. 
Their bill for wages was £123 Sa. Id., of which £23 
6s. 7'/. had been paid. 

The manifest is also given, dated Sept. 30, 1775, 
showing 1071 chaldrons of coal, 30 bundles of hoops, 
100 butts of porter, branded " Calvert," 225 bags of 
beans, 156 sacks of potatoes, 10 casks sour-krout, 80 
live hogs, and 35 empty puncheons for water, shipped 
by Mure, Son & Atkinson, of London, by order of 
the Right Hon. the Lords Commissioners of his Ma- 
jesty's Treasury. The vessel had sailed from Lou- 
don Oct. 13, 1775. 

An accompanying paper gives 

"A List of the Officers and Men. behuigiug to the Militia of Eliza- 
beth-Town, wlio entered on board of the different shallops as Volun- 
teers in order to take the Ship BIue-Monntain-Valley, January 'i2, 
1776, under the command of Elias Dayton, Colonel: 

Navigation about New York had 
cmts.. viii. r.fiT, 674. 

•' Elias Diiyton. Odonel. 

George Weeks. 

Edward Thomas, Lieiit.-Col. 

Edwaid . 

Oliver Spencer, Captain. 


William Britlon. Captain. 

David Stewart. 

Francis Barber, Fii«t Lieut. 

Daniel Cr.iig. 

Anion Hatfield, First Lieut. 

Thomas Lee. 

Thomas Morrel, Second Lieut. 

Stephen Wheeler. 

George Ever-on, liuartermaster. 

Fairington Fiice. 

Smith Hetfleld, Capt. of Boat. 

Elijah Woodruff. 

John Thomas, Capt. of Boat. 

Dat iel Wooilrnff. 

John Trail, Capt of lioat. 

Aaron Ogden. 

William Burnet, Suigeon. 

Ednaid Jones. 

William Higiiis, Sergeant. 

William Clark. 

David Ross, Sergeant. Clark. 

Henry Baker, Sergeant. 

Jonathan Nichols. 

Samnel Smith. 

Samuel Mann. 

Lewis Blanchard. 

Sibu< Freeman. 

Edmund Thomas. 

William Meeker. 

Thomas Elstoiie. 

Samuel Ogden. 

Ephraim Marsh. 

Gabriel Meeker. 

Adam Lee. 

Jonathan I'ierson. 

Thomas t^nigley. 

Eliliii I'arsotis. 


Daniel . 

Henry M. Munagal. 

Robert Spencer. 

Price Parcel. 

Williatn Ramsden 

Barney Ogden. 

Samnel Sealey. 

Timothy B. Stout. 

Samuel Lee. 

Joseph Meeker, Jun. 

Thomas Hoyt. 


Lewis WiioiliuB. 


lies Clencliy. 

Isiiiah Cray. 


in Miller. 

William l.iviii:;8toTi. Jr. 


in lliiii.vnn. 

BioukhulBt LiviiigBtiiii. 


Iioliis IVane. 

Julin UeiMliix. 



Siiriiiiel Moieh.mse. 


ilre.v Itlaekiiey. 

Jaci.l, Carle. 


lotliy Buriiri. 

Benjamin \V.i..dnifr. 


inn Sinninsnll. 

Jonathan Won.lrnlf. 


iianl Miller. 

Bel]jaui n lliinls. 


inSlillei, tid. 


"The ahnve i8 a true list, t 

n the best o 

f my kuuttleilBe ar 

.1 helief. 

" Kdwaui 


"ELIZABF.TII-TciWN, Fell. 9, 177C." 

Several of the men whose names are included in 
this list afterwards became decided loyalists and 
some of them malignant Tories, but the vast majority 
of them ciintihued true to their country, and several 
of them became highly distinguished for their mili- 
tary services. The names of a few are not familiar. 
These were of the Continentals from the back country. 

In his "Life of Lord Stirling," Judge Duer gives 
the credit of this affair to Stirling, as having "planned 
and executed" the enterprise, overlooking the fact 
that the town committee undertook, of their own mo- 
tion, without even a sugge.stion from Stirling, by far 
the heaviest part of the work. Lord Stirling's letter 
to Congress also, dated Jan. 24, 1776, is given incor- 
rectly. It should read, — 

'*! iinme(lirttel.v set out for AniI'oy,an'i there seized a pilot-hoat, and 
wilh ftirly men was jn^t piisliing uut about two yesterday ntorniiif:, 
wheu I was joined by three oilier boats from Elizabeth Town, with 
about forty nn-n each, many of tliem jjenileinen from Elizabeth Town, 
who voluntarily 0. me on this service, under the uoniinandof Cul Dayton 
and Lieut -(.'iil. Thomas." 

He describes the vessel as "a ship of about one 
hundred feet, from stem to stern above, capable of 
making a ship of war of twenty six-pounders and ten 

On the Monday following, 29th, Lord Stirling's let- 
ters having been read in Congress, it was 

" Remind, That the alertness, aetivity, and good eonductof Lord Stir- 
ling, and the forwardness and 8|iiiit of the gentlemen and others fiom 
Elizabeth Town wliu voluntarily assisleil liiiii in lakiii).' the ship Bine- 
Mouiitaiii'Valley, were laudable ami e.\eniiilar.v, and that his lordship 
bedirecled lo seeilie the capture until the further order ol Congress, 
and that in the mean time be cause such part uf the lading as wuuld 
otherwise peiisli to lie disposed of by sale."2 

Lord Stirling received orders from Gen. Lee, Feb. 
4, 1776, to transfer his regiment to New York, and the 
next morning he marched, with the four companies 
stationed here, to the North River, and having been de- 
tained by the ice on the following day arrived at New 
York. On the 9th he received and transmitted from 
Congress the vote of thanks, and sent orders to Mr. 
John Blaiichard to take charge of the cargo of the 
transport, with a request to Brig.-Gen. Living.ston, 
and John DeHart, Esq., to aid him in the manage- 
ment of the afl'air. At the same time he took the op- 
portunity of requesting Mr. Ogden to give his best 
thanks to the committee of Elizabeth Town for their 

readiness at all times to assist him in carrying on the 
service under his direction, and to the inhabitants in 
general for the many instances of confidence and 
friendship received from them,' 

Finally the Provincial Congress of New Jersey or- 
dered, March 2, 1776, the vessel and cargo to be con- 
fiscated, a commission to be appointed for the sale of 
the ship and its contents, and the proceeds to be dis- 
distributed among the captors. John Blanchard ex- 
cused himself, March 2d, from serving on the com- 
mittee, because he was so much occupied in building 
a powder-mill, and on his recommendation his son 
Cornelius was, March 8th, appointed in his place.* 

Col. Stirling having been appointed, March 1st, a 
brigadier-general, Robert Ogden wrote him, March 
4th, a letter of congratulation, and took occasion to 
add, — 

"There are many fire-armi lost, or at least at present missing, that 
werelent (by tlie inhabitants of the town) lo lnriii>li Capt. Meeker and 
the pania'i under him to assist your lordship in taking the ship ' Blue* 
Monntuin-Valley.' He lias been applied to fur the arms, luit says he 
knows nothing about llieni. who had tlieui, iinr where tu be found. His 
ignorance aud high temper makes it difticiilt to treat witli liini.'*^ 

Stirling wrote March 1st to Blanchard, authorizing 
him to deliver thirty-four chaldrons of the coal to 
Moses Ogden at the market price, Ogden having a 
contract with the government for ironwork. The 
remainder of the cargo, with the ship and its appur- 
tenances, was sold at auction by order of the commit- 
tee of Elizabeth Town, March 18th. A gratuity was 
allowed the seamen, who, with the officers, were set at 
liberty, and the proceeds of the sale were divided 
among the captors. 

By order of the Provincial Congress, February 2d, 
Edward Thomas and Isaac Woodruff, barrack-masters, 
were authorized to dispose of at their estimated value, 
for the use of the Continental troop, the blankets be- 
longing to the Elizabeth Town barracks. On the .3d, 
Abraham Ogden was appointed lieutenant-colonel, 
and William Barnet major of the regiment of light- 
horse in the eastern division of the State. On the 
23d, Edward Thomas was appointed colonel, .lere- 
miah Smith lieutenant-colonel, and Oliver Spencer first 
m.ijorof the first regiment of Essex militia. On the6th 
of March, Elias Dayton was appointed by Congress 
colonel, and Francis Barber major of the Third Bat- 
talion of New Jersey Continentals, and on the requi- 
sition of Lord Stirling, at New York, six thousand 
cartridges were furnished him by the Elizabeth Town 

Gen. Clinton arrived at New York from Boston Feb- 
ruary 4th, in the ship of war " Mercury," in company 
with a transport brig with two hundred marines, on 
his way to the South. Shortly afterwards the vessels 
weighed anchor, and fell down to the watering-place 

1 Am. Archives, 4th Ser , iv. !l«"-S9. 
s Journal of Congress for 177li. Uui 

8 Stirling, p. 124. 

' Am. Archives, 4th ser., iv. 1199-1200. 
' Ibid , p. 1B06. Stirling MSS.. N. Y. His. 

. 15SU, 1582, 1689, 1B98, 1600. 



near Staten Island. On the evening of Saturday, 
lOtli, word was brought to this town that the marines 
were intending to make a raid on Staten Island and 
carry off the live-stock. Gen. Livingston, who had 
been put in charge on Stirling's transfer to New York, 
called out three hundred of the militia, sent out a 
part to reconnoitre the south side of the island, and 
inarched with the troops at three in the morning. At 
Ward's, in sight of the light-house, they were joined 
by Capt. Blanchard and his company of light-horse. 
Learning here that the vessels had left Sandy Hook 
the day before, a squad under the command of Col. 
Edward Thomas were left to guard the coast, for fear 
of a feint, and the remainder were ordered home. 
The militia were highly commended for the alacrity 
with which they responded to the call of their com- 
mander on this occasion.' 

Owing to tlie commotions of tlie times, and the 
close connection of the town with New York, the 
place was visited by many strangers, some of whom 
rendered themselves liable to suspicion as unfriendly 
to the cause of the country. The committee of the 
town therefore represented the case, February 12th, 
to the Provincial Congress, then in session, who 
passed an ordinance requiring, among other things, 

*' Tllat all suspected pel-sons removing into the c*>lon_v slioulil be ini- 
meiiiately relumed to tlie place wlience tliey came, unless their deten- 
tion an delinquents should be proper, or unlesstliey produced certificates 
from the coinniitree of the precinct from which tln-y cmue Ihat they 
had signed the Association recommended liy Congress, and had not 
eiibsequently contravened it." - 

Thus, gradually but surely, the lines of demarka- 
tion between the patriots and the loyalists were be- 
coming more and more distinct, and the people were 
compelled to show their colors as friends or foes to 
Congress and the country. 

On the 14th, William Livingston and John De Hart, 
of this town, were re-elected by the Provincial Con- 
gress of New Jersey members of the General Con- 
gress, which had continued in session till this time.^ 

Fears were entertained that the British army at 
Boston were about to be transferred to New York, of 
which Lord Stirling received intimation, March 13th, 
from Gen. Washington. Stirling immediately called 
upon each of several adjacent counties in New Jersey 
to send forward immediately three or four hundred 
men to aid in fortifying the city and harbor. Lewis 
Ogden, chairman of the Newark Committee, replied 
on the 14th that they would send one hundred and 
fifty men : " We also sent a Deputatitm from our 
Board to the Committee at Elizabeth Town to inform 
them what we had done and request that they would 
furnish 150 more : they have agreed to do it." 

Stephen Crane, who had succeeded Robert Ogden 
as chairman of the Elizabeth Town Committee, wrote 
to Stirling also on the 14th, to the effect that they 

had no right to send a detachment out of the province, 
urged the desperate state of the colony, and said, — 

'The ArmiiiK the tivo battalions in the Oontinental Service hath 
lined lis of our l»est Arms, MUd in case a Decent should be DiaOe at 
w York, we should be liable to continual exciiD.ion8 of the enemy.'* 

V York Packet, Febriniiy iid 
. Archives, 4tli Ser,, iv. 15!-n. 
d.iu's N..I.. p. 201. Moll.od'i 

William Burnet, chairman of the Essex County 
Committee, wrote on the 15th that a copy of Crane's 
letter had been sent to him, "from which we are 
afraid no men will come from Elizabeth Town; . . . 
however we shall Endeavour to prevail witli tliem to 
furnish their quota, and hope we shall .succeed." The 
next day he writes that "the confusion is owing to 
your writing to the Township and not the County 

Two days after Stirling acknowledges the services 
of Burnet and the Newark people, informs him of his 
intention to fortify East Jersey, and says, — 

*' 1 ^hall send to exidaio my des'Rns to you and to eiigase the people 
of Kli/.abetli Town to carry llnni inloe.\eculion, which according to my 
plan they will be abb- to do with two or Three hundred men in a few 
days. SoDle Intr'-nching tools will be necfssjiry, and it wi 1 be proper 
to have them Collected as soon as possible at Newark or Elizabeth 

And SO the men were kept at home to work on their 
own fortifications. Stirling knew the people too well 
to believe that they were wanting in patriotism. One 
of the stanchest patriots of the town, Abraham Clark, 
the signer, wrote to the Committee of Safety at this 
very time, March 15th, in reference to a resolution of 
the Provincial Congress calling for arms to equip a 
battalion for Canada: " If all the Congresses upon 
the Continent required us to disarm ourselves at pres- 
ent, unless we are deemed dangerous to liberty, I 
would not obey." The situation of the town was be- 
coming exceedingly critical, and they needed to hus- 
band all their resources.' 

Col. Uayton, in command of the Third Continental 
Regiment, stationed at Elizabeth Town, in the mean 
time had received, March 10th, orders from Stirling 
to put his regiment in marching trim. On the 14th 
he writes that "the companies of Capts. Bloomfield, 
Dickinson, and Potter have passed muster," and that 
the others are nearly full. He refers to the scarcity 
of arms, and says, "The militia are now more than 
ever unwilling to part with their Arms;" and adds 
that he and Maj. Barber had been to Congress at 
Philadelphia about it, but without success. On the 
23d he received orders to march forthwith to New 

In accordance with the intimations in the letter to 
Burnet, Lord Stirling came over on the 22d to this 
town, to survey the ground and lay out a line of fortifi- 
cations at the Point. Alter conference with Gen. Liv- 
ingston in relation to the plan, he returned to the city 
on the 24th, to procure engineers to be employed on 
these works under the direction of Gen. William 

Bostou was evacuated by the British army March 

ii.lon'sN..r., 171-74. 
.1 . p. A-lr.. 

lirling MSS., N. Y. His. Soc. Aual. ludex, p. 451. * Stirling MSS. 



17th, and as it was naturally inferred that they would 
make a vigorous effort to establish their headquarters 
at New York, the American army was, in the course 
of a few weeks, mostly transferred to this section of 
the country. Gen. Washington arrived and took 
command at New York on Saturday, April 13th. 
The work of erecting and strengthening fortifications 
at exposed points was renewed and carried on with 
great vigor. 

The Provincial Congress of New Jersey, chosen on 
the lourth Monday in May, met at Burlington on the 
10th of June ; and John De Hart having been per- 
mitted to resign his seat in Congress, Abraham Clark, 
also of this town, who had served for some time as 
secretary of the New Jersey Committee of Safety, 
was chosen, June 22d, in his place. William Living- 
ston, another member from this town, having been ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief of the New Jersey militia, 
resigned his membership, and established his head- 
quarters at Elizabeth Town Point, while his own fam- 
ily and others retired into less exposed portions of 
the country, in anticipation of the near approach of 
the British army and the full realities of war. 



The decisive step in the progress of the events to 
be narrated in this chapter was the measure submitted 
to the General Congress June 7, 1776, by Richard 
Henry Lee, of Virginia, to wit : 

" That these United Colonies are, and of right 
ought to be. Free and Independent States, that 
they are absolved from all allegiance to the British 
crown, and that all political connecti6n between 
them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to 
be, totally dissolved." 

After lull discussion this measure was adopted on 
the 4th of July, 1776. An eloquent writer, speaking 
of its adoption, says, — 

"The die was now cast, the state of vassalage was terminated. The 
house of Kaiiuver was dethroned, royaity was abolished. All depend- 
ence on Britain was alijni-ed. A repuldic was inaugnrateil, a nation 
was born. Tile struggle ceased to be a civil war. Rebels were now 
patriots, the Biilish were lon-igu foes. The war was henceforth to be 
wai;ed by rival nations. Loyalists were now traitors, ami to be treated 
as toes t.. their country. Neutrality could no longer be tolerated. King 
or Congress must rule. Sides must be taken ; every man must be a 
friend or foe, for or against his country : he could not be neither." 

Abraham Clark, whose name appears among the 
immortal signers of the Declaration, was a citizen of 
Elizabeth Town. Four days after the signatures 
were attached, on August 6th, he wrote the following, 
in a letter to Col. Elias Dayton, then on service at 
German Flats : 

the three lepers. If we continued in the state we were in it was evident 
we must perish ; if we declare Independence we mit:ht he sjived, w* 
conld but pei-ish. I assure you, sir, I see, I feel, the danger we are in. 
I am far from exulting in our imaginary happiness; nothingshort of the 
almighty power of God can save us. It is not in onr numbers, our 
union, nor valour I dare trust. I think an interposing Provideuce hath 
been evident in all the eveuts that necessarily led us to what we are,— I 
mean indepeudent States, — but for what purpose, whether to make us a 
great empire, or to make our ruin more complete, the issue only can 

While the representatives of the United Colonies 
were adopting this great measure at Philadelphia the 
Britisli were gathering their military and naval forces 
at New York. Washington wrote from that city, 
June 29th, to Gen. Livingston, commanding at Eliza- 
beth Town : 

" I have received certain information from the Hook that about forty 
of the enemy's fleet have arrived there, and others are now in sight, and 
that there cannot be a doubt hut the wln.le fleet will be in this day aud 
to-morrow. I beg not a moment's time may he lost in sending forward 
such parts of the militia as Col. Reed shall mention. We are so very 
weak at this post that I must beg you (o order the tliree companies 
which I mentioned in my last for Staten Island immediately to this 
city." 1 

These ships were the British fleet from Halifax, 
under the command of Admiral Shuldhain, with the 
British army under Gen. Howe, recently driven out 
of Boston, with six transports filled with Highlanders 
just sent over. Orders were immediately issued for 
the removal of the live-stock from Staten Island, and 
the people of Elizabeth Town were called upon to aid 
in this movement. Washington writes from New 
Y'ork, July 3d, to the President of Congress, — 

■'I am this minute informed by a gentleman that the Committee of 
Klizabelh Town sent their Company of Light Horse on Monday to effect 
it, and that some of their militia was to give their aid ye.sterdny (Tues- 
day)." Heaildslhnthe was credibly told liisi night by pirt .if the niililia 
coming to this tdace that yesterday they saw a good deal of stock driving 
off the island aud cros-iiig to the Jerseys. - 

We condense the followino- from Dr. Hatfield's 
"History of Elizabeth": "The Staten Islanders had 
made profession of patriotism, and so were allowed to 
resume trade with this town. The value of their pro- 
fessions may be seen from the report of Governor 
Try on, of New York, to Lord George Germain, dated 
' Duchess of Gordon, off Staten Island, 8th July, 

"General Howe disembarked the troops under bis coninnmd on Staten 
Island the :id Instant without opposition, on which occa>ion the inhab- 
itants of the isliinil came down to welcome tlie ariival of their deliv- 
erel-8, & have since afforded the army every supply & acc..nimodaliou in 
their p<iwer. Un Sulurday la-t (6tli) I received the mililia of the Island 
at Richmond Town, where near four hundred a|ipeareil, who cheerfully, 
ou my Recommendation, took the Oath of Allegiance & fidelity to his 
Majesty. To-morrow I am to have another muster tor the enlisunent 
of Volnntiei-8 to form a Pi-ovincial Corps for the defence of the Island."" 

By this defection and the occupation of the island 
by the British, Elizabeth Town was brought into the 
very forefront of the field of conflict, and so continued 
throughout the war. Staten Island became thence- 
forward not only a British, but a nest of Tories, 

111 be exalted on » high gallu 

whether it will be honourable or d 

nnst settle it. Perhaps our Congn 

We were truly brought to the case 

' Sparks' Wash 


ii , PP 



2 Am Arch 


4th .Se 

., vi. 1 


» N. Y. Col 

Uocmls., V 

ii. OSl 



and the common resort of the "Loyalists" in their 
flight from East Jersey. 

The day after their landing the enemy made their 
appearance on the western shore of the island, oppo- 
-site Elizabeth Town Point. 

"As suon 86 the truops lauded (nays a correspondent) they paraded 
tlie north ahure, and on Wednesday morning (:Jd) made their appearance 
near Elizabeth-Town point: tnt the coniitry I.eingsoon alarm-d, tliey 
retreated, took up the floor of the drawbriilge in the salt meadows, and 
immediately threw up some works. Their near approach to Klizabetli- 
Town point greatly alarmed the inhabitants of Essex county, atid par- 
ticularly tlie people of Elizabeth-Town and Newaik ; but they are now 
in a condition to receive them whenever they may think proper to ap- 
proach. Two young men from Elizabetti-Towu crossed the river in a 
canoe last Tliursday (4th) and fired upon the regulars; but a nuuiher 
of them rushing out of the woods, they were obliged to retreat and cross 
the river again. "i 

Livingston writes to Washington on the 4th that 
they had 

** Thrown up a couple of small breastworks on the causeway leading 
from the Point over the Salt Meadow. We have between four and Ave 
hundred at the Point who have thrown up a line from the Point House 
eastward to answer as a cover. We have two field-pieces, witli a part of 
the Company of Artillery of this Province (Capt. Neill's). He adds. 
Our men are raw and inexperienced, our officers mostly absent, want of 
discipline is inevitable, while we are greatly exposed for the distance of 
twelve or fourteen miles."^ 

He makes an urgent appeal for troops to defend the 
town against the disciplined troops on the island, 
from whom an invasion was constantly expected. 
Washington thereupon writes on the oth to the 
President of Congress, — 

" General Mercer arrived here on Tuesday, and the next morning was 
ordered to Paulus Hook to make some anangenieuts of the militia a.s 
they came in, and the best disposition he could to prevent tlie enemy's 
ci os-ing from t^taten Island if they shoul.l have any such views. The 
distressed situation of the inhabitants of Elisabeth Town and Newark 
has since induced me, upon their appiicaliou, to give up all Ihemililia 
from the Jerseys, except those engaged for six monthe. I am hopeful 
they will be able to repel any incursions that may be attempted." ^ 

He writes to Livingston the next day, 6th, — 

" Gen. Mercer has just set off for Jersey. In his experience and judg- 
ment yon may repose great confidence. He w ill proceed to .\ml'oy after 
conferring with you. You will please to keep nie ciuistaiitly informed 
of the proceedings of the euemy, and be assured of every assistance and 

In the same letter he writes, in answer to one from 
Livingston of the same date, a.s follows: 

*' The known di-affection of the people of .\mboy, and the treachery 
of those of Staten Island, who, after the fiirest professions, have shown 
themselves our most inveterate enemies, have indocetl me to give direc- 
tions that till persons of known enmity or doubtful chantcter should be 
removed from placeswhere tliey niiyht enter into a correspondence with 
the enemy and aid them in their schemes. For this end Gen. Heard (of 
Woodbri.ige) has directions to apprehend such persons as from their 
conduct liave shown themselves inimical, or whose situation, connections, 
or offices have given just cause of suspicion."^ 

This order had a very salutary effect, resulting in 
the apprehension of a considerable number of sus- 
pected persons in this town and vicinity, but more 
particularly in Ainboy. Maj. Duyckinek, of the 

1 Pa. Eve. Post, No. 229. Pa. Journal, No. 1753. 

2 Am. Archives, 4th Ser., vi. I2r.2. 

3 Sparks' Washington, iii. 449-50. 
* Ibid., p. 452. 

" Ibid., pp. 451-52. 

Middlesex militia, had arrested nine of the jirinci- 
pal inhabitants of Amboy, and sent them here to Gen. 
Livingston, giving occasion to Livingston's letter to 

A Philadelphia, paper of August 10th relates the 
following : 

" On the late alarm at Elizabeth Town, when an immediate attack of the 
regulars was expected (July 3d), and every man capable of bearing arms 
was snninioned to defend it, there were thiee or four youni: men 
(brothers) goiug out fioni one house, when an elderly lady, mother or 
granilni'.ther to the young men, witliout betraying the least signs of 
timidity, with a resolute calmness, encouraged aud assisted them to arm. 
When they were ready to go, and just setting out, she addressed them 

" ' My children, I have a few words to say to you : Yon are going out 
iu a just cause to fight for the rights and liberties of your country. 
Ti'U have my blessing and itrayers that God will protect and lussist you. 
But if you fall. His will be d.uie. Let me beg of you. my children, that 
if you fall it may be like men, and that your wounds m;iy not be in 
your back parts.'"" 

The two field-pieces of which mention has been 
made very soon gave a good account of themselves. 
Under date of July 4, 1776, twelve o'clock at night, it 
is said, — 

"One of the enemy's armed sloops of fourteen guns having this even- 
ing run up near Elizabeth Point, was attacked fri'Di the shore with two 
twelve-pounders, a great uumberof her men killed, she set on fire 4nd 
entirely destroyed."^ 

As this occurred just about the time that the Decla- 
ration of Independence was adopted by, or 
within two or three hours of that event, it was proba- 
bly the first military exploit of the new-born nation, 
and an auspicious omen of its career. 

" About one hundred and thirty sail," as Washing- 
ton informs Gen. Schuyler on the 11th, had now ar- 
rived from Halifax, and the British army on the 
island numbered " between nine and ten thousand." 
The next day several ships of the line arrived, and 
among them the admiral's ship, who had been daily ex- 
pected. The utmost vigilance now became necessary, 
the more so as two British men-of-war had the same 
afternoon run up Hudson's River and taken posses- 
sion ofTappan Bay. Livingston, in command of the 
militia here, and Mercer in charge of the Flying Camp 
at Amboy, kept their eye on the opposite shore of the 
Sound, and prevented all foraging incursions from the 
enemy on the island. Livingston found himself very 
much in need of military stores. In a letter to the 
Provincial Congress, July 6th, he says, — 

"The number of men that are now in the service here loudly call for 
more ample supplies of almost every necessary (except piovi-iona) than 
can be obtained here, such a-sammunitiuu, 11 nis, arms, and indeed stores 
of every kind, an attention to which I cauuot give in the manner I 
ctmhl choose in the present exigency."^ 

The following incidents, taken from letters written 
in the camp at Elizabeth Town, show that the troops 
were kept continually on the alert: 

« Whitehead's Aniboy, p. 330. 
' Pa. Eve. Post, No. 243. Pa. Journal, No. 1758. 
S Am. Archives, 4lh ser., vi. 1272. 

'Sparks' Washington, iii. 4B:i. 468. Irviug's Washington, ii. 254. Sedg- 
wick's Livingst*>ii, p. 198. 


" Last Wfdiieediiy noon [10th] a soldier betoTigin^ to one of t!ie regi- 
ments on ^tatiMi Uland, lieing in liquor, and having watidered from )iis 
cumimnions, got npon the nn-adows near Elizalietli Town Point, wliich 
being oligcrved liy Col. Smith, wliu Iiad the eolnniand tliat day at the 
Point, he laent over a party of men, who took him priBoiicr, 

"Yesterday nine of our UiHemen crossed the river fSiHind] in order 
to lianiss sinne Td-BUlarn wlio wi're th'owiuii dp a liind of hreastwork 
on a liiidge for tlteir enemies. ■wlio kept firing on our men for some 
time w.tliont any exeiuti<ni, till one of tlie brave fellows went 
witliinafew yai'tls of the enemy and desired them, to surrender. At 
that instant lie received a hall through his head, which kille.l him on 
the spot. The Colonel sent over a Bag of truce to the o.mmanding 
oflieer on the Island, desiring leave to bring off his man. which the 
ofitcer very politely agreed to, and let him take man, rifle and all liis 
accoutrements. "1 

A few days before this Gen. Mercer had come on 
here from Aniboy in order to surprise the enemy on 
Staten Island. He phinned an invasion for the night 
of the ]8tli, purposing to cross the Sound from the 
mouth of Thompson's Creek, a little below the Point, I 
to the Blazing Star. Maj. Knowlton was to head the 
Continental troops. The first division marched to 
the creek by nine o'clock in the evening. The Penn- 
sylvania troops attached to the Flying Camp were to 
follow, — in all about thirteen hundred men. But the 
Pennsylvanians had marched that day from New 
Brunswick, and were completely exhausted on their 
arrival. A tremendous thunder-storm also came on, 
making it impracticable to cross the Sound, and the 
expedition was reluctantly abandoned.' 

Abraham Clark, in the letter to Col. Dayton, Au- 
gust 6th, referred to above, in giving him local infor- 
mation, says of the militia, — 

"They form a chain from Elizabeth Town Point, where strong works 
are erected at an amazing exiiense of labour, chiefly effected by our Mi- 
litia before the Pi sylvanians ariived to their assistance. He adds' 

Elizabeth Town was in great coiisteruatiou upon General Howe's taking 
possession of the Island, but at present 1 believe they are very ensy. I 
formerly informed you that Mrs. Dayton had sent the chief of her goods 
into Spritigfiidd. Many that moved away from Elizabeth Town have 
since returned. 

" Our election for Council and Assembly, SherilTs, Ac, comes on next 
Tuesday in all the Counties of New Jersey. I now feel the want of you 
in Elizabeth Town. I sat down to consi-ler to whom I might venture to 
write on pulitiiks, and have none tliat I dare B|ieak plainly to. Hail you 
or my much esteemed friend, Mr. Caldwell, been there, I should have 
been at no hiss. I have none like-minded. I have friends, it i« true, 
hut none there now that I dare speak with freedom to."^ 

The war, brought thus to their very doors, had 
wrought a great change in the society of the town. 
A large number of the best men of the place had 
taken up arms either in the militia or in the service of 
Congress, and -so were of uncertain residence. Inter- 
course between families had become much more re- 
served, a-s no one knew at what time he might be 
betrayed to the one or the other party nor which 
party might presently be in the ascenilant. With 
the vast host of disciplined troops on Staten Island, 
the very flower of the British army, and daily increas- 

> Pa. Journal, No. 1764. Am. Archives, 5th Ser., i. 575. 

« Am. Archives, 6th Ser., i. 470. Marshall's Washington, ii. 424. 
Sparks' W'asliiugb.n, iv. 2U. 

* Am. Archives, 5lh Ser., i. 785. Mr. Caldwell, his pastor, had, about 
the 1st of May, accompanied Col. Dayton to the north as chaplain of 
this regiment. 

ing in numbers by the arrival of reinforcements, the 
Tories had great reason to expect to be shortly restored 
to their homes and estates, and in turn to vex and 
dispossess their patriot neighbors. 

Notwithstanding the failure of Gen. Mercer's at- 
tempt to invade the island on the 18th of July, Wash- 
ington wrote on the 27th that he was hoping still to 
"make some efforts to annoy them" from this direc- 
tion. But on the 29th he informs Congress that 

" By the advice of Gen. Mercer and other officers at Aniboy it will bo 
impracticalde to do anything upon a large scale for want of the 
enemy have the entile cunimalid of tlie water all round the island. I 
have desired (ir-il. Mercer to liave nine or ten Hat-hutt..m-d Imats built 
at Newark Bay and Kl ziii.eth Town, with a design piincipally to keep 
up the communication across Hackiii>ac and Passaic Kivers " 

The plan alluded to contemplated an attack from 
the Point with a force of three thousand nine hun- 
dred men, but boats could not be procured to trans- 
port half that number across the Sound, and so it 
was abandoned.* 

The militia from Pennsylvania, attached to the 
Flying Camp and stationed at the Point and its vi- 
cinity, soon became so disaffected with the service 
that " many were daily returning home without or- 
ders," adding greatly to the gathering gloom that was 
settling over the town. It became necessary for 
Washington to make, August 8th, an earnest appeal 
to their patriotism in order to arrest the movement, 
representing to them "that the fate of our country 
depends, in all human probability, on the exertion of 
a few weeks."" 

The First Battalion of Philadelphia and the Penn- 
sylvania rifle battalions were at this time stationed 
in the town and at the Point. A writer at New York, 
August 26th, says, "Our people at Elizabeth-Town 
and the enemy on Staten Island cannonaded each 
other yesterday afternoon [Sunday], without doing 
any damage except disturbing the congregation."" 

The foreign mercenaries from Waldeck, Hesse-Cas- 
sel, and Brunswick were now arriving by thousands, 
their numbers being greatly exaggerated in the re- 
ports that were alarmingly spread over the country. 
Governor Tryon wrote from Staten Island, August 
14th, to Lord Germain, — 

"The whole armament destined for this part of America, except the 
last division of the Iles»i ins, being now assembled here, 1 expect, liy the 
courage and strength of thi-i noble Army, tyraiiny will be crushed and 
legal govertimeilt restored. (15th Aug.) Yesterday evening. S' Peter 
Paiker liMUglit into the Hook a Fleet of Tuenty-flve Sail from the 

These last were the forces that had been ineffectu- 
ally employed against Charleston, S. C. They num- 
bered three thousand troops, and were under the 
command of Lord Curnwallis.* 

Battle of Long Island.— On the 2lst of August, 
Gen. Livingston wrote ti> Gen. Washington that the 
enemy were in motion ; that he had sent over a spy 

< Sparks' Washington, iv. lsi-20. ' Ibid., pp. 37-38. 

f' Pa. Journal, N..8. 17.5.1, 176(1. « N. Y. Col. Docmts., viii. 084. 

"Irving's Wasliington, ii. 298-9!). 



the iiiglit before, who had returned in safety and 
reported that twenty thousand men had embarked to 
make a descent on Louf;; Ishmd and ascend the Hud- 
son ; that fifteen thousand Hessians were to make at 
the same time a diversion at Bergen Point, Elizabeth 1 
Town, and Amboy. Owing to a terrific tluinder-storm 
that came up the same evening the movement was | 
postponed to Tliursday morning, 22d, wlien nine 
tliousand Britisli soldiers under Sir Henry Clinton 
effected a htnding at Gravesend, Long Island, without j 
opposition. Others followed subsequently, and the 
disastrous battle of Long Island was fought at and 
near Flatbush on the 27th, compelling the American 
army to evacuate the island on the night of the 29th.' 
At this date and before the real nature of the disas- 
ter to the army was fully known to him, Livingston 
wrote to William Hooper, of North Carolina, in 
Congress, from the " Camp at Elizabeth Town Point," 
as follows : 

"I rpiniivcd my quarters fnun Ihe town liillier to he with the men, 
and tu eiinre Iheiii t.MliKiii.line. wh cli \,y my .Ustantu from Ihe CHnip,c.Hi»iil.-ring wlinl mii:v.v siil.Kllern olticers w- are ever like to 
bave while they are in the apiiolntlnei.t of llie inohilily, I founil it im- 
possihle 1.1 int oiln.e. Ami the w.n*t men (was there a ile^'ee al.ove the 
8u|ierhilive) »„nl,l he si. II |.ej,,rale,l by having heeii fellow-»..Miers with 
thai ilisci|.liiie.hali lit;. i.-on.l-livi„K-luv'i I. );,■ to eternal fame dalniiM,' co\. 
comhhal Clew we lately hail here t'rom I'liilnhlpliia My ancient cor- 
poreal fai'rii' iti aim «l tollerliig nmler the l'atii;iie I have lately umler- 
gone, coMKtantly lisiuK at 2o'eloi'k in the mnniint: to examine onr linen, 
till ilayhreuk. and fl-oln lliat time till eleven in iriviiiK orders, seiidiii); 
dispati-lieti, and doin^ the proper hiii<inegs of quartermaster, colonel, 
cuiiiiii.flaary, and I know nut wliat."'- 

The disastrous campaign on Long Island was fol- 
lowed by the abandonment, on the part of the Ameri- 
can army, of the city of New York, on Sunday, Sep- 
tember l.Oth, and its occupation l)y the British. A 
large portion of its inhabitants fled into the interior, 
and many of them into New Jersey, while the Tories 
of this section many of them made their w-ay as 
speedily as possible to the captured city. More and 
more it was becoming doubtful whether the Whigs 
or Tories would prevail. It was in this gloomy 
period of apprehension that the following letter was 
written by the Hon. Robert Ogden, of this town, to 
liis son-in-law, Maj. Francis Barber, in service with 
Col. Dayton at German Flats, N. Y. : 

" El.iz'li Town, Oct. 6, 1776, Eve! 8 o'clock. 
"My Deab Son. Mr. IIaiibek. 

'■Through divine pood onr I'aniily are all in the land of the living, and 
weslill conliiine in the old l.a' ilalion [on the Point Roail] thoii-ih al- 
ni.pst Hilironnd.d hy the reKiilai'". They have |..iig heeii on Staten 
Island, ahoiit » lii.oith on Long Island, three weeks had the possession 
of New York, whieh hy Ihe «.iy Is nearly one.flitli of the . ity hnrni to 
the ground; who set ll on tire is unknown, but the regulars diarge it to 
the WhigH, iilid 'lis said have put several to dealli on that account, 
whether just or unjust the great day will decide." 

He then gives some account of the battle of Long 
Island, and the battle near the Blue Bell ; says that 
he has been sick, and adds, — 

"Throngh div 


1 living's Washinglo 

:!lll-a3.^. Pa. Journal, August 28tli. 

the fever has now left me, hut in a con- 
tinual huiry, having much more Imsiness lliaii a mauof my yeareought 
to do, hilt don't at pieseni know how to av.,id it. 

" In the hegiuningof my htter I told you »c were illmon surrounded— 
hegan ai .Staten IslamI, and led you round hy IslamI, N. Y.. ami Blue 
Bell lint now come to a very serious part of the st.'ry. our tro'ps yes- 
terday evacuated Bergen, carried ofl' the stores and ariillery, moved off 
as many of the inlial.itaiits as they could get away, drew the wheat and 
other grain logeiher, and 5II men were left to set Are to it, and last 
ni;:ht it was set on fire, the flames were seen here. 

" Yonr mother' still seems undetermined whether to stay here by the 
stuff or remove up to Sussex. A f.^w days will determine li-r, hut per- 
liaps in a tew days it niay be too late lo deierm iie a matter of this im- 
portance. Your uncle Davi.l [Ogden 1 and imdlier's nia.iim is, 'They 
that live by faith won't die Willi fear.' It has been a sickly, d.>ing lime 
in this lowu for a month past. Stephen Cianehas lusi his wife [Aug. 17, 
1776], Daniel WiHiims bis, Jidin Harris his, Benjamin Winans his, 
Timolby Wooilrnff liis. Sister Osden, Hannah Ogden [wile of David] has 
lost her son .Samuel, Mis. Stilbbsisdead. Mr. Noel,4aiid last night Col. 
Dayton's father [.I. niathan] .Ked suddenly in his chair, besid.-s a great 
many chihlien. Also Aunt Betty. Mother U 'Ifield has been very sick, 
but is recovered. Robert is and has been very pooily this fall, and 
his wife ami chihlren are moved up to Morns T.iwn. and most of our 
gentry are gone off. Mathia-' wife [Hannah, ilanghter of Col Kl as Uay- 
tonj and her granny Thompson are moved up to Sp' iiigfleld. Friemis 
ill geni'ial well. Hannah , his daughter, lel. l.'ij has been sick, but is got 

well, and is grown consiilerable Ibis s ler, lives at D..ct. Caleb lla- 

lystead's [his brother-in-law] with her aunt [Mary, wife.. r J.. h] Stockton. 

" Your mother has been lying for a m .nth past— the old sore ankle— 
but Ihe s.ire is now healed up. »Iaj. M.n ris Hatfield was taken pris.nier 
on M,.nntnrse-s[M.nitre'ior's]Islan.l,and is sent down to New York to 
be cured ..f bis w.nin.l, as he wius sln.t tlmingh the cheek. 

" It is sahl Maj. Hatfield fought vali.intly, that he fired his musket 9 

times, and the last ace it of him by our men was, a greiia.lier was 

cinniiig np hi him with bayonet fixed to run biin thnoigh, and theysiw 
the m .jor fire, ami the grenadier drop at his feet I 1 have ii..w d'.ue with 
my story for this lime, having wrote as I generally tell luy stories, in a 
blnmlering, iiiuonnected way. . . . 

•* mother joins me in teiiderest affectionate regards to you, and 
all the family desire to be remembered to you and to all iiiy friends. 
" I am yuui*!), affectionately, 

" RoUF.BT Or.DEM." 

On the 31st of August Gen. Livingston was chosen 
the first Governor of the State of New Jersey. Pres- 
ently after he resigned his military i^ommand and en- 
tered upon his e.xecutive duties. The command of 
the post at Elizabeth Town Point devolved upon his 
friend and townsman. Col. Matthias Williamson, wiio 
received a few days after from the Legislature a 
commission appointing him brigadier-general of the 
New Jersey militia. 

On Tuesday, September 24th, four transports arrived 
at Elizabeth Town with four hundr.d and twenty Amer- 
ican soldiers taken prisoners at Quebec the previous 
winter. They had been liberated on parole. From 
a representation made by Governor Livingston to, it ap|)ears that while he was in command 
of this post so many prisoners were sent to him from 
the army that the town jail could not contain them, 
and he was obliged to .send them to Millstone, Som- 
erset County. In all its dire aspects the people of the 
town were brought to know by experience the intense 
excitements and the awful horrors of war. In the 
hospitals here eighty-two were re|iorted, November 
1st, its sick, of whom twentyrfive were from Canada.* 

3 Phebe, eldest daughter of Matthias Halfield, Esq. 
< Can el N..el, previously bookseller, N. Y.; he died 
'- Am. Archives, .llh S.'i'., ii.o»S, 55)7, .S"i;i. 

September 22d. 




WAR OF THE REVOLUTION.— ( ro»(;«i('rf.) 

Campaign Transferred to New Jersey.— The 

battle of Wliite Plain.s was fought on tlie 28lh of 
October; Fort Washington was taken on the 16th of 
November, and Fort Lee evacuated on the 18th. 
The campaign was now transferred to the soil of New 
Jersey. Washington, with the fragment of an army, 
reduced by the expiration of militia enlistments, and 
the consequent scattering of his forces to their homes, 
and utterly unable to obtain new recruits or levies, 
was compelled to retire before the vastly superior 
troops of the enemy. A slight diversion had been 
made by Gen. William.son i'rom the Point on Staten 
Island, Sunday, October IStli, but it amounted to 
nothing. The very next day Uol. Slough's battalion 
of Pennsylvania Associators, which had been sta- 
tioned here, was discharged to return home, with the 
thanks of the general for their decent and orderly 
behavior while at the Point and during the excursion 
of the day before. Thus in every quarter the patriot 
army was melting away.' 

In anticipation of the invasion of New Jersey by 
the enemy. Gen. Washington wrote from White Plains, 
November 7th, to Governor Livingston, urging the 
importance of placing tlie Jersey militia on the very 
best footing, and to forward him new recruits. He 
then add-, — 

"Tlie iiilial.itKi.ts cunlijiuoiie 
movellici. sturk, B™i".'-fl<'i'».' 
If Ihey me not Butlinnitiiuiliri 
all ilfsi;riiiii..n, uud the ii.lviiiil 
great. They Imve treiiti-il all In 
tion i.fWIiigniiilT.iij- lia.s l.een 

lulaliuTi. The iiitlele uf luiage 
t a hiK.le ^llOuM i euiniu f.T llieii 
iveiiieuce »liuuhl he i 

I the Wiitershoiihl ho pr.'pare.l t" le- 

<l eairiagi'S n|>..ii the earlieat nulhe. 

vhiih the.v will snller will he hev.ind 

!eB ileiived h.v the eiieniy iiiiiiiehBel.v 

J wilhniit ilisei iriiiiiMtiMii ; the iliHljiic- 

.«t ill ulie Keliei-il sueiie of liiv.ijje and 

;ival iliil.i.ltanc- t.. them, and 

eir n»e. What ialili..t he leue.ved with 

il withiait the least lie>itatiuli." 

He urges also that the barracks here, at Am boy, 
and at Brunswick be put in order "to cover our 
troops." He informs Congress, November 14th, that 
the army has lelt the other side of Hudson's River, 
and that he intends to quarter them at Brunswick, 
Amboy, Elizabeth Town, Newark, and Hackensack. 
Fort Washington had not then been taken.^ 

Gen. Williamson at once wrote, November 26th (on 
hearing of the capture of Forts Wasiiington and Lee), 
to the brave and patriotic Col. Jacob Ford, Jr., of 
Morristown, in the most urgent terms : 

" You are ordered to Iniug out all the militia in jour eounty ininie- 
diately, and march tlieni down to Kliwihetli Town, and see that each 
man is fnmished witli a t-uii,and all his acc.nitienienls, Mauket, and 
four days' provision, and wlien they airive to j'dn their lespective com- 
panies and regiments."^ 

Washington had fallen back through Hackensack 
upon Aquackanonck, on the right hank of the Pas- 
saic River, November 21st, and the next day he fell 


a .liaiiii 

1, So nti'j. 

Sparks' Was 


iv., pp. I(i.i-C4, 174 

Am. Archive 

s, 511. se 

r., ill. lUl. 

down to Newark, where his army remained unmo- 
lested for six days. The interval was improved by 
the people of Newark and Elizabeth Town in re- 
moving their families and effects beyond the Newark 
Mountains and the Short Hills into the more inacce.s- 
sible interior. The distress and consternation that 
prevailed all along the expected route of the two ar- 
mies can better be conceived than described. It is 
not known that a record of it remains. On Thursday 
morning, November 28th, Washington with the wreck 
of his army, not more than three thousand five hundred 
in number, entered the almost deserted town by the old 
road from Newark, the advanced guard of Lord Corn- 
wallis entering the latter town as the rear of the 
American army left it. Pushing on to secure an en- 
campment on the right bank of the Raritan, so as to 
be ready to oppose any troops that might be sent by 
way of Staten Island to Amboy for cutting off his re- 
treat, he reached New Brunswick on Friday, remain- 
ing there but two days, and then on Sunday, Decem- 
ber 1st, he took up the line of march for Trenton, 
arriving there on Monday morning. Writing from 
Brunswick on Saturday, the 30th, he says, — 

" From intellgonce received this morning, one division of the enemy 
was advanced last night as far as Klizaheth To» n, and some of their 
quarterma-sters had procee<led ahont four or five miles on this side to 
provide harns for their accommodation. Other accounts say another 
division, composed of Ue.-sians,a' eon the road through Springfield, and 
are reported to have reached that place last night." ^ 

The people at Aquackanonck retarded the enemy 
by cutting down the bridge over the Passaic. 

Col. Huntington writes, December 2d, from Ramapo 
to Col. Heath, that not more than a hundred of the 
enemy remained at Hackensack, and that their main 
body was at Elizabeth Town. A field-officer in the 
British army on the same day wrote to a friend in 
London, — 

"The troftps under Gen. Lord Cornwallis, after driving the rebels from 
Fort Lee, or Fort Constitution, in New .lersey, proceeded from Hacken- 
sack to Newark, and from Newark to Elizabeth T..wn, where they found 
great qiiantilies of stores, ainoiig which are twenty tons of musket- 
bullets. The rebels continue flying before our army."s 

On the approach of the enemy. Gen. Williamson, 
with the militia under his command, retired up the 
country. Writing from Brunswick on the 1st to Gov. 
Livingston, Washington says, — 

" I have not. including Gen. Williamson's militia, more than four thou- 
sanil men. I wrote to Gen, Williamson last nii^ht, and pressed him to 
exert h niself ; hut I have reason to believe he has not the confidence of 
the people so much as could be wished." 

Gen. Williamson writes from Morristown, Decem- 
ber 8th, in defense of his apparent inefficiency, as 
follows : 

"Very few of the counties of Essex and Bergeu joined my ( 
I have it from good intelligence that many w-ho bore the character of 
warm Wt'igs have been foremost in seeking protection from Gen. Howe 
and forsakiii!; the American canse. Col. Thoma.<. of Essex County, is 
with us, but has no command of met I can declare before God 1 

* Sparks' Washington, iv. 189, 190, 1 93-06, '/inO. 
5 Am. Archives, .nth ser., iii. 11B7, 1039. 



have woiTieii no'self to the Iieart in ende 
tlie extfiit of my power. Gen. Mercer j. 
]HlK>r<-il under to keep the mililm loxellit 
Eli/.Hlietlilown. Upon the ulude, I nm ! 

imnu lo serve my country to 
nowing to many difficnlties 1 
.vliile he hHd the command Ht 
entirely <li-iibled from doing 

my dnty in tlie brigade by my lameness tlnit I liave wiute to Governor 
Livingston to reqnest Iiis accejitance of my resignation." ^ 

The difficulties witli wbicii he liad to contend were 
not exaggerated. The most disheartening was the 
defection of so many professed })atriots. Washing- 
ton wrote on the 5tli to Congress, — 

" By my la.<t a.lvices, tlie enemy iire still at Brunswick ; and tlie account 
adds that Gen. H.iwe wa-i e.\pected at K)izal*tli Town with a reinforce- 
ment to erect the king's standai'd and demand a submission of this 

The next day, 6th, he writes 

Mr. Caldwell, a clergyman, 
s fled fr..m Elizabeth Town 
n miles from hence [thence?], 

"By a letrer of the 14th ultimo from 
and a slannili friend to the cause, who b 
and taken ret'ugein tlie nKuintaiiisal ont t 
I am inf..rmed tlo.t General or Lord Howe was ex|iecled in that town to 
piiMisli pardon and peace. His woids aie, 'I have not seen his pi-ocla- 
nialion. but can only say he gives sixty days of grace, anil paRlon.; from 
the Ciingie-s dow u to the Committee. No one man in the continent is 
to be denieil his nieit-y.' In the language of this good man, *Tlie Lord 
deliver us fr.-m bis inercy.'"^ 

The proclamation by tlie brothers Howe was issued 
on Saturday, November 30th, the day after the British 
occupation of this town. It commanded all persons 
who had taken up arms against his Maje-ty to dis- 
band and return home, and offered to all who should 
within sixty days subscribe a declaration that they 
would be peaceable subjects, neither taking up arms 
themselves nor encouraging others so to do, a free and 
full pardon for the past. Cure was taken to give every 
possible publicity to this document, and means not 
always gentle were used to induce subscriptions.' 

The people had witnessed but a day or two before 
to what a sad plight the army of Washington, '"the 
grand army" that so recently confronted the British 
forces, was reduced as in tattered array it tied before 
the enemy to the Raritan. They were at that mo- 
ment surrounded by the well-caparisoned troops of 
Cornwallis, whose squadrons were spreading them- 
selves over the whole land, and, unresisted, occupy- 
ing every town and hamlet. The patriot cause ap- 
peared to be utterly hopeless. It seemed impossible 
for to retrieve the disa-^ters that since the 
fatal field of Flatbnsh had come upon the country. 
The " Declaration of Independence" seemed now but 
an idle boast. It was regarded as certain that the au- 
thority of King George would soon be re-established 
in all the States. Such was the confident expecta- 
tion and boasts of the loyalists at New York, on Long 
Island, on Staten Island, and in every place occupied 
by the British troops. Even the most sanguine of 
patriots spoke and wrote in the most despondent 

In these circumstances it is scarcely to be wondered 
at that the artifice of Lord Howe and his brother met 

1 Am. Archives, Ith ser.. iii., p. 1120. 

2 Sliarks' Washington, iv. 1!04, 2115. 

» Ibid., p. 205. Gordon's Aui. Rev., ii. 129. 
* Il-ving's Washington, il. 446. 

with very considerable success, as intimated in Gen. 
Williamson's letter. Dr. Ashbel Green observes, — 

" I heard a man of some shrewdness once say that when the British 
troops overnin tlie State of New Jersey, in the closing part of the year 
17T6, the whole population could have been bnngbt for eighteen pence a 
bead." 5 

The main body of the British army was pushed for- 
ward beyond the Raritan towards the Delaware. But 
a considerable detachment remained to occupy this 
post and to guard against any surprise from the 
militia of the interior. Gen. Charles Lee, with rein- 
forcements for Washington, reached Chatham from 
Peekskill on the 8th of December, and on the 11th, 
from jMorristown, wrote to Gen. Heath, on his way 
from Peekskill, that at Springfield, seven miles west 
of Elizabeth Town, . . . "about one thousand Militia 
are collected to watch the motions of the enemy." 
These were Col. Ford's troops. They were stationed at 
the Short Hills, back of Springfield, from which 
point every movement of the enemy on the plains be- 
low could readily be seen. An eighteen-pounder was 
planted subsequently on the heights near the residence 
(in after-days) of Bishop Hobart, to give the alarm in 
case of the enemy's approach. A tar-barrel was fixed 
at the top of a lofty pole near by, to be set on fire when 
the alarm-gun was discharged. These could be heard 
and seen over a great extent of country.' 

The Rev. Mr. Caldwell had found an asylum for 
himself and family at Turkey (New Providence), 
where he soon put himself in communication with 
Col. Ford. His experience the previous summer 
and autumn at the North as chaplain of Col. Day- 
ton's regiment enabled him now to be of great ser- 
vice to his country. Hearing of the arrival of Gen. 
Lee, he wrote him on the 12th as follows : 

" Dkar Sir, — I thank you for your favour from Baskingridge of this 
morning, and intended to do myself the honour to wait upon you, and 
set out for the pui-pose, but found my horse would not perform the jour- 
ney with sulticient expedition, and cannot procure anollier horse. And 
indeed I find this tlie best place to observe the enemy's motions. From 
sundry persons who have been upon the roail betweeu Brunswick and 
Princeton, I learn llie army has very generally marched forward; in- 
deed, all except guards of the several posts. Yesterday they sent a re- 
inforcement to Klizaheth Town from Aniboy of near one thousand. 
Some say the wliole at Klizabeth Town are aiwiit one thousand; others 
say fifteen hundred. They are carrying off the hay from Elizabeth 
Town to New York. ... I believe Elizabeth Town is their strongest 
post, as they were afraid of our militia, who have taken ofl' many of the 
most active Tories, made some piisoneis, and among others shot their 
English forageniaster, so that he is mortally or very illy wounded. A 
company of our Alilitia went last night to Woodbridge, and brought off 
the drove of stock the enemy had collected there, consi.^tiug of about 
four hundred cattle tnd two hundred .sheep. Most of these cattle are 
only fit for stock. . . . They are driven up the country to be out of the 
enemy's way. 

" At a Council of the Field Officers this morning, a m^'ority of thera 
advised to remove the brigade of 31ilitia back again to Chatham, for 
which they assign these reasons. Many of the Militia, ratjier fond of 
plunder and adventure, kept a continual .tcouting, which kept out so 
many detached parties that the body was weakened; and the enemy be- 
ing now stronger at Elizabeth Town than they are, they thought they 
would better serve the cause by lying at Chatham till the expected army 
approaches for their support."' 

6 Jones* Life of Rev. Dr. Ashbel Green, p. 122. 

« Am. Archives, 5lh Ser., iiL 1167. Jones' Life of Dr. Green, p. 96. 

' Am. Archives, 5th Ser., iii. 1189. 


The next morning, 13th, Gen. Lee was uaptured by 
a surprise party of the enemy.' 

Gen. Heath having readied Hacken.<ack, wrote to 
Washington on the 15th, in respect to the enemy, 
'•Several thousands landed at Elizabeth Town on 
yesterday or the day before." The movement of the 
troops under Lee and Heath and the posting of the 
militia under Ford at tlieSliort Hills had not escaped 
tlie eye of Cornwallis. A portion of liis forces, as ap- 
pears from the following correspondence, were ordered 
to retrace their ste|)S and look after these Americans. 
In the night of the 17th, Ford writes from Chatham 
to Heath by express, and says, — 


iiimet liH(l a lirnsli 

iile.s Iteln 

■itii thf dieni.v, 

this, in wliirh wp have sutlerrd. unci our Miltix liiiuli il ■•li.iiilcue.l. 
Tlipy are nil rutivHtecl t.i this |ilaci-, ami will, ia all«''il ty, he at- 
tackeil hy diiyhri-ak. The elipniy, we have- r.-asoii t.p h^lii-ve, are Unilhlo 
our miiiilieni. If in yimr wiBa..ui jmi can a-«i«t u- we nniy pumihly 
ii'l Nlan.l. They are 
listi.-l,l,an.l«iin.e j..ii.eil l.y 
lilizahelh-Tuwu by the next 

beat them yet. hnt willi.nt your al.l we i-; 
(>av one tlioiisanil Uritish troops) at Spi 
f.iur hiinchvd and tilty Waldeckorri froli 



TJie next day he again writes to Heath, — 

"I have cerlain iiitellinehce that tlo- lnMp|a we ehKaiJed last ni^lit 

were General Le^lie■« biiga.le, «ho niardn-d » e lew ilays sinee Ironi 

Elizabeth Town to the Bonthard. Th.-y received a iler to counter- 
march to the same pliie. The brigade is Ir in twelve to thilteeii hun- 
dred strong, and the Walderkera uliwards id' l.undreil. At Spank- 
town [Kahway]. six miles to the southard of Klizabelh Town, thi-re is 

five Imndied Urili li troops. This is all the enemy you have to co at 

in this country at present. We aie not cei-iain wln-tln-r the ein-iny who 
attacked ub have or have not yet retunn-d to fcIli/.abetli-'l'owii."2 

Col. Symmes, in a sketch of Col. Oliver Spencer, 
of this town, gives a much more detailed account of 
this transaction : 

"On the apliroach of Gen. Lesley's troops 
were iliscovi-red by Maj. Spencer's \ idets stati 
Maj. Spencer iiislanlly dispatclied a light. ho: 
udles toClialhani, to nolily the Colonel com 
in considerable fone were ivllhiii two miles o 
were already underarms, and were ..rilered ii 
Springfl'ld to »u-tain Maj. Spencer; meant 
ahandtinedSpriligtiehl, and retreated 

rds Sprintfiehl tlipy 

I lull 

iilaul tin 


;d lour 

lesof SpiiigHehl. The brigade 
ed inslanlly lo nuirch lowal-ds 
eantime the M Jor prudently 
ds I 'halbaln , he met the brigade 

xinill I 

■ateil t-. the Col- 
iiig Springfield, 

he rinht of the 
d. Capt. Seely, 
■ a warm attack 

at Brianis tavern. After Major Spencer had 

onel cinmandaut Ihe poritiou of I he enemy 111 

the brigade advanced to Ihe attack, (apt. Iti 

the flaliking party iru the loft, made the fist 

enemy extending from the Uhuich up the Va 

who commanded the Hanking patty on the l 

upon the left of the enemy spread the Wnstfield r,.ad. The cen- 

tie of the enemy occuphd the ground in front ..f and the in aiL.w beliitid 

Woodiufifs tavern. TheCdonel con ludant of themritia,.upp.nted by 

Col, Lindslyouthe lell.and Maj, Spencer, who ti..w commanded the Essex 
regiment, on the light, br.)nglil Ihe cenlle ol the I.I igade, r. laiiii.ig their 
fire until within pistid-shot of the enemy; the conllict cont tilted about 
an hour, when the darkness forba.le a longer contest at thai t me, and 
the filing seemed mutually to cease on Indli sides. On Ibis oec;,Bioii 
Major Spencer ilisplayed b; his coniluct the calm but intrepid soldier; 
his horse was shot under him, w lieu with a smile on his couiileiiHuce and 
a pistol in each hand he raiiie up to tlh' Col.niel conim iiidant to inform 
him that he had been dismoiiiiled by Ihe death ofliis horse. The brigade 
fell back that evening only one mile to Brianl's tavern, slliuk up files, 
and lay all night on their arms, inletidiiig lo make a second attack in 
the niortiiug. But in the morning the enemy was mit lo be baiiid ; he 
had withdrawn in the night with all |sissib|e silence, I .king ..ft' his dead 
andwounde.iiii wagons. The militia pursued him 1.. West liel.l, but c.uld 

1 Irving's Waahiiiglon, ii.45U-(il. 

• Am. Archives, 5lli Ser., iii. liliS, 1200-01, 1277. 

not come up with him. This was the first instance in the State of New .fer- 
sey when the British troops turned their backs an. I fle.l Irom those they 
called rebels, and this success, sniaU as the affair was, taught the Jersey 
militia that the foe was not iuvincilde."' 

Leslie's brigade entered Newark on the morning 
after tlie "brush." Col. Ford, four days afterwards, 
found his forces so much scattered that only about 
two hundred remained. Previous to this affair he 
had done good service, harassing the enemy, " sur- 
prising the guards, and taking their wagons, stores," 
etc. Ford was so much exposed and exhausted by 
this short campaign that soon after he was seized with 
peii-pneiinionia, and died on the 11th, at Morristown, 
in the fortieth year of his age, eight days before his 
father, Col. Jacob Ford, Sr.* 

Washington, learning that "about eight hundred 
militia had collected" near Morristown, sent, on the 
2()th of December, Gen. Maxwell "to take the com- 
mand of them, and, if to be done, to harass and 
annoy the enemy in their quarters and cut off their 
convoys." Gen. McDougall was also detailed for the 
same purpose. The state of affairs the same day at 
Elizabeth Town is thus reported from Chatham: 

".lohu Halsleail left Elizabeth Town this morning at eight o'clock. 
Says there is no troops in Elizabeth Town hut Wahleckers, the sime 
thil has been there for two weeks ast. Says Ihe. hums be it this m .rn- 
iltit about daybreak, and he uii.leisl..oil they were to have uiarclied, 
l.ul Unit they .li.l not, an.l the reason why, as he, was the 
hadness of the weather. Knows not wli ch way they were to march, 
but it is they were to have a little march out o' town ; that he thinks 
s.x or seven liiiu.lre.l Biilish went tlir..ugh biwii Ihe day before 
yesierilay, U' ar twelve o'clock, towards Newark, and that they have uot 

B yet 1 


On the morning of Thur.-sday, the 26th of Decem- 
ber, Washington surprised and captured nine hundred 
and eighteen Hessians at Trenton, parts of Anspach's, 
Rahl's, and Knyphausen's regiments, with the loss of 
only lour wounded. This brilliant manoeuvre com- 
pletely turned the tide of affairs. The British, who 
believed themselves masters of the country and 
scouted the idea of any opposition, were painfully 
roused from their reveries and began to be alarmed 
for their safety. The Americans, on the other hand, 
were electrified with delight and inspired with new 

On the 30th, at Trenton, Washington wrote to 
Maxwell to collect as large a force as po.ssible at 
Chatham, "and after gaining the proper intelligence, 
endeavor to strike a stroke upon Elizabeth Town or 
that neighborhood," instructions that Maxwell pre- 
pared at once to carry out. 

Following up his advantages, Washington once 
more crossed the Delaware, passed around the British 
at Trenton, marched forward liy night, surprised and 
captured Princeton on the morning of Jan. 3, 1777, 
and then took post for two or three days at Pluck- 
emin, in Somerset County, a few miles below Bask- 

IJ'jg, 131)5, 1419. Morristown Bill of 

= N..I. Journal, No. 40:16. 
< Ain. Arcliives, 5tli Set., 
Mortality, p. 2',i. 
' Sparks' Washington, iv. iM, 24». Adi. Archives, 5tb Ser., iii. 1316. 



ing Ridge, thus compelling the British commander to 
evacuate all his posts beyond New Brunswick, and 
provide, by a concentration of his forces, for the 
safety of his stores at the latter place. On Monday, 
the 6th, Washington removed to Morristown, to give 
his wearied troops some rest and to watch the panic- 
stricken foe.' 

Gen. Sir William Howe writes from New York, 
Jan. 5,1777, that "Lord Cornwallis returned with 
his whole force to Brunswick, and the troops at the 
right being assembled at Elizabethtown, Maj.-Gen. 
Vaughan has that command."^ 

Taking advantage of the consternation of the 
enemy and the advance of the American army, Gen. 
Maxwell, with the militia under his command, came 
down from the Short Hills, ciimpelled the British to 
evacuate Newark, had a brush with them at Spring- 
field, drove them out of Elizabeth Town, and fought 
them at Spank Town (Rahway) a couple of hours. 
Of these movements a meagre record only is pre- 
served. Washington writes to Congress on the 7th, 
from Morristown, — 

" There have been tw.. or tliree little skirmishes between their parties 
and tiuMie detHCliliieiits of tlie uiilitiii, ill v'liieh the latter have been suc- 
cessCul and niaile a lew pris..ners. Tlie must eousidei able was on Sunday 
murning [.ilh], when eight ur ten Waldeckeis were killed and wniiuded, 
and the remainder of tlie paity, thirty-nine or forty, made prisiniers, 
with the olliceru, by a force uut superior in number and williuut receiv- 
ing the least damage." ^ 

This was at Springfield. The troops were led by 
Maj. Oliver Spencer, and for his bravery on this oc- 
casion he was presently after promoted to a colonelcy. 
Three days later (8th) our forces recovered possession 
of this post: 

"Philadelphia, Jan. 16, 1777. Our army marched from Ptuckemin 
and arrived at Moi ri« Town ou tlie sixth. Gen. Maxwell, with a cuu- 
siderable body uf Cum mental troops and militia, having m.irclied to- 
wards Elizabeth Tuwn,seiit lack for reinforcement, which liaviug joined 
him, he advanced and took p..sse.-*sion uf the town, and made prisoners 
fifty Waldeckeis and forty Hlglilanden^, who were ipiartered thi re,aud 
made prize of a schooner with baggage aud some blankets uti board. 
Abuut the same time one thoiiBuud bushels uf salt were secured by our 
tioops at a place called Spank five miles from W.odbriilge, 
where a parly of our men attacked the enemy at that place; they sent 
for a reiiitorcenient to Woudbiidge, hut the Hessians alisolntel.v refused 
to march, having heard w.- were very numerous in that quaiter. The 
English tro..p.«at Elizabeth Town would uut suffer the \Valdecker» to 
stand sentry at the outiiost>, several of them having deserted aud come 

Another account, dated Trenton, January 9th, 


" A regiment of British troops at Spank Town, six miles below Eliza- 
beth Town, was attiicked on Sunday by a party of Jei-sey militia; the 
encounter continued abi.ut two liouns. Two regiments maiclft*d up 
fr^'Ui Woudbr.dge aud Aiui>uy to reinforce the enemy, and thus saved 

Still another account says, January 9th, — 

"The enemy have abandoned Elizabeth Town. Our people have en- 
tered it aud taken thirty Waideckeis and fifty Highlanders, aud about i 

thirty baggage waggons fully loaded. The enemy, who hail all the Jer- 
seys, are now only in possession of Amboy and Brunswick."5 

Gen. Sir William Howe writes on the 17th from 
New York, — 

"The enemy still continuing in force at Morris Town, and in that 
ueigliborlHaid,and receiving daily reinforcements from the eastern mil- 
itia. Maj.-Gen. Vaughan, with the corps he had at Elizabeth Town, is 
removed to Amboy." 6 

In Congress, March 23, 1778, It was " Ordered, That 
a warrant issue on the treasurer in favor of James 
Norris for 1527|g dollars, in full payment of his cap- 
ture from the enemy on the 9th of January, 1777, at 
Elizabeth-town, in New Jersey, which was disposed 
of to the army of the United States." ' 

At this time occurred the following: It is related 
of Capt. Eliakim Littell, of this town, " a partisan of 
great merit," and of " remarkably fine and imposing 
personal appearance:" 

"On the day that the British force abandoned Newark, which they 
had occiip-ed as aganisi.n, and maiched to Elizabeth T,.wii, a company 
of Waldeckers was dispatched on sunie particular service b. wards the 
Cunnecticnt Kuim«. Littell and lii» followers speedily discovered and 
followed them. Divi.ling hi» small force into two laidies, he placed one 
ambush in the rear, and appearing in front with the other, demanded 
an immediate surrender. The Germans wished Vt retrognide, rut meet- 
ing with the |iarty expressly concealed to impede their retreat, aud 
hiisklj assailed in fiont.snireiidered withuui Biingagiiii. The British 
general, exasperated by their capiure, ordered uutabi.dy of Hessians to 
revenge the altruiit; but the su|,erior knowledge of Littell and his asso- 
dates eiiai. ling ihuui to guail the enemy at various p..ii.ts with spirited 
attacks, viithout any great degree of exposure, they were also driven 
iiit.i a -waiiip and compelled to surrender to inferior nnnibeis. Morti- 
fied beyond measure at this second discomfiture, a troop ol horse were 
ordered out; bin th.-y in turn were routed, and were only iiioie fortunate 
than that pieceded them by being able, by the movement 
of tlieir horses, to escape |airaiiit. A Tory, to wli..m a cnsiderahle re- 
ward was . fl'. red for the peif,,rmance of the service, now led :ilX) men 
to the house of (apt. Litlell, who, believing he was securely pent up 
within, conimeiiceil a heavy discbaige ol miisketiy iiiion it In.m all 
sides. The captain, however, was not to be su easily entrapped, and 
while they were making preparatiuus to storm the deserted dwelling 
they were attacked in the rear, being previously j.diied by another Uidy 
of volunteeiB, and driven with precipitation fr. m the field, Littell in 
the interim, with a part of bis Ibrce, had formed an aiiibii-cade along a 
feme side, and peiceiviiig the enemy slowlx appiiia. Iiing, leveled and 
dlscbajged his piece, and the commander fell. The British, unable, from 
the darkness ol the iii^lit. to make any calculation w Ih regard to the 
numberof theiropposei^, were iiiliuii.lated, aud sought safely m flight."' 

Some allowance should be made for rhetorical em- 
bellishments in these statements. The numbers, it is 
quite likely, are somewhat exaggerated. Yet this may 
be taken as a sjiecimen of the kind of wariare that 
for several mouths at this period was j^rusecuted by 
the m'ii'iYiao'this town and vicinity. At this period, 
it will kf bone in mind, the town included iiearlv 
the whole t«' the present Union County, the towns 
of Union, SpringHeld, New Providence, We.sttield, 
Plainfield, Rahway, Linden, and Clark, having since 
been organized out of the ancient territorial domain 
of Elizabeth Town. 

1 Irviug's Washington, ii. Stiu-lS. Dr. Tomes' Battles of An 

2 Pailiameiitary Register, xi. :i76. 

3 Sparks' ^Vasllillg^'ll, iv. '^114 Gordon's N. J., p. 233. 
■• AInioii's Kemembralicei , v. 7(1-74. 

5 Moore s Diary of Am. liev., i. :i73. 
5 Parliamentary itegister, xi. 376. 
'.Jouru.ils, iv. 1:1. 

S Gar.leu's Anecdotes of the Kev. VVa 
8. Coll., pp. IS4, IS.i. 

.p. 2111. Barber's N.J. 



When Mr. Caldwell and his people returned to their 
homes, the second week of January, 1777, from their 
exile of six weeks they found everything in ruins, 
their houses jdundered, their fences broken down and 
consumed, their gardens laid waste, their fields an open 
common, and their records, both private and public, 
destroyed. The outrages committed by the ruthless 
foe, British and Hessian both, during this short occu- 
pation were a disgrace to human nature. Foremost 
among those who wreaked their vengeance upon the 
patriots were their former Tory neighbors. Many of 
these had a twelvemonth before consulted their own 
safety by taking refuge on Staten Island, and subse- 
quently at New York. When the town was occupied, 
November 30th, by the British army the most of 
these Tories returned to their old homes, and took 
every opportunity to assert their importance, to re- 
taliate upon the opposite party the injuries that they 
had endured, and to single out the Whigs as marks 
of brutal indignities and violence.' 

It was the deep sense of these grievous wrongs that 
roused the whole population against their brutal in- 
vaders, so that although Washington at Morristown 
found great difficulty in gathering an enlisted army, 
the British on the Raritan were so hemmed in that 
they could not obtain forage for their horses and 
cattle, and supplies for their army only at the point 
of the bayonet. Every foraging party venturing but 
a few miles into the country on either side of their 
lines was sure to be attacked by some partisan leader 
like Capt. Littell and his band, or by the brave Max- 
well with his militia, and seldom returned to camp 
without loss. Washington says, January 20th, 
" Within a month past, in several engagements with 
the enemy, we have killed, wounded, and taken pris- 
oners between two and three thousand men."^ 

The timid souls who had taken protection from the 
British general now found tliemselves in a position 
of great difficulty. Gen. Maxwell, the post com- 
mandant, in accordance with Gen. Washington's 
proclamation, required all who would not take the 
oath of allegiance to take themselves and their fivmi- 
lies off immediately to the enemy. They demanded 
the privilege of remaining till the thirty days were 
expired. Maxwell wrote for further instructions. 
Washington replied on the 12th of February as fol- 
lows : 

"Tliesp Wluws at ElizaliPth Town, as well a^ all otfeis who wish to 
renuiiti with iih till the expiration of the thiily d ly^.'or u'o or,her pur- 
pose than to convey intelliKence to the enemy and pi.iK'in our people's 
minds, nnmt and shiill be compelled to withdraw immediately within the 
enemy's lines; others who are hesilating which side to take, and behave 
friendly to u« till th.y delermine, must be treated with lenity. Sucli as 
go over to the enemy are not to take with them anytliing but their 
clothing and funiitiire Th.-ir horses, cattle, and forage must be left 
behind. Such as incline to share our fate are to have every assistance 

aiforded them that < 
horses must be too n 
of alllienumsin arm 

an he granted with safety. Ne'ther wagons nor 
uch hazarded in doing this business. The effects 
against us must be .seized and secured." ^ 

The lines were now effectually drawn, and every 
man was compelled to .show his colors. The young 
men, or " fellows," as Washington calls them, most 
probably went over to the enemy, and became parti- 
san soldiers of the most malignant type, spies, scouts, 
and guides to the British, inflicting subsequently no 
small injury upon their kindred and former friends. 
It was a hard case, as the line ran in some instances 
between parents and their children, as well as between 
brothers and sisters.* 

The enemy had been driven out of the town on the 
8th of January, but they remained still in the neigh- 
borhood. They occupied Perth Amboy, and ranged 
at will over the greater part of Woodbridge, separated 
from this town only by the Rahway River. The situ- 
ation of the inhabitants, therefore, during the first 
half of the year 1777 was exciting enough. They 
lived continually in the midst of alarms. Gen. Sul- 
livan was in command below the range of hills on 
the west, while Maxwell held the town. Their troops 
were continually moving from Chatham and Spring- 
field, or from Westfield and Scotch Plains, watching 
for opportunities to cut off the foraging parties or 
pick up the scouts of the enemy. Skirmishes more 
or less severe were of almost daily occurrence. 

Several actions took place in January, February, 
and March, just beyond the southern line of this 
town, a few miles only to the south, and in the most 
of them the soldiers of this post participated. The 
people here had their full share during this period 
of "the pomp and circumstance of war," and were 
not without considerable apprehension constantly of 
having the war brought once more to their very 

The following notices are copied from a Tory 
journal : 

'• Last Thursday Week (February 27th), M^ior Tympany crossed from 
Staten Island to Elizabeth Town with about sixty men, when he was 
attacked by a Body ol tlie Rebels, two or three of whom were killed on 
the spot, and four or five taken prisoners- The Major returned safe, 
without having a man hurt, and brought with him ten head of cattle. 

"Last Friday (June 13tii) a Party of about twelve Men went from 
Staten Island to Elizabeth Town I*oint, when they were fired upon by 
tile Rebels, but they soon put them to flight, killed one and wounded 
three more, and brought off a new flat-bottomed Boat sufiicient to hold 
a hundred men. By one of our People's Pieces going off through Care- 
lessiO'ss, Peter Kingslaod was shot in the Head, of which wound he died 
immediately." 6 

The campaign in East Jersey was brought to a 
close on the 30th of June. The British evacuated 
New Brunswick on Sunday, the 22d of June, retiring 
to Perth Amboy. On Thursday morning, 26th, they 
advanced in force from Amboy as far as Westfield, 
under the command of Sir William Howe and Lord 

1 Barber's His. Coll. of N. J.. |ip. I8:i-84. See also Remembrancer, iv. ' Spirks' Washington, iv. 297-98, 319-21. 

3117: V. 77, I. 'Jt, 253-57. Am. Mnsenm (Carey's,, iv. 'ilB. Sparks' Wash- | < Ibid., HQS-nB. N. J. Rev. Correspondence, p. 26. 

ington, iv. 1!78. 5 Remembrancer, v. 79, 80, 88, 98, 136-78, 221, 260-61. Hall's CiTil 

2 Sparks' Washington, iv. 287. Hall's Civil War in America, pp. 269- : War in America, p.'274. Whiteliead's Amboy, pp. .'540, 341, 343, 344. 
71. « Gaiues' Mercury, Noa. 1324, 1338. 



Cornwallis. On the way the advance of the latter 
fell in with Col. Daniel Morgan's corps of rangers 
at Woodbridge, with whom a hot contest was kept up 
for half an hour, at the expense of a considerable 
number of men. At Scotch Plains a severe engage- 
ment ensued with the troops under Lord Stirling, 
who were obliged, being greatly inferior in numbers, 
to fall back to the heights in the rear, with the loss of 
a few men and three cannon. At Westfleld, perceiv- 
ing the passes on the left of Washington's camp to 
be strongly guarded, and no prospect of getting into 
his rear, as was contemplated, the enemy encamped 
for the night after a burning hot day. Here they re- 
mained until three o'clock p.m. of Friday, when they 
marched to Rahway, closely followed and assailed in 
the rear and on the flanks by Scott's light-horse and 
Morgan's Rangers. The next day they returned 
to Amboy, still followed as on the previous day. 
Here they rested on the Sabbath, and the next day, 
Monday, June 30th, they left, a part crossing over to 
Staten Island on a bridge of boats, and another part 
embarking on board of two hundred and seventy 
transports which filled the harbor, and sailed away 
on the 23d of July.' 

Thus, after seven months' occupation and a vast 
expenditure of resources, after a vain attempt to 
penetrate to Philadelphia and to bring the war to a 
speedy end, the great army of invasion, having been 
for nearly six months restricted to the line of the 
Raritan River, was compelled wholly to evacuate the 
State, to the disgrace and chagrin of their leaders, 
and the bitter disappointment of the whole Tory 


WAR OF THE REVOLUTIOX.— ( ro„(„„ierf.) 

Raids from Staten Island. — The enemy being still 
in force on Staten Island, it became necessary to be con- 
stantly on the watch and to keep up a competent force 
to patrol and g"uard every accessible avenue along the 
opposite Jersey shore. The " New Jersey Volunteers," 
or the refugees who had enlisted in the brigade of 
Gen. Cortlandt Skinner, were also on the island. A 
detachment of this brigade, consisting of sixty-three ' 
men, was under the command of Maj. Richard V. 
Stockton, a son-in-law of Joseph Hatfield, of Eliza- [ 
beth Town. Stockton was captured at Lawrence's 
Island, Feb. 18, 1777. The refugees from Elizabeth 
Town were connected mostly with Skinner's brigade, 
and were, in the progress of the war, a source of 
great annoyance to their patriotic kinsmen and for- ' 
mer neighbors. 

' Spmks' Wneliinglun, iv. 470-76. Pa. Ledger, No. 102. K.Y. Gazette, 
No. 2. Reuieml/iauccr, V. t260, 261. Moore'e Diary, i. 449-02. Graham's 
Life of Moi'gau, pp. 123-28. Hall's Civil War iu America, p. 292. Ir- ; 
viDg'8 Washiiigtou, iii. 126. ' 

The necessity of vigilance appears from such no- 
tices as the following, written Aug. 18, 1777 : 

"Last Thursiia.v Evpniiig [14th] a Party of the New .lersey Volun- 
teers went over to Craii-'s Kerry, near Eliaibeth Town Point, and 
brought off three of the Militia without tiring a Gun." 2 

Measures were devised by Col. Matthias Ogden, 
the officer in command at Elizabeth Town, in con- 
junction with Gen. Sullivan, who had been left by 
Washington in command of a Continental force be- 
yond the Short Hills, to punish these renegade dis- 
turbers of the peace. Col. Dayton's regiment from 
Newark was called in to take part in the enterprise, 
with a hundred militia of the town. Sullivan se- 
lected from Smalhvood's and De Borre's brigades 
one thousand men, and marched at two o'clock 
P.M. on Thursday, the 21st of August, from Han- 
over, fourteen miles, to Elizabeth Town, arriving 
in the evening, when they halted a short time ff)r 
rest. At ten o'clock p.m. they moved down to Hal- 
stead's Point, near the mouth of Morse's Creek, where 
they crossed over to the island. Dayton and Ogden, 
with their commands, and Col. Fielo, with the mi- 
litia, crossed at the Old Blazing Star. The New 
Jersey Volunteers were posted in small detachments 
along the shore of the island from Decker's Ferry to 
the point opposite Amboy, about fifteen miles. Ogden 
and Dayton fully and successfully carried out their 
part of the programme. Lieut.-Cols. Lawrence and 
Barton were captured, with one hundred and thirty 
privates, also a British shallop, in which the prison- 
ers were sent over to this side. But Sullivan's com- 
mand, having been deceived by their guide, lost 
heavily, iu consequence of the rear detachments 
being disappointed in obtaining boats to return by 
the Old Star Ferry. These losses more than com- 
pensated the advantages obtained by Cols. Ogden 
and Dayton.' 

Immediately after, Sullivan, with the troops under 
his command, was ordered to join the main army at 
Wilmington, Del. A small force only was left in this 
quarter to guard the long line of coast exposed to the 
depredations of the enemy. 

An invasion of the State by Clinton at Elizabeth 
Town Point and other places, September 12lh, showed 
the necessity of keeping here a large body of troops, 
to be ready for such emergencies. Gen. Dickin.son 
writes to Washington from this town, Sept. 20lh, — 

" Your Excellency will be much Hurprised to hear that tlieie are not 
more than one thousand of our militia now embodii'il, all of which are 
at this post. I Khali order all the guards called in helnre day. and 
march with the utmost expedition the routes dii-eeted. I have ordered 
General Wines to collect and march bis brigade to II, is pusl with all 
despatch." ^ 


ines' Mercury 



■■' Pa 

Journal, No. 



mhrancer, v. 




ton, V 

47. GuicIou'b 

Kev. War, 

iiu-a. Moo 

re's Dii 

ry, 4»2-»6. 






Gordon's N 

J., pp 




nglon, iii. 195 


viugton's Gazette, 

No. 165 


ncer, V. 

4-20. H 



War i 

n America, p. 



's Rev. War, 

ii. 2:i6. 


s N 

.1 . p. 


Sparks' Washi 


1, V. 64. 

Spai-ks' Co 


euce of 







Four days after, on Thursday, September 24th, a 
reinforcement of about three thousand British and 
foreign troops from Europe arrived at New York. 
Dickinson was then on his way to join Washington 
in the vicinity of Philadelphia; but this event com- 
pelled him to retrace his steps with a part of his 
troops, sending on the remainder, six hundred, in 
c(raimand of Gen. Forman. and once more take post 
at this town. Writing to Wa.shington from this place 
November 1st, he informs him that there are not more 
than one hundred militia from West Jersey at this 
post, that the reports of his intended march to Red 
Bank on the Delaware had lessened the number of 
his troops, and that Gen. Winds, who had gone on 
an expedition to New Windsor on the North River, 
had not yet returned. He suggests an expedition 
against Staten Island, and says, "' I have boats now 
ready to transport five hundred men at a time, and 
could increase my present numbers (about six hun- 
dred men) to twelve hundred men upon such an oc- 
casion." ' 

The Americans at this time were in high spirits. 
Tidings had come nine or ten days before of Gates' 
victory, October 7th, at Stillwater, near Saratoga, 
and of the surrender of Burgoyne's army, October 
17th. The news created a great and joyful excite- 
ment in this town; salutes were fired, bonfires kin- 
dled, and, as Rivington's lying chronicle reports, 
"rum was given to the rabble."" 

Gaines says, Nov. 24, 1777,— 

"We hear llint Drilers have Wen sent to a Place called Westfielrt, a 
few miles from Klizal.etli Town, in New Jersey, tor the InhahitaniB of 
thai place to jirefHre Qnartern for a large Body of Men, anil to cnt down 
five hnn.hed roril>. of Kire Wood. ... On Tuesday, Wednesday, Thurs- 
day, and Friday last (18-21) Parlies of liehels landed on Staten Island 
froui Eli/abeth Town, hut were as often beaten off." 3 

These " Parties" were probably employed in this 
way to keep the enemy from learning the object of 
the encainimient at Westfield. Dickinson, having 
obtained the consent of Washington, was preparing 
for an invasion of Staten Island. Volunteers were 
called in and a force gathered (with those on duty at 
this post) of fimrteen hundred men. He designed, if 
possible, to surprise Skinner's corps of provincials, sta- 
tioned along the western shore of the island, and cap- 
ture them. For this purpose, early in the morning 
of Thursday, November 27th, he embarked at Hal- 
stead's Point, efiected a landing in three divisions on 
the opposite shore, and marched seven miles to a ren- 
dezvous, hoping to get in the rear of the provincials 
and cut them off. The utmost secrecy had been, ob- 
served, his own officers not having been apprised of 
the object until eight o'clock of the evening before. 
Skinner, however, got word of it at three o'clock in 
the morning and made good his retreat. On arriv- 
ing at the rendezvous the Americans found Gen. 

1 Gordon's Rev. War, (i. 262. Gordon's N. J., pp. 26U, 2.^2. Sparks' 
Correspondence of the Rev., ii. 22, 23. 

2 Riviiigion'ji Gazette, No. 140. 
» Gaines' Mercuiy, No. laOl. 

Campbell in force with artillery and two war vessels 
to cover the fortifications. Disappointed in his plans, 
Dickinson returned in good order, five or six of the' 
Tory brigade having been slain and twenty-four taken 
prisoners. The troops were eight hours on the island. 
In the skirmish they lost three men taken prisoners, 
and fourteen were slightly wounded. With this 
exception, they got back " without the loss of man, 
horse, or boat."* 

A few days before this occurrence (20th), Abraham 
Clark and Elias Boudinot were elected to Congress. 
Mr. Boudinot had served, since his appointment by 
Congress, June 6, 1777, as commissary-general of pris- 
oners. This town thus became, during the greater 
part of the war, the headquarters for negotiations re- 
specting the exchange of prisoners, and hither large 
numbers, officers and men, from both sides were sent 
for this purpose. Mr. Boudinot, however, continued 
in service until his successor, Maj. John Beatty, was 
appointed. May 28, 1778, and did not take his seat in 
Congress until July 7, 1778.' 

Through the instigation and artifices principally of 
the refugees, some of their old neighbors and asso- 
ciates, who still retained their residence and property 
in the town, were induced to carry on an illicit trade 
with Staten Island, of which Governor Livingston, 
who had been re-elected November 1st, writing to 
Washington, Nov. 21, 1777, uses this forcible and 
indignant language: 

"This evil, instead of heing checked, has grown to so enormous a 
height that the enemy, as I am informed, is plentifully supplied with 
fresh provi-i<uis, and such a quantity of Bi-itish manufactures brought 
back ill exchau-.;e as to enable the jiersuns concerned to set up sho|i8 to 
retail theui. The people are outrageous, and many of our officers tUreaten 
to resign their 

This traffic was called " London trading," and all 
who engaged in it were regarded as enemies of their 
country, and when discovered subjected to severe 
penalties. It was carried on mostly by night, and so 
secretly as almost always to evade detection. Tlie 
possession of British gold was looked upon as prima 
facie evidence of complicity in the contraband busi- 

The extent to which private property in the town, 
especially in the absence of the owners, had suffered by 
military occupation appears from what one of Gov- 
ernor Livingston's daughters wrote, Nov. 29, 1777: 


Ato has 1 

een at E 


; found 



in a mi 




on. Gei 


on had 




with h 

s a 



ny in it, 

itnd after 

thai it % 

vaa kept 


a bull 

ick's gu 



wailed on the general, a 

lid he or 

lered Ihe 


ops ren 

lived Ih 


xt day, 

but II 

en Ihe in 

». hief u 

as done; 

every th 


is can 

eil off II 



had ci 

llected f. 

r her ace 


ion, so 1 


it Ih ii 



r her 10 

go i\u\ 

VII to hav 

the gra 

pes ami 

Iher thi 



i; the V 




and pane 

8 of glas 

are tak 

n away.' 


le year 

1778 was unusually 



of incid 

^nt so 

^ Sparks' Correspondence of the Kev., ii. 49-51. Sparks' Washington, 
'. 174, 18:i. niviiiglon's Gazette. No. 145. Gordon's N. J., p. 255. 
6 Gordon's N..l.,p.;i24. Miilfonl's N. .1., p. 444. 
O.Sedgwick's Liringsbui, jip. a4.i-40. 
' Ibid., p. 246. 



far as the history of this town is concerned. The 
people were permitted to dwell at home, undisturbed 
by the visits of the hated and dreaded foe. The mili- 
tary occupation was continued throughout the year, 
and the utmost vigilance was required in guarding 
against inva-sion from Staten Island. During a por- 
tion of the winter one-half of the male adults were 
required to be always on duty, and ready at a mo- 
ment's warning to take the field.' 

It was reported in New York, June 3, 1778, that 
"great numbers of flat-bottomed boats" were then 
building and old ones repairing at Bound Brook, 
Elizabeth Town, and Newark, in New Jersey. A few 
days after Gaines published the following: 

"The Rebels made an attempt on the Piquet Guard on Staten Island 
last Tuesday iiight (June 9tli), but were beat off, the Particulars of 
whiL-h an. as follows, viz. : 

" .\bout one o'clock the Rebels began a heavy Cannonade Jrom their 
Works at Elizabeth Town Fort, and soon after attempted to land in a 
number of Flat Boats U|>on Staten Island, between the Blazing Star 
and Burnt Island; but finding the Provincial Troops stationed at that 
Place were alarmetl and prepared to give tlieni a proper Reception, 
they returned to the Jersey shore and remained quiet till about four 
o'clock the sanie Morning, when they again made their Appearance in 
ten Boats, each supposed to contain one hutidred JVlen, and attempted 
to land at the Place under cover of the Fire from their Batteries, 
and a continued Discharge of Smalt Arms from the Boats; but they 
were so vigorously opposed by General Skinner's Brigade, that they were 
obliged to make a final and disgraceful Retreat."- 

The New Jersey Gazette gives an entirely different 
version of the affair in reply to Gaines' article. The 
ten boats with a hundred men in each dwindle down 
to three boats with about fifty men ; but one landing < 
was made or attempted ; they marched half a mile I 
into the interior, when they were discovered, on which j 
they fired and the provincials ran away. The party | 
then returned to their boats, and when they had [ 
nearly reached this side were fired upon. So con- ' 
flicting were the statements in respect to these incur- 
sions it is often perplexing to arrive at the exact 

Occasional encounters with the enemy were occur- 
ring, of which the following, as related by a Tory 
paper of the 29th, is a specimen : 

" Last Wednesday Night (24th), Captain Handle, from Elizabeth 
Town, came over to Staten Island wiih a Party of about fourteen IWen 
and fired upon some of the militia that were on Guard, wounded Mr. 
Richard Connor in the Arm, and one Asliar Tappen in the Leg. but 
neither dangerously. The Militia pursued the Party, but tliey got 
into their Boat in a great Hurry, and made for the Jersey shore with 
all expedition." * ' 

The next Sunday, 28th, the battle of Monmouth 
was fought, in which the Jersey Brigade under Max- 
well and the militia under Dickinson did signal 
service, having previously been detached to annoy the 
rear and flanks of the British on their route through 
New Jersey. In this action Lieut.-Col. Barber (who 
had received the appointment in April of brigade 

* Rivington's Gazette, No. 154. 

2 Ibid., No. 175. Gaines' Mercury, No. 1390. 
•' New Jersey Gazette, No. 30. 

* Gaines' Mercury, No. 1392. 

inspector, and on the 24th of March had been mar- 
ried " to Miss Nancy Ogden, of Elizabeth Town, a 
Lady of beauty and merit") was wounded by a 
musket-ball, which passed through the right of his 
body, but, happily, not mortally. The British after 
their defeat made good their escape by Sandy Hook 
on the 5th of July, whence they were distributed in 
three divisions, one on Staten Island, one on Long 
Island, and the other in New York. 

The presence of so large a force on Staten Island 
compelled Washington, in the arrangement of his 
forces, to order the Jersey Brigade under Gen. Max- 
well " to take post in the neighborhood of Elizabeth 
Town," to guard against invasion and foraging.* 

Again this post became headquarters for flag-boats 
and exchanges. A large number of prisoners had 
been captured from the British on their route through 
the State. "Thursday last," 16th, says Rivington, 
" upwards of seven hundred Rebel prisoners were sent 
from here [New York] to Elizabeth Tovvn, to be ex- 
changed for an equal number of British and Hes- 
sians." A corresponding notice appears on the 15th 
in the New Jersey Gazette, also on the 21st of Au- 
gust, 20th of October, and 8th of November. Col. 
Ethan Allen was sent here in May previously for the 
same purpose.* 

A corporal and a private who had ventured over 
to Staten Island from this post were captured July 
21st; and by way of reprisal, a party from this town 
went over to the island on the night of the 5th of 
August, and carried off Mr. Bunnell, barrack-ma.ster, 
who was released on parole four days afterwards.' 

Measures long contemplated, but for prudential 
reasons deferred, were now taken looking to the con- 
fiscation of the property of those who had deserted' 
their country and espoused the cause of the Royal- 
ists. Several had gone over during the spring and 
summer of 1778. The following advertisement was 
not made public until November 14th, on which day 
it was dated at Elizabeth Town : 

"At an inferior court of Common Ple:u5 held for the county of Essex, 
on the 15th day of September last, were returned inquisitions for join- 
ing the army of the King of Great Britain, and other treasonable prac- 
tices, found against Cavilear Jewit. Ichabod Best Baruet, William Luce, 
John Smith Helfield, Job Hetfleld, Abel Hetfield, Broughton Reynolds, 
Richard Miller, John Willis, Jacob Tooker, J.imes Hetfleld, Janiea 
Fi"azee, Samuel Oliver, Jame.s Moore, Jonathan Oliver, Samnel Sniitli, 
.Tohit Stites.jun., Daniel Moore, John Morse, Isaac Staubury, Thomas 
Burrows, and John Folker." 

.\t a later date, Feb. 17, 1779, final judgment was 
entered against all of these persons except Job and 
Abel Hetfield, Jacob Tooker, and John Stites, Jr., 
and their estates sold at auction." 

Gaines says, October 5th, — 

" We learn that the Militia of New Jersey was collecting fast, there 
being in and about Elizabeth Town and Wuodbridge not less than two 
thousand Men under the command of General Maxwell. 

6 N. J. Gazette, Nos. 19, 31. Irving's Washington, iii., 
Washington, v. 422-29. 

6 Riv. Gazette, No. 188. N. J. Gazette, Nos. 38, 46, 49, 
' Elv. Gazette, No. 190. Gaines' Mercery No. 1412. 
8 N. J. Gazette, Nos. 50, 64. 

425-37. Spaika' 


" Last Friday {'id) a large Budy of Militia and some Ccintinental Troops 
marclied from Woodbridpe, Kliz:ibeth Town, &c., under tli« command of 
the Geueruls Maxwell and Heard for Hackitjsack." ' 

These movements were occasioned by a feint of the 
enemy and an invasion of Bergen County. Lord 
Stirling at Aquackanonk on the 13th sends word to 
Col. Elias Dayton that "the moving oft' of the Brit- 
ish troops enables him to order Col. Dayton with his 
two regiments to march to Elizabeth Town the next 
morning." Two days afterwards, on the 15th, Lord 
Stirling himself repaired to this town, and made it his 
headquarters for the remainder of the year.'^ 

The following order was issued Oct. 28, 1778: 

"No Flag from tlie enemy sliiiU bp received at any post or place within 
this Slate, except at Elizabetli Town Point, witb"Ut a special permissi.m 
for tbat purpose from the Govel'nor or commanding officer of the troups 
of the United States in New Jersey." ^ 

On this subject Washington says, Jan. 11, 1779, — 

'* It was absolutely necessary that the open 
New York which I found prevailing on my a 
the 1st of December, should be restraiued, an 
Gen. Maxwell to suffer no perr-on to paw-* ur 
previou-ly obtained from the Governors of tl 
self, and I req 
day of every 

" Living'^ton is re 
tonly pursuing his c 

ippointed Governor of New Jersey, and more wan- 
ireer of barbarity and wickedness than ever."^ 

lid free inter 
iriival at Elizabeth Town, 
1 I gave |ios tive orders to 
less permission should be 
e respective States, or niy- 
gston and Beed ti fix on the fll-st 
th for this purpose, to wliicli they readily acceded."^ 

In his reply to this request of Washington, Living- 
ston says, December 21st, — 

" Of all those who have applied to me for recommendations to the com- 
manding officer at Elizabeth Town to go to Staten Island or New York, 
not above one in twenty appeared eiitiiled to that indulgence, and many 
of them were as venomous Tories as any in this country. It is either 
from a vain curiosity (extieni'dy predomirniut in women), cloaked with 
the pretence of securing their debts or effects, in which they seldom if 
ever succeed, or for the sake of buying tea and trinkets (tor which they 
would as soon forfeit a second Paradise, as Eve ilid llie fi ret, for the 
forbidden fruit), that they are perpetually prompted to those idle ram- 
bles. . . . The men are still more seriously niiscliievous, and go with 
commercial motives, and to secure capital qviantilies of Biitish mer- 
chandise." '•> 

Livingston had again been chosen, October 27th, 
Governor of the State, greatly to the annoyance of 
the loyalists, who regarded him as an incorrigible 
rebel. James Humphreys, Jr., writing from New 
York, Nov. 23, 1778, to Galloway, in London, says, — 

Isaac Ogden, a refugee from Newark, writing also 
to Galloway from New York the day before (22d), 
says, — 

"Livingston is re-elected Governor, an attempt was intended to be 
made to supersede liioi, but the dissenting Pai-sons getting knowledge 
of it exerted themselves in such a manner that his opponents were de- 
terr'd from making the Experiment. You knnw the Man, & will with 
Me pitty the poor People that fall under his displeasure." 

Most cordially was the Governor hated by every 
Tory in the State, and with still greater cordiality, if 

=ury, No, 1407. 

ir's Stirling, p. 204. 

possible, was he loved and trusted by every friend of 
the country. His well-known connection with the 
Presbyterian Church of this town accounts for the 
.story about " the dissenting Parsons." In the same 
letter Ogden speaks of this town and its vicinity as 
" a Rebellious country," — a good testimony this to the 
patriotism of the town. In closing the letter he in- 
troduces some family allusions : 

" Remember me to Doctor's Chandler and Cooper. Tell Doct. Chandler 
that Mrs Chandler & his Daughter Polly with Mis8Ricketts,are now in 
York with a Flag for a few days. His son Bille I saw laat week, at 
Staten Island, who has recovered from his Illness, he intends sailing for 
England in a short time in the Amazon."' 

In arranging the winter-quarters of the army. Gen. 
Washington made choice of Middlebrook (Bound 
Brook), Somerset Co., N. J., for his own headquarters 
with seven brigades, detailing the Jersey Brigade to 
occupy Elizabeth Town, as the advanced post of the 
army. -This brought him, on the 1st of December, 
to this town, where he remained until the morning 
of the 5th. In honor of his visit a festive entertain- 
ment was given him on the 4th." 

Attempt to Capture Livingston's and Maxwell's 
Brigades. — A practical illustration of the fear and 
hatred entertained by the British, and especially the 
Tories, towards Governor Livingston was given near 
the close of the winter of 1779-80. A plan was de- 
vised by the authorities at New York to surprise and 
capture both Governor Livingston's and Maxwell's 
brigades at this post. " The Thirty-third and Forty- 
second Regiments, with the light company of the 
Guards, under the command of Lieut.-Col. Stirling," 
about one thousand in number, were detailed for 
this purpose. They embarked at Red Hook, L. I., 
at nine o'clock p.m. of the 24th of February, 1779, 
crossed the bay to the Bergen shore, landed, and 
marched overland to Newark Bay, when they re- 
embarked, the boats having passed around through 
the Kills. They landed between two and three o'clock 
A.M. of the 25th on the salt meadows about a mile 
north of Crane's Ferry. Having obtained Cai)t. Wil- 
liam Luce, Cornelius Hatfield, Jr., and John Smith 
Hatfield (who had gone over to the British in 1778) 
as guides, the Forty-second Regiment advanced im- 
mediately, and gained the upland. The remainder 
of the force through a misunderstanding waited at the 
place of landing for further orders. Col. Stirling, 
impatient for their appearance, came to a halt after 
he had got well up towards Woodruff" 's Farms, and 
sent back one of the guides to order them forward. 

I Sparks' Washi 



. 73. Ga 

2 Anal. Index of N 


Doc, p. 

Mag., ii.:i2l-24. 

1 N. J. Gazette, 



< Sparks' Wash 



i. 155-74. 

f" Sparks' Correspon 


e, ii. 243. 

^ Hist. Magazin 

B, v. 


I Hist, 
belli Tu 

Magazine, V.3:i6,:i:l8. "Hisson Bil 
wn, N. J., presented, Feb. 11, 1779, 

i," Wni. Chandler, of Eliza- 
, petition to Lord George 

, representing " that 
Dr. Chandler, be wa 

the Re' 


Town in Jan., 1777, 1 

granted him a warra 

in account of his loyalty and being son of 
I obliged to fly in Jan., 1776— that he re- 

Dec, following, but on the Royal army ' 

ing Elizabeth 

e was again obliged to fly— that Brig. Gen. Skinner 
It to be captain in the New Jersey Volunteers in 
the April following, that he has not received any pay lor two years, and 
prays his Lordship's recommendation to Sir Henry Clinton for acapbiin's 
comntissiun in the New Jersey Brigade." Anal. Index., p. 4.^8. 

» Rivington'8 Gazette, No. 228. Sparks' Washington, vi. 125, 129, 131, 



The officer in command declined to receive the order 
from the lips of the guide, who thereupon returned 
to Stirling for an ofBcial order. In this blundering 
they lost about an hour and a half. 

Col. Stirling, in order to gain fuller intelligence as 
to the state of affairs in the town, sent one of the 
guides with six soldiers to capture one of the residents. 
They came to the house of Mr. Hendrick.s, and ques- 
tioned him in respect to the troops, some of the sol- 
diers in the mean time entering the house of Mr. 
Woodruff, directly opposite, and beginning to plunder. 
Mr. Woodruff made good his escape, and gave the 
information to Col. Ogden, the officer of the day. 
Gen. Maxwell immediately called the troops to arms, 
and marched them to the rear of the town, whither 
also the principal part of the inhabitants retired, un- 
certain as to the number and designs of the enemy. 

A. detachment was sent with one of the guides the 
shortest route to " Liberty Hall," tlie residence of 
Governor Livingston, to apprehend him. The Gov- 
ernor, happily, had left home some hours before, and 
was passing the night at a friend's house a few miles 
distant. It was falsely reported by the enemy that he 
had left his bed only five minutes before his house 
was surrounded. The house, of course, was searched 
in vain for his person. His papers were demanded of 
his eldest daughter, who had sufficient presence of 
mind to lead them into the library, and show them a 
drawer filled with intercepted letters from London, 
taken in a British vessel, a part of which they pock- 
eted, and then carried off the remainder with the 
drawer itself. All his recent correspondence with 
Congress, Washington, and the State officers was in 
a box in the parlor, which was saved by this artifice. 

In the mean time the main body of the enemy pro- 
ceeded directly to the rear of the town, and had every 
road guarded except the Rahway road, by which sev- 
eral of the inhabitants escaped before the guard could 
reach it. The barracks and the Presbyterian par- 
sonage, then used as barracks, were found deserted, 
and in the rage of their disappointment the eneni}' 
set them on fire and they were burned down. The 
school-house, or academy, adjoining the Presbyterian 
burying-ground, had been used for storing provisions 
for the troops. This also they fired and destroyed. 
While it was burning a few of the female neighbors, 
of whom Mrs. Egbert was one, rescued from the ruins 
twenty-six barrels of flour. A blacksmith's shop also 
was burned. They boasted also that they burned " the 
ferry-house of Stephen Crane," of which, however, the 
people themselves made no mention. 

As soon as the light enabled Maxwell to ascertain 
the force and positions of the enemy he set his troops 
in motion and Col. Stirling beat a retreat. The mi- 
litia both of this town and Newark took the alarm, 
and assembled with great alacrity. Cols. Dayton, 
Oj^den, and Barber conducted the pursuit. Aban- 
doning the horses and cattle which they had col- 
lected the enemv retreated as thev came bv the 

way of the salt marsh, usually regarded as quite 
inaccessible. Some skirmishing ensued, but the 
well-directed fire of two pieces of artillery greatly 
quickened their steps. After wading a considerable 
distance in mud and mire, they reached their boats, 
and re-embarked undei the cover of a galley and 
two or three gunboats, not a little galled by the fire 
poured in upon them from the shore. One of their 
boats grounded, and with the hands on board was 

The enemy acknowledged that from four to six of 
their nuniber were slain and about forty were wounded. 
They took with them about a score of the elderly men 
of the place, but soon after restored them to their 
homes. Brigade-Major Ogden, who first reconnoi- 
tred the enemy, received a bayonet-wound in his 
right side, but not dangerous. Lieut. Reucastle also 
was wounded and four privates; one man, a private, 
was killed. Chaplain Andrew Hunter, on his return 
from the Governor's house, whither he had hastened 
to give the alarm, was captured, but soon after made 
his escape. The invasion, save in the burning of the 
barracks, the parsonage, and the academy (a proce- 
dure worthy of a savage foe), was a complete failure, 
a signal blunder.' 

Four or five weeks after this occurrence Governor 
Livingston addressed a note, March 29th, to Gen. 
Sir Henry Clinton, informing him that he was " pos- 
sessed of the most authentic proofs" that one of his 
general officers had "offered a large sum of money 
to an inhabitant of this State to a.saassinate" him — 
the Governor — " in case he could not take" him 
"alive." Ephraim Marsh, Jr., of this town, had de- 
posed before Isaac Woodruff, Esq., that Cortlandt 
Skinner had offered him a reward of two thousand 
guineas and a pension for life for such an exploit. 
A reply, very curt and impertinent, was received from 
Sir Henry, to which the Governor returned a wither- 
ing rejoinder.^ 

Depreciated Currency and Hard Times.— The 
immense depreciation of the Continental currencj' 
began to be seriously felt among all classes of the 
community, but especially among the soldiers of the 
patriot anny whose families were in any measure 
depending on their wages. The Jersey Brigade, 
under Maxwell, stationed at Elizabeth Town, sent 
an affecting memorial of their distressed condition 
for want of adequate compensation to the Legisla- 
ture. Gen. Maxwell also urged their case, and called 
attention to the necessity of sending out of the lines 
the Tories who were seeking every opportunity to 
induce the soldiers to desert. He instanced the cases 
of Capts. Kennedy and McCloud at large on their 
parole and yet in the pay of the enemy, " licensed 

1 N. J. Journal, No. 2. N. J. Gazette, No. 65. Gaines' Mercury, No. 
1429. Kenienibrancnr, vii. 368. Sparks' Wasliiiigton, vi. IT.i, 1»2, 191. 
Sedgwick's Livingston, pp. 322-24. Barber's Hist. Cull, of S. J., p. 165. 
Hist. Magazine, vi. 180-81, 239. 

2 N. J. Journal, Nos. 10, 12. Barber's Hist. Coll. of N. J., pp. 163-64. 



spies in our very lines, among our troops.' 
then adds, — 


" Mrs. Clinn.llcr is much in 
respect t(i lier living', but in it 
Illiirik lier the first iu thf pli 
out uf New York or any otii 
w;.itson Mrs. Chaniller, and riiosti 
out on parole or exchnuge wait on 
Fmnklin , the whole of the Tories, 

same way here that McCIoud is, with 

'ay of giving intflh'geBce to the enemy 

There is not a Tory tliat passes in or 

way tloit is of oonsequeiice hut wliat 

1 the Briti-h oHiccrs Boinir iu or 

: lU sliiirt, the Goveriuir (Will am 

niahy,.f the Whig,.. I think she 

w.Mild be mucli betier in New York, and hi take her bagpige with her 
that she might have nothing to come hark (ur. Lawyer Ross and some 
othei- noted Tories here I would recommend to he sent some distanie 
back in the country. . . . There wants a thorough reform here."i 

A gratuity of two hundred pounds to each commis- 
sioned officer and forty dollars to each private was 
ordered by tiie Legislature, the money immediately for- 
warded to Elizabeth Town, and the brigade soon after 
took up their line of march for the Susquehanna. So 
many of the officers and men of the brigade were 
residents of this town, and so long iiad they been on 
service at this post during the war, that the people of 
the town took the deepest interest in everything per- 
taining to their welfare. It was their own right arm 
of defense.^ 

Wasliington removed his headquarters from Mid- 
dlebrook the first week in June, and soon after took 
post at New Windsor, on the North River. In conse- 
quence, as the regular troops that usually kept watch 
of Staten Island were on their way to the Indian 
country, the eastern coast of this town was consider- 
ably exposed. Col. Neilson, a vigilant officer, was 
left here with a small corps, which with the militia, 
ready to be called out on any emergency, was thought 
sufficient for the time being. Col. Frederick Freling- 
huysen at a later date was appointed to the command 
of the State regiment, with his headquarters at this 

Removal of Tories and Refugees. — The refugees 
on Staten Island took advantage of the reduction of 
the forces here and renewed their predatory excur- 
sions. On the night of Saturday, June 12th, Corne- 
lius Hatfield, Jr., with five other " loyal refugees," as 
Gaines calls them, crossed over the Sound to Lieut. 
John Haviland's house, which they effectually plun- 
dered of its contents, and seizing Maviland and the 
captain of one of the guard-boats, whom they had 
also surprised, they returned with them in safety to 
the island. A few nights after, Friday, 18th, the 
same party, with other Tories and several British sol- 
diers, repeated the experiment and landed at Hal- 
stead's Point. 

" From whence they stole up in small parties amongst their friends, 
where, probably, they obtained full information of the strength and 
situation of our guard at llaNted's house, whlt-h they attacked about 
dayliglit in the morning. The guard being vijAilaut eHcaped {except one 
man killed) and gave tlie alarm to the town ; the vilhune iu the mean 
time plundered the house of almost everything portnhle, took off his 

J N. J. Bev. CorrespoDdeuce, pp. 143-64 ; 159-()8. Sparks' Washiugton, 
vi. 252-aB. 

» Sparks' Washington, vi. 253, 265. 

» Marshall's Washington, iv. 6.5, 06. N.J. Rev. Coirespondence, p. 

riding-chair, and made Mr. Halsted a prisoner, who, however, had the 
address to take advantage of the surprise these Br.tish worthies were 
thrown into I'y the firing of a single gun and made his escape from 
them ; had they stayed a few minutes longer they would probably have 
paid dear fer their presumption, as it was they had two men wounded, 
one of them mortally.''^ 

To these troubles was added, at midsummer, June 
20th, a panic respecting the negroes of the town : 

"On Sunday night last it was discovered that the negroes had it in 
contemplation to rise and murder the' inhabitants of Elizabeth Town. 
Many of them are secured in gaol."^ 

This conspiracy was of course attributed to the 
Tories, and with the plundering incursions had the 
effect to quicken the Court of Common Pleas in find- 
ing, July 6th, inquisitions and entering judgment in 
favor of the State against the following fugitives and 
offenders, viz. : 

•' Isaac Mills. John Stiles, jun., George Marshall, James Frazee, jun., 
Ichabod Oliver, Thomas Bradbury Chandler, John Slone, Robert Gault, 
Joseph Marsh. John Ackley, Cornelius Hetiield, jun., Oliver De Laiicey, 
and John Lee, jr ,in the County of Essex. (It is added) Notice is hereby 
given that all the real estates that lately belonged to the above fugitives 
within llie bounds of Elizabeth Town will be sold at public vendue on 
Mondiiy, the sixteentii day of August next, at the house of Samuel 
Smith, innkeeper, in Elizabeth Town aforesaid, or on the premises, and 
also that part of the estate late the property of Cavalier Jouet, that was 
sold to a certain Natharuel Huhheil (son of Rev.), unless the said Hub- 
bell appears and pays the purchase-money for the same before the day 
of sale."^ 

The representations of Gen. Maxwell in respect to 
the removal of Tories from the State were not without 
effect : 

"A motion was made at Elizabeth Town last Thursday {12th of Au- 
gust, says Gaines) to remove all the suspecled persons from that place, 
agreeable to a law lately passed in that province; but the motion could 
not be cariied, it being strongly opposed by Governor Livingston, who 
said it was impolitic to thehighest degree, and that it would only increase 
the number of their enemies."' 

At the convening of the Legislature, Oct. 27, 1779, 
Livingston was the fourth time elected Governor of 
the State. Great efforts had been made by means of 
the press and otherwise on the part of his enemies to 
prevent his re-election. They could command in the 
Legislature, however, only nine of the thirty-eight 
votes. The result was highly gratifying to his patri- 
otic townsmen, and all the true patriots throughout 
the State." 

Severe Winter of 1780. — With the commence- 
ment of the winter the main body of the army under 
Washington took up their quarters at Morristown. 
It proved to be one of the severest winters on record. 
The cold set in early, and storm succeeded storm, 
piling up tjie snow in every direction, until Jan. 3, 
1780, when one of the most terrific storms ever re- 
membered set in, from which the army suffered dread- 
fully. The snow covered the earth to the depth of 
from four to six feet, the roads were everywhere ob- 
structed, and almost nothing could be had for the 

« Gaines' Mercnry, No. 1443. New Jersey Journal, No. 19. N. J. Bev. 

Correspondence, p. 176. 
6 N. J. Journal, No. 19. 
6 Ibid., No. 21. 
- Gaines' Mercury, No. 1462. 
^ Sedgwick's Livingston, pp. 338-39. 



sustenance of the troops. Washington was compelled 
to resort to forced requisitions on the several counties 
of the State. Col. Matthias Ogden was appointed to 
collect the cattle and grain required of the county of 
Essex. The State, to its honor be it spoken, though 
so greatly impoverished by a four years' war, came 
nobly to the rescue. The crisis was firmly met and 
safely passed; the army was fed and furnished.' 

The extraordinary severity of the cold and its stead- 
iness closed up the rivers, the Sound, Newark Bay, 
and even the harbor of New York. The isolation of 
the city and the island exi.-iied no longer. The ice, 
even in the bay of New York, was of such solidity 
that an army with all its artillery and baggage could 
cross with greater facility than on the firm earth. 
Thf authorities at New York were full of apprehen- 
sion, and took measures to concentrate their forces in 
case of an attack. Extraordinary vigilance was called 
for on both sides of the line. ' 

As the troops had now received their needed sup- 
plies, and a portion of them might be favorably em- 
ployed in an attempt on Staten Island, Gen. William 
Irvine, who liad been sent down some time before 
with a detachment to this post, was instructed to ob- 
tain information "of the enemy's strength, corps, sit- 
uation, and works" on Staten Island; to ascertain the 
state of the ice at Halstead's Point and at the Blazing 
Star Ferry, and to act in concert with Col. Dayton in 
making the necessary preparations. Great caution 
was to be used in keeping the design secret. A large 
number of sleds or sleighs — several hundred — were 
procured, with all the necessary ammuniiion, rations, 
tools, guns, and spare shoes. Various detachments 
were called in and detailed for the service, amounting 
to about two thousand five hundred men, all to rendez- 
vous in this town in the evening of Friday, the 14th.^ 

The expedition was put under the command of 
Lord Stirling, and it was designed to capture, if pos- 
sible, the entire force of the enemy on the island, sup- 
posed to be about twelve hundred men. It was be- 
lieved that the communication by water with the city 
was cut off. The expedition set off in good order early 
in the morning of Saturday, the 15th. They crossed 
safely on the ice at De Hart's Point to Mercereau's 
dockyard. At the forks of the Blazing Star road they 
divided, one column proceeding by Dougan's Mills, 
and the other by the back road towards the watering- 
place (Tonipkinsville). Lieut.-Col Willet was de- 
tached to surprise Buskirk and his force of two hun- 
dred provincials at Decker's Ferry. But the enemy 
had obtained early intelligence of the invasion, and 
on all sides retired to their works. The two columns 
effected a junction on the heights above the works at 

1 Sparks' Washington, iv. 437-41. Thacher'e Military .Touinal, pp. 
17C-Ji2, 186. Barber's Hist. Coll. of N. J., pp 388-92. Gunlon'a Kcv. 
War, iii. 42, 4:1. 

- N. Y. Cul. Duuniueiits. viii. 781, 7s_', 7s.-,. Hist. Mae., vlii 58. 

3 Sparks', vi 4-11-47. MaraliaU's, iv. 199- 

the same time. They found the enemy strongly for- 
tified, and intrenched also behind an abatis of snow 
about ten feet in height. Communication by water 
with the city also they found to be open. After fully 
reconnoitering the position and remaining overnight, 
they retired about sunrise the next morning, making 
good their retreat, and arriving at De Hart's Point 
about eleven o'clock a.m. At Decker's Ferry they cap- 
tured and destroyed nine sailing vessels. They took 
eight or ten prisoners, and received several deserters. 
One of the enemy was slain, as were three of their 
own men. Many of the men also were frost-bitten, 
and all suffered considerably from the severity of the 
cold, the snow being three or four feet deep.' 

Taking advantage of this opportunity a number of 
worthless characters followed the troops to the island 
and committed various depredations upon the people, 
Rivington says to the extent of ten thousand dollars. 
Washington had given strict orders not to allow any- 
thing of the kind. After their return from the island, 
Lord Stirling reclaimed the property as far as possible, 
and issued orders that whoever had been guilty of 
plundering should restore what they had thus taken 
to the Rev. Mr. Caldwell, that it might be sent back 
to the owners." 

This expedition had the effect to increase the vigi- 
lance of the enemji, whose number in garrison was 
thereupon doubled, while, on the other hand, the 
forces on this side, disheartened by their failure, suf- 
fered a relaxation of both vigilance and enterprise. 
Preparations were accordingly made by the enemy for 
retaliatory raids on this town and Newark on the night 
of Tuesday, Jan. 25, 1780, and in both cases they suc- 
ceeded. The New Jersey Journal of the 27th makes 
the following statements : 

"A party of tlie enemy, consisting of about three hundred infantry, 
under the command of Col. Van Buskirk, of the new levies, and about 
sixty dragoons, said to be under the coinmaud of Capt. Steward, of the 
Seventeeiitli Ligiit Dragoons, with several refugees, ihe whole in num- 
ber Tiearly four hundred, crossed on tlie ice from Staten Island to 
Trembly's Point, about three miles from Elizabeth T..wn, last Tuesday 
night. From tlience they were conducted by Cornelius Hetfleld, Job 
Helfield, and Smith Hetfield, their principal guides, the nearest and 
most retired route to Elizabeth Town. They entered the town in two 
divisions before the alarm was sounded. As soon as the troops that were 
in town (consisting of about sixty men) perceived their danger they re- 
treated ; however they took a major, who was commandant of the place, 
and two or three captains that lodged in town that night, and a few 
tri>op8. Tli»-y then set fire to llie Presbyterian Meeting- and court-house, were consumed ; plundered, in.-^ulted, and look off some of the 
inliabitants, and retreated with great pieciiiitation by the way of De 
Hart's Point, whose house they likewise consumed. "'"J 

"A gentleman at Elizabeth Town," in a letter 
written on the 29th, an extract from which was pub- 
lished in the New Jersey Gazette, says, — 

"The enemy paid us a visit here last Tuesday evening; they were ia ■ 
town between ten and eleven o'clock, under the command of Lieut.-Col. 

* N. J. Journal, No. 51. N. J. qjizette, Nos. 109, 110. Rivington's 
Gazette, Nos. AVi, :i47, :i4S, 350. Thacher'e Journal, p. 184. Marshall's 
Washington, iv. 2U1, 202. Sparks' Washington, iv. 442-48. Sparks' 
Corr. of the Rev., ii. 380-81. 

5 Ibid., p. 381. Sparks' Washington, vi. 446. 

■* N. J. Journal, No. 51. 



BuBkirk, of the new levieB, The plan whb well concerted, and as well 
executed; tbey evaded our guards, and were in town before any one 
knew it. The.v have taken forty or fifty ]>rivHtes and several officers, 
with ten or twelve of the inlcal.itants. Maj. Williamson and Oipt. Gif- 
ford lell intn their hands. Mr. Belcher Smith [son of William Peartree 
Smith] in attempting to escape was likewise taken. They burnt the 
Presbyterian Church and the court-house, plundered Jecamiah Smith, 
but no other houses of any consequence, as they were afraid to enter 
them, and stayed but a little time before they pushed otT."' 

Rivington, in his paper of January 29th, gives the 
British version of the affair: 

" On Tuesday night, the 2.5th inst., the rebel posts at Elizabeth Town 
were completely surprised and carri'-d I'ff by different detachments of 
the king's tTcps. Lieut.-Col. Buskirk's detachment, consisting of about 
I'^O men from the 1st and 4th battalions uf Hrig.-Gen. Skinner's brigade, 
with 12 dragoons under the command of Lieut. Stuart, moved from 
Staten Island early in the night, and got into Elizabeth Town without 
being discovered between the hours of 10 and II. With little resist- 
ance they made prisoners 2 niajors, 3 captains, and 47 privates, among 
whom were o di-agoons. with their horses, arms, and accoutrements. 
Few of the rebels were killed, but several were wounded by the dra- 
goons, though they afterwards escnped. 

"The services were perfoi-raed without loss. The following are the 
names of some of the rebel officers brought to town on Thursday last 
. . . from Elizabeth Town : Maj. Eccles, of the 6th Maryland Regiment; 
Ool. Belt, of the 4th Kegiment, from Prince George Co.; Mr. B. Smith, 
son of Peartree Smith ; Maj. Williamson and his brother." - 

Rivington's statement as to the persons and the 
strength of the detachment engaged in this retalia- 
tory foray is probably to be accepted as at least 
semi-official. Abraham Buskirk, according to Gaines' 
Register for 1781, was lieutenant-colonel commandant 
of the Fourth Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers, or 
Tories, under the command of Brig.-Gen. Cortlandt 
Skinner, Esq. Neal Stewart was a lieutenant of Col. 
Bayard's Orange Rangers. The guides were natives 
of the town, familiar with all the roads and all the 
residents of the place.' 

Washington speaks of the e.vent, two days after, as 
"the late misfortune and disgrace at Elizabeth Town." 
Not less than two thousand men, under Col. Moses 
Hazen, were stationed that night along the shore of 
the frozen waters from Paulus Hook to Amboy, in 
small detachments, one'of which, sixty only in num- 
ber, under Maj. Ecele.s, was detailed for this import- 
ant post.' 

"The court-house" was "a small frame, shingle- 
covered building, which had never been adorned with 

1 N. J. Gazette, Nob. 110, 112. 

2 Rivington's Gazette, No. 348. Barber's Hist. Coll. of N. .7., pp. lr,6- 
67. Thacher's Journal, pp. 166-57. 

s Hist. Magazine, viii. S-M, 356. The names of the persons captured, 
as subseqiienlly i-eported, were " Mt^or Eccleston, Major Williamsnn, 
Captiiin Gnty, Captain Thomas Woodruff, Captain Samuel Moorehouse, 
Captain Isaac Scudder, Captain W. {Bl Smith, Captain Gilford (Gifford), 
John Culles, Ja. Knot, William Frucker, John Sullivan, Charles Gough, 
John Gormond, John Roebly, John Lumox, Theudorik Li ndsey, James 
Davison, J*tseph Far8on,John Blades,Johri Creaton, Juhn Ryon, Thomas 
.Gorilon, John King, Joseph Austin, Jtmes Dues, Michael Coiigblon, 
John Miles, Michael Rowland, John Fisk, E. Piuket, Isaac Dukeson, 
James Morrison, Jonathan Hackson, Benjamin Garrison, Philip Knoll, 
Abraham Rosier, John Bi-own, Andiew, Andi-ew McFai-land, 
David Buddel, .\lbert Slarret, Henry Rendert, Ralph Price, Ah. Price, 
Jerub Price, John Gray, .iMhn Mnlford, James Shay." Not more than 
twelve oi- fifteen of these were residents. The remainder were soldiers. 
Gaines' Meicuiy No. 1470. Rivington's Gazette, No. 351. 

* Sparks' Washinglon, vi. 462, 453. 

paint, and in the same condition and style of archi- 
tecture was the adjacent building, the Presbyterian 
meeting-house, both of which respectively occupied 
the ground whereon now .stand the structures devoted 
to the same objects." Such is the description of these 
buildings as given by the late Capt. William C. De 
Hart. They were among the oldest and most ven- 
erable buildings of the town. The church was or- 
namented by a steeple, surmounted by a ball and 
weathercock, furnished also with a clock. It was 
the most conspicuous and the most valued building 
in the town, hallowed as the structure in which their 
pilgrim fathers had worshiped God, in which they 
themselves, so many of them, had been consecrated to 
God in baptism, and in which the great and revered 
Dickinson, the honored Spencer, and the still more 
renowned Whitefield had preached God's word ' 

The destruction of these buildings is by common 
consent attributed to Cornelius Hatfield, Jr., whose 
venerable parents, Col. Cornelius and Abigail, were 
among the most excellent and honored members of 
the Presbyterian Church, and most thoroughly patri- 
otic. The father had been a trustee, and was then an 
elder of the church. The mother died on the 27th of 
April, in the year following, in the seventieth year of 
her age, greatly lamented. The renegade son was a 
man of great energy of character, and of command- 
ing influence among the refugees. During the pre- 
vious two years he had resided on Staten Island, con- 
tinually watching opportunities to molest and capture 
his former friends and neighbors.' 

As the son had destroyed their church edifice, so 
the father opened the doors of a large " Red Store- 
house" that belonged to him, which was fitted up for 
the purpose, and used thenceforward as a meeting- 
house. It was on the other and most populous side 
of the creek, on the east side of Cherry Street, near 
West Water^ Street, and nearly opposite Capt. De 
Hart's house. It was afterwards removed to the op- 
posite side of the road, rebuilt and occupied by Mr. 
Edward Price.' 

As soon as Washington heard of the affair he dis- 
patched Maj. -Gen. Arthur St. Clair, January 27th, to 
investigate the causes of the disaster, to guard against 
future inroads of the kind, and to ascertain the 
practicability of a retaliation, at the same time to 
take command of all the forces below the Hills. On 
Friday, the 28th, St. Clair reports from Crane's Mill 
as follows : 

" I arrived at Ool. Hazeu's Quarters the night before last, and yesrei^ 
day with him vi.sited the several posts, which I found to be Riihway, 
Cmne's Mills, Connecticut Farms, Elizabeth Town, and Newark. Eliz- 
abeth Town and Newark ai'e occupied by small detaclimuirls only, and 
guai'ds are posted at De Hart's aird Halstead Points. A small guard is 
also kept at the New Blazing Star from the post at Italiway. ... In 
Elizabeth Town I find a four days' guard, consisling of one hundred 
men, with a Field Officer. This I reduced to a Capiaiu and fifty, to he 

» Passages in the History of E. T., No. III. 

5 N. J. Jouinal, No. 115. 

' Passages in the History of E. T,, No. II. 


I Notes, p. 4G. 



relieved daily. . ■ . The guards at De Hart's and Halstead Points are 
certainly much exposed." 

Notwithstanding these precautions, another foray 
was made on Sunday evening, 30th of January, 
which is thus described in a Tory paper : 

" Last Sunday eveningaparty, coiisistinKof tliirteen mounted refugees, 
went friim Stateu Island, and [at Rahway] in the vicinity of Elixabetli 
Town, New Jersey, .•.urpri.*ed Mr. Wyaiitz, a lieutenant of tlie rebel 
militia, and ei^ht private men of Colonel Jacques' regiment [that had 
bet'n on a party of pleasure with some young ladies]. Few Republicans 
oil this continent are more remarkable for theirimplacalile opposition to 
his Majesty's government than some of these pi isoiiera; they were all 
the same evening securely lodged on Slaten Island. They were found 
at a fandango or merry-making wilh a party ofUsses, who became planet 
struck at the suddi'U separation from their Damons. The further tro- 
pliies of this successful excursion are three handsome sleighs with ten 
good horses, all of which were yesterday driven to New York over the 
ice from Staten Island, an enterprise never yet attempted since the first 
•ettlenient of this country." l 

The ice blockade continuing, the Tories took an- 
other ride into Jensey on the 10th of February with 
similar results : 

"On Thursday night last the enemy, under the command of Generals 
Stirling and Skinner, visited Elizabeth Town entirely upon a plundering 
party. Among other houses they plundered Doctor Ilaruet'fl, Messrs. 
William P. Smith, William Herriman, Matthias Halsted, and Doctor 
Wynantz, the two former in a most liarbarons manner. The house of 
Mr. Smith they searched throughout for Mr Eliaha Boudinot, who they 
thought was concealed there, but fortunately both he and Mr. Smith 
lodged out of town. After terrifying the women and children, they 
heroically marched off with their plunder and five or six prisouers." 2 

The horrors of that dreadful winter could not be 
forgotten by that generation. The condition of the 
people in their almost defenseless exposure to the 
barbarian incursions of the rapacious foe was deplor- 
able in the extreme. But the more they suffered for 
their country's cause the more fixed and deep-rooted 
was their determination never again to submit to the 
now more than ever hated rule of the cruel and 
haughty Briton. 

It is surprising that any of the people should have 
continued, in these circumstances, to reside on the 
borders of the Sound, especially when it was every- 
where frozen over, and ctiuld be crossed over in per- 
fect safety by the refugee marauders. So long as 
this natural bridge lasted these incursions continued. 
The following statement, made on Wednesday, March 
29th, shows what was now of not infrequent occur- 
rence : 

" Last Friday night [24th] some villains from Staten Island came over 
to Elizabeth Town and carried off Matthias Halstead, Esq., a worthy 

Even after the departure of the ice these forays 
were repeated. On the 26th of April a record is made 
as follows : 

" A party of the enemy from Staten Island, consisting of about thirty 
men, attempted to suipiise, last Sunday night [23d], a small guard at 
Halstead's Point, but through the alertness of the sentinels (one of 
which they killed) their plan was efTectually marred. They plundered 

Mr. Halstead of beds and bedding, the family's wearing apparel, and seven 
or eight head of creatures." 

Thus pa.ssed in alarm and terror the ever memor- 
able winter of 1779-80, memorable for the severity 
of the season, and for the devastation made by the 
merciless foe. 




1 Rivington's Gazette, No. 349. Gaines' Mercury, No. 1477. Moore's 
Diary, ii. 267-58. N. J. Gazette, No. III. 

- N. J. Gazette, No. 112. Mr. Smith's house was the former residence 
of Governor Belcher. Mr. Boudinot was the sou-iu-Iaw of Mr. Smith. 

3 N. J. Journal, No. .59. 

Knyphausen's Invasion. — Early in the spring of 
1780, Gen. Knyphausen, then chief in command of 
the British forces at New York, began to make vigor- 
ous preparation for the invasion of New Jersey, with 
the view of driving out the patriot army. The fol- 
lowing report of the inception of the movement was 
made by Governor Robertson, of New York, to Lord 
Germain : 

'*Oii the 6th of June we sailed with as many troops as could safely be 
spared from the defense of this province— (iOUil— to Stiteii Island; from 
thence we landed our advanced guard the same night at Elizabeth Town, 
where they wailed the landing of a second embarkatiou by the return 
of the boats. These Bodys moved on, with orders to try to surprise Max- 
well's brigade of Jersey troops, stationed near to the road we marched 
by, to endeavor to get posst-ssion of the strong post at Short Hills, to wait 
there thf^ arrival of the third embarkation of the army, from whence 
if our intelligence should show circumstances favorable it was intended 
to march directly with the whole against Washington, who had been 
sending his stores from Morristowu, hut was still iucumbered there with 
a great many."^ 

The Coldstream Guards, under the command of 
Gen. Edward Matthew, sailing down the bay disem- 
barked at Staten Island, where they were joined by 
other troops, regulars and provincials. Here they 
were formed into three divisions, the first under com- 
mand of Brig.-Gen. Stirling, the second under Brig.- 
Gen. Matthew, the third, comprising the Coldstream 
Guards and others, under Maj.-Gen. Tryon, the whole 
under the general command of Maj.-Gen. Knyphau- 
sen. As soon as formed they marched forward to the 
landing opposite Elizabeth Town Point, arriving in 
the night and unobserved. The first division crossed 
the Sound in flat-boats, and landed on the meadows 
near tiie Point, where they halted until in like man- 
ner the second and third, with the light artillery, had 
crossed before day. Early on Wednesday morning 
the whole force were in motion. Stirling, being the 
youngest general, led the advance. 

In the mean time word was brought to Col. Dayton, 
of the Jersey Brigade, that the British were at the 
Point. Having reconnoitred the position he stationed 
a guard of twelve men at the eastern terminus of 
Water Street (now Elizabeth Avenue), where the 
two roads leading to the Old and New Points diverge, 
with orders to arrest the advance of the foe as long as 
practicable and then retire. Dayton hastened back 
to the town and mustered his troops as quickly as pos- 

f N. Y. C'ol. Docmts, viii. 78:i. 


sible, to be ready for the emergency and fall back if 

As the enemy came marching forward at the break 
of day, Gen. Stirling at the head of his division, the 
guards at the forks of the road allowed them to ap- 
proach within musket-shot, when they fired and fled 
to town. One of the balls unhorsed Stirling and frac- 
tured his thigh. The whole column was thus brought 
to a halt until the wounded general could be cared 
for. Knyphausen now placed himself at the head of 
the division, and just as the sun was rising upon the 
earth the squadron in advance entered the town, 
passing up Water Street (Elizabeth Avenue) and so 
into Broad Street. 

" An eye-witness of the passage of the troops through the village de- 
scribes it as one of the most lienuliful sights he ever beheld. In the van 
mnrclied a squadron of dragoons of Simeon's regiment, Itnown as tlie 
'Queen's Rangers,' with drawn swords and glittering helmets, mounted 
on ver.v large and beautiful horses, then followed the infantry, composed 
of HeE<ians and Kuglish troops, the whole body amounting to nearly 
six thousand men, and every man, horseman and foot, clad in new uni- 
forms, complete in panoply and gorgeous with burnished brass and pol- 
ished steel." ^ 

Passing from Broad into Jersey Street, the columns 
of the enemy on their way to the Short Hills and 
Washington's camp were led by the guides along 
the most frequented way, known as the Galloping 
Hill road, which leaving the Westfield road on the 
line of the present Central Railroad, at the extreme 
west point of the town as now bounded, and running 
northwesterly enters the village of Union or "Con- 
necticut Farms" south of the Presbyterian Church. 
In passing through the town the troops were kept in 
perfect order, committing no deeds of violence. 

As soon as it was known that the foe had landed 
word was sent as quickly as possible to Prospect Hill 
in the rear of Springfield, when the eighteen-pounder 
signal-gun and the tar-barrel on the signal-pole were 
fired, and the whole country on both sides of the 
mountain was roused. Instantly the drums in the 
camp at Morristown beat to arms, and Washington 
and his troops marched with all speed to the post of 
danger. The militia in every direction seized their 
firelocks, swords, or whatever weapon was at hand, 
hastened to their respective mustering-places, and were 
soon proceeding by companies to the field of action. 
The whole town, from the Sound to the Passaic, with 
all its villages, from Springfield to Rahway, was thor- 
oughly aroused and preparing to resist and drive 
back the invading foe. Col. Dayton and that por- 
tion of the Jersey Brigade that was stationed in and 
about the old town made good their retreat from the 
superior numbers of the enemy, and effected a junc- 
tion with the other portions of the brigade under 
Gen. Maxwell at Connecticut Farms. On the way 
up they were joined by militiamen, and with in- 
creasing numbers kept up a continual skirmishing. 

On the rising ground just beyond the west branch 

of Elizabeth River, and about a quarter of a mile 
southeast of the Farms' Church, a stand was made by 
a party of the militia, about sixty in number, armed 
only with muskets, who succeeded in giving a tempo- 
rary check to the column. Maxwell, with his brigade 
and some of the militia, took post on the high ground 
beyond the Farms' village, where they not only 
brought the enemy to a halt, but drove back their 
advance a short distance, annoying them considera- 
bly by their firing. 

Writing from the " Jersey Camp, near Springfield, 
14th June, 1780," to Governor Livingston, Maxwell 

" I thought Elizabeth Town would be an improper place for me. I 
therefi)re retired toward Connecticut Farm'!, where Col. Dayton joined 
me with his regiment. I ordered a few small jiartit-s to defend the de- 
' file near the Farm Meeting-House. where they were joineil and assisted 
in the defense by some small bodies of militia. The ujain Iwdy of the 
brigade had to watch the enemy on the road leading to tlie right and 
left toward Springfield, that they might not cut off our communication 
with his Excellency General Waaliinglon. Our parties of Continental 
troops and militia at the defile performed wonders. After stopping the 
advance of the enemy near three hours, they crossed over the defile and 
drove them to the tavern that was Jeremiah Smith's; but the enemy 
were at that time reinforced with at least 15no men, and our people 
were driven in their turn over the defile and obliged to quit it. I, with 
the whole brigade and militia, was formed to attack them shortly after 
they bad crossed the defile, but it was tho't imprudent, as the ground 
waa not advantageous, and tlie enemy very numerous. We retired 
slowly towards the heights toward Springfield, harassing them on their 
right and left till they came with their advance to David Meeker's 
house, where they thought proper lo halt. Shortly alter the whole 
brigade, with the militia, advanced their right, left, and front with the 
greatest rapidity, and drove their advance to the main body. We were 
in onr turn otiliged to retire alter the closest action 1 have seen this 
war. We were then pushed over the bridge at Springfield (Rahway 
River), where we posted some troops, and with the assistance of a field- 
piece commanded by the militia the enemy were again driven back to 
their former station, and still farther before night. Never did troops, 
either Continental or militia, behave better than ours did. Every one 
that had an opportunity (which they mostly all had) vied with each 
other who could serve the country most. In the latter part of the day 
the militia flocked from all quarters and gave the enemy no respite till 
the day closed the scene, "2 

The fighting on this occasion took place mostly on 
the rising ground back of the Farms' village and on 
the east side of the Rahway'River : 

" In the hope of preserving the Faims (village) Odonel Dayton, who 
at that time commanded the militia, determined not to halt in the 
settlement, but to take post at a narrow pass on the road leading to 
Springfield," ^ 

Both parties, therefore, passed through the village 
without damage to the dwelling-houses. Many, if not 
the most, of these houses were at noon and in the 
afternoon " filled with their wounded." 

In the course of the afternoon the British com- 
mander " learned from Prisoners and Deserters that 
Washington had got time to occupy with all his force 
the strong post of Short Hills.'" This information at 
once put an end to all thoughts of advance. A retro- 
grade movement vva.s at the close of the day deter- 
mined upon, to be executed, however, only after night- 

' De Hart's " Passages in the History of Elizabeth Tow 

- Hist. Magazine, iii 211, 
3 Marshall's Washington, 
* N, Y. Col. DoclutB., viii. 



Preparations accordingly were made for an encamp- 
ment. Lieut. Mathew, of the Coldstream Guards, 
says, — 

"Fiudinp that the nislit woiiM come on before we readied Spring- 
fielj, we retreateil to a very coniniandiiig ground near a place or village 
called Coniiecticnt Fiiiin^. wliicli we burnt on our retreat afterwards. 
Here the urni.v divided their ground and sent out pickets, expecting to 
la.v here the whole night. I was on a picket. I went on it about five 
o'clock in tlip evening- It was in the Hkil-ts of a wood; the rebels kept 
Bring on it from the time I went on till dark."' 

As soon as it was determined to advance no f^trther 
the soldiers seem to have commenced the work of 
plundering, which was effectually prosecuted, 
Governor Robertson himself sharing in the plunder. 
The village consisted of a house of worsliip belonging 
to the Presbyterian Church (a frame building) and 
eight or ten dwelling-houses, besides stores, shops, and 
outhouses. The buildings were first given up to pil- 
lage, thoroughly ransacked, and everything portable 
carried oft'. They were then fired and burnt down. The 
church edifice shared the same fate. The houses on 
the road running east froin the church, belonging re- 
spectively to Benjamin Thompson, Moses Thompson, 
John Wade, and Robert Wade, and the house belong- 
ing to Caleb Wade, at the foot of the hill on which the 
church stood, were thus destroyed.^ 

Tiie parsonage wa.s on the street running north and 
south that bounds the village on the west. It was on 
the eastern side of the street fronting west. The last 
pastor of the church, Rev. Benjamin Halt, had died 
June 27, 1779. The Rev. Mr. Caldwell, of Elizabeth 
Town, by the advice of friends, had, shortly after Mr. 
Hait's decease, rented the vacant parsonage and occu- 
pied it with his family, having removed thither from 
Springfield. Mr. Caldwell had vainly endeavored, 
when the alarm was given in the morning, to induce 
his wife to seek with him and the elder children a 
place of greater security. She concluded to trust 
Providence and remain at home, " under the persua- 
sion that her presence might serve to protect" the " from pillage, and that her person could not 
possibly be endangered."^ 

Thacher, who was with Washington on this occa- 
sion, says, in his military journal, that "On the 
arrival of the royal troops Mrs. Caldwell entertained 
the oflicers with relreshinents, and after they had re- 
tired she and a young woman, having Mrs. Caldwell's 
infant child in her arms, seated themselves on the bed." 
Another account, published seven days after the oc- 
currence, says, — 

"Mrs. Caldwell retired into a back roi>ni, which was so situated that 
she was entirely secured against transieni shot fnuii either parly sboiitd 
they dispute the ground near the Inaise, wli ch lia].|jened not to be the 
case. The babe [Maria] was in the arms of the»ekeeper [Cat..aiine 
Fernard.Dra>.mallgirl named Abigail Leiningb.nJ; the other child the 
m.>llier held by the hand, all >illing upon the shie of the bed, when one 
of the barbarians advalning round the lioiise, took the advantage of a 
small space tbiough which the room was acce-sible and fired two balls 

' Hist. Mag., i. li>4. 

2 Barber's N. .(. Hist. Coll.. p. l!)r,. 

a Ibiil. Brown's Life of liev. l>r. Finley, i.p. 24(M1. 

iutu that amiable lady, f 
moment." * 

well directed that they ended her life i 

The circumstances of her death are variously re- 
lated. The most particular and the most plausible 
statement is the following : 

"The maid, who had accompanied her to this secluded a|>artraent and 
had charge of the other small children, on looking out of a window into 
the biick.yard ohserved to Mrs. Cablwell that a 'red-coat soldier bad 
jumped over the fence and was coming up to the window with a gun.' 
Hei youngest son [Elias Boudinot], nearly two years old, pl.iying upon 
the Hoor, on hearing what the maid said, called out, ' Let me see! Let 
me ^ee^ and ran that way, M re. Caldwell rose from silting on a bed 
very near, and at this moment the sidd er fired his musket at her through 
the window. It was loaded with two balls, which both passed through 
her body." ^ 

Thacher says that at the sight of the soldier Mrs. 
Caldwell exclaimed, " Don't attempt to scare me !" 
when the soldier fired, shooting her through the 
breast, and she instantly expired.' 

That it was a British soldier that killed her is fully 
established, and that it was not a random shot is also 
clear. But that she was known to the murderer, or 
that he was seeking to gratify a personal malice, is not 
evident. It was at all events an act of fiendish bar- 
barity that made the British name still more exe- 
crable, not only by her townsmen, but by the whole 
American people. 

Conflicting statements also are made as to the dis- 
posal of the corpse. Thacher says that " a British 
officer soon after came, and, throwing his cloak over 
the corpse, carried it to the next house." A corre- 
spondent of the New Jersey Gazette, under date of June 
13th, says: "I saw her corpse, and was informed by 
the neighbors it was with infinite pains they ob- 
tained leave to bring her body from the house before 
they set tire to it."' 

The house to which the body was conveyed be- 
longed to Capt. Henry Wade. It was a small build- 
ing on the opposite side of the street (the site of 
winch has of late been occupied by the family of Mr. 
Phineas Crilley ), one of the only two dwelling-houses 
in the village that escaped the flames. There Mr. 
Caldwell found it the next morning, and thence the 
same day it was with appropriate ceremonies carried 
to the grave. Three months after he published a 
most afi'ecting appeal on the subject that made a deep 
impression on the public mind.'* 

Tlie expedition proved a miserable failure. This 
great array of disciplined troops, horse and foot and 
flying artillery, so ctmfident in the morning of reach- 
ing the American camp at Morristown and breaking 
up the rebellion, were held at bay by a lew hastily- 
gathered militia, driven back, and, alter the inglori- 

* N. J. Journal, No. 70. Catharine Bernard was manic 
to J<dlli Spicer, of Turkey. 

» Blown's Life of Kiuley, p. 241. 

6Tliacher'sJournal, p. 19:i. 

' N. .). Gazette, No. l:ii;. N. J. Journal. No 70, 7a. 

8 Barber's N.J. Hist. Coll., p. 197. N. J., No. I 
paiticnia.s, see Mis. Ellet'a •' Women of the Revoluli. 


For further 
' ii. lOS, U.-i, 



ous destruction by fire of the little hamlet at Con- 
necticut Farms, compelled the same night, in the 
midst of drenching rain, and through mud and marsh, 
to retreat to the point of departure. Says Lieut. 
Mathew, — 

"About ten u'cluck the whole Hmiy got in lnoti"ii anc] movej off. It 
was BO exceedingly dark, and there was such strict silence ohservH,!, that 
one regiment could not perceive the adjoining regini'-ut going off. . . . 
It was the darkest night I can remember in my life, with the most 
heavy rain, thunder, and lightning kn.'Wn in this cr.untry for many 
years. ... It rained, I tliink, harder than I ever knew, and thundered 
and lightened so severely as to frighten the hordes, and once or tw.ce 
the wiiole army halted, being deprived of sight f..r a time. General 
Knyphausen's liorse started so as to throw the general. 

'■We continued our march until we readied the bank of the creek 
(Sound) which lie had crossed in tlie m"rning. Nothing mure awful 
than this retreat can be imagined. The rain, with the teirilde thunder 
and lightning, the darkness of the night, the houses at Connecticut 
Farms which we had set fire to in a blaze, the dead bodies wliich the 
liglit of the fire or tlie lightning showed yon now and then on the 
road, and the dread of an enemy completed the scene of horror. . . . 
We halted at the side of the creek and took up our ground, and the 
whole army encamped." i 

As the result of the day's encounter, Gen. Maxwell 
reported one ensign (Moses Ogden, of Elizabeth 
Town, aged nineteen) killed and three lieutenants 
wounded, seven privates killed, twenty-eight wounded, 
and five missing. The militia also lost several and 
had a number wounded. The enemy lost three times 
the number. Gen. Stirling died of his wound nearly 
a year later. 

"The Tories were so sure of the enemy's surceeding that they sent 
word to their friends in Elizabeth 'I'own that they should pay them a 
visit the day after the enemy came over." 2 

It is safe to say that the visit was not paid. It is 
quite certain that the town " the day after" was not a 
very agreeable place for men that could glory in 
Knyphausen and his deeds. 

Occupation of Elizabethtown Point by the Brit- 
ish. — The scouts that followed after tlie retreating foe 
on their return reported that they had passed over to 
Staten Island, all but about five hundred men left 
behind to intrench themselves at the Point. They 
encamped between the Old Point and De Hart's 
house. Lord Stirling, the senior in command below 
the Hills, is reported to have said thereupon to Gen. 
Hand, "Take your brigade. Hand, and the two bri- 
gades of militia, and go down and bring up those 
fellows at the Point." The columns, numbering 
about fifteen hundred, were soon put in inarching 
order, to rendezvous at Elizabeth Town. Here the 
troops were marshaled for the attack. The Continen- 
tals, under Gen. Hand, had the centre, with a militia 
brigade on the right and left. They advanced in 
three columns, designing to assault the enemy in as 
many points at once. 

The advance corps of the left brigade cut off and 
captured the picket-guard of the enemy. This bri- 
gade were much exposed before reaching their point of 
attack in crossing a meadow, and drew forth so heavy a 

< Historical Magazine, i. 104, 105. 
« Barber's N. J. Hist. Coll., p. 192. 

fire of artillery from the enemy as to shnw that they 
were in full force. Hand contrived, therefore, to give 
the attack the appearance of a feint, and drew off his 
troops so deliberately as to make the enemy believe 
that he was simply executing a manoeuvre designed 
to draw them from their fortifications. He succeeded 
in effecting his retreat to the town without being pur- 
sued. The cannonade at one time was very heavy, 
and would have done fearful execution had their aim 
been lower, nearly all the balls passing over the heads 
of the troops on their advance.'' 

The ground occupied by the contending forces on 
this occasion is now covered by the factories, ware- 
houses, and residences of Elizabethport, — the First 
Ward of the city of Elizabeth. 

The British army continued in the occupation of 
this post during the next fortnight, behind the forti- 
fications thrown up by the Americans more than four 
years before, continual skirmishes taking place be- 
tween the lines. 

The situation of the town during this period was 
anything but enviable. Almost daily they were visited 
by portions ot one army or the other, — placed between 
two fires. 

Gen. William Irvine, from the "Camp Short Hills, 
June 18th," wrote to his wife at Carlisle, Pa., as fol- 
lows : 

" Tile Enemy lie still at Elizabethtown Point, about ten miles from 
here. We have small parlies down near them every day. but there is 
bul little damage done on eillier side. We liave taken at different times 
some foi ty prisoneis. . . . We have been now Ibirteen d'ly.-. at this place 
« itinint Tents or Baggage. Ko coveiint: except boughs of trees and bark, 
whicli, however, is cool and pleasant in the heat of Ihe day. and serves 
to keep outa good deal ol rain. Notuitlixtanding these piivalions, we 
have m.t liail a ni .n sick since we have lakeu the field. One cons.da- 
tion we have, the enemy are w.,ise off than we are They liave no Tents, 
and are iiemed in a nariou neck ol hind, wliilst we li 've a uide exieut 
of country. Yon may think your sitoalion h:ipp\ indeed, my love, when 

compared witli Iliat of the p people of Ibis part ot our country. It 

grieves me beyond expression to see their distressed situation, particu- 
larly that of ti.e Women and cliildren. Murder and Uapiin' await them 
wherever the.-e Inilbarians come. Were it possible, I would suffer a 
thousand denths lallor than see you in Ihe situation sono' poor gentle- 
men here are forced to see Ilieir wives and daughters left in."* 

The attempt to penetrate to Washington's camp by 
the way of the Short Hills was renewed a few days 
later, Sir Henry Clinton taking the oversight of the 
affair. The British lett their camp at the Point before 
day on Friday, the 23d, and marched forward, an 
imposing force of about five thousand men, besides 
dragoons, and fifteen or twenty pieces of artillery, 
superior to any force that Washington could oppose 
to them. Having driven in the American pickets, 
they pressed on without obstruction to Connecticut 
Farms, which they reached about sunrise. From this 
point they proceeded in two compact columns, the 
right taking the more circuitous road on the north 
that leads through Headly Town, Vauxhall, and Mil- 
burn, and unites with the main roail just below the 
principal pass of the Short Hills back of Springfield, 

s Junes' Life of Dr. Greene, pp. 111-14. 

I Hist. Mag., vii. 81. 



the lel't taking the road tliat leads directly from " the 
Farms" over the Rah way Kiver to Springfield, with 
wliicli route they had become painfully familiar on 
their previous expedition. 

As soon as the enemy were si en from the signal-sta- 
tion on Prospect Hill, the eighteen -pounder and the 
tar-barrel were again fired. The militia began imme 
diateiy to collect from every quarter; the' troops that 
were guarding the several passes over the hills were 
hastily called in and posted so as at once to resist the 
advancing foe, protect the American flanks, and se- 
cure a retreat if needed. Major Lee, with the horse 
and the pickets under Capt. Walker, took post at 
Little's Bridge, on the Vauxhall road, su|)ported by 
Col. Ogden's comnjand. The defense of the village 
against the left column of the enemy was intrusted to 
Col. Dayton's reginientof the Jersey Brigade. Stark's 
brigade and the remainder of Maxwell's were drawn 
up on the heights near the mill in the rear of the vil- 
lage, with the militia on the flanks. 

In the disposal of his regiment Col. Dayton sta- 
tioned Col. Angell, of Rhode Lsland, with about two 
hundred men and a piece of artillery at the first 
bridge over the principal stream, on the main road in 
front of the town, and Col. Shreve with a detach- 
ment at the second bridge, over a smaller stream on 
the same road behind the town, so as to cover the re- 
treat of Col. Angell's forces. The planks of the 
bridges in front had been removed. 

As the van of the enemy approached the first bridge 
they began to manoeuvre in such a way and so long, 
nearly two hours, as to convince Gen. Greene that 
they were moving on his flanks. In the mean time 
the right column of the enemy advanced along the 
Vauxhall road to the bridge, defended by Maj. Lee 
and Capt. Walker. Here they met with a stout re- 
sistance from the dragoons and pickets, but having 
forded the river higher up, and gained the point of 
the hill near by, Lee and Walker were compelled to 

As soon as it was known that the right column had 
reached the bridge in front of Lee, the left column 
advanced in force against Col. Angell at the lower 
bridge, and after a hotly-contested struggle of forty 
minutes compelled hiui to retire behind the second 
bridge in good order, carrying off his wounded. 
Col. Shreve in like manner was compelled to give 
way after covering Angell's retreat, when both com- 
mands fell back, and joined Maxwell and Stark on 
the high ground in the rear. Two regiments. Col. 
Webb's (under Lieut.-Col. Huntington's command) 
and Col. Jackson's, with one piece of artillery, were 
posted on the Vauxhall road to the left so as to cover 
Lee's retreat and oppose the advance of the enemy's 
right column, while the main body of troops were 
posted on the first range of hills in the rear of Byram's 

During the heat of the contest with Dayton's regi- 
ment it is related of his chaplain, Mr. Caldwell, that 

he showed the utmost ardor in the fight, as if he 
would avenge himself for the murder of his beloved 
wife. To supply the men with wadding for their fire- 
locks he galloped to the church near by and brought 
back an armful of psalm-books, and as he handed 
them around he shouted, " Now put Watts into them, 
! Having gained possession of the village, and ob- 
served how every post in front was occupied by the 
Continentals and the militia, whose numbers were 
continually increasing, the enemy showed no dispo- 
sition to press forward. Fearing, too, as they learned 
fnmi their scouts of the approach of the brigade sent 
out by Washington, that their retreat might be cut 
off, they determined to proceed no farther, but to re- 
trace their steps as before. The work of plunder now 
began, and house after house was rifled of its valua- 
bles, fired, and burned to the ground. Nineteen dwel- 
ling-houses and the Presbyterian Church were thus 
destroyed. Only four dwelling-houses were spared, 
being occupied by their wounded. Foiled completely 
in their object now as before, they once more took 
up their backward line of march, and disappeared 
as rapidly as they came, pursued and galled by a 
detachment of one hundred and twenty regulars 
under Capt. Davis and a large body of militia, who 
fell upon their rear and flanks, and pursued them 
almost to their fortifications at the Point. The sight 
of the burning dwellings almost maddened the mili- 
tia, who eagerly sought to take off the red-coated 
marauders. Maj. Lee with his dragoons also fell 
upon their rear, and captured some of the refugees 
that accompanied the army, as well as some of the 
Tories who had joined them and welcomed their 

The enemy, crestfallen and severely jmnished for 
their audacity, entered Elizabeth Town on their return 
about sunset closely pursued by Stark's brigade, 
which in their eagerness to escape they effectually 
distanced by their precipitate flight. Having reached, 
before dark, the cover of their Ibrtifications, they 
rested until midnight, when they crossed the Sound 
on their bridge of boats, which, of course, they took 
up and removed as their rear-guard passed over. 
Gen. Dickinson marched the militia to the Point the 
next day and effectually demolished the works 
which the enemy had constructed, and then dis- 
missed the brave yeomanry, with great reputation, to 
their homes. 

The loss of the Americans in the several contests 
of the day, as reported by Lieut.-Col. Barber, deputv 
adjutant-general, was thirteen killed and forty-nine 
wounded. The militia had none killed, only twelve 
wounded, and nine missing. Only one oflScer was 
slain. First Lieut. Thompson, of the artillery. The 
loss of the enemy is not recorded. It must have 
been very considerable. Lieut. Mathew says that 
" in this expedition to the Jerseys . . . there were 
not less than five hundred killed, wounded, and miss- 



ing, besides officers," among whom was Brig.-Gen. 

Thus ended, so far as this town is concerned, the 
most memorable campaign of the war. The whole 
of these exploits, from the 7th to the 23d of June, 
occurred within the territorial limits of the old 
borough. That on both these occasions so powerful 
and well-organized a force should have been held at 
bay and then driven back by so small a body of Con- 
tinentals, aided by the militia from their farms and 
workshops, — not more than a thousand on the 23d 
having at any one time been brought into action, — 
reflects great credit on both the patriotism and 
bravery of the people. Washington was delighted 
with their services. June 25th he thus writes, — 

" The mint a deserve everything that can be a lid on Imtli cicc-Hsious. 
They fli'w tii arms universally, and ailed with a spirit equal to anything 
I liavese'-n iu the course of the war."2 

From this time forward the people were mostly per- 
mitted to remain at home in the cultivation of their 
fields and in the pursuits of trade. The harvests 
were gathered without interruption, and the wastes 
of the war were in part repaired. As tlie enemy, 
however, still continued in force on Staten Island, it 
became necessary to guard againt a repetition ol' these 
outrages. In consequence of the exposed condition 
' of the post no more military stores were to be ke|)t 
here, thus removing one of the strong temptations to 
these marauding expeditions. 

The partisan warfare from which individuals had 
so severely suffered was still continued. The refu- 
gees on Staten Island were specially malignant and 
troublesome. The following notice, publislied No- 
vember 8th, shows something of the danger to which 
the prominent friends of the country were continually 
exposed : 

"On Saturday night last [4th] Smith Hetiifld.Carn.linsHptfl.dd, Elias 
Man, anil some others came over from Stat.n l^land to Eiizalith Tow u 
where they were infm-nied that Col [Matthias] 0i.'deii,or the Vi »t.l.-r»ey 
KeKimeul, and ( aplain [.I..nathan] Dayton, of the Tliiid, were to lodge 
that ni;rlit at William Herd's at Connecticut Farms, to which place Ihey 
hastened, made them both prisoners, and carried them off unmoleated to 
Staten Island." 

Gaines, under date of September 28d, represents 
that the people suffered also from the foraging parties 
of their own army : 

" Last Week a Party of Mnyland's Light Horse were at Elizahelh Town, 
collecting cattle for the Use ol the Kebel Army. Tliey tO"k a pair of fat 
Oxen out of a Team ou the Eoad.and gave the Driver a iecei|.t lor Iheni; 
They then proceeded to the I'oint, ami t.'ok away every Ho.if 
from them, but were opposed on the Way by the Militia and the Com- 
missioners of the Place, who obliged them to reliminish "heir Booty." 

Under date of Dec. 18, 1780, Gaines says, — 

1 N. J. .Journal, No. 72. N. .1. Gazette, Nos. Vn. M2 G.Tdou's Rev. 
War, iii. 6(). Thacher's Journal, pp. 19(i, l'J7. Maivliall's Wasliington, 
iv. 234, 23B. Gordim's N. .1., p. ;ili(i. Barber's N. .1. lli-t. Coll , pp. l'j:i. 
19S. Sjiarks' Washington, vii. 86, S7, 60li, 6II1I. Sedgwick's L viiigsum, 
pp. H51, :ifj5, Duer'a Stirling, pp. '21>7, 2o8. Irving's Wasliingb.n, iv. 117. 

72. .tones' Life of Green, pp. 11.'., 121. Tomes' Uatll-s ..f A ica, ii. 

233, 2:l.'>. N. Y. Col. Docmts., viii. 704. Moore's Diary, ii. -i'JI, 29i 

! N. J. Gazetti-, No. 132. 

"On Thursday evening [14tli] Mr. Elias Mann and a Party of Men 
under his command attacked the Rebel Picket at Elizabeth T..wn. They 
killeil twoaud took six of the Bebels; one only escaped The prisoners 
were brought in here ou Sattirday last, with two other Rebels taken by 
the same enterprising Party a few days before." s 

The same authority, November 25th, says, — 

"Yesterday f'apt. Cornelius Hetfield, with adventure p'^culiar to him- 
self, after an incursion upon the Jonathans in Jersey, brought off a lieu- 
tenant and five or six others." ^ 

This daring partisan .seems constantly to have been 
plotting against his former friends and neighbors with 
an ambition and courage worthy of a better cause. 
On the 25th of January, 1781, he and four other ref- 
ugees, all formerly from this town, arrested on Staten 
Island Stephen Ball, a London trader from Rahway, 
a son of David Ball, and took him first to Gen. Pat- 
terson and then to Gen. Skinner, both of whom re- 
fused to proceed against him on the charge that he 
had aided in the execution, in 1779, of Thomas Long, 
a New Jersey refugee, when they took him over to 
Bergen Point, and without judge or jury hung him as 
a sjjy by the neck until he was dead.* 

On Friday, the 23d of February, the same party 
came by night to Elizabeth Town and captured Capt. 
Craig, of the State Regiment, and four other inhabit- 
ants. The next week, Tliursday, IVIarch 1st, they 
found their way by night to Rahway and carried off 
John Clawson, Esq., one of the commissioners for sell- 
ing the confiscated estates, against whom, therefore, 
they had a peculiar grudge.* 

The year 1781 was noted in this neighborhood for 
the frequency with which the nocturnal incursions 
of the " Cow-Boys" and other plunderers from Staten 
Island disturbed the peace and ctmifort of the border 
population. The following notices may serve to show 
to some extent in what a state of excitement and se- 
rious alarm the people of this town who still re- 
mained in the occupation of their dwelling-houses 
must have lived. Tlie New Jersey Journal of the 28th 
of March says, — 

" Last Wednesday ni;;ht f2lst) a party of refugees from Staten Island 
was over at Kahwa.v, plundeiitig ami kidnapping every -^ne thtiy came 
across. They carried off, we hear, near a dozeu of the inhabitants pris- 

The same journal of the 4th of April says, — 

"On Monday night, the '2>>th ult., a delachmetit of eight ujen from the 
Stale troops in Elizabeth Town went over to Staten Isl.ind and brought 
offa LientetmntamI one private of the militia. They tot.k two more, 
hnt the wind fresh an their boat small incapacitated them so 
much that Ihey could not bring them over."" 

Retaliation followed the next day, of which a state- 
ment is made by the same annalist its follows: 

"On Tuesday night, the '27lh ult, about two hundred regulars and ref- 
ugees from Staten Island, uuder the command of Mi^jor Beekwitli, who 

3 Gaines' Mercury, Nos. KW, K2'. Rivington's Gazette, No. 417. . 
< Ibid., No. 434. Gaines' Mercury, No. I5IU. 

i Rivington'a Oazette, No. 4J4. N. J. Journal, No. 11)5. New York 
Oa/..-tt.-ei, N... ill-,. 
"N.J. Journal. .\.>s. loi;. Iii7. Hivingb.n, No. JIU. Gaines, Nos. 1532, 


; N.J. Journal, Nos. 1111, 111. 



ha'l eluJeil liy drcuitous roiues the vigilnnce of tlie differpnt putroles, 
entcreil EIizhIiHIi Tuuiihi (, wliere tliry CHptuied ten of 
the jnliHhitiiiils, 1 Lii'Ut. mill :i privnti'S of tliu Stite troops ami 2 con- 
tiiientul soldiers. Tlie.v eUyal nboiit m hour nod h hiilr in town, and 
then n'tKateil. with the loss of one man k lied and another taken pris- 
oner. The.v plundered the liouse of M|-. Jo-epli Crane to a vei }■ couaU- 
erul.le amount."! 

It wa.s a party of the Tliirty-seventh Regiment, 
under command of Capt. Beckwith, according to the 
New Yorlv papers, that performed this exploit: 

"Finding the re'iels dispersed in the houses, he inimi-diiitel.v went to 
their alarm-post, where, by he iling to arms, he drew a Lieutenant and 
many of Ins soldiers to him, whom he made prisoiiei-s.^' - 

Among the most active of the partisans on the 
American side was Capt. Baker Hendricks, a cousin 
of the noted Jolin Smitli Hatfield on the other side. 
Wasliington had employed him at an earlier period 
as a spy, in which capacity he had been allowed to 
trade with the enemy on Staten Island. Governor 
Livingston had commissioned him, Sept. 19, 1780, to 
fit out two whale-boats, the " Flying Squirrel" and 
"Charming Betsey," as privateers to prey on the en- 
emy's vessels. He was at this time about twenty-four 
years of age. Tlie Journal of the i8th of April says, — 

"La^t Monday night (Kith) Capt Baker Hendricks went from Elim- 
belh Town to Staten Island and In ought off one lient-n^int and apiivate j 
of the refugees and oneinliahitant. Previous to Ihe ahove a party went 
over and hroUKht utf a captain.' ^ 

The New Jersey Gazette ot the 9th of May says, — 

"On [Saturday] the '.ilst ult. a party of almui seventy of Ihe enemy ; 
came over to Elizabeth Town fioni Staten Islaml. They landed at llal- 
atead's I'nint.and were discovr-red between that lilaceand Ihe town by 
dipt. Hendi leks, who was palr.diug with about ten or twelve men, and 
though so much iiiferho' in number, he ke|>t up a smart fire on them, 
which pre\enled them from penetrating faither into town thnn Doctor 
W.naiis. Aflercolleelinsja few lionies. etc , filing tliuaigh the windows 
in Ihe room where Mrs Winaus was silt iig. by which a bi.y was wounded 
in the arui, and burning the h.iu-e of Mi. Ephraim Marsh, they weut 
off to their boats "* 

A New York paper says that the party was " a de- 
tachment of Gen. Skinner's corps, under his com- 
mand," accompanied as usual by Capt. Cornelius 
Hatfield, with some of his refugees as guides. It 
further says that — 

■' Capl. McMichael.of the liefug-e Post at Bergen Point, who had been 
taken out of a fiag (boat) 1 y the rebels and liehl in irons, was upon this 
occasion relieved and lesboed to hi< Couipaiii<ius. We have only to 
regret Ihe lossof Mr. Ellas Mann, who has ever iHstinguished himself 
on all oica-sions 8 nee Ihe rebellion as a brave and active Loyalist. He 

was Hiifoiti tely killed by a shot from a skulking |iarty as Ihe troops 

were re-embarking. Capt. lletflc Id and one private were slightly 

A visit from the "Cow-Boys" of Bergen is men- 
tioned in the Journal of the 9th of May : 

*'0n Fiiday last (4th) a party of the enemy from the refugee post at 
Bergen P liut came over to Kliz.betli Town I'ont, and before our people 
were alarmed collected about titty head of cattle, which lliey drove on 
the great meaihiws, where they took them on boaid, under cover of a 
field-piece and some aimed vessels."' 

1 N. .1. Journal, No. III. 

2 liaines' Mercury, No. I.i:l7. Rivington's Gazette, No. 470. 

3 N. .1. Gazelle, Ni>. 2:14. N. J. .lonrnal. No. Ibi. 
< N.J. Gazelle, No. 176. N. J. .Journal, No. 114. 

■ 5 Gaines' Mercury, N". l.VH. 
6N. J. Journal, No. 116. 


A retaliatory visit to Staten Island soon followed, 
of which no account appears but in the New York 
papers : 

"On Tuesday niirht, the 8th inat.. Captain Hendricks (a noted rebel), 
from Elizabeth Town, with another rebel officer, a seiKCHnt. and eleven 
pivate . came on Staten Island, in order to take off the iiatrole of the 
Fiiist Baltaliou New Jersey Volunteers, and to plunder the inhabitants, 
but finding thepatrole, commanded by Ensign Barton, too alert for their 
puip..3e, the rebels concealed themselves in a wood a short distance from 
the house of one Salter, and as soon as they observed Ihe piitr-de leaving 
the neighborhood they imraediiilely surrounded Salter's house. The 
patnd.', though at a distance, concluding they saw rebels, turned back, 
attacked and soon put them to flight, and noiwithsiandiug their ngilily 
two were uiade pns ners. The sergeant, losing himself, wan secured by 
the militia, and had it not been for the ardor of the troops, which suffered 
no loss, the whole gang would have been taken. We hear that Hen- 
dricks received a slight wound and that one of his party was killed."' 

This affair was served up in the Tory papers, with 
considerable embellishment sis usual. It would no 
doubt have appeared very different in one of the 
Jersey papers. 

These excursions from either side of the border 
uniformly occurred by night, and generally, it is pre- 
sumed, on moonless nights. It became necessary to 
use great vigilance in watching every exposed point 
and guarding every avenue of approach. Sentinels 
were posted in the streets, and called the passer-by to 
account. On Saturday night, June 2d, David Wood- 
ruff and Philip McCrea were walking together along 
one of the streets in town, when they were hailed by 
the sentinel ; but not answering, the sentinel fired 
and killed McCrea on the spot. Sad scenes were of 
almost 'daily occurrence.' 

That part of the town bordering on the Rahway 
River was frequently visited by these rapacious ma- 
rauders. Rivington, with his wonted exaggerations, 
in his paper of June 30th has the following account: 

" Last night a detachment of the garrison of about tlii'-ty-six men, in- 
cluding two sergeants, under the comuiaud of Lieut. Hutchinson and 
Ens. Baiton,Fit8t Battalj.m New Jersey Volunteers, with abuiit Ihirly- 
four refugees and militia, under tlie command of i:apln Duilnini and 
R"berts, landed at Trenibly's Point, near the moulh of Ribway River, 
and Buriounded Tairil's tavern, in order to take three rebel light-horse, 
whose business was to patrol down the Sound and to give notice of any 
troops coming from staten Island, but unfoilunately those fellows were 
gone lo Westfield. The troops then proceeded to one Capt. Amos Mol-se'a, 
whowaSBurpri.sed and taken out of bed with four other rebels; afierthia 
they tiaik betwe. n thirty and f..ity head of cattle, annnigst which are six 
good oxen and about eighty sheep, which were drove to Tiembly's P. .int. 
The rebels collected to Ihe amount of about f.rty, harass ng the rear as 
usual. Lent Hntchiiisin formed an ambuscade uuperceived by the 
rebels, which h id its desired effect. Fifleen rebels paa-eil, hallooing, 
' Damn the refugees I Cut lliein down !' Up the troops urose from the 
place where they were secreted. The rebels, observing this, stood aghast, 
threw d.iwn tlieir aims,other8 slood with arms in their hand. On this 
occasion ten were made piis.ner-. Some lime after this about twenty 
rebels cullecleil near the Pniiit, on whom a charge was made, and some 
taken prisoners: the trc»i|is and the refugees then embarked with the 
greatest regularity and g.sid order, with all their cattle and sheep, and 
came safe tn staten Island; not one t)f ihe troojis received the least injury ; 
one of the refugees received a spent ball on his thigh, which bad no olher 
effect than leaving its mark. The troopsand refugees behaved with Ihe 
greatest bravery on this occasion : twenty rebels are made pi isoneis, two 
of whom are woun.led: some were killed, it's not ihiubled, but severul 
were wounded, as several were heard to scream and halloo. The imliies 

rcury. No. 1543. Riviugton's Gazelle, No. 4«S. 
.il. No. Ul). 



of the prisoners follows: Capt. Amos More, Isaac Marsh, John Everit, 
HaniMeton Kotierts, Georpe Mitclie! Deeds, Isaac Ha.vnes, William 
Branf, Richard Lee, Jacob Brookileld, Gershom Brookfield, Jeremiah 
Bird, I»iHC Ihake, Ash.T O^ddington, David Tliorp, John Tuiker, David 
Hetfield, Joseph Ilynes, William Oliver, Sr., Ebenezer Williams, and 
William Oliver, Jr. The above Capt. Morse is Ihe notorious villain men- 
tioned in H late handbill giving an account of the death and sufTerings 
of that unfortunate victim, Mr. Thomas Long, who died by the hand of 
rebel cruelty, to which we beg leave to refer our readers."! 

The Neio Jersey Journal of the 27th of June says 
that this visit occurred " yesterday morning," and 
that " our people . . . killed two of the enemy which 
they lelt on the field, but it is supposed they had sev- 
eral more killed and wounded which they carried off. 
Two of their party deserted and came over to our 
troops." ^ 

The northern part of the town received attention 
soon after. The Mercury of the 23d of July says, — 

" TeFterday evening Lieut. Obadiah Meeker and fourteen privates of 
the New Jersey Rebel Militia weie sent to town [New York] from Staten 
Inland : they were "taken the nigbt before by a pai ty of refugees between 
Newark and Elizabeth Town under the command of Capt. Hetfield." 3 

Lord Cornwallis surrendered, October 17th, his 
whole army and munitions of war at Yorktown, Va., 
to Gen. Washington. That grand event as soon as 
known was everywhere celebrated with demonstra- 
tions of delight and exultation. To the extent that 
it raised the hopes and expectations of the patriots 
it depressed and discouraged the refugees and their 
British supporters. Preparations, therefore, soon after 
began to be made for emigration to the British prov- 
inces, great apprehensions being felt among them 
for their personal safety at the close of the war now 
so obviously drawing to an end. The refugees on 
Staten Island began to find out that the border war- 
fare in which they had so long been engaged was 
the worst kind of policy for their personal interests, 
that it was the surest possible way of preventing their 
own restoration to the favor of their countrymen and 
the recovery of their confiscated estates. 

From this time the war with Staten Island, which 
had been carried forward so persistently for more than 
five years, lost much of its asperity and sensibly de- 
clined in spirit. Not that it was wholly intermitted, 
nor that vigilance was no longer demanded on the 
outposts. Desperate characters enough there were 
on the island who knew that they had too deeply 
injured their townsmen to expect forgiveness, and 
these might at any time make a sudden foray upon 
the stock and plunder the people. 

An entire exchange of prisoners had taken place 
early in September, so that the citizens, as well as the 
soldiers, who had been captured by these marauding 
parties and had not died in prison had been restored 
to their homes, and were permitted to unite with 
their townsmen in their demonstrations of joy over 
the surrender of their old enemy. Lord Cornwallis. 

So long a war, degenerating, as it had done in this lo- 

1 Rivington's Gazette, No. 496. 
s N. J. Journal, No. 123. 
s Gaines' Mercury, No. 16M. 

cality, into a series of predatory forays and midnight 
j surprises, had trained and let loose on society a class 
I of desperadoes, thieves, and cut-throats, ready to prey 
i on any unfortunates who fell into their hands. An 

instance of this kind is related in the New York 

papers of the 10th of November : 

" Last Saturday [Sth] William Hetfield, an inhabitant of Elizabeth 
Town, Rahway, came to Staten Island with a small quantity of fl"Ur to 
dispose of, etc. . . . On his return ititlie evening lie wasmet in the Sound 
by one Peter Terrat, a U'lteil thief, who supports himself and a gang of 
such miscreants by robbing and plundering: to him and his party Hetfield 
surrendered himself; but after he was a prisoner Terrat tlionglit Het- 
field threw something overboanl, rm which the infernal fiend took a 
pistol out of his pocket and shot him dead, laid the body on the bank of 
the Sound, and went ofT exulting with the other prisoners he had taken. 
Hetfield has left a wife aud several children to lament their loss." < 

The victim was the son of David Hatfield (an elder 
of the Rahway Church, who had been captured in 
June, and had now been restored to his home), and a 
cousin of J. Smith Hatfield, the desperado of Staten 
Island. The latter having ventured to return openly 
to the town in a flag-boat was, together with one of 
his comrades, Lewis Blanchard (son of John Blan- 
chard and nephew of Capt. Cornelius Hatfield), seized 
by some of the Westfield people, loaded with irons, 
and hurried off to Burlington, where he was kept in 
close confinement. This gave occasion to the foray, 
of which the New York papers of the 6th of February, 
1782, made mention as follows : 

" Last Friday nigbt [1st] a party, consisting of thirty Refugees, com- 
manded by Captain Cornelius Hetfield, proceeded from Staten Island to 
Elizabeth Town, where they took nine piisoners, am.iugst tliem Mr. 
Reed, a rebel contractor; all were brouglit to Staten Island, where they 
are treated in the same manner as is Mr. Smith Hetfield, lately seized by 
the Westfield people, though he was then under the samtiou of ii flag 
of truce, carried into Burlington, and there loaded with irons; these 
rebels are by the Refugees kept in close durance as hostages for the safe 
return of Smith Hetfield, a valuable individual of their body. His com- 
panion. Lewis Blanchard, fortunately escaping from the rebels at Prince- 
town, traveled two miles into the wood, where he was concealed till he 
could disengage himself from the chains with wliich he was loaded, and 
after being flead by the intense frosts is arrived, an object of commisei^ 
atron amongst liis overjoyed friends, at Staten Island." 5 

The Sound at this time was frozen over, of which 
advantage was taken. A very different account of 
this affair is given by the Journal of the 6th : 

"On Friday night a party of Refugees, consisting of blacks and whites, 
having fornieil a plan to intercept the people of this side as they passed 
into the meadows for salt hay, came over and concealed themselves in a 
swamp, and bad made upwards of a dozen people, with their horses and 
sleds, prisoners, when the alarm being given they were pui'sueil so close 
that two of their party fell into our hands together with all they bad 
previously captured." 6 

It would scarcely seem that these two accounts re- 
late to the same event, and yet it is not at all proba- 
ble that two such forays occurred the same night. 

Soon after the murder of the London trader, related 
above, the tragedy of the Rev. Mr. Caldwell's death 
occurred, November 24th, filling the wliolecommunity 
with sadness and grief The particulars of this la- 
mentable event will appear on a subsequent page. 

< Gaines' Mercury, No. 1569. 
» Gaines' Mercury, No. 1582. 
^ N. J. Journal, No. 155. 

.ingt*m'8 Gazette, No. 534. 
iugton's Gazette, No. 559. 



The following notice of Capt. Hendricks' exploits 
is found in the Journal of the 12th of December : 

" L'lst Tlmrsrlay sennight, Captniii Bak^r Hendricks, witli a party of 
men in whale tioats, went down Newark Bay, near tire Kills, when he 
boardi'ii anil eti-ipped two woiiil-b>iats and took one prisniiMr ; and on 
TliUT-S'lay night last he landed a sm ill party of men on Brgen Neck 
near the Refugee post, when he biok two pri^onei-s, and on his return 
took three noted villains, with provisions of all kinds." ^ 

A visit from some of the " Cow-Boys" of Staten 
Island is thus described in the Journal oi the 5th of 
.December : 

" Last .-faturday nisht list] seven refngees from Slaten IsUnd landed 
at Halstead's Point, with the expectation 'as their l.'ader tnM them) of 
meeting wmie of theirqnondam fiiends with fat cattle: imt Capt. [Jotia- 
thanj Dayton having notice of their intention collected a party of men, 
and knowing the route they were to take laid in ainhneh for thent, 
tbnugh, unfortunately, a muddy place in the xoid hail turtred tli'.m a 
little out, and oMiged his parly to fire through two feirctts, otherwise, in 
all prol.a1.ility,th.-y would havekille.l everyone the fir-st fi e; however, 
tirey killed one, irrorttlly worrnrleil another, and took three prisoners; 
the other two, lavored by the shifile of tire rright and a gtirtd pair rrf heels, 
made their escape. Three irf tlie pa''ty were left in the gutrboat, but 
hearing a boat of ours c<>uring out of the creek, pusheil over to Staten 
Island shore, nevertheless she fell into the hands of Lierrt. R^rmlall. It 
seems their leader, Swain Par-sel. was a ileserter fr-oni our- ar-my. On his 
information Pavid Oliver, a villain who has long been the supporter of 
the illicit trade, and a dread to the irrhabitairls on the lines, was taken 
the same rright concealed in a bouse at Rahway."2 

Two days afterwards, — 

"Sunday night {-IM} Capt. Baker Hendricks went over to Bergen and 
made eight of the enemy prisoners."^ 

At the opening of navigation in the spring, the 
winter having been unusually severe, — 

"Lieut. Blanchard sailed with a party of men in a whale. boat last 
SundHy [March Kith] ami took, off Elizabeth Town Piiiirt, a whale-boat, 
in wliich was a Mr. Woodroofe aitd four other active rebels belonging to 
New Jersey."* 

On the night of the following Thursday [14thJ, — 

" A party of royal hor-se-th eves, under the command of the celebi-ated 
Lewis Robbins, . . . made an incurision into Rihwrry. Tliey set imt for 
Westfield to seize Sheriff Marsh. Iiirt as the roads were bad, ami learirilrg 
probably that the sheriff was trot at home, they turned back arrri niarle 
their way to old David Miller's, capturing him. s<ime of bis sons, and bis 
horses. Havirrg paroled the old m-rir becairse of his irifiinrrties, they 
proceeded to Peter Trembly's, wh.rm they seized and robbed of all his 
m<iney and papers. They took also a Peter' Horn. Brrt at the sudden 
discharge of a giru they paroled their prisoners and fled." 

The next night Capt. Baker Hendricks and Mr. 
Luther Baldwin, with a small party of men, went over 
in a whale-boat to Staten Island, where they "sur- 
prised and took a sloop armed with two three-pound- 
ers, two blunderbusses, and manned with five hands;" 
a-s the sloop was aground, they "stripped her of arms, 
sails, rigging, cable, anchor, and long boat." Two 
other sloops they served in like manner. 

Even the flag-boats suffered i'rorn the depredators 
on the Sound. Rivington says, — 

"Last Friday [March l.'ith[ a vessel with a flag of truce sailed from 
this garrison [New York] lor Klizal.eth Town Point,in which went a Hes- 
sian paymaster with a hrrge sum of nroirey f.-r the u..e of the lle.-sian 
prlsouei's in Pennsylvania. Same night about 1*2 o'clock a rebel whale- 
boat Israrded the flag-vessel at said Point, the crew of which seized the 
cash whtcii the Hessiair gentlenran had in charge for the before men- 

tioned purpose. Several other gentlemen on board the flag were also 
robbed of what cash they had with them."^ 

The American account presents quite a different 
aspect of this affair : 

" Tlrnrsday night a flag of truce on her way to this shore was boarded 
near Shutcr's Island by some nren irr .lisgnise anil robbed of upwards of 
two tlrous^ind guineas, being a part of a sum of money for the use of 
Cornwallis' arnry. They also plundered several individuals that were 
on board. The pat ty that committed the alrove robbery were supposed 
to be refugees from New York or Staten Hand." » 

The amount, as afterwards appeared, was nine hun- 
dred guineas, the losers having, as usual, magnified 
their loss. 

The spring passed away in considerable quiet. 
Early in June Hendricks repeated his visits to Ber- 
gen : 

" Friday passeil through this place [Chatham] under gnard seven 
tatterdemalions, taken tire preceding day [June Btli] by a party under 
the crrmniand of Capt Hendricks. 

" Last Thrrrsday morniirg fi:ith] Capt. Baker Hendricks captured, 
after some resistance, on Bergen Point, five refugees, which he brought 

Yet at this very time Hendricks was under accusa- 
tion of illicit intercourse with the enemy, and Gov- 
ernor Livingston withdrew his commission as a 
partisan commander.' 

The foray of the 1st of February, 17.S2, was the last 
to which the town was subjected. It does not appear 
that the enemy ventured again to cross the Sound after 
this date on a marauding excursion within the limits 
of the borough. The war practically came to an end 
at that date in this section. Some depredations were 
committed and some captures made on the waters in 
the vicinity, but none on land. Capt. Cornelius Hat- 
field, disgusted with the results of his visits to his 
native place, is found, April 10th, together with Capt. 
Blauvelt, at the head of an expedition of Tories on the 
armed brig " Arrogant," and capturing, a short dis- 
tance up the North River, a " pettiauger" and .some 
small boats, with about ten prisoners.' 

In June an expedition was fitted out from this 
town, of which an account is given as follows : 

"Iirlelligeuce being received at Elizabeth Town of two whale-boats, 
fitted for a two mouths' cruise in the Delaware Bay, lyirrg at a wharf 
I-Iarrd, a plarr was corrcerterl to surprise 
r was put irr practice last Thutiiday irigltt 
appurtenances, were sately moored 
t moririrrg, together with eighteen 
fhom valuable Negroes. The party, 
ivlro ha led 

anil iittempled to fire on tire party, but their pieces providentially flash- 
iirg in the pan, the party, regardle>s of dairger. rushed ou them with 
such impetuosity that tIrey had uot liure to itrime again, and a few 
molrrerrts pirt them in complete possessioir of their object, without any 
further ahum." 1" 

At the October term of the Court of Oyer and 
Terminer for Essex County, George Hair was fined 

all thi 

the north side of Stat 

airil bring rhem off, wl 

[iirtlr], ami the boats, wi 

at Elizabeth Ti 

prisoners Ihatw 

Coulirreutals and volurrteers, consisted of upwai-ds of thirty, 

by Major [Win.] Crane. There was a sentinel in each boat 


1 X. .1. .lournal. No. U7. 
1 Ibid , No. 149. 

'■ Ibid., No. 146. 

' Rivingtou's Gazette, No. 570. 

'■• Ibid., Nos. 571-75. Gaiues' 
^ N. J. Journal, No. lul. 
' Ibid., No. 175. 

8 N. J. Gazette, No. 2:i4. 

9 Gaines' Mercury, No. 1591. 
'"N.J. Journal, No. 176. 

Mercury, No. 1587. 

Riviugton's Gazette, No. 57s. 



six hundred pounds " for letting John Smith Hetfield 
escape," of which the following is an account : 

"Smith Hetfleld. an infamous refugee, wlio Ims been cummittini: dep- 
reiialiuns on tlie innocent inhal.itaiits along the lines ever since the 
coniniencement of the war, and was taken prisoner several mnntlis ago, 
made his es'-ape from the guard who had him in charge ou Saturday 
niglil last [September 2l»t]."i 

One act more of aggressive hostility on the part of 
citizens of this town, March, 1783, remains to be 
narrated. It will be told in the words of Maj. Wil- 
liam Crane, the leader of the enterprise, as written 
the next day : 

"I have the pleasure to inform you of the capture of the sloop Katy, 
of twelve donble-fintified four-pounders, containing one hundred and 
seventeen puncheons of Janniii-a spir ts, lyiUL', at the lime of capture, 
within pistol-shot of the grand batteiy at New York, and alongside of 
the sliip Eiigle, of twenly-lour gnus, whieh we also took, hut were 
obliged to leave there, as she lay aground. The Captain- and crews of 
both the vessels were brought up by us in the sloop to this place, where 
we have them serure. This was pertoi nied on the night of the third of 
IHarch [Monday], by six townsmen, under the connuand of Captain 
Quigley and myself, without tlie filing of a musket by any of our 
party." - 

The vessel and cargo were sold at auction at Eliza- 
beth Town on Monday, the 17th of March.' 

The welcome news at length arrived at Philadel- 
phia, March 23d, that preliminary treaties between 
Great Britain, France, and Spain had been signed at 
Paris on the 20th of January, thus rendering effect- 
ual the provisional treaty of the 30th of November, 
1782, between Great Britain and the United States. 
On the reception of the news, and of his instructions. 
Sir Guy Carleton hastened to proclaim a complete ces- 
sation of hostilities by sea and land ; and a similar 
proclamation was ordered hy Congress on the 11th of 
April. The order was received at headquarters in 
Newburgh, N. Y., on the 17th, and proclamation was 
made accordingly to every regiment and corps of the 
army at noon of Saturday, the 19th of April, pre- 
cisely eight years from the actual commencement of 
hostilities at Lexington, Mass. 

Gen. Elias Dayton, son of Jonathan Dayton, was 
born at Elizabeth Town, N. J., in 1737. He entered 
the military service of the province as a lieutenant 
March 19, 1756, and was made captain March 29, 
1760, serving with the British troops in the French 
war on the frontiers. In 1764 he conducted a suc- 
cessful expedition against the Indians near Detroit, 
who were engaged in the uprising under Pontiac, the 
famous Ottawa chief. Of this Mr. Dayton left a jour- 
nal, commencing with April 30, and ending with Sept. 
15, 1764. He took an active and patriotic part in the 
measures which led to the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. As colonel of militia he had command of the 
Elizabeth Town Volunteers, who captured (Jan. 23, 
1776) the " Blue Mountain Valley." He was commi.s- 
sioned colonel of the Third New Jersey Regiment of 
regulars Feb. 9, 1776, and took part with his regi- 
ment in the defense of Ticonderoga. His gallant con- 
duct through the war has been already related. On 

> N. J. Gazette, No. 248. ^ Ibid., No. 273. 

'Ibid., No. 272. 

the resignation of Gen. Maxwell, July 20, 1780, he 
was put in command of the New Jersey Brigade. He 
took part in the affairs of Brandywine, Germantown, 
Monmouth, and Yorktown, and accompanied Gen. 
Sullivan in 1779 on his Western expedition. He 
was commissioned as a brigadier-general Jan. 8, 1783, 
and June 5, 1793, as a major-general of the Second 
Division of New Jersey militia. 

In 1779 he was chosen a member of Congress, and 
declined, but was a delegate in 1787-88. He was for 
several years a member of the New Jersey Legisla- 
ture. He would have been appointed to the United 
States Constitutional Convention in 1787, but declined 
in favor of his son Jonathan. He was frequently ap- 
pointed to office in his native town, as a member and 
president of the board of trustees for many years of 
the Presbyterian Church, as a member of the corpo- 
ration, and from 1796 to 1805, with the exception of 
a single year, as mayor of the borough. He was the 
first President of the Cincinnati of New Jersey. In 
person and bearing he strongly resembled Gen. Wiish- 

Both before and after the Revolutionary war he was 
successfully engaged in mercantile pursuits, part of 
the time alone, and afterwards as Ellas Dayton & Son. 

He died of gout in the stomach, and on Saturday, 
24th, the corpse was removed to the Presbyterian 
Church, where a funeral sermon was preached by the 
Rev. John McDowell from Joshua xxiii. 14: "And 
behold this day I am going the way of all the earth." 
The assemblage of citizens was more numerous than 
we ever knew on the like occasion in this town. 
Military honors were performed. The whole pro- 
ceedings were marked with uncommon solemnity, and 
evinced the unfeigned affliction felt by all classes of 
citizens. In this solemn dispensation of Providence 
we behold the uncertainty of sublunary things, a fel- 
low-mortal in health in the evening and a corpse 
before the next rising sun. 

Hon. Jonathan Dayton, LL.D. — He was the son 
of Gen. Elias Dayton, and was born in Elizabeth Town 
Oct. 16, 1760. He graduated at the College of New 
Jersey in 1776; entered the army in 1778 as a pay- 
master; accompanied, in 1779, Gen. Sullivan on his 
Western expedition; and in 1780 was a captain in his 
father's regiment. After the peace he was chosen to the 
Legislature of New Jersey, of which he was Speaker 
in 1790. He represented his native State in the con- 
vention (1787) for the formation of the Federal Con- 
stitution, and in 1791 was elected to Congress. Thrice 
he was re-elected, serving four terms in the House, of 
which he was Speaker from 1795 to 1799. He was 
chosen senator of the United States, and served from 
1799 to 1805. He was appointed hy President Adams 
a brigadier-general, with the privilege of retaining 
his seat in the Senate. 

He became largely interested with Symmes and 
others in the purchase and settlement of western 
military lands, the town of Dayton, in Ohio, being 




named in compliment to him. His early intimacy 
in boyli6od with Aaron Burr, and his later associa- 
tion with him in the Senate of the United States, led 
him to look with more favor than prudence would 
have dictated upon the schemes of that aspiring and 
crafty politician, so that by advancing money to aid 
Burr in his adventures he became compromised with 
him in the charge of treason. This indictment, how- 
ever, was not tried, and Mr. Dayton's bail was re- 
leased. This unhappy affair, and the breaking up of 
the Federal party, of which he was a leader, put an 
end to Mr. Dayton's political aspirations. He was 
subsequently elected repeatedly to the Council of the 
New Jersey Legislature, and held several important 
offices in his native town. He received, in 1798. from 
his alma mater the honorary degree of Doctor of 
Laws. His later days were passed at home, in the 
enjoyment of a comfortable competence, respected 
and venerated by his townsmen, and honored by all 
who knew him. 

Gen. William Crane, son of the Hon. Stephen 
Crane, was a sterling jiatriot of the Revolution. He 
was born at Elizabeth Town, N. J., in 1748, and being 
in the full vigor of his early manhood at the begin- 
ning of the Revolutionary war, at once espoused his 
country's cause, and in common with several of his 
townsmen attached himself as lieutenant of an artil- 
lery company to the Canada expedition under Mont- 
gomery. At the time that his commander fell before 
Quebec, Dec. 31, 1775, Crane received a bomb-shell 
wound in one of his ankles, from which he suffered 
until his death, nearly forty years afterwards. As 
major of militia, the story of his capture, March 
3, 1783, of the armed ship " Eagle" and the sloop 
"Katy," within pistol-shot of the battery of New 
York, has been told in the history of the Revolution 
in this work. For these acts of bravery he was pro- 
moted after the war to a brigadier-generalship of 
militia. He lived till nearly the close of the second 
war with England, discharging responsible trusts 
both in the borough and in the Presbyterian Church, 
of which he was a trustee, until the time of his death. 
The following obituary notice appeared in the New 
Jersey Journal of July 12, 1814 : 

"Died ou Saturday last (9th) Gen. William Craue, in the 67th year 
of bis age. In the year 1776, Gen. Crane entered the Continental eer- 
Tice, and at the reduction of St. John's, or Montreal, received a wonnd 
in his leg which never was cured, and for some years p.H8t he suffered 
mnch from it. About sev.-nteen months since his leg was amputated 
wilb flattering prospects, hut that last resort has been too long doierred, 
and he fell a victim to the irtcurable wound. Gen. Crane's character its 
a soldier and citizen stood pre-eminent, and he lived beloved and died 
lamented His funeral was attended on Sunday by a vast concourse of 
people from this and the neighboring parishes, who testified his worth 

Jeremiah Ballard, E.sq.— He was born in 1748, 
and became at an early period of bis life a resident of 
Elizabeth Town. In the later years of the Revolu- 
tionary war he was a captain in the Third New Jer- 
sey Regiment. In 1796 he was chosen recorder of ' 
the borough, and in 1801 deputy mayor. In 1788 he i 

joined the Presbyterian Church, becoming a member 
of its board of trustees in 1807, of which he was made 
president in 1813. He was the vice-president of the 
Cincinnati of New Jersey, and a leading member of 
various other institutions in the town. At the time of 
his decease he was also mayor of the borough of Eliza- 
beth. He died Sept. 4, 1823, aged seventy-five years. 
At a meeting of the corporation the day following his 
funeral the following testimonial to his eminent 
worth was recorded : 

" While the Mernhnrs of this Corporation, in common wiUi their fel- 
low-Citizens of this B..rough, deeply lament the death of their late 
worthy chief Magistrate, Jeremiah Ballard, Esq', they think it due to 
his memory to express their sentiments of his public character and 
private worth. 

"To detail the particulars of a long and useful life they do not feel 
themselves culled upon, but they believe they give a faithful though 
brief summary of it when they say,— 

* As a Soldier, he was brave, humane, and generous ; 

"As a Magistrate, he was upright, intelligent, and faithful ; 

" As a Cit zeu, he was public-spirited and highly useful ; 

" As Presiding officer of this Corporation, he was courteous, dignified, 
& impartial ; 

" As a Christian, he was Charitable & zealous, but unostentatious. 

" He displayed the graces of the religion he professed in life, & he felt 
its support and consolation in death. 

" Thus lived and died the worthy Chii f Magistrate of our Borough, 
who ranked if not among the greatest yet among the best of men. 

" Therefore, Resolved, thai the members of this corporation feel & 
sincerely deplore his loss, and as a mark of respect to his memory they 
will wear the usual badge of mouruiug lor thirty days." 

Hon. Abraham Clark. — Abraham Clark, known 
as one of the signers of the Declaration of Indejiend- 
ence, was born at the home of his ancestors, on the 
upper or western road, about midway between Eliza- 
beth Town and the village of Rahway, where his 
father, Thomas Clark, his grandfather, Thomas, and 
probably his great-grandfather, Richard, had lived 
before him. The latter became a resident of the 
town in 1678. The Clark mansion was about half 
a mile north by west of the Wheat-Sheaf tavern. 

Thomas Clark had at least three sons and one 
daughter,— Thomas, born 1701 ; Abraham, born 1703 ; 
James, of Connecticut Farms ; and Mrs. Day. Capt. 
Abraham Clark, commander of the troops, resided 
directly west of his eldest brother, Thomas, and out- 
lived him but fifteen days. The youngest brother 
and the sister lived to a great age. Thomas, the 
eldest, was one of the charter aldermen of the bor- 
ough of Elizabeth. His grandson, Dr. Abraham 
Clark, says he was "Judge and, I believe, keeper of 
the Kings arms, as many muskets and cartouche 
boxes with the letters ' G. R.' on their covers re- 
mained in the house until used by our patriots." 
He died Sept. 11, 1765, and was the Judge Clark 
referred to elsewhere, who was buried without pomp 
or profuseness of expense, as had until then been so 

Abraham, the signer, was his only son, and was 
born at the homestead on Feb. 15, 1726. " His 
nearest neighbors were his uncle Abraham on the 
west; Lewis Mulford, a strict Puritan, on the north ; 
Capt. Jonathan Hampton, ' an Episcopalian, a mem- 


ber of the Colonial Assembly, who lived in the hand- 
some style of a gentleman of the old school,' on the 
east; and a 'noble farmer, Ephraim Terrill, another 
captain of troopers, an Episcopalian, a man of strong 
mind and social qualities,' on the south." 

Mr. Clark recaived a good business education for 
the times, and entered into business as a surveyor and 
conveyancer. He made himself familiar with the 
common points of law, and was ever ready to aid his 
neighbor with legal advice gratuitously, and so ob- 
tained the sobriquet of " The Poor Man's Counselor." 
In 1764 he was appointed by the Legislature one of 
the commissioners to survey and divide the common 
lands of the old township of Bergen.' He held the 
office of high sheriff of Essex County in 1767 and of 
clerk to the Colonial Assembly ; he was a member of 
the Committee of Safety in December, 1774, and sub- 
sequently their secretary ; he was chosen to the Pro- 
vincial Congress in September, 1775, and was elected 
by them, June 22, 1776, one of the delegates from New 
Jersey to the Continental Congress, in which capacity 
he had the honor of affixing his name to the Decla- 
ration of Independence. 

He was rechosen to Congress in 1776 and in 1777, 
serving until April 3, 1778 ; again in 1780, 1781, 1782, 
1786, 1787, and 1788. He was appointed to the first 
Constitutional Convention at Annapolis in 1786, and 
again in 1787, but did not attend tiie latter on ac- 
count of ill health. He was chosen by the people 
under the new Constitution to the second and third 
Congresses, and died before the completion of his 
last term. During his long public career he proved 
himself the incorruptible patriot, an active and judi- 
cious legislator, a prudent counselor, and a true friend 
of the people. 

His death was occasioned by a coup-de-soleil, a stroke 
of the sun, which he survived but two hours. Great 
respect was shown for liis memory on the occasion of 
his funeral. His remains were deposited in the bury- 
ing-ground of the Presbyterian Church of Rahway. 
A stone with the following inscription marked the 

"In memory of Abraham Clark, Esq., who died Sept. IStli, 1794, in 
the 69th year of his age. | Firm and decided as a patriot, | Zealous and 
faithful as a friend to the puljlic, | He loved his country, | And adhered 
to her cause | In the diirkest hours of her struggles | Against oppres- 

The Neu' Jersey Journal of the following week says 
" he was unifortn and consistent, adorning that re- 
ligion that he had early made a profession of by acts 
of charity and benevolence." 

■ It was also said of him that " in private life he was 
reserved and contemplative. Limited in his circum- 
stances, moderate in his desires, and unambitious of 
wealth, he was far from being parsimonious in his 
private concerns, although a rigid economist in pub- 
lic affairs." 

1 Hudson County Land Titles, hy Charles Winfield, Esq. 

He had long been a member of the First Presby- 
terian Church of Elizabeth Town, and was one of 
its trustees from 1786 to 1790. " His person was of 
the common height, his form slender, his eyebrows 
heavy." He is characterized as having been " very 

Mr. Clark married, about the year 1749, Sarah, the 
eldest daugnter of Isaac Hatfield, sister of Elder 
Isaac Hatfield, and first cousin of Mrs. Robert Ogden, 
the mother of Gen. Matthias and Governor Aaron 
Ogden. She was born in 1728, survived her husband 
nearly ten years, and died June 2, 1804. They had 
ten children. 

Roster of Officers and Men from what is now 
Union County in the War of the Revolution. 

Aaron Ogden, paymaster. First Battaliim, First EstatilishmeiiT, Dec. 8, 
1775 ; capt., li.'UteriHUt, First Regiment, Feh. 'J, 1779 ; hiigade-niajor, 
and inspector and aide-de-camp to Bi-ig.-Geu. William Maxwell, April 
1, 1778; disch at the close of the war. 

Elias Dayton, Thirj Battiilion, as colonel. 

Jonathan Dayton, paymaster; aud Rev. James Caldwell, chaplaiu. 

Samuel Potter, captain, 1st Co. 

Josiah Qiiimby, '2d lieutenant, 1st Co. 

Col. Moses Jaijues. 

Col. Matthias Ogden. 

Philemon Dickmson, brigadier-general militia, Oct. 19, 177.'). 

Elias Dayton, colonel and brig dier-geiieral Continental army. 

Moses Jaqui-s, lii-utouaut-colon'-l, Sept. 24, 1777. 

Samuel Polter, lieutenant-colonel, Feb. 3, 1777. 

Oliver Spencer, major. 
David Condiut, " 
Jacob Crane, " 

Abraham Ogden, " Feb. 3, 1776, 
James Hedden, lieut. State troops, 
Nathan Hand, qnarteimaster. 
David Piersou, snrge<Mi. 
Nehehiah Wade, commissary. 
Israel Bruiuiage, capUiin. 
Lewis Brant, " 

Nathaniel Camp, " 

Stephen Chaudl 

Robert Clark. captain. 
Thomas Clark, 
Jonathan Condict, captain 
John Craig, " 

William DeHart, 


James Jaroloman, *' 
Eliakim Little, 
Abnilmni Lyon, " 

Matthias Lyon, 

John Crane, lieutenant and cap- 
, lieutenant and cap- 


Joseph Dayton, lieutenant. 
Adam Terrill, 

Matthew Potter, " 

Isaac Smith, " 

Elijali Squire, " 

Henry Squire, " 

Daniel S. Wood, " 

Jesse Baldwin, lieutenant. 
Saumel Meeker, captain in Blan 
chard troop liglit-horse; cor 

net, lieutenant, unc 

Isaac Mulford, lieutenai 
Anthony Price, 
David Tichenor, " 
EderVermule, " 

Elias Winana, " 

David Pierson, 

terwards captain. 
Daniel Reed, lieutenant. 

James Wall, 

John Ball, ensign. 

Uriiib Atlams, ensign. 
' Charles Clark, '' and captain. 

John Miller, 
tenant, also Stephen Pierson, " 

Andrew Ross, sergeant-major. 

Samuel Coir, sergeant. 

William Clark, " 

Obaiiiah Crane, " 

Daniel Hettield, " 

David Pierson, *' 

Linus Baldwin, corporal. 

Samuel Foster, '* 

Jediah Miller, 

Jonathan Squire, " 

Natlianiel Ross, bombardier. 

Icbabod Cleveland, drummer. 

John Aken, private. 

Daniel Allen, " 

Joseph Allen, 

Samuel Amet, " 

Joseph Badgley, " 

William Baker, 

Cal.-b Baldwin, 

Ichahod Baldwin, 

John Ball, 

Timothy Ball, 

David Bill, 

J.ihn Bayley, 

James Beach, *' 

Nalhau Beach, " 

Abiam Beedle, " 

andaf- William Bojid, " 

William Brant, 

Isaac Brookfield, ** 




Jot Brown, 


Muses Hetfield, private. 

David Moriis, private. Gideon Smith, private. 

John Brown, 


/epher Hetfield, 

David Morris, 

Obediah Smith, 

Alimin Biinopll, 


Robert Hall, 

John Muchmore, 

Stephen Smith, " 

Joseph Bininell, 


Robert Hays. " 

Benjamin Mulford, " 

Ellis Squier, 

Isiwio Cadmus, 

Michael Hays,' 

Lewis Mnlfor^, 

James Squier, " 

Job (.'amis '>r de Camp 


Carey Headly, 

John Mulford, " 

Daniel Squier, " 

James Camphell, 


Moses Headly, 

Amos Munn, 

Eleaser Squier, " 

Samuel Clark, 

Moses Headley, '* 

David Mu " 

John Squier, 

Charles (Mark, 

Joseph Hinds, or Haines, " 

Samuel Munn, 

Albert Stagg, " 

William Claik, 

Isaac Hull, 

Benjamin Myers, " 

Albert Stagg, " 

Jaroh Clark, 

David Hutchens, 

Joseph Myrick, " 

John Stagg, 

Ezra Clark, Hiilcliens, 

Nathaniel Nesbit, " 

Josiah Steel, " 

Daniel r'onilicr, 

Halmack Jaroleman, 

Amos Noe, 

Timothy Stiles, " 

Eluatbuii Cory, 


Lawrence Jennings, ** 

David Norris, *' 

Abner Stiles, 

Samuel Cory, 


George Jewell, " 

James Noi-ris, " 

Henry Stiles, '* 

Eber rVjvort, 


Benjamin Johnson, " 

William Norris, 

Abram Sliles, " 

Luke Covolt, 


Samuel Johnson, " 

David Ogden, " 

Jacob Swain, " 

Peter <J<.verl, 


Peter Kemble, " 

Kliakam Ogden, " 

Cyrus Taylor, 

Abraham Crane, 

Anthony King, " 

Eleizer Ogden, " 

Jasper Ten Bi-ook, " 

Amo- Ciane, 

David King, 

John Ogilen, " 

Amos Terrell, *' 

Aaron Crane, 


Isaac Lacey, " 

Jonathan Ogden, 

Enoch Terrell, " 

Daniel Claue, 


David Lacey, " 

Joseph Ogden, " 

Isaac Terrell, " 

David Crane, 

James Lambert, " 

Matthias Ogden, " 

John Terrell, 

Elijah Ciane, 


Lambert, " 

Simeon Ogden, " 

Jonathan Terry, " 

Isaac (.i-aue. 


Cornelius Lane, or Lange, " 

Nehemiah Osborn, " 

Aaron Thompson, " 

Israel Crane, Jr., 

Joseph Lee, '* 

Jesse Osborne, " 

Caleb Thompson, 

James Crane, 

Levi Lennier, " 

Abner Osburn, " 

Elijah Tichenor, " 

Jonas Crane, 


William Lines, 

Joel Osburn, 

Enos Tompkins, " 

Jonathau Crane, 


Benjamin Little, ** 

Isaac Pack, " 

Charles Tow uley. 

Blatthias Crane, 


Cornelius Little, " 

William Pangborn, 

Efflugham Towuley, " 

MoB.'S Cl-aue, 

Ebenezer Little, 

Peter Parcel 1, 

Edward Townley, " 

Mathau Crane, 


Henry Litlle, " 

William Parsel, " 

James S. Townley, " 

Phineas Crane, 

Jonatlian Litlle, 

Stephen Parsons, " 

Steeds Townley, " 

Samuel Craue, 


Joseph Little, 

Michael Pearce, 

Jonathan Trembler, " 

Timothy Crane, 


Noah Little, 

Adam Pearce, " 

Samuel Tulibs, " 

John Ciilley, 

Williaju Little, 

Elibu I'earaon, 

Abraham Tucker, " 

John Darby, 



William Piereon, 

Ezekial Tucker, " 

Isaac Davis, 


Eleizer Luker, " 

Daniel Peai-son, " 

Benjamin Valentine, " 

Juhu Davis, 


Jacob Ludlam, or Ludlow, " 

Theophilus Pearson, 

Jonas Valentine, 

Peter Davis, 


Abraham Ludlam, orLud- 

Matthias Pearson, " 

Thomas Vance, 

Joseph Day, 



Joseph Peck, " 

Simon Van Winkle, " 

Jacob Dean, 


John Ludlam, or Ludlow, " 

Moses Peck, 

John Vinceut, 

Andrew Denman, 


Benjamin Lyon, " 

Ralph Post, " 

Geoi-ge Voorheea, " 

Isaac Den man. 


Ebenezer Lyon, " 

Zenas Potter, " 

Michael Vreelaud, 

Philip Drumau, 


Henry Lyon, 

Amos Potter, 

Abner Wade, " 

Joseph Dodd, 

Ezekiel Magee, " 

Richard Powelson, " 

Calvin Wade, 

Geojge Duly, or Doughty, " 

John Magee, " 

Joseph Price, '• 

Daniel Wade, " 

Ki-ancis Drake, 


Beujamiu Mauuing, " 

William Ramsden, " 

Henry Wade, " 

David Dunham, 


Mai ce lies. 

Samuel Quimby, 

Matl bias Wade, " 

John Dunham, 


Cliarles March, 

Nehemiah Randolph, " 

Nathaniel Wade, *' 

Isaac Force, 

Jabish Marsh, " 

Perminus Riggs, " 

Obediah Wade, " 

James Ford, 


John Blarsh, " 

Smith Riggs, " 

Timothy Wade, " 

Jona> Frazei-, 


Jacob Riker, " 

Hendrick Weasels, *' 

Beujamiu Frazee, or 

Frazer, pri- 

Isaac Ma.xwell, '♦ 

John Riker, 

Abuer Whitehead, 


Amos Meeker, 

Eiihraim Rino, 

Daniel Wilcox, 

Matthias Frazee, 


Benjamin Meeker, " 

John Rogei-s, " 

Thomas Wilcox, 

Samuel Cardner, 

Coiy Meeker. 

Samuel Romine, " 

.\biier WillialU3, " 

John Garral.rants, 


Daniel Meeker, 

Daniel Ros<, 

Benjamin Williams, 

Peter Can iaou. 


Isaac Meeker, " 

Ephraim R.JSS, 

David Williams, Jr., 

Joseph Giles, 

Jtihu Meekel', " 

Ezekiel Ross, '* 

James Williams, 

Charles <iillman, 

Michael Meeker, 

Isaac Ross, 3d, " 

Matthias Williams, " 

Joseph or Josiab Gold 


William Meeker, " 

Joliu Ross, 

Abraham Winaus, 

Isaac t^ray. 

Abner Miller, *' 

Aaron Rowlison, " 

John Winaus, " 

Benjaniiu Haines, 


B.-nj..min .Miller, 

Anthony Sayres, " 

Kelsey Winans, 

Heiir.i HaUey, 

Clark Miller, 

Benjamin Sayres, " 

Matthias Win .ns, " 

David Hand, private, also express- 

Enoch Miller, " 

Daniel Sayres, 

Moses Winaus, " 


John Miller, 

Ephraim Sayres, " 

Samuel Winans, " 

Hezekiah Hand, 


Samuel Miller, " 

Piersoii Sayres, 

Christopher Wood, 

Wiiians Harris, 

William M.jlel-, 

Benjamin Scudder, " 

Aartni Woodniff, " 

Aaron HetUeld, or Hatfield, pri- 

Samuel Mills, 

Ephraim Scudder, " 

Abram Woodruff, " 


Samuel Mooney, " 

Matthias Scudder, 

Caleb Woodrnfr, 

Abner Hetfield, or Hatfield, pri- 

William Mooney, 

Richard Scudder, " 

Daniel Woodruff, 


James flioorehouse, *' 

Jacob Sering, " 

David Woodniff, 

Ellas Hetfield, 


Samuel Moorehouse, '* 

John Sering, " 
David Shaw, " 

Jitcob Woodruff, " 
Job W.Hjdruff, 

1 1 am not sure that he resided in now Union County, but on the 

Aaron Shipmau, " 

Uzal Woodruff, 

line .it Honis County 

James Smith, " 

Jacob Woolley, " 



Jonas Younp, private. 

sary of issues, commissary. 

Abraham Clark, express-rider. 

also niHJor, aide-de-camp Con- 

AzHiiHh Clark, " " 

tinental army. 

John Clark, " 

Joseph P.ttter, wagon master. 

Jonathan Stiles, " " 

Abr;im Pierson, furage-ma.-ter. 

Bev. James CaMwell, quartermas- 

John Scudder, wagon-mjtster, cap- 

ter, Hssistaiit <iiiarternia8ter- 

tain, and conductor of team 

getieral, also chaplain Conti- 


nental army. 

Benjamin Ball, wagon-master. 

Daniel Marsli, captain and assist- 

Jesse Clark, " " 

ant qiiarieiniHster-general. 

John Fiench, 

Joseph B:i 11, quartermaster. 

Andrew Liitle, " " 

Spencer Carter, purchasing forage- 

Joseph Stanberry, " " 


John Craig, teamster. 

Jonathan Stiles, assistant quarter- 

Jacob Miller, 


John Miller, 

Ephriam Foster, artilicef. 

Gerwhoni Norris, " 

Nathaniel Foster, *' 

John Miller, 

Joseph Marsh, wheelwright. 

Jonathan Miller, 

Muses Yeumens, blftcksmith at 

Elisha Moore, " 

Flying. Camp. 

Geishom Muore, " 

Zopher Bayles, liostler. 

Nathaniel Moore, " 

Janiea Pearson, commissary of mili- 

Abnim Person, 

tary etor»-8. 

John Wood, 

Aarou Ogden, assistant commis- 

Jacob Wuuley, '* 

This list represents State troops, militia, and Con- 

tinental army. 



The first lawyer of whom we find any reference in 
the county was a Capt. Hackett, a New England 
shipmaster. Being a Yankee, he possessed the usual 
genius of that versatile nation, and could not only 
sail a ship, but expound maritime law with such 
force as to overwhelm a jury with the weight of his 
arguments. It is recorded that " the jury went forth, 
and upon a second and third going forth declared to 
the court that the matter committed to them is of 
too great weight for them, and desired the court to 
make choice of other jurymen." This ponderous 
and insupportable load thrown upon the jury, we are 
informed, consisted of an argument of much ability 
made by Capt. Hackett, in which lie presented " no 
less than fourteen points as grounds of defence." But 
we must tell the whole story. 

The first jury trial in Elizabeth Town of which any 
record has been preserved took place in May, 1671. 
A special court, consisting of Capt. William Sand- 
ford, president; Robert Vauquellin, Robert Treat, 
and William Pardon, was convened in the town on 
the IGth by order of Governor Carteret, for the trial 
of William Hackett, captain of the sloop "' ludeavor,' 
of Salsbury, in the county of Norfolk, in New Eng- 
land," for illegal trading in the province, mostly at 
Woodbridge. Governor Lovelace claimed that all 
vessels coming in and going out of Sandy Hook en- 
trance should enter and clear at New York. Gov- 
ernor Carteret opposed the claim so far as concerned 
the waters of New Jers^, demanding that in order 
to trade in these parts entrance and clearance should 
be made at the custom-house in Elizabeth Town. 

Capt. Hackett had entered his vessel and paid duties 
at New York, but not here. A jury was impaneled, 
consisting of Benjamin Price, foreman, Nicholas Car- 
ter, William Pyles, George Ross, Barnabas Wines, 
Nathaniel Bonnel, Matthias Hatfield, John Wynings, 
William Oliver, Stephen Osburn, William Meeker, 
and John Woodruff, all freeholders of the town and 
the most of them leading men. Governor Carteret 
testified for the prosecution. Capt. Hackett argued 
his own cause with much ability, presenting no less 
than fourteen points as grounds of defense. Then 
followed the result already described, the jury over- 
whelmed with such weight that after three successive 
trials they were unable to render a verdict and asked 
to be relieved. On the 18th the case was brought be- 
fore another jury, who seem to have stood it better. 
These were Samuel Hopkins and Capt. Thomas 
Young, of Elizabeth Town, and the remainder from 
Bergen and Woodbridge. The dignity of New Jersey 
was vindicated and the vessel forfeited.' 

On the 14th of December, 1671, an act was passed 
constitutingaCourtofOyerand Terminer,and another 
for the appointment of a marshal for the province. 
There were no counties yet organized in the province, 
and consequently no sheriff or other county officers. 
A writ was issued Feb. 10, 1672, authorizing and ap- 
pointing Cajit. John Berry, i)resident, Robert Vau- 
quellin, Samuel Edsal, Roliert Bond, Capt. John Pyke, 
Capt. Robert Treat, William Pardon, or any three of 
them, to be a court, to meet or sit on Tuesday morn- 
ing, February 27th, at nine o'clock, at the town-house 
in Elizabeth Town. The object of convening this 
court was the punishment of the so-called rioters of 
the previous June, the story of which is told by Hat- 
field, as follows: 

Among the "menial servants" brought over by 
Capt. Carteret in the "Philip" in 1665 was Richard 
Michell. He was "the son of Symon Michell. of 
Munden parva, in the County of Hereford," England. 
Richard had married, April 23, 1668, Ellen Prou, 
"the daughter of Charles Prou, of Paris, in the 
parish of St. Eutache, in France." Slie, too, had 
come over, doubtless, in the " Philip," and was also a 
" menial servant," possibly a housekeeper in the gov- 
ernment house. Michell, as well as Vallot, aspires to 
be a planter. Carteret, well pleased with Richard's 
course, and willing to reward his faithful services, 
takes it upon himself, without consulting the town, or 
any other than his own pleasure, to make him a grant 
of land for a house-lot, bordering on " the swamp in 
common," and lying at the rear of the house-lots of 
Francis Barber and George Pack, south of Charles 
Tucker, S. E. of Jonas Wood, and N. E. of William 
Letts. This was in the spring of 1671. Michell 
fences it in, and leases a part of the ground to George 
Pack for a tobacco crop. On theotherpart lie builds 
a house covered with clapboards and lays out a gar- 

< EH8t Jersey Records, iii. 75-77. Hatfield's Elizabeth, 136. 



den. Pack sub-lets one-half of his field to William 
Letts, the weaver.' 

All this was contrary to the fundamental agree- 
ments of 16H6, made in town-meeting, and consented 
to by the Governor. None but the people in town- 
meeting could determine who should be admitted as 
associates and freeliolders. It was a clear ciise of 
usurpation on the part of Carteret. If tolerated in 
this instance it might be followed by many others, 
and presently the town would be overrun by 
Frenchmen and other foreigners, claiming an equal 
share with themselves in the plantation. If not re- 
sisted they might as well give up all thought of self- 

Tbe town was deeply moved by the occurrence. It 
was the common talk. The neighbors had occasion 
to meet at Goodman Carter's on the south side of the 
creek. The matter was warmly discussed. They 
agreed to give Pack warning not to put a plow into 
the ground. He and Letts were greatly grieved at 
their prospective loss, but deemed it best to regard 
the timely warning. A town-meeting was called, at 
which the whole subject was gravely debated. Here 
is the record : 

" June 19lli, 1671, it was airreod bv the Major Vote that RicliurJ Michel 
Bhonld not eiijo.v his lotl gi\en him h.v Ih^' Governor. Upon this infor- 
Dialion, June 19th, 1V7I, It wa.s agreed that there should some goe the 
next morning and pull up the said MieheTs fence." 

The Governor must be taught that it is not his to 
give away town-lots ; it belongs to the people. Michell 
had " never asked the town for it," and tiierefore 
could not have the " lott given him by tbe Governor." 
It was "concluded to lake the piece of land from him 
again, because it was not after vote of the town he 
had it." Wliat followed is thus related by George 
Pack : 

"The next morning after the said town. meeting the said Richard 
Michel came to my house, and I went with him up lo the said lot, and 
going we c»me to the said Wni. LettV house, and lighted our pipes, and 
x^ben we had lighted people came upon the said ground. Goodman 
Meaker, the .vonng John OgdfU, JefTry Jones, and Nicholas Carter, and 
we running down to them at tlie corner of said lot, the said Biclmrd 
Michel forewarned them of pulling down the snid fence, and spake to 
them of a riot, ujion that goodman Meaker put to it and began to pluck 
down tbe fence, and then all the rest did thelike, and left not off till they 
had plucked down one side and one end." 

Among those who aided in the work, as Letts, 
Michell, and Ronyon testified, were Joseph Meeker 
(the " eldest son" of Goodman Meeker), Hur Tom- 
son (son of Goodman Tomson), " old Mash" (Samuel 
Marsh, Sr.), and Luke Watson, the lieutenant. When 
Michell forewarned them. 

"Goodman Meeker answered, Do you forewarn me? and with that 
went to pull it down. While they were so doing Mr. Pardon came in, 
then they asked him whether he was come to help pull down the fence, 
and Mr. Piirdon answered that he did not come to pull down the fence, 
but to take notice what you do, the said John Ogileii said we do not care 
if a hundred such fellows as you are do take notice of what we do, and 
Mr Piirdon answered, You speak very sausily. Luke Wiitsou did not 
put bis hand to pull down the f ji.e, hut said if Tam in [the] place it's 

as good, hut after Mr. Pardon came then he heaved one log off from the 
the fence and said you shall not swy but 1 will put my hands to it. 

" Aivhile afier.siys Letts, being at my own hous.-, there came in llobert 
Moss and Mr. Crayne, of this town, who asked for ill ink, and I having 
none they went away presently, and presently after they were gone I 
heard a noise alul looked out and saw tbe said Robert Moss and Mr. 
Crayne beating down the claboiirds of Richard Micbel'shiuse and plucked 
up tbe palla>iiid.s of the garden, and, h.fore I came, the lioggs, within 
an hour's time, bad rooted up and spoiled all thut was in the garden 
which was ful I of necessary, garden herbs." 

Pardon was one of tbe Governor's Council, and had 
been appointed, June 5, 1671, a justice of the peace. 
He was known to be the Governor's obsequious para- 
site. Morse and Crane were next-door neighbors, re- 
siding on the west side of the creek. It is probable 
that not a few others, drawn thither by curiosity, es- 
pecially of the boys of the neighborhood, witne.ssed 
the transaction, and spoke of it in later years as one 
of the memorable incidents of their |)ioneer life. 

Warm work it was for a midsummer's day (June 
20th), but needful work, unless they are prepared to 
succumb to the whims and dictates of the cavalier 
lordling sent over the seas by a brace of corrupt 
speculators to exercise arbitrary rule over these honest 
and sturdy planters. It was a day to be remembered 
in the annals of Elizabeth, a day for the inauguratitni 
of an open and determined resistance to all usurpa- 
tion, and a manly defense of their vested rights. 
They acted as one man, and were not to be trifled with. 
Carteret and his adherents are powerless to withstand 
the tide, and however chagrined and vexed at the 
result, are compelled for the present to let the matter 
drop. William Meeker, the chief actor in the drama, 
is chosen constable of the town to succeed William 
Cramer, and receives, Oct. 13, 1671, a commission 
from the Governor.^ 

A court was convened to try these rioters. 

All the members of the court, with the exception 
of Messrs. Bond and Treat, were of the Governor's 
Council. Seven of the jury were from Woodbridge 
and five from Bergen, none of Elizabeth Town or 
Newark. Messrs. Treat and Vauquellin were absent 
from the trial. 

An indictment was found against William Meeker, 
Jeffrey Jones, Luke Watson, Nicholas Carter, Samuel 
Marsh, Sr., John Ogden, Jr., Joseph Meeker, and Hur 
Thompson for pulling down Michell's fence on the 
20th of June. They all appeared in court March 
8th, when the indictment was read, and the question 
guilty or not guilty was put. Not one of them an- 
swered; all left the house without putting in any 
plea, although peremptorily ordered by the court to 
remain. They saw from the complexion of the court 
and jury that no justice could be obtained, and they 
j resolved to have nothing to do with such a tribunal, 
except to treat it with silent contem pt. 

The trial, however, proceeded in the absence of the 
defendants. George Pack, William Letts, Vincent 
Ronyon, William Cramer, Richard Michell, and Wil- 



liam Pardon testified for the prosecution, no witnesses 
for the defense being sworn. The accused were sev- 
erally brought in guilty of riot, and appearing in court 
the next day received sentence, William Meeker to 
pay £5, and each of the others £3, the fines to he col- 
lected by distraint. They were never collected. "The 
marshal, Samuel Moore, of Woodbridge, was power- 
less in the presence of an outraged and indignant 
people, whose opposition to the Governor and his 
party had now become more than determined."' 

Amidst the difficulties which occurred with Gov- 
ernor Carteret for several years all regular procedure 
of courts was suspended, except justices' courts and 
those for the trial of small causes. Upon the re-oc- 
cupation of the province by the Dutch, in 1673, "John 
Baker, Jacob Melyn, John Ogden, deputies from the 
village of Elizabeth Town, New-worke, Woodbridge, 
Piscatteway, situate in the Province heretofore called 
New Jersey," appeared at New York, now called New 
Orange, " praying by petition that they may be al- 
lowed to send some Delegates from their said villages 
to treat with the Admirals and associate Council of 
war, respecting the surrender of their towns under 
the obedience of their High Mightinesses the Lords 
States of the United Netherlands, and his Serene 
Highness the Prince of Orange, and that no audience 
be granted to their late Governor, Capt. John Berry, 
before and until the same be granted to the said dele- 

August 19th. The Deputies from the Towns of 
Elizabeth Towne, New-worke, Woodbridge, Piscatta- 
way, Middletowne, and Shrousbury appearing are 
ordered to call together the inhabitants of their re- 
spective towns, and have them nominate by plurality 
of votes a double number of Sche])ens or Magistrates 
of said Towns; also from each Town to elect two 
Deputies, who shall meet together as one board, and 
then nominate, by the greater number of votes, three 
persons for schout and three for secretary over the 
said six Towns." ^ 

John Ogden, Sr., Samuel Hopkins, and Jacob Melyn 
were elected schepens for Elizabeth Town, and or- 
dered by the Council at New Orange to " come hither 
on the first opportunity to be sworn in." ' 

The several towns chose their deputies, who met 
and made nominations for schout and secretary, or, 
as we would say, sheriffand clerk, although the schout, 
under the Dutch system, discharged the additional 
function of president judge of the court. These nomi- 
nations being presented to the general and Council 
of War, Sept. 1, 1673, Mr. John Ogden was chosen 
schout and Mr. Samuel Hopkins secretary of the six 
towns. The Dutch commission to these officers reads 
a.s follows : 

"Oiveiiig & by these presents grHiiting unto the s-^ John Ogden & 
Samuel Hopkins & each of them, full ponwer strenght & authority in 

1 K. Jeisoy Records, iii. 78-80. Hatfield's Elizabeth, 142, 143. 
- Bergen had already been provided for. 
" N. V. lol. I)..cmts., ii. .^82. 

their said offices. The said Schout together vr^ yc Schepens or magis- 
trates of v" respective Townes to Rule & govern ens well their Inhabit- 
ants as Strangers and ye sd gHtuuel Hopkins to admiaister the office of 
Secretarij in ye s^ Townes."^ 

The first duty performed by the schout and secre- 
tary appears to have been the taking of " an inventory 
of tlie estate of the late Governor Carteret." Under 
the authority of an order i,ssued September 7th, and 
by the aid of some soldiers sent up as a jjosse commit- 
tatua from New Orange, they arrested Robert Laprairie 
(Vauquellin), the surveyor-general, who had " re- 
moved diverse goods from the house of Philip Car- 
teret, which he refuseth to restore ; also one John 
Singletary, who refuses to obey their commands." 
Both of these parties were taken to New York and 
examined before the Council ; they at first denied the 
charges preferred against them, but four days later, 
Mr. Ogden being present, the charges were sustained. 
Singletary was fined £5 and put on his good be- 
havior; Vauquellin was found guilty, both of contu- 
macy and sedition, and was sentenced " to be banished 
as an example to others." * 

The schout and secretary were " furthermore or- 
dered to summon James Bollen, late Secretary of the 
Province of New Jersey, to deliver up, agreeably to 
former order, the Governor's papers within the space 
of ten days after this date, or in default thereof his 
property shall be at the disposal of the Honorable 

The schout and schepens of this court were a pru- 
dential and also, to some extent, a legislative body. 
Oct. 1, 1673, instructions were .sent by the Council of 
War to Schout Ogden and the schepens of the town 
" for the preservation of the public peace and the ad- 
ministration of Justice." Among other things it was 
provided that 

in his quality, take care 
liutained in conformity to 
er sects iitteniptirig 
I for the 'laying out 

"The Sheriffand Magistrates shall, 
that the Reformed Christ! .n Religion 
the Synod of Dortrechi, wilhuut peirnitting an 
anything contrary thereto. Power was given 
highways, setting off lands and {gardens and iu like manner what ap- 
pertains to agriculture, observance of the Sabbath, erecting churches, 
school-houses, or similar public works.' The Sheriff was to ' take good 
care that the places under his charge should be cleaned of all mobs, 
gamblers, whore-houses, and such like impurities; to receive the half of 
all civil fines accruing during his term of office, together with one-third 
part of what belongs tt) the respective vitlages from ciiuiinal cases.' In 
the nomination of shepens, 'a double number of the best qualified, the 
honestest, most iiitelli..ent, and wealth est inhabitants, exclusively of 
the R'-formed Christian Religion or at least well affected thereto,' were 
to be presented to the tJovernor for his election." ^ 

This court also had charge of Indian affairs in the lo- 
cal settlements. Schout Ogden writes Governor Clove, 
September 29th (O.S.), respecting the apprehension of 
an Indian who, shortly before, had carried off con- 
siderable property from the residents of Elizabeth 
Town and refused to restore it. The Governor in his 
reply speaks of " the Cfiiefs and Sachems hereabouts," 
from which it would appear that Indians were still in 

<N. Y. Col. Docmts., iii.SaS. 

' Ibid., ii. 6U:i, C06, 607. 

"Hatfield's Elizal.eth, p. 174. Col. Documents, ii. ri20-J2. 



the vicinity in considerable numbers. He says, " I 
have once more thought fit that the Indian Sachem 
be summoned before me to give satisfaction about it." 
A messenger was sent, but what the result was is not 
recorded. The Dutch Governor also says in this 
communication : " Let Mr. Hopkins examine upon 
wliat Conditions the Tenants are seated upon the 
plantations of Captain Carteret, and account thereof 
return to me. Not else at present, but that I am 
Your Loving friend, A : Clove." ' 

Governor Carteret had gone to England. After an 
absence of more than two years he returned to his 
home in Elizabeth Town, November, 1674. The 
government was reorganized under the Concessions, 
so modified as to give the Governor the control of the 
Legislature, and deprive the people of all original 
jurisdiction. In the proclamation of the Governor 
and Council, dated Elizabeth Town, Dec. 11, 1674, the 
people who had resisted the usurpation.s of the Gov- 
ernor and the prerogatives of royalty were stigmatized 
as " malcontent inhabitants" and "seditious spirits," 
who had taken advantage of the arrival of the Dutch 
" to cover their former guilt with the mantle of trea- 
son." As if this insult flaunted in the face of a free 
and spirited people was not sufficient, they resolved 
not to commission any person to office, either civil 
or military, except such as have obtained patents for 
their lands of the Lords Proprietors, nor to grant the 
privileges of a corporation to any others. This was a 
blow aimed directly at the Elizabeth Town Associates, 
who it was well known obtained their lands not from 
the proprietors, but by purchase from the Indians 
and patent from Governor Nicolls directly under the 
Duke of York. Although Carteret at first acknowl- 
edged the validity of this title, not only verbally but 
practically, by taking a share in their grant and be- 
coming himself an associate proprietor, he subse- 
quently set himself to compel the Associates and all 
who held lands in their plantation to get out new 
patents, and thus subject themselves to the obligation 
of paying the proprietors the usual quit-rents. The 
struggle over this question was a long and severe one, 
into the particulars of which we cannot fully enter 
in this place. The final settlement of it will be found 
in another part of this history. 

The first General Assembly after the restoration of 
the English rule was held at Elizabeth Town in No- 
vember, 1675, beginning on Friday, the 5th, and con- 
tinuing until the 13th. Of the townsmen Henry 
Lyon and Benjamin Pierce were the members of the 
House. At this session Elizabeth Town and Newark 
were constituted a county, which was the first county 
erected in the province of'New Jersey. The Dutch had 
no such municipalities in NewNetherland,nor had the 
English any in New York until 1669. A treasurer was 
appointed for the province with a salary of twenty shil- 
lings per annum. This favored individual was Jacob 

Meleyn, of Elizabeth Town. At an adjourned ses- 
sion the code of 1668 was revised, enlarged, and re- 
enacted. The Legislature also passed a respectable 
Sunday law in the words following : 

" Whosoever shall prophane the Lords Day, otherwise called Sunday, 
by any kind of servile work, unlawful recreations, or uunpcessary travels 
on that "lay, tiot fulling within the compass of works of mercy or neces- 
sity, eitlier wilfully or through careless neglect, .shall be punished l>y 
fine, inipiisonment, or corporally, according to the nature of the offence, 
at the judgment of the Court Justice or Justices where the otfence is 

At the close of the session was passed the famous 
" Act of Oblivion," so called from its proposal to 
bury all the troubles of the preceding five years. It 
is in these words, copied from Learning and Spicer, 
page 110: 

*' That there sh.nll be an utter abolishing of all actions tending to re- 
cover damages, costs, and ch.irgps for any action coniniitted or done 
against any one within this Province, that hath been a parly or any way 
concerned in the end'-avoiing and making an alteration in the govern- 
ment here settled by the Lords, anytime from the year 167U until June, 

Two sessions of the Assembly were held in 1676, the 
first beginning April 6th, at Elizabeth Town, and the 
second from the 5th to the 8th of October, at Wood- 
bridge. The most conspicuous act at the latter ses- 
sion was the establishment by law of the autumnal 
Thanksgiving Day commonly held in New England. 
At this time and for years previous Isaac Whitehead, 
town clerk of Elizabeth Town, served as clerk of the 
House of Deputies. 

The Legislature convened by Andros passed no 
laws relating to jurisprudence. The province had 
been divided by agreement of the proprietors into and West New Jersey, the eastern portion fall- 
ing to Sir GetjTge Carteret, who made his will Dec. 
5, 1678, devising his portion of the province to trus- 
tees for the benefit of his creditors. Sir George died 
Jan. 14, 1680. For two years the government (of 
East Jersey) was administered in the name of " The 
Right Honorable the Lady Elizabeth Carteret, Bar- 
oness, Widow, the Relict and sole Executrix of the 
Right Honorable Sir George Carteret, Kn ight and Bar- 
onet, deceased, late Lord Proprietor of the said Prov- 
ince, and Grandmother and Guardian of Sir George 
Carteret, Baronet, Grandson, and Heir of the said Sir 
George Carteret, deceased, the present Lady Propri- 
etrix of the Province aforesaid."- In the mean time 
fruitless eftbrts were made to find a purchaser for East 
Jersey. At length the province with its civil juris- 
diction, together with all arrearages of rent and sums 
of money due to the late proprietor, was disposed of 
to the highest bidder, the purchasers being an as.-'o- 
ciatiou of twelve persons, residents of London and 
vicinity, and most of them members of the Society of 
Friends. Among them were William Penn, Thomas 
Rudyard, and Samuel Groome. Soon after the num- 
ber of associates was doubled, six being added from 

' N. Y. Col. Ducnments, 

1 £. Jersey Becords, 11. 37. 



Scotland and the remainder mostly from London, 
Among the Scotch associates were James Drummond, 
Earl of Perth and Lord High Chancellor of Scotland, 
a thorough monarchist of the Stuart type, and sub- 
sequently a Papist and an exiled Jacohite; his brother, 
David Drummond, and Robert Barclay, of Urie, the 
Quaker apologist. One of the new associates was 
Gawen Laurie, the Quaker merchant of London. 
Thus, as has been remarked by an able historian, 
"one proprietor was exchanged for twenty-four and 
the Cavalier for the Quaker rule." ' The deed of 
lease and release whereby the province was conveyed 
to the new proprietors was executed Feb. 1 and 2, 1682, 
and the price paid for the property and privileges was 

The government of East Jersey was soon inaugu- 
rated. It is no part of our province in this history to 
speak of West Jersey, which maintained a separate 
government and jurisdiction, with its capital at Bur- 
lington, down to the surrender of the province to 
Queen Anne in 1702. Of East .Tersey Elizabeth 
Town was made the capital, and remained such until 
superseded by Perth Amboy, the new commercial 
metropolis which the proprietors attempted to build 
at the mouth of the Raritaii River.^ 

Robert Barclay was appointed Governor of East 
Jersey in the spring of 1682, with the privilege of 
non-residence and of acting by deputy. It is said 
that he had been first a Presbyterian and then a Pa- 
pist. He became converted to the principles of the 
Quakers, and wrote a book in their defense. He was 
held in high esteem by William Penn, and was also 
in favor with the royal family. Thomas Rudyard 
was appointed Deputy Governor, and Samuel Groome 
receiver and surveyor-general. They took up their 
residence at Elizabeth Town Nov. 13, 1682. 

Probably the first lawyer regularly educated and 
trained for the bar was Deputy Governor Thomas 
Rudyard. He was regularly admitted to the Eng- 
lish bar, and was a barrister in the city of London 
before he became one of the twenty-four associate 
proprietors and was chosen to fill the office of Deputy 
Governor of East Jersey under Barclay. There is no 
evidence that he practiced law in Elizabeth Town, 
or in New Jersey; but his talents and legal training 
were of great service as head of the executive and 
legislative departments of the government at a time 
when anything like systematic jurisprudence was in 
an incipient state, and had to be created, or at least de- 
veloped and set in order, by those who had in a very 
large measure the shaping and directing of the local 
civil affairs of the province. The arrival of Rudyard 
at Elizabeth Town was the signal for a better state 
of affairs, both locally and throughout the province. 
He came with conciliatory letters from the proprie- 
tors; he was a man of amiable instincts, and of a 

I Hatfield's Elizabeth, p. 211. See also Learning and Spicer, 141-60. 
3 See history of Perth Amboy in this work. 

friendly and courteous demeanor, representing not 
the lordly cavalier of a proud and imperious court, 
but a trading and agricultural association, of which 
the members were chiefly plain and unassuming men. 
Rudyard's family, also, were quite an accession to 
the settlement. He brought with him his two adult 
daughters, Margaret and Anne, and, it is thought, his 
two sons, Benjamin and John, designing to identify 
his interest fully with those of the country. He ob- 
tained a grant of three thousand acres of land, mostly 
on the Rahway and Raritan Rivers, and became a 
planter on a large scale, thus confirming his declara- 
tion of preference for these new settlements over the 
crowded thoroughfares of London. 

Governor Rudyard selected good men for his Coun- 
cil, and appointed local officers high in the confidence 
of the peo])le. The first General Assembly under his 
administration convened at Elizabeth Town March 
1, 1682, and continued in session until the 28th. 
Benjamin Price, Sr., of this tovvUi was a member of 
the Council. At this session East Jersey was divided 
into four counties, — Bergen, Essex, Middlesex, and 
Monmouth. The settlements of Elizabeth Town and 
Newark were included in the county of Essex, whose 
boundaries are thus defined : " Essex and the county 
thereof to contain all the settlements between the 
west side of the Hackensack River and the parting line 
between Woodbridge and Elizabeth Town, and so to 
extend westward and northward to the utmost bounds 
of the Province." Provision was made for the appoint- 
ment of sheriffs, coroners, justices, clerks, and other 
officers, and for the erection of county courts, a court 
of small causes for every town, and a superior court, 
to be called the Court of Common Right, to be held 
quarterly at Elizabeth Town. Capt. John Baker and 
Benjamin Parkis were appointed justices of the Court 
of Common Right, the highest tribunal at that time 
in the province except the Governor and Council, 
to whom appeals could be made in certain cases pro- 
vided for by law. Capt. John Baker was appointed 
coroner, George Jewell clerk and messenger of the 
House, James Emott clerk of the county of Essex and 

At the adjourned session in May the institution of 
domestic slavery is introduced for the first time as the 
subject of distinct enjictment. We find the following 
strong prohibition passed by the Legislature: 

"It is found by daily experience that negro and Indian slaves or ser- 
vants, Tuider pretence of trade, or liberty to tmffick, do frequently steal 
from their masters and others what they expose to sale at distance from 
their liabitarions; (and, therefore, they forbade all) barter, tratle, or traf- 
fique with any negro slave, or Indian slave, or servant, for any rum, 
brandy, wine, or strong drink, or any other goods, wares, or commodi- 
ties, living or dead." 

Numerous laws, mostly such as had been passed in 
Carteret's time for the preservation of good morals, 
the rights of property, and the welfare of the com- 
munity, were enacted. The same strictness in regard 
to profanity, intemperance, licentiousness, and Sab- 
bath-breaking was retained. Evidently a healthful 



tone of morals prevailed in tlie several settlements, 
notwithstanding the recent disturbances.' 

At the sessions in December, Benjamin Price, 
Henry Lyon, and Benjamin Parkis were appointed 
on the commission to lay out and appoint "all neces- 
sary highways, bridges, passages, landings, and fer- 
ries for the county of Essex.'* As the country was 
everywhere at this early day infested witli wolves, a 
bounty of fifteen shillings was offered for every wolfs 
head. ' ' 

Of tlie six assessors for the county of Essex, three 
— Benjamin Price, Benjamin Parkis, and George 
Ross — were of Elizabeth Town. 

Rudyard's administration was brief. In July, 1683, 
Barclay appointed Gawen Laurie, also one of the 
proprietors, his deputy for East Jersey. Laurie had 
been for several years associated with William Penn 
in the trusteeship of West Jersey, but had not yet 
come to America. He was a London merchant and 
of the Society of Friends. He arrived in January, 
1684, at the new town of Perth Amboy, bringing with 
him his wife Mary, his son James, and his two daugh- 
ters Mary and Rebecca. The latter became the wife 
of Miles Forster, of Perth Amboy, and her sister 
Mary married William Haige, of Elizabeth Town. 
Isabel, the daughter of James, married William 
Davis, of New York. 

Governor Laurie was inaugurated at Elizabeth 
Town on the 2Sth of January, 16S4, after having 
spent several days in laying out the streets and lots 
of the new city of Perth Amboy. Rudyard grace- 
fully retired to the more humble yet responsible po- 
sition of secretary of the province, but soon after, in 
August, 1684, became attorney -general of the prov- 
ince of New York. 

No sooner had Laurie assumed the reins of gov- 
ernment than he wrote home a glowing account of 
the new country. Under date of March 2, 1684, he 
wrote to the proprietors from Elizabeth Town as fol- 
lows : 

•' Now is the time to send over people for settling Here. The Scots 
and Williuiii DoikwrH's people coiu ug now unil settling, ailviiijce the 
Province nnne tlnin it Iwlh been udvaiiced these leji years. Here wants 
nothing hnt people; Tlieie is not a po'T hoily in all the province, nor 
that \vant>; Here is almnilance of provision. Pork and Beef, at ■^li per 
pound. Ki-h and Koul plenty, O.vstol-s I tliink would s^rve nil Kng- 
land; Sider g.tud iin<l plenty, for lii per Quart. Good Venison, plenty 
brought UB in at IHd the quarter. Eggs at :ld per dozen, all things very 
plenty. Land very good a., ever I saw : Wines, Walnuts, Peaches, Straw- 
berries, and many other tliinj;8 plenty in the woods, 

'■ I have put two houses in repair up.ui the River, called the Point 2 
miles fr..m Klizal.etlit..wn ; have let one of them, with 111 acres of Pas- 
ture ground, and lu acres of Woody ground, for 7 years at liO lib per 
annum: the man locleare the ten acres of Woody gnnind and make it 
fit for Ploughing or Pa-tiire. I intend to let the other also with 
land. All the houses were like to drop down, all the laial lying without 
fence, and a barn quite fallen d.,wn and destroye.l rauother without any 
cover,and ihat oilier ne.xt lo the house where 1 dwell. nil to pieces and 
all the fences and out houses were down, but lepaired before I came. "2 

It is said of Governor Laurie that he carried out 
fully in his administration the instructions of the 

' Learning and Spicer, 227^251, 

' Scott's Model of E. ,1., lBO-65. 

proprietors, "to use all means of and ten- 
derness with the people, and not stand much with 
them upon small matters." Notwithstanding the de- 
sire expressed by the proprietors that he should make 
the new town of Penh Amboy his capital, he con- 
tinued to reside at Elizabeth Town till his death, re- 
spected and honored by all. The General Assembly 
convened at Perth Amboy for the first time April 6, 
1686, and from this time that town became tlie per- 
manent seat of government of East Jersey. This was 
in the second year of the reign of James II., the 
Duke of York having come to the throne of England 
under this title upon the death of Charles II., Feb. 6, 
1685. Being a Catholic, the news of his accession 
created great excitement in New Jersey and through- 
out the colonies. He was, however, soon deposed, 
and fled to France, when the Protestant prince and 
princess, William and Mary, were exalted to the 
throne, 1690. 

The brief period of the reign of James II. was one 
of the most exciting in the early history of the colo- 
nies. The king, in order to carry into effect his long- 
cherished scheme of subjecting all the colonies of 
North America to his arbitrary and desptitic control, 
commissioned his supple tool. Sir Edmund Andros, 
cap tain -general of all New England, with power and 
authority to bring New York and New Jersey also 
under his government. This plan of consolidation, 
although utterly repugnant to the people of New 
England, who felt called upon to resist it with all 
their might, was urgently sought by Governor Don- 
gan and the authorities of New York, who were con- 
tinually writing letters to the king, asking him to 
annex the other provinces to their territory. Their 
interest in this was the aggrandizement of New York, 
by making her the centre and source of government 
of the consolidated colonies. Tlie mayor and Council 
of the city of New York, in an address to the king, 
dated March 2, 1687, insisted on " the absolute neces- 
sity there is that those adjacent parts of Connecticut, 
East and West Jersey, and Penn.sylvania should be 
united to the Province of New York." Andros re- 
ceived his commission, and after arriving in New 
York, proceeded to New England to fasten the yoke 
upon the necks of those elder Commonwealths of the 
Puritans. At length, on the 7th of April, 1688, "the 
decree went forth that the two Jerseys and New York 
were united with New England under the rule of 
Andros, to be governed by the same royal pleasure 
which for three years had been grinding the liberties 
of Britain to powder, the whole to be henceforth 
known as 'New England.'" Andros, in a letter to 
the king, says he had received the submission of New 
York on the 11th of October, also of East Jersey on 
the 15th, and of West Jersey on the 18tli following, 
and had settled all the officers, civil and military. 
In proclaiming his commission in East Jersey, he 
proceeded to Elizabeth Town, then the most consid- 
erable |)lace in the province, where, we are informed 



in a letter written by Secretary Randolph, the people 
" all showed their great satisfaction at being under his 
Majesty's immediate government." Mr. Hatfield is 
of the opinion that if there was any "satisfaction" 
really expressed, beyond that of a few new-comers 
who gloried in the measures of King James, it must 
have been because the people felt gratified in being 
at length rid of the proprietary government, with 
which they had so long been vexed.' 

Col. Andrew Hamilton, who had succeeded Lord 
Neill Campbell in the government of East Jersey, 
was retained by Andro.s as his deputy, which went far 
to reconcile the inhabitants to the change, as Hamil- 
ton possessed qualities both of mind and heart which 
secured for him the confidence of all classes. Andros' 
rule, however, was short and inglorious. His royal 
master in England was soon dethroned and compelled 
to flee from his country, while he himself was degraded 
and imprisoned by the outraged Puritans of Massa- 
chusetts Bay. In New York, Capt. Leisler had seized 
the fort and ousted his officers in that quarter. So 
closely was Elizabeth Town connected, socially and 
commercially, with the neighboring city, that these 
events deeply affected the peace of the community. 
The agitation here, as elsewhere throughout the coun- 
try, was deep and profound. On the 28th of June, 
1689, a Committee of Safety was chosen, to whom was 
intrusted the management of the affairs of New York, 
and of this committee two members were residents of 
Essex County. " The utmost efforts were put forth 
by the faction in power to obtain the support of the 
towns in East Jersey, to overthrow the old govern- 
ments and to set up their own, but without success, 
the people here resolving to maintain the existing 
government until they received orders from the new 
authorities at home." 

Governor Hamilton left the country for England 
late in May, 1690. The proprietors, determining to 
reassert their jurisdiction, of which they had been 
deprived by King James, on the decease of Barclay, 
Oct. 3, 1690, made choice of Col. Joseph Dudley, 
who served as Governor until the reappointment of 
Hamilton, March 25, 1692. Hamilton convened the 
Assembly at Amboy in the following September. 
The principal work of this session was the adoption 
of measures to aid New York against an invasion by 
the French. Hamilton continued to administer the 
government for the proprietors, but it was evident a 
crisis was approaching. The proprietary government 
was doomed. It had been re-established in a mo- 
ment of transition from the dyjiasty of the Stuarts 
to that of the Prince of Orange, in which the minis- 
try was too much absorbed to give attention to such 
a colonial incident. Soon, however, the subject was 
taken up by the new ministry ; their assent was with- 
held from tbe appointment of the board at London, 
and the jurisdiction of the courts denied to any of 

1 Hist, of Elizabeth, p. 235. 

their appointees. In accordance with a law requir- 
ing the colonial Governors to be natives of England, 
Hamilton was superseded by Jeremiah Basse in 
April, 1698. Being an Englishman, and in sym- 
pathy with the opposition, he was opposed by the 
American proprietors. The people soon learned to 
hold the government in contempt; revolt ensued; 
the leaders were imprisoned, but were speedily re- 
leased by the populace. 

In May, 1699, Basse left the government in the 
hands of Andrew Bowne, president of the Council, 
and sailed for England. Bowne's exercise of au- 
thority was no more respected than his predecessor's, 
although it stirred up less resistance. The return of 
Hamilton at the close of 1699 with a new commis- 
sion served still more to complicate matters. In the 
course of the following spring and summer the oppo- 
sition openly revolted. The Assembly called to meet 
in May, 1700, demanded of Hamilton credentials from 
the king, and were dissolved the same day. A 
period of strife and violence followed, the courts were 
broken up, sheritfs and others were obstructed in 
serving processes, and, as during Basse's rule, there 
were " mutual breaking of Gaols, rescuing of Pris- 
oners, and beating and abusing of officers."'^ 

We have recited these facts to show how impossible 
it was during this period that courts should have 
been regularly maintained and law properly admin- 
istered. It was a period in which anarchy was the 
rule and order the exception. At a meeting of the 
county court in Elizabeth Town March 12, 1700, the 
sheriff having been ordered to arrest Samuel Carter 
for contempt of court, the " noise and howling of the 
people" were such that the court was obliged to ad- 
journ. A similar scene took place at the county 
court in Newark in September. In this confusion of 
public affiiirs it was determined to make an appeal 
directly to the king. A petition was prepared by 
" the Freeholders, Inhabitants, and owners of Laud . 
of and belonging to Elizabeth Town, or Township, 
and other lands thereunto adjacent, in the Province 
of East Jersey, in America, in behalf of themselves 
and many others." 

After reciting their title, they say, " The said pur- 
chasers and those claiming under them still continued 
in the possession of the lands by them purchased, and 
peaceably enjoyed the same until about September, 
1693, being about thirty years, and during that time, 
at great labor and expense, built, planted, and im- 
proved the same; and they humbly conceive they 
ought, according to law, reason, and justice, still to 
enjoy the same." They then rehearse the troubles to 
which they had been put in defending their title and 
their need of an impartial tribunal. They ask, there- 

aE. ,1. Records, C, 27.-!, 311, 328, ail, 334. E.T. Hill, pp.M, 124. App. 
to D(i., p. :13. Ans. to Do., p. 32. Smith's N. J., pp. 2U9-U, 5i8-60, 568- 
69. Luamiiig and Spicor, pp. 592-93, 606. Gordon's N. . I., p. 53, Wliite- 
llead's B. J., pp. 138-41, 147-60, 219-20, 223-27. Mulford's N. J., pp. 
257-64. Aualytical Index of N. J., Col. Do(;nit.'i., pp. 19-31. 



fore, either to be placed under the civil government 
of New York, or to have impartial judges appointed 
to whom all these matters might be referred; and 
that the usurpers be admonished no more to usurp 
the royal authority in "constituting courts and com- 
missioning judges." 

The names of sixty-five prominent citizens who 
signed tliis petition are elsewhere given. The peti- 
tion was soon answered by the force of events. The 
anarchy of faction and the reign of disorder termi- 
nated at length by the final and unconditional sur- 
render, April 15, 1702, on the part of the proprietors 
of all claim and right to the jurisdiction of the 
province. "Then in reality New Jersey, for the first 
time, became a royal province, governed no longer 
by a company of land speculators, but directly by the 
crown. King William died March 8, 1702, and Anne, 
Princess of Denmark, ascended the throne. A royal 
Governor of the combined provinces of New York 
and New Jersey was appointed Dec. 5, 1702, in the 
person of Edward Hyde, Lord Viscount Cornbury, 
cousin to her Majesty. In May, 1703, on the arrival 
ot the royal commission, the proprietary government 
of East Jersey was brought to a perpetual end." 

Whether Governor Philip Carteret was a lawyer or 
not is not positively certain, but it is evident that he 
managed many cases in court, and manifested no 
little skill and knowledge as well as tact and shrewd- 
ness. One of these occasions was when he was kid- 
napped and taken before a special Court of Assizes in 
New York by Governor Andros, in May, 1680. He 
was tried for " presuming to exercise jurisdiction and 
government over His Majesty's subjects within the 
bounds of His Majesty's Letters Patent, granted to 
His Royal Highness the Duke of York." Carteret 
presented his commission with other instructions in 1 
his vindication. The jury brought in a verdict of not 
guilty. "Upon which," says Carteret in a letter to 
Bollen, " he (the judge) asked them questions and 
demanded their reasons, which I pleaded was con- 
trary to law for a jury to give reasons after their ver- 
dict is given in ; nevertheless he sent them twice or 
thrice out, giving them new charges, which I pleaded 
as at first to he contrary to law, notwithstanding the 
last verdict of the jury being according to the first 
brought in by them, — 'the prisoner at the bar not 
guilty,' — upon which I was acquitted accordingly." 

This was a triumph for Carteret with the jury, and 
in law and justice, although the partisan judges felt 
it necessary to append to the record : 

" But the court declare their opinion and judgment 
that if he, the said Capt. Carteret, shall go to New 
Jersey, he should give security or engagement not to 
assume any authority or jurisdiction there, civil or 

Benjamin Price. Esq., attorney-at-law in New York, 
1725, was a grandson of Benjamin Price, one of the 
original Associates. 

Colonial Courts. — Upon the assumption of the 

government by the queen of England in 1702, a Gov- 
ernor of the province was appointed and commis- 
sioned to hold his office during the pleasure of the 
.sovereign. The executive power was vested in the 
Governor with the advice of twelve councilors, ap- 
pointed originally by the crown, but afterwards, gen- 
erally, by the Governor himself Six of these were 
taken from East Jersey and six from West Jersey, 
five constituting a quorum. The legislative power 
consisted of the same, with the addition of a General 
Assembly elected by virtue of writs under the great 
seal of the province, and convened, adjourned, or dis- 
solved at the pleasure of the executive. The appor- 
tionment for members of Assembly was as follows: 
Two for the inhabitants and householders of Perth 
Amboy, and ten for the freeholders of East Jersey ; 
two for the inhabitants and householders of Burling- 
ton, and ten for the freeholders of West Jersey. This 
arrangement was somewhat modified by an act passed 
in 1709 making the representatives elective by a ma- 
jority of the votes of the freeholders of each county. 
Each freeholder, in order to be entitled to vote, should 
own one hundred acres of land or be worth fifty pounds 
current money ; and the person elected to the Assem- 
bly should have one thousand acres of land in his own 
right, or be worth five hundred pounds in real and 
personal estate. Voting by ballot was not introduced 
generally until after the Revolution, nor in all the 
counties until 1797. The Assemblies met not annu- 
ally, but only occasionally as the Governor saw fit to 
convene them. For example, from the surrender to 
the crown to the Revolution, a period of seventy-four 
years, there were twenty-two Assemblies, some of 
which continued but one year, others longer, and one 
from 1761 to 1769, eight years. In 1768 an act was 
passed providing that a General Assembly should be 
held once in seven years at least.' All colonial and 
county officers, even including the clerks of the As- 
sembly, were appointed either by the crown or by the 
Governor and Council, and were required to take a 
certain prescribed oath of fidelity and allegiance. 

The courts of the colonial period, which still 
in a modified form, were instituted by Lord Cornbury, 
under authority of Queen Anne, by an ordinance pro- 
mulgated in 1704. They consisted of (1) justices' 
courts, which had cognizance of cases to the amount 
of forty shillings; (2) Courts of Common Pleas in each 
county, having power to try all actions at common 
law ; (3) Courts of General Sessions of the peace, each 
with quarterly terms, having civil and criminal juris- 
diction in certain cases; (4) a Supreme Court for the 
province, to sit once in each year at Perth Amboy and 
at Burlington, and to have cognizance of all pleas, 
civil, criminal, and mixed, as fully as the Courts of 
Queen's Bench, Common Pleas, and Exchequer in 
England ; (5) a Court of Chancery, at first constituted 

1 Constitution and Government of the Province, by Judge Elmer. 
Allison's Laws, ed. 1776. 



of the Governor and any three members of his Council. 
This was clianged by Governor Hunter, who during 
his administration exercised the powers of chancellor 
alone, which practice, being sanctioned by the king, 
became the constitution of the court, and so remained 
till the adoption of the constitution of 1844. The 
rules of practice were first systematized under the 
chancellorship of Governor Williamson in 1818. 

" In 1714 the Supreme Court was required to hold 
two terms yearly in each place, and courts for the 
trial of issues were appointed to be held yearly in each 
county. . . . The times and places of holding the 
courts and the length of the terms were from time to 
time altered, but the constitution and powers of the 
courts remained the same, except that in 1724, no 
doubt through the influence of the proprietors, the 
jurisdiction of the Common Pleas was restricted so as 
to except causes wiierein the right or title to any lands, 
tenements, or hereditaments were in any wise con- 
cerned. After 1751 the Supreme Court fixed the times 
for holding the circuits. The jurisdiction of these 
several courts remains to this day as established by 
the ordinance of 1724." 


In our chapter on early courts and jurisprudence 
the bench and bar have been foreshadowed, appear- 
ing in various degrees of dignity from the frontier 
court for the trial of small causes up to the Supreme 
Court of the colony and the State. The elegant barris- 
ter of the nineteenth century has been adumbrated in 
his unprofessional prototype of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. Thus all things proceed by a law of evolution. 
The contrast in the outward symbols of dignity which 
have accompanied the march of jurisprudence is not 
less marked or impressive than that exhibited in the 
mental lurniture and equipments of judges and law- 
yers themselves. The backwoods justice presiding 
in his shirt-sleeves in some frontier cabin is certainly 
a very different picture from the ermined chief justice 
of the highest modern court, presiding in gilded and 
frescoed apartments. 

These changes which marked the advance of civil- 
ization had been passed through in the Old World, 
but they had to be repeated in the New, where every- 
thing in the beginning was in a crude and wild state 
of nature; the forests had first to be subdued and 
homes made, society had to grow, the diversified po- 
litical, social, industrial, and commercial relations of 
man had to be developed before the laws and judicial 
customs known to all civilized races could be applied 
except in their crudest and simplest forms. The peo- 
ple of this country, being of the same race and blood 
as those of England, only needed time and opportu- 

nity to develop here from the root of English law a 
grander tree of liberty and justice than that which 
shelters the broad empire of Great Britain. 

Little is known of a regular bar in connection with 
the courts of New Jersey till about the middle of the 
eighteenth century. Some lawyers there were pre- 
vious to that, especially in the chief towns, who had 
been regularly bred to the profession. Some of this 
class were among the officials sent over from England 
who participated in the early governments of the 
colony, such men as Thomas Rudyard, Deputy Gov- 
ernor in 1682, and Lord Cornbury, the first Governor 
under Queen Anne. Half a century later William 
Livingston, who had studied law with James Alexan- 
der, the former surveyor-general of New Jersey, then 
in practice in New York, came into practice in the 
courts of New Jersey, and soon after settled in Eliza- 
beth Town. About the same time John De Hart, 
Esq., became a practitioner in the same town. These 
were followed by Robert Ogden, Jr., called the " hon- 
est lawyer," who had acquired a large practice before 
the Revolution. So far as we know these were all 
the regular lawyers in what is now Union County 
previous to the struggle for independence. 

Some, without any legal education or training, prac- 
ticed as amateur attorneys, doing a sort of law busi- 
ness for their less informed neighbors and attending 
to small causes injustices' and other inferior courts. 
Such in many instances stood in the way of the regu- 
lar profession. 

A prejudice existed against the legal fraternity at 
an early day, which in New England for a time as- 
sumed quite a bitter form. It was felt there and more 
or less in all the colonies till after the Revolution. 
This prejudice grew out of the antagonism between 
the laboring and professional classes at a period wlien 
the majority belonged to the former and were strug- 
gling hard against the adversities of a new country. 
Lawyers were looked upon by them as a class of peo- 
ple trying to get their living without work, and, withal, 
feeling themselves somewhat superior beings. This 
prejudice prevailed in New Jersey as early as 1769, 
and after the Revolution was fanned into a fresh flame, 
both against the lawyers and the courts, on account 
of their agency in enforcing the payment of debts 
and contracts when the people were greatly impover- 
ished on account of the war. A notable illustration 
of this occurred in this county. The people at that 
time were clamorous for stay laws. Abraham Clark, 
the signer of the Declaration of Independence, was 
a member of the Legislature, and sided with the pop- 
ular feeling. He was supposed to have been the au- 
thor of a bill entitled " An Act lor Regulating and 
Shortening the Proceedings of the Courts of Law," 
afterwards known as " Clark's Law." It did not pass, 
but in advocating it its author made the remark, " If 
it succeeds, it will tear off the niflles from the law- 
yers' wrists." 

The custom of wearing not only ruffled wristbands, 



but ruffled bosoms, prevailed at that day. Barristers 
in court also wore gowns and wigs. " When sitting 
in court the justices of the Supreme Court wore a 
robe of office, and commonly a wig, although it is not 
probable that, like their brethren in England, they 
considered it necessary to carry four of these indis- 
pensable articles, namely, the brown scratch wig for 
the morning when not in court ; the powdered dress 
wig for dinner ; the tie wig, with the black coif, when 
sitting on the civil side of the court ; and the full 
buttoned one for the criminal side." 

The following custom, however, did prevail until 
within the memory of many now living : " The ordi- 
nance establisliing the circuits required the high 
sheriff, justices of the peace, the mayor and aldermen 
of any corporation within the counties, and all officers 
of any of the courts to be attending on the chief jus- 
tice and other justices going the circuit at his coming 
into and leaving the several counties, and during his 
abode within the same; and the practice, as it was in 
England until the introduction of railways, was for 
the sheriff, with as many justices and other gentlemen 
on horseback as he could conveniently collect, to await 
the arrival of the judge at the county line, to which 
he was in like manner escorted by the officers of the 
adjoining county, and escort him to his lodgings. At 
the opening and closing of the court from day to day, 
the sheriff and constables, with their staves of office, 
escorted him from and to his place of lodging to the 
court-liouse, as was indeed the usual custom until 
very recently." ' 

We append a list of the lawyers of this bar, so far 
as a record can be found of them, together with the 
dates of their admission to practice, to which are 
added some biographical sketches both of lawyers and 

List of Members of the Bar of Union County 
from 1774 to 1881. 

Roberr Ogdeii, Jr. 

Matthtis Williamson, NoTemlier T.. 1774. 

Willwm Livi.ig»ton, Jr., May T., 1780. 

Joliu Ueliarl, Ma.v T., 178). 

Aaruu Ogdeil, September T., 1784. 

Nelieliiiali VVaJe, September T., 1784. 

Jacub Dellart, April T., 1786. 

Belijaiu.ll 1 laik, September T., 1788. 

Ibaau H. Willianisou, April T., 17al, April T., 1796. 

Mattliias Dellart, April T., 17al. 

Caleb Hal.led, Jr., Jlay T., 17al. 

Tliumas L. Ogi-en, April T., 1T93. 

J. lb S. llalsloci, April T., ITJj, September T., 1799. 

Da> Id U. Ogdeu, September T., 1796, September T., 1799. 

William Clietwuod, September T , 1796, September T., 1799. 

William R. WJlliauisun, May T., 1799. 

Tboliiaa Y. Uow, May T., 1799. 

Ge.jrge t;. Barber, February T., 1801. 

Elia.t I. Dayton, February T., 1801. 

Aaiuli Coe, Nuvouibor T., 1801. 

Lewis BloiTla Ogileii, Nuvember T., 18U5. 

Siiiitb Scudder, September T., 1808, February T., 1814. 

KliHs D. Wuodiiiff, November T., 1808. 

Mattliius O. Halsted. November!., 1814, February T., 1818. 

L £lmer*8 BemiDist^nces, p. 15. 

Matthias Ogdeii, November T., 1814, February T., 1818. 

Oliver S. Ilalsted, November T., IK14. November T., 1817. 

Francis C. F Randolph, May T., 1816, September T., 1S19. 

William Halsted, Jr., November T., 1S16, November T., 1819. 

Aaron O Dayton, November T., 1817, May T., 1821. 

E/.ekiel S. Ha.neg, May T., 1818. 

Jolin J. Chetwood, November T., 1821, February T., 1825. 

Daniel Haines, November T., I8i3, November T., 1826. 

Ellas B. D. Ogden, May T., 1824, February T., 1829. 

Joseph F. Rand.ilph, May T., 182.'), May T., 1828. 

William W Oorriell. September T,, 1827. 

Francis B. Clietwoort. November T., 1828, November T., 1831. 

.\aroii 0. DeHarl, November T., 1828. May T., lSi5. 

Corn.liua Boice, September T., 1829, November T., 1832. 

Thomas P. IMiiniiey, February T., 1831. 

Wi liam Mansfield Scii.lder, November T., 1831, May T., 1839. 
; T Gii.bons Trumbull, February T., 1832, February T., 1836. 

Slalthias O. Dayton, November T., 1832. 

Edward T. Rcigers, .November T., 1833, November T., 1836. 

laiac H. WilliaiiiKon, Jr., February T., 1836, September T., 1839. 

John Chetwood, September T., 1836, Septemtwr T., 1839. 

Robert D. Spencer, September T., 1836. April T., 1846. 

John R. Crane, November T., 1836. 
1 Isaac W. Soiidder, May T., 1838, May T., 1844. 
j William F. Day, November T., 1838. 
I James R. Meeker, Noveuiber T., 1840, November T., 1843. 
I Isaac Coles, May T , 1841. 

Joseph Aniiiu, November T., 1842, January T., 1846. 
1 Ezra Darby, February T , 1843, April T., 1846. 
j Stephen P Britlan, Jr., Jaiiuiiry T., 1846. 

J.ilin Chetwood, Jr., July T , 1849. 

William A. Coureen, April T., 1851. 
I Andrew Diitcher, July T., 18ol. 

William B Meeker, Febmary T., 1852. 

T Henry Stone, November T., 1859. 
I Benjamin Williamson, Jr., November T., 18.59. 
I Bnidbiiry C. Chetwood, February T., 1861, February T., 1864. 
: Samuel D. Hiiiuea, February T., 1864. 

Of the above list the following were called to the 
degrees of sergeants-at-law, viz. : 

Robert Ogden, Jr., May T., 1780. 
Aaron Ogden, September T., 1792. 
Maltliias Williauisiin, May T., 1797. 
Isaac H. Williamson, May T., 1804. 
Willialu Chetwood, February T., 1816. 
Olivers. Halsted, February T., 1834. 
Wdliam Halsteail, Jr, February T., 1834. 
Jobu J. Chetwood, Septemi er T., 1837. 
Daniel Haines, Sepiemher T., 18.17. 
Gliiu B. D. Ogden, September T., 1837. 

David Ogden, John Chetwood, Joseph F. Ran- 
dolph, Elias B. D. Ogden, and Daniel Haines were 
associate justices of the Supreme Court of New 
Jersey. Robert D. Spencer was law reporter, ap- 
pointed Oct. 28, 1842. 

Members of the Present Bar of Union County. 

English, James K., admitted as attorney June T., 1864; admitted as 

counselor June T., 1867. 
Williamson, Benjamin, November T., 1830, NovemberT., 1833. 
Ruiiyan, Enos W., June T., 18.54, June T., 1857. 
Magie, William Jay, Fei.ruary T., 1856, February T., 1859. 
Alward, J.-s-i.h, November T.. 18.57, February T., 1862. 
Chetwood, R..bert E.. June T., 1861, June T ; 1864. 
Eunyau. Nelson, Febrnary T., 1862, June T., 1865. 
Berry, Garret, November T., 1863, November T., 1866. 
Atwater, Edward S , June T., 1866, Febraary T., 1870. 
Bergen, Frank, November T., 1873, November T., 1876. 
English, .Nich.das C. J., November T., 1868, November T., 1871. 
English. Theodore C, June T., 1876, June T., 1881. 
Kay, J. Autustus. Jr., February T., 1866, h'ebruary T., 1869. 
Gerber, Jauies J , June T., 1876, nut a counselor. 


Greeu, Kobert S., T., I85;i, November T., 1856. 

Gilhooly, P. Hamilton, .lime T., 187:1, February T., 1877. 

Hodges, Thorudyke D., Junn T., 1870, June T., 1873. 

Lindabury, Richard V., February T., 1874, February T., 1877. 

Cross, Joseph, Jr.. June T., 1868, November T., 1871. 

Marsh, Fred. C, February T., 1878, Febiuary T, 1881. 

McCormick, Thomas F., November T., ISTl, November T., 1874. 

Noe, Louis H., November T., 1869, November T., 1878. 

Norman, Zerman, November T., 1874. 

Parrot, Oeorge T., November T., 1873, February T., 1877. 

Richards, Howard, February T.. 1870. 

Swift. C. Addison, February T., 1880; not a rounselor, 

Wilson, William P., June T., 1870, June T., 1873. 

Wilson, William R., November T., 1875, November T., 1878. 

Wood, Edward M., November T., 1878. 

Durand, Jiimes H., November T., 1868. 

Lindsay, Gilbert R., November T., 1867, November T., 1870. 

Lupton, Leslie. November T., 1867, November T., 1870. 

Shafer, Thomas H., September T., 1843; not a counsellor. 

Vail. Benjamin A., November T., 1868, November T., 1871. 

Ward, Clarence D., November T., 1881. 

Bolton, James C, November T., 1870. 

Butts, Alexander B. 

Coward, Joseph B., November T., 1858. 

Good, Peter P., June T., 1870, November T., 1873. 

Hetfield, Walter L., February T., 1879. 

Jackson, John H., June T., 1872, June T., 1878. 

Marsh, Craig A.. 1879. 

Maxson, William B., June T., 1867, February T., 1875. 

Stewart, S. L. 

Stillman, William M., June T., 1880. 

Trimmer, Martin L., 1868. 

Voorhees, Foster M., June T., 1880; not a counselor. 

Ross, Henry C, June T., 1880. 

Van Winkle, John H., February T., 1866, February T., 1869. 

Snydam, George P., 1872. 

Good, Peter P., Juue T , 1870, June T., 1873. 

Governor William Livingston was a member . 
of this bar. He was born in 1724, graduated at Yale ! 
College in 1741, studied law in New York with James j 
Alexander, and attained to considerable prominence 
as a lawyer there before he removed to Elizabeth 
Town. The principal monument of his legal attain- 
ments in early manhood is found in his " Answer" to 
the Elizabeth Town Bill in Chancery, prepared by 
him at the instance of the town committee in 1750. 
He was then about twenty-six years of age. He soon 
after settled in Elizabeth Town, and practiced law in 
the courts of New Jersey and New York till the con- 
flict between the colonies and the mother-country 
opened to him a more brilliant field in the public ser- 
vice. He entered with all his energy into the struggle 
of the colonies for independence, being on all local 
committees from the time of the passage of the Stamp 
Act to the beginning of actual hostilities, when, with 
a general's commission, he was placed in command 
of the important post at his own town to thwart the 
movements of the enemy from Staten Island. With 
John DeHart, Stephen Crane, and Richard Smith, 
he was a delegate to the first General Congress in 
1774. and a member of the Council of Safety and 
the Provincial Congress of New Jersey. William 
Franklin, the apostate son of the great patriot, Ben- 
jamin Franklin, had been the colonial Governor, 
and in his adherence to the British had thrown every 
obstacle in the way of popular rights. The people 

had deposed him, taken the reins into their own 

hands, organized a Provincial Congress in place of 
his arbitrary Legislature, adopted a Republican con- 
stitution, and when a suitable chief magistrate was 
wanted for the new-born State Livingston was called 
for, and found to be the man for the situation. He was 
chosen the first Governor of the State of New .lersey, 
Aug. 31, 1776, and by successive elections was kept 
in the oSice till the close of his life, a period of four- 
teen years. " It was certainly a most happy Provi- 
dence," says a late writer, " that gave to New Jersey 
during the trying time of the Revolution, and for 
several following years, a Governor so well fitted by 
his character and acquirements not only to inspire 
the people with courage and perseverance, and to co- 
operate heartily with Washington during all the 
changes of a war to which they were especially ex- 
posed, but to guide the Legislature in the inaugura- 
tion of the new and untried sy.stem of government. 
Chosen but for a single year, it was important to have 
a man of sufficient popularity to secure a re-election 
in spite of the cavils of those whose plans he found 
it necessary to oppose. With but the smallest amount 
of power or patronage, and besides his important ju- 
dicial functions as chancellor and ordinary, being 
only the presiding officer of the Legislative Council, 
with only a casting vote, it was equally important to 
have a man of decided Republican principles and 
sound legal attainments, that he might exercise a 
salutary influence over legislation so liable to take a 
wrong direction. All these qualities were combined 
in Livingston, and although his writings show how 
much he was dissatisfied with those legislative meas- 
ures which interfered so wrongfully between debtor 
and creditor, it is evident from an inspection of the 
statutes enacted while he was Governor that many of 
the most important of them were drawn by him, or 
[ underwent his careful revision." 

He opposed the passage of the laws making the 

1 depreciated Continental money a legal tender, and, 

i with reference to this matter, uttered a sentiment 

j worthy to be engraved over every hall of legislation 

j in the world: "No acts of Assembly have hitherto 

been able to reconcile me to cheating according to 

I law, or convince me that human legislation can alter 

the immutable duties of morality." It was this kind 

of legislation that he satirized in the following verse : 

" For useless a house-door, e'en if he would lock it. 
When any insolent legislative brother 
(;an legally enter into a man's pocket 
And preamble all his cash into another." 

As soon as peace was proclaimed Governor Liv- 
in"-st<m left Trenton, wliere he had resided for three 
years, and returned to his house at Elizabeth Town. 
He was glad to be able to relinquish his wandering 
life, to enter again his deserted library, and to em- 
ploy some of his leisure in restoring the comforts of 
home. A letter to his wife, written in 1783, shows 
that he was attached with strong interest to his home, 
both as a place of security for his two unmarried 



daughters, and to place his wife in an independent 
situation in case of his decease. He says, " I have a 
good estate left, if I can but get the time to put it in 

In May, 1787, he was appointed by the Legislature 
one of the delegates to the convention assembled to 
form the Constitution of the United States. He took 
his seat in June, was a constant attendant upon its 
deliberations, affixed his name to the draught finally 
agreed upon, and was a decided advocate of its ratifi- 
cation by the States. In his message to the Legisla- 
ture, in August, 1788, he heartily congratulated the 
members of that body upon the ratification of the 
Constitution, and thanked God that he had lived to 
see it. In 1788, Yale College conferred upon him 
the degree of LL.D. His wife died in 1789, and he 
himself departed this life on June 25, 1790, aged 
sixty-six years. 

Governor Livingston had thirteen children, of 
whom six died before him. One son, Brockholst 
Livingston, became a distinguished lawyer in New 
York, was several years one of the judges of the Su- 
preme Court of that State, and from 1807 until his 
death in 1823 one of the justices of the Supreme 
Court of the United States. 

Hon. Elias Boudinot, LL.D. — The father, grand- 
father, and great-grandfather of this distinguished 
man all bore the name of Elias. The latter was a 
Huguenot who emigrated from France in 1686, 
shortly after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. 
Elias Boudinot, the subject of this notice, was born 
in Philadelphia April 21 (O. S.), 1740. Having 
studied law with his brother-in-law, Richard Stock- 
ton, Esq., at Princeton, he was licensed in November, 
1760, and commenced practice in Elizabeth Town. 
He married, April 21, 1762, Hannah A., sister of 
Hon. Richard Stockton. Dr. Hatfield says, " He 
resided at first in a smaller, and then in a larger 
house on Jersey Street, both of which he bought of 
Alderman Samuel Woodruff or his heirs, in the 
latter of which Mr. Woodruff lived until his decease. 
He attached himself to the Presbyterian Church, and 
was chosen at the age of twenty-five president of the 
board of trustees." 

At the commencement of hostilities with Great 
Britain, Mr. Boudinot devoted himself heartily to the 
cause of his country. After serving on the staff of 
Gen. Livingston, he was appointed by, June 
6, 1777, commissary-general of prisoners, in which 
capacity he served until the summer of 1778, when, 
having been appointed to represent the State in Con- 
gress, he took his seat July 7th, retiring at the ex- 
piration of the year. He was reappointed Nov. 2, 
1781, and again Oct. 30, 1782. He was chosen presi- 
dent of Congress Nov. 4, 1782. and when the treaty 
of peace with Great Britain was ratified, April 15, 
1783, lie had the honor of affixing to it his signature. 

He was again called to serve his country in the 
Congress of the United States under the Constitution, 

having been elected to the First, Second, and Third 
Congresses. At the expiration of his third term of 
service he was appointed, Nov. 1, 1795, to succeed 
Henry William De Saussure as superintendent of the 
United States Mint at Philadelphia, to which place 
he then removed. As a testimony of his kind feel- 
ings towards his former townsmen he forwarded, as 
a gift, to the trustees of the First Presbyterian Church 
a pair of cut-glass chandeliers, and in the accom- 
panying letter said of the church, "The many happy 
hours I have spent there make the remembrance of 
having been one of their society among the substan- 
tial pleasures of my life." 

From the trustees of Yale College he received, in 
1790, the well-deserved compliment of the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Laws. In 1805 he retired from 
public life, and located himself at Burlington, N. J., 
where, on the 28th of October, 1808, Mrs. Boudinot 
was seized with apoplexy, and departed this life in 
the seventy-third year of her age. His eldest daugh- 
ter, Susan Vergereau (born Dec. 21, 1764), had been 
married in 1784 to William Bradford, Esq., attorney- 
general of Pennsylvania, and subsequently of the 
United States. She was left a widow Aug. 23, 1795, 
and became, after her mother's decease, her father's 
housekeeper till his death, Oct. 24, 1821, in the 
eighty-second year of his age. She survived her 
father, and died Nov. 30, 1854. His only other child, 
Anna Maria, was born April 11, 1772, and died Sept. 
3, 1774. 

Mr. Boudinot, after his retirement, devoted himself 
to a life of Christian beneficence. In 1772 he was 
chosen a trustee of the College of New Jersey, in 
which office he continued until his death, founding 
in 1805, at an expense of three thousand dollars, the 
Cabinet of Natural History. In 1812 he became a 
corporate member of the American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions, and in 1816 the first 
president of the American Bible Society, contribu- 
ting to its funds ten thousand dollars, and aiding also 
in the erection of the first Bible House. In his will, 
having made ample provision for his daughter during 
her lifetime, he bestowed his large estate on various 
institutions connected with the church and the cause 
of education. 

He wrote and published, in 1790, ''The Age of 
Revelation, or the Age of Reason shown to be an Age 
of Infidelity;" 1793, a Fourth of July oration, deliv- 
ered at Elizabeth Town before the New Jersey So- 
ciety of the Cincinnati ; 1806, "The Life of the Rev. 
William Tennent;" 1811, an address delivered before 
the New Jersey Bible Society ; in 1815, " Second Ad- 
vent of the Messiah ;" 1816, " A Star in the West, or 
An humble Attempt to discern the lost Ten Tribes of 
Israel," still bringing forth fruit in old age. His 
monument at Burlington bears this inscription : 

18ZI. His life i 

"Here lies the remainsot the HonuiHhle Elias Boudinut, l.L.D. Bora 
I the -id day of May, A, D. 1740. He died uii the 24th day of Oct., A. I), 
xbibitiou of fervent piety, of useful talent, and 



the triumph of Christian 
I and the pledge of endless 

> words can paint; 
w all words are faint. 

end of that 

of extensive l)enevolence. His death 
faithf the consummation of hope, the < 

" To those whi> knew him not, 
And those who knew him, ki 
"Mark the perfect man, and behold the upright, for th 
man is peace." ' 

John DeHart. Esq., was a de.scendiint of a very [ 
ancient family both in Elizabeth Town and New 
York. They were probably of French origin, though 
emigrating from Holland. Four brothers, Balthazar, 
Daniel, Matthias, and Jacobus, were early citizens of ' 
New Amsterdam. The former was engaged in the i 
sliipping business about 1658, in which he acquired 
wealth, and at the time of the English conquest re- 
sided on the south side of Wall Street. On April 3, 
1671, he became a property-owner in Elizabeth Town j 
by the purchase of the house and plantation of Rich- 
ard Painter, one of the original Associates. He died I 
the following year, and his brother Daniel, who was ! 
his executor, disposed of his property in the town, i 
Daniel succeeded to his business, and died without | 
issue late in 1689. He was a physician, and resided | 
in New York. Balthazar had a son Matthias, who was ! 
the father of Capt. Matthias DeHart, born in 1667. i 
The latter was the ancestor of the Elizabeth Town 

John DeHart was horn in Elizabeth Town in the 
year 1728, and had obtained considerable distinction 
at the bar previous to the beginning of the Revolu- 
tion. During the struggle he took an active part 
with the patriots, was member of the Continental 
Congress in 1775, a member of the Council of Safety 
and of the Provincial Congress of New Jersey, and 
upon the adoption of the first constitution in 1776 
was appointed Chief Justice of the State. In a letter 
written on the 16th of August, 1776, he acknowledged 
the "great honor" conferred upon him, and expressed 
the wish that his " abilities were equal to the high and 
important office." He, however, declined, and in 
January Robert Morris was appointed in his stead. 

Upon the reorganization of the borough in 1789 
Mr. DeHart was chosen mayor. He continued in 
that office until his death, June 1, 1795, in the sixty- 
seventh year of his age. His remains were deposited 
in the burial-grount of St. John's Church, of which 
he had long been a warden and an influential mem- 
ber. The following inscription was placed over his 
grave ; 

" In memory of ( John De Hart Esquire, | Counsellor at Law and 
Mayor of | this Borough, | Who departed this life Jnne 1st. 1795 | Aged 
LXVI years. Hiswortli in private life was | truly great ; | Nor will his 
puMick virtues I be loigottou; his name being recorded on the list 
of I ctiosen Patriots | who composed the memorable | ('ongress of 1776." 

Hon. Isaac H. Williamson, LL.D. — Isaac Hal- 
sted Williamson was born in Elizabeth Town, N. J., 
Sept. 27, 1768. He was the grandson of William 

1 Alden's Epitaphs, i. 101-5. Alien's Biog. Diet. Murmy's Notes, pp. 
85, 110-1 1. Trustees' Book of E. T. Church. N. J. Rev. Correspondence, 
pp. 34B-47. Barber's New Jersey, p. 89. 

Williamson, the first of the name who settled in the 
town, and the youngest son of Gen. Matthias Wil- 
liamson and Susannah Halsted. His childhood and 
youth were spent among the stirring scenes of the 
Revolution. He studied law with his elder brother, 
Matthias, and was admitted to the bar as an attorney 
in 1791, and as a counselor in 1796, and opened a law- 
office in his native town, where he continued his resi- 
dence until his death. 

As a lawyer Mr. Williamson gradually rose in his 
profession till he came to occupy one of the first places 
at the bar. In 1816 he was elected to the Assembly, 
and while serving in that ca])acity, February, 1817, 
he was chosen Governor and (ex officio) Chancellor of 
the State. He continued to hold these high offices by 
consecutive elections until 1829, when he resumed his 
professional duties. In 1831 and 1832 he was a mem- 
ber of the State Council, and during tour years (1830- 
34) he was mayor of the borough of Elizabeth. (He 
had been a member of the corporation for many years, 
from 1795 onward.) After his able services in the 
State Council he was again urgently solicited to ac- 
cept of the governorship, but he declined all public 
offices, except in the last year of his life. Being 
elected to the Constitutional Convention which met at 
Trenton, May 14, 1844, he was unanimously chosen 
president of that body. 

After an illness of eighteen months, which he bore 
with the utmost resignation and cheerfulness, he de- 
parted this life on July 10, 1844, universally lamented, 
as he had been universally honored and beloved. His 
remains were interred in the ancestral vault with dis- 
tinguished respect. The New Jersey bar, in express- 
ing sentiments appropriate to his death, said among 
other things, — • 

"The state mourns his loss. In all the relations of life, public and 
private, he has bequeathed to his countrymen an illustrious example. 
As a friend he was faithful and sincere; as a statesman, enlightened 
and patl-iotic; as a judge, profoundly learned, incorruptlbly pure, in- 
flexibly just. The iriimitalde simplicity of his character, the artlessness 
of his life, the warmth and purity of his affi-ctions endeared him to the 
circle of his friends; his high and varieil altainruents command the 
respect of his associates. Uis long and eminent public services, his 
dignified and enlightened and impartial administration of justice de- 
mand the gratitude of his fellow-citizens and of posterity." 

Similar testimonials were passed by the wardens 
and vestry of St. John's Church, of which from early 
life he had been an exemplary member, and for 
many years the senior warden. 

He married, Aug. 6, 1808, Anne Crossdale, a daugh- 
ter of Rev. Cavalier Jouet (by his second wife, Mary 
Hampton), and had two sons, — the Hon. Benjamin 
(ex-Chancellor) and Isaac Halsted, Esq.' 

Col. Aaron Ogden, a son of Hon. Robert Ogden, 
was a lawyer, Governor of the State, and United States 
senator. He was born in Elizabeth Town, Dec. 3, 
1756, graduated at the College of New Jersey in 
1773, joined the army in 1777, served with distinc- 

- 0. S. Halsted'fl Commemorative .\ddres8. Corporation Records. 
I'arish Register und Records of St. John's. New Jersey Jnui-iinl. 



tion during the war, and at its close engaged in tiie 
practice of law. In November, 1796, he was chosen 
one of the Presidential electors of New Jersey, and 
Feb. 28, 1801, he was appointed to the United States 
Senate to fill a vacancy of two years. In 1824, Col. 
Ogden succeeded Gen. Bloumfield as president of the 
Society of the Cincinnati of New Jersey. He remained 
the president until his death, when he was succeeded 
by Ebenezer Elmer, the hist surviving officer of the 
New Jersey line. 

The Society of the Cincinnati was organized at the 
cantonment of the American army on the Hudson 
River in May, 1783. Like Cincinnatus, the illus- 
trious Roman, many of the soldiers had left the plow 
and entered into the service of their country, and they 
resolved on leaving the army to imitate his example 
by returning to their citizenship. Hence they called 
themselves the Society of the Cincinnati, basing their 
organization on immutable principles, viz. : 

'* An iDcesaant attention to preserve inviolate those exalted rights and 
liberties of human iiatnre for which tliey had fonghtand bled, and with- 
out which the hii^h muk of rational beingisa curse instead of ablessing. 

"An unalterable determination to promote and cherish between the 
respective States that union and national honor so essentially necessary 
to their happiness and the future dignity of the American Empire. 

" To render permanent the cordial affection sulisisting among the 
officers, this spirit will dictate brotherly kindness in all things, and par- 
ticularly extend to the most substantial acts of beneficence, according 
to the ability of the society, towards those officers and their families who 
unfortunately may he under the neces-ity of receiving it. 

"The general society will, for the aike of frequent communications, 
be divided into State societies, and these again into such districts as shall 
be directed by the State society." 

There were originally nine or ten State societies, of 
which six, those of New York, New Jersey, Massa- 
chusetts, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and South Caro- 
lina, still remain. The fund of the New Jersey society 
amounts now to $13,500, invested in United States 
bonds. A report made in 1866 showed that since its 
formation the society had expended for current ex- 
penses $11,821, and for benevolent objects $25,629. 

In 1825, Col. Ogden was chosen vice-president of 
the general society, and was made president in 1829, 
succeeding in that office Gens. Washington, Alexander 
Hamilton, C. C. Pinkney, and Thomas Pinkney. 

In October, 1787, soon after he commenced the 
practice of law in Elizabeth Town, Col. Ogden mar- 
ried Elizabeth, daughter of John Chetwood, Esq., 
an eminent member of the bar, and afterwards a jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court. 

Of Governor Ogden's qualities as a lawyer Mr. 
Elmer speaks as follows : " He soon had a good prac- 
tice ; and whatever may have been his own reflections 
on the subject, I think, in view of what afterwards 
befell him, it is to be regretted that he did not adhere 
to that profession during his life. He was an accom- 
plished lawyer, and took a high position at the bar. 
Mr. Cox's Reports begin in 1790, .and it appears that 
he was much employed in the most important cases 
argued before the Supreme Court." 

We find him elsewhere characterized as possessed 

of strong analytical and logical powers, taking a firm 
gra-sp of the underlying principles of law, and at the 
same time making himself thoroughly acquainted 
with the cases in which those principles had been 
applied. He was, therefore, both a thoughtful and 
industrious lawyer, never thinking his duty discharged 
to his client nor to himself while a single corner of 
the case committed to his care remained unexplored. 

Governor Ogden died at Jersey City, April 19, 1839, 
aged eighty-three, and his remains were buried in the 
cemetery of his native town with civic and military 
honors on the 22d. He was honored by his alvia mater 
in 1816 with the degree of LL.D. 

Aaeox Ogden Dayton, named in honor of Gov- 
ernor Aaron Ogden, was a son of Ellas B. Dayton, 
and was born in Elizabethtown in 1796. After the 
usual preparatory studies in the grammar school 
he entered Princeton College, where he graduated 
with the highest honors in 1813. He studied 
law with Governor Ogden, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1817. Immediately after he went to 
Cincinnati, with a view of practicing in that city, and 
was admitted to the bar there also, but he returned 
soon after and settled in Salem County, N. J. In 
1823 he was elected from that county to the Legisla- 
ture, and although the youngest member of that body 
was recognized as one of its most influential members. 
The next year, declining to be a candidate for the 
Assembly, he entered with much spirit into the 
Jackson campaign, being a member of the convention 
to nominate electors, and drafting the address sent 
forth by that body. Although Gen. Jackson failed 
to secure the requisite number of electoral votes that 
year, he received the popular majority, the vote of 
the largest number of States, and New Jersey was 
carried for him, very much to the surprise of the op- 
position. For that result a large part of the credit 
was due to the brilliant efforts of Mr. Dayton. 

Removing to New York in 1826, with a view of es- 
tablishing himself as a lawyer in that city, he iden- 
tified himself with the Jackson party, who in 1828 put 
him in nomination for the Legislature. He was re- 
turned by a large majority, while his chief was tri- 
umphantly elected to the Presidency of the United 

Mr. Dayton, although receiving the appointments of 
master in chancery and injunction master for the city 
of New York and Long Island, offices at that time of 
considerable importance, did not remain long in the 
practice of law, owing to a nervous disease which 
finally proved fatal. He accepted a position in the 
Diplomatic Bureau of the State Department at Wash- 
ington. In 1836 he was appointed chief clerk of the 
Department of State, for which office he was well 
fitted. In 1838 he was appointed fourth auditor of 
the Treasury, charged with the settlement of the navy 
accounts, and remained in that office through all the 
varying administrations until his death in 1858. 
" He represented his father in the New Jersey So- 



ciety of the Cincinnati, and in 1835 delivered a very 
eloquent eulogy on Lafayette before that body. In 
1839 he delivered the addreas before the societies of 
Princeton College. These were both productions ex- 
hibiting a high order of talent. Had his health per- 
mitted him to remain at the bar, there can be no 
doubt that he would have ranked among the most 
respectable advocates." 

Judge John Ross was one of the judges of the 
Essex County Court and a master in chancery. He 
was a son of George Ross, and grandson of Deacon 
George Ross, who came to Elizabeth Town from New 
Haven about 1670. Deacon Ross married in New 
Haven Constance Little, in 1658. The son George, 
father of Judge Ross, died at Elizabeth Town in Oc- 
tober, 1750. Judge Ross was born in Elizabeth Town, 
and spent his life there. He was one of the charter 
aldermen of the borough in 1740. The New York 
Weekly Pod-Boy, No. 204, contains the following obit- 
uary of Judge Ross : 

"Elizabeth-Town, August 15, 1754. Werinesday morning last (7th) 
departed tliis Life, after a short but painful Illness, John Hoss, Esq. ; 
one of tlie Judges nf Essex County Court, and a Master in Chancery : He 
waa a Gentleman of a very affable and obliging Disposition, of steady 
and unshaken Principles, a stiict Observer of Law and Justice, and a 
truly honest Man. In his Death the Country have really a sensible Loss, 
and a worthy Family an irreparable Damage; which nothing can so 
much alleviate, as the lively Hope and Assurance of his being trans- 
lated into a State of blessed Immortality : — This Testimony is now given 
of him, by a Friend to his Person and a Lover of his Virtues." 

Thomas Clark, Esq., one of the judges of the 
County Court, died at Elizabeth Town, Dec. 11, 1765. 
In the case of his burial was first put in practice the 
principle of retrenchment in funerals, referred to in 
the following notice from one of the newspapers of 
the day : 

"December 24, 1764: We hear from Elizabeth-Town that, upon the 
29th of last Month, near fifty Heads of the principal families, in and 
about that Place, entered into an Engagement to letrench the present 
usual and unnecessary Expenses of Funerals and Mourning, as the 
giving of Scarfs, Gloves, and Liquor at Funerals, and wearing black Ap- 
parel as Mouruiug, nothing but a black Crape round the Ai*m being 
allowed for the Future." 

In a notice of the death of Judge Clark, Dec. 14, 
1765, it is said, — 

" He wa'i decently buried, in the plain mannei-, by his own directions 
according to the new mode — none of his relations or friends appearing 
in mourning, though he was universally lamented by all who knew hiui, 
as he left the ciiaracter of an honest man. We flatter ourselves that 
this laudable example, so very seasonably set by people of fortune, will 
be imitated by all, especially by those in slender circumstances (no 
liquor was given at the funeral)." > 

Judge Clark was the father of Abraham Clark, the 
signer of the Declaration of Independence. He was 
one of the charter aldermen of the borough, and a 
magistrate from the time of its incorporation (1740) 

'The Olil Merchants of N. Y. City, iii. 263-64. At the funeral of 
Philip Livingston, Esq , of New York, £5011 were expended for the occa- 
sion of his burial. His son, Governor William Livingston (afterwards, 
and for many years a resident of Elizabeth Town) made an appeal to 
the public as early as June, 1753, in favor of putting an end to this kind 
of extravagance. 

until his death. He was also an earnest patriot, and 
had entered heartily into the agreement of the pre- 
vious November respecting the non-use and importa- 
tion of British goods. 

Benjamin Williamson, LL.D., Chancellor of 
New Jersey, is the son of Hon. Isaac H. Williamson, 
Governor and Chancellor of the State from 1817 to 
1829. He was born at Elizabeth Town, graduated at 
Nassau Hall in 1827, was admitted to the bar in 1830, 
and made a counselor in 1833. He began practice in 
his native town, where he has ever since continued 
to reside, and is still in the active practice of his pro- 
fession. For several years he was prosecutor of the 
pleas for Essex County, and in 1852 was appointed 
Chancellor of the State, succeeding Chancellor Oliver 
S. Halsted, whose term then expired. He filled this 
position with distinguished ability until the expira- 
tion of his term, and then resumed the practice of 
the law. " There were few cases of importance or 
interest arising in Mr. Williamson's section of the 
State in which he was not employed previous to his 
appointment as Chancellor, and on his return to the 
bar he at once secured a large and important practice 
extending over the whole State. . . . While he has 
avoided public office outside the line of professional 
service, he has on more than one occasion been promi- 
nently urged by friends as United States senator, and 
they only failed of his election by a few votes in 1863 
or 1864." 

In 1860 he was a delegate at large from the State 
to the Democratic convention at Charleston, and in 
1861 was appointed one of the delegates to represent 
New Jersey in the Peace Congress which met at 
Washington, composed of delegates from every State, 
and which was called in the hope and for the purpose 
of averting, if possible, the impending conflict be- 
tween the two sections of the country. Mr. William- 
son has been all his life identified with the interests 
of church, of education, and the development of the 
resources of the State. He has for years served as an 
officer of the church of St. John's Episcopal Parish, 
and of the Union County Bible Society, as trustee of 
the State Normal School, as director and counsel for 
the Central Railroad Company of New Jersey, of the 
State Bank of Elizabeth, and as director and trustee 
of the New Jersey Southern Railroad Company, as 
commissioner of the sinking fund of Elizabeth, and 
in other positions of trust both public and private. 
He still lives at Elizabeth, on the place formerly the 
residence of his father. 

Hon. John Chetwood, a justice of the Supreme 
Court of New Jersey, was a son of Philip Chetwood, 
of Salem, N. J. (in 1700), and was born April 24, 1736. 
He came to Elizabethtovvn in his childhood, being an 
orphan. He married Mary Emott, granddaughter of 
James Emott, who came to Boston in 1678 from Lan- 
cashire, England. Her nlother was a Boudinot. Their 
children were the following: 1. Anna Ashton, died 
in infancy; 2. Thomas Bradbury Chandler, died in 



infancy ; 3. Philip, died unmarried ; 4. William, mar- 
ried Mary, daughter of Col. Francis Barber ; 5. John, 
married Susan Jelf; 6. Elizabeth, married Col. Aaron 
Ogden ; 7. Mary Boudinot, married Capt. Cyrus De 
Hart ; 8. Jane, died in infancy ; 9. Sarah, married 
John Stansbury. 

William Chetwood was a son of the Hon. John 
Chetwood, one of the justices of the Supreme Court 
of New Jersey. He was born at Elizabethtown in 
1771, graduated at Princeton in 1792, and studied law 
with his father. During the Whiskey Insurrection 
he was a volunteer, and served on the staff of Gen. 
Lee, with the rank of major, by which title he was 
usually known. He was licensed as an attorney in 
1796, as a counselor in 1799, and in 1816 was called 
to the degree of sergeant-at-law. He married a 
daughter of Col. Francis Barber, a distinguished 
officer of the Revolution, who was killed during that 
war by the falling of a tree. Mr. Chetwood practiced 
his profession in Elizabethtown, where he resided 
until his death, which occurred in lSo7 at the ad- 
vanced age of eighty-six years and six months. 

Mr. Chetwood was a man of great energy of char- 
acter. In his profession he was indefatigable, and 
achieved a liigh degree of success. During the Jack- 
son contest he was elected to Congress by the Demo- 
cratic party, and served in that body in 18 — . He 
afterwards, however, acted with the Whigs. 

JoHJf Joseph Chetwood was a grandson of Judge 
Chetwood, and a son of Dr. John Chetwood, of Eliz- 
abethtown, who died of cholera in 1832. The son 
was born in 1800, and graduated at Princeton in 1818. 
He studied law with his uncle, William Chetwood ; 
was admitted as an attorney in 1821, as a counselor 
in 1825, and as a sergeant-at-law in 1837. He mar- 
ried a granddaughter of Gen. Elias Dayton, and re- 
sided in Elizabeth, where he died in 1861. 

Mr. Chetwood was a member of the Council and 
surrogate of the county of Essex. For several years 
he was prosecutorof the pleas of the county of Union, 
an active business man, highly esteemed both in and 
out of his profession, of a generous disposition, yet 
successful in the accumulation of property. He was 
a trustee of Burlington College, and active in every 
enterprise for the advancement of education. Few 
men have been more popular than Mr. Chetwood in 
the communit)' in which he spent his truly useful 

Francis B. Chetwood was born Feb. 1, 1806, at 
Elizabethtown, and was the son of Hon. William and 
Mary (Barber) Chetwood. His grandfather, John 
Chetwood, was an assistant justice of the Supreme 
Court of New Jersey, and was of Quaker descent. 
He died in 1806 at Elizabeth, at the age of seventy- 
two years. Francis B. Chetwood was licensed as an 
attorney in November, 1828, and as counselor in 
1831. He commenced the practice of law with his 
fiither, with whom he continued until the latter re- 
tired. He then loUowed his professional pursuits 

alone until about 1860, when he formed a partner- 
ship with William J. Magie which lasted several 
years, until he became associated in business with his 
son, Robert E. Chetwood. At dift'erent times during 
his life he held nearly all the local offices, — member 
of the City Council, mayor of the borough and the 
city of Elizabeth, prosecutor of the pleas for Essex 
County before the formation of the county of Union, 
member of the Legislature, etc. He was also one of 
the chief originators of the gas and water supply of 
the city, the orphan asylum. Evergreen Cemetery, 
and many other local measures and improvements. 
He died Jan. 13, 1875, leaving a widow, two sons, 
and one daughter ; two sons had died some years 

Robert E. Chetwood is a native of Elizabethtown, 
where he was born Dec. 20, 1837. He is the son of 
Francis B. Chetwood, also a native of Elizabeth, and 
Elizabeth P. Phelps, who was of New England stock, 
born in Connecticut. After thorough preparation in 
the schools of his native city, Mr. Chetwood entered 
Princeton College, where he graduated in 1850, and 
immediately commenced the study of law in the office 
of his father. His progress was rapid and thorough, 
not only as a student, but after he entered upon his 
professional career it was no less successful than his 
early life had given promise of. He was licensed as 
an attorney in June, 1861, and as a counselor three 
years later. 

In 1874 he was elected to the office of city attorney 
of Elizabeth, and discharged the duties of the office 
until Jan. 20, 1880. Politically he is of the Republi- 
can faith, and has been an active worker in that party 
since his majority. He was married March 5, 1867, 
to Kate A. McGowan, daughter of Capt. John Mc- 
Gowan, of the United States revenue service. 

William J. Magie, judge of the Supreme Court, 
was born at Elizabeth Dec. 9, 1832. He is the son of 
Rev. David Magie, D.D., a native of the same town, 
and for nearly forty-five years pastor of the Second 
Presbyterian Church of that city. His mother, nh 
Ann Frances Wilson, was also a native of Elizabeth. 
Young Magie entered Princeton College in 1852, and 
graduated in 1855 ; he studied law with Francis B. 
Chetwood at Elizabeth, and was admitted to the bar 
as an attorney in 1856, and counselor in 1859. For six 
years he was associated in practice with his preceptor, 
Mr. Chetwood, and subsequently formed a partnership 
with Mr. Cross. He was prosecutor of the pleas for 
Union County from 1866 to 1871. In politics he is a 
Republican, and has acted with that party since 1861. 
In 1875 he represented the county of Union in the 
New Jersey Senate, and was appointed chairman of 
the committee on the judiciary, in which capacity 
he served with marked ability. He, however, only 
accepted the senatorial nomination at the earnest so- 
licitation of friends. 

Judge Magie married, Oct. 1, 1857, Frances Bald- 
win, of Elizabeth. 



Hon. Cornelius Boice, who for tliirty-five years I 
wa.s identified with the various interests of Plainfield, 
and was the first permanently-settled lawyer there, 1 
was born at Green Brook, in Somerset County, N. J., 
Feb. 4, 1808. He was the son of David Boice and 
Elizabeth Covert, who resided at Green Brook, were 
farmers, and reared a family of two sons and four 
daughters. The other son, David Patterson Boice, 
died in Plainfield in August, 1880. David Boice 
died at the age of eighty-two, and his wife at the 
age of ninety-five years. 

Corjicliii^ licjicc ii'i-oivi'd during liis minority a 
good English and classical education, and became 
fully conversant with surveying. He studied law 
with Judge James S. Nevius, a prominent lawyer of 
New Brunswick, N. J., was admitted to practice as 
an attorney in 1829, and as counselor in 1832. Im- 
mediately after his admission as an attorney he set- 
tled in the practice of his profession at Plainfield, 
where he remained in continuous practice until his 
death, which occurred Sept. 6, 1864. 

The same year of his settling in Plainfield, on No- 
vember 25th, he married Sarah Ann, eldest daughter 
of Abraham and Anna (Lenox) Cadmus, who resided Plainfield, and carried on a farm and mill prop- 
erty. Her only brother, Andrew A. Cadmus, suc- 
ceeded to the homestead property, where he resided 
until his death. Her only sister is Rachel Cadmus, 
unmarried. Her father died Feb. 20, 1845, aged 
seventy-two years, and her mother died Jan. 24, 1862, 
aged over eighty years. Her maternal grandfather, 
Levi Lenox, was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, 

and died at his residence, where William McD. 
Coriell now resides, in Plainfield, Dec. 24, 1828, aged 
about eighty years. The children of Cornelius and 
Sarah Ann Boice are Anna E., wife of Lewis E. 
Clark, a justice of the peace of Plainfield ; Frances 
M., wife of John J. Bell, of New York ; Sarah 
Azelia, wife of Joseph B. Coward, a lawyer of Plain- 
field ; Cornelia, wife of George S. Underbill, of New 
York; Mary E., wife of Robert C. Cook, a lumber 
and coal merchant of Plainfield ; Cornelius C, a 
druggist of New York ; and Emma Hoyt, wife of 
Willard H. Young, of Philadelphia. 

Mrs. Boice was born Dec. 4, 1811, and survives in 
1882. residing in the Boice homestead, purchased and 
remodeled by them in 1847, and which was once the 
Fairchilds' private school. 

For many years Mr. Boice was the only lawyer in- 
Plainfield, and during his early practice he gave con- 
siderable attention to surveying. His name became 
widely known throughout this part of the State for 
his soundness of opinion on questions of law and 
business, and although he never gained prominence 
in his profession as an advocate, yet his thorough 
knowledge of the law, his unbiiised judgment and 
discretion gave him rank among the first in his pro- 
fession as a safe and judicious counselor. He was 
retained as attorney and counselor by the Central 
Railroad Company from the time of the construction 
of the road until his decease. For five years he 
served as surrogate of Essex County, and was twice 
elected from that county to the lower branch of the 
State Legislature, where he served with honor to him- 
self and credit to his constituents. As a citizen, Mr. 
Boice was ever interested in all that pertained to the 
best interests of the community. He was identified 
with the early seminaries of Plainfield, and graduated 
all his daughters either in the schools at home or in 
other places, and he was one. of the framers of the 
law for the present school system of the city. While 
he was prospered in his profession and in his business 
relations he never forgot to be a friend to the deserv- 
ing poor, who always found in him a ready and 
willing contributor to their wants pecuniarily, and a 
donor, as counselor, in settling their difficulties to 
avoid unnecessary litigation. His kindness of he.irt, 
his urbanity of manner, and his social and genial 
bearing always won him the respect of all who came 
in contact with him. During his early manhood and 
middle life he was an active member of the old Whig 
party, and remained true to its principles during his 
life. He was one of the founders of the First Presby- 
terian Church at Plainfield, and a contributor to and 
promoter of religious and moral sentiment in the 

At a meeting of the bar held in the court-room of 
Union County on the 6th day of September, 1864, 
the Hon. Daniel Haines in the chair, and Robert S. 
Green secretary, it was unanimously resolved, "That 
we have heard with sorrow of the death of our late 



brother, Cornelius Boice, Esquire ; tliat Ids personal 
intercourse and professional relations with us for 
many years have been characterized by a fraternity 
uniformly generous and confiding; that his profes- 
sional labors have always been marked by a true, 
commendable zeal for all who committed their rights 
and interests to his care, and in the public fiduciary 
position which he filled for a number of years with 
unwavering fidelity and with !i watchful and zealous 
regard of the rights and interests of the widow and 
the orphan." 

Edward Young Rogers, for many years the only 
lawyer in Rahway, and one of the leading members 
of the bar of New Jersey, was fourth son of Warren 
and Sarah (Ogden Piatt) Rogers. He was born in 
New York City, June 21, 1812, and died in Railway, 
Oct. 13, 1868. He was graduated at Rutgers College in 
the class of 1830, .studied law with William Chetwood, 

ot Elizabeth, N. J., and was admitted to practice as 
an attorney in 1833, and as counselor in 1836. Im- 
mediately after his admission to the bar he com- 
menced the practice of his profession in Rahway. 
After a couple of years he formed a law partnership 
in Newark, but subsequently returned to Rahway, 
where he continued in the practice of law during the 
remainder of his active business life. For many years 
he was prcsecutor of the pleas, and during his incum- 
bency of that office his marked ability, his desire for 
impartiality and justice in the trial of a cause, his 
careful preparation of each and every case within his 
jurisdiction, and his impassioned advocacy of what he 

conceived right and in accordance with the law, be- 
fore either judge or jury, gained him not only the 
very high esteem of the legal profession, but com- 
manded the respect of the people at large. 

At the first meeting of the bar after his death, 
among others the following resolution was passed: 
" That while the public services of the deceased, ren- 
dered to the State and to the city in which he lived, 
have justly entitled him to the respect of his fellow- 
citizens, and while his many virtues endeared him 
to friends, his ability as a lawyer, his unvarying 
probity and uprightness in the discharge of the deli- 
cate duties of our profession, his uniform courtesy and 
kindness to his brethren at the bar have won our re- 
gard and love in an eminent degree, and have left us 
an example that we may all be proud to follow." 

For several years Mr. Rogers contributed regularly 
to the Raliway Advocate, then published by Mr. Green, 
and about 1843 or 1844 he became the editor and pro- 

He was a religious man, and his zeal increased in 
later years. He was a member of St. Paul's Episco- 
pal Church, of which he was one of the founders, and 
a warden and treasurer for twenty-seven years. 

Mr. Rogers took an active part in local politics and 
State legislation ; was elected State senator by the 
Whigs of Middlesex County in 1850, to succeed Adam 
Lee; was one of the early advocates of Republican 
principles, upon the founding of that party in 1855 
and 1850, and he was a delegate at large to the 
Chicago Convention that nominated Abraham Lincoln 
for his first terra to the Presidency, and one of its 

The City Council of Rahway passed the following 
resolutions upon the occasion of his death : 

'^Resolved, That by his death we lose a citizen who filled every position 
which he occupied with dignity and worth. We mourn a professional 
counselor whose advice was bound and conscientious, a legislator whose 
ideas were philanthropic and progressive, and a Christian whose piety 

" Refoleed, That we desire especially to express our grief at the loss of 
one who organized the city government and was its earliest chief magis- 
trate, who loved his country with a zeal which grew wamier the more it 
was imperiled, who was gentle as a child to the influences of truth and 
right, and unyielding as a rock to all that was false and wrong." 

His widow and one son survive him. 

Enos W. Runyon was born near Green Brook, 
Somerset Co., N. J., in 1825, anl was admitted to the 
bar in 1854, having studied law with the late Joseph 
Annin. He was elected to the Legislature in 1867, 
and in the was a member of the judiciary com- 
mittee. He was appointed law judge of the county 
of Union in 1873, and held the oflnce till 1878. From 
1854 to 1859, Judge Runyon was a law partner of 
Cornelius Boice, but is now associated with his 
brother. Nelson Runyon, in law practice at Plain- 

The latter was born near Green Brook in 1840, and 
was admitted to practice in 1862. In September of 
that year, however, he joined, at his country's call. 



the Thirtieth Regiment New Jersey Vohinteers, 
under Capt. Hubbard, and after serving his time in 
the army began the practice of his profession at 

Joseph Annin was a son of the late Judge Joseph 
Annin, of Somerset County. He was admitted to the 
bar in 1842, and practiced for a short time in Jersey 
City, removing to Plainfield in 1848, and practicing 
tliere until his death in 1863. He was killed in the 
riots of that year in the city of New York. He was 
highly gifted, an able and persuasive speaker, and 
strongly attached to the institutions and liberties of 
his country, ready at all times to defend what he 
believed to be right and true in an earnest and able 
yet candid and pleasing manner. He was very highly 
respected in the community in which he lived. 



Act to erect Union County. — An act to create 
the county of Union was approved March 19, 1857, 
and took effect on and after the second Monday in 
April following. The boundaries of the new county 
are thus defined in the act : 

*' Beginning at tlie Suuni], leuditig from Elizabethtown Point tti Am- 
bo,v, at the easternmust point in tlie division line lietweun'the counties 
of Essex and Middlesex; 1 hence nurtlieasterly along the eastern line of 
Essex County to thesontbeast point in the divi.simi line of the towuship 
of Clinton ; thence westerly along the division Hue between the town- 
ship of Clinton and the city of Elizabeth to the division line between 
the townships of Clinton and Union ; thence along the northerly and 
westerly line of division between the townships of Union and Clinton 
to the northerly division line of the township of Springfield; thence 
down tlie east branch of the Rahway River to the junction of the east 
and west branche-i of the said river; thence up the west branch of the 
said Rahway River to the mouth of VVilliaui and Abuer States' mill- 
pond ; thence along the middle of the said pond or ponds to the mouth 
of the brook thnt runs south and near to Wellinglon Campbeirs paper- 
mill; thence up said brook to the new road near said Wellington 
CampbelTs mill-dam; thence up said new road to the Morris turnpike; 
theuce up the said turnpike to the Passaic River at a point in the west 
division line of the township of Springfield ; th.'nce along said line to 
the northerly division line of the township of New Providence; thence 
along the north and west divisiou line of the towuship of New Provi- 
dence to the divisiou line of the township of Plainfield; thence along 
the westerly and southerly division line of the lownsbip of Plainfield 
to the division line between the counties of Essex and Middlesex; 
thence easterly along the divisiou line between said counties to the 
place of beginning on the Sound; including and intending to include 
within the said metes and bouuils all tlmt part of the county of Essex 
BOW contained within the cily of Klizabetb and tlie townships ol Rah- 
way, Union, Westfield, Plainflelil, New Providence, and that po-tion of 
the township of Springfield included within the boundary lines herein- 
before desciibed. be and the same is hereby erected into a separate 
county, to be called the county of Union ; and said lines shall hereafter 
be the division lines between the counties of Essex, Soniereet, Morris, 
Middlesex, and the said county of Union, respectively." 

The original county contained the city of Elizabeth 
and the townships above named, to wit: Rahway, 
Union, Westfield, Plainfield, New Providence, and 
Springfield. Linden was erected from Elizabeth and 
Rahway by an act of the Legislature approved March 

4, 1861. Clark was erected from the Fifth Ward of 
the city of Rahway, March 23, 1864 ; Cranford was 
set off from Westfield, Springfield, Union, Linden, 
and Clark townships, March 14, 1871 ; and Fanwood 
was erected from Westfield and Plainfield March 6, 
1878, since which no changes have been made in the 
civil divisions of the county. 

Union was a part of Essex County for one hun- 
dred and seventy-five years, from 1682 to 1857, and 
during that period Newark was nominally the seat of 
ju-tice for the whole territory, although at an early 
time Elizabeth Town was the larger place, and was 
the seat of the first provincial government and of 
the higher courts of the province. She continued to 
have her own borough courts and court-house and 
her city courts after she was chartered as a city, down 
to the time of the division of the county, to which 
have since been added the court-house and courts of 
the new county of Union. 

County Buildings. — On the erection of the county 
the city of Elizabeth was made the county-seat. The 
court-house and grounds owned by the city were con- 
veyed to the county, and the deed accepted by the 
board of chosen freeholders Feb. 2, 1858. The same 
day the following resolution was adopted by the 
board : 

" B^aohtid, That the building committee be authorized to purchase the 
lot in the rear of the court-house upon the best terms they can, not to 
exceed $25110." 

The design was to acquire suflicient ground in the 
rear for the enlargement of the court-house and the 
erection of a suitable jail for the county. The lot was 
purchased of Meeker Wood for !B1500, and the com- 
mittee reported. May 10, 1858, that $955.34 had been 
expended on the buildings, probably for temporary 
I repairs. In addition to the lot bought of Mr. Wood, 
1 a lane belonging to Dr. James C. Blake and a strip 
i on the north side adjoining the burying-ground of 
the I^irst Presbyterian Church were also purchased 
i by the board in order to make suitable ground for 
the proposed buildings. This last strip of ground 
was conveyed by the trustees of the First Presbyterian 
Church, and another strip was subsequently bought 
of them on the north side extending to the street, 
when the building was enlarged in that direction. 

The jail of the old court-house was simply a lock- 
up for local prisoners, and the county prisoners, by 
I provision of a special act of the Legislature, were 
sent to the Essex County jail at Newark till 1862, a 
committee being appointed by the board each year to 
I look after them. Another act was procured to ex- 
tend the time of keeping the prisoners at Newark, 
and we find \n the minutes of the board of freeholders 
in 1860 that a resolution was adopted to extend the 
time five years after that date. But it proved not to 
be necessary, as the Union County jail and enlarge- 
ment of the court-house were completed in 1862. 

The first committee on plan and specifications re- 
ported to the board Sept. 2, 1858, estimating the cost 



of the proposed jail and furniture at seventeen thou- 
sand dollars. Plans had been furnished by J. Gra- 
ham, of Trenton. The extension of the court-house 
in the rear was to be an addition of eighteen by thirty- 
three feet, and two stories high. This plan was sub- 
stantially carried out in 1861-62. An additional strip 
of land was bought of Dr. Blake, and it was resolved 
to expend a sum not exceeding sixteen thousand dol- 
lars. The committee was composed of the following- 
named gentlemen : David Mulford, Zachariah Web- | 
ster. Job S. Williams, M. W. Halsey, Andrew W. j 
Brown, Addison 8. Clark, C. D. Boyleston, and Ste- 
phen Jackson. The contractors were Messrs. Budd 
and Ross. The cost of the jail and enlargement of 
the court-house, as appears from the report of the 
committee, was a little less than fifteen thousand 

Several important improvements have since been 
made. The jail and court-house are substantially 
under one roof, being connected by a building, the 
basement of which is used chiefly as a boiler-house, 
and the loft as a water-tank. Here the steam is gen- 
erated which comfortably warms the whole establish- 
ment — prison, cells, court- rooms, offices, halls, kitchen, 
laundry, and the family apartments of the jailor — at 
an expense considerably less and with much greater 
convenience than could be done by stoves. Both the 
male and female departments of the jail are neatly 
kept, and exhibit an air of cleanliness and comfort. 

A fire-proof building contains the valuable records 
and papers of the county. In front of it is the com- 
modious clerk's ofiice, and above this, in the second 
story, the hall of county legislation, where the chosen 
freeholders representing the different townships hold 
their sessions. This room is a model of order and ] 
taste, the desks being arranged in the form of a hol- 
low square, and the directors' desk at one end, slightly 
elevated above the others. The other offices are con- 
venient and well furnished, and the court-room airy 
and commodious. { 

During the time when the court-house was under- I 
going extensive repairs, a session of the court was 
held in Library Hall, in the rooms of the former I 
Young Men's Christian Association, and one of the ' 
trials which took place before the late Judge Haines 
attracted considerable interest in the community, the i 
parties aggrieved being well-known citizens. On the i 
occasion of the dedication of the present court-room 
addresses were made by Rev. Dr. Aikman and others. 

The county jail has held prisoners at various times 
who have been guilty of every degree of vice. There 
have been three executions within its grim walls, — 
Grady, Glennon, and Quiller, the latter a colored 
man. Grady was concerned in the killing of Fergus 
Collins, on Elizabeth Avenue, during the war ; Glen- 
non murdered his wife in what is known as "Castle ; 
Garden," on Morris Avenue ; Quiller killed his wife ' 
near Westfield. It is impossible to give the list of 
convictions, from the fact that no accurate record was 

kept until Prosecutor Fay came in oflSce. He made 
up a valuable book, which is now the property of the 
county by purchase. Since the county was formed 
the jail has held seven thousand seven hundred and 
forty-two prisoners. The courthouse, the old portion 
of which was built in 1811, has witnessed many strange 
scenes. From it men and women have gone forth to 
prison, and others are yet to go. The bell in the 
tower has rung for victories to our arms, welcomed 
home the heroes of two wars, and tolled when great 
men have been borne to the tomb. 

Board of Freeholders. — The first meeting of the 
board of chosen freeholders for the county convened 
at the court-house in the city of Elizabeth, May 13, 
18.57. Samuel Williams, of Rahway, was chosen tem- 
porary chairman, and A. M. Elmer, clerk. The roll 
of the townships was then called, and all the mem- 
bers answered to their names, as follows : 

Elizabeth, William J. Tenny, James B. Burnett. 

Union, Abner Parcell, Matthias T. Wade. 

Springfield, Isaac Bannister, William Stites. 

New Providence, John S. Clark, Daniel H. Noe. 

Westfield, Gideon Ross, Charles Marsh. 

Plainfield, Manning Vermeule, Zachariah Webster. 

Rahway, Samuel Williams, Stephen Jackson.' 

At the permanent organization, Samuel Williams, 
of Rahway, was unanimously elected director, and 
Periam Pierce was chosen clerk of the board. The 
salary of the clerk was fixed at twenty-five dollars for 
the first year; it has since been augmented to fifty 
dollars. Those who have served as directors of the 
board since the organization are Samuel Williams, 
Rahway, 1857; Zachariah Webster, Plainfield, 1858; 
David Mulford, Elizabeth, 1859; Andrew W. Brown, 
Springfield, 1860-61; Job S. Williams, Union, 1862; 
Andrew W. Brown, Springfield, 1863; Amos P. Scud- 
der, Westfield, 1864-67; David Mulford, Linden, 1868; 
Robert A. Russell, Clark, 1869; J. Frank Hubbard, 
Plainfield, 1870; Gustavus J. Thebaud, Summit, 1871 ; 
John C. Rose, Linden, 1872-73 ; Nathaniel K. Thomp- 
son, Elizabeth, 1874-75; William C. Ayers, Plain- 
field, 1876 ; Cornelius W. L. Martine, Westfield, 1877- 
78; George W. F. Randolph, Plainfield, 1879; Cor- 
nelius W. L. Martine, Fanwood, 1880-81. 

The following have served as clerks of the board 
Periam Pierce, 1857-59; Oliver Pierce, 1860-74 
Lewis S. Hyer, 1874-76; John M. Wilson, 1876-77 
Oliver Pierce, 1877-78; John L. Crowell, 1878-81. 

The county collectors, elected annually by the 
board, have been: Moses M. Crane, Union, 1857-61; 
Samuel Williams, Rahway, 1862-63; Stephen O. 
Horton, Plainfield, 1864-66 ; Thomas B. Budd, Eliza- 
beth, 1867-71; Elias R. Pope, Plainfield, 1872-73; 
Patrick Sheridan, 1874^81. 

Officers of the County. — The first officers of the 
county were designated by the act of organization, 

I For lists of chosen freeholders for the several towns, see the 
histories in another department of this worI<. 



and held till their successors were elected and quali- 
fied. Some of them were their own successors by 
election, and filled the offices for which they were 
chosen for many years. We give below a list of the 
principal officers of the county from its organization 
to the present time, with the dates of election or ap- 
pointment and the period of the service of each : 

Henry R, Caniioij, Nov. 6, 1857; served four consecutive terms to Nov. 

6, 1877. 
James S. Vasseler, Nov. 13, 1877 ; tprni expires November, 1882. 

Meline W. Halsey, sworn into olfice Nov. 16, 1857. 
Thomas W. Beynolils, Nov. 16, 1860. 
Nathaniel Bonnell, Nov. 16, 1863. 
Edgar Pierson, Nov. 16, 1866. 
Joseph Osborn, Nov. 9, 1869. 
Setli B. Ryder, Nov. 12, 1872. 
Nathaniel K. Thompson, November, 1875. 
Seth B. Ryder, November, 1S78. 

Jonathan Valentine, Nov. 6, 1857. 
Robert S. Green, Nov. 10, 1862. 
Addison S. Clark (two terms), Nov. 11, 1867-77. 
James J. Geeber, Nov. 13, 1877 ; term expires 1882. 


William Gibby, April 1, 1869. 
Hugh H. Bowne, April 1, 1872. 
Enos W. Kunyon, April 1, 1873. 
George W. Farnham. April 1, 1873. 
David Mulford, April 1, 1877. 
Joseph Alward, March 30, 1877.' 
Thos. F. McCornnck, April 1, 1878. 
Hugh H. Bowue, April 1, 1869. 
Nathan Harper, June 1, 1881. 

George W. Savage, April 1, 18.57 
Apollo M. Elmer, April 1, 1867. 
Theodore Pierson, April I, 1857. 
J. M. Ropes, Oct. 19, 1860. 
David Mulford, April 1, 1862. 
Theodore Pierson, April 1, 1863. 
William Gibby, April 1, 1864. 
Hugh H. Bowne, April 1, 1867. 
David Mulford, April 1, 1868. 
Robert S. Green, April 1, 1868. 1 

Robert S. Green. 
Enos W. Bunyon. 
Thomas F. McCormick. 

John J. Chetwood, commissioned March 20, 1857. 
Robert S. Green, appointed by court Dec. 3, 1S6I. 
Edward Y. Rogers, commissioned Feb. 6, 1862. 
William J. Blagie, commissioned March 5, 1867. 
J. Augustus Fay, Jr., commissioned April 17,1871; reappointed April 

19, 1876; held till April 19, 1881. 
William R. Wilson, commissioned April 10, 1881. 

Charles S. Chandler, 


■ 6, 


Stephen Jackson, Nov 

16, 1868. 

Jotham D. Frazee, 


Ayers Leeson, " 


Stephen Jackson, 




Louis Braun, *' 

11, '• 

James Green, 



Ayers Leeson, " 

10, 1869. 

Jotham D. Frazee, 


Stephen Jackson, " 


Stephen Jackson, 


Alexander Gibbs, " 

16, 1870. 

Jotham D. Frazee, 



Benjamin S. Dean, " 

Ph. H.Grier, 

May I, 


Edward P. Thorn, " 


Charles S. Chandler 


Josiiih Ci. Stearns, " 

12, •• 

John M. Duncan, 


W. C. Westlake, 

Ph. H.Grier, 

J. K. McConnell, 


Jacob Thorn, 


S. Abernethy, " 

11, 187.3. 

Louis Braun, 




Josiah Q. Stearns, " 

Jeremiah 0. Tunison, " 


John J. Daly, " 


Charles S. Chandler 




" " " " 

10, 1874. 

Josiah Q. Stearns, 

J. H. Grier, 


Stephen Jackson, 




Henry C. Pierson, " 


Louis Braun, 


Henry J. Stratmeyer, Jr. 

Not. 12, 

Ayers Leeson. 






t Judge. 


1868-60. John B. Ayres. 1870-72. James T. Wiley. 

1861-63. Joseph T. Orowell. ' 1873-75 J. Henry Stone. 

1864-65. James Jenkins. j 1876-78. William J. Magie. 

1866. Philip H. Grier. | 1879-82. Benjamin A. Vail. 
1867-69. Amos Clark. 



Benjamin W. Price. 


Jaliez B. Cooley. 

Cooper Parse. 

William McKinley. 


\Mlliam Stiles. 

John H. Luf berry. 

Elsten Mar^h. 


William McKinley. 


Elsten Mar-h. 

William H. Gill. 

David Mulford. 

Elias B. Pope. 


David Mulford. 


William H. Gill. 

Israel 0. Maxwell. 

Elias R. Pope. 


Saiiinel L. Moore. 

Ferdinand Blanche. 

John J. High. 


John Eagan. 


Samuel L Moore. 

Moses F. Corey. 

Noah Woodiuff. 

Benjamin A. Vail. 


Noah Woodruff. 


John Eagan. 

Philip Dougherty. 

Moses F. Corey. 


Philip A. Dougherty. 

Benjamin A. Vail. 

Joseph T. Crowell. 


John Eagan, Speaker. 


John R. Crane. 

George M. Stiles. 

Thomas J. Lee. 

Joseph B. Coward. 


A. M. W. Ball. 


John T. Dunn. 

Enos W. Runyon. 

George M. Stiles. 


John H. Whelan. 

Philip Harwood Vernon. 

Dewilt C. Hough. 


John T. Dunn. 


John H. Whelan. 

George M. Stiles. 

Dewitt C. Hough. 

Philip Harwood Vernon 


Ferdinand Blanche. 


John T. Dunn. 

Albert A. Drake. 

George T. Parrot. 


Ferdinand Blanche. 

Frank L. Sheldon. 

Joseph W. Yates. 


John T. Dunn. 


Andrew Dutclier. 

George T. Parrot. 

William McKinley. 

Frank L. Sheldon. 

John H. Luf berry. 



Early Status of itfedicine in Union County.— 

Medicine as a science and an art was as far advanced 
in this portion of New Jersey as in any other prev- 
ious to the period of the Revolution, and yet it had 
made but little progress for a hundred years after the 
first settlement. The people were strong and robust 
in natural constitution, and the climate was generally 
healthful. Occasionally an epidemic prevailed in 
some sections of the country, like the "throat dis- 
tempers," so called, of 1735, which alarmed the in- 
habitants, and caused the best educated men of the 
day, who were usually clergymen, to look into the 
nature and causes of the disease. Hence Rev. Thom- 
as Thatcher and Rev. Cotton Mather, of New Eng- 
land, were the first American writers on the small- 
pox and the measles, in 1677 and 1721, respectively. 
When the throat distemper became epidemic, its 
character was noticed first in printed form by Rev. 
Jonathan Dickinson, minister of the First Presbyte- 
rian Church of Elizabeth Town, and also a practi- 
tioner of the healing art. His notice is found in 
Zenger's Weekly Journal, Feb. 16, 1735-36. Subse- 
quently, in 1738-39, Mr. Dickinson wrote his obser-. 



vations on the disease more in extenso to " a Friend 
in Boston," which were published at tlie instance of 
a few medical men in that city in 1740. These essays, 
together with those of Dr. Thomas Cadwalader, 1740, 
then a resident of Trenton, N. J., and a few others, 
were among the earliest contributions to medical 
literature in the American colonies. 

At this time, and for nearly twenty years after, 
there were no schools of medicine in the country, and 
not even a course of medical lectures had been given. 
New Jersey had among its medical men a very lim- 
ited few who had received their training in the 
schools of Europe. But the profession was at first 
largely composed of those who, without liberal edu- 
cation, had lived a year or two with any sort of a 
practitioner, read the few books on medicine which 
came within their reach, and then, assuming the title 
of " Doctor," offered themselves to the people as com- 
petent to cure disease. Dr. Wickes speaks of a text- 
book called "Salmon's Herbal," published in Eng- 
land in 1596, which was the text-book of a New 
Jersey physician of extensive practice for many 
years, who procured it from England at a cost of fifty 
pounds. It was the work of a " noted empiric," as 
Allibone calls its author, and contained thirteen hun- 
dred folio pages. 

The first course of lectures on medical subjects de- 
livered in America was a course on anatomy by Dr. 
William Hunter, a Scotch physician, at Newport, R. 
I., in 1754-55-66. Drs. Bard and Middleton made 
the first recorded attempt to impart instruction by 
dissection in New York in 1750. Dr. Cadwalader, 
upon his return from Europe in 1751, gave the first 
lectures on anatomy in Philadelphia. It was not 
until 176'2 that the foundation of the first regular 
medical school was laid in Philadelphia by Drs. Ship- 
pen and Morgan, who had pursued their studies in 
Europe. The College of Philadelphia, in May, 1763, 
elected Dr. Morgan Professor of the Theory and Prac- 
tice of Physic, and Dr. Shippen, in September fol- 
lowing. Professor of Anatomy and Surgery. 

This was the first regular medical school engrafted 
upon a college. New York followed with a similar 
school in connection with King's College in 1767. 
It established chairs of anatomy, pathology and phys- 
iology, surgery, chemistry and materia medica, 
theory and practice, and midwifery, electing profes- 
sors to fill them all, and graduated its two first med- 
ical students in 1769. Between that and 1774 eleven 
degrees had been conferred, when the occupation of 
New York by the British and the stirring events of 
the Revolution put an end to all medical instruction 
till after the war. It was not until 1792 that a suc- 
cessful organization of the medical college was ef- 
fected, although an ettbrt had been made to revive it 
in 1784. 

During the time that this medical college was sus- 
jiended, in 1790, Dr. Paul Micheau, an eminent phy- 
sician from Staten Island, who had studied abroad, 

opened a medical school in Elizabeth Town (see his 
memoir further on). This was probably the earliest 
medical school in New Jersey. It was two years 
later, in 1792, that Dr. Nicholas Romaine and others, 
of the city of New York, obtained authority of the 
trustees of Queen's College (now Rutgers) under their 
charter to establish a medical department in connec- 
tion with that institution. This department was con- 
tinued till 1816 in the city of New York, when the 
Legislatureof that State declared all degrees conferred 
by any college out of the State upon students studying 
within its limits null and void as licenses to practice 
medicine, and the medical school was transferred to 
Hobart College, about that time established at Geneva, 
N. Y. There was no medical department connected 
with Princeton College until 1825, and its progress 
was subsequently arrested by the death of John Van 
Cleve, on whose ability the college relied to carry its 
plan into execution. 

Dr. Wickes and other writers on medicine in New 
Jersey date a stimulus in the progress of medical 
studies from the French war. " The physicians who 
were commissioned as surgeons and surgeon's mates, 
being brought into association with the British offi- 
cers, wereled to know their inferiority, and were stimu- 
lated to improve their opportunities of practice and 
of intercourse with their more cultivated compeers." 
This revival of interest was speedily " followed in 
New Jersey by a measure still more potent in its in- 
fluence, — the organization, in 1766, of a medical so- 
ciety for the province." This at once elevated the 
tone and standard of the profession, and has been the 
conservator of its best interests throughout the State 
during the one hundred and fifteen years of its exist- 
ence. By its policy of granting commissions to auxili- 
ary district medical societies it has virtually its or- 
ganization and influence in every village and hamlet 
of the State. Most of the physicians noticed in the 
following brief memoirs were members of the New 
Jersey Medical Society, and some of them practiced 
many years before its organization. They all lived 
and practiced within the present limits of Union 

Early Physicians of Union County.— Daniel 
Dexton was probably the first physician in East 
Jersey. He was one of the original petitioners for 
the patent of Elizabeth Town in 1664, and was the 
first town clerk. His biographer says of him, "He 
taught school, practiced medicine, and served as jus- 
tice of the peace." He wrote a " Brief Description of 
New York," which was published in London in 1670. 
Judging from his style as a writer, he was a man of 
considerable ability, and fair learning for his times. 

Edward Gay was an early physician. Letters of 
administration were granted Aug. 3, 1687, to " Edward 
Gay, of Elizabeth Town, Doctor of Physick," for the 
estate of John Wren, of Elizabeth Town, deceased.' 

' E^i«t .lerney Rei-mJs. B. I:i:i. 



This is the first mention of him. He frequently ap- 
pears as a witness to the wills of the early settlers. 
He obtained a warrant, Aug. 15, 1693, for fifty acres 
of unappropriated land in Elizabeth Town. He may 
have been a descendant of John Gay, of Watertown, 
Mass., 1635, and of Dedham, Mass., 1639.' 

WiLi-iAM Robinson was a physician residing in 
the Rahway neighborhood. He came to the town as 
early as 1685, purchased land of John Toe, and had 
surveyed to him, April 1, 1686, a tract of seven hun- 
dred acres on the north side of the Woodbridge line, 
and on the branch of the Rahway River called Rob- 
inson's Branch. He was undoubtedly of the Scotch 
immigration. He appears to have been a large land- 
owner both here and in Monmouth County, where he 
obtained, in 1692, a survey for five hundred and fifty 
acres, " in full of his share of the first division." In 
his will, dated May 18, 1693, he is called " William 
Robinson, Doctor of Physick." He appears to have 
died soon after, for his estate was appraised June 2, 
1693, by Andrew Hampton and John Winans. Ann 
Winans, a daughter of the latter, married a son of 
Dr. Robinson.' 

William Barnet was a native of Elizabeth Town, 
born in 1723. He was distinguished as a physician 
and as an active and prominent Whig during the 
Revolution ; served as a voluntary surgeon in the 
army; was one of the volunteers under Elias Dayton, 
who, in January, 1776, captured the " Blue Mountain 
Valley," a vessel described by Lord Stirling, in his 
letter to Congress, as a ship of about one hundred 
feet from stem to stern above, capable of making a 
ship-of-war of twenty six-pounders and ten three- 
pounders. The vessel was brought in safety to 
Elizabeth Town Point. Subsequent to this Dr. Bar- 
net was major of Col. Williamson's eastern division 
of light-horse. 

About 1760, Dr. Barnet built a large brick mansion, 
which after his death was conveyed by Dr. Oliver 
Barnet, his brother, as executor to Jonathan Hamp- 
ton, in 1790. The house was subsequently owned 
and long occupied by Maj.-Gen. Winfield Scott dur- 
ing his residence in Elizabeth. It is still standing, 
having been kept in good condition. This is the 
house which sufi'ered from the depredations of the 
British in their plundering expeditions from Staten 
Island. In describing one of these after the war the 
doctor relates that " the rascals emptied my feather 
beds in the streets, and smashed my mirrors and 
windows. That was bad enough, but, to crown all, 
they stole from me the most splendid string of red 
peppers, hanging in my kitchen, that was ever seen 
in Elizabeth Town."^ 

In medical science Dr. Barnet was in advance of 
most physicians of his day. He was probably in in- 
timate relations with Jenner, the discoverer of vacci- 

iSavaxo, ii., p. 237. 

- HatlicWs Elizabeth, p. '270. 

8 lUd. 

nation, as he introduced that remedy for smallpox 
thirty-seven years before its discoverer published it 
to the world. Dr. Rush states that " in the year 
1759 Dr. Barnet was invited from Elizabeth Town, in 
New Jersey, to Philadelphia to inoculate for small- 
pox. The practice, though much opposed, soon be- 
came general." Jenner published his discovery in 
1796. The quotation from Dr. Rush shows that he 
was well known as a promoter of inoculation and a 
physician of extensive reputation. His will was pro- 
bated Dec. 30, 1790. He died during that year, at 
the age of sixty-seven. 

Oliver Burnet, his brother, who was made executor 
of his will, was a successful and highly-esteemed 
physician, residing in New Germantown, Hunterdon 
Co., N. J. He was a surgeon of the Fourth (Hun- 
terdon) Regiment, Feb. 14, 1776, and one of the asso- 
ciate justices of the trial in Westfield of Morgan, the 
murderer of Rev. James Caldwell, of Elizabethtown. 

William M. Barnet, son of Dr. William Barnet, 
of Elizabethtown, became a physician j)rior to 1772. 
Dr. Wickes refers to a charge to Dr. William Barnet, 
Jr., which appears in an account-book now extant, 
dated 1771. " He was elected a member of the New 
Jersey Medical Society in 1772. He signed his name 
to the constitution, making a dash under the ' M,' 
probably to distinguish him.self from his father, who 
never joined the society. He served as surgeon in the 
war, First Battalion, First Establishment, Dec. 8, 
1775 ; also First Battalion, Second Establishment, 
Nov. 28, 1776. 

As a large property fell to him from his father, he 
probably did not practice his profession very exten- 
sively. Tradition says that he removed to New Ger- 
mantown and died there. But Dr. Wickes is of the 
opinion that the William Barnet referred to by Dr. 
Blane, who began practice in New Germantown in 
1812, and died there in 1821, was a son of William 
M. Barnet, and one of the "grandchildren" alluded 
to in the will of 1790. If so, the doctor probably died 
in Elizabethtown. 

IcHABOD Burnet was a physician in Elizabeth- 
town, and a graduate of the University of Edinburgh, 
where he probably took his degrees in medicine. He 
was born at Southampton, L. I., in 1684, being a son 
of Daniel and a grandson of Thomas Burnet, who re- 
moved from Lynn, Mass., to Long Island about 1640. 
Dr. Burnet came to Elizabethtown about the year 
1700. In 1730 he lived and practiced in Lyon's 
Farms, but afterwards removed to Elizabethtown. 

He is spoken of by Dr. Hatfield as one of the dis- 
tinguished men of the town. He died July 13, 1774. 
His wife, Hannah, died Feb. 19, 1758, aged fifty-six. 
They had two sons, William and Ichabod, Jr., both 
of whom became physicians. 

William Burnet, the elder of the brothers, wsis 
born Dec. 2, 1730 (O. S). He graduated at Princeton 
College in 1749, studied medicine with Dr. Staals, of 
New York, and settled in Newark as a physician. 



where he distinguished himself as a patriot in the 
Revolution. He was the father of Judge Jacob Bur- 
net, of Cincinnati, the author of the well-lcnown 
"Notes on the Territory Northwest of the River 

IcHABOD Burnet, Jr. — Little is known of him, as 
he died too young to leave any professional record. 
He probably graduated at Princeton later than his 
brother, as his father being a university scholar, with 
strict notions respecting the profession, would not 
have sanctioned any preparation for practice short of 
a collegiate course. Whether he pursued his medical 
studies with his father or in the city of New York we 
are not informed. He died March 12, 1756, in his 
twenty-fourth year. 

Stephen Camp was an early physician in Rah- 
way, where he settled soon after graduating at Prince- 
ton in 1756. He was a son of Nathaniel Camp, of 
Newark, and was born in 1739. He married at Rail- 
way Hester Birt, daughter of a British officer. Dr. 
Wickes says of him, "He was one of the founders 
of the New Jersey Medical Society, being present at 
its first meeting. . . . The doctor was fond of com- 
pany, ' full of fun and frolic,' and made many friends. 
He died in 1775. One son, John, survived him, who 
though quite young became a Tory and a refugee, and 
was killed in Georgia during the Revolutionary war. 
He left also a daughter. Two sisters of Dr. Camp 
married, — Mary, horn in 1731, to Dr. William Burnet, 
and Elizabeth to Dr. John Griffith, who succeeded to 
Dr. Camp's practice upon his decease. 

" The house in which Dr. Camp died was occupied 
successively, perhaps not continuously, by Drs. Camp, 
Griffith, Lewis Morgan, and by the late Dr. Samuel 
Abernethy, who died in 1874. It is said to be the 
oldest house in Railway." 

The inscription over his grave shows that Dr. Camp 
died March 19, 1775, in the thirty-seventh year of his 

William Chandler, son of Rev. Dr. Thomas 
Chandler, rector of St. John's, Elizabethtown, was 
bred for the profession of medicine, though he prob- 
ably practiced little, if any, in this country. He 
graduated at King's College in 1774. His native place 
was Elizabethtown, whence he fled on account of his 
own and his father's loyalty in 1776, and served as a 
captain of a company of New Jer.sey volunteers 
(British) stationed on Staten Island. After peace 
was declared he went to England, where he died 
Oct. 22, 1784, in his twenty-ninth year. 

Abraham Clark was a physician at Elizabeth- 
town. He was a son of Abraham Clark, the signer 
of the Declaration of Independence, born in 1767 in 
Elizabethtown. His mother was Sarah, daughter of 
Isaac Hatfield. He is said to have studied medicine 
with Dr. John Griffith, of Rahway, whose daughter 
he married in 1791. In the New Jersey Journal, Jan. 
4, 1791, is the notice : " Married on Thursday evening 
last, by Rev. Dr. McWhorler, Dr. Abraham Clark to 

Lydia, daughter of Dr. John Griffith, of Bridge- 

Dr. Clark commenced practice at Elizabethtown, 
where he remained till after 1800, when his name ap- 
pears in the "New York Directory" as living in the 
lower part of Broadway. He was there but a few 
years when he removed to Newark, where he pursued 
his profession, together with literary and scientific 
studies, until 1830, when he removed to Kinderhook, 
on the Hudson, and spent the remainder of his days 
with his daughter, widow of Dr. Beckman. He died 
in July, 18.54, in his eighty-eighth year.' 

John Clark, born in Elizabethtown, 1758, and 
practiced his profession there till his death, April 29, 
1794, aged thirty-six. He was a second cousin of the 
signer, and died in the same year. His wife was a 
daughter of Esek Hopkins, of Rhode Island, the first 
commodore of the United States navy, and a brother 
of Stephen Hopkins, the signer. Dr. Wickes says, 
" He made her acquaintance during a visit to Provi- 
dence for the purpose of observing the characteristics 
of an epidemic which was prevalent there. His 
residence and office in Elizabethtown were in an 
old-fashioned wooden house ; his office wjth a bow 
window, in which were displayed the bottles and 
equipments of a drug-shop. The late David S. Craig, 
of Rahway, was for a time a student in his office." 

David Craig. — He resided and practiced in Rah- 
way. He was descended from the Craig family, who 
settled in Elizabethtown about 1680-85; was born 
1753, and died 1781. Dr. Isaac Morse, who spent 
most of his life in Elizabethtown, succeeded to Dr. 
Craig's practice. So .says Dr. Wickes. David Craig 
was the father of David S., born 1774, who practiced 
for a great number of years in Rahway. From an 
inscription on the monument of the elder Dr. Craig 
it appears that he died at the age of twenty-eight 
years and eleven months, March 24, 1781. 

Rev. John Darby, though a minister at Connec- 
ticut Farms, was also a physician. The honorary 
degree of " Doctor of Medicine" was conferred upon 
him in 1782 by Dartmouth College. He was a de- 
scendant of William Darby (Darbie), who was a resi- 
dent of Elizabethtown in 1688 ; was born 1825 ; grad- 
uated at Yale in 1784 ; and was licensed to preach in 
April, 1749. He spent eight years preaching on Long 
Island ; settled at Connecticut Farms in 1758 ; three 
years later removed to Parsippany, Morris Co., where 
he died December, 1805, aged ninety. As an illustra- 
tion of his varied attainments it is recorded by his 
historian that during the last sickness of Gen. Winds, 
of distinguished Revolutionary fame, he was his phy- 
sician, his lawyer in writing his will, his minister in 
aflbrding the consolations of religion, upon his death 
the preacher at his funeral, and upon the erection of 
his monument the author of the monumental inscrip- 
tion. He taught many pupils in medicine from dif- 
ferent places who sought his instruction. 

1 Wickes' Hist. N. J. Med., p. 202. 



Jonathan Dayton was a practicing physician for 
many years in Springfield, having settled there prior 
to 1766, at which time he was one of the founders of 
tlie Medical Society of New Jersey. He was the 
youngest of nine children of Nathan and Amy 
(Stratton) Dayton, of East Hampton, L. I., and de- 
scended from the common ancestor of Gen. Elias Day- 
ton and Hon. Jonathan Dayton, of Elizabethtown, 
viz., Ralph Dayton, of Boston, 1637. Dr. Dayton 
was born in 1731, and removed to Springfield (then 
a part of Elizabethtown) when a young man. He 
continued to reside there until his death, his practice 
as a physician extending into the adjoining settle- 
ments of Summit and New Providence. He died in 
the early years of the Revolution, Aug. 26, 1775. The 
house in which he lived is still standing, one of the 
three houses which were left when the enemy, in 1780, 
burnt the town. The house is notable for a hole in 
its north end made by a cannon-ball on the day of 
the battle. 

Dr. Dayton had a son, William W., who studied 
medicine and began practice with his father. His 
career was cut short by an early death. Of his daugh- 
ters, Mary married William Steele, of New York ; 
Margaret married Thomas Salter, of Elizabethtown ; 
and one died young. 

Jonathan I. Dayton, of Elizabethtown, where 
he practiced medicine during his professional life, 
was born in that town in 1738; married Mary Ter- 
rill March 3, 1770, and was a highly esteemed and 
very popular physician. Although sympathizing 
strongly with the loyalists at the outbreak of the 
Revolution, he subsequently took and subscribed the 
oath of abjuration and allegiance. His death, which 
occurred Oct. 19, 1794, is thus noticed in the New 
Jersey Journal : 

"Sunday was interred in the Presbyterian burying- 
ground, in the fifty-seventh year of his age, all that 
was mortal of Dr. Jonathan I. Dayton, who for many 
vears labored under a paralytic affection which 
greatly impaired his bodily and mental faculties. As 
there was no prospect of his emerging from the piti- 
able situation he was in, his relatives and friends must 
feel a melancholy pleasure in reflecting that his suf- 
ferings are terminated. As a physician, he was popu- 
lar ; as a member of society, useful and enterprising ; 
as a husband, kind and affectionate ; as a parent, 
tender and indulgent. In short, he possessed many 
of the social virtues." 

Rev. Jonathan Dickinson. — While a sketch of 
the life of this eminent author and divine appears in 
the history of the First Presbyterian Cliurch, of which 
he was so many years the honored pastor, it may be 
well to mention here that he was a physician also. 
In this latter capacity he acquired a high reputation. 
Dr. Wickes, speaking of his letter on the throat 
distemper, published in Cambridge, Mass., in 1740, 
at the request of several of the most eminent physi- 
cians of Boston, says it "gives evidence of a mind 

skilled in the appreciation of morbid phenomena, and 
an enlarged knowledge for his time of the principles 
of cure." 

He died in Elizabethtown Oct. 7, 1747, and his 
remains rest in the Presbyterian Cemetery. 

Alexander Edgar, a native of Rahway, was 
admitted to membership in the State Medical Society 
at a meeting held in Princeton in May, 1784. He 
was a son of William and grandson of Thomas Edgar, 
who came from Scotland about 1715 or 1720. Dr. 
Edgar obtained a certificate and recommendation 
from the medical society at the time of his admission, 
with the view of practicing in a remote part of the 
State. This is all that is known of him, except that he 
never married and died young, and as a stranger, in 
Albany, N. Y. 

Philemon Elmer. — Of the numerous physicians 
of the Elmer family in New Jersey, the subject of 
this brief notice resided in Westfield, where he prac- 
ticed the greater part of his life. He was born Sept. 
13, 1752; married (1) Mary Marsh, by whom he had 
two children, viz. : Sally, wife of Dr. Loring, and 
Polly, wife of Dr. .Joseph Quimby,. of Westfield ; 
married (2) Catharine, only child of Capt. John 
Sleight (or Slack), of New Brunswick, by whom he 
had two daughters, Betsey and Catharine. The former 
married Ellis Potter, of New York; the latter, Aaron 
Coe, of Westfield, who had children, — Philemon El- 
mer Coe, an Episcopal minister, who built the first 
Episcopal Church in Plainfield about 1852, and died of 
smallpox in 1874, and Catharine, who married Hon. 
Alfred Mills, of Morristown. Married (3) the widow 
of Charles Clark. 

Dr. Elmer had a large practice, was a man of abil- 
ity and force of character, and of fine social qualities. 
He died May 16, 1827, leaving a large property, which 
has remained among his heirs. 

Moses Gale Elmer was a practitioner of medi- 
cine during his professional life in New Providence. 
He was born Sept. 26, 1757, and was consequently 
nineteen years of age at the breaking out of the war 
of the Revolution. He entered the service as soon as 
his attainments in medicine would permit, being com- 
missioned surgeon's mate, Second Battalion, Second 
Establishment, Aug. 28, 1778; surgeon's mate. Second 
Regiment, Sept. 26, 1780; discharged at the close of 
the war. He married Chloe, daughter of Matthias 
Meeker, of Morristown, and liad four children. 

Dr. Elmer had an extensive practice, and was the 
owner of a fine estate in and adjoining the village of 
New Providence. Dr. Wickes, who gives a pretty full 
account of Dr. Elmer's personal characteristics, relates 
the following anecdote: 

"There were in his town a large number of opera- 
tives connected with the shoe and hut manufactories, 
whose raids at night upon his watermelon-patch caused 
him much annoyance. On one occasion he so doc- 
tored some of the finest melons that they produced in 
those who had taken them symptoms which demanded 





treatment. The doctor was summoned. The patients 
averred that they had ' eaten nothing,' but the admin- 
istration of an emetic soon caused a disgorgement of 
the melons and a discovery of tlieir triclcs." 

The practice of denying water topatients in fevers, 
so common in the early days, was almost a mania 
with Dr. Elmer, who was unrelenting in his prohibi- 
tions. " In one case of fever the sufferer begged the 
doctpr for water. ' Tut, tut, tut ; no, no, no ; not one 
drop shall you have, sir; if you touch it, it will be at 
the peril of your life, sir!' But the patient managed 
to creep on his hands and knees to a pail of cool, 
fresh water, drank all he could swallow, returned to 
his bed, perspired freely, convalesced, and then told 
the doctor what had cured him. In his later years he 
abandoned the frequent use of phlebotomy."' 

By act of Congress passed in 1828 the doctor re- 
ceived a pension for the rest of his life. He died on 
the 31st of May, 1835, in the seventy-eighth year of 
his age. His wife died June 19, 1833, aged sixty. 

Henry G. Elmer, son of the above, studied 
medicine, and was regarded as a very promising 
young physician, but intemperate habits overcame 
him and he fell a victim to it in early life. He was 
born in 1799 ; married Pamelia, daughter of Gabriel 
Johnson; died Feb. 11, 1824, aged twenty-five years 
and eleven months. 

John Griffith, of Eahway, was one of the found- 
ers of the New Jersey Medical Society in 1766. He 
was born Nov. 19, 1736; married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Nathaniel, andsisterof Dr. Stephen Camp, to whose 
house and he succeeded. He was highly es- 
teemed as a physician and citizen. He is described 
as a " stout, stirring man, pleasant and jolly." Of his 
four sons and two daughters we find the following 
mention: "Dr. Thomas; William, Esq., of Burling- 
ton, a distinguished lawyer and author of ' Grifiith's 
Law Register, 1822 ;' John, a merchant of New York ; 
and Nathaniel, who entered into partnership with 
John. One of his daughters, Lydia, married Dr. 
Abraham Clark." 

Thomas Griffith, son of the foregoing, was born 
in 1765, and died at Elizabethtown, December, 1799, 
aged thirty-four. The Sentinel of Freedom, Newark, 
contains the following notice of his death : 

" The death of Dr. Griffith is sincerely and univer- 
sally lamented, being a great loss to his family, the 
town, and to society. He possessed a considerable 
degree of literature; was eminent as a surgeon and 
physician, and his liberality to his patients of poverty 
will long be remembered. In his deportment he 
was modest, manners agreeable, conduct through life 
amiable, his morals unblemished, an honor to his 
profession, and left an examjjle worthy of imita- 

He became a member of the State Medical Society 
in 1787. 

' Wickes' Hist. N. J. Med., p. 256. 

Robert Halsted, a descendant of Timothy, one 
of the original Associates, was the son of Caleb Hal- 
sted of Elizabethtown, and was born there in 1746. 
His mother was Rebecca, a daughter of Robert Ogden. 
He was twice married, first to Mary Wiley, who died 
soon after the close of the Revolution ; second to 
Mary Mills, who died in 1845, in her seventy-ninth 
year. Nothing is recorded respecting the education 
of Dr. Halsted, or where he received his medical 
degree. He was, however, held in high esteem as a 
physician, was bold and energetic, somewhat stern 
and brusque in his manner, though uniting with his 
strength and energy great magnanimity and kindness 
of heart. He was a strict observer of the Sabbath 
and a regular church-goer, always in his seat at the 
hour of worship. Being patriotic and outspoken at 
the beginning of the war, he rendered himself ob- 
noxious to the loyalists, from whom he suffered not a 
little, being arrested and confined in the old sugar- 
house in New York. He died Nov. 17, 1825, aged 
seventy-nine. A fine marble monument marks his 
grave in the churchyard at Elizabeth. 

Caleb Halsted, a brother of Robert, was a phy- 
sician at Connecticut Farms, where he practiced until 
seventy-four years of age, dying Aug. 18, 1827. He 
married Abigail Lyon, and had four children who 
grew to mature life, viz. : Mary, wife of Gen. Isaac 
Andruss ; Phebe Roberts, wife of Luther Goble ; Jo- 
seph Lyon, who married Ellen Turk ; and Caleb 
Stockton, who married Margaret Roome. The doctor 
is remembered as a fine figure, portly in person, and 
popular with all classes. He was well up in his pro- 
fession, both theoretically and practically, and in 
public and private life distinguished for his philan- 
thropy and benevolence. 

Matthias De Hart.— The family of which Dr. 
De Hart was a member emigrated originally from 
France to Holland. They first appear in this country 
at New Amsterdam in 1658, where in the old records 
the name is De Hardt. One.of the brothers was a phy- 
sician, — Dr. Daniel De Hardt. Belthazer, a wealthy 
merchant of New Amsterdam, was the progenitor of 
the family in Elizabethtown, his son, Capt. Matthias 
De Hart, being the first settler of that name, about 
the close of the seventeenth century. He was the 
grandfather of the subject of this notice. At what 
time he began practice is not known, although from 
an advertisement in the Weekly Posf-Bo;/, November, 
1752, it appears that he was a doctor prior to that 
date. He was the eldest son of Col. Jacob De Hart, 
and died at the age of forty-three in 1766. 

"Towards the close of his life," says Dr. Wickes, 
"he became blind, and had an African servant to at- 
tend upon him. This attendant made himself useful 
to his master with his needle in repairing and bind- 
ing on the lace-work of his coat according to the 
fashion of his times. The doctor married into the 
family of the Kingslands, of Second River. He had 
several children. Three of his sons were in the Rev- 



olutionary army, viz. : Maurice, major and aide-de- 
camp to Gen. Devine, and subsequently to Gen. 
Wayne; he was killed at Fort Lee. William, major 
in 1775, and lieutenant-colonel in 1777 ; resigned in 
1780 ; lawyer, lived at Morristown. Also a young son 
who was killed at the early age of eighteen while 
storming a fort." ' 

John Hole. — This physician practiced in Wash- 
ington Valley, between New Providence and West- 
field, Union Co. He married (1) Hannah Clark, (2) 
Mercy, daughter of Jenny Ludlow. His children 
were Jeremiah, Mary, lOlizabeth, and Jane. The 
last named married Jacob Mulford. The graves of 
these children of Dr. Hole are marked by brown 
headstones, with their inscriptions, in the Presbyte- 
rian churchyard at New Providence. 

Moses Jaques was a practicing physician in Rah- 
way, and a native of that town. He was born Nov. 
7, 1770, received his early education at the common 
schools, studied with Dr. Halsted, of Elizabethtown, 
and attended medical lectures under Dr. Rush in 
Philadelphia, where he also practiced for a time. His 
health failing he abandoned the practice of medi- 
cine, sold out to Dr. Ralph Marsh, of Rahway, and 
embarked in mercantile business in New York, in 
which he was very successful. While a niember of 
the Legislature from Essex County in 1800 he was a 
warm supporter of a law for the gradual emancipa- 
tion of slaves, if not its author, which brought upon 
him the censure of his constituents, as many of them, 
including his father, as well as himself, were slave- 
holders. He was also a niember of the Constitutional 
Convention of 1844 for the county of Middlesex, 
having removed from New York to Woodbridge in 
1837. He continued to reside there till his death, in 
August, 1858, in his eighty-eighth year. 

Ephraim Loring. — Surgeon's mate, Third Battal- 
ion, Second Establishment, Col. Elias Dayton, Nov. 
28, 1776; surgeon's mate, Third Regiment, Continen- 
tal army, Sept. 26, 1780. After the war Dr. Loring 
practiced in tiie vicinity of New Providence. He 
married Sally, eldest daughter of Dr. Philemon El- 
mer. His name appears on the original list of mem- 
bers of the Society of the Cincinnati of New Jersey, 
and in 1786 is enrolled among the members of the 
Presbyterian Church of New Brunswick. 

Paul Micheau. — Several ancestors of Dr. Paul 
Micheau were of the same name, residing on Staten 
Island. One was sheriff of Richmond County in 
1736, and died while a member of the Colonial As- 
sembly in 1851. His son Paul was a man of popular- 
ity and influence, and was a member of the and 
third Provincial Congresses. He died in 1790. He 
was the father of Paul J. and Benjamin Micheau, of 
Staten Island, the latter supposed to have been the 
father of the doctor. Dr. Micheau removed from 
Richmond, Staten Island, and commenced the prac- 

l Hatfield's Elizabetli, Wickes, p. 278. 

tice of medicine in Elizabethtown in April, 1789. In 
March following he became a member of the New 
Jersey Medical Society, upon presenting testimonials 
of his attainments from European schools in which 
he was educated. 

In February, 1790, he opened a medical school 
at Elizabethtown, advertising a complete course of 
medical lectures to be given at four o'clock p.m., 
from May 10th to July 25th ; charge, five pounds. 
In his advertisement he speaks of himself as "Sur- 
geon and Fellow of the Lyceum Medicum Londi- 

Frederick A. Kinch, M.D. — Thomas Kinch was 
of English lineage, and resided in New York City. 
He was united in marriage to a lady of Welsh parent- 
age, and had children, — William, Mary Ann, Charles, 
Frederick A., and Eliza, but three of whom survive. 
Their son, Frederick A., who is the subject of this 
biography, was born in New York City, March 12, 
1822. Both parents having died during his child- 
hood, his early life was pas.sed under the guardian- 
ship of a paternal uncle, William Kinch. He was 
placed at a boarding-school at Bloomingdale, and 
remained until the age of thirteen, after which he 
repaired to Orange County. Here, until his ma- 
jority was attained, he attended school and also 
engaged in farm labor. 

Having an ambition to acquire a profession he de- 
termined upon the study of medicine, and placed him- 
self under the tutelage of Dr. William C. Terry and 
Dr. Daniel T. Graham, of Mount Hope, Orange 
Co., N. Y'. He remained here four years, pursuing 
his studies, and also, attending lectures at the Medi- 
cal Department of the University of the City of New 
York. He was licensed to practice by the New York 
State Medical Society, by the Orange County Medi- 
cal Society, and by the New Jersey State Medical So- 
ciety. In September, 1849, he chose Westfield as a 
promising field of professional labor, and has since 
that date been a resident of the place and an 
active practitioner. The doctor was married Feb. 6, 
1850, to Miss Harriet, daughter of Col. William S. 
and Elizabeth Little, of Mount Hope, Orange Co., 
N. Y. They have two sons, Charles Augustus, a 
practicing physician in New York City, and Freder- 
ick A., who is at present attending lectures in the 
Medical Department of Columbia College. Dr. 
Kinch is in politics a Republican, and although de- 
barred by the demands of his profession from leisure 
for participatiou in public afJairs, has served as a 
member of the township committee of Westfield, as 
township clerk, and superintendent of schools. He is 
a Presbyterian in his religious convictions, and an 
elder in the Presbyterian Church at Westfield, of 
which both Mrs. Kinch and their sons are mem- 

The doctor is a niember of the Union County Med- 
ical Society, and also of the New Jersey State Medi- 
cal Society. 

^^^^"^^ .PuA Co j^MjIad^ 



Enoch Moke was a contemporary of Drs. Stephen 
Camp, Morse, and Griffith in Kahway in the prac- 
tice of medicine. He belonged to the Society of 
Friends. ' 

Lewis Moegax commenced practice in Rahway 
a year or two before the deatli of Dr. John Griffith. 
He was admitted to the State Medical Society in 1787, 
and practiced first in Somerset and Burlington 
Counties. He is reputed to have been a surgeon in 
the British service during the Revolution, although 
that is doubted on good authority. Dr. Wickes gives, 
upon the authority of Dr. H. H. James, of Rahway, 
and in his own words, the following anecdote of Dr. 
Morgan : 

"For a short time there was a Dr. Rodgers in the town, who was a 
competitor iu practice, whom Dr. Morgan very much disliked. During 
a freshet in the river Dr. Rodgers attempted to cross the bridge, which 
was overflowed with water. Not I>eing aware that the centre of the 
bridge was gone, horse, sulky, and rider all went in together. 

" The horse was used to swimming, and the doctor held his place in his 
enlky, heading his horse down the stream. The whole town gathered 
on the bank to see the doctor drown. Among the spectators was Dr. 
Morgan, who, seeing the situation, ordered his horse and sulky and fol- 
lowed the river road to see the result, .\bout a mile below Dr. Rodgers 
bixiught his horse to the bank and came out sitting in his sulky all right 
Bis horse was very much exhausted, and he was very wL Dr. Morgan, 
pitying his condition, invited him to sit on the foot-rest of his sulky 
that he might take him home quickly, as hi- horse was fresh. Rodgers 

replied, 'No. sir; I had a hard ride, but I'll go back the way I 

came before I sit at your feet.' '" 

Dr. Morgan died Jan. 12, 1821, in the sixty-fourth ' 
year of his age. 

Isaac Morse, to whom reference has heretofore 
been made, was a son of Joseph Morse, a surveyor 
and land conveyancer. His ancestors were among 
the earliest settlers of Elizabethtown, where he was 
born in 1758, and died there in 1825, his remains I 
being buried in the cemetery of the First Presby- 
terian Church. Dr. Clark's " History of Physicians 
of Essex County" contains many anecdotes of him, 
to which the reader is referred. " His ruling trait 
was facetiousness and humor," says Dr. Wilkes. " He 
was a man of much originality and great professional 
activity and usefulness, enjoying a very large prac- 
tice." His fun and humor did more for his patients, 
it has been remarked, than his learning or his drugs, , 
a statement which will not be discredited by any one 
who knows the effect of a genial presence in a sick 

George Pugh was a physician residing in or near 
Elizabethtown. Joined the medical society in 1770. 
His will, probated Dec. 26, 1785, describes him as 
" Late of the Island of Jamaica, now Physician of 
Elizabethtown." Little is known of him beyond 
these few facts. 

Charles W. Rodgers, the hero of the incident re- 
lated in the memoir of Dr. Lewis Morgan (which see), 
resided only a short time in Rahway, and then re- 
moved to the West. When it was known that he 
was about to leave town a rich patient whom he had 
treated successfully called on him to procure the pr»- 

scription for the remedy which had been so effectual 
in his case. The doctor said, "Certainly, but it will 
cost you ten dollars." The applicant objected at first, 
but remembering his former pains, he reluctantly 
paid the ten dollars. The doctor took his pencil and 
wrote " Cataria." Afterwards, of course, he found 
out that he had paid ten dollars for the word " Cat- 
nip." ' 

George Ross was an early physician and druggist 
of Elizabethtown, probably a descendant of the first 
settler of that name, 1665-66. The JVew Jersey Jour- 
nal, Feb. 2, 1796, contains the following advertise- 
ment : 

" Drug?, medicals, chemicals, etc., being a fresh importation from Eu- 
rope, to be sold by Doctors Ross and Williamson, opposite the Church in 

Little is known of Dr. Ross. It is thought that he 
left the town soon after the above advertisement. 
He had been a trustee of the Academy in 1789 and 
librarian of the Library Association in 1792, the year 
it was formed. 

Matthias Hampton Williamson, referred to in 
the foregoing notice, was a son of William, a descend- 
ant of the first settler of that name in Elizabethtown, 
1725, and of Lydia, daughter of Jonathan Hampton. 
He married his cousin, Frances H. Joust. Of his 
early life and education no positive records exist, 
although it is highly supposed that he studied med- 
icine in Philadelphia. He was a member of the 
medical society of that city when he wrote his thesis 
for a degree in May, 1793. The title, somewhat ab- 
breviated, was as follows : " Dissertation on the Scar- 
let Fever, attended with an ulcerated sore throat, sub- 
mitted to the Rev. John Ewing, S. T. D. Provost, 
... for the degree of Doctor of Medicine, ... on 
the tenth of May, a.d. 1793, by Matthias H. Wil- 
liamson, member of the American Medical Society of 
Philadelphia." This dissertation was published, and 
is in the valuable library of Dr. Samuel S. Purple, of 
the city of New York. Dr. Williamson attained a high 
reputation as a practitioner. He wa.s practicing in 
Elizabethtown and also keeping a drug-store in part- 
nership with Dr. Ross in 1796. 

Doctors Winans.— Two physicians of this name 
practiced in Elizabethtown before the Revolution. 
They were probably descendants of John Winans. 
Of the first we have not the Christian name, but 
simply " Dr. Winans." The other, William Winans, 
was a surgeon in the First Regiment of Essex, July 
15, 1776, and surgeon of Col. Thomas' battalion de- 
tached militia, July 24, 1776. March 17, 1781, a 
meeting was advertised in the New Jersey Journal 
" at the Inn of Doctor William Winans," Elizabeth- 

Samuel Swain, born at Scotch Plains, N. J., in 
1771, died at Bound Brook in 1844, and was buried 
in the vault of Jacob DeGroat, whose daughter he 

» Wickss' Hist. N. J. Med., p. 375. 



married. He practiced at Scotch Plains and occa- 
sionally at Plainfield. 

Edwaed Augustus DARrv first lived in Morris 
County, whence he came to Plainfield in 1821. He 
was a brother of Dr. John Darcy of Newark (who 
died there Oct. 22, 1863), and removed to Illinois in 
1834, where lie died. 

Stephen Manning, born in Westfleld, now town- 
ship of Plainfield, received the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine at the Medical College of Philadelphia, and 
practiced a short time in Monmouth County. He re- 
moved to Plainfield, but soon after died, in 1S21 or 

John Craig was a well-known physician and drug- 
gist at Plainfield, where he died Oct. 1.5, 1872. He 
was a descendant of Andrew Craige, who came with 
the Scotch immigration in Governor Laurie's time. 
It was at his house that George Keith, as missionary 
of the " Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts," preached the first Episcopal sermon 
in the old borough of Elizabeth in November, 1703, 
on which occasion he baptized Mr. Craig's four chil- 
dren. Andrew Craige was admitted an Associate in 
1699-1700, and drew lot No. 162 of the one-hundred- 
acre lots on the southwest side of the Railway River 
and on the lower side of the " Noramehegkn branch" 
(Westfield township). His name appears in the Town 
Book as early as Nov. 28, 1729. He died Oct. 1, 1738. 

There have been several physicians in the family, 
among them Dr. David Craig, born in 1753, died in 
1781, and his son. Dr. David S. Craig, born in 1774, 
and practiced till his death at Rah way. 

John Craig settled in Plainfield in 1822, and was 
associated with his younger brother, Lewis, who came 
soon after, in the drug-store on the corner of Front 
and Cherry Streets. For many years Dr. Craig dis- 
pensed drugs and visited the sick far and near. His 
name was known all over the land, and for miles he 
traveled by night and day visiting the sick. He was 
the friend of the poor, and seldom refused to call 
upon patients who were unable to pay for his ser- 
vices. Towards the latter part of his life he became 
quite wealthy through the rise of the value of his 
real estate in the city of Plainfield. His remains lie 
in the Union Cemetery, where a block of granite 
close to the main foot-walk tells that here lies the 
body of John Craig, M.D. 

Allen Wilson practiced in Plainfield at an early 
time. Little is known of tlie history of his life beyond 
the fact that he died in the year 1837. 

Charles H. Stillman, physician and ex-mayor 
of Plainfield, was horn in Schenectady, N. Y., Jan. 
2.'), 1817. The family is of English descent, the an- 
cestor having emigrated to Massachusetts in 1680. 
His father, Joseph Stillman, was widely known as a 
ship-builder. Dr. Stillman graduated at Union Col- 
lege in 1835, and in the year 1840 took his medical 
degree at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 
New York. 

In 1842 he removed to Plainfield, N. J., where he 
has since resided, actively engaged in the practice of 
his profession. His advance to the front rank of 
medical practitioners was rapid and brilliant. He 
was for many years surgeon of the Central Railroad 
of New Jersey, and his great skill as a surgeon has 
won the cordial recognition not only of the commu- 
nity at large but of all in the profession. Next to 
his devotion to his profession is his practical earnest- 
ness in forwarding the educational interests of the 
community in which he resides (see schools). He 
was a member of the State Medical Society, and presi- 
dent of the Medical Society of Union County. He 
was also a director of the City National Bank, of the 
Washington Fire Insurance Company, the City 
Savings In.stitute, and various other corporations. 
In 1872 he was nominated by both political parties 
for the office of mayor of Plainfield, and elected to 
the position, and administered the duties of the office 
for two years. He was married in 1842 to Mary E. 
Starr, of Hamilton, New York. His eldest son, 
Thomas B. Stillman, was for a time assistant professor 
of chemistry in Stevens Institute, Hoboken, N. J.; 
his second son, Charles F. Stillman, M.D., medical 
examiner in Mutual Life Insurance Company, now 
practicing in city of New York ; his third, William 
M. Stillman, counselor-of-law in city of Plainfield. 

Medical Societies. — The New Jersey Medical 
Society was the first institution of the kind organ- 
ized in the colonies. In view of the low .state of 
medicine in the province in 1766, and the difiiculties 
and discouragements which stood in the way of its 
advancement, a number of physicians were led to 
consider the project of forming a voluntary associa- 
tion of the principal practitioners, for the purpose of 
elevating the standard of the profession and of pro- 
moting its general usefulne,ss to the public. In order 
to call together those who might be disposed to take 
an interest in the scheme the following notice was 
published in the New York Merotrij : 

" A considerable nuiiiber of the practitioners of physic and surgery 
in East New Jersey having agreed to form a society for their mutual 
improvement, the advancement of the profession, and promotion of the 
puljlic good, and desirous of extending as much as possible tbe-useful- 
ness of their scheme, and of cultivating the utmost harmony and 
friendship with their brethren, liereViy request and invite every gentle, 
man of the profession in the province that may approve of their design 
to attend their first meeting, which will be held at Mr. DutTs, in the 
city of New Brunswick, on Wednesday, the 2:!d of July, at which time 
and place the constitution and regulations of the society are to be set- 
tled and subscribed. 

" East New Jersey, June 27, 17GC," 

Sixteen physicians responded to this call, met at 
New Brunswick on the appointed day, and adopted a 
constitution ample in its aim and purpose as that of 
medical societies of the jiresent day. The constitu- 
tion was signed by fourteen physicians, whose names 
were as follows : 

Kobert McKe 

Cliri-. Maul..' 
John Ci.bruii l(lo..mliel.l. 
.Paniea (iMlilun.l. 
William Burnelt. 

^^^^irirrr^^^i^'^^ (z S^Ci^ 





Jona. Diiyton. 
Tbomas Wiggins. 
William Adams. 
Bnrn, Budd. 

Lawrence V. Dewere. 
Juhu GriBitli. 
Isaac Harris. 
Joseph Sackett, Jr. 

Three of these original members, viz. : Drs. Bur- 
net, Dayton, and Griffith, were residents and practi- 
tioners in what is now Union County. Dr. Robert 
McKean was the first president. Charles Manlove 
was the first secretary of the society. Those who 
have served in the capacity of president and secretary 
of the society from Union County have been the fol- 

1766. Hubert McKean. 
1T67-68. William Burnet. 

1769. John Cochran. 

1770. Nathaniel Scudder. 1786. William Burnet. 

1771. Isaac Smith. 1787. Jonathan Elmer. 

1772. James Newell. 1788. James Stratton. 

1773. Absalom Bainbridge. 1789. Moses Scott. 

1774. Thomas Wiggin. 1790. John Griffith. 

1775. Uezekiah Stites. 1791. Lewis Dunham. 

1781. James Newell. 1792-93. Isaac Harris. 

1782. John Beatty. 1794-95. James Newell. 

1783. Thon 

as Barber. 

1784. Lawr 

ence Van Derreer 

1785. Mose 



1766. Chris. Manlove. 

1767. Moses Bloomfleld. 

1768. Isaac Smith. 

1769. Nathaniel Scudder. 

1770. Samuel Kennedy. 

1771. Absalom Bainbridge, 

1772. Thomas Wiggins. 
177.'?. Nathaniel Scudder. 
1774. Hezekiah Stites. 

1775. James Newell. 
1781-82. Thomas Wiggins. 
1783-84. Lewis Dunham. 

1785. John Beatty. 

1786. Thomas G. Haight. 

1787. Thomas Henderson. 

1788. John A. Scudder. 
1789-92. Francis Bower Sa; 
1793-95. James Anderson. 

The society continued to hold its regular semi-an- 
nual meetings either at New Brunswick, Princeton, 
or Burlington till 1775, when they were discontinued 
on account of the war. 

A number of the members of the State Medical 
Society took an early and decided part in the strug- 
gle for independence. Dr. Wickes gives us the 
names of seventy-two physicians of New Jersey 
who were connected with offices under the govern- 
ment during and after the Revolution, forty-four of 
whom were collegiate graduates from the following 
institutions: Princeton, twenty-seven; Yale, five; 
Kings, two ; Queens, two ; Univei'sity of Pennsyl- 
vania, one ; Harvard, one ; Foreign, six. 

At the close of the war, in November, 1781, the 
society resumed its meetings, which were sustained 
with regularity until 1795. Ninety-one members 
had been enrolled since its organization. From this 
latter date there was a suspension of its meetings 
until 1807, owing to the organization of another 
society in Eastern New Jersey, through the influence 
of Dr. Paul Micheau, of Elizabethtown. In 1807 
the society resumed its functions under its charter of 
1790, and in December, 1807, an act to ratify its jjro- 
ceedings was passed by the Legislature. 

The feature of district medical societies, organized 
in the respective counties and au.xiliary to the State 
society, was adopted upon its reorganization in 1807, 

and has tended greatly to the strength and perma- 
nence of the parent institution. 

The physicians who were instrumental in forming 
the District Medical Society of the County of Union 
are named in the following: 


" State of New Jerset, m. 

" By the Medical Society of New Jersey, to S. Abernethy, "Wm. M. 
Whitehead, D. W. C. Hough, L. W. Oakley, Louis Braun, Elihu B. Sil- 
vers, Tbos. L. Hough, J. S. Martin, Wm. Gale, J. A. Petrie, Thomas 
Terrill, Jr., Eugene Wiley, P. U. Selover, J. 0. Pinneo, Alonzo Pettit, 
Physicians and Surgeons, greeting : 

" Your application requesting that a District Medical Society might 
be instituted, consisting of Drs. 8. Abernethy, Wm. M. Whitehead, and 
others, above mentioned, in the County of Union, was duly considered 
at a meeting of the Medical Society of New Jersey, held at Jereey City, 
the 26th day of May, Anno Domini 1809, and it was thereupon voted 
that your request be granted, provided that this grant is not to he ex- 
tended beyond the period of one year. 

"In testimony whereof the President, pursuant to the aforesaid vote 
of the Society, subscribed bis name and affixed the seal of the Ojrpora- 
tion at Orange, this 27th day of May, Anno Domini 1869. 

[L. S.] " Wm. FlEBSON, President. 

" Attested : 

" Wm. Pierso>j, Jr., Rec. Sec" 

The objects of the society are briefly stated in the 
constitution, as follows : 

1st. To advance the science and art of medicine 
and surgery. 

2d. To promote harmony among medical men, and 
maintain high the standard of professional character. 

The regular meetings of the society are held quar- 
terly on the second Wednesday in April, July, Oc- 
tober, and January. 

The following-named persons have been the ofiicers 
of the society since its organization : 


1869-71. Samuel Abernetliy. 
1871-73. Job S. Crane. 
1873-74. F. A. Kinch. 
1874-75. L. W. Oakley. 
1875-76. James S. Green. 
1876-77. Charles H. Stillmau. 

1877-78. Robert Westcott. 
1878-79. H. D. Burlingham. 
1879-80. E. B. Silvers. 
1880-81. Alonzo Pettit. 
1881-82. John B. Probasco. 


1869-71. J. S Martin. 
1871-73. D. W. C. Hough. 
1873-74. L. W. Oakley. 
1874-75. E. B. Silvers. 
1875-76. Charles H. Stillm 
1k7I>-7". Koheit Wescott. 

1877-78. H. D. Burlingham. 
1878-79. B. B. Silvers. 
1879-80. Alonzo Pettit. 
1880-81. John B. Probasco. 
1881-82. Joseph H. Grier. 


1869-72. Thomas Terrill, Jr. 
1872-74. H. P. Geib. 
1874-79. T. N. McLean. 

187'J-S1. Charles T. Stillman. 
1881-82. William A. M. Mack. 


1809-72. William M. Wliitehei 
1872-73. C. H. Stillman. 
1873-75. T. N. McLean. 

1875-79. H. H. James. 
1879-80. M. B. Long. 
1881-82. Victor Mravlag. 


1869-70. F. A. Kinch. 
1870-72. Alonzo Pettit. 
1872-73. F. A. Kinch. 

1873-74. Alonzo Pettit. 
1874-82. J. A. Coles. 



Lewis W. Oakley, M.D., Coll. P. and S., N. Y., 1852. 

D. W. C. Hough, M.D., Jeff. Med. Coll., 1847. 
James S. Green, M.D., Univ. Penn., Ig.'il. 

F. A. Kiricli, M.D., State Med. Soc, 1860. 

H. H, James, M.D., Univ. Penn., 1863. 

Joseph H. Grier, M.D., Univ. Penn., 1861. 

P. U. Selover, M.D., N. Y. Univ., 1864. 

Louis Braun, M.D., Univ. Friedburg, Badeu, 1850. 

Robert Wescott, M.D., Univ. Penn., 1853. 

E. B. Silvers, M.D., Coll. P. and S., N. Y., 1852. 

C. A. Stillmann, M.D., Coll. P. and S., N. Y., 1840.- 

T. L. Hough, M.D., Jeff. Med. Coll., 1856. 

J. Otis Pinueo, M.D., Coll. P. and S., N. Y., 1865. 

William Gale, M.D., Long Island Hos. Coll., 1869. 

J. 8. Brosnan, M.D., Boyal Coll. Phys., Dublin, 1867. 

Alonzo Pettit, M.D., Uuiv. Buffalo, 1867. 

Thomas Terrill, M.D., Coll. P. and S.,N. Y., 1867. 

Job S. Crane, M.D., Coll. P. and S., N. Y., 1849. 

T. N. McLean, M.D., Yale, 1871. 

H. D. Burliugham, M.D., Coll. P and S., N. Y., 1857. 

J. A. Coles, M.D., Coll. P. and S., N. Y., 1868. 

J. R. McConnell, M.D., Starling Med. Coll., 1868. 

J. B. Probasco, M.D., Univ. Penn., 1869. 

T. H. Tomlinsou, M.D., Univ. Penn., 1869. 

William K. Gray, M.D., N. Y. Univ., 1868. 

F. B. Gillette, M.D., Univ. Penn., 1856. 

C. A. Kinch, M.D., Coll. P. and S., N. Y., 1873. 

David Schleimer, M.D., Georgetown, D. C, 1873. 

William C. Boone, M.D., Univ. Maryland, 1872. 

Lewis Drake, M D., Univ. Penn,, 1829. 

t\ F. Stillman, M.D.,Coll. P. and 8., N. Y., 1876. 

Charles A Hart, M.D., N. Y. Med. Coll., 1865. 

J. S. Payne, M.D., N. Y. Univ., 1863. 

M. B. Long, M.D., Coll. P. and S., N. Y., 1875, 

J. B. Han ison, M,D., Coll, P, and S„ N, Y,, 1876. 

Victor Mravlag, M.D,, Vienna Univ,, 1872. 

Henry G, Fithian, M,D,, Univ, Penn,, 1877, 

George W, Endicott, M,D,, Jeff, Med, Coll,, 1875. 

H, Page Hough, M,D,, Jeff, Med, Coll,, 1878, 

David Waldo, M,D,, Coll, P, and S,, N, Y„ 1878. 

John J. Daly, M.D,, N. Y, Univ,, 1873, 

W, A, M, Mack, M,D,, Bellevue Hob, Coll, 1877, 

J. H, Pickett, M,D,, Univ, Buffalo, N, Y, 

W. B, Cladek, Univ, N, Y, City, 

Flank S, Grant, Coll, P, and S,, N, Y, 

Frank W, Wescott, Jeff, Med, Coll,, Philadelphia. 

John L. Taylor, Bellevue Hos. Med. Coll., N, Y, 

John C. Sutphen, M.D., was born at the old Sut- 
phen homestead in Somerset County, N. J., Aug. 12, 
1834. His paternal ancestors came from Sutphen, 
Holland, and from this ancient city the family name 
is derived. Both of his grandmothers were of Eng- 
lish (Puritan) descent. His father was Gilbert Sut- 
phen, and his mother's maiden name was Jane M. 
Crater. His early boyhood was spent on the farm at 
home, and at the school of his native place. His 
preparatory education was received under the private 
instruction of Rev. W. W. Blauvelt, of Lamington, 
N. J., a Presbyterian clergyman. He entered Prince- 
ton College in 1852, and was graduated from that in- 
stitution in 1856. His brother. Rev. Morris C. Sut- 
phen, was his classmate and fellow-graduate ; was 
engaged in ministerial labor from his graduation in 
theology until his decease, and died June 18, 1875. 
After his college course Dr. Sutphen entered the theo- 
logical seminary with his brother, but ill health com- 
pelled him to relinquish the study of theology after 
three months. For one year thereafter he conducted 

a preparatory school at Southampton, L. I., and then 
began the study of medicine with Dr. C. C. Suydam, 
of Lamington ; in due time attended lectures in the 
medical department of the University of Pennsylva- 
nia, from which he was graduated in March, 1859. 

During the following eight years he was actively 
engaged in the practice of his profession at Liberty 
Corners, in Somerset County, and soon after settling 
there, on Jan. 11, 1860, he married Miss Fannie A., 
daughter of David King, Esq., and Fannie Layton, 
of that place, but formerly of New York. The sur- 
viving children by this union are Jennie Frances, 
David King, Madge Louise, Charlotte Victoria, Gil- 
bert Tennant, John Calvin, Morris, Clarence, Julia 
Scott, and Carman Parse. 

Dr. Sutphen removed to Plainfield in 1867, and 
soon after his arrival was chosen city physician under 
the new charter then just adopted, and in the follow- 
ing year was elected a member of the Common Coun- 
cil, and was appointed chairman of several important 
committees. In the mean time Dr. Sutphen's prac- 
tice steadily increased, and reliance in his professional 
skill and regard for his integrity and sterling quali- 
ties as a public-spirited citizen were greatly augmented 
by his fearless and successful labors during the mem- 
orable smallpox pestilence. His great kindness of 
heart and sympathy for the suffering as often led him 
to the bedside of those from whom he expected no 
remuneration and never received any as to adminis- 
ter to those in affluence. His heroic exertions on this 
occasion were in a measure recognized by the citizens 
of Plainfield by his nomination and election in 1874, 
and re-election in 1875, mayor of Plainfield, which 
position he filled to the entire satisfaction of his fel- 
low-citizens, and to the permanent benefit of the 

Dr. Sutphen was well read in his profession, and 
took an active interest in all that pertained to the 
prosperity of Plainfield. He was a student of the 
cause and cure of complicated cases of disease, a man 
of quick perception and ready diagnosis. In early 
life he united with the Presbyterian Church at Lam- 
ington ; was a member of the church of Liberty Cor- 
ners, and upon his settlement in Plainfield became 
at once an active and influential member of the Cres- 
cent Avenue Presbyterian Church. Of the latter 
church he was trustee for several years, and was one 
of the building committee, and contributed liberally 
of his means in erecting the present fine church edi- 
fice. Dr. Sutphen died April 13, 1878, suddenly, of 
apoplexy. Upon the occasion of his death the mem- 
bers of the Union County Medical Society passed ap- 
propriate resolutions expressing their high esteem for 
the memory of their departed colaborer, and mourn- 
ing the loss of an honest practitioner, an upright 
citizen, and a Christian gentleman. 

Dr. Corra Osborn, .son of Jonathan H. and 
Martha (Shotwell) Osborn, was born at Scotch Plains, 
Union Co., N. J., May 12, 1793, and died at Westfield, 





June 7, 1868. His early education was obtained in 
the common school of his native place and under the 
private instruction of Dr. Ludlow, with whom he 
subsequently studied medicine. He was graduated at 
a medical college in New York at the age of nineteen, 
and began the practice of his profession at Acquack- 
anonck, Passaic Co., N. J., but soon afterwards formed 
a copartnership with Dr. Philemon Elmer, of West- 
field, which continued until the decease of Dr. Elmer, 
when he succeeded to the entire practice, which he 
continued until about six years before bis death, 
having been in the successful practice of his profes- 
sion for a period of forty years. Dr. Osborn, as a 
physician of the past generation, ranked among the 
first of his day, and was known aaaskillful, painstak- 
ing, and devoted practitioner. His ride extended over 
a large territory in the Vicinity of Westfield, and he 
was widely known as a safe counselor and of quick 
perception in the diagnosis of complicated cases of 
disease. Dr. Osborn was a stanch member of the old 
Whig party, but never sought office, or held any. 
Upon the organization of the Republican parly he 
became a bold advocate of its principles, and remained 
a strong supporter of its platform until his death. 

From the age of twenty-seven years he was a mem- 
ber of the First Baptist Church at Scptch Plains, and 
served the church for many years as one of its deacons. 
He gave liberally of his means in the support of every 
worthy local enterprise, and especially was he inter- 
ested in the propagation of religious doctrine and 
the establishment of morality, law, and order in so- 
ciety. His wife, Mary Hand, whom he married June 
30, 1812, bore him the following children : Mahlon, 
deceased ; Mary, wife of Samuel Hayes ; Letitia, 
widow of David Miller; Ann, deceased, was the wife 
of Nathan Williams. The mother of these children 
died Oct. 26, 1826. 

The contributor of Dr. Osborn's portrait and sketch, 
Samuel Hayes, was born June 3, 1816, and is a son 
of Dr. Samuel Hayes, who lived and died in Newark, 
N. J., where he practiced medicine for over forty 

Samuel Hayes has followed agricultural pursuits 
most of his life near Scotch Plains, and is a supporter 
of the First Baptist Church at that place. His wife, 
Mary, is a daughter of Dr. Corra Osborn, before 
alluded to, whom he married on May 17, 1848. His 
children are Mary, Hannah D., and Lydia K. 

John C. Elmer, M.D.— The records of the Elmer 
family in its different branches furnish us with many 
names of those who have held high positions of honor 
and trust in the church, in the community, and in 
the struggle of the American Revolution. Although 
the early settlers located first in Connecticut, and 
then in New York, some of their number came to 
New Jersey. 

Rev. Jonathan Elmer, and his son, Moses, M.D., 
settled in New Providence, Union Co., while his son, 

Philemon, M.D., went to Westfield, Union Co. Gen. 
Ebenezer Elmer resided in Cumberland County. 

The progenitor of the family in this country was 
Edward Elmer, who emigrated Sept. 4, 1632, and be- 
came one of the first settlers of Hartford, Conn. 

His grandson. Deacon Jonathan, settled in Sharon, 

Dr. Nathaniel, son of Deacon Jonathan, was a 
physician in active medical practice in Florida, N. 
Y., and died there in the year 1779. 

Dr. William, son of Dr. Nathaniel, practiced med- 
icine in Goshen, Orange Co., N. Y., and was a 
member of the " Medical Society of the Counties of 
Ulster and Orange, in the State of New York," 
which society was instituted June 25, 1793. 

Dr. William occupied a prominent position in the 
State in which he resided, and was appointed " Sur- 
geon of the regiment of militia in the County of Or- 
ange, at a meeting of the council of appointment, at 
the Exchange, in the city of New York, on Tuesday, 
the 26th day of September, 1786." 

He was also " appointed, in 1796, by virtue of an 
act of Congress, as one of a board of examining phy- 
sicians and surgeons for the County of Orange, in the 
State of New York." 

Dr. William's son, Horace, was the father of Dr. 
John C. Elmer, the subject of this sketch, at the time 
of whose death the follow'ing article, with slight vari- 
ation, was written at the request of the medical 
society by Rev. O. L. Kirtland, pastor of the Pres- 
byterian Church in Springfield, of which church Dr. 
Elmer was a member, and was published in the 
" Report of the Medical Society of New Jersey for 
1864" : 

" Dr. John C. Elmer, son of Horace Elmer, was 
born in Goshen, Orange Co., N. Y., April 7, 1817. 
His grandfather, his great-grandfather, and his elder 
brother, William S., were all physicians in active 
practice until their deaths. William S., elder brother 
of John C, practiced medicine in the city of New 
York, and was a victim of over-exertion during the 
cholera season of 1834. 

"John C. Elmer spent the early years of his child- 
hood with his parents in his native town. At the 
age of fourteen he entered the store of a druggist and 
practicing physician in the city of New York as clerk, 
and remained in that capacity four or five years. 

" There he became thoroughly acquainted with the 
character of medicines, and with the modes of testing 
them, and learned the importance of selecting and 
scrutinizing very carefully the remedies which he ad- 
ministered. To the habit of examining personally 
all medicines given by his prescriptions he ascribed 
much of his success. His academical studies were 
pursued successively in the academies at Bloorafield, 
N. .J., and at Morristown, N. J. 

The study of medicine, commenced about the year 
1835 or 1836, was pursued for a season under the su- 
pervision of Dr. John Hubbard, of New Y'^ork City, 



and later under the direction of Dr. John B. Johnes, 
of Morristown, N. J. 

" In or about the year 1838 he entered the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, and also 
took two summer courses of lectures in the medical 
college at Pittsfield, Mass., then under the care of 
Dr. Willard Parker, of New York City. He received 
his diploma April 7, 1840, and in May of the same 
year, at the age of twenty-three, entered upon the 
practice of his profession as partner of Dr. Absalom 
Woodruff, in Mendhara, N. J." 

In September, 1843, lie married Jane R., only child 
of William Stites, of Springfield, N. J. Dr. Elmer 
remained in Mendham until April, 1852, possessing 
the confidence and esteem of a very large circle of 
friends and patrons, who manifested deep feelings of 
regret and reluctance at the loss of their physician 
when he left them. 

His cheerful home in Mendham was situated in the 
centre of a large practice, which involved many long 
and tedious winter rides over the bleak hills of that 
part of Morris County. 

Just as he was deciding to accept the oft-repeated 
invitation from numerous trends and relatives in 
Springfield, N. J., he received flattering inducements 
to settle in Somerville. Several leading citizens 
pledged to him the support of twenty-four influential 
families as an introduction in the town. Dr. Elmer, 
while gratefully appreciating this generous offer from 
the citizens of Somerville, decided in favor of Spring- 
field for several family reasons, whence he removed im- 
mediately, pursuing his profession with diligence and 
success until arrested by the typhoid fever, superin- 
duced by a season of unusual professional fatigue and 
exposure, of which he died Oct. 17, 1863. 

While at Mendham, Dr. Elmer was for a number 
of years one of the board of censors for the district of 
Morris County. Intellectually, he was characterized 
by strength and discrimination rather than by bril- 
liancy. Spurning the merely superficial, he was 
patient in research, and unwilling to rest until sure of 
a foundation that could not be shaken, hence the 
usual correctness of his diagnosis, and the confidence 
of his patients. 

Possessed of a happy .social talent and unaffected 
manners, he found easy access to the hearts of his 
patrons, and endeared himself to them by a kindness 
which reached beyond his professional services, sym- 
pathizing with them in their trials, and, when occa- 
sion required, extending a helping hand for their 

In Springfield he occupied a prominent and decided 
stand as a friend of popular education. Mainly 
through his influence a tasteful, commodious, and 
well furnished academy was built, and for a series of 
years a school was maintained quite in advance of the 
ordinary public schools of the day. 

Dr. Elmer was a Christian, occupying both in 
Mendham and in Springfiekl the place of a worthy 

communicant in the Presbyterian Church, having 
been a leader of its choir and a helper in its enter- 
prises. He was animated by the spirit of true patriot- 
ism. During the progress of the civil war, occasioned 
by the great Southern Rebellion, his feelings were 
deeply enlisted, and all his sympathies were with the 
government in its measures for suppressing the insur- 
gents, and maintaining the nation in its integrity. 

The wide-spread grief occasioned by his death bore 
testimony that his confiding family, who rested upon 
him as the pillar of all their earthly hopes, were not 
the only mourners. All classes united in the senti- 
ment that one had fallen whose place as a physician, 
as a friend, and as a citizen could not easily be filled 

Dr. Elmer's funeral services were attended in the 
Presbyterian Church in Springfield. Rev. David 
Magie, D.D., of Elizabeth, N. J., who conducted the 
rites, spoke on the " character and offices of the be- 
loved physician," and as he witnessed the vast throng 
of weeping friends who pressed eagerly forward to 
take a last fond look at the face so long familiar to them 
remarked, " This immense assemblage seems to me like 
one great mourning family circle." 

Dr. Elmer left a widow and two children, — a son, 
William S., and a daughter, Louise B. His son died 
very suddenly in three weeks after his father, aged 
seventeen years. 

The following article is an extract copied from the 
daily papers, published at the time of his death by 
the physicians at a special meeting of tlie District 
Medical Society of the County of Essex, of which 
John C. Elmer, M.D., was a member: 

" Dr. John C. Elmer, of Springfield, N. J., died on 
Saturday, 17th inst., of typhoid fever, aged forty-six 
years. Deceased has been a resident of Springfield 
for many years, where he had the esteem of all who 
knew him. 

" In the death of this physician our county has lost 
one of its ablest practitioners. He was much beloved 
and respected at Mendham, Morris Co., whence he 
removed about eleven years ago. His death leaves a 
vacuum not easily filled. He died of typhoid fever, 
the result, probably, of his zealous effort to relieve 

" The Essex County Medical Society, of which he 
was a member, held a meeting last evening in relation 
to the subject of his death. 

" The president. Dr. W. M. Brown, occupied the 
chair; Drs. John F. Ward, L. A. Smith, and J. Henry 
Clark were appointed to draft resolutions, and rejiorted 
the following, which were adopted : 

regret of the dvc 


•'Sesohed, That we have Icariieii with 
our brotlier, John C. Elmer. 

" Rewlved, That we eberish a fond recollection of the aiiiiahle manners 
and kindly disposition of our late hrother.and tliattliis dispensatiou re- 
minds us of our own mortality. 

" llesoheil. That we desire to convey to his atltictid family our sense of 
bereavement, and our heartfelt sympathy for tlicm in this hour of their 
great calamity. 


His paternal grandfather, Benjamin Hough, who was of 
English descent, was a farmer in Bucks County, Pa., nnd there 
reared a large family of children, of whom one son, Gen. Joseph 
Hough, father of our subject, was born in 1798 and died at the 
age of seventy-seven years. He attained the rank of general 
in the old State militia; was a merchant at Point Pleasant, 
Bucks Co.; justice of the peace there for over forty years, and 
he was for several years superintendent of the Delaware Division 
of the Pennsylvania Canal. He was a man popular among 
his fellow-citizens, and influential in political matters of his 
native county. The latter part of his life was spent at Phila- 
delphia, and his death occurred at the residence of his son at 
Frenchtown, N. J. Gen. Hough's mother was a Simpson, and 
sister of the mother of Gen. Ulysses Simpson Grant. His wife, 
Jane, daughter of Joseph Crowell, of Point Pleasant, who died 
in 1866. aged sixty-six years, bore him the following children ; 
Dr. DeWitt C. Hough, subject of this sketch; Bryan, agent 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Frenchtown, N. J.; Hannah, 
wife of Samuel Bangor, of Philadelphia; Horace Binney, who 
served for three years in the late civil war, first in a Penn- 
sylvania regiment, was captured by the Rebels, and afterwards 
belonged to the Third New Jersey Cavalry, is now in the United 
States Mint at Philadelphia; Morrison, died at St. Louis, at the 
age of seventeen ; John Simpson, served in the late civil war, 
in the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment Cavalry, afterwards 
served as captain in the Third New Jersey Cavalry, and was 
killed at the battle of Five Forks. 

Dr. DeWitt C. Hough was born at Point Pleasant, Dec. 31, 
1826. His early education was obtained at the schools of his 
native place and at the Newtown Academy. After one year as 
clerk in a general store he began the study of medicine with 
Dr. Arnold, of Carversville, Bucks Co., Pa., with whom he 
remained one year; was a student for two years with the emi- 
nent physician, Dr. Charles Fronefield, of HarleysviUe, Pa., 
and attended three courses of lectures at Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege, Philadelphia, from which he was graduated on March 25, 
1847. Immediately after his graduation he began the practice 
of his profession: was at Tylersport, Pa., one year; at Red 
Hill, Bucks Co., near liis native place, for three years; and 
at Frenchtown, N. J., for six years. In February, 1857, Dr. 

Hough settled at Rahway, N. J., and took the practice of Dr. 
Janeway. At this time the older practitioners of medicine in 
Rahway were Drs. Abernethy, Drake, Cook, and Silvers. Since 
his residence in Rahway, by his devotion to his patients, by hia 
skill as a physician and surgeon, by his attendance upon the 
poor needing medical assistance, as well as upon those able to 
pay for professional services, Dr. Hough has become socially 
and professionally identified with the people of Rahway and the 
surrounding country, and commands a large practice. He has 
been closely identified with the interests of Rahway during his 
residence there; was mayor of the city in 1-667-6S; was a mem- 
ber of the first Board of Water Commissioners and president of 
it for three years, and was elected on the Democratic ticket and 
served in the lower branch of the State Legislature in 1868-69. 

Upon the breaking out of the late civil war. Dr. Hough was 
commissioned, Sept. 6. 1861, surgeon of the Seventh New Jersey 
Volunteers, which was a part of the Third Corjjs, under Gen. 
Hooker, but afterwards consolidated with the Second Corps, and 
with the exception of six weeks that he was detailed for hospital 
duty after the battle of Gettysburg, and three weeks after the 
battle of Fredericksburg, he followed the fortunes and mis- 
fortunes of the regiment until he was mustered out of service 
in October, 1864, having been a short time before leaving the 
army promoted to the position of brigadesurgeon. 

He was successively in the battles of — siege of Yorktown, 
battle of Williamsburg, Seven Days' battle before Richmond, 
Glendale, first and second battles at Malvern Hill, Fredericks- 
burg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, battles of Richmond, Seven 
Pines, and Bristow Station. 

Dr. Hough was one of the charter members of the Union 
County Medical Society, founded in 1869, and has frequently 
been a delegate to the State Medical Society of New Jersey. 

His wife, whom he married Jan. 28, 1*850, is Almira W., 
daughter of Philip Rankle, of Milford. N. J., and his children 
by this union are one daughter, Jennie C, and one son, Dr. 
H. Page Hough, who was graduated in the commercial, classi- 
cal, and high school at Lawrence, in 1873; studied medicine 
with his father, and attended lectures at Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege, from which he was graduated in the class of March 12, 
1878, and is now practicing his profession in Rahway. 

John Joseph Daly, M.D., son of John and Catherine 
Daly, was born in Rahway, N. J., where his parents 
resided, on May 26, 1852. His early education from 
books was received at the public schools of his native 
place, and at the exceedingly youtliful age of thirteen, 
in 18G5, he began the study of medicine in the office 
of the late Dr. Samuel Abernethy, of Rahway, well 
known throughout the State as one of the best read 
physicians and successful practitioners of surgery of his 
day. Here he remained for nine years, and although 
his progress was such that long before reaching his 
majority his medical education was sufficient to be 
graduated, yet by the laws of the university he could 
not be, and therefore, after attending lectures in the 
medical department from 1870, he was graduated at 
the University of New York in the class of 1873. 
For many years prior to this he had taken charge of 
a large part of Dr. Abernethy 's office and outside 
practice, and had become wholly conversant with the 
practice and theory of both .>uri;ery and niediciiie. 

After his graduation Dr. Daly returned, and \intil 
l)r. Abernethy 's death, Feb. 13, 1874, remained 
with him, when he had become so fully associated 
with him in his professional work that he found a 
large field for the immediate encouragement of his 
talents, which had already attracted attention and 
jilaced him favorably before the people. Dr. Daly has 
continued the practice of his profession hero since, a 
period of eight years, and his skill as an operating 
surgeon, his intrepid coolness where nerve is required 
to meet a difficult case, and the exceeding difficult 
operations performed by him in surgery have placed 
his name among the most skillful surgeons of the 
present and past. His quick perception in the diag- 
nosis of a, and ready understanding of the proper 
remedies necessary for relief, have also given him 
rank with physicians of large experience and exten- 
sive practice. For many years he has been employed 
by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company as surgeon 
and medical adviser at Kahway. 



" Resolved^ That we will attend his funeral and wear the usual badge 
of mourning fur thirty da,v8. 

" Resolved, That the Recretary be requested to communicate to the 
family a copy of the foregoing resolutions^and to procure their publica- 
tion in the daily journals." 

Eugene Jobs, M.D. — The progenitor of the Jobs 
family in America was Adam Jobs, who probably 
emigrated from Holland and settled at Green Brook, 
north of Plainfleld, N. J. He married Katy Coven- 
hoveii and had one son, Nicholas Conover Jobs, who 
lived and died at Liberty Corners, N. J. He was a 
member of the Legislature, justice of the peace, and 
postmaster of the village for nearly fifty years. He 
married Margaret Castner, who was of German pa- 
rentage, and had children, — Eugene and Mary Eliza- 
beth, who became the wife of Rev. James T. English, j 
Eugene, who is thesubject of this biographical sketch, 
was born Feb. 22, 1821, at the home of his parents, 
where his early life was spent, his youth having been 
devoted to attendance at the public school of the 
neighborhood. Having determined upon a profes- 
sional career he chose that of medicine, and entered 
the office of Dr. James Di-laiin. After a period of 
study under his direction he repaired to Philadel- 
phia and became a student at the Medical University 
of Pennsylvania, from which he graduated April 4, 
1844. He was licensed Sept. 11, 1844, to practice by i 
the Medical Society of New Jersey, and remained for 
a short time at his house in Liberty Corners. De- 
siring, however, a wider field of labor, he removed to 
Springfield, and continued an active practitioner 
until his decease. 

He was married to Miss Mary Luin, daughter of 
Thoiuas C. Allen, of Union township, and had chil- 
dren, — Margaret A., who became Mrs. James M. C. 
Morrison ; Thomas Allen, now a resident of Colorado 
and a lawyer ; Nicholas C, and Mary K. Dr. Jobs 
was a member of the Essex County Medical Society, 
and also of the Union County Medical Society. His 
practice was extended and remarkably successful, the 
result not less of a thorough knowledge of his profes- 
sion than of fidelity and devotion to his patients. His 
political views were in sympathy with the platform of 
the Deinocratic party, though the doctor rarely par- 
ticipated in the annual contests for office. He was a 
supporter of the worship of the Presbyterian Church 
of Springfield, which he attended. 

The death of Dr. Jobs occurred at his residence in 
the village of Springfield. His son, Nicholas C. Jobs, 
was born Jan. 12, 1851, and having adopted his 
father's profession, spent three years at Cornell Uni- 
versity, after which he entered the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons, New York City, from which he 
graduated March 4, 1874. After a year and a half 
spent at tlie Charity Hospital, New York, he suc- 
ceeded to the practice of his father. He was married 
Nov. 12, 1878, to Miss Marietta, daughter of Silas 
Miller. They have i>iu- xm, Walter English Jobs. 

Lewls DkaivE, M.D., physician of Rahway, N. J., 

was born on the Drake homestead in Piscataway, 
Middlesex Co., Aug. 25, 1802. 

A family tradition connects him with the descend- 
ants of the celebrated English navigator of Queea 
Elizabeth's reign, but no authentic records have yet 
been found to prove the tradition true further than 
that the Drakes were among the early English set- 
tlers of this part of New Jersey. His grandfather, 
Ephraim Drake, born in Pi-scataway, Oct. 31, 1747, 
married, March 14, 1773, Rachel Fitz Randolph, who 
was born Aug. 21, 1751, and died Oct. 1, 1816. He 
died Aug. 21, 1801. They had three children,— Sarah, 
Reuben, and Catherine. 

Ephraim Drake lived during the perilous times of 
the war for the independence of the colonies, and on 
one occasion the British entered his house and de- 
spoiled him of his entire stock of provisions. 

Reuben, only son of Ephraim, was born in Piscata- 
way, March 7, 1775, and there, like his father before 
him, spent his life as a farmer. He kept aloof from 
public offices, but took a laudable pride in the culti- 
vation of his farm, which contained some two hun- 
dred and fifty acres. He was a member of the Bap- 
tist Church at Piscataway, and died March 15, 1843. 
His wife, Miriam, was a daughter of Ephraim Pyatt, 
of the same place, who was born March 24, 1779, 
was married June 8, 1799, and died Aug. 5, 1869. 

The children of Reuben and Miriam Drake were : 
Ephraim. a farmer most of his active business life in 
his native township, born April, 1800, died July 7, 
1867 ; Lewis, subject of this sketch ; and Emily, who 
died young. Lewis Drake remained at home attend- 
ing the district school and assisting his father on the 
farm until twenty years of age, when he resolved to 
lead a professional instead of a business life. His 
preparatory education was received at Dr. Brown- 
ley's grammar school at Basking Ridge, at Amherst, 
Mass., and under the i>rivate instructions of Rev. 
Dr. Cook, of Piscataway. In 1826 he began the 
study of medicine with Dr. Taylor, of New Bruns- 
wick, and completed his studies with Dr. Samuel 
Jackson, professor at that time of the practice of 
medicine in the University of Pennsylvania, at Phila- 
delphia, from which institution, after taking three 
courses of lectures therein, he was graduated in the 
spring of 1829. Dr. Drake, the same spring, began 
the practice of medicine at Woodbridge, Middlesex 
Co., and was as.sociated with the late eminent phy- 
sician. Dr. Matthias Freeman, who for many years had 
enjoyed an extensive practice in that part of New 
Jersey, but who the same year died. Dr. Drake being 
inducted at once into a large and lucrative practice ; 
settled the same spring at Rahway, where he has re- 
sided and continued the practice of his profession 
since, a period of fifty-two years. 

At that time there were no druggists in the village, 
and Dr. Drake, like other early physicians, purchased 
his medicines in bulk in New York City, and com- 
pounded them himself. This practice he has kept up 



during his entire professional career, thereby admin- 
istering to his patients only medicines prepared by 
himself. As a physician, Dr. Drake has always been 
esteemed for his skill in the diagnosis and manage- 
ment of complicated cases of disease, and his devo- 
tion and kindness to those under his treatment, with 
his thorough knowledge of cause of disease and effect 
of certain remedies, has given him a wide reputation 
and place among the most prominent physicians of 
his day. As a citizen, although never solicitous of 
public place or the emoluments of office, he has ever 
been interested in the growth of the place where he 
resides and in the welfare of its citizens, and in 1855 
and 1856, through his influence largely, an act of the 
Legislature was passed whereby the mill-dams on the 
Rahway River within the city limits were removed, it 
being shown that they were the cause of much sick- 
ness to the population. For many years he was a 
member of the Middlesex County Medical Society, and 
attended its meetings at New Brunswick. Dr. Drake 
has devoted his active life strictly to the duties of his 
profession, and alike to the rich and poor adminis- 
tered relief and given encouragement in cases of suf- 
fering, and in 1882 he is the oldest resident practicing 
physician in Union County. 

His first wife, whom he married May 16, 1832, was 
Charity S., daughter of the late Dr. Matthias Free- 
man, before alluded to, and granddaughter of Dr. 
Melancthon Freeman, an old physician of Metuchen. 
She died April 28, 1842, aged thirty-two years, leav- 
ing one surviving child, Cornelia B., who has always 
resided at home. For his second wife Dr. Drake 
married Mrs. Julia A. Martin, formerly Julia Bar- 
ney, of New Haven, Conn., who died Sept. 2, 1874, 
aged sixty-seven years. Dr. Drake built his present 
residence on Main Street in 1837, and has occupied it 
for both office and residence since. 

Randolph Titsworth, M.D. — His paternal an- 
cestors were of Welsh origin, and the Titsworths of 
New Jersey are descendants of five brothers who emi- 
grated from Wales and were early settlers in the 

His paternal grandfather, Lewis, was a farmer, and 
resided respectively at Spotswood and New Market, 
in Middlesex County, where he reared a family of 
ten children. His maternal grandfather, Isaac F. 
Randolph, a wealthy and influential citizen of New 
Brooklyn, was a descendant of the Fitz Randolphs, 
early settlers in Woodbridge. 

Abraham, son of Lewis Titsworth, was during his 
early manhood a merchant tailor at Metuchen, sub- 
sequently a farmer, and died at New Brooklyn in 
May, 1868, at the age of seventy-three years. He 
was highly esteemed as a citizen for his integrity in 
all his business relations; was a member of the Sev- 
enth-Day Baptist Church, and for several terms served 
as judge of the Court of Common Pleas. His wife, 
Juliet Fitz Randolph, survives in 1882, at the age of 
eighty years, and bore him eight children, — Dr. Ran- 

dolph, subject of this sketch ; Mary Ann, wife of 

Daniel Rogers, of Metuchen ; Caleb S., a lawyer and 
ex-judge of the city of Newark ; Julia E., wife of 
David L. Randoljjh, of New Brooklyn ; John How- 
ard, a farmer in Pardee, Kansas ; Isaac Lewis, de- 
ceased ; Amanda, wife of William B. Maxson, a law- 
yer of Plainfield ; and Thomas Stillman, deceased. 

/"j^ (^^^t^^^i^K/7Al 

Dr. Randolph Titsworth was born Feb. 26, 1821. 
His early education was received in the schools at 
home, and his preparatory course at the High School 
at Shiloh, N. J., and at De Ruyter, N. Y. In his ef- 
forts to obtain an education he was obliged to depend 
upon his own resources, and unassisted pecuniarily he 
worked his way, struggling against obstacles incident 
to straitened circumstances, until he finished his pre- 
paratory course. In 1847 he began the study of medi- 
cine with Drs. E. T. Richardson and J. G. Loomis, of 
Syracuse, N. Y., but soon after. Dr. Loomis being ap- 
pointed to the chair of obstetrics in the Homteo- 
patbic College in Philadelphia, Dr. Titsworth accom- 
panied him, and continued his studies with him in 
the college until his graduation in 1853. Prior to this 
he practiced for about a year in the college, and for 
some time had charge of the dispensary department. 
At this time the practice of medicine by what w-as 
termed honuropathy was in its infancy, and only 
here and there could be found an exponent of the 
new theory. In what is now Ilnion County there was 
only one, Dr. Green, of Elizabeth, and in Middlesex 



County there was also only one homoeopathic practi- 
tioner, Dr. Robinson. Dr. Titsworth settled in Plain- 
field in the spring of 1853, and was the first to invite 
the people to examine the new departure in the prac- 
tice of medicine in that section of New Jersey. He 
found only two families ready to willingly receive it. 
With that earnestness and zeal that has characterized 
his professional career, and with fiill confidence that 
it only required time for the more intelligent and 
thinking public to give credence to this new theory 
of the practice of medicine, Dr. Titsworth, by his 
skillful and scientific treatment of cases coming be- 
fore him, gradually won his way to a place in the pro- 
fession as a worthy exponent of homoeopathy, although 
he was opposed at every step by doctors of the regular 
practice. This new school of medicine has rapidly 
developefh it.s theory before the people, and made a 
new era in the theory and practice of medicine, and 
whereas only two families in Plainfield and the sur- 
rounding country were its advocates in 1863, when 
Dr. Titsworth first settled there, it is asserted upon 
good authority that its practice in 1882 is equal to the 
regular practice, if not in the majority among the 
more wealthy, influential, and intelligent families. 

Dr. Titsworth is the founder of homoeopathic prac- 
tice in and about Plainfield, and during his nearly 
thirty years' practice there his skill as a physician, his 
quick perception in the diagnosis of complicated cases 
of disease, and his devotion to his patients have won 
him an enviable reputation, and placed him among 
the first in his profession in the State. His practice 
has been continuous since he first settled in Plainfield, 
with the exception of one year, 18(!1, which he spent 
traveling in the Western States for his health, and 
some three years that he practiced in New York 

In early life Dr. Titsworth was identified with the 
membership of the Seventh-Day Baptist Church, but 
since his residence in Plainfield he has been a member 
of Trinity Reformed Church there, and has served 
the church both as deacon and elder. He is a mem- 
ber of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, and 
of the State Homoeopathic Medical Society, founded 
in 1853, for which he served as treasurer during the 
first two years of its existence. 

He married in 1844 Miss Lucinda L., daughter of 
Samuel Caldwell, of Pompey, N. Y., a native of 
Massachusetts, who died in May, 1875, leaving one 
child, Josephine, wife of William M. Runyon, of 
Plainfield. His present wife, whom he married in 
July, 1879, is Isabella L. Bragg, of White House, N. J. 

soon after the close of the Revolution. Shepard Kol- 
lock, who had learned the printer's trade in Philadel- 
phia and had been a lieutenant in the army till the 
close of the campaign of 1778, established the follow- 
ing year, by the advice of Gen. Knox, a weekly news- 
paper at Chatham, N. J., among the mountains, then 
deemed inaccessible by the British, whereby he might 
aid the patriot cause without fear of being disturbed 
by the enemy. That paper was called the New Jersey 
Journal. The first number bears date Feb. 10, 1779. 
Mr. KoUock was the editor and proprietor. The 
paper did great service to the cause of liberty, and 
continued to be published at Chatham till the end of 
the war. Upon the evacuation of New York by the 
British he removed his press to that city, and on Dec. 
3, 1783, began the publication of the Neto York Gazet- 
teer mid Country Journal, opening also a book-store 
at No. 22 Hanover Square. This paper made rapid 
progress. The first month it was issued weekly ; 
with the beginning of 1784 it became a tri-weekly, 
issued on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays until 
the 27th of July, then semi-weekly, issued on Tues- 
days and Fridays, until August, 1786, when, in part- 
nership with George Carroll and John Patterson, Mr. 
KoUock issued the paper under the name of the New 
York OazeUeer or Dailij Evening Post until Dec. 14, 
1786, when it was discontinued for want of support. 

During part of this tiraeMr. Kollock also conducted 
a weekly paper called the New Jersey Journal and Po- 
litical Intelligencer at New Brunswick, N. J. This 
was the present New Jersey Journal of Elizabeth ; it 
was established at the former place as early as July, 
1784, and was removed to its permanent location in 
this town probably at the beginning of the following 
year. This appears from the fact that the New York 
Gazetteer of Nov. 8, 1785, asks patronage for " the New 
Jersey paper printed at Elizabeth Town." The pre- 
cise date of the transfer is not known. 

A writer in the Newark Daily Messenger, under 
date of Elizabeth, N. J., July 29, 1858, writes thus of 
the Journal: 

" A copy of this pioneer newspaper is now before 
us, published ' Wednesday, September 5, 1781," and 
marked ' Vol. III., Number CXXXIII.' The copy 
is a rare specimen of antiquity. It consists of a 
single sheet of three columns, and is but thirteen 
by three and one-fourth inches, containing interesting 
letters from W. Balfour to Right Honorable Lord 
George Germaine, taken from a packet bound from 
Charleston, S. C, to London ; brief communications 
from Boston, Salem, Annapolis, Baltimore, Phila- 
delphia, and Poughkeepsie concerning the erection 
of strong works at Gloucester and Yorktown by Lord 



1 The oldest file in New Jeraey Historical Society from Nov. 8, 1786, to 
Sept. 1, 1818. "Published by Shepard KoUack at two dollars and fifty 

The New Jersey Journal. — It is a somewhat no- ""^^ " ^'""■■" 

,. 1 1 /• ^ ^i ^ .1 r I 1 • 1 . 1 1. 1 1 Dr. Van Rensselaer, of Philadelphia, had a file of the yew ./er«cu /o«r- 

ticeable tact that the t/ourna/, which IS now pub ished ,, ,^ , ... „ ia-„ v„, ,„„ i..„„ ,..„ ,.„.ki .„ «„j i. 
' ' nal from the begmiiing in iSoy, out we have been unable to -find it, 

in Elizabeth, was established here as early as 1785, although we have made diligent search. 


Cornwallis with five thousand men, ' assisted by three 1 
thousand negroes;' accounts of the troops under 
Gens. Sumter and Marion in obliging 'Rawdon 
to move down the country,' etc., and many other i 
items in relation to the war, which in the ' times that j 
tried men's souls' must have been interesting. i 

"The editorial, written by S.KoUock at 'Chatham,' 
and found in an humble position at the bottom of the i 
second page of the Journal, we transmit entire, hoping 
that either the style or subject-matter may prove of 
interest to your readers : 

" • VImlham, September 5th. We are told that Colonel Laurens, lately 
arrived at Boston from France, has obtained a loan of hard money for 
the use of these States. 

" ' We are happy to announce to the publick the entire exchange of all 
our prisoners at New York and Long Island, most of whom have come 
out, and the rest may be momently expected. They received while in 
caplivity one pound of flesh, two pounds of bread (which was often 
very bad), and a pint of rice per man for three days. Seldom does 
British muuiflcence extend further. 

" ' On Tuesday, the 28th ultimo, a fleet of thirteen ships of the line and 
four frigates, under the command of Admiral Hood, arrived at Sandy 
Hook from the West Indies. They brought over the Fortieth and Sixty- 
niuth Regiments. 

" ' By the above fleet we learn that Admiral Rodney and Gen. Vaughan 
are sailed for England to answer for their nefarious conduct at St. Eus- 

" ' The British fleet we are told still remain at the Hook, though it has 
been reported it had sailed. 

"'Last Wednesday night ft party of Ward's plunderers from Bergen 
Neck came up to the neighborhuodofHackensack, where they collected 
a number of cattle, but our people assembled with such alacrity that 
they retook the cattle and killed and wounded several of the miscreants. 

"•Sunday night the infamous Thomas Ward with a party of black and 
white negroes came over to Newark Neck, where they concealed them- 
selves until next morning lor the purpose of kidnapping people going 
to the meadows, but being discovered, th.iugh not until they had taken 
five or six prisoners and a number of cows, our people collected and took 
tvfo of the villains prisoners. The enemy embarked with precipitancy 
under cover of their gunboats.'" 

In Italics Mr. KoUock adds the following: "The | 
price of this paper per quarter is half a dollar hard 
money, and not half a State dollar as some have mis- 
takenly supposed." 

Mr. Kollock conducted the Journal successfully j 
until Sept. 1, 1818. On Wednesday, June 13, 1792, j 
the latter part of its long name was dropped, though | 
political intelligence did not cease to be a feature of 
the paper. Mr. Kollock was a zealous patriot and a 
strenuous advocate of Republican principles, as the 
Democratic doctrines were then called, adhering to 
the party which elected Jefferson to the Presidency. 
He defended the administration in the war of 1812-15, 
and supported John Quiucy Adams for President. 

Sept. 1, 1818, he sold out to Peter Chatterton. 

Mr. Kollock held the position of postmaster until 

1829, and for thirty-five years was a judge of the Court 

of Common Pleas for the county of Essex, continuing 

in that office until his death, which occurred July 28, 

1839, at the age of eighty-eight years. 

Dec. 5, 1797, the day of publication of the Journal 

was changed from Wednesday to Tuesday, on which 

latter day it has been issued ever since. 

We have found it impossible to obtain information 

respecting the continuous mangement of the Jour- 

nal down to the present time. We have, however, 
gleaned the following facts: 

Id the file for 1848 we find the names of " William 
M. Whitehead, editor, and James S. Drake, printer. 
Published every Tuesday morning opposite the lec- 
ture-room of the First Presbyterian Church, Broad 
Street, Elizabethtown, at two dollars and a half per 
annum, payable at the end of the first six months, or 
one dollar and seventy-five cents in advance." 

Mr. Frederick W. Foote, for thirty \-^ars engaged 
in the profession of teaching in Elizabeth, purchased 
of Drake, Davis & Drake the Xeir Jersey Journal, 
and assumed, with James S. Drake, the work and re- 
sponsibility of editor and proprietor June 10, 1863. 
After a partnership of several years, Mr. Foote 
bought out Mr. Drake's share and became sole owner 
and proprietor. 

About 1868 a venture was made to establish a daily 
newspaper in Elizabeth, but it failed after a brief 
struggle, and it was not until July, 1871, that the 
Elizabeth Daily Journal was firmly established, with 
Frederick W. Foote and Edward H. Clement as edi- 
tors. The struggle of the new daily for a foothold in 
this city was a struggle that cannot be known to those 
outside of this ofiice, and will never be appreciated 
by any as it was by Mr. Foote himself, who was often 
cheered in the fact that he had lived to see his con- 
scientious work so succe.ssfully and firmly established. 
The gradual growth and prosperity of the paper, 
which, more surely than anything else, was Mr. 
Foote's characteristic work, are too well known in 
this city to need more than casual mention. 

But Mr. Foote's work in the establishment and con- 
tinuance of the Journal, great as it was, was scarcely 
more than half his actual labors. He was associated 
with every progressive organization in this city, and 
not as a mere member, but was actively engaged in 
every department where his valuable services could 
be of avail, and it seemed as if there were no depart- 
ments where they could not. 

From the time he came here he was a member of 
St. John's Episcopal Church, and when the late Rev. 
1 Dr. Clark became rector he was actively engaged in 
j working for the church's interest. When the new 
I church was built Mr. Foote was on the building com- 
' mittee, and superintended much of the work. In 
1 1849 he was chosen a vestryman, and for many years 
I past he was junior warden of this church, ex-Chan- 
1 cellor Williamson being senior warden. For seven- 
teenyears he was superintcndentoftheSunday -school, 
and- for many years was treasurer of the church. It 
is a generation ago since he was first elected a dele- 
gate or alternate from this church to the Diocesan 
Convention, and he attended these conventions every 
year, in one capacity or the other, ever since. He has 
served the church in office and in the pew witli all 
his ability, all his example, and iill his means. Next 
to his family and the Journal, St. John's Church 
suffers the severest loss. Few, excepting those who 



were intimately acquainted with Mr. Foote, know 
how much of his time was devoted to his church. 

In March, 1853, Mr. Foote, with a number of other 
leading citizens, organized the Evergreen Cemetery 
Association, and three years later he was chosen one 
of the trustees. One month later he was elected sec- 
retary and treasurer, and ha.s held that position ever 

Regularly upon the day appointed for the meeting 
of this association Mr. Foote appeared in his place, 
and kept the records and business in such order that 
a wholly inexperienced hand could take his books at 
any time and carry forward the business at any meet- 
ing of the association. 

When the First National Bank of this city was 
organized fifteen years ago, Mr. Foote was one of the 
original incorporators, and has been a director ever 
since. Three years after the establishment of the 
First National Bank, the Dime Savings Bank was 
incorporated, and here again Mr. Foote appeared as 
incorporator, and also vice-president. 

One would suppose that attending to the necessary 
duties of all these institutions and editing a paper 
were work enough for one man, yet Mr. Foote did 
much more. During the war he was for five years 
collector of internal revenue, and though he then 
created irritation by the stern and conscientious ex- 
actness with which he applied the law and discharged 
his arduous duties, yet those who were then annoyed 
now admit the justness of his requirements, and can- 
not but praise his official integrity. 

For years, too, 3Ir. Foote was assessor, and this was 
about the only office to which he was ever elected. 
It was not by any means in Mr. Foote's desire to be 
a public man, in the sense of one elected to public 

In still another department of life did Mr. Foote 
do a vast amount of labor, and that gratuitously. 
He was chosen in numberless cases as executor or 
administrator of estates, in settling disputed accounts, 
and as a peacemaker between parties who could not or 
would not agree with each other upon some disputed 
points. Many a time has Mr. Foote set aside work 
and time, far more valuable to him than the matter 
in dispute possibW could be, to settle some trifling 
affiiir between parties who would hear of no other 
arbitration than his judgment. Peace was his great 
desire, peace and good will his ever-potent remedy 
for all annoyance, and peace is his at last. 

Tiie latest accession to the many associations with 
which he was connected was the Board of Trade of 
this city, in which he was an active member, and 
sliglited not in the least the duties which an active 
membership in this board necessitates. 

In 1840, Mr. Foote was married. He had a family 
of nine children, seven of whom are now living to 
mourn a loving. Christian father's death. 

Mr. Foote was born at Newtown, Conn., Oct. 23, 
1816, and died at Elizabeth, N. J., March 18, 1879, 

aged sixty-three years. For years he had been com- 
plaining, but his extraordinary energy kept him up. 
In the summer of 1873 he visited Europe for three 
months and was greatly benefited in health. Grad- 
ually, however, his old disease returned and took 
firmer hold than ever before, terminating fatally in 
the early spring of 1879. 

From the Daily Journal of March 19, 1879, under 
the head of " The Vacant Chair," we quote some ex- 
tracts relating to Mr. Foote's characteristics as an 
editor and journalist: 

" Mr. Foote was, in the best sense of the word, a self-made man. . . . 
He WHS hut a mere stripling wlien he came here and identified himself 
with the fortunes of this city. Henceforth, for many years, his lecord 
may be reaxl of all men in the characters he formed and monlded and 
the intelligences he developed. Here the highest tribute may be paid 
to his fidelity and tiustworthiness. He insisted upon a lofty standard 
of scholarsliip a 
in the strongest 

" Bnt it his ca 
mark upon the i 
able qualities. 

onduct, and he secured not only that end, but also 
ner the respect and affections of his pupils. . . . 
as a teacher was a success, not less has he made his 
lunity as a journalist. For this task he hud adniir- 
indnstry was unfailing, his experience large and 
varied,and his local knowledge, both of persons and tilings, unbounded. 
As prominently identified with most of the leading institutions of the 
city, he had acquaintance wifli our needs, and this local knowledge was 
lavished upon his paper. He took a strong, practical, conmiun sense 
view of things, e.\hil>ited unusual discretion and tact in shaping tlie 
couree of his paper, and had a keen sense of what a local sheet should 
be. Cautious in taking a position, he required very convincing argu- 
ment to abandon it when once taken, nabitually courteous and mod- 
erate in the expression of editorial opinion, he yet knew how to use the 
most vigorous Saxon when the nature of the case called for it, and his 
lash has more than once administered merited castigation. His idea of 
editorial writing was to have something to say and to say it, and not 
write 13 ne words against space. 

"If mistaken in any statement of fact, he was never ashamed to own 
it and make needed reparation in the columns of his paper, because it 
was the truth he was searching for more than to gratify any mere pride 
of opinion. 

" And this brings us to the central fact of his newspaper management, 
its conscientiousness. The chart of instructions which lie prepared 
for himself and his associates was to stick to the truth as they under- 
stood it at all hazards. He did not regard his newspaper pi-im;irily as a 
means to make money so much as a vehicle of public instruction. And 
tluis be championed every good cause regardless of any temporary in- 
jury. His vigorous appeals in belialf of the Law and Order Society 
were a specimen of Ibis; it would imve been much easier to make no 
enemies by retraining from attacking a powerful interest. Politically, 
Mr. Foote had strong and vigorous convictions. While uniformly 
courteous on siu-h issues, he called a spnde a spade. But he never de- 
scended to personalities. He admitted honest differences of opinion, 
a-saulted the political heresy, but would not throw dirt upon his oppo- 
nent. He never neglected his duty as a citizen, and therefore could 
consistently urge it upon othere. . . . 

" His effort was to elevate, liberalize, and enlighten throrigh his paper, 
and not to make it a sewer through which filth, both foreign and do- 
mestic, could run to the injury of the morals and mannei-a of fami- 
lies. . . . 

'* So far as local matters were concerned, Mr. Foote's editorial course 
was guided fiy what he deemed the best interests of the city. He had 
no personal axe to grind and no enemies to punish. Through all the 
difficult and trying circumstances tlirough which we are passing, Mr. 
Foote consistently strove to find out what was the right thing and to 
advocate it. And when he did so it was in no shilly-shallying way, but 
with all the earnestness of profound conviction. 

" Mr. Foote's view of politics was not a liread-and-bntler view. He 
was not a candidate for public oflic.-, altlioiij;h lie would not have 
shrunk from any such duty had it been placed upon him. His idea 
was tliat an editor should not compromise his independence by un- 
worthy compliances, and a plain and honest avowal of one's convictions 
does not always tend to make friends among politician*. He looked at 
public affairs from tlie high point of statesmansln'p rather than that of 
personal self-seeking. And this explains why he believed in occasional 



his own party leaders and advocated a high 
His political utterances and opinions 
istency and cle 

friendly criticism of ei 
standard for the civil 
will be noted for their 

"Of the irreparable loss which his death will cause 
to his family we cannot speak. There are sorrows 
too sacred to be more than alluded to. He has died 
as he lived, in the harness, and before his mental 
force was abated or his eye more than transiently 
dimmed. He has been fighting against death for sev- 
eral years, but never was his editorial work better, 
never were his views clearer, his line of policy more 
fixed than they were just as the curtain was about to 
drop upon his well-spent life. 

" Another phase of Mr. Foote's life was the large 
amount of unrewarded labor he did for others who 
had no claim upon him. Even to the last, and sick 
and wearied as he was. Good Samaritan like, he took 
the cares and misfortunes of others upon his tired and 
sore shoulders and did what he could for them. No 
business anxiety, corporate nor private responsibility 
could drive them out of his head. And this same 
abounding charity he showed to the weak and erring. 
A gentleman who has known him intimately for forty 
years told us that he never heard him speak unkindly 
of any one. He detested the sin, but he pitied the 
sinner, and he never advocated severe measures 
against the destitute and the outcast. He had too 
much the spirit of the Master in him for that. 

" We have said thus much in simple justice to our 
dead friend, but his associates cannot fitly express a 
sense of their appreciation of his constant kindness 
to them. The office atmosphere was more like that 
of a family than of a varied and complicated busi- 
ness. Never did Mr. Foote fail to do justice to good 
work done by his associates. He preferred a kindly 
rivalry with them as to who could push the paper 
furthest and fastest, rather than a selfish appropria- 
tion of whatever might deserve praise. In his death 
his associates lose a kind and considerate friend ; his 
journalistic brethren one who appreciated his noble 
profession, and made it his pride to do all he could to 
elevate it ; his family a devoted husband and father ; 
the church a tower of strength ; the corporate asso- 
ciations with which he was connected a safe adviser ; 
and the city a citizen who never shirked any respon- 
sibility, and who set a highly honorable example to 
the young." 

The Journal is now published for the proprietor by 
Peter W. Rousse, editor; Charles C. McBride, city 
editor ; Augustus S. Crane, cashier. 

The present members are simply the editorial staff 
of Mr. Foote, who had been associated with him since 
the establisliment of the Daily Journal. 

The Central New Jersey Herald.— Established 
first as the Argus in 18G1, changed to the Constitu- 
tionalist, then to the Union County Herald, and finally 
to its present name in 1870. From 1868 to the autumn 
of 1880 the establishment published a daily edition 
called the Elizabeth Daily Herald, which was discon- 

tinued at the commencement of the Hancock cam- 
paign. The first publishers were Drake & Cook, 
then the firm changed to Drake, Cook & Hall, and 
is at present Cook & Hall, steam printing-house, Nos. 
105, 109, and HI Broad Street. 

Among those who have at various times been edi- 
tors, outside of the proprietors and employes of the 
office, are M. L. Marks, now of the Art Amateur, New 
York, who remained on the paper several years. He 
was succeeded by William Black, and the latter by 
Col. Morris R. Hamilton, who was followed by John 
B. Pick. Subsequently Horace F. J. Drake was edi- 
tor, and also member of the firm till the autumn of 
1881. The subscription price of The Centntl New 
Jersey Herald is two dollars a year. 

Elizabeth Freie Presse, a German semi-weekly 
newspaper, was established in 1870. Proprietor and 
publisher, Charles H. Schmidt. Subscription, three 
dollars per annum. Published in the rear of 1173 
Elizabeth Avenue. 

Elizabeth Freie Zeitung, German weekly, thirty 
cents per annum. Established in 1874. Editor and 
proprietor, L. Bauerband & Co., No. 33 First Street. 

The Bridgetown Museum and New Jersey Ad- 
vocate first appeared as a weekly, printed on Saturday, 
July 13, 1822. Smith Eldgar was the proprietor, and 
the office was on Main Street, but the printing was 
done at Elizabeth. The terms of subscription, two 
dollars per year. In the fifth number of the paper, 
which appeared on the 10th of August, the name waa 
changed to The Bahway Museum and New Jersey Ad- 
vocate. The paper had but five columns on each of 
its four pages, making twenty in all. Under its head- 
ing was a motto extracted from one of Shakspeare's 
plays, " Nothing extenuate nor set down aught in 
malice." The paper was far from being white, but 
I was as good as that on which the majority of journals 
published at that day were printed. On the first page 
a story entitled " lolanda, or the Court of Love," a 
tale of the fourteenth century, translated from the 
French, was commenced ; it was finished in the second 
number. Besides the story there were given in the 
first number several poetical selections under the 
head " Garland of the Muses." In the first column 
on the second page appeared an article on some then 
recent instances of "Turkish Barbarity." In the 
editorial column the editor offered an apology for the 
delay that had occurred in bringing out the first issue, 
which he explained was on account of unavoidable 
obstacles in getting out a new paper. He also gave 
notice that a celebration of the national anniversary 
had taken place in New York on the 4th of July, 
when there was a greater parade than had been wit- 
nessed there for years before, and when a new drama, 
entitled "The Battle of Lexington," was performed, 
and was received with unbounded applause. " In 
our own neighborhood," says the editor, "universal 
exertion was made to celebrate tlie day, and Milton 
shone foremost in its endeavors." 



Then, as now, distress in Ireland existed, and from 
the columns of the first number of the paper we learn 
that heartrending accounts were received of events 
transpiring in the Emerald Isle. At a village in 
County Clare the death of three persons from starva- 
tion was reported, and subscriptions were being raised 
for the large numbers who were in great destitution. 
In a literary article mention is made of Washington 
Irvine (Irving), the novelist Hrown, the plays of 
Dunlap, and the poems of Percival, Judah, and 
Bryant. The longest article in the number was a re- 
view of a poem entitled " Odofreide, the Outcast," with 
two columns of extracts from it. In the second num- 
ber a review was given of Cooper's novel, " The 
Spy," and of Milman's poem, " The Martyr of An- 

In the second number of the paper appeared the 
call for a meeting to be held with a view to change 
the name of the town from Bridgetown to Railway. 
This meeting was held at the Peace Hotel, on Main 
Street, where Lafayette was entertained when he 
visited Rahway in 1824. It is the house in which 
Mr. Jonathan Woodruff now resides. 

By the issue of August 31st we learn that consid- 
erable damage to the crops had resulted by the excess 
of dry weather that had prevailed for two weeks. 
The foreign news in the i.ssue of the above-named 
date was nearly two months old, the London and 
Paris dates being July 1.3th and 14th, and from some 
of the United States it was still older, being dated so 
far back as July 9th. 

In the issue of September 14th the editor, who was 
a bachelor, in one article, in answer to a correspond- 
ent, spoke what he said he knew to be the voice of 
the whole society, that " beauty will command ad- 
miration when uncontaminated by affectation," and 
advised his fair correspondent to " follow the conquest 
of her eyes by the jioliteness of her manner, conscious 
that when once the truant glance of beauty passes on 
the heart a modest gracefulness and manner and con- 
versation will remain fixed forever." This was writ- 
ten in reply to a young lady who had asked his 
opinion in regard to her bowing to a young gentle- 
man to whom she had been introduced the night 
before while she was walking on the street with a 
lady cousin. The cousin had thought her imprudent, 
and in her own case thought it not genteel to bow to 
a gentleman unless she was quite intimate with him, 
or had been introduced to him three or four times. 

The first number of the paper had in all three and 
one-half columns of advertisements. The longest 
advertisement was that of John C. Morrison, who 
occupied a column of space in giving an account of 
his stock of drugs and dye-stuffs. _ Among the other 
advertisers were Vail, Thorp & Co., who dealt in dry- 
goods, clothing, hats, shoes, china, earthen, hollow, 
and hardware, tea, sugar, coffee, and liquors. Thomas 
Laiug advertised dry-goods and groceries at his new 
store opposite the office. Michael Brown, one of his 

advertisements states, dealt in cider, spirits, hams, 
cheese, mackerel, pork, flour, beef, etc., and the other 
informed the public that his store was two doors 
north of the post-office, and that he kept a stock of 
dry-goods and groceries. Two establishments adver- 
tised boots and shoes ; the keepers were in one case 
Benjamin S. Force & Co., in the other J. H. Ran- 
som. Peter Morgan & Co. advertised their hat-store. 
Meeker & Clarkson their furniture warehouse, Jacob 
Parker his lumber-yard, and James Edgar wood for 
sale. All these parties except the last named were 
no doubt well-known residents within the thickly- 
settled portions of the town, for with the exception 
of the instances above noted none of them mentioned 
where their places of business were located. Mr. 
Edgar informed the public that he was near Rahway. 
One advertiser, John Steen (whether he was a resi- 
dent of the town or not we cannot say), had his place 
of business at No. 161 Fulton Street, opposite St. 
Paul's churchyard, New York. His trade was in 
looking-glasses. The wants of the traveling public 
at about the period of which we write were attended 
to by Smith Freeman, who kept the Bridgetown 
Hotel, and by Joseph Varry, the proprietor of the 
Six Roads Tavern, which had previously been kept 
by Freeman. Communication with the outside world 
was of course carried on by stage, steamboat, and 
sail, and the advertising columns of the early num- 
bers of the Advocate inform us that the Bridgetown 
packet plied twice a week between the dock in 
Bridgetown and Whitehall Slip in New York; also 
that the steamboat " Atlanta" was running between 
Elizabeth Town Point and New York, the fare be- 
tween the two places being thirty-seven and a half 
cents, and that the Rahway stage left Rahway at six 
o'clock every morning for Elizabeth Town Point, and 
arrived there in season for passengers to take the 
eight o'clock steamboat for New York, and return at 
12.30 noon. 

Among the advertisements to be found in some of 
these early numbers was that of Peter Cohen, who 
kept a woolen-factory near Barnett's Mills. Its loca- 
tion was within the present bounds of Clark township, 
and not a vestige of the structure, we are informed, 
now remains. From his advertisement we learn that 
Mr. Cohen was engaged in the manufacture of black 
and blue broadcloths and satinets, and manufactured 
wool to order for his customers. 

Before the paper had reached the of the first 
volume the name was again changed, its title now 
having become the New Jersey Advocate and Middle- 
sex atid Essex Advertiser, and Tuesday was the pub- 
lishing day instead of Saturday. It had six columns 
to the page, and had more than two pages of adver- 
tising. James A. Bennet was the publisher, and the 
office was at the corner of Front and New Streets, one 
door above the post-office, now the corner of Main 
and Lewis Streets, opposite the Melick House. Mr. 
Edgar, the first proprietor, who lived out some four 



or five miles on the Plainfield road, is still remem- 
bered by some of the older citizens. They describe 
him as a short, stout man. He has now been ilead for 
something mo'e than fifty years; but he may have 
been alive when the transfer of the paper was made 
to Mr. Bennet. The latter conducted the paper for 
several years, and then sold it to Thomas Allen Green. 
Green after a time, the precise date we have not the 
present means of verifying (probably about 1837 or 
1838), sold the paper to a Mr. Patton, of Newark, 
with the distinct understanding on the part of both 
that the former would not again engage in the news- 
paper business in Eahway. This fact and others that 
we state in this connection we have from Mr. Lewis 
Moore, who now resides on Milton Avenue, and who, 
at the period of which we speak, was an apprentice 
in the oflice of Green, and continued in the same 
position after the sale of the paper was made to 
Patton. Green, we are informed, was a very pithy 
writer of short paragraphs and a man of convivial 
habits. He no doubt loved to wield the pen, for, 
notwithstanding the tacit agreement he had made 
with Patton, he in a few months started a little news- 
paper in opposition to the Advocate, which he called 
The Rahuaij Herald and New Jersey General Advertiser. 
Patton, however, induced him in a very short time to 
give up the enterprise, buying the new establishment 
and merging it with the Advocate. 

Subsequently Green became proprietor of the hotel 
at the corner of Main Street and Jlilton Avenue, now 
known as Crowell's Hotel. 

During the Clay campaign of 1844 the paper was 
purchased from Mr. Patton by an association of 
Whigs, and Mr. Moore was for a time the publisher, 
and E. Y. Rogers, a member of the legal profession, 
now deceased, its editor. In a few months the asso- 
ciation sold the paper to Mr. E. F. W. Gray, and Mr. 
Moore started a new opposition paper, but its publi- 
cation lasted only a few months, Mr. Gray purchasing 
it from Moore. Gray was still the proprietor of the 
Advocate in 1850. Its title in full was The New Jersey 
Advocate, a " Whig journal of politics, agriculture, 
and general miscellany." 

John Jackson and John Pierson started the Rah- 
way Register, an independent sheet, in 1847, and 
printed the paper in a building on Cherry Street. It 
was not long after this period when the .so-called 
Native American doctrine broke out in this country, 
and during a part of the time that that doctrine was 
rife (we are informed) the paper was printed under 
the name of the Reguter and American. It was sub- 
sequently merged with the Rahway Times. 

About 1857 Gray sold the Advocate to Mr. C. W. 
Haven. This gentleman ran the paper for about a 
year, when its publication was suspended, and the 
material of the paper was purchased by Mr. Jose- 
phus Shann and removed to the Democrat ottice. 

Subsequently Mr. U/.al Osborn started a paper 
called The Rahway Advocate, which was altciwards 

merged with The Rahway Times, and is still published 
under the nauie of The Rahway Advocate. 

In 1858 the Rahway Times, a Republican paper, 
was started by a stock company, and Mr. Walter 
Graham svas made its editor. About four years later 
Mr. Lincoln appointed Mr. Graham consul to Cape 
Town, South Africa, and on his ceasing his connec- 
tion with the paper, about February, 1863, it was 
merged witli the Register. Mr. Uzal Osborn now be- 
came the owner and editor of the paper. With the 
retirement of Mr. Graham from the control of the 
Register, Mr. Jackson became its sole owner. Under 
a contract which Mr. Osborn made with him the 
paper until the following January was still run and 
known as the Register. Mr. Osborn then consolidated 
it with the Advocate under the name of The Advo- 
cate and Times. In 1879 the paper came into the i)os- 
•session of its present proprietors, Messrs. W. L. Mer- 
shon & Co., and the name Advocate and Times was 
retained by them until the paper was made a semi- 

The National Democrat was first issued as the 
Denwcvafii- Rfjtii/jlican in 1840 by Josephus Shann. 
Mr. Shann was horn at Bloomfield, Essex Co., N. J., 
in 1819. He served an apprenticeship to the printer's 
trade in the office of the Somerset Messenger at Som- 
erville, N. J., and in 1838 commenced the publica- 
tion of The Hunterdon Democrat at Flemingtou 
N. J., remaining there two years, after which he 
removed to Rahway and started Tlie Democratic 
Republican, afterwards changed to The Rahway Re- 
publican, and subsequently to The National Democrat. 
Mr. Shann published the paper consecutively for 
twenty-five years, closing his connection with it 
in 1805, when Mr. Lewis S. Hyer bought the paper. 
During this period he was postmaster of Rahway 
seven years, in the custom-house seven years, and a 
member of the Legislature for three terms, 1852, 
1853, and 1871. For sixteen years since 1805 he has 
followed the occupation of farming, and for the past 
two years has been engaged in mercantile business in 
Rahway, firm of J. Shann &^ons. 

Mr. Shann was married in 1842 to Ann, daughter 
of Stewart Orowell, of Rahway, by whom he has 
nine children living. 

Mr. Lewis S. Hyer purchased the National Democrat, 
and issued the first number March 30, 1865. He en- 
larged it from a six to a seven-column paper May 9, 
1867, enlarged it again by increasing the length May 
4, 1868, and enlarged to eight columns May 6, 1875. 

Lewis S. Hyer was born March 1, 1839, at Free- 
hold, Monmouth Co., N. J. His father was Aaron P. 
Hyer, and his mother's maiden name was Gertrude 
Cottrell, both natives of the southern portion of Mon- 
mouth County (now Ocean County U 

During the war of 1812 his father was emidoyed in 
coasting, and frequently conveyed kegs of specie to 
different points li-om Philadelphia. Some time after 
his marriage he settled near the town of Freehold, in 



which vicinity he lived the remainder of his life, the 
most of the time on a farm a mile from the town, 
where tlie subject of this sketch was born. 

Lewis S. Hyer received a common-school education, 
but improving his talents he mastered all the usual 
branches taught in the schools in those days, though 
after he became large enough he worked on the farm 
during the farming seasons, and also frequently assisted 


the neighboring farmers, working for them by the 

The 1st of May, 1855, contrary to the expressed 
wishes of his parents, who wanted him to remain with 
them on the farm as they were getting advanced in 
years, he went to the office of the Monmouth Democrat, 
of which Maj. James S. Yard was the proprietor and 
editor (as he still is at this time), and commenced to 
learn the printing business in the usual way, assum- 
ing the position of office-boy, or " printer's devil," in 
the parlance of the profession. An aptitude for the 
business and a close observance of everything con- 
nected therewith rendered his progress rapid, and long 
before he reached his majority he was foreman of the 
office. His employer had great confidence in his 
taste and skill at job-printing, and particular jobs 
were always intrusted to him, and seldom failed to 
give satisfaction. 

April 29, 1860, he was married to Miss Jennie 
Young, daughter of Jacob Young, who was a soldier 
of the war of 1812, and died only a few months ago, 
at the age of nearly ninety years ; her mother is still 
living. Mr. Hyer's father died in 1870, at the age of 

seventy-six, and his mother in 1878, at the age of nearly 
eighty. Mr. and Mrs. Hyer have had but one child, 
Freddie C, who is now seven years old. 

When the war broke out in 1861, Maj. Yard went 
with the three months' troops, and Mr. Hyer had |)rin- 
cipaU'harge of his printing business during his absence, 
which continued much of the time during the whole 
of the war. 

All of Mr. Hyer's printing and publishing experi- 
ence up to the time of his .settling in Rahway was 
obtained in the above-named office, except about 
three months in the office of the New York Journal 
of Commerce, whither he went in 1863. He only 
worked one night there at general composition, and 
was promoted to a.ssistant day foreman the next day, 
which position he held most of the three months, 
and was given the charge of the advertising depart- 
ment. He returned to his former position on the 
Monmouth Democrat, where he remained until about 
the 1st of April, 186.T, when he came to Railway, and 
made an arrangement with the Hon. Josephus Shann, 
the then owner of the Rahway National Democrat, to 
lease the paper for one year, with the privilege of 
buying it at the end of that time. 

That was the time that tried the country newspapers 
generally, just before the close of the war. Mr. Hyer 
worked day and night for a long time, and with little 
assistance in any department, to keep the paper run- 
ning. The war closing shortly after, however, caused 
the general prospects to brighten, and when the year 
rolled around he decided to purchase the paper. 

Having (contrary to the habit of too many journey- 
men printers) saved a little money, he had purchased 
a lot in an eligible position on Main Street, Freehold, 
and by borrowing the money and giving a mortgage 
on the premises he erected a fine residence. Shortly 
after he was married. When he decided to purchase 
the paper he was not long in finding a customer for 
his residence, and sold it for more than enough cash 
above the mortgage to pay for the newspaper estab- 
lishment, which was his first real estate speculation. 

The National Democrat has continued to prosper 
under his charge, and at this time the circulation is 
more than three times what it was when he took charge 
of it. In 1872 he purchased a piece of property in the 
centre of the business part of Blain Street, and had it 
fitted up for a printing-office and dwelling, besides 
stores in the front, where he is still located. 

He has always taken a great interest in the welfare 
of the press of the State, which has been recognized 
by his brethren, as he has for several years been one 
of the executive committee of the New Jersey Edi- 
torial Association, and also upon committees to look 
after acts in the State Legislature in reference to the 

Mr. Hyer, while not being an office-seeker, has been 
honored by holding some important ones, both elec- 
tive and ajipointed. In the spring of 1874 he acceded 
to the wishes of his Democratic friends and accepted 



the nomination for the office of mayor, to which he 
was elected by a large majority over a popular oppo- 
nent, though the Republicans had elected their can- 
didate for some years previous. The same year he 
was appointed as clerk of the board of chosen free- 
holders of Union County, which he held for two years, 
when the political complexion of the board changed. 
He positively declined to accept a renomination for 
mayor in 1875, and also resisted solicitations to become 
a candidate for different elective offices, until in the 
fall of 1881, when he accepted the unanimous nomi- 
nation by the County Democratic Convention for 
State senator, and was defeated by Senator Vail, who 
had been renominated by the Republicans, though by 
a majority greatly reduced from that obtained by Mr. 
Vail over his competitor three years previous, and in 
the face of many adverse circumstances in connection 
with the campaign. He was appointed city clerk in 
May, 1880, which position he still holds, although 
unsolicited by him. On March 1, 1882, he was ap- 
pointed one of the judges of the Court of Common 
Pleas for Union County by Governor Ludlow, which 
appointment was confirmed by the State Senate on 
the following day. 

He has always been temperate in his habits, and 
can say, what probably few other men can in these 
days, that he never was intoxicated in his life, and 
never used a blasphemous word, in the sense of pro- 
fanity, to his recollection. He has been a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church for nearly twenty- 
five years, and has held the office of trustee of the 
Second Methodist Episcopal Church of Rahway for 
several years. Being a lover of music he has always 
taken an interest in that direction, has been connected 
with church choirs from his early youth, and has been 
the leader of the choir of the above-named church 
nearly ever since he came to Rahway, and has a music- 
store connected with his business. 

The Plainfield Gazette was established as a Dem- 
ocratic paper in 1849 by William M. Drake & Sons, 

and by them sold to Osborn, who published it a 

few months, when it came back into the hands of the 
original proprietors, and the management of it waa 
assumed by William Drake, Jr. He died a few 
months afterwards, and the office was purchased by 
Enos W. Runyon, Esq., in October, 1853, and E. W. 
& J. C. Runyon continued the publication until 
October, 1856, when J. C. Runyon, the junior partner, 
withdrew and removed to Illinois, and E. W. Runyon 
engaged in the practice of law, the paper being sold 
to Luther Martin, who conducted it till the breaking 
out of the war in 1861. Luther Martin sold to Charles 
J. Wilson, enlisted in the army, and was killed at the 
battle of Gettysburg. After a time Mr. Wilson re- 
moved the office to Somerville and changed the name 
to the Somerset Oazette. 

The Central New Jersey Times was established 
by E. Dean Dow, in 1868. In I8()9, Rev. Dr. Stock- 
bridge became its proprietor, and so remained for one 

year. In July, 1871, he sold his interest to Niles & 
Runyon, who continued to publish it till April 1, 1875, 
when Mr. Niles sold his interest to Mr. W. J. Leonard, 
who, with Mr. J. C. Runyon, has conducted the paper 
to the present time (1882). It is a political, literary, 
and home newspaper, Republican in its principles, 
and is furnished atS2.50 per year in advance. There 
is a book and job printing establishment in connec- 
tion with it. 

The Constitutionalist is a well-conducted journal, 
published at Plainfield, N. J. It has been in exist- 
ence about fourteen years, having been started in 
1868. At that time it was twenty-three by thirty- 
eight inches in size ; two years later it was enlarged 
to twenty-six by forty inches, and in 1876 to thirty 
by forty-iive inches, its present size. It has a good 
circulation, and maintains a book and job office. The 
Constitutinualist is published by William L. and Al- 
bert L. Force, and is an official paper of the State, 
county, and city. Democratic in politics. 

The Daily and Weekly Bulletin are published by 
E. O. Chamberlain, at Plainfield, and have a fair 
circulation. The weekly is a large sheet, full of in- 
teresting reading matter, and the daily is devoted to 
home news and the local interests of the city. 



This county was not represented by any organized 
body of troops in the first militia sent out for three 
months' service. The quota of New Jersey under 
that call was so speedily filled that thousands who 
were anxious to enter the service could not be re- 
ceived, and were obliged to wait until another call 
was issued for additional men to serve for three years 
or during the war. The magnitude of the Rebellion 
had by this time begun to reveal itself, and it was 
perceived that seventy-five thousand raw militia in 
a campaign of three months was a very inadequate 
force to cope with the formidable insurrection which 
had been organized against the life of the nation. 
Then it was that both the general and State govern- 
ments began to contemplate the necessity for organ- 
izing war on a more extended scale. The second call 
for troops was for three hundred thousand men, and 
was issued by the President of the United States May 
3, 1861. On the 17th of May the Governor of New 
Jersey received a requisition from the War Depart- 
ment for three regiment* of infantry (volunteers) to 
serve three years or during the war, and also a gen- 
eral order detailing the plan of organization. A suf- 
ficient number of companies having already offered 
their services, Governor Olden informed the Secretary 
of War the following day (May 18th) that the three 
regiments called for were ready for muster. These 



organizations were designated respectively tlie First, 
Second, and Tliird Kegiinents. Under the provision 
of an act of Congress approved July 22, 1861, and an 
official letter from the President dated July 24, 1861, 
authority was issued for raising five additional regi- 
ments in the State. Under this call the Fourth Regi- 
ment and Battery A were organized and assigned with 
the three regiments already raised and in the field. 
These organizations constituted and were generally 
known as the First Brigade, New Jersey Volunteers. 

In the First, Second, and Third Regiments of this 
brigade Union County had three companies, viz. : 
Companies A of the First and Second, respectively, 
and Company K of the Third Regiment, officered as 
follows : Company A, first Regiment, Captain, Da- 
vid Hatfield ; First Lieutenant, Thomas T. Tillou ; 
Second Lieutenant, Luther Martin. Company A, 
Second Regiment, Captain, James Wilson ; First 
Lieutenant, Bradbury C. Chetwood ; Second Lieu- 
tenant, William J. Cree. Company K, Third Regi- 
ment, Captain, John H. Whelan : First Lieutenant, 
John B. Lutz ; Second Lieutenant, David Fairly.' 

The field- and staff-officers of the First Regi- 
ment were: Colonel, William K. Montgomery; Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel, Robert McAllister; Major, David 
Hatfield ; Adjutant, William Henry, Jr. ; Quarter- 
master, Samuel Read ; Surgeon, Edward F. Taylor ; 
Assistant Surgeon, Charles C. Gordon ; Chaplain, 
Robert B. Yard. Of the Second Regiment the col- 
onel was George W. McLean ; Lieutenant-Colonel, 
Isaac M. Tucker ; Major, Samuel L. Buck ; Adju- 
tant, Joseph W. Plume ; Quartermaster, William E. 
Sturges; Surgeon, Gabriel Grant; Assistant Surgeon, 
Lewis W. Oakley ; Chaplain, Robert R. Proudfit. 
Third Regiment, Colonel, George W. Taylor ; Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel, Henry W. Brown ; Major, Mark W. 
Callett; Adjutant, Robert T. Dunham; Quartermas- 
ter, Francis Sayre; Surgeon, Lorenzo Cox; Assistant 
Surgeon, Edward L. Welling ; Chaplain, George R. 

Company A of the First Regiment (from Elizabeth) 
was the first company mustered into the United States 
service under the first call for volunteers to serve three 
years or during the war. It was mustered in May 21, 
1861, at Camp Olden, near Trenton, where the vari- 
ous other companies encamped till the completion of 
the organization. The material of these regiments 
was excellent, being composed largely of men who 
had been identified with some of the best militia 
organizations of the State. 

The First, Second, and Third Regiments left the 
State June 28, 1861, and immediately on their arrival 
in Virginia entered upon the active duties of the sol- 
dier. They formed part of Gen. Runyon's division of 
Reserves in the battle of Bull Run, and aided materi- 
ally in covering the retreat of our forces on that fatal 
day. Immediately after the battle the First and Sec- 

■ Se« alphabetical records m Chapter XXIT. 

ond Regiments went into camp near Alexandria, and 
were soon joined by the other regiments of the bri- 

On the 2.5th of July, Maj. Philip Kearney, of New 
Jersey, who had greatly distinguished himself in 
the Mexican war, was appointed a brigadier-general 
of volunteers, and early in August was assigned to 
the command of the New Jersey troops. These 
troops were attached to Franklin's division, and the 
brigade headquarters were established at Fairfax 
Seminary, three miles distant from Alexandria. The 
experience of the brigade during the fall and winter 
months was marked by but few important incidents, 
the time being mainly occupied in drill and the ordi- 
nary camp duties. Gen. Kearney devoted himself to 
raising his command to the highest possible state of 
efficiency. His popularity with the command became 
greater probably than that of any other general officer 
in the service. While he was wary and cautious, he 
was also bold and resolute, and chafed exceedingly 
under the policy of inaction which characterized the 
War Department at this period. At length an op- 
portunity came for him to show the government an 
example of an opposite kind. On the 7th of March, 
1862, his brigade was ordered to Burke's Station, on 
the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, for the purpose 
of guarding a party of laborers, and reaching thereon 
the following day, he made an extended reconnois- 
sance of the country for several miles around. Sub- 
sequently he was notified by some negroes that the 
enemy was preparing to leave Manassas. He was not 
slow to act upon this hint. Apprising Gen. Franklin 
of the information he had received, but without 
awaiting orders, he at once pushed on with his troops, 
throwing out skirmishers over a wide extent of coun- 
try, and driving steadily before him the scattered 
pickets of the enemy. On the 9th the Second and 
Third Regiments, with a squadron of the Lincoln 
Cavalry, occupied Sangster's Station, a point on the 
Orange and Alexandria Railroad, about five miles 
from Bull Run and nine from Manassas Junction, the 
Fourth Regiment acting as a support to the advance. 
Here they surprised a detachment of rebel cavalry, 
killing three and capturing a lieutenant and eleven 
men, and losing one officer of the cavalry, killed at 
the first fire. The First Regiment had meanwhile 
advanced to Fairfax Court-House, whence, on the 
morning of the 10th, a detachment under Maj. Hat- 
field and Capt. Vansickle was sent forward to Cen- 
treville, which place was entered about noon, the 
remainder of the regiment coming up shortly after 
under Lieut. -Col. McAllister. Thus this regiment, 
which was the last to leave Centreville at the first 
Bull Run, had the honor of being the first to occupy 
the place in the second advance.' On the same day 
the remainder of the brigade pushed cautiously for- 
ward, reached, and at ten o'clock in the morning en- 

* New Jersey in the Relwlliou, p. 71. 



tered the abandoned works at Manassas Junction, 
eight companies of the Third being the first to take 
possession and hoist the regimental flag. The with- 
drawal of the enemy at this point had evidently been 
precipitated, and an immense amount of hospital and 
commissary stores was found, together with eighty 
baggage- wagons, several locomotives, four or five 
cars, two hundred tents, and other property of value. 
Among the trophies also were seven flags, one of 
white silk, with the motto, " Carolinians in the 
Field : Traitors Beware," and another bordered with 
heavy silver fringe, with the inscription, "State 
Rights : iSic temper tyrannis." 

Thus at all points the advance had been successful. 
It had demonstrated the feasibility of a forward move- 
ment, and discovered to the country the indefensi- 
bility of the policy of " masterly inactivity." 

Early in April the brigade was attached to the 
First Division of the First Army Corps, and on the 
7th of that month proceeded to Bristow Station, and 
thence to Catlett's Station, two miles from Warren- 
ton Junction. The object of this movement was to 
engage the attention of the enemy while Gen. Mc- 
Clellan transferred the main body of the army by 
transports to the Peninsula. Having discharged this 
duty the brigade joined the main army at the mouth 
of the York River on the 17th. At this time Gen. 
Kearney, having been assigned to the command of the 
Third Division, Third Army Corps, Col. Taylor, of 
the Third Regiment, took charge of the brigade, 
Yorktown having been evacuated. 

Franklin's division was sent forward on the 5th of 
May, and disembarking at West Point, on the York 
River, pickets were immediately thrown out into the 
woods in front to guard against a surprise by the 
rebel forces in that vicinity. During the night skir- 
mishing was briskly carried on between the opposing 
pickets, and at daylight the whole division was put 
under arms. Soon after the enemy advanced and a 
sharp engagement ensued, but the New Jersey Bri- 
gade being held in reserve suffered no loss. Later in 
the evening, however, the First Regiment, led by 
Lieut.-Col. McAllister, while making a charge in the 
woods had four men slightly wounded. In the charge 
the First Regiment took and held a position which 
two New York regiments had been unable to main- 
tain. A correspondent of the New York Times said 
of this charge, " The line was as firm as a division 
in its columns at a review. Not a man flinched. 
Lieut.-Col. McAllister, when the enemy broke, bravely 
pursued them some distance, when he received orders 
to return and hold the fence which ran across the 
forest. This firm and determined movement decided 
the result. The rebels made good their retreat." 

This engagement or battle of West Point was fought 
on the 7th of May, 1862. On the lath Franklin's 
entire division eft'ected a junction with McClellan's 
army near the White House, whence it advanced to 
the Chickahominy, and remained in camp about a 

fortnight. In the mean time the fighting about Rich- 
mond had commenced, and tlie first collision on the 
Chickahominy had occurred on the 24th of May. 
This was followed by a battle near Hanover Court- 
House, in which the Fifth Corps repulsed the rebels 
with heavy loss. On the 6th of June Franklin's 
division was ordered forward to Mechanicsville, on 
the extreme right of our lines, where McClellan was 
holding his position awaiting reinforcements. Here 
the division remained several days. On the 18th the 
corps took possession at Fair Oaks, near the battle- 
field of May 31st and June 1st, where the First Regi- 
ment on the night of May 21st was detailed to guard 
a party of workmen. Little of interest occurred in 
the history of our regiments till the battle of Gaines' 
Farm, which occurred on the 27th of June. On the 
26tli, " Stonewall" Jackson having engaged our forces 
at Mechanicsville, was repulsed, but did not abandon 
the field. The battle was savagely renewed on the 
following morning, the rebels pursuing our troops to 
Gaines' Mill, whither they had been ordered to with- 
draw by Gen. McClellan. Here the onslaught was 
terrific, the rebels charging again and again upon our 
lines, and at length compelling them to give way. 
Up to this time the New Jersey Brigade had not par- 
ticipated in the engagement. But on the afternoon 
of the 27th, leaving its intrenched camp on the 
Chickahominy, it crossed the river and moved down 
to Woodbury's Bridge, where it found Gens. Fitz 
John Porter and McCall sorely pressed. What fol- 
lowed can be better given in the language of Gen. 
Taylor's official report of this battle, which is as 
follows : 

**My comiiiaiid, by order, lett our iulrencheU camp on tlie right bank 
of the Chickahiiniiliy uu Friday afteniouu, the 27Ui of June, aud 
crossed tlic said stream by the Woodbury bridge. 

"Tlie battle begun the day previous had beeu ren 
Farm, where we ariived about four o'clock p ai. lit 
my brigade in two lines, the Third and Fourth Regit 
the First and Second Regiments in tlie second line. 
" My line was scarcely formed when the Third Regiment under the 
i command of Lieut.-Col, Brown was ordered to advance forward into 

the woods, where a fierce combat \va« raging. 
I "Col. Brown immediately formed liis regiment in line of battle, led 
] it into the woods, and began a rapid fire upon the enemy. As this waa 
the tirst of my regiments engaged, I will complete my report of it hy 
saying that they continued the fight in the woods until the close of the 
action. They were all this time under a galling fire, often a cross-fire, 
j but maintained their ground unril near sunset, when the whole line fell 
I back. They bad at this time expended (a large mtgoiity of the men) 
1 their last cartridge, si.\ty rounds to the man. It is but justice to say 
•hat this regiment bore itself nnjst heroically Ihroughout the entire ac- 
tion. Their conduct was all that could be desired. With their com- 
rades falling around, they stxod up like a wall of it*on, losing over one- 
' third of their number, and gave not an inch of ground until their 
! ammunition was expended and the retrograde movement became gen- 
eral ; ihey were under this fire one hour and a half. 

"The First Regiment entered the woods about half an hour after the 

Third and remained until the close of the action. Col. Torbert being 

1 unwell, the regiment was led by Lieut.-Col. McAllister, and well sus- 

j tained by his presence and courage. I shall, however, say that Col. 

Torbert, though snfTering from low fever, followed us to the field and 

i was present. 

"1 tjike great pleasure in saying, for both these regiments fought 
under my own eye, that the First Regiment showed the same indomit- 
able courage as the Thirtl Regiment, cxiKising themselves to the leaden 

ewed near Gaines* 
nmediately foi-med 
iients in front, and 



hail of an often unseen foe, advancing with the Third Regiment, and 
stood steadily under a most galling fire until the close of the action. 
Their loss was: enlisted men killed, twenty; wouiule'l, eighty ; missing, 
tifty-eeven. The loss of commissioned officers wjis one killed, four 
wounded, anil one missing, making a total of one hundred and sixty- 

" I have now to speak of the Second and Fourth Regiments, the first 
of which, under Col. Tucker, numbered only four companies, the other 
six being on duty in the field-work at Camp Lincoln, and left beliind 
under Lieut.-Col. Buck. While absent to the front these four compa- 
nies, by order of Gen. Porter, without my knowledge, were sent into 
the woods, snflering a most galling fire. Their loss was: enlisted men 
killed, twelve; wounded, forty-five; missing, forty; making a total of 
ninety-seven enlisted men. I also regret to record the death of Col. I. 
M. Tucker, and probably Maj. Ryerson, both of whom were left upon 
the field; also Capt. Danforth, mortally wounded, and Lieuts. Blewitt, 
Root, and Bogert, severely wounded, and Lieut, dillan, missing. They, 
however, sustained themselves most gnllautly, and proved their courage 
against superior numbers. The fate of the Fourth Regiment, oneof the 
most efficient regiments as regai"ds officers and men, was moat painful. 

" At the moment when victory seemed wavering in the balance an aide 
of Gen. McClelhm took them from my command and ordered them into 
the woods. All the account I c:in give of them is that but one officer 
(wounded) and eighty-two men have joined my command; all the rest, 
if living, are believed to be prisoners of war. 

"I learn from those who have come in that iip to the time the regi- 
ment WHS surrounded they had received from and returned the enemy a 
most galling fire. I annex a report of the casualties of the day, show- 
ing the total loss of my brigade. 

" In conclnsion, I would say that, so far as I am at presf-nt informed, 
my officers, commissioned and non-conmiissioned, nobly performed their 
duties, and it might therefore be invidious to particularize. Still, in 
justice to the gallant dead, who have devoted their lives to their 
country, I must record the names of Captain Brewster, of the First 
Regiment, and Captain Buckley, of the Third ; also Second Lieutenant 
Howell, of the Third, all officers of distinguislied merit. Tiiese officers 
fought under my eye. As regards the conduct of the Second and 
Fourth Regiment officers, I am told that it was all that could be de- 
sired, but these regiments having been taken from me I did not see 
them during the action. 

" It is due to my staff-officers to say that they carried out 'my orders 
intelligeutly and promptly, and did not hesitate, and were often exposed 
to the hottest fire of the day." 

Company A of the Second Regiment, from this 
county, was not engaged in the action, being one of 
the six companies left behind and engaged on the 
work at Fort Lincoln. Col. Tucker brought with him 
into the action Companies D, H, T, and K. The ab- 
sence of Company A at the time of the action will 
account for the lack of casualties in the record of the 
company at this period, which we give at the close of 
these regimental sketches. 

It will be impossible, owing to the lack of space, to 
give anything like a detailed history of all the move- 
ments of these companies, including the regiments 
and brigade to which they belonged. Some idea of 
the extent of the service which they rendered from 
the beginning to the close of the war may be gained 
from a list of the battles in which they were engaged. 

These companies, with their regiments and bri- 
gade, participated in the following engagements : 
■ Bull Run, Va., July 21, 1861 ; Benson's Tavern, Va., 
Oct. 15, 1861 ; West Point, Va., May 7, 1862; Gaines' 
Farm, Va., June 27, 1862; Charles City Cross-Roads, 
Va., June 30, 1862; Malvern Hill, Va., July 1, 1862 ; 
Manassas, Va., Aug. 27, 1862; Chantilly, Va., Sept. 
1, 1862; Crampton Pass, Md., Sept. 14, 1862; An- 
lietam, Md., Sept. 17, 1862; Fredericksburg, Va,, 

Dec. 13, 14, 1862 ; Fredericksburg, Va., May 3, 1863 ; 
Salem Heights, Va.. May 3, 4, 1863 ; Gettysburg, Pa., 
July 2, 3, 1863; Fairfield, Pa., July 5, 1863; Wil- 
lianisport, Md., July 6, 1863; Funktown, Md., July 
12, 1863 ; Rappahannock Station, Va., Oct. 12, 1863 ; 
Rappahannock Station, Va., Nov. 7, 1863 ; Mine Run, 
Va., Nov. 30, 1863; Wilderness, Va., May 5 to 7, 
1864; Spottsylvania, Va., May 8 to 10, 1864; Spott- 
sylvania Court-house, May 12 to 16, 1864 ; North and 
South Anna River, Va., May 24, 1864; Hanover 
Court-House, Va., May 29, 1864 ; Tolopotomy Creek, 
Va., May 30, 31, 1864; Cold Harbor, Va., June 1 to 
3, 1864; before Petersburg, Va. (Weldon Railroad), 
June 28, 1864; Snicker^s Gap, Va., July 18, 1864; 
Strasburg, Va., Aug. 15, 1864 ; Winchester, Va., Aug. 
17, 1864 ; Charlestown, Va., Aug. 21, 1864 ; Opequan, 
Va., Sept. 19, 1864; Fisher's Hill, Va., Sept. 21, 22, 
1864 ; New Market, Va., Sept. 24, 1864 ; Mount Jack- 
son, Va., Sept. 25, 1864; Cedar Creek and Middle- 
town, Va., Oct. 19, 1864; Hatcher's Run, Va., Feb. 
5, 1865; Fort Steedman, Va., March 25, 1865; cap- 
ture of Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865; Sailor's Creek, 
Va., April 6, 1865; Farmville, Va., April 7, 1865; 
Lee's surrender (Appomattox, Va.), April 9, 1865. 

In all these engagements the regiments and com- 
panies of the brigade made for themselves an honor- 
able record. After the battle of Crampton's Pass, 
Sept. 15, 1862, Col. Torbert, commanding, promul- 
gated the following general order: 

"Soldiers of the Fihrt New Jeesey Brigade,— The 14th day of 
September, 1862,' is one long to be remembered, for on that day you 
dashingly met and drove the enemy at every point. Tour advance in 
the line of battle under a galling artillery tire and final bayonet 
charge was a feat seldom if ever surpassed. The heights you took 
show plainly what determined and disciplined soldiers can do. 

"You have sustained the reputation of your State, and done great 
credit to your officers and yourselves. While we lament the death of 
our brave comrades who have fallen so gloriously, we can only commit 
their souls to God and their sorrowing friends to Hia sure protection. 
May you go from victory to victory is the hope and wish of the colonel 
commanding the brigade." 

From Col. Torbert's oflScial report of this brilliant 
affair, dated September 16th, we extract the following : 

" It being decided to attack the enemy posted in the Pass, the division 
was ordered to advance in six lines, two regiments front, the First 
Brigade in the rear. About three o'clock I marched my brigade in two 
lines by the right flank, under cover till we gained the open ground^ 
when the advance was made in line of battle as follows: First Iiue» 
First and Second Regiments. They advanced about half a mile with 
great regularity through clover- and corn-fields, intersected by high 
wood and stone fences, being exposed the greater part of the time to 
the enemy's artillery fire. AiTiving within supporting distance of Col- 
onel Bartlftt's brigade, which was engaging the enemy, I halted. Soon 
after I ordered the Second Regiment forward to relieve one of Bartlett's 
retiiments which was out of ammunition, which they did with prompt- 
ness. Tlic enemy was posted behind a stone wall at the base of the 
mountain, with a wood just behind them. At this time the distance 
between the contending parties was between three and four hundred 
yards, an open field intervening. Thinking the distance too great, Gen. 
Newton ordered me to charge forward to the woods. Accordingly 
I ordered forward my second line, Third and Fourth Regiments, to 
charge across the open field into the woods. The first line was ordered 
to cease firing. A cheer, and the men went forward at double-quick in 
a mo&t gallant manner, leaping the fence on the way behind which our 
men had been fighting. When they had advanced about a hundred and 
fifty yards, I ordered the second line, First and Second Regiments, to 



charge in the same mniiQer as the first, which they did most htind- 
somely. The enemy, although holding a very strong positiou, and 
having the advantage of artillery, could not stand these chargee, so 
broke and fled up the mountain-side in great disorder, closely pursued 
by our men, who drove them through the Pass and some distance in 
the valley on the other side, when night put an end to the pursuit. 

"Too much cannot be said in praise of the bravery and gallantry of 
both officers and men ; they certainly did credit to tliemselvea and the 
State they represent. . . . The loss to the brigade has been as follows: 
One officer killed and nine wounded, thirty-nine non-commissioned of- 
ficers and privates killed, and one hundred and twenty-five wounded; 
total, one hundred and seventy -four." 

At the first battle of Fredericksburg the brigade 
contained in addition to the four regiments, or what 
remained of them, the Fifteenth and Twenty-third 
New Jersey Infantry. In this action it was conspicu- 
ous for gallantry, the new regiments seeming to have 
caught the spirit of the old ones. The brigade lost 
in killed, wounded, and missing one hundred and 
tweuty-two men. At Chancellorsville, Col. Brown, 
who commanded the brigade during the early part of 
the engagement, was severely wounded; Col. Cattell, 
of the First Regiment, was killed in the thickest of 
the fight; and Col. Buck, of the Second Regiment, 
sustained an injury from the fall of his horse. The 
command therefore devolved temporarily upon Col. 
Penrose, of the Fifteenth New Jersey. In a congrat- 
ulatory order, published on the 12th of May, 1863, 
Col. Buck said, — 

"The sad casualty to the brave Col. Brown, of the Third Regiment, 
having placed the brigade under my command, I cannot in justice to you 
or myself refrain from expressing my heartfelt thanks for the prompt 
and energetic manner in which you obeyed my commands. . . . You 
have earned for yourselves imperishable fame, and nobly redeemed the 
pledge you so recently made on the receipt of your new colors, which 
. have been gallantly borne and bravely defended, as the life-blood of the 
brave Col. Cattell and many others sadly testify." 

The following incident of the brigade is related 
in connection with the battle of Winchester: 

"Our brigade of nine hundred men and one regiment of cavalry, the 
Third New Jersey, sustained the shock of an overwhelming force, esti- 
mated at five thousand. The enemy attacked with three lines of battle. 
Our men were deployed as skirmishers, fifteen feet apart. They would 
lie down behind a wall, waiting the enemy's approacli, and fire to check 
him as much as possible. Then, at the order to retire, they would run 
to the next place of shelter, whether stone wall, hill, or tree, and wait 
the rebel approach again, give them some deadly volleys, and again re- 
tire. This mode of fighting was kept up till Winchester was reached and 
passed. While passing through the town many of our men were shot 
down by the citizens, who fired from the windows of the houses. In the 
darkness it was impossible always to tell friend from foe. Once Col. 
Campbell found himself in the midst of a nuniher of men pressing rap- 
idly forward, or, as he supposed, hurrying away to the rear. He was 
on the point of halting them and calling them to rally at a point in a 
little graveyard when an outcry from one of them proved tliat they were 
rebels. Turning an angle in the wall, whtre be conld be shielded from 
their fire, he left them in haste. A soldier came among our men, and 
they demanded, * Who are you?' to wliich he answered, ' I belong to 
Breckenridge's division.' They said, 'Lay down your arms,' but the 
fellow cried, ' I am a reb P ' Very well,' said our boys, ' but we are 
Tanks'; and through all the confusion of the night some held fast to 
him, and in the morning delivered him up a prisoner of war.'* i 

At the surrender of Lee, on the memorable 9th of 
April, 1865, the brigade was not far from Appomat- 
tox Court- House. The news was received with dem- 
onstrations of the wildest enthusiasm. The fighting 

1 Cliaplain Haines' Notes. 

was ended, the Union cause victorious, and now all 
looked for a speedy discharge. A long and weary 
march, however, was before the brigade, it being or- 
dered to Danville instead of to Washington. 

On the 24th of May it marched through Richmond 
on its way homeward, going into camp at Georgetown 
on the 2d of June. It was soon mustered out, and 
returned to Trenton, N. J. 

Mr. Foster, in his " New Jersey and the Rebellion," 
thus closes his elaborate history of the brigade: 

"On a score of fields it had exhihited the rarest heroism. In disci- 
pline, in sturdy, faultless courage, in unwavering and sublime devotion, 
it justified, down to the latest field, the high expectations of that knightly 
soldier who made it what it was. Tried it) many a fierce and pitiless 
fire, it had never faltered. Exposed sometimes to peculiai- hardships, 
thinned by disea-se, weakened by heavy loss, it never for an hour lost its 
faith in the cause. The hospital devoured and the trench swallowed up 
many of its bravest and best, but the Firet Brignde, even when but a 
remnant of its strength remained, was still undaunted. No danger ap- 
palled, no privation dismayed, no loss disheartened the veterans, who 
with a lofty pride fought and died for freedom's sake. When at last, 
with torn standards and lean ranks, it marched from the field where it 
had helped to achieve an honorable peace, it was welcomed home with 
right royal greeting, the people hailing it with glad acclaim, and with 
it rejoicing that the sound of war had ceased flora the land. To-day 
scattered in all the walks of life, those of its m«'mbers who ye-t survive 
perform the old duties and bear the old burdens familiar before they 
were marched afield ; but their proudest boast is that once they fought 
with Kearney and the grand old Army of the Potomac for the flag which 
to him and to them was dearer than ail things else." 




Ninth Reg^iment. — The Ninth Regiment contained 
two companies, G and K, from Union County. They 
were officered as follows : Company G, Captain, John 
P. Ritter ; First Lieutenant, William Zimmerman: 
Second Lieutenant, William Benton. Company K, 
Captain, Elias J. Drake; First Lieutenant, W. B. S. 
Boudinot; Second Lieutenant, Jonathan Townley, Jr. 
Joseph W. Allen was colonel of the regiment; C. A. 
Heekman, major; Francis S. Weller, surgeon ; Louis 
Braun, assistant surgeon ; Abrani Zabriskie, adjutant; 
Samuel Keyes, quartermaster; Thomas Drumm, chap- 

The regiment was raised under an authorization 
from the War Department to recruit a regiment of 
riflemen in the State of New Jersey. Its recruit- 
ment was begun in September, 1861, and the first 
muster was made at Camp Olden, Trenton, on the 
5th of October. The regiment was soon filled to the 
maximum, and remained at camp, engaged in con- 
tinuous drill, until the -Ith of December, when it pro- 
ceeded to Washington, D. C, having upon its rolls 
an aggregate of one thousand one hundred and forty- 
two men. It was armed with Springfield rifles, and 
more fully and splendidly equipped than any regi- 
ment which up to that time had left the State. 

Without going too much into particulars, it may 



be said that the regiment on its arrival in Wash- 
ington went into camp on the Bladensburg turnpike, 
where it remained until Jan. 4, 1862, when it pro- 
ceeded by rail to Annapolis, where a large portion of 
the troops composing Burnside's expedition to North 
Carolina had already assembled. Here the regiment 
was assigned to the brigade of Gen. Jesse L. Reno, ! 
and embarked on the 10th for Fortress Monroe, 
whence, on the 12th, sail was made towards the point 
of destination at Hatteras Inlet. Soon after arriving j 
oft' the inlet a violent storm arose, the wind blowing | 
fiercely on shore and imperiling the lives of all on 
board, which would probably have been lost but for i 
the enterprise and daring of a member of the regi- 
ment from this county, Corp. Samuel J. Dilkes, of 
Company K. The historian of the regiment gives 
the following account of the disaster: 

'* Extra aucbors were cast, but even tliis precaution did not avail to [ 
save several vessels of the fleet, wbicb were drifted ashore and became j 
total wrecks. Tlie steamer ' City of New York,' laden with ammunition, I 
foundered at the mouth of tlie inlet, while the ' Connecticut' was sunk 
inside the bar. The steamer ' Pocahontas,' laden with horses, on the 
passage down was driven ashore in the gale, its engines having become 
unmanageable, and but for the gallantry of Corp. Samuel J, Dilkes, of 
Company K, Ninth Regiment, the lives of all on board might have been 
lost. Dilkes bravely swimming ashore with a rope, fastened it securely 
by means of a stake driven firmly into the sand, and so enabled the crew 
to reach the land in safety. The cook, an aged colored woman, being 
unable in this way to escape, Dilkes, with a heroism which filled all be- 
holders with admiration, returned to the ship, now rapidly going to 
pieces, and binding the frightened woman to his pereon leaped into the 
sea, and by almost superhuman exertions succeeded in safety reaching i 
the shore, where he was hailed by his comrades with deserved and the 
utmost enthusiasm. ! 

" On the foUowingday, the 15th, the sea having somewhat calmed. Col. 
Allen, Lieut.-Col. Heckman, Surg. Weller, .\djt. Zabriskie,and Quarter- 
master Keyes proceeded in the gig of the captain of the ship ' Ann E. 
Thompson' to the shore, for the purpose of reporting to Gen. Buruside. 
The gig was manned by a picked crew, in charge of the captain , and con- 
tained twelve persons in all. Having concluded their interview with 
the general-in-cliief, the party returned to their boat, which was rowed 
swiftly and safely towards the ship until the breakers just outside the 
iulet were reached, when suddenly a heavy sea, or water-spout, burst 
over the bow, sweeping to the stern, unshipping the oars, and occasion- 
ing the greatest consternation among the pafiseugers. Before the boat ' 
could be righted a second and stronger wave struck if from beneath, 
hurling it some distance in the air and precipitating all its occupants 
into the sea. The situation was fearful indeed, and the struggle with j 
the seething watere desperate iii the last degree. With great difficulty 
the boat was reached by several of the party and efforts made to right 
it; but this was soon found to be impossible. . . . Lieut.-Col. Heckman 
and Adjt. Zabriskie, being expert swimmers, finding that C^l. Allen and I 
Surgeon Weller were in greater danger than others, made several heroic 
attempts to save their lives, but all were unsuccessful, these officers, 
bnively struggling to the last, going down into the watery depths. By 
this time the capsized boat was drifting rapidly seaward, but the lieu- 
tenant-colonel and adjutant finally sncceeiied in raising an oar, having 
fastened thi-reon a sailor's shirt, which signal being sh(»rtly afterwards 
discovered the alarm was given, and the steamer ' I'atuxeut' at once 
hastened to give assistance. So overcome were the survivors by their 
exertions that upon reaching the decks of the steamer some of them 
sank into insensibility, Lieut.-Col. Heckman remaining in a state of 
prostration for several days. The bodies of Col. Allen, Dr. Weller, and 
the second mate, who was also drowned, were recovered during the day, 
and every effort made to resuscitate them, but entirely without avail." 

Upon the sad and untimely death of Col. Allen, 
Lieut.-Col. Heckman took command of the regiment, 
and remained in command until Jan. 16, 1864, when 
he was appointed to the command of the district of 

Suffolk, Va. Adjt. Zabriskie then became colonel, 
and held the command until he fell mortally wounded 
at Drury's Bluft", May 16, 1864. Lieut.-Col. James 
Stewart, Jr., then commanded the regiment till the 
close of the war. 

The operations of the regiment were confined to 
the States of North Carolina, South Carolina, and 
Virginia. On the 18th of November, 1862, in com- 
pliance with an order from the War Department, the 
regiment was reduced from twelve to ten companies, 
A and L being disbanded, and the enlisted men trans- 
ferred to other companies of the regiment. Company 
M was designated Company A. In January, 1864, a 
majority of the regiment re-enlisted in the field, and 
being entitled to a veteran furlough, visited their 
homes in New Jersey, returning again to the service 
on the 15th of March. Those who did not re-enlist, 
and whose terms of service had expired, were mus- 
tered out at Trenton, Dec. 7, 1864. The regiment 
maintained its organization till the close of the war, 
being strengthened from time to time during 1863, 
'64, and '65 by recruits from the draft rendezvous at 
Trenton. It participated in the following engage- 
ments : 

Roanoke Island, N. C, Feb. 8, 1862 ; Newberne, 
N. C, March 14, 1862 ; Fort Macon, N. C, April 25, 
1862; Young's Cross- Roads, N. C, July 27, 1862; 
Rowell's Mills, N. C, Nov. 2, 1862 ; Deep Creek, N. C, 
Dec. 12, 1862; Southwest Creek, N. C, Dec. 13, 1862; 
before Kinston, N. C, Dec. 13, 1862 ; Kinston, N. C, 
Dec. 14, 1862 ; Whitehall, N. C, Dec. 16, 1862 ; Golds- 
boro', N. C, Dec. 17, 1862 ; Comfort Bridge, N. C, July 
6, 1863 ; near Winton, N. C, July 26, 1863 ; Deep Creek, 
Va., Feb. 7, 1864; Deep Creek, Va., March 1, 1864; 
Cherry Grove, Va., April 14, 1864; Port Whitehall, 
Va., May 6 and 7, 1864 ; Procter's, Va., May 8, 1864 ; 
Swift Creek, Va., May 9 and 10, 1864 ; Drury's Bluff, 
Va., May 12 to 16, 1864; Cold Harbor, Va., June 3 
to 12, 1864; Free Bridge, Va., June 16, 1864; before 
Petersburg, Va., June 20 to Aug. 24, 1864 ; Gardner's 
Bridge, N. C, Dec. 9, 1864 ; Fosters Bridge, N. C, 
Dec. 10, 1864; Butler's Bridge, N. C, Dec. 11, 1864; 
Southwest Creek, N. C, March 7, 1865; Wise's Fork, 
N. C, March 8, 9, and 10, 1865 ; Goldsborough, N. C, 
March 21, 1865. 

The Ninth Regiment received great credit for their 
gallant and successful operations in a swamp during 
the action at Roanoke Island, which is believed to 
have secured the great success of the day by enabling 
our army to operate successfully upon the enemy's 
flank. Foster speaks of their conduct as being " from 
first to last in the highest degree courageous." Gen. 
Burnside promulgated an order on the 10th of Febru- 
ary that the Ninth Regiment should have the words 
"Roanoke Island, February 8, 1862," emblazoned on 
their banners in compliment for their gallantry on 
that day. The only ordnance which could be brought 
to bear upon the enemy, owing to the deep morass 
which our troops traversed and the almost impen- 



etrable thickets, was a small rifled cannon, manned 
altogether by men detailed from the Ninth. Besides, 
the gunboat which did most execution upon the fort 
had her guns manned by Jerseymen detailed from 
the Ninth. " On the 10th," says the Newark Dailii 
Advertiser, " this detail asked to be sent back to their 
regiment, but the commodore replied that ' the Jer- 
sey Blues' had sliown themselves too good managers 
of the big guns to allow him to part with them ; that j 
they were true Blues, and no mistake." 

One Jerseyman, who had been wounded by a bullet 
through the head, said it was not much, and walked 
alone back to the hospital tent, as he said, " to get 
something to keep the blood out of his eyes, when he 
would come back to his company." The poor fellow 
fell just as he got to the tent. ' 

Testimony as to the gallantry of this regiment in dif- 
ferent engagements might be multiplied to almost any 
extent. The New York Tribune, speaking of the bat- 
tle of Newberne, says, — 

"In the capture of Newberne the Ninth New Jersey Regiment sus- 
tained the honor of their State witli characteristic gallautry. Though 
their position in tliat brilliant engagement was one of great exposure, 
they boie themselves through the contlict like veterans. sufTering more j 
severely than any other regiment on the field. Out of a total loss of 
three hundred and sixty-four killed and wounded they Inst sixty-two, or 
oue-sixth of the whole, although twelve regiments were in the battle. 
Bravo for the Jersey Blues !" 

Private Thomas Macquaid, of Elizabeth, was struck ; 
by a spent ball on the shoulder, and tumbled down ; 
but when being carried back he suddenly broke away 
and said, " Let me take oft' my coat and see that first," 
and finding the shoulder much swollen he went on a 
few steps, and concluded to " take another look," 
when he said he guessed he'd take a few more shots, 
came back, and fought bravely till the victory was won. 
Sergt. Joseph Wright was shot through the shoulder, 
and sat down in his place a moment, and then slowly 
turned to his commander, saying, very coolly, almost 
dryly, " Captain, I am wounded." That oiBcer, find- 
ing his company pretty well cut up, and not wishing 
to send back more men with the wounded than was 
absolutely necessary, asked if he was much hurt. He 
didn't know, he said, but thought he would let the 
surgeon see, and had gone some distance, when he 
came back and requested of the captain that he might 
take his rifle with him. 

On the 24th of December, 1862, the regiment was 
made the recipient of a beautiful stand of colors, 
costing seven hundred dollars, presented by the Leg- 
islature of New Jersey, accompanied by the following 
resolutions passed by that body : 

"R&iotved, That the Ninth Regiment of New Jersey Volunteers, by 
their patient endurance under privation and fiitigue, and by their courage 
at the pver-to-be-remembered battles of Roanoke and Newberne (a courage 
•TiDCed by the havoc made in their own unwavering columns better than 
by the rei>ort8 of partial journals), have sustained the higli rejiutation 
which since the days of the Revolution hun belonged to the soldiers of 
New Jersey, and as evidence of our appreciation of that acme of every 
manly virtue, • patriotic devotion to country.' the Governor of the State 
si requested to liave prepared ami forwarded to said regiment a standard, 

on which shall be inscribed these wonls; 'Presented iiy New Jersey to 
her Ninth Regiment in remembrance of Rualiuku anil New tierne.' 

"Resolced, That Col. Cliurles A. Heckman, wlio so gaUantly led his 
well-ordered men to the conflict, is reijiiesleil, at the proper time, to report 
to the clerk of the House of .Assembly the names of those who fell, killed 
or mortally wounded, on either of the saiil battlefields; and that the 
clerk of the House is, by virtue of this resolution, ordered to enter their 
names, with tlie place where they fell, on the minutes of the Assembly 
of New Jersey, as men who have fallen in defense of the best govern- 
ment of the world. 

" BemUedt That New Jersey looks with pride upon her soldiers in the 
field, without exception or distinction, and is prepared to honor them; 
and while extending congratulations that the occasion has not yet oc- 
curred when they have been put to flight by an enemy, entertains entire 
confidence that such occasion will never be recognized by them. 

" Resolved, That New Jersey highly appreciates the disinterested fidelity 
of Brig.-Gen. Philip Kearney in declining proffcred promotion rather 
thau separate himself from the command of Jerseymen to him intrusted. 

" Resolved, That with the families, relatives, and friends of those mem- 
bere of the Ninth Regiment who, on the 14th of March, met death in 
that form most courted by the true soldier, on the battle-field with their 
faces to the foe, we most deeply sympathize and sincerely condole. 

" Resolved, That copies of resolutions be forwarded to the gen- 
erals and colonels commanding the New Jersey troops." 

We regret that we have not space for fuller and 
more consecutive details of the operations of this regi- 
ment. Those who desire a more complete history 
will find it in Foster's excellent work, "New Jersey 
and the Rebellion," from which much of our infor- 
mation relating to this and other regiments has been 
drawn. New Jersey will ever be proud of the achieve- 
ments of her Ninth Regiment. " Its story," says Mr. 
Foster, "is the story of the war; its eulogy its own 
great deeds. During its term of service it participated 
in forty-two battles and engagements, and traveled 
by rail and on foot a distance of seven thousand six 
j hundred and forty -two miles, making while in North 
Carolina some of the most remarkable marches on 
record. Entering the service with one thousand one 
hundred and forty-two men, and at various times 
strengthened by recruits, the mean strength of the 
regiment when mustered out was only six hundred 
men. Eight ofiicers offered their lives a sacrifice on 
the nation's altar, while twenty-three received wounds 
in battle, most of them of a serious nature. Sixty- 
one enlisted men were killed in battle, and four hun- 
dred wounded. Forty-three men died from wounds, 
and one hundred from disease. The total loss of the 
regiment from all causes was sixteen hundred and 
forty-six men. No fact could more strikingly ex- 
hibit the consuming nature of the campaigns in which 
the regiment participated than this, clearly authenti- 
cated by official reports. The entire number of men 
and officers taken prisoners was about one hundred 
and thirty, forty-seven of this number dying while 
in the hands of the enemy." 

Capt. Jonathan Towni.ey, the subject of this 
biographical sketch, is the grandson of Capt. Jona- 
than Townley, who enjoyed the distinction of having 
been a captain at an early period in the State militia. 
Among his children was John M., born in 1801, and 
married to Miss Eveline Cooper. The birlh of their 
son Jonathan occurred Doc. 14, 18MM, in the township 
of Union, where his early life was spent in studies 



preliminary to entering Princeton College, where his 
graduation took place in 1858. He found congenial 
employnient in the labors of an instructor, and con- 
tinued them until the year 1861, which developed the 
civil war. Being imbued with the spirit of patriotism 
he enlisted in Company K, Ninth Regiment New Jer- 
sey Volunteers, and began his military career as 

second lieutenant. He was, March 9, 1862, promoted 
to a first lieutenancy, and March 4, 1864, received his 
commission as captain. He was wounded at Newberne, 
N. C, on the 14th of March, 1862, and again before 
Richmond, May 14, 1864. 

Capt. Townley participated during the year 1862 in 
the battles of Roanoke Island, Newberne. Fort Macon, 
Young's Cross-Roads, Rowell's Mills, Deep Creek, 
Southwest Creek, Kinston, Whitehall, and Golds- 
borough Bridge. In 1863 he was in engagements at 
Comfort's Bridge, near Winton, and in 1864 at Deep 
Creek, Port Walthall, Swift Creek, Drury's Bluft', and 
was before Petersburg Irom June 20th until August 
24th of that year. His discharge was obtained Feb. 
4, 1865, when he retired again to civil life, and has 
since devoted himself to agricultural employments. 

Capt. Townley is in his political preferences a Re- 
publican, the platform and principles of the party 
having L)een espoused by him, not from motive.s of 
policy, but from earnest conviction. 

He at all times lends a willing hand to all projects 
having for their aim the advancement of both educa- 
tion and morality, and may justly be regarded as one 
of the most useful citizens of the township of Union. 

Eleventh Regiment. — This county furnished two 
companies of men in the Eleventh Regiment, viz., 
Companies B and D, with the following officers : 
Company B, Capt. William H. Meeker; First Lieu- 
tenant, Lott Bloomfield ; Second Lieutenant, Alex- 
ander Beach, Jr. Company D, Captain, Luther 
Martin ; First Lieutenant, Sydney M. Layton ; Sec- 
ond Lieutenant, James H. Carr. 

Robert McAllister, who had been lieutenant-col- 
onel of the First Regiment, and who subsequently be- 
came brigadier-general, and finally major-general by 
brevet, was commissioned colonel of the Eleventh 
Regiment on the 30th of June, 1862, and on the 25th 
of August following the regiment left for Washing- 
ton ; was assigned to duty in that department until 
November 16th, then attached to the brigade of Gen. 
Carr, Sickles' division, at Fairfax Court-House, 
whence, on the 18th, it proceeded to Falmouth, where 
Gen. Burnside was concentrating his forces prepara- 
tory to his famous attack on Fredericksburg. The 
first initiation of the regiment into actual war was in 
that merciless slaughter, wherein thousands of Union 
soldiers, hurled recklessly against the impregnable 
batteries of the enemy, bristling the heights for miles 
in extent, were uselessly sacrificed. " On the morn- 
ing of the 14th," says the historian, "the Eleventh 
crossed the river under orders of Gen. Carr, and took 
position in the second line of battle, being shortly 
afterwards sent forward to the front line to relieve the 
Twenty -sixth Pennsylvania Regiment, two companies 
being dispatched to take the place of the pickets of 
the regiment thus relieved. These companies, with 
others that were afterwards sent in under a galling 
picket-fire, behaved with the greatest steadiness. 
While thus engaged the regiment sustained a loss of 
two enlisted men killed, four wounded, and six mis- 
sing. On the 15th the regiment recrossed the river to 
its old position, and soon after returned to its former 
camp near Falmouth, Gen. Burnside having wisely 
abandoned, upon the remonstrance of Gen. Sumner 
and others, all thought of a second assault, and directed 
the withdrawal of the entire army from the south side 
of the river." 

Col. McAllister congratulated his command on the 
23d of December upon their steadiness and bravery 
in the action, saying, " You who went in under the 
galling picket-fire, when the eyes of thousands of our 
comrades were upon you, and like veterans stood the 
raging storm of battle, not only holding but gaining 
ground, deserve my warmest praise." Speaking of 
the dead he said, " We have before us the consoling 
fact that they died as brave soldiers fighting for their 
country, and that those of our day and posterity will 
do them justice." 

It will be well to record here, in honor of the sturdy 
patriotism of the Eleventh Regiment, that they stood 
manfully for the vigorous prosecution of the war in 
those " dark days" of the winter and spring of 1862- 
63 when a temporizing policy at the North was 



actively engaged in trj'ing to bring about a dishonor- 
able peace. The regiment took a lively interest in 
the political questions then occupying the attention j 
of the country, and at a meeting held early in March, j 
at which the utmost enthusiasm was manifested, bon- [ 
fires being lighted and speeches made in honor of the i 
event, a series of patriotic resolutions were adopted, 
and being signed by the officers, were forwarded to the 
Governor as expressing the hostility of the regiment 
to any attempt to distract public sentiment by un- 
timely partisan clamors for a dishonorable peace. 
We give below these resolutions with the officers' 
names attached : 

" niierem, The Legislature of our native State— a State lialloweii by 
the rememlirauce of tbe battles of Princeton, Trenton, and Monmoutb, 
fields etained by the blood of our forefathers in the establish nicnt of our 
government — has sought to tarnish its high honor and bring upon it 
disgrace by the passage of resolutions tendiug to a dishonorable peace 
with armed rebels seeking to destroy our great and beneficent govern- 
ment, the best ever designed for the happiness of the many; and, 

" Whereus, We, lier sons, members of the Eleventh Regiment New 
Jersey Volunteers, citizens representing every sectioti of the State, have 
left our homes to endure the fatigues, privations, and dangers incident 
to a soldier's life in order to maintain our republic in its integrity, 
■willing to sacrifice our lives to that object, fully recognizing the impro- 
priety of a soldier's discussion of the legislative functions of the State, 
yet deeming it due to ourselves that the voice of those who offer tlieir 
all in their country's cause be heard when weak and wicked men seek 
its dishonor ; therefore, 

" Resolved, That the Union of the States is the only guarantee for the 
preservation of our liberties and independence, and that the war for the 
maintenance of that Union commands iiow, as it has done, our best 
eftorts and our most heartfelt sympathy. 

" Reeolved, That we consider the passage, or even the introduction of 
the so-called ' Peace Resolutions' as wicked, weak, and cowardly, tending 
to aid by their sympathy the rebels seeking to destroy the republic. 

" Resolved, That we regard as traitors alike the foe in arms and the 
secret enemies of our government who at home foment disafTection and 
strive to destroy confidence in our legally chosen rulers. 

" Resolved, That the reports spread broadcast throughout the North 
by sympathizing feints and voices that the army of which we esteem it 
a high honor to form a part is demoralized and clamorous for peace on 
any terms are the lying utterances of traitorous tongues, and do base 
injustice to our noble comrades, who have never faltered in the great 
work, and are not only willing but anxious to follow the gallant and 
chivalric leader against the stronghold of the enemy. 

" Resolved, That we put forth every effort, eudnre every fatigue, shrink 
from no danger until, under the gracious guidance of a kinii Providence, 
every armed rebel shall be conquered, and traitors at home shall quake 
with fear as the gi'and emblem of our national independence shall 
assert its power from North to South, and crush beneath its powerful 
folds all who dare to assail its honor, doubly hallowed by the memory 
of the patriot dead. 

"Robert McAllistbe, Colonel Eleventh New Jersey Volunteers. 

"Stephkn Moore, Lieutenant-Colonel Eleventh New Jersey Volun- 

"John Schoonoveh, Adjutant Eleventh New Jersey Volunteers. 

"Garbet Schenck, Quartermaster Eleventh New Jersey Volunteers. 

"E. Byington, Assistant Surgeon Eleventh New Jersey Vidunteera. 

"G. RlBBi.B, Second Assistant Surgeon Kleveuth New Jersey Voiun- 

"F. Kniohton, Chaplain Eleventh New Jersey Volunteers. 

"Luther BIartin, ('aptnin Eleventh New Jersey Volunteers. 

"John T. Hii.l, Captain Eleventh New Jersey Volunteers. 

" William H. Meeker, Captain Eleventh New Jersey Volunteers. 

"Thomas J. Halsey, Captain Eleventh New Jersey Volunteers. 

"Philip J. Kevrney, Captain Eleventh New Jei-sey Volunteers. 

" William B. Dunning, Captain Eleventh New .Jersey Volunteers. 

"S. M. LwTON, Lieutenant Eleventh New Jersey Volunteers. 

"luA W. Corey, Lieutenant Eleventh New Jersey Volunteers. 

" LoTT Bloomfield, Lieutenant Eleventh New Jersey VoUinteers. 

"A. H. AcKF.RMAN, Lieutenant Eleventh New Jersey Volunteers. 

" EnwARD S. E. Newburv, Lieutenant Eleventh New Jersey Volun- 

"John Oldershaw, Lieutenant Eleventh New Jersey Volunteers. 

" \V. H. Lloyd, Lieutenant Eleventh New Jersey Volunteers. 

"Milton S. Lawrence, Lieutenant Eleventh New Jersey Volun- 

" E. T. Kennedy, Lieutenant Eleventh New Jersey Volunteers. 

"S. W. Valk, Lieutenant Eleventh New Jersey Volunteers. 

"Samuel T. Sleeper, Lieutenant Eleventh New Jereey Volunteers. 

" Edwin K. Goon, Lieutenant Eleventh New Jersey Volunteere. 

"John Sowter, Lieutenant Eleventh New Jersey VolnnteerB. 

" Alexander Beach, Jr., Lieutenant Eleventh New Jersey Volun- 

These resolutions and signatures show of what sort 
of patriotic material the regimental officers were com- 
posed. And certainly few statesmen could do more 
intelligent justice to the situation than that which the 
resolutions embody and express. During the winter, 
in camp at Fitzhugh Farm, a school for the captains, 
lieutenants, and non-commissioned officers was organ- 
ized, tactics and deportment studied theoretically and 
practically, and every pains taken to promote the ef- 
ficiency of the regiment. The result was an admir- 
able enprit de corps prevailing throughout the ranks. 
Hooker, relieving Burnside on the 21st of March, de- 
voted all his influence and authority for two months 
to improve the discipline, perfect the organization, 
and elevate the spirits of his men, and on the 27th 
inaugurated his movement for turning the flank of 
Lee, who still remained in position at Fredericks- 
burg. The result was the well-remembered battle of 
Chancellorsville. The casualties of the Eleventh in 
this action — twenty killed and one hundred and thir- 
teen wounded — show that they had by no means an 
easy position. " The corps had sustained the whole 
weight of ' Stonewall' Jackson's force, had repelled 
five fierce charges, mainly with the bayonet, had 
captured eight flags (all taken by the New Jersey 
troops), had taken many prisoners without losing 
any, and it was not without reason that the officers 
and men of the Eleventh, having shared in tliese 
achievements, felt that to them, in fact, belonged the 
honor of having saved the army in one of the most 
desperate and terrible battles of the war." 

Col. McAllister, Adjt. Schoonover, and Lieut.-Col. 
Moore were among the last to leave the field, and at 
one time, fighting alone, were almost surrounded by 
the enemy. As to the general bearing and audacity 
of the regiment in the very face of disaster, a letter 
written at the time says, " When the regiments of 
our brigade were forming, away back in the rear, 
some officer asked for the Eleventh New Jersey ; 
another officer replied, ' Oh, they are fighting on 
their own hook, and still hard at it with the reb- 
els.' " The same letter refers to the fact that by 
holding its position and fighting desperately against 
odds the Eleventh saved the Second New Jersey 
Brigade from being flanked, and enabled the Fifth 
Regiment of that brigade to take the colors whose 
capture gave them so mucli distinction.'" 

1 New Jereey iiii.l (lie Ucl.i-lliun, p. l!s:\. 



Two officers — Ijieuts. Bloomfield and Kelley, Com- 
pany B — were killed and ten wounded. The con- 
duct of Lieut. -Col. Moore, Capt. Kearney, and Adjt. 
Schoonover -is spoken of by the colonel command- 
ing as especially meritorious. " Lieut. Lott Bloom- 
field," says the report, " a young officer of great 
promise, was killed in the early part of this battle 
while nobly performing his duty in encouraging his 
men to stand firm, and again urging them forward in 
the storm of battle, rendering valuable assistance in 
the great struggle of that day." 

Gen. Hooker, while visiting the hospital of the 
Eleventh, some days after the battle, said to Dr. 
AVelling, the surgeon, "This is a gallant regiment; 
it fought splendidly ; officers and men alike deserve 

The reputation of the regiment for fighting quali- 
ties thus early acquired was maintained through all 
the campaigns to the surrender of Lee and the close 
of the war, the regiment participating in the follow- 
ing engagements : Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13 and 
14, 1862; Chancellorsville, Va., May 3 and 4, 1863; 
Gettysburg, Pa., July 2 and 3, 1863; Wapping 
Heights, Va., July 24, 1863 ; Kelly's Ford, Va., Nov. 
8, 1863; Locust Grove, Va., Nov. 27, 1863; Mine 
Run, Va., Nov. 29, 1863 ; Wilderness, Va., May 5 to 
7, 1864; Spottsylvania, Va., May 8 to 11, 1864; Spott- 
sylvania C.-H., Va., May 12 to 18, 1864; North Anna 
River, Va., May 23 and 24, 1864 ; Tolopotomy, Va., 
May 30 and 31, 1864 ; Cold Harbor, Va., June 1 to 5, 
1864 ; before Petersburg, Va., June 16 to 23, 1864 ; 
Deep Bottom, Va., July 26 and 27, 1864 ; mine ex- 
plosion, Va., July 30, 1864; Barker's Mills, Va., 
June 10, 1864 ; north bank of the James, Va., Aug. 
14 to 18, 1864 ; Ream's Station, Va., Aug. 25, 1864 ; 
Fort Sedgwick, Va., Sept. 10, 1864 ; Poplar Spring 
Church, Va., Oct. 2, 1864 ; Boydton Plank-road, Va., 
Oct. 27, 1864; Fort Morton, Va., Nov. 5, 1864; 
Hatcher's Run, Va., Feb. 5 to 7, 1865 ; Armstrong 
House, Va., March 25, 1865 ; Boydton Plank-road, 
Va. (capture of Petersburg), April 2, 1865 ; Amelia 
Springs, Va., April 6, 1865 ; Farmville, Va., April 
6 to 7, 1865; Lee's surrender (Appomattox, Va.), 
April 9, 1865. 

We append a few notices of the regiment at differ- 
ent times. In concluding his report of the two 
days' fighting at Gettysburg, Adjt. Schoonover re- 
marks, " In the action of the 2d the regiment suf- 
fered very heavy loss. Out of the two hundred and 
seventy -five officers and men taken into the fight, 
eighteen were killed, one hundred and thirty 
wounded, and six missing, making a total of one 
hundred and fifty-four " In this action Col. McAl- 
lister was severely wounded. This officer was distin- 
guished for cool bravery, and was always at the post 
of danger. In the battle of the Wilderness he had 
two horses shot under him. 




Fourteenth Regiment. — Companies C and E of this 
regiment were from the county of Union, the former 
being under the command of Capt. Chauncey Harris, 
with Ebenezer Muddell as first lieutenant, and Jo- 
seph W. Walker as second lieutenant ; and the latter 
commanded by Capt. James L. Bodwell, with First 
Lieut. Isaac S. Tingley, and Second Lieut. James 
O. Bedell. William S. Truax was colonel ; Caldwell 
K. Hall, lieutenant-colonel ; Peter Vredenburgh, Jr., 
major; F. Lemuel Buckalew, adjutant; Enoch L. 
Cowart, quartermaster; Ambrose Treganowan, sur- 
geon ; Joseph B. Martin, Herbert B. Chambers, as- 
sistant surgeons ; Frank B. Rose, chaplain. 

The organization of the regiment was completed, 
and it was mustered into the United States service at 
Freehold, N. J., Aug. 26, 1862. It left the State on 
the 2d of September, and on its arrival at Baltimore, 
the rebels being expected to invade Maryland, was 
sent forward to Frederick Junction, on the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad, for the jjurpose of guarding the 
bridge across the Monocacy River. Almost imme- 
diately upon its arrival information was received 
that the advance of Lee's army had crossed into 
Maryland and was moving upon Frederick. " The 
Fourteenth was at once ordered to fall back, and a 
coal train being seized, the command was transferred 
to Elysville, twenty-one miles from Baltimore, where 
it remained for ten days doing guard and picket 
duty." The rebels reached Monocacy only an hour 
after the departure of the regiment, burnt the bridge, 
and laid waste the country. But they were overtaken 
and beaten at South Mountain and Antietam, and on 
the night of the 18th compelled to retreat across the 
Potomac. The Fourteenth Regiment having been 
ordered to return to Monocacy and rebuild the bridge, 
reached that place on the 17th, when the work was 
begun and vigorously prosecuted to its completion, 
the troops remaining all winter in that vicinity, 
doing little except guard duty and the active drill 
and discipline of the camp. During the early portion 
of this time there was much sickness in the regiment, 
which, however, diminished as the men became ac- 
customed to the rigors and hardships of the soldier's 
life. In January, 1863, Companies E and K were de- 
tailed for guard duty along the railroad, the former 
being stationed at Monrovia, seven miles from camp, 
and the latter at Mount Airy, fourteen miles distant. 
"About this time Col. Truax was appointed acting 
brigadier-general, with headquarters at Frederick 
City, and the Third Delaware Regiment and Purnell 
Legion being temporarily brigaded with the Four- 
teenth, all were placed under his command, Lieut.- 
Col. Hall commanding the latter. Early in the spring 
six companies were detached from the regiment 



(Companies B and G being left at Monocacy) and 
sent to Martinsburg, for the purpose of reinforcing 
Gen. Milroy, who was threatened by the enemy, but 
no attack being made the detachment six weeks later 
returned to camp." ' 

After tlie battle of Chancellorsville Lee's army again 
moved towards the Potomac, and the Fourteenth was 
ordered to Harper's Ferry. It took po.sition on Mary- 
land Heights, where it was engaged upon the forti- 
fications and in other duties for about a fortnight. 
On the 30th June, Gen. Meade having ordered the 
evacuation of the Heights, French's division (in- 
cluding the Fourteenth Regiment) proceeded to- 
wards Frederick City, and after several unimportant 
movements was ordered to the relief of Meade's army 
engaged with the army at Gettysburg. The Four- 
teenth at this time was brigaded with the One Hun- 
dred and Fifty-first New York, Si.xth New York Heavy 
Artillery, and Tenth Vermont, commanded by Brig.- [ 
Gen. Morris. It being supposed that the rebels would i 
retreat by the way of Boonsborough Gap, the division 
was ordered to that point, where it formed in line of 
battle, but Lee having pursued another route no en- 
gagement occurred. Leaving the Gap on the 9th of 
July, the division, now assigned to the Third Army 
Corps and designated the Third Division, marched 
to the front and joined the main army, whose for- 
tunes it shared from that time to the close of the war. 
Lee having retreated into Virginia pursued by the 
Union army, the Fourteenth with its division crossed 
the Potomac at Edwards' Ferry on the 17th, and with- 
out taking part in any of the conflicts which attended 
the pursuit of the enemy went into camp near Beal- 
ton Station, where, and at other points along the 
Rappahannock, it remained encamped for five weeks, 
the rebels in the mean time lying quietly at Cul- 
peper. On the 15th of September, the rebels advanc- 
ing from Madison Court-House on our right, Meade 
fell back across the Rappahannock, and the rebels still 
advancing, the retrograde movement was kept up to 
Centreville Heights. During this march the Four- 
teenth lost forty men taken prisoners. Lee failing 
in his movements retreated to the Rappahannock, 
followed leisurely by the Union forces. While the 
rebels were engaged in constructing formidable works 
our army effected a crossing, driving the enemy from 
the river with considerable loss. " After a halt of a few 
days at Brandy Station the corps again advanced, 
crossing the Rapidan and overtaking the enemy at 
Locust Grove, a dense forest of pine-trees, where he 
was strongly posted. At this time the brigade to 
which the Fourteenth was attached (the First of the 
Third Division) had the advance, and, skirmishers 
being sent out, it soon became engaged, the men 
fighting bravely for four hours, at one time charging 
with great gallantry and driving the rebels from their 
position with a loss of several prisoners." 

This was the first active engagement in which the 
Fourteenth Regiment participated. It is recorded 
that " they fought with great steadiness throughout." 
Companies B and K, being on the extreme left, be- 
came separated from the regiment, so that they did 
not get the order to fall back, and remained in the 
tight for an hour longer than the rest of the command, 
retiring only when their ammunition was exhausted. 
The regiment lost in this action sixteen killed and 
fifty-eight wounded. " Gen. Morris rode to the front, 
congratulating the men for their bravery. In a few 
words he told them that as new troops a brigade never 
fought better; that they had accomplished all that 
was desired of them." - On the 1st of December 
Gen. Morris issued the following congratulatory 
order : 

"The brigJide conimamler deema it his gratifying duty to expreei^ to 
tbe officei-8 and men of the Fourteenth New Jereey Vohinleers, com- 
manded by Col. William S. Tniax, bis appreciation of tlieir bravery and 
endurance throughout the engagement on the 27th of November. 

" The occasion was one which pre-ented the perils of the battle-field 
in the most discouraging form It was necessary to form the line of 
battle in a dense woods and at the base of a liill, with the enemy in po- 
sition on its crest protected by breastworks. The regiment was under 
fire for three hiturs, and for a portion of that time the cross-fire of the 
enemy's rifles made rapid and terrible havoc iti our ranks. Its duty 
being to hold the line without advancing beyond a limited distance, 
the regiment performed its entire mi'sion, drove the enemy from the 
crest, and held it until their ammunilion was exhausted and the vet- 
erans of the First Division arrived to relieve them. 

"Our distinguished division and corps commanders have spoken of 
the regiment in terms of high commendation. 

" The brigade commander is proud to lead such gallant and patriotic 

" By command of Bi'ig.-Gen. Morris." 

The darkness of night coming on, the enemy re- 
tired from the battle, and withdrew to their strong 
position on Mine Run. The formidable character of 
these works prevented Gen. Meade from making an 
assault upon them, as was contemplated, and on the 
1st of December he ordered a withdrawal of his forces 
across the Rapidan. This was effected without mo- 

' lestation on the part of the enemy, and the Four- 
teenth went into winter-quarters in an old rebel camp 
at Brandy Station. At this time the regiment num- 
bered but six hundred men fit for duty, three hundred 

j and fifty less than when it entered the field. Nearly 
one hundred had died, sixteen had been killed in 

! battle, some were on detached service, some in hospi- 

] tals, some had been discharged for disability, while a 
few had deserted. 

1 During the winter a deep religious interest was 

I awakened in the regiment through the earnest labors 
of Chaplain Rose. Regimental churches were built 

: of logs, covered with tents furnished by the Sanitary 
Commission. Tracts, books, and papers were freely 

; distributed among the soldiers. The tjth of Febru- 
ary came and found the corps under marching orders, 
moving out to engage the enemy at Culpeper Ford, 
in order to effect a crossing of the river. But the 
enemy being found in force, with his line extending 

1 New Jereey and the Bebelllon, p. 357. 



from the Rapidan to Orange Court-House, the object 
was abandoned. Gen. Grant assumed command, and 
the army was reorganized, preparatory to the grand 
forward movement begun in May, 1864, in the ad- 
vance upon the Wilderness. In this reorganization 
the Third Corps was broken up, and the Third Di- 
vision, containing the Fourteenth Regiment, was 
placed in the Sixth Corjis, now reduced to two bri- 
gades instead of three. The Fourteenth still re- 
mained in the First Brigade, consisting of the Tenth 
Vermont, One Hundred and Sixth and One Hun- 
dred and Fifty-first New York, and Eighty-seventh 

Foster's " New Jersey and the Rebellion" says of 
the engagements at the Wilderness : 

"At length on the 3d of May, 1864, orders were issued for a forward 
movenieDt, and on tlie following morning the whole army commenced 
its grand advance against the enemy now concentrated at the Wilder- 
ness. Here, early on the 5th, our advance under Warren met and en- 
gaged the enemy, the battle raging furionsly all day. Sedgwick's corps, 
reaching the field, went into action shortly after noon, the Third Bri- 
gade of the Third Division being sent to reinforce the centre. Here the 
Fourteenth was engaged for several hours, fighting gallantly and losing 
heavily. On the following day, the enemy attempting t) turn our riglit 
flank, the battle was renewed, and continued with great fury, the First 
Brigade still holding its position near the centre, but losing few men. 
During the night the enemy retired, when Grant advanced his columns 
with a view of concentrating around Spottsylvania Court-House. Upon 
emerging 1%-om the Wilderue^8, W:irren'8 corps became actively engaged 
on the 8th with Longstrfet'a vetei-ans, who sought to delay his progress, 
and tlie Sixth Corps going to his relief late in the afternoon, the Four- 
teenth again went into action, the enemy being driven back with a loss 
of one thousand five hundred men." 

Gen. Morris was wounded in this action, and Col. 
Truax was placed in temporary command of the bri- 
gade. Fighting continued on the 11th and 12th, re- 
sulting greatly to the loss of the enemy; the six 
following days were occupied in manoeuvring and 
skirmishing at various points, up to*the night of the 
21st, when Gen. Grant ordered a flanking advance to 
the North Anna, and on the 24th the Fourteenth 
crossed with its corps at Jericho Ford. Thence the 
brigade proceeded to Nole's Station, thirty miles from 
Richmond, where it destroyed the Virginia Central 
Railroad for a distance of eight miles, and returned 
to its corps without the loss of a man. In the next 
grand flanking movement of Gen. Grant, whereby he 
avoided the enemy's invulnerable position in front 
by a movement to the eastward and then southward 
upon the Richmond road, the Sixth Corps led the ad- 
vance, crossing the Pamunkey, and skirmishing to 
Hanover Court-House and Cold Harbor road. Here 
on the 31st a general advance was made upon the 
rebels' position north of the Chickahorainy, resulting 
in the capture of a good part of the advanced rifle- 
pits of the enemy. Our troops held and bivouacked 
on the ground they had gained. During this action 
the Fourteenth was in the skirmish-line, and lost .se- 
verely in killed and wounded. Orderly Black, of Com- 
pany I, being shot through the heart and instantly 
killed, while Col. Truax was slightly wounded in the 
iiand, but did not leave the field. 

On the morning of June 1st the march began to 
Cold Harbor, the Sixth Corps in the rear. The dis- 
tance was about fifteen miles to the enemy's position, 
which was reached in the afternoon, and at five 
o'clock an assault was made, with the Third Division 
in advance, and the Fourteenth in the front line. 
"The enemy at this point was posted in a wood, 
which concealed his strength, facing a level, open 
field. Across this field our men advanced with 
great spirit under a heavy fire, and a terrific battle 
ensued, the losses on both sides being very heavy. 
The Fourteenth suffered severely, losing in two hours 
two hundred and forty in killed and wounded, Lieut. 
Stults, of Company H, and Lieut. Tingley, of Com- 
pany E, being among the former. The enemy being 
in overwhelming force, our lines were obliged to fall 
back a short distance, intrenching strongly during 
the night. Other corps held in readiness now carae 
up, getting in position for an attack on the 3d. At 
sunrise on that morning the enemy's works were again 
assaulted, but with no other substantial result than 
the loss of some thousands of men who had in vain 
dashed themselves heroically against an impregnable 
position. In this assault the Fourteenth again lost 
several men. Gen. Grant, now satisfied that the rebel 
works could not be carried, wisely decided to pass the 
Chickahominy far to Lee's right, and thence move 
across the James to demonstrate against Richmond 
from the south." 

Not to enter into the particulars of the transporta- 
tion of the army to Bermuda Hundred, whence Grant's 
forces united with Butler's army, then investing Pe- 
tersburg, the corps, on the 21st of June, was placed 
in position on the left, with the view of finding and 
turning the right of the enemy, holding or cutting 
the Weldon Railroad. The Third Division was again 
in the advance. The road was reached on the 23d, 
and the track torn up for some distance. A large 
force of the enemy, however, suddenly appeared, 
struck the corps a heavy blow on the flank, inflicting 
considerable loss, that of the Fourteenth being forty 
men killed and made prisoners. After that, on the 
29th, the corps was moved to the support of Gen. Wil- 
son, who, with two divisions of cavalry, had torn up 
many miles both of the Weldon and Lynchburg Rail- 
roads, and was hotly pressed in attempting to effect 
his junction with the main army. The rebels, how- 
ever, retired upon their advance, and after spending 
three days in further destroying the railroad, the 
Fourteenth New Jersey and One Hundred and Sixth 
New York returned to their old position. Up to this 
time the actual loss of the Fourteenth had been 
twenty-nine killed, one hundred and seven wounded, 
and fifteen missing, as reported June 27tli. Many of 
those who had been slightly wounded in the earlier 
battles of the campaign are not included in this re- 
port, as they had previously recovered and returned 
to duty. 

The next fighting of the division was on quite a 



different field. Hunter, with a large Union force, 
having abandoned the Shenandoah Valley, Lee sent 
Early northwards with all the force he could muster. 
Our force at Martinsburg retreating precipitately to 
Harper's Ferry, and Grant deeming it necessary to 
send more forces into Maryland, on the 6th of July 
detached the Third Division of the Sixth Corps, and 
hurried it forward to Locust Point, near Baltimore, 
where it arrived under Gen. Ricketts on the morning 
of the 8th. From this point the division, numbering 
five thousand men, proceeded to Monocacy, the old 
familiar ground of the Fourteenth Regiment, which 
was now the first to arrive on the spot. By this time 
the rebels were in force at Frederick City, but were 
closely watched by Gen. Wallace, in command of our 
forces. On the night of the 8th Wallace had taken 
position on the left bank of the Monocacy, which 
afforded fair facilities for defense. His disposition 
for battle was completed on the 9th, Gen. Ricketts 
being placed with his division on the left, holding the 
road to Washington. In Foster's "New Jersey and 
the Rebellion" we find the following account of the 
battle : 

" At uine o'clock the rebel skirmishers appeared in front and soon 
drove our skirmish-line across the river, tliereupon planting guns and 
opening the battle. The disparity of artillery was great, the enemy 
having sixteen Napoleons, while we had only six smaller pieces, and 
the superiority of his fire was soon apparent. Gradually the skirmish- 
ing grew warmer and more general, and soon the fighting became serious. 
At length a body of the rebel army, moving out of range of our guns 
and flanking our left, forced a passage of the Monocacy two miles below 
the bridge, on the Washington road, at once advancing in battle array 
upon Kicketts, who had changed front to the left to meet their advance 
on his flank, his right I'estiug on the river. Steadily the rebel columns 
advanced to the assault, but they were met by a steadiness as inflexible as 
their own. The brave division, fighting with a desperation rarely matched, 
again and again repelled the rebel assaults, strewing the ground with 
dead, for six hours maintaining the unequal contest, waiting in vain for 
reinforcements that did not come. At length the enemy, gathering all 
his strength for a final blow, again moved from our left in two massive 
lines to the charge, and gradually enveloping our lines, nothing was 
left but to retreat. The Fourteenth being on the extreme left of the 
line had suffered severely, but it had stood manfully to its work, and 
only retreated when Gen. Wallace, seeing that further fighting was use- 
less ordered it to do so. During the engagement Lieut.-Col. Hall, 
Adjt. Buckalew, and several officers had been wounded ; Capts. Stults, 
Eanine, and Conover were killed, while every remaining officer of the 
line was either killed or wounded except Capt. J. J. Janeway, of Com- 
pany K " 

Capt. Chauncey Harris, of Company C, was wounded 
through the left breast while in command of the regi- 
ment and after being placed in an ambulance was 
shot through the right knee-joint by a rebel bullet. 
The command of the regiment then devolved ui)on 
Capt. Janeway, of Company K, the only officer left 
able to take charge of it. He bravely led the forlorn 
hope, but all further fighting was useless, and the 
linegradually fell back, disputing every inch of ground. 
Just before the close of the action the enemy press- 
ing in poured a destructive fire of grape and canister 
into the retiring ranks, cutting down the defiant vet- 
erans by scores and fifties. Happily, however, the 
pursuit was not persistent, and the weary division, ex- 
tricating itself from its peril, found pause and safety 

at New Market, six miles distant. A report of the 
battle says, " Several recruits had arrived after the bat- 
tle of Cold Harbor, and the regiment was partly filled, 
entering the fight with three hundred and fifty men, 
but ninety-five came out, two hundred and fifty-five 
being killed, wounded, and cap.tured in that terrible 
battle. Of the nine hundred and fifty men that left 
New Jersey but ninety-five were left for duty on the 
night of July 9th, without an officer to command 
them." Capt. Janeway was wounded in the shoulder 
shortly after taking command, and was forced to 

The following from an officer narrates some of the 
experiences and incidents of the regiment suksequent 
to its arrival in the vicinity of Monocacy : 

" Reaching Frederick July 8th, we formed lines west of the city fac- 
ing the Katodan Mountains. Capt. John C. Patterson was placed in 
command of the picket line, about two miles long. At eight o'clock in 
the morning the troops were ordered by Gen. Wallace to recrosa the 
Monocacy River by moving down the Baltimore pike and thence south, 
to take up a position on our old camp-ground (Camp Hooker). The 
pickets were left until a quarter past ten o'clock, when we were ordered 
to join the main column at Monocacy bridge. We had to move very 
quietly, owing to the closeness of the rebel pickets. The commandant 
cautioned the pickets (two were stationed aboutfifteen steps apart) to be 
very still, and to each move back some distance before assembling on the 
pike. One poor fellow overpowered by sleep remained on the line, his post 
being in corn about knee-high. He remained asleep until daylight qext 
morning; as soon as it was light enough to discern objects at a distance 
he began to look around, rising to his feet. His rising was the signal 
for a hundred rebels to fire upon him. Strange to say he was unhurt, 
and dashed away in the direction of Frederick. But three rebel cavalry- 
men at once started to cut him off. As he was running across the field 
he was joined by a citizen armed witli a rifle. The latter told him (Min- 
ton) to continue on and he would attend to the three cavalrymen. Then 
stepping behind a tree he leveled his rifle and fired ; one of the rebels 
reeled from his saddle, the other two dismounted, and the pursuit ended. 
Mintou continued on, and rejoined the regiment just as the battle com- 
menced, and took part in the fight." 

An officer of the Fourteenth furnishes also the fol- 
lowing incidents' of the battle: 

" When the enemy at Monocacy first struck us, three lines deep 
against our single line, the fire was terrific. Our color-sergeant (Wil- 
liam B. Cottrell), while bravely waving his colors in front of his regi- 
ment, received a ball which before striking him passed through and 
severed the flag-staff just below his left hand. He fell forward and died 
upon the flag, his life blood staining its folds. Our colors were immedi- 
ately raised by one of the color-guards. He also was almost instantly 
shot down. Then another raised it up ; he was badly wounded and 
turned it over to the next corporal, who was mortally wounded. These 
four were killed and disabled in almost the time it has taken me to write 
it, showing the terrible fii-e we were exposed to at the battle of Monoc- 

" Our lieutenant-colonel was at the firet badly wounded, his arm being 
broken. Capt. Conover, of Company D, the next ranking officer, waa 
mortally wounded. The command then devolved upon Capt. Harris, 
who was shot through the lungs and carried from the field. The next 
in rank, Capt. Stults, Company H, was shot a few moments after, and 
died almost instantly. The next in rank, Capt. Janeway, Company K, 
was wounded and left the field, the command devolving on Capt. John 
C. Patterson. In the mean time Lieut. Craig, Company D, waa badly 
wounded, and Capt. Canine, Company A, was killed, leaving our regi- 
ment with only three oflicei-e, — the adjutant, Lemuel F. Buckalew, First 
Lieut. Samuel C. Bailey, Company F, and Capt. Patteraon." 

It is generally believed by historians of the war 
that but for the battle of Monocacy, which had the 
effect of retarding the march of the rebels until other 
troops reached the capital. Early might have pushed 



on and captured Washington, the undoubted objec- 
tive-point of the rebel general. This thought tinges 
the recollections of that bloody day with something 
like a halo of satisfaction, assuring us that the blood 
of our brave soldiers was not shed in vain. 

After various expeditions under Gen. Wright, 
through Leesburg, Snicker's Gap, Harper's Ferry, and 
Bolivar Heights, the object being to watch and inter- 
cept the movements of Early, the forces were ordered 
back to Frederick City and thence to Monocacy, 
wliere a conference was held by Gen. Grant with 
Gens. Wright and Hunter on the 4th of August, and 
it was determined to concentrate a large force under 
Gen. Sheridan at Harper's Ferry, for the purpose of 
a campaign in the Shenandoah Valley. On the 6th 
of August, Gen. Sheridan, arriving at Harper's Ferry, 
took command, the force now numbering nearly thirty 
thousand men, including two divisions of cavalry. 
On the 10th the column moved against the enemy, 
coming up with his rear-guard on the 12th at Cedar 
Creek, the main body being strongly intrenched at 
Fisher's Hill. No general action was brought on till 
the 19th, when the battle of Opequan Creek was fought. 
In the mean time recruits had reached the Fourteenth 
Regiment, augmenting its numbers to about three 
hundred men. The position of the rebels was natur- 
ally a strong one, and had been thoroughly fortified. 
To as.sail it our army had to advance through a nar- 
row ravine shut in by steep, thickly-wooded hills, to 
form in an irregular, undulating valley in the enemy's 
front, and then advancing through a wood, attack 
desperately his centre, while flanking and crushing in 
his left. We need not give the details of the battle, 
but say simply that the. victory was complete, although 
attained at serious loss. The Third Division of the 
Sixth Corps lost heavily, the Fourteenth Regiment 
alone losing seven killed and sixty-two wounded and 
missing. Among the killed was Maj. Vredenburgh, 
who was struck by a shell in the breast while at the 
head of his regiment ordering a charge upon a rebel 
battery. He expired in a few moments. A brave 
and faithful officer, he was widely esteemed and his 
death lamented by the whole command. Lieut. Green, 
commanding Company I, was also killed, and Capt. 
Bodwell, of Company E, wounded. Three thousand 
prisoners and five guns were taken from the rebels. 
At Fisher's Hill, on the 22d of September, our arms 
were equally victorious. The battle lasted some three 
hours, when the rebels were driven from their fortifi- 
cations in great disorder, losing one thousand one 
hundred prisoners, sixteen pieces of artillery, and 
fifteen stands of colors taken by our soldiers. The 
Third Division captured six pieces of artillery, two 
of which were taken by the Fourteenth Regiment. 
The casualties in the Fourteenth numbered but ten 
killed and thirty wounded. 

But the great battle of the campaign was yet to be 
fought, that of Cedar Creek. After the battle above 
described our forces held the line of this creek, and 

Sheridan, deeming them secure, had gone to Wash- 
ington on business. Early, more wily than was 
deemed by his antagonist, on the 18th of October 
moved his entire army across the mountain sepa- 
rating the branches of the Shenandoah, forded the 
north fork, and under cover of fog and darkness 
early on the next morning surprised our camps, turn- 
ing both flanks, and crushing back our astonished 
troops with terrible loss, including twelve hundred 
prisoners, twenty-four guns, and all our equipage. 
So silently did the enemy advance, and so suddenly 
did he pounce upon our sleeping camp, that the 
men were in many cases prisoners before they were 
awakened. The Eighth Corps, which met the first 
onset of the enemy, was able to make little resist- 
ance ; but the Sixth Corps, which had more oppor- 
tunity to rally, held the rebels in check for a time. 
It soon became apparent, however, that it was impos- 
sible to hold our ])ositions, and a general retreat was 
accordingly ordered. Our forces had fallen back five 
miles, and Gen. Wright had succeeded in partially 
reforming them in line of battle, when Sheridan ap- 
peared upon the scene, having made his famous ride 
from Winchester. " He saw only too soon the wreck 
and disaster of the day, and instantly set about the 
work of repairing the mischief. Riding along the 
lines and speaking inspiringly to the men, he stimu- 
lated them to new endeavor, revived their hopes, and 
prepared them for a fresh encounter, meanwhile also 
strengthening his formations, studying the ground, 
and gathering every item of information necessary to 
his purpose. At length everything was complete. 
' We are going to lick them out of their boots,' said 
Sheridan, and the men with the words ringing in 
their ears once more assumed the offensive. After 
considerable mananivring a charge was ordered, and 
soon the enemy in turn was driven back with great 
slaughter, with the loss of his trains and artillery 
and all the trophies captured from us in the morning, 
our cavalry pursuing rapidly and cutting down the 
fugitives without mercy." The inspiring genius of 
Sheridan had converted defeat into victory, all the 
more grand and surprising from the helpless condi- 
tion which had preceded it. This was an exploit 
which for daring rapidity and brilliancy of execu- 
tion is rarely equaled in the annals of war. The 
Fourteenth Regiment, which took an active part, lost 
heavily, Adjt. Ross, who had been promoted from the 
ranks for gallant conduct, being killed. The rebel 
loss included one thousand five hundred prisoners 
twenty-three guns (exclusive of the twenty-four lost 
by us in the morning and recovered at night), one 
thousand five hundred small-arms, besides most of 
their caissons, wagons, etc. 

The further operations of the Fourteenth till the 
close of the war were performed in another field. 
The campaign having rescued the Shenandoah Val- 
ley and insured the safety of the national capital, 
the main body of the army, except the cavalry scouts 



left to complete the driving of the fugitives, was 
transferred to the theatre of operations against Rich- 
mond. The officers of the Fourteenth were now 
mostly enlisted men risen from the ranks, who had 
won for themselves a lasting reputation. Capt. Jane- 
way for brave and meritorious conduct was i)romoted ' 
to the colonelcy of the regiment. Besides this vet- > 
eran officer there were Capts. Wanser, Manning, and 
Marsh and Lieuts. Foster, Buckalew, Fletcher, Han- 
ning, White, and Mandeville, noted for conspicuous 
gallantry, who had entered the ranks as privates. 
Col. Truax was still in command of the brigade as [ 
acting brigadier-general. The regiment had been re- 
cruited to the number of two hundred. It was trans- 
ferred to City Point, whence it advanced and occu- ■ 
pied a position on the Weldon Railroad which had i 
been seized and held by the Filth Corps. Feb. 5, 
1865, the regiment participated in the engagement at 
Hatcher's Run ; the assault on Fort Steadman fol- 
lowed on the 25th of March, resulting in the speedy 
downfall of Petersburg, and the surrender of Lee two 
weeks later at Appomattox. Col. Truax in his re- 
port of the capture of Fort Steadman makes the fol- 
lowing statement : 

"The brigade was formed in column of regiment, and advancing on 
the left flank of the fort compelled its surrender, Without halting we 
advanced on the next fort, which was evacuated almost witliout a strug- 
gle, leaving in our possession four guns, cainsons, and horses. . . . I liave 
every reason to be proud of the regiments composing my brigade." 

Another report says, — 

"From first to last the Fourteenth fought with the greatest bravery, 
and to it equally with the most efficient regiment of the corps belongs 
the credit of the magnificent success of that glorious day." 

Early on the 3d of April, being informed that 
Petersburg was evacuated, and that the pickets of 
the Twenty-fourth Corps had advanced into the city, 
the Fourteenth joined in the pursuit of the enemy, 
Jjushing forward to Sailor's Creek, where it assailed 
the enemy's flank, doubling it up and driving the 
rebels for the distance of a mile. Here reaching the 
hill directly in front of the creek, where the rebels 
were found strongly posted in the rear of some works, 
a charge was made by the brigade across the stream, 
some seventy-five yards in width, the soldiers advanc- 
ing through water up to tlieir hips and under a gall- 
ing fire from the enemy. Immediately reforming on 
the other side of the stream the brigade charged over 
the crest of the hill, driving and completely routing 
the enemy. Wheeling to the left and pushing his 
column against the left flank of the enemy, a few 
moments of vigorous fighting were crowned with the 
trophy of the surrender of Ewell's command. Maj. 
Pegram, inspector-general on Ewell's staft', at this 
point rode up to Col. Truax, bearing a flag of truce, 
and said, " I surrender Lieut.-Gen. Ewell and staff 
and his command." This was a glorious termination 
of the long and weary campaigns in which our brave 
soldiers had been engaged. The Fourteenth, now re- 
duced to about one hundred men, proceeded to Barks- 
dale, where the command remained in camp till the 

24th, and then proceeded to Danville with a view of 
co-operating with Sherman against Johnston. But on 
their arrival news of Johnston's surrender was re- 
ceived. The war was ended. The Fourteenth Regi- 
ment was mustered out of the United States service 
at Washington, D. C, on the 18th of June, 186-5, hav- 
ing been in the service nearly three years. It left 
New Jersey nine hundred and fifty strong; the rem- 
nant that returned was two hundred and thirty, not- 
withstanding the many recruits which had strength- 
ened its ranks from time to time. During that time 
the regiment had been distinguished in many battles 
and skirmishes for its uniform gallantry and courage. 
It had traveled by rail one thousand and fifty-one 
miles, by water six hun<lred and twenty-eight miles, 
and on foot two thousand and fifteen miles.' 

Thirtieth Regiment. — The Thirtieth Regiment, 
which contained one company, viz.. Company B, 
from this county, was organized under the provisions 
of an act of Congress approved July 22, 1861, and 
under existing orders governing the enrollment of 
troops. A draft for ten thousand four hundred and 
seventy-eight men to serve for nine months unless 
sooner discharged had been made upon the Governor 
of this State by the President of the United States, 
Aug. 4, 1862, and soon after full instructions for 
conducting it were received from the War Depart- 
ment. The draft so ordered was not to interfere with 
orders governing recruiting, and all enlistments up to 
Sept. 1, 1862, would be placed to the credit of the 
State. A general desire manifested and expressed 
by the State authorities, as well as by prominent citi- 
zens throughout the State, to avoid the draft gave 
an enthusiasm to recruiting which caused the entire 
quota to be raised by voluntary enlistments and in 
camp by the 3d of September, 1862, the time ap- 
pointed for commencing the draft. The organization 
of the regiment was fully completed, officered, and 
equipped by the 17th of September, 1862, at which 
time the command was duly mustered into the United 
States service for nine months at Flemington, N. J. 
The regiment was raised in difterent parts of the 
State, and placed under command of Col. Alexander 
E. Donaldson, who resigned March 4, 1863, and the 
command of the regiment devolved upon Lieut.-Col. 
John J. Cladek, who served till the regiment was 
mustered out, June 27, 1863. The officers of Com- 
1 pany B from this county were: Captain, John N. 
I Lewis; first lieutenant, James D. Vanderveer; sec- 
ond lieutenant, Thomas Moore. Capt. Lewis re- 
signed Dec. 26, 1862, and Lieut. Vanderveer took 
his place, serving as captain till June 27, 18()3, wlien 
the regiment was mustered out. James H. Ogden, 
who entered the company as first sergeant Aug. 25, 

1862, became first lieutenant March 16, 1863, vice 
Elias W. Brant, resigned, and resigned April 27, 

1863, when John M. Case became first lieutenant in 

I Sergeant Terrell's History. 



his stead. Oscar Conklin, first sergeant of Company 
I, became second lieutenant upon the resignation of 
Thomas Moore, February, 1863.' 

The regiment left the State Sept. 30, 1862, num- 
bering one thousand and eleven, officers and enlisted 
men. It was assigned soon after arriving in Wash- 
ington to the Provisional Brigade, Casey's division, 
defenses of Washington, and participated in but one 
battle, that of Chancellorsville, May 2 and 3, 1863. 



Allen, William W., corp., May 16, 1861 ; dio.l of fever at 0. S. A. Gen. 

Hosp.. West Pliiladelphia, Pa., Sept. 7, 18ti2. 
Allen, Juhn J., private, Miiy 16, 1861 ; Corp. Feb. 4, 1862 ; disch. at the 

V. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Washington, D. C, Oct. I, lS6:i, dis. 
Baker, Ralph P., private. May 16, 1861; Corp. May i!l,1861 ; sergt. Aug. 

21, 1862 ; re-enl. Dec. 28, 1864 ; 2d lieut. Co. A, Ut Batt., Feh. 2, 

1865; pro. to 1st lieut. Co. C, 1st Batt., June 4, 1865; served in 4th 

Kegt.; must, out June 29, 186.i. 
BIythe, Smith G., com. sergt.; 2d lieut. vice Luther Martin; res. 

March 24, IS62 ; pro. to Ist lieut. Co. F, Oct. 7, 1862 j capt. Nov. 29, 

1862; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Baquet, Camille, sergt. Co. 1, 16th Penn. Cav.; 2d lieut. Co. A, lat N. J. 

Begt., vice Phineas B. Provost; res. April 1, 1863; must, out June 

23, 1864. 
Brant, William, Jr., Corp., March 21, 1861 ; sergt. Feb. 4, 1862 ; 1st sergt. 

Sept. I, 1862 ; re-eul. Ilec. 28, 1863; pro. to Ist lieut. Co. B, 1st Bait., 

Feb. 2, 1865; served in 4th Regt. ; capt, Co. B, Ist Batt.; brevet 

capt. April 2, 1865; capt. May 11, 1865; must, out June 29, 1866. 
Bonuell, Edward, private, Miy 16,1861; corp. March 1, 1863; re-enl. 

Dec. 28, 1863; served in 4th Regt. ; must, out June 29, 1865. 
Beel, Samuel J., private, May 16, 1861; corp. Nov. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 23, 1864. 
Barton, Robert E., private, May 16, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Boughton, Stephen E., private, May 16, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Beatty, James, private. May 16, 1861; disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hoep., 

Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 26, 1863, dis. 
Brant, Joseph, Jr., private. May 16, 1861; disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., 

Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 28, 1863, dis. 
Brobsou, Peter, piivate. May 16, 1861; corp. Sept. 1, 1862; killed in 

action at Wilderness, Va., May 6, 1864. 
Brower, Daniel U., musician ; died of typhoid fever at Camp Semiuar,\ , 

Va., Sept. 6, 1861. 
Belmer, Itbanier M., private, May 16, 1861 ; killed in action at Gaines' 

Farm, Va , June 27, 1862. 
Brown, John W., Ist lieut.. May 21, 1861 ; capt. rice David Hatfield; pro. 

Jlay 28, 1861; disch. Sept. 17, 1862, by order War Dept. 
Carr, Thomiui, private, Sept. .TO, 1862; disch. near Brandy Station, Va., 

March 18, 1864. 
Cavauaiigh,- Merty W., private, May 16, 1861 ; killed in action at Gaines' 

Farm, Va., June 27, 1862. 
Clum, William H., private, May 16, 1861; deserted Sept. 17, 1862, at 

Cramplon's Pass, Md. 
Clum, Uhauncey, private, May 16, 1861; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Creighton, Hugh T., private. May 16, 1861; re-enl. Dec. 28, 1863; served 

in 4th Regt. ; must, out June 29, 1865. 
Crossan, Cornelius, recruit, Aug. 13, 1861; disch. at Camp Banks, Va., 

Jan. 22, ls63, dis. 
Curiy, James, recruit, Aug. 13, 1861; served in 4lh Regt.; must, out 

Sept. 6. 1864. 
Curran, Thomas, private. May 16, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Debo, Charles, Jr., private. May 16, 1861 ; corp, Aug. 1, 1862; must, out 

June 23, 1864. 

1 See alphabetical record of this company farthe 

- Atiiu John Hastings. 


Donnelly, James, private. May 16, 1861 ; disch. at Convalescent Camp, 
Alexandria, Va., Feb. 28, 1863, on account of wounds received in 
action at Benson's Tavern, Va. 
Danbrier, John, private. May 16, 1861 ; corp. July 1, 1861 ; 8er.:t. Aug. 

1, 1862 ; disch. at lio«p., Aniiclam, Md., April 14, 186.3, dis. 
Devine, Patrick, recruit, Dec. 11, 1863; deserted Dec. 24, 1863, en rouCe 

to regt. 
Denton, James, Ist sergt Co. F, Sept. 25, 1862; Ist lieut. Co. A, let 

Batt., Feb. 2, 1865 ; must, out June 29, 1865. 
Dunham, Samuel H., sergt.. May 16, 1861 ; Ist sergt. Aug. 1, 1861 ; disch. 

at Gen. Hosp., Fairfax, Va., July 9, 1862, dis. 
Ellwood, James, private. May 16, 1861; disch. at Convalescent Camp, 

Alexandria, Va., Jan. 20, 1863, dis. 
Eckard, John, private. May 16, 1861 ; killed in action at G:Jnes' Farm, 

Va., June 27, 1862. 
Evertson, William T., private. May 16, 1861; died of fever at Camp 

Parole, .\nnapnlis, Md., Oct. 23, 1862; paroled prisoner. 
Favor, John, private, May 16, 1861; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Forsyth, George, private. May 16, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Freeman, Alouzo, private. May 16,1861; disch. at Gen. Hosp., Balti- 
more, Md., Nov. 27, 1862, on account of wounds received in action 

at Gaines' Farm, Va. 
Fitzgerald, Thomas, piivate. May 16, 1861 ; killed in action at Freder- 
icksburg, Va., May 3, 1863. 
Green, Nathaniel, private. May 16, 1861 ; must ont June 23, 1864. 
Halstead, Isaac W., pi ivate. May 16, 1861 ; died at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., 

Alexandria, Va.. Dec. 31, 1862. 
Hall, Francis, sergt.. May 16, 1861 ; disch. at Convalescent Camp, Alex- 
andria, Va., May 23, 1863, dis. 
Hatfield, David, capt.. May 21, 1861; pro. to maj. May 28, 1861 ; died at 

Elizabeth, N. J., July 30, 1862, of wounds rec'd in action at Gaines' 

Farm, Va. 
Hambrick, Paul R., Ist lieut. vice Thomas T. Tillon, resigned, Dec. 9, 

1861 ; pro. capt. Co. A, 2.iil Regt., Deo. 26, 1862 ; brevet maj. March 

13, 1865 ; must, out June 27, 1863. 
Haskard, Charles, private. May 16, 1861 ; deserted July 31, 1861 j returned 

to duty July 16, 1863; must, out June 23, 1863. 
Haskard, Thomas, recruit, Jan. 10, 1862 ; re-enl. Feb. 11, 1864; served in 

4th Regt.; must, out June 29, 1865. 
HenderS'in, William, Corp., May 16, 1861 ; disch. at Camp Seminary, Va., 

Sept. 10, 1861, dis. 
Hart, Gustavus A., private. May 16, 1861; deserted Sept. 17, 1862, at 

Crampton's Pass. Md. 
Herdt, Christian, private. May 16, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps March 

15, 1864; disch, therefrom May 25, 1864. 
Hutt, Jacob L., 1st lieut. Co. C, 4th Regt., Nov. 14, 1864; capt. Co. A, let 

Batt., June 4, 1865 ; must, out June 29, 1866. 
Johnson, John, recruit, Jan. 10, 1862: re-enl. Feb. 11, 1864; served in 

4th Regt.; must, out June 29, 1866. 
Keller, Henry, private, Aug. 16, 1861 ; disch. at Washington, D. C, Nov. 

10, 1862, dis. 
Kain, Michael, private. May 16, 1861; died at hosp.. Milk Creek, Va., 

Sept. 1, 1862, of wounds received in action at Gaines* Farm, Va. 
Kautner, Charles, pnvate. May 16, 1861 ; deserted July 31, 1861, at Camp 

Princeton, Va. 
Knowlton, Charles, recruit, Aug. 13, 1862; disch. at Convalescent Camp, 

Alexandria, Va., Oct. 4, 1862, dis. 
Kersbaw, Samuel, private. May 16, 1861 ; must, out of service June 23, 

Lightholder, Patrick, private. May 16, 1861; disch. at Convalescent 

Camp., Alexandria, Va., Feb. 6, 1863, dis. 
Lloyd, George K., private. May 16, 1861 ; disch. at Convalescent Camp, 

Alexandria, Va., Feb. 4, 1863, dis. 
'Lobb, Benjamin H., piivate. May 16, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Jan. 

15, 1864; disch. therefrom May 23, 1864. 
Lawler, William T., private. May 16, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Nov. 

15, 1863; disch. therefrom June 7, 1864. 
Long, Joseph F., recruit, Jan. 18, 1862; served in 4th Regt.; must, out 

Jan. 31, 1865. 
Lambert, Joseph, private. May 16, 1861; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Lyle, Robert G., private. May 16, 1861 ; Corp. May 21, 1861 ; sergt. March 

1, lS6;i ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Martin, Luther, 2J lieut., June 7, 1861 ; res. Nov. 28, 1861, 
Martiii, Jose|ih C. sergt.. May 16, 1861 ; disch. at hosp., York, Pa., July 

9, 1862. dis. 
Mekeer, William H., corp.. May 21, 1861 ; sergt. Ang. 1, 1861 ; pro. capt. 

Co. B, lllh Regt., May 27, 1862; res. Sept. 3, 1863, dis. 



Meeker, Alvin M., 1st sergt., May 16, 1861 ; disch. at Camp Seminary, 

Va., Feh. 4, 1862, di8. 
McCullDugh, Robert W., priTate, May 16, 1861 ; disch. at hosp., Newark, 

N.J., Dec. 11. 1863, dis. 
McDonuell, Alexander, private. May 16, 1861 ; discb. at Convalescent 

Camp, Alexandria, Va., Jan. 22, 186."i, dis. 
McDonuell, James, private. May 16, 1861 ; Corp. Feb. 4, 1862 ; sergt. Nov. 

5, lS-62 ; must out June 23, 1864. 
McLaughlin, private. May 16, 1861 ; discb. at Gen. Hosp., Philadelphia, 

Pa., Oct. 20, 1862, dis. 
Merrick, Joseph, private. May 16,1861 ; died at Gen. Hosp., Washington, 

D. C, July 25, 1864, of wounds received in action at Wilderness, 

Va., May 6, 1864; buried at Arlington, Va. 
Miller, John V., private. May 16, 1861 ; killed in action at Manassas, 

Va., Aug. 27, 1862. 
Miller, Josepli W., private. May 16, 1861; re-enl. Feb. 11, 1864; served 

in 4tli Uegt. ; must, out June 29, 1865. 
Morgan, Ashbel G., private, May 16, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
McGregor, Amos B., musician. May 16, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps 

Feb. 15, 1864; disch. therefrom May 23, 1864. 
Maple, David, private. May 16, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Jan. 15, 

1865 ; discb. therefrom July 24, 1865. 
Mulford, Joseph H., private. May 16," 1861 ; trans, to Signal Corps U. S. 

A. Jan. 5, 1862 ; disch. therefrom April 12, 1862, dis. 
McGuier, Tliomas, private, May 16, 1861 ; deserted Sept. 1, 1862, at 

Washington, D. C. 
McTeague, James, private. May 16, 1861 ; deserted June 7, 1861, at Camp 

Olden, Trenton, N.J. 
Neil, Edward K., wagoner. May 16, 1861; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Nicholas, Alphonso I., private, May 16, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Nicholas, Samuel, private. May 16, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Nicholas, William F., private. May 16, 1801 ; disch. at Camp Banks, Va., 

Jan. 21, 1863, dis. 
Ogden, Joseph G., private. May 16, 1861 ; must, out June 2.3, 1864. 
Oliver, James H., private. May 16, 1861 : deserted June 7, 1861 ; returned 

to duty Sept. 21, 1864 ; must, out June 29, 1865. 
Olmstead, William H., private. May 16, 1861; re-enl. Dec. 28, 1863; 

served in 4th Regt. ; must, out June 29, 1865. 
Parker, John Y., private. May 16, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Parkinson, John G., private. May 16, 1861 ; corp. May 21, 1861 ; reduced 

to ranks Sept. 30, 1861; Corp. Nov. 1, 1862; re-enl. Feb. 11, 1864; 

sergt. April 18,1865; served in Fourth Begt. ; must, out June 29, 

Penn, David E., private. May 16, 1861; disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., 

Baltimore, Md., Jan. 6, 1863, dis. 
Pister, Charles F., private. May 16, 1861 ; disch. at Gen. Hosp., Newark, 

N. J., March 14, 1863, dis. 
Provost, Isaac S., private. May 16, 1861 ; disch. at Gen. Hosp., Philadel- 
phia, Pa., July 14, 1862, dis. 
Provost, Phineas B., private. May 16, 1861 ; sergt. May 21, 1861 ; sergt.- 

maj. Aug 24, 1862 ; 2d lieut. vice Smith G. Blythe, pro., Oct. 7, 1862 ; 

resigned Feb. 16, 1863. 
Reed, Samuel J., private. May 16, 1861 ; Corp. Nov. 1, 1862 ; must, out 

June 23, 1864. 
Reeves, Samuel, private. May 16, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Rhodes, Nathan C, private. May 16, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Smith, Nathaniel W., 2d lieut. Co. E, Nov. 27, 1862; 1st lieut. vice Paul 

R. Uambrick, pro., Feb, 13, 1863; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Smith, Richard, private. May 16, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Scott, William, private. May 16, 1861; disch. at hosp., Philadelphia, Pa., 

June 4, 1862, dis. 
Solomon, Charles, private. May 16, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Squier, William W., private. May 16, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Stansbury, Joseph S., private. May 16, 1861; disch. at White Oak Church, 

Va., Nov. 29, 1862, on account of wounds received in action at 

Gaiues' Farm, Va. 
Shen, John, private. May 16, 1861; deserted April 16, 1862, at Catlett's 

Station, Va. 
Southwick, Edward P., musician, Aug. 1, 1862 ; served in 15th Regt., 4th 

Begt., and Co. C, 1st Batt.; must, out June 22, 1865. 
Silvers, Jordan, private. May 16, 1861 ; killed on picket at Miner House, 

near Alexandria, Va., Oct. 15, 1861. 
Tillou, Thomas T., Ist lieut., June 3, 1861 ; res. Nov. 12, 1861. 
Thorn, Linton B., corp.. May 16, 1861; re-enl. Feb. 11, 1864; corp. April 

18, 1866 ; served in Fourth Begt. ; most, out June 29, 1865. 
Townley, Israel C, musician. May 16, 1861 ; disch. at hospital, Newark, 

N. J., Oct. 23, 1862, dis. 

Trowbridge, U7-1I, private. May 16, 1861 ; killed in action at Gaines* 

Farm, Va., June 27, 1862. 
Warner, Henry C, 1st lieut. Co. F; capt. vice John W. Brt>wn, dismissed, 

Oct. 7, 1862; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Williams, Elijah F., private. May 16, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Walton, William, private, May 16, 1861 ; disch. at Camp Seminary, Va., 

Sept. 6, 1861, dis. 
Williams, James H., private. May 16, 1861 ; disch. at hosp. Camp Parole, 

Md., Jan. 7, 1863, dis. 
Worrell, Benjamin, private. May 16, 1861; disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., 

Washington, D. C, Jan. 5, 1863, dis. 
Wortbley, John, private. May 16, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1804. 
Wostenholm, James, private. May 16, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps 

July 22, 1863; disch. therefrom June 23, 1864. 
Welton, Hezekiah B., private. May 16, 1861 ; killed in action at Gaines* 

Farm, Va., June 27, 1862. 

Allen, Edward, recruit, Aug. 20, 1861 ; sergt. November, 1 862 ; served in 

Co. A, 15th Begt. ; must, out Aug. 31, 1864. 
Ames, Horace L., musician, April 25, 1861 ; pro. to drum-major March 

18, 1862; disch. at Camp Seminary, Va., Oct. 1, 1862, by order War 

Ballinger, William P., private. May 9, 1861 ; corp. Nov. 1, 1862; sergt. 

Feb. 25, 1863 ; must, out June 21, 1854. 
Bartow, Henry, recruit, Aug. 21, 1861; disch. at Camp Seminary, Va., 

April 19, 1862, dis. 
Broderick, Joel S., private. May 17, 1861 ; died of diarrhoea at Anderson- 

ville, Ga., May 6, 1864 ; buried there, grave 909. 
Brady, William L., private, Aug. 23, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Brown, Augustus R., Corp., April 24, 1861 : disch. at Fort McHenry, 

Baltimore, Md , Nov. 17, 1862, dis. 
Brierton, Joseph F., private, May 7, 1861 ; deserted May 6, 1864, on vet- 
eran furlough ; re-enl. March 31, 1864. 
Brown, John, private, May 8, 1861 ; deserted July 24, 1863, on march 

from White Plains, Va., to New Baltimore, Va. 
Bryan, George, private. May 18, 1861 ; deserted June 20, 1861, at Camp 

Olden, Trenton, N.J. 
Callender, William, recruit, Nov. 23, 1861 ; killed in action at Crampton's 

Pass, Md., Sept. 14, 1862. 
Chetwood, Bradbury C, Ist lieut.. May 22, 1861 ; res. Dec. 12, 1861, to 

accept commission as 2d lieut. in 1st U. S. Artillery. 
Cleveland, E. J., private. May 22, 1861 ; disch. at Camp Olden, Trenton, 

N. J., June 1,1861, dis. 
Cole, William A., private, April 25. 1861; disch. at Fort McHenry, Md, 

Nov. 10, 1862, dis. 
Cordo, John, private, May 18, 1861 ; disch. at Gen. Hosp., Philadelphia, 

Pa., Sept. 18, 1862, dis. 
Clampett, John S., corp. May 17, 1861; sergt. Aug. 1, 1862; disch. at 

ConvalescentCamp., Alexandria, Va.,Jan. 30, 1863; wounds received 

in actiou at Manassas, Va. 
Cree, William J., 2d lieut, June 12, 1861; 1st lieut., rice B.C. Chet- 
wood, resigned, Nov. 6, 1861 ; resigned July 12, 1862. 
Conger, John H., private. May 7, 1861 ; disch. at Trenton, N. J., Aug. 21, 

1864 ; arm amputated. 
Chichester, David, private. May 7, 1861 ; killed in action at Wilderness, 

Va., May 5, 1864 ; buried at Fredericksburg National Cemetery, 

Christman, Jacob, private. May 18, 1861 ; killed in action at Manassas, 

Va., Aug. 27, 1862. 
Coziue, Henry W., sergt, April 24, 1861 ; disch. at Convalescent Camp, 

Alexandria, Va., Dec. 22, 1802. 
Danneber-ger, Antony J., private. April 23, 1801; sergt. May 22, 1861; 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps July 1, 1863 ; disch. therefrom May 22, 1864. 
Davis, Charles C, prrvate. May 3, 1861 ; killed in action at Manassas, 

Va., Aug. 27, 1862. 
Donovan, Joseph, private, May 22, 1861 ; corp. July 1, 1861 ; sergt. Nov. 

1, 1862; 2d lieirt. Jan. 14, 1863; 1st lieut. vice W. H. Williams, res. 

May 19, 1863 ; disch. March 11, 1865 ; paroled prisoner. 
Davenport, William S., Corp., May 21, 1861 ; sergt. Feb. 25, 1863; must. 

out June 21, 1864. 
Danneberger, Joseph J., corp.. May 22, 1861; private May 22,1862; 

Corp. Dec. 1, 1802 ; must out June 21, 1864. 
Dixon, John, private, Aug. 25. 1861 ; deserted at Camp Olden, Trenton, 

N. J., June 16, 1861 ; returned to duly April 1, 1863 ; sentenced by 

G. C. M. June 26, 1863, to confinenrerrt at Kort Delaware ; retrrrned 

to duty March 30, 1864; must, orrt June 21, 1864. 



Dortkompf, Carl, private, March 17, 1861 ; Corp. Feb. 25, 1863 ; must, out 

June 21, 1864. 
Draft, John J., private. May 6, 1861 ; disch. at camp near White Oak 

Church, Va., Dec. 22, 1862, dis. 
Durling, Theodore H., private. May 6, 1861 : disch. at Port McHenry, 

Md., Nov. 12, 1862, dis. 
Elsasei', George, private, May 17, 1861 ; deserted June 20, 1861, at Camp 

Olden, Trenton, N. J. 
Farr, John, private, April 3, 1861 ; Corp. Feb. 25, 1863 ; must, out June 

21, 1864. 
Fon, Frauklin W., private, April 25, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1S64. 
Franklin, George B., sergt., April 23, 1861 ; disch. at Camp Seminary, 

Va., Sept. 23, 1861, dis. 
Frederick, George, recruit, April 30, 1864 ; disch. at Iiosp., Newark, 

N. J., Aug. 5, 1865, on account of wounds received in action before 

Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865. 
Gamier, Albert h., private. May 6, 1861 ; disch. at Fort McHenry, Md., 

Nov. 18, 1862, dis. 
Haley, John, private, April 23, 1861; disch. at Camp Seminary, Va., 

March 3, 1862, dis. 
Haress, Charles, recruit, Aug. 31, 1863 ; deserted en route to regt. 
Harkin, John, private, April 29, 1861; deserted June 17, 1861, at Camp 

Olden, Trenton, N, J. 
Hedges, Edwin W., private, April 23, 1861 ; sergt., Jan. 22, 1862 ; 2d 

lieut., July 12, 1862 ; capt. vice Richard Hopewood, resigned, Jan. 

14, 1863 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Hopewood, Richard, Ist lieut. Co. K, May 30, 1861 ; capt. vice James 

Wilson, pro., Dec. 27, 1861 ; resigned Jan. 14, 1863. 
Hurst, Nathaniel, private, April 29,1861; corp. Feb. 25, 1863; must. 

out June 21, 1864. 
Howe, Joseph, private, Aug. 21, 1863 ; served in Co. F, loth Eegt.; 

must, out July 11, 1865. 
Hughes, Hugh, private. May 4, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Heywood, Lucius M., private, May 22, 1861 ; disch. at Camp Olden, 

Trenton, N. J., June 10, 1861, dis. 
Hurder, Henry, private. May 6, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Jan. 15, 

1864 ; disch. therelroni May 23, 1864. 
Hopkins, Augustus H., private, April 29, 1861 ; deserted June 17, 1861, 

at Camp Olden, Trenton, N. J. 
Howard, Michael, private, Aug. 27 , 1861 ; deserte.l Aug. 12, 1862, at 

Alexandria, Va. 
Jones, Edward, recruit, Aug. 31, 1863; deserted en rmtie to regt. 
Johnson, Robert, private, April 23, 1861; disch. at Ward Gen. Hosp., 

Newark, N. J., Jan. 27, 1864, dis. 
Johnson, Gilbert S., wagoner, May 9, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Johnson, William, private, April 29, 1861 ; disch. at Gen. Hosp., Annap- 
olis, Md., Sept. 17, 1862, on account of wounds received in action at 


Judge, James P., private, April 30, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 

Ketch, Peter, private. May 18, 1861 ; disch. at Convalescent Camp, 
Alexandria, Va., May 15, 1863, dis. 

Keenan, Thomas, recruit ; trans, from Co. G ; served in Co. B, 15th 

Kelly, George, recruit; trans, from Co. C ; served in Co. B, loth Regt. 

King, William N., private, April 24, 1861; trans, to gunboat "Cincin- 
nati," Feb. 21, 1862 ; disch. therefrom Nov. 14, 1862. 

Lamhjia, William F., private, May 18, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps 
Sept. 1, 1863; disch. therefrom May 23, 1864. 

Lathrop, Elijah J., musician. May 2, 1861 ; disch. at Harrison's Land- 
ing, July 19, 1862, dis. ; died at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Washington, 
D. C, Nov. 8, 1862. 

Lake, George, private. May 22, 1861 ; disch. at Camp Olden, Trenton, 
N.J„ Junes, 1861, dis. 

Laughliu, Paul J., private. May IS, 1861 ; deserted Oct. 15, 1862, on 

Laing. William H., private. May 9, 1861 ; disch. at White Oak Church, 

Va., to join the regular army, Jan. 1, 1863. 
Lovett, James M., private, April 25, 1861 ; killed in action at Manassas, 

Va., Aug. 27. 1862. 
Leppard, Leonard, recruit, trans, to Co. 6. 
Lynn, William A., private. May 17, 1861 ; corp. May 22, 1861 ; trans. 

to Vet. Res. Corps July 1, 1863 ; disch. therefrom Jlay 23, 1864. 
Lowe, Cornelius A., private. May 4, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Lewis, Horace E , private. May 6, 1861 ; re-enl. Dec. 22, 1863 ; pro. to Ist 

lieut. Co. A, 15th Regt., Feb. 9, 1865 ; com. acUt., 2d Regt., June 26, 

1865 ; not mustereil ; brev. capt., April 2, 1865 ; must, out June 22 


Landy, Thomas, private, April 30, 1861 ; must, out June 21 , 1864. 
McDonald, James H., private, May 4, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
McGregor, Alexander, private. May 7, 1861 : must, out June 21, 1864. 
Mct.'nrdy, Samuel, recruit, Aug. 15, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps 

March 31. 1864; disch. therefrom Oct. 19, 1866. 
McNair, Alexander, private, April 23,1861; deserted June 17, 1861, at 

Camp Olden, Trenton, N. J. 
Middlebrook, Aaron L., private. May 22, 1861 ; disch. at Washington, 

D. C, July 12, 1861, dis. 
Middlesdorf, Henry, private. May 17, 1861; re-enl. March 16, 1804; 

served in Co. A, 15th Regt.; must, out July 11, 1865. 
Moore, William H., private, April 25, 1861 ; Corp. July 18, 1862 ; killed 

in action at Manassas, Va., Aug. 27, 1862. 
Mullany, John, private, May 22,1861; dishon. disch. at Camp Olden, 

Trenton, N. J., June 24, 1861. 
Murphy, John, recruit, Feb. 8, 1862; re-enl. March 16, 1864; served in 

Co. A, 15th Regt. ; must, out July 11, 1865. 
Neitzel, Paul, private. May 17, 1861 ; disch. at Camp Seminary, Va., Oct. 

2A, 1861, dis. 
Nichols, Charles, private, April 23, 1861 ; deserted June 17, 1861, at Camp 

Olden, Trenton, N. J. 
Noble, Joshua F., private. May 7, 1861 ; deserted at Camp Olden, Tren- 
ton, N. J., June 17, 1861; returned to duty from 30lh Regt., N. J. 

Vols., May 22, 1863; sentenced by G. C. M. to couflnement at Dry 

Tortugas, Fla., June 26, 1863 ; returned to duty Feb. 2, 1865 ; must. 

out July 11, 1865. 
Ogden, Francis M., recruit, Aug. 26, 1861 ; killed in action at Manassas, 

Va., Aug. 27, 1862. 
Parsons, Hiram R., private, April 25, 1861 ; disch. at Camp Seminary, 

Va., Oct. 23, 1861, dis. 
Polster, John, private. May 17, 1801 ; disch. at Philadelphia, Pa., March 

13, 1862, dis. 
Penfield, Edward 0., recruit, April 12, 1866 ; trans, to Co. C. 
Porter, Bartine S., private, Aug. 15, 1861 ; Corp. May 5, 1862 ; sergt. Nov. 

1,1862; Ist sergt. Dec. 1,1862; com. 2d lieut. May 19, 1863; not 

must. ; disch. at Warrenton, Va., July 26, 1863, on account of wounds 

received in action at Chaucellorsville, Va. 
Randolph, Lewis F., private, April 24, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Rush, Samuel, private. May 4, 1861 ; corp. Nov. I, 1802; must, out June 

Schell, Leonard G., private, May 9, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 
Sharp, Henry M., trans, from Co. D, 16th Regt., June 21, 1865 ; 2d lieut. 

March 28, 1865 ; must, out July 13, 1865. 
Stell, Joseph, private. May 9, 1861; disch. at hosp., David's Island, New 

York Harbor, Nov. 21, 1862, dis. 
Struck, William G., private. May 17, 1861; disch. at Philadelphia, Pa., 

Jan. 29, 1863, dis. 
Samson, David, private. May 17, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Sept. 1 , 

1863; disch. therefrom May 23, 1864. 
Scharline, John, private. May 9, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Sept. 1 , 

1863 ; disch. therefrom May 23, 1864. 
Schmuck, George W., private, April 23, 1861 ; deserted May 6, 1864, on 

vet. furlough ; re-enl. March 31, 1864. 
Scarlett, George W., private, Aug. 23, 1861 ; corp. Feb. 25, 1863; killed 

in action at Salem Heights, Va., May 3, 1863. 
Shipman, William M., private, April 27,1861 ; corp. May 22, 1861 ; sergt. 

Oct. 19, 1861 J disch. at Philadelphia, Pa., Feb; 5,1863, dis. 
Thorn, Martin, private. May 17, 1861 ; deserted July 5, 1863, near Gettys- 
burg, Pa. 
Tooker, Nathan C, sergt.. May 22, 1861 ; 1st sergt. July 28, 1861 ; must. 

out June 21, 1864. 
Van Horn, William, private. May 4, 1861 ; killed in action at Manassas, 

Va., Aug. 27, 1862. 
Van Sicklin, Franklin, private. May 18, 1861 ; disch. at Fort McHenry, 

Md., Nov. 18, 1862, dis. 
Van Voorhees, Charles H., private, April 25, 1861 ; must, out June 21 , 

Walsh, Michael, private. May 9,1861; Corp. Nov. 1,1862; mu6t.outJune 

21, 1864. 
Weiss, Adolphus, 1st lieut. Co. B, 15th Regt., July 3, 1864; capt. to ttll 

original vacancy Feb. 2, 1865; absent without leave. 
Wilson, James, capt.. May 22, 1861 ; pro. to maj. 9th Regt. Dec. 3, 1661 ; 

lieut.-col. 9th Regt. Feb. 10, 1862; res. Nov. 17, 1862. 
Williams, William H., corp.. May 22, 1861 ; sergt. July 1, 1861 ; 2d lieut. 

Dec. 27, 1861 ; Ist lieut. cice William J. Cree, res. July 12, 1862 ; res. 

May 8, 1863, dis. 
Warnock, .Tames, tirivate, April 26, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 



Wilkinson, Isaac D., private, April 3n, 1861 ; mnsl. out June 21, 1804. 

■Williamson, Dennis H., private. May 2, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 

Woody, George, private, April 2.3, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1864. 

Waldron, Jerome, private. May 18, 1861 ; ilisch. at hosp., Wastaington, 
D. C, Nov. ■>-, 1862, dis. 

Waterman, William H., private. May 6, 1861; discli. at hosp., Washing- 
ton, D. C, May 12, 1862, dis. 

While, John, private. May 3, 1861 ; disch. at Fort McHenry, Md., Oct. 22, 
1862, dis. 

Wliite, Theodore, private, April 29, 1861; disch. at Gen. Hosp., Balti- 
more, Md., June 18, 1863, dis. 

Waver, Bernard, private. May 18,1861; killed in action at Manassas, 
Va., Aug. 27, 1862. 

Wilson. Henry, private, April 27, 1861; wounded and taken prisoner in 
action at Malvern Hill, Va., July 1, 1862; exchanged; died Oct. 10, 
1862, on board transport en route to regt. 

Woebhe, John A., private. May 17, 1861; killed in action at Gaines' 
Farm, Va., June 27, 1862. 

Winde, Frank, private. May 17, 1861 ; deserted May 5, 1864, on vet. fur- 
lough ; re-enl. March 31, 1864. 

Ash, Henry, private, May 10, 1861 ; deserted Sept. 17, 1862, at Antietam, 

Barry, Patrick F., private; recruit, Jan. 27, 1864; served in Co. C, l.'ith 

Regt., and Co. A, 3d Batt. 
Behrens, Charles M., private; recruit, Jan. 7, 1862; disch. at Convales- 
cent Camp, Ale-Xiind ia, Va., Dec. 7, 1862, dis. 
Birmingham, Patrick, private, May 10, 1861 ; deserted Aug. 29, 1863, at 

D. S. Army Gen. Hosp., Newark, N. J. 
Bart, Valentine, private ; recruit, Oct. 10,1862; died at rebel prison at 

Blchniond, Va., March 12, 1864 ; buried at Nat. Cemetery, Rich- 
mond, Va. 
Burst, Henry, private; recruit, Sept. 12, 1863; transferred from Co. C, 

15th Regt., June 4,1864; deserted Sept. 7, 1862; returned to duty 

Nov. 15, 1863. 
Beatty, George L., musician; recruit, Jan. 7, 1862; killed in action at 

Gaines' Farm, Va., June 27, 1862 
Brodcrick, Thomas, private. May 10, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Bushing, Frederick, private. May 10, 1861 ; disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., 

Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 1, 1862, dis. 
Callahan, Thomas, private. May 10, 1S61 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Carroll, Paul, 1st sergt.. May 10, 1»61 ; disch. atU.S. A.Gen. Hosp.,New- 

port News, Va., Sept. 6, 1862, dis. 
Carroll, Robert, private. May 10, 1861; disch. at Convalescent Camp, 

Alexandria, Va., Feb. 17, 1863, dis.; Corp. July 1, 1862. 
Clark, William S., private. May 29, 1861; disch. at Washington, D. C, 

May 22, 1862, dis. 
Cotter, John G., private, May 10, 1861 ; disch. at Point Lookout, Md., 

Dec. 24, 1862, dis. 
Connoly, James, private; recruit, Oct. 4, 1861; killed in action near 

Spoltsylvania, Va., May 10, 1864. 
Cros.«, Conrad, pnvate. May 10, 1861; disch. at Camp Seminary, Va., Oct 

15, 1861, dis. 
Coy, Peter D., private. May 10, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps July 1, 

186'; re-enl. March 26, 1864. 
Cruoks, William, private. May 10, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Sept. 
« 1, 1863 ; disch. therefrom June 4, 1864. 
Cunningham, Michael, private, May 10, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps 

Aug. 1, 18(13: disch. therefrom June 17, 1864. 
Crider, Joshua B., private; recruit, Aug. 20, 1863; deserted en route to 

Crowthers, Thomas, private. May 10, 1861; deserted Jan. 19, 1863, near 

While Oak Chunh, Va. 
Curran, John D., private. May 10, 1861 ; disch. at D. S. A. Hosp., Fairfa.i, 

Va., April 29, 1862, dis. 
Daly, Andrew, private. May 10, 1861 ; killed in action near Munson's 

Hill, Va, Aug. 31, 1861. 
Daner, David, private. May 111, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Sept. 30, 

1863; disch. therefrom June 4, 186*. 
Davy, John, private. May 10, 1861; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Diami>nd, Daniel, private, May 10, 1861 ; killed in action at Gaines' Fai m, 

Va., June 27, 1862. 
Dumazand,LewiM, musician ; recruit, Oct. 4, 1861 ; disch. at Camp Semi- 
nary, Va., May 16, 1862, dia. 
Deegan, Michael, private. May 10, 1861; corp. June4, 1861 ; sergt. J me 

28, 1861 ; disch. at C. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Newark, Aug. 18, 1862, dSs. 

Easton, Nelson S., 2d lieut. Co. E, Dec. 6, 1862; 1st lient. rice Lewis S. 
Fisher, disch. Aug. 21, 1863; mnsl. out June 23, 1864. 

Ekenheimer, Charles, private. May 10, 1B61 ; re-enl. Jan. .5, 1864 ; served 
in Co. C, loth Regt., and Co. A, 3d Batt. ; must, out June 29, 1865. 

Engle. Matthias, private. May 10, 1861 ; disch. at U. S. K. Hosp., Wash- 
ington, D. C, April 14, 186:!, dis.; Corp. Sept. 1, 1862. 

Egan, Patrick, private. May 10, 1801 ; disch. at DeCamp U. S. A. Gen. 
Hosp., David's Island, New Y.irk Harbor, Jan. 17, 1863, dis. 

Euler, Henry, private. May 10, 1861 ; deserted May 10, 1862, near New 

Fairiy, David, sergt., June 4, 1861 ; 2d lieul. June 17, 1861 ; pro. to I«t 
lieut. Co. B, July 1, 1862; pro. to adjt. July 14, 1862. 

Fisher, Lewis S., 2d lieut., Co. H, July 2, 1862; Ist lieut. Co. K, mm John 
B. Lutz, resigned; disch. Aug. 1, 1863. 

Ford, William, private. May 10, 1861 ; deserted Sept. 6, 1862, at George- 
town, D. C. 

Forsyth, Andrew, private. May 10, 1861 ; corp. June 4, 1861 ; sergt. Jan. 
1, 1862 ; killed in action at Salem Heights, Va., May 3, 1863. 

Flynn, William, private. May 10, 1861 ; disch. May 28, 1862, to join regn- 

Garvin, Owen, private. May 10, 1861 ; disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., New- 
ark, N. J., Oct. 21, 1862, dis. 
Gannon, Robert J., private; recruit, Oct. 4, 1861; deserted en route to 

GatTaney, James, private. May 10, 1861 ; killed in action near Spottayl- 

vania, Va., May 9, 1864; sergt. Dec. 29, 1862. 
Garry, William, private. May 10, 1861 ; killed in action at Cramptoa*8 

Pass, Md., Sept. 14, 1862. 
Gaughran, Philip, wagoner. May 10, 1861; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Grimley, Patrick, private. May 10, 1861 ; corp. Fob. 1, 1862 ; sergt. April 

30, 1862 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Gaby, Andrew, private. June 10, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Gutting, Joseph, private. May 10, 1861 ; disch. at camp near Stafford 

Court-Ilouse, Va., Nov. 26, 1862, dis. 
Hade, \Villiam, sergt.. May 10, 1861 ; killed in action at Gaines* Farm, 

Va . June 27, 1862. 
Hauk, Peter, private. May 10, 1861 ; disch. at U. S. A Hosp.. Phila., Pa. 

Jan. 20, 1863, on account of wounds received in action. 
Haggerty, Henry, corp. Co. A ; 2d lieut. vice Hendershot promoted, Oct. 

8, 1862 ; pro. to Ist lieut. Co. D, Sept. 1, 1863 ; must, out June 23, 

Hacketl, Joseph, private. May 10, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Hassett, Thomas, private, Mny 10, 1861 ; must, out June 2:!, 1884. 
Hiiyues, Frederick, private. May 10, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Harrigan, Dennis, Corp., May 10, 1861; disch. May 1, 1862, dis. 
Hendershot, Peter M., sergt., Co. D; 2d lieut. rice Fairly, promoted, July 

16, 1862; pro. Ist lieut. Co. I, Oct. 8, 1862 ; disch. Aug. 21, 186*. 
• Hurley, James, private. May 10, 1861 ; disch. Feb. 6, 1863, to join the 

regular army. 
Kelly, James, private. May 10, 1861 ; disch at Fairfax Sem., Va., Oct. 15, 

1861, wounds received in action; arm amputated. 
Kiernnn, Michael, private, May 10, 1861 ; disch. at Fort Worth, Va., April 

4, 186i, dis. 
Keiuiing, Charles B , col-p., May 10, 1861 ; sergt. Jan. 1, 1862 ; disch. at 

Convalescent Camp, Alexaiidiia, Va., Jan. 27, 1863, dis. 
Kullel, Peter, private. May 10, 1861 : must, out June 23, 1864. 
Euhan, Lawrence, private. May 10, 1861 ; killed in action at 6aine«' 

Farm, Va., June 27, 1862. 
Ruble, Herman, pnvate. May 10, 1861 : disch. at camp near Stafford 

Court-liouse, Va , Nov. 25, 1862, dis. 
Kutterniiiff, John, private. May 10, 1861 ; disch. at T. S. A. Gen. Hosp., 

Phila., Pa., Aug. 15, 1862, dis. 
Lafferty, Hugh, private. May 10, 1861: Corp. June 18, 1862; sergt. Oct. 

I, 1862; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Lawrence, Samuel, private ; recruit, Sept. 20, 1862 ; died of fever at regt. 

hosp., Va., Feb. 13, 1863. 
Lutz, John B., 1st lieut., June 3. 1861 ; resigned Jan. 18, 1863. 
Mangan, Patrick, private. May 10, 1861 ; corp. Dec. 20, 1862 ; must, out 

June 23, 1"64. 
McCormick, 1 homas, private. May 10, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
McDonalil, Daniel, private. May 10, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
McDonald, Dennis, private. May 10, 1861; corp. Sept. '20, 1862; must. 

out Juno -23, 1804. 
McElroy, Patrick, private. May 10, 1861 ; trans, to Co. F, 10th Regt., 

Aug. 31, 1862 ; returned to Co. K June 18, 1864 ; must, out July 15, 

McGuren, Peter, private, May 10, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 



McLeod, Robert, private, May 1(1. 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 
McL«od, James, private, May 10, 1861 ; disch. at U. S. A. Gcu. Hosp., 

Alexandria, Va., Slay lo, 1862, dis. 
McLauglilin, James, private. May 29, 1861 ; disch. at Camp Olden, Tren- 
ton, N. J,, Oct. 1.5, 1861, dis. 
McCrackin, Alexander, private. May 10,1861; disch. at U. S. A. Gen. 

Hosp., Alexandria, Va., May 15, 1862, dis. 
McGovern, Edward, private; recruit Oct. 4, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. 

Corjis Sept.l, 1803; disch. tlierefrom Oct. 5,1864. 
McDermot, Walter, private, May 10, 1861 ; died, epilepsy, at tj. S. A, 

Gen. Hosp., Wasliington, D. C, April 15, 1864 ; buried at St. Mary's 

Cemetery, Elizabetli, N. J. 
McGraw, James, private ; recruit April 19, 1864; deserted April 23, 1864, 

at draft rendezvous, Trenton, N. J. 
McKendrick, David, private; recruit Sept. 10, 1862; deserted Jau. 19, 

1863, at camp near Wliite Oali Church, Va. 
McKenna, Joliii, private. May 10, 1861 ; deserted Jan. 7,1863; returned 

to duty Nov. 6, 1863 ; deserted June 24, 1864, at Ward U. S. A. Hosp., 

Newarli, N. J. 
Masterson, Cornelius, private ; recruit Oct. 4, 1861 ; deserted en route for 

Mitchell, VVilsoTi T., private. May 10, 1861 ; deserted March 11, 1864, at 

U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., .\lexan'lria, Va. 
Murphy, Walter, private. May 10, 1861; corp. June 14, 1861 ; must, out 

June 23, 1864. 
Moore, Jacob M., private ; recruit Jan. 6, 18Q2; disch. at U. S. A. Gen. 

Hosp,, Newark, N. J., March 14, 1863, dis. 
Mulick, Connor, private, May 10, 1861; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Nov. 

15, 1863 ; disch. therefrom June 4, 1864. 
Merrion, William, sergt.. May 10, 1861 ; killed in action at Spottsylva- 

nia Court-House, Va., May 12, 1864. 
Mann, William F., musician, Nov. 26, 1802; trans, to Co. F, 15th Regt., 

June 4, 1864 ; disch. at camp near Petersburg per order W. D., I)ec. 

17, 18('4. 
Nienuer, Nicholas, private. May 10, 1861 ; Corp. Juno 4, 1861 ; must, out 

June 2:!, 1864. 
Ogden, John, private. May 10, 1861 ; deserted Sept. 6, 1862, at George- 
town, D. C. 
O'Neil, Thomas, Corp., May 10, 1861 ; killed inaction near Spottsylvania, 

Va., May 9, 1864. 
Penn, Joseph, private, May 10, 1861 ; disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Phila- 
delphia, Pa., Aug. 15, 1862, dis. 
Powers, John, private ; recruit Sept. 9, 1862 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps 

Feb. 15, 1864 ; disch. therefrom June 4, 1864. 
Pettit, Andrew Jacksou, musician. May 10, 1861 ; accidentally killed 

July 27, 1861, at camp near Alexandria, Va. 
Rea, Robert, wagoner, May 10, 1861 ; disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Fair- 
fax Sem., Va., Oct. 15, 1861, dis. 
Reiss, George, private. May 10, 1861; must, out June 23, 1864. 
Rose, Henry, private, July 8, 1861 ; trans, to Co. C, 15th Regt., June 4, 

1864 ; must, out Aug. 10, 1864. 
Rogere, Heury, private. May 10, 1861 ; died of fever at U. S. A. Hosp., 

Newark, Sept. 21, 1862 ; buried at St. Mary's Cemetery, Elizabeth. 
Russell, Patrick, private. May 10, 1861 ; killed in action at Spottsylvania, 

Va., May 0, 1864. 
Sohndigger, John, private, May 10, 1861 ; deserted May 13, 1862, near 

New Kent Court-House, Va. 
Stuckley, John, private. May 10, 1861; corp. July 1,1862; must, out 

June 2:'., 1864. 
Sullivan, William, private. May 10, 1861 ; corp. Dec. 20, 1862 ; must, out 

June 23, 1864. 
Seaton, William H., private. May 10, 1861; must, out June 23, 1S64. 
Stoner, William, private. May 10, 1861 ; must, out June ii, 1864. 
Steward, James, private, June 10, 1861; corp. Aug. 1, 1862; disch. at 

camp near White Oak Court-House, Va., April 19, 1863, dis. 
Schaus, Henry, private. May 10, 1S61 ; disch. at U. S. A. Hosp., Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Feb. 19, ISKi, on account of wounds rec. in action. 
Sheridan, James, private. May 10, 1861 ; disch. at Convalescent Camp, 

Alexandria, Va., Feb. 12, 1863, dis. 
Stalbird, George M., private, May lo, 1861; disch. at Carver U. S. A. 

Hosp., WashiEigton, D. C, May 20. 1862, dis. 
Stone. William, private. May 10, 1861 ; disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., 

Fairiax Sem., Va., Oct. 20, 1861, dis. 
Stuckey, Jacob, private, May 10, 1861; disch. at Burketsville, Md., April 

7, 1863, dis. 
Stead, Thomas, private, May 10, 1861 ; trans, to Western gunboat sei^ 
vice Oct. 1, 1861 ; disch. therefrom Feb. 2, 1864, dis. 

SUrrs, James, private. May 10, 1861; sergt. Sept. 20, 1862; killed in ac- 
tion at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, 1864. 

Sbroeder, William, private; recruit Sept. 12, 1861 ; killed in action at 
Gaines' Farm, Va., May 9, 1864. 

Spear, Alexander, private. May 10,1861; killed in action at Spottsyl- 
vania, Va., May 12, 1864. 

Sweeney, William, private. May 10, 1861 ; died in hosp. near White 
Oak Church, Va., May 29, 1863, of wounds received in action at 
Salem Heights. 

Steinberg, John, private. May 10, 1801 ; deserted Jau. 7, 1863, at Camp 
Parole, Alexandria, Va. 

Toole, Michael, private. May 10, 1861; corp. Dec. 20, 1862; must, out 
June 23, 1864. 

Trescott, Jonathan C, private, May 10, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 

Trapp, Lawrence, sergt.. May 10, 1861 ; disch. May 16, 1862, dis. 

Wahl, Charles A., Ist sergt.. May 10, 1861 ; pro. to 2d lieut. Co. G, Dec. 
10, 1862; 1st lieut. Co H.Feb. 18, 1863; capt. vice John Roberts, 
resigned, Aug. 6, 18a! ; dismissed, S. O. 268, Par. 44, War Dept., A. 
G. 0., Washington, D. C, .\ug. 12, 1864. 

Whelan, John, capt., June 3, 1861; acting brigade quartermaster on 
staff of Gen. Pliilip Kearney ; must, out June 23, 1864. 

Wind, William, private. May 10, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 

Watson, George, private ; recruit July 8, 1801 ; disch, at Fort McHenry, 
Md., Sept. 20, 1862, dis. 

Woods, Charles, private; recruit Sept. 13, 1862; killed in action at 
Spottsylvania, Va., May 9, 1804. 

Zahn, Charles, private. May 10, 1861'; disch. at Fortress Monroe, Va, 
Nov. 9, 1862, dis. 

Zetler, John, private. May 10, 1861 ; disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Alex- 
andria, Va., June 6, 1862, dis. 


Agin, James H., wagoner, Sept. 30, 1861 ; disch. at Hammond U. S. A. 

Gen. Hosp., Beaufort, N. C, Sept. 30, 1804. 
Ash, George, private, Sept. 30, 1861 ; disch. at Newberne, N. C, Nov. 23, 

1862, dis. 
Armstrong, William, private; recruit, Sept. 9, 1864; trans, to Co. B; no 

record further. 
Ball, Henry J., private; recruit Aug. 20, 1862; trans, to Co. A; disch. 

at Greensboro', N. C, G. 0. 73, C. S. 1805, Dept. N. C. 
Basch, Franz, private; recruit May 20, 1802; trans, from Co. F; must. 

out May 22, 1865. 
Beri, Lewis, substitute, Sept. 30, 1804 ; disch. at Greensboro', N. C, Juno 

14, 1865. 
Bierman, August, substitute, Sept. 30,1804; disch. at Greensboro', N. C, 

June 14, 1805. 
Bryant, George L., 2d lieut, Co. E, Aug. 1, 1864; 1st lieut. vice Jamea 

Loughlin, pro.. April 1, 1865; must, out July 12, 1865. 
Benton, William H , 2d lieut., Nov. 9, 1861; res. March 9, 1802. 
Brand, Frederick, sergt., Sept. 13, 1861; private, Nov. 17, 1862; trans. 

from Co. A : sergt. Jan. 16, 1863 ; must, out Sept. 24, 1864. 
Brander, Frederick, Corp., Sept. 18, 1861 ; private Nov. IS, 1862 ; trnns. 

from Co. A ; must, out Oct. 15, 1864. 
Braun, George, private, Sept. 18, 1801 ; trans, from Co. A ; must, out 

Dec. 8, 1804. 
Brook, Beaumont, recruit, Feb. 8,1862; re-enl. March 14,1864; must. 

out July 12, 1865. 
Burns, Adun, drafted, private, Feb. 25, 1805; trans, from Co. F ; must. 

out July 12, 1865. 
Byrthe, Tho